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UNIVERSITATEA DIN BACĂU FACULTATEA DE LITERE

BACĂU 2007

COORDONATOR: prof.univ.dr.Cmeciu Doina AUTORI: Asist.univ.drd. Andrioai Gabriela: II.1.1.; II.2.2.1-4; II.2.7.5-8; III.1.1.7-8 ; III.1.6.2-3. Conf.univ.dr. Bonta Elena: I.2; I.3; I.4; III.1.1.3-.4; III.1.1.11 ; III.11. Asist.univ.drd. Bonta Raluca: III.1.1.1-2 ; III.1.1.10; III.1.1.3. Lect.univ.dr. Cmeciu Camelia Mihaela: III.1.1.10; III.1.1.5; III.I.1.2. Prof.univ.dr. Cmeciu Doina: I.1; III.11; III.2; III.3; III.5. Asist.univ.drd. Corban Carmen Diana: II.2.3.1-5; II.2.6.1-2; III.2-4. Asist.univ.drd. Culea Mihaela: II.2.5.5-10; II.2.7.1-4; III.1.1.11; III.1.5; III.5-6. Asist.univ.drd. Dinulescu Mariana Alexandra: III.1.4-5; III.1.6.1. Asist.univ.drd. Horubet Mircea: III.1.1.9; III.1.1.1-2. Asist.univ.drd. Morarasu Nadia Nicoleta: I.4; II.1.1-3; II.2.2.5.1-4; III.1.6.1-3. Asist.univ.drd. Nica Ioana: II.2.4.1-5; II.2.6.3-5; III.1.1.1-2; III.1.1.5-6. Asist.univ.drd. Popescu Roxana-Iuliana: II.2.1.1.-6; III.1.1.10; III.7-10.

CONTENTS

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS

PART I GENERAL ENGLISH TOPICS
I.1. Education in Great Britain................................................................................................ 7 I.2. Shopping in London.................................................................................................... ....16 I.3. Getting to Great Britain & Away.................................................................................... 24 I.4. Engineering Jobs and Career Opportunities................................................................... .33

PART II TECHNICAL ENGLISH TOPICS
II.1. GENERAL TECHNICAL TEXTS
II.1.1. The Importance of Learning Engineering English or Technical English.............50 II.1.2. The Industrial Revolution.....................................................................................53 II.1.3. The Romanian Industry after 1990.......................................................................56

II.2. SPECIALIZED TECHNICAL TEXTS II.2.1 TEXTS FOR INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING AND INDUSTRIAL DESIGN
2.1.1. Industrial Design......................................................................................60 2.1.2. Automotive Design..................................................................................64 2.1.3. Graphic Design........................................................................................68 2.1.4. Driving an Electric Car............................................................................71 2.1.5. Cigarette Pack Graphics..........................................................................74 2.1.6. Denim......................................................................................................78

II.2.2. TEXTS FOR INDUSTRIAL ENERGETICS AND MECATHRONIC ENGINEERING
2.2.1. How Radar Works....................................................................................84 2.2.2. The Electric Circuit and its Elements.......................................................87 2.2.3. Electrical Generators................................................................................90 2.2.4. Random Noise in Electronic Devices.......................................................93

II.2.3. TEXTS FOR INDUSTRIAL MANAGEMENT
2.3.1. Management.............................................................................................96 2.3.2. Management – Historical Development (1).............................................99 2.3.3. Management – Historical Development (2)...........................................102 2.3.4. Industrial Management...........................................................................106 2.3.5. Quality Management..............................................................................110

II.2.4. TEXTS FOR MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
2.4.1. Mechanics...............................................................................................114 2.4.2. Determination of Velocity Ratio............................................................119 2.4.3. Aeroplane Crashes..................................................................................123 2.4.4. Train Crashes..........................................................................................127 2.4.5. Sea Collisions.........................................................................................131

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II.2.5. TEXTS FOR CHEMICAL, BIOCHEMICAL AND FOOD ENGINEERING
2.5.1. Acids, Bases and Salts...........................................................................135 2.5.2. Oxidation and Reduction........................................................................137 2.5.3. Catalysis.................................................................................................140 2.5.4. Aminoacids and Proteins........................................................................143 2.5.5. Food Fats................................................................................................146 2.5.6. Can Honey Heal?....................................................................................149 2.5.7. Are You Looking After Yourself? ........................................................153 2.5.8. The Humble Spud...................................................................................157 2.5.9. Eating Out – Some Rules For Diners.....................................................160 2.5.10. Food Poisoning.....................................................................................163

II.2.6. TEXTS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING
2.6.1. Development of Environmental Engineering........................................166 2.6.2. The Scope of Environmental Engineering.............................................169 2.6.3. Micrometereology..................................................................................173 2.6.4. Earthquakes (1).......................................................................................176 2.6.5. Earthquakes (2).......................................................................................179

II.2.7. TEXTS FOR INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY
2.7.1. The Era of Communication...................................................................182 2.7.2. Microchips: A Look to the Future.........................................................186 2.7.3. Computer Viruses..................................................................................191 2.7.4. Messaging..............................................................................................195 2.7.5. Sampled-Data Systems..........................................................................198 2.7.6. Stored-Program Concept.......................................................................201 2.7.7. Time Sharing.........................................................................................204 2.7.8. Error Detection......................................................................................207

PART III ENGLISH GRAMMAR (THEORY AND PRACTICE)
III.1. THE VERB III.1.1. THE INDICATIVE MOOD
1.1.1. The Present Tense Simple......................................................................211 1.1.2. The Present Tense Progressive...............................................................213 1.1.3. The Past Tense Simple...........................................................................218 1.1.4. The Past Progressive...............................................................................219 1.1.5. The Present Perfect Simple....................................................................224 1.1.6. The Present Perfect Progressive.............................................................225 1.1.7. The Past Perfect Simple..........................................................................230 1.1.8. The Past Perfect Continuous..................................................................231 1.1.9. The Future and Futurity.........................................................................236 1.1.10. Modals and Semimodals......................................................................243 1.1.11. The Passive Voice................................................................................254

III.1.2. THE SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD.................................................................258 III.1.3. THE CONDITIONAL MOOD................................................................261 III.1.4. THE SEQUENCE OF TENSES..............................................................267

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III.1.5. DIRECT AND INDIRECT/ REPORTED SPEECH..........................274 III.1.6. NONFINITE FORMS
1.6.1. The Infinitive..........................................................................................280 1.6.2. The Participle..........................................................................................281 1.6.3. The Gerund.............................................................................................282

III.2. THE NOUN............................................................................................................286 III.3. THE ARTICLE............................................................................................295 III.4. THE ADJECTIVE................................................................................................301 III.5. THE PRONOUN...................................................................................................308 III.6. THE NUMERAL..................................................................................................314 III.7. THE ADVERB......................................................................................................319 III.8. THE CONJUNCTION........................................................................................324 III.9. THE PREPOSITION...........................................................................................330 III.10. THE INTERJECTION.....................................................................................339 III.11. LIST OF IRREGULAR VERBS....................................................................342

BIBLIOGRAPHY..................................................................................................................349

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LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS

abbr. = abreviere. ac. = acuzativ. adj. = adjectiv adv. = adverb. agr. = agricultură. alim. = termen alimentar. AmE = engleza americană. anat. = anatomie. appr. = în sens admirativ. arheol. = arheologie. arhit. = arhitectură. astr. = astronomie. auto. = auto(mobilism). autom. = automatică. av. = aviaţie. biol. = în biologie. bis. = (termen) bisericesc. bot. = botanică. BrE = engleza britanică. chim. = în chimie. cib. = cibernetică. cin. = cinema. com. = comerţ; în domeniul comercial. comp. = gradul comparativ (d. adjective). conj. = conjuncţie. constr. = construcţii. d. = despre. dim. = diminutiv. disappr. = în sens peiorativ, dezaprobator. ec. = economie. el. = electricitate. ent. = entomologie. etc. = et cetera; şi aşa mai departe. etym. = etimologic. farm. = farmaceutic. fem. = feminin. ferov. = (termen) feroviar. fig. = în sens figurat. fin. = finanţe. fiz. = fizică. fiziol. = fiziologie. gen. = genitiv.

geogr. = geografie. geol. = geologie. geom. = geometrie. inf. = infinitiv. info. = în informatică. inf. = informal, neoficial. interj. = interjecţie. intr. v. or v.i. = verb intranzitiv. irreg. = neregulat (d. verbe) jur. = juridic; termen legal. lit. = (uzaj) literar. man. = management. masc. = masculin. mat. = matematică. med. = medicină. met. = metalurgie. meteor. = meteorologie. mil = (termen) militar. muz. = muzică. n. = substantiv. n.ph. = expresie substantivală. nav. = navigaţie. nom. = nominativ. pict. = pictură. pl. = plural. pol. = politică. prep. = prepoziţie. pron. = pronume. psih. = psihologie. pt. = pentru. reg. = regulat (d. verbe). rel. = religie. sg./ sing. = singular. smb. = cineva. smth. = ceva. sp. = scriere corectă; ortografie. superl.= gradul superlativ adjective). tehn. = termen tehnic, tehnică. tel. = telecomunicaţii. tr.v. or t.v. = verb tranzitiv. usu. = de obicei. v. = verb. v.ph. = expresie verbală.

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PART I GENERAL ENGLISH TOPICS .

History. EDUCATION IN GREAT BRITAIN Great Britain does not have any constitutional provisions for education. General Science. There is no law which provides for education on the underfives. Actually after young people reach 16 they have 4 main 'roads' of their next life: they can leave the school. combine part-time study with a job. Besides these subjects they must do some general education subjects like PE. Schools in England are supported from public funds paid to the local education authorities which are responsible for organizing the schools in their areas. Drama. which provides a living allowance during 2 years of work experience. Mathematics. Biology. Schools in Britain provide careers guidance. Most pupils go to schools which offer free education. Polytechnics or colleges. but there is also a considerable number of public schools.I. The system of education is determined by the National Education Acts. They are maintained schools. The National Education Act in 1944 provided 3 stages of education: primary. Technical subjects for girls. In addition many children attend informal pre-school play groups organized by parents and voluntary bodies. Everybody has a duty to make sure that the child goes to school until he or she is 16. where each school decides what subject it will teach. Most pupils will also be entered for GCSEs (General Certificate of the Secondary Education) or other public examinations. an Art pupil will do English Language and Literature. The system of options exists in all kinds of secondary schools. Scotland & Nothern Ireland have their own education systems. when they are tested. In England about 47% of three and four-year-olds receive education in nursery schools or classes. Another important feature of schooling in Britain is the variety of opportunities offered to schoolchildren. Education in Britain mirrors the country's social system: it is class-divided and selected. The English school syllabus is divided into Arts/or Humanities/and Sciences which determine the division of the secondary school pupils into study groups: a science pupil will study Chemistry. secondary and further education. foreign languages. including vocational qualifications if they are 16. Home Economics for girls. According to The National Curriculum schools are allowed to introduce a fast stream for bright children. 14 and 16. The National Curriculum does not apply in Scotland. Music.1. headmasters and headmistresses of schools were given a great deal of freedom in deciding what subjects to teach and how to do it in their schools so that there was really no central control at all over individual schools. The tests are designed to be easier for teachers to manage than they were in the past. Technical Drawing. some until 18 or 19. Art. although fee-paying independent schools also have an important role to play. Computers play an important part in education. move to a college as a full time student. A specially 7 . 11. Economics. the age of entry into higher education or universities. The National Curriculum introduced in 1994 sets out in detail the subjects that children should study and the levels of achievement they should reach by the ages of 7. School-leavers without jobs get no money from the government unless they join a youth training scheme. that means that education is compulsory from the age of 5 to 16 /11 years. But a growing number of school students are staying on at school. The majority of schools in Britain are supported by public funds and the education provided is free. perhaps through the Youth Training programme. Geography. Until that year. stay at school. Physics.

secondary ~ = învăţămînt liceal. tutorship = meditaţii. a school for the ~ subnormal. învăţat (an ~ man. 8 . feminist ~. educaţie. to be taught. = educaţie/învăţămînt (an ~ film/institution). . educative adj. political ~.n. study. the educated). learning. educational adj.: to acquire/gain knowledge. teaching. free ~ = învăţămînt gratuit. to burn the midnight oil. învăţămînt. erudition. compulsory ~ = învăţămînt obligatoriu. pre-school ~ = învăţămînt preşcolar.v. = educativ.all-round education = învăţămînt de cultură generală.b. private tuition = lecţii particulare. to learn by heart = a învăţa pe de rost. primary ~ = învăţămînt primar. cultivation. . Synonyms . I. economic ~. grind = toceală. to study.keldysh. I. to plunge into reading. educationist. Entry words education n.1. = educator.adj. EDUCATION I.c.1. educator n. VOCABULARY I. 3. = instruit.: diligent. painstaking = sîrguincios. philosophical ~.trained person called careers advisor. instruire. (adapted from Internet URL: http://schools. scholarship. .ru) A. Related words Ministry of Education = Ministerul Educaţiei Naţionale (în Anglia).a. guidance. = eg. or careers officer helps school students to decide what job they want to do and how they can achieve that. higher ~ = învăţămînt superior. industrious.d. further ~ =învăţămînt după terminarea şcolii obligatorii exceptând cel universitar). vocational ~ = învăţămînt profesional. a instrui. Educational television = televiziune publică (televiziunea ce asigură instruirea elevilor (a studenţilor. instruction. 2.artistic ~. acquisition of knowledge. hard-working. educationally adv. = 1. câteodată prin circuit închis).1. to grind = a toci. = pedagog teoretician. Types of education . educated adj. I. university ~ = învăţămînt universitar. to bone up on = a toci. wide reading. educationalist n. religious ~. tuition = învăţămînt. = a educa. to educate v.1.: education. practical~ / training.

=1. meditator. . Related words schoolage = vîrstă şcolară. 7. curent literar/ artistic. The grammar and secondary modern school were replaced by large comprehensive schools in 1965 to provide an equal secondary education for all people. winter~. Places where education is performed kindergarten. private tutor = profesor particular. People involved in the educational process teaching staff = corp profesoral/didactic. = 1. banc de delfini. ~ subject = obiect de studiu. lecturer. pedagogue. 6. 3. university. grup de balene. 9 . school. ~ work = activitate şcolară. 4. absolvent. lecţii. . II. If they passed they went to a grammar school .1. Entry words school n. ~ leaver = elev care termină şcoala. reader = conferenţiar. II. a dresa. 5. coach = preparator. locul unde sînt educaţi şi instruiţi elevii. 5. C: A = "the top stream". to school v.The old system of education: . ~ yard = curtea şcolii. Systems of education . a învăţa. II.streams A. tutor = îndrumător. profesor. 2. instructor. (pl) examen. polytechnic. master. a trimite la şcoală. . If they failed they went to secondary modern schools which were closed after 1965 when comprehensive schools were introduced.3.secţie. metodă (idei.tutor/professor’s assistant on probation=preparator universitar. clasă. 4. facultate. a instrui. professor. (day-care) centre.a.The "Eleven Plus" = children took an examination at the age of 11.2. college = colegiu. a sfătui. ~ holiday: Easter ~.1. senior lecturer = lector. nursery = grădiniţă.2. crammer = meditator. I. Christmas ~.b.teacher = învăţător. C = the "bottom stream". B. SCHOOLING II. while others are "unstreamed": children of mixed ability are placed together in the class. Some comprehensive schools are "streamed" . summer ~.I. a mustra. dascăl.3. ~ day = zi de şcoală. 2.The new system of ~ = under the new system there is no examination at the age of 11.The "monitorial" system = the younger pupils were largely taught by the older ones. spring ~. regardless of ability. . opinii împărtăşite de un grup de oameni). mistress. The average size of a class is 30 pupils. ~ bag = ghiozdan. training centre/college = centru de perfecţionare/institut. colegiu. cursuri.its name comes from the medieval system of teaching Latin grammar as the basis of education.

Sunday ~ = cursuri de duminică (pentru ore de religie în special).. . cercetător. don = membru al corpului didactic universitar.student = elev. deskmate = coleg de bancă. examination board = comisie de examinare. . nursery ~. post-graduate = persoană care continuă studiile după terminarea facultăţii. erudit. deputy master = director adjunct. student. . Types of schools/academies/colleges/courses/centres . şcolar. junior~. .single sex school = şcoală de băieţi / de fete.chancellor = the head of a British university = rector onorific. Military ~ = Academie militară. . formmaster/mistress = diriginte/dirigintă. 10 .graduate = licenţiat. . . classmate. vicechancellor = (pro)rector. apprentice = ucenic. II. II. non-academic ~ = less able pupil.comprehensive ~.3. schoolmate. high ~ (= liceu). mixed ~ = şcoală mixtă.learner = elev. He is usually a prominent statesman or Peer and is elected for life. the Senate = senat.undergraduate = student. schoolchild (schoolboy. the council of the Senate = biroul senatului. . . governing body = the members of the governing body of an English school may be appointed by the LEA or may be elected by parents and staff. schoolgirl). . People in charge of a school/university .residential ~ = boarding ~ = şcoală cu internat. middle ~. head of a chair = şef al unei catedre. rector = rector. supervisors = personal de supraveghere (kitchen/midday supervisor).private schools: public ~ = fee-paying ~ = şcoală privată/cu taxe/particulară.caretaker = intendent al unei clădiri. governing board = consiliu de administraţie. savant = orice persoană care studiază. savant. . evening ~ = cursuri serale. schoolboard = consiliu de administraţie. grammar ~. instituţii. secondary modern ~.beginner = începător. primary ~. cleaner = femeie de serviciu.scholar = bursier. .parent teacher association = PTA. colleague = coleg de serviciu. dean = decan al unei facultăţi. summer ~ = cursuri de vară. ~ of music = conservator. persoană marcantă. fresher/freshman = student în anul I/boboc. umanist: Greek ~ = elenist.assessor = someone who checks for quality = inspector. .state schools: approved~ (= şcoală de corecţie).Academy of Economic Sciences. fellow = membru al consiliului. headmaster/headmistress = director/directoare. persoană care urmează cursuri post-universitare.4. pupil: academic pupil = elev dotat. doctoral candidate = doctorand.day school = cursuri de zi. persoană care studiază. fellow student = coleg de facultate. om învăţat.

.was introduced in 1951. term = trimestru. class = oră de predare. was replaced by the General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE). practical ~ = ore de lucrări practice. etc. .. Assessments . ~ of education = institut pedagogic. science of commodities = merceologie. seminar = seminar. ~ of Earth Sciences. ~ of Statistics. etc. qualifying ~ = examen de calificare. cursuri ţinute de profesorii unei universităţi în afara instituţiei la care sînt încadraţi. course = un număr de prelegeri universitare. ~ of Economics: (marketing = studiul pieţii. ~ of Medicine. II. tutorial = consultaţie.6. .holiday = vacanţă şcolară. ~ of art. In order to be accepted by a university a pupil needs eight good grades at "O" levels and 3 "A" level passes. It is an examination taken by pupils at the age of 18 and it is open to anyone who has studied for it.college of commerce = colegiu/institut de comerţ. extra-mural ~ = cursuri fără frecvenţă. final ~ = qualifying school-leaving exam = examen de absolvire. business correspondence. degree ~ = cursuri pentru obţinerea unei diplome. Degrees. bacalaureat. TV ~ = courses for the Open University students. Periods of study and recreation . ~ of Biology. partial ~ = examen parţial. The "A" Level .Advanced Level . lecture = oră de curs.advanced courses = cursuri pentru avansaţi. ~ of Social Work and Social Policy. sandwich ~ = cursuri intensive.adult education centre = centru de învăţămînt pentru adulţi. form class = oră de dirigenţie. ~ of Chemistry. This is the name of the examination taken by school children at the age of sixteen. training period = a period that involves teaching or learning the skills that are needed for a job = perioadă de practică.academic/school year. training ~ = institut de perfecţionare. Examinations. ~ of Ecology.). technical ~ = şcoală tehnică postliceală.Faculty of Arts. youth training centre = a centre training unemployed school-leavers. Certificates. preliminary ~ = examen pregătitor. Grades go from A to G. . courses may be part-time. Seven independent boards at the major universities are required to write the "A" levels topics for the exams which are 11 . full-time and postgraduate. tourism. but pupils can fail completely. ~ of Dentistry. lab-classes = ore de laborator.5. ~ of Agriculture and Land Use. entrance ~ = examen de admitere.~of Engineering. ~ of Law. management = ştiinţa conducerii. vacation = vacanţă în universităţi/colegii.The "O" level exams = the General Certificate of Education. Ordinary Level. II. teaching practice = practică didactică. . semester = semestru.oral/written examination. The "O" levels are taken in eight or nine subjects while the "A" levels in two or three subjects. ~ of Sociology.

blotting paper = sugativă. painting. Botany.Extra-curricular activities involving teachers. gymnastics. cassette.7. swimming etc.taken in May and June. . II. Drama.D = degree of Doctor of Philosophy. to test ideas whether the candidate's own or those of others and to understand the relationship of the candidate's investigations to a wider field of knowledge. carbon paper = indigo. research project = proiect. thesis. referat. modelling. wind band. Arithmetic. choir. Algebra. outings (= excursii scurte de o zi).8. blotter = sugativă. Physics. Religious Education = RE. History. Reading. II. Home Economics = HE: cookery and needlework. doctoral thesis = teză de doctorat. essay = eseu. dissertation = dizertaţie. Sciences (= ştiinţe exacte). cricket. drawing. Art and Craft: metalwork. colouring. Geometry. Master of Arts (= grad didactic intermediar între licenţă şi doctorat). book-marker = semn de carte. of not more than 65.Tuition. perie. brush = pensulă. is required to show ability to conduct original investigations. they can re-take the exams in November or January. Social Sciences. Computer Studies. baccalaureate = university degree of bachelor. Writing. Physical Education = PE: athletics. Archeology. Philosophy. Curriculum/ curricula . . sewing. other mates. Students who wish to study for such degrees are usually registered in the first instance for a Master of Philosophy. The M. ball-point pen = pix.degrees = grade didactice. expedition work. .diploma paper = lucrare de licenţă. keyboarding (= dactilografie). karate. of Phil. adults. .D thesis must run to 100. photography. then for a Ph. . 12 . dyeing (= vopsitul ţesăturilor). extended excursions to other parts of the country.000 words and should make a significant contribution to knowledge.Club and society activities: library work. Children receiving tuition are expected to take part in the musical ensembles and teams of the school. Geology. Master of Philosophy = this is a research degree. environmental ~ (= design ambiental). charity work. woodwork. lace / toy / soft toy making. Geography.Arts (= obiecte umanistice). If the pupils fail. The Ph. Bachelor of Arts / Science = licenţă. cardboard = carton. string group. The PE and Music Departments in most English schools are also served by visiting teachers who can be available for the child with the ability and will to learn how to play an instrument or to take part in a wide variety of games and outdoor activities. glueing. Psychology. Stationery and other requirements A4 paper = hîrtie format A4. Design: fashion ~ (= design vestimentar).000 words.

soft cloth = cîrpă. propelling pencil = creion automat. protractor = raportor.colour and wipe-off book = carte de colorat care poate fi ştearsă. title strip = etichetă cu titlu. copy-book = caiet. desk. material folosit la orele de desen pentru a şterge pensula.10. drawing = schiţă. envelope = plic. the gummed flap of an envelope = partea plicului cu lipici pe ea. label = etichetă. staple = agrafă/capsă pentru prins două coli de hîrtie. headed paper = hîrtie cu antet. fountain pen = stilou. rubber = radieră. ink-pot = călimară cu cerneală. educational ~ = dotări de învăţămînt. mapă. ruler = linie. L-shaped square = vinclu. nib = peniţă. tracing = schiţă. leisure/recreation ~. dosar. pencil-box = penar. flip chart = diagramă (care se înfăşoară şi se deschide uşor). coloured pencils = crayons = creioane colorate. sharpener = ascuţitoare. water colours = acuarele. paper = hîrtie. teacher's desk. simple charts = tabele. School facilities facility/facilities = dotări. drawing pin = pioneză/capsă pentru hîrtie. a pair of compasses = compas. set tracing square = echer. drawing paper = hîrtie de desen. pocket-calculator. ink = cerneală. punch = perforator. student's pad = mapă studenţească. 13 . cover = copertă. desene. folder = pliant. map. II. indoor ~. xerox ~ = hîrtie de xerox. desen. coloured chalk = cretă colorată. refill pad = rezervă (plicuri). stapler = capsator. refill = mină rezervă. classroom ~. writing pad = mapă cu plicuri. computer. jotter/note-book = caiet de însemnări/de notiţe. grafice care uşurează transmiterea informaţiilor. reproducere. blackboard. typewriting paper = hîrtie de scris.

16.54 cm.35 kg. decimal ~: 0. meteorological office weather station = staţie meteorologică. square = pătrat. acoperit).Capacity: 1 pint = 0. duster = cîrpă de şters tabla. 15 1/4 = fifteen and a quarter.application form = formular de cerere.91m. photocopying room). concave = concav. chalk = cretă.28 ft (feet). cone = con. dome = în formă de boltă.outdoor ~. octagon. hexagon. pyramid.09 yd or 3. card catalogue = fişier. library (including: lending department = secţie de împrumut. vulgar fractions: 1/2 = a half.98 tons.Length: imperial and metric equivalents:1 yd (yard) = 0.62 miles. Secretarial work . physics) lecture hall = amfiteatru. pentagon. 1/20 = a twentieth. 1/3 = a third. etc. .51 quintals. 1 pound = 0. vertical line = linie verticală.35 g.45 kg. reading-room = sală de lectură.21 pounds. foreign languages. 1mm = 0. club. reading-table. 1 gallon = 4. research ~ = dotări pentru cercetare. heated indoor ~ = bazin de înot .33 = (nought) point three three. 3 feet = 1yd.11.546 litres. swimming pool.. 1 m = 1.5 = (nought) point five.25 = sixteen point two five. . 1 in (inch) = 25.04 in. 2/3 = two-thirds. computer room.13. cylinder = cilindru. study-carrel = boxă pentru studiu individual. horizontal line = linie orizontală.Weight: 1 g = 0. . cross = cruce.Fractions: 1. workshop = atelier şcolar. 1 tonne = 0. cinema-projection hall = sală de proiecţie.4mm = 2. Facts and figures . 14 . 0. cube = cub. handball. II. straight line = linie dreaptă. art and craft room = atelier. playground.8 kg or 0. 2. gymnasium = sală de gimnastică.cu apă caldă. circle = cerc.035 ounces. crescent = semilună. diagonal = diagonală. convex = convex. 1 litre = 1. drawing-board = planşetă. rectangle = dreptunghi. assessment = evaluare. festivity hall = sală de festivităţi. triangle = triunghi. 1 stone = 6. science ~. chemistry. Shapes angle = unghi. games hall (equipped for basketball. II.12. 1 hundred weight = 50. 1 km = 0. 1 ounce = 28.035 ounces. light-switch = întrerupător. arts ~. computing facilities.759 pints. laboratory = lab (containing special equipment for experiments or research in biology. oblong = dreptunghiular. II. oblic. 1 kg = 2.

. typewritten copy = exemplar dactilografiat. Secretary. Area officer . .. to . Date. English/Welsh/Scottish teachers. hours of the . external ~ = comisie de examinare din exteriorul şcolii). He/She was awarded Grade Excellent/Pass/. to certify = a adeveri.. from .. pass mark = notă de trecere. B. out of .Certificate of attendance: X attended the Summer school at the University of . The drawbacks and advantages of boarding-school education.... .. registration = înscriere. report = referat. certificat. to fill in an application form = a completa o cerere. . letter of recommendation = scrisoare de recomandare. matriculation = înmatriculare.submit (= a prezenta) a record of their activity to date. 2.. The course .. Director.give reference forms to referees. from .consult the prospectus before making formal application. to give a certificate/reference/a certificate of competence.. Requirements of application forms To complete such forms applicants should: . degree = diplomă. caracterizare. Examination Board. The qualities of a good language learner. .. reference = referinţă.. form = slip = formular. list of attendance = caiet de prezenţă.. Samples of certificates: .. What is success in education? Is education motivated by self-interest? The more you learn.) X has been awarded this certificate in . . average. înregistrare.Certificate of qualification: This is to certify that (= se adevereşte prin prezenta că .. and was attended by . weak..... at this Institute/Teacher Training Institute/University/etc. 5. pass = examen luat cu un calificativ satisfăcător...certificate = adeverinţă.use a typewriter/write legibly/or use block letters.. grad didactic. TOPICS FOR DISCUSSION 1. overseas members and . grade = calificatif la un examen (grades may be: excellent. copy = copie. good. . the less you know .. included lectures and tutorials on . examination board = comisie de examinare (internal ~ = comisie de examinare din interiorul şcolii. strigarea catalogului. qualification = calificare..what do you think about learning? 15 . course in .signature.. to... roll-call = apel.to award a certificate = a acorda un certificat.. very good. 3. . The influence of education on personality. to issue a card = a elibera o legitimaţie. He/She attended . poor / lowest). .. 4.

Currently it is 16 . as a small grocer`s shop and was further developed by the son of the founder. Bond Street. a few minute`s walk is Shaftesbury Avenue from where Soho and the world famous Covent Garden and Chinatown are waiting for you. in 1849. Just on the northern side of the Hyde Park you will come across dozens of artists who bring their paintings here so you can appraise them and maybe buy from them. and Piccadilly Circus on the other.2. paintings. go there on Sunday morning. So if you are looking to buy designer clothes. The good news about shopping at Oxford Street is that so many big retailers are represented here that you will be spoilt for choice. Covent Garden with its market is a trendy place to have cup of coffee or maybe something stronger. A huge number of cafes gives you chance to explore different foods. Any time of the day or night there is always something going on in Soho. began. The main reason for us mentioning this one is. To avoid the worst of the crowds you have to be an early riser and come between 9am and 10am. Still looking and not buying? Then go to the Bayswater Road. when most of the other London shoppers are either in bed or having a breakfast. smile at you and wish you a nice day. Oxford Circus or Tottenham Court Road. Leaving it all behind. To experience a different culture and taste an exotic meal go to Chinatown. Although many of whom of these artists are amateurs you may be pleasantly surprised by the craftsmanship displayed. or maybe go to an Auction then this is the right place for you to be in. this street is packed with all kinds of shops. and so on. Inexpensive restaurants and the chance to buy Far East spices are there and if you are here for a Chinese New Year then you are in for a treat. the most famous shop in London. Packed with all kinds of toys this shop will make a hole in your pocket from demands from your children. sit outside and just watch surrounding streets waking up. Hamley`s is every child`s dream come true. Henry Harrods. It can boast that it is the store that has delivered an elephant to Ronald Reagan. The second London street that you are most likely to visit to do your shopping is Regent`s Street. SHOPPING IN LONDON London is world famous for its shopping areas and famous shops. This was the first store in the world to install an escalator and Victorian customers were so overcome by the experience of riding a "moving staircase" that the store posted attendants at the top of the to administer brandy to gentlemen and smelling salts to the ladies. The best known street for shopping in London is Oxford Street. the Hamley`s store. These streets have designer shops ready to dazzle you. Most stores have a doorman who is there to open the doors for you. where you can buy souvenirs. expensive furniture. This presentation concentrates on the shopping streets and places that anyone is most likely to visit. With Oxford Circus tube station on one end. but more expensive are New Bond Street and Old Bond Street. If you can force yourself to rise early.I. less known and less crowded. Just off Oxford Street. The main difference with these two streets compared with the Oxford Street is the friendliness of staff working there and the price of the things they will try to sell you. Harrod’s store. The nearest tube stations are: Marble Arch. The bad news is that you may have to be prepared to struggle from store to store. clothes. gooseberries to Saudi Arabia and a skunk to an American`s ex-wife.

For overdue books (= cărţile aduse cu întîrziere). Books are arranged in classmark order. It is four acres in size and with more than 300 departments. country-town = oraş de provincie.owned by the Egyptian Mohamed Al Fayed and employs in excess of 3000 staff.An English public library has different departments.uk/Shopping/) A. centru administrativ. Entry words town n. Synonyms county town/seat = oraş de reşedinţă borough = târg. restaurants and even own pub this store is London`s third top attraction with around 30. Related words townspeople/townsfolk = town-council/hall/house = primărie. oraş. toţi locuitorii unui oraş. (adapted from Internet URL: http://www.b.1. Loan periods (= perioadele de împrumut) vary. Services offered to people I.a. 2.2. metropolis = metropolă. you will need a borrower's badge. It is in two sections: the name section (lists all the books by author or editor. Most material can be borrowed only overnight or for the weekend. .co. At the public library . by applying in person to the Issue Desk. If you lose or damage a book. The book number or call mark (= cota cărţii) is special to each copy or volume of a work. The badges can be obtained from the Issue Desk. I. capital = capitală. I. orăşeni.c. . .1. in the Photocopying Room. there is always a fine. TOWN I. You can renew your books or reserve any that are on loan (= împrumutate) to others. market town = orăşel.The Restricted Loan Room contains a collection of material which is in heavy demand and this is why it is allowed out of the Library for short periods only.londononline. To borrow books. = 1. .000 customers passing it trough on daily basis. and often title).1. the subject section (lists the same books by their subject). 2. = orăşenesc.Record Library is a large lending library of records and cassettes. VOCABULARY I. Here you can find the card catalogue (= fişier). orăşeni. 3. . 17 .1. Periodicals are arranged within each class in alphabetical order of their titles.Audio Visual area contains the Library's stock of video-tapes and the machines for using them. townlike adj.You may copy Library or private material under supervision. city = oraş mare. you will be invoiced for the replacement/repair cost. bars. The classmark is a combination of letters and numbers that tells you where the book can be found on the shelves.târg. townsman/woman = orăşean/că. I.The Lending department/Loan Room (= secţie de împrumut).

they open earlier than other shops and close later.b. usually in a covered area.d. they include food stores.responsabil de raion într-un magazin.prăvălie. shopping n. usually to be found in the centre of a town.supraveghetor într-un magazin. they offer most food and household products. 1.atelier. their prices are cheap and reasonable. Synonyms shop = (department) store. Related words shop-assistant = vînzător într-un magazin. 4.magazin. Many bibliographies and abstract journals are stored on computer databases. . = 1.1. . Shopping II. ~ window = vitrină a unui magazin. II.lucrător într-un atelier. ~ lifter = persoană care fură din magazin. 2. . 3. II. 18 . 4.individual shop = magazin mic de tip "boutique".c. 2.shopping mall/shopping centres = centru comercial (a modern town development.corner shops (they are small grocer's shops. filială a unei firme de magazine (can be found in different towns. It allows you to access other online library catalogues. ~ girl = vînzătoare. as well). ~ keeper = negustor. ~ man = 1.1.1. some are specialized only in one kind of goods. sometimes they can afford cut prices). others offer a wide range of goods. 3.. to shop v.dugheană. . service ~ = magazin de deservire. under the same name. usually on the corner of the street. II. Entry words shop n.băiat de prăvălie. = cumpărător. Types of shops .hypermarket (a big shop with different types of goods. especially built outside the town).1. ~ walker = 1. a wide variety of shops are concentrated in one place. SHOPPING IN TOWN II. = a face cumpărături.tarabă. . shopper n.supermarket/self-service system shop = magazin cu autoservire (specialized in food products and household goods). politechnics and research institutes. stall = chioşc.a.Academic Network is a communication network that connects computers at British academic sites including universities. tîrguieli. . many of them open on Sundays.mic comerciant.debit. it has different departments). which are accessible at remote terminals via worldwide telecommunication networks. a face tîrguieli. warehouse = depozit. shopping area = zonă comercială.department store/general store = magazin universal (offers a large variety of goods. ~ steward = reprezentant al muncitorilor la tratativele cu patronii. Online searches are faster and more comprehensive than the manual searching of printed bibliographies. 2. II. = cumpărături.chain stores = lanţ de magazine.vînzător.

jerseu.vegetables and fruit counter = raionul de legume şi fructe.fish counter = raionul de pescărie. suspender belt = portjartier.2. scampolo.At the gentlemen's. skirt = fustă.street market (has a special characteristic atmosphere. wintercoat = palton. dress = rochie. fur-coat = haină de blană. stockings = ciorapi. sheepskin coat = cojoc. tailor-made suit = taior. waistcoat = vestă. handkerchief = batistă.3.At the knitwear goods department (= la raionul de tricotaje) cardigan = jachetă tricotată cu nasturi în faţă.groceries counter = raionul de băcănie. overcoat = pardesiu. clothes shops electrical shops and boutiques.drinks counter = raionul de băuturi. socks =şosete. headkerchief = basma. knee-length stockings = ciorapi trei sferturi. In a foodstore In a foodstore (= magazin alimentar) you can buy foodstuff from different counters: . . tie = cravată. ladies' and children's ready-made-clothes department/men's wear. II. .chemists’. many of the shops have no doors). two-pieces ~ = ~ fără vestă. children's clothes (= la raionul de confecţii pentru bărbaţi şi copii). stretchies =şosete supraelastice. jacket = jachetă single-breasted ~ = ~la un rând de nasturi. dinner-jacket = smoking. . . shoe shops. 19 . three-pieces ~ = ~ cu vestă. garters = jartiere. . ladies' fashion. In a department store . night gown = cămaşă de noapte.II. shirt = cămaşă. .dairy counter = raionul de produse lactate. suit = costum de haine. it is open on Saturdays and Sundays but it can also be open on a particular day of the week). coat = haină. . bra = sutien.confectionery/sweets counter = raionul de dulciuri. T-shirt = tricou. trousers = pantaloni. batic. mackintosh = impermeabil din cauciuc. double breasted~=~ la două rânduri. raincoat = haină de ploaie sack coat/sports jacket = sacou. but you can also find clothes or antiques.At the hosiery department (= la raionul de galanterie) bathing suit = costum de baie. uniform = uniformă. drawers/slips = chiloţi.meats and fowl counter = raionul de carne şi păsări.bakery counter = raionul de produse de panificaţie.ham-and-beef counter = raionul de mezeluri. jumper/jersey/sweater/pull-over/slipover = pulover. dressing-gown = capot. offers colour to the place around. scarf = eşarfă. sells especially vegetables. . muffler = fular. . . . towel = prosop.

cotton = bumbac.Perfumery and cosmetics department (= raionul de parfumerie şi cosmetice) 20 . briefcase = servietă. necklace = colier. earthen-ware = vase din lut. trainers = adidaşi. linen-fabrics = pînzeturi. strap = curea de ceas. leather girdle = cordon din piele. blade = lamă de ras. poplin. voile = voal. ring = inel (wedding = verighetă). slippers = papuci de casă. high-heeled ~ =~ cu tocuri înalte. obiecte din national costumes = ceramică. . overshoes/snow boots = şoşoni. mouth water. watch = ceas de mînă. undervest = maiou. perfume. damask. . suedette = diftină. underwear = lenjerie de corp. velvet = catifea. embroidery = broderie. buckle = cataramă. shoe string = şiret de pantofi. serge = serj.At the leather goods department (= la raionul de marochinărie) belt = curea. nail-scissors = foarfece de unghii. . brooch = broşă. cufflink = butoni pentru manşetă.At the footwear department (= la raionul de încălţăminte) boots = bocanci. knee-high ~ = cizme. chiffon = şifon. costume naţionale. table-cloth = faţă de masă. walking~ = ~ de stradă. panties all/stretch tights = dresuri. . cream = cremă. heelless/low-heeled ~ = ~ cu tocuri joase. wallet = portofel. souvenir. cloth = postav. earrings = cercei. tergal.At the handicraft department (= la raionul de artizanat) ceramics = ceramică. napkin = şervet. taffeta = tafta. satin. bleached linen = pînză albită. . curtains = perdele. present = cadou. artificial ~ = ~ artificială. gloves = mănuşi umbrella = umbrelă. valise. metraje) calico = stambă. all-wool = lînă pură. handbag = poşetă. chain = lanţ. cashmere = caşmir.At the jewelry department (= la raionul de bijuterie) bracelet = brăţară. unbleached linen = pînză nealbită. prints = imprimeuri. yard goods = metraje.panties = chiloţi (scurţi de damă). pure ~ = ~ naturală. rubbers = tenişi. silk = mătase. . alum = piatră ponce. leather~ = ~ de piele. wool = lînă. comb = pieptene.At the drapery and textiles department/yard goods department (= la raionul de stofe şi textile/de produse textile. pyjamas = pijama. engraving = gravură. powder = pudră. nail-file = pilă de unghii. sandals = sandale. after shave = loţiune după ras. suitcase = geamantan. nylon.

mandoline. hook = capsă. instruments = instrumente. clarinet. shaving ~ = ~ de bărberit. tooth-brush = perie de dinţi. muzicale) . tape = bandă (pentru magnetofon). guitar = chitară. record-player. rocking horse = cal balansoar. string ~ = ~ cu coarde. trombone. hair-brush = perie de păr. saxophone. drum = tobă. soap-box = săpunieră.At the musical instruments department (= la raionul de instrumente panpipe = nai. looking-glass = oglindă. scissors = foarfece. ball. thread = aţă. clockwork train = tren mecanic. reel = mosor.At the toy department (= la raionul de jucării) 21 .-set. contrabas. marbles = bile. electric organ = orgă electronică. make-up = fard. needle = ac de cusut. shaving-set = trusă de bărbierit. radio-set. trumpet. tape recorder. percussion ~ = ~ de percuţie. crochet/hooked needle = croşetă. a spool of sewing silk = papiotă. xylophone. hairclip = agrafă de păr. cassette = casetă. piano = pian. kite = zmeu. wind ~ = ~ de suflat. harp.At the haberdashery department (= la raionul de mercerie) . hair spray = fixativ. curler = bigudiu. thimble = degetar. car = maşină. (violon)cello. record = disc. mouth organ = muzicuţă. brass wind ~ = ~ de alamă. ribbon = panglică. hair-net = fileu pentru păr. pincushion = perniţă pentru ace.face/skin ~ = ~ de faţă. eau-de-cologne. violin = vioară. tweezers = pensetă. hand ~ = ~ pentru mîini. button = nasture. electric~ = aparat de ras electric. bow ~ = ~ cu arcuş. deodorant. zipper = fermoar. varnish = lac de unghii. (toy) balloon. viola. banjo. cord = şnur. doll. alămuri. upright~ = pianină. roller skates = patine cu rotile. swing = leagăn. lute = cobză. knitting = ac de împletit. cassette recorder. hair-restorer = loţiune pentru păr. mascara = rimel.V. toy = jucărie (toy rabbit/bear/bus). varnish remover = dizolvant. skipping rope = coardă de sărit. accordion. pipe = fluier. T. safety = aparat de ras. hoop = cerc (de joc). razor = brici. flute = flaut. . horn = corn. lipstick = ruj. shampoo. skooter = trotinetă. clockwork train = tren mecanic. sand moulds = forme de nisip. sponge = burete. tooth-paste = pastă de dinţi.

At the chemicals department (= la raionul de chimicale) . table tennisball. cobalt. gym tights/trainings = costum de gimnastică/sport. lighter = brichetă. a jar of jam. a punnet of strawberries. chess = şah. plaster = ipsos. ninepins = popice. tin plate = tinichea necositorită. a bar of soap.. football. ski sticks = beţe pentru schiuri. half a pound of butter/cheese. velvet = catifea. matches = chibrituri. stamp. copper = cupru. gold = aur. a ball of string. match-box = cutie de chibrituri. a pad of paper. plush = pluş. a bottle of lemonade. basketball. a box of matches. racket = rachetă (pentru tenis). steel = oţel. cigarette holder = ţigaret. glass = sticlă. a tube of toothpaste. clay = argilă. cigarette case = tabacheră. amber = chihlimbar. skis = schiuri. cast iron = fontă. (filter tip ~ = ~ cu filtru.At the household goods department (= la raionul de articole de menaj) . a pack of cards. fish-hook = cîrlig de undiţă. cellophane. bicycle.At the electrical appliances department (= la raionul de aparate electrice) . without tip ~ = ~ fără filtru). fishing-rod = undiţă. . wax = ceară. ball. fur = blană. crystal. bronze. tent = cort. a packet of biscuits/crisps. a cube of sugar. chessboard = tablă de şah. a skein of silk. puck = puc. ceramics. II. leather = piele.At the florist's (= la florărie) .At the newsstand (= la chioşcul de ziare) II.At the stationer's (= la papetărie) .At the tobacconist's (= la tutungerie) cigar = ţigară de foi/trabuc. rucksack = rucsac. a joint of meat. pipe = pipă. cigarette. anorak = hanorac. Collective nouns used to indicate quantity a tin of soup/pears.At the sports articles department (= la raionul de articole sportive) air mattress = saltea gonflabilă. silver = argint. fishing-line = aţă (sfoară) de undiţă. tobacco = tutun. lace = dantelă. tobacco-box = tabacheră pentru tutun. camping case = trusă camping. lighter flint = piatră de brichetă. a quiver of arrows.4. 22 . a crate of beer. mace reed = papură. sledge = sanie. rugbyball.5. an ear of corn. a loaf of bread. stockinet = tricot. a roll of film. . Materials used to make objects aluminium. a dozen of eggs. a bunch of grapes.At the glassware department (= la raionul de sticlărie) .

Imagine the dialogue with the shop assistant. 23 .Can I possibly have half a pound of butter? . Talk about the advantages and disadvantages of living in a small town.Can I see that blouse? .Can I have three metres of that material? . Describe the main street in your town at midday and at midnight. 2. 5. 3.II. 4. Imagine a dialogue between a shop-assistant and a lady who cannot make up her mind.Would you mind giving me that pair of trousers? .I wonder if you could give me another pair of shoes. TOPICS FOR DISCUSSION 1. Advantages and disadvantages of doing one's shopping in a department-store. A larger size. please.6. Asking for something in a shop . You want to buy a present for your friend's birthday.Can you let me have this jumper? . B.

although with a mix of local buses. London is an excellent centre for cheap tickets. they are confined to major roads. followed by Gatwick. the occasional taxi. walking and occasionally hiring a bike. a car becomes a serious temptation. Another service is a high-speed rail passenger service (Eurostar). which screen 24 . buses are the cheapest and most exhausting means of transport.I. The shuttle runs between terminals at Folkestone in the UK and Calais (Coquelles) in France. Getting Around Although public transport is generally of a high standard. however. British Rail International's European trains leave from London's Victoria or Liverpool Street stations. Unfortunately. Youth fares are available for holders of the National Express Discount Coach Card. a division of National Express (the largest UK bus line). Newcastle. plenty of time. cars. on main routes. Getting There & Away London is one of the most important transport hubs in the world. and budget flights (especially stand-by and last-minute offers) can be very good value. As always. A small saving on the fare may not adequately compensate you for an agonizing two days on a bus that leaves you completely exhausted for another two days. but shoestringers will find cheap flights all wind up in one of the four London airports: Heathrow is the largest. Edinburgh and Glasgow. you can get almost anywhere. There are a bewildering range of alternatives between Britain and mainland Europe. in particular. Eurolines. the Sunday Observer and the Sunday Independent.3. For the first time since the ice ages. Excellent discount charter flights are often available to full-time students aged under 30 and all young travellers aged under 26 (you need a youth card). There are international air links with London. has an enormous network of European destinations. most travellers are going to want to get to the national parks and small villages where transport is worst. rail/hovercraft services because of the tunnel service. you can still get to Europe by bus or train – it's just that there's a short ferry/hovercraft ride thrown in as part of the deal. they are also the slowest and. Buses are nearly always the cheapest way to get around. As a result there are an enormous number of travel agents. freight vehicles and buses on specially designed one and two-decker railway carriages. The ferries/hovercraft all carry cars and motorbikes. Britain has a land link (albeit a tunnel) with Europe. Stansted and Luton. is TNT Magazine. Manchester. some of dubious reliability. No one knew what will happen to the old British Rail International rail/ferry. and are available through the large student travel agencies. Brussels and Amsterdam. but the best known ones are the classical night ferries to several destinations. If time is limited. including Ireland and Eastern Europe. most people going to and from the Continent bought combined rail/ferry or coach/ferry tickets between London and European capitals like Paris. GETTING TO GREAT BRITAIN & AROUND I. Eurolines also has some good-value explorer tickets that are valid for up to six months and allow travel between a number of major cities. operated by the national railway companies of Britain. although discount rail tickets are competitive. The best resource. France and Belgium. check the Sunday Times. II. Until the opening of the Channel Tunnel. Eurotunnel operates a round-the-clock shuttle service (Le Shuttle) for motorbikes. however. But the most popular services continued relatively unchanged. Even without using the tunnel.

voyage = călătorie (pe mare). by (motor) coach = cu autocarul. I. 2. Ways of travelling and means of transport for people I.) cursă a pistonului. down train (= tren din capitală sau oraşele principale spre provincie). a Lonely Planet Shoestring Guide. = călător.(tehn. hike = excursie pe jos. by motorcycle = cu motocicleta.By land (= pe uscat) We can travel in town or outside the town: by bicycle. by motorcycle and side = motocicletă cu ataş. trains can be competitive.b. goods ~(= ~ marfar). I. travelling agent = agent turistic. walk = plimbare.you from the small towns and landscapes that make travel worthwhile in the first place.3. by car. wayfare = drumeţie.a. globetrotting = cutreierare a globului pământesc. they are quicker and often take you through beautiful countryside that is still relatively unspoilt by the 20th century. wanderings = hoinăreală. travel ticket = bilet de călătorie.1. 2.fast ~ (= ~ rapid. 3. sail = călătorie cu o ambarcaţiune cu pînze.1.: Western Europe. I. Related words agency = agenţie turistică. călătorie călare sau cu bicicleta.a călători. tour.(tehn. local 25 . 2.3.1.a fi comis voiajor. = 1.Generalities .express ~(= ~ expres). to travel v. by train = cu trenul. accelerat). cu maşina.c. Synonyms drive = plimbare cu trăsura. ride = plimbare. With discount passes and tickets. outing = plimbare de o zi în aer liber.a. pp. Mark et al. journey = călătorie (pe uscat). = 1. excursion.călător. travelling adj. companion = tovarăş de călătorie. traveller n.comis voiajor. Entry words travel n. expedition.călătorie (de obicei mai lungă). TRAVELLING I. VOCABULARY I. 189-193) A. (adapted from Amstrong. passage = călătorie (pe mare). impressions/notes = impresii/note de călătorie. = 1.) pod rulant. yachting = călătorie de plăcere cu iahtul. trip = excursie.

pachebot cu curse regulate. departures. ship's ~ = şalupă. If a car bursts a tire (= are explozie de cauciuc) and runs off 26 . The right-hand lane (= banda de pe partea dreaptă) is for slow traffic.3. feribot. stradelă de ţară). A motorway is very wide. I. ferry ~ = bac. airplane/plane = avion. passenger ~(= ~ de pasageri). . steamship/steam vessel/steamer = ~ cu aburi. Travelling by car/by motor coach/by bicycle A road is usually long.h). Travelling by train . jawl ~ = iolă. They give information about arrivals. .aircraft = aparat de zbor. boat = barcă.p. sleeper/over-night ~(=~cu vagon de dormit). It hovers over (= pluteşte peste/deasupra) water or land on a cushion of compressed air. . A motorway has three lanes going each way. delays (= întîrzieri). I. cursă). by mail coach = cu poştalionul.cable railway/ropeway/rope railway = teleferic. jet plain = avion cu reacţie. parte carosabilă a străzii) has lanes (bands)/ carriageways (= benzi de circulaţie). up ~ (= ~ din localităţi de provincie spre capitală sau oraşele principale).3. It goes from one town to another or from village to village. The thick lines are for the main roads (going long distances across the country and from town to town). helicopter/hoverplane = ambulance~ = ~ sanitar. long distance ~(= ~ de cursă lungă). and across the Channel to France. jolly ~ = bărcuţă. travelling at speeds up to 300 miles per hour (m.many years ago: by carriage/coach = cu trăsura. ship = vapor. motor ~ = ~ motor. The middle lane has traffic going at a speed (= viteză) of sixty or seventy miles an hour. The thin lines are for by-roads (= drumuri laterale) or country lanes (= alee.S.nowadays: the strongest and most fashionable means of transport is the hovercraft (= vehicul pe pernă de aer.~(= ~ local. Cockerell. by cart/waggon = cu căruţa. On a road map they are marked by thick lines or thin lines. .car lift = telecabină. passenger ship/liner = ~ de pasageri. It is used for regular passenger services around Britain's coast. . cursă). through ~ (= ~ direct). The roadway (= şosea. connections (= legături). about the platform (= peron) the trains leave from or come to. On it stands a barrier (= barieră). Motorways are the newest roads. Between the three lanes going one way (= într-o direcţie) and those going the other way there is a grassy space.b.. vessel/liner = vas de linie. . . It was invented by the British engineer C.in future: the hovertrain.By water (= pe apă) by sea = pe mare. Lines marked down the road divide it into lanes. rowing ~ = barcă cu vîsle. The left-hand lane is used only for passing other traffic (= pentru depăşire).slow ~ (= ~ personal.By air (= pe calea aerului) .c.rocket/spaceship = navă spaţială. yacht = iaht.All the information about trains is offered by the timetable (= mersul trenurilor) or by the information desk (= birou de informaţii) at a railway station.

They are covered with tar (= gudron. to ensure an uninterrupted flow of traffic. chassis = saşiu. to make them smooth. folding squab = spătarul rabatabil al scaunului. The surface paving stones were arched in the middle so that rain ran off into ditches. Roads can be made of gravel (= pietriş). gear box = cutie de viteze. . bumper = mască/bară de protecţie. shock absorber = amortizor. factories. carburator = carburator. There are no crossroads on motorways. silencer = muffler = tobă de eşapament. after they pass a driving test (= examen pentru luarea permisului de conducere) and get a driving licence (= permis de conducere). differential = diferenţial. but their stony surface was not good for vehicles with rubber tires. sparkling plug = bujie. No cyclists or pedestrians are allowed on motorways. number plate = număr de înmatriculare. It will not run into the other three lanes of traffic.the road. (adapted from Illustrated Colour Dictionary and Webster’s Illustrated Dictionary Encyclopedia) . door handle = mînerul uşii. they have shops. Streets are short roads in towns and villages. along them.battery = baterie de acumulatori. back ~ = ~ din spate). Accessories . They are marked by milestones (= borne kilometrice) and have road traffic signs that help the traffic. 27 . rear view mirror = oglindă retrovizoare. it will hit the barrier and stop. blinker = semnalizator de direcţie.Only people over 18 may drive a car. bonnet/engine hood = capotă motor. They made roads of gravel and stones. door lock = încuietoarea uşii. A person driving a car. Modern road building began during the Industrial Revolution. boot/trunk = portbagaj. The Romans were the first great road builders. houses. radiator grill = mască radiator. seat = scaun (front ~ = ~ din faţă. Instead of crossroads there are flyover bridges (= poduri suspendate). păcură) or asphalt. schools. is called a driver. Later. mudguard = apărătoare de noroi. inflator = pompă de aer. macadamized roads were built. stone (= piatră) or asphalt. lamp = far (head lamp with high and low beam = far cu fază lungă şi scurtă. They are "built-up" (= aglomerate).The parts of a car. dashboard = tablou de bord. spring = arc. rear axle = puntea (axa) din spate. etc. fender = aripă protectoare din faţă. boot-lid/trunk lid = capotă/portbagaj. rear side panel = aripă spate. petrol tank = rezervor de benzină. rear window = parbriz spate.

wheel disc = discul roţii. reflector. oil pressure gauge = indicator al presiunii uleiului. radio receptor = radio. airman = pilot. wheel rim = jantă. direction indicator lever = manetă comutator de semnalizare a direcţiei. airport = aeroport. gasoline level gauge/indicator = indicatorul nivelului de benzină. spoke = spiţă. . water temperature indicator = indicator de temperatură a apei. saddle = şa. tire = pneu. mudguard. airplane = avion. windshield wiper = ştergător de parbriz. aviator. horn = claxon. speedometer = vitezometru. glove compartment = torpedo. handle bars = ghidon. cigarette-lighter = brichetă. rear light = lumini spate. ignition key = cheie de contact. fresh-air lever = manetă de aerisire. wiper switch = comutatorul ştergătorului de parbriz. 28 . ventilator = clapetă aerisire. air-liner = avion de pasageri. pump = pompă. accelerator pedal = pedală de acceleraţie. sun-visor = para-solar. air-mail = poştă aeriană. I. heater fan switch = comutatorul ventilatorului sistemului de încălzire. supapă. tool bag = geantă pentru scule. steering wheel = volan. clutch pedal = pedală de ambreaj. ventilator lever = maneta trapei de aerisire. hand ~ = ~ de mînă). lamp. steering gear = casetă de direcţie.tail light with stop light = lanternă spate cu lampă stop. wheel = roată (spare ~ = ~ de rezervă).3. valve = valvă. gear lever = manetă schimbător de viteze. . air-chamber = cameră de aer. brake.The parts of a bycycle bell = sonerie. wheel = roată. ampermeter = ampermetru. pedal. Travelling by plane air = aer. chain = lanţ. air-base = bază aeriană.d. hand brake light = lampă de control pentru frîna de mînă. air-bladder = băşică de aer. wheel hub = cap de roată (cromat). air-borne = aeropurtat. high beam indicator = lampă de control a fazei lungi.accelerator knob = buton de comandă a şocului. direction indicator control light = lampa de control a semnalizatorului de direcţie. tire = pneu. air-brake = frînă pneumatică. brake = frînă (foot ~ = ~ de picior. windscreen = parbriz. air-pocket = gol de aer.

international flight = zbor internaţional. radio beacons (= semnale radio).air-conditioning = aer condiţionat. wing = aripa. air-line = linie aeriană. air traffic = trafic aerian. air-cushion = pernă pneumatică. . rudder = cîrmă de direcţie. aircrash = accident de avion. it moves along. air-screw = elice. so that an aircraft can land against the wind. Travelling by air is as safe as any other means of transport. seat (reclining ~ = scaun rabatabil). cockpit = carlingă. airproof = ermetic. any risk is eliminated by: thorough inspection of the planes before taking off (= decolare). regular/scheduled flight = zbor conform orarului. . motorless flight = zbor fără motor. controllers organise the landing and take off of each airplane. which is always safer. from a height (= înălţime) of 5 or 6 miles (6 to 8 kms) onto a concrete (= beton) runway about 3 kms long and 60 meters wide.Parts of a plane aileron = eleron. air-force = aviaţie militară. The runways are usually parallel and in line with the prevailing wind. wheels (retractable main ~ = roată retractabilă). modern compasses (= busolă). . daily flight = zbor zilnic. non-stop flight. automatic pilot = pilot automat. radio aerials. passanger cabin/compartment. air-jacket = haină pneumatică de salvare. mail and freight (= încărcătură). navigation light. charter flight. Here. engine. seat-belt = centură de siguranţă. baggage hold = cabină. intercom = sistem de comunicare internă a avionului. airway = rută aeriană. aeronavă. blind flight = zbor fără vizibilitate. airfield = aerodrom. air-sick = care are rău de avion.Airports Airports have three main purposes: they must handle passengers. aircraft = avion. information about weather. cală pentru bagaje. airship = dirijabil. air-shed = hangar. they must be sure that all aircraft take off and land (= a ateriza) safely and on times. airspace = spaţiu aerian. domestic/internal flight = zbor intern (pe rută internă). modern and well-equipped airplanes. air-highway = traseu aerian. or taxis (= rulează) to 29 . they must provide hangars and workshops so that planes can be checked regularly. The center of operations at the airport is the air traffic control tower (= turnul de control al traficului aerian). As soon as an airplane has landed.types of flight all weather flight = zbor în orice condiţie.

~ for radio beacons = semnale luggage room = magazie pentru radio pentru bagaje. main ~ = ~ principală. sailing boats and row boats are used by people in all parts of the world. safety-belt = colac de promenade~. ship or airplane. Different types of boats and sails were fitted so as to catch as much wind as possible. It combines many of the capabilities of all three: it can carry heavy loads (= încărcătură) over land. cabin. When there were no reeds or logs. and were simply floating logs (= trunchiuri de copac) or driftwood paddled with the hands. (adapted from Bowood. Fuel tankers move in to refill to airliner's tanks. captain's bridge = punte de comandă. safety-boat = barcă de three decker = vas cu trei salvare. ~ house = cabina căpitanului. all boats were driven by sails (= pînze) and oars (= vîsle). prow = proră. porthole = hublou. starboard = tribord. Today. It is well provided with everything necessary to allow for the navigation in the best conditions (a good crew and all sorts of facilities). ready to carry baggage to the terminal.an area called apron. used for navigation. deck = punte. raft = plută. Here trucks are waiting.The component parts and the accessories of a vessel: anchor = ancoră. railing = balustradă. punţi. motorboats.e. boats were made of skins (= piei de animale) stretched over a light framework. R: The Story of Flight) I. berth = cuşetă. But it is not dangerous to be on board a ship/vessel in such conditions. The hovercraft is an entirely new form of transport. A vessel is a craft bigger than a rowboat. which was a raft (= plută) made of logs or bundles of reeds tied together. and it is quite different from any wheeled vehicle. salvare. antenna = antenă. (adapted from Illustrated Colour Dictionary and Webster’s Illustrated Dictionary Encyclopedia) . larboard = babord. hold = cală. mast = catarg. This cushion supports the weight of the craft and keeps it 30 . The invention of the steam engine made paddle wheels and propellers possible. A cushion of air is maintained between the craft and the surface by driving air at pressure under the hovercraft. propeller = elice. engine room = sala maşinilor. The first real boats appeared later. One was the dugout (= pirogă) canoe. Travelling by boat It is pleasant and exciting to have a row (= plimbare cu barca) or a voyage on board (= la bordul) a yacht or a vessel. it can operate on the sea and is airborne in operation. After a while the dugout and the raft were built up with sides of wooden planks (= scînduri). The first boats date back to prehistoric times.3. lower ~ = ~ inferioară. Being in a boat or yacht on a rough (= agitată) sea is quite dangerous. stern = pupă. Until the 1800s. Cleaners arrive to empty the cabin and load (= a încărca) on food for the next flight. life ~ = ~ de salvare.

31 . but current models favour the use of gas turbines. the hovercraft requires lift and propulsion. .: The Hovercraft) .S.it doesn't make noise. E. Generally. The fuel system is quite simple and consists of a fuel tank (= rezervor). a pump. radio. a hovercraft has no physical contact with the surface over which it is travelling. so the controls must be aerodynamic .it takes a short time. . The idea of supporting a vehicle on a cushion of air developed from early attempts at producing vertical take off aircraft. . This type of engine is smaller and lighter. The cabin for passengers is typical of the passenger aircraft except that seat belts have not so far been considered necessary. Piston type engines have been used in early hovercraft.advantages: . air speed indicator. The hovercraft's air cushion is like a leaking tire. . and also the wish to increase the speed of boats by feeding air beneath them to ease (=a uşura) their passage over the water. Should an emergency occur. (revolutions per minute) indicator. The supply (= aprovizionarea) is obtained from a generator which charges a battery to maintain a supply when the engine is stopped.p. lifejackets are available under the seats. The propellers used on hovercraft are fourbladed (= cu patru lamele).it is relatively cheap. Basically. the commander needs to be a person combining many of the piloting skills of an aircraft pilot with the navigational skills of a sea captain. Most craft are fitted with flexible skirts which contain the cushion of air. An instrument panel (= panou/tablou de bord) is fitted in front of the commander. Air must be pumped in continuously to maintain the necessary lift. a throttle valve (= fluturaş) and as many injectors as there are combustion chambers.m.independence of choosing the route. They include: compass (= busolă).each passenger has his/her own seat. It requires tremendous power to drive it and uses most of the power developed by the engine.it is not dangerous. Fuel is pumped to the throttle valve by means of an electrically driven pump. Hovercraft are generally used more over the sea than elsewhere. in principle. This is done by a lift fan (= ventilator). . in order to lift the hovercraft. (adapted from Hayden. propeller pitch indicator. . Lift is entirely dependent on the speed of the engine driving the lift fan.Any journey or voyage has advantages and disadvantages .you can eat/drink/read/sleep. radar equipment and many instruments require (= cer) electricity.it is comfortable.clear off the surface. The propeller used to drive the hovercraft is usually an aircraft type. It is necessary to raise the chamber pressure only a little above atmospheric pressure. r. The fuel used is either low grade petrol or kerosene. . The lights. Consequently.rather like aircraft controls. to carry all of the instruments for safe operation of the hovercraft. engine. Electrical power is used to start the engine and ignite (= a pune în funcţiune) the fuel driving the engine.

transference. barges (= şlepuri). .you can see many things. .you can stop where you want. . I. you can't stop where you want. 4.you can't read/sleep.you can't choose the route. to ship. . navă tanc.disadvantages: . . You are on a train with a fellow-passenger who has visited the town you live in. to transport (vb.you can get air/car/seasick.): to convey.4. removal. 3.it is (quite) expensive. tipping ~ (= autocamioane. Talk about advantages and disadvantages of different means of transport. transportation. . tank ~. conveyance. Describe your first trip on a plane. to carry. cargo-boats.transport (n. tankers (= tanc petrolier. . Describe a journey you have just had.Road transport makes use of motor-vehicles. petrolier).you can meet other people. 5.it is crowded/cramped. basculante). Means of transport for goods .it makes noise.. B.The development of our national economy led to the development of transport. Water transport uses bulkcarrier (= vase ce transportă încărcături mari). What are a few of the effects that the development of air travel has had on modern life and world events? 2. . TOPICS FOR DISCUSSION 1. 32 . . There are also different types of lorries: refrigerated ~.it is not comfortable. Road transport is more expensive than railway transport. . .it takes a long time to get where you want. shipment. trailers (= remorci) and semi-trailers.): carriage.it is dangerous. shipping. . . Imagine the dialogue.

In the UK there is a severe shortage of civil engineers. There are numerous publications advertising vacancies in the engineering sector every year. Many large companies participate in fairs on campus. engineering qualifications are very portable. airport terminals in Toronto and Tel Aviv. work experience before graduation is more restricted and it is quite possible to graduate without any. Arup. Organizations such as Ford. but not impossible. although we have sandwich courses. for example. The order in which these occur differs around Europe. companies in the UK are placing increasing value on work experience or internships during vacation time and/or sandwich degrees. ENGINEERING CAREERS AND JOB OPPORTUNITIES Leading firms in the engineering sector are among the most international in their outlook. In the UK. Oil exploration has always been international in nature. Attending a careers fair can be a great way of discovering who is recruiting. GE. has offices in eight European countries and 16 elsewhere in the world. All European Union (EU) countries have an agreement on what they call the ‘formation’ of a professional engineer. When and if the telecommunications and automobile industries get back to ‘normal’ levels of recruitment there will be shortages of good engineers. with seismic investigations and the drilling of wells often taking place in the most remote regions. Nokia and Shell all recruit internationally and visit recruitment fairs across Europe. initial training and experience. an oil platform in the Philippines and the Channel tunnel are among their completed projects. A career in engineering can be truly international.4. While it is relatively easy to get employment around the world as an engineer. for example. However. This was followed in 2004 with a move to allow all new graduates in engineering from UK universities to stay in the UK for at least a year after graduating. The French and Germans prefer their students to gain industrial experience at home and abroad during the course of their studies. Fairs offer the chance to talk to firm representatives face-to-face and can provide an opportunity to make contacts. The professional status of chartered engineer also commands international respect.I. has employees in 28 countries and BT offers career opportunities across Europe. Each professional body has a list of organizations that offer accredited training for 33 . An MEng degree from a UK university is recognized worldwide as an excellent grounding. which takes around seven years and includes education. and in 2003 the government relaxed its work permit rules for these engineers from overseas. for a graduate with a first degree to immediately gain employment in the USA. Telecommunications companies are also big on global reach. This inevitably places more emphasis on industrial training after graduation. Vodaphone. Philips. It is unusual. Siemens. and English is their business language. Project work could take you anywhere – the Hong Kong metro. it becomes easier once you have gained two or more years’ industrial experience. Apply directly to those firms you find attractive that are offering career opportunities in your area of engineering. The industry is used to working in multinational teams. Allowing the numerous overseas students who come to the UK for an engineering education to stay will certainly alleviate this problem. Fortunately. Websites of the professional bodies provide lots of careers and job information. The Association for Consultancy and Engineering (ACE) produces information on the international work of its members.

. part-time. clients and suppliers.attractive. aerospace manufacturers or active in other parts of the engineering industry. = 1. I. Most companies will list the required competencies on their website and it pays to study these carefully before embarking on an application. budgets and clients’ expectations. complete a project or write a report to gain professional recognition. a închiria cai şi trăsuri.full-time. profession. function. to job v. well-paid. trade. work. intermediar. Your career can develop in many different ways within the engineering sector.c. 34 . antreprenor. serviciu. task. slujbă. post. = 1. = speculă la bursă. Types of jobs . position. Entry words job n. You may need to keep a diary of your experiences. 2. = persoană care închiriază cai şi trăsuri. send in a speculative application. muncă.b. lucrări mărunte. calling.1. or a project for a client. They also appreciate the ability to recognize commercially promising approaches rather than expensive solutions that cannot be marketed.new graduates intent on gaining professional qualifications. I. 3. treabă.prospects. risky. Company training schemes often lead to professional qualifications. mission. over-time. = 1.d. 4.low paid.uk) A.1.1. the engineering sector also wants team players who can solve problems and communicate with customers. Related words jobber n. You might start in a technical function and develop as a professional. a face afaceri. VOCABULARY I. occupation.1. Synonyms activity. îndeletnicire. Alternatively. engineering consultants. Speculative applications to firms of your choice often pay off. lucru. I. . negotiating with suppliers. affair. îndeletnicire. you will also develop the skills necessary to manage people. odd. charge. employment. In addition to your technical abilities. (adapted from Internet URL: http://www. You can discover details of trade associations and of their members as well as whether they are electronics companies. vocation. assignment. This may involve managing a facility such as manufacturing. career. duty.a. Selection procedures always include questions about competencies. funcţie. afacerist. optimizing supply chains or hiring new technical staff in human resources. = şomer. dull. business. plus training in the area in which you will eventually work. ocupaţie. 2. JOBS I. 2. before moving into a management position. 3. The schemes will usually include secondment to various departments. Investigate their vacancies and career development opportunities and. jobless adj. perhaps marketing the products you know so well technically. jobmaster n. Be prepared to complete aptitude tests as part of the application and interview process. jobbery n.ac. afacere. your career could progress in a different direction. In addition to technical competence. if they match your requirements. responsibility.

• a high level of scientific knowledge and the ability to apply this knowledge to practical problems.. (date) . skills and achievements (= realizări). • fluency in a second language. • creative ability. . it must be clear and not too long... a aproba) an interview. The letter must be accompanied by a Curriculum Vitae (CV) that should be typed. My address is . 35 . • managerial skills. Yours sincerely. At the interview you should wear your best clothes (to give a good impression). a admite.2. show enthusiasm for the job. • accuracy and attention to detail... • organisational skills. Then. I hope you will be kind enough to consider my application and grant (= a acorda. It must include personal details.Newspapers and magazines have advertisements (= reclame) concerning possible jobs.... if required to work in an international company.. I.. • IT skills. look tidy. make notes on your experience. such as time and resource planning.. potential candidates will need to show evidence of the following: • technical knowledge. (signature) For engineering positions. I wish to apply (= a solicita) for the job. If you get a positive answer. qualifications and positions held.. of. If you are looking for a job you have to read the job columns in the newspaper.A letter of application looks like this: Sir. With reference to your advertisement in . you must prepare for the interview when you must appear in front of an employer (= patron) or a group of selectors.indoors. . you must write a letter of application (= cerere) or if possible. Looking for a job/getting a job . • problem solving and analytical ability. qualifications etc. to fill in an application form (= formular de cerere). . • communication and interpersonal skills. outdoors. (newspaper) .

Bacau. developing. planning and designing new production processes. writing and verbal skills Additional information driving licence. developing a project specification with colleagues. Romania 0234-655525 valeriuvaleanu@yahoo. suppliers and customers. managing projects using engineering principles and techniques. testing and evaluating theoretical designs. discussing and solving complex problems with manufacturing departments.1. The Faculty of Engineering Enrolled for a Master degree program in the Management of industrial production From 2001 to 2005 University Of Bacau. Romania Manufacturing industry Mechanical engineer on probation WORK EXPERIENCE • Dates • Name and address of employer • Type of business or sector • Occupation or positions held • Main activities and responsibilities as a teaching assistant • designing • • • • • and implementing cost-effective equipment modifications to help improve safety and reliability. Bacau Baccalaureate ROMANIAN English and French: very good MOTHER TONGUE OTHER LANGUAGES Reading. The Faculty of Engineering Mechanical engineering BEng From 1998 to 2001 “Vasile Alecsandri” High School. sub-contractors. Apt. 600078.com Romanian 10 July 1981 From November 2006 to the present SC MACHINE TOOLS SA Bacau. B category 36 . often including those from other engineering disciplines. EDUCATION AND TRAINING • Dates (from – to) • Name and type of organization providing education and training • Principal subjects • Dates (from – to) • Name and type of organization • Principal subjects • Title of qualification awarded • Dates (from – to) • Name and type of organisation providing education and training • Title of qualification awarded From 2005 to the present University Of Bacau.CURRICULUM VITAE PERSONAL INFORMATION Name Address Telephone E-mail Nationality Date of birth VALEANU VALERIU 1 Letea Street.

(pl) fabrică mare. voluntary work. 4. ~ man = muncitor. 2. a conduce (o acţiune). to work in a slapdash way = a da rasol. mobil. azil de săraci.îndemînare. = 1. ~ people = muncitorime. ~ bench = banc de lucru. execuţie. 2. 3.a. lucrător. 8.lucrătură. creative work.c.1. to work (on) short hours = a şoma. în vigoare. a cîrmui (o maşină). de exploatare. a lucra de mîntuială. 2.7. working outside. 2. = 1. to work in relay = a munci în schimburi. II. to work whole-heartedly = a munci cu avînt.(pl) muncitorime. operă de artă. ~ book = broşură. 4. 4.(fig) agitaţie.efect. a prelucra.1. workable adj. extra-work.fermentaţie (a vinului). secţie (într-o uzină). 5. lucrător. a lucra.(pl) construcţii. ~ horse = cal folosit în special pentru muncă. = 1. research work. a executa. working inside. Related words work-bag = sacoşă de lucru (pentru croitorie).lucrare. ~ box = cutie pentru materiale si unelte.fabricaţie.II. activitate. de lucru. = 1.de lucru. iscusit. ~ mate = coleg de muncă. 2. 3. îndemînatic. a avea o slujbă.prelucrare mecanică. ~ force = forţă de lucru. manual work. 6. 2. 37 . acţiune (a unui medicament). a elabora. Types of work .muncitor.(fig) acţiune. bine executat.treabă. = 1. to work by agreement = a lucra în acord. 5. working adj. 3. 6. muncă. cărticică. ~ sheet = carte de muncă. pentru zilele de lucru. 3.manevrare. workmanship n. 5.b. to work overtime = a face ore suplimentare. sarcină.asupra căruia se poate acţiona. 2. ~ load = normă. măiestrie. 6.cultivare (a unui teren). ~ house = fabrică.(fig) prozaic. ~ shop = atelier. II.brainwork. to work v.working alone. working n.albină/furnică lucrătoare. worker n. muncă. 4.1. = 1. făcut de mîini îndemînatice. 2. to work for = a presta zile muncă.executabil. 4. working-clothes = haine de lucru. Entry words work n. 5.operă (work of art). = 1. = 1. workmanlike adj. ~ of art = operă de artă. cîrmuire. uzină.cultivare (a pămîntului). workaday adj. 2. care munceşte. 3. ~ out = stagiu. 9. WORK II. maşinărie.lucru. a înfăptui (un plan).muncitor. a manevra. working away from home. ~ room = atelier.(pl) mecanism. = 1.execuţie îngrijită. 5. antrenament. .lucru. 3. office work.

sculă. Places of work agency/firm = agenţie. safety helmet = cască de protecţie. chambers = birou de avocatură. aparat. hydro. law-court = judecătorie. lifting. barber's. smithy = fierărie.machinery = 1. pen and ink.3. box-office = ghişeu la teatru.outfit = 1. creating. farriery = potcovărie. clockmaker's/watchmaker's. mijloc. 3. printing house = tipografie. theatre.machine = maşină. . circus. police-station. bakery = brutărie. saltworks = salină. dispozitiv. aprovizionare. prosecutor's ~ = procuratură. 2. pig breeding ~ = fermă de porci. dyehouse = boiangerie. faculty. quarry stone pit = carieră de piatră. 2. . bar. news-stand. specialist tools.plan. tobacconist's. grocery. school. hosiery.dispozitiv. hairdresser's. . mecanism. mine = mină.echipament. airport. carrying. poultry ~ = fermă de păsări.Technology = tehnologie.2. protective clothing. dairy = lăptărie.II. . 38 .gear = 1. 2. fishery = cherhana. aviary = crescătorie de păsări.Actions: calculating.apparatus = aparat.~ = termocentrală. outdoor work.tool = unealtă. barkery = tăbăcărie. inventing.Clothes: overalls = salopetă.equipment = echipament. surgery. . research work. inquiry office. aparat. thermo. mecanism. physical equipment. beauty shop/saloon parlour. production line work. publishing house = editură. schemă. furriery = blănărie. bookshop. night club. conservatoire. . .costum.mecanism. moving. office = birou. = a technical method of achieving a practical purpose. studio = atelier (al unui pictor). restaurant.~ = hidrocentrală. utilaj. post-office.aparat.mechanism = mecanism. county hall = prefectură.înzestrare.Tools/equipment: hitech equipment. millinery. electrical equipment. orphanage. flower shop.procedeu. . butchery = abator. companie.device = 1. 3. haberdashery. 2.Technique = tehnică. proiect. library. tribunal. .ansamblu de maşini. mechanical tools. editorial office = redacţie. . . instrument. dental surgery = cabinet dental. farm = fermă. booking-office. compassing. embassy = ambasadă. What does work imply? . . . power station = centrală. foundry = topitorie.aparatură. II. dockyard/shipyard = şantier naval.

employed n. 3. Health 5. dulgherie. people are paid. the one dealing with it = astronomer (= astronom). Biology . = angajat. the one dealing with it = biologist (= biolog). DIFFERENT FIELDS OF ACTIVITY 1. according to contract. II.wages = salariu. for a doctor/lawyer. Science and research . commerce/trade. serviciu. Public services 8. slujbaş. . = 1. = a da de lucru.ocupaţie. unemployed n. Army.People receive: . Astronomy . meteorologică.the study of living things (organisms. plants and animals).science n.5. employment n. Arts 7. Science and research 2. = patron. according to a pay-roll (= stat de plată). Economics .utilizare. magnitude and constitution). Payment For their work.Other fields of activity III. Cultural life. a branch of study concerned with observation and classification of facts and especially with the establishment of verifiable general laws. employer n. . weather-station = staţie laboratory. Education 6. leafă (for physical work) = payment for labour or services.4. agriculture. . Law 9. transport. to employ v.hospital.salary = salariu. Building 4. II. deals with living beings and life processes. 2.the study of celestial bodies (their motions. 39 . serviciu. a angaja. sumă plătită).dealing with the operation of aircraft or with their design and manufacturing. = slujbă. III.industry. upholster's = atelier de tapiţerie.Sciences and scientists Aeronautics . leafă (for intellectual work) = payment made at regular intervals for services. employee n. = angajat. laundry. Religion 10. plumbery = atelier de topit şi prelucrat plumb.1. Unemployment . remuneraţie = the charge for a professional service.fee = onorariu. meat-processing factory = combinat de industrializarea cărnii. Money is given by a paymaster (= casier). hotel. = şomer. 2.employ n.accumulated systematized knowledge especially when it relates to the physical world. . = 1. works = uzină. întrebuinţare. joiner's shop = atelier de tîmplărie. They receive payment (= plată.

Cybernetics = the science dealing with the comparative study of the operations of complex electronic computers and the human nervous system. photoelectric cells. Sociology = the study of the development and structure of society and social relations. the one dealing with it = sociologist (= sociolog). pressure. the one dealing with it = geologist (= geolog). = cercetare researcher n. Oncology = the branch of medicine dealing with tumors. devising.Research n. So. the one dealing with it = physicist (= fizician). etc. the one dealing with it = philosopher (= filozof). Biotechnology: genetics ~ = the study and manipulation of the genes in plants and animals. Ecology = the branch of biology that deals with the relations between living organisms and their environment. Electronics = the science that deals with the behaviour and control of electrons in vacuums and gases and with the use of electron tubes. Psychology = the science of mind and behaviour. Embryology = the study and manipulation of human embryos. Aerodynamics = the branch of aeromechanics that deals with the forces (resistance.) exerted by air or other gases in motion.New sciences Aerodinetics = the science of soaring in a glider. Sociology = the study of the relationship and adjustment of human groups to their geographical environment. structure and properties of substance and of the changes they undergo. = a cerceta The work of research teams of scientists and engineers is hard. .Chemistry . meaning something new. the one dealing with it = chemist (= chimist). Bionics = the science of designing instruments or systems modelled after living organisms. Microbiology = the science of using bacteria (microbes) in industrial processes. Philosophy = a critical study of fundamental beliefs and the ground for them. the one dealing with it = geographer (= geograf). transistors etc.It is the work of 40 .deals with the history of the Earth and its life.deals with restoring and preserving of health. Physics = deals with matter (= materie) and motion. it is the result of inventing (making something for the first time. Medicine . fabricating). the result is an invention (= invenţie). Geology . the one dealing with it = psychologist (= psiholog). especially as recorded in rocks. the one dealing with it = physician (=doctor). Sometimes. the one dealing with it = mathematician (= matematician). Technics = the study and science of mechanical and industrial arts.the study of the Earth and what happens on it. . Geography . Sonicity = the study of sound waves. = cercetător to research v.deals with the composition. Mathematics = the science of numbers and their operations and the relation between them.

