Electrical Protection

Electrical Faults
• • • • Phase to phase Phase to ground Phase to phase to phase Phase to phase to phase to ground

Purpose of Protection System • • • • Minimize damage Leave unaffected equipment in-service Maintain equipment operating limits Maintain electrical system stability .

Requirements of a Protection System • • • • Speed Reliability Security Sensitivity .

Some terms • Over-current • Overload • Inverse time .

Protection Zones .

Simple Zone .

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Double Protection Bus Zone Circuit Breaker X Bus Circuit Breaker Y CT CT CT CT 2 1 4 3 CT CT CT CT 1 2 3 4 "B" Bus Protection "A" Bus Protection .

Bus Zone H2 Bus Zone H1 Bus H2 x Bus H1 Y Bus Zone H3 Bus H3 Zone T1 Zone SST1 Transformer T1 SST1 LV Bus Bus L1 Transformer SST1 Bus Zone L1 Protection Zones G1 Zone G1 .

Breaker Failure • Minimizes the amount of equipment removed from service in event of a failure • Failure Determination – Not started opening in a certain time – Not open in a certain time – Current not broken in a certain time .

Duplicate Protection Schemes CT 1 CT 2 PT Electrical bus Electrical System System Input A Protection B Protection Protection Logic Close Initiate Trip Close Initiate Trip Protection Output Action Q Breaker X Breaker Y Device Z Electrical Devices .

Bus Protection .

Bus Protection • • • • Over-current Differential Back-up Under voltage .

Over-current Relay CT 2000/5 A I 1P I 1S .

Differential Protection I = 1P I = 2P I CT1 2000/5 A I 1P I = 1S I = 2S I I 1S I 1S I 2S I 2S X Bus H1 Y CT2 2000/5 A I 2P I = 1S I = 2S I .

Fault Conditions Fault CT1 2000/5 A I1P I1S I1S I2S I2S X Bus H1 Y CT2 2000/5 A I2P .

CT 2000/5 A I 1P I 1S X Bus H1 I 3P I 3S Y CT 2000/5 A I 2P I 2S CT 2000/5 A T1 I3S I 1S I 2S .

Bus Protection Scheme Bus Differential Backup X T1 S Bus Y Zone L1 Load L1 Zone L2 Load L2 .

Back-up relay Over Current Backup Relay Differential Relay X T1 S Bus Y Load L2 Load L1 .

Bus Under Voltage Protection Armature shown in the non-energized (trip) position Normally Open Contacts To Potential Transformer .

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Bus Protection • • • • Over-current Differential Back-up Under voltage .

Transformer Protection .

Transformer Protection • • • • • Instantaneous Differential Gas Thermal Overload Ground .

Transformer Characteristics • High magnetizing inrush currents • Ratio mismatch with CTs aggravated by tap-changers • Phase shifts • Transformers are affected by over-fluxing • Affected by over-temperature .

Transformer Zone T1 Zone T1 CT 1 CT 2 CT 3 CT 4 CT 4 CT 3 CT 2 CT 1 "B" Transformer Protection "A" Transformer Protection .

Differential T1 CT1 I 1P I 1S I 1S Restraint Coil Operate Coil Restraint Coil CT2 I 2P I 2S I 2S I = 1S I = 2S I .

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Gas Relay .

Winding Temperature .

Ground Fault Protection T1 CT1 IN IF CT2 CT3 Differential Relay Transformer Star Point Ground CT Ground Backup IN .

Transformer Protection • • • • • Instantaneous Differential Gas Thermal Overload Ground .

Motor Protection .

15 has a maximum continuous output of 11.5 HP .Service Factor • Continuous allowable overload – Many motors some with a power rating and a service factor – A 10 HP motor with a service factor of 1.

Motor Protection Summary • • • • • Instantaneous Over-current Stall Thermal Overload Phase Unbalance Ground .

Inverse Time Relay .

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Overload .

Ground Fault Protection .

Single Phase to Ground Protection .

Stalls .

Thermal Overload & Phase Unbalance .

Diagram of the Unit Rotation as Elements Heat/Co ol Phase Unbalance Contacts Heater (electrical connectio ns no t s ho wn) Adjus table Overload Contact Overload Setting Po inter Load Indicating Po inter Actuating Bimetal Ambient Co mpensating Bimetal Shaft Heat Shield .

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Motor Protection Summary • • • • • Instantaneous Over-current Stall Thermal Overload Phase Unbalance Ground .

Generator Protection

Classes of TG trips
• Class A
– Trip generator breaker, field breaker and turbine – Electrical trips before the output breakers

• Class B
– Trip generator output but leave it supplying station service – Electrical faults in the switchyard

Classes of TG trips
• Class C
– Over excitation high V/Hz – Only used when generator is isolated from grid

• Class D
– Trip turbine – Trip Generator after motoring is detected – Mechanical type turbine trips high condenser pressure

Generator Protection • • • • • • • • • • • Over-current Overload Differential Split phase differential Ground Rotor ground Phase Unbalance Low field Under frequency Out of Step Reverse power .

Ge ne rator Terminals R W Diffe re ntial Relay B Prote ction Zo ne s Ne utral Co nne c tion to Gro und a) He althy Phas e b) Faulted Phas e c ) Ope n Circ uit in the Phas e .

Differential Generator Star Point I 1P CT1 IP = I =I 1P 2P G1 CT2 To Main Transformer I 2P I 1S I 1S Restraint Coil Operate Coil Restraint Coil I 2S I 2S Is = I 1S = I 2S .

Ground Fault Protection T1 G1 GT1 Stator Ground Relay IF .

Rotor Ground Fault .

Other Protections • • • • Phase Unbalance Loss of field Under frequency Out of Step .

.Reverse Power G Re ve rse Powe r Re aly V.T.

Generator Protection • • • • • • • • • • • Over-current Overload Differential Split phase differential Ground Rotor ground Phase Unbalance Low field Under frequency Out of Step Reverse power .

For You To Do .

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