000 miles a second can be reflected like sound or light waves. If a current of electricity passes through a fine thread or filament of carbon it will glow white hot and give a strong light. jets of steam expand between the vanes (= paletele de pe un ax) on a shaft and those on the casing.The Wonders of the Middle Ages: the people considered that there existed some other sights quite so wonderful = the Colosseum of Rome. When at sea on long voyages sailors use chronometers. In 1831 Michael Faraday induced (= forced) an electric current which meant the beginning of the dynamo.The Wonders of the Ancient World: the Hanging Gardens of Babylon. inventions in products brought the revolution in comfort and enjoyment. making a vacuum. The printing press (= tipografie) was invented by the German Johann Gutenberg who printed the Bible in 1456. The telephone was invented by A. Inventions in power and machinery brought the industrial revolution. the Mausoleum at Halicarnassus. The telescope was invented by Galileo in 1611. or electric generator. 41 . the Porcelain Tower of Nanking. These waves are known as "Hertzian waves" and they can be transmitted without wires across space. THE WONDERS OF THE WORLD .Scientific Marvels (starting with the invention of the printing press and ending with the atomic age). The Catacombs of Alexandria. C. The thread of carbon is enclosed in a glass bulb from which the air has been extracted. Heinrich Hertz proved that J. Sophia in Constantinople. or in health. travelling at 186. the spots on the Sun. the Statue of Zeus Jupiter at Olympus. the Pharos. The sextants invented in 1731 are instruments by means of which seamen can tell their exact position by observing the angle of the sun or a star above the horizon and then making a calculation from a book of tables. which are very accurate watches telling the true Greenwich time while travelling round the world. hauled a train at 30 miles an hour.the inventors (=inventatori). the Pyramids of Egypt. Graham Bell in 1876. . the Great Wall of China. height and speed of a reflecting object. In 1781 James Watt patented the steam engine which drove a wheel round. providing power. the Rocket. Other inventions brought revolution in the way society organizes itself. and spin it round. . In 1884 Charles Parsons's steam turbine worked. the Colossus at Rhodes. distance. Edison Thomas discovered that electricity could be used for lighting. the Temple of Diana at Ephesus. the millions of stars forming the Milky Way. the sattelites of Jupiter. But it was Guglielmo Marconi who discovered the importance of an aerial-earth system and so made radio transmissions over great distances a real possibility. In the steam turbine. Stonehenge. Lighthouse at Alexandria. he used it to study the heavens and discovered the mountains on the Moon. Not long before 1939 the first radar set was invented. the Mosque of St. Maxwell's "radio waves" (1864) had been correct. The first English printer was William Caxton who set up his printing press in Westminster in 1476. It determines the direction. Radar is possible because radio waves. the Leaning Tower of Pisa. In 1829 George Stephenson's famous railway engine.

in turn.economie. In 1911 Ernest Rutherford stated that an atom consists of a central nucleus which has a positive electric charge and constantly circling electrons with a negative electric charge. The pneumatic tyre was John Dunlop's discovery who made tyres of rubber tubes filled with air. In 1906 the wellknown sportsman Charles Rolls went into partnership with Henry Royce. glass plates were used for the first time and in 1884 film was made of celluloid. made a chemically-coated paper nearly glow. gradually. The Diesel engine was first devised by an Englishman. . chibzuit.=1. in 1890. then it goes into the boilers where it makes steam drive the turbines which. The discovery of the transistor in the 1950s and of the small silicon chip with printed circuits on it in the 1960s made miniaturisation possible and brought computers into every field of activity. an engineer. digital watches. This is a tremendous discovery as it forms the basis of modern nuclear physics and of the industries producing atomic power and nuclear energy. Röntgen called them X-rays which are now used in radiography. this kind of engines are named after him. Many improvements were made by inventors.Types of economy 42 . drive the dynamos that make electricity. The jet engine was Frank Whittle's invention and was patented in 1935. the rays passed through the flesh but left a picture of the bones on a photographic plate. L. 3. although many people had a hand in inventing photography. 2. the gas passing through them becomes hot too. 2. economist n.care aduce cîştig.economie (a unei ţări). and although his invention was patented two years after Stuart's. Automatic cookers. 2. agonisire. together they built the Rolls-Royce motor car. The German Rudolf Diesel was also working on the same idea. economical adj. 2. mostly in the United States. Few inventions have made such a tremendous difference to everyday life as the internal combustion engine (= motor cu ardere internă). flight simulators. economic adj. = 1. adunător.organizare. Stuart.a face economii. Atomic energy is obtained by splitting atoms of a rare metal.economic to economize v. in 1851. The first public showing of a film was in London in 1890.The history of T. = 1. economy n.V. beneficiu. persoană economă. The French Daguerre used copper plates covered with silver. (apud Cmeciu.economist. If placing a hand in front of the apparatus. = 1. The first motor car was made in 1875 by the Australian Siegfried Marcus but the German Carl Benz made motocars for sale in 1885. In 1903 a complete exciting story was filmed and. The first photo was taken by W.a economisi. = 1. in a reactor. The next development was the moving picture and here again a number of people were concerned. The colour Television is a very recent invention. A. In 1895 the German Röntgen discovered that rays coming from a tube through which high-voltage electricity was passed. 2. a aduna în mod chibzuit. pocket calculators. rentabil. printers. strîngătoare.V.2. then. Fox Talbot in 1835. 2.econom. Baird.economie politică. =1. privitor la economie. H. sets began in 1922 and the inventor of the black and white T. Doina & Elena Bonta: Essential English Topics) III. Economics economics n.economic.economie. At an atomic power station the reactors get very hot. the cinema industry was born.a.econom. uranium.desk-top computers are only few of the new computerbased inventions. was J.

screw-nut = piuliţă.Places of work in industry enterprise (= întreprindere). It plays a very important part in the development of productive forces. industrial adj.2 b. pliers = patent. to industrialize v. chisel/scoop = daltă. pass-key = şperaclu. turner = strungar. capitalist ~. . .Industrialization represents the essential factor for the advance of national economy. callipers = şubler. . ciocan (for holding. world ~ = ~ mondială.).factory.Things they use . state ~.agrarian economy = economie agrară. inflationary ~ = ~ inflaţionistă. III. industrialism n. screw = şurub. plane = rindea (for smoothing).foreman (= maistru). = harnic. = industriaş. 43 . burghiu (for boring holes in wood or metal). = industrialism. = hărnicie. holding something). storeman = magazioner. market ~ = ~ de piaţă. bending. chuck/jaws/vice = menghină. planned ~ = ~ planificată. etc. plant/works (= fabrică. = industrializare.Machines . sorter = sortator. pulling wires/nails). worker. mechanic. file = pilă (for smoothing or cutting hard surfaces).simple: lever = pîrghie. fitter = montator.People working in a factory engineer. grain growing ~ = ~ cerealieră. locksmith = lăcătuş. welder = sudor.Types of workers fire-teaser = fochist. printer = tipograf. instalator. weaver = ţesător. = industrial. uzină). feudal ~. Industry industry n. = industrie. painter = vopsitor. branch ~ = ~ de ramură. = a industrializa.Tools anvil = nicovală. sîrguincios. technician. staker = fochist. It also guarantees the independence and the overeignity = suveranitate) of a country. milling machine operator = frezor. . operator = operator. manipulant. hammer = ciocan (for driving nails into a piece of wood.. . socialist ~. . industrious adj. borer/drill = sfredel. national ~. the development of productivity (= productivitate) and is decisive for the rise of the people's living standards (= nivel de viaţă). industriousness n. complex ~. industrialization n. industrialist n. pincers = cleşte (for pulling out nails. screw-wrench = cheie franceză. polisher = şlefuitor.

the inclined plane = plan înclinat. pulley = scripete. wheel = roată. wedge = pană, ic. - complicated: boring/drilling machine = maşină de găurit. comber/carding ~ = ~ de dărăcit. cutting off ~ = ~ de retezat. forging ~ = ~ de forjat. gear cutting ~ = ~ de prelucrat roţi dinţate. grinding ~ = ~ de rectificat. lapping ~ = ~ de rodat. milling ~ = ~ de frezat. punching ~ = ~ de perforat. sewing ~ = ~ de cusut. sheet bending ~ = ~ de îndoit tablă. sorting ~ = ~ de sortat. spinning ~ = ~ de filetat, de tors. straightening ~ = ~ de îndreptat. thread rolling ~ = ~ de rulat filet. tool grinder ~ = ~ de ascuţit unelte. lathe = strung. automatic ~ = ~ automat. copying ~ = ~ de copiat. pipe threading ~ = ~ de filetat ţevi. spinning ~ = ~ de presat. universal ~ = ~ universal.

- Raw material used in industry
coal = cărbune. salt. crude ore = ţiţei. solid fuels = combustibili solizi. iron = fier. timber. natural gas. wood. oil and derivatives of the oil industry. hard ~ = lemn de esenţă tare. raw skin = piele brută. soft ~ = lemn de esenţă moale. rubber = cauciuc.

- Processing (= procesul de prelucrare) includes:
boiling = fierbere. breazing/welding = sudură. buckling = deformare, îndoire. casting = turnare. chipping = dăltuire, tăiere. chip removal = aşchiere. dismantling = demontare. drilling/ boring = găurire. forging = matriţare. greasing = ungere. grinding = şlefuire. metal working = prelucrare (a metalului). milling = frezare. quench = călire (prin răcire bruscă). reaming = filetare. riffling = striere, zimţuire. riveting = nituire. soldering/welding = sudare.

- Types of factories and plants/works
cannery = fabrică de conserve. car factory. metal works = uzină metalurgică. brewery = fabrică de bere. paper mill = fabrică de hîrtie. brickyard = fabrică de cărămizi. saw mill = fabrică de cherestea.

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distillery = fabrică de spirt. shoe factory. electric plant = uzină electrică. soap manufactoring = fabrică de săpun. furniture factory. steel works = oţelărie. glass manufactory house = textile factory. lumber mill = fabrică de waterworks = uzină de apă. cherestea. weaving mill = ţesătorie. stocking manufacturing = fabrică de ciorapi. machine building plant = uzină constructoare de maşini.

III.2.c. Engineering
- engineering n. = 1.inginerie. 2.construcţie de maşini. engineer n. = inginer. to engineer v. = 1.a construi (în calitate de inginer). 2.a lucra ca nginer.

Engineering is regarded as the most important branch of industry. It produces machine tools for all branches of the economy: agriculture machinery; aircrafts; ballbearing (= rulment); computers; cars; control equipment for: iron and steel industry, chemical industry, oil refineries, glass industry, food industry; diesel electric locomotives; electrical generators; engines; equipment for nuclear plants; electronic equipment; electric equipment; fitters; high-precision testing and control apparatus (microscopes, cameras, laboratory, apparatus, installations for research); oilfield equipment; tools for mining, forestry and light industries. - Sub-branches: electronics, electrotechnology, electronic goods, hidraulic and pneumatic components and installations, optics, precision mechanics. - Engineers can be: - mining engineers = find useful minerals. - metallurgical ~ = separate metals from unwanted substances and make them usable. - chemical ~ = use chemicals to make things as explosives, paint, plastics, soap. - civil ~ = build bridges, tunnels, roads, railroads, ports, airports, etc. - mechanical ~ = make and use machines; design jet engines and factory machinery. - electrical ~ = work with devices that produce and use electricity. Using tools and machines implies perfect knowledge of their component parts, skills in handling and controlling them, awareness of possible accidents, as well as control of emergency situations. Engineers have a new tool now: the computer. It is used in laboratories and offices. The computer was used shortly after the war, to work out complicated mathematical problems in science and engineering. It accepts information, stores it, performs mathematical operations, as well as logical operations, supplying the results of these operations as new information. It has the capacity of controlling the industrial process and checking the processes automatically. Computers use terms such as: analogue = something that varies continuously; the opposite of digital. binary members = a number coded in a series of 0 and 1 digits, in which the value of each digit is twice the value of the digit to its right. bit = a single digit of a binary number. Eight bits are known as "byte".

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BASIC = Beginner's All Purpose Symbolic Instruction Code; language most widely used by microcomputers. CPU = Control Processing Unit; it is the "brain of the computer"; it reads instructions put into the computer and passes them on to other parts; it sorts out information and does calculations; it sends the results to the input device. floppy disk = a circular piece of thin plastic coated with a thin layer; the magnetic material used in recording tape; it can be used to store large quantities of binary information. data = the information which is given to a computer for processing. databank = large stores of data for computers. digital = something that is separated in units; the opposite of analogue. input = the data fed into the computer through devices (which are: keyboards, sensors, cameras, etc.). interface = a device placed between the computer and equipment connected to it, which translates input into a code of electronic pulses, and which translates the computer's results from the pulse code into a form the output device can act on. hardware = the computer itself and devices connected to it. output = the result of the computer's processing; it might be displayed on a screen, printed as words or pictures or cause the movement of a robot's arm. programme = the set of instructions for the computer either stored in its permanent memory or fed. RAM = Random Access Memory: the part of the computer's memory which temporarily stores information fed into it. ROM = Read Only Memory: the part of the computer's memory which contains instructions the computer always needs to help work. software = the term given to the computer programme. VDU = Visual Display Unit: the screen on which information from the computer is shown. word processor = a specialized typewriter with a VDU used for producing letters in an office.

History of engineering Computers have different applications. The scientific technological revolution has coupled man with the computer. The whole way to this coupling was a long and difficult one. It started with the stone and continued with the wheel and the engine. The industrial revolution coupled man with the motor car. Iron was the key to the industrial revolution. New techniques of manufacture (= fabricare) and the use of machines powered by waterwheels and steam engines took the place of the traditional tools: hammers, files or hand-working machines (spinning wheel and hand-looms = război de ţesut manual). The great advances in both the quality and the quantity of iron contributed to the development of mechanization. The introduction of steam (= abur)-driven machinery was the greatest achievement of the industrial revolution. Later, the internal combustion engine (= motorul cu ardere internă) began to be used. It is a type of engine that works by the combustion of a fuel (= combustibil) and air mixture within the cylinders of the engine. It is of two types: gasoline engine and Diesel engine.

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In the gasoline engine, the fuel, a mixture of gasoline and air is ignited by an electric spark (= scînteie). The explosion in the top of the cylinder forces the piston downwards. The piston helps to turn the crankshaft (= arbore cotit). It is used in automobiles (where 4 - 6 - 8 cylinders are firing one after another). The piston moves up and down inside the cylinder. It is connected with the crankshaft by a connecting rod (= tijă de legătură). It has also a flywheel (= roată motrice cu aripi; volant) that keeps the crankshaft moving when no pressure is exerted upon the piston. One valve has the role of admitting the air and fuel into the cylinder; another one allows the exhaust gas to escape. In the Diesel engine the air is compressed in the cylinder. It becomes very hot and when the fuel oil is injected into it, it explodes without a spark to set it off (= a pune în mişcare). The newest type of engine is the jet engine. It works on the same principle as a rocket. The air is drawn into the front of the engine and is burned with paraffin. The gas so formed expands violently and rushes out of the back of the engine - in a jet, and propels the aeroplane forward with great power. In a rocket, the air is not pushed back in order to make it go forward; its movement is caused by the action and reaction of the expanding gases in its combustion chambers. Jet engines weigh less than piston engines and they go wrong less often. A jet engine burns cheap kerosene instead of costly gasoline (adapted from Illustrated Colour Dictionary) III.2.. Building
- build n. = constucţie; statură. building n. = clădire, construcţie. building-up n. = construire. builder n. = constructor. to build v. = a construi, a clădi. building-site n. = şantier. - A building-site is the place where new buildings are erected/built.

- People working on a building site:
architect = arhitect (designs buildings and supervises their erection). bricklayer = zidar (a person who builds or paves with bricks = cărămizi). builder = constructor. civil engineer = inginer constructor. construction worker = muncitor constructor (measures wood and cuts it into pieces; carries bricks and metal parts; repairs buildings; follows a building plan in order to make houses, apartments, stores). craner = macaragiu (one who works on a machine for lifting and carrying heavy objects). decorator = paints and papers rooms. dyer = vopsitor (uses materials for colouring and staining). electrician =designs, installs, operates or repairs electrical equipment. glazier = geamgiu (fits glass into windows). plumber = instalator (unites metal or plastic parts either by heating, hammering or pressing together). welder = sudor (unites pieces of metal into homogeneous mass).

III.3. Positions In any field of activity there are persons who have a high position, who lead, run and supervise the activity. Such a person is always called chief or boss. So, we talk about:

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the captain of a crew or of a team. commander (of an organized body). conductor (of an orchestra). headmaster/headmistress (of a school). post master = director de poştă. dock ~ = şef de şantier naval. station ~ = şef de gară. principal. manager (of a hotel, or a theatre).

B. TOPICS FOR DISCUSSION 1. Careers for women. 2. What is success in engineering/law/medicine, etc.? 4. What would you like to be and why? 5. Talk about unemployment in your country. 6. You want to find a job for your summer holiday. Write an advertisement.

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PART II

TECHNICAL ENGLISH TOPICS
II.1. GENERAL TECHNICAL TEXTS II.2. SPECIALIZED TECHNICAL TEXTS

II.1. GENERAL TECHNICAL TEXTS
II.1.1. THE IMPORTANCE OF LEARNING ENGINEERING ENGLISH OR TECHNICAL ENGLISH The world of modern science has progressed across hitherto impassable barriers. Never was it more important to have available information on the countless facts of modern scientific knowledge and achievement. The rapidly changing technology demands more and more science oriented engineers. They have to refine and foster widespread application of the developments which have kindled the expansion of computers, television, synthetic materials, high temperature alloys, new communication systems and, more recently, the rapidly unfolding fields of nuclear and aerospace engineering. The sharp upgrading in engineering has been emphasizing the need of updating the engineer’s knowledge in order to meet the technological needs of today. Research people need knowledge of reports and publications in many languages. The barrier that is set up by a difference in language may constitute as serious an obstacle in pure science as in practical world of technology. Applied scientists are as anxious as anyone to learn of the technical progress in other countries, and they are certainly more interested in getting their information quickly and to apply it. There are three ways in which scientific information may be acquired: 1. by adequate translation; 2. by persuading scientists to publish their work in the better-known languages; 3. by teaching scientists to read foreign languages. But translations are not always accurate and sometimes they are hopelessly obscure. The scientific vocabulary is now so specialized that it may be unintelligible but for the specialist. It is quite impossible to translate all the received documents. Thus is not possible to keep pace with the latest discoveries only by translations. In this case even translating machines are not of great use. It is a great asset for any engineer to be able to read foreign technical publications in the original. Specialists should be persuaded into learning engineering English because the abstract specialized vocabulary is quite limited and it can be easily and rapidly mastered by reading typical technical texts. Engineering English is no longer a problem nowadays. Every engineer can easily and rapidly master it, provided he is set on learning it. This is the conclusion to be drawn as far as the difficulties in the search for technical information are concerned. A great philosopher used to say:” The knowledge of a language is another weapon in life”. (adapted from Dănilă Viorica, Engleza tehnică şi Dicţionar de termeni şi expresii)

A. VOCABULARY
I. WORDS AND PHRASES asset n. = 1. avantaj. 2. valoare. expansion n. = extindere.dezvoltare.

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to foster v. = 1. a avea grijă de. 2. a incuraja, a favoriza. 3. a stimula. 4. a dezvolta (un talent). 5. a nutri (speranţe). provided he is set on learning it = cu condiţia să fie hotărât să o înveţe. the rapidly unfolding fields = domenii care se dezvoltă rapid. to keep pace with vb. = a ţine pasul cu. to kindle v. = 1. a aprinde, a amorsa focul. 2. (tehn.) a amorsa. 3. (fig.) a stârni (interesul, mânia). to progress across hitherto impassable barriers = a se dezvolta peste bariere de netrecut până acum. vocabulary n. = 1. vocabulary. 2. lexic. 3. listă de cuvinte. 4. (info.) lista codurilor de instrucţiuni. scientific ~ = vocabular ştiinţific. specialized ~ = vocabular de specialitate. updating n. = actualizare (a informaţiei). upgrading n. = 1. concentare. 2. întărire. 3. îmbunătăţire. 4. promovare. II. LEXICAL COMMENTARY technical adj. = tehnic. ~ account = cont tehnic. ~ adviser = consilier tehnic. ~ atmosphere = atmosferă tehnică. ~ conditions, specifications = specificaţii tehnice. ~ control = control tehnic. ~ data management = gestiune de date tehnice. ~ education = 1. invatamant tehnic. 2. învăţământ profesional. 3. calificare profesională. ~ expression = termen tehnic. ~ manager = director tehnic. ~ office = 1. birou de proiectare. 2. birou tehnic. ~ orders = prescripţii tehnice. ~ progress = progres tehnic. ~ publications = publicaţii cu caracter tehnic. ~ revision = revizie tehnică. ~ service = serviciu tehnic. ~ studies = cercetări/studii tehnice. ~ text = text cu caracter tehnic. technological adj. = tehnic, tehnologic. ~ advance/breakthrough = realizare tehnologică. ~ gap = decalaj tehnic. ~ needs = cerinţe, necesităţi tehnice. ~ restraint = limitare tehnologică. ~ unemployment = şomaj tehnologic.

B. EXERCISES I. Reading and comprehension 1. What does the rapidly changing technology demand? 2. What knowledge do research people need? 3. What are scientists interested in? 4. What is the importance of learning technical English? II. Find the family of words of the verbs: to achieve, to invent and to create. III. Choose the most suitable word for each space: When faced with some new possibly bewildering technological change, most people react in one of the two 1. ………… They either recoil from anything new, claiming that it is unnecessary, or too 2. ……….or that it somehow makes life less than 3………………. Or they learn to 4…………….. to the new invention, and eventually 5………………how they could possibly have existed without it. 6…………… computers as an example. For many of us, they still represent a 7 ………….to our freedom, and give us a frightening sense of a future in which all 8……………..will be taken by machines. This may be because they seem mysterious, and difficult to understand. Ask most people what you can 9……………

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a. personal c. manage c. criticisms c. What seems to alarm most people is the speed of 13 …………………change. learn c. objections 15. complicated 3. a. up with c. through c. and forms of entertainment. and you usually get 10……………answers about how ‘they give you the information’. a. technological d. extensive d. much b. even if things occasionally go wrong for no apparent reason. apply b. use d. 1. discuss 7. a. But it does not take long to learn how to operate a business programme. control c. use d. take c. admit d. physical c. fears d. a. that don’t have to be 15………………. and use them in our daily work. a. obscure c. tiresome d. vague 11. a. to work. formerly 4. conform c. there is a lot to be said for the oil lamp. As we discover during power cuts. react b. connected 52 . Presumably much the same happened when the telephone and the television became 12 ……………. decide 6. a. chances c. decisions b. wired b. In fact. future 14. moments 2. human d. have very little idea of how they 11 …………. since change is not always an improvement. types d. in existence 13. And the 14……………… that are made to new technology may well have a point to them. a. machinery b. threat d.. ways c. run 10. a. rather than change itself. work b. thus d. kinds b. propose b. widespread b. batteries c. appliances b. a. a. consist d. adapt 5. the coal fire. lively b. a. even those of us who are familiar with computers.A home computer for. hundreds d. instructions d. risk b. a. are 12. such b. plugged d. hazard 8. such as books or board games. suppose c. measures 9. wonder b.

a produce. The canal system reduced coal prices and provided easier access to raw materials and markets. a man named Macadam had the idea of solidifying road with small stones. water power was supplanted by steam power with its ensuing requirement of access to fields. 2. VOCABULARY I. Labour was thus accessible for the development of an industrial society. WORDS AND PHRASES coal smelting n. Furthermore. The population boom is attributed to several circumstances in Britain at that time. people were marrying younger and producing larger families for whom they could earn the means to provide. Between 1733 and 1789. = prelucrare metalurgică (topire) a cărbunelui. labour-saving machine n. and the population increased. 2. 53 . plague n. probably as a result of improved water supplies and the availability of soap. = război de ţesut mechanic. = explozie demografică. = dezvoltare industrială. = de frunte. and by 1850 it was "the workshop of the world. (fig. Following the invention and improvement of the steam engine. The plague years were over. population boom n. They would dispense with water power and rely on steam for increased production. Once the countryside was dotted with mills beside rivers and streams.000 miles by 1815. This period of British industrial expansion is called the Industrial Revolution. a provoca.a complini. Encyclopedia of Science and Technology) A. Britain's foremost industries were wool and cotton weaving. = 1. Production of iron depended upon coal smelting. THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION Britain was the first country to experience the Industrial Revolution. (adapted from McGraw-Hill. Good harvests had produced abundant and therefore cheaper food. Industrialization was complemented by a dynamic approach to cheap transportation. which produced cheap iron for machines and buildings.) năpastă. Britain experienced a tremendous population growth and increasing trade at home and abroad. and Cartwright's power loom rejuvenated both the cotton and wool industries.a complementa. 3. Industry's need for fuel sparked expansion in coal mining. a cotton-spinning machine that replaced the spinning wheel. a completa. foremost adj. power loom n. The death rate dropped. industrial expansion n. A network of canals was constructed and covered 2.1.2. so road traffic was made easier. With opportunities for work in industry. = maşină care face/presupune economie de (braţe de) muncă. = 1. Hargreaves' spinning jenny.II. but the need for coal drove the textile industry into the North where it continues to operate to this day. = a cauza. about the middle of the eighteenth century. to effect v. The iron industry moved to the central and northern sections of Britain for coal. Never again would England be an agricultural nation. de primă însemnătate. The rapid change in the nation's economy was effected by the steam engine and various power-driven machines." Already enjoying a vigorous commercial economy. to complement v. a series of ingenious labour-saving machines were invented. ciumă.

a steelmaker uses iron ore and other metals in producing steel. interest. I'm going to get rid of it. 2. documents. = alimentare. that are brought about when extensive mechanization of production systems results in a shift from home-based hand manufacturing to large-scale factory production. Never again would England be an agricultural nation.power-driven machine n. to provide v. such as the ones that took place in England in the late 18th century. aprovizionare cu apă. For example. e. happiness. spinning jenny n. the subject and the verb are inverted. e. Raw materials are unfinished goods used in the manufacture of a product.2. material brut/primar/de bază. de reparaţii). steam power n. Edmund Cartwright – British cleric and inventor of the power loom. publicity). problems. atelier (de lucru. = roată de tors. 2. income. II. we use negative adverbials at the beginning of a clause. an accident. and in computer contexts. James Hargreaves – English engineer. = energie a aburului. 3. LEXICAL COMMENTARY II. This car is giving me so much trouble. spinning wheel n. = 1. secţie.1 Industrialization is the process of converting to a socioeconomic order in which industry is dominant. Industrial Revolution – the complex of radical socioeconomic changes. 2. a reason for. and deals with more concrete results. a da. = maşină cu abur. = prima roată de tors mecanică. tremendous adj. the inventor of the spinning jenny. = extraordinary/grozav/fantastic de. Inversion after negative adverbials In formal and literary language. II. The new computer system has caused us a lot of problems. = ţesutul lânii şi al bumbacului workshop n. it entails both technology and profound social changes. ‘Cause’ verbs and their collocations Cause usually collocates with negative results and situations (sadness/unhappiness. 54 . extra work. trouble. = maşină acţionată de motor. Steel is then used as an input in many other industries to make finished products. a aproviziona. enthusiasm. Give can be used for positive or negative ones (pleasure. to supplant v. = 1. water supplies n. to rejuvenate v. trouble). an illness. a asigura. wool and cotton weaving n.g. controversy. şantier. 3. Produce is more neutral. raw material n. a semi-finished material. = a înlocui. John Macadam – Scottish inventor of the macadam road surface. = 1.g. steam engine n. II. The government will have to generate the extra funds somehow or other. money. His stomach cancer was caused by exposure to atomic radiation. materie primă. Generate is often used in contexts where people are forced to do more than usual. good results). a lua locul. It is used in formal contexts (revenue. = a reîntineri.3. Scientists can produce statistics and figures that can prove almost anything.

.. 3.. due to... as a consequence of.. Britain experienced a tremendous population growth and increasing trade at home and abroad.. (adapted from Internet URL: http://ro.... a lot of investment in the poorer regions.. Please don't stop writing them. but I have some bad news to tell you all.. A vigorous commercial economy. 6. because of which I lost all the data........... The flight was cancelled because of bad weather.. III. My computer crashed.. Production of iron depended on coal mining. There may be more than one possible answer.... Your letters have . in none of us being able to get home that night. 3.... all traffic is being severely delayed... a crisis.....B... Reading and comprehension 1.......... a lot of anger amongst female readers.org) 55 .... În acest proces muncitorului îi revenea rolul de supraveghere....... 2. Give examples of British inventors of labour-saving devices.. The book .. a full-scale war between the two regions...... 4.. 1........ 5... owing to.. scarcely. reglare şi alimentare a maşinii.. Apariţia revoluţiei industriale a avut ca efect creşterea producţiei.. dezvoltarea oraşelor şi a ştiinţei. We got there in time.. a list of names and addresses by six o'clock tonight. Rewrite these sentences using a more formal connecting expression to replace 'because of’: thanks to.. Her death was . Because of one bad decision after another. What are the circumstances that contributed to the population boom in Britain? 4. With the drop in the death rate and the increase in the birth rate.... V.. Primul stat în care a avut loc revoluţia industrială a fost Anglia. His stupidity . 1.. because of your advice...... EXERCISES I... Translate into English: Revoluţia industrială este procesul tehnic complex prin care munca manuală este înlocuită cu maşinismul. Write new sentences with a similar meaning with one of the adverbials: never before. 1.. expanding trade. more labour was available for industry.. only by.. 3.... 7.. 4.... 2. Good harvests had produced abundant and therefore cheaper food than before..... as a result of.......wikipedia.. 5. The Governor's remarks almost.... he's lost all his money. on no account. We need to .. What made Britain the first country to experience the Industrial Revolution? 3... and a population boom were the conditions requisite for making Britain the first industrial nation..... Decide which “cause” verb best fits each gap. by a sign falling from a shop front in the heavy winds.... 5.. I don't necessarily want to . 8. The decision by the government to relax the regulations has . Primul domeniu în care a fost utilizată maşina cu abur a fost industria textilă... not until. me so much pleasure. II.. 2.. 4. What does the process of industrialization imply? 2.. Because of the crash on the motorway. IV.....

and food processing. The emphasis.8 percent of all industrial production in 1990. as well as to widen and diversify the range of production.1 to 9. which have done well in foreign markets. is largely concentrated in the southwest and west. electricity. Contemporary centres of production are Bucharest. Ploiesti. Natural gases – mainly methane – are produced in the centre of the Transylvanian Basin. and Târgu Jiu. metallurgy and building materials. Rovinari and Turceni. small quantities of lead. most deposits are found in the mountain areas. Resita.1. The main centres are at Turda. being exceeded in importance by food processing and even the textile and ready-made clothing industry. Craiova. including furniture and chipboard. Aluminium production is a more recent development. which also dates from the Dacian-Roman period. Bacau and Prahova districts have long been famous for their oil-refining industry. and many others. has switched from production of sawn timber to finished products. the timber industry can rely on domestic raw materials.2 to 19 percent and chemicals from 3. The machine-building and metal-processing industry is the main branch of the industrial economy. THE ROMANIAN INDUSTRY AFTER 1990 The industrial sector increased its relative contribution to national income. but it underwent a radical structural change. textiles and clothing.3 percent in 1950. The following review gives priority to fuels. and they have been joined by the production from Arges. 56 . and zinc are also produced. with a considerable degree of regional specialization. while electricity and fuels increased their share from 13. compared with 13. accounting for nearly a third of industrial production.3. gold. The Romanian iron industry has particularly strong connections with Galati as well as with Hunedoara and Resita (the last having a record of activity extending back to the 18th century). A chain of modern wood industrialization combines turns out a range of products. Brasov. Bicaz. Cluj-Napoca. The largest coal reserves are those of bituminous coal. and silver production still active. It provides a good index of the changing priorities in the Romanian economy: before World War II it accounted for only 10 percent of the total. mercury. and metallurgy. A large lignite field in the Motru Valley supplies two of the largest power stations in the country. Two other branches. The main relative declines were in wood processing and paper. The nonferrous metallurgical industry. and gases produced as by-products of the oil industry are becoming increasingly important. There has been a strong tendency to concentrate on such modern branches as the electronics industry. Fieni. Oil was also discovered in the Romanian sector of the Black Sea in 1981. cement manufacture represents an important subbranch. Arad. In contrast to metallurgy (which relies on imports of ore and coke to supplement the modest domestic resources). showed a slight relative advance. The building materials industry also utilizes a wide range of resources across the country.II. half of Romania's bulk coal production comes from the Petrosani Depression alone. Oil deposits are found in deposits in the plains. Except for the Baraolt Basin. Medgidia. which lies within the Carpathians. in what is a traditional industry.6 percent. Three branches became much more important: engineering and metalworking accounted for 25. with copper.

centrală electrică. Aspects of industrialisation . with a heavy investment in new plants. 2. to overhaul v. decline n. It has. consumer goods ~ (a bunurilor de consum). chipboard n. sawn timber ~ (a cherestelei). has lent much to the beauty of local folk costumes. banking). termocentrală. = 1. Silkworm production retains a modest importance. Silk. slight adj. = combinat de industrializare a lemnului. to increase v. 3. LEXICAL COMMENTARY II. light industry (manufacturing TV sets). 2. The main branches of industry are: building industry (industria constructoare). = 1. processing ~ (prelucrătoare). machine tool ~ (a construcţiilor de maşini-unelte). 3. textile ~ (textilă). a trece prin. a urca. the weaving of which was long the occupation of peasant women in the south and southwest. = 1. iron and steel ~ (siderurgică). = 1. Branches of industry Engineering is regarded as the most important branch of industry. continued to grow in absolute terms. iron ore ~ (a minereurilor de fier). rubber ~ (a cauciucului). 2. micşorare. handicraft ~ (meşteşugărească). national income n. a sui. foundry ~ (metalurgică). food ~ (industria alimentară). plastics ~ (a materialelor plastice). . a depăşi. a examina. petroleum ~ (a petrolului). paper ~ (a hârtiei). the food industry – formerly the foundation of the economy – has been all but eclipsed by the rapid development of other branches. = cărbune bituminos. coal industry (industria cărbunelui). service industry (serving people: tourism. 57 . II. a suferi. = instalaţii de prelucrare industrială. neînsemnat.manufacturing goods (making things) vs.1. readymade clothes ~ (a confecţiilor). 2. power station/plant n. wood working ~ (de prelucrare a lemnului). 3. 2. oil extraction ~ (de extracţie a ţiţeiului). shipbuilding) vs. superficial. WORDS AND PHRASES bituminous coal n. produs derivate. A. puţin. 2. footwear ~ (industria încălţămintei). produs auxiliar/secundar. a se înmulţi. uzină electrică. a întrece. wood industrialization combine (pulp and paper combine) n. The closely connected ready-made clothing industry has undergone considerable expansion. = venit naţional. 4. shipbuilding ~ (constructoare de nave). glassware ~ (a sticlăriei). = placă aglomerată din aşchii de lemn. by-product n. VOCABULARY I. a repara. despite the introduction of synthetic fibres. and processing plants are distributed throughout the country. electrical engineering ~ (electrotehnică). = 1. a creşte. machine-building ~ (a construcţiilor de masini). lumbering ~ (forestieră). = 1. fertilizer ~ (îngrăşămintelor).The long-established textile industry has also undergone a steady development since its radical overhaul in the 1930s. = 1. a reconstrui. scădere. nevertheless. pulp ~ (a celulozei).heavy industry (steel works. II. Finally. processing plants n. 2. a verifica. to undergo/underwent/undergone v. knitwear ~ (a tricotajelor). = declin.2. 3. to exceed v.

Industry with big factories producing things like steel and so on has declined.... B.. bursa neagră.... industrial piracy (e. copiere a unui soft commercial fără autorizarea producătorului).. Use the expressions explained above to rewrite these sentences with more appropriate vocabulary instead of the underlined words.... copyright infringement = încălcarea drepturilor de autor..... In what regions is the oil industry more developed in our country? 4............... is a problem for people who make a living writing books.. 3. Use expressions relating to problems in industry to fill the gaps in the sentences below: 1.. What are the main branches of Romanian industry after 1990? 2.. We need to encourage industries that make things we can sell. 2. . The economy cannot depend only on things like restaurants and hotels. 4.... The idea that everything should be owned by the government is not very popular any longer.....g.. Illegal editions mean that the author receives no payment.. Use diagrammatic representations (graphs or pie charts) to show the changes undergone in the industrial production over the past forty years.... partly owned by private industries or businesses).. . 1....... How did the textile industry and the food industry evolve in the past years? II........ money laundering = spălare de bani.. EXERCISES I. and selling industries off is the typical pattern all over the world now...... software piracy) = piraterie industrială (ex..... nationalisation or stateownership. as police and banks try to trace money from the illegal drugs trade and terrorism. It was a serious case of..is a serious problem in many parts of the world...... In this area there are a lot of industries that use computers and things........ and now we're more dependent on industry that makes things like bicycles and furniture.. The designs for the new aircraft were photographed illegally and sold to a rival company.. piraterie soft...... they depend more on industries that don't use such up-to-date technology. 58 .. What raw materials are there used in the metallurgical industry? 5.. industrial espionage = spionaj industrial. 3.... 4. many big industries are run as public-private partnerships.. with factories producing illegal copies of top brand names.. privatisation (selling off state companies to private ones) vs. low-technology (involving little or no computer technology). 2... Reading and comprehension 1..3... 3.. II..... Problems in industry black market = piaţa neagră.- high-technology (software industry) vs. ... is a huge international problem. III. while in the north.. (partly stateowned.

(adapted from Adevărul. ceea ce înseamnă că s-a facut o restructurare „nesănătoasă". IV. situaţia industriei româneşti din punctul de vedere al consumului energetic este gravă.. Nici privatizarea industriei nu a determinat modificări importante în ponderea consumului de energie.. cu măsuri de economisire a energiei. Raportat la celelalte ramuri ale industriei româneşti.. 2007) 59 . in the importation of untaxed luxury cars in some countries.. La şapte ani de la apariţia legii privind eficienţa energetică. Cu toate acestea. Translate into English: Deşi legea obligă companiile din industria energofagă să elaboreze un plan de reducere a consumurilor de energie. din peste 400 de întreprinderi.. creându-i acestui sector probleme de competitivitate. de 15 ori mai mare decât în ţările dezvoltate.. February 9.. There is a big .. cu un consum foarte ridicat de energie electrică.5.. foarte puţine s-au ocupat serios să facă aceste planuri de eficienţă energetică. cu investitii puţine în echipamente performante.. industria chimică are indicatorul de intensitate energetică cel mai defavorabil. prea puţini s-au grăbit să respecte această cerinţă...

such as the English designer William Morris and members of the Arts and Crafts movement.1. industrial tools. and the planning of exhibitions. After the industrial designer is informed of the needs of the client-including data on the intended market for the product. although many products. A few late 19th-century reformers. The development in the 18th century of the factory system. the scope of the profession enlarged to include the design of capital goods. and techniques. industrial designers dealt exclusively with machinemade consumer products. but these attempts at improved design had little effect on mass production at the time. Factory workers tending machines had little involvement with a product and felt no responsibility to the buyer. and preliminary designs of the proposed product are then sketched on the basis of the available plant facilities. one or several are handmade and tested at proving grounds before final machine dies are ordered and production begins. INDUSTRIAL DESIGN Industrial Design represents art and science involved in the creation of machinemade products. As a result. changed the situation. They influenced art nouveau style and the Vienna Secession movement.1. Factory owners were often chiefly concerned with profits. but there is a general routine applicable to all.2. Following the selection of the approved design. Every design problem requires special procedures. and company policy and equipment-specialists associated with the designer conduct a study of competitive products and an extensive field survey of the manufacturer's plant.2. often in the form of a small model or of a mock-up. however. and the client is then presented with design studies. The term industrial design was originated in 1919 by the American industrial designer Joseph Sinel. and often sold their wares directly to the customer. The development of industrial design led to 60 . such as castiron stoves and building units. and transportation equipment. Applications of machine-made ornament in hopes of disguising low quality and pleasing a mass market were usually an aesthetic failure. A handmade working model is then manufactured and submitted to the client for approval. budget allocation. took pride in their work. The success of a design is measured by the profit it yields its manufacturer and the service and pleasure it affords its owner. working drawings indicating the choice of materials and the specifications for finishing and assembly are prepared. Initially. such as farm machinery.II. for example. goods were handmade by artisans. were functional many more were ugly and badly made. protested and advocated a return to the standards of medieval handicrafts. Eventually. The industrial designer is essentially the creator of a pattern to guide the operations of skilled persons or machines. SPECIALIZED TECHNICAL TEXTS II. It is concerned with aesthetic appearance as well as with functional efficiency. timing. commercial buildings and packaging.1. TEXTS FOR THE INDUSTRIAL DESIGN SECTION 2. Rough sketches are chosen for further refinement and study. A design program is planned. Before the Industrial Revolution. In the case of an automobile. who were usually involved in the whole process of creation. with mass production and specialization of labour and the appearance of middlemen.

61 . stilist. II.the creation of new procedures. a proiecta. tentativă. Distortion often occurs in magnification as a result of highlights and shadows that change basic spatial relationships. a aduce. încercare. = rafinament. îmbuteliere. proiectare. 3. a rezista. in order that the modifications in the design may be moulded directly from the old products.wikipedia. a desena. plan. înfăţişare. facilities n. a îndupleca. design paper n. machine-made n. 4. = estetic. fabrică. venit. a preda. 1. profit.= hârtie de desen. specialist în estetica industrială. a face. a da randamentul. dealt. constructor. led v. a da. mecanism. 2. a încerca. îmbidonare. n. = utilităţi. sold v. instalatie. refinement n. schiţă. a aduce un beneficiu de. badly adv. articole. handmade adj. sell. 3. applicable adj. fabricate. facilităţi. 2. v. = rău. a executa un proiect/un plan. productivitate. yield = I. uzină. instalaţie de exploatare. recoltă. = maşinărie. = proiectare. = aplicabil. = estetică. v. = desenator. v. plant n. 2. 5. 4. manual. equipment n. 2. 2. = desene. = 1. 1. tip. Revisions of the design are then made directly on the wall projection by the industrial designers. utilaj. = echipament. echipament. aparenţă. = a sprijini. such as the method of encasing a product to be redesigned in soft modelling clay. desen. n. packaging n. ambalaj. aesthetics n. drawing n. 3. 2. a raporta. = a avea de-a face. 2. attempt = 1. utilaj. a ceda. proiectant. sketched adj. articol de artizanat. = 1. 2. a închina. II. desen/model industrial. deal. = schiţat. proiect. a înclina. machinery n. handicraft n. designer n. a (se) îndoi. = ambalare. dealt with v. to advocate v. a oferi. 5. sold. fabricat) de mână. fabricat) de maşină.= inginer proiectant/constructor. randament. producţie. 3. plantă. 1. aesthetic adj. a concede. exploatare. desingning engineer n. = (produs. = produse (finite). a produce. debit. = a vinde. desenat. WORDS AND PHRASES Industrial Design = Proiectare Industrială (Design/Desen Industrial). led. = a duce la. = 1.com) A. To view the design in full scale. client-including data n. model. appearance n. 5. the profession employs a photographic system in which a small drawing is projected to full scale on a section of a wall. 1. n. desingning n. = date ce includ clientul. lead. a (se) încovoia. = (produs. ceramică. 3. muncă manuală. VOCABULARY I. ware(s) n. mecanism. (adapted from www. Another industrial-design method is based on the fact that small models do not reflect accurately the design characteristics of the fullscale product. meserie. design = I.

( ce se află) The town lay in a sheltered valley. LEXICAL COMMENTARY to yield v. a se afla. What does Industrial Design include? 3. led. What does an industrial designer do? II. lay. When did it first appear? 4. by a reaction. (a aşezat) They have laid emphasis on the economic considerations that account for this decision. Higher-yield seeds have been used this year. = scară. led = a duce. (au pus baza) Any rush decision may lead to unforeseen consequences. -ed. = şablon. a conduce la. a aşeza. tipar. cease opposition. scală. 1. people who speak English satellites which carry messages systems which process data oven which burns oil surface which carries load lubricant which contains grease 62 . ( au pus accent) N.). What does the process of designing imply? 5. etc. to lay. Wiener and C. What is Industrial Design? 2. This technique might yield better results The land in the valley yields very rich crops. give a natural product. The reaction yield has been separated into several elements. 3. laid = a pune. (poate duce la) Once you have lied to somebody he will lose his faith in you. lain = a sta. yield n. (este aşezat) He laid out the main exhibits side by side. lut scale n. Reading and comprehension: 1. (constă în) The principle lying at the basis of this theory must be made clear. = amount produced (in agriculture. 2. They have obtained bigger yields per hectare by using modern fertilizers. give away. to lie. Shannon laid the basis of the modern theory of communications at the beginning of our century. etc. Change according to the model: Model: client-including data = data which include clients. Examples: The main difficulty lies in checking the values of some parameters. Do not mix up the following verbs: to lie. II. a consta in. at the foot of some hills. The bar may yield to the application of dynamic loads. clay n. This theory has yielded ground in the last few years. a result. EXERCISES I.pattern n. to lead. = argilă. laid. (ai minţit) B. -ed =a minţi.

to acquire. to introduce. VI.sau tridimensional folosit pentru a produce un produs. 5 I’m always pulling up crops/weeds in the garden. 6 Joanna put ________________ a thick pair of boots as it was snowing outside. to complete. In the future it may be different. I’ve never been there. Underline the correct word in each sentence. Give the nouns corresponding to the following verbs: to appear. 1 Excuse me. to substitute. O proiectare industrială constă in crearea unei forme. One of the words is used twice. He’s really let me ________________ . 4 Do you think my new shirt will go ________________ these trousers? 5 Paul promised to help me with the decorating today but he’s gone to a football match instead. Complete each sentence with a word from the box. 3 Christine said she’d drop ________________ to see her aunt on the way home from Scotland. 8 Lots of chemicals farmers use harm/spoil the environment. after away back down for in on out up with 0 I’m longing for a few weeks holiday. Translate into English: Drepturile proiectării industriale reprezintă un bun intelectual care protejează proiectarea vizuală de obiecte ce nu sunt pur utilitare. 2 Our main bureau/office is in Swindon. IV. 7 Let’s go ________________ to Paris for the weekend. 1 My favourite/preferred time of year is Spring. I’d like to try ________________ this jacket. 9 Julie’s studying to become a primary school professor/teacher. They’ve even got the same ears! V. 6 At present people resign/retire at 65. 7 The car has got a small engine/machine and is very economical to use. configurarea sau compunerea unui şablon sau culori. Proiectarea industrială poate fi un şablon bi. to accept. to assume. 10 Jack takes ________________ his father. Where are the changing rooms? 2 I’ll lend you the money but you must pay me ________________ by Friday. to create. 10 Bill thanked the guest/host for the party and went home. we listened to the climate/weather forecast.III. sau combinarea şablonului si a culorii într-o forma tridimensională cu valoare estetică. 63 . They get everywhere. Give me those cutters/scissors and I’ll cut it. 8 Did you know that Louise is going ________________ with my ex-boyfriend? 9 Robbie wanted to dress ________________ as Batman for the party. 0 Before we set off. o marfă sau un articol de artizanat. 3 Can I just write that date down in my agenda/diary? 4 Your hair is too long.

colour and trim design. shape and surfaces for the facia. coaches. buses. Automotive design in this context is primarily concerned with developing the visual appearance or aesthetics of the vehicle. trim panels etc. People are different in tastes. Practice Originally it grew out of the American car industry where artists working with water based paints would create visuals for future ideas. motorcycles. though is also involved in the creation of the product concept. grains. and architecture. The data from these models are then used to create a full sized mock-up of the final design. Interior Design Interior Design is a multi-faceted profession in which creative and technical solutions are applied within a structure to achieve a built interior environment.1. The designer then uses this information to develop themes and concepts which are then further refined and tested on the vehicle models. It is practiced by designers who usually have an art background and a degree in industrial design or transport design. plastics. interior design. design. 64 . The task of the design team is usually split into three main aspects: exterior design. The stylist responsible for the design of the vehicle interior develops the proportions. liveries etc. carpet. but it does play an important role. This includes: automobiles. Progressively more detailed drawings are executed and approved. trucks. fabric designs. The designer's role is to put a little bit of both into the automobile. and development of all interior and exterior colours and materials used on a vehicle. Exterior design is not the most important factor in the program. and along with the drawings.2. These include paints. Clay and or digital models are developed from. leather. Exterior design (styling) The stylist responsible for the design of the exterior of the vehicle develops the proportions. Specific research is done into global trends in design for projects two to three model years in the future. contrast. Graphic design The design team also develops graphics for items such as: badges. Colour. vans. They work closely with the exterior and interior designers. seats. Exterior design is first done by a series of digital or manual drawings. dials. fashion. texture and pattern must be carefully combined to give the vehicle a unique interior environment and personality. wood trim and so on. Designers draw inspiration from other design disciplines such as: industrial design. Trend boards are created from this research in order to keep track of design influences as they relate to the automotive industry. so whether it is how comfortable a car is or how good it looks depends on different individuals. The design and development of a modem motor vehicle is typically done by a large team from many different disciplines. Colour and Trim design (AKA Colour and Materials design) The colour and trim designer is responsible for the research. this is generally shared amongst the design team as the lead designer sees fit. Here the focus is on ergonomics and comfort of the passengers. kick or tread strips. Graphic design is also an aspect of automotive design. AUTOMOTIVE DESIGN Automotive design is a profession involved in the development of motor vehicles or more specifically road vehicles. headliner.2. shape and surfaces of the vehicle. switches. home furnishing.

= 1. material. coach. mediu. biotehnică. = ornamente de lemn. smooth ~ = suprafaţă netedă. stofă. v. to play. consolare. Many designers find places in the film creating designs and models on film sets such as Star Trek and Blade Runner. Automotive design tends to differ from the industrial design disciplines in that it has an important kinetic dimension that involves emotion and dynamics. = vehicul.ph. comfort n. amongst prep. especially with regard to exterior designs and the visuals. corespunzător. plastics n. granulă. = machete.ph. = tipuri de plastic. (adapted from www. = dubă. = muchie. = a (se) juca. = covor. 3. = suprafaţă. model.ph. = proiectarea materialelor. 4. leather n. fabric n. antropotehnică.com) A. fatetă. mock-up n. headliner (roof's fabric lining) n. = piele. = mobilier si ornamente interiore. fasciae n. facet n. 3. surface n. v.-es n.ph. = dublură. van n. sământă. = a se inspira. ergonomics n. fit adj. printre. clay and or digital models n. fir. WORDS AND PHRASES vehicle n. = potrivit. autocar 2. VOCABULARY I . = tendinţă. = ergonomie. 65 . ph. cereale. a ţine socoteala. = capitonarea capotei. grăunte. material plastic etc) care acoperă structurile caroseriei în habitaclu. trend n. These qualities have a strong influence on the way designs are created.wikipedia. diligenţă.The automotive designers today continue in this tradition but use more sophisticated tools such as coloured markers and computers. truck n. lining n. rough ~ = suprafaţă aspră/neprelucrată. seat n. = confort. căptuseală. creating visions of future worlds often not event on Planet Earth. granulaţie. to keep track. It also tends to drift into futurism and fantasy art. adaptarea muncii la om. suprafaţă. facia. environment n. camion de mobilă. home furnishing n. = multi-faţetat. carpet n. fibrozitate. = 1. = loc (de şezut / stat). = camion. multi-faceted adj. structură granulară. 2. grain n. paints n. = panou (îmbrăcat in ţesătură. antrenor. fibră. = tablou de bord. = vopseluri. = dintre. In many ways it has a lot to do with our moving forward in the universe and the expression of ideas.ph. to draw inspiration v. = modele de lut şi/sau digitale. wood trim n. vagon de pasageri (obişnuit). trăsură. mulţumire. = a înregistra. bob. materials design n. meditator. trim panel n. = tesătură. = ambianţă.

= a fi purtat. art ~ = istoric (trecut) artistic. To make a likeness with lines on a surface. a sparge. = livrea. drag: draw the chair closer to the table. dial n. tie: The chess players drew in 32 moves. grown (out of) v.). 1. 2.= vizitiu. = zburdălnicie. to grow. drew them to resign. grew.v. = întrerupător. ~ the differences = a da diferenţa pe din doua. To move or pull so as to cover or uncover something: draw the curtains. To cause to flow forth: a pump-drawing water. a se îndrepta spre. To use or call upon part of a fund or supply: drawing on an account. 9. To cause to come by attracting. canapea. = glumeţ. 8. 3. To pour forth liquid: The patient's veins don't draw easily. To conclude a contest without either side winning. background n. playful adj. a blow that drew blood. coach class n. 3. = clasa a doua. 4. To contract or tighten: material that draws when it dries. experientă). 5. type. II. = caretă cu patru cai. = fundal. loc. coachman n. semn. To require (a specified depth of water) for floating: a boat drawing 18 inches. 7. bancă. 3. 4. v. to drift v. drew out a fat wallet. tr. to draw. to split v. To proceed or move steadily: a ship drawing near the shore.= 1. 2. To take or pull out: drew a gun from beneath the counter. To select or take in from a given group. = a se dezvolta din. loc (de şezut / stat). 11. playfulness n. as by leading: The teacher drew the children into the room to see the decorations. To cause to move after or toward one by applying continuous force. ~ the atom = a dezagrega/a fiziona atomul. a despica. provoke: draw enemy fire. attract: afraid the casino will draw undesirable elements to the town. To attract customers or spectators: The new play is drawing well. = capra vizitiului. To bring to a certain condition or action. coach-and-four n. ~ frame = rama scaunului. sketch. tăblie (a scaunului). 4. To compose or write out in legal format: draw a deed. vessel. seat n. 6. istoric (trecut. 66 . = cadran. drawn v. = (into) a împărti în. LEXICAL COMMENTARY coach box n. a proveni din. scaun. To take in a draft of air: The flue isn't drawing. a team of horses drawing a wagon. = insignă. ~ belt = centură de siguranţă. intr. lead: drawn to despair. 5. To formulate or devise from evidence or data at hand: draw a comparison. To cause to move in a given direction or to a given position. 1. draw a penalty on an opponent. to play. 13.badge n. v. To bring about deliberately. 8. = a (se) juca. disc cu numere. bilet. 12. drew. ~ box = capra vizitiului. switch n. drew from the experience of fellow workers. 10. livery n. 7. or region: draw clients from all levels of society. loc (în parlament etc. 2.

noua maşină sport va fi ecoul succesului înregistrat de conceptul original GT. If you go to court you will need a good _____________. Cu linii distincte. Pontiac Solstice şi Saturn Sky. Who can practice automotive design? II. What does exterior design imply? 4. Acum legendarul nume se întoarce: Opel a prezentat noul GT publicului în premieră la Salonul Auto de la Geneva 2006.B. EDUCATE 1. What is Automotive Design? 2. It’s not much fun being ________. Acesta accelerează noul GT de la 0 la 100 km/h în mai puţin de 6 secunde şi permite o viteză maximă de peste 230 km/h. What is the task of the design team? 3. It’s very difficult to live in London on a low ______________. SUCCEED 10. as a transitive verb and five meanings as an intransitive verb. My pencil has broken! Have you got a ____________? SHARP 3. Complete each sentence with a word formed from the word in capitals. Illustrate five meaning of the verb to draw. şi a celor 260 de cp ai motorului 2. Noul Opel GT este prevăzut să iasă pe piaţă în primăvara anului 2007. What does colour and trim design mean? 6. Reading and comprehension: 1. Noul GT va fi produs în Statele Unite. Our team is very _________. Design-ul a fost inspirat de conceptul VX Lightning creat de GM Advanced Design Studio din Birmingham. III. Opel GT este maşina sport a anilor `70. COME IV. ENGINE 5. 0 Nowadays it’s very important to get a good education . Este o plăcere să conduci noul Opel GT mulţumită motorului situat în partea din faţă şi a tracţiunii spate. Marea Britanie în mai 2003 la a 100-a aniversare a mărcii Vauxhall.0 litri ECOTEC turbo pe benzină. POLITICS 7. EXERCISES I. Her brother works in the factory as an ____________. The ________ in this city has got worse. Într-adevăr. Tomorrow I’m going to send off my ____________ form for the job. We’ve won three international competition this year. I find it difficult to breathe.html) 67 . EMPLOY 8. LAW 9. care a fost produs între 1968 şi 1973. tracţiune spate şi un motor turbo pe benzină cu patru cilindri. APPLY 4. What does interior design presupposes? 5. (http://www. KNOW 2. I don’t have much ____________ of European history. I’ve been out of work for ages. Translate into English: Un nume răsunător nu trebuie să fie lung. pentru mulţi iubitori de maşini. Tony Blair is one of Britain’s most famous __________. POLLUTE 6.ro/lansari-si-noutati/noul-opel-gt. fapt ce asigură o distribuire echilibrată a greutăţii. acolo unde sunt produse şi celelalte modele înrudite lui.streetracing.

Wherever the ends of a continuous line meet. They refer to point. since the recognition of these qualities has existed for thousands of years. architecture. interior design. There are three different types of balance: symmetrical. including works of art. those things nearest to us can partially overlap objects that are farther away. visual design. prickly. negative and/or positive. Geometric shapes such as circles. movement. Everything. art). It may be applied in any media. illustration. The elements of design are the fundamental. emphasis. lines. Repeated shapes. pattern. slick. line. Organic shapes are associated with things from the natural world. information design and interaction design. and composition in art.wikipedia. but only in the late 19th century did it become identified as a separate entity. but not limited to. service or communication object. repetition. A relatively recent development is the closely related practice of experience design. the visual pleasantness of a work of design is a result of how the composition of the elements of design follows the principles of design.com) 68 . has a texture or surface. texture and colour. including. A line is the track made by a point moving in space. smooth. Graphic design is a porous discipline. asymmetrical and radial. or colors create movement and rhythm in a composition. Balance is achieved by the resolution of weight. soft. Designers may produce ethnographies as part of the qualitative research for defining needs or features for a product. proximity. rhythm. (adapted from www. packaging. human computer interaction. a shape is formed. and white space. three-dimensional. unity. form (shape). and information signs. or facilitate understanding. silky. digital media. colour. bumpy. proportion. photography.1. scratchy. All colors are mixed from three primaries: red. isolated parts or element of design may appear explicitly or implicitly (e. the visual arts. As a composition is developed an artist may stress some elements of the design over others. proportion. stress and tension. First conceptualized accounts have probably appeared in early books about architecture. then take in the rest of the composition. balance. product design. triangles or squares have perfect. GRAPHIC DESIGN Graphic design is the applied art of arranging image and text to communicate a message. As in the real world.3. user interface design. According to the classic theory of design (or graphic design. a shape is formed. like plants and animals. Texture can be rough. and overlaps significantly with other disciplines. dominance and unity. The principles of design are general characterizations of relations between elements in a composition: balance. The eye of the viewer will focus on the area of emphasis or center of interest first. animation. such as print. the boundary between two areas of contrasting colour is an implicit line). rhythm. Wherever the ends of a continuous line meet. the list is endless.g. uniform measurements and don't often appear in nature. Some fundamental principles of design are alignment. motion pictures. contrast. Graphic design as a practice can be traced back to the origin of the written word. There is no authorative classic theory of design. Space can be two-dimensional. blue and yellow.2. texture.

to overlap v. = ritm. white space n. = accent.= ambalare.= limită. amabilitate. = autoritar. = a fi identificat. ethnography.ph. = poros.= a încălca.ph. şablon. packaging n. LEXICAL COMMENTARY boundary.ph. boundary equation = ecuatie limita. boundary cluster set = mulţimea punctelor limită la frontier. animation n. media). product design n. balance n.ph. = proiectare/design experimental. proximity n. pleasantness n. What is the relation between the principles and the elements of design? 69 . emphasis n. Reading and comprehension: 1. motion pictures n. etc). = mişcare pattern n.ph. recognition n. = aliniere. a boundary emission = emisiunea la limita de bandă. = model. II. to be traced back v. rhythm n.= trăsătură caracteristică. boundary value problem = problemă la limită / la frontieră. Examples: boundary behaviour = comportare la frontieră / la limită. What is graphic design? 2. a se suprapune. = echilibru.ph. = textură. -ies n. only in the late 19th century did it become identified = de-abia în secolul al XIX-lea a ajuns sa fie identificată. = simboluri informaţionale . What are the principles of design? 3. authorative adj. VOCABULARY I. proportion n. texture n. = gentileţe. = proximitate. medii (sg.A. = spaţiu liber. reviste.)= mijloace. porous adj. boundary value = valoare limită. What are the elements of design? 4. = filme artistice.= animaţie. B. = etnografie. granită. = proporţie. information signs n. print ~ = mijloace scrise (ziare. feature n. digital ~ = mijloace digitale. WORDS AND PHRASES media n. EXERCISES I . = recunoaştere. movement n. (pl. experience design n. margine. alignment n. ies n. = proiectarea produselor.

.-pentagon. cu atât aproximaţia este mai buna..nonagon. între numarul de puncte întregi conţinute în poligon. 0 By 11. I particularly/properly disliked the fish. It’s very hot in here.-quadrilateral/square. V. maximum. . matrix.... calculul volumului devine complicat.. axis. numarul total de puncte întregi de pe laturi şi aria poligonului.... medium. Underline the correct word or phrase in each sentence.. locus.00 I felt so tired/tiring that I went to bed.II. date...-hexagon. 1 How many photos did you make/take on holiday? 2 I read a really interested/interesting article in the newspaper today.. or magnetic device for part handling. It was impossible for him to lie. formula. În cazul unui poligon convex cu vârfuri întregi.. 10 It was awful/awfully difficult to read the sign as it was so dark. It can any programmable device from a rotary drum switch to a full computer.. focus. criterion..-decagon III.www. În dimensiune superioară însă.. 7 Sharon was early for her appointment so she read a magazine to lose/pass the time.... 4 Have you got any more clothes to put in the dishwasher/washing machine? 5 I’ve told you now/time and again to do your homework! 6 John hates waiting more than ten minutes for a bus. Introducere în geometria varietatilor torice . including the power supply. 8 Shall I turn the central conditioning/heating off. The manipulator is the component that provides movement in any number of degrees of freedom. Translate into English: Aria unei figuri în plan poate fi aproximată cu numarul de puncte cu coordonate întregi pe care le conţine. este nevoie de instrumente de lucru mult mai puternice decât o simplă analiză combinatorială. există o legătură directă cu formula Pick (1899). 9 Marcus always said/told the truth. .-septagon. The robot controller functions as the brain and nervous system of the robot. Cu cât figura este mai mare. Give the plural form of the following nouns: datum. (Marian Aprodu.imar. De aici încolo. tooling... 3 That meal we had yesterday was horrible. He gets very impatient/unpatient. IV. industrial robots are classified into: simple robots. manipulator. The hand or gripper. electric or pneumatic..ro) 70 . înlocuind poligonul cu un politop convex. IV.. give more information on the uses of robots: Industrial Robots The following are the three basic components of an industrial robot: controller. vacuum... Translate the following text into Romanian. medium technology robots and sophisticated industrial ones.octagon. The manipulator consists of the base and the arm of the robot.. Write the number of sides corresponding to the names of shapes: Example: 3-triangle . usually hydraulic. Este exact locul unde intervine Geometria Algebrică. spectrum. . index. Generally. can be mechanical.

DRIVING AN ELECTRIC CAR Electric cars are in many ways similar to gasoline powered cars. due mostly to the weight of the batteries.9 driving hours. so we must consider the pollution created at the power plant. WHAT ABOUT SOLAR POWER? With current technology. most electric cars are structurally very strong. charging from a conventional fossil fueled power plant. With intermittent charging throughout the day. So quiet that you can barely hear the motor run. not exactly. The Citi-Car uses eight special 6 volt "deep cycle" batteries. weighs 390 lbs. Under normal conditions. ACCELERATION: An electric motor has what is known as continuous torque and therefore has almost the same horsepower at any speed. though an electric motor is more efficient at high rotational speeds. an electric car normally has better acceleration from standstill than the acceleration of a gasoline powered car. Since most electric cars are limited production cars. such as a VW or a Chevy Chevette or tiny cars such as the 1975 CitiCar.3 feet high. most electric cars fell into two categories--cars converted from gasoline power. They are comfortable.6 feet wide and 19. however by doing this. Nevertheless. the GM Sunraycer. Electric cars are very quiet. BUT ARE THEY SAFE? There are many different types and sizes of electric cars. Though the electric car itself does not burn fuel. The average driver drives an estimated 28 miles per day. The Citi-Car can out accelerate most cars from 0 to 20 miles per hour. The GM Sunraycer is 71 . it has a normal range in the summer of about 40 miles and in the winter time about 30 miles per charge. with tubular steel frames. It takes about 7 hours to fully recharge the batteries. they are built the same way as most racing cars. When recharging. this translates to about two years of use. most power plants use fossil fuels to generate electricity. Most electric cars are much heavier then they look. it is not possible to effectively run a car directly from the sun. In the case of the Citi-Car.1. even at top speed.4. is 3. For this reason. Electric cars are so quite that they can be a danger to pedestrians crossing the street since pedestrians can not hear the car coming. Most electric cars today have built in battery chargers and all that is required to recharge is a long extension cord and plug into a regular 110 Volt home outlet. reliable and handle well. These batteries weigh more then normal car batteries and are designed to endure up to 2000 charges. the Citi-Car uses about the same amount of electricity as a 150 watt light bulb. NO POLLUTION? No. For example.6 miles per hour over a total of 44.7 feet long and averaged 41.2. The Citi-Car for example. So-called solar powered cars are in reality solar charging battery powered cars. there have been remarkable developments in the area of solar cells and in the development of ultra light weight solar charging battery powered cars. As a result. The sun is used to charge the batteries. A set of eight deep cycle batteries can cost as little as $450. 6. An electric car operator must be constantly aware of this problem while driving in populated areas. one is able to travel up to 70 miles distance per day. Until recently. The top speed of the Citi-Car is however only 40 miles per hour. the life of the batteries is shortened. weighs about 1600 lbs. stronger then most conventionally produced gasoline cars. produces less then 20% of the pollution created by a standard gasoline powered car. It is estimated that an electric car. It is possible to greatly reduce the charging time by increasing the charging voltage.

= 1. = tensiune de alimentare. performance. to work. n. 6. plug = I. WORDS AND PHRASES gasoline powered car n. = cuplu de torsiune.considered one of the most advanced "solar" cars in the world and in 1987 won the Solar Challenge race in Australia--a 1.ph. outlet n. ph.6 feet wide = 6.000 registered electric vehicles in the United States (over 15. rotational speed n. charging voltage n. has fewer than 2000 registered electric vehicles.ph. = un bec electric de 150 watts.3 feet high = 3. = combustibil fosilă. to be in operation. to run up to = to go up to. 19. ieşire. cycle. a băga în priza.609344 km). weight n. reliable adj.3 picioare (în) înăltime. amount to (expenses). = a suporta. Japan. to handle v. = a scurta.7 picioare (în) lungime. = orificiu.ph. 2. = viteză de rotaţie. torque n. for example. ARE THERE MORE ELECTRIC VEHICLES OVERSEAS? There are more electric vehicles in the United States than in all other countries in the world combined. = uzine electrice. to run out of = to become shod of (supplies). extension cord n. II. = greutate. = pieton.didik. = viteză maximă. = a (se) manevra. journey to and for. incetare. tubular steel frames n. = a cântări. pedestrian n. fossil fuel n. a 150 watt light bulb n.59237 grame) 3. scurgere. 70 miles distance per day = 70 mile pe zi (1 mile=1. = încărcători cu baterii încorporate. top speed n. ph. v. power plants n. oprire.ph. VOCABULARY I. standstill n. LEXICAL COMMENTARY to run v.htm) A. to weigh v. to run down = to stop working.ph. 30 miles per charge = 30 mile de încărcare. be out of operation. to recharge v . built-in battery chargers n. impas. run n. 2. II. = 1.000 in California alone). to endure v. 1. running in period = testing period for engines or new machinery. = rame de oţel tubulare. 3. 2. to run into somebody = to meet somebody by chance.950 mile race.com/driving2. ph. Other solar cars have attained speeds of over 110 mile per hour.ph.7 feet long =19.6 picioare (în) lătime. 72 . to shorten v. horsepower n. = operation. a realimenta. There are over 40. = maşină pe benzină. 390 lbs = 390 pounds (1 pound =453. to manage. = cablu de alimentare electric. (adapted from http://www. running order = operating condition. = a reîncărca. = de încredere. = cal putere. running characteristics = performance characteristics. priză electrică.ph.

Before they start operating these new machine. very smoothly. tour.. because nobody wound it up last night. B...... a holiday on a large ship _______ 6. they will have to get perfectly familiar with their….. to test their reliability and performances..in this area today because extensive road repair is being undertaken. Motoarele cu current continuu pot fi grupate în 3 clase: motoare cu excitaţie în serie. = tired. What are the characteristics of an electric car? 2. a long journey by sea or in space _______ IV. Există multe tipuri de motoare electrice. Cars taken straight from the assembly line will need a . B. Those old and noisy pieces of machinery have been replaced by new ones which .. voyage 1.. No buses or trams will.. trip. Are electric cars safe? 4. petrol if the next filling-station is closed. Match the following words with the definitions: cruise.. We might. The pew plant will be . How is the acceleration of an electric car compared to that of a gasoline powered car? 3. usually over a long distance or long time_______ 3. millions of lei. a plant) run to run into somebody running characteristics to run out of running order run down (adj.. . to run (a school. The outlay (expenses) for the re-equipment of the laboratory might.. can coincide with the curve described during the next. . an old friend. Translate into English: Motorul electric primeşte energia electrică şi o transformă în energie mecanică.. by the board of directors. Do electric cars pollute the environment? 5. while coming out of the library I . Reading and comprehension: 1. .. Can an electric car run with solar power? II. I didn't recognize him at first as he looked rather. The clock in the hall ':1as . III. 73 . It's no use trying to start the engine if the battery has . Motoarele cu curent alternativ pot fi: motoare sincrone.. whom I hadn't seen for years. journey. going to a place.. The curve described by the beam of an oscilloscope during one . going from one place to another. staying there. travel.run down adj. motoare polifazate şi motoare monofazate. Yesterday. the general activity of moving from place to place (uncountable noun) ______ 2. and coming back again _______ 4 a circular journey during which you visit several places _______ 5. to run B. . .. too. motoare în derivaţie şi motoare compound. exhausted. Fill in the blanks with one of the following A.. The purchase of new equipment was inevitable since the old one was no longer in .) running in period to run down to run up to A. EXERCISES I.

Thus. and helping to make the sale. with a high concordance between the brand first smoked and the brand eventually selected as usual brand. dezordine. play in influencing potential consumers -especially starter smokers.5. This high degree of social visibility leads cigarettes to be known as ‘badge products’. with less than 10% changing brands annually. retail n. 74 . and placementare concepts that summarize the domains of marketing strategy. as is increasingly becoming the case as advertising restrictions come into force. for example.1. What role does packaging play to maintain brand choice against increasing concerns about smoking health risks? (adapted from www.ph. describing the product. sales tasks n. pack size. packaging assists consumers to select among other relatively homogenous products.designboom. As a crucial part of the both the product and promotion. such as attracting attention. = sarcinile vanzărilor. The often cited ‘four Ps’ of marketing . he makes a statement about himself. this is witnessed by others. once a consumer embraces a cigarette brand. When there is less opportunity to establish brand imagery through traditional methods of advertising. the primary function of a package was to simply contain and protect the product. So. However.’ When a user displays a badge product. and pack construction. product. = agitatie. providing a living testimonial endorsement of the user on behalf of that brand and product.com) A. states: ‘a cigarette package is part of a smoker's clothing. have a look at these questions and answer them as you consider best: 1. but also other subgroups of consumers . What roles do colour. and when he saunters into a bar and plunks it down. VOCABULARY I. promotion. Thus. Brand choices are usually made early during the life of a smoker. harababură. Cigarette packaging is no exception. packaging is even more critical for several reasons. WORDS AND PHRASES clutter n. cigarette packs are constantly being taken out and opened. however.2. John Digianni. The primary job of the package is to create a desire to purchase and try. as well as being left on public display during use. A cigarette package designer. To do this. Firstly.to select one brand over another? 2. packaging must perform many sales tasks. unlike many other products where the packaging is discarded after opening. it must look new and different enough to attract the attention of the consumer. factors such as increased competition and clutter on the retail store shelf have meant that for most products. packaging plays a more important role in establishing and driving brand image. Cigarette brands enjoy the highest brand loyalty of all consumer products. In the case of cigarettes. CIGARETTE PACK GRAPHICS Traditionally. = vanzare cu bucata. smokers generally retain the cigarette pack until the cigarettes are used and keep the pack close by or on their person. it is quite unlikely that they will change.price.

compact. a executa into English: To do -a syntax analysis. = expunere/prezentare publică. . to embrace v.your duty. . .a logical process.an assumption. .operations. .an approximation. to discard v.a list. .specific jobs. To make . .a task. = a face o plimbare.an instruction. .commands. . = marcă.an experiment. a indepărta. . To effect -a regulation. To accomplish .a comparison. .a decision. To perform -a specified activity.operations. .efforts. attempts. . To carry out . to saunter v.homogenous adj.connections.improvements.duties.an analysis.ph. brand.a study. . an investigation.work on a body. . .a research project.a calculus by hand. badge products n. calculations. predictions. . = a arunca. .generalizations.an experiment . an assessment.a choice. = stilul legat de marcă. II. . . brand n. .transistors. . circuits. . .ph. a function. . to plunk something down v. = produse de marcă. public display n. a measurement.ph.a command.validity checks. . . . = omogen.calculations. 75 . a arunca (cărtile la joc).a process.instructions.adjustments. . To execute .an operation. advances. a aseza (ceva pe). . diodes. = a imbrătisa.an extension. . LEXICAL COMMENTARIES Mind the possible ways to render the Romanian a face. . .an accurate determination.experiments.simplification.progress. a inlătura. = a renunta. brand imagery n. .

Supply one of the English equivalents for the Romanian a face. 4..... An individual fact .. In ten days Faraday .. The term is made . 10.. A further extension to sampled data systems was .. what is wrong with it.. Use the right preposition or adverbial particle from the list below in the following sentences: make up of = a alcătui.. 4. When he made . 3.. Reading and comprehension: 1. his friend. 2. The developments being .. The state of a body can be changed by …… work on it. with the post war development of Z-plane operational methods..… several initials. 8. A computer program 'consists of a huge number of individual instructions which are . 7. 6.. make out = a întelege. though we tried very hard.. nothing more than provide the single piece of information it contains. the time we wasted with setting up the device for our experiment. he admitted he had been wrong. Such transistors are currently . its functions fast and accurately. What is the function of a package? 2. with respect to a set point..... Why is cigarette packaging important? 3. 5.. Regulation is . make for = a se îndrepta spre. 13. I can't make .. How can a brand influence people’s choice? II. 1. when he finished his work. a recupera. Every molecule is made . that the system is stable.B. the inscription on the stone.... at the expense of the response speed... make up with = a se împăca cu cineva. after their quarrel. 2. a series of experiments successfully demonstrating the existence of electromagnetic induction. The assumption is . He made straight ….. 7. 3. This simplification was .. While accompanying Davy on his tour in Europe.. 6.. Let us quickly check the results and make .. their duty to the best of their ability. of a number of elementary particles.the library. in the use of light pens are quite spectacular.by letting the ON and OFF states refer to true and false. 15. EXERCISES I. Faraday had many duties to . Mathematical logic can be…. Take a look at this diagram. 11. A computer . a executa as required in each sentence: 1.. III. 5. make up for = a compensa. They always try to . at the Electronica Factory.. 12. 14. a completa. one by one to operate on data. Some computers could ……five million internal operations. 9.... We couldn't make . 76 .

De aceea. societate. pericol. Prin îmbinarea produsului cu ambalajul se obţine un pachet. 5 After he was made redundant. mediul înconjurător. identificând în mod unic brandul în rândul produselor concurente având drept culoare dominantă tonuri albe sau reci şi fiind identificate primar eventual doar prin logo. 7 My sister won first place/prize/class in a cookery competition last weekend. consistenţă. Underline the most suitable word. 0 Anyone who has high stress levels/layers/rates should read this book. Din cauza creşterii în ultima vreme a gunoiului de ambalaje. 1 Margaret has some beautiful flower boxes on her window sill/frame/shelf. Acesta este definit prin legătura deosebită pe care o are ambalajul cu produsul şi prin funcţiile concrete care le deţine. Would you like to come with me?’ 9 Keith prefers to wear shirts with short sleeves/arms/cuffs to work. bazat pe o textură repetitivă care pune în valoare elementele identităţii vizuale (logo şi paletă de culori).IV. mărime). sensibilitate. 3 The departs/departure/leaving lounge is a non-smoking area. au fost create discuţii critice despre materialele şi mărimea ambalajelor. cerinţele unui ambalaj depind de conţinut (de ex. Cu toate aceasta sau chiar prin aceasta ele au o importanţă foarte mare în potenţialul de diferenţiere pe piaţă şi reprezintă chiar o strategie investiţională cuprinsă în forma de prezentare. 6 The level/cost/price of living is much higher in the south of the country. S-a ajuns în unanimitate la concluzia că acestea trebuie reduse. Despre posibilele soluţii încă nu există claritate (ambalaje de unică Designul ambalajului. 8 ‘I’ve got a spare ticket for the tennis court/game/match on Friday. de funcţiile şi cerinţele care trebuie îndeplinite şi care pot veni de la consumator. 10 I enjoy window shopping/buying/looking when I haven’t got much money to V. 77 . care poate fi uşor folosit. 2 I always put the central conditioning/heating/warming on as soon as it starts to get cold. logistic sau chiar de la producător. caldă şi optimistă. Translate into English: Ambalajul constituie forme de acoperiri care au un anumit scop: de acoperire a unui produs sau a unui conţinut. Chris got a temporary job/work/employment in a restaurant. 4 They booked their holiday through a tour/trip/travel agent on the High Street. comunică o imagine tânără. comerţ. Designul ambalajului poate fi văzut ca un caz special al designului produsului.

The word jeans comes from a kind of material that was made in Europe. is in trouble. with their own labels on them. called jean. • the 1940's – war: fewer jeans were made during the time of world war 2. serge de Nimes: serge (a kind of material) from Nimes (a town in France). Strauss later changed his name from Leob to Levi. the latest generation of rebellious youth turned to other fabrics and other styles of casual pants. After the war. In many non-western countries. These years the youth market was not particularly interested in 501s and other traditional jeans styles. workers wore jean cloth because the material was very strong and it did not wear out easily. such as khakis. when famous designers started making their own styles of jeans. etc. secondhand. the number-one producer of jeans and the "single most potent symbol of American style on planet earth" (as the Los Angeles times succinctly put it).2. vintage jeans. styles. Sales of jeans went up and up. shapes. psychedelic jeans. The material. • the 1990's: recession: although denim is never completely out of style. because they wore clothes made from it. not conventional jeans stores. slave labour. it certainly goes out of 'fashion' from time to time. jeans. discovered in markets.1. denim became popular with young people. • the 19th century or the California gold rush: the gold miners wanted clothes that were strong and did not tear easily. 78 . but it had to be in different finishes. Eleven North American factories close. supplying clothes. like Wrangler and Lee. • the 1960-70's: hippies & the cold war: different styles of jeans were made. as the fabric phenomenon of the last centuries: the 18th century: in the eighteenth century as trade.6. Leob Strauss started a wholesale business. to match the 60's fashions: embroidered jeans. or in the form of aged. who sometimes wore them when they were off duty. and cotton plantations increased. painted jeans.. Some schools in the USA banned students from wearing denim. • the 1930's: westerns cowboys .and thrift shops. • the 1980's –designer jeans: jeans became high fashion clothing. began to compete with Levi for a share of the international market. rival companies. but they were introduced to the world by American soldiers. mainly because their parents: the 'generation born in blue' were still busy squeezing their aging bodies into them. It was the symbol of the teenage rebel in TV programmes and movies (James Dean in the 1955 movie A Rebel Without A Cause). was named after sailors from Genoa in Italy. In 1853. Levi Strauss & co.who often wore jeans in the movies-became very popular. chinos. combat and carpenters and branded sportswear pants. Denim has quite a history. They still wore denim. authentic. The traditional denim is a durable twill-woven cotton fabric with coloured (usually blue) warp and white filling threads. DENIM Denim is also called blue jeans. a nation grieves. • the 1950's-rebels: in the 1950's. Since no teenager would be caught dead in anything their parents are wearing. or Levi's. jeans became a symbol of 'western decadence' and were very hard to get. it is also woven in coloured stripes. The word 'denim' probably came from the name of a French material. dungarees. new cuts.

which was at the end of the 19th century. sell out instantaneously at $3715 a pop.com) FACTS . hemp or wool and for the luxe looks even silk and cashmere are turning up in new denims to give them different aesthetics.When did the label first appear? The label first appeared in 1886. originally suppliers of natural indigo had started the search for a synthetic substitute. Denims come with either polyamide. softer denims in dress and shirting weights were introduced. in 1894 the process was perfected. It can also be found in home collections. The products need to be reinvented from time to time and jeans have been back on designers catwalks.Why is denim blue? Denim is unique in its singular connection with one colour. when Levi sewed a leather label on their jeans. Various natural fibers. at Chanel. which easily tore away from the jeans. so in 1872. Lighter. summer '99. The durability of indigo as a colour and its darkness of tone made it a good choice. Chloe and Versace. . fragmented. Jacob Davis had the idea of using metal rivets (fasteners) to hold the pockets and the jeans together so that they would not tear. striding out beyond our conception of basic utility. (adapted from www. bed spreads and furniture-coverings. The last generation has a vast quantity of brands to choose from. But if denim is making a major fashion statement. And then. . Freed of all social and creative restrictions. when frequent washing was not possible. Dior. lycra. a different perception of the cult value of owning small insider labels and a fanatical loyalty only to what is hot on a daily basis. Two-way stretch fabrics and special coatings or rubberized effects continue to be a strong trend. The warp yarn is traditionally dyed with the blue pigment obtained from indigo dye. seen globally.Who started to prewash them? Jack Spence for Lee . linked with practical fabrics and work clothing. beat-up. on the internet. Tom Ford's feathered. The label showed a picture of a pair of jeans that were being pulled between two horses. Denim is no longer a cotton only product. beaded.Who invented the fasteners? A big problem with the miners’ clothes was represented by the pockets.Who started with stone-wash? Francois Girbaud • 79 . The single most potent symbol of fashion. rotten or dirty look in line with the trend for vintage denim looks set to be around with the 'homespun look' with his irregular appearance. he wrote to Levi Strauss and offered Strauss a deal if Strauss would pay for the patent and Strauss accepted. polypropylene or with polyester and a special bonding with a 100% nylon net for a more active look.britannica.2000: reinventing denim: something decidedly weird is happening in the world of denim. where does that leave the traditional jeans brands? The old mass market has segmented. In 1870 BASF in Germany. Until the introduction of synthetic dyes. such as linen. but he did not have enough money. denim is assuming any number of disguises and contexts to be worn in and has broken through almost any limitation on price. torn-knee Gucci blue jeans. indigo was the most significant natural dye known to mankind. . The shabby. appearing in cushions. shattered into a multitude of mini. there was the shining image of Helmut Lang's silver-sprayed pants. micro and niche markets. Davis wanted to patent his idea.

ph. ph . = nişele de piată. worn v. bogat. = dungă. $3715 a pop n. 80 . = material din bumbac cu ţesătură în diagonală. avut. to go up v. = finisaje. woven = a ţese. franjuri şi tivuri descusute). catwalk n.com) A. bonding n.Who started sandblasting? Different brands used it in 1988 in Italy (adapted from www. to sell out v. = pantaloni cu argintiu. filling thread n.ph. = pantaloni de camuflaj. special coating n. but their supply is limited. . tore. fig.-What stones where used? First pea gravel. to weave. ph. stripe n. twill-woven cotton fabric n. = demodat. to grieve v. out of style adj. branded sportswear pants n. = a creşte. = zilnic. to wear out.= tăieturi. = îmbrăcăminte specială. weird adj.= ciudat. = fir de umplutură. = ţesături elastice în ambele sensuri.ph.olah. = a (se) uza. WORDS AND PHRASES fabric n. = plasa de nylon. = ţesătură.ph. silver-sprayed pants n.= podium de modă. împănat. cuts n.ph. = întrecand. 2. striding out v. = a supăra.ph. to beat-up v. = în afara serviciului. jeans n. ph. banned students from wearing denim = a interzis studentilor să poarte denim. phenomena). a se întrista. = 317 $ perechea. ştrasuri sau broderie. = a lua cu asalt. fig. = nuante de kaki. stofă. VOCABULARY I. combat pants n. wove. wore. înaripat. = pantaloni sport de firmă. beaded ~ = jeanşi impodobiţi cu mărgele. vintage ~ = jeansi vintage ( cu o aparenţă de uzat: găuri. painted ~ = jeanşi pictaţi. off duty adj.= magazine economice. to tear. torn v. embroidered ~ =jeanşi brodaţi.= 1. carpenters pants n. avântat. khakis n. Turkish stones are preferred for their porosity and cleanliness or stones from Sicily. finishes n.ph. on a daily basis n.ph. = ţesatură. material. ţinte. porţiuni decolorate. = a (se ) vinde. instead of lying on the bottom of the water. thrift shops n. torn-knee ~ = jeanşi sfaşiaţi. ph. = salopete. = a rupe. urzeală. nylon net n. because they floated around with the jeans. = stil demodat. cu pene. = jeansi. = chinezării. 3. out of 'fashion' adj. feathered adj. two-way stretch fabrics n. = fenomen (pl. ph. chinos n. phenomenon n. = legătură. then pumice. niche markets n. warp n. paiete.

= murdar. pumice n. n. linen n. Reading and comprehension: 1. modest. canepă. label n. = 1.= fir textile in tesătură. to turn off = a închide (un robinet). EXERCISES I. fig. a deveni. fără haz. to turn out = a da afară. = a laundry process where jeans before washing are literally shot with guns of sand to make the jeans look as if they have been worn. dirty adj. lucrat în casă. fermoare. cotitură. What is denim? 2. 3. in line with prep.= a (se) învârti. = etichetă. = caşmir. 3. 2. marijuana. to turn on = a excita. = rotire. 2. homespun = I adj. groaznic. = cuguar. = 1.1. = a prespăla. = in. pea gravel n. ţesătură de casă. jerpelit. silk n. II. rând . 2. = capse. cashmere n. cariat. wool n. aptitudine. warp yarn n. 2. = curăţenie. obscen. 2. dyed adj. to turn up = a se ivi. = lană. ph.rubberized effects n. LEXICAL COMMENTARY at every turn = la tot pasul. to turn out= a se dovedi. = 1. turn n. = pietricică. puma. 3. hemp n. to turn down = a refuza. What is the colour of denim and why? 81 . a (se) transforma. While originally done only by hand. cleanliness n. Identify some stages of denim usage in clothing. fig lucru simplu. Chemicals are now used in many laundries replacing sand. II. stricat. Who prefers to wear denim? 4. = fibră. to prewash v. etc. zdrenţăros. = în pas cu. she has turned fifty = a împlinit 50 de ani. sandblast n. sărăcăcios. a (se) roti. to turn a deaf ear = a refuza să dea ascultare. clame. rotten adj. to turn in = a se culca. What are the new types of denim? 5. shabby adj. a (se) întoarce. by turns = cu schimbul. to float v. this processing has recently become automated. = a pluti. = vopsit. fasteners n. curbă. B. 1. to turn v. = mătase. fiber n. întoarcere.ph. = efecte cauciucate. simplu. plimbare. (sablare).

II. used for making sweaters c. used for making shirts or trousers l. with the flesh surface rubbed into a soft nap. cloth with a thick soft nap on one side.dry clean only 82 . etc. f. 7.do not iron …. 12.tumble dry …. material made from animal skins. synthetic fibre used for making stockings and blouses h.dry flat …. lace. tablecloths b. e. flannel. used for making dresses. etc .. 11.drip dry …. cloth made from soft hair of sheep. g. etc.. nylon. i. Kinds of material. underwear. 9. bed-sheets. 4. 8. a coarse cotton cloth used for jeans III.hand wash in lukewarm water …. suede. d. a. used for making shoes.do not wash …. gloves. 6. a delicate fabric of interlacing threads. used especially for making shirts. 10. thick strong cotton material with raised lines on it. material made from the soft thread from the cocoons of certain insects. a soft. corduroy. velvet. Match the following names of materials with their definitions 1. k. used for making scarfs. used for making wedding dresses. etc. wool a. used for making gloves. linen. kind of soft leather made from the skin of goats. thread spun from a soft white fibrous substance found round the seeds of a plant: used for making shirts. leather. 2 cotton. etc. etc. g. shoes. bags.hang to dry …. denim. used for making trousers or suits j. nappy. nightgowns.. silk. do not use chlorine bleach …. 3. woollen cloth of loose texture. 5. What do the following symbols mean? Match the symbols with the corresponding instructions ….cloth made of flax..

….. 3..floral.high heeled. striped V. ex... Dacă un produs are în compoziţie două sau mai multe componente cu conţinut diferit de fibre.crew/turtle neck …. Orice material decorativ care se găseşte în produs în proporţie de 7% sau mai puţin este exclus din indicarea conţinutului de fibre..... 4. …. 2.. Un produs textil care conţine două sau mai multe tipuri de fibre înregistrat cu 85% din produsul final trebuie să fie marcat cu tipul de fibră urmat de un procent. …. Translate into English: 1.belted …. . Cuvantul 'mătase' nu poate fi utilizat pentru descrierea texturii oricărei alte fibre. . Bumbac 80% Polyester 15% Nylon 5%. ….. o jachetă cu căptuseală – conţinutul fiecăreia trebuie menţionat pe etichetă. 5. ex.pleated. 83 . Match the styles with the pictures. ex.. Cuvântul 'pur' trebuie utilizat numai în cazul în care produsul este confecţionat dintr-o singura fibră. ‘mătase acetat’ nu este permis.IV.checked.baggy.

Your ear is the receiver. The waves bounce back from any solid object they meet and report where it is. By watching the blips. The big radar antenna at an airport turns round and round watching the skies. Rodica. The radio waves hit any airplane that comes within about 30 miles of the airport. though. From the receiver. It brushes the sky in a circle about 30 miles in radius. To hear an echo. Each kind has extra features. the principle of radar is the same: send – bounce – report. The word “radar” stands for “radio detection and ranging”. turned off. the observer can “see” airplanes coming and trace their courses. As each new blip appears.1. Another kind is the speed-trap radar used by the police. In all of them. You know that when you shout you may sometimes hear an echo. Limba engleză pentru ştiinţă şi tehnică. the old blip fades. the transmitter. A radar device sends out very short radio waves. But radio waves move very much faster than sound waves. While both the antenna and the arm on the screen are swinging.2. The trail of the blip shows the plane’s direction. the farther away they have been. Your voice is transmitter (sender). The sound waves of your voice bounce against a hill or a wall and return to your ear. p. Actually. The reflector focuses them on the receiver. They bounce back from the plane to a big reflector near the receiver. Radar must wait for the return of waves. called “blips”. When a plane approaches.2. The screen is coated with a chemical that holds the blip’s light for a short time. HOW RADAR WORKS Many people think that radar is something mysterious and hard to understand. the idea of radar is simple. The charge causes a blip at the point on the screen that matches the plane’s position. The antenna fans up and down. The radar transmitter sends out its waves in pulses lasting one or two thousands of a second. TEXTS FOR INDUSTRIAL ENERGETICS AND MECATRONICS 2. too.2. Between pulses. you must wait until the sound waves have time to return to you. The longer they take. For instance. the electric charge of its “echo” reaches the arm. though it is circular. A blip does not look like a plane. matching the swings of the radar antenna around the sky. the blip glows. But observers in the control room can recognize a blip that means a plane. At the same time.123) 84 . The bouncing of these radio waves is very much like that of sound waves. becomes a receiver. (Bantaş. From its centre an arm swings round. The distance is figured electrically by measuring the time that each radar signal takes to bounce back. these signals from the radio waves are sent electrically to the control room. Andrei & Porţeanu . There are many other kinds of radar devices. The screen is like a television screen. one kind is used on ships to prevent crashes. There they appear on a screen as little spots of light. For one or two thousandths of second this ear picks up echoes. It sends out a narrow beam of radio waves.II. the observer knows the distance of each plane from the airport.

radar n. pulse n. 2. ~ transmitter = emiţător / transmiţător / manipulator / microfon / staţie de radio / emisie. = 1. 3.a lovi. 3. lăţime (a navei). to stand back (to move back = a se da îndărăt) They stood back to let the car pass. rază (de cerc). Have you ever seen a radar? If so. = radiobalizare. rază calorică. bară. traversă. What radar applications do you know? 6. ~ antenna = antena radar. = antenă simultană. reflector. staţie de radar. to bounce v. vibraţie.a îmbrăca. = 1. val (de căldură. = impuls scurt. light ~ = undă luminoasă.a oscila. aureolă. = 1. a. where? 5. fluturare a mâinii. WORDS AND PHRASES beam n. III. blip n. The door squeaks. to coat v. 2. LEXICAL COMMENTARY to stand against (to withstand. 3. Reading and comprehension: 1. traversă de punte. undă. reflecţie. duplexer n. 2. punct luminos. What is radar? 2. travers. EXERCISES I.A. traversă mobilă. II. Match each problem (a–j) with a solution (1-10). heat~ = val de căldură. 3. val. distanţă. a acoperi. teamă. sound ~ = undă de sunet. electric ~ = electromagnetică. 85 . ground ~ = undă terestră. nimb. întindere.. Where does the word radar come from? 3. = 1. spiţă (la roată). reflector n. radiolocator. 3. 2. speed-trap ~ = zona de control a vitezei. =1. ~ devices = aparat/ dispozitiv /mecanism/ instrument radar. a sprijini) He stood for justice at the latest national conference. reflex. 6. 3.. radar. radiolocaţie.a se roti. to stand for (to be in favour of. (braţ de) balanţă. = 1. What principle lies at the basis of all radar operation systems? 4. reflectare. .a ricoşa. rază. electric charge n. = 1. a rezista la) No one could stand against this argument. unică de emisie – recepţie. violenţă) radio ~ = undă radio. wave n. a placa. to resist = a se împotrivi. to swing v.. radius (-i) n. B. 2. = impuls. to advocate = a susţine. to stand out (to be distinct/better than others = a se distinge) His work stands out from that of others to stand up for (to defend = a apăra) The rebels stood up for their rights.a se balansa. 2. 2. radio ranging n.. radiodetecţie. What other forms of communication can you list? II. VOCABULARY I. 5. Make up sentences of your own with the phrasal verb to stand. grindă. semn cu mâna.a se reflecta. 2. 4.. mănunchi de raze. = sarcina electrică. = 1. imagine reflectată.

. The pencil is blunt.. i. It needs tightening. It needs oiling.. pentru cercetarea fundului mării. target.. The TV isn’t picking up the signals from the video recorder. ... Instalaţiile de radio locaţie de acest fel folosesc o emisie continuă şi recepţie curentă. 5..points gives the direction of the…………... 1. 3.is a device used to isolate the transmitter from the receiver during radar operation.. . 7. IV.. indicator. pentru orientarea avioanelor. The screw is c o mi n g loose. .and are reflected as an ……. The car's got a few t h i ng s wrong with it. în meteorologie şi în multe altele. It needs replacing. . It needs adjusting 10. d.back to the antenna. . 8.was used for the ………………of the ship 6. e. 1.by the ………. The car seat is too far back.... Fill in each blank with a one of the following words: radar.. The direction at which the………. range. The time interval is measured through an……………….. My watch has stopped. 4. Translate into English: Radarul este una din cele mai importante cuceriri ale ştiinţei secolului XX. . It needs sharpening.... Funcţionarea radarului se bazează pe fenomenul e reflecţie a undelor electromagnetice în banda de frecvenţă ultrascurtă. 8... 5. 3. The light bulb is flickering. duplexer. It needs painting... El se întrebuinţează cel mai adesea pentru detectarea obiectelor în mişcare.... 6... g. 4. It needs servicing. j..... Domeniul de aplicare a radarului este foarte variat. antenna. The……………is used to measure the distance. ……………. The……. The pulses are sent by an……….. The battery is dead.. Many ships use a PPI (plan position indicator) indicator as well as other………. The distance from the spot to the center of the screen corresponds to the……….. The……………. detection.. V..of the ship was beyond our capabilities.. 10. 2.. Radarul care foloseşte efectul Doppler este capabil nu numai să pună în evidenţă direcţia unui obstacol. f. echo. c..of the target. h. It needs recharging. 9.. 86 .. .. dar şi să evalueze viteza cu care acesta se apropie sau se îndepărtează. ... The wall looks very bare. The transmitter and the receiver have the same………… 7. It needs winding up. Pe acest principiu sunt construite instalaţiile de radar ale poliţiei pentru depistarea autovehiculelor care circulă cu viteză excesivă.. 2. It needs re-programming....b. 9.

together with the conductors and receiver (load) connected to it. deschidere. 3. luping. încordare. (aici) flux. 3. Rodica. chemical. încasator. This is called an electric circuit. putere. vigoare. 3. The magnitude or intensity of the current in the circuit depends on the magnitude of the e m f and the resistance of the whole circuit. ruptură.solicitare. electric. responsabil. grămadă. loop n. VOCABULARY I. recipient. collector. crăpătură. 5. viciu. The direction of the current is thus from + to – in the external circuit and from – to + inside the source. Both the external circuit and the source possess resistance. 8. aparat.2 . 2. tensiune. load n. 2. According to this law. coloană de ghidaj. intensity n. 3. = 1. = 1. = 1. magnitude n. which is often simply called electric energy. punct slab. însemnătate. dispozitiv de ghidare. 4. mărime. = 1. The power source. curgere. şiretlic. radiant. 2. procedeu (stilistic). destinatar. The direct cause of flow of electric current in a circuit is the electromotive force (E M F) of the power source. 7. dispozitiv. Ohm’s law can be applied to the circuit as a whole and. 2. 2. fisură. flaw n. 5. dirijor. on the contrary.5. conductor. orificiu. taxator. mechanical and so on. 4. 4. = 1. 6. (adapted from Bantaş. primitor. consignator. instrument. separately. electric adj. an electric lamp. 2. ochi. rezervor. the energy receiver. The relationship between these quantities is expressed by Ohm’s law. receptor. or other energy into electromagnetic energy. preceptor. = 1. a receiver of energy (e. director.2. transforms the electric energy to other forms of energy: radiant. buclă.g. accumulator. THE ELECTRIC CIRCUIT AND ITS ELEMENTS The simplest electric circuit consists of a source of energy. forms a closed loop. primary cell n. importanţă. încărcătură. intensitate. the conductors and receiver (load) from the so called external circuit.2. resort. tărie. 3. = 1. = element galvanic. or power source (e. to any portion of the circuit outside the power source. sarcină. Conventionally. = sursă de energie. 4. povară. p. along which an uninterrupted stream of electric charges (an electric current) flows. With respect to the source.2. = 1. mecanism. deviz. 3. truc. which plays a very important role in electrical engineering. 4. atenţie. power source n. 2. arc.g. The power source transforms mechanical. defect. or generator). greutate. being the basis of many practical calculations. electrizant. device n. mulţime. 4. WORDS AND PHRASES conductor n. concentrare. the current 1 in a circuit is directly proportional to the e m f E and the inversely proportional to the resistance R of the whole circuit. dimensiune. 69) A. electric heating device. 3. the value of which depends upon the material. and two conductors connecting the receiver and power source terminals. thermal. buclă. or electric motor). = 1. shape and dimensions of the conductors comprising these parts of the electric circuit. a primary cell. 87 . Limba engleză pentru ştiinţă şi tehnică. the direction of the current in the circuit is taken to coincide with the direction of the e m f. receiver n. Andrei & Porţeanu . 2.

a reduce (preţul). 2. sfârşit. 5. to be taken ill = a cãdea bolnav. to take up = 1.). thermal adj. to take from = a diminua (valoarea. 2. to take a nap = a trage un pui de somn.aspect. model. 5. 2. a demonta. a strange. a prelua (un serviciu. ţinută. 2. a se îndrepta (cãtre). etc. a scoate (un dinte). a pleca. a sesiza. calc. to take down = 1. a aduna. a copia. to take a look/glance = a arunca o privire. 2. 7. to take to one's heels = a o şterge. = termic. 3. relaţie.). a duce (la teatru. = 1. 4. a trage pe sfoarã. aspect. a sustrage (un document. a invita. to take great pleasure in = a-i face mare plãcere sã facã ceva. to take away = 1. a adopta (un copil). 8. a înlãtura. 6. a demola. to take along = a lua cu sine. 3. a lua. 3. (av. a porni. mostră. shape n. to take somebody by the hand = a apuca pe cineva de mânã. a lua în mânã (o afacere). etc. etc.legătură. 5. (nav) a lua (pasageri) pe bord. a culege. 2. to take a step = 1. a include. a dezbrãca.). to take effect = a fi eficace. a lua. chip. a pricepe. a accepta (o provocare). 4. 4. 3. a adãposti (pe cineva). 3. terminus. tipar. a-şi asuma (o responsabilitate).relationship n. 3. to be taken in the act = a fi prins asupra faptului. 3. 4. a umili. a conduce mai departe. 2. to take leave = a-şi lua rãmas bun. 4. a scoate (o hainã). 3. a se mãsura (cu cineva). (fig) a lua o mãsurã. to take a journey = a face o cãlãtorie. ultim. fierbinte. 6. 2. final. terminal (la aeroport). formă. terminal n. 2. a relua (un refren). înfăţişare. a bea. II. 3. to take to = 1.= 1. la restaurant). 2. a ucide.bornă. 2. capăt.) a decola. 88 . a îndepãrta. 2. a scoate la plimbare. 2. to take offense at = a se supãra pe. to take off = 1. venitul). to take into account = a lua în considerare. to take in = 1. 4. a primi (un ziar). a suprima. to take five from ten = a scade cinci din zece. a trece (pe cineva dincolo de un râu. to take out = 1. 5. 4. 3. 4. a retrage (un copil) de la şcoalã. to take over = 1. to take on = 1. a duce (pe cineva undeva). caloric.configuraţie. 5. a ridica. a recurge la. 2. 5. a nota. 7. to take after = a semãna cu. raport. a tãia (respiraţia). a scãdea. to take off = 1. a întreprinde. LEXICAL COMMENTARY Phrases / idioms with the verb to take to take something in one's hand = a lua ceva în mânã to take a taxi = a lua un taxi. a fi abonat la. to take a bath = a face baie. a duce cu sine (pe cineva). 8. = 1. a face un pas. to be taken in a trap = a cãdea în cursã. a lãsa mai ieftin.

. proceed. precautions. Screw the motor down into place. 6.. What is a loop? 3. protect. Complete each sentence with one of the words given: agent. In the following text. IV. 5. ar trebui folosite osciloscoape de înaltă tensiune. Legile lui Ohm se aplică circuitelor electrice. Reading and comprehension: 1. masks and other (4) .. lead-pipe... trainee. 8.. III. Te-am aşteptat ieri seară să ne aduci ştiri despre experienţa ta.. foreman. 3. fight. Osciloscopul este cât se poate de util în studierea proceselor periodice. 4. Computerul nostru va foi conectat la banca naţională de date.. 4. Translate into English: A. EXERCISES I... This includes the wearing of goggles. I’m starting next week as a ….. Attach the rotating motor to the (1) . A company should make every………………. remove it and (2) . competitor. If you have any problems with your work. With mechanization it is difficult to find work as an unskilled………………… 9... 7.. 89 ... Banii pe care i-ai câştigat sunt proporţionali cu timpul cât ai muncit. If the motor does not engage. complete each space with a word or compound word formed from these words: cylinder. executive. I have been working as a used car………………. Aşadar. 7. All engineers installing or repairing this machinery must observe all necessary (3) . dealer.. Noi depindem de rezultatele tale pentru a termina lucrarea. S-au putut urmări două mărimi variabile simultan pe ecran. 2. Energia solară poate fi transformată în energie termică şi electrică.. 5... 6. Importanţa acestei descoperiri constă în largul ei domeniu de aplicare. Absenţa inerţiei s-ar putea să fie determinată de viteza axială a electronilor... For instructions on how to remove the outlet valve. 1.. pentru a înregistra procese foarte rapide. What is the direct cause of flow of electric current in a circuit? II. Use each word once only. please refer to the (5) .. chef in a large hotel. “Happy chips” is the number one……of potato crisps in the country. labourer.B. safe. Our company is the ………for several large insurance companies. client. producer. equipment. Our firm is quite a long way ahead of our nearest………………………. 9. B.. Se poate explica principiul de funcţionare al unui astfel de tub cu ajutorul unei diagrame simplificate.. David was not content until he had become a rich……………………. Opiniile lui nu au coincis niciodată cu părerile mele. described on page 28 of this manual.for the past six months. talk to the ………………. What is an electric circuit and what does it consist of? 2. 8.feel important. 2. 1.. Nowadays you often find that the top ………………in a company is a woman. 10.. 3. Conţinutul cărţii trebuie să corespundă cu descrierea ei. Alegerea unui ecran corespunzător va trebui să fie făcută cu mare grijă. industrialist. the lead-pipe.

and hence very high values of current under short circuits. ELECTRICAL GENERATORS An electrical generator is a rotary converter which transforms mechanical energy into electrical energy. various synchronizing devices are 90 . Water-wheel type alternators are driven by water turbines.3. (electro – motive force) of the incoming machine must have the same frequency as the line. The high speed at which these generators run necessarily makes their relation of length to diameter much greater than in the definite-pole engine type machines. it is necessary that such generators be operated with a large flywheel mounted on the same shaft as the generator and the engine. Good voltage regulation of alternators means very low synchronous reactance. The early types of direct-current generators had only two poles. When an alternator is to be connected in parallel with others already in operation. The difference between two instantaneous e.f. The e. generators can be divided into alternating and direct-current generators. or steam-turbine type. Turbo-generators are all of the horizontal type. The voltage depends on the speed at which the magnetic lines of force are being cut by the coil. The simplest form of electrical generator is a two pole magnet. turbo-generators are totally enclosed. Direct-current generators used for lighting should not have a voltage regulation higher than 2 percent. also since a high-speed machine is so much smaller for the same capacity than a slow-speed one.m. with definite air passage through the machine. the regulation of an alternator at 80 percent power factor may be as high as 42 percent. great care is necessary in closing the switches at the proper instant.f. The excitation of direct-current generators is provided by a stationary electric circuit consisting of one or more field coils of wire placed on each of the field poles. Practically all modern alternating current generators are wound three-phase.m.2. with a coil of wire mounted in such a manner that it can be rotated between the poles to cut the lines of force passing from pole to pole. High-speed generators will have smaller diameters and fewer poles than low speed generators. With the demand for high capacity generators it was found necessary to use more than two poles. The magnet motive force produced by these coils. According to the current produced. Such machines are known as “bipolar” generators. provides the required amount of magnetic flux across the air gap and through the armature of the generator. the amount of heat liberated will be much greater in proportion to the size of the machine. a voltage is generated in it. The range of operating conditions for this type of units is very great. hence today practically all direct-current generators have at least four poles. values will circulate a shortcircuit current which may be injurious to the apparatus. This requires forced ventilation and in order to place the ventilating air properly at the point where it will do the most good. when current flows through them. As the coil rotates. Since the angular velocity of any type of internal-combustion engines is not uniform. In contrast to such a value. It is more important to the operating engineer that generators be able to stand without injury a complete short-circuit than to have generators of good voltage regulation. water-wheel type. In order to indicate to the operator the proper moment for closing the switches. Alternating-current generators can be classed as engine type.2.

angular velocity (-ies) n. 5. cut v. II. a nu avea succes. Limba engleză pentru ştiinţă şi tehnică. = motor cu combustie internă. 2. = turbină cu aburi. 7. (adapted from Bantaş. = viteză unghiulară. to cut off all communications = a întrerupe orice legãturã. VOCABULARY I. bucatã. to cut off = a tãia. linie (a trãsãturilor). 10. 11. = 1. 3. to cut in = a interveni în discuţie. gravurã (în lemn. velocity n. short circuit n. = generator de mică viteză. a întrerupe brusc. a reduce. 3. p. generator. coil of wire n. internal-combustion engine n. 2. (med. a întrerupe. = 1.2.alternator = turboalternator. What is a generator? 91 . micşorare. = dispozitiv de sincronizare. Reading and comprehension: 1.used. generator n. Andrei & Porţeanu . high-speed generator = generator de mare viteză. water wheel generator = hidrogenerator. to cut up rough = a se înfuria. low-speed generator n. = alternator. voltage regulation n. deconectat. a nu avea effect. în aramã). a dezmoşteni (pe cineva). to cut off with a shilling = 1. 155) A. = spirală/buclă. scoatere a unei pãrţi (dintr-un text). 8. turbine . a doborî.2. iuţeală. a secera. Rodica. a cosi. 2. = viteză. a fi nãscut. a desprinde prin tãiere. (fig) lipsit de prospeţime. 4. EXERCISES I. felie. = scurtcircuit steam. a pune capãt la. synchronizing device n. a exclude. to cut to pieces = a distruge. (fam) cut and dried = de-a gata. tãieturã. incoming machine n. (şi shortcut) scurtãturã. to be cut out for = 1. a nu face impresie deosebitã. preţuri). a pregãti dinainte to have one's work cut out = a trebui sã munceascã din greu. to cut off an arm = a amputa un braţ. loviturã. 6. ventilating air n. = reglarea tensiunii.2. LEXICAL COMMENTARY Phrases / idioms with the verb to cut to cut down = 1. synchronous reactance n. 2. sursă. a nu mai da bani (cuiva). = ventilaţie cu aer. WORDS AND PHRASES alternator n. a izola. = reactanţă de sincronizare. B. to cut out = a decupa. (text) cupon. tãiat. serios. croialã. potrivit pentru.) incizie. definite-pole engine type machine = maşină cu poli aparenţi. to cut and run = a o lua la sãnãtoasa. a reduce (cheltuieli. fason. (la telefon) to be cut off = a fi întrerupt.turbine n. to cut no ice = 1. to cut short = a scurta. 9. 12. = maşină care se pune în paralel.

What are the component parts of a generator? How are generators classified according to the current produced? How many types of alternating current generators do you know? What precautious ought to be taken about switches and when? II. IV. International charity/organisation/aid is being sent to help the victims survive the winter. This is the first jazz concert I …………………………to. Don’t eat any more ice cream. you ……………………sick. Do ……………. I hope that by the end of the month I ………………… all the decorating.to going on holiday. Sheila and George……………. Can you remember what you………………………… ten years ago today? 2. Translate into English: 1. Pentru a asigura o sudură durabilă este de dorit ca piesele să fie curăţate înainte de sudare. and then click. 4. Underline the most suitable word. III. 9.enough yet. Pentru ca reţeaua să fie economică este de dorit să fie dotată cu receptori de putere potrivită. I began to recover my strength later. 3. Chris uses an electrical/electrician/electric shaver when he goes on holiday. Este de dorit ca maşina să fie testată în condiţii normale de lucru. Este important ca studentul să cunoască în detaliu condiţiile de funcţionare ale unui generator. 10. but she ended up very disappointed. Mary is always so sympathetic/cheeky/cheerful – you always see her smiling and happy. The invasion/earthquake/devastation made a lot of buildings collapse and thousands of people were made homeless. 5. Este posibil ca generatoarele de curent continuu să aibe patru poli.2. Penny………………. I was really greedy/grateful/frank when you came to see me in hospital because I was feeling a bit lonely. I have hated this place ever ……………………………here.. 92 . going to the football match tomorrow? 8. Pentru a micşora uzura pieselor este important ca acestea să fie bine prelucrate. Flies were buzzing/barking/galloping around the uncovered meat in the kitchen. Point the icon/cursor/mouse to the place on the screen where you want to type. I broke my chin/nose/face when I was young – my brother punched it! The last time I had toothache I had to get an urgent appointment at the dentist’s/doctor’s/hospital. 2. Complete each sentence with an appropriate word or phrase: 1. 3.to each other since their last quarrel last week! 7. Pentru o funcţionare îndelungată este important ca piesele să fie bine reglate. 5. once I…………………. 5.a good meal. 7. 4. 6. We can’t go skiing because it………………. 3. 6. The tree twig/trunk/branch was about two meters wide because it was so old.. 4.

electronic device =disopzitiv electronic. Noise may be produced by causes which are external or internal to the system. (adapted from Blându. Mihaela: Limba engleză. Moreover. = 1. cupru şi zinc) electronic adj. It can cause spurious operation of electronic circuits. electronic process = process electronic . This activity produces fluctuations in the electron distribution within the elements and this appears as a thermal-agitation voltage. p. fără. it is reasonable to expect that thermal agitation voltages of all frequencies are produced. Shot noise. The frequency spectrum of a source of noise can be calculated and can also be approximated experimentally from measurements. aluminiu. electronic circuit = circuit electronic . mean squared value n. WORDS AND PHRASES bandwidth n. Automatică şi calculatoare. hiss n. bandă de transparenţă a ueni antene. electron n = electron (el.2. 2. Thermal noise. Three different spectral distributions over a bandwidth are possible.gamă. (met. poligr) electron (aliaj uşor de magneziu. shot noise is important. = zgomot de fond. This fluctuation voltage arises because the free or conduction electrons in the conductor are all in random motion. VOCABULARY I. fiz) electron. Such uncorrelated noise sets a lower limit to the signal levels possible with a given device. because this thermal agitation motions are random. RANDOM NOISE IN ELECTRONIC DEVICES The term “noise” or “random noise” is used to describe any spurious signals which ultimately appear in the output of an electronic device. The shot effect results whenever charge carries are produced at an emitting surface or diffuse across a junction. resulting in slight deviations in the statistical most probable distribution function.4. diffusion. Random noise appears as a hiss in radio receivers and as snow on the screen of a television receiver. recombination and drift. sâsâit. = valoare medie pătratică. = electronic. Among the various sources of noise in the electronic device. 108) A.bandă de transparenţă.2. Excess noise and flicker noise. there is a fluctuation voltage which appears across the open-circuit terminals. The first results from the fact that the electrons in the circuit elements of the amplifier are in a state of continuous agitation. 93 . the total rms (root mean square) voltage expected in a circuit which is frequency sensitive will depend on the bandwidth of the circuit. among other factors. Consequently. Flicker noise arises from surface imperfections in emission processes. It has been found that the flicker effect produces noise components that are important at the lower frequencies and the resultant noise roughly varies inversely with the frequency. There are two fundamental sources of internal noise. lăţime de banda a informaţiei. The second cause arises from the statistical fluctuations in the various thermal and electronic processes involved in charge – carrier emission. Random fluctuation components exist in these processes even if the time average current is constant. 3. free of = lipsit de. Independent of any signal that might be applied to the terminals of a resistive circuit element. şuierat.

thermal agitation = agitaţie termică. a pune o mâncare pe masã. a se pune pe (treabã. to set a dish on the table = a aşeza. a ridica o problemã. a porni la drum. to set somebody on his way = a îndruma pe cineva pe calea cea bunã. to set off = 1. to set a person against another = a aţâţa o persoanã împotriva alteia. a reprezenta graphic. to set one's wits to a question = a cãuta rãspuns la o problemã. to set the fashion = 1. to set a stick in the ground = a înfige un bãţ în pãmânt. to set one's hands to = 1. = (tehn. B. plot n. EXERCISES I. = parazitar. circuit capabil să reziste. band-limited white ~ = zgomot alb cu bandă limitată. 2. a ridica o curbă prin puncte. to set the course = nav. to set forth = 1.shot ~ = zgomot de alice. to set off = a scoate în evidenţă to set out = 1. 2. to set fire to = a da foc la. to set out one's ideas clearly = a-şi orândui ideile. 2. 2. 2. to set a file = a recondiţiona o pilã. a porni la drum. to set the clock = a potrivi ceasul. to set a task = a trasa o sarcinã. a stabili moda. 2. What is the thermal noise caused by? 94 . spurious adj. LEXICAL COMMENTARY Phrases / idioms with the verb to set to set a book on a shelf = a aşeza o carte pe o poliţã. II. to set a scene = a monta un decor. to set one's heart/mind to = a-şi pune în cap sã obţinã. Reading and comprehension: 1. root mean square voltage = tensiune medie pătratică. to set out = 1.most probable distribution function = funcţia de distribuţie cea mai probabilă. (nav) a se îmbarca. a trasa. a pãta. random ~ = . noise n. a echipa (pe cineva). Which is the first fundamental source of internal noise? 3. to set an example = a da un exemplu. spurious signal = semnal accidental. a rândui. flicker ~ = zgomot de licărire. lucru). vb. a declara. to set a day = a fixa o zi. a da tonul. to set out in pursuit of somebody = a porni în urmãrirea cuiva to set to = a se apuca de lucru. time average constant = constanta de timp medie.) grafic. to set a violin = a acorda o vioarã. a începe (o cãlãtorie sau o expediţie). (poligr) (despre cerneala umedã) a se întinde. a aranja. cu paraziţi.= 1. Which is the second? 4. resistive circuit adj. to set out a curve = a trasa o curbã. = zgomot. ~ figure = factor de zgomot. 2. to set a hen = a pune o gãinã pe cuibar. a pune o semnãturã pe un act. white ~ = zgomot alb. How is random noise defined? 2. circuit rezistent. to set a problem = a pune. curbă. a trasa ruta.

They either recoil 1 from anything new. This may be because they seem misterious. In fact. they still represent a threat to our freedom. indicate.5. Rezultă. Ca urmare. even those of us who are familiar with computers'. Indicate correct lines with a tick. in one of two ways. 95 . or show the correct punctuation. Ask most people. că pentru un raport semnal/zgomot mare tubul ar trebui să aibă o transconductanţă mare şi să lucrez la un curent anodic mic. the cote fire. and give us a 6 frigtening sense of a future in which ail decisions will be taken by 7 machines. pass-by. produce. speak. and difficult 8 to understand. and you usually get vauge answers about how 'to give you 10 information'. lead. how they could possibly 4 have existed without it. Write the correctly spelled word. have very little idea of how they 12 actually work? But it does not take long to learn how to operate a 13 business programme. write. As we discover during power cuts there is a lot to be 20 said for the oil lamp. own. S-a găsit de asemenea. deci. most people react. what you can use a home computer 9 for. and forms of entertainment. 11 and use them in our daily work. What is shot noise? 6. Presumably much the same happened when 15 telephone and the television became widespred. employ. Take computers as an example. 22 IV. reflect. semnalul de ieşire va depinde de transconductanţă. send. control. Zgomotul de alice total va fi proporţional cu curentul anodic. follow. Pe de altă parte. such 21 as books or board games. create. In most lines of this text there is either a spelling or punctuation error. support. că distribuirea curentului catodic între ecran şi anod produce zgomot. Build up nouns by adding the correct suffix to the following verbs: carry. claiming that it is unnecessary. pentodele cu un curent mic de ecran sunt mai puţin zgomotoase decât cele cu un curent de ecran mai mare. When faced with some new and possibly bewildering technological 0 change. How does shot noise differ from flicker noise? II. listen. What seems to 16 alarm most people is the speed of technological change. În general triodele funcţionează cu un zgomot mai scăzut decât pentodele de tip comparabil. compute. since change is not always an 19 improvement. or too complicated 2 or that it somehow makes life less personal. receive. Translate into English: Principala sursă de zgomot într-un tub electric este zgomotul de alice care apare în procesul de emisie electronică a catodului la care se adaugă zgomotul de licărire care devine important la frecvenţe mai mici de 1000 Hz. rather than is 17 18 change itself. III. that dont have to be plugged in to work. for many of 5 us. transmit. and eventually wonder. And the objections that are maid to new technology may well have a point to them. Or they learn to adapt to 3 the new invention. direct. even if things occasionally go wrong for no 14 apparant reason.

the word manage comes from the Italian maneggiare (to handle — especially a horse). many people refer to 96 . planning 2. This applies even in situations where planning does not take place. while useful.checking progress against plans. leading/motivating and controlling. leading 4. • Planning: deciding what has to happen in the future (today. Functions of management Management operates through various functions. One can also think of management functionally.3. which may need modification based on feedback. who wrote on the topic in the early twentiethcentury. although this then excludes management in places outside commerce.2. controlling Some people. find this definition. often classified as planning. According to the Oxford English Dictionary. as the action of measuring a quantity on a regular basis and of adjusting some initial plan. TEXTS FOR INDUSTRIAL MANAGEMENT 2. • Leading/Motivating: exhibiting skills in these areas for getting others to play an effective part in achieving plans. • Controlling: monitoring . • Organizing: making optimum use of the resources required to enable the successful carrying out of plans. next month. The phrase "management is what managers do" occurs widely. capital. etc. which in turn derives from the Latin manus (hand). the shifting nature of definitions. organizing. however. and the connection of managerial practices with the existence of a managerial cadre or class. The French word mesnagement (later ménagement) influenced the development in meaning of the English word management in the 17th and 18th centuries. 1. defined management as "the art of getting things done through people".1.II.) and generating plans for action. next week. over the next five years. intellectual or intangible). natural. next year. From this perspective. co-ordinating 5. far too narrow. Nonetheless. whereas leadership involves power by influence.3. MANAGEMENT The term "management" characterizes the process of and/or the personnel leading and directing all or part of an organization (often a business) through the deployment and manipulation of resources (human. as for example in charities and in the public sector. Management has to do with power by position. suggesting the difficulty of defining management. or as the actions taken to reach one's intended goal. organizing 3. Theoretical scope Mary Parker Follett (1868–1933). One habit of thought regards management as equivalent to "business administration". Frenchman Henri Fayol considers management to consist of five functions.

schimbător. = intangibil. a sprijini (despre un stâlp). a etala. a guverna. = 1. obicei. a duce la bun sfârşit. = în timp ce. aexpune. a fi in fruntea. Speakers of English may also use the term "management" or "the management" as a collective word describing the managers of an organization. to exhibit v. a duce la bun sfârşit. = a reuşi. = desfăşurare (de forţe). = optim. 2. to carry out v. limitat. to reach v. 2. a dirija. a rezolva (o problemă) whereas conj. a conduce. = a da posibilitatea. = util. a căra. 3. nonetheless adv. sector n. effectual. a duce. LEXICAL COMMENTARY to carry.wikipedia. obişnuinţă. 4. 3. a expune. a administra. intangible adj. efficacious effective adj. led v. = capable of achieving the desired result with the minimum use of resources. = personal. 2. = causing a result. a purta a avea bani asupra sa. especially the desired or intended result: an effective solution to the water supply problem efficient adj. ~ forward = a duce mai departe. mobil. = (formal) potentially successful in producing a desired or intended result(formal): This idea exerts a direct and effectual influence on his thinking. mişcător. = abilitate. cu toate acestea. nestatornic. useful adj. to manage v. a manevra. a atinge (un scop). a ajunge. to lead. and effort: an efficient use of personnel effectual adj. efficacious adj. a manipula. ~ to + inf. led. a impune. = 1. a izbuti să. a manifesta. to handle v. public ~ = sector public. = îngust. a conduce. WORDS AND PHRASES personnel n. = totuşi. a conduce. a reclama. ~ out = a îndeplini. 3. a mânui. = 1. îndemânare. (adapted from http://en. = 1. = a îndeplini. shifting adj. to check v. = 1. II. = 1. to enable v. a susţine. VOCABULARY I. to require v. especially an improvement. = 1. a necesita. and some institutions (such as the Harvard Business School) use that name. optimum adj.university departments which teach management as "business schools". ~ forth = a arăta. v. efficient. a cere. a conduce. = 1. habit n. a dirija. narrow adj. pricepere. a discuta. a mânui. ~ a goal = a atinge un scop. to make ~ use of = a folosi în mod optim. = a verifica. a transporta. 3. Diet may be as efficacious as medication in controlling the condition. a ghida. effective. conduită. ~ on = a continua. deployment n. a conduce. purtare. folositor. for example of a corporation. = 1. a continua. 2. 97 . a prezenta. a purta. time. deprindere. 2. 2. a permite. a obliga. mic. a dirija. skill n. 2.org/wiki/Management) A. a pretinde. 2. = sector. 2.= (formal) having the power to achieve a desired result.

(6) conditioning. respectful. What is the meaning of “management” as a collective noun? II. VII. (5) heating and . Reading and Comprehension: 1. Rezultatele planificãrii sunt reflectate în planurile de activitate. Se stabilesc obiectivele şi cele mai adecvate cãi (strategii) pentru atingerea lor. What does the phrase “managers is what managers do” suggest? 6. a nasty-tasting medicine 6. cautious.. 2..I.. Let us say that our machine could .. moreover. (15) machines.. (12) up plans for skyscrapers and then . Imagine that it . literate.. il-.. (1) a system of levers and cables with the capacity to lift hundreds of pounds.. (20) body. (2) also to construct minute and intricate instruments. some capable of .. to let the cat out of the bag. Suppose.. 1.. (9) speeds of 30 feet per second and higher.. carry forward. Translate into English: Planificarea este funcţia cea mai importantã a managementului..unibuc..... Surely a machine with so many diversified properties .. How did Mary Parker Follet define management? 4.. to be catty. 4. (17) prove enormously helpful . (14) them.. honest.htm) 98 . that this machine could build . and. (3) the jewelled movements of watches.. logical. Romanian .. to lead a dog's life..ro/eBooks/StiinteADM/management/2. III. aware. What are the five functions of management according to Henri Fayol? 5. resolute. could function 600 feet .. modest. Suppose that this machine had . ir-. discreet. relevant. Celelalte funcţii derivã din aceasta şi conduc la îndeplinirea obiectivelor. Look up the following phrases and use them in sentences of your own: to lead a cat-and-dog life... Explain or paraphrase the following. (16) to the moon.. too. (4) . allowing it to range . (http://www. as sleek as a cat. practicable.... deoarece reprezintã activitatea de luare a deciziilor. but . (11) given helium and oxygen fuel mixtures at high pressures. The fact is that .. (8) propel itself across the land . a heartbreaking story Then translate them into a self-supporting member of the family a blood-freezing scream IV. What is the difference between management and leadership? 3. not stand (even) a dog's chance.. Fill in the blanks using only one word for each space: Imagine a machine consisting .. natural.. like a cat on hot bricks: to see which way the cat jumps: as faithful as a dog: to give/throw something to the dogs.... write its own symphonies. such . a dog in the manger. loyal.. (13) them. in-. un. VI. carry out in sentences of your own. fortunate..with each of the following words: attentive. What does management mean? 2. carry on. (19) of us possesses this miraculous machine: our own flesh and . (10) the sea .. Uses carry forth. (18) mankind. im-. and then . Use one of the prefixes dis-. a sinewy-looking animal 5. V. (7) the tropics to the poles. a sweet –smelling flower 3.

however adv. cu toate acestea. ~ from the dead = a se scula din morţi. negustor.1809) developed elements of technical production such as standardization. Some writers trace the development of management-thought back to Sumerian traders and to the builders of the pyramids of ancient Egypt. totuşi.org/wiki/Management) A.1825). Many of these aspects of management existed in the pre-1861 slave-based sector of the US economy.1873) provided a theoretical background to resourceallocation. Some see it (by definition) as a late modern (in the sense of late modernity) conceptualization. but many pre-industrial enterprises. 2. given their small scale. arose. however. = comerciant. a urmări.wikipedia. marginal economists Alfred Marshall (1842 . By the late 19th century. But with growing size and complexity of organizations. WORDS AND PHRASES to arise. However. a se ridica. interchangeability of parts. industrial dynasties or groups of shareholders) and day-to-day managers (independent specialists in planning and control) gradually became more common.1790) and John Stuart Mill (1806 . v. cost-accounting.1910) and others introduced a new layer of complexity to the theoretical underpinnings of management. and work-planning. Others. Slave-owners through the centuries faced the problems of exploiting/motivating a dependent but sometimes unenthusiastic or recalcitrant workforce. James Watt (1736 . That environment saw 4 million people. and pricing issues.3. a apărea. 2. VOCABULARY I. 99 . it made sense for most owners of enterprises in those times to carry out management functions by and for themselves. a desena. = 1.2. = piramidă.1819). detect management-like activities in the pre-modern past. Joseph Wharton offered the first tertiarylevel course in management in 1881. "managed" in profitable quasi-mass production. 19th century Some argue that modern management as a discipline began as an off-shoot of economics in the 19th century. planning and control.2. (adapted from http://en. trader n. and Matthew Boulton (1728 . a urmări în decursul istoriei. a schiţa. About the same time. MANAGEMENT – HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT (1) Difficulties arise in tracing the history of management. pyramid n. oricum. innovations such as the spread of Hindu-Arabic numerals (5th to 15th centuries) and the codification of double-entry book-keeping (1494) provided tools for management assessment. Given the scale of most commercial operations and the lack of mechanized record-keeping and recording before the industrial revolution. = 1. production. a se ivi. to trace v. a decurge din. 3. = 1. did not feel compelled to face the issues of management systematically. a urmări filiaţia. as the contemporary usages had it. arisen. innovators like Eli Whitney (1765 . Classical economists such as Adam Smith (1723 . ~ from = a reieşi. the split between owners (individuals. a trasa. quality-control procedures. 2.1924) and Léon Walras (1834 .

or having first-hand knowledge of. to spread. split. dezbinare. grew. întindere. on a large ~ = pe scară mare. propagare. spread. = dinastie. grown v. proporţie. dimensiune. 2. 2. get out of my face = used for impolitely telling somebody to stop annoying you (informal). = lipsă. a despica. = a furniza. = crescând. 2. a se desfăşura. to provide v. sciziune. to have a long face = to look miserable or disappointed. = proprietar de sclavi. remained united in the face of strong opposition to set one’s face against something = to oppose something with determination. What were the factors that led to the split between owners and day-to-day managers? 100 . to compel v. = 1. to get in somebody's face = to annoy somebody (informal). an unpleasant fact or situation. 2. scale n. fond. a diviza. = a creşte. despicare. split v. lack n. a dezbina. When did management appear? 2. LEXICAL COMMENTARY to be staring somebody in the face = to be obvious but unnoticed. ~s = cântar. înveliş. răspândire. a fi orientat spre. 2.slave-owner n. shareholder n. to show one’s face (somewhere or at something) = to put in an appearance somewhere. = fundal. scară. layer n. mărime. a se confrunta cu. growing adj. = 1. 3. = acţionar. a se răspândi. spread n. EXERCISES I. She was standing by the broken window with guilt written all over her face. difuzare. background n. Reading and Comprehension: 1. What were the factors that provided tools for management assessment. a se întinde. dynasty n. a forţa. = a obliga. = contabilitate. to split. = 1. = 1. face to face = in the actual presence of another person in direct contact with. = 1. split n. II. spread v. = strat. book-keeping n. Why call in a management consultant. = 1. to fly in the face of something = to defy something deliberately or recklessly. scală. B. to face v. extindere. when the cause of the problem is staring you in the face? to be staring something in the face = to be facing something undesirable but inevitable. a se propaga. written all over somebody's face = obvious from somebody's expression (informal). planning and control? 3. 2. He won't dare show his face at her house again. a se desface. to grow. a se împrăştia. in (the) face of something = when confronted by or in spite of something. We were staring bankruptcy in the face.

transform.. British Museum and the old houses in .. starve. Illustrate the meanings of face in sentences of your own.. (12) Thames. III.. (24) Russell Square. (37) rail.. (35) English Channel by .. On my second day I wander about .ro/eBooks/StiinteADM/management/2. confess. in the pink (of health). Explain the figurative use of colours in the following: a black look.. once in a blue moon. (27) Parliament. . signify. inquire. (25) Houses of Parliament and listen to . succeed. give. (6) tourist attraction too.... (2) former British Empire.. Insert the necessary articles: Of all ... atât în interiorul cât şi în exteriorul organizaţiei). having landed at ... II.. (18) two museums that I have no time left for anything else... lose. dar cei mai mulţi dintre noi suntem de acord că ele includ elemente de protecţie a loialităţii angajaţilor. I walk around ... to . (17) Tate Gallery and there are so many beautiful things to see in . (31) visitors can see ... (28) Westminster and consists of ... (30) House of Commons.. remember. (23). add. Natura acestor obligaţii poate fi. I sometimes dream that... (19) Bloomsbury.. see. not far from . (26) Big Ben strike the hour. (adapted from http://www. (21) Senate House.. Name the marginal economists that introduced a new layer of complexity to the theoretical underpinnings of management. I travel by .. offend.... utter. (15) first day I visit ... I decide to cross ... Give the nouns corresponding to the following verbs: begin. (16) National Gallery and ... (4) United States and . disappear. IV. desigur. (9) Piccadilly Circus or . (8) underground to central London. . (29) House of Lords and .. maintain.. suppose. What innovations did Eli Whitney. to see red. (7) Heathrow airport... know. Translate into English: Problemele de eticã constituie adevărate dileme manageriale pentru că ele reprezină conflicte declanşate între performanţele economice ale firmei (venituri-costuri-profit) şi performanţele sale sociale (formulate în termenii obligaţiilor personale.. (34) end. see ...... (11) inexpensive hotel.. a black outlook. (36) ferry-boat and from there to travel home across the Continent by . where . seize.... think. then . laugh. (20) intellectual centre of Britain's capital city. is in .. in a brown study. a white elephant. I find accommodation at ...4..htm) 101 .. imagine. . . When my English vacation draws to ..unibuc. to get the green light. mix.. to paint the town red. Later. (1) countries of ... (3) United Kingdom that I would like to visit most. (32) latter at work on some days of . within .. (5) Canada one can find many .. V. James Watt and Matthew Boulton develop? 6. it is .. as everybody knows. (22) University of London has most of its offices... green-eyed. (33) week. although I am certain that in . deschisă spre mici interpretări. de menţinere a competitivitãţii pieţelor. (14) Buckingham Palace. to feel blue... de realizare a unor produse şi servicii utile şi sigure. When did modern management begin? 5. the yellow press. (10) Marble Arch.. fly. withdraw.. reveal... bury. VI.. (13) walking distance of .

In the early 20th century. People like Henri Fayol (1841-1925) and Alexander Church described the various branches of management and their inter-relationships. particularly in the areas of logistics and operations. sometimes known as "management science" (but distinct from Taylor's scientific management).3. Gantt's charts (1910s). Peter Drucker (1909-2005) wrote one of the earliest books on applied management: Concept of the Corporation (published in 1946). MANAGEMENT – HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT (2) 20th century By about 1900 one finds managers trying to place their theories on what they regarded as a thoroughly scientific basis. Mooney applied the principles of psychology to management. Rensis Likert (1903-1981). reengineering. The Harvard Business School invented the Master of Business Administration degree (MBA) in 1921. Ronald Fisher (1890-1962). Towards the end of the 20th century. Frank and Lillian Gilbreth's Applied motion study (1917). Dodge. Mary Parker Follett (1868-1933). Walter Scott and J. Towne's Science of management in the 1890s. and Chris Argyris (1923-) approached the phenomenon of management from a sociological perspective. In this context many management fads may have had more to do with pop psychology than with scientific theories of management. and Thornton C. Patrick Blackett combined these statistical theories with microeconomic theory and gave birth to the science of operations research. His son Ichiro Ueno pioneered Japanese qualityassurance. Chester Barnard (1886-1961). Fry introduced statistical techniques into management-studies. as well as group management theories such as Cog's Ladder. Drucker went on to write 39 books. In the 1940s. business management came to consist of six separate branches. people like Ordway Tead (1891-1973). Some of the more recent developments include the theory of constraints. It resulted from Alfred Sloan (chairman of General Motors until 1956) commissioning a study of the organisation. and Henry L. As the general recognition of managers as a class solidified during the 20th century and gave perceived practitioners of the art/science of management a certain amount of prestige. Max Weber (1864-1920). Operations research. such as Elton Mayo (1880-1949). In 1912 Yoichi Ueno introduced Taylorism to Japan and became first management consultant of the "Japanese-management style". The first comprehensive theories of management appeared around 1920. H. Frederick Winslow Taylor's Scientific management (1911). and various information-technologydriven theories such as agile software development. Duncan wrote the first college management textbook in 1911. so the way opened for popularised systems of management ideas to peddle their wares.2. J.3. Examples include Henry R. management by objectives. many in the same vein. attempts to take a scientific approach to solving management problems. namely: • Human resource management • Operations management or production management • Strategic management • Marketing management • Financial management 102 . while other writers.

= manual pioneer v. = 1. = restructurare information technology n. = a rezolva. ton. or. gave. a decurge din. 2. dispoziţie. to attempt to v. = abordare to solve v. confer. = fenomen corporation n. in a medical context. 2. = teorie microeconomică give. vâna. given v. Several other honorary degrees were conferred at the ceremony. chairman n. nervură. = cantitate to consist of v. ~ by objectives = managementul prin obiective. a soluţiona. = responsabil de II. bases n. a fi un pioner/deschizător de drumuri. (from) a rezulta. = bază. = preşedinte al unei adunări vein n. venă. LEXICAL COMMENTARY give. 2. = constrângere management n. donate. = a încerca să approach n. in the same ~ = în acelaşi stil. honor. or favor to somebody. present. a deschide drum/cale. grant (to hand over something to somebody) to give = to place something that you are holding in the temporary possession of another person I gave her my key. punct de plecare. = 1. reengineering n. = tehnologia informaţiei recognition n. temei. The award for lifetime achievement was bestowed on her not long before she died. management. to donate = to give a contribution to a charitable organization or other good cause. = a da .wikipedia. quality ~ = managementul calităţii. WORDS AND PHRASES basis. = logistică constraint n.org/wiki/Management) A. = a consta din responsible for adj. = cuprinzător phenomenon. He was presented with a consolation prize. to bestow = (formal) to present something. ~ in = a avea drept rezultat. especially something valuable or undeserved. conducere. VOCABULARY I. ~ birth to = a da naştere la. bestow. = 1.• Information technology management responsible for management information systems (adapted from http://en. to confer = (formal) to give something such as a title. to present = to give something in a formal or ceremonial way. to somebody. 103 . = 1. to give blood for blood transfusions or organs for transplant. în aceeaşi manieră microeconomic theory n. = recunoaştere practitioner n. logistics n. 2. textbook n. The painting was donated to the gallery by the artist's widow. = practicant amount n. comprehensive adj. = corporaţie to result v. phenomena n.

..... (7) humiliating other girls. Who applied the principles of psychology to management in the early 20th century? 7. (1) a car accident. When did the first comprehensive theories of management appear? 5. (11) attending social functions.. EXERCISES I... 8. (9) giving her an expensive birthday present. Everything depends . She takes great pleasure . full . saved . travel . (10) violence. (13) bankruptcy.... (10) getting up early. (8) abstract art. or privilege.. As I work the morning shift... (3) bearing her husband's rudeness. Duncan write the first college management textbook? 2. (8) playing in films. When did J. We were granted the right to appeal.. (6) drinking water between the courses. attitude ..to grant = to agree to allow a request.. She has always experienced great difficulty . (12) being nominated for the prize... Name some writers that approached the phenomenon of management from a sociological perspective..... III.. to have a sweet tooth. to see eye to eye with somebody. (1) taking our usual morning walk. abstain . engaged . Reading and Comprehension 1.. saved . When did Yoichi Ueno introduce Taylorism to Japan? 3...... (5) Romanian . (17) sense. B.. to bite one’s lips. (20) power 104 .. (12) a great speed. to keep an eye on. (7) enemies. He is very proud .. (6) devoid . to make eyes at somebody. (16) meaning. faithful . (4) our being in the right place at the right time. favor.... tremble . I am used . to escape by the skin of one’s teeth.. Who pioneered Japanese quality-assurance? 4...... What did The Harvard Business School invent in 1921? 6.. filled .. (14) the bell. translated .. We are quite surprised ... (4) a girl. dependent . (19) fear.. What does operations research attempt to do? 9. (11) drugs. Allow me to congratulate you .. covered . thirsty . to smack one’s lips. (18) one's wife. (9) strong beverages. in the teeth of. or formally or officially to give money or property..... surrounded . addicted . There is no harm .. (3) ink. (15) air.. IV... to hang (up) on somebody’s lips. Find the best Romanian equivalents for the following phrases: up to the eyes. (2) having become a lionized author. What are the six separate branches of business management? II.. written . Acting on the stage is very different . (2) snow.. Fill in each space with the correct preposition: killed .. Jennifer grew tired .. Supply the correct prepositions in front of the gerunds and gerundial constructions: The rainy weather prevented us . tooth and nail. At dinner he got on my nerves .. English. (5) your refusing such a tempting offer. to keep a stiff upper lip...

. some in . clarifică canalele de comunicare. Mai întâi. (15) islands are fertile to . (22) signs that there was . ea clarifică compartimentele şi sarcinile posturilor individuale.. . scheletul organizaţiei.... (25) gold.... (12) report sent home from .. In ... structura organizaţiei permite managerilor să aloce resurse către obiectivele definite prin plan. Translate into English: Structura unei organizaţii este considerată cadrul.. (26) later explorers reached .. (18) thousand kinds. There are . Columbus wrote of .. (http://www.. (17) trees of . (3) Europe believed that .. (7) West. (5) land of plenty.unibuc. (9) Caribbean landscape and described . Supply articles where necessary: Long before .htm) 105 .." From .. (6) perfect climate.. În al doilea rând.. precum şi responsabilii de realizarea sarcinilor. (19) flower.. (8) Atlantic Ocean... Scopul ei este sã reducă sau să uniformizeze incertitudinea privind comportamentul salariaţilor.... Din perspectivă managerială...V.. (4) earthly paradise. with .... (10) abundance and fertility of . (13) other side of . (1) birth of Christopher Columbus. Comunicarea se desfãşoară între compartimente şi posturile definite. (11) newlyfound islands.. (2) people in . clarifică ierarhia organizaţională. (16) extraordinary degree.. In his letters.. (30) paradise on .. lay to . (28) gold for .. he wrote: " ..... (23) king in ... (27) Andes and found ..ro/eBooks/StiinteADM/management/2.... (31) earth had at last come true. VI.. (21) West Indies he wrote: " I learned by .. În final. (24) South who owned many vessels filled with ... (20) fruit.. structura presupune numeroase scopuri... (29) taking...... (14) ocean. În al treilea rând.. it seemed that their dreams of ." When .. across . . some with . adică cine este superiorul şi cine este subordonatul..

manufacturing articles in their own homes or in small shops. financing. where the manufacturing process could be supervised. Soon after 1910 American firms established the first personnel departments. especially labor unions. an assistant foreman in the Midvale Steel Company. In the United States many engineers. During the 1980s and 1990s. however. Safety devices. In the next hundred years factories grew rapidly in size. including group health and life insurance and liberal retirement pensions. When a new article is to be manufactured it is given a design that will make it suitable for machine production. and facilities for rest and recreation were provided. Careful accounts are kept of the cost of each operation. Many such improvements were made at the insistence of employee groups. including office work. Constant inspection is made to keep output up to standard.4. and marketing. others make provision for employee 106 . Over the years. especially manufacturing. Each operation required to turn out an article or part was analyzed and studied minutely. In the third quarter of the 18th century steam power was applied to machinery. and people and machines were brought together under one roof in factories. The growth. This was the beginning of shop management. however. INDUSTRIAL MANAGEMENT The term industrial management applies to highly organized modern methods of carrying on industrial. was accompanied by much waste and inefficiency. The early studies resulted in a faster pace of work and the introduction of rest periods. plant cafeterias. Charts are used for recording the accomplishment of both workers and machines and for comparing them with established standards. thus adding to the welfare of employees and enhancing morale. and each step in its manufacture is planned. began to seek ways of improving plant efficiency. Specialists are employed to keep machines in good working condition and to ensure the quality of their production. The flow of materials through the plant is supervised to ensure that neither workers nor machines are idle. Some corporations permit employees to buy stock. including the machines and materials to be used. and in complexity of operation. Records were kept of the performance of workers and standards were adopted for each operation. spurred by the increased competition of the postCivil War era. and eventually some of the larger companies took the lead in creating environments conducive to worker efficiency. better sanitation.2. who in the 1880s undertook a series of studies to determine whether workers used unnecessary motions and hence too much time in performing operations at a machine. in degree of mechanization. The Development of Industrial Management Studies of Worker Performance The first sustained effort in the direction of improved efficiency was made by Frederick Winslow Taylor.3. The Rise of Factories Before the Industrial Revolution people worked with hand tools. cutbacks and downsizing in many American businesses substantially reduced many of these benefits. Other Aspects of Management The principles of scientific management have been gradually extended to every department of industry. and superfluous motions were eliminated. Management of the Machine Industrial management also involves studying the performance of machines as well as people. workers and their unions also sought and often won higher wages and increased benefits. operations.

sought v. and some have made efforts to solve such difficult problems as job security and a guaranteed annual wage. to manufacture v. = a căuta.S. a se ocupa cu. By carefully controlling the manufacturing process. pilot ~ = instalaţie pilot / experimentală. = 1. creştere. maşini. coke ~ = cocserie. and reduce inventory. sporire. a confecţiona . Such technological changes and the need to improve productivity and quality of products in traditional factory systems also changed industrial management practices. ~ power = energie cu abur. 3. foreman. which had once been criticized for producing low-quality goods. thus significantly reducing costs and improving quality. mecanism. maşinărie. growth n. (http://www. = 1. = 1.html) A. 2. 2. a îndemăna. 3. sought. a fi angajat în (o afacere). have made automatic and semiautomatic machines a reality. brigadier. known as quality circles. primul jurat. = 1. Many corporations provide special opportunities for training and promotion for workers who desire advancement. Modern Trends Modern technological devices. = aburi. = mecanizare. and mechanics. In the 1980s and early 90s many U. Workers were also given the right to stop the assembly line if something went wrong. In the 1960s Swedish automobile companies discovered that they could improve productivity with a system of group assembly. The system was also applied in Japan. machinery n. mecanism. One Japanese innovation. The development of such automation is bringing about a second industrial revolution and is causing vast changes in commerce as well as the way work is organized. improve productivity. VOCABULARY I. mechanization n. allowed workers to offer management suggestions on how to make production more efficient and to solve problems. instalaţie. particularly in the areas of computers. machine ~ = uzină constructoare de maşini. 2. = a fabrica . In a contrast to older manufacturing techniques where a worker was responsible for assembling only one part of the car. progres.com/doc/1E1-indust-man. creştere. = 1. a întreprinde (o acţiune). foremen n. waterpower ~ = centrală hidroelectrică. maistru. a se grăbi. a continua. instalaţii mecanice. a îmboldi. supraveghetor. By the early 1980s. utilaj .encyclopedia. 2.representation on the board of directors or on the shop grievance committee. 2. = 1. group assembly gave a group of workers the responsibility for assembling an entire car. Japanese managers were able to cut waste. 107 . steam n. a conduce (un proces). a duce mai departe. companies looked to increase their competitiveness by adapting Japanese methods for improving manufacturing quality. Japanese companies. şef de echipă. high-tech products. 2. 4. cat ~ = rafinărie de petrol. WORDS AND PHRASES to carry on v. where managers developed a number of other innovative systems to lower costs and improve the quality of products. to seek. mărire. electronics. 4. had established a reputation for efficiently producing high-quality. dezvoltare. to spur v. uzină. thermodynamics. cultură (a unei plante). structură. organ de maşină. 5. draining ~ = instalaţie de drenare. dezvoltare. a produce. combinaţie. plant n. cultivare. masinarie.

care cauzează/determină. = bufet/restaurant cu autoservire. = 1. to turn in = a preda (pe mâna poliţiei). = potrivit. grievance n. a confecţiona. 2. asamblare. 3. sanitation n. flow n. II. radioul etc. a medita/a chibzui asupra. care duce la. self-~ = mişcare independentă. 2. retezare. rotary ~ = mişcare de rotaţie. a prelua. =asigurare pe viată. to turn over = 1. = de calitate inferioară. a monta. = a mări. scurtare. a da afară. agregat. rest n. a concedia. a evacua (un chiriaă). minutely adv. pensie. perpetual ~ = mişcare perpetuă..). 2. to turn out v. 2. abuz. neither . a aprinde (lumina. flow ~/diagram = schema procesului tehnologic. curent. vărsare. = comitet de conducere. în amănunt. 2. = 1. a întoarce înapoi. a deschide. a izgoni. tăiere. (against) a se asigura (împotriva). doleanţă. adunare. salubritate. = bunuri. = automatizare. = 1. to turn down = 1. a intensifica. 3. 3.). prosperitate. board of directors n. stock n. a întoarce (o pagină). = sanitaţie. retirement n. = moral. plângere. to assemble v. 2. tabel. 1. brought about v.). nici chart n. whether conj. cafeteria n. curs (al unui râu). 2. = 1. 3. a garanta. = minuţios. to enhance v. 3. a alunga. retragere. a iniţia. a răsfoi. a stinge (lumina etc. 2. = dacă. autopropulsie. reversing ~ = mişcare în sens retrograd. fonduri. = 1. a răsfrânge. goods n. to turn up = a se ivi. a reduce intensitatea luminii/sunetului. ~ pension = pensie de bătrineţe. to bring. hartă marină. to turn on = 1.. = 1. = 1.. LEXICAL COMMENTARY to turn back = I.). automation n. a răsturna (un guvern). to turn off = a opri (apa etc. a întoarce pe toate părţile 3. a proba. 2. ~ line = linie de asamblare. = favorabil.. a-şi face apariţia. = a cauza. = 1. a convoca. a (se) preschimba în.). grafic. a spori. a face.corespunzător. a încerca. labor union n. = de calitate superioară. 2. a izgoni. pensionare. revendicare. montare. a experimenta. schemă. = mişcare. independenţa etc.to undertake. = odihnă. a aduna. motion n. a produce. a refuza/respinge o ofertă/ propunere/pe cineva. brought. a lua. = 1. curgere. nedreptate. = sindicat. a întoarce/a scoate (picioarele) în afară. suitable adj. a rumega (în minte). = bunăstare. a întreprinde. 3. a se întoarce din drum. undertaken v. = 1. a-şi sufleca. assembly n. a da drumul la (apa etc. device n. micşorare. flux. conducive to adj. morale n. ~s = acţiuni. = dispozitiv. scurgere. to turn into = a (se) transforma. undertook. diagramă. = capital. a întoarce/răsturna (brazda). 4. 108 . a alunga. welfare n. indoor ~ = instalaţii sanitare. a lua măsuri. high-quality adj. II. a da afară. cutback n. a îndoi. a face. nor = nici . reducere. 2. inventory n. life insurance n. a asambla. 2. to ensure v. 2. a asigura (îndeplinirea planului. 2. a face să se întoarcă. a fabrica. = inventar low-quality adj.

Why is the flow of materials through the plant supervised? 6. a rock 7. hair. turn out. with the words in list B. reducerea consumurilor specifice de materiale şi energie. turn down. wind. How did Swedish automobile companies improve productivity in the 1960s? 9. What was the result of Taylor’s studies? 5. old 8. a bee 2. turn off. controlului şi monitorizării acestora. Translate into English: Problematica conducerii şi supravegherii automate a proceselor tehnologice de fabricaţie a uleiurilor aditivate este de actualitate. so as to form well-known similes.com/doc/1E1-indust-man. turn up. temper. Conducerea asistată de calculator a proceselor de fabricaţie "dupa reţetă" contribuie la creşterea calităţii produsului final. air 1. (Adapted from http://www. How did people manufacture articles brfore the Industrial Revolution? 3.B. prin folosirea cu maximă eficientă a sistemelor numerice pentru reglarea automată şi optimizarea regimului de funcţionare. în vederea supravegherii. snow 9. Echiparea instalaţiilor tehnologice de aditivare cu aparatură de automatizare reprezintă o necesitate în acest domeniu. Group the words in list A. IV. white 10. la creşterea productivităţii muncii. though V.encyclopedia. mind.html) 109 . light 7. large 6. What is Frederick Winslow Taylor famous for? 4. Use the following phrasal verbs in sentences of your own: turn back. busy 3. EXERCISES I. life 6. the hills 4. turn over. Why are charts used? 7. în contextul în care majoritatea acestor procese necesită cunoaşterea în timp real a parametrilor de funcţionare. soft (using each of them 4 times) and the nouns eye. swift 10. hand. wit. turn into. blue 2. preceded and followed by as. foot. What does industrial managemnet apply to? 2. turn in. firm 4. honey 5. A 1. What right were Japanese workers given? II. sight. short. turn on. grass 3. sweet 9. which have actually become clichés: B. mouth. precum şi la diminuarea până la eliminare a riscului privind poluarea mediului. heart. What improvements were made at the insistence of labour unions after 1910? 8. green 5. Reading and Comprehension: 1. Give 12 compound-adjectives having the same structure as different-coloured and based on the adjectives open. III. the sky 8. head.

based on the type of activity: designing. The philosophy is to keep improving the quality of an organization. comprising of the ISO 9001:1994. The ISO 9004:2000 document gives guidelines for performance improvement over and above the basic standard (i. The following diagram is the Shewhart cycle (PDCA) for quality improvement. ISO 9001:2000). The last revision was in the year 2000 and the series was called ISO 9000:2000 series. ISO 9002 and 9003 standards are not valid. and take on leadership. • management should learn their responsibilities. develop and implement a product or service are effective and efficient with respect to the system and its performance. productivity. which were applicable in different types of industries.3.2. Since December 2003. 9002:1994 and 9003:1994 versions. • institute a programme of education and self-improvement.5. The standards have been regularly reviewed every few years by the International Organization for Standardization. made popular by Deming. ISO 9002:1987 and ISO 9003:1987. among which: • break down barriers between departments. However the ISO 9002 and 9003 standards were integrated and one single certifiable standard was created under ISO 9001:2000. production or service delivery. QUALITY MANAGEMENT Quality management is a method for ensuring that all the activities necessary to design. and the organizations previously holding these standards need to do a transition from the old to the new standards. 110 . and competitive position. Quality Improvement W. • improve constantly. Edwards Deming is best known for his management philosophy establishing quality.e. These were the ISO 9000:1987 series of standards comprising ISO 9001:1987. It is defined by four keys: • Plan: Design or revise business process components to improve results • Do: Implement the plan and measure its performance • Check: Assess the measurements and report the results to decision makers • Act: Decide on changes needed to improve the process Quality Standards The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) created the Quality Management System (QMS) standards in 1987. He has formulated 14 points of attention for managers. The version of these standards was revised in 1994 and was called the ISO 9000:1994 series.

to review n. to give somebody a break = to stop nagging or criticizing somebody. to design v. standard n. so that key actions. distibuire. = a verifica. to implement v. to measure v. = auto-perfecţionare. to assess v. 2. a concepe. hazard n. comprising adj. to address v. = a acoperi. = siguranţă. to break down v. known as Critical Control Points (CCP's) can be taken to reduce or eliminate the risk of the hazards being realised. safety n. The system is used at all stages of food production and preparation processes. livrare. WORDS AND PHRASES quality management = managementul calităţii. a dărâma. II. HACCP is used in the food industry to identify potential food safety hazards. Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP) is a systematic preventative approach to food safety that addresses physical. = a se adresa.wikipedia. = a crea. = a îmbunătăţi. VOCABULARY I. = a certifica. means. pericol. chemical and biological hazards as a means of prevention rather than finished product inspection. ISO 9000 standards do not certify the quality of the product or service. a distruge. = a implementa. a doborî.The Quality Management System standards created by ISO are meant to certify the processes and the system of an organization and not the product or service itself. to check v. This standard covers the values and principles of ISO 9000 and the HACCP standards. 111 . = serie. = prevenire. means n. to certify v. series. preventative adj. prevention n. to cover v. = mijloc.org/wiki/Quality_management) A. Recently the International Organization released a new standard. = preventiv (syn. = a evalua. meant for the food industry. guideline n. It gives one single integrated standard for the food industry and is expected to become more popular in the coming years in such industry. a sfărâma. preventive) approach n. delivery n. keep + vb-ing = a continua să. with respect to = în ceea ce priveşte. = abordare. = cuprinzător. series n. or start treating somebody fairly (informal). self-improvement n. (adapted from http://en. = a măsura. = 1. ISO 22000. LEXICAL COMMENTARY to break even = to make neither a profit nor a loss from a venture. = standard. = furnizare. to improve v. primezdie. = reper. = a revizui. quality ~s = standarde de calitate. = risc.

don't fix it = do not try to improve something that is satisfactory as it is (informal).. I walked a lot. Before I left for London. Use in sentences of your own the following phrasal verbs: break asunder. I had to be very careful. spectacles. (7) biscuits and ... a little. Reading and Comprehension 1. How many points of attention for managers did W. glasses. which sound similar. (3) 1 knew was hardly correct... their wishes. particularly when they seem utterly devoid . spirits.. I visited the museums to which admission is free. I am almost embarrassed . my fellow-countrymen on occasions such as this. I had saved . break out.. thinking I might buy . violation. 4. break into. EXERCISES I. but break has a wider range of meaning and is the more frequent of the two. any manners at all.. What are the four key elements of the Shewhart cycle? 5. (9) of Turner's art.. (12) money... Now that I am back...if it ain't broke. compasses.. because I knew . On top of all. as in to break a window.. spending a lot of time at Tate Gallery. see that they are pleased .. saw all the sights. I had to save . but there are . break down. 112 ... I thought there was . (11) things you can do if you have so ... Insert (the) little. Both words can be used as nouns or verbs... (5) books and postcards.. to make a clean break = to end a relationship or association completely and permanently Break or brake? Do not confuse the spelling of break and brake. (8) milk every morning. (6) to pay for everything.. III. It seems entirely compatible .. By whom and when were the Quality Management System standards created? 6. to break the rules... Edwards Deming best known for? 3.. admit that I feel extremely ashamed .. Edwards Deming formulate? Enumerate four of them.... their accommodation.. or interruption.. I am relieved . 2. a few in the following sentences: I would like to tell you . minutes.. (10) friends in London and they put me up for the duration of my stay. pains. and they have a whole section devoted to him.. For breakfast. a break for refreshments.. (13) for the return trip..... generally referring to separation. (the) few... Explain the meaning of the following plurals: colours. Put one of these words in each of the gaps below: that to with at of on for in by 1.. I did not have to pay for hotel accommodation.. I realize that even .... Luckily. (4) money... IV. What is quality management? 2. V. What is W..... break up.. (2) 1 didn't know about the English way of life. as I have ... destruction.. Brake means "a device used to slow or stop a vehicle" or "apply a brake" and is sometimes B. break away. What is HACCP and where is it used? II. I had only . (1) things about my trip to Great Britain. but once in London I found out it was too .

.. the result.. share these weaknesses with many others. servicii..... such obscure sports? 8.. I was interested . the job and the one most likely . Obiectivul acestuia este de a stabili cerinţe internaţionale pentru sistemul de management al calităţii în orice domeniu (producătorii.........dqsromania.. I know I should be ashamed ..... Translate into English: Standardul ISO 9001:2000 este un standard generic....... he will prove to be the most likely person ....... himself and is intent . but I really am upset .... I a m a w a r e .ro/produse/iso9001........ admit that I am saddened ...... read that many fans had expressed amazement ... she's leaving.. Isn't it amazing ..... Un certificat ISO 9001:2000 dovedeste ca un anume sistem de management al calităţii întruneşte toate cerinţele acestui standard internaţional. It's a pretty awful thing . so many people take an interest .. upsetting her. creaţie).. proving he can pass. do it properly.. but we are not convinced his success can be taken for granted.... (http://www..... It is probable ... VI.. y o u r deficiencies and the areas you are lacking practice .. I'm afraid speak to her about this because I'm frightened ......3.html) 113 .. 6.. 4. I know he's very sure . young Paula's being written out of my favourite soap... 7...... just as I am aware you .... have to admit...... Managementul calităţii reprezintă ceea ce practică organizaţiile pentru a asigura produse şi servicii în conformitate cu cerintele clientilor sai. 5..

Mechanics is the original discipline of physics. Classical mechanics has especially often been viewed as a model for other so-called exact sciences. as well as the decisive role played by experiment in generating and testing them. civil engineering.II. However it was Galileo.g. classical mechanics came first. Just as one could. Analogous to the quantum vs.1. and quantum mechanics with "small" ones (such as particles). It is therefore a huge body of knowledge about the natural world. classical reformation. Einstein's general and special theories of relativity have expanded the scope of mechanics beyond the mechanics of Newton and Galileo. Mechanics also constitutes a central part of technology. while quantum mechanics didn't appear until 1900.The major division of the mechanics discipline separates classical mechanics from quantum mechanics. The discipline has its roots in ancient Greece where Aristotle studied the way bodies behaved when they were thrown through the air (e. and the subsequent effect of the bodies on their environment. aerospace engineering. TEXTS FOR MECHANICAL ENGINEERING 2. A person working in the discipline is known as a mechanician. structural engineering. Important aspects of the fields of mechanical engineering. formally at least. Classical mechanics is older than written history.2. Kepler and especially Newton who lay the foundation for much of the so called Newtonian mechanics we know today. as a sub-discipline which applies under certain restricted circumstances. materials engineering. For practical problems. Essential in this respect is the relentless use of mathematics in theories. biomedical engineering and biomechanics were spawned from the study of mechanics. a stone). this is only true on the hypothetical or foundational level. In this connection. mechanics is used to design and analyze the behavior of structures. and machines. the application of physical knowledge for humanly defined purposes. While it is true that historically quantum mechanics has been seen as having superseded classical mechanics.4. the discipline is often known as engineering or applied mechanics. Mechanics encompasses the movement of all matter in the universe under the four fundamental interactions (or forces): gravity. According to the correspondence principle. each simply pertains to specific situations. of the widest scope. characterize classical mechanics as dealing with "large" bodies (such as engine parts). Quantum mechanics is. the strong and weak interactions.There are no contradictions or conflicts between the two.4. there is no contradiction or conflict between the two subjects. Historically. MECHANICS Mechanics is the branch of physics concerned with the behaviour of physical bodies when subjected to forces or displacements. although relativity is categorized as a classical theory. In this sense. mechanisms. and made small corrections to them. classical mechanics is able to solve problems which are unmanageably difficult in quantum mechanics and hence remains useful and well used. Both are commonly held to constitute the most certain knowledge that exists about physical nature. Relativistic corrections were also needed for quantum mechanics. it could be said that relativistic mechanics deals with "fast" bodies. so long as the specific circumstances are carefully kept in mind. while quantum mechanics is a comparatively recent invention. and the electromagnetic interaction. in the loosest possible sense. and can be seen as encompassing classical mechanics. dealing with the macroscopic world that humans perceive. and non-relativistic mechanics 114 .

a da la o parte. On the other hand. Otherwise. a poseda 4. relentless adj. whether classical or quantum. trup. nu este de competenţa mea. 2. de domeniul cu gen. = 1. to hold. 2. a asalta. within the ~ of în limitele/cadrul cu gen. Thus the often-used term body needs to stand for a wide assortment of objects. etc. i. cadavru. 2. un om cu orizonturi/vederi largi. aparat optic. orizont. 2. gamă. but retain a simplicity close to that of the particle. adding just a few so-called degrees of freedom. intindere. înv ţintă. a-şi da seama de/că. a năpădi. a elimina. = 1. 3. a înlătura. to supersede v. deplasare. asiduu. fluid. câmp. in sfera. = 1. a avea de-a face/legătură cu. 2. spacecraft. bis. corp. an undertaking of wide ~ o iniţiativă sau o intreprindere de mare amploare/de anvengură. 3. tehn. neînduplecat. a încercui. This means that all mechanics. neprecupeţit. lungime de lanţ filat la apă. parts of machinery. necruţător. to encompass v. elastic. 2.with "slow" ones. a percepe (cu simţurile). = I. individ. 6. om. treated as mathematical points in classical mechanics. (d. posibilităţi. bot. For instance: The motion of a spacecraft. to pertain to v. 3. projectiles. a percepe (cu mintea). a mind of wide ~ o minte/un spirit cu vederi largi. a trăi de azi pe mâine. 2. to keep ~ and soul together a-şi ţine zilele. bodies may be semi-rigid. regarding its orbit and attitude (rotation). şi ca sg. i. a înţelege. 5. a recunoaşte. 1.e. = 1. a determina. neîndurător.e. II.org/wiki/Mechanics) A. 3. a observa. a aparţine de sau cu dat. However. 2. 115 . tulpină (de pom). 4. (by) a înlocui (prin. griji etc) a nu da pace (cuiva). = 1. strămutare. 4. VOCABULARY WORDS AND PHRASES mechanics n. body n. depending on the state of motion of the observer.. or non-rigid. implacabil. one may frequently arrange the situation in such a way that this is not really required. held v. a îndepărta (un funcţionar etc). such as orientation in space. 4. cu). is described by the relativistic theory of classical mechanics. 5. înlocuire. stars. = 1. naos. 1. parts of solids. a (se) considera. a sta/ a şedea bine cuiva. 2. aspect mecanic (al unei operaţii etc. = pl 1. (adapted from http://en. = I. a stăpâni. sferă. transfer. a fi caracteristic/propriu cu dat. to give free ~ to one’s imagination a da frâu liber imaginaţiei. înfăţişare fizică. a încojura. "fast" and "slow" are subjective concepts. a chinui. = 1. a ţine (în mână). a cuprinde. a cauza. 3. a privi cu ac. potentially needs to be described relativistically. a se referi la. corp. a zări. parte principală. 2. nav. fiz. corp neînsufleţit. a închide. libertate. displacement n. 1. 2. Particles are bodies with little (known) internal structure. a conţine. a (se) socoti. navă 7. held. While analogous motions of an atomic nucleus are described by quantum mechanics. a observa. a stăpâni. it is beyond my ~ mă depăşeşte. persoană. scope n. fig. fizic. a ocupa. 3. a avea drepturi/autoritate asupra cu gen. These subjects have both classical and quantum divisions of study. a pricepe. parts of fluids (gases and liquids). Other distinctions between the various subdisciplines of mechanics. diapazon 4. 5. opt. a vedea. mecanică. periscop. scop. neabătut.wikipedia. he has full/free ~ are deplină libertate de acţiune. as an observer. a deţine. to perceive v.). fără preget. ca sg. Rigid bodies have size and shape. concern the nature of the bodies being described. including particles.

6. 7. câmp. ambele sunt considerate ca – b______ a__ h______ to 4. to conquer the ~ şi fig. 10. Each line stands for one word: 1. 3. grup. la baseball). câmp (de vedere. a învinge. unitate de informatie. 5. to ~ smb a blow a lovi pe cineva. flying ~ aerodrom. datul cărţilor. a pierde bătălia. auto caroserie. 9. a intra în luptă. busuioc. ~ artillery artilerie de câmp. a împărţi. teren. 9. cib. astru. mod de a trata. administra. ~ engine tractor. II. a întruchipa. mulţime. 11. Historically. păşune 2. sistem. 16. ~ basil bot. Complete the following phrases. Mechanics is the branch of chemistry concerned with the behaviour of physical bodies. dealt v. zi consacrată vânătorii. magnetic etc). dealt. au extins orizontul mecanicii – e______ the s______ of m________ III. ~ night seara/noapte memorabilă/de pomină. 12. zi plină de evenimente. field n. mil unitate. to enter the ~ şi fig. = I. 1. a da trup cu dat. ieşire în teren. a pune bazele – l____ the f_________ 2. 8. comportare. 3. manevre. What does mechanics encompass? II. serviciu activ. a distribui. Tick the statements true or false: 1. etc. 1. majoritate. to keep the ~ a continua lupta. teren (deschis). excursiilor etc. corp ceresc. totalitate. masă. bazin. corp. scoruş. fig. a da. aspecte importante ale domeniilor – i________ a______ o_ the f________ 3. Phrases to learn. conduită. deal n. fond (al unei picturi). regiune. ~ duty mil. aeroport. 10 el. 2. B. câmp de luptă/bătaie sau luptă. The discipline of mechanics is often known as engineering or applied mechanics. to take the ~ a se duce la război. sport participanţii la o competiţie sau cei mai valoroşi participanţi la o competiţie. 4. organ. câmp. sferă. 2. What type of mechanics is known to better solve practical problems? 5.8. 116 . while classical mechanics is a comparatively recent invention. retortă. quantum mechanics came first. fig. to lose the ~ a fi învins. What are the differences between classical mechanics and quantum mechanics? 4. a prezenta pe teren (jucătorii de fotbal etc). 14. EXERCISES I. 13. min zăcământ. to hold the ~ a-şi menţine poziţiile. What are classical and quantum mechanics? 2. a începe lupta. 2. bătălie. grup. 2. domeniu. el. fig. II. a face (cărţile). = I. exerciţii tactice pe teren. Which are some of the most important names related to mechanics and physics? 3. pol. 3. = 1. organizaţie. Reading and comprehension 1. servit. fuzelaj. ~ day mil. astr. alambic. in the ~ of literature în domeniul literaturii. pol sistem de măsuri (guvernamentale). excitaţie II sport. ogor. to do/make a ~ with smb a face o afacere cu cineva. ~ ash bot. LEXICAL COMMENTARY to deal. av. a fi victorios. 2. a prinde şi a arunca înapoi (mingea. 1.

John was standing on a … painting the ceiling. tin opener. saw. quantum mechanics is able to solve problems which are unmanageably difficult in classical mechanics and hence remains useful and well used. You put paint onto something using a … 14. shears. studiul deformaţiilor plastice ale corpurilor solide. Nuts can be loosened or tightened with a … 15. A … is a blade with sharp teeth along one edge. mallet. 20. spanner. device 1. hammer. 117 . Cercetările fundamentale sunt. 2. Se poate vorbi despre cercetare fundamental-orientată în domenii ca: deformaţiile corpurilor plastice. A … is a tool used for making holes. 7.4. corkscrew. I saw some children carrying their buckets and … to the beach. plane. potentially needs to be described relativistically. A … is a kind of strong tool for holding an object firmly. All mechanics. marea întreprindere. Screws can be turned with a … 6. brush. The hairdresser took a pair of … and cut the girl’s hair. În domeniul fizicii. IV. 5. 8. The carpenter uses a … to make a smooth surface. 16. V. file. When I opened the door. întrevede un interes comercial real. motoare cu ardere internă fără piston. We pull corks out of bottles by using a … 12. We drive a nail into wood with the help of a … 4. în general. tape measure. Rigid bodies have size and shape. For practical problems. cercetarea fundamentală poate fi cercetarea relativităţii sau cercetarea structurii materiei. screwdriver. paintbrush. caracterizate prin faptul că sunt dirijate de către domenii în care compania. 7. but retain a simplicity close to that of the particle. One can cut down trees or chop logs with the help of an … 11. ladder. În această categorie pot fi incluse şi cercetările fundamental-orientate. etc. A … is a steel tool with a rough surface for smoothing or rubbing away wood or metal. Garden hedges are cut with the … 18. previziunea mişcărilor seismice. pincers. A … is a small wooden hammer. I needed a … to open this tin. spades. 3. 13. noi surse de energie. used for cutting wood or other materials. sieve. Cement or plaster can be spread onto walls with a … 17. studiul acceleraţiilor de ordin superior. de exemplu. 5. cercetări teoretice dirijate către progresul ştiinţei fără luarea în considerare a posibilităţilor de aplicare practică într-un viitor previzibil. Translate into English: 1. 19. trowel. drill. Mother poured the soup through a … to remove all the lumps. Complete the sentences below with one of the appropriate words or phrases connected with TOOLS: axe. 9. 10. scissors. 6. Particles are bodies with little (known) internal structure. Tailors use … to measure the cloth or the size of your body. whether classical or quantum.

118 . obţinerea uleiurilor sintetice cu proprietăţi superioare din punct de vedere al peliculei de lubrifiant. în condiţiile aceluiaşi volum de material. în scopul realizării unor produse cu calităţi superioare. studiul proceselor tehnologice în vederea creşterii performanţelor produselor. extinderea sau restrângerea liniilor tehnologice.2. Cercetările aplicative sunt cercetări dirijate către obţinerea de noi cunoştinţe care au aplicabilitate imediată în exploatarea comercială a produselor şi proceselor tehnologice. etc. a unor procese tehnologice perfecţionate şi mai economice. obţinerea unor aditivi pentru uleiuri în vederea micşorării uzurii. obţinerea unor materiale plastice care să înlocuiască materialele metalice neferoase deficitare. mai competitive. Ca domenii de cercetare aplicativă se pot exemplifica: mărirea capacităţii portante a angrenajelor sau a rulmenţilor.

the velocity ratio of a lifting arrangement of this particular type is given simply by ‘the number of ropes which descend to the bottom block’. moist air. the ‘top’ pulley block is attached to a fixed point. (If the end of the rope were fixed to the top block. and then consider what happens to the load and the effort. industrial applications are mainly confined to pulley arrangements consisting of two separate sets of pulleys mounted in pulley blocks. and this shortening is shared by ‘the ropes which descend to the bottom block’. The final deposit in the rusting of iron is a particular iron oxide chemically combined with water. Corrosion Corrosion is the removal of particles of metals and alloys by chemical action. then. The actual reactions are extremely complex. The other end of the rope.2. If there are n pulleys on the bottom block but the rope is fixed to the top block. If there are n pulleys on the bottom block. If the effort moves a distance of x.4. iron compounds called ferrous hydroxide and ferric carbonate are formed. it will be observed that both air and water are necessary for the corrosion of iron by rusting. Such an electric cell needs an electrolyte such as acidified water. these will react with moisture to form acidic solutions. In other cases it may be advisable to let one particular spindle rotate by one revolution. is attached to the body of one pulley block. In some cases it may be advisable to imagine the effort to move one meter. the total length of rope between the blocks shortens by this distance x. the rapidity of this type of corrosion depending upon the prevailing conditions. In general terms. They are connected by a continuous rope. the velocity ratio is 2n+1. In operation. but there is reasonable ground for suggesting that during the process of oxidizing iron to the hydrated oxide of iron known as rust. producing 119 . Let us presume that in one particular assembly the bottom block has four pulleys and that the end of the rope is finally attached to the bottom block. the velocity ratio is 2n. such as a beam. In the case where nine ropes descended to the bottom block. and follow the events through the machine to determine the corresponding movement of the load.2. the rope also being fastened tot the bottom block. while the load is suspended from the ‘bottom’ pulley block. Colloquially it would be said then ‘nine ropes descend to the bottom block’. eight ropes would descend to the bottom block). Most metals are oxidized by the atmosphere. tap water and air-free water respectively. If four separated pieces of iron are left for a time in dry air. Hence if the surrounding air contains sulphur compounds. the blocks would approach each other by x/9 and hence the load would be lifted by x/9. each machine should be treated on its own merits. DETERMINATION OF VELOCITY RATIOS In determining the velocity ratio of a particular machine. Corrosion is generally considered to be an electrolytic process in which small electric cells are formed on the surface of metal. We will consider some standard types of machines and determine their velocity ratios. Pulley blocks Although many science laboratories contain interesting arrangements of pulley blocks which provide useful exercises in determining velocity ratios. after passing around pulleys alternately in the two blocks. to one end of which an effort is applied.

traversă de punte. 4. = 1. strat. ratio n. text. revolution n. 2. 10. motriv. măsuri. a depune. 3. 11. 7. a bloca. = 1. 2. fig. sport a stopa. a opri. rânduială. bloc. 4. rotire. adaptare. met. revoluţie. Reading and comprehension 1. clişeu. = 1. sabot. = viteza de deplasare (a unui obiect. pilier. corrosion n. casă de bârne. = prostănac. tehn. = 1. pl. 5. a se lungi. What is one of the standard types of machines mentioned in the text? 120 . grindă. aranjare. pleasure without ~ plăcere neumbrită de nimic to alloy v. ordine. prelucrare. deposit n. a depune (mâl etc. 7. 3. accord. nav. a bloca. scripete. 8. 6. balustru. nav. in the ~ în bloc. icre etc). Science for Mechanical Technicians. blockish adj. II. clasificare. 15. eşafod. to block v. mănunchi de raze. corrosion of metals in industrial areas is more rapid than in rural areas. 3. = 1. 4. 157-8) A. a depozita. 3. 9. 3. ~ up a umple (cu cărămidă). 2. distribui etc. tehn. ~ in a schiţa. corelaţie. sediment. calapod. raport de transmisie. EXERCISES I. 4. netot. aranjamente. 3. turaţie. rază. baracă. blocadă. to deposit v. baricadă.. 2. = 1.. 8. fig. traversă mobilă. strat. 2. bloc. butuc. pulley n. bani depuşi la bancă. ec. aranjament. 8. înţelegere. muz. met. punere în ordine. scripete. potrivire. (în S. moisture n. 4. mişcare giratorie. corodare. pregătiri. rotaţie. poziţie. 2. grindei (de plug). ch. bloc. deposit. raţiune. a retuşa. = 1. a pune piedici în calea cu gen. reglare. aureolă. osie. nav. rânduire. aşeza. bară. traversă. met. med. grămadă. a depune. 6. WORDS AND PHRASES velocity n. a creşte în lungime. bloc de oţel. 2. ~house mil cazemată. buştean. 3. tehn. ~ out a schiţa (un plan). 2. 2. = 1. proporţie. pp. 2. fus. gripare. a aşeza. in direct ~ direct proporţional. bloc de piatră. a depune (ouă. zăcamânt.). = 1. = umezeală. mil. etc) într-o anumită direcţie. aranjament. 5. 5. 2. = 1. LEXICAL COMMENTARY block n. adaos (nedorit). tijă. 1. lespede.U. pol. tehn. calotă. 6. a împiedica. revoluţie. tehn. nimb. traversă. bloc. a sedimenta. amenajări. VOCABULARY I. troliu. 7. 12. = 1. aliaj. ruginire. coroziune. 3. depunere. (braţ de) balanţă. arbore. 13. poligr. sediment. = blocare. învoială.) corp de case. mod de a aranja. fig (om) prost. a precipita. fig. = 1. deposit. grupare. roată de transmisie. spindle = n. relaţie. răzmeriţă. ec. to spindle v. a creiona. G. deposit. tehn. blockage n. Book 1. tehn. umiditate. cauză. raport. astr. amestec. Consequently. beam n. a creşte drept şi subţire. a umbri (fericirea etc. tehn. blum. (mişcare de) revoluţie. = tehn. 9. arrangement n. 2. lăţime (a navei). 5. lit. (Page. a se întinde. constr. filos.electrolytes which accelerate corrosion.). blockade n.. bot. B. 2. precipitat. a bloca. tel. probă (a unui metal preţios). ch. agr. a alia. mat. carnet de notiţe. pol. răscoală. a pune. ax. 3. blocare. = 1. vrej. min. 14. alloy n. geol. aranjament. 3. M. to raise the ~ a ridica blocada. bot. butuc. geol. 4. poligr. lujer. a strica. infundare. fort. geol. 3. cap sec. 2.A.

One makes a car turn left or right by turning the … 7. The … is a piece of equipment fitted to a car to reduce its noise. dashboard. distributor. He switched on the car’s … and the engine started running. 5. A … is the framework that a vehicle is built on. 2. The car’s … read 80 miles per hour. 11. 16. 7. boot. 9. cylinder. The car won’t start because the … needs recharging. 18. you can’t see the road well. 2. the car goes faster. 10. Corrosion of metals in rural areas is more rapid than in industrial areas. 4. number plate. What is this machine used for? What is velocity ratio? How would you define corrosion? What are the factors that influence corrosion? II. The … dropped swiftly toward zero showing that we had run out of fuel. Corrosion is the removal of particles of metals and alloys by physical action. 20. seat. The … carries the gas or smoke out ofr the engine of a car. His new car has a five. Tick the statements true or false 1. the velocity ratio is 4n. When you press the … with your foot. ignition. The velocity ratio of a lifting arrangement of this particular type is given simply by ‘the number of ropes which mount to the top block’. radiator. A … is a sign on the front and the back of a car that shows its registration number. The driver blew his … when a child ran in front of his car. tyres. The … in the engine of a car is a device that reduces the amount of air going into the engine and makes it easier to start. petrol gauge. windscreen wiper. Complete the sentences below with one of the appropriate words or phrases connected with THE CAR: accelerator. Industrial applications are mainly confined to pulley arrangements consisting of two separate sets of pulleys. 13. horn. choke. 12. If there is no water in the …. It is dangerous to drive with a dirty …. 8. hubcup. III. 5. 6. exhaust-pipe. brake 1. If there are n pulleys on the bottom block but the rope is fixed to the top block. Let’s lift the … and have a look at the engine. The … in a car is a device that sends electric current to the spark plugs in the engine. 6. 121 . 15. 3. wing. 17. clutch. safety belt. 19. speedometer.… engine. windscreen. headlight. chassis. Remove the … and loosen the nuts with a spanner. battery. 5. each machine should not be treated on its own merits. bumper. 3. In determining the velocity ratio of a particular machine. Neither air nor water are necessary for the corrosion of iron by rusting. your engine will overheat immediately. 14. engine. silencer. spark plug. bonnet. 3. A … is a bar at the front and the back of a car that provides extra protection if the car collides with anything.2. 4. 4. steering wheel. The … is the panel facing the driver’s seat where most of the switches are.

Cu cât complexitatea sistemelor moderne este mai mare. pe de o parte. Uzura morală. de exemplu. la baza proiectării maşinilor a stat criteriul obţinerii unei durabilităţi cât mai ridicate. datorate unor cauze imprevizibile. prezintă durabilităţi diferite. 27. please! 23. Se observau totuşi deteriorări întâmplătoare. mult mai frecvent pot apărea deteriorări întâmplătoare ale elementelor componente. The front … of the cars was damaged in the accident. Mai mult. un mecanism. I switched on the … to light up the road ahead. As it was getting dark. puse în exploatare în aceleaşi condiţii de solicitare şi de mediu. implicaţiile economice. I stepped hard on the … and the car stopped. A … in the engine is a device which produces the electrical spark that ignites the fuel.. repartiţia durabilităţii elementelor aparent identice este aleatorie. însă. I couldn’t get my … started so I left the car there. Nu se puteau identifica mijloace pentru a le evita. Elemente sau sisteme aparent identice din punct de vedere ale materialului. noţiunea de fiabilitate fiind inclusă în noţiunea de calitate. IV. un ansamblu mecanic. electronic sau hidraulic. pe de altă parte. Open the … and put my suitcase in. formei şi tehnologiei. nu trebuie să apară deteriorări). o maşină. mai ales la elementele aflate în mişcare. au făcut ca obţinerea unei durabilităţi cât mai ridicate să nu mai constituie un unic criteriu în proiectare. A … is a movable arm of metal with a rubber edge that clears rain from a windscreen. Unele sisteme sunt destinate să funcţioneze o perioadă scurtă de timp (în care. 28. un sistem format din asemenea circuite. Nu se putea cuprinde în calcule previziunea acestor deteriorări. 22. la circuite. Până acum câteva decenii. Translate into English: Fiabilitatea unui sistem (fie acesta un simplu element. 26. cu atât posibilitatea apariţiei deteriorărilor întâmplătoare este mai mare. Evoluţia ştiinţei şi tehnicii. etc. The … of this car don’t have enough air in them. I would have been killed if I had not been wearing a … 29. 25. 24. The … is the mechanism that allows the power from the engine to be disconnected from the wheels when you change gear. 122 . Echipamentele moderne sunt mult mai complexe.21. 30. poate să impună limitarea durabilităţii. un circuit electric. etc) este probabilitatea ca acesta să funcţioneze (să îndeplinească corect funcţiunea) o anumită perioadă de timp în anumite condiţii de funcţionare şi de mediu (impuse prin temă).

pp. îndoliat. = a smulge. mangled adj. The bodies were so badly burnt and mutilated they had to be identified from dental records. Rescue teams sealed off the site and began examining the mangled wreckage. taxi v. The plane ploughed into a field and broke apart. resturi. it is likely that they will be sued for damages by the victims’ families. VOCABULARY I. take off and crash after a nose-dive. An airbus crashed fifty yards short of the runway at Bradley Airport yesterday and exploded on impact.. the wreck caught fire and burned. runway n.4. within seconds of being cleared to land. He said he could hear the people in the plane screaming. M. = a pierde din putere. Limba engleză pentru jurnalişti. Civil aviation experts examined the wreckage the next day and blamed the pilot’s handling of the aircraft for the disaster. WORDS AND PHRASES to plough v. 27. He attempted to rescue the passengers but had to be dragged away from the scene for his own safety. impact n. where emergency exists are located. B. pall n. = îndurerat. falter v. 126. Otto. = a pica în zig-zag. The son of the pilot. = impact. who had watched the plane taxi across the field. = a merge pe sol (înainte de decolare sau după aterizare. = în cod internaţional: semnal de ajutor. mayday call n. drag v.2. Surprisingly. trying to piece together what had gone wrong. As fuel poured out. aterizare). Most of the victims were found still strapped in their seats. wreckage n. Though messages of sympathy were sent to the bereaved by airline authorities. ablaze adj. = revizie generală. 250. But. nose-dive n. there was no “black box” flight recorder on the aircraft but radio transmissions indicated that the accident was probably caused by a technical error. the plane had burst into flames and had plummeted to the ground. mutilate v. There were no survivors among the 123 on board including 10 crew members.3. Four people died yesterday when their aircraft bound for Pamon crashed and burst into flames soon after take-off. ran across to the plane but it was already ablaze. Eyewitnesses reported hearing a faltering engine noise and seeing a pall of black smoke behind the craft. AEROPLANE CRASHES 1. zdrobit. overhaul n. The inquiry revealed that it was to be the plane’s last flight before an engine overhaul. = în flăcări. bereaved adj. = distrus. It had suffered engine failure and the pilot had sent a mayday call requesting an emergency landing. a avea sincope. = nor gros. = pistă (decolare.). 123 .= rămăşiţe. 2. plummet v. = a se prăbuşi în picaj. = a mutila. în bot (av. (Otto. negru. The wreckage suggested that the fire was the fiercest over the wings. vol. I) A. but they burned to death before the fire-fighters arrived. = a (se)prăbuşi.

B. 9. loss. What suggests that the pilot of the jet was aware of the danger? 4. Each line stands for one word: 1. = 1. What are the basic differences between the two accidents described in the report? 2. în drum spre – b__________ f__________ 3. = 1. a lipsi/a deposeda/a priva/ a văduvi de. fierceness n. The plane ploughed into a field on the outskirts of Palmon. LEXICAL COMMENTARY to bereave of. 3. he was unable to help the people inside the wreck. pornit. impetuozitate. Reading and comprehension 1. EXERCISES I. Because of the heat. then crashed. Tick the statements true or false: 1. Complete the following phrases. 3. The airbus burned very quickly. bereft of v. a suferi avarii ale motorului – s_________ e__________ f___________ 6. The pilot of the airbus was unaware of the danger. IV. active. 11. grozav. hapsân. hain. a învinui pentru dezastru – b_______ f_________ the d_________ 5. 7. The inquiry concluded that the accident happened because of a human error. a trimite condoleanţe celor îndureraţi/îndoliaţi – s_______ m__________ of s__________ to the b__________ III. fioros. bereavement n. The son of the pilot was sitting in a taxi when the accident happened. aprig. feroce. vehement. căldură. a identifica după fişele dentare – i_________ f_____ d_____ r________ 7. 6. fierce adj. The airbus was to be removed permanently from service following that flight. deprivation. violenţă. cumplit. Phrases to learn. The airline may be held responsible for negligence. 4. All the occupants of the plane died because of the impact of the crash. extraordinary. synonyms: affliction. energic.II. violent. Could the people in the first accident have been saved? 3. a se aprinde şi a arde în flăcări – c______ f_________ and b________ i_____ f_______ 2. 2. înverşunare. cu violenţă. = ferocitate. 12. Complete the sentences below with one of the appropriate words or phrases connected with TRAVELLING BY AIR: 124 . sălbatic. destitution. 2. vânt) insuportabil. 10. cu sălbăticie. = pierdere grea. 4. răpire. death. What methods are used to establish the cause of the accident? II. 123 people died in the accident. 5. nestăpânit. (d. fiercely adv. = feroce. rău. a încerca să salveze – a___________ to r_________ 4. Some of the bodies could not be identified immediately. grozav. 2. a izola locul – s_________ o_________ the s___________ 8. The plane first burst into flames. 8. a răpi cu ac. insuportabil.

A … is a large building where aircraft are kept. copilot. food is sometimes dropped by … to isolated villages. You receive a boarding pass at the … 18. is the … 7. 2. 20. stewardess. All the aeroplanes have retractable … 4. We show our passports for … before we go through Security check. parachute. 10. Înainte ca pompierii să ajungă la locul accidentului. runway. airport. When you hear the announcement for your flight you should proceed to the … to board the plane. A … is an aircraft that does not have an engine but flies by floating on air currents. 12. 15. Translate into English: Un avion care zbura spre Palmon s-a prăbuşit şi a izbucnit în flăcări imediat după decolare. 5. pasagerii au ars în avionul naufragiat. control tower. Passengers wait for their flight to be announced in the … 17. cockpit. după care s-a prăbuşit deodată la pământ. Câţiva martori au văzut cum avionul a decolat. The plane sped up the … and soon took off. Security Check. usually with a lot of buildings and facilities where aircraft land and take off. 11. Cu o lună în urmă. Can you guess how you would react and what you would be thinking about? Statistically. s-a înălţat în aer. When you go through … your hand luggage is checked. The captain and the stewardess have already reviewed the emergency procedure and n0ow you have twenty seconds before the plane crashes.aileron. ticket 1. Passport Control. undercarriage. The … is that small area of a plane looking after passengers and serving meals to them. 6. flight. Would you ever fly again if you had survived a plane crash? 3. fiind cuprins de flăcări. V. In severe winters. plane crashes are rare. An … is a flap on the back edge of the wing of an aeroplane that can be raised or lowered in order to control the movement of the plane. glider. The … and crew were all killed in the air crash. Yet. Why are plane crashes so well-remembered? Why do they provoke general sympathy and official days of mourning? VI. Topics for discussion 1. A … is a woman who works on a plane looking after passengers and serving meals to them. In airports you can buy goods at a cheaper price at the … 8. when taking into account the number of flights taking place every day. The … is the main part of the aeroplane. The … assists the chief pilot to fly the plane. 9. 14. hangar. 13. Departure Lounge. How long is the … to London? 2. gate. plane crashes. pe acelaşi 125 . An … is a place. That tall building in the airport. Put yourself in the position of a passenger on a plane which is about to crash. 16. thousands of people have gone through the ordeal which you are trying to imagine. pilot. 3. Check-in-counter. Duty-free Shops. 19. from which people direct the movement of aircraft on the ground and in the air.

Înainte ca avionul să reuşească să aterizeze. Cauza accidentului a fost o avarie de motor. Acest zbor trebuia să fie ultimul. Nimeni nu a supravieţuit dintre cei o suta doi oameni îmbarcaţi. Pilotul a solicitat o aterizare de urgenţă datorită avariei. La bord nu s-a înregistrat nimic pe „cutia neagra”. înainte de revizia generală a motorului. 126 . Incendiul nu a permis ca acţiunea de salvare să fie eficientă. Până acum nu s-au comunicat cauzele accidentului.aeroport s-a prăbuşit un turboreactor. s-a prăbuşit la pământ.

= a avea grijă. coach n. LEXICAL COMMENTARY rail n. = a lăuda. but signal failure was ruled out. = a duce lipsă. 251. to get off/to run off/to leave the ~s a. vol. a deraia. acţiuni ale 127 . failure n. Many came forward to donate their blood when supplies ran low. I) A. ferov.4. = întârziere. the 7. maybe due to some distraction. şină. to derail v. all rail traffic is being rerouted. TRAIN CRASHES At least twenty-four people died and more than eighty-five were seriously injured after two passenger trains collided this morning near Shockville. a sări de pe linie b. Firemen used cutting gear to reach the injured and the dead who were pinned under the wreckage. The driver of the express train. = a deraia. VOCABULARY I. = a trimite pe o altă rută. When the train crossed from the fast slow track and entered the station.25 from Gloomford. a deraia. Meanwhile. track n. a o lua razna/alăturea cu drumul. services will be restored. Scores of rescuers worked throughout the day to clear the wreckage and extract victims. = a fi ţintuit. by tomorrow morning. = a face o coliziune. M. to tend v. 128. by ~ pe cale ferată.2.. 2. It was revealed that the commuter train was running 3 minutes late. WORDS AND PHRASES to collide v. Thermal-image cameras had to be used to find survivors in the unrecognizable metal tangle. = staţionat. B. = vagon de cale ferată. cale ferată. Others offered their cars to ferry the less seriously injured victims to nearby hospitals. A 3000-ton crane was moved into position to begin lifting the derailed coaches. to praise v. to run low v. transport feroviar. It seems that the driver of the express train made the fatal error. Limba engleză pentru jurnalişti. it was too late to brake effectively. II. passed a red signal and smashed into a packed stationary commuter train. pp. The derailed coaches fell into the path of an empty goods train which was just pulling out of the station. drum de fier. = 1. 3. to pin v. 33. It is hoped that. stationary adj. distributed powerful painkillers and reassured those in agony while waiting for the stretcher-bearers to carry away the wounded. = şine de cale ferată.4. a nu putea să te mişti. to reroute v. fin. = a frâna. cu trenul. He praised the swift reaction of the emergency services and the people who came to tend to the injured. fig. Emergency procedures were immediately put into operation. Otto. An emergency telephone line has been made available for relatives. The Transport Secretary ordered an inquiry into the cause of the accident and called for an improvement in “fail-safe” systems designed to make such accidents impossible. Paramedics and doctors set up saline drips. to brake v. (Otto.

128 . cu linie dublă. 8. 4. ~ guard ferov. The express train should have stopped for the light. mănă curentă. What was the public’s response to the accident? 4. gard (de ostreţe). 2. a ocărî. The accident wouldn’t have happened if the signal had been green. punct terminus. a avea o întârziere de trei minute – r___________ three minutes l______ 5. a administra medicamente puternice împotriva durerii – d________ p_________ p_______-k__________ 8. a ţine de rău. B. bară. to lean over the ~s a se apleca peste parapet/balustradă. traversă. 7. ~ off a separa/despărţi printr-un gard/printr-o împrejmuire. tren aglomerat din suburbii (de navetişti) – p_________ c________ t_______ 3. What did the rescue operation involve? 3. Only two trains were involved in the collision. zăbrele. 6. a săvărşi o greşeală fatală – m__________ a f______ e_________ 7. a blama. mil. a blestema. pl. 9. double-railed ferov. 4. Each line stands for one word: 1. alunecător. The Transport Secretary was impressed by the dedication of the rescue teams and bystanders. 7. 5. 2. împrejmuire. a exclude – r_________ o__________ 6. The accident temporarily disrupted railway services. staţie de descărcare. a expedia/a trimite cu trenul/pe calea ferată. a dona sânge – d_________ b___________ 10. EXERCISES I. Reading and comprehension 1. a împrejmui cu o balustradă. 10. Medical help was improvised on the spot. balustradă. gratii. a îngrădi. 2. a înconjura cu un gard. a transporta pe calea ferată. 3. a suferi grave leziuni corporale – to be s______ i__________ 2. ~ head ferov cap de linie. a ordona desfăşurarea unei anchete – o_______ an i___________ 9. 3. Existing “fail-safe” systems are effective in preventing train accidents. a reface transportul feroviar – r________ r_______ s_________ III. ~ against/at 1. cuzinet al şinei. grătar de protecţie (în faţa locomotivei). ~ chair ferov. a asigura folosirea unei linii telefonice – m________ a t_________ l______ a_______ 11. ~ car ferov. cuier (pt pălării). rail v. Complete the following phrases. a împrejmui. 5. scaun pentru şină. What caused the biggest problem was locating and reaching the survivors. The rescue teams were too shocked by the scale of the disaster to act effectively. The slow track leads to the platforms. = 1. 6. parapet. drug. Tick the statements true or false: 1. grindă.societăţilor/companiilor feroviare. What is the purpose of setting up the emergency telephone service? II. Phrases to learn. What kind of trains were involved in the collision? 2. a porni din staţie – p_______ o______ o_______ the s__________ 4. The commuter train should have stopped for the light. 11. a critica. grilaj. automotor.

pump. Of all the means of public transport. Goods are transported in … 20. siding. A … is the place where a railway line is crossed by a road. porter. 11. The … is a shield over the wheel to keep mud from splashing upwards. sleeper. The … blew his whistle and waved his flag. 129 . crossbar. freight car. The … is the station at the end of a railway line. Complete the sentences below with one of the appropriate words or phrases connected with TRAVELLING BY TRAIN: buffers. 15. guard. we still have one hour till he arrives. The train … only costs $50. pedals. Our train was pulled by a new … 10. 4. Do railway accidents differ in any way from the other accidents? Do they pose any special difficulties for rescue teams? 2. On the rail system of most countries. hub. We left our suitcase at the … 18. 19. train crashes do happen often with very high death toll.IV. forks. ticket. buffet. VI. 13. 17. left luggage office. 9. Let’s get a coffee at the …. off the main track. where trains stand when they are not being used. level crossing. A … is the building by a railway line where the trains stop to pick up passengers or goods. What would you say if you had to inform a caller that the relative he is inquiring about lost his life in the accident? V. pannier. The … shows the times when the trains are supposed to arrive or depart. This is a busy railway … where lines from all over the country meet. sprocket. A …’s job is to control railway signals. junction. signalman. People can sit and wait in the … until it is time for their train. A … is a train with beds for sleeping through the night. 3. The old lady could finally find a … to carry her suitcase from the train. Yet. 12. Discuss the usefulness of emergency phone information lines that are set up when trains or planes crash. Topics for discussion 1. mudguard. gauges. 16. We’ll be sitting in the second … form the front of the train. I put my suitcase on the … and then I took my seat. luggage rack. … have been standardized. A … is a short railway track. What are members of the public who witness such accidents supposed to do? In what way can they be helpful? 3. spokes. dynamo. chain. carriage. 2. saddle. handle-bars. engine. trains seem relatively safe. valve 1. … are bars that connect the outer ring of a bicycle wheel to the centre of it. 7. reflector. Complete the sentences below with one of the appropriate words or phrases connected with BIKE/MOTORBIKE: bell. 3. Bicycle lights are powered by a … 2. terminus. timetable. 5. 6. waiting room 1. … are metal discs on springs at the front or at the back of a railway train to prevent the train from crashing. 14. 8. station.

13. Vagoanele deraiate s-au răsturnat pe linia vecină. A … is the horizontal metal bar that goes between the handlebars and the saddle on a man’s bicycle. În accident au pierit peste douăzeci de persoane şi aproape o sută au fost rănite. Expresul din Gloomford a trecut pe culoarea roşie şi s-a ciocnit cu un tren local aflat în staţie. A bicycle … makes the wheels turn. 12. A … is a wheel with one or more rows of teeth that fit into the holes in a chain. Translate into English: Astăzi dimineaţă s-a produs o coliziune între două trenuri de persoane. Ministerul Transporturilor a solicitat investigaţii. chiar spre un tren marfar. The … is the seat on a bicycle or motorbike. The cyclist rang his … when he passed by. De mâine dimineaţă trenurile vor circula după orar. 8. 7.4. S-a exclus ideea ca semnalizarea defectuoasă să fi fost cauza accidentului. S-a pus la dispoziţie celor interesaţi un număr de telefon la care se pot obţine informaţii despre soarta victimelor. We can force air into a tyre under pressure. Se impune necesitatea îmbunătăţirii sistemelor de siguranţă. 6. 9. by the drivers of vehicles with headlights. 10. by using a … 11. 130 . You push the … with your feet in order to make the bicycle move. 15. The … on a bicycle or motorbike are two pieces of metal to which the front wheel is attached. A … is a small piece of specially patterned glass or plastic which is fitted to the back of a bicycle so that it can be seen. 14. care tocmai pleca. The cyclist was thrown over the … when the bike crashed. at night. The … is the central part of a wheel to which the axle is joined. 5. A … is a device on the tyre that allows air to pass in one direction only. VII.

pp. Limba engleză pentru jurnalişti. The rescue teams are trying to identify the drowned. 134. SEA COLLISIONS 1. 2. Scores of dead passengers were pulled from the water because without proper clothing. the chances of survival in cold water are few. = scufundat. to keel over v. 3. = a se scufunda. The officials are putting the figure at three hundred and fifty drowned. = dens. The crew appeared ill-prepared to handle such an emergency and safety devices seem to have been faulty.2. VOCABULARY I. 131 . Rescuers mounted an air-sea search involving lifeboats and helicopters. sunken adj.. to retrieve v. = a muri. As the tanker rammed it. Experts still cannot figure out how the disaster happened. M. Eighty people are feared drowned in a ferry disaster which took place in the early hours of the morning. Only a handful of the panic-striken passengers are known to have survived. to perish v. Anturia’s major port. Those passengers who are still unaccounted for are believed to be still trapped inside the submerged vessel. As the ship began to keel over. = a lovi în plin. = înmărmurit. paralizat. to mount v. numb adj. Otto. dense adj. = a se scufunda. A ferry is reported to have capsized soon after leaving the harbour of Icenberg in what could be the worst tragedy since the Titanic. to plunge v. Teams of divers are working around the clock searching the sunken ferry and retrieving bodies. = a recupera. = a se înclina pe o parte. vol. path n. to list v. the captain gave the order to abandon the vessel but it went down too quickly for many to get to the deck and lifeboats. happened when a ferry cut across the path of a tanker. to hamper v. because most of them were trapped below decks. causing the vessel to list sharply. The Rose of the Seas bound for Galamos. WORDS AND PHRASES shallow adj. = puţin adânc..5. to capsize v. A shipping tragedy. Rescue efforts were hampered by adverse weather conditions and low temperatures. sank in shallow coastal waters after striking a reef in dense fog 3 miles off Gueno. = aici: a lăsa fără. (Otto. to ram v. the ferry was sliced in two and sank within seconds. but there are speculations that unsecured cargo shifted. = a împiedica. I) A. 253. B. 31. in which one hundred and eight people are believed o have perished. cale. Water rushed in through the doors and the ferry went down with a heavy loss of life.4. = a organiza. The impact of the collision cut electricity plunging the ship into darkness as water quickly began to fill the craft. The families of the victims are numbed with shock and the world is deeply saddened by the tragedy. = drum.

realizabil. 9. mighty ~s minuni. = 1. to work v. So many people died because the captain delayed giving the order to abandon the ship. 6. cuvinte. tehn prelucrabil. Reading and comprehension 1. o maşinărie) care funcţionează sau poate fi pusă în mişcare. condiţii meteo nefavorabile – a_________ w_______ c_________ 13. Tick the statements true or false 1. a modela 8. a produce. a munci. The wreck is lying at a depth of three miles. 5. 2. mari pierderi în oameni – h_________ l_________ of l_________ 10. What were the causes of the accidents described above? 2. de fiecare zi. 7. folos. 5. 8. a introduce a insera (abil într-un text). = cenuşiu. şansa de a supravieţui – c___________ of s___________ III. tehn a funcţiona. a se scufunda în câteva secunde – s_________ w________ s__________ 6. utilitate. 3. workable adj. Each line stands for one word: 1. LEXICAL COMMENTARY work n. încărcătură nefixată bine – u_________ c___________ 9. The ferry sank too quickly for the passengers to get to the decks. obişnuit. (d. all in the day’s ~ potrivit aşteptărilor. Phrases to learn. treabă. pl mechanism. = 1. realist. instalaţii (echipamente) cu defecte – f__________ d____________ 12. a broda. a expedia repede pe cineva. 132 .II. workaday adj. 2. 4. a lucra zi şi noapte – w_______ a__________ the c_________ 4. prosaic. There was no electricity because water has flooded the ship. EXERCISES I. B.t_________ b________ d_________ 8. 2. un plan) aplicabil. It is likely that eighty bodies will be found inside the wreck. 4. muncă. a strecura. idei) a se strecura. The tanker went down alongside the ferry. ~bench tehn masă de tâmplărie. impact al coliziunii – i_________ of the c__________ 2. 3. = 1. med a avea effect. masă de lucru/montaj. to make short ~ of smb a termina repede cu cineva. lucru. Complete the following phrases. 2. aplicabilitate. a determina. pasageri cuprinsi de panica – p_________-s________ p_________ 7. se aflau sub puntea superioară . (d. a convinge. workability n. a lucra. The ferry sank as a result of a collision. 3. What caused the heavy loss of life in each one of them? II. The rescue operation is being carried out only during the day. 6. 3. tăiat pe jumătate – s__________ i____ t________ 5. = 1. a coase. echipaj slab pregătit – i__________-p________ c_________ 11. (d. drojdie). The ferry was on its way from Galamos to Gueno. 2. a fi inserat (într-un text). a fermenta (d. fig a influenţa. 7. tehn capacitate de a fi prelucrat. a da ordinal de părăsire a vasului – g_________ an o_________ to a____________ the s__________ 3. a cauza. ~ in 1. 2. the ~s of a watch mecanismele unui ceas. a tricota. activitate. uzinabilitate.

ship. 18. 23. 19. We threw a … to the man who had fallen into the sea. 25. Bob took me down the river in his old … 5. boat. The smoke was pouring from the … 14. lighthouse. 15. steamships. In case of a collision at sea there are certain rules that are supposed to be followed concerning evacuation. rudders. capsize. The … with its flashing light. dock. When the … spins round. bridge. I pulled on the … to make the boat go faster. yacht 1. A … is s ea voyage for pleasure. 13. The … are waiting for instructions from the Captain. poop. captain. harbour. 11. 17. sailor. The … is a vertical piece of wood or metal at the back of a boat which is used to steer the boat. The depth of the sea or position of an underwater object can be determined with the help of … 4. deck. 3. warehouse. 26. bow. gangway. A … is a movable bridge by means of which people can get on or off a boat. Some ships … when struck by huge waves. lifebelt. 27. cruise. sonar. The divers found the … of an old ship on the sea-bed. IV. 2. 133 . Is taking a cruise on a sea liner as romantic as is widely believed? 4. 22. 21.10. A … is a sailing boat used for pleasure. guides ships or warns them of danger. What factors may increase the risk of passengers’ drowning in case of a collision or fire? 3. oars. cabin. 16. A … can travel under the surface of the sea. All the ships stayed in the … during the storm. I made my way to the upper … to admire the seascape. 24. 10. A … is a large building where large quantities of goods are stored until they are exported to other countries or distributed to shops to be sold. Do you know what they are? V. Ships use … to avoid colliding with each other in fog. My brother is a … in the Romanian navy. mate. They cast the … to hold the ship on position. … are carried by ships to save people in case the ship sinks. periscopes. The … is the ship’s officer who is one rank below the captain. Complete the sentences below with one of the appropriate words or phrases connected with SHIPPING: anchor. Topics for discussion 1. 20. mast. 6. It is believed that the accident happened because of the crew’s negligence. Do you know when … replaced sailing ships? 12. funnel. Is sea travel any safer nowadays than in the old days when people crossed the oceans on sailing ships? 2. propeller. 7. submarine. it causes the ship to move forward or backward. Many people died of hypothermia. lifeboats. crew. The sailor climbed the … 8. A … sank last week and all the passengers and crew were drowned. 9. wreck. radar. breakwaters. We’ve booked a first-class … on this ship. 11.

Materialul de salvare s-a dovedit ineficient. deşi căpitanul a ordonat părăsirea vasului. S-au salvat doar câţiva pasageri. la primele ore ale dimineţii. multe persoane nu au ajuns la bărcile de salvare. V. Any ship is commanded by its … 35. 32. 29. The … is the raised part at the back end of an old sailing ship. built in order to protect a harbour. Astăzi. Feribotul s-a ciocnit de un recif de corali la douăzeci de mile de Gueno. s-a scufundat feribotul Rose of the Seas. Un alt feribot. Scafandrii investighează feribotul scufundat pentru a descoperi corpurile pasagerilor. 3. probabil.28. unloaded or repaired. 134 . 33. 2. 34. Translate into English: 1. restul au pierit blocaţi sub punte. 30. Salvatorii acţionează din bărci de salvare şi elicoptere. Se presupune că încărcătura neasigurată s-a mişcat şi a produs înclinarea navei. s-a izbit de un petrolier. S-a răsturnat complet şi. The … is the front part of a ship which cuts through the water when the ship is moving forward. 31. A … is a small round window on the side of a ship. … are very large walls of stone that extend from the shore into the sea. Echipajul feribotului nu era pregătit pentru o avarie de acest gen. Condiţiile atmosferice nefavorabile au îngreunat acţiunea de salvare. pe care. au pierit o sută opt persoane. A … is a place in a port where ships are loaded. Feribotul s-a scufundat la scurt timp după părăsirea portului din Icenberg. The … of a ship is the raised part from which the ship is steered and where the captain stands. … are used in submarines in order to see above the surface of the water.

the foundation or base of a salt.II. = hidroxid (compus al oxidului cu apa). With increasing knowledge. Hence Lavoisier concluded (1777) that "oxygen is an essential element common to all acids. 7. acrime. = hârtie turnesol. The bases include the oxides and the hydroxides of the metals. The term was originally intended to express the idea that the metal or metal oxide was the more important constituent. acidity n. Lavoisier noticed that when certain elements were burnt in oxygen. not oxygen.1. (adapted Dobrovici. 3. pp. redden the blue colour of vegetable substance (e. 2. 5. but he did not rush to the other extreme and say that all hydrogen rounds are necessarily acids. A salt is produced by replacing all or part of the hydrogen of an acid by a metal or basic radical. VOCABULARY I. hydroxide n. basicity n.) aspru. = oxid de metal. ACIDS. = radical basic. Humphrey Davy suggested the possibility that hydrogen. sodium chloride.postament. and the presence of oxygen constitutes or produces their acidity”. = 1. aciditate (calitatea de a fi un acid). sulphur. 4. or carbonate. gives the acid characters to the acids.(fig. = acid sulfuric. "salt" is colloquially applied to one specific individual. sarcastic. and it was gradually abandoned by chemists.g.(fig.suport.şasiu. litmus paper n. 5. 2. 3. salinity n.e.(fig. = clorură de sodiu. part or all of which can be replaced when the acid is treated with a metal.fundaţie. = salinitate. and phosphorus.temei. = basiditate (calitatea de a fi o bază). basic radical n. = carbonat. BIOCHEMICAL AND FOOD ENGINEERING 2.bază. This idea was dropped when it was recognized that the acidic constituent of a salt is just as important as the basic constituent. In 1815. In modern Chemistry. it was found that Lavoisier's theory led to confusion and error. = 1. sodium chloride n.5. = acid.fundament. BASES AND SALTS In his study of the properties of oxygen.5. 4. In a crude sort of way. the resulting oxide forms an acid with water . carbonate (a salt of carbonic acid) n. 2. and certain groups of elements equivalent to a metal. = 1.) acru. WORDS AND PHRASES acid n. 6. base n.2. the word "salt" is a descriptive term applied to a distinct family of substances and not to any particular individual. A base is substance which reacts with an acid to produce a salt and water.77-78) A. are usually corrosive. metallic oxide.) caustic.) cu caracter acid. Viorica & Ioan Bostaca: English in Medicine. and contain hydrogen. litmus).(tehn. TEXTS FOR CHEMICAL.g. sulphuric acid n. it can be said that acids usually have a sour taste. metal oxide n. 135 . adj. In the kitchen. hydroxide.

Give the principal forms of the following verbs: to notice. 4. 7. Salts are compounds when metals replace the hydrogen in acids. similar. 136 . What are the properties of the acids? 6. Translate into English the following sentences: La sfârşitul veacului al XVIII-lea s-a schimbat împărţirea elementelor chimice în două grupe: metale şi metaloizi. distinct. to constitute. 3. Drept criteriu de baza pentru stabilirea grupei de care aparţine un element sau altul serveşte caracterul chimic al produselor care s-au obţinut de pe urma oxidării elementelor respective. Greutatea atomică a unui element reprezintă o valoare intrinsecă a elementului respectiv. What did Lavoisier notice when certain elements were burnt in oxygen? 2. increasing. Reading and comprehension: 1. to conclude. to recognize. Sodium chloride is an indispensable article of animal food. The salts are the largest class of compounds in nature. to react. O proprietate esenţială a metalelor este aceea de a forma oxizi bazici. de regulă. to show. IV. V. to say. to find. Înroşirea hârtiei albastre de turnesol este inerentă în cazul prezenţei unui acid. Give antonyms to the following words: common. to give. to burn. Read the following sentences and make questions: 1. specific. Denumirile acizilor derivă din denumirile acelor elemente din care provin.B. Give nouns corresponding to the following verbs and translate them into Romanian: to result. What is a salt? Give an example. 2. to produce. Acids. to treat. to intend. possibility. to produce. to apply. Why was this theory of acids abandoned? 4. to know. salts and bases are three great classes of chemical compounds. The hydrogen determines the characteristic properties of the compounds. to detect.cuvântul hidroxid (conţine ân molecula grupul hidroxil OH). Denumirile sărurilor derivă din denumirile acizilor şi ale metalelor din care ele se formează. What is a base? Give an example of a base. 5. to suggest. EXERCISES I. to displace. to result. What was Lavoisier's oxygen theory of acids? 3. Denumirea bazelor se formează adăugânduse. III. VI. necessarily. What was Davy's opinion about acids? 5. to lead. II.

For example. (adapted from Dobrovici. any process which will convert an element into its oxide is an oxidation. = 1. the idea of oxidation and reduction was extended to cover these cases. on exposure to air. ferrous chloride is converted partly into ferric chloride and partly into ferric hydroxide. But ferrous chloride can be converted very simply into ferric chloride by the action of chlorine which must be reckoned to be an oxidation since it is agreed that the conversion of ferrous chloride into ferric chloride is an oxidation. is known as reduction. FeO.5. (tehn. As chemistry developed. that is. adăugare. Oxidation. Viorica & Ioan Bostaca: English in Medicine. 3. the removal of oxygen from a compound containing it. is thus a process which adds oxygen to an element or compound. Hence the term oxidation must be extended to cover this process. when copper oxide is converted into copper by passing hydrogen over the heated oxide. 5. For example. when calcium is heated in air it is oxidized to calcium oxide. ferrous oxide. But no oxygen has taken part in the process. the copper oxide is said to be reduced to copper. This is the original idea underlying the terms oxidation and reduction. in the simplest case. for example. will slowly turn to the ferric salt . (matem. it was realized that some processes which do not directly involve hydrogen and oxygen at all are in principle so closely related to oxidation and reduction. Thus. and is the simplest use. for example. as for example when barium oxide is heated in air to a suitable temperature and thereby converted into barium dioxide. the addition of hydrogen closely resembles reduction as previously understood. Now a solution of a soluble ferrous salt. Conversely.clearly oxidation has occurred. Ferric oxide in its turn is a base which with acids forms ferric salts.(chim) adiţie.82-3) A. reduction must also be similarly extended. OXIDATION AND REDUCTION The conversion of an element into its oxide by direct combination with oxygen is the simplest case of oxidation. 137 . The reverse of this process. and the changes brought about in the state of combination of an element are similar. and similarly. completare. 2. pp. For example. Similarly. that the idea has been still further extended. Similar reasoning to the above indicates that the conversion of mercuric chloride. or vice versa. is a process of reduction. Ferrous and ferric salts thus stand in the same relationship to each other as ferrous and ferric oxides. 6. adăugire. that the process of removing hydrogen from a compound containing that element involves something closely akin to oxidation as indicated above. is a base which gives rise to a series of salts called the ferrous salts. Ferrous oxide can be oxidized.adiţionare. An analogous process may involve the combination of a compound already containing some oxygen with still more oxygen. to ferric oxide. It soon became evident. Hence. however.2. 4. Fe2O3. by the oxygen of the air.2. HgCl2.) corp străin.adaos.) adunare. The same reagents will often bring about both addition of oxygen and removal of hydrogen. VOCABULARY I. as understood when referred simply to changes in the oxygen and hydrogen content of a compound. WORDS AND PHRASES addition n.

transformare.= 1. suitable for a particular person or place or condition etc. 4. What is oxidation? What is the simplest case of oxidation? 2. EXERCISES I. mercurous chloride = clorura mercuroasă. ferric chloride = clorura ferica. = scoaterea oxigenului. ferrous salts n.meant or adapted for an occasion or use. "water fit to drink". appropriate . "do as you see fit to". Inorganic Chemistry = the chemistry of compounds not containing carbon.reducere. How was the idea of oxidation and reduction extended? 4. What happens when barrium oxide is heated in air? 3. mercuric chloride n. 3.dezoxidare. = săruri feroase. reagent n.barium oxide n . = reactiv. fit. eligible – qualified for or allowed or worthy of being chosen. conversion n.(tehn.(rel. ferric salts n. II. ferrous oxide = oxid feros. "a funeral conducted the appropriate solemnity". the removal of oxygen n. chemical compound = a substance formed by chemical union of two or more elements or ingredients in definite proportion by weight. preschimbare. fit for. "an eligible bachelor". oxidation n. schimb. = oxid de cupru. 2. the presence or absence of a certain substance. copper oxide n. worthy – worthy of being chosen especially as a spouse. = oxidare.= oxid de barium. "the parents found the girl suitable for their son". schimbarea categoriei gramaticale. ferric oxide = oxid feric. 5. "Is this a suitable dress for the office?". = săruri ferice. Are oxidation and reduction reciprocal processes? 7. "eligible for retirement benefits".= 1. LEXICAL COMMENTARY Chemistry = the science dealing with the intimate constitution of substances. "it seems that an apology is appropriate". ferrous chloride = clorura feroasă. and the phenomena resulting from the formation and decomposition of compounds. fit to – meeting adequate standards for a purpose. the elements and their mutual reactions. "a tractor suitable (or fit) for heavy duty".suitable for the desired purpose. Does hydrogene intervene in this conversion? 6. conversiune. desirable. "eligible to run for office". by the chemical action if" any resulting. Synonyms suitable . reagent = something added to a complex solution to determine. "a fit subject for discussion". "fit for duty". 6. ferric hydroxide = hidroxid feric. What is the extended definition of oxidation and reduction? 138 . Reading and comprehension: 1. reduction n. Organic Chemistry = the chemistry of substances containing combustible carbon compounds.) conversie. = clorura mercurică.) conversiune. "it is fit and proper that you be there". "not an appropriate (or fit) time for flippancy". What was realized as Chemistry developed? 5. B. 2.

close. 139 . clear. Is he fit to travel yet? 6. 4. We must decide on a fit time and place for the meeting. He has been ill and is not fit for a trip. He didn’t think fit to do what I suggested. That man is not fit for the position. 1. appropriate. similar. 10. Denumirea ne arată că prin oxidare se înţelegea initial numai alipirea oxigenului.II. previous. Don't forget to take suitable clothes for cold weather. 8. Translate into Romanian paying attention to the words: suitable. iar prin reducere. Translate into English: Toate procesele chimice anorganice pot fi împărţite în două grupe: a) reacţii care au loc fără schimbarea valenţei elementelor ce reacţionează şi b) schimbarea valenţei. This book is not appraopriate for children. Do you think that I did a suitable translation? III. dezlipirea sa. Sensul cuvintelor “oxidare” şi “reducere” poate fi totusi generalizat dacă se ţine seama de faptul că oxigenul atrage întotdeauna electronul din elementul care se uneşte cu el. This is not a suitable word for the Romanian "căldură" is "heat". simple. IV. Reacţiile din al doilea tip se numesc reacţii de oxidare – reducere. 7. 2. slow. 9. fit. 5. Give adverbs corresponding to the following adjectives: direct.

influences the speed of a chemical reaction without itself undergoing any permanent change in quantity or chemical composition. • The catalyst cannot start a reaction. the catalyst is separated from the reacting mixture by boundary surfaces.e. the commonest examples of this type are those of the catalysis of reactions in solution where the catalysts are also soluble. and the production of ammonia by the combination of nitrogen and hydrogen in presence of ferric oxide and traces of molybdenum. 2. Important examples are the manufacture of sulphur trioxide from sulphur dioxide and oxygen in the presence of platinum. • Only a small amount of catalyst is necessary to produce a measurable effect.2. = modificarea vitezei. VOCABULARY I. CATALYSIS A chemical reaction depends upon the physical conditions (i. of substances which do not appear in the equation for the reaction. The addition of the acid causes a very large increase in the rate of hydrolysis. Thus. = suprafeţe de separare. 1. but only alters the speed of the reaction. mention may be made of the fact that carbon monoxide and oxygen will not combine unless a trace of water vapour is present. WORDS AND PHRASES alteration of the speed n. as well as its acceleration. 140 . The usually accepted criteria of catalysis are: • The catalyst must remain unchanged in amount and in chemical composition at the end of the reaction. ammonia n. substances.3. It is also affected by the presence of small quantities of foreign substances. when present in comparatively small amount. A typical example is the acceleration of the hydrolysis of ethyl acetate by the presence of a small quantity of a strong acid such as hydrochloric acid. Cases of homogenous catalysis are those in which the catalyst is not separated from the reacting mixture by a surface. (adapted Dobrovici.. A catalyst may thus be defined as a substance which. In heterogenous catalysis. and also upon the concentration of the reacting. Viorica & Ioan Bostaca: English in Medicine.5.86-7) A. the catalyst alters the speed of the forward and back reactions to the same extent. Catalysis is generally taken to include the retardation of a reaction. though the more familiar and more practically important cases of catalysis concern the increase in speed. pp. Such substances are called catalysts or catalytic agents and the general phenomenon of the alteration of the speed of reaction by the presence of catalytic agents is termed catalysis. it does not alter the final state of equilibrum in a reversible reaction. As an example of homogenous catalysis in the vapour phase. boundary surfaces n. temperature and pressure) under which it takes place. and which can be recovered unchanged chemically after the reaction is over. The phenomena of catalysis are usually considered under two main headings: homogenous catalysis and heterogenous catalysis. that is to say. • In a reversible reaction. = amoniac.

equation (chemical) n. The retardation was due to the snow.) recul. (fiz) compresiune. reversible ~ = reacţie reversibilă. especially an increase in the rate of a chemical reaction. 7. tărăgănare). General meaning: the extent to which something is delayed or held back. reacting substances = substanţe reactante. 5. sulphur dioxide = bioxid de sulf. răspuns. molybdenum n. LEXICAL COMMENTARY catalysis n.reacţie. = acetat de etil. Mineral formulas are based on the relationship to unit cell volume and the positions of atoms within the unit cell. Are there any substances which do not appear in the equation for the reaction? 3. = un efect apreciabil. II.) forţă de reacţiune.carbon monoxide n. reaction n. catalytic agent n. catalysis equation for the reaction n. After a delay of two hours they arrived at the office. = a sentence in chemical language. 3. main headings n. Is there a large amount of catalyst necessary? 7. What are the usually accepted criteria of catalysis? 141 . without delay = fără întârziere. = ecuaţia reacţiei. delay are synonyms. inactivity resulting in something being put off until a later time (întârziere. delay is the act of delaying. (fiz. EXERCISES I. reacting mixture n. forming new chemicals. How are these substances called? 4. Reading and Comprehension: 1. = oxid de carbon.despre mişcare sau progres). a sequence of . retardation implies any agent that retards or delays or hinder (are sensul de întârziere. homogenous catalysis = cataliza omogenă. ethyl acetate n. Synonyms … the retardation of a reaction retardation. 6. (pl. sulphur trioxide = trioxid de sulf. = molibden. imediat without further delay = fără să mai întârzii B. lack of normal development of intellectual capacities. The retardation in development of the children may have many causes. chemical reaction = interactions in which atoms exchange or share electrons. mod de a reacţiona.symbols and signs expressing a chemical action. = 1. = amestec reactant. 4.) şoc. heterogenous catalysis = cataliza heterogenă. How may we define a catalyst? 6. (psihol. What does a chemical reaction depend upon? 2. What is catalysis? 5. 2. catalyses) = the action of a catalyst. chemical composition = The unit cell of any substance will contain one or and integral multiple of chemical formula units. = grupe principale. The delay of the train is because of the heavy snowfall. = agent catalizator. (tehn. measurable effect n.

. What is homogenous catalysis? Give an example. IV. cât şi catalizatorul aparţin uneia şi aceleiaşi faze. strong. in this town. in the weather is announced. . 3. of his tone.8. 10. 4. presence. Deşi primele observaţiuni referitoare la influenţa substanţelor .... 2.. usually. you made to your coat did not change its style. appear. 142 ... Toata gama proceselor catalitice poate fi redusă la doua cazuri generale: cataliza omogena şi eterogenă...acidul sulfuric – sunt bazate pe procesele catalitice. 6. The . II. 8. I noticed the . soluble. Are there many types of catalysis? 9. dezvoltarea rapidă a studiului catalizei începe abia în secolul nostru. modification: 1.străine" în desfăşurarea proceselor chimice au fost făcute încă din secolul al XVIII-lea. I have noticed a great .. My opinions have undergone a . small quantities. Did you notice the . A . We breakfast at 8 o'clock for a . III. Give antonyms to the following words: concentration. it is not the same as it was fifteen years ago when I was a student.. Fill in the blanks choosing the words among the following synonyms: change.... Primul se caracterizeaza prin faptul că atât substanţele din reacţie. in him lately. main.. in her voice? 5. Translate into English: Metodele tehnice servind la fabricarea celui mai important produs al industriei chimice . There is much . în cazul al doilea însă aparţin unor faze diferite.. after the reaction... What is heterogenous catalysis? Give an example. alteration. unchanged. 7.

g. which must be fed to young animals if proper growth is to take place: these particular amino acids evidently cannot be synthesized by the animal. Chemically.2. muscle. They are found in all living cells.4. and then briefly at the proteins they make up. in the last analysis. they hold it together.. one of which is the ability to form the long amide chains that make up proteins. They are the principal material of skin. A single protein molecule contains hundreds or even thousands of amino acid units. proteins must almost certainly be ranked first. They are polyamides. of enzymes. which is indicated in a rough way by their names. all this work rests on the basic principles of organic structural theory: on the concepts of bond angle and bond length. All are alpha-amino carboxylic acids. asparagine). or sails. phenolic or alcoholic hydroxil groups. optical activity. proteins are high polymers.group alpha to it. It is likely that tens of thousands of different proteins are required to make up and run an animal body. and they run it. tendons. Each of these ring systems or functional groups its own typical set of reactions. They make 143 . which are soluble in water or aqueous solutions of acids. Fibrous proteins serve as the chief structural materials of animal tissues. configuration and conformation.5. the other materials in its diet. group size and shape. hydrogen bonding. and blood. Of all chemical compounds. bases. resonance. The difference in solubility between the two classes is a result of a difference in molecular shape.. Twenty-six acids have been found in proteins. We shall look first at the chemistry of the amino acids. and many hormones. the structure of these compounds varies rather widely. nerves. Proteins are divided into two broad classes: fibrous proteins. a function to which their insolubility and fibre-forming tendency suit them. AMINO ACIDS AND PROTEINS The name of protein is taken from the Greek proteinos which means first. and globular proteins. or a potential carboxyl group in the form of a carboxamide (e. which are insoluble in water. antibodies. that is. This common feature gives the amino acids a common set of chemical properties. Proteins make up a large part of the animal body. the number of different protein molecules that are possible. In addition to I carboxyl group and the amino. In other respects. Some a second basic group. lysine) or the imidazole ring (histidine). and the monomers from which they are derived are the amino carboxylic acids. This name is well-chosen. some amino acids contain a second carboxyl group (e. acidity and basicity. and this set of proteins not identical with the set required by an animal of a different kind.g. halogen or sulphur atoms. in two cases (proline and hydroxyproline) the amino-group forms part of a pyrrolidine ring.g. these are called acidic amino acids. Certain of these are the essential amino acids. Our chief purpose will be to see the ways in which the structures of se enormously complicated molecules are being worked out. The number of different combinations. aspartic acid or glutamic acid). is almost infinite. these are called basic amino acids. or they are the substance of life.. which may be an amino group (e. Some of the amino acids contain benzene or heterocyclic ring systems. and how. these units can be of twenty-six or more different kinds.

secreted by the body cells. the nucleic acids. collagen. wool. = nuclee heterociclice. responsible for allergies and for defence against foreign organisms. and feathers. or various other agents. it contains a relatively large amount of sulphur. Viorica & Bostaca. the clotting of blood n. pyrrolidine ring n. Irreversible precipitation of proteins. nails. formed in one organ or part of the body and carried in the blood to another organ or part which it stimulates to functional activity or secretion. is caused by heat. Although closely related to the proteins. = any substance in the blood-serum or other fluids of the body which exerts a specific restrictive or destructive action on bacteria or other noxa. II. LEXICAL COMMENTARY enzyme n. hormone n. inducing chemical changes in other substances by catalysis. alpha-amino carboxylic acids n. agglutinins etc. precipitins.up: keratin. ids or bases. or neutralizes their toxin. keratin n. polypeptides do not undergo denaturation. = polimeri inalţi. = nucleu pirolidinic. hemoglobin. imidazole ring n. many hormones. itself remaining apparently unchanged in the process. Coagulation of egg white by heat. = carboxamida. Globular proteins serve a variety of functions related to the maintenance and regulation of the life process. WORDS AND PHRASES denaturation n. VOCABULARY I. in particular destroying any physiological activity. in tendons. = a scleroprotein or albuminoid present largely in cuticular structures. proteins are subdivided on the basis of physical properties. Only one other class of compounds. functions that require mobility and hence solubility. = 1.115-6) A. high polymers n. = alfa-aminoacizi carboxilici. and thus causes the clotting of blood. antibodies. is denaturation of the protein egg albumin. myosin. shows the phenomenon of denaturation. = an organic substance of colloid structure. which acts as a ferment. heterocyclic ring systems n. etc. which is converted into the insoluble. living cells n. The extreme ease with which many proteins are denatured makes their study difficult. which transports oxygen from the lungs to the tissues. fibroin. Denaturation causes a fundamental change in a protein. protein egg albumin n. Ioan: English in Medicine. in muscle. especially solubility: for example. fibrinogen. fibrous protein fibrin. antibody n. as. insulin (from the pancreas). pp. antitoxins. albumin in eggs. = celule vii. coagulated by heat). albumins (soluble in water. = nucleu imidazolic. (adapted Dobrovici. = albuş de ou. strong. carboxamide n. denaturare. soluble in dilute salt solutions). for example. presumably because their molecules are smaller and less complex. horn. They make up: all enzymes. = coagularea sângelui. Within the two broad classes. in skin. called denaturation. for example. in silk. are antibodies. = a chemical substance. globulins (insoluble in water. hair. egg white n. It is insoluble in the gastric juice 144 . = proteina albuminei oului.

4. to tend. What are proteins from the chemical point of view? 2. bone (ossein and cartilage).. it.. When one promises a thing. to subdivide. What are the essential amino acids? What kind of acids are they? 6. Prin experienţe de alimentaţie cu amestecuri de aminoacizi. the plan.. three plays within a week. 9..and it is for this reason sometimes used for coating pills which are intended to be dissolved only in the intestine. 7. one must. How many proteins are required to make up and run an animal body? 4. We . = an albuminoid present in connective tissue. 1. Reading and comprehension 1.. Translate into English: În cursul digestiei. fibroin n. EXERCISES I. What operation is he . Because of his efforts things are . 6. to be. The head of department. 8. 3. What are the chemical properties of the amino acids? 7. = a simple protein widely distributed throughout the tissues and fluids of plants and animals.. Fill in the blanks choosing the words among the following synonyms: perform. to coagulate. to maintain. ? III. the will of the president. collagen n. B.. execute. What do some of the amino acids contain? II. to convert. What part did he . proteinele sunt hidrolizate până la aminoacizi. Alţi aminoacizi pot lipsi din hrană fără nici un inconvenient. He .. ci sunt luaţi de acesta din hrană... = a white insoluble protein substance forming the main portion of cobweb and silk. How many amino acids have been found in proteins? 5.. in this play? 11.. 145 . to destroy. to approach. We could not . it. to determine. accomplish.. Give nouns corresponding to the following verbs and translate them into Romanian: to divide. milk and muscle.the orders willingly. his work. varieties of albumin are found in blood. to denaturate. pentru construirea propriilor sale proteine şi pentru alte sinteze sau degradări. on boiling with water it is converted into gelatin. to indicate.. to transport.. 2. albumin n. to require. this piece of furniture in one month.. to fold.. s-a constatat că unii aminoacizi sunt indispensabili creşterii animalelor tinere şi funcţionării normale a organismului adult.... When she promised a thing she was scrupulous in . 12. 5. They . Organismul animal foloseşte numai aminoacizi. 10... exactly. Though difficult. Aceşti aminoacizi numiţi esenţiali nu sunt deci sintetizaţi de organismul animal... nu şi proteine sau peptide. IV. A cold prevented him from . What does a single protein molecule contain? 3. the part was.

and claims to be best-selling diet ever. helps the absorption of iron.dietã. Unfortunate side effects have been reported. a pune la regim. No-carbohydrate diet Premise: High-carbohydrate diets. Mixing acid and alkaline is strictly forbidden.5. potatoes and bread with meat.dietã. chocolate and sugary soft drinks – ‘not the villains they are made out to be’.5. adunare parlamentarã. d. you would have to eat a vast amount to notice any difference. 3. so tuck into another bar of chocolate. so shouldn’t be eaten with protein. biscuits. and the weight returns when you move back on the solids. Extremely fashionable but with debatable scientific basis. b. Verdict: Most of the weight loss is due to water loss. no fat. = hidrat de carbon. 6. Verdict: Digesting food does burn the calories. Verdict: A mixture of foods is necessary for a healthy metabolism – vitamin C.hranã.a ţine. 146 . WORDS AND PHRASES carbohydrate n. 5. Grapefruit diet Premise: More energy is spent digesting grapefruit and other fruit like celery than is contained in the food itself. F-plan diet Premise: This is the original high-carbohydrate. vegetables and dairy products. for example. It’s difficult t eat more meta without eating more fat. it’s what you eat it with. c. VOCABULARY I. lead to weight gain. The more you eat. which is linked to hart disease and cancer. the thinner you get. 4.a ţine regim.congres.2. Carbohydrates can’t be digested in acid conditions. You might be thinner. 38) A. By replacing sugar. but your arteries won’t be happy. 2. FOOD FATS Diets a. not fat. Upper Intermediate. = 1. pasta. diet n. System S diet Premise: The way to get thin is to eat sugar-coated cereals. regim alimentar (to be on diet = a fi la dietã). alimentaţie. f. Verdict: Commonsense disguised as new scientific breakthrough. conferinţã. logically. Vaughan Jones. e. Verdict: Initial weight-loss is likely to be due to losing water rather than fat. you’ll lose weight. Inside Out. advocating lots of fruit and fibre. It’s a myth that sweets make you fat and rot your teeth. Verdict: Just as a dentist! (Sue Kay. so fruit should never be allowed anywhere near a main meal. but in such tiny proportions. low-fat plan. p. Cabbage soup diet Premise: By eating nothing but soup made from cabbage and a few other vegetables you can lose up to six kilos a week. Hay diet Premise: It’s not what you eat. The 80s favourite has been translated into sixteen languages.

III.because we took a tent instead of staying in a hotel and we hired bikes instead of a car. 3. I wouldn’t want to be a ……………… because I’d have to be away from home so much. bananas. cheese. When can you say that a person is healthy? 2. EXERCISES I. 2. 1. fibre n. valoare. = 1. oranges. a copleşi. sausages. ice cream. bread.) a împovãra. 5. 2. to lose ~ = a slãbi.. BRAKES 3. Complete each sentence with a word formed from the word in capitals.weight n. 2. Katy went on a ………course last year to learn how to make curries.. Can we speak about food education? 4. biscuits. chicken.. adj = gras. cauliflower. cucumbers. grãsime... Dan has .unsoare.. beans.vaci cu lapte (ale unei ferme).and I’ve just finished his latest book. radishes. = 1.. B. influenţã. jam. = metabolism (reacţiile chimice care au loc în organism). unturã. coffee. 4.a îngreuia. fish. Can teachers help students with having a healthy life as related to food and physical exercise? Would you suggest any measures for that? II.importanţã.sarcinã.(fig. naturã. 3.(fig. peas. potatoes. to put on /gain ~ = a se îngrãşa. weight v. to cut up ~ = a lãsa o moştenire serioasã. tea. to carry ~ = a fi influent. to get/grow ~ = a se îngrãşa. mushrooms. melon. pears. = 1. = 1. dairy n. peaches. Our holiday was quite ………. 2. garlic. GROW 6. carrots. pork. VANDAL 8. tomatoes. încãrcãturã. eggs. lettuce. a adãuga o greutate la. chocolate.filament. metabolism n. He ………. fat(s) n. NOVEL 147 . (şi dairy farm) fermã pentru creşterea vacilor cu lapte.magazin de produse lactate. CRIME 9. grapes.. to live on the ~ of the land = a huzuri. beer. Reading and comprehension: 1. onion. cakes.…his shoes already and is complaining that they’re too tight. milk. COOK 5.lãptãrie. calory (-ies) n. 4. juice.greutate folositã la cântãrit. 2. Could I have some more? TASTE 4. he is a man of weight = e un om cu greutate.as he came up to the corner.. bring arguments each time: apples. Read the list of food and drink below and tell your fellows what you like and what you don’t.recently so you can never find one that works.and he’s in prison for burglary and the moment. A lot of telephone boxes have been ………. bacon. Sarah’s uncle is a ……. pasta. water melon. plums. dairy products = produse lactate. How can physical exercise improve mental and social health? 3. John Irving is my favourite ………. but he was going too fast and went straight over the handlebars.fibrã. = calorii. povarã. EXPENSE 7.. beef.. (fig) fire. = 1.greutate. That soup was very …………….) greutate. 3. SAIL 2.

including a jazz singer and an amazing magician. For this. Female adolescents are particularly interested in having a slim. The cruise ship that we were on was fantastic – there were different………. Write an essay of about 300 words on the following topic: ‘An ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure. which are not always good for their health in general. which you consider to be harmless for your health. You are dining out with your girl/ boyfriend.10. etc.. they resort to all kinds of diets to lose weight. V. attractive appearance.’ VI. ENTERTAIN IV. 148 . Point out the advantages and the disadvantages of your own diet. Describe a ‘miracle diet’ you’ve taken up. Make up a list of what you should do and what you shouldn’t do while dining out.every evening. heard of.

but may also have some downsides. 6. it is common knowledge how soothing hot water laced with honey and lemon can be for sore-throat sufferers. = 1. 8.dătător de sănătate.6. treat n. leac. He offers his patients a simple. 8. antibacterial adj. a suporta. the popular belief that honey is healthier than sugar isn’t entirely well-founded. studiu. vb. 2. 3.medicinã. a studia. = 1.termen. cusur. a îndura. a cãra. 3. under no circumstance should a baby’s dummy be dipped in honey before the baby sucks it. is a specialist in stomach disorders. descompunere. to take medicine v. Peter Sunderland. 149 . dummy n.a avea.a aduce. a duce. VOCABULARY I. 2. putrefacţie. a suferi. 4. hidr. 3. 6.a decãdea. = 1. Is this yet another case of science simply giving credibility to what we have always known? After all.reper. explorare (geologicã etc. 5. = bactericid. discomfort n. ruinã. tonic.magie. defect. for example by following a main meal with a desert that incorporates honey. vrãjitorie. 2. (Nick Kenny. a purta (o marcã. a nutri. 2. folositor. healthy adj. eating too much honey on an empty stomach can cause discomfort. 4. = 1. 9.a aduce dobândă. and it can cause blood-sugar levels to rise quickly. although research clearly shows that people with stomachs experience some relief soon after taking honey. = 1.a face sã putrezeascã. p. Secondly.a îngriji. In accepting the beneficial effects of honey.moral.a administra medicamente. line vb. CAE Practice Tests.a purta. 7. a căptuşi. = (aici) suzetă.).(fam.a face sa decadã. prăbuşire.nelinişte. CAN HONEY HEAL? Peter Molan. 3.medicament. to bear (bore.a strica.a incomoda. (înv) = 4.2. remediu.a da naştere.incomoditate. Thirdly. farmece. = 5. leac. = 1. Like all foods. a purta (sentimente). vb. 2. medicament. a few reservations should be borne in mind. cercetare (research work = cercetare ştiinţificã). dulciuri. un semn). 5. 4. a îngrijora. îngrijorare. a aduce pe lume. tulburare. a doctor from New Zealand. = 1. = 1.ruinare. soothing adj. = benefic. a procura (un ajutor. Dr. = (aici) a umple. a transporta.a nelinişti.) a înghiţi hapul. borne/born) vb. a stingheri.(despre dinţi) = carie dentară. There is some doubt in the medical world as to whether UMF can destroy bacteria completely. investigaţie.a rodi.a vindeca. decay n. relaxant. as this is just as likely to cause tooth decay as any other sugary treat. however. component n.. a cerceta. un sprijin).5. 3. 4. 5.inconvenient. neajuns.a prezenta. = 1.lipsã de confort.2. That is why it’s best to line the stomach with some fibre first. Honey contains the same number of calories as other types of sugar. 3. research n. beneficial adj. 7. a da rod. 2.dezavantaj. vb. but effective alternative to taking medicine: honey. Firstly. vb.decãdere. a se ruina.sănătos. terapie. component(ã). WORDS AND PHRASES medicine n.) cercetare. = (aici) bunătate. a distruge. 20) A. 2. Molan claims that the active component in honey is an antibacterial agent called UMF. = calmant. 2. 3. declin.(geol. slãbire (a sãnãtãţii). a explora. downside n. honey can be healthy if eaten in moderation. 3. a purta. doctorie.

twenty minutes three times a week. Reading and comprehension: 1. cereals. 150 . drinking strong coffee. to bear a message = a duce un mesaj to bear a hand = a da o mânã de ajutor. c. LEXICAL COMMENTARY Phrases / idioms with the verb TO BEAR to bear a child = a da naştere unui copil. 2. b. record or tape. endorphins b. When is it considered bad for the organism? 3. oxygen and carbon dioxide. EXERCISES I. to bear the expenses = a suporta cheltuielile. b. one hour very day. to bear witness = a aduce mãrturie. protein and fat. b. Then compare your answers with a partner. walking. an exercise video. to bear fruit = a da roade. 6. to bear a grudge against somebody = a purta picã cuiva. (tip: first of all look up for the meaning and content of the terms in italics. caffeine and glucose 4. to bear in mind = a purta în minte. horse-riding and jogging. exercising regularly. fibres and sugar. rowing. dolphins 3. one hour three times a week. make a list with the explanations) 1. c. to bear a resemblance/likeness = a fi asemãnãtor cu. a ţine seama de.II. A balanced diet should include: a. The ‘happy hormones’ that are released during exercise are called… a. When is especially recommended to eat honey? 4. lungs and blood circulation. gymnastics and karate. the heart. carbohydrates. Do the quiz below. What are the recognized positive effects of eating honey? 2. 5. to bear the weight of = a suporta povara. b. What is the aerobic system? a. c. morphine c. B. yoga. c. eating fruit. Which of the following activities are best for keeping supple? a. You build up stamina by: a. c. Do you know how it is made? II. b. water-skiing and wind-surfing. calories. To keep healthy you should exercise for at least… a.

11. causes stomach aches. 9. round cake of minced meat. Our neighbours eat a lot of vegetables. 21. My sister went on a…………. Would Jack rather have boiled.containing fish and garlic. 6. steak. wolfed. 35) III. the best way to look better. Complete the sentences below with one of the words or phrases connected with eating: appetizer. menu. Aunt Betty served us an interesting……………. diet. or well done? 12.. keeps the doctor away? (adapted form Sue Kay. Tom went to the baker’s for a……………. noodles. hamburger. your heart gets diseased. What kind of………did Margaret have at the party? 7. 13. p. medium. snack. cheese. very good for one’s bones. an object you hang. eggs. Sunbathing is: a. bread. eats. dessert.. Would you like some………. My sister likes chicken……….of bread. Fish and………. 8. mustard. An apple a day: a. loaf. c. dish. A………is a flat. We often make a………. but no………… 19. fried or scrambled……? 14. feast. 18. tea. 5. salt. bacon. meat.to lose weight. picnic. How does he want his……. Does Alice take any…………in her tea? 2. a secret cure. sugar. c. vinegar. 8. fried or grilled and then eaten in a bread roll. b. They have cakes and icecream for………………. You feel more energetic for some time.with us this afternoon? 22. Upper Intermediate.very much. mayonnaise. 10. Your chicken soup with………. The English usually have a large meal in the evening and only a………at lunch time.. In summer children eat a lot of……… 17. The main course of the meal consists of green………. sandwich. soup. c. b. 9. is good for your skin. you will die sooner. b. Will you have……………. helping.. pork. carcinogenic. 151 . 3.. Would she like…………and eggs for breakfast? 20. Vaughan Jones.: rare.stuffed with rice and minced meat. chips.and butter? 4.tastes delicious. provisions.is a typical British meal. c..7. We generally start our meals with an……….. course. 10. honey. dough. peppers. A hangover is: a. a severe headache. yoghurt 1.with lettuce and tomatoes. 16. cream. salad. We mix some oil and ………. pickles. If you drink too much coffee: a. 15.as a dressing for the salad. icecream. Inside Out. b.

26. 31. ……………. Mother kneaded the………….23. 36. Now that we have had soup.of pudding. For dessert we have strawberries and………………. 27. picked up the…………. He sat down in the café. 32. 40.to sprinkle over the pasta. Muslims never eat…………. mother gave me a large…. My grandparents get their weekly…………at the village shop. oil and lemon used on salads.for a long time before she baked it.or salad? 35. When I got home. Our food is in the…………….? 39.please! I want to add some to my soup.. 33.. 29. Pass me the…………. 24.is a thick sauce made of egg yolk.and read it through. eaten with meat. 30. what’s the next…….basket. Do you want some…………. The beggar……down what the woman gave him and hurried out. activities related to eating or verbs denoting processes when cooking.. …………………is a sweet. ……………is milk that has turned thick and slightly acid. IV. A……………consists of two pieces of bread. 38. Take out all the words referring to types of food.. The Queen invited us all to a…………in her palace. 34... thick fluid made by bees from the nectar of flowers. 25. 152 . 28. 37. ……………is a yellow or brown paste which tastes hot and spicy. I’m going to grate some………………. and with some other cold food between them. usually spread with butter.

to stretch vb. it will do your appearance a world of good. Running is an excellent exercise. 2. It’s ok if you go to bed late occasionally but if you regularly cut down on your sleep. shoulders. if your diet is balanced. at a pace you can keep up for about 15 – 20 minutes.7. = 1. 153 . a extinde. keep active: if you don’t get enough exercise during the day. Walking slowly is useful but a quick pace gets more oxygen into your lungs. So don’t just go for a pleasant stroll. leziune. It is not called beauty sleep for nothing! Lack of sleep can cause acne or dry skin. 50-1) A. = (aici) a rezista. Try to exercise on soft ground as this will protect your knees and hips from too much stress.ocupat. to warm up vb. agitat. Always wear comfortable clothing and make sure your trainers are in good shape.pagubã. hips.ranã. = a reduce. Before you start running. you might do yourself an injury. a încorda. check that your ears. it would improve our appearance a great deal. Pull in your tummy. nedreptate. = a te menţine în formă. and therefore any addicts out there would do better to eat less. a se menţine. A brisk walk is one of the best things you can do for your circulation and appearance. You should start exercising slowly. Make sure you get a good night’s sleep by going to bed and getting up at regular times: don’t burn the candle at both ends. and some even say they are addicted to it. If we got more fresh air we would look healthier and more attractive.2. knees and ankles are in line with each other. = 1. you will put less pressure on your knees. You should be looking and feeling better already! Most of us live in large polluted cities. WORDS AND PHRASES hectic adj. injury n. 2. 2. though there is no evidence to support this. If you get a good night’s rest. a face încălzirea înainte de un exerciţiu fizic. During the day.5. If you wear shoes that give good support to your whole foot. to keep something up vb. a trage. Nevertheless. ARE YOU LOOKING AFTER YOURSELF? In the hectic world of today. you may end up sleepless all night. = a fi într-o formă fizică bună. 3.a strânge. a diminua a renunţa la. Susan Jones has been looking into some of the ways of looking good and feeling good. to cut down on vb. however. pp. to keep fit vb. a întinde. prejudiciu. But be careful! If you stretch when your muscles are cold. stricãciune. try and find an area that doesn’t have much pollution and get moving! Many young people feel guilty about eating too much chocolate. VOCABULARY I. people are always searching for more ways of keeping fit and healthy. = 1. you needn’t feel guilty: eating chocolate in moderation is fine – but don’t eat it instead of a proper meal! (adapted form Luke Podromou. Stand in front of the mirror with your feet part and your legs straight. A Pre-First Certificate Course. to burn the candle at both ends = a te culca târziu şi a te trezi devreme. Rising Star. = a te încălzi. to be in good shape vb.rãu. Did you know that standing. Chocolate does contain a lot of fat. a netezi. avarie. sitting and walking badly can make you look heavier than you really are? If we watched the way we sat and stood. a lungi. you should warm up first. using slow movements that make all your muscles work. it will soon start to have a bad effect on your skin.

a trage folos din. lunch. = abdomen. a ameliora. to make things warm for somebody = a da cuiva de furcã. 2. = plimbare (scurtã). a se îmbunãtãţi. depoziţie. 2. to warm up to one's subject = a te entuziasma pe mãsurã ce vorbeşti. Don’t overdo it F. evidence n. Think of the food a balanced diet should contain. 154 . 5. 3. Go for a run 2. to be warm = a-i fi cald. 6. etc. Get a good night’s rest B. warm temper = fire iute. 4. a se dezvolta. Why is a good night sleep essential for our health? 5. Reading and comprehension: 1. Look up for phrases containing the word keep and form sentences with them. Look up for different phrases/ expressions containing the verb to burn. Find time to relax C.a hoinãri. (jur.to keep active vb. What do you do to keep fit? 4. = 1.= 1. stroll n. a cutreiera. a îmbunătăţi. nãrav. a creşte. polluted adj. dinner. warm heart = suflet generos. II. a merge mai departe. What types of exercises does the text refer to? 3. 3. tummy n. a desãvârşi.dovadă. 7. IV. What are the bad effects of a sleepless night? 6. a profita de.patimã. to stroll v. dependenţã. to improve vb.) mãrturie. a face progrese. a se perfecţiona. Describe it by separately listing the food for breakfast. III. addict n. Choose the most suitable heading from the list A – F below for each part 1 – 5 of the article. addiction n. desserts. a folosi. warm welcome = primire cãlduroasã. = dependent de un drog. = 1. = poluat. claritate. A.înclinaţie. LEXICAL COMMENTARY Phrases and idiomatic expressions with WARM warm coat = o hainã cãlduroasã. stomac. What are the effects of pollution for our health? What about its effects upon the natural world? 7. There is an extra heading that you don’t need to use. Sit up straight! D. Spend more time in the open air E. B. 2. = a fi activ. 2. a înainta.a colinda. a progresa. a perfecţiona. EXERCISES I. What types of addiction do you know and what are your suggestions for those who are addicted? II. One of the paragraphs speaks about unbalanced diets. to warm oneself at the fire = a se încãlzi la foc. = 1.

Then we had a whole lobster…………the two of us. B. 5. Boil the spaghettis for then minutes in a large saucepan.cookery but I know what I like and……. It was raining (10)…. 3. A man whose job is to serve customers at their tables in a restaurant. C or D) best fits each space: School sports day Our school sports were held last week. After that we staggered back…….now was coffee and a light dessert. Then we called………the bill and decided to split it……. 1.France. from the moment the first starting pistol (6)…fired. 7. cuisine. and there is nothing (4)… than trying to win a race with only three or four people cheering you on. 3.the old quarter………a town…….. which was absolutely………of this world.people bothered to turn (3)…. A certain style of cooking. The manager very kindly offered us a drink………. 8.trying their venison stew. I was in the high jump.the after-effects but really we had no regrets………eating such a marvelous. cook.a pool of cold muddy water.B…afternoon was a disaster..hard that we 155 . course. typically having a circular indentation in the centre.in my life was……….V. 6. Switch the cook off and take the foods out. I’m not accustomed…….. Put the missing prepositions into the gaps in this text: The best meal I ever had……. 9. When the parents are away we must prepare our own dishes.. VI. until the last medal had (7)… presented.this time we were nearly bursting. 4. Breakfast usually consists of three dishes: an appetizer. For a start. Match the following words with their meanings below: meal. prawns and freshly-cooked shellfish. on which a cup is placed. She is considered the best cooker in Italian meals. The only thing we felt…. waiter. (8)…. and the (1). I eat chips and eggs with my salads. 7.a restaurant……..us. Food prepared in a particular way. Correct the following sentences: 1. 2. The meal began…………. We ordered a dry white wine to go……this course. VIII. Food which is eaten at about the same time every day...our hotel and fell……bed. 6.. 4. Stuffed cabbage is a traditional food in my country. We spent the next day suffering………. often typical of a particular area. 8.doubt that was the most delicious stew I’ve ever tasted . I’m no expert……. I told the chef I had never eaten such a delicious receipt! VII... dish saucer. a main course and a dessert.the house before we left.meant running up to do my best jump and then landing (9)….me at all. Decide which answer (A.. The machine used when we cook. My mother cooks excellent cuisines. 2. 5. A shallow dish. ……….a plate…….eating such rich food but it didn’t seem to disagree……. very (2)…. cooker.seafood: shrimps. A person who makes food. The separate stages in which a meal is served. It rained (5)… afternoon. This particular restaurant was famous………its venison – that’s the meat you get………deer and so we couldn’t leave……. memorable and extravagant meal.

A this B the C whatever D any 15. 156 . and was never seen (16)…. A first B in C every Da 14. then describe the cooking instructions to the class. and it (11)…. A all B whole C total D final 2. it disappeared in the direction of the railway line. A by B the C entire D all 6. A did B had C should D have 16. A little B small C few D rare 3. A to B had C been D itself 8. I couldn’t see where I was throwing. A so B as C and D very 11. A like B better C left D worse 5. and when I (15)…. A worked B found C looked D turned 12. My other event was the javelin. A under B on C through D about 13.the other side of the field to shelter under a tree. but (13)…. A on B at C in D to 10. A had B was C has D been 7. In (14)….couldn’t see the runners in the 5.finally manage to launch my javelin into the air.time I tried to throw.000 metres. Think of your favourite recipe. the javelin kept slipping from my hand.out that they had all stopped (12)…. A there B again C to D back IX. A up B about C round D over 4. A which B and C so D nevertheless 9. 1..case. trying to convince them it is the most delicious kind of food in the world.

2. the former being good for boiling whilst the latter are best for frying or eating cold. throw in the sesame seeds. Here are some easy recipes for six people (or four hungry ones!): 1. Potatoes tend to be either floury or waxy in texture. Serve with salt and freshly ground black pepper. New potatoes taste great. Leo. Cut each potato lengthways and brush with melted butter. Progress Towards First Certificate. 3. drain and peel. Grilled potatoes Boil or steam 1 kilo medium sized potatoes in their skins. make sure you look for them with plenty of damp soil on them because thye’re likely to be fresher than the ones that have been around long enough to have been washed. Leave to cool in the refrigerator before serving. Cut into 2cm cubes and allow to cool. steamed and unpeeled with butter and salt. Heat the oil in a frying pan and when hot. rather than peeled before boiling. When they start to pop. especially of a diet) food of the poor. You can’t do better than to grow your own. graded and bagged in polythene! Flavour and nutrition are better retained if the potatoes are cleaned and then boiled in their skins. onion or parsley mayonnaise or yoghurt dressing Boil the potatoes in their skins and then peel and slice while still warm. Potatoes with sesame seeds 1 kilo potatoes 6 tablespoons vegetable oil 2 tablespoons sesame seeds about ¼ teaspoon cayenne pepper or chilli powder 1 teaspoon salt juice of half a lemon Boil or steam the potatoes in their skins. however. drain and peel them while still warm. stirring all the time. The first ones came to England from Chile in 1586 and the new vegetable soon became popular and in parts of Europe replaced bread as the staple (therefore the main or important element of something. VOCABULARY 157 . 2. deep eyes unlike modern varieties which have been bred to be disease-free. The original potatoes were misshapen and full of large. smooth-skinned and free from deep eyes. Then put under a hot grill until golden brown. (adapted from Jones. Potato salad 1 kilo medium sized waxy potatoes 2 tablespoons chopped chives. 94) A.5. onion or parsley to the dressing and coat the potato slices evenly.8. salt and lemon juice and continue frying till crisp and brown. THE HUMBLE SPUD Potatoes have been a staple food of the Old World for so long that it’s easy to forget that they originated in the New World. Then add the cayenne pepper. which is easier than you may think – you can even grow them in large flower pots in your balcony! If you buy potatoes in a greengrocer’s. p. Add the chives. add the potatoes and fry for some 5 minutes.

= 1. la o frânghie). = 1. polythene n. B.) fir. to forget. to ~ oneself v. legume.a uita. vegetables n. Which are the best potatoes for eating cold? 5. 2. 2. forgotten v.( text. de larg consum. 2. How were the first potatoes as compared to the modern ones? 4. = 1. 5.a nu se gândi la interesele sale. forgot. II. = 1. dark spot on a potato from which a new shoot can grow). = 1.hrãnire.umed. laţ (la un şnur.a scruta cu privirea. a nu ţine minte. EXERCISES I. a se comporta nepotrivit. fibrã (fine staple wool = lânã finã). Hardly………………………. nutriţie. All the recipes in this cookbook are difficult to follow. receipt n.. to steam v.I. (fig. to eye v. = făinos (pentru a descrie cartofii albi). Where and when were the first potatoes discovered? 2. peel v. 4. a unei ţãri).a fi uituc. 2. From where were they brought to England? 3.ochi. zarzavat. 3. What sort of potatoes are we advised to buy? 6. recipisă. = ceros (pentru a descrie cartofii roz). materie brutã. 3. disease n. a rade coaja (la lãmâi. Practically no one came to the restaurant yesterday. producţie principalã (a unei regiuni. There isn’t……………………. portocale. calitate (a unui produs). = 1.a se uita la. 2. 4. = 1. to grow smaller = a se micşora.a uita de sine. misshapen adj. recipe n. Nobody I know likes warm milk. = boală. damp adj.a curãţa de coajã (cartofi.) fond. Nothing is worse than cold chips. LEXICAL COMMENTARY Phrases / idioms with the verb TO GROW to grow old = a îmbãtrâni. 3. = chitanţă. this habit grew upon him = acest obicei a pus stãpânire pe el. = polietilenă. 2. to grow to manhood = a ajunge la vârsta bărbăţiei. 6. alimente de bază. What other vegetables can be considered ‘staple food’? II. materie primã. ureche (la ac). I don’t know …………………. alimentaţie. = reţetă (prescripţie de amestecare). = (aici) cu o formă neregulată. 2. 2.). aliment. = 1. 2. nutrition n. = (aici) a gãti/fierbe legume (în aburi). WORDS AND PHRASES staple n. 158 . etc. jilav.). 2. eye n. How do cooks make this ‘staple food’ more interesting? 7. Finish the second sentence so that the meaning stays the same: 1. 4. (aici) tubercul (a round. waxy adj. to grow smth upon someone = a se impune. Reading and comprehension: 1. etc. floury adj. = 1..

She no longer………………. C or D) best fits each space: Getting fit I walked home the other day instead of taking the bus. I last………………………… She doesn’t drink as much as she used to before. Take out all the verbs referring to the actual stages in the cooking of potatoes. I don’t think I’ll ever be able to give it (7)…..C.. I need to get fit. but then I come home really tired after work and I just don’t feel (5)…to it. I don’t often eat out because it is expensive. There’s only one conclusion – I’m going to have to cut (1)…. Write about the main good things about the different kinds of meat that people eat and about the positive effects of vegetables for our health. To be honest. I’ve been thinking it (3)…for some time. but then I think of a good excuse to put it (4)….on eating so many cakes and pastries and take (2)…some kind of exercise. 6. I hardly……………………… I’ve got no time to cook something difficult right now. It’s only two kilometres but it really wore me (0). Now imagine you are cooking a chicken soup.. I know it’s fattening but I just can’t do (6)…it.. the real problem is chocolate.5. though. 159 . I love it. I haven’t……………………. Decide which answer (A. describe the whole process minutely. III. 8.. Actually. None of……………………… I haven’t eaten pork since last Christmas. B. so I guess I’ll just have to put (8)…with being unfit! 0 A back B through C out D off 1 A over B across C up D down 2 A up B over C out D after 3 A out B over C up D out 4 A out B by C down D off 5 A up B off C over D out 6 A away B over C across D without 7 A in B out C up D off 8 A out B up C on D off IV. I want to go and join. 7. Every few months I make a decision to join my local fitness club. V.

Several rules for people eating out are given in the latest issue of the Good Food Guide. don’t blame the waiter. criticisms. 93) 160 . There’s nothing worse than being rushed into making a choice you’ll regret later. Progress Towards First Certificate. honestly. according to the Guide. In this case ask to see the manager and tell him you didn’t really enjoyed the meal and make sure you explain why. your table may be given to someone else. Before you go inside the restaurant. says the Guide. At the same time. By the way. However. If you want to smoke you should ask them if they mind. EATING OUT – SOME RULES FOR DINERS If you don’t very often at out in a restaurant. the people at the next table deserve consideration. If you have a disastrous one. a good restaurant deserves to do good business whereas a bad one perhaps shouldn’t be in business at all. lovely!’ but experienced diners treat this as a serious enquiry and are prepared to offer compliments. at the end of the meal. Another rule they give is to let the restaurant know in advance if a member of your party has any special needs. You might be in for a nasty shock when the bill comes if you haven’t budgeted for these extras and not all the menus you’re shown at table mention these items. Another rule is to ask the staff many questions: how is this dish cooked? What goes with what? What’s that tasty looking dish the people at the next table are having? Can I talk to the chef? and so on. you can help yourself and others to enjoy better food.5. Finally. you know… While you are eating. Apparently this is a legal requirement. make sure you spend some time reading the menu outside quite carefully. a vegetarian or a Muslim let the staff know at least a day ahead so that you can all be sure of having the right food and a good time. don’t be afraid to order two different dishes and to swap with a companion half-way through. tell your friends to go to the same place. (adapted from Leo Jones. p. if you don’t. Good food does not go with cigar smoke.9. service charges and VAT. a disabled one. Smith or a Ms. So if you’re eating with a small child. Some of the rules seem to favour restaurant staff more than they are likely to help diners! For example the Guide tells its readers to be sure to phone up and cancel any booking they make which they can’t keep. and it’s only polite. Once inside and seated comfortably at a table that suits you look at the menu carefully and insist that you’re allowed enough time to decide at leisure what to order. or both. By following these rules and guidelines. when you’ve been given the bill and are ready to pay you should thank the staff. a very old person. The Guide also advises you to ring up if you’re going to be delayed by more than a quarter of an hour. too. too. he is not a cook. The restaurant may otherwise be holding a table and turning away customers at its busiest time. In particular look for any mention of cover charges. someone will probably ask you ‘Everything all right?’ and probably expect the answer ‘Fine. Try to notice what the prices include and what they don’t include. But if you were very pleased. you may need some advice.2. Giving the waiter a big tip is no substitute for a warm thank you and a smile – if you’ve been served professionally and cheerfully you should reward the waiter with both gratitude and money! And if the food was poor. though how could anyone trace a Mr. don’t tell them. it may be just a single mistake. Jones who didn’t turn up with a party of six is anyone’s guess.

favour n. 2. (aici) de calitate slabã.= personal al unei edituri. to give somebody in charge = a da pe cineva pe mâna poliţiei. (aici) persoanã care ia masa. considerare. stimă. a ~ taste = un gust neplãcut. 4. (despre persoane) invalid. a juristului): you should take legal ~ = ar trebui sã consulţi un jurist. indecent. extremitate: to have it on the ~ of one's tongue = a-i sta pe limbã. diplomatic staff n. 2. = corpul didactic al unei şcoli. to foot the ~ = a suporta cheltuielile. = bucătar şef. 2.) listã de opţiuni oferitã utilizatorului de un program de calcul. = 1. II. respect. delay n. capãt. 161 . = 1. obscene. editorial staff n. = personal diplomatic. nasty adj. cheltuialã. 2. 3. to be on the staff of = a funcţiona la. farfurie. aviz. aparate) scos din uz.). gustos. chef n. WORDS AND PHRASES advice n. consultaţie (a doctorului. 3. dezgustãtor. analizã.) letter of ~ = scrisoare de aviz. = notã de platã. = 1. to meet all the requirements = a face faţã tuturor cerinţelor. = (aici) comandă (la un restaurant). = 1. poor adj. medical staff n. bunăvoinţă. Phrases with the word CHARGE charge n. = (value added tax) taxă pe valoare adăugată. scârbos. (nenumărabil) sfat. menu n.= personal sanitary. a rãspunde de. ~ weather = vreme urâtã. standing ~ = fel de mâncare care se serveşte zilnic. mâncare. (pl. sfat. (aici) bacşiş. reflectare. 3. amânare. tasty adj. = 1. sãrac.) (advices) înştiinţare. to be in charge of = a se îngriji de. 2. solicitare. nevoiaş. = 1. incapabil de muncã.= 1. pont. stricat. studiere. recompense. booking n. requirement n. consideraţie. disabled adj. diner n. (tehn. the one (officer) in charge = cel de serviciu/ ofiţerul de serviciu. = 1. (despre maşini. cumpãrare. vârf.A. etc. without ~ = fãrã întârziere. a conduce. neprietenos. (pl) veselã. according to our latest ~s = potrivit cu cele mai recente informaţii. B. staff of a school n. = personal. vegetarian n. exigenţã. = 1. LEXICAL COMMENTARY A. at one’s own charge = pe propria cheltuialã. fel de mâncare. = 1. = 1. bursã. = întârziere. 3. informaţie confidenţialã (la curse. despãgubire. cerere. solicitare. reţinere. vagon restaurant. a piece of ~ = un sfat bun. şic. 4. VOCABULARY I. 4. tip n. = 1. (man. imediat. = preţ. = vegetarian (persoană care nu mănâncă produse din carne). side ~ = garniturã. dish n. comandã telefonicã. 2. 5. aviz. meniu la un restaurant. rezervare. 2. consideration n. 2. to wash the ~es = a spãla vasele. cerinţã. Phrases/ idioms with the word STAFF staff n. 2. 3. 2. VAT n. 2. 3. order n. to take into ~ = a ţine seama de. bill n. rãu(voitor). 2. serviciu. înregistrare. = favoare. elegant.

fare. supplies. champagne. waiters. vivers. Delights for eye & stomach! Sound of live jazz. all sort of wine. Have you ever tried adding honey to natural yogurt to…it? SWEET 9. refreshments. EXERCISES I. head chef. Don’t you think it needs… ? THICK 3. Form another word from the word in capitals to complete each sentence referring to food: 1. the arrangement of the room. Michael Quinn. music. chow. The words below are synonymous with the noun ‘food’. Make up a list with some basic requirements or rules you would impose on all restaurants (regarding the atmosphere. eats. VII. Imagine a conversation with a Spanish waiter. Write between 15 – 20 lines. 162 . nutriment. cooking. What seems to be most important when you dine out (atmosphere. cook. The tea was so weak it seemed like hot water. different cooking. the personnel‘s training. Daily 12. sustenance. Write an advertisement for you favorite club/ disco/ restaurant/ pub/ fast food starting from the example below: The Ritz Piccadilly. This product contains no artificial preservatives or… FLAVOUR 6. nibbles. vittles. Are you sure this meat has been cooked enough? It sees very… DO 5. (N. the hygiene. III. tuck. there are differences in meaning and usage between them. eatables. It was almost… TASTE 10. daily bread. (British informal) scoff. the menu is in Spanish and French and you only speak English. Sun until midnight. Be careful! If you eat too fast. nourishment. nosh. offers a three-course surprise luncheon. Much recommended. cuisine. She gave us enormous portions – that’s typical of her… GENEROUS 4. Am. foodstuffs. meals. The waiter told us about the dish but we didn’t understand his… EXPLAIN 2. Would you follow the rules and pieces of advice suggested in the article? Are there any you disapprove of? Could you think of others that are more important? 3. (archaic) victuals. You are a food inspector. you may get an… DIGEST IV. commons. We had roast lamb with coffee-flavoured sauce: an unusual… COMBINE 8. And yet. solids. stores.30 – 11pm. the cooking and serving conditions but also the morals and the attitude of the staff). Give an account of a conflict or misunderstanding you had with a waiter. see if it needs to be… SHARP 7. This sauce is much too runny. What are the basic rules described in the article? 2. informal) chuck. VI. or another person in a restaurant. rations. oyster wrapped in pancakes with truffle sauce and champagne sorbet.B. provisions. Before using this knife to chop the onions. V.30 – 2pm. the food itself)? II. Reading and comprehension: 1. meat. bread. subsistence. grub. Discuss them for each term. You have never been to Spain before. viands. baking. Try to manage in such a situation. 6. edibles.

a tuşi. pre-packed salads or porkpies may. Also.2. erupţie. Almost every day newspapers report that cooked meats and poultry dishes are being withdrawn from sale. withdrawn v. 2. take-away bars n. It may also have bee on display to long. o afirmaţie. 3. revoltã. 2. Most outbreaks are caused by Salmonella enteritidis commonly associated with the consumption of chicken eggs or egg products due to shell contamination. = prevederi (ale unui document. 5. agresiune. izbucnire. according to health experts. FOOD POISONING Food served and sold in delis. provisions n. consumaţie. tuşind. WORDS AND PHRASES delis n. = 1. ale unei legi). = restaurante gen fast-food. enforcing the provisions of food safety legislation. jignitor. pornire violentã. The alarming rise in the number of infections is the price the consumer pays for the development of factory poultry farming and cheap meat feedstuffs. atac. etc. to cough v. infectat. consumare. explozie (de bucurie). food poisoning n. a se retrage. outbreak n. = reguli de igienă. to ~ out/up = a spune ceva tuşind. making it unsuitable for consumption. = baruri cu autoservire.10. recommended that temperature readings be taken at four-hourly intervals. for example. a expectora. weapons/arms of ~ = arme de atac. consumption n. = 1. pãgubitor. poultry n. = 1. precautions must be taken to minimize the risk of customers touching products or coughing over them. (adapted from Barbara & Marcin Otto. to take ~ = a se simţi jignit. It is. = 1. jignire. VOCABULARY I. act ilegal. Here is the News. (aici) început de epidemie. = infecţie alimentară. withdrew. a lua. 2.5. or at an unsafe temperature. be contaminated with salmonella bacteria. = păsări de curte. a retracta (o ofertã. contaminated adj. 2. injurios. = contaminat. 163 . a pleca. 182) A. = 1. = 1. I.) crimã. to ~ the curtain = a trage perdeaua. 3. Ready-to-eat food. dãunãtor. 4. injurious adj. = bacterii. to ~ a privilege = a retrage un privilegiu. a trage (înapoi). A newly proposed Code of Practice will make it an offence to ‘render food injurious to health’. 2. bacteria n. (jur. ofensã. supermarkets and take-away bars can cause serious food poisoning. p. a retrage. 5. offence n. Today’s warning has been issued following a dramatic increase in food poisoning. English for Journalists.). 3. to ~ down = a reduce (pe cineva) la tãcere. and that strict hygiene rules should be applied to storage and display of dishes. to withdraw. hygiene rules n. vol. such as seafood dishes.

disappeared as draught animals. 12. The area around the Wash. (12)…. Reading and comprehension: 1. He was very…for her advice. 11. EXERCISES I. In fact. What types of bacteria can cause food poisoning? 6. is very… 8. = a food provided for cattle and other livestock. Southern Europeans eat healthy foods (4)…as fish and vegetables. 3. 2. the situation in agriculture is…serious. have traditionally consumed very little meat.. Wheat is grown…for human consumption. Put one suitable word in each space: Diet and health It is said that people from Mediterranean countries. the corn will be…in about a fortnight’s time. = a member of a large group of unicellular micro-organisms which have cell walls but lack organelles and an organized nucleus. 7.average. How is food poisoning generally treated? II. (8)…the past this habit might (9)…been caused (10)…poverty. As a result of the bad winter and the floods. (6)…life expectancy is the longest (7)…all.on. What is forbidden for consumers when they are near food? 5.II. Fill in the blanks using appropriate words and forms form the list given below: particular(ly) extreme(ly) fertile significant(ly) virtual(ly) primary/ primarily principal(ly) grateful(ly) valuable busy/ busily ripe entire(ly) 1. (14)…many young people have started smoking (15)…the governments are quite worried and are taking measures to reduce the number of smokers in (16)…countries. The…grain crops in China are rice and millet. live longer (1)…people from the north of Europe. If the weather doesn’t break. In Britain horses have. 164 . What sort of food is served in delis? 2. Farm workers work long hours. 5. (0). In (13)…of their healthy lifestyle. 9. The farm manager thanked the land-improvement expert for his…advice.. Grain yields have increased…in the post-war period. but (11)…today people from this region eat a lot of fish. 10. What products do you consider to be injurious to health? Do you ever/ often/ never eat food form snack bars? 3. III. people from southern Europe smoke a lot. which consists of black earth and silt. 6. Farmers are very…at harvest time.. including some which can cause disease. B. The people from southern Italy. feedstuffs n. and they also eat far (5)…fatty foods like cakes and hamburgers. 4..…the cowmen. LEXICAL COMMENTARY bacteria n. There is one surprising thing. What does the Code of Practice refer to? 4. I’m not… satisfied with the new milking machine. (2)…a large extent this must be due (3)…their better diet.

and a distorted perception of one's own body – New Oxford Dictionary of English) and bulimia (an emotional disorder involving distortion of body image and an obsessive desire to lose weight. încrederea în viitor şi eliminarea oricăror complexe care le întunecă existenţa. to have a more appealing body. cheese. proşti şi lipsiţi de voinţă. They are caused by the youth’s desire to be socially accepted by the other teenagers. etc.g. 165 . Persoanelor supraponderale le este greu să trăiască într-o societate care pune mare preţ pe menţinerea unei siluete zvelte. Adeseori discriminarea duce şi la respingerea acestora în cazul interviului pentru o slujbă mai bună. meat. vegetables. etc. How could you convince such a person to give up these self-caused diseases? VIII. an emotional disorder characterized by an obsessive desire to lose weight by refusing to eat. purging. Translate the following text into English: S-a înfiinţat o nouă organizaţie care include persoane supraponderale. or fasting – id. in which bouts of extreme overeating are followed by depression and self-induced vomiting. Aceşti oameni trebuie să lupte cu stereotipul potrivit căruia oamenii graşi sunt leneşi. Grade them according to their degree of risk for the consumers’ health. Din fragedă copilărie cei graşi sunt expuşi ocărilor şi şicanelor din partea celor de o vârstă cu ei. V. Look for some of the chemical additives used in processing food in the food industry. VII. respectul de sine. scopul principal al acestui tip de organizaţie este combaterea pe căi proprii a discriminării oamenilor graşi şi introducerea în vigoare a „drepturilor oamenilor corpolenţi”. soy. VI.IV. eggs.). Some of the major problems of female adolescents are anorexia (also anorexia nervosa.). Obezitatea este o infirmitate. milk. What does it include and what are the advantages and drawbacks of a vegetarian living? Discuss some products in turn (e. capacitatea de a-şi aprecia valoarea. Make up a list containing the producers’ obligations and the consumers’ obligations regarding food displayed in shops. Scopul fundamental al organizaţiei este de a le reda celor graşi sentimentul propriei demnităţi. Many people nowadays start a vegetarian style of life.

numerous species were brought to the verge of extinction due to the impact of the DDT on their reproductive cycles.1. The story of DDT as vividly told in Rachel Carson's "Silent Spring" is considered to be the birth of the modern environmental movement and the development of the modern field of "environmental engineering”. conservation. Briefly speaking.wikipedia. The introduction of drinking water treatment and sewage treatment in industrialized countries reduced waterborne diseases from leading causes of death to rarities. Modern environmental engineering began in London in the mid-19th century when it was realized that proper sewerage could reduce the incidence of waterborne diseases such as cholera. (adapted from http://en. and the application of good engineering practices.II. and malaria was controlled better than it ever had been. TEXTS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING 2. The Romans constructed aqueducts to prevent drought and to create a clean. Development of Environmental Engineering Ever since people first recognized that their health and well-being were related to the quality of their environment. healthful water supply for the metropolis of Rome. benefic. regulations. and to remediate polluted sites. Negative environmental effects can be decreased and controlled through public education. environment n. water.2. and enhance (the environment). and/or land resources). 166 . as societies grew.S.org/wiki/Environmental_engineering) A. to provide healthful water. the main task of environmental engineering is to protect (from further degradation). actions that were intended to achieve benefits for those societies had longer-term impacts which reduced other environmental qualities. One example is the widespread application of DDT to control agricultural pests in the years following World War II. In the 15th century. While the agricultural benefits were outstanding and crop yields increased dramatically. = mediu. and land for human habitation and for other organisms.6. healthful adj. preserve (the present condition). Notable examples are the laws decreeing the construction of sewers in London and Paris in the 19th century and the creation of the U. In many cases. thus reducing world hunger substantially. Conservation movements and laws restricting public actions that would harm the environment have been developed by various societies for millennia. Bavaria created laws restricting the development and degradation of alpine country that constituted the region's water supply. = sănătos. national park system in the early 20th century. air. they have applied thoughtful principles to attempt to improve the quality of their environment. WORDS AND PHRASES environmental engineering = ingineria mediului. VOCABULARY I.6. ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING Environmental engineering is the application of science and engineering principles to improve the environment (air.

extinction n. to prevent v. = a obţine. = dăunător. location. What was the impact of the DDT on the reproductive cycles of some species? 5. bore. to recognize v. = remarcabil. due to prep. but there is also nothing wrong with using healthy as a synonym for healthful. DDT = (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane) DTT. pollution n. sewer n. = a scădea. metropolis n. In meanings relating to birth. B. How can negative environmental effects be decreased? 3. = a polua. The following points should be borne in mind. = răspândit. = 1. outstanding adj. The twins were borne by an Italian mother. to decrease v. as reputable writers have been doing for centuries Borne or born? Borne is the past participle of the verb to bear. a dobândi. born/borne. = secetă. transmis prin apă. referitor la. sewerage n. widespread adj. LEXICAL COMMENTARY Healthy or healthful? It is sometimes argued that healthy should be used only to describe a living being in good health. = a îmbunătăţi. = metropolă. = poluare. When and where did modern environmental engineering begin? 4. 2. EXERCISES I. to improve v. or when the verb is passive followed by the preposition by: Maria had already borne six children.to pollute v. = mileniu . born. and that healthful is the word for such things as habits or foods promoting good health. = dispariţie. benefit n. is the form used: He was not born in a hospital. II. or status of birth: newly born pups and a southern-born poet. an old past participle of bear. millennium. What is environmental engineering? 2. Born is also the adjective used in a combination. to decree v. milennia n. transportat de apă. = a împiedica. to achieve v. pest n. to indicate condition. = beneficiu. = a decreta. = canalizare. borne is used when the mother is the subject of the verb. His account is simply not borne out by the facts. When the subject is the child. There is nothing wrong with observing this distinction. = apeduct. = a recunoaşte. aqueduct n. Reading and Comprehension: 1. waterborne adj. a diminua. drought n. = datorită. related to = legat de. = canal . What’s the main task of environmental engineering? 167 .

5...... a . a . but I know you are responsible... Fill in the blanks with the appropriate noun: a . (3).. a .. In particular. (15). (14) of bombers.... a .. almost in the same . The reform process. She spun away from him and.. has stalled to such an . (9) the "big picture" reforms are in place. a . (6) of events. this . Analiza acestora precizează măsura în care aceste transformări au fost provocate de oameni. (17) of mountains. (14) monopolies. (8) to the economic stagnation which is gripping the country.. wholly without . a ....II. aplicarea ştiinţei şi tehnologiei poate controla şi ameliora calitatea mediului înconjurător.... (11) restructuring the country's industrial .. (3) of swine... My marriage is a .. Take "Gazprom". a . Translate into English: Ştiinţa mediului înconjurător se ocupă cu schimbările chimice.. (1) of workers... a .. Improving efficiency within it is clearly in everybody's . The speaker suddenly found himself at a ... I have no objective .... (12) and ..php?user) 168 .. surrendering power does not . Wolf. (5) looked to be still largely on track. TO FEEL) 2. a . (16) to being a state ...... (TO STEAL) 4. a . The problem is that . hurled herself through the doorway... (7) of puppies.. (TO MOVE) 6. when you are . After .org/books/work_list.. produselor alimentare şi deşeurilor. (9) of hounds. (8) of fish. as Russia's energy companies are showing.. (19). But "Gazprom" remains . (12) of beads... (5) of stars. That is putting it . (The European) V.... solului.. (15) of sticks... (4) only a year . . was struck by how alien this type of architecture was... success now depends .. (13) of killer-bees. (20) to change....academicdirect. (7) Russian analysts can see an early ... (17) a state. cum şi în ce condiţii. (6) that . (18) of experts. that you ordered my sister's murder. (TO FLY) 8.. a .. a ... All the . apei.. (2) of outlaws... Complete the sentences with nouns corresponding to the verbs written in capital letters at the end: 1. (4) of lions. (TO LOSE) III. (10) pushing them to the heart of the economy.... This is not an easy task. (1) Reforms The view of the 67 group of leading industrial ...... fizice şi biologice care au loc în mediul înconjurător prin contaminarea sau modificarea naturii fizice şi biologice a aerului.. (TO MOCK.. . Not a . for words.... (13) up the power of the former .. Fill in the blanks using only one word for each space and then translate the text: Russian Energy Giant Shrugs . IV.. I'm sure we have made the right . (http://lori. (10) of deer.... of his namesake... a .. a . (16) of trustees. (2) is that Russia is at a "critical juncture" in its economic transition process. (TO CHOOSE) 7.. (TO PROVE) 3. a . a . prowling night-time Tokyo with the . (18) naturally. from the Americas are delayed because of a thunderstorm over the Atlantic... a . of air stirred in the branches of the maple-trees in the garden... (11) of grapes..

Water is treated to achieve water quality objectives for the end uses. Environmental engineering is a synthesis of various disciplines. and convey water for various uses. etc. If impacts are expected. precipitators. risk of non-infectious illness. Water supply and treatment Engineers and scientists work to secure water supplies for potable and agricultural use. traffic impacts. geology. the water needed for various needs in that watershed. they then develop mitigation measures to limit or prevent such impacts. Environmental engineering emphasizes several areas: process engineering. Developing nations are striving to obtain the resources to develop such systems so that they can improve water quality in their surface waters and reduce the risk of waterborne infectious disease. Air quality management Engineers apply scientific and engineering principles to the design of manufacturing and combustion processes to reduce air emissions to acceptable levels. and create a palatable water flavor. ecology. and/or honey bucket systems. or even mechanical. agricultural capacity. septic. lake. or ocean system. biological. the seasonal cycles of water movement through the watershed and they develop systems to store. mechanical engineering. and pollution prevention/cleanup. THE SCOPE OF ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING Pollutants may be chemical. visual (landscape) impacts. environmental chemistry. Environmental impact assessment and mitigation It is a decision making tool. radioactive. They apply scientific and engineering principles to evaluate if there are likely to be any adverse impacts to water quality. ecological impacts. substantial resources are applied to the treatment and detoxification of this waste before it is discharged into a river. air quality. noise impacts. but rather deposit such waste into water and convey it from households via sewer systems. They evaluate the water balance within a watershed and determine the available water supply. Environmental engineering is the application of science and engineering principles to the environment. habitat quality. Scrubbers. public health. flora and fauna. chemical engineering. Water distribution systems are designed and built to provide adequate water pressure and flow rates to meet various end-user needs such as domestic use. and other devices are utilized to remove 169 . after-burners. water and wastewater treatment (sanitary engineering). treat. and irrigation. In developed countries.2. There are several divisions of the field of environmental engineering. fire suppression. In the case of potable water supply. thermal.2. In this division. chemistry. Wastewater conveyance and treatment Most urban and many rural areas no longer discharge human waste directly to the land through outhouse.6. water is treated to minimize risk of infectious disease transmittal. Engineers and scientists develop collection and treatment systems to carry this waste material away from where people live and produce the waste and discharge it into the environment. Some consider environmental engineering to include the development of sustainable processes. incorporating elements from the following: civil engineering. biology. waste reduction/management. engineers and scientists assess the impacts of a proposed project on environmental conditions. social impacts.

to assess n. to store v. potable adj. delicios. strove. metodă. = poluant. tratare. Reading and Comprehension: 1. tratament. rebuturi. orânduire. to discharge v. deşeuri. (adapted from http://en. = a (se) suprapune. nitrogen oxides. social ~ = sistem social. This field is beginning to overlap with energy efficiency and the desire to decrease carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gas emissions from combustion processes. gustos. assessment n. = 1. 2. EXERCISES I. and reactive organic gases from vapors prior to allowing their emission to the atmosphere. epurator de gaze. 5. prior to = înainte de. general. sistem. = cumpăna apelor. II.org/wiki/Environmental_engineering) A. = plăcut la gust. sistem. nervous ~ = sistem nervos. combustion n. wastewater ~ = tratarea apei reziduale. tracking ~ = sistem de urmărire. electric ~ = sistem/reţea electric(ă). = a scoate în evidenţă. = a evalua. pollutant n. educational ~ = sistem educaţional. to strive. metric ~ = sistem metric. = a depozita. scrubber n. = ceaţă cu fum. to overlap v. watershed n. ~ operator = operator de sistem. smog n. Scientists develop dispersion models to evaluate the concentration of a pollutant at a receptor source or the impact on overall air quality and smog production from vehicle and flue gas stack emissions. syntheses n. the ~ = organismul. waste n. flavor n. VOCABULARY I. overall adj. 2. LEXICAL COMMENTARY system n. rutieră). = 1. B. WORDS AND PHRASES scope n. treatment = 1. operating ~ = sistem de operare. ~ software = software de sistem. sulfur oxides. detoxification n. a emana. What types of pollutants are mentioned in the text? 170 . collection system = sistem de colectare. = savoare. 3. = ardere. = a se strădui. to emphasize n. available adj. solar ~ = sistemul solar. 2. = dispononibil. aromă. democratic ~ = sistem democratic. = ecologic. = evaluare. global. synthesis.wikipedia. striven to v. sustainable adj.particulate matter. reţea (hidrologică. a vărsa. regim. = sinteză. = scruber. 3. a emite. palatable adj. 4. = potabil. a descărca. electrică. sistem de organizare. = resturi. = detoxifiere. = total. = rază de acţiune.

..... Some plants are of . a ... 6... a . oats... (5) the world of plants. (4) the extraordinary variety of living organisms that make . (3) of water. of the river prevented the villagers from building a bridge across it... If I let you down...... (10) important of these.. (COWARD) 10..on the battlefield had never been displayed by anyone....... (21) of spaghetti. (BROTHER) 4. a .. . a . (20) of machinegun fire... (BOY) 2.. a ....... (3) the plant kingdom. The .. so I don't really think we can form a . (18) of corn... a .... a ...... (2) of beer. (5) of information.. (LONG) 9. (13) a certain amount of 171 .. (6) of bread..... a .. a . (19) of hay. (12) of laughter. (17) of luggage... The Preraphaelite .. . (10) of sugar. a ... a . The soldiers were court-martialled and found guilty of .... a .. (8) use than others......... (PARTNER) 3... Fill each of the following blanks with only one suitable word: Man’s existence on earth depends .... (23) of dust. (TO DESERT) 8. (1) of money... a . animal life could not .. to get what he wants.. a ...Our interests are incompatible. a .. (24) of ammunition......... 3. (1) all the other living matter ..... barely and sugar cane.. was a trend that laid emphasis on the aesthetic component of every work of art.. Life at the tropics is unbearable because of the high degree of .... 5... (ILLITERATE).. (11) it supplies the world . (9) of salt... In this country... High on the list of plants upon .. a . a .. (11) of soap. (14) of thunder. (4) of advice.. (BRAVE) 11. (WIDE) III. Fill in the blanks with the appropriate partitive: a . created very diversified life forms on Earth..... a ....2... Why do environmental engineers evaluate? What do engineers do if impacts are expected? Why is water treated in the case of potable water supply? What are developing nations striving to obtain? How can air quality be preserved? II.... has been done away with completely.. (WISE) 5.. (7) be a barren and lifeless world of deserts... a . IV. (22) of wind.... The grass family is probably the . (16) of rice. (8) of sand. it was out of mere .. (25) of armour....... (2) him and a large part of this belongs ... (9) our lives depend are the food crops... Such .. a . (15) of bacon. a . 6.. God...... Ion Creanga became famous through the publication of his book Memories of My . 4..... (12) its wheat.. .... I wouldn't have imagined he would go to such . rice.. . (7) of grass.. Complete the sentences with abstract nouns derived from the words in capital letters at the end: 1.. a . (HUMID) 7... in His .. a . (6) and our planet ...

V.academicdirect. Dezvoltarea metodelor analitice de separare.. (16) as potatoes and carrots..... Other grasses provide the basic foodstuff for cattle and sheep. identificare şi determinare a furnizat informaţii preţioase privind prezenţa în aer a unor particule poluante ca: var.. (19) tea and . as .php?user=lori&id=111) 172 . (14) more or ... these are all . cocs şi hidrocarburi policiclice aromatice provenite din cocsificare....processing.. Then there are root crops ..... calcar şi praf de ciment de la operaţiile de ardere în cuptoare.. Automobilul a adăugat o nouă categorie de particule poluante.org/books/work_list... (15) as they are grown.... (20). (17) as the great ... (http://lori........ Some plants give us beverages . oxizi de fier de la topirea minereurilor şi fluoruri de la procesele metalurgice........... Translate into English: Studiul proceselor de ardere a combustibililor ca poluanţi ai aerului sunt o preocupare foarte importantă. (18) of fruits..

a încercui. The climate into which a plant first emerges. as far as possible. He is. care is taken to ensure that they are representative of air masses over large areas. there is need to study the behaviour of the air near the surface in detail because of numerous matters of interest. banc. if anywhere. Instead. albie. it presents problems of great scientific interest. 6. tehn banc. matcă (de râu). for synoptic meteorology and climatology. and for this reason. These features. The detailed study of the lowest layer of the atmosphere. 3.3. 2. a înveli. M. that the mathematician really comes into his own. however. still limited by its inability to control the processes or to isolate different effects. Meteorological observations are made. which is also the normal habitat of small creatures. in a single day. p. life is abundant only in a very shallow layer at the surface. strat de aluviuni. He must observe events ‘as they come’. Thus the site is chosen to be. such as the dispersal of smoke and of atmospheric pollution generally. the micrometeorologist applies the normal methods of mathematical and experimental physics. are not found to such a marked degree at 4 feet and above. and not as he would like to arrange them.6. We spend our lives at the bottom of the great ocean of air which envelops the earth and this is broadly true of all air-breathing creatures and plants. layer n. and even in temperate climates it is possible. strat. = 1. for the air within a fraction of an inch above the ground to pass from frost to almost tropical heat. batiu. mil a învălui. especially in hot weather. But quite apart from these features. difficulties arise because at this level the temperature of the air is not only liable to large fluctuations. geol zăcământ. Kanes. VOCABULARY I. and it is in micrometeorology.2. WORDS AND PHRASES to envelop v. where the temperature is much more representative of the air mass as a whole.. 2. 5. as the laboratory worker can. The climate of Lilliput is much more severe than that at the breathing level of a human. usually referred to as micrometeorology. vlăstar. but also depends very much on whether the ground in the immediate vicinity is bare or covered with vegetation. is therefore of considerable economic importance. 4. and he is encouraged to do so because it is possible to measure the properties of the atmosphere at these levels with laboratory accuracy. for the most part. 8. differs in many ways from that recorded at 4 feet. (Hall. In addition.. a cuprinde. bot mlădiţă. 7. MICROMETEOROLOGY Although living organisms have been found in the atmosphere up to very great heights. “Science” Magazines. differing considerably from those which occupy the attention of synopticians and climatologists. W. 173 . which are purely local. There is very little of weather forecasting in such studies. a înfăşura. pasăre (găină) ouătoare. on which meteorologists are often asked to advise. 3. on flat land free from obstructions (air-fields are particularly favoured) and temperature and humidity are usually measured at about 4 feet above the ground. If the thermometer is placed very near the ground. a împresura. pat. 12) A. and he is never able entirely to separate an effect from others present at the same time. constr pat (al drumului). = 1. înveliş. fig a învălui.

What are the factors that influence the temperature of the air? 5. How could you define micrometeorology? 2. baltă. obstruction n. barcă cu fundul lat. poisonous. simplu. deşert. fig a dezvălui. hotărât. This country is rich in natural … 4. plictisitor. rar a se înălţa. flat adv. 2. 2. a se ridica. med constipaţie. 2. = 1. lat. 6. searbăd. vânt) a se stârni. răsuflat. 2. Why do you think is micrometeorology important? 3. pollution. to bare v. 4. ~ denial refuz categoric. ferov vagon platformă 9. = 1. climate. pantof fără toc. pustiu. lat. precis. a se scula (cu arma în mână etc. (care este) pasibil să. (d. 4. ~ hand mână/palmă întinsă. 9. a aşeza în straturi. pict în două dimensiuni. 3. predispus la. 4. numai. 5. suprafaţă întinsă. 3. despuiat. categoric. (d. împărţire. a apărea. 7.= 1. piedică. a aşeza în stive. dispersal n. radioactive. o problemă etc. a dezbrăca. a dezgoli. 3. in ten minutes ~ exact în zece minute. 2. 2. flat n. lipsit de energie. Fill in each of the blanks below with one of the following words: breathe. 3. II. tocit. obstacol (pomi căzuţi în drum etc. sec. înv sau poetic a se scula (în picioare). împrăştiere. EXERCISES I. ros. 8.to layer v. gol. poetic a se ridica. desfrunzit. the tyre is ~ cauciucul s-a dezumflat/are pană. 2. resources. survival 1. gol. 6. a ~ possibility doar o posibilitate (nimic mai mult). a se ridica. = 1. extinct.) poetic a se înălţa. a apărea. ţinut mlăştinos. neinteresant. 4. 2. blocare (a drumului etc). LEXICAL COMMENTARY flat adj. (of) sărac (în). ~ to adj. pe drum drept. chiar. = a se ivi. to fall ~ a cădea lat. adj cu prep pasibil de. întins. 6. = 1. ec care stagnează. plat. a despuia. environment. b. Britain has a temperate … 3. bare adj. to emerge v. 5. neted. împiedicare. a se burzului. recycling. 8. 3. insipid. = 1. = dispersare. fin fără dobândă. obligat să. (d. slab. tărm jos/coborât. B. 4. (d. neroditor. a răsari. împiedicare. sărac. a da în vileag/la iveală. 2.). What are the methods normally applied by the micrometeorologist? II. poetic a se scula din morţi. 174 . precis. obstrucţie. găgăuţă. arose. cu capul descoperit. barieră. muz bemol. (d. 6. distribuire. on the ~ a. a stivui. astupare (a trecerii etc). 5. direct. exact. a ieşi la iveală/lumină. Where should the thermometer be placed so that the meteorological observations can be properly made? 4. 7. Mammoths became … thousands of years ago. muz cu un semiton mai jos. simplu. fără vlagă/viaţă. câmpie. care poate să. arisen v. el neizolat. 10. 8. întins. neacoperit. expus la. a învia. the ~ of the hand latul palmei. jerpelit. lat. liable – liable for adj. oprire. o glumă) fără sare. exact. = 1. She was unable to … because of the smoke. 2. to arise. 4. Reading and comprehension 1. şes. 3. cu inf = 1. = 1. sterp.) a se ridica. a se ivi. ~ nonsense curată prostie. soare etc. nerod. gol. lipsit (de). gol. 7. tehn faţetă. = răspunzător pentru/de.). băuturi) stătut.

They have a very poor chance of … 7. 6. and ecosystem diversity. you process them so that they can be used again. 4. Biological diversity is more threatened now than at any time in the past 65 milion years. 12. 9. Some habitats have more species than others. Topics for discussion What are the consequences of: 1. radioactive pollution. 11. 5. Once a species becomes endangered. water pollution. soil pollution. The total number of species is not known. Coral reefs are as rich in biodiversity as tropical forests. How much do you know about biodiversity? Say if the following statements are true or false: 1. 18. 16. some of them are … 6. A child can easily adjust to changes in its … 9. 2. 10. using sprays. Famers need a diversity of crop varieties in order to breed new plants that resist insect pests and diseases. 5. 4. The Earth has many more species than it needs. Fewer than 100 species currently provide most of the world’s food supply. and other habitats contributes to the loss of biodiversity. nuclear waste dumping. Many islands are home to species found nowhere else. birds. Many species become extinct without ever being identified. 7. The loss of forests. I have just been told that there are serious problems with nuclear … waste disposal. 3. Biodiversity includes geneticx diversity. species diversity. 17. 175 . About ten million species have been identified by scientists. acid rain. wetlands. 19. IV. Creating parks and zoos is the best way to preserve biodiversity. 3. 10. 13. Large plants. 2. 8. 6. it is doomed to extinction. air pollution. The biological resources of developing countries are a potential source of income. More than half of the world’s species live in tropical forests. Two major causes of biodiversity loss are population growth and the increasing consumption of natural resources. III. If you … things that have already been used. such bottles or sheets of paper. 8. We were shocked by the … on the beach. 7. and mammals make up about half of the world’s species. Not all mushrooms are edible. grasslands.5. 14. Most species are of no direct benefit to humans. 15.

which have sprung up in recent years. pall of smoke n. Those who did not immediately leave the affected area paid for it with their lives. 148. mounds of debris n. sprung) v. Otto. Hundreds of bodies lie buried under the ruins and the death toll mounts to as rescue workers dig into the mounds of debris to find those entombed. They were the first to collapse on their occupants and they are now being blamed for the high death toll as there are few which withstood the tremors. = a declanşa. = mormane de dărâmături. = a rupe. close to the epicentre. magnitude n. built of precast concrete slabs. Zento will never look the same again. No aftershocks were reported. compact. EARTHQUAKE (1) At least 5. to spring up (sprang. It is now predicted that. M. The quake also triggered devastating landslides which destroyed a power station.000 people are estimated to have died and thousands of others to have been injured in a destructive earthquake which devastated large areas of Ishmad. =a răsări (a se înălţa) din pământ. = a rade de pe faţa pământului. = nor negru. to entomb v. to wipe out v. to trigger v. a demola. 176 . With half the city reduced to rubble. catching the inhabitants in their sleep and leaving homes badly damaged. rocked the capital. a da naştere.6. to raze v. = a îngropa. are said to have been completely wiped out. de fum. Other buildings were gutted by fire from ruptured gas pipes and a pall of smoke still hangs over the town. cutremur. Three small villages. vol. even after years of reconstructive work.2. rubble n.: Limba engleză pentru jurnalişti. two strong quakes. most of its surviving inhabitants have been left homeless. to deprive of v. Hardest hit were the badly-constructed high-rise apartment blocks. moloz. 112. = a priva (de ceva). The high magnitude quake measured 7. I) A. pp. = undă seismică.4. This small mountainous country is prone to seismic disturbances as it lies on a seismological fault. WORDS AND PHRASES (seismic) disturbance n. It followed a fortnight of tremors and its epicentre was some 150 miles southwest of Zento. to rupture v.7 on the Richter scale and was the strongest this area has experienced in more than a century. B. At two in the morning. VOCABULARY I. = dezastruos. thirty minutes apart. calamitous adj. Many schools and hospitals disintegrated as the earth heaved. depriving one-third of the country of electricity. tremor n. (Otto. = sfărâmături. = mişcare seismică. = a disloca / a (se) cutremura. = a rade. 19. All the structurally-damaged buildings will have to be razed. This tragedy proved particularly calamitous and the still incomplete statistics speak of unprecedented damage. to heave v. the Ishmadic capital. a secţiona. = magnitudine.

~ down upon/on a privi (pe cineva) ca inferior. numărul morţilor creşte mereu – d________ t________ m______________ 6. We know exactly what the number of casualties is. a lua în considerare (ceva). = 1. to look v. to ~ oneself a-şi purta singur de grijă. figură. What information do you get about the country of Ishmad in this report? 2. a socoti inferior. ~ at a se uita/a privi (la televizor). 3. a privi la. a. The quake is indirectly responsible for the lack of energy in some parts of the country. LEXICAL COMMENTARY look n. on the Richter scale is not regarded as particularly strong. a examina. ~ about a privi. 5. ~ in a intra. mistuit de foc – g________ b___ f_______ III. uitătură. a-şi pleca privirea. a fi expus cutremurelor – be p_________ t________ q__________ 3. a fi spectator. Thirty quakes were felt in the space of two hours. It is not the first or the last earthquake in Ishmad. a se uita. fig a vedea situaţia care s-a creat în jurul (cu gen). 2. privire. ~ ahead şi fig a privi înainte. There had been no previous indication that a quake might be coming. B. Phrases to learn. Why can’t the precise number of dead be given at this point? 4. a se uita de jur împrejur. pl înfăţişare. ~ on a avea vedere înspre. (d. a privi (drept în faţă pe cineva). a arăta. Complete the following phrases. a fi în căutarea (unui post). Reading and comprehension 1. a lua (ca exemplu negativ pe cineva). a se uita în jurul (cu gen). ~ down a privi în jos.înfăţişarea. What architectural mistake was made in Zento. ~ into a se uita/privi înăuntrul.II. 2. a cerceta. a examina. ~ about for a căuta/a urmări cu privirea. Most of the victims were killed by collapsing buildings. 6. a suporta undele seismice – w______ the t_________ 8. Why did fire accompany the destruction? 6. Did the quake come as a complete surprise? 3. ~ after a avea grijă de. to judge by ~s a judeca după aparenţe. 3. căutătură. a părea. 2. 177 . a privi. a găsi pe cineva în timpul somnuliu – c__________ somebody i_____ his s_______ 4. a trece pe la cineva. fig a cerceta. a dispreţui. What is the town’s future? II. the capital of the country? 5. = 1. EXRCISES I. a-I lăsa pe locuitori fără acoperiş deasupra capului – l______ the i________ h______ 7. aspect. a da înspre. a fi cu faţa la. o casă) a fi orientat spre. a avea aerul. a se afla sub dărâmături – l_______ b__________ u_________ the r___________ 5. Tick the statements: true or false 1. fig a răsfoi (o carte). Each line stands out for one word: 1. a studia. a devasta ţara – d____________ the c______________ 2. a se uita prin. 4.

7. Those who survived still have a place to live. 8. Buildings built of concrete were strong enough not to collapse. 9. Fires were started by gas explosions. 10. Structurally damaged buildings will be reconstructed. 11. The report tells us that the capital of the country will be moved from Zento after reconstructive work. IV. These are some of the most severe problems the earth is facing. Match the problems with their effects as well as with the solution to them. You can use the same words more than once. Problems air pollution, water pollution, animals and plants in danger, global warming, energy shortage, destruction of ozone layer, human and industrial waste, changes in the local climate, acid rain, spreading deserts, nuclear accidents, deforestation. Causes Overuse of natural resources, uncontrolled fishing and hunting, poisonous chemicals released into the air by cars and factories, chemicals from aerosol sprays and fridges, pesticides as well as dangerous chemicals from factories that are poured into the rivers, seas, oceans. Solutions Nuclear plants should be supplied with high technology equipment and more strictly controlled, we should use bicycles instead of cars, we should not leave TV or the electric lights on when we do not use them, people should use litterbins, we should plant more trees, governments should encourage those industries that use cleaner methods of production, we should save as much paper as possible, factories that pollute the soil or water should be severely fined, harsher punishments for illegal fishing or hunting, factories should be equipped with filters for their funnels, cars should use unleaded petrol, people should be educated about the importance of recycling, Ecology should be a compulsory subject at school, governments should sponsor research into pollution prevention, public awareness about the protection of the environment should be raised. V. Translate into English: În timpul cutremurului de ieri, mari suprafeţe ale Ishmadului au fost complet distruse. Seismul, cu o putere de 7,7 pe scara Richter, a fost cel mai puternic seism înregistrat pe acest teritoriu în ultimul secol. Catastrofa a fost precedată de o serie de şocuri resimţite în decursul ultimelor două săptămâni. Potrivit relatărilor, trei sate au fost măturate de pe suprafaţa pământului. Cutremurul a provocat deplasări de teren şi inundaţii. Din caza ruperii liniei de înaltă tensiune, o treime din ţară a rămas fără curent electric. Jumătate din capitala Ishmad zace sub dărâmături. Trupele de salvare încearcă să se strecoare printre grămezile de ruine în căutarea oamenilor aflaţi sub dărâmături. Cel mai mult au suferit blocurile înalte. Puţine clădiri au rezistat undelor de şoc. Multe dintre ele s-au prăbuşit peste locuitori şi au cauzat numeroase victime. Multe clădiri au fost mistuite de foc.

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2.6.5. EARTHQUAKE (2) A powerful earthquake devastated Palmon, in southern Anturia, in the early hours of yesterday morning. Buildings rocked and fell apart as the tremor struck the area. The city centre was completely obliterated while residential districts suffered similar levels of damage, as well as massive casualties. According to reports from the scene, entire buildings disappeared into fissures. The death toll is, as yet, unclear but it will run into tens of thousands. Temporary shelter in tents is being offered to the homeless who seek refuge in improvised camps outside the city, but most are stumbling down rubble-strewn streets, dazed and frightened, waiting for the bodies of their relatives to be recovered. Search-and-rescue teams, aided by dogs, are looking for survivors, but the dogs get very distressed climbing through the rubble, which is heavy with the smell of disaster. The teams have also brought with them special equipment to help search for and pinpoint the thousands trapped in the ruins. They have sophisticated thermalimaging infra-red cameras, which can detect the heat generated by a survivor’s body. Sound devices are not being used because the noise at the scene of the emergency renders them useless. Relief efforts are being hampered by sub-zero temperatures, which diminish the chances of survival for those still alive and buried. Most of those found are dead. Previous earthquakes have taught that the first 24 hours are critical. If adequate measures are not taken immediately, the body count increases dramatically. The injured who are pulled out from under the rubble, must often have gangrenous limbs amputated immediately. This is the only way to save them from the fatal toxic shock which sets in when a limb is crushed. Official media reports said that the quake levelled all hospitals, and thousands of grievously injured are being treated in field conditions. As supplies of blood ran low, an appeal was issued for international aid. Worldwide disaster funds were set up to assist tragedy-stricken Palmon. (Otto, B, Otto, M., Limba engleză pentru jurnalişti, pp. 20, 114, 249, vol. I)

A. VOCABULARY
I. WORDS AND PHRASES to obliterate v. = a distruge, a şterge de pe faţa pământului. casualties n. = victime. fissure n. = fisură, talie. to stumble down v. = a se împletici. to strew, (strewed, strewn) v. =a împrăştia, a risipi. to recover v. = a găsi, a descoperi. distressed adj. = neliniştit, nervos. to pinpoint v. = a localiza. sophisticated adj. = sofisticat. to render useless v. = a face (a deveni) nefolositor. to hamper v. = a îngreuna. limbs n. = membre ale trunchiului, braţe, picioare. grievously adj. = grav (rănit). to run low v. = a duce lipsă.

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II. LEXICAL COMMENATRY level n. = 1. tehn nivelă (cu bulă de aer), boloboc. 2. geod cotă, nivelmetru. 3. constr dreptar, nivelator. 4. şi fig nivel, treaptă, înălţime (a unui munte), to find ones (own) ~ a-şi găsi oameni pe măsura sa. 5. câmpie, şes, on the ~ cinstit, adevărat. 6. min orizont, galerie de etaj. 7. mil linie de ochire. level adj. = 1. plan, drept, orizontal, neted, ~ with the ground la acelaşi nivel cu pământul. 2. uniform, regulat, monoton. 3. (d. character) echilibrat, liniştit, calm, netulburat, ~-headed echilibrat, judicious, cu scaun la cap, clar, ~ gauge tehn indicator de nivel, ~ crossing pasaj de nivel. to level v. = 1. a nivela, a aduce la acelaşi nivel. 2. fig a egaliza, a uniformiza, a egaliza, ~ at a îndrepta (arma) spre, a ochi, ~ away şi fig a nivela, a desfiinţa, a aboli (privilegii), ~ down a coborî nivelul.

B. EXERCISES I. Reading and comprehension 1. Which parts of the town have suffered most damage? 2. Why aren’t some of the survivors staying in the shelters provided? 3. What methods are used to look for survivors? 4. What factors are making the search difficult? 5. Why are the first 24 hours vital in a rescue operation? 6. What was the international response to the tragedy? II. Phrases to learn. Complete the following phrases. Each line stands out for one word. 1. a se transforma într-un morman de moloz – f_____ a__________ 2. a înregistra pagube şi pierderi multiple – s_____ d__________ and c__________ 3. a oferi adăpost temporar celor fără casă – o_________ s________ t___ the h______ 4. a găsi trupurile – r____________ the b__________ 5. a detecta căldura emanată de corp – d________ h_________ g_______ b__________ a b__________ 6. a îngreuna acţiunea de salvare – h___________ r____________ e_________ 7. a diminua şansele de supravieţuire – d________ the c_______ of s__________ 8. a aplica măsuri adecvate – t____ a m_________ 9. a lansa apel pentru ajutor – i______ an a_______ for a_________ III. Tick the statements true or false: 1. More people died in the city centre than in the residential areas. 2. The number of victims is estimated at between 1,000 and 10,000 people. 3. Temporary shelter has been improvised outside the town. 4. Many people do not want to leave the affected area. 5. Those who have stayed are waiting for the recovery of their possessions. 6. Dogs are not very effective in these circumstances. 7. The cameras described in the report can locate those who are still alive in the ruins. 8. There is too much noise for sound devices to be effective.

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9. Low temperatures make rescue work slow. 10. Rescue teams are facing an entirely new situation. 11. Survivors have little chance of saving their injured limbs. 12. The injured are being treated in hospital buildings. IV. Topics for discussion 1. Why do people feel so helpless when confronted with an earthquake? 2. Discuss the difficulties which have to be overcome when working at the sites of disasters such as those described in the texts? 3. Consider the emotions felt by both rescue workers and relatives of a person who, still alive, is trapped in the rubble, especially if they know that the teams will be unable to reach him in time. 4. Discuss the following statement: Earthquakes are a manifestation of God’ s wrath. V. Translate into English: Zeci de mii de oameni au murit ieri în timpul cutremurului din Palmona. Clădirile sau înclinat şi s-au prăbuşit. Centru oraşului a fost complet distrus. Pentru cei rămaşi fără acoperiş deasupra capului s-au pregătit adăposturi în tabere dincolo de oraş. Mulţi oameni aşteaptă scoaterea de sub dărâmături a trupurilor celor apropiaţi. Grupele de salvare, ajutate de câini, îi caută pe supravieţuitori. Pentru a depista mia rapid oamenii de sub dărâmături, grupele de salvare se folosesc de dispozitive speciale. Acţiunea de salvare este îngreunată de ger. Spitalele s-au dărâmat, astfel încât răniţilor li se acordă ajutor în condiţii de campanie. Se termină rezervele de sânge. S-a lansat un apel pentru ajutor internaţional.

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II.2.7. TEXTS FOR INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY ENGINEERING
2.7.1. THE ERA OF COMMUNICATION In less than 20 years, the phenomenal progress in information technologies and telecommunications has immersed us in an all-communicating world. Computers, telephones, televisions, domestic appliances and cars are packed full of electronics for the exchange of data and information and providing ‘intelligent’ services designed for maximum efficiency and user comfort. Work, business, administration, health, culture education….the ‘e’ prefix has been appended to just about every area of human activity. The information and knowledge society is changing our lifestyles and even our psychological and social behaviour. Nevertheless, it remains difficult to predict where this spectacular progress in electronics and data processing is going to take us next. A little over a century ago, the Western Union saw no future for such an ‘unreliable’ invention as the telephone. Just 25 years ago, the head of Digital Equipment saw no valid reason to want to own a personal computer. In the late 1980s, few prospective studies predicted the imminent arrival of such a revolutionary and all-pervasive device as the Internet would prove to be by the mid 1990s. On the other hand, the bright future awaiting high-definition satellite TV has failed to materialize. More recently, the premature enthusiasm for the wireless Internet shows that even when the developments do come, the path is not always smooth. In a sector, which cultivates the immaterial, there is sometimes a cruel gap between the potential promised by technological progress, the valuation of the innovation and the making of new products and applications. However, one law has proved pertinent: that of the visionary Gordon Moore, drawn up in 1965, who prophesied that the performance of electronic components (memory and processors) would double every 18-24 months, at a fixed cost. Between 1970 and 2002, for example, the number of transistors per cm2 on an electronic chip increased from 2,300 to 24 million, with transistors measuring 0.1 µ square. Although the race of miniaturization and power is certainly not over yet, the experts do believe that, within the next 15 years, the increase in microprocessor density is likely to come up against a physical limit: the size of atoms. We will then enter the true age of nanoelectronics. The increased capacity to progress and store information is of course at the heart of the digital revolution. It is thanks to this – coupled with the Internet as a data transfer support – that data, sounds, pictures and text can be converted into the same binary language. This ‘homogeneity’ opens the door to a convergence of previously isolated applications, such as the telephone, radio, publishing, television and computing. The creation of transmitting infrastructures, offering increased capacities for sending these considerable information packages is currently the crucial development which will enable us to benefit to the full from this new potential. (adapted from Cristina Miu, English for IT, pp. 164–5)

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A. VOCABULARY
I. WORDS AND PHRASES to immerse v. = 1. a (s)cufunda, a afunda. 2. (fig) immersed in debt = înglodat în datorii. appliance n. = 1. aplicare. 2. dispozitiv, aparat. 3. (pl.) aparate electrocasnice. to provide v. = 1. a prevedea, a înzestra. 2. a aproviziona; he provides us with vegetables = ne aprovizioneazã cu zarzavaturi. 3. a procura (pentru cineva). 4. to ~ for = a veghea asupra/ a lua mãsuri în vederea; to ~ against = a lua mãsuri împotriva. 5. a prevedea că; a stipula că. to append v. = a anexa (la). progress n. = 1. progres; to make ~ = a face progrese. 2. dezvoltare, evoluţie. 3. curs, desfăşurare; v.= 1. a progresa, a înainta. 2. a se dezvolta prospective adj. = de viitor, în perspectivă. wireless adj. = fără fir. smooth adj. = 1. (despre suprafeţe) neted, fãrã asperitãţi. 2. mătăsos, moale; smooth skin = piele moale. 3. liniştit, calm; lin; the sea is smooth as a lake = marea e liniştitã ca un lac. chip n. = 1. (el.) pastilã, substrat al unui circuit integrat; aşchie de siliciu microelectronicã. 2. (inf.) deşeu rezultat din perforarea unei benzi de hârtie. store n. = 1. (autom.) memorie. 2. (man.) rezervã, stoc, provizii. 3. (tehn.) rezervor, deposit. information n. = 1. (only sing.) informaţie. 2. veste, anunţ; in order to render a plural meaning we use ‘items of information’. potential adj. = 1. puternic, eficace. 2. posibil; potential danger = pericol posibil; n. = potenţial.

II. LEXICAL COMMENTARY
Phrases / idioms with the word HEAD from head to foot = din cap pânã în picioare. to win by a head = a întrece cu un cap. to beat somebody's head off = a bate mãr pe cineva. to keep one's head above water = a se menţine la suprafaţã. to make head = a inainta, a progresa. to be off one's head = a fi ţicnit. to talk somebody's head off = a zãpãci pe cineva cu vorbãria. to lose one's head = a-şi pierde capul. the head of a car = capota unei maşini. under the same head = sub acelaşi titlu, în aceeaşi categorie. to gather head = 1. a prinde forţã. 2. a lua proporţii. to come to a head = a deveni critic.

B. EXERCISES I. Reading and comprehension: 1. What does an ‘all-communicating world’ involve? 2. What major means of communication are mentioned in the text? Can you think of others? Describe each of them (the ones in the text and the ones you thought of) by referring to their: history, usage, users, medium of data transmission: visual/ auditory/ both, functions, etc.

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3. The text (the end of paragraph 1) suggests that the modern strive for information and knowledge is changing our lives on the whole. Think of some positive and negative effects of such a contemporary phenomena. 4. What are the devices that contribute to the digital revolution? 5. What does ‘nanotechnology’ mean and in what ways will computing benefit form the development of nanotechnology? 6. The text develops three main key-words related to the modern technology: miniaturization, power and convergence. What do they refer to? II. The computer and other means of artificial intelligence are mainly appreciated for their capacity of processing, storing and transferring information and of making it more accessible. What other operations are specific to these applications? III. What does the age of miniaturization mean for you? Think of the major types of computers (mainframe, microcomputer/ personal computer, supercomputer, server and modern gadgets. PDA, laptop, workstation, palmtop, portable computer, clipboard computer, pen computer, lapsize computer). IV. Use the various meanings of the word head in sentences of your own. V. Translate using the different meanings of store: 1. Bagajul ei de cunoştinţe impresionează pe toţi cei care o întâlnesc. 2. În aşteptarea unei ierni friguroase, ei şi-au făcut un stoc mare de provizii. 3. Ei nu vor pune niciodată preţ pe lauda lui deoarece se ştie că nu-şi respectă niciodată promisiunile. 4. Viitorul îi rezervă numai bucurii pentru că munceşte din greu pentru îndeplinirea viselor sale. 5. Stocul de informaţii nu va fi divulgat nimănui. VI. Translate the following sentences into Romanian paying attention to the noun information: 1. Aş dori să aflu nişte informaţii legate de folosirea acestui dispozitiv. 2. Veştile primite de la tine m-au descurajat. 3. Biroul de informaţii ne-a furnizat toate datele necesare. 4. Se pare că suntem într-o eră în care predomină informaţia digitală. 5. Specializarea pe care ne-am ales-o ca studenţi este Tehnologia informaţiei. VII. To make their Internet writing seem more informal, people use abbreviations and emoticons. Explain the following: • Abbreviations: B4; BTW; FAQs; L8R; OTOH; FYI; IMHO; LOL; ASAP; CU; WYSIWYG; • Emoticons: ☺ ;) :-)) :-O :-/ VIII. Read the following text about current tendencies in Internet use and then answer the questions below: The internet is entering the mainstream of contemporary society, as more and more people are going to be users soon, and access is growing, which means we can expect to

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blacks look like whites. the college-educated look like the non-college-educated. Internet users indicate that they are spending less time reading newspapers. Once people have access. may lead to further integration of media and information delivery technologies. Constantin: Practical Course of English. It is too early to tell if people will do this sort of multitasking as part of their daily routine. and age groups tend to be more homogenous than we might have thought. Mihaela & Paidos. The text claims that the Internet has become a factor which fights against all types of discrimination and breaks all spatial barriers. How frequently do you chat with your friends or with some strangers on the Internet? 7. It is interesting to note that the Internet is increasingly becoming a democratic factor. Does virtual reality inspire you as a substitute for actual reality? 6. It may very well be that they are reading news on the Web. pp. Could you think of some personal examples? 3.see large changes for communities and society as a whole. because Internet use demands more concentration. What are the social and psychological effects of net addiction? 2. except for those above age 65. Now write an essay of about 350 words on the topic: ‘For and against using the Internet’. people may be able to view a TV programme on the same screen where they are working on the Internet simultaneously. 185 . as recent developments suggest. What exact operations do you perform on the Internet? What about your family? 5. This trend is likely to have a major impact on the economics of the media industry and. Comment on the following statement: ‘All your friends now have an @ in their names’. Once people have access to the Internet. their attention will be fragmented. (adapted from Chilărescu. there are more similarities than differences in terms of how much they use it and the activities they use it for. Does this make you feel less individualized? 4. In the near future. but even if they do. displaying the power to dissolve differences among categories of the population. It is becoming clear that a large majority of those who use the Internet more than five hours a week deduct those hours from their TV time. 158–9) 1. so they don’t read hard copy any more.

The benefits include greater efficiency in finding and using information.7. entertain and serve us. computers which are 30. To get variety. Goodbye humans? If people work at home and do their banking and shopping at home. and to enjoy the social aspects of office life and escaping from their homes. for example. 3. it becomes economically worthwhile to use them in more and more ways. as families retreat into a private world of video games and computer holograms. greater control over pollution and the use of natural resources. Today. 4. High-speed. The main factor is the cost of writing programmes. Microchips give us cheap computing power in a tiny space. We can guard against some of the problems. When this happens.2. It’s predicted by some people (and hotly disputed by others) that the intellectual capabilities of the human brain will be overtaken in the early years of the next century. the possibility of higher living standards through increased productivity. provided time. people seem to need human contact. Conclusions: The microchip revolution is based on size and cost. and new machines (including computers) can be made easy to use. There are signs that this may happen: some manufacturers are now using relatively unsophisticated chips. MICROCHIPS: A LOOK TO THE FUTURE Massive and unreliable. there’s the problem of people whose skills are made 186 . On the other hand. There is the problem of alienation: people who cannot find a place in the technological age of the future. Accepting the microchip brings benefits and problems. or face the alternative of opting out of the free world market.2. programming costs need to come down. Variety or uniformity? Will we be surrounded by an enormous variety of products? Or will the result of micros be cheap uniformity? Either of these is possible. People at risk are those who can’t or don’t want to use new technology. Finally. money and care is spent in programming them. which can be cheaply programmed for simple functions. In the future. the result could be an inward-looking and immobile society. No one knows how we could cope with this wounding loss of status. we need education and training schemes. computers will surpass humans in more and more ways.000 times cheaper can beat them hollow. If the cost remains high.000 times smaller and 10. We have to accept the microchip. As the costs of microchips continue to fall. the first computers of thirty years ago are as dead as the dinosaurs. help for the sick and the disabled. products will have to be made in large quantities – in order to spread the cost. A divided society? The coming of the micro will benefit many people: others may be left behind. or even those who can’t understand it. 2. A simple electronic calculator goes far beyond the human brain in speed and accuracy – but only in a very closely defined field. We can. To guard against this problem. be alive to the danger of the misuse of information held on computer files. Beyond the human brain. we will no longer be the most intelligent entities on this planet. and machines which are easy to use. What will the world of the future be like: here are some ideas to consider: 1. and a whole range of ‘smart’ machines to inform. Something can be done for both groups – public viewdata terminals can give free access to information. low-cost computing power has begun to convert science fiction into reality.

to get/break free = a scãpa. greu. ~ of authority = abuz de putere. 2. machine n. benefic. redundant. = (aici) a reduce. de valoare. whole adj. = (aici) a ieşi. activitate de elaborare a unui produs program. suplimentar. LEXICAL COMMENTARY Phrases/ idioms with the word FREE to set free = a pune în libertate. = 1. to begin. totalitate. retreat n. 2. = 1. overtaken v. (adapted from Jones. to give somebody a free hand = a da mânã liberã cuiva. a lua pe neaşteptate. ~ and nasty = ieftin şi prost. 2. 2. = nedem de încredere. întreagă. mare. fãrã valoare. a surprinde. pp. dirt ~ = ieftin ca braga. II. 3. worthwhile adj. accuracy n. acurateţã. WORDS AND PHRASES massive adj. = 1. unreliable adj. folositor. free time = timp liber. a face faţã. solid. Again. = 1. = 1. to be free with one's money = a fi mânã spartã. What is a microchip? 3. voluminous. The wealth needed to pay for schemes like these is more likely to appear if we use the microchip. 2. free adj. programming n. 2. = 1. întreg. dispozitiv. 2. independent. to opt out v. justeţe. maltratare. overtake. vb. free of = în afara. 2. (cheap – cheaper – the cheapest) = 1. pentru început. funcţie. ieftin. = a întrebuinţa greşit. 140–1) A. a depãşi. operaţie. stingere. degajat. programare. 2. Leo: Progress towards First Certificate. 3. = 1. ~ of words = întrebuinţare abuzivã a cuvintelor. excedentar. overtaken by the rain = surprins de ploaie. mecanism. a se elibera. 2. duty free articles = articole scutite de taxe vamale. B. = (with) a ţine piept. retragere. = a începe. begun v. What did the first computers look like and what could they perform? 2. = 1. masiv. intact. free admission = intrare gratuitã. function n. (fam. a ajunge din urmã. to cope v. 3. precizie. = 1.) to feel ~ = a se simţi prost. a descreşte. liber. maşinã (-unealtã). abuz. teafăr. What are the advantages and the drawbacks of microchip use? 187 . = 1. = 1. to speak with free tongue = a fi slobod la gurã. 2. neînsemnat. exactitate. Reading and comprehension: 1. there’s a need for education and retraining. overtook. cheap adj. = 1. a fi exclus. misuse n. EXERCISES I. to come down v. redundant adj. VOCABULARY I. aplicaţie. întrebuinţare abuzivã. to ~ with = în primul rând. 2.redundant by machines. began.

mechanism C. d. source V. digital vs. The bigger the memory on your hard disk. III. Most hard discs today have a…capacity of 200 megabytes. fingerprints C. hardware C. integrated 8. field 3. A. A. The Internet allows users to download free… A. Would you agree to an entirely virtual type of education? Describe the way in which you perceive the future of education in Romania and in other countries. Hang your coat over there on that …………………………… d) hook 4. B. Having a computer allows you to have all kinds of information at your … A. use a ……………………… f) ladder 188 . A computer should be seen as a …we use to help us do our work. Choose the word on the right to complete each sentence. fingers D. topic D. storing B. storage 7. PDA. keyboard. 6. in-line D. software and hardware. minicomputer. all products are likely to become very similar to each other unless a. job B. on-line B. light pen. conversations B. Model: Look! It’s not working because the plug isn’t in the…J……… a) battery 1. b. we need to change the …… e) iron 5. monitor. IV. She is a specialist in the …of Information Technology. A. touch-screen. meetings 5. the public demands vary. sites B. interface. Video …can only be done if you have a camera with your computer. Read the following sentences and decide which answer A. display. data D. details B. speakers. programming costs fall. If you need to climb onto the roof. PC. joystick. mouse. analog computer. Write a short history of computers focusing on the developments in computer technology since the first type of computer. memory C. Can computers replace or exceed the capacities of human brains? II. tool D. transactions 6. printer. subject C. discussions D. A. paint programme. A. silicon chip. huge D. floppy discs. What categories of people are unlikely to find a place in the technological world of the future? 5. (350 – 400 words) VI. the more…you can store. If the shelf is coming off the wall.4. When a lamp suddenly goes out. c. A. conferencing C. try to tighten the ………… c) glue 3. Do you think that growing use of computers could lead to the collapse of what ‘society’ means? According to the text. desktop. I need an …………… b) bulb 2. bit. disc B. pen computer. hand 2. arm B. money C. production costs fall. When you connect to the Internet it is said that you are… . microchips are used. on C. software 4. C or D best fits each space: 1. My shirt got very creased in the suitcase. viruses D. Define the following terms: CD-drive.

a mess of her life. Există unele condiţii care. If you get lost in the forest. We look f …to hearing from you soon. 9. ca oricare descoperire nouă. Complete the following email by writing one word in each gap. utilizarea excesivă a computerului poate cauza disfuncţii ale vederii. 8. slăbirea vederii sau un sentiment de nelinişte. My mobile phone isn’t working. We are a w …-k……. Paul Grice IX. The envelope won’t stick down properly. ……. and we can supply a bank g … 3. cum ar fi durerile de cap. 11. no harm. ale sistemului nervos sau ale coloanei. whatever you want. use your…………………………. we are sure that we can do more bu … with you in the future. This medicine is excellent. However. We can find no mention of delivery times in your do … We need these items by the end of October at the la … If we can r…an agreement on these matters. 6. 4. over twenty years. Cei care lucrează zilnic la calculator intră în contact cu efectele neplăcute ale acestuia. it … wonders. Do you give any d …on an order of this s …? 2. încât îţi vine greu să-ţi mai imaginezi activitatea în şcoli. To stop the alarm working. 5. 3.you honour. the burglars cut the ……………… 9. I … wrong. but I haven’t got a……………………. …. company that has been in the market f…. cars always carry a spare ……………… 10. This key doesn’t work. Totuşi. Pe termen lung. 8. The first letter(s) have been given each time to help you: Dear Ms Newman Thank you for sending your current catalogue and price l …last week. He doesn’t …his work thoroughly and has …very little progress.. depresii. She has …. calculatorul are defectele sale.000 of product ref K800. I need some ……… VII. 7. 10. …. In case of punctures. permit evitarea unor astfel de neplăceri.. dacă sunt îndeplinite. I need to have a shave. They must have changed the ………. Would you be pr …to let us have the goods on cr …? Our normal t … of payment are 60 days after d …. for the exit. acasă sau la birou fără ele..000 u …of product ref TG67 and 2. 1. pentru a le fixa poziţia în funcţie 189 . Your behaviour ……. I’ll have to apologize and … it up to her somehow. I need to recharge the ……… 12. It … no difference to me. I can’t .6. 7. up your mind and … what is right one in your lifetime.. We are interested in p… 5. 2. Fill in the blanks with to do or to make: 1. there are one or two things we would like to clarify before going ahead with a firm o. Translate the following text into English: Calculatoarele personale au devenit în ultima vreme atât de populare. Everybody… fun of me but I will …. I feel so tired! g) lock h) razor i) screw j) socket k) compass l) tyre m) wire VIII. Ecranul şi tastatura are trebui să fie mobile. The earthquake has … great damage to the city.

este un instrument de lucru foarte util. computerul. Poziţia corpului trebuie să fie dreaptă pentru a nu duce la modificarea coloanei. trebuie să stăm cu spatele la lumina puternică de afară. din contră. privirea nu trebuie îndreptată spre lumina soarelui. De asemenea.de nevoile celui care le foloseşte. Pentru a nu obosi ochii excesiv. atunci când este folosit cum trebuie. Ecranul ar trebui să fie plasat sub linia privirii. se recomandă întreruperi frecvente din lucru şi utilizarea unor ecrane protectoare. 190 . În concluzie.

2. for example.) book. repeatedly replicates itself and wipes out the existing software by overwriting hard discs. may. schilod. English for Journalists. 2. computere) computer ~ = un cod capabil să se reproducă. neprietenos. conceal erotic pictures in business files or other very serious documents. stealthy adj. = 1. = tainic. Trojan Horse. 2. The most dangerous ones. 2. deformat. = ostil.~ = şoarece de bibliotecã. But computers can also be attacked by worms which move information around. worm n. to dub v. = piedicã. Companies are also advised to have a constantly updated backup system to replace damaged file. (d. so-dubbed because it infiltrates in disguise. a declanşa. adesea deteriorând informaţii. like disease. they eventually render the system ineffective by filling up all available disc space. who are bracing themselves for the attack. = 1. WORDS AND PHRASES crippled adj.) program care poate dăuna unor fişiere ale calculatorului. n. (adapted from Barbara & Marcin Otto. adormit. earth ~ = râmã. unlicensed. The remedy for computer users. (d. is to run anti-virus software to detect and destroy the menace in time. Upon switching the computer on. 191 . Electronic viruses are not always hostile. infirm. March 6th. glow ~ = licurici. silk ~ = vierme de mãtase. (fam. Computer users were warned today and the virus bears the name of the Italian artist because it was triggered by the birth date of the famous man. Only by standing within the law as far as copyright is concerned. It is just one out of several thousand distinctive viruses worldwide which. The latest computer virus designed by invisible computer saboteurs has been triggered. a consacra. infecţie. COMPUTER VIRUSES All over the world today. with the words ‘Frodo lives’ illuminating their screens. a investi (un cavaler). VOCABULARY I. = 1.3. animale) în hibernare. The deletion of data can cause considerable disruption and financial loss to a company which owns affected systems and many firms are believed to be carrying the virus. virus n. (aici) (comp. can one avoid the often irreversible damage to computer data. Frodo is called a stealthy virus because it is very effective at hiding and lying dormant until activated. vierme. hostile adj. or to bypass the virus’ trigger date by moving a computer’s clock a day forward to March 7th. Some do not erase information. The deadly Michelangelo virus is to strike this year on Friday. (aici) a porecli.2. many computers are waking up crippled. 3. = 1. refractar. opritoare. = 1. ascuns. (aici) deteriorat. pirated software should never be run on company computers. virus. 3. II. are spread through exchange of ‘infected’ computer discs. 2. Since the virus installs itself from infected floppy discs. (d. agent infecţios. By multiplying. Here is the News. p. with sinister names like Dark Avenger or Datacrime are said to be on dramatic increase. a unge. vol. = 1. to trigger v. they only irritate users by writing nonsense or playing tunes when activated. dormant adj. un vulcan) inactive. the virus suddenly bursts into life. 184) A.7.

(d. Intermediate. What can viruses cause to computers in the following cases: individual users. 2. A rather large modern phenomenon in the computer world is hacking. dosar. (aici) fişier. geek. What other methods of protection would you recommend to large firms and to individual computer users? 8. Comment upon the following quotation: ‘There are many methods for predicting the future. a îndosaria (hârtii. 2. teanc de hârtii pãstrate la dosar. burst. muguri) a crãpa. a crãpa. nori) a se rupe. folder. the government. corrupted file. II. In Company. burst v. a izbucni. a da buzna înãuntru to burst into = a se repezi. a face sã izbucneascã. 3. = nelegal. a se desface. Explain the following computer terms: copy. What examples of viruses are given in the text? 3.to burst. browse. Are all viruses dangerous? 4. cookie. a îmbunătăţi. What other viruses do you know? 5. chat forum. furtuni) a izbucni. companies. Oxford. scrisori). cursor. tarot cards or crystal balls. a clasifica. a izbucni to burst into laughter = a izbucni în râs to burst into flames = a izbucni în flãcãri to burst into tears = a izbucni în lacrimi to burst out = a izbucni to burst out crying = a izbucni în plans to burst with envy = a muri de invidie. For example. to update v. the national military computer system? 6. p. (d. Reading and comprehension: 1. What is a computer virus? What is a worm? 2. sã explodeze. 3. a se autocopia. 5. acronym. = 1. hacker. a da buzna. B.= a clasa. a ţâşni. v. Macmillan. 192 . 4. EXERCISES I. sã plezneascã. emoticon. archive. II. from Mark Powell. tea leaves. Or you can put well-researched facts into sophisticated computer models. = 1. bit. = a se reproduce. a da buzna în. more commonly referred to as a complete waste of time. file n. piratat. you can read horoscopes. Collectively. Do you use pirated software? Bring arguments for your answer. download. these methods are known as nutty methods. LEXICAL COMMENTARY Phrasal verbs and idiomatic expressions with BURST to burst in = a nãvãli înãuntru. a plezni. chip. What are generally their reasons? Can you give some examples of famous Romanian hackers? Do you know anything of the legislation regarding such an offence? III. Is the designing of viruses a crime punishable by law? What kind of punishment can you think of for the perpetrators of electronic viruses? 7. to replicate v. creator of the Dilbert cartoon. 2002) IV. acte. = a moderniza.’ (Scott Adams. pirated adj. 55. (d.

Could you explain the following metaphors: mouse. I have attached my CV. as a Word document. 4. One reason why computer words are so user-friendly is that many are metaphors. Folosind modem-uri şi reţele de telefonie hackerii utilizează informaţii secrete acumulate în memoria computerelor după ce au ghicit sau au obţinut în mod ilegal parolele sau codurile speciale care blochează accesul neautorizat la sistem. You will see. făptaşii unor asemenea delicte vor fi aspru pedepsiţi. memory. prin ştergerea memoriei computerelor în câteva secunde şi chiar prin distrugerea hard discurilor. Dear Sir / Madam / With reference to your advertisement on the JobFinders. processor. V. set up. I am interested in applying. Mulţi spărgători sunt răspunzători de crearea şi implantarea de viruşi care provoacă distrugeri prin imobilizarea sistemelor. upgrade. You will notice that I have supervised children on a range of sports and cultural activities as well as dealing. browsing. Job application a. Legea referitoare la spargerea calculatoarelor este cea mai recentă încercare de eradicare a plăgii manipulărilor ilegale care implică perturbarea şi sabotajul operaţiilor pe computer. 193 . During the last few summer holidays I have. partition. quit. as I enjoy working with young people. Put the parts below into the correct order to make a complete email for someone applying for a job. 5. recycle bin? VII. Translate the following text into English: Spărgătorii de reţele computerizate vor fi urmăriţi în justiţie şi vor fi aspru pedepsiţi pentru pătrunderea ilegală în sistemele de computere odată cu intrarea în vigoare a unei legislaţii mai clare. screen. toate datele devin valabile pentru utilizatori neautorizaţi. virus. zap. Intruşii caută prin documente şi. vaporware. bug. Hackerii afirmă că de fapt este vorba doar de securitate şi că doresc să ajute băncile să-şi perfecţioneze sistemele de securizare împotriva unor agresiuni mai dăunătoare. The structure could help you for your own applications in the future: 1. Hackerii. spărgătorii cerând bani pentru a dezvălui cum au reuşit să spargă sisteme presupuse a fi foarte sigure. Ţintele de până acum ale efracţiilor electronice au inclus spitale unde sreuşit să se creeze haos printre dosarele pacienţilor. care sunt adesea indivizi foarte înzestraţi.com website. deşi neadaptaţi din punct de vedere social. software. hardware. worksheet. În momentul când spargerea reuşeşte. scroll. VI. O nebunie de ultimă oră include încercări de şantaj asupra băncilor. pot provoca prăbuşirea totală a sistemului. 3. I have a lot of energy and enthusiasm and am also responsible and reliable.hard copy. 2. Având în vederea noua legislaţie. and you can email. menu. log off. web traffic. the travel industry. wizard. First Certificate grade A. that is they make a comparison between two things. 6. I am available for interview in Naples any weekend afternoon. the summer programme where I worked last year. au timp berechet la dispoziţie pentru a dovedi că nici un sistem computerizat nu este protejat în mod absolut. dacă doresc. I would be grateful if you would consider my application.

to do something more varied and challenging. worked as a youth leader in Italy. 11. Next summer I would like. for the post of tour leader for Italian school students. taking students to London. I feel that I would be wellsuited for this job. 10. in the job of tour leader. me or telephone me on the number below. 8. Highlight the structures you would use following the structure: • Greeting (formal) • Reason for writing • Your background and experience • The job itself • Referring to your CV • Final comments • Close 194 . one is a university professor and the other is from 13. and I enjoyed the work very much.7. with transport arrangements and tickets. b. I am 26 years old and am currently studying. I look forward to hearing from you soon. You will also notice that my English is good and I have 12. and for this reason I am interested. from my attached CV that two people can be contacted as references. 9. Underline any useful expressions and information you need when applying for a job. Yours faithfully.

no jokes. agenda. This urgency means I’m more likely to write quickly and conversationally when I respond to a message.4. not tomorrow or a week from now. They’re short. memoriu.). = 1. etc. avertisment. etc. 2. etc. spell-check it carefully and send it to as few people as possible. (adapted from Mark Powell. a coborî (vocea. (com. they’re funny. to dig for information =a face cercetãri. întrebare (pusã cu scopul de a încurca pe cineva). 4. giving themselves permission to be blunt. investigaţii.). If I do not want to give a detailed. and we cc the CEO whenever we feel like it.).= 1. MESSAGING We have been trained throughout our business careers to suppress our individual voice and to sound like a ‘professional’ – that is. suprima (un ziar. 5. ~ book = carnet. = 1. semn de întrebare. CEO n. they sound like us. We want to be free of the expectation that we’ve spell-checked it or even re-read it before firing it off. honest and sincere in response to a query. Reading and comprehension: 1. Now we write e-mails.2. to make a ~ of it = a nota (ceva). 3. Intermediate. (short from memorandum) notă. A professional memo obeys rules such as one page is best. = 1. to sound like everyone else. prudenţã. 2. memo n. to dig out vb. B. What does the term ‘communication’ refer to? 195 . WORDS AND PHRASES to suppress vb. a înãbuşi (un scandal. 78) A. 3. rushing the writing process. = a verifica ortografia. VOCABULARY I. to spell-check vb. If you need to hear how the professional voice sounds. LEXICAL COMMENTARY e-mail n. 2. manager general. query n. = messages distributed by electronic means from one computer user to one or more recipients via a network. tonul. That’s why most of us don’t want to use a word processor to write our emails. 2. a reprima (o revoltã.).). a-şi stãpâni (mânia. = a trimite. II. = (abreviere de la chief executive officer) director. dig out a memo you wrote four years ago and compare it with how you’d write an e-mail about it now. p. cc n. In Company. precauţie. EXERCISES I. = (abreviere de la carbon copy) indicaţie că materiaul a fost trimis şi la o altă persoană.) borderou. long answer. etc. memo n. E-mail is a more immediate medium than paper. to fire-off vb. My expectation of the response time to many messages I send is today. caution n. = a scoate la suprafaţă. a căuta . We certainly don’t want to waste our time messing about with fonts and margins. I just make it short… A lot of the spontaneity in e-mail messages comes from writers breaking through their natural caution and reserve. especially in business. = (informal) a written message.7. memorandum. etc.

com currently stocks 213 books on ‘netiquette’ or how to write your e-mail. memorandum. missive. spatial spreading.2. does it mean that phone calls are only 40% and e-mails only 10% effective? IV. number of users. report. If this is true. 30% how you sound and only 10% what you actually say. 3. III. letter. How do people communicate? What are the situations when we need to send messages? What were the traditional means of communication? What are the ways modern people use to communicate except for e-mailing? What are the benefits of e-mailing? What about its drawbacks? II. e-mail. • Radio and TV commercials. etc. Is e-mail really that difficult? Communication experts repeatedly tell us that 60% of communication is how you look. evolution. Do you think the shift towards e-mail is a good thing? Online retailer Amazon. 6. • Spamming to e-mail addresses on a database you have obtained. notification. Explain each term in turn so as to find differences between them: communication. 90% of the world’s telecommunications were phone calls. You and your partner are working on a project to promote a new line of pizzas which people can order by phone or over the Internet. memo. intelligence. Here are some of the synonyms of the noun ‘message’. statement. • Direct mailing by post. VII. V. dispatch. bulletin. announcement. history. note. communiqué. piece of information. word. Are you getting more e-mail than phone calls these days? b. Write three e-mails as follows: 196 . 5. You work in the marketing department of a fast-food chain. • Flyers delivered by hand to people’s homes. line. According to Newsweek magazine. You can even buy a course on ‘cyber-grammar’ and manners in electronic communication! a. that figure will soon drop to less than 10% as we all switch to e-mail and other forms of digitally transmitted data. Is this al really necessary? b. You are considering various methods of promotion. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of these ideas: • Cold calling to selected phone numbers. availability. Read the following statistics and discuss the questions with a partner: At the end of the 20th century. What does ‘spam’ mean for you? What are the different types of spam? How much spam do you receive and where does it usually occur? Is it a big problem for you? VI. news. a. Besides e-mailing. 4. what other forms of communication do you know? Classify them according to the frequency of usage.

If the data analyzed in the survey is correct. and 15% calculated that they (4)…at least an hour a day dealing with spam.force is unproductive for this reason at any time during a working day.Although sometimes the content involved can be offensive and contain racist or sexist language. To a colleague at work. I can see there is at least one message a day from someone I don’t know.. 4. I hope we can to meet up soon. I can just erase it from my computer. I’m afraid but we haven’t received your payment yet. subject: asking for help on a project. With a national UK (14). it’s a real (8). wage. dealing.. I look forward to receiving this information so soon as possible. unlikely. The following sentences taken for e-mails contain mistakes. 11. If you require any more informations. in a recent survey. this unsolicited junk e-mail is not a problem.bill of £367bn a year. Please send me your comments until Friday at the latest. adopt. subject: none. but in others I have no idea. one solution is to (10)…up you e-mail programme to ignore mail from that particular address. guess.30 instead? 10. Please find attach my report. Correct the mistake in each sentence: 1. Apart from spam which tries to sell products or services. 3. please do not hesitate to contact me. carried. harmless. (3)…out for the company Novell Inc. I will be grateful if you could send me more information. chain letters (where terrible things will happen to you if you don’t pass on the message to fifteen other people) and jokes from friends and (6)…. hoax. Sorry. as promised in Friday’s meeting.On the other hand. 6. To the CEO: subject: Nokia report. while you are (12)…with spam you are not doing the work you were hired to do. colleagues.. To deal with nuisance mail which comes from a regular source. this means that for UK businesses spam represents an annual cost of around £5bn. work.for many businesses. Can we meet at 8 Feb at 14.. However. 5. 2. 9. It will be more better for me if we meet on Tuesday rather than Monday. set Looking back over the e-mails I have received in the last coupe of weeks. I’m sorry I haven’t written for ages. There are various strategies you can (9)…with spam. The easiest remedy is just to delete any messages which come from an unknown sender or look suspicious. 1. receive. in terms of wasting employees’ time. 75% of those who were questioned claimed to receive as many as five junk e-mails a day. 8.4% of the national (13). although in my experience this often doesn’t seem to make any difference. VIII.• • • To a friend you haven’t seen for a very long time.. 197 . there is also the problem of (5)…virus warnings. Complete the text below about ‘spam’ using the words given: headache. More legitimate spammers often give you the option to ‘unsubscribe’ so you don’t (11)…any more of their messages. most of it is relatively (7)….. Even so. I am write with regard to your recent email. just missing the person. For me. In some cases I can (2) …where they got my e-mail address fro. IX. I don’t can help you on this matter. in the UK. but I been really busy. spend. 12. offering some service or product I am (1) …to want. 7.

Mihaela . however. p. It is advantageous. the impulse imparted to an element is zero. Thus. This is called a zeroorder hold. In general. Automatică şi calculatoare. if certain matters such as quantizing distortion are ignored. (Blându. the signal is different from zero only at the sampling time and equal to it for the remainder of the period. hold circuit/clamper n. = dispozitiv de extrapolare de ordinul 1. Attempts have been made to apply conventional Fourier analysis and frequency-response and subject to error. Limba engleză. Examples of control systems which often include a digital computer as one element are digital machine-tool controls and inertial navigation systems for aircraft and space vehicles. Since as the sampling time approaches zero.2. The next logical step to holding the sample value constant throughout the sampling interval is to cause it to be a linear extrapolation of the last two samples. = cuantificare. A sampler is a mathematical fiction and corresponds to a physical sampler. SAMPLED-DATA SYSTEMS A sampled-data system is a control system in which information is transmitted only at discrete time called sampling time. we obtain a stepped function. Such a device is called a first-order hold. quantizing n.7. 198 . One of the more successful approaches to the problem has been analysis in the frequency domain by a special integral transform. therefore. The concept of the hold circuit can be extended beyond the zero-order hold or clamp. and at all other instances is zero. It is thus absolutely necessary that the sampler be followed by a special device called a hold circuit or clamper whose function is to hold or remember the value of the impulse at the sampling instant for a finite portion of the sampling interval T. or at most a negligible time compared with any of the response times of the system. the area of the physical pulse goes to zero. Probably the most direct application of sampled-data theory is to control systems that have telemetery links somewhere within the loop. rather than continuously as in conventional systems. and the output is zero. It is assumed that the sampler closes and opens at a constant repetition rate and remains closed for zero time. 249) A. rather than a train of finite-height zero-length pulses (of zero area). WORDS AND PHRASES first order hold n. This is especially true when a digital computer is being used to carry out the calculations. called the z transform. VOCABULARY I. Another application occurs whenever a digital computer is included in a control system. = transformata z modificată/întârziată.5. Generally speaking. = element de reţinere/extrapolator. sampled-data systems are nonlinear. Intuitively one would expect this sampling process to contribute phase-lag to the top and tend to make the sampled-data system less stable than an equivalent continuous system. modified z transform n. It is convenient under certain circumstances to analyse linear and nonlinear continuous systems by sampling methods. they may be considered as linear or time-varying-parameter systems. to hold the value for the complete sampling interval. At time T and all multiples of T the output is a pulse.

dispoziţie. repezeală. stare de spirit. a merge la pas to step forward = a pãşi înainte. 2. II. Which is the next logical step to holding the sample value constant throughout the sampling interval? II. 2. analyse v. 4. to step into = a intra în. = 1. a intra. a se da la o parte. to step across = a traversa. 3. îndemn. 2. 4. LEXICAL COMMENTARY Phrases / idioms with the verb TO STEP to step v. What is a sampler? 4. 7. impulse n. (fig) demers. a cerceta. 3. a mãri producţia. sentiment. to step up = a spori. 4. inert. to step it = a dansa (un dans). grad. 199 . 2. = 1. puls (al vieţii). pulse n. inertial adj. (fig) a intervene. 2. Which are the most direct applications of sampled-data theory? 3. puls. făcut în virtutea inerţiei. = 1. = a împărtăşi. mãsurã. each as required: 1. a diseca. indicator. zero order hold n. împingere. a examina minuţios. 2. 2. a pãşi. to step v. semn. or at the cash desk if this cash system is employed. 3. 2. I see her ……… Friday afternoon. 4. ritm. What is the function of a hold circuit? 5. sisteme în impulsuri.signal n. ochi de păpuşă. = 1. impulsivitate. impuls. pulsaţie. treaptã. to step out = 1. ritm. aparat optic. transmisiuni. a analiza sintactic. to step on the gas = a apãsa pe accelerator. a călca step down transformer n. de/referitor la inerţie. semnalizator. step n. 2. caracter impulsiv. urmã. = transformator coborâtor/ redactor step up transformer n. = element de reţinere extrapolator de ordin zero. telemetery link n.= 1. = 1. sampling time n. = a pãşi. 2. 3.sisteme eşantionate/cu eşantionare. = transformator ridicător/ survoltor stepped function n. imbold. pas. a face digresiuni. îndemn. = 1. to step in = 1. 2. = circuit/linie de telemăsură/telemecanică. a lungi pasul. a se emancipa. a merge la pas. semnal. mişcare înainte. 5. B. She does her shopping her ……… week. a face analiza sintactică. 2. a analiza. 5. impuls. a face (un pas). 5. pas (de scarã). 3. 6. 3. to step aside = 1. a ieşi. vitalitate. a da. What are sampled data systems? 2. Reading and comprehension 1. 3. sampled-data system n. to impart vb. EXERCISES I. = moment de eşantionare. semnal. Fill in every. = 1. a studia. step on it = grãbeşte-te. automat. = funcţie în trepte. sisteme discrete. ……… customer makes payment over the counter.

Our teacher should be … for … against our idea. 6. 7. 4. 5. The instruction has five addresses………. I have … time … money to go on that trip. Translate into English: Este de dorit ca amplitudinea oscilaţiilor din bucla de comandă să aibă oarecare legătură cu funcţionarea în buclă închisă care probabil va avea loc. IV. Why stop at this pub. 2. This wall is … blue … green. III. 10. 8. 7. They were a lot of bottles and jars on ……… side of the shop-assistant. … Lucy … Jane likes to climb the mountain. 5. ……… person knows how to buy in a self-service shop. I am … thirsty … hungry. 3. V. În transformarea mărimilor analogice în formă digitală este adesea necesar ca mărimea analogă de intrare măsurată (sau eşantionată) să rămănă constantă în tot timpul perioadei de transformare. 4. 5. Fill in the blanks with either … or. dacă este posibil. She has … luck … the opportunity to find a better job. The network has two cables……. este important să fie disponibilă o tehnică generală de proiectare. 200 . 6. Este esenţial ca proprietăţile intrării să fie bine înţelese. The mechanism has four bars……. ……… of them gets a string basket on entering the shop. The engine has six cylinders……. so what will he order? 9. I shall have … the main course … the desert. 8. The fan has two blades……. Her kids were … smart … handy.4. ……… of these housewives got a kit for presentation at the cash desk. The circuit has three phases……. 2. este recomandabil ca acesta să fie verificat experimental.. neither … nor: 1. He eats … fish … meat. The circuit has two wires……… 3. ……… of you must visit the new supermarket. Write a phrase that corresponds to the given sentence according to the model: Model: the magnet has two poles = a two-pole magnet 1. The lorry has four wheels……… 9. După ce construcţia sistemului cu reacţie este desăvârşită. Este de dorit ca semnalul de ieşire să fie o funcţie liniară a semnalului de intrare. The group has two digits……… 6. Pentru ca inginerul practician să ajungă la o configuraţie a sistemului de comandă cu reacţie care satisface cel mai bine cerinţele unei aplicaţii anumite. 7. The switch has two poles……. 8. Pentru a proiecta un servomechanism bun este important ca proiectantul să aibă cunoştinţe detaliate despre operaşia care trebuie executată.

The arithmetic and the control unit and the storage unit can be vaguely associated with the combinational switching circuit and the multistage device. First of all. The manner in which the code is selected to represent the operations is a function of the system design. Rodica. in the theoretical model. the coding details and the system design details are so closely interrelated that the two subjects are essentially the same. 139) 201 . substantially all stored-program systems ever built have been electronic. or for accepting the final results of the operations (output devices). notably the actuation of whatever devices are used for supplying information to the system (input devices). respectively.6. but basically all modern systems rely on the fundamental concept that the system is divided into two principal parts – an arithmetic and control unit and an information storage unit. Thus. plug wires. In fact. All manner of coding arrangement and system design can be imagined. some of which have been quite sophisticated in recent years. that can often be represented by the theoretical model.2. (Bantaş. Usually. A program is said to be “stored” when the coded digital information representing that program is stored in a storage unit (usually the same unit) used for the storage of intermediate results and other data involved in the computations or other forms of data processing. the subject of the stored program is now quite extensive. p. desk calculators. A major purpose of the storage unit is to store the results of intermediate operations. although a few problems can be solved with less capacity. The key idea in designing a system that will perform a long sequence of operations is that the information specifying the operations to be performed is essentially digital information. THE STORED-PROGRAM CONCEPT The concept of the stored-program/programme is probably the most significant single feature of nearly all modern electronic digital systems. a storage unit of substantial capacity is needed. a counter for example. the arithmetic and control unit does the actual work of performing whatever operations are specified by the program and it also controls the performance of all miscellaneous functions. In some respects. but our concern here is not in the design of individual parts. As the name implies. and so on.7. a “stored-program” system in which the program is stored in such a unit and not in some different medium such as punched cards. In principle. a requirement that is obvious to anyone who has performed problems in arithmetic involving several steps to arrive at the final answer. Andrei. a few hundred words of storage capacity is considered a bare minimum. Because adequate storage capacity at a reasonable cost is available only with electronic components. but with a view to a useful realization of the concept. the concept is quite simple but because of multitudinous variations and elaborations. In principle. Porţeanu . or switches. the really distinguishing feature of modern digital systems is that they do perform long sequences of operations rather than the essentially one-at-a-time manually controlled operations of the earlier business machines. Limba engleză pentru ştiinţă şi tehnică. a stored-program system need not be built with electronic components. in that it can be “coded” into sets of digits. A control unit may contain small parts. the purpose of the program is to direct a digital system through a sequence of operations.

a abuza de. usage n. în mod folositor. anat. What is a stored-program? 5. 3. folositor. etc. = utilitate. îndeplinire (a îndatoririlor etc. realizare. 2. episode. punch-cards n. LEXICAL COMMENTARY Family of words use n. 6.spectacol.) performanţă. trucuri. fără rost. in your opinion. = utilizabil. 3. =1. 3. = 1. 3. sequence n. bare minimum n. 3. în van. 3. fişă. bun. a trata (pe cineva). user n. a abuza de. productivitate. a consuma. (aici) şir. util. secvenţă. data processing n. întrebuinţare. What are. glonţ. util. zadarnic. v. = minim absolut/limită minimală. = program memorat. = cartele perforate. a întrebuinţa. ţintă. van uselessly adv. datină. evaluare. faptă reprobabilă/urâtă. 2. = unitate de comanda. = calcul. = 1. sequel. usefulness n. joc. expoziţie. inutil. nefolositor. priză. inşiruire. (aici) fişă de conectare. What is a control unit? 202 . lipsă de valoare. the pros and cons of computer games? 4. = 1. B. uzaj. chin. valoare. a brutaliza. uz uzanţă. = 1. lipsit de valoare. = inutilitate.character util/folositor/rodnic. fără (nici un ) effect. pedeapsă. interpretare. 9. cu folos. performanţă. de nădejde. datină. discret.a folosi. muncă grea. 3. a maltrata. socoteala. a se comporta/ a se purta cu/ fata de. capabil. scop. = 1. = 1. Do you agree with children spending most of their spare time in front of a computer monitor? 3. cifric. Do you spend a lot of time playing computer games? 2. cin. (aici) executare. a brutaliza to misuse vb. 2. = a întrebuinţa greşit. gură de incendiu. 2. practică (curentă) to use = 1. useful adj. II. profit. prestidigitaţie. 2. suită digital adj. a utilize. = (aici) numeric. = procesarea datelor. = 1. = în mod util/folositor. 4. zadarnic. 2. performance n. WORDS AND PHRASES stored program (programme –British spelling) n. secvenţă. randament. 2. 2. piesă. estimare plug wire n. apreciere. care poate fi utilizat / folosit. EXERCISES I. obicei. 2. folositor. 2. 4. = zadarnic. VOCABULARY I. 4. utilizare. valoros. Reading and comprehension: 1. ordine. ghiseu. capacitate de zbor. usefully adv. utilizare. misuse n. = cablu cu fire. computation n. tejghea. digital control unit n. (aici) utilizator. consumator. plug n. folosire. 2. 3. a lua din. usable adj. ţel. concret.A. obuz. a uza. 4. 2. useless adj. (aici) contor. succesiune. 4. rodnicie. 3. 8. obicei. = 1. counter n. bujie. util. folosire. 7. in ~ în succesiune. folosire/întrebuinţare greşită. uselessness n. 5. = 1.

Pentru a începe executarea programului trebuie cunoscută adresa primei instrucţiuni din program. Vacuum tubes are no longer………. He resembles her father. She likes my new dress. How …………………… IV. money on junk food. 2. 203 . 2. They………that apparatus and now it is out of order. 7. Brad Pitt plays in this film. of chemistry have changed along centuries. Who …………………… How …………………… 4. Fill in the blanks with items from the family of the word use: 1. 4. Students must learn ……… of this device. This is a very ……… tool for this experiment. The Browns usually spend a lot of 9. This house is too expensive for us. More than twenty families live in this house. Un programn relocatabil poate fi încărcat începând de la orice adresă a memoriei. Write questions to the following statements: 1. We want to travel to England every 6. Who …………………… Whom …………………… 5. The ………. 5. Why …………………… What …………………… 8. How …………………… Where …………………… 7. It looks awful. The chalet is about half a mile from here. The glass apparatus has broken because of rough……… III. Programele pot fi de două feluri: absolute şi relocatabile (relocatable). Translate into English: Conceptul de program memorat presupune existenţa în memoria unităţii centrale a succesiunii de comenzi ce urmează a fi executate înainte de a se începe îndepărtarea lor. 3. I don’t feel quite well today. Programele cele mai utilizate sunt de obicei cele relocatabile.II. How many …………………… What …………………… 10. Un program absolut poate fi executat numai dacă este încărcat în memorie întotdeauna la aceeaşi adresă. 3. Această adresă depinde de locul amplasării programului în memorie care este stabilit în aşa numita fază de încărcare (loading faze) pe baza unei evidenţe a spaţiului neocupat încă. 6. Scientific discoveries may be……… 8. year. There are many computer ………nowadays.

259) A. Mihaela. Typically.7. Limba engleză. Once the character string is in the computer. Another may be a mathematical program using few data but performing great many functions on the data. Automatică şi calculatoare. 204 . Storing the message on a disk memory. the greater part of the total system is idle while only one or two components are performing some operation. But what can be done is to switch rapidly back and forth.7. The electric typewriter terminals operate usually. performed under the control of a complex computer program usually called a time-sharing monitor. One program may be a heavy user of input and output components. Getting the computer to do this switching is a complex operation. although there may be overlap between command execution in the main processor and input or output operations. p. performing relatively little computation. some computers could have executed five million internal operations if left free to do so while the console operator was typing. at a maximum of 15 characters per second. A general purpose digital computer is actually a collection of subsystems with widely varying characters. No computer with a single processor actually operates more than one program in its CPU at one time. TIME-SHARING Time-sharing is a method of sharing a computer or allocating its resources among several users. itself. and to do this so fast that human users do not realize that they are not receiving the full attention of the computer. Let us now look more closely at the computer and program characteristics that make time-sharing possible. First. To transmit the string John Smith requires 15 characters and a full second. WORDS AND PHRASES down-shift = deplasare în jos. but much data movement. as might be done in an instructional system. the computer interprets and executes only one demand at one time. The programs that share the computer under the monitor’s control are called user’s programs. the components of a computer act at vastly different speeds.2. and guarantees each user that his program will be serviced within some stated period of time. might require something of the order of tens of milliseconds. During this second. (adapted from Blându. the letters johnsmith. optimizes the allocation of computer systems resources to meet the demands of all these programs. it might take a few microseconds to compare the message with another character string. though. VOCABULARY I. Man-machine processing would be prohibitively expensive if the computer were to stand idle while the man composed a message and transmitted it at 10to15 characters per second. a space. and of course. That is. A second characteristic of computers that makes time sharing possible is that different programs will use different mixes of the available resources. since they are supplied by the users of the time-sharing system. The characters are four-case shifts (two up-shifts and two down-shifts). Timesharing is a method of operating a computer which allows more than one program to be in operation at one time. and end-of-message symbol. Once an input or output operation is initiated most modern computers allow it to proceed while the central processor returns to operation of a program. one which is. four-case shift = deplasare cu 4 spaţii. from operating a small portion of one program to a portion of another.

to time v. up-shift = deplasare în sus. = 1. out of time = în contratimp (despre un ceas) . overlapping operation = operaţie de suprapunere în timp. vang. oarã. II. ceas. to lose/waist time = a pierde vremea. to time one's arrival = a-şi alege momentul sosirii. nelalocul lui. 4. indolent. at times. 4. prohibitive = prohibitiv. reţetă. = 1.= 1.2. etc. (aici) primire. leneş. LEXICAL COMMENTARY Phrases / idioms of the word TIME in the day time = în timpul zilei. încasări. 5. string n. (muz) mãsurã. to keep time = a ţine mãsura. remediu. 6. to have a good time = a se distra. 3. 7. interrupts = întreruperi. venituri. chitanţă (de primire). moment. a potrivi (ceasul). a continua. vreme. adeverinţă de plată. 205 . a repartiza. there is a time for everything = toate la vremea lor. (aici) secvenţă. 2. fibră. =1. many a time = de multe ori. five times five is twenty-five = de cinci ori cinci fac douãzeci şi cinci. coardă. 3. 5. 4. = a aloca. a cronometra time-sharing monitor = monitor pentru timp partajat. rand. nefolositor. a destina. 9. a înainta. 4. wait till next time = aşteaptã pânã data viitoare. instructional system = sistem de instruire. 7. time and again. once upon a time = a fost odatã ca niciodatã. a proceda. făcut în dorul lelii/ (aşa) ca să fie. datã. to allocate v. şiret. ocazie. şomer. filament. a fixa ora (pentru). timp. 9. to work against time = a munci fãrã a pierde o clipã. 3. 8. a ponta. şir. cordon. (mat) ori. clauză. 2. prescripţie. 7. prostesc. 3. şirag. a se simţi bine. vremuri. receipt n. a distribui. fără temei. 2. trândav. at one time = la un moment dat. prilej 6.3. vreme. (mai ales pl) epocã. inutil. a calcula durata (unei expuneri. orã. 2. (aici) neocupat. time n. from time to time = din când în când. a actiona. a well-timed remark = o remarcã oportunã. a pune la punct (un motor. poveste de necrezut.). 8. rãgaz. acţiuni. sfoară. = 1. oficiu de depunere a banilor. for the time being = pentru moment. to keep good/bad time = a merge bine/rãu. 5. to bide one's time = a aştepta prilejul. timp. to beat time = a bate mãsura. a nimeri momentul (pentru o acţiune). timing mechanism = mechanism de temporizare.). in no time = cât ai bate din palme. strună. 6. 5. 4. etc. tempo. 3. ritm. de nenumãrate ori. turn-round time = timp de răspuns. stupid. to proceed v = a merge mai departe.idle adj. profil. 6. a vorbi mai departe. condiţie. briu. 2. a long time ago = cu mult timp în urmã. coloană.

. aţi înţelege chiar şi mai bine de ce partajarea în timp este nu numai posibilă. IV. dar şi necesară. What is time-sharing? 2. The cover must he completely removed for repairs to be carried out. n-ar merita să-l cumpărăm... How (much. There is (little.. Which is the second? 6. Which is the first factor that makes time-sharing possible? 5. few) mistakes in the test paper. equipment.. They made (little. electric. Why is time-sharing a profitable technique? 3. Dacă cumva s-ar întâmpla să nu furnizeze programele la timp. Copy the following sentences choosing the correct adjective: 1.. adjust. yourself. 5. Dacă cumva datele ar fi înregistrate manual.. Dacă ar fi să explicăm noţiunea de partajare în timp... There is (little.B. III. Reading and comprehension: 1. 3. There are (much... 2. maintain. apply. many) fruit trees are there in the orchard? 6.. and will be performed within S days of payment. How does a computer work in time-sharing? 4.. Installation of your new energy-efficient domestic gas boiler is free of charge. 6... aceasta ar însemna o mare risipă de timp şi de bani. Dacă ar fi să nu folosim calculatorul mai des decât atât. cred că ne-am descurca.. 7. Complete each space with a word or compound word formed from the following words: install. from a qualified engineer is advised.. many) airplanes passes over here. Translate into English: 1. many) wooded hills in our country. 4. cover. spune-i să mă sune. 2. few) milk in the bottle. Dacă ar fi să calculăm şi alte caracteristici ale calculatorului. 4. Which is the usual approach to time-sharing? II.. EXERCISES I.. few) water in the bucket. Regular (2) . 3. please exercise great care if you are attempting to repair the (5) . many) valuable information. operaţia aceasta ar lua mult mai mult timp. which can be kept fully extended or half down. We have received (much. Dacă s-ar întâmpla să aibă nevoie de banda magnetică acum.. (much. 206 .. As with all (4) . 5.. The system comes with an (3) .

or translation into the machine language understood by the processor. The former are the result of incorrect appreciation of the problem. and print some indication of the type of error which are called diagnostics. 2. checking and recording the action of each instruction or flowchart step. the cause of the error must be diagnosed. VOCABULARY I. 5. Various methods of error diagnosis may be used. (adapted from Blându. 4. deficienţă. but at the same time provides a printed record of the action taken by each instruction. = compilator.2. WORDS AND PHRASES aids n. The incorrect instruction may be altered if the program exists in machine code on an external medium such as punched cards. Programs may be corrected by several different methods. Instead of performing the computer’s actions himself.8. This involves the programmer in performing each step of the program each step of the program as if he were the computer. Automatică şi calculatoare. Programs written in a symbolic language require compilation. insectă. or through an unexpected halt. defect. Once the cause of an error has been detected. Most compilers reject incorrectly used statements. Detecting errors by means of observing results involves testing programs with samples of data which the program would expect to be presented with in normal running. Errors are detected by observing that programs do not produce the results expected from them. 3. Another technique for correcting programs is to apply a patch. Once an error has been detected.7. and the latter the result of incorrect coding of the program. microfon secret. 207 . Mihaela. = mijloace auxiliare bug n. If the program is written in a symbolic language. Limba engleză. = (aici) eroare. or by means of simulated input conditions. bacterie. = listă de compilare. ploşniţă. Test data of this sort is presented to the program either directly in the form expected in normal running. The process of compilation enables syntax errors involving incorrect handling of the symbolic language to be detected. gândac. diagnosing and correcting errors (also known as bugs) which may occur in programs or systems (both hardware and software). A dry run may be performed on the program flowchart or compilation listing. or correction may be applied by using source code maintenance routine. or through compilation errors. the programmer may use a trace or diagnostic routine which performs the program on the computer in the normal way. This consists in deleting the incorrect instruction and substituting a branch to a section of coding correcting the error. ERROR DETECTION Debugging or error detection is the technique of detecting. a correction must be applied to the program. 253) A. Correcting source codes may be done directly by removing incorrect statements and substituting correct ones if the program is on a suitable medium such as punched cards. the source code must be corrected and the program recompiled. or by failure of a program written in a symbolic language to compile correctly. microb. compilation list n. cărăbuş. compiler n. The two main types of program errors that may occur are logic errors and syntax errors. either through incorrect results from test data or simulated operating conditions. p.

rămăşiţă. în mânã. 4. 2. (aici) a corecta. a şterge. patch. graniţă. a face negoţ cu/de. with a heavy hand = cu duritate. viciu. în ascuns. a purta. a poposi. a elimina. a închide. = tipărituri source code = cod sursă flaw n. up to date = actual. = 1. to bear a hand = a da o mânã de ajutor. 3. to live from hand to mouth = a trãi de azi pe mâine. on the other hand = pe de o parte . input n. on hand = în mânã. intrare.compilation listing = listă de compilare debugging n. II. in hand = 1. = oprire. 2. my hand is out = mi-am pierdut îndemânarea. 5. 9.. LEXICAL COMMENTARY Phrases / idioms with the word HAND done by hand = fãcut de mânã. = parcurgerea programului (de programator). out of hand = dintr-o datã. a îmbunătăţi. 4. off hand = pe neaşteptate. = program de întreţinere. circumspecţie (a unui poliţist) to amend v. 6. a comanda.. hand in hand = în deplin acord cu. to take into one's hands = a lua în mâinile sale. spaţiu verde. 2. 4. 3. a se face un popas. 8. he had the news at first hand = a primit ştirea la prima mânã. cu îndrãznealã. under his hand and seal = semnat de propria sa mânã şi sigilat. alimentare. pată. fãrã ezitare. a aresta. bucată ( de pânză). a perfecţiona. a manevra. zonă. fisură. = admisie. prints n. închisoare. factory hand = muncitor în uzinã. a rezolva. to fall into the hands of = a cãdea în mâinile cuiva. a manipula. bandaj. a se opri din mers. a pune la punct. limită. II. a se opri. 208 . 2. furnizare. punct slab. apriva de libertate. under hand = pe sub mânã. n. a face să funcţioneze. energie / putere consumată. a amenda (un text. = 1. pe de altã parte. with a high hand = 1. es n. 2. on the right hand = pe mâna dreaptã. întăritură. detectarea erorilor. hotar. 3. from hand to hand = din mânã în mânã. 2. 4.. 1. 2. cu asprime. maintanance routine n.. a conduce. = petec. în discuţie. a limita. a mânui. a dirifa. raion. = 1. a înceta să se mişte. bucată rămasă. crăpătură. at hand = la îndemânã. 2. a trata. 2. = punerea la punct a programului. a discuta. 3. = a anula. a restrânge (subiectul etc. 2. modern. plasture.. rest. cu aroganţã. a ţine închis . a se ocupa de. la zi to confine v. = program de diagnoză. hands off! = jos mâinile! hands up! = sus mâinile! hand in hand = mânã în mânã. 7. to delete v. = I. halt n. a very clear hand = un scris foarte clar. interval scurt (de timp). defect. hand-to-hand fight = luptã corp la corp. ruptură. dry run n. putere de alimentare. în partea dreaptã on the one hand .).1. trace/diagnostic routine n. 5. un proiect de lege). to handle v. absorţie.

5. 7. I can't use my drill here. Erorile sintactice sunt detectate de către compilator care indică şi instrucţiunea din codul sursă care a produs această eroare. 209 . modificând programul. III. Oh dear the lights have gone off! The cable/fuse/safety must have gone. Which are the types of error that may occur and what are they due to? 3. She is feeling fine now. Principalele două tipuri de erori de programe sunt erori logice şi erori sintactice. Reading and comprehension: 1. The electrician twisted the wires together using a pair of hammers/chisels/pliers. 10. Turn off the mains first in case you get a/an impact/jolt/shock. Programe speciale de punere la punct (debuggers) simplifică mult corectarea erorilor.B. as an electrical/electricity/electrician y1electrician engineer. diagnosticarea şi corectarea erorilor. 11. 9. The set wouldn't work because there was a faulty connection/joint/link. Define the term “debugging”. Ask questions to the underlined parts of the following sentences: This man is singing pop music. The lead/plug/wire isn't long enough. Which methods are used for error diagnosis? 5. Underline the most appropriate word in each sentence. 3. Se pot aplica corecţii programului în timpul execuţiei. 2. 6. I can't undo this nut. That woman is at you. Odată ce eroarea a fost detectată. The good thing about this knife is that the blade/point/edge can be replaced 14. They are talking about film stars. Nobody is watching that soap-opera now. IV. 4. I’m looking for my shoes. She’s wearing the new fur coat tonight. I’m going out with my girlfriend tonight. I need a larger bolt/screwdriver/spanner. I buy coffee beans and put them in a grinder/mixer/blender. 4. Acest tip de erori se corectează foarte uşor. He’s going to the office by tube today. Is debugging confined to programs? II. Tom is drinking the sixth glass of wine this evening. 2. How can programs be corrected? 6. Don't touch that wire! It's live/lively/living. The appliance is powered by a small electric engine/machine/motor. după ce a fost încărcat în memorie. Explain how errors are detected. Translate into English: Punerea la punct a programului înseamnă găsirea. Erorile logice se pot detecta numai în timpul execuţiei programului (at running time). 13. 1. cauza ei trebuie să fie aflată şi apoi se corectează. Can you lend me that cassette? I want to record/transcribe/write it. Jim has just started work. EXERCISES I. 8. 12. This small vacuum cleaner is motivate/powered/run by batteries. The hair-drier is fitted with a three point cable/plug/socket.

PART III GRAMMAR (THEORY AND PRACTICE) .

Man is mortal.1. normally. regularly. THEORETICAL CONSIDERATIONS I. ever. as a rule. d.III. usually. The adverbs of frequency include the following: always. Definitions: What is a nymph? Nymphs often accompany various gods and goddesses c. rarely.1.Step-by-step instructions and demonstrations (recipes or magicians): 211 . Geographical or mathematical statements: Bacău lies on the Bistriţa. every day/ week/ month/ year. except the 3rd person singular. which adds an -s]: I/ you/ we/ they learn he/ she learns b. General timeless statements (eternal truths): Every solution breeds new problems.1. sometimes. habits/repeated actions with a given frequency. generally. THE INDICATIVE MOOD 1. Interrogative [the auxiliary to do + subject + the short infinitive of the main verb]: Do I learn? Do you learn? Does he/she learn? II. often. frequently. a rabbit pops out. The earth moves round the earth. twice a day/ week/ month/ year …. whenever. never. He always smokes a cigarette after breakfast. Affirmative [the form coincides with the short infinitive. USES Present Simple is used to express: a. seldom. Proverbs and sayings: Still waters run deep. g. b. THE PRESENT TENSE SIMPLE A. instantaneous actions: . e. Despair gives courage to a coward. FORM a.1. 1. A rolling stone gathers no moss. THE VERB III. f. My mother seldom drives our car. Negative [the auxiliary to do + not + the short infinitive of the main verb]: I/you/we/they do not (don’t) learn he/ she does not (doesn’t) learn c. from time to time. a particular event that refers to a particular moment of time. during an interval. I place this flower into the hat and look. hardly ever. occasionally.

b. I’ll phone you when I get home. = Voi culege cireşele dacă mă va ruga/ mă roagă. next I fry the eggs … . viitor sau prezent (adverbial clauses of time and condition): I will pick up the cherries if he asks me. Ways of translating a.] III. = Gheaţa se topeşte la soare. . in story-telling with a past reference Clarissa Dalloway goes out to buy flowers for a party she is to have at her house. c.Sport commentaries: The player hits and the ball goes straight into the audience./ Avion prăbuşit în Paris.Woolf) . She prepares for her party when she is interrupted by Peter Walsh… (V. i. the action fixed in advance is supposed to happen in the future: . [uttered by the bridegroom during a marriage ceremony] I name this ship Lady. School starts in September.): Here comes the winner! There goes our train! h. [Avionul s-a prăbuşit în Paris. .Performatives imply the fact that “the uttering of the sentence is the doing of an action” – Austin (1975: 5). up. -subordinate clauses of time and condition: My son will look after his little sister while I am away. = Îţi voi da telefon când voi ajunge/ ajung acasă. . She returns tomorrow morning. 212 . [uttered by the captain when smashing the bottle against the stem] . with future reference. statements about the calendar) that refer to events regarded as immutable: The train for London leaves at six. We drink coffee every morning. = Bem cafea în fiecare dimineaţă.Special exclamatory sentences (with initial adverbials: here. If your cousin comes here tomorrow.Stage directions involve the theatrical quality of the instantaneous present in stage rhetoric: George enters the room and draws the curtain.officially planned actions (timetables.in newspaper headlines in order to draw the attention of the reader: Plane crashes in Paris. etc. indicativ prezent: Ice melts in the sun. we’ll go to the cinema. = Am aflat/ am auzit că şi-a pierdut copilaşul. I do (take this woman to be my lawful wedded wife).To get to the station you go straight on to the traffic lights. perfect compus (historic present – verbs of linguistic communication): I hear she lost her baby. there. then you turn left First I take a bowl and break two eggs into it.planned activities where the idea of certainty is implied: We leave London at 11:00 next Monday and arrive in Paris at 14:00. Tomorrow is Tuesday. down.

irritation. while cooks shows a permanent habit. Affirmative (the present tense of the auxiliary verb to be + the present participle – V+ing) [see Appendix II for the spelling of the present participle]: I am learning you/ we/ they are learning he/ she is learning b. THEORETICAL CONSIDERATIONS The progressive aspect shows a situation that is in progress. [the habit is temporary. [the temporary activity is not complete. In this case the verbs are usually combined with such adverbs as: always. From this brief definition we infer that the meaning of the progressive reveals the following concepts: . THE PRESENT TENSE PROGRESSIVE A.temporariness: She’s singing. When the verbs that designate states are used in the progressive they are interpreted as a form of behavior/ activity]. [a temporary activity that has a limited duration] .] I. 213 . but today he is being rude. Negative I am not learning you are not learning he/ she is not learning c. c. It indicates that the duration of the action is limited.1. It is the most usual way of expressing one’s immediate plans: What are you doing tomorrow? I’m meeting my friend.] John is a polite young boy.incompletion: She’s drinking a glass of milk. My mother usually cooks lunch.1. sarcasm associated with a habit. to express a definite action planned for the near future. to express an action happening at the moment of speaking (the action spanning from past to future is incomplete at the moment of speaking and is still taking place). A proper result – accomplishment – would be that the glass is empty. It anticipates the action thus having a future time reference. Interrogative Am I learning? Are you learning? Is he/she learning? II USES The Present Tense Progressive is used: a. The idea of immediate present is often emphasized by just and now: The children are sleeping now. to express a meaning of annoyance. [states used in the Simple Present Tense signify a permanent trait. d. continually. Those children are constantly making noise. to create a contrast between a temporary action and an action usually performed (habitual present) and to show that the repetition takes place over a limited period. The pupil is just writing the exercise. but today I’m cooking.2. FORM a. b. but the progressive shows exactly this lack of completion. constantly: You are always borrowing money from me.

g. III. h. I will not disturb her if she is learning. to express an action in a subordinate clause of time or condition: The child will play in the garden while his mother is cooking dinner. = Permanent aruncă vina pe mine. they are watching TV. (the emotional use linked to the progressive is rendered into Romanian by an emphasis on the adverb rather than on the verb) b.e. (→I’m hoping is preferred to I hope as the latter leaves little room for polite refusal) f. with activities/ processes (to get or to grow) to express a transition from one state to another taking place over a period: It’s getting dark. the semelfactive ones. ⁄ He is continually finding fault with me. indicativ prezent They are not doing their homework now.viitor/ prezent What are you doing tomorrow? = Ce vei face/ faci mâine? 214 . for an action intended to be polite as it shows lack of commitment: I’m hoping you’ll give the book to John. He’s growing older and older. He is nodding approval. Ways of translating the Present Tense Progressive into Romanian a. se uită la TV. with achievements. which describe momentary events. = Ei nu-şi fac temele acum. they imply duration: The player is kicking the ball. When used in the progressive.

How he (feel) now? You (think) of going to see him at the hospital? 6. b) is liking. Look at these pictures! Why … buy one for your father? a) don’t we. Even if Phil is a serious person. b) is appearing. a) doesn’t like. b) Does it. b) is getting. EXERCISES I. She always (complain) about something. c) do you drink 2. In case of accident call the police. c) doesn’t grow 8. It is well known that rice … in Britain. and they (smell) wonderful. c) don’t know 6. I (see) what you mean! You can’t join us today as you (feel) ill. Bread costs 10 000 lei in Romania. a) will get. 2. isn’t he? a) appears. If … 215 . 7. He … to be a little stupid.This room … 3. Can you tell me how often … your dentist? a) you visit. b) goes. 4. a) is going. b) do know. How much …? 6. I (doubt) if they (understand) what you (talk) about. Put the verbs in brackets into the Simple Present or Present Progressive Tense: 1. II. We constantly (see) you outside the cinema. but today as I am late I (go) by bus. You are always … 2. Rephrase the following sentences so as the meaning stays the same: 1. Both of us … 7. c) are you visiting 5. a) know. We live in Manchester and I don’t understand why my daughter … to London so often. He (work) very hard at the moment and (deserve) to succeed. c) gets 4. My younger brother keeps on bothering me. b) do you visit. I … the answers to the test we are going to take tomorrow. I can keep an eye on your children till your husband … back. 9. b) we do. I like watching football matches and so does my girlfriend. c) does not go 9.B. c) does appear 10. Apricots (ripe) in early summer. c) likes 3. My friend (come) to see us next month. I (walk) to school every day. I’m annoyed because you lose your pocket money every time I give it to you. Choose the correct form of the verb: 1. How many cups of coffee … every day? a) you drink. b) is growing. he … comedy. 3. 8. (See) the doctor this afternoon? 5. 10. but in China. My younger brother … 4. a) grows. b) you do drink. What’s your opinion about the new book published by the University? What do…? 5. c) aren’t we III. c) Is it 7. … true that Julia speaks four languages fluently? a) It is. I (love) the roses you sent me. trust me. There is a smell of roses in this room.

using Present Tense Simple or Progressive: to start. you very well. You cook lunch right now and then you rest. I can’t answer the phone. Fill in the blanks with the correct form of the verbs: 1.. these lovely flowers. just to let you know that I’ve arrived and that everything is fine. (to listen) 4.. to move. a very quiet child but now she . them off. . to be too demanding. to get busier. The number of people who own expensive cars is increasing. with bookings and …. quite a lot of sightseeing. 7. Sunrise is at 5:30 tomorrow morning. at a hotel in Athens and I …. Love. Christmas is coming in December. (to boil) 2. next month.. the silk to see how soft it is. Here is coming your husband! 4. to do. it’ll be different when the tourist season ….. I …. I write a letter to Mary. I . He is always going to work at 7 o’clock in the morning... The weather’s not particularly good – as a matter of fact. Does his brother knows that you are going to leave the town without paying the debt? 2. Next week I …. to get. I .. to deal. 8. to look.. 6. to a scientific broadcast. Even now the restaurants …. to live.. with his nose. Usually she . Diana and her grandmother are exactly alike. to rain. the water for coffee in a special pot.. Correct the mistakes in the following sentences: 1.. to stay. at the moment. (to smell) 8. She . He usually plays tennis after breakfast. to the island of Crete which is where most of the people in the company …. better slowly. (to be) 9. but today he plays football.. a villa there for the summer. 3. 5. to begin.. Are you liking coffee or tea? 9. and I’m sure it’ll be fine when you ….. See you soon. to rent... Fill in the blanks with the following verbs. I …. 10. More and more people … IV. in the summer. Can you give me your pen? Or do you use it? V. not to seem. She . A man . Jenny 216 . I …. to write. Diana … 10... Dear Sally. all right. (to see) 6.. it …. (to feel) VI. inquiries. The job ….. (to feel) 10. will you? I . which should be nice. to come. Wait a minute. But I …. The sun … 9. it …. naughty. They are saying the earth is going round the sun. Most of the time I …. forward to it already..8. (to hear) 3. to answer.. (to smell) 7. At the moment I …. Don’t interrupt them! They . Come and make the coffee! The water . to suppose. Don’t shout that loud! I . Still. (to boil) 5.

6. 1 teaspoon hot pepper sauce. In a medium saucepan. cover. discarding cooking liquid. Place ribs in two roasting pans. and grill 8 minutes. 5.” 6. Baste the ribs with their juices halfway through cooking. copiii. I have my English lessons at school. IX. nu-i aşa? 8. 4. Maşina îmi face figuri astăzi. You are a reliable person. 10. You feel thirsty on a hot day. Pour diluted vinegar over ribs and cover with foil. Grill over medium heat for 15 minutes. În vreme ce musafirii vorbesc despre vreme. 2. 2/3 cup water.VII. 9. water. Pour water and vinegar into a bowl. I am free this afternoon because I don’t have to work on holidays. Întotdeauna îmi arde pantalonul când îl calcă! 3. don’t you?” “Yes. noi. We clean our car before leaving for a picnic. Preheat grill for medium heat. 3. 4. 2. Worcestershire sauce. Translate the recipe and comment upon the uses of the verbs: Southern Grilled Barbecued Ribs INGREDIENTS: 4 pounds baby back pork ribs. brown sugar. De ce deschizi uşa cuptorului de atâtea ori? Lasă prăjitura să se coacă! 217 . 1/3 cup vinegar. We sit on this bench two hours every Sunday. 1 cup water. Translate into English: 1. mustard. Tatăl meu rareori se uită la televizor duminica. 1/3 cup Worcestershire sauce. Nu pot s-o pornesc. 4 tablespoons butter. 1/2 cup packed brown sugar. “You come to school on foot. Reduce heat to low. Transfer ribs from the oven to the grill. Bake in the preheated oven for 45 minutes. turning ribs once. hot pepper sauce. bring to a boil. for all I know. 2. mix together ketchup. Ce faci zilele acestea? Văruiesc bucătăria. 7. 3. butter. Ask questions about the underlined parts of the following sentences: 1. We read only critical books. Lightly oil preheated grill. Se simte mult mai bine acum. 4. and stir. 9. 10. Mai bine luăm autobuzul. Preheat oven to 175 degrees C. Baste ribs generously with barbeque sauce. 1/8 teaspoon salt DIRECTIONS: 1. 1/4 cup prepared mustard. I brush my teeth three times a day. 8. and simmer barbeque sauce for 1 hour. but I occasionally take the half past seven tram. VIII. vinegar. 1 cup ketchup. and salt. and grill 8 minutes. You watch all the matches on TV. baste again with barbeque sauce. 5. Totul este bine când se termină cu bine. Noi nu mergem aproape niciodată la operă din păcate. le turnăm ceai în pantofi. Turn ribs. Mergi la petrecere duminică? 7.

THEORETICAL CONSIDERATIONS I. unlike the paraphrase with would. Interrogative [auxiliary did + subject + the short infinitive of the main verb] Did I/ You/ He/ She/ We/ You/ They walk? Did I/ You/ He/ She/ We/ You/ They go? II. We bought this car five years ago. dressed. He did not become a painter until the age of 27. 1955. thus referring to a certain sequence. last night/week/month/year. b. a long time ago. went downstairs. locations. It can be paraphrased by means of used to. in 34 BC. during the war. which implies that an event/ state definitely took place in the past and it will not happen in the present or future. He spent all his childhood in London. etc. put his coat on. on October 24th.1. after which he produced over 1. at the turn of the century. [the implicature is that he is no longer a child]. frequently. the other day They arrived yesterday.500 oil-paintings and drawings before committing suicide. had breakfast. We had water melon everyday. = He used to spend all his childhood in London. often. such as: everyday. with adverbs that express frequency.1. hurried to the bus stop and caught a bus to the station. Affirmative [-ed for regular verbs.3. shaved. They involve general knowledge about the situations described. washed. a few hours/minutes/years ago. FORM a. to show an event at past reference: • Immediate situation (domestic sitations where the adverb of time could be implied) He woke up (at seven in the morning). 218 . got out of bed. THE PAST TENSE SIMPLE A. once upon a time. once. worked and finally died. He left the army in 1945 and settled down in Australia. USES The Past Tense Simple is used: a. the 2nd form in the dictionary for irregular verbs] (see Appendix I for the pronunciation of ed and spelling rules of regular verbs) I/ You/ He/ She/ We/ You/ They walked/ saw/ ran b.) Vincent van Gogh was born in Holland. in 1995. [it is a matter of cultural knowledge that Vincent van Gogh is a historical personage (a famous Dutch post-impressionst painter) who was born.] Actions are completed at a definite point in the past (when the time is given): Yesterday. Negative [auxiliary did + not + the short infinitive of the main verb] I/ You/ He/ She/ We/ You/ They did not walk (didn’t walk) I/ You/ He/ She/ We/ You/ They did not go (didn’t go) c. or objects. • Larger situation (in historical or bibliographical statements about specific persons. it shows an action often done in the past (habit).

III. Ways of translating the Past Tense Simple into Romanian a. think. c. please?) Did you want to see me now? I wondered if you could help me. Affirmative [Past Tense of the auxiliary to be + Present Participle (V+ing)] He was walking in the park when he met her. b. d. Interrogative [Past Tense of the auxiliary to be + subject + Present Participle (V+ing)] Was he walking in the park when he met her? II. FORM a. wonder It is considered to be more polite than the present tense. = A sunat la sonerie şi a deschis uşa/ Sună la sonerie şi deschise uşa. THEORETICAL CONSIDERATIONS I.He would spend all his childhood in Lodon.1. mai mult ca perfectul/ perfect simplu (to show sequence for past perfect value) She knocked. = Stătea acolo nemişcată. = Mergea adesea la pescuit când era copil. indicativ prezent Irene told me that she wrote a poem. USES The Present Progressive Tense has the following uses: 219 . intră şi apoi trânti uşa. it is related to the speaker’s attitude rather than to time. = Irene mi-a spus că scrie o poezie. [the implicature is that he was still a child at the moment of speaking. imperfect (with habitual past. I thought we might go and see a movie. It is used with verbs such as hope. so a possible future interpretation] c. entered and slammed the door. want.4. = Bătuse/ bătu. = Mă gândeam poate mergem să vedem un film. being most often associated with politeness. The same polite use can be rendered by past modal forms with present or future reference (Could you help me for a moment? Would you come this way. 1. She stood there motionless. attitudinal past or if the verb is lexically durative) He often went fishing when he was a child. c. Negative [Past Tense of the auxiliary to be + not + Present Participle (V+ing)] He was not walking when he met her. THE PAST TENSE PROGRESSIVE A. It occurs in everyday conversation and the Simple Past Tense has present time reference. perfect compus/ perfect simplu He rang the bell and opened the door. b.

it shows annoyance. e.a. /ŋ/.] III. One of the headlights was gradually falling off. /l/.it is pronounced /id/ after /d/ and /t/ B. = Credea că o va vizita deseară. Spelling rules of regular verbs (Past Tense affirmative) • most verbs add -ed 220 . criticism of a habit My husband was forever getting into trouble. it shows duration of an event It happened while I was living in the countryside last year. [It is a case of Indirect Speech in direct object clauses. Ways of translating into Romanian a. Pronunciation of -ed . /s/ etc. The progressive form of a verb can function as a time background when the speaker feels that the actions are framed (Poutsma. /g/. /v/. prezent (in direct object clauses) She told me she was writing a novel then. b. it marks a gradual progress without any temporal marker The car was getting worse. c. /k/. = Mi-a spus că scrie un roman acum. imperfect I was sleeping when he came in. it has a future reference in the past He thought he was seeing her in the evening. Appendix I A. . The paraphrase could be He thought he would see her in the evening. /m/. . f. b.it is pronounced /t/ after unvoiced consonants (except /t/): /p/. it has a polite use with verbs such as hope. think. 1926) thus making the simple forms more precise: I was buying a shirt when I first met my wife [the meeting was completed within the framework of shirt-buying] It is used with adverbial structures such as: this time last week/ month/ year or with adverbial clauses of time This time last week I was flying to Paris.= Dormeam când el a intrat. d. viitor (in direct object clauses) He thought he was seeing her in the evening.it is pronounced /d/ after vowels and voiced consonants (except /d/): /b/. /z/ etc. wonder it makes a request sound more polite but less definite I was wondering if you'd like to come out with me one evening. When I saw him he was running away. The progressive changes the meaning of the physical perception verb to see into to visit. and the engine was making more and more funny noises. c. want. /f/.

221 . The smell of the roses (creep) into the room. You (feel) out of place in your suit and tie. Continue the following sentences using the Past Tense Progressive: 1. 9. 8. They (wind) up the evening with a song.• • • to visit – visited to help – helped to gain – gained verbs ending in -e add just -d to dance – danced to hope – hoped one-syllable verbs ending in a single consonant (except c. double the consonant when adding -ed: to hop – hopped to pat – patted verbs of more than one syllable ending in a single consonant preceded by a single vowel double the consonant when adding ed only if the final syllable is stressed. x) preceded by a single vowel. 3. 2. 4. 3. When (you/ meet) the company accountant? 2. 10. 5. Her parents helped with child care while she . EXERCISES I. Compare: to prefer – preferred and to visit – visited to omit – omitted to listen – listened Exceptions: a.... My neighbour burnt his hand while he . w. One day an idea (strike) Mary. The company (not/ disclose) how much it expects to gain from the two deals. in British English l is doubled after a short vowel even if the vowel is not stressed: to travel . This (teach) him a bitter lesson. The discussion (take place) in a famous villa. Our blood almost (freeze) in our veins.travelled verbs ending in -y preceded by a vowel add -ed with no other change: to play – played to stay – stayed verbs ending in -y preceded by a consonant change -y into -i when adding -ed: to try – tried to study – studied verbs ending in c have ck before -ed: to picnic – picnicked • • • B.. 6. to kidnap – kidnapped to handicap – handicapped b. II. Put the verbs in brackets into the Past Tense Simple: 1... The TV was on but nobody . He (stick) to his opinion. 7.

10. I (not understand) why. He read the script while she talked to the Production Director. but then I (look) down at myself. Somebody followed her while she . 7.. When the dream (begin).. 2. He (ask) me if I (enjoy) my meal.. as though the place .4. When the rain began they . It was taking me a few seconds to realize I looked foolish. 3. Rephrase the following sentences so as the meaning stays the same. I left the house but first I checked that I had my key. 4. 8.. He (stand) a long time in the darkest corner of the room. When the train (arrive) many travelers (wait) on the platform. 5. 6. just like everyone else. 8. V. Then the waiter (ask) me if I (forget) anything. For a ruin it was in good condition. 2. 9.. I (walk) in the park quietly when a dog (attack) me. but something (stop) me.. I (tell) him that it (be) very good. 10. Last week they were placing an advertisement in the local paper for a secretary. Suddenly I (notice) that the other people (look) at me. We visited the States this time last year. 2. If I (win) a big prize in a lottery I’d give up my job. At first I (not understand) his question. Correct the mistakes: 1. too.. 5. Last summer they were spending their holiday in Switzerland. While I (water) the flowers it (begin) to rain.. Put the verbs in brackets into the Simple Past or the Past Progressive: 1. I (want) to ask him why he (smile) and why the other people (look) at me.. When the doorbell (ring) she (sleep). I (have) a bath when the phone (ring). VI. The doorbell rang while I . 7. If I am not busy I would help you. Dave fell asleep while he . When the reasons behind the decision were explained it was all becoming clear. I (sit) all alone in a restaurant. 8. After .. He (smile). As he (cross) the street he (step) on a banana skin and (fall) down. Some of them (point) at me. While I (swim) someone (steal) my clothes. but then he realized he didn’t need it. 9. Use Present or Perfect Participle: 1.. 6. Put the verbs in brackets into the Simple Past or the Past Progressive: Last night I (have) a very strange dream. Suddenly I (realize) that I (not have) my trousers on! That was why everybody (laugh) at me. We saw an accident while we .. IV. 9. III. I watched TV while my sister read the magazine.. Just then the waiter (come) over to me.. 5.. He bought the book. What did you do when he was coming home? 7. 10. I was falling in love with anyone. 6. 4.. She was reading while her brother . 3. 222 . The young man (jump) on to the bus while it (run).

aşa că nu am vorbit decât foarte puţin. She cleaned the house. întotdeauna îşi cumpăra haine noi. I went out for the evening but first I went to the hairdressers’. 223 .. Din păcate. Bunica încremeni o clipă.. În timp ce musafirii se distrau hoţii au intrat în casă şi le-au furat hainele de blană.. 5. 6. ca un om care pleacă la drum ştiut periculos pentru că se simte în stare să se apere.Before . Păreai foarte ocupat când te-am întâlnit aseară. He tried to repair his car but first he checked his tools... Translate into English: 1. cum toate cărţile pe care am vrut să le citesc. 7.. fără să poată rosti un cuvânt. Eu aveam toată încrederea în puterea mea. 10. Before ... Deschise uşa încetişor. Before . She was skiing in Sinaia and met her friend Mary. trecu prin sufragerie. While .. 9... While . 3. care nici nu-l luă în seamă.. 9. am coborât către ora cinci în grădină. şi se strecură printre o mulţime de lume necunoscută. Before . 10. 8. mi se păreau uscate. He bought a new car but first he checked all the prices. 6. 5..... n-avem prea multă grijă. pe urmă îl strânse în braţe cu ochii scăldaţi în lacrimi. Când am intrat în muzeu am văzut multe tablouri impresionante. unde nu era nimeni. I took a pil land then I felt much better.. Era foarte extravagantă. 3. 4. While . After . Întotdeauna purta o servietă când mergea la birou. Ce făceai? 7. 2. VII. 8. când eu am sosit Ana tocmai pleca. but then she fell asleep. John was parking the car when he noticed the flat tyre. Cum tot cearşaful şi perna erau prea calde. The police were approaching the house when they saw the burglars running away. 4. After ..

for an uncompleted action that one is expecting. I/you/we/they have not/haven’t eaten c. for an action which is just completed but the resulting state is still present. always) are used for general experiences.a state leading up to the present: This hut has been deserted for three days/ a long time/ for ages.] He has been courting Ann for seven years now. c. The Continuative Present Perfect can show: . It is used with adverbs of time such as yet and still. Adverbs of indefinite time or expressing frequency (never. But you've only just filled it. [but I don't talk with him any longer.] d. seldom. but only with non-continuous verbs. When it is used with the simple past tense. but he has not still asked her to marry him.] Only just expresses surprise or impatience: My pen has run out again. Negative: she/he/it has not/ hasn’t eaten. Affirmative [the present tense of the auxiliary ‘to have’ + the Past Participle of the main verb]: she/he/it has already worked. This use of the Present Perfect shows indefinite event(s) in a period leading up to the present moment. FORM a. b. Interrogative: Has he/she/it eaten…?.1. The murderer hasn’t confessed his crime yet. ever. . [I still know him. USES The Present Perfect Simple is used: a. THE PRESENT PERFECT SIMPLE A. Have I/you/we/they eaten…? II. for expresses a completed period of time: I have known him for two years. Using the Present Perfect suggests that we are still waiting for the result of the respective action. suggest a limited experience.Since denotes from some definite point/ period in the past till now. [The action of washing the three 224 .] I talked with him for two years. I/you/we/they have taken a test. [They solved the problem a few minutes ago. [The result that is expected implies the murderer’s confession. Cynthia has not visited us since yesterday /Tuesday /1998 / her son left for Canada. often.1. The Past Tense is also used but it shows that the action has no connection with the present.5. Just and already are the most common adverbs of time used to express a recently completed action: They’ve just solved the problems. an action begun in the past but still continuing to the present moment. b. this morning/ week/ month/ year. . THEORETICAL CONSIDERATIONS I. while adverbs of time such as today. My mother has washed three shirts today.For denotes a length of time till now.

= Bem bere acum. (Online Star – 21 Jun 2005) III.6. in adverbial clauses of time in order to express a future action. 1. The Romanian indicativ prezent is the translation both for the Present Tense Simple/ Progressive and the Present Perfect Simple and Progressive. prior to the one represented by a future tense in the main clause: We will paint the fence after we have had lunch.] e. The emphasis is on duration. so the Present Perfect denotes an incomplete period of time. The emphasis is on achievement. We are drinking beer now. FORM a. Compare the following sentences: We drink beer every evening. The action of washing the three shirts is completed. = Ei nu m-au văzut din1983. Affirmative [the present tense of the auxiliary ‘to have’ + the Past Participle of the auxiliary ‘be’+ the Present Participle of the main verb]: She/he/it has been working. b. f. = Bem bere de zece minute. = Suntem aici de la începutul spectacolului. but not the action of washing shirts because the day is not over.1.to introduce an action which will then be described in the simple past tense: Abi Titmussi has admitted she is smitten with hunky Lee Sharpe. THE PRESENT PERFECT PROGRESSIVE A.] My mother washed three shirts today. in adverbial clauses of condition: John will go home if his wife has cooked dinner. [washed = the Past Tense Simple. The curvy blonde revealed she has fallen head over heels for the ex-Manchester United Star. I/you/we/they have not/ haven’t been working c.shirts is completed. I/you/we/they have been working b. We will ring you as soon as/ after he has come back from work g.] My mother has been washing my brother’s shirts today. Negative: she/he/it has not/hasn't been working. and so it is the action of washing for today because the day is almost over. indicativ prezent: We’ve been here since the beginning of the show. in newspapers and broadcasts . [has been washing = the Present Perfect Progressive.= Bem bere în fiecare seară. Interrogative: has she/he/it been working? Have I/you/we/they been working? 225 . Ways of translating a. We have been drinking beer for ten minutes. perfect compus: They haven’t seen me since 1983. THEORETICAL CONSIDERATIONS I.

Who has been eating my dinner? [Some of my dinner is left. but for more permanent actions the simple forms are preferred: She has been living in my flat for the last month. [I can tell from your black eye. [the activity of knocking is still going on] It can be used with: .] c. The Present Perfect Progressive can be used without a duration such as for ten minutes.] Who has eaten my dinner? [All my dinner is gone. to show that the action is not completed. Ever since I was a child. to convey feelings of irritation. [Look.the Past Tense Simple.] She has been crying. smell. to suggest that one can see. It can be used with habits (recurrent events): She has been teaching this class since Christmas. [the activity of knocking stopped] Someone has been knocking at the door. Recently. or feel the results of an action that has recently stopped. She has been lying about her whereabouts lately. I have been living in the same house. I have been demanding an explanation for hours but nobody has yet dared to speak up. whereas used in the Simple Present Perfect describe rather one single instantaneous situation: Someone has knocked at the door. He doesn’t live in London anymore.II. this tense offers a more general meaning of lately in order to enhance this meaning.] d.My parents have lived in Bacău all their lives. . hear.Since and for . [lived . He lived in London for two years. and since morning. USES The Present Perfect Progressive is used: a.to express more temporary actions and situations. Without these precise durations. You have been fighting again. to show duration from the past until now. her eyes are red.non-durative activities (processes) used in the progressive get an iterative interpretation.] . b. we have been feeling rather tired with his haughtiness. 226 .the adverbs of time recently and lately. [they are still living in London] .Observe the use of the progressive aspect with how long and of the simple aspect with how many: How long have you been waiting for her? How many hours have you waited for her? .

I (visit) it two years ago. 5. 6. It's a long time ……. the end of last year. 3. 5. 2. indicativ prezent They have been widening the road for one week. …. She went shopping twice last week. She began wearing glasses a month ago. = Mănâncă de la ora 5. she's had nightmares every night. I (see) her when I (arrive) in the office. ……. They don't think much of him as a policeman: he hasn't caught a burglar ……… at least seven years. b. I've been feeling rather depressed. I (not/ have) any breakfast this morning and I (not/ have) time to go out for anything to eat this afternoon. The window got broken last week. (It’s the middle of the afternoon) I’m really hungry. you last quarrelled with anybody! 2. 3. 1. (It’s 10 o’clock in the morning) “(you/ see) Mrs Carter this morning?” “Yes. “Really? How long (you/ know) him?” “Oh. 4. 6. they came. 7. It seems like years ……. and once when I (be) a child”. 3. They went to the park once last week.] B. ten days ago. 7. It's a long time since we had diner at the Decebal. II. 8. the past ten days . It's over a month since I went to their place. 227 . “(you / ever/ visit) Switzerland?” “Yes. for quite a long time now”. perfect compus Who has been eating my cake? = Cine mi-a mâncat din prăjitură? Perfectul compus + adverbs to render the speaker's emotions: He's been drinking wine again! = Bineînţeles că iar a băut vin! [That is why he’s tired/ drunk. Ways of translating a. 1. It's years since we went to a movie. Complete the following sentences with for or since. = Lărgesc strada. 4. 9. ”I know Mr Robinson”. They have been eating since five o’clock. Elizabeth II became queen in 1952. Complete the conversations using the present perfect simple or the past simple of the verb in brackets. you cooked a really delicious meal. They began eating Chinese food several years ago. …… you brought me that dog my cat hasn't turned up yet. It's over a fortnight since he went to the barber's. at least two months. Petrol has become more and more expensive ….. 2. “ When (you/ first/ meet) him?” “I (meet) him at Christies eight years ago”. I (visit) it twice.III. 4. Give an alternative for the following sentences: 1. 8. III. EXERCISES I. We haven't seen a good film …. but she (go) out soon afterwards”. 10. in fact not … we went to see The Titanic together.

his leg last week and since then he …. She ought to give up smoking. I (know) it for ages! 4.’ ‘She (read) Shakespeare as a child?’ 2. It was a terrible earthquake a few minutes ago. Why you (be) so long in the garage? 9. They (walk) for three hours. . 4. twins.... I am sitting for my portrait … the last six months but the artist hasn't finished it yet. A) has breaked B) has broken C) broke D) breaked / A) lay B) has lain C) has been laying D) has been lying. A) bears B) has born C) has borne D) bore. so the match (be) postponed.. She (cough) a lot lately. he ever …. 2. 7. in bed. He (lie) under that nut-tree for ages. ‘How old is your sister?’ ‘She’s 20. 228 . just an egg on the straw of the stable. A) fell B) has fallen C) has falen D) felled 8. 5. V. how to play chess? A) does he ever knows B) has he ever known C) did you ever know D) does he ever know.. How long ….9. 10. 5. I ( pump) them up. eight. A) laid B) has lain C) lay D) has laid.. 9. Put the verbs in brackets into an appropriate tense: 1. They (walk) ten miles. Choose the correct variant: 1. It’s Sunday evening and he gave up calling her. You (walk). 7. in touch with my brother for three weeks. It (rain) for two hours and the ground is too wet to play on. It’s the first time in our family when a woman …. his fiancée four times this week... Since his wife died. 6.. A) has been grief-struck B) is grief-stricken C) has been grief-stricken D) was grief-stricken. VI. He's been sleeping soundly … ten hours! IV.. A) was B) don’t be C) haven’t been D) have been . You must wake him.. She (sleep) on every bed in this house and she doesn't like any of them. He …. 10. you…. your own house? A) did you paint B) do you paint C) have you been painting D) are you painting. so I …. 6... 8. Use the present perfect simple or progressive for the verbs in brackets: 1. That's why you are tired. 2. the police will start searching the thieves. He …. It’s three weeks since I last spoke with my brother.. he …. 10. He must have fallen asleep. The tyres were flat. The hen …. A) has called B) has been calling C) called D) is calling. After the clock …. A) will strike B) has been striking C) strikes D) has struck. 4. The tree in front of our house …. That's not new. You (read) ever Shakespeare in the original? 3. You (hear) the news? Cynthia and Paul are engaged! 3. 3. down with a sudden crash. …. He told me that his elder brother (dig) a hole for three hours in order to find the treasure.

But for three years. ’How long you (put up with) this chatterbox?’ ’Since I (get) married’.' 4. 10. She will be glad after her marriage (take) place. Since the legendary Prometheus first stole the fire of heaven. Already the sun’s energy is being put to limited use in homes and buildings around the world. 9.'Nu ştiu nimic. A muncit. 'De când nu se mai înţeleg?' 'De vreun an. 6. N-am băut cafea azi dimineaţă şi mă doare teribil capul. The table (lay) 20 minutes ago. sărăcuţa. pene şi frunze să-şi facă un cuib unde să clocească ouăle. dar de când se amenajează parcul parcă arată altfel. Ce fata harnică eşti! Ai terminat toată treaba aşa că te odihneşti acum. Niciodată n-am mai întâlnit un om aşa de generos ca el! 8. a panel of drug experts working for the US Food and Drug Administration has been analyzing the ingredients of these patent medicines to see if they really live up to their advertising. Translate into Romanian and identify the verbs underlined: 1. I’m quite upset. making a speech carries with it a certain glamour. (National Geographic) VIII. cred. toată ziua: a adunat beţişoare. but up to now he never (follow) it. The police (search) for it since then but no bomb (find) yet. 229 . you may think. Întreab-o pe Maria'. (Newsweek) 3. ’Why you (not help) yourselves?’. He always (ask) for my advice. ’That’s as easy as falling off a log’. Acest castel era nu de mult o ruină. 6. 9. 7.'Păi. He always (love) by women. To the uninitiated.' 10. 3. my mom asked. We (get) a phone call 15 minutes ago and a man (yell) that there (be) a bomb in our building. virtually all energy consumed by man has been fathered by the sun. Translate the following sentences into English: 1.5. 'De când se întâlnesc?' . ’Ce drum plin de gropi!' . se tot ceartă mereu. Îşi dau întâlniri pe holurile universităţii de când sunt în anul I. 8. (National Geographic) 4. cât mai am de lucru! 7. (National Geographic) 5. n-a mai fost reparat de vreo doi ani. 2. After having heard (you have heard) an expert. Nu mi-ai adresat nici un cuvânt de când am păşit pragul acestei case. VII. 5.(The Sunday Post) 2. pe când eu. but he still (have) a way of attracting the opposite sex. I (not know) what you (wait) for. He may be 50. The blame for this situation has been laid at the door of the current status and mood of society.

Negative [the Past Tense of the auxiliary have + not + Past Participle of the verb] I had not / I hadn’t forgotten c.“Cause-effect” use – the situation related to the point of reference relevant for the Past Perfect can be interpreted as the cause for the action expressed through a Past Tense (target verb). expectation. to express a past hope. USES a. having a resultative use] Mr. intention or desire that was not realised. THEORETICAL CONSIDERATIONS I. she had been a true-born French. and as soon as that introduce adverbial clauses of time. 230 . Woods had heard the news. FORM a. now that.1. Woods had heard the news. I didn’t reach the company until after Mr. c.1.7. thus showing a sequence of events. [event meaning. Pitt shouldn’t have sacked John. so I couldn’t read. Interrogative [the Past Tense of the auxiliary have + subject + Past Participle of the verb] Had I / hadn’t I forgotten? II.] When the events are presented in the order in which they happened. Affirmative [the Past Tense of the auxiliary have + Past Participle of the verb] I had forgotten/ I’d forgotten b. states or habits anterior to a time of orientation in the past: Even if she looked like an English girl. a Simple Past Tense is preferred for the target verb as well as for the verb showing the point of reference: Mary said some rather horrible things to me and I felt pretty upset. THE PAST PERFECT SIMPLE A. Mr. to express a past action that becomes the background for another action in the past. [state meaning] I had broken my glasses. to mean (= to intend)or to want We had hoped that you would be able to get that contract. to intend. I felt pretty upset because of the horrible things Mary had said to me. I had meant / intended to call on our bankers. after. Events. [habitual meaning in the past] . We can use it with the following conjunctions: when. he had worked a lot for this company. once. to expect. until. This use can be found in narrative texts. I reached the company after Mr. She had thought of paying us a visit but the bad weather made her change her plans. It is used with verbs such as to hope. b. but I was prevented from doing so. before. Woods (had) heard the news before I reached the company. [the effect of me being upset was caused by what Mary had said.

+ present participle of the verb]: I had been/ I’d had been waiting for Ann since two o’clock. 1. to show an activity or event. = A spus că-i va da o broşa de aur după ce se vor căsători.8. (IS) III. 231 . perfect compus/ mai-mult-ca-perfect: I knew Romeo but I hadn't seen him since my marriage. c. • In adverbial clauses of time introduced by restrictive adverbs such as hardly/ barely/ scarcely/ no sooner. we can say that something had been happening for a period of time before something else happened). Interrogative: Had he been/ hadn’t he been waiting for us? II. ‘I have already read the report’.She told me that she had already read the report. THE PAST PERFECT PROGRESSIVE A. (DS) .(IS) ‘They left the Stock Exchange a few months ago'.• In adverbial clauses of time in order to express a future action that takes place before another action expressed by a Future-in-the-Past: She told me1/ she would pay me a visit2/ after I had come back from the city3/. which had been in progress up to a past moment (in other words. [a habit in the past = recurrent event] Ken gave up smoking two years ago. d. b. THEORETICAL CONSIDERATIONS I. viitor: He said he would give her a gold brooch after they had got married. the past action is shown to be finished a little time before another past action. The Past Perfect is common in reported/ indirect speech to express a Present Perfect or a Past Tense from Direct Speech. FORM a. Woods had been working for 30 years when he finally retired in 1995. perfect simplu: He started the car after he had checked the engine. (DS) . c. b.I was told that they had left the Stock Exchange a few months before / earlier / previously. Negative: I had not been/ I hadn’t been waiting for you. Hardly / scarcely had I entered the door when the telephone rang. Affirmative [the past tense of to have + been – past participle .1. Mr. Ways of translating the Past Perfect Simple into Romanian a. He had been smoking for 17 years. USES The Past Perfect Progressive is used: a. = Şoferul porni maşina după ce verifică motorul. No sooner had the curtain fallen than they rose to go. Each adverb triggers inversion in the subordinate clause and it has a correlative in the main clause. = Îl cunoşteam pe Romeo dar nu l-am văzut/ nu-l văzusem de când m-am căsătorit.

(I.• To underline the continuity of a past action up to a past moment or just before it. They had been working since eleven o’clock. Ways of translating into Romanian a. = Conduceam de douăzeci de minute când am rămas fără benzină. mai-mult-ca-perfect/ perfect compus/ perfect simplu (in narrative texts): Mr. [This emotional use is rendered in Romanian by placing the adverb of time at the beginning of the sentence. 232 . imperfect: I had been driving for twenty minutes when I ran out of petrol.S) .S).S)Ann explained to her friend that that she had been reading a novel at six o’clock.The children explained to their teacher that they had been taking English courses for two years. (I. [the result is his blue eye]. they explained to their teacher. = Ore întregi am încercat să-l prind la telefon pe clientul nostru în Baghdad. (I. It does not express a frequently repeated situation (habit meaning) in the past. c. b. to show that the effect of the action is still apparent. in Indirect Speech. (D. we might sense a tone of irritation] d. I had been trying for hours to get our customer in Baghdad on the phone. c. to convey the speaker’s emotions of irritation .She was asked whether she had been crying. She told me that her son had been fighting. as the two sentences above:: I had been waiting for her for half an hour when she finally arrived. Ann told to her friend. in order to express a Past Tense Progressive or a Present Perfect Progressive from Direct Speech: ‘I was reading a novel at six o’clock yesterday’. [besides the meaning of an action that seems to have been happening for a long time. (D. perfect compus (for the emotional use): I had been trying for hours to get our customer in Baghdad on the phone. Woods had been working for 30 years when he finally retired in 1995. b. = Domnul Woods lucrase/ a lucrat/ lucră timp de 30 de ani când în cele din urmă s-a pensionat/ se pensionă în 1995. prezent: She said she had been waiting for her friend for half an hour.S) III. = A spus că o aşteaptă pe prietena ei de o jumătate de oră.] d.S) ‘We have been taking English classes for two years’.S) “Have you been crying?” (D.

4. Henry came home from work early. 8. Use the verb given in brackets. Yesterday. He came home very late. He wasn’t very good at it because it was his first game. They (say) heavy industry (pollute) our rivers with noxious chemicals for ages. 1. 10. She was a complete stranger to me. Maggie took a hot bath because …………. 6. Starting from the information given. Ann boasted that her boss …………. Mary came top in the final examination. top in the final exam. When (you/be) in this house last? 4. Mary (discover) an addiction to housework which she (never/feel) before. 1. 2.… 3. Her father bought her a car as a reward. I (realise) someone (use) my camera because there were finger marks on the lens.. (be) We ………… 233 . Patrick went to the disco. 3. When (you/meet) the company accountant? 3. in the garden all afternoon. for it for hours. Henry’s family were very impressed to discover that he ………. Maggie worked in the garden all afternoon. 2. Read the situations and write sentences ending with BEFORE.B. Mary’s father bought her a car because she …………. It was his first flight. 9. very hard all morning. her an extra half hour for lunch because she …. EXERCISES I. He cooked lunch. 6. 7. I lost my watch. about him all evening. We (try) to find new services which (be) sophisticated and (have) added value. She boasted about it. II. 5. I was very pleased when my son found my watch because we ……. Put the verbs in brackets into a suitable past tense (Past Tense or Past Perfect): 1. Ann worked very hard all morning. His mother was worried and she told him off when he got in. complete each sentence with a suitable verb in the Past Perfect Simple or Progressive. He (always / look) so young. We had looked for it for hours. (fly) He ………… 2. His family were very impressed. They (have) no money because they (spend) everything on duty free whisky. Simon played tennis yesterday. Last year we went to Denmark. I (look) everywhere for ideas since I failed to hand in that project. Her boss gave her an extra half hour for lunch. III. A woman walked into the room. Patrick’s mother told him off when he came home late because she …………. at the party he (feel) out of place in your suit and tie. 5. (play) He ………… 4. I was very pleased when my son found it. lunch when he came home from work early. (see) I …………. It was our first time there. Then she took a hot bath.. The man sitting next to me on the plane was very nervous. but he (seem) to have aged in the last weeks.

.. 2.. .b) had visited/ the c) visited/ . Mary’s aunt………. William. Fill in the blank spaces using the verbs in the brackets and paying attention to the sequence of events in order to get meaningful events. never a princess in the flesh. he has cuts on his legs..5... The train had left before we got to the station. (to be. a) have visited/ . (sign) They .to my girl friend her sister……………my letters. to be. to reply) 5. (to come back. We arrived at work in the morning and found that somebody …………. So we ……….. It was their first contract.. a) had fallen over b) has been falling over c) has fallen over d) fell over 6. He …….. After eight years I………………that all the time I…………….. I had no sooner……… 3. “I’d like to say sorry I missed your wedding”. to find.. By the time we got home.. Joan said.. many times but they …. I tried to phone Mr.. We……………. The police officers…………….. Richards this morning but …. a) saw b) was seeing c) hasn’t seen d) has seen 7. a) discovered/ was writing/ had read b) had discovered/ had written/ had been reading c) discovered/ had been writing/ had been reading d) had discovered/ had been writing/ had been reading 3.. very surprised. Choose the best alternative to complete each sentence: 1.. IV.. Look. He ……. my husband in there who ……….. To my surprise I ……. I met Mary as soon as I left home.. a) have seen b) was seeing c) saw d) had seen VI. Last year when I was in France. the assistant marketing manager the previous month. (to break into. no answer... I arrived at the company for an interview at 12. a) left b) has left c) will have left d) had left 4. He . a French princess in the flesh. By the time………… 234 . 1.. to wait) V.Netherlands last summer... He . to write. He …. (to apply.. Rewrite each sentence beginning as shown: 1. to go out) 3. just ….already……….30 as I ……. They concluded a contract two weeks ago. the office during the night. a) was looking b) has been looking c) had been looking d)are looking 5..... He …. a lot during the football match. It’s over a year since anyone .. He …. (to get... to look) 4...d) visited/ the 2. Yesterday Kevin ……….. I . I met Jim a few days ago. I caught flu as soon as I had recovered from measles..... but he hopes that he will have the chance one day.. to call) 2. I had hardly…………… 4.for the thieves for two days when they found them near the village. a) has spoken withb) spoke with c) had spoken d) has been speaking with 8.. John apologised……….

. Proiectantul facuse patru schite inainte de a se apuca de proiect.. Baiatul arata ca asi cum nu s-ar fi spalat niciodata pe maini. The telephone rang for almost a minute when I got into the room. The minute he entered. 6. Din pacate. Am verificat preturile mai multor companii occidentale inainte de a incepe sa importam aceste video-recordere din Singapore. 3. ca am mancat florile pana sa vina chelnerul. 4.7. a horrible idea had stricken me. I haven’t played football for two weeks: It’s two weeks …………… VII. Intrunirea tocmai incepuse cand am intrat. In ianuarie am obtinut rezultate mai bune decat se asteptase oricine. 235 . 10. 2. He……………… 5. They got on the train and immediately it left. 8. 9.. 7. No sooner…………. Isi vopsise parul. I realised my mistake after I’d handed in the test. I just got into bed when somebody knock at the door. Correct the following mistakes: 1. 4. Mi-era asa de foame. 5. The train left before I arrived. I didn’t realise my mistake until………. vasul s-a scufundat inainte ca elicopterul sa ajunga la locul dezastrului. Familia Miller a locuit in casa aceea treizeci de ani. Nu-i de mirare ca nu am recunoscut-o ieri pe Judith. 5. Scarcely Sandra had come in than she started work. Why did you left when he call on you? 8. Translate into English: 1. 7. 8. 6. Alice had no sooner sung a song than she began another. 3. De cat timp se cunosteau cand Tina s-a casatorit cu Robert? 10. How long they go out together when they finally get married? 9. 6. Hardly………………. The car changed its direction when it hit the tree. The man sitting next to me on the plane was very nervous because it was his first flight. Almost all the guests left by the time we had arrived. I was wondering why nobody hadn’t answered it. 2. The grass was wet because it had raining all day yesterday. VIII. pana cand a distrus-o un cutremur. 7.

in a day/ week/ month/ year .” 236 . Be due to + the infinitive of the verb II. FORMS AND PATTERNS USED TO TALK ABOUT A FUTURE EVENT a.9.” “It’ll be Mary’s daughter.1. • BE GOING TO + INFINITIVE: Look at Jane. Future Perfect [Will/ shall + have + past participle of the verb] They will have brought up the furniture by then. is rendered by means of modal auxiliaries/ semi-auxiliaries and other linguistic patterns that contain future meaning. Be to + the infinitive of the verb i. in spring) whose future interpretation depends on the context. [the prediction is the following: this time next year. e. next/ week/ month/ year. there are certain adverbials that place an event/ state on the axis of future: . Future Simple [Will/ shall + Infinitive] They will confess their crime. She will arrive tomorrow. She’s going to have a baby. Future Progressive/ Continuous [Will/ shall +Progressive infinitive = be + Ving] This time next month we will be visiting the Louvre museum. c. THEORETICAL CONSIDERATIONS In Modern English futurity is closely interrelated with modality. Besides the different tenses expressing futurity (discussed in the other chapters). d. Be on the point / verge of + gerund k. futurity. b. Predictions: • FUTURE SIMPLE: Jane will still be in Paris in five months. That is why there is no future tense proper in English. the activity of teaching English is in progress.explicitly future time adverbials: tomorrow. I. on Monday. Be going to + Infinitive f. Simple Present h. Instead. THE FUTURE AND FUTURITY A. USES The above forms and patterns are used to express the following concepts and types of future events: a. Be about to + the infinitive of the verb j.unanchored adverbials (in May. in the sense of a specific form the verb takes to “signal” futurity. Present Progressive/ Continuous g.] • a present event ( FUTURE SIMPLE):“Someone is shouting. Future Perfect Progressive / Continuous [Will/ shall + have been + the present participle of the verb] He will have been driving the same truck for two years in September. Look out! That brick is going to fall! • a temporary event going on at a future reference time (FUTURE PROGRESSIVE): This time next year I’ll be teaching English. intermingle with modality or aspect.1.

• an event the speaker expects to be completed by a particular future reference time (FUTURE PERFECT): They’ll have filled in the application by the time you arrive. within the next. • official arrangements. [we generally use adverbs such as: by then. He’s on the point of falling asleep. • an event arranged by external factors (SIMPLE PRESENT ): Mary works in the marketing department next week. b. [the decision was taken by the manager. f. I’ll lend you some. soon. Formal commands and instructions (BE TO + INFINITIVE): You are not to go to the library this week. Arrangements • personal arrangement for the near future (PRESENT PROGRESSIVE): I’m seeing my dentist tomorrow. • BE DUE TO + INFINITIVE (timetable may change) The show is due to start at 8 p.) • PRESENT SIMPLE The plain takes off at 7 p.. • BE GOING TO + INFINITIVE Look at that old lady! She’s going to fall! 237 . d. hour/ week] • a future event which is probable/ improbable to happen (BE LIKELY/ UNLIKELY TO + INFINITIVE): He’s likely to run out of petrol. Don’t worry. but the rain may delay it. She is on the verge of bursting into tears. An event that is about to happen • BE ABOUT TO + INFINITIVE Hurry up. it refers to institutions or things whose going-on is scheduled by an external authority. premeditated (BE GOING TO + INFINITIVE): What are you going to do today? I’m going to lie in bed all day.m. He’s (just) about to get on the bus. • BE ON THE POINT OF / ON THE VERGE OF + V-ing Don’t disturb him now.m. • that have already been decided on before the speech event. Intentions and decisions • made during the speech event (WILL + INFINITIVE): I’ve run out of money. Timetabled events (the subject is not human. tomorrow. c.m. e. who is an exterior authority] • a polite way of refusing an invitation or asking about someone’s arrangements (FUTURE PROGRESSIVE):Your birthday? I’m really sorry. But I’ll be sitting for the English exam on Saturday. when the event cannot be changed (BE TO + INFINITIVE): All the students are to be present in the schoolyard at 5 p.

involving a sequence of events I hope you’ll water the whole garden.g. (future) I hoped you would water the whole garden. • determination. m. l. I’ll do it for you. whatever your sister says. He won’t come. involving a sequence of events I think you’ll be selling furniture in two week’s time. j. (future) 238 . Willingness. habitual future events • the speaker sees a future event as certain because it is part of a routine (FUTURE PROGRESSIVE): We’ll be having our monthly meeting on Thursday.00 tomorrow morning. Orders / Instructions (formal documents) You will/shall keep an eye on the students till they finish their papers. In order to do that. Requests Will you give me a hand? [to be more polite use would you] (informal) Give me a hand. • the speaker makes a statement of fact about a future event (WILL + INFINITIVE) The sun will rise at 6. My secretary will take care of you. we transfer the forms with future meaning in the past: • would + infinitive : in reported speech. Offers (WILL/SHALL/WON’T + INFINITIVE) Sit down. Boys will be boys. (will is stressed) • refusal to do something (WON’T / SHAN’T + INFINITIVE) Believe me. Future in the Past (FIP) There are situations in which we have to express a future event from a viewpoint in the past. involving a sequence of events They will have sold all the goods by Monday. refusal • subject’s willingness to do something (WILL + INFINITVE) He’ll do anything for money. Promises (WILL + INFINITIVE) Don’t worry. Each animal shall be confined in a container. (future) I thought you’d be selling furniture in two week’s time. (FIP) • would + progressive infinitive (future progressive): in reported speech. h. will you? (insistent request) k. (FIP) • would + have + past participle (future perfect in the past): in reported speech. characteristic behavior (WILL + INFINITIVE) His elder sister will always be the first to leave the party. insistence (WILL + INFINITIVE) I wìll date him. Routine. Shall I do it for you? Will you have another helping? i. • habits.

It’s eight. 10. Hurry up! The train (leave) in a minute. She told me she (see) the doctor at five p. = E gata sã plece/ E pe punctul de a pleca Don’t bother. II. Ways of translating future a. 6. He is about to leave/ on the point of leaving. Are you going to make all the arrangements? 6. They (play) some Beethoven next. = Voi termina/ voi fi terminat…pânã la… c. Put the verbs in brackets into an appropriate tense: 1. Peter (call) for you at nine. Are you going to creep up the stairs? 239 .I was sure they would have sold the all the goods by Monday. b. = Trenul pentru Paris pleacã la 6. Are you going to come by air? 9. I’ ll be helping him tomorrow. Replace be going to by will / shall + be + V-ing (future progressive) and show the differences in meaning (mention whether they are interchangeable): 1. Are you going to spend your money in a hotel? 4. = Va accepta…dacã îi voi spune/ îi spun… d. Are you going to take it with you? 3. prezent/ viitor (in main clauses) The train for Paris leaves at 6. I’ll drive you. 3. Are you going to sleep in the armchair? 2. viitor anterior/ viitor (in adverbial clauses of time) The children will play…after they have finished…[…se vor juca…dupã ce vor fi terminat / vor termina…] B.m. viitor/ viitor anterior (in main clauses) I’ll have finished …by six pm. = Îl voi intâlni/ Intenţionez/ Am de gând sã-l intâlnesc pe Tom. 9. 7. I (take) my parents to the ballet tomorrow. (FIP) III. I’m going to meet Tom. 5. = Mâine il ajut. Are you going to sing at the concert tonight? 8. 8. = …Te duc/ voi duce eu. EXERCISES I. How you (get) to the party tomorrow? 2. Are you going to tell him the truth? 5. We (meet) him at the airport at five. viitor/ prezent (in direct object clauses and adverbial clauses of condition and time) He said he would be back… = A spus cã se va întoarce He will accept the proposal if I tell him the truth. Are you going to discuss the matter with your mates? 7. 4. the day after tomorrow. My friend (sit) for an exam on Monday. He (sing) in Paris next week. We (leave) as soon as it (cease) raining.

What (offer) your daughter for her graduation? 9. ‘There’s someone at the door. You (tell) me the whole story? 9. Choose the correct form of the verb: 1. then strain it into a clean jug. In three days’ time I (fly) over the Atlantic ocean. 7. Put the verbs in brackets into the going to form and make a context for each sentence: 1. ‘That (be) Mr. How much you (give) me for this book? IV. 6. If this terrible heat (not come) to an end we’ll suffer from hunger next year. V. It (snow). I think I (buy) it. 8. This device is cheap and useful. 2. Now what I (do) next? 8. a) is b) will have visited c) will be d) has visited 4. John said he would give me a ring as soon as he … Paris. By the end of the year all our debts … .” a) will have decorated b) will be decorating c) will decorate d) am going to decorate 240 . a) will have been paid off b) will be paid off c) will be being paid off d) are paid off 5. Brown. the governor. “Couldn't they stay in your spare room at Easter?” “Yes. wait till the grounds …. I (plant) an oak tree here. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct tense (present. All right. What your teacher (do) with that big dictionary? 6. I’ve put the spare part where you told me. I’ll wait for her in the restaurant till the clock (strike) four. It's no use phoning Irene at the office. I (give) you one of these pills. When we (provide) all the facilities we’ll speak about leaving the country. 3. I … it by then. If you accept the bargain you (have) to pay for it. What (you do) this weekend? I was thinking of visiting the international exhibition of furniture. a) will settle b) settle c) are settling d) have settled 2. 10. 4. 5. He visits a new country every year. 10. When the gardener (water) the flowers? Model: When is the gardener going to water the garden? Context: He should have done it two days ago. Pour boiling water on the coffee grounds. she … a) will be leaving b) is leaving c) will have left d) will left 6. when I told him to.10. Are you going to take your medicine? III. Look at the sky. 2. 3. a) reaches b) reached c) will reach d) will be reaching 3. present perfect. future): 1. 7. The petrol tank (explode). This airplane (crash) 4. Ann (miss) her bus. 5. By the time he … fifty he …all the countries in the world.

” a) will be getting b) will get c) get d) will have got 8.7. The aircraft is on the point of landing. have 7. I’m bound to work here till the end of my life. She can't come to the beach with us because she … an exam on Sunday. Use the word or phrase given so that the meaning stays the same Example: The result of our appeal against the parking fine should arrive in the post tomorrow. 1. The members of the crew have planned to leave the ship tomorrow. If he isn’t ill you’ll find him playing tennis in the court. (discovering) 4. “Your hair is getting terribly long. be 10. He will recognize her at once when he … her. (due) . the tunnel … next year. Scientists in the human genome project feel that they are about to discover the secret of life. Turn that music down! It’s so loud that it’ll definitely wake all the neighbors. unless 4. Do not change the word in any way: 1. His fate is to become a great singer. (impending) 241 . What time is the train for Paris? leave Model: What time does the train for Paris leave? 2. Everyone in the village lived in fear of the volcanic eruption. Do not disturb the chimpanzees during feeding time. (bound) 3. It is probable that the road-sweeping contract will be withdrawn from Dustbugs. What does your boy friend intend to do? going 3. (likely to) 6. You can be sure that at the end of the school the car will be in front of the house. a) will be finished b) will have been finished c) is finishing d) finishes VI. won’t 8. start VII.” “Don't worry. The show will start in half an hour. a) will see b) sees c) will be seeing d) is seeing 10. I… it cut on Wednesday. leave 5. According to the latest forecast. His wife is pregnant again. Rephrase each sentence so that it contains the word in capitals. have 9.The result of our appeal against the parking fine is due tomorrow. about 6. Will you promise that you won’t get drunk again tonight? (not to) 5. a) will be taking b) will take c) will have taken d) takes 9. which was imminent. (disturbed) 2.

3. (envisages) 8. The store is going to close in five minutes. (is) VIII. it must be adequately funded. Translate into English: 1. (about) 10. Il voi ajuta după ce îmi va spune cum s-au petrecut lucrurile. eu voi fi terminat deja facultatea. el va fi terminat romanul. 5. Ne ameninţă că o să ne dea pe toţi afară pentru că susţinea el că nu suntem buni de nimic. o va cumpãra. Când vei ajunge tu student. The designer believes that he will he be able to finish the specifications by tomorrow afternoon. Tu nu vezi? O să plouă cu găleata. Nu credeam cã la ora aceea tu vei mai cânta la pian. Please make your purchases and proceed to a check out. Până să începi tu nuvela. If we want medical research to provide cures for all known diseases. 10. 2. 7. I really don’t think that the examiner will accept a handwritten script these days. Dacã Irina va gãsi cartea. 242 . 4. 9. 6. Nu te culca înainte de a-ţi lua medicamentul. Unde mâncãm în seara asta? La bunica? 8. (unlikely to) 9.7. Cu siguranţă o să încerce să vă facă să credeţi că e nevinovat.

dare to. CAN FORM a. or whether a course of action is recommended or allowed. shall/should. Interrogative: can + subject + infinitive USES a. Jane can’t have taken your money. necessary. possible. (in my opinion it’s impossible) d. may/might. Interrogative: could + subject + infinitive 243 . for example to indicate how certain. can is used: • to make suggestions • to offer to do something or to make polite requests by either asking people to do things or asking for things.must. b.) They are used to add meaning to a main verb. What can I do around here? Hello Paul. Affirmative: could b. MODALS AND SEMI-MODALS A.1. THEORETICAL CONSIDERATIONS I. Negative: cannot. one semimodal which is frequently used is have (got)to. In questions. Affirmative: can b.1. or how frequently something happens. Can expresses permission Can he stay a little longer? They can’t have lunch at 12. probable.Negative: could not. Can expresses negative deduction: Jane can’t be working so long. MODALS There are nine central modals in English. However. couldn’t (used only in spoken and informal written English) c. can’t (used only in spoken and informal written English) c. in conversation.10. Can/ could. Jane can’t have much experience in teaching. Can expresses ability (can=be able to) • physical power/capacity: Can you lift this piece of furniture? • knowledge/skill: Can they solve this problem? • circumstances: Can Susan come to our meeting on Wednesday? ( it may be paraphrased by be in position to: Is Susan free to do so? Is Susan in a position to do so? c. ought to are marginal modals. will/would Note: Need to. What can we do for you? COULD FORM a. (Other terms used for them are ‘modal verbs’ and ‘modal auxiliaries’ and ‘modal auxiliary verbs’. obligatory something is.

In conversation. (It’s out of the question) The patterns could + bare infinitive and could + have + past participle are used to talk about possibility in the past. Couldn’t as an extinction of can be used in not-so-polite requests. you may not!’ b. May not indicates that someone is not allowed to do something (=prohibition). . Mary couldn’t be happier. MAY FORM a. usually because of a rule or law. This second use is chiefly limited to quick responses to ‘may’. Interrogative: may + subject + infinitive USES a. you may.Negative: may not c. ‘There’s someone at the door. Couldn’t you (wouldn’t it be possible for you to) give me your phone number? Could not and couldn’t are used with comparatives to emphasize that someone or something has as much as is possible of a particular quality (possibility or impossibility).’ d. I remember how it could snow in the mountains even in summer. (if I want) Couldn’t he fiind a better job? (if he wanted) c. e. May expresses possibility in the present and in the future: Don’t phone at 9. ‘Where’s Peter?’ ‘He could be in the study. Any two persons may marry in Scotland provided that both persons are at least 16 years of age on the day of their marriage. May expresses (a) asking for permission as well as in (b) granting permission. Could expresses condition: I could buy you a book.’ ‘You could have left them in your office. ‘I can’t find my keys anywhere.30. Could expresses ability (be able to) Tom could run ten miles when he was young. May I have a look at your newspaper? ‘Could I make a suggestion?’ ‘Of course. ‘’May I join your trip?’ ‘No.’ ‘It may be Peter. (=Mary is very happy indeed) The news couldn’t have come at a better time.’ (=Perhaps he is in the study) Note: with could in this use the degree of possibility is less sure than with ‘may’ or ‘might’. an action which is not performed: He could have helped you (but he didn’t) ii. I may be watching the documentary film on television. could is used to mark a present or future possibility.USES a. Excuse me. an action which in our opinion has not taken place She couldn’t have overslept (it my opinion it isn’t possible) They couldn’t have waited for two hours.’ (=Perhaps it is Peter) 244 . Could have done expresses: i. (=was able to) b. Affirmative: may b.’ May also indicates that someone is allowed to do something or has the choice of doing something.

We can use might + have + past participle to talk about possibility in the past. asking a question or introducing what the speaker is going to say next.’ (=Perhaps she missed / had missed her train). making a suggestion. In formal spoken English. We aren’t sure what we are going to do next weekend. And may we offer you something to drink? May I come with you to the conference? e. ‘Betsy is late’. It is similar to could. May/might+have+Past Participle expresses posibility about a past action: The events may or may not have been connected. 245 . mightn’t (used only in spoken and informal written English) c. might is used to talk about present or future possibility. when used as a polite way of interrupting someone. We might go in the mountains. might is used to make a suggestion or to give advice in a very polite way. may is also used as a polite way of interrupting someone. I may go to Greece. For offers and polite requests: May we recommended a weekend on the Black Sea Coast? Do sit down. Interrogative might + subject + infinitive USES a. You know. Might can be used to ask for permission in a less direct way. d. (Perhaps I will go to Greece) c. or introducing what the speaker is going to say next. may I just ask you one other thing? f. In conversation. In conversation. MIGHT FORM a. Might I make a suggestion? Might I ask what you’re doing here? b.Might (not) + have + past participle is used to express uncertainty I suppose I might have been rather critical. whatever you may think. Might + have + past participle is used to express annoyance at someone’s failure to do something (See similar pattern with ‘could’ in this emphatical use of expressing the speaker’s annoyance) You might have told me before! f. I work hard for a living.I haven’t decided yet where to spend my holidays. asking a question. (it’s possible that they were connected) The chaos may have contributed to the deaths of up to 20 people.) c. Affirmative: might b. (it’s possible that it has contributed) d. They might not have received our message yet. May is used when the speaker is mentioning the reaction or attitude that he/she thinks someone is likely to have to something he/she is about to say.’ John said. Anyway. ‘If I may interrupt for a moment.Negative: might not. (=Perhaps we will go to the mountains. ‘She might have missed her train. e. Brian.

I might say. e. your must/’ll have to buy some more when you get there.’ ‘You must be joking!’ I really must be quite mad! 246 . (=I’m sure she was rich) d. Must + bare infinitive refers to the speaker’s certainty about a present action.Negative form: must must not. f. g. You must visit me. depending on whether the speaker feels that the obligation comes from herself-himself or from elsewhere. Affirmative form: b. h. Ann’s mum must not care. I see you’re got only three decent shirts. g. It might be a good idea to tell your husband. This must be a very difficult job for you. MUST FORM a. b. Must is used to make suggestions or invitations very forcefully. I’ve got to be there before 2. You must be very worried by now. You must be cold. Must is used in remarks and comments where the speaker is expressing sympathy. (British English) Sometimes the context allows the use of either must or have to. I have to be there before 2. It’s not very warm and you’re not wearing a coat. Must/have to/have got to express obligation: (trebuie) I must be there before 2. Must in conversation is used most of the time to mark logical necessity. not always for the best motives. mustn’t (used only in spoken and informal written English) c. I might add. I didn’t come as a great surprise to me. Relatives ring up constantly. Interrogative form: must + subject + infinitive USES a. Must expresses deduction: She must be rich (=I’m sure she is rich) The past form of this construction is: She must have been rich when she was young. (=I am sure that you are cold). Must is used in exclamations to express surprise or shock.They might be wise to stop advertising on television. Come to dinner. Your feet must feel wet now. Might is used in idiomatic expressions such as I might add and I might say in order to emphasize a statement that the speaker is making. Now I must/have (got) to get your clothes ready for packing. You must see the painting George has given me as a wedding present. i. Must expresses the speaker’s intention to do something I must be getting back. Must not expresses prohibition: (nu trebuie) You must not come late to lectures c. ‘Go! Please go.

Interrogative:will + subject + infinitive USES a.You must have gone out of your mind! SHALL FORM a. will is commonly used to mark logical prediction as well as personal volition (and prediction of one’s own future actions). (Note that shall is associated with I and we in questions. Interrogative:shall + subject + infinitive? USES a. won’t (only in spoken English and informal written English) c. Affirmative: shall b. I shall definitely help him to finish his work. Art thieves will often hide an important work for years after it has been stolen. I shall try to show that our political practices accept integrity as a distinct virtue (academic prose) b. She’ll always help people if she can. In conversation. e. In conversation. 247 . will you? (Would can be used as a less definite. Affirmative: will b. important though they are.Negative: will not. Shall can be used with all persons to emphasize something which the speaker feels is certain to happen or wants to happen. Will expresses prediction of events or states not involving personal agents. b. He will be devoting more time to writing. Will marking assumption It won’t be that difficult to do. shall is typically used as a volitional modal in questions acting as offers or suggestions. Will you drive me home? Wipe the jam off my mouth. I won’t be here early enough to show you before school. Will is used in questions in order to make polite invitations or offers Will you stay for dinner? Won’t you sit down? d. I will say no more on these matters. Will (related to the present) refers to activities or events that are repeated and which we notice. more polite form of will in this meaning. such as people’s habits or characteristics of things Kate is very kind.Negative: shall not c. broadcasting and lecturing. Will is also used in questions in order to ask or tell someone to do something (volition). (conversation). see would in this use). c.) Shall we post this letter for you? Shall we play tennis tomorrow? WILL FORM a.

) This restaurant* should really be very expensive. The meaning is past of hypothetical. Should and ought to are very similar in meaning.Negative: should not. ‘d (in spoken and informal written english often abbreviated) b. People* should let one know before failing to keep an appointment. Affirmative: should (note that should as a modal is never contracted to ‘d.Negative: would not. b. (duty) 248 . but we often prefer ought to to talk about authority which comes from outside the speaker e. Should is used for duty and advisability. 2. (but it didn’t) 3. (if we asked them) SHOULD FORM a. offers or requests: Would you like a drink? Would you prefer to stay in or go out this evening? d. Would not may expresses refusal in the past. It may also express refusal in inanimate objects. I would just read the book as well.g. Should is related to expectation (Where* should appears. I knew Trevor wouldn’t come with me.Would is used in questions in order to make polite invitations. Nobody would agree with that idea. Would is used in sentences expressing certainty. WOULD FORM a. Would expresses prediction. c. wouldn’t (used only in spoken and informal written English) c.In the Western Isles it’ll rain for days on end. e. Interrogative: should + subject + infinitive USES a. from laws. of events or states not involving personal agents. unlike conditional ‘should’) b. Would marking assumption She would just feel better if she went out. Affirmative: would. ought to is also possible. shouldn’t (used only in spoken and informal written English) c. Should + have + past participle is used to refer to something which was supposed to happen. It should have rained. Cheap money would have the same effect by increasing private investment. Interrogative: would + subject + infinitive USES a. where the sentence is a suppressed conditional sentence. The paint wouldn’t stick to the wallpaper.

(It’s not necessary-according to the speaker) You don’t need to do it now. (My parents insist. (The speaker’s questions involve a degree of uncertainty) Should I or shouldn’t I go to university? What should I do? Should we tell her about it? 6. needn’t . HAVE TO FORM a. Have to expresses the ‘external’ obligation that has its origin in circumstance (necessity) or in a person other than the speaker or writer. should can be used to express a strong obligation politely.) 249 . (but he did) Nu era nevoie sa ia un taxi. (It’s not necessary-external circumstances do not require the action to be performed) Interrogative forms are the following: Need I go there? No.I think you* should check to see if our Austrian partners are coming (advisability) 4. Interrogative: does/do/did + subject + have to+infinitive? USES a. or information. b. c.do/does/did not need to. (but I did) Nu era nevoie sa astept. In conversation. permission. They didn’t need to do anything (And so they didn’t do anything) N-a fost nevoie ca ei sa faca ceva. he does/No. you needn’t. do/does/did+ subject + need to+ infinitive USES a. NEED FORM a.. Does he need to go there? Yes. Interrogative:need + subject + infinitive. Should + have + past participle is used to express the non-fulfilment of a duty. I have to be home by 10 o’clock. he doesn’t. you must. Affirmative: need b. Affirmative: has/have/had to b. don’t/doesn’t/didn’t need to c. needn’t/don’t need to express absence of obligation You needn’t do it now.Negative: need not. didn’t need to expresses absence of obligation in the past: I didn’t need to wait (And so I didn’t wait) N-a fost nevoie sa astept. needn’t +have+ Past Participle expresses an unnecessary action which was performed: I needn’t have waited. In writing. They* should have let us know that they weren’t coming. Yes. Guests should vacate their rooms by midday. 5.Negative: doesn’t/don’t/didn’t have to c. in questions should is used when the speaker is asking someone for advice. He needn’t have taken a taxi.

be meant to.’ II. Note: that we always use had (not ‘have’) with better in this structure. b.We have to drive on the left in Britain. and is stronger than should or ought to. not have got to.) Note: that have to is used to replace must where the modal does not have corresponding forms. I don’t have to leave for another conference. but the meaning is present or future.) We had to go to Germany. d.be going to. c. Interrogative: had+S+better+inginitive? USES a.had best. we normally use had to. often). ‚d better b. be bound to.be unable to. not past. There are a number of fixed idiomatic phrases with functions similar to those of modals. it’s easy to change money when you get there.be liable to.had better. I’ve got to work late this evening. (That is the law. would sooner. be supposed. would just as soon. (Note: needn’t have is used when the speaker did do something although it was not necessary. Have to + bare infinitive refers to a past obligation. It’s going to be cold tonight. We’d better turn on the heating. Negative: had better not c. I’d better iron my shirt. especially when we use one word adverb of frequency (always. b. We normally use have to. would rathe. Don’t have to and won’t have to are used to express absence of obligation in the present and future. HAD BETTER FORM a.’ ‘Yes. Affirmative: had better. I’m going to an interview tomorrow. Had better often suggests a kind of threat or warning. ‘The last time you went you took Hong Kong dollars with you. e.be sure to. Had better + bare infinitive expresses a strong recommendation in a particular situation. but I needn’t have. I hope the plane leaves on time and that I won’t have to wait at the airport. I always have to work late on Tuesdays evenings.) They didn’t have to pay tax.would do well to. 250 . (Note: have got to is not used to talk about the past. Didn’t have to expresses the absence of obligation in the past when the speaker did not do anything because it was not necessary. be able to. for things that happen repeatedly.

It’s possible to fool all the people some of the time and some of the people all the time. I was able to speak German quite well as a child.B. c. 1. (she/ understand/ what I said) ………… 3. 1. (he/ watch/ TV/ in his room)………. I was woken up in the middle of the night by the noise next door. They were able to work together very efficiently. 7. 3. III. It was impossible for anyone to get in because no one knew the password. (you/ leave/ in the office)………. ‘Would you allow me to make one small suggestion?’ she said. Do you know where he is? 1. 2. Have you seen it? 1. 2. Read the situations and make sentences from the words in brackets. 9. 1. Read the situations and use the words in brackets to write sentences with must have and can’t have. ………… 4. I can’t find my umbrella. 2. Why didn’t Tim answer the phone? I’m sure he was in the house at the time. his famous saying. Mr. 8. (she/ play/ tennis)………. 10. 5. Replace the words in italics with a construction using a modal verb related to ability/ inability. II. not one). When he woke up this morning. but it’s impossible to fool all the people all of the time. I’m looking for Bob. I wonder where she is. permission/ prohibition or possibility/ impossibility. Later. d. (Abraham Lincoln in this. Ben passed the exam without studying for it. (they / listen/ to our conversation). They knew everything about our plans. (the neighbours/ have/ a party) …………. Fiona did the opposite of what I asked her to do. 1. at a news conference. I can’t find Helen anywhere. the light was on. a. (he/ be/ in the bath)………. 4. Did you hear that sharp noise? I think it’s possible that one of the book shelves has broken in the study next door. The children are not allowed to watch violent TV programmes. (she/ go/ shopping)………. (he/ forget/ to turn it off) ………… 251 . The company say they’re able to keep pricing competitive. Peel was able to convince the competition that it would be possible for them to become partners in that huge long-term project. Would you allow me to use your laptop computer for a moment? It’s possible that my computer has a bug in the software. used you. (she/go/ out )………. (he/ not/ hear/ the telephone)………. b. Use may or might. (it/ be/ in the car)………. 6. ………… 3. EXERCISES I. (the exam/ very difficult). 2. 2. 2.

She arrives early because she wants to. work. Karen … on Sundays. go.5. cook. climb. 10. You … have typed this – a handwritten note would have been quite adequate. 6. shave. 5. The lights were red but the car didn’t stop. Sue … at work so early. 11. What are you doing here? … you be at the meeting downtown? 4. (the driver/ see/ the red light) ………… IV. We’ve run out of paperclips. I’ve got a few things to do but I … them now. The car park is free – you … to park your car there. He really … have told his brother about this deal. The diet … be maintained unchanged for about a year. I haven’t seen the people next door for ages. 1. (they/ go away) ………… 8. We aren’t spending our weekend at home. ………… 9. 14. V. William … a suit to work but he usually does. 4. so we … our meals. It was supposed to be absolutely confidential. Catherine isn’t working tomorrow. Complete the sentences using must or a form of have to. Complete these sentences using don’t/ doesn’t/ didn’t have to + one of these verbs: arrive. 8. I’m not particularly busy. 15. You … make so much noise. so we … the stairs. 7. We’ve got plenty of time. The phone rang but I didn’t hear it. There’s a lift in the building. 5. Amy is extremely rich. I … have posted these yesterday afternoon and I completely forgot. 2. please? 6. I … get some in the morning. 3. Fill the gaps in the sentences with must (n’t). 12. You … finish that report tonight if you’re too tired. 9. VI. needn’t or should( n’t). We’ll be asked to leave otherwise. You can tell me if you want but you … me. We … find out what’s been decided any moment now. but could you tidy the shelves in the storeroom. so he … 9. (I / asleep) ………… 7. Sometimes two answers are possible. 13. be. wait. Peter can’t find his umbrella. tell. The meeting’s finished. You … clean the office because we haven’t been using it today. 252 . wear. We … yet. (He/ leave/ it in the restaurant last night). Midday tomorrow is the deadline. A man was slightly injured in the accident but he … to hospital. Paul has got a beard. get up. You … a good player to enjoy a game of tennis. 2. I went to the bank this morning.(it/ very expensive) ………… 6. so I … 7. There was no queue. pay. She … 8. 10. work 1. 3. go. so she … early. I’m going to be in trouble. The jacket you bought is very good quality.

He expressed the hope that on Monday elementary school … (reopen). (come) 4. Mr. She … (like) to ask questions. Mason … wear glasses since he was a child. 1. I’m in a difficult position. We were the better team. He kept trying to start the car and the battery got flatter and flatter. (pass) 2. Within ten weeks of the introduction. 4. We … go now. 3.1. … (you/ work) home last night? 10. 1. 8. ‘Is John here yet?’ ‘Not yet. I … (imagine) that you can’t grow seeds actually in these big plastic bags. Jane will … do her homework tomorrow. Margaret … the exam. The Prime Minister is now 65 years old and in all probability this … (be) the last election that he is likely to contest. 7. VIII. It’s getting very late. She’s been studying very hard. The doctor gave me some medicine. The holiday … (do) him the world of good. I … take it three times a day after meals. You missed a great party last night. I posted the letter three days ago. but he had moved on to another topic. You … get a visa to visit the United States. 4. (arrive) 10. 9. 9. I’m sorry that I didn’t take your advice. What do you think I … ? (do) 5. (win) 7. 5. I … stay in bed yesterday because I wasn’t very well. until it … (turn) the engine at all. I … what you said. You … (come) 3. 8. 34 million people … (reach) by our television commercials. (go) 253 . 2. I’m playing tennis with Jill tomorrow. VII. John … hurry. 10. You … and see us more often. Put the verbs in brackets into a modal construction using will or would. but he … here soon?’ (be) 9. (win) 8. We lost the match but we … . 7. If you … (let) me pay for a taxi. I couldn’t go to the party last night because I … babysit for my sister. 5. then at least allow me to lend you something. 3. I … this morning but I was feeling a bit ill. We don’t see you enough. 6. I don’t like … work at weekends. She … she’s much better than me. He has insisted that his organisation … (negotiate) with the government. so it … by now. 6. (do) 6. 2. He’s plenty of time. Complete the sentences with should (have) + the verb in brackets. It … (cost) very much more for the four of us to come from Italy.

[perfect infinitive] -ing forms While being asked about his whereabouts. Negative: subject + be (the appropriate tense) + not + the past participle It isn’t known who made the mistake. b. THE PASSIVE VOICE A.11.1. and tense. The book was sold by John. [active voice] The blouse was ironed (by her mother). Subject Predicate Direct Object The blouse Subject PASSIVE VOICE was ironed Predicate by her mother. a verb has another grammatical category. aspect. Interrogative: be (the appropriate tense) + subject + the past participle Was the problem solved yesterday? Has a doctor been sent for? II. namely the voice. Object (by + agent) I. She hoped her book to have been accepted by the publisher.1. The voice system in English makes possible for the action of a sentence to be viewed in two ways: Her mother ironed the blouse. FORM The active subject becomes the passive agent. Changes form Active to Passive: Active Passive Present: writes is written Present Progressive: is writing is being written Present Perfect: has written has been written Past: wrote was written Past Perfect: had written had been written Future: will write will be written Future in the past: would write would be written Modal verbs: must do must be done Modal + perfective: might have done might have been done The Infinitive My sister loves to be admired by everybody. the main verb is in the Past Participle. [passive voice] • The active and passive sentences have the following representations: ACTIVE VOICE Her mother ironed the blouse. Affirmative: John sold the book. [present participle] 254 . the verb to be in the appropriate tense (that of the main verb). c. the direct object becomes the passive subject. THEORETICAL CONSIDERATIONS Besides mood. he felt a cold shiver running along his spine. preceded by by: a.

in Nominative + Infinitive constructions. 2. not a concrete one. he was taken by t he police. . Constraints a. She was born after the war. we use a passive of to allow/ to permit/ to give permission: He let me leave early . verbs of “being” and “having” – to have ( = to own) to be. simple present tense – meaning: she will not perform the action of cutting her own hair. . to arrive at – can be used in the passive only when the subject is an abstract patient. 3. to seem . Phrasal verbs – to look into. . I will have you arrested! .] V.when the agent is so obvious that there is no need to mention it: The thief will be arrested. [the auxiliary has is actually a causative verb. Do you mind her having been arrested? [perfect gerund] III.* I was wanted to be there. . passive only: to be born. IV. one that is not mentioned.in impersonal statements: Passengers are asked not to enter this area.* Her mother bore her after the war. . on the contrary there is another agent implied.* You are not suited by this dress. . the verb to let has no passive form. Ways of rendering the English Passive into Romanian a. . to resemble. . Verb constraints 1.Before having been asked about the robbery. .The verbs to have and to get can occur in the following construction: have/ get + direct object + past participle = somebody does something for/ to you. to suit – require only an active construction: Tom has a new Jeep.* That car is liked. . Agent constraints The agent by-phrase is generally optional. bag = concrete subject] b. verbs of ‘wanting’ and ‘liking] are used in the active voice: She wanted me to be there.* People thought him to be honest 5. I like that car. to become. This delicate matter had been looked into. Active voice into Romanian (+ the appropriate tense of the verb) 255 . This dress doesn’t suit you. [perfect participle] I enjoy being taken out to dinner. to belong. The direct object is the sufferer: She has her hair cut. to hold. He was thought to be honest.These constructions show semantically that the grammatical subject is not the agent/ doer of the action. to go into. and now the cup is broken. 4. Causative ‘have’ . to lack. – * This bag had been looked into. The omission occurs: .when the agent is irrelevant or unknown: My car has been stolen. to be drowned (when no agent is implied). [matter = abstract subject.* I was let leave > I was allowed /given permission to leave early.* A new Jeep is had by Tom. but a hairdresser for example.when the agent is left out as redundant: He had a cup in his hands a few seconds ago.

– viitor] A decision was arrived at. 2. The President denied access to the affected area. They are closing down a lot of factories nowadays. The accident had been seen by a crowd of people. Passive voice into Romanian (+ the appropriate tense of the verb to be) The letter was written by John. The President…. – prezent. Finish the sentences: 1. 10. – perfect compus] Fish eats with garlic. – viitor.. – prezent] The window broke. [S-a ajuns la o decizie. The watch has been repaired skilfully. [Oamenilor le este frică de cutremur. 9. Father did not allow me to go to the party last night. Police had to break the meeting immediately. (causative ‘have’) [M-am fotografiat săptămâna aceasta. On very few occasions…. The road…. B. 3.. Turn into Active Voice: 1. [Va fi bine îngrijită.] b. The building was being guarded by the police. – viitor] c. 8. [Geamul s-a spart.People are getting frightened by earthquake. No one talked about this at the meeting. 2. 2. Both drivers will be taken to the hospital by the ambulance. III. 10. People don`t pay babysitters a lot of money. They are just lengthening the road. Turn into Passive Voice: 1. [S-a auzit un zgomot. 7. – perfect compus] This matter will be dealt with at once. The murderer was arrested in less than two hours. All the people know the President well. He admitted this on very few occasions. 6. You should meet them at the airport tonight. People strongly assume money brings happiness. Reflexive voice into Romanian A noise was heard. Someone will have to be found to take my place. 5. EXERCISES I. 6. 9. He has used this apparatus only once since that day. [Ne vom ocupa imediat de această problemă. II. Social workers were doing valuable work. – perfect compus] They will take good care of her. 4. The goods had been sent to the required address. He is expected to be back at the end of the week. 7. A speech to the nation was made by the Prime minister. 4. My car was just being repaired by Tom when I arrived. 8. – perfect compus] I’ve had some photos taken this week.. 3. [Scrisoarea a fost scrisă de John. 5. [Peştele se mănâncă cu mujdei. 3. – perfect compus] The children will be offered many toys. 256 . [Copiilor li se vor oferi multe jucării.

IT 7. the mechanic was repairing my bike. 1. Ţi se va permite să vizitezi tot muzeul cu condiţia să nu atingi exponatele. 7. 10.. At this time yesterday. Toate acele case au fost distruse de recentul cutremur. I am sorry.. A new…. casa va fi demolată mâine. They were trying a new check-out system in the library. Translate into English: 1. (Past Continuous) 9. The author has included key answers at the end of the book . The building is thought to date from the 10th century. Se observă că ştiinţa a evoluat foarte mult în ultimii ani. Someone should give him the required information. I don’t know his name. The new proposals (discuss) when he entered the meeting hall. All his statements….4. Use tenses of the Passive Voice as required: 1. (Past Tense) 4. Rewrite each sentence using the words in capitals. 6. DISCOVER 2.BEEN 8. IV. (Present Perfect) VI. (Present Continuous) 8. 5. Acest material este foarte bun.. (Infinitive) 6. As soon as he finishes his report. He…. I think he is the very person that can (ask) about it. 8. Traffic rules must (obey). About 100 new flats(build) by the end of the year. They are looking into the files very carefully. 5. Se ştie că telefonul a fost inventat de A. Mi s-a spus că s-au discutat multe aspecte interesante la conferinţa de ieri. RECEIVE 5. se calcă uşor. INTRODUCE 3. Bell în 1876. Everyone knows that gym exercises are good for health. They didn`t find out about the results until later. Police had not found out the identity of the victim. EXAMINE 10. 8.. (Past Simple) 5. They…. Make sure the sentences are passive. Gym exercises…. Chinese people inhabit this beautiful island. FINISHED V. Progresele tehnice sunt analizate cu atenţie în toate centrele de ştiinţă din lume. BY 9. I will never tell them the truth about the accident. A new meeting on this problem (arrange) by the Commonwealth Prime Minister. 9. The man had never before made such a firm promise. (Future Tense) 3. După toate datele primite. Not until later…. 257 . 3. 4. They (invite) to Bucharest this week. The announcement (make) immediately after midnight. he will take me for a walk. They have found some very old coins in a churchyard. The yesterday newspaper (buy) by many people. REPAIR 6. Se insistă foarte mult asupra învăţării asistate de calculator. IDENTIFY 4. The satellite will give us new pictures of the planet Mars.. 7. She now believes she (take in) by all his lies.. (Infinitive) 10. (Present Tense) 2. She has proved that all his statements are lies. G. I can’t believe she (recognize) by her uncle. 2. 9. (Past Perfect) 7. Never…. 6.

III. 1. 2. THE SUBJUNCTIVE
A. THEORETICAL CONSIDERATIONS The Subjunctive is a grammatical mood used in (in)dependent sentences in order to refer “to events which are not certain to happen – which we hope will happen, or imagine might happen, or want to happen.” (Swan, 1990: 580) I wish I were younger. (unfortunately I am not) From a formal point of view, there are 2 types of Subjunctive: a. the Synthetic Subjunctive b. the Analytical Subjunctive. a. THE SYNTHETIC SUBJUNCTIVE I. FORM AND USES - The Old Subjunctive (the Present Subjunctive) resembles the form of the Short Infinitive of the verb for all tenses and persons and is used to express supposition, purpose, fear, suggestion, request, wish, necessity etc. It is important that he come/ be invited to the party. From a semantic point of view, the Old Subjunctive can be classified into: ● The Formulaic Subjunctive – in the formal and old-fashioned style, it is used in independent/ main clauses that contain certain idioms to express wishes, prayers or protests (often involving supernatural powers). God save the Queen! Be that as it may, she will carry on with her plan! ●The Mandative Subjunctive is used in subordinate 'That–clauses' to express desire, demand, requirement, obligation, necessity, suggest, command etc. He made the suggestion that the thief come and explain everything. - The Modern Subjunctive (the Past and Past Perfect Subjunctive) conveys the idea of unreality, regret about a situation, improbability, and doubt. The Past Subjunctive is used when the action referred to is simultaneous with or posterior to the reference time (usually used for present and future time). The Past Perfect Subjunctive resembles the form of the Indicative Mood, Past Perfect for all tenses and persons and it is used when the action referred to is anterior to the reference time (used only for past time). If I were you, I wouldn’t wait for him any longer. I wish I had known the truth about this matter. II. Ways of translating the Synthetic Subjunctive a. conjunctiv prezent: God bless the King! (Dumnezeu să-l binecuvânteze pe rege!) I wish he were us. (Aş vrea să fie aici.) b. imperativ: Expenses be hanged! (Dă-le încolo de cheltuieli!) c. indicativ prezent: Suffice it to say that he was caught stealing the pearls! (E de ajuns să spunem ca a fost prins furând perlele!) d. conjunctiv perfect: He wishes he had been there. (Ar dori să fi fost aici.) e. condiţional optativ: He looked at me as if he had seen a ghost. (S-a uitat la mine de parcă ar fi văzut o stafie.)

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b. THE ANALYTICAL SUBJUNCTIVE I. FORM AND USES - The Subjunctive Equivalents (or modal auxiliaries) are often used to replace the Old Subjunctive in informal English. His uncle urged that he should sit down and wait. No matter how pretty she might be, she can’t be your girl friend. II. Ways of translating the Analytical Subjunctive a. conjunctiv prezent: It is necessary that your father should sign the application. (Este necesar ca tatăl tău să semneze formularul.) b. conjunctiv perfect: It is impossible (that) he should have failed the exam. (Este imposibil ca el să fi picat examenul.) c. condiţional optativ: However disgraceful it may be, you must give him a hand. (Oricât de dezonorant ar fi, trebuie să-l ajuţi.) d. condiţional optativ/ indicativ: I wish you would call me earlier! (Tare aş dori să mă suni mai devreme!/ De ce nu mă suni mai devreme?)

B. EXERCISES
I. Build up sentences with the following words using the Subjunctive: 1. He recommended that (I, some money, to lend, to his friend). 2. She orders that (to see, the vet, at once, her dog ). 3. I suggest that (immediately, to return, all of you, in the classroom). 4. The Prime Minister demanded that (to house, from USA, the delegates, at the best hotel). 5. They insist that (John, to resign, tomorrow). 6. He urged that (to work, the employees, more efficiently). 7. I propose that (in the morning, to be, at six, in my office, you). 8. Mary required that (the diploma, the schoolmaster, her, to give). 9. The doctor insisted that (to take, before meals, the pills, every day, he). 10. The mayor demands that (to keep, all the citizens, clean, the town). II. Rephrase the following sentences using 'wish' to express regret for a present action (the meaning must stay the same): 1. It’s a pity you leave so soon. 2. I regret he doesn’t know how to start the engine. 3. I’m sorry the delivery comes come so late. 4. It’s a pity you get only poor marks at the exams. 5. I regret the girls don’t pay attention to the explanations. 6. It’s pity I can’t fix the car. 7. I’m sorry they are fighting every day.

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8. It’s a pity you don’t speak to each other. 9. I regret our teacher drinks so much coffee. 10. It’s a pity you don’t try to improve your pronunciation. III. Rephrase the following sentences using 'wish' to express regret for a past action (the meaning must stay the same): 1. I didn’t meet her yesterday. 2. It was time for us to leave. 3. Mike failed all his exams. 4. He didn’t bring the money for the dictionary. 5. We didn’t study semantics last term. 6. They didn’t know how to act under such circumstances. 7. She wasn’t there at the right moment. 8. We didn’t spend much time together. 9. They didn’t have any children. 10. I didn’t understand her real problems. IV. Use the past tense and the past perfect forms of the Subjunctive after: as if / though, suppose, even if/ though according to the meaning: 1. He looked as if he (see) a ghost. 2. He wouldn’t solve the exercise even if he (try). 3. Suppose you (be) there, what would you have done? 4. The criminal behaved as though he (not know) anything about the murder. 5. He smiled friendly as if he (recognize) her. 6. I wouldn’t sell my honesty even though he (give) thousands of dollars. 7. You treated those people as if you (not meet) them before. 8. You treated the girl as if you (not know) her. 9. Suppose you (have) a flat of your own, would you put me up? 10. I wouldn’t invite him even if you (ask) me to. V. Rephrase the following sentences using it’s impossible/ normal/ natural/ unbelievable with should according to the model: Example: She can’t be here at this hour. It’s impossible (that) she should be here… She can’t have been there at that hour. It’s impossible (that) she should have been there… 1. This can’t happen again. 2. Allan can’t have lied to his parents. 3. You can’t leave her alone after all she has done for you. 4. Your best friend can’t abandon you in the middle of the battle. 5. They can’t have eaten all the food. 6. He can’t go abroad this week. 7. You can’t have done such terrible mistakes. 8. Peter can’t ask Mary to marry him. 9. That wind can’t have destroyed the whole city. 10. You can’t utter such heavy words.

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III.1.3. THE CONDITIONAL MOOD
A. THEORETICAL CONSIDERATIONS I. Definiton The Conditional is the grammatical mood expressing suppositions, doubt or different types of conditions – real, (im)probable, (im)possible/ hypothetical . The conditional mood can cover two types of structures: • dependent clauses made up of two parts: the main clause/ MC and the adverbial clause of condition/ IfC: I would leave if I had enough money. • independent clauses where the IfC is rather implied from the context. They can be part of a dialogue or of free indirect speech/ thought: ‘I told you what had happened to Paul and how he reacted. What would you have done?’ ‘I would have fired those that had robbed the company.’ II. Conditional Clauses In English, there are three main types of Conditional Clauses.

TYPE CONDITION

MAIN CLAUSE I will pass the exam Voi trece examenul Future Form (will + Infinitive)

IF
if daca

“IF”/CONDITIONAL CLAUSE I study harder. voi invata mai mult. Present Form

I.

possible to fulfill

II.

in theory possible to fulfill

I would pass the exam As trece examenul Present Conditional (would + Inf.)

if daca

I studied harder. as invata mai mult. Past Form

III.

impossible to fulfill

I would have passed the exam As fi trecut examenul

if daca

I had studied harder. as fi invatat mai mult.

Perfect Conditional (would + have Past Perfect Form (had + Past Participle) +Past Participle) III. Mixed conditionals In addition to all the tense variations that we can use in first, second and third conditionals, it is also possible to mix conditionals so that, for example, the if clause uses a verb form used in the first conditional and the main clause uses a verb form used in the third conditional. The context defines the meaning. The most common mixed conditional is:

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Type III if + past perfect If I had worked harder at university,

Type II would/could/might+ infinitive I would have a degree now.

Here are some other examples of mixed conditionals : Type 1 Type II If you come to the party tomorrow, I wouldn't bring Mike with you. Type II Type III If she loved him, she would have stayed with him. IV. Conjunctions which can replace IF • Unless + affirmative verb (If + negative verb) places a negative condition Unless you come at once, I’ll take it with me. (If you don’t…) Unless you had a lot of money, you couldn’t buy it.(If you hadn’t…) Unless he is happy to see me, I won’t come to bother him. (If he is unhappy) • Providing / provided (that) – used when there is a strong idea of limitation (chiefly used with permission) You can borrow her bike provided (that) you bring it back by 10 pm. • But for + a proper name/a noun/a pronoun = If it were not for/ if it hadn’t been for My best friend has come to help me. But for him, I wouldn’t get the diploma. But for his trust, I wouldn’t have succeeded. • Suppose/supposing = what if/ what…happen if? Suppose he doesn’t come on time? = What if he doesn’t…? = What will happen if he…? Suppose I hadn’t sent you the document? = What if I hadn’t sent…?= What would have happened if I hadn’t sent… • In case usually refers to a future condition that may or may not arise: In case I receive any news, I’ll let you know. • If so and If not, used instead of complete clauses: Is anybody feeling cold? If not, let's put the central heating off. You may have some difficulty operating the machine at first. If so, do not hesitate to telephone our service department. • On condition that = if He will give you the day off on condition that you work on Saturday too. • As long as = if Cynthia is welcome to stay with us as long as she shares the rent. V. Inversion The sentence must begin with the IfC where an inversion of the subject with the lexical verb or auxiliary verb is performed. Were I (If I were) the rector of the University, I wouldn't approve of this. [in written language, in literary style] Had she known (If she had known) about it, she would have come home at once. [in written or spoken language] Should it be necessary (if it should be necessary), I will leave by the 10 pm

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train. [in written or spoken language, to express a polite suggestion] VI. Ways of translating a Conditional structure In English there is a dependency between the forms of the verbs in the two clauses; they express the same kind of action, situated in the same period of time (past, present or future), and yet, they have different forms (tenses), unlike the Romanian language where we have the same forms in both the MC and IfC. Type 1: • Viitor/prezent & viitor/prezent I will leave if I have money. [Voi pleca/ Plec dacă voi avea/ am bani] • prezent/ viitor + cumva & imperativ If you should run into Paul, tell him he owes me an answer. [Dacă cumva te întâlneşti cu Paul, spune-i că mi-e dator cu un răspuns.] • perfect compus & prezent/perfect compus/viitor If I did that, I apologise. [Dacă am făcut asta, îmi cer scuze.] If I said that, I was mistaken. [Dacă am spus asta, am greşit.] If she made a mistake, she will try to correct it. [Dacă a făcut o greşeală, va încerca să o îndrepte.] • viitor/ prezent + conjunctiv prezent (verb lexical) & prezentul (unei verb care va reda sensul modal al lui will: a vrea sau a refuza) If he won’t do it, we’ll have to do it ourselves. [Dacă refuză să facă asta, va trebui să facem noi singuri.] Type 2: • condiţional optativ prezent I would leave if I had money. [Aş pleca dacă aş avea bani.] Type 3: • condiţional optativ perfect I would have left if I had had money. [Aş fi plecat dacă aş fi avut bani.]

B. EXERCISES
I. Put the verbs in brackets in the correct form: 1. If he (meet) her, he will invite her to the theatre. 2. If the weather (be) fine, we’ll go for a ride. 3. You (disappoint) your students if you don’t come to the last class. 4. Unless he (study) economy, he will become an accountant. 5. You can make your dreams come true, provided you (work) hard. 6. Unless you have an interpreter, you (can) to understand each other. 7. Suppose she (not admit) she has made the mistake. What will you do? 8. If you take these pills, you (feel) much better. 9. They’ll blame you, if the plan (not to work). 10. Trevor (not to make) his decision, if he doesn’t talk to his lawyer. 11. If you had made a good work, he (congratulate) you. 12. They wouldn’t have lost if they (take) the map with them. 13. If you ( not to threaten) her , she wouldn’t have told the police. 14. He (hurt) him if he hadn’t been a well – educated man. 15. Peter would have walked if he (repair) his car.

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16. She (not to expect) so good results if she hadn’t worked so much. 17. I wouldn’t have made up my mind so quickly if it (be) for her. 18. You (have) your hair cut if your father hadn’t asked you to. 19. She wouldn’t have been so relaxed if she (pass) the exam. 20. She (not to expect) so good results if she hadn’t worked so much. 21. I wouldn’t have made up my mind so quickly if it (be) for her. 22. You (have) your hair cut, if your father hadn’t asked you to. 23. She wouldn’t have been so relaxed, if she (pass) the exam. 24. You would have caught the train, if he hadn’t kept you so much. II. Choose the most appropriate conjunction (unless, suppose, supposing, provided) and fill in the blank spaces: 1. I will accept your invitation …you send a car to take me. 2. You can go fishing tomorrow …it rains. 3. I will repeat the requirement…you don’t understand. 4. They will come with us on the trip…we invite them. 5. He can’t pass the exam …he sits for it. 6. What would you do…he doesn’t give you the key? 7. …you admit you were wrong, she won’t forgive you. 8. …Mary were your manager. How would you behave? 9. I’ll buy the furniture…I have enough money. 10. They will never finish their work…somebody help them. III. Find and correct the mistakes in the following sentences: 1. Had I know the truth, I wouldn’t have asked that silly question. 2. I’ll lend you the dictionary provided you brought it back on time. 3. Suppose you are the president. Would you declare war? 4. She will join you unless you don’t tease her. 5. Were you a soldier, will you die for your country? 6. I wouldn’t have turned down that idea, if I had known it was his. 7. All the runners would be exhausted if the race had taken place on such a hot day. 8. Were he honest to her if he hadn’t trusted her? 9. I’ll retire when I would reach the age of 55. 10. Would the project have been implemented supposing he put it forward? IV. Rephrase the following sentences using the conjunction if: 1. I didn’t go out yesterday because the weather was so bad. 2. Mary was shy with boys because her father didn’t let her meet them. 3. She was attracted to Tom because he seemed so pleasant. 4. Tom wanted to marry her because she was rich. 5. Her father liked him because he thought Tom was a politician. 6. Mary believed his story because she had so little experience of men. 7. She married him because she thought he really loved her. 8. He treated her badly because he didn’t love her. 9. She shot him because he was so terrible to her. 10. All this happened because her father was so foolish. V. Complete the following sentences: 1. But for John, your sister………… drowned.

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would have had them by now. If you will………….2. C... . Rewrite the sentences replacing if with the most appropriate conjunction. 7.. I. Had your father heard…………. If I could get a job. 6. J. VI. if…………a long time ago. what will I do then? (Imagine / What if / 265 . D. please. F.then I’d like it back. If you………….otherwise. If you had a lot of money. H. C. If it hadn’t…………. I'm sure he'd be a famous musician by now. If the train hadn't been delayed. 10. Thanks for your encouragement. Example: If you had told me about this problem earlier. you wouldn't have said that to her. A.. If the train arrives on time. D. Match the clauses and write the mixed conditional sentences in your notebook. B. I won’t ever go shopping. I………… ……. would you hurry up and get ready? H. F. we would be there by now. If he was feeling ill this morning. 1. 8. I won't help him if he doesn't ask me properly. ………………………… . I wouldn’t be a teacher. If they don't contact you soon. B. If I really wanted to have children. 2. A. G. life here would be perfect. his wife would never have left him. Unless he………….for a walk. they'll be here in a few minutes. G. 3. he probably won't be at the meeting. If you were a more sensitive person.fail the exam. If he hadn't died so young. Helen wouldn’t agree with you. If you had worked harder last month. If you’re coming with us I. (supposing that / unless / on condition that) Example: Mr Davidson says he'll come and give a talk at the conference on condition that we pay him a reasonable fee.. VII. you wouldn't be so busy this month. If he didn't work so hard all the time. If he doesn't agree to my request. Mr Davidson says he'll come and give a talk at the conference if we pay him a reasonable fee. you could always ring them up. even………… 5. If you had told me about this problem earlier. J. 4. ……. everything would be all right now. E. do you think you would give up work? (Supposing that / Providing that / As long as) 5. everything would be all right now. (What if / Assuming that / On condition that) 6.. E.a new car. provided………… 9. the whole truth. (provided / unless / as long as) 3. (what if / even if / if only) 4.

(If only / Provided that / Even if) 10. what would have happened then? (If only / Imagine / Unless) 9. 19. N-am să pot repara frigiderul decât dacă vine mecanicul. Poate să participe la Jocurile Olimpice numai dacă se antreneaza intens. Friptura ar fi bună dacă ar fi caldă. If Rosie gets this new promotion.Provided that) 7. vom mai lua un cort. 20. 17. Oamenii au încredere în tine dacă şi tu ai încredere în ei. dacă nu ai fi cheltuit toţi banii pe cai. (as long as / assuming that / supposing that) 8. 16. 12. spune-i că sunt la restaurant. 2. 5. Nu ai fi acum aici. Imaginează-ţi că ţi-ar fi vopsit baia în negru. If the helicopter hadn't been there to save her. 8. If you'd offered to pay me a thousand pounds. 13. Petre ar fi avut necazuri la examene. comunicaţi-mi până mâine seară. dacă ai citi mai mult. 15. Dacă nu ar fi grădinile şi parcurile. 7. Dacă aţi binevoi să aşteptaţi câteva clipe. 3. 11. Dacă nu ai fi atât de mincinos. centrul oraşului ar arăta dezolant. n-ai fi acum in situaţia regretabilă ca nimeni să nu aibă încredere in tine. 266 . (Even if / Provided that / Supposing that) VIII. Vei avea nevoie de bani în cazul în care renunţi la serviciu. dacă nu l-ar fi ajutat colegul său. Dacă l-ai vedea cum arăta nu l-ai mai recunoaşte. Dacă vrei să ne însoţeşti. dacă aş fi ştiut ce se va intâmpla. nu ezita să-mi aminteşti de această problemă. 9. N-aş fi consimţit niciodată să părăsesc linia frontului. I wouldn't have done it. 14. Ce-ar face directorul dacă s-ar întâmpla să te găsească fumând in curtea şcolii? 10. Ai fi ştiut răspunsul. 4. Dacă n-ar fi fost Maria nu aş fi primit cecul. You can go out tonight if you get back by midnight. îl voi chema pe domnul director. Dacă v-ar face plăcere să lucraţi în biroul meu. 6. Translate into English: 1. În cazul în care voi uita . Dacă cumva mă caută Jack. 18. we'll have enough money for a holiday abroad this year.

1. believe. He explained that the population of London is around 9 millions. think. Condition/Purpose/Result/Concession a. Adverbial Clause of Time/ Place/ Manner/ Comparison/ Reason/ g. Relative Clause f. We can distinguish the following types of subordinate clauses: a. Subject Clause d. Susan knows that you led a rifle platoon during the Second World War. 3. 1.4. 2. 267 . hope. When the main verb is in the past the verb in the direct object clause ought to be in the past too. Subordinate clause action versus main clause action Tense clause Past Perfect Past Perfect Past Perfect in main Tense in subordinate clause Past Perfect Past Tense Future-in-the-past Anteriority Simultaneity Posteriority Tense/Past Tense/Past Tense/Past He told me he had spent his early life in Sri Lanka before moving to England.III. SEQUENCE OF TENSES A. Direct Object Clause b. There is no tense limitation in the direct object clause when the main verb is in the Present Tense or Present Perfect Tense: I know Paul has sent the book. Note: It does not apply in the following cases for statements which are still valid in the moment of speaking ‘now’ have the verb in the present tense although it is also correct to change the verb into the past or with verbs such as know.American. THEORETICAL CONSIDERATIONS A complex sentence contains a main clause and one or more subordinate clauses. Prepositional Object Clause c. regret etc. Direct Object Clauses There are several grammar rules related to the sequence of tenses in direct object clauses the speaker has to follow. Predicative Clause e. realise. Peter thought he was right. I realised he is a South. Walter said himself he would be satisfied with whatever he could get. We all know that the Prime Minister will appoint a civilian as defence minister. When the main verb is in the Future Tense the speaker can use all tenses in direct object clauses apart from the future tenses: Trevor will let them know that they are safe.

be astonished. 268 . Brown was right. = Aş fi dorit ca el să fi muncit mai mult. The use of the tenses in direct object clauses after the main verb ‘wish’ .wish + present tense/future tense when ‘wish’ means ‘hope’. and the same for the pattern subject1 + would rather/sooner + subject2 + subjunctive (past or past perfect). Prepositional Object Clause The rules of the sequence of tenses applies in the prepositional direct object clause too. demand.wish + past tense (=past subjunctive) when the regret is related to the present reality I wish(ed) John were/was here with us on this wonderful trip. Helen wishes he will finish his work soon. (posteriority) • When the main verb is formed by one of the idiomatic expressions be sorry. be surprised. Catherine wishes he would become a reliable person. I wish he worked harder. require. Either subjunctive can be used. = Aş dori ca el să muncească mai mult I wished he had worked harder. . I’d sooner Boris had improved his knowledge of English. recommend. (but she doesn’t think he will).4. . The above pattern is also used in polite requests I wish you would be quiet. = Aş prefera ca el să plece în Spania. I’d rather he had visited the = Aş fi preferat ca el să fi vizitat Muzeul Prado Prado Museum in Madrid. The subjunctive is used in direct object clauses after verbs like ask. . I’d rather he went to Spain.wish + would + bare infinitive to express a future action the speaker wants to happen but which has less chances to fulfill. suggest. The two parties agreed upon it that it had been an unfortunate misunderstanding. be amazed.present tense/should + bare infinitive to express simultaneous actions. arrange. propose. They wish(ed) she had joined their company two years ago. . (anteriority) that Mr. (=Susan hopes he will finish his work soon). Mr. din Madrid. I would rather he talked less.wish + past perfect (=past perfect subjunctive) when the regret is related to the past reality. order. Hill suggested that their candidate should be supported/be supported by the Socialist too. Note that the pattern wish + that-clause is translated in Romanian by the pattern ‘conditional + subjunctive’. urge. (simultaneity) that the competition would apologise. be disappointed in a present tense the verb in the prepositional object clause will be formed by the following patterns: .the subjunctive (past or past perfect) is also used indirect object clauses after would sooner/rather when the person who expresses the preference is not the subject of the action to follow. b. 5.

It is strange that Tim arrived at the office so early. (=Lui Daniel i-a părut rau că tatăl său şi-a vândut maşina) c. It is unlikely that Ralph has signed/will sign the contract (=Este puţin probabil că Ralph a semnat/va semna contractul) • When the main verb is in the past the verb in the subject clause ought to be in the past too. When the main verb is in the Past Tense the following patterns ought to be used. Hill is glad that our German partner has accepted/should have accepted the goods (= Domnul Hill este mulţumit că partenerul german a acceptat mărfurile. a.Rupert is surprised that they spend/ should spend their holidays in the little village. It was a surprise that they had delivered the goods on time (anteriority) that Ann behaved like that (simultaneity) that the Prime Minister would deliver a speech. Subject Clause The speaker can use both the indicative mood or the subjunctive mood. Simultaneity : past tense or should + infinitive Our boss was disappointed we were/should be so late.) There is no tense limitation in the subject clause when the main verb is in the present tense. (posteriority) • After idiomatic expressions like it is strange/ alarming/surprising/ annoying gratifying/splendid (the main verb is in the Present Tense) the subject clause verb will be used in the following patterns. (= Rupert este surprins că ei îşi petrec concediul în acest micuţ sat) -present perfect/past tense or should + perfect infinitive to express an anterior action. Anteriority: present perfect/past tense or should + perfect infinitive It is gratifying that he waited/should have waited until the plane landed. (= Şeful nostru a fost dezamăgit că noi am venit aşa de târziu) b. The indicative mood shows the subject clause action is seen as being fulfilled while the subjunctive indicates an assumption. (=E ciudat ca Tim să ajungă la birou atât de devreme. It is strange that Tim should arrive at the office so early. Simultaneity: present tense or should + infinitive It is strange that they buy/should bought such expensive goods. (=E ciudat că Tim a sosit la birou atât de devreme). Anteriority: past perfect or should + perfect infinitive Daniel was sorry his father had sold/should have sold his car.) • When the main verb is in the past the speaker has to apply the corresponding sequence of tenses a. Mr. Simultaneity: past tense or should + infinitive It was surprising that they worked/should work until midnight. Anteriority: past perfect or should + perfect infinitive It was splendid that they had cooked/should have cooked dinner before our • 269 . b. a.

) 270 . (=În timp ce tu pregăteşti cina. While you are cooking dinner. that Sean would leave the next day.coming.) When they left for University this morning. eu îi voi scrie o scrisoare lui Sean. (=Aş încerca să-l contactez pe domnul Blake înainte de a părăsi oraşul. Adverbial Clause of Time When I have some days off. (=Când am câteva zile libere. desirable.) Tom will join us as soon as he has finished his work (Tom ni se va alătura dupa ce-şi va fi terminat ceea ce avea de făcut. (= I-am arătat lui John rochia pe care o voi purta la viitoarea noastră petrecere. important. The analytical subjunctive pattern may/might + bare infinitive is used after idiomatic expressions like it is possible.) f. • The analytical subjunctive pattern should + bare infinitive is used after idiomatic expressions like it is/was advisable. is very good. essential. It is/was necessary that he should earn more money. that the contract will be soon concluded. I’ll write a letter to Sean. I showed John the dress I’ll wear at our next party.) They left the company as soon as they had finished their negotiations. Blake before he left the town.) My new watch. that we were very busy. it was terribly cold. that Mr. Pitt has talked about it.) After the show is over. vital. merg la mare). Predicative Clause There is no tense limitation in the predicative clause when the main verb is in the Present Tense. Relative Clause There is no tense limitation in the relative clause. necessary. we’ll have supper at the Lido. The problem was that they had talked to him before. imperative. • d. which I bought a month ago. (=Ceasul meu cel nou pe care l-am cumparat acum o lună este foarte bun. it is probable (see also ‘The Subjunctive’ and ‘Modals and Semi-Modals’) It is possible that Jane may arrive tonight. inevitable . right.) I would try to contact Mr. I go to the seaside. The important fact is that he was sent abroad. When the main verb is in the past the verb in the predicative clause ought to be in the past too. e. (=Au părăsit firma de îndată ce s-au terminat negocierile. Note that the indicative mood relates to a fulfilled action while the subjunctive relates to an assumption. (=Când au plecat la universitate în această dimineaţă era îngrozitor de frig. (=După spectacol vom cina la Lido.

întâlneau oameni amabili) h. (but they haven’t/hadn’t) j. because today is Sunday. The harder he works. (but he isn’t/wasn’t) They talk/talked as if they had known him. The Romanian pattern ‘cu cât …. Adverbial Clause of Manner There is no tense limitation in the adverbial clause of manner. you are going to be. that they’ll never forget him. l. (= Oriunde mergeau. Adverbial Clause of Place There is no tense limitation in the adverbial clause of place. (=Aţi vrea să puneţi cele două dicţionare unde le este locul) Wherever they went. Adverbial Clause of Concession Both present and past tenses in the indicative mood can be used. Even though he did not study marketing The analytical subjunctive pattern may/might + infinitive can be used in the 271 . k. I stayed in bed longer this morning because I hadn’t been able to sleep all night. (pattern: past tense in the main clause + past tense in the adverbial clause of comparison). He did his job so well that they promised him a pay rise (=Îşi făcea atât de bine serviciul încât i-au propus o mărire de salariu. Would you please put those two dictionaries back where they belong. i. cu atât … ‘ can be expressed as follows. The subjunctive can also be used in the adverbial clause of comparison He behaves /behaved as if he were the company chairman. Though he has never studied marketing Although he is very young he is a successful businessman. they met nice people.g. Adverbial Clause of Comparison There is no tense limitation in the adverbial clause of comparison. Audrey will do just as you told her. a man could be. the better results he will get. (=Îşi făcea atât de bine serviciul încât nu-l vor uita. Adverbial Clause of Reason There is no tense limitation in the adverbial clause of reason. I am now. Adverbial Clause of Result There is no tense limitation in the adverbial clause of result. (pattern : future tense in the main clause + present tense in the adverbial clause of comparison) The more frequently they travelled abroad the more they enjoyed it. He was as busy as you had thought.

waiting for me. I would have done a better job of cleaning the house. He remained silent as soon as he (had heard. We arranged to hire a coach that … 8. Even then all I (can) (make out) (be) that someone called Milly (have) a very bad accident. using a clause: 1. He (seem) quite hysterical and he (talk) for a minute or so before I (understand) anything. If I (had had. his works were published by many magazines. is) industrious. have read. I (can) (see) that he (cry). although I often (hear) people talk about him. 2. 6. It is a long time since I (read. I learnt recently that Jupiter (is. He declared that … 10. Black asked me yesterday where I (have gone. I (have not) the slightest idea who she (be) but I obviously (have) to go. It (snow) heavily that day and I (not know) the way. She was nicer than … 5. 3. … . I (drive) for at least an hour when I finally (find) his place. 3. did not buy) her dress when she was in town last week.adverbial clause of concession too. EXERCISES I. 8. was) the largest of the planets. 9. I was glad to hear that her brother (was. He said that many years ago … 6. are) mortal. had tired) himself. The old woman who confronted me in the street … 4. 10. became) famous. It (be) an eccentric farmer. have had) more time. Mr. It (seem) Milly already (die). put him through. She (has not bought. They announced that … II. … that they might come across our letter. 5. (= Oricine ar suna dă-mi-l la telefon) Note that the above pattern is translated into Romanian by using the conditional. I never (meet) him before. the more I liked him. heard) that. After Einstein (had become. “She (mean) more to me than anyone… even my own wife!” he said. They spoke English much better than … 7. Select the correct word or expression in brackets in each of the following sentences. Give the reason for your choice: 1. Almost as soon as I entered the company …. had read) a novel as absorbing as this one. had gone) the day before. His illnes showed him that all men (were. He walked so far that he (tired. III. B. 9. Supply the most logical form of the verb in the following: I just (go) to bed after a very hard day when the phone rang. He (stand) there. went. 4. I (assume) a terrible tragedy (take place) with overtones of 272 . 7. (see ‘The Analytical Subjunctive’) Whoever may/might phone. Complete the following sentences. 2.

IV. 273 . nefiind anunţat din timp. Te voi suna când voi porni de acasă spre tine. and (burst) into tears again. dar nu a vrut să creadă. 6. Translate into English: 1. 5. cu toate că i-ar fi plăcut să se sfătuiască cu mine. dar mă simt de parcă aş fi venit de mult. dar m-am întrebat de ce ai făcut un secret din asta. 10. simt nevoia să-ţi spun cât de mult aş dori să fim prieteni. Milly clearly (be) a secret sweetheart of his. 2. 7. N-a fost un secret pentru nimeni că reuşita lui se datorează. Ori de câte ori te întâlnesc. a rămas tăcut. “She (be) such a good cow! I (will not) (let) anyone but a doctor touch her!” he said. decât în el. deoarece are mai multă încredere în mine. 4. I s-a spus în repetate rânduri că cinstea e cea mai bună dintre politici. Ori de câte ori treceam prin faţa şcolii mă întrebam ce or mai fi făcând foştii mei profesori şi unde sunt oare colegii mei. Ştiam că ai să vii la mine. De îndată ce a văzut-o. sârguinţei cu care a învăţat în tot timpul care a trecut de la sosirea lui la facultate. I (be) about to tell him he (cannot) (expect) me to cover anything up when he (open) the barn door and (point) his torch at a motionless shape on the straw. gândindu-se că este mult mai frumoasă decât şi-o închipuise vreodată. Îl admir mai puţin decât l-am admirat pe bunicul său care a fost un om adevărat. I must (admit) I (be) even more shocked when he (tell) me he (put) her in the barn. “I (will not) (leave) her out in the cold!” he said. dar nu eram acasă. în mare parte.a possible scandal. ca să nu risc să fii plecat. A venit să mă vadă. 9. şi am aflat că acum a păţit-o. 8. iar la întoarcerea mea tocmai plecase să se întâlnească cu un alt prieten de al lui. Am sosit aici doar de trei zile. 3.

to tell.a. . etc. ‘Methane is often regarded as the second most important greenhouse gas after carbon dioxide’. without altering the meaning of the person’s remark or speech. Tense Backshift .) is in the present. to reply (to say in response). to beam. interrogative or exclamatory sentences) III. to protest (to say with reservation). He said (that) breakfast would be a cheerless affair for the Prime Minister that morning. Morphological changes III.the structure of the sentences (changes concerning imperative. remark. Direct speech (DS) The verbs of reporting and thinking are: to say.the speaker (changes concerning the persons of the pronouns). PAST PROGRESSIVE John said that he was going home. and the quotation marks are not used. [DS] He explains than methane is often regarded as the second most important greenhouse gas after carbon dioxide. tell. to report.the location of the action (changes concerning the adverbs of time and of place).III. DIRECT AND INDIRECT/ REPORTED SPEECH A. TENSE in INDIRECT SPEECH PAST SIMPLE Sue said that she wanted to stop. . present perfect or future. to point out.5. said Sue. to remark. Indirect speech (IS) The changing from DS into IS brings a number of constraints that affect: . to sob. to insist (to say emphatically). to snort. direct statements can be reported without any changes of tense. to twinkle and others according to the situation. [IS] TENSE in DIRECT SPEECH PRESENT SIMPLE ‘I want to stop’. PRESENT PROGRESSIVE ‘I’m going home’. I. THEORETICAL CONSIDERATIONS When we change a statement from the Direct Speech (DS) to the Indirect Speech (IS) we change some of the words that the person said. to announce. he explains.’ She said she was leaving.Tenses are moved into the past (backshift) after a past tense reporting verb: ‘I’m leaving. to observe.1. .1. II.the time of the action (changes concerning the tenses of the verbs). to ask. 274 . to warn (to say about undesirable consequences). .When the reporting verb (say. to demand. to inquire. to complain (to say irritably). said John.a.

FUTURE PROGRESSIVE ‘I’ll be using the car myself on the 27th’. PAST PROGRESSIVE ‘I was still working at eight o’clock yesterday evening’. FUTURE PERFECT IN THE PAST He explained that he would have finished his work by the end of the following week. PAST SIMPLE ‘The Second World War lasted nearly six years’. remarked Simon. PRESENT PERFECT PROGRESSIVE ‘We have been working very hard at the office lately’. PAST PERFECT SIMPLE Simon remarked that the Second World War had lasted nearly six years. FUTURE PROGRESSIVE IN THE PAST She said that she would be using the car herself on the 27th. 275 . Notes: • Verbs already in the past perfect. do not change. PAST PERFECT PROGRESSIVE Helen confirmed that she had still been working at eight o’clock in the evening the day before. confirmed Helen.PRESENT PERFECT SIMPLE ‘Sally has finished’. PAST PERFECT PROGRESSIVE Robert said that they had been working very hard at the office lately. Christine said. FUTURE SIMPLE ‘Ann will find a wide variety of choices available in university cafeterias’. said Tom. announced Will. ‘I had seen the film before’. he explained. said Robert. [IS] • After a past tense reporting verb. she said. FUTURE PERFECT PROGRESSIVE IN THE PAST Mary said that she would have been working non-stop for over three weeks. FUTURE PERFECT SIMPLE ‘I’ll have finished my work by the end of next week’. conditional sentences type 1 and zero conditionals (= real situations) undergo backshift. FUTURE PERFECT PROGRESSIVE ‘I’ll have been working non-stop for over three weeks’. FUTURE IN THE PAST Tom said that Ann would find a wide variety of choices available in university cafeterias. PAST PERFECT SIMPLE Will announced that Sally had finished. [DS] Christine said that she had seen the film before. said Mary.

time changes are made.a. if the event is clearly hypothetical and impossible. Changes of viewpoint: demonstrative pronouns/ adjectives This used in time expressions usually becomes that. used to. ‘The population of London is around 9 million’. ‘You’ll feel a lot better about yourself if you work on solutions to your upsetting situations.• • • He said.’ [DS] Peter said that if he had gone by bus to the office he would have missed the meeting. modal auxiliaries change where there is a ‘past’ equivalent: can changes to could. He said. She said. C. ‘I might not be back until next week.2. I could find the way’. [DS] She said she’s too busy to come. had better. [IS] Hypothetical past conditional sentences type 3 do not change. ‘If I had gone by bus to the office. SPEAKER’S WORDS INDIRECT SPEECH here there this that/ the now then today that day 276 . will changes to would. [IS] If the reporting verb is in a past tense. [IS] In reported hypothetical situations in the present (= conditional sentences –type 2). Morphological changes of pronouns. [IS] Exceptions from tense backshift • Tense backshift is optional in the cases of the habitual uses of the simple present tense. he explained. she said. adjectives and adverbs A. Would. [DS] He explained that the population of London is around 9 million.’ [DS] He said that he might not be back until the following week. Pronouns and possessive adjectives normally change from first or second person to third person except when the speaker is reporting his own words. could and must do not normally change. Must can be reported as either had to or remain as must: He said. [IS] • In spoken language the tense backshift does not apply when direct speech is reported very soon afterwards. should. might. they often change. [IS] III. now. [IS] B.’ [DS] He said that they would feel a lot better about themselves if they worked on solutions to their upsetting situations. ought to. ‘I’d like to join an aerobic class to improve my fitness. shall changes to should and may changes to might. I would have missed the meeting.’ [DS] She said that she’d like to join an aerobic class to improve her fitness. Adverbs and adverbial phrases of time and place If we report words like here. today in a different place or at a different time. ‘If I had a map. he explained. ’I know a wonderful restaurant where we can have lunch this week. [DS] He explained that if he had had a map he could have found the way.’ He said that he knew a wonderful restaurant where they could have lunch that week. ‘I’m too busy to come’. Peter said.

The word order is the same as in statements and we do not use a question mark. Put the following statements into indirect speech: 1. • advice: Albert said. [IS] III. Syntactical changes III. [IS] • Wh-questions are introduced by the wh-word (when.’ Albert advised them to call the police. ‘ You should phone the police.’ 3. ‘ Could you help me with my bags. why. [DS] I asked her if she liked hamburgers. She said. etc. • request: Ann said.2. Oscar?’ Ann asked Oscar to help her with her bags. ‘Do you like hamburgers’ I asked her. 2. what. ‘The company believes that products will sell well in the run-up Christmas’.) which begins the questions in direct speech. • warning: Ruth said. ‘Get out of my room!’ She ordered me to get out of her room. • negative orders: ‘Don’t touch my glasses. • command She said. ‘Stay away from me. Blake says. Interrogative sentences • Yes/ no questions are reported using if. ‘Throwing good money after bad may not be a good idea.’ said Steven to Grace. who. requests. EXERCISES I. warnings or pieces of advice) using the structure verbs + (object) + to infinitive.b.1. Steven told Grace not to touch his glasses. John warns. B. he explains.’ Ruth warned them to stay away from her.’ 277 .tonight tomorrow the day after tomorrow yesterday the day before yesterday next week/ year/ Monday/ August last week/ year/ Monday/ August a year/ week ago that night the next day/ the following day in two days time the day before/ the previous day two days before the following week/ year/ Monday/ August the previous week/ year/ Monday/ August a year/ week before/ the previous year/ week III. Imperative sentences We often report directives (orders. Mr.b.b. ‘It’s not a very good time to sell at the moment. ‘Where do you come from?’ [DS] She asked (me) where I came from. where.

‘Don’t smoke in here!’. 11. insist. 6. 12. repair the situation. 278 . You want a foreign client to repeat his words because you were unable to pay attention. ‘Are all of these organisations running as independent businesses? Do they have very little contact?. V.’ said Dr. ‘I don’t really think that what you said makes sense. ‘All the lights went off.’ said Ann. 4. Blake. ‘Would you like to join us to dinner?’ said Paul.4. 10. 2. You invoiced a client twice the sum he/she was due to pay. 14. ‘I’ll let you know as soon as they get here. ‘I won’t forget shopping. 2.’ said Walter. claim. disagree. you’ll manage all right. 7. suggest. ‘Residents are advised not to put their rubbish bags on the pavement outside their houses.’ 5. ‘Experts have been discussing how to improve the fight against crime. 6. ‘It’s a shame you couldn’t make it to the party last night. ‘She’s leaving the day after tomorrow. reproach.’ said Mike.’ 7. 3. ‘You really must come and visit us next weekend!’ 8. 9. 5. asked Charles. ‘No it wasn’t me. ‘Don’t forget: you’ve got to hand in your work this evening. assure. ‘Let’s wait here!’. warn 1.’ said Mr. promise. 8. ‘Can you lend me some money?’ Ken asked me.’ 5.’ 6. You should be ashamed of yourself!’ VII. ‘Would you like to come to my party?’ said Collin.’ said Ken. regret. Ann says. I didn’t borrow your bike. 10. 13. ‘Can I help you?’ he said. ‘Switch off the TV. ‘You should stop smoking. OK?’ 3.’ 8. ‘Will you carry my briefcase for me please. ‘Stay away from me. What exactly would you say in these situations? 1. remind. Richard?’ said James. ‘If you park on this double yellow line.’ 4. ‘Damn that map!’.’ 2.’ he said. congratulate. Rankin. he said. ‘Happy Birthday’. said my boss. she said to Mary. she said. ‘Well done! I always thought you’d pass. You are questioning the bank you work with for a surcharge. Use these verbs to report what the people said in as few words as possible. ‘My Marketing Director is hoping he can sell the idea to clients. You have to convince the board that your proposals about merging are the best policy for the future.’ said Ann. ‘I’ve lived most of my adult life in London. Report these sentences: 1. deny. II.’ she told David. you’ll get a ticket. ‘You shouldn’t have behaved like that. ‘The marketplace was jammed with a noisy crowd of buyers and sellers. and mass hysteria broke out. 3. 4. ‘Don’t worry. 9. 7.’ 9. as long as you keep your head.’ 10.

’ Tom promised the……………………. ‘Let’s wait for Jane here. ‘No.’ Ann offered……………………………. ‘I really think you should see a doctor. ‘We’ll know the results in a week. ‘It is raining hard now.. Brenda agreed…………………………. ‘I’m sorry I didn’t phone you earlier. children. ‘Let’s go out to the pub for lunch.5. VIII. ‘Sue. Rewrite each sentence. ‘They needed our help so we offered them help. 10. ‘I’ll definitely take you to the park. I’ll help you do the decorating. shall we?’ Wendy suggested………………………. 8. you must remember this. I’m sorry. ‘You certainly studied it a week ago. ‘Why is he going to do this?’ Matt asked. I won’t work on Saturday. 3.. 10. Dave’. ‘Don’t go away so early’. ‘He has been working hard lately so you must let him rest a while’ she begged. you will learn’ he warned the students.. ‘I am going to London tomorrow. I’ll share the bill with you.’ I doubt…………………………………. ‘If you like. Chris. so that the meaning stays the same: 1. We can’t leave’ Claire said... 3.’ Will advised…………………………. beginning as shown. ‘Yes. 8. 6. ‘It’s not true! I have never been arrested.’ Larry denied…………………………….’ they assured us. I must set things in order there’. 5.’ Mike suggested.’ the teacher said.. ‘I don’t really think it’ll snow tomorrow. ‘If you listen carefully. he decided. IX. 7. Bob.’ Jill apologized………………………… 4. 6. 7. 5. she advised him.’ they claimed. 2. can you remember to buy some bread?’ Paul reminded…………………………… 2. You don’t want to attend a meeting presided by your boss because you know he’s boring and inefficient. 9. 4. Definitely not! Cathy refused…………………………. all right. 9. Turn into Indirect Speech: 1. 279 .

aspect. number.] I didn’t want to have said this.1. I saw the dancing bear in the park. [A greşi e uman. not to see. [N-am vrut să fi spus acest lucru.] John is believed to have brought on all the trouble. Perfective Aspect – past reference) The shop is said to have been broken into. The nonfinite verbs may have some of the categories above mentioned: voice (I would like not to be watched. modul indicativ (timpul prezent. trecut sau viitor) în propoziţii subordonate I was glad to have finished it soon.6. If there appear some morphological changes in the context where the ing-forms occur. [M-am bucurat că am terminat mai devreme. divine. voice or take direct objects: It does him good to take long walks. to bring I would like to write a letter to her to apologize for everything I did. (Verbal Adjective) The children were impressed by the dancing of the bear. (Perfect Infinitive.1. (Perfect Infinitive. (Verbal Noun) 1. Ways of translating the Infinitive into Romanian a.6. Affirmative: to write. passive voice) or aspect (He is said to have stolen the goods. to forgive. Simple Aspect – present reference) I was glad to have finished it soon. the Participle and the Gerund can act as a verbal adjective and as a verbal noun. NONFINITE FORMS A. not to bring I wanted him not to swear strangers. Negative: not to write. – perfect infinitive).] Do you expect the shop to be opened on Sunday? [Te aştepţi ca magazinul să fie deschis duminică?] c.] 280 . USES a. II. conjunctiv prezent/ perfect (diateza activă sau pasivă) I want to see Hugh. respectively. Passive Voice) The teacher told us to read a book about Shakespeare. FORM a. THE INFINITIVE I. [Vreau să-l văd pe Hugh. – infinitive. infinitiv To err is human. THEORETICAL CONSIDERATIONS The six grammatical categories according to which a finite verb is inflected are: person. (Present Infinitive. [Se crede că John a cauzat tot acest necaz.] b. to see. Verbal features • it may have aspect. b.III. (Direct Object) III. a ierta e divin. voice and mood. tense.

(the house was burned – passive. Verbal features: • it may have aspect. voice or take a direct object: Having finished his work. [Present Perfect Progressive] b. Peter went out for a walk. [passive voice] The girl is playing tennis. The Past Participle is the consequence of the event expressed by a Present Participle.2.the – en form of a verb (the Past Participle) . FORM OF THE PRESENT/ PAST PARTICIPLE a. Adjective features The Present Participle may also have the function of an adjective.) II. Affirmative: . c. THE PARTICIPLE I. Negative: . IV. USES AND FUNCTIONS OF THE PAST PARTICIPLE a.THE PAST PARTICIPLE (I have danced). I kept my mouth shut.THE PRESENT PARTICIPLE (I’m dancing) . the Past Participle has a passive one. he was taken to prison. [Present Tense Progressive] I have been reading a book for five hours. perfective aspect) Being found guilty.(I have) worked/ loved b. • the verbal adjectives can be used predicatively or attributively: The news is interesting. [Past Tense. • it may have an indirect object: Grandma is telling me a very funny story. ([the fire was burning – active) I found the barn burned. There are two participles in English: . I found the barn burning. if not asked.1. [Perfect Participle.not + the –ing form of a verb (the Present Participle) . I heard the interesting news. to form with the auxiliary to be the progressive aspect I am reading a book. The Present Participle used as a noun modifier bears the name verbal adjective. Passive Voice] 281 . She will not answer. .(I was) working/ loving .6. III.the –ing form of a verb (the Present Participle) . USES AND FUNCTIONS OF THE PRESENT PARTICIPLE a. The difference between the two participles lies in the meaning they have: whereas a Present Participle generally expresses an active meaning.not + the – en form of a verb (the Past Participle) Not knowing what to say. to form with the auxiliary to be the passive voice and with the auxiliary to have the Perfect Tenses A book was read.

You could have told us everything. namely a Gerund. FORM OF THE GERUND a. He had too many shattered dreams. îl vom accepta. Conjunctiv prezent I’ll have her typing two letters.) b. [Perfect Gerund. we will accept him. [have told = Perfect Infinitive] I can’t stand having been deceived. Affirmative: -ing form Do you mind my smoking in here? b. voice. trecut sau viitor): I saw John opening the gate. (Ştirile păreau foarte interesante. 282 . it is totally different in syntax. (Ei au fost învinşi de o armată mai puternică. (L-am văzut pe John deschizând poarta.3 THE GERUND An –ing form can cover another nonfinite form of the verb. Adjectiv The news seemed very interesting. Participiu: They were defeated by a more powerful army. Substantiv: a never-ending story (poveste fără sfârşit) f. Verbal features • The Gerund may have aspect. not + having + Past Participle of the verb Do you mind me not coming with you? (Te deranjează dacă nu vin cu tine?) II. Verbal features It may take direct objects or prepositional objects: We have asked several questions. indirect or prepositional object: Your going there is a little bit surprising. Adjectiv/ participiu: my beloved child (copilul meu drag/ iubit) e. Gerunziu/ Propoziţie subordonată ( + un mod predicativ: prezent. a direct. (Luând în considerare toate aspectele.) 1.) d.6. (Perfect Gerund) She resents being asked personal question.) c. Laughing loudly is not nice when you have an official meeting.) All things considered. (simple aspect) Your having gone there was a little bit surprising. V. (the subject) I. Negative: not + -ing form (Gerund). USES AND FUNCTIONS OF THE GERUND a. 3. His dreams are shattered. Passive Voice] 2. (Am să o pun să bată la maşină două scrisori. Adjective features The Past Participle can be used attributively or predicatively. (passive voice) I enjoy talking about my new job. Ways of translating The Present/ Past Participle into Romanian: a. Even if the Gerund resembles the Present Participle in form.

They are supposed to be coming round tonight. modul indicativ (prezent..) 2. (A avut şansa de a spune adevărul. They can’t allow him to be laughed at. This meat . Nominal features There are some morphological and syntactical features that show that the Gerund has nominal morphological features which make it change into a Verbal Noun.definite/ indefinite article: The rebuilding of the city took more than we thought. They felt the house shaking. (Îi place să asculte muzică. II... gerunziu: Fancy Tom dancing. 4. awful! I think it has gone bad. He seemed to be annoyed by the noise. Choose the correct form: 1. (Verbal Noun) . 8. 9.genitive (the prepositional genitive): The beautiful singing of the children was the climax of the party. I swear not to do this again.plural number: We are exhausted with his comings and goings. c.) 4.) 3. conjunctiv: He is fond of listening to music.. I want him to listen to me. trecut sau viitor) Do you mind me smoking in here? (Te deranjează dacă fumez aici ?) Do you mind me having smoked in here? (Te deranjează dacă am fumat aici?) B. We named John to be our President. (rebuilding – Gerund) . 5. 7.. 6. but whereas the Present Participle can become a Verbal Adjective. Ways of translating the Gerund into Romanian 1. The boy noticed the dog running. Identify the Infinitival and Participial constructions and specify the verbs that trigger them: 1. The house was announced to have been broken into.b.. the Gerund can precede a noun. Pseudo-adjective features Like the Present Participle. 3. He is unlikely to come at the meeting. . 10. (Verbal Noun) Rebuilding the city took more than we thought. a) is tasting b) tastes 283 . EXERCISES I. (Imagineazăţi-l pe Tom dansând/ că dansează. 2. the Gerund does not become an adjective. Compare the following – ing forms: a dancing bear (dancing = Verbal Adjective – ‘a bear which is dancing’) a dancing-teacher (dancing = Gerund – ‘a teacher of dancing’) III. infinitiv: He had the chance of telling the truth.

. ... the swimmer finished the race a) in spite of b) despite III... 3. a) as it barked b) barking 8. He said he was looking forward to . I didn’t remember (post) the letter.. 5......... The car is broken down and I can’t make it (go).. I would never think of .. I remember ... a) raising b) racing 3. 11....... .. if you don’t like .. a) to tell b) telling 6.their motorcars dangerously... 8. The answer to the employment problems seems to lie in .. Use the Gerund or the Infinitive of the verbs in brackets: 1........ 3... Can you remember what you were doing .. .. It was very kind of you to help me with the housework.. 7...... 4...... 4.. furiously.. I appreciate ..... He doesn’t seem to me to be fond of . V.. 9. I invited her (come) out with me. I led the dog out of the room. a) being b) having 5... that we cannot accept your apologies..... 8. We regret .. I’ll never forget (walk) on the beach with her and (enjoy) the morning sunshine. typed the letters. 284 . a) lying b) laying 4.... I tried (go) to bed immediately after lunch but I couldn’t sleep.. the door when I left the house..2. mistakes in his translations. Finish the sentences so that the meaning stays the same: 1...... You should (try) settle the dispute between them........ 2... IV. He sees no harm in my .. 6... Finish the sentences using Gerund or Perfect Gerund: 1.... Who is responsible for . It’s no good..... the chairman went on (discuss) about the unemployment problem. in the sun.. He was so happy he succeeded in ....! 6. I’ll have the mechanic (check) the battery while he’s here.. He said he wasn’t used to .? 5..... He was always .... It was nice to see the kids ..... 9.... a) to make b) making 9.... 2.... 2..... people will stop (complain) about loss of jobs. (Judge) from recent events. a) to lock b) locking 7..... so I still have it.. in public 10..... I could notice how much he enjoyed .? 7. They were . the secretary put them into envelopes.? a) usually at that time of the day b) that time of the day 10.being very tired. Why don’t you stop ... I saw that he closed the safe. I’m sure you’ll find a solution.. (talk) about the first item on the agenda. I hate (think) sometimes that he might find excuses for everything he does. 3......

I know how to solve this Maths problem... Translate into English: 1.. You are not permitted to park here..... The idea was to stay there and wait..... M-am obişnuit să merg pe jos 3 km pe zi... I am so anxious to hear about you.... The pipe needs . I am looking forward .. There is a risk that she will miss the train if she doesn’t take a taxi.. Să încercăm să pornim aparatul prin apasarea pe butonul roşu.. 19......... I saw him . Ce-ai zice să mergem şi să-l vizităm diseară? 2... 6. I will have ... 11.. I really don’t know if I turned off the gas when I left REMEMBER 8. 10....... Working late is pointless..... 7... I wasn’t pleased with it. That’s the way . 12.......... she won’t come.. The pipe is old and it leaks badly.......... YOUR 10. I promise! UP 5. 10. I suggest that they should paint the doors white...... Is it all right if I go with you as well? MIND VIII. It is strange that you should call on us at this hour.. He is sorry he didn’t answer her letter. I will talk with someone to paint my house.... 14.. I finished my homework and then I went out for a walk....... 3.4....... E foarte greu să-i împiedici pe oameni să parcheze în acel loc..... 17. Acoperisul necesită reparaţii urgente. He felt sorry he had been late for the concert....... 18. Rewrite each sentence using the words in capitals: 1.. He apologised . 15. 5.. De ce nu încerci să eviţi călătoria pe timpul nopţii? 4...... I suggest . REGRET 2.... don’t wait for her... After . because you won’t finish the composition till tomorrow. The idea of . look here! 16.. Dar cum îl poţi face să înceteze de a copia la lucrări? 8. HAVING 9... VI...... 9........ You may go home..... Fratele meu preferă să joace tenis decât să mă însoţească în parc........... Foarte greu m-am obişnuit cu ideea de a-l pierde. 13...... he left the room without a word.. WORTH 6. 285 ....... 20....... 5... 6.. I won’t smoke anymore....... RISKS 3.. Nu-mi amintesc să fi plouat marţi toata ziua 7... He finished his work... PARKING 7. USE 4....... 9.... 8....

the concrete noun. The judge handed the files to the clerk. and the collective noun. Last year. or abstract idea. animal. the non-countable noun (also called the mass noun). Abstract Nouns An abstract noun is a noun which names anything which can not be perceived through the five physical senses. II. or things and they are always written with capital letters. place. places. and countable or non-countable or collective. Many people dread Monday mornings. The bus inspector looked at all the passengers' passes.4. All the gardens in the neighbourhood were invaded by beetles this summer. abstract or concrete. THE NOUN A.2. II. Common Nouns A common noun is a noun referring to a person. place. religions. The names of days of the week. You should note that a noun will belong to more than one type: it will be proper or common. taste. II. organisations. institutions.2. Classification of nouns Grammarians have developed a whole series of noun types. II. thing. II. the common noun. sight. Justice often seems to slip out of our grasp. Definition A noun is a word used to name a person. the countable noun (also called the count noun). Late last year our neighbours bought a villa. their holy texts and their adherents are proper nouns.1. including the proper noun. months.III. The real estate agent urged the couple to buy the second house because it had new shingles. or smell. THEORETICAL CONSIDERATIONS I. historical documents. Concrete Nouns A concrete noun is a noun which names anything (or anyone) that can be perceived through the physical senses: touch. Proper Nouns Proper nouns are names of specific persons. I had a Baptist and a Buddhist as roommates. According to the sign. or thing in a general sense. the abstract noun. the nearest town is 60 miles away. 286 . hearing.3. Mary is amused by people who are nostalgic about childhood.

The class was startled by the bursting light bulb. Compare: -y / -ies -y / -ys spy / spies play / plays baby / babies bay / bays city / cities osprey / ospreys sky / skies boy / boys III. book / books bus / buses pen / pens lunch / lunches day / days class / classes III. We painted the table red and the chairs blue. Miriam found six silver dollars in the toe of a sock. II. and is roughly the opposite of a countable noun. -fe / -ves 287 . The singular number denotes that one thing is spoken of. and which refers to something that you could (or would) not usually count. -x. You need to be able to recognise collective nouns in order to maintain subject-verb agreement. -s -es boy / boys patch / patches. Add -s to the end of the singular form or -es to those singulars that end in a sibilant sound (-s.5. A non-countable noun always takes a singular verb in a sentence. the plural denotes that more than one thing is spoken of. The steering committee meets every Wednesday afternoon. -ss. However. -ch. Countable Nouns A countable noun (or count noun) is a noun with both a singular and a plural form. III.II. animals. Non-Countable Nouns A non-countable noun (or mass noun) is a noun which does not have a plural form.1. the -y changes to -i and the plural is then -es. In modern English -s or -es has come to be the "standard" ending of the plural forms of nouns. Number English has two numbers: singular and plural. if the singular ends with -y and the -y is not preceded by a vowel (or is not a proper name). or persons. Gravel is more expensive than I thought. but you usually think of the group as a whole. Non-countable nouns are similar to collective nouns.7. -zz). III.6. bed / beds box / boxes. A collective noun is similar to a non-countable noun. as one unit.2.3. Oxygen is essential to human life. -sh. You could count the individual members of the group. and are the opposite of countable nouns. Collective Nouns A collective noun is a noun naming a group of things. The majority of English count nouns are regular and predictable in the spelling of the plural form. II. and it names anything (or anyone) that can be counted. Some nouns that end in -f/-fe change to -ves in the plural: -f.

-fe that can have two plural forms (both -fs and -ves): e. some nouns ending in -o may take both -s and -es: sg.7. Man / men Woman / women Foot / feet Goose / geese Tooth / teeth Louse / lice Mouse / mice III.g. III. Motto – mottos / mottoes Buffalo – buffalos / buffaloes Tornado – tornados / tornadoes Zero – zeros / zeroes Cargo / cargos / cargoes III. .6. Some Old English plurals are still in use: sg. there are some nouns ending in –f. / pl cod* / cod* deer / deer fish* / fish* 288 .4.5. wharf – wharfs / wharves. scarf – scarfs / scarves. Some nouns change the vowel sound in becoming plural: sg. Some nouns do not change at all: sg. / pl. / pl. child / children ox / oxen III. Nouns ending in -o may take -s or –es in the plural.pl.calf / calves half / halves leaf / leaves life / lives wife / wives shelf/shelves self/selves knife / knives However. Compare: -o / -os -o / -oes auto / autos echo / echoes photo / photos hero / heroes piano / pianos potato / potatoes kilo / kilos tomato / tomatoes video / videos veto / vetoes However.

8. Other nouns retain foreign plurals. Nouns ending in -um with plural -a: singular foreign plural addendum addenda bacterium bacteria curriculum curricula datum data medium media memorandum memoranda English plural in use cactuses funguses English plural in use curriculums mediums memorandums 289 . Nouns ending in -us with plural -a (only in technical use): sg.8. III.c. Nouns ending in -us with plural -i: singular foreign plural bacillus bacilli cactus cacti fungus fungi nucleus nuclei octopus octopi stimulus stimuli III.b.8. Many (but not all) fish have irregular plural forms. but one shark becomes two sharks. Salmon. Nouns ending in –a with plural –ae: singular foreign plural English plural in use alga algae amoeba amoebae amoebas antenna antennae antennas formula formulae formulas larva larvae vertebra vertebrae III.d.8.a. Note that some of these have adapted a regular English plural form as well.8. but are also used for singular forms: sg. halibut and tuna are further examples. pike. / pl barracks / barracks crossroads / crossroads headquarters / headquarters means / means series / series species / species III. These include nouns that are traditionally plural.offspring / offspring sheep / sheep trout* / trout* *Notice that these are names of fish. / pl corpus / corpora genus / genera III.

German. manservant. father-in-law. Ottoman. / pl criterion / criteria phenomenon / phenomena III. then. IV. Nouns ending in -on becoming -a: sg. • Some groups pluralize both parts of the group. if of the female sex.f. those which do not distinguish sex. fellow-servant. as man singer. or names of things without life.gender nouns.8. These make the plural in the last part.e. -ix becoming plural -ices: singular foreign plural English plural in use appendix appendices appendixes cervix cervices cervixes index indices indexes matrix matrices matrixes vortex vortices III. • Those groups in which the first part is the principal one. woman servant. 290 . Noun . forget-me-not.8. woman singer. but add -s.III.Gender Whereas in other languages gender follows the form. followed by a word or phrase making a modifier. firman. commander in chief. / pl analysis / analyses axis / axes basis / bases crisis / crises diagnosis / diagnoses oasis / oases III. stepson. Frenchman. in English the gender follows the meaning of the word.g. The chief member adds -s in the plural. must be divided into two principal classes . and neuter nouns.8. courtyard. court-martial. Norman.8. the name of it is masculine. handful. All nouns.h. The plural of compound nouns Compound nouns may be divided into two classes: • Those whose parts are so closely joined as to constitute one word. Thus gender is the mode of distinguishing sex by words.. or additions to words. those distinguishing the sex of the object. maidservant. attorney at law. Nouns ending in -ex. the name of it is feminine. Mussulman. Brahman. that is. fisherman. gender depends on sex: if a thing spoken of is of the male sex. in English. Nouns ending in -is becoming -es in plural: sg. Englishman. knight-errant. NOTE:Some words ending in -man are not compounds of the English word man. English can have but two genders – masculine and feminine. and consequently without sex. such as talisman.

• -ment: contentment. Gender shown by prefixes. bachelor/maid boy/girl brother/sister drake/duck earl/countess father/mother gander/goose husband/wife king/queen M. Gender shown by suffixes. kingdom. murderer / murderess. • By using a different word for each gender.1. IV. generally to a masculine word. • -sion.g. lord/lady wizard/witch nephew/niece ram/ewe sir/madam son/daughter uncle/aunt bull/cow boar/sow V. Gender shown by different words. • -ity: capability. kindness. cock sparrow / hen sparrow.3. appointment. neuter nouns include some animals and all inanimate objects. negro / negress . the masculine ending may be dropped before the feminine -ess is added: e. 291 . then you know it must be a noun. • -ness: toughness. The feminine may also discard a vowel which appears in the masculine: e. By far the largest number of gender words are those marked by suffixes. • -dom: wisdom. flexibility. Sometimes.Gender nouns include names of persons and some names of animals. The ending -ess is added to many words without changing the ending of the masculine: M.2. baron / baroness count / countess lion / lioness host / hostess priest / priestess However. There are three ways to distinguish the genders: • By prefixing a gender word to another word. • By adding a suffix. IV.g. abbot – abbess. he-bear / she-bear. the feminine and the masculine are entirely different words M. / F. Noun Suffixes These are common endings for nouns. / F. -tion: celebration. expression. If you see these endings on a word. IV. actor / actress. / F. master / mistress. Usually the gender words he and she are prefixed to neuter words: he-goat / shegoat.

Underline that noun and write the correct form after the sentence. 1. In each sentence there is one singular noun that should be plural. existence. Cheryl doesn’t enjoy washing dish. Why must I pay four different tax on the same income? IV. -ist: violinist. The children stood on boxes to see the parade. All the king’s horses and all the king’s men ate scrambled eggs. I read seven story to my son. B. dogs 2. Do turtles have teeth? 5. Woman 2. 1. 1. 6. We saw some bright flash of light coming from the woods. II. books 292 . There are two or more plural nouns in each sentence. There are three church in our little community. 1. We took pictures of the oxen as they pulled the wagons. The hunters never noticed the two deer by the apple trees. Harold lost five of his new book. 4. Seven protester were arrested after the riot. actor. Glasses 2. III. Only one of them is an irregular plural noun. -ence: assistance. 8. 10. 3. We put ten of our best crystal glass on the table. -or: fighter. EXERCISES I. There are too many box in our attic. The old dog no longer fought over their food. Vincent helped the women choose their costumes. 9. The first three have been done for you. 4. pianist. All the student in that school wear uniforms.• • • -ance. The children told their parents about the matches. Our watch don’t show the same time. You should place the knives and spoons to the left of the plates. Boxes 2. stories 3. The first one is done for you. One of those nouns should be changed to its plural form to be correct. There are two or more singular nouns in each sentence. Write the correct plural form after the sentence. The underlined noun in each sentence is spelled in its singular form. Sandy knew that many mice were living in the walls of the old houses. Underline the irregular plural noun in each sentence and write the singular form. 5. 3. The first one is done for you. How many picture did you take on your trip? 3. 7. Underline the incorrect noun and write its proper form after the sentence. 6. 7. Are the geese chasing the other farm animals? 4. Why are all school bus painted yellow? 5. The first sentence has been done for you. -er. Please keep your hands and feet inside the car. Our soccer team has had four wins and three loss. 11.

V. Give abstract nouns from these words: 1. 3. The members' votes were counted by hand. The first five have been done for you. fluorescent. Mrs. lofty. We never noticed the frog that were sitting on the salad. 16. 9. did you remove some shelf from this bookcase? 11. coward. nimble. ______________ joke did not amuse the minister. 14. child 5. to obtain. to catch. None of the ______________ showed the correct time. to destroy. maladjusted. 2. We saw many scary mask on the last night of October. watch 18. 19. life. 8. to bear. Alice. My uncle's pranks are annoying. Write the correct form of the noun on the line. keen. The ______________ names are Big and Pig. The governor brought all his child to the ceremony.4. to strike. story 14. I don’t believe that John was chased by a bunch of mummy. Does this mouse belong to you? mouse 6. 10. The ______________ plan would surely get them into trouble. Most ______________ colors will change during the fall. Annabella was outraged when the nurse said she had eleven louse in her hair. 15. The teacher collected the children's papers. wish 8. My calf were sore after the race. 12. 20. to manage. merry. proud. brother. 13. father 9. leaf 15. social. to pursue. customer 17. None of the switch were turned off on that panel. to seize. moist. Penny put many penny in Patty’s purple pantry. rival. boy VI. The last four ______________ won the best prizes. Dale insisted that her property tax were too high. . box 10. All the witch flew over our Halloween party. uncle 3. hard. Mary 16. to dally. The ______________ are stacked against the door. wry. How many presents are under the tree? present 2. 1. perverse. forlorn. blue. You girls are not behaving like ______________! lady 7. 5. absent. partner. Olivia falls asleep by counting sheep in her mind. All my dream came true when you became my wife. likely thief. That ______________ belongs to my grandfather. 7. Please take both your ______________ out of my pudding! foot 12. cow 13. There were many flash of light in the sky. 17. to hide. I will grant you three ______________. pauper (two forms). mild. to draw. traitor. My ______________ car is falling apart. mother. to keep. 6. to despise. busy. 293 . to crucify. gay. All of this ______________ characters had faults. broad. I sent three reply to your e-mail address. patron. 18. to deny. blue. Each sentence below is missing a noun. The painter left their ladder in the middle of the driveway. delicate. puppy 11. member 4. Apple were the favorite food at the school party. The singular form of the noun is printed after the sentence. to see.

2. cameo. duck. test-tube. Choose the correct form of the noun. belief. tuft. 294 . index. Unfortunately. scarf. marquis. die. stag. court-martial. clog. goose. bride. coltsfoot. hank. 7. 8. grouse. mongoose. sow. beau ideal. VIII. mars quake. housewife. count. flora. brace. axe. Give the plural of the following nouns: a. hyacinth. The (snow/snows) and (frost/frosts) of the Antarctic made him sway between (hope/hopes) and (fear/fears). casino. parish. parsnip. elk. she-sparrow. miasma. billy-goat. Mumps (is/are) very catching.VII. After a ten-day journey through the desert. swan. they found a small (oasis/oases). persona. daybreak. do-nothing. pain. snail. garden-flower. bull’s eye. eggshell. eyeglass. nettle. genius. sun-bath. chamois. solo. good-for-nothing. or say where both are correct: 1. IX. zero. minute. but finds a great pleasure in hunting (grouse/grouses) as well. Statistics (is/are) used on a large scale in a country’s industry. wrinkle. The annals of Tacitus (is/are) among the best historical sources for the history of the Roman times. glasseye. 10. lad. knowlittle. He is a well-known hunter of (bison/bisons). dog-rose. verb and determinative(s) and explain your choice. ram. Translate them into Romanian: by-street. 3. The vast (sand/sands) of the desert made him shiver with fear. X. science-fiction diary. moth. Give the feminine of the following words: marquis. calf. compass. 5. wage-freeze. oil-can. protégé. widow. He planted three (score/scores) of bulbs. 11. peacock. titmouse. cherub. cow. boyscout. bough. brushoff. virtuoso. Give the plural of the following words. hansom. fauna. attorney-general. ground. mare. wisdom tooth. necklace. cactus. Rondo. coop. 6. calf. milktooth. catchfly. Paul’s little brother is not good at (figure/figures). In a lot of (grottos/grottoes) all over the world. 4. elf. alley. fiasco. fiancé. poet laureate. wit. bandit. colliery. pickpocket. fiddle. researchers have discovered (frescos/frescoes) made by the primitive men. wind-screen. porch. breakdown. ram. goldfish. sphinx. onlooker. tick. hoof. friar. fox. sheath. ambassador. fir-tree. buckhedgehog. reef. commander-inchief. witch. bachelor. touch. eyelash. caroing-knife. bullock. b. boar. lion. bitch-atter. pebble. custom. scoop. 9. stepson. ecstasy. jaw. parsley. lieutenant-colonel. wizard. species. necropolis. hippopotamus. cock (rooster). lawn-mower. picklock. executor. larynx. The committee (was/were) of the opinion that it/they should take further steps. bee.

Brian is an Irishman. THEORETICAL CONSIDERATIONS English has two types of articles: definite (the) and indefinite (a. Indefinite Articles: a and an A and an signal that the noun modified is indefinite.) The use of these articles depends mainly on whether you are referring to any member of a group. the corresponding indefinite quantity word some is used for plural general nouns. But: She's the headteacher of Park School. but it is not one in particular: I'd like a peach.3. • when we refer to something for the first time. With the second reference. (but NOT: I bought a furniture. including someone's job. Julian is a practicing Buddhist. He's got a lovely smile. THE ARTICLE A.III. nation or religion: She's a headteacher.-plate /ju:/ /ju:/ /em/ /el/ If the noun is modified by an adjective.) We use the indefinite article: • when we are referring to one thing. It's a nice day. three times a day. we use the: There's a man at the door. 1 think it's the man from the garage. or to a specific member of a group: I. The rule is: • a + singular noun beginning with a consonant: a boy • an + singular noun beginning with a vowel: an elephant • some + plural noun: some girls But note: a uniform a European an MP an L. once a week • In exclamations: What a lovely day! 295 . referring to any member of a group. USES The indefinite article can be used before singular countable nouns. quantity. • with a unit of measurement (weight. These indefinite articles are used with singular nouns when the noun is general. it cannot be used before uncountable nouns: I bought an armchair.1. time): 12 a kilo. But: It's the nicest day we've had all week. the choice between a and an depends on the initial sound of the adjective that immediately follows the article: • a broken window • an unusual meeting • a European commision I. • after to be and have got when we are describing someone or something. an.

the Southern Hemisphere. groups of islands. the American Civil War • before some collective nouns referring to a whole group of people. The Berlin Philharmonic Orchestra • before superlatives and ordinals: It's the best film I've seen. the unemployed. Books are very important to me. the Netherlands. • when we refer to a particular place. Did you put the water in the fridge? 296 . USES The definite article can be used before singular and plural countable nouns and before uncountable nouns. the weather. the north. the disabled • before parts of the day: in the morning • before names of ships.II.’. the Philippines. that it refers to a particular member of a group. the public. The zero article (no article) Articles are not used before plural nouns and singular uncountable nouns which are used in a general sense. the Conservatives. the sun.. the Himalayas. I think your keys are in the kitchen. • when something is referred to for a second time and therefore becomes specific: They've got a boy and a girl. The girl is at university now. the River Nile. including names of nationalities and political parties or groups: the British. regions and a few names of countries: the Atlantic Ocean. • before names of musical instruments when we talk about playing them: Can you play the piano? But: I've just bought a piano. islands called ‘The Isle of . This includes: • when the content of the sentence specifies which particular one(s) we are talking about: The people next door have invited as round for a drink. the USA.1. • when there is only one: the world. the Ivory Coast. person. animal or thing and the speaker and listener know which one(s) is/are being referred to: The window cleaner's here.. rivers. We use it when we want to refer to a specific thing or things. the Bahamas. the Isle of Wight III. the army • before some adjectives (used without a noun) to refer to the group in general: the rich. The definite article: the The definite article the signals that the noun is definite. Have you read the books I brought you last month? Water is the best thing to drink when you're thirsty. deserts. I'll wear the dress I bought last week. chains of mountains. the Sahara. II. • before names of seas. newspapers and magazines and some names of musical groups: The Daily Mirror. the Sudan. That's the second time she's failed the exam. the government.

..... 19.... etc: next Wednesday. horrible student? 5. hospital.. • with school. The speech lasted for ... Someone put . How far can ......... . 9...... 18. We arrived after ... 4.... Is Maxwell really .. bald eagle flew above the hill.... I think I saw . hour. old-fashioned man wear a diamond earring? 13.... II... bed. ugly camel answered our eager call.. She's been in hospital for three weeks... 3... . EXERCISES I. But: There isn't a hospital in the town. accidental meeting.. • with meals: Have you had breakfast yet? But: That was a lovely breakfast..... eel in the bathtub! 15.1. I'm leaving on Saturday. honor student. Did I make . 1. 6.. exciting lesson.. college. better basketball.. mistake by serving the chocolate covered worms? 14. class. 2.. 1. church.. Erin is .. OTHER USES OF THE ZERO ARTICLE: • with proper nouns: James has gone to London. 'How much are the leeks?' 'They're 80 pence a pound.. days of the week. Write a or an in the blank. work.. Barbara bought ....' 2. 16. last night... oriole perched on the branch.. 20... ancient city lie beneath the water? 10. 297 . 12...... 7. ..... town when we talk about going to these places or being in them for their normal use: Peter’s gone to bed. She taught . I just picked ...... 17... university. prison.. I saw an owl on your roof. Does ..... humorous hippo hugged Helen.. next time B. Complete the sentences with a or an.III. long afternoon in the automobile. • with by + item of transport: Did you go by train? • with next/last + week. I believe it was .. Would . London Symphony Orchestra. I went to . . home. one ounce apple..... gallon of gas go? 11.. the or no article.... wonderful concert by . They built a real igloo in the park. 8... honest reply would be appreciated.

apple? 16... 13.. cloud... morning.........3. 20. III.. information.. 15. 4. Can I have ... next election.. the. and burned. … children were playing games on … bank and there were … people rowing on the river.. butter on their bread.. money.. British usually have . A lot of people give ... one thousand six hundred and sixty-six. unemployed these days.... People on … bank called out to … man in … boat… but he did not hear them....... 298 .... Opposition is in danger of losing her seat at ......... or any.... 8. charity at this time of year. first time you've been to . moth. 19..... but there weren’t … in sight. explain the use of the articles: That night was … third of September. work by . V. in day-time there was … immense cloud of… smoke and in … night-time there was … great tower of … fire mounting up into… sky........... Put in a(n) or some in front of the following words: picture... I like to have . It was warm last Sunday so I went and sat on … river bank as usual.. electrician... 5... … nights were lighter than the days..... Fill in the spaces – where necessary...... Leader of . water.... I think it must have been .... it spread and spread... I turned to look at … children. He's . … summer had been intensively hot and dry. perfume. . … flying sparks carried … conflagration to … great distances... …showers of hot ashes rose into … air and fell on … distant places. beautiful face that child's got! 10. same one that I saw last week... perfume for her birthday but I don't think she liked ... heiress... fox this morning..... I usually go to . train... general public over this issue. which lighted … whole country landscape for… ten miles round... Isle of Man? 7.. and that wind famed … Great Fire of London..... axe. I saw .. on … spot on which … Monument … now stands as … remembrance of those raging flames. where necessary: …Tarcău is a small river that cuts across… lane near… my home.... newspaper.. soap-suds... Suddenly one of … children kicked … ball very hard and it went towards… passing boat…. ... It broke out at … baker’s shop near … London Bridge.... Is ... milk. life is very difficult for .. art teacher and she's ... .. police have had a lot of support from .. oil... Put in a(n)... I bought my sister . tea when I wake up in . . 9. oven? 6.. … ball struck him so hard that he nearly fell into .....with the definite or indefinite article. local school is soon to be closed..... IV.. … houses crumbled into … cinders by hundred and … thousand.... for… three days.. book and .... 14. .... shirts on . rice.. I like sitting by… Tarcau on fine afternoons......... ewe........ cup of .. bottle of .... … church steeples feel down with … tremendous crashes. Acropolis in . … streets were very narrow. 18. 12.... Have you ever seen ...... What.. Is this .. money to ... . . washing-line should be nearly dry now... meat in . Athens? 17.. water...... 11. some.... people don't like him because of his selfish attitude.

(4) United States and . You’ll get … very nice wine from … Sicily.... Fill in the spaces with the definite article or indefinite article where necessary: 1.. VII..... British Museum and the old houses in . (20) intellectual centre of Britain's capital city. (5) Canada one can find many . 5. (36) ferry-boat and from there to travel home across the Continent by .... When he saw it he drew back and his … cheeks flushed for … moment with … pleasure. I find accommodation at . ‘For exactly the same reason’ cries excited Phil... I walk around . … look of joy came into his eyes... Nothing could stop … tremendous fire but … want of more houses to burn. (23).. is in .. (7) Heathrow airport... it is . (9) Piccadilly Circus or . He stood there motionless and in wonder.. (29) House of Lords and . … Basil Hallaward’s compliments had seemed to him to be merely … charming exaggerations of … friendship. three quarters of … pound of … currants..and houses mostly built of wood and … plaster. as if he had recognized himself for … first time. and beside this was … round of … spiced beef. 3. and powdered ginger. stripped of its outer skin. within .. I decide to cross . half… pound of … final shred suet..... (15) first day I visit . as everybody knows. . having landed at . . I sometimes dream that. (27) Parliament... (3) United Kingdom that I would like to visit most. (21) Senate House. (8) underground to central London. (1) countries of . (30) House of Commons... dimly conscious that … Hallaward was speaking to him.. (13) walking distance of .. adding as you beat half … pound of … coffee raisins. Supply articles where necessary: Of all .. but not catching … meaning of his words … sense of his own beauty came on him like … revelation... (28) Westminster and consists of ... far better than you’ll ever find here.. (25) Houses of Parliament and listen to . then .. On my second day I wander about .. He had never felt it before. (16) National Gallery and .... … fat brown goose lay at one end of … table and at … other end.. quarter of pound … powdered sugar... not far from ... nor did it stop until … whole way from …Tower to … Temple Bar was … desert... (14) Buckingham Palace. beat … bread smooth.... although I am certain that in .. Pour one pint of … boiling milk over … pound of … bread cut in … slices.. … quarter of … teaspoonful each of … salt. lay … great ham. (34) end. (6) tourist attraction too.. (24) Russell Square.. where . (33) week. as soon as … milk is absorbed and cool.. (19) Bloomsbury. Later. (10) Marble Arch. (2) former British Empire. to . When my English vacation draws to . see .. VI. (18) two museums that I have no time left for anything else.. (22) University of London has most of its offices... (17) Tate Gallery and there are so many beautiful things to see in . and … glass of … wine or … brandy … grated nutmeg. (12) Thames. (11) inexpensive hotel... . ... (31) visitors can see . (26) Big Ben strike the hour.. 4. You really must stay to … supper. 2. (37) rail. hammering on… table with …both… hands...... 299 . (32) latter at work on some days of . (35) English Channel by . I travel by .. on … bed of … creased paper strewn with … springs of … parsley..

X. curând. pe clanţa uşii. În scurt timp. ghiocelul alb. afacerea unilaterală. acul de siguranţă.VIII. o regulă universală. 300 . o regină fără pereche. În cele din urmă am pus receptorul în furcă. Translate into English: După micul dejun. eram ocupată cu amestecatul untului şi al făinii. o creangă de tuia. regiunea aridă. coaja oului. ora. o călimară. o clanţă galbenă. furnica. timpul tulbure. un fermoar. Tocmai atunci. m-am hotărât să fac nişte tarte pentru ceai. Nimic n-ar fi putut fi mai enervant. Abia am ajuns în bucătărie că soneria ţârâi atât de tare. cuptorul. olandezii. copii au mers la şcoală şi cam după un sfert de oră. Translate into English: mică cutie chinezească. un sfat. studentul inteligent. IX. un preşedinte onorific. o parvenită. Pentru că m-am întors acasă mai devreme şi soţul era încă la serviciu. eu am mers la piaţă. o temperatură uniforma. o înmormântare onorabilă. moştenitorul. caisa. un şomer. un englez. Am ridicat receptorul cu două degete lipicioase şi am rămas surprinsă auzind vocea d-nei Brown. un om fals. stilul oficial. o moară de vânt. un an. omul cu un singur ochi. o viespe. recordul neîntrecut. Mi-au trebuit 10 minute s-o conving să mă sune mai târziu. metoda eficientă. o limbă de ceas. un vânt destul de puternic. familia unită. o cursă de şoareci. Dar ce incurcătură! Aluat pe degete. De data aceasta era poştaşul care dorea să semnez pentru o recomandată. galbenuşul. încât ar fi trezit şi morţii. un nufăr. Translate into English: Plugarul. vâsla. pe telefon. sună telefonul. o curte. plămădeala lipicioasă îmi acoperi mâinile.

Simple and Compound Adjectives Adjectives may be divided into a series of classes and subclasses according to the various criteria taken into consideration. the heavy bag an innocent child the yellow rose a famous writer a chilly morning a beautiful woman a flexible puppet a merciless dictator I. grateful. cubic. correct. flexible.III. In other words. THE ADJECTIVE A. internal. to describe. Typical adjective endings include: capable. II. functional. ice-cold water. We need another category of words in order to describe the characteristics (size. pleasurable. harmful. persuasive. logical. but they can also be used after certain verbs: Peter was furious. Descriptive adjectives. foolish. • Simple adjectives cannot be decomposed into smaller or simpler parts: safe. useful -ful attractive. deep.4. the next-door neighbour. terrible. It was no doubt a gorgeous landscape Two beautiful young French students entered the room. the largest class of adjectives. • Compound adjectives are adjectives made of two or more identifiable words: a life-giving energy. we cannot use only nouns. the people present. in order to add to the meaning of nouns or to limit their application. etc. Some adjectives can be identified by their endings. secretary general. IV. we need to use adjectives. position. manual -al beautiful. extensive.) of an object or the physical or moral qualities of a person. may be divided into simple and compound adjectives when form is the criterion taken into consideration. beautiful. Suffixes Adjectives can be identified using a number of formal criteria. THEORETICAL CONSIDERATIONS If we wish to speak of or to describe objects and people. colour. court martial. Definition An adjective is a word joined to a noun or other substantive word or expression. a long-legged bird. heroic. bluish. economic. readable. dirty. homemade bread. a good-looking man. intensive. portable. Position Adjectives usually precede the nouns which they modify*. careful. selective -ive anarchic. etc. etc. smell. dwarfish. remarkable -able/-ible financial. a blue-eyed woman. long. poetic -ic childish. amazing. whitish -ish 301 . III. a short-sleeved coat. *Pay attention to exceptions such as: knight errant. identify or quantify it. happy.

infinite. sole. immemorial. merciless. expressing a greater degree of quality. Most adjectives in English are gradable. The degrees of comparison are the comparative. organic. color.-less -ly -ous -y -ing* -ed* breathless. insignificant • ir-: irresponsible. dangerous. an idea may be better than another one. a purse may be heavier than a suitcase. unnecessary • il. main. neighbouring. etc. perpetual. 1. a woman’s eyes may be bluer than the sky. VI. universal.: illegal. impolite • in-: inconvenient. we notice some differences between them as to size. illogical • im-: impossible. Negative prefixes Adjectives may also be formed by means of a number of negative prefixes including the following: • dis-: disagreeable dishonest • un-: uninteresting. virtuous chilly. confused. However. uninflected form is usually called the positive degree. moving. Degrees of Comparison Comparison is an inflection not possessed by nouns and pronouns: it belongs to adjectives and adverbs. latticed *-ing and -ed may be added to verbs in order to make up participial adjectives. and the superlative. sunny amazing. The Comparative The Comparative in English is represented by: • the Comparative of Superiority • the Comparative of Inferiority • the Comparative of Equality 302 . weight. a large number of very common adjectives cannot be identified in this way as they do not have typical adjectival form: bad dark honest red bright deep hot silent clever difficult main simple cold distant old strange common good quiet wide complete great real young V. fabulous. monthly courageous. experienced. speechless. kindly. Thus. etc. manly. This characteristic of adjectives is called gradability. supreme. expressing the greatest degree of quality. These are properly the only degrees. paved. sufficient. though the simple. disastrous. but there are some adjectives which are non-gradable as they already denote the highest position on a scale: favourite. irrelevant VI. restless. dirty. final. cunning. stony. surprising broken. a lioness may be larger than a lion. When we place two objects side by side. useless friendly. careless. etc. sandy.

.b. Some Comparatives of Equality have a superlative meaning: as black as coal... The Comparative of Superiority In the case of monosyllabic and easily pronounced adjectives of two syllables. the relative superlative is formed by adding the ..c. extremely dangerous. than. fat – the fattest.2. happy – happier.2. The Superlative The Superlative in English is represented by: • The Relative Superlative • The Absolute Superlative VI. careful – more careful. as gold.. famous – the most famous VI. as good. as blind as a bat. careful – the most careful. The Comparative of Inferiority All adjectives form the Comparative of Inferiority by adding either not so/as . extremely.. The Comparative of Equality All adjectives form the Comparative of Equality by adding as . awfully tired The Positive Degree thin famous The Comparative of Superiority thinner more famous The Comparative of Inferiority not as thin as less famous than The Comparative of Equality as thin as as famous as The Relative Superlative the thinnest the most famous The Absolute Superlative very thin very famous Notes: 1. easy – the easiest. very careful Other adverbs such as quite. as interesting as. the comparative is formed by adding the suffix –er. thin – the thinnest Most two-syllable adjectives and the adjectives which have three or more syllables have the relative superlative with the most.. awfully may also be added to form the comparative... The Relative Superlative In the case of monosyllabic and easily pronounced adjectives of two syllables.VI. thin – thinner Most two-syllable adjectives and the adjectives which have three or more syllables have the comparative with more. famous – more famous VI.a. fat – fatter.1. as happy as. VI.. blue – bluer. quite happy.b. as clear as crystal..1. less interesting than.. very thin.. Some two-syllable adjectives have comparatives and superlatives with either the endings –er and –est or more and most: 303 .2.1.. The Absolute Superlative All adjectives form the absolute superlative by adding the adverb very. as or less . not as happy as. happy –the happiest... as hungry as a wolf. blue – the bluest.. as..a. as poor as a church mouse VI. easy – easier.-est.

The cat stayed ... I love to watch good ballet dancers: they're so ...... the weather can be completely different from one day to the next........... 5..... II..... The situation out there is . His problem is that he always does exactly what people tell him to do: he's just so .. comfort.... 3... stupid... grace. 7... tire... 304 .. Fill each of the blanks with a suitable adjective from the list............. 14.. remote.. you're always dropping things.... It's important to keep . I don't know why he's so ...... then I sure he will..........g.. subtle. rely... handsome............ 6. EXERCISES I. describe. we're completely . 9..e.. as it waited to pounce on the bird. The problem is that there's nothing we can do about it...... forget... The seats in first class were really . 11... She's a very .. 2. We had a lovely weekend.. 10.... 12... I could easily have fallen asleep in them. gentle.... 15..... If he's said he'll be there.... She never seems to run out of energy..... obscure... 2..... after you retire. writer.. common – commoner/more common – the commonest/the most common simple – simpler/more simple – the simplest/the most simple Here are some more: cruel....... 8....... in the past. Three-syllable adjectives derived from other adjectives by adding the prefix –un may also have comparatives and superlatives with either the endings –er and –est or more and most: e..... polite.. she gives you a very good feel for the places and characters in her stories......... unhappy – unhappier/more unhappy – the happiest/the most happy unlucky – unluckier/more unlucky – the unluckiest/the most unlucky VII... power... 13....... shallow........ I believe what he says because he's always been ... motion.... she's completely . it was thoroughly enjoyable. You're so ......... climate... He never remembers my birthday... Here is a list that includes the majority of them................. It's a very ... care.. More and more people are dying every day. 4.... He's very . submit. enjoy.... change......g.. narrow... Don't worry...... good/well better the best evil/bad/ill worse the worst little less/lesser the least much/many more the most old older/elder the oldest / the eldest far farther/further the farthest / the furthest late later/the latter the latest / the last near nearer the nearest / the next B..... Complete the following sentences with an adjective formed from one of the verbs or nouns below: act..... truth 1. dread. Irregular Comparison Some adjectives and adverbs in English have irregular comparatives and superlatives..

305 . tasteful... with remorse for what he has done. cloud. responsible. possible. Put them into pairs of adjectives with similar meanings. fascinate... a.. The . a... technology..... two. last b) late c) early d) stopping 6. 8.. to use the phone if you need to. shame. a) due b) scant c) meagre d) proper IV. attention. train is almost never on time.. part.. obsess. question. economy.. Copy the table into your notebook and put the adjectives in the box into the correct columns.... interesting... 5. mercy. sick b) afraid c) frightened d) ill 2.. relevance.... aback b) unawares c) surprised d) unaccustomed 5. III. relevant. literate. 6. control. contempt. reward for twenty years of loyal service. I'd left it on the table. mature. 2.. attract. patient... youth. mortal. They had stories .. describe. justified.. convenient.. flexible. logic.. IV. regular. enjoy. 4. elect 1..... dirt.. about their travels through India.Those . a. vary. unlikely b) galore c) a-plenty d) countless 3.... A speedy solution is . depth.devoid. soluble..The landscape was completely . logical. understand.I'm . One. race. by the ferocity of the criticism. child was comforted by his aunt. grace.. honest. 3... rely. c or d.. perfect..This is . rational. art. eat.. influence. 7. child. to collapse in a strong earthquake. Give the adjectives corresponding to the following words: interest. repeat. separable un- it- imimpatient in- ir- dis- V. noise.. b. attractive. polite.. oppress.. province. destructible... a. beauty. Copy the table into your notebook and write the adjectives in the correct columns. moral.. nation.....I was absolutely .. love. therapy.These buildings are . certain. length.. The .... legal.. filled.. trouble... inclined.Please feel .. sand. legible.The outgoing President was accompanied by the President ... free. main b) principal c) chief d) crucial 4... with the political implications of the new policy are very worried. friendly. agreeable.The ex-prisoner is . of any sign of human habitation. envy... mountain... that can fill each gap. science... to think that it would be better to finish this later. He was taken . illustrate. concerned. reversible. three or all of them may be possible.. replaceable. explicable.... strength. liable.. Circle the adjectives listed a. 1. significant. a. use.

. 306 .. cruelty was from the institution of slavery and how fundamentally . (17)... VII.. Complete the sentences with adjectives derived from the words in capital letters at the end: 1. (6).. (MEANING) 4. . terrible. perfect... (TO BELIEVE) 9.... (TO DEFINE. My job was to try and understand something that was not . as dead as a .. (TO UNDERSTAND) 3. impossible. tasty. filthy.... as light as a . as stubborn as a . (10). as strong as an . delicious. (TO FORGIVE. (TO COMPREHEND) 2.. amazing. It is too easily imitated. enthusiasm. frightened. little. (8). as drunk as a . angry. (THEATRE) 6. Bărbatul cu umerii laţi îsi puse pe el haina neagră cu mâneci lungi şi plecă în grabă.. thin.surprising.. IX.. 2. Mie mi-au plăcut ambele fete.. as busy as a . hungry.. as old as the ..... as bright as a . TO RECONCILE) 11. (TO ENDURE) 5. story about how he had helped rob a bank in the City of London. as mad as a . starving. unhappy... upset. Give the degrees of comparison of the following adjectives and use them in sentences of your own: beautiful.(11). common.. as deaf as a . Ultimele ştiri sunt încurajatoare.. (16). as poor as a . He told me an . (13). good. minute. EFFORT) 8... and the ... 4. (9). and .. as keen as . thirsty. dar eu cred că cea mai mică e şi cea mai drăguţă. important. TO FORGET) 10. difficult gradable non-gradable surprising amazing VI. parched.. then this musician's art fails on the latter account. (14).. (7)... (1). Your cousin is a consummate liar... Even those who lived through the Holocaust found it . as cool as a . little.... (2)... wonderful.. terrified. interesting. The way he behaved to his poor ex-wife is both . furious. as dark as .. (15). The characters of the novel are people struggling to resume lives that war had rendered . The cheese was repulsively.. (ODOUR) VIII. The fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989 and the events in former Yugoslavia convinced film director Francisco Rosi of the . tired. TO IMITATE. melodism never was. The liberators were met with . were free and slave societies..... good. ugly. small.. Complete the following idiomatic comparisons: as blind as a ... big. in a way that Charlie Parker's seemingly . If art consists of the . as fit as a .. 3. Sometimes I would watch war films and think it was all too histrionic and too .. devastated. Sfaturile pe care mi le dai sunt întotdeauna utile.. Translate into English: 1.. nice... as clear as . (4). bad. hideous.. (5). (12). dirty. relevance of the book's theme. exhausted. (TO SEPARATE.. (3). (TO INFECT) 7.. lucky.. old.... enormous. Uncle Tom's Cabin showed how . vital..

307 . cu atăt mai speriată era: nu voia să fie văzută de nimeni. Se uită pe furiş la femeia îmbrăcată în negru. Am mâncat puţin astăzi aşa că mi-e o foame de lup. Călătoriile în spaţiul cosmic devin tot mai frecvente. turcii să vorbească turca. 6. iar finlandezii să vorbească finlandeza. 10. Avem amintiri atât de frumoase despre locul acesta încât ne-am gândit că o să-l revizităm. 8. Cu căt se întuneca mai tare. 9. Este firesc ca polonezii să vorbească poloneza.5. 7.

Classification There are several types of pronouns: • personal • possessive • reflexive • demonstrative • indefinite • reciprocal • relative • interrogative II. 2. us you them b. temperature.as a complement: sg. What time is it? It’s nine o’clock. Form: . time. Definition Pronouns are used to refer to people and things without naming them. You/ one should always tell the truth. Form: sg. mine pl. It’s cold outside. They replace nouns or noun phrases. I you he/ she/ it pl. Uses: • The pronoun I is always written with a capital letter. • It is used for people or things with an unknown gender. 5. me you him/ her/ it pl. • All the verbs in English (excepting Imperatives) must have a pronominal subject: They dislike inefficiency. ours 308 . II. II. Personal pronouns a. THEORETICAL CONSIDERATIONS I. no one or anyone. • You and one are used impersonally meaning everyone.III. Who is at the door? It is Olivia.1. THE PRONOUN A. making texts less repetitive. dates and distances: Where is my book? It is on the shelf. • They is used impersonally denoting a collective agent telling something: They say he is dishonest. How far is it to Chicago? It’s ten miles.as a subject: sg. Possessive pronouns a. we you they . with a noun to refer to persons and in expressions about the weather.

Uses: • With reflexive verbs like to enjoy oneself. Sue and Joe met last year. to cut oneself. they have the same form for singular and plural: Andy and Janet are cousins: the former is a student. • This. more. that. We’re using his. anybody/ thing/ one. everything. 309 . either. one. Why are you so angry with yourself? • To emphasize the doer of an action: The president himself attended the meeting. That is his. Form: sg. these. any. each. Demonstrative pronouns a. little. a little. to shave. the second of two.all. most. somebody/ thing/ one. ourselves yourself yourselves himself/ herself/ itself themselves b. • The former – the latter have the meaning of the first and. Indefinite pronouns a. those refer to objects in the distance. everybody. no one/ none. Uses: • The series ending in –body refers to people. many. Everything is possible here. Those are his. b. We’re using his car. Everybody is at home. neither. 5. nobody. • To show an action performed for or on oneself: She looked at herself in the mirror. to help oneself. everyone. This book is mine. II. 3. 4. to comb. that is there. both.possessive pronouns replace possessive adjectives. others. that ending in –thing refers to things. the others. to wash oneself: Please help yourself with some cake! He hurt himself during the game.yours yours his/ hers theirs b. Use: . to meet. these refer to objects that are near the speaker. nothing. respectively. another. not near the speaker: This is here. Uses: • The pronouns are in number agreement with the noun they replace: This (umbrella) is mine. a few. to hurt oneself. the other. These (discs) are mine. some. II. Reflexive pronouns a. not hers. to amuse oneself. Form: this. those (plural referent) b. enough. not her car. But some verbs which are reflexive in other languages are not reflexive in English: to dress. much. that (singular referent). myself pl. few. II. several. Form: . the latter is a pupil. The noun missing was mentioned before: This is my book.

Relative pronouns a. that. whom. things and is used with plural verb: The boys are both sleeping. • Which refers to animals or things: That’s the film which he likes best. whoever refer to persons: This is the boy who/ whom I told you about. a little. Few and a few refer to countable nouns. Form: who. feel the same way or have the same relationship. Form: each other. 310 . whoever. b. either means ‘one or the other’. • Whoever. Is anybody at home? Both refers to only two people. Little means ‘not much’ and is used for uncountable nouns. Shall I give you something to read? I didn’t see anybody. whatever refer to something or someone that is unknown: I’ll help whoever needs me. 6. Many of us have seen this film. many means a great number of: Much of his information was vital for us. however. A few of us managed to arrive in time. Is there any soup left? Yes. a little means ‘at least some’: Little is known about him. those beginning with any. Show me whatever you have. Much means a great amount or quantity of. whom. which. they embraced and then they kissed (one another). 7. whose (shows possession). II. II. few underlines the smallness of a number. one another indicating that two people do the same thing.• • • • • • The pronouns beginning with some. • There are some verbs which indicate reciprocity and do not use a reciprocal pronoun.are used in affirmative sentences and in interrogative sentences when an affirmative answer is expected. The woman whose car is parked there is my cousin. whose.are used in negative sentences when they follow a negative verb or a negative word. Reciprocal pronouns a. neither means ‘not one and not the other’: Which book do you prefer? Neither/ either. Uses: • The two constructions are normally interchangeable: We sent each other/ one another gifts. whichever. whichever. if the speaker wants to emphasize the relationship. Uses: • Who. Either and neither refer to two people or things. a few means ‘at least some’: We expected many guests but only few came. what b. or in interrogative sentences when we are not sure about the answer: I have something to tell you. a reciprocal pronoun may occur: When they met.

Jerry has fallen off the ladder this morning and has injured… 3. 5. III. The light in the stairway switches…off after two minutes. The students were happy because they could watch…on the video. (all) 2. she had to force…to eat. so she is teaching…French. Fill in with the suitable reflexive pronouns: 1. I rang the bell two or three time. 2. Jones is one of my colleagues. and the other one also won’t work. 7. nobody. (mine) 7. but…answered. or the object of preposition: Who has broken the vase? What is she doing now? • In idiomatic expressions: What about…? = what do you think about…? I can’t tell which is which/ who is who. B. We only want a weaker dollar. whose. I can lend you … 4. 4. Uses: • Used as the subject or object of a clause. 8. Fill in with some. My sister is going to France soon. This is your electric drill. Two theories proposed by him proved correct. 311 . …must have taken it. anybody. If you have no money. something. The boy locked…in the bathroom. whom. somebody. any. 9. There isn’t much to do on weekends. This idea won’t work. The soldier didn’t know that the gun was loaded so he shot… 10. which b. It was Mary who asked that stupid question. (herself) II. There is nothing to read at home. As she was not hungry. nothing: 1. (both) 6. You can let…into the house with the small key. (all) 5. He must be…important. (yours) 9. (anything) 10. We were surprised when we saw…in that large mirror. Dr.II. (his) 8. Do you have…to add? 3. All the participants will be sent an agenda. someone. none. 6. We only have a week left. (neither) 4. He has used a what-do-you-call it…= I don’t know its name. (every) 3. I can’t see my wallet. Form: who. anything. The two proposals are interesting. 8. Rewrite the second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to the first one and contains the word(s) in brackets: 1. EXERCISES I. anyone. what. so we have to amuse… 2. 5. Interrogative pronouns a.

2. 6. We saw a lot of strikers in the street. Fill in the blanks with the right reciprocal pronouns: 1. The gentleman…I have just greeted is a famous scientist. 3. 3. 1. VII. Would you like…? 10. 13. 5. Pollution is a problem…must be solved as soon as possible. …of us has ever heard such an interesting story. She asked him about that scholarship. 7. She wanted to drink some coffee but there was…left. I think there’s…at the door. Fill in the blanks with the corresponding relative pronouns: 1. 9. 8. it’s empty. This time I can’t do…for you. Transform these sentences replacing alone with by + a reflexive pronoun according to the model: My daughter prefers to do her homework alone. VI. Make up questions to which the following sentences are the answers. V. 11. London is the capital of Great Britain. 8. I don’t live alone: I have two roommates. Professor Jones. That car over there is John’s. Most people don’t enjoy going to a dance alone. The chair…you are sitting on is an antique. has taught us many interesting things. The problems…we did yesterday were difficult for us. He plans to go the there alone. 10. I’ll choose the red one. 5.6. 4. Refer to the words in italics by using interrogative pronouns: 1. 4. My daughter prefers to do her homework by herself. 6. This is the man…son won the competition. I have some very good wine. 3. That project belongs to me. We are going to buy a new central heating. We won’t be able to build this machine alone. I’m going to the supermarket since I want to buy… 14. 12. 9. IV. Did you really do it alone? 4. …is more important than good health. The woman…is crossing the street now is one of my teachers. for…I have great respect. There is…in my bag. You and I love … 312 . The teacher is explaining a new theory. The child to…you gave that toy was very happy. You can find practically…you want in this shop. 2. 8. Were you expecting…? 9. The coffee…you have made is very strong. 2. This is the school in…Einstein learnt. 7. 7. She begged the child to keep quiet. I asked them for a cup of tea. 10. 5.

nu-i adevărat că ea personal s-a dus acolo. Ce altceva aş fi putut face? 17.2. 5. După ce s-au uitat unul la altul cu insistenţă. The three girls haven’t spoken to … for a long time. 9. Our children and theirs took an instant dislike to … Alec and I stayed up late last night. 4. 10. Cui i-ai dat raportul scris? 14. We had a lot to say to … Our former classmates are very happy to meet … The two boys looked at … Although Angela and Sarah say that they are friends. 3. George a fost cel care a intrat primul în atelier. 6. The four children took their schoolbags and said goodbye to … VIII. i-am găsit pe amândoi în parc. 8. We hadn’t seen … for more than two years. ar nici una nu a venit încă. 9. toată lumea a plecat în excursie. 5. Cartea pe care am cumpărat-o luni este foarte interesantă. they hate … 10. 7. celelalte sunt greşite. Pe cine ai mai întâlnit acolo? 6. I hope jack and Julie get on with … My nephew called on me yesterday. Cum de mi-ai găsit adresa? Cine ţi-a dat-o? 15. 8. Translate the following sentences into English using pronouns wherever possible: 1. I know that. 7. Şi Maria şi Lucy au promis că vor fi aici la ora cinci. în cele din urmă. Cu excepţia câtorva polonezi şi a noastră. Care dintre băieţi ţi-a spart geamul? 20. 12. 313 . 2. Colegii noştri nu au găsit pe nimeni acolo iar laboratorul era zăvorât. Cine altcineva te-a mai văzut intrând aici? 11. 13. I-am căutat pe Frank şi Patrick mai bine de o oră şi. A cui este maşina de lângă poarta noastră? 16. Casa al cărei acoperiş este roşu a fost vândută unui american. Primele exerciţii sunt corecte. Prietena mea are doi băieţi: unul este medic iar celălalt este cercetător în domeniul tehnic. Nu este nici o fărâmă de adevăr în ceea ce spune ea. Este timpul să plecăm. in fact. 4. Care este haina ei? Sunt trei aici şi nici una nu este a mea. nu-i aşa? 3. 18. cei doi au izbucnit în râs. 19.

25 (seven point twenty-five) .III. multiplication: 6 x 5 = 30 (six multiplied by five is/ equals thirty) d.000. division: 40 : 5 = 8 (forty divided by five is/ equals 8) e. FORM: 1 one 11 eleven 21 twenty-one 2 two 12 twelve 30 thirty 3 three 13 thirteen 40 forty 4 four 14 fourteen 50 fifty 5 five 15 fifteen 60 sixty 6 six 16 sixteen 70 seventy 7 seven17 seventeen 80 eighty 8 eight 18 eighteen 90 ninety 9 nine 19 nineteen 100 one hundred 10 ten 20 twenty 106 a (one) hundred and six 621 six hundred and twenty-one 806 eight hundred and six 1. addiction: 2+3=5 (two plus three is/are five) b.000 a (one) million 1. TV .The figure 0 can be read in the following ways: . root: √25 = 5 (the square root of twenty-five is five) 3 √27 = 3 (the cube root of twenty-seven is three) • Fractions a. except when followed by ‘of’: hundreds of people (meaning lots of).for temperature: zero . powers: 35 = 241 (three to the power five is two hundred and fortyone) f. THE NUMERAL A. 513.When the numbers are over 999 and are written in figures.000 one thousand 1.There is no‘s’ after hundred. subtraction: 9–3=6 (nine minus three is/ are six) c. 608 or 2 513 608 • Common ways of calculating a. etc.for telephone numbers. love [lΛv] . long numbers: oh [əu] . The Cardinal numeral 1.000. -When the cardinal number contains a full stop. they get a comma or a blank: 1.000.in sport scores: nil [nil] (in team games). radio.000 a (one) billion 2.in mathematics: nought [no:t] . thousand.. 987 or 1 987 2. USES: Notes: . THEORETICAL CONSIDERATIONS I.6. million. the number(s) that occur after the full stop indicate a fraction: 7. Common fractions: ½ one half numerator/ denominator 314 .

6093 metres 3 miles = 1 league = 4. It’s half past two/ It’s two thirty. b.15 2. 00 23. 40 15. It’s twenty minutes to eleven. followed by a number: She was a girl of twelve.: 142093 (one – for – two – oh – nine – three) 566791 (five – double six – seven – nine – one) • 315 . 05 9. 15 b. It’s a quarter past eleven at night/ p.03 nought point nought three • Measurements a. Using the preposition of after a noun.00 1. (modern) It’s five past three. • Expressing age a. When we refer to the approximate age we can use in + pronoun + teens/ twenties/ fifties etc. we say ‘double 2/4/8’ etc. / It’s one a. Using to be followed by a number: He is fifteen (years old). or over + number: She was in her teens then. It’s three o’clock in the afternoon/ It’s three sharp.54 cm 12 inches = 1 foot (ft) 3 feet = 1 yard (yd) 1 mile = 1. It’s a quarter to ten/ It’s nine forty five (modern) It’s five minutes to seven. 45 6.m.89 thirty-five point eight nine 0.83 kilometres • 1. linear measure: 1 inch = 2. now she’s in her mid-fifties. Decimal fractions: 35. c.m. 30 3.m. if there are two identical numbers occurring together. I think he is over sixty.829 metres Telling the time It’s one o’clock a. Telephone numbers Each digit of a telephone number is spoken separately. With the help of a compound adjective: number + a singular noun referring to a period of time + old: A fifteen-year-old boy d. nautical measure 6 feet = 1 fathom 100 fathoms = 1.5 nought point five 0. It’s a quarter past one. 55 10.¾ three fourths ¼ one fourth 2/3 two thirds 6/35 six thirty-fifths b.

once 10x tenfold.dates may be written in the following ways: April 1. four times IV. 1946/ 1st April 1946/ 1st of April 1946 .000th the one thousandth 2. the 76th. The Multiplicative numeral 1x 2x 3x 4x It shows the proportion in which a quantity is increased: single.ordinal numbers can also be written in an abbreviated form: the 1st. thrice fourfold. The ordinal numeral 1. When we want to identify something by indicating where it comes in a sequence: January is the first month of the year. FORM 1st the first 2nd the second 3rd the third 4th the fourth 5th the fifth 6th the sixth 7th the seventh 8th the eighth 9th the ninth 10th the tenth 11th the eleventh 40th the fortieth th th 12 the twelfth 50 the fiftieth 13th the thirteenth 60th the sixtieth th 14 the fourteenth 70th the seventieth 15th the fifteenth 80th the eightieth th 20 the twentieth 90th the ninetieth 21st the twenty-first 100th the one hundredth 30th the thirtieth 1. the 52nd. ten times double/ twofold. the 98th III. 1946/ April 1st. Uses: a.II. the 2nd. The Distributive numeral It shows the distribution or grouping of objects: one by one two by two/ by twos/ in twos ten by ten/ by tens/ in tens in dozens (in sets of twelve) in score (in sets of about twenty) 316 . This is the seventh time when I’m calling her! Notes: . a hundred times triple/ threefold. twice 100x a hundredfold.

08. What time do you usually get to university? 5. love. three fourths. 18:00. dozen.728.7 10. 198/4. 964. over ninety. Read and solve the following mathematical operations: 1+8 3x6 2/3 10 + 3 7 x 10 8/9 x 2/7 9 + 18 120 x 4 6/7: 3/14 30 – 21 15: 3 23 100 – 75 100: 5 2 2 + 32 1. Read the following dates and phone numbers: 21 June 1998 118605 2 April 1805 225799 5 August 1789 179300 3 December 1866 126603 30 May 2006 0234557891 23 July 2007 0722006784 IV. Use the following words in sentences of your own: forty. What time do you have a break? 7. 8:35 III. thirty-one. What time do you go out with your friends at the weekend? 9. one by one. What time do you go to bed? 10. twice as many.7. 0. Read the following numbers and fractions: 408. When is Christmas? 13. What’s the date when Einstein was born? V. 9:00: 1:15. 1/3. 25. What time do you have dinner? 8. What will you be doing in ten years’ time? 11. nought point five. 9/10.B. 23:35.100. once.02 VI. 10. EXERCISES I. Answer the following questions: 1. What time do you have breakfast? 3.58 II. What time does your first class start on Mondays? 6. tenfold. What time do you get up? 2. 6:45. 5. 6. gross. Read the times of the clock: 3:25.06 – 4. What’s the date today? 16. When is our national holiday? 14. When is your birthday? 12. 317 . 4:50. three times. 68/12.250 – 500 0. When is the first day of the year? 15.5 + 0. 673. hundreds. What time do you leave home? 4.

Nu uita că trebuie să te trezeşti la ora şase fix mâine dimineaţă. 17. 6. Tocmai am cumpărat două duzini de cutii de chibrituri. 13. 2. Radical din optezi şi unu fac nouă. 16. Ea ne sună o dată la două zile doar ca să vadă ce mai este nou. Biletul tău este rezervat pentru data de 22 iunie. 9. 4. Cred că maşina are acum mai mult de 100 km/ oră. Copiii au intrat în şcoală doi câte doi. A treilea capitol mi s-a părut mai uşor de citit decât cel de-al doilea. 8. Am citit sute de pagini în ultimele săptămâni. Sunt sigură că acest castel a fost construit cu mai mult de o sută de ani în urmă. Invenţia lui a adus un profit înzecit fabricii la care lucrează. Un sfert din locuitorii acestui orăşel lucrează în acel centru comercial. Toţi oamenii influenţi sunt întrebaţi despre cum au făcut primul milion de dolari.VII. 318 . Translate into English: 1. 15. Noi spălăm maşina de două ori pe lună. Care este răspunsul tău la cea de a douăzeci şi una întrebare? 14. 3. 11. 18. 12. Regina Elisabeta II este actualul monarh al Marii Britanii. 19. Bărbatul în vârstă de cincizeci de ani de care mi-ai povestit mi-a părut mult mai tânăr. 5. 10. 20. Numai după ce am citit problema de trei ori am reuşit să o înţeleg. Speculantul dorea să obţină un câştig întreit de pe urma facerii. Am întâlnit-o o dată sau de două ori dar nu am vorbit cu ea niciodată. 7.

g. Comparison Like adjectives. adjective adverb fast fast late late early early hard hard much much enough enough III. why. kindly. friendly. manner or cause of an action. lovely motherly. • a clause: Unfortunately. FORM Many adverbs are formed by adding -ly to an adjective: honest gradual silent Adjective bright brightly honestly gradually silently Adverb sudden suddenly Note: When the adjective ends in –ic. adverbs often tell us when. he was fired yesterday. THE ADVERB A. The Positive Degree fast rapidly The Comparative of Superiority faster more rapidly The Comparative of Inferiority less fast than not so/as rapidly as The Comparative of Equality as fast as as rapidly as The Relative Superlative the fastest the most rapidly The Absolute Superlative very fast very rapidly 319 . or under what conditions something happens or happened. THEORETICAL CONSIDERATIONS I.III. • another adverb: She moved quite slowly among the trees. Adverbs are words that can modify: • A verb: He drove slowly. etc. numerical . II. In other words.7. the adverb is formed by adding the suffix –ally: e. • many adverbs do not end in -ly and some have the same form as the corresponding adjective. basic .numerically However. where. elderly.basically.g. Time The party is going to take place here Place Manner She tapped him gently on his shoulder. Here are some examples: Type Example I paid him a visit yesterday. • an adjective: He drove a very fast car. this is not a reliable way to find out whether a word is an adverb or not as: • many adjectives may end in –ly: e. place. lonely. many adverbs are gradable and they may form comparatives and superlatives in a similar way to adjectives. they may describe the time. Definition Basically.

Notice that sometimes we have an adverb. Here comes the bus! Inversion is obligatory. Not until I got home did I realize that my shoes were untied. There are at least eighteen types of inversion: 1. Give the adverbs corresponding to the following adjectives: useless. anxious. Only at night can I study. B. We normally only have inversion here if we are comparing subjects of the verb. scientific. Here are the books that I don’t need anymore. 2. certain. etc. Underline the appropriate adjective or adverb. She has travelled wide / widely. 5. EXERCISES I. strong. absent. II. graceful. heavy. then comes C. Down came the rain and washed the spider out. First comes love. It is used with be-verbs. Inversion is optional. linking verbs and verbs that show direction or movement. and verbs of direction. It is used with all verbs. intro adverbial Into the room ran the lady. here come Here is some good food for you to try. rapid. 1. like come. linking verbs. Some adverbs require a subject-verb inversion. Make sure you're here at seven o'clock sharp / sharply. formal. go. negative adverb Never do I sleep. deep. easy. violent. not objects. She loved him dear / dearly. 6. 4. then comes marriage. kind. This type of inversion usually only occurs with be-verbs. 3. They drove under a low / lowly bridge. 3. next comes D. various. You speak Chinese better than do I. run. here comes. We'll be there short / shortly. Inversion is optional. 2. comparatives Cheetahs run faster than do antelopes. These adverbs and adverb phrases usually show location or direction. here are. After A comes B. 320 . Notice that sometimes the inversion occurs right after the negative intro form and sometimes it occurs in the next subject and verb. In no way could I help you with your Japanese grammar question. like first and down and sometimes we have an adverb phrase like into the room or after A. sudden. It is used with all verbs. 4. Question form is obligatory. voluntary. It is usually used only with these verbs. local.IV. slight. idle. here is. I believe that only rarely will I need your help. original. Three-toed sloths live deep / deeply in the Amazon forest.

You couldn't take a photograph because it is. Does the foreman eat lunch with the other workers (ever)? 5. thirsty. 13. 3. heavy. 9. light.. Brown dictated reports to his secretary (often). Were you ready for breakfast by eight o'clock (already) VI. Our neighbours couldn't sleep because the music in our room was.. accurate. William jumped two meters with ease. 6. here. This book is. They didn't catch the train because they didn't leave home.. to win the speech prize. We have seen that statue (never). Why don't you speak to your neighbour (ever)? 9. and so we missed the first act... 7. Paraphrase the following sentences using an adverb in place of the words in italics: 1.. Mr. 2. She didn't do this part (thoroughly) as the first part. early. 2.. My father smokes in the office during the day (never). 10. She certainly hopes to finish her work (fast) than that.. 4. 3.. to drink a well dry.. 5. The food in this restaurant is good (seldom). The policeman left the room in a hurry. 8.. Complete each sentence using too or enough and one of the following adjectives or adverbs: dark. The wind blew (hard) yesterday than I did on Sunday. late. 3. She speaks English (fluently) as a native speaker. local. V.. Put the following adverbs in the right position: 1. Mr. Mike plays football (badly) of all the players. away.. 11. They couldn't hear her voice because she was. attentive. We were. 8. 4. 10.. complete. The boy is very active after meals (often). He usually gets here much (early) than the others. This river is. You are. However. Mr.. 2... old.. 7. to understand such things. difficult. I have time to see visitors in the afternoon (rarely)... 9. Jack knows English grammar (well) of all the students. I can swim (well) than your brother. 12. 1. 321 .. 5. 3. 8.. 10. The cupboard was. to be moved by the child. IV. George spoke.. We couldn't do that problem because it was.. 2. She usually enjoys films (much) than plays. 6. Brown is. 7. Use the adverbs in the brackets in the right degree of comparison: 1.. far. to be crossed. interesting. 6. rich. My daughter was sleeping in peace. III. deep. well. loud. I learn many new English words in our English class (usually). to afford such an expensive car. Williams explains things (clearly) of all teachers. We got to the theatre. 4.comparative.. to be read by all of you.

Sammy is a good football player.. think. lest mother should hear me. 10.4.. fluent. 11. At the end of the trip she had. happy. 12.. Don't hit him too. fast. 1. 3. 5.. Fill in the blanks with hard or hardly : 1.. IX. and she writes it even. How could you lend him such a valuable dictionary when you. 6.. you will have to work.. It was a beautiful day: the sun was shining..... They tried. merry. speak.. 2. immediate. 6. foolish. The Chinese vase was broken by accident. 10... 14.. we heard a terrible noise. Answer the questions using the adverbs in brackets followed by inversion: 1. 3. Our manager is a. she speaks French. Does she know much about this? (little) 5. but he behaved.... The tramp looked with hunger at the bread the old lady gave him. when we left the house.. I opened the door.. It was raining. You must know the answer. educated man.. . punctual. 6.. Why are you so rude? You should behave.. VII. 8. The room was so crowded there was. careful... Complete each sentence with an adverb. 2. 8. we must solve it.. 4.. I am not late.. thorough. 10. any money. This time she.. Although outnumbered. 7. I have arrived. bright. and the children were playing.. 7. 8.. I don't know what happened to him that evening.. as the other ones..... polite. She was so tired that she could... Can you pass this difficult exam without working hard? ( only by) 4.. Only by working.. The farmer gazed with pride at his vegetables. our troops fought like heroes. VIII. 9. 9. 9. 5.. 13. 4. but they didn't succeed. As this is an urgent matter... Why are you driving so. Bob did not study this lesson as. My daughter has improved her English lately: she doesn't make grammar mistakes and she speaks.. will you manage to pass such a difficult exam... 7.. Has she ever stayed in such an expensive hotel? (never before) 3.. If you want to pass such a difficult exam.. He always plays. today? You may have an accident. Form these adverbs from the following adjectives: bad. good. the birds were singing. Have you ever eaten such good cakes? (never) 322 . As she doesn't want to learn the new words.. anywhere where to leave the luggage. Jonathan works all the sums in his head. Was John dismissed as soon as he had been promoted? (no sooner) 2... hard.. The prisoners were beaten without mercy. knew him? 5... ate anything. Now we can look forward to the future with hope.

Ceaiul este prea fierbinte ca să-l beau repede.. Nu i-am văzut pe copii de ieri dimineaţă. 5. Jimmy joacă fotbal la fel de bine ca şi fratele său acum. Niciodată nu am mai văzut o femeie mai frumoasă.6. 3. Will he be permitted to leave? (under no circumstances) 10. 4. 323 . 6. Din fericire. Shall I find such interesting museums anywhere else? (nowhere else) 8. 2. Translate into English: 1. folosim această clădire doar temporar. 8. 9. 7. Did Sandra go both to the cinema and to the theatre? (not only . Will you visit these people again? (never again) 9. Unele plante cresc mai repede în locuri mai întunecate. De-abia am ajuns la cabană că a şi început să poluă. but also) 7.. De-abia atunci înţelese vorbele tatălui său. Nicăieri ân altă parte nu veţi găsi atâta înţelegere. Did the telephone ring immediately he had entered the room? (scarcely) X.

).addition: -reinforcement . verbs and clauses: Bob and Dan are friends (nouns) He will drive or fly (verbs) It is early but we can go (clauses) Call the movers when you are ready. On a gradient between ‘pure’ coordinator and ‘pure’ subordinator for and so that (meaning with the result that) occupy an important place. The most common ones are and. and so which are used in the following ways: * and is used to join or add words together: They ate and drank. These two together with or make three logical connectors which are explicit connectors and refer to the following relationships: * and – listing: -enumeration . since like nor they can be preceded by a central coordinator (and or or).apposition . It can connect nouns. neither as the first items in a correlative pair with and. or nor are not in themselves coordinators. but logical connectors denoting a contrast have been put under but.8. (clauses) A definition may overlap with that of other parts of speech.replacement Although it has a restrictive use. which make a fairly explicit relation between two clauses: that of reason.inference * but – contrast . The definition can also be extended to idiomatic phrases that behave as a unit with the same function as a single-word conjunction (as well as. so what constitutes a conjunction should be defined for each language. Coordinating conjunctions are the ones which connect two equal parts of a sentence. It contains a negative feature.transition . The most cohesive signals are connectives like therefore. THE CONJUNCTION A.equation . because that coordinator is more commonly used with contrasted sentences. And. Sentences may be contrasted by either but or and. but. subordinating and correlative a. on the other hand.result . or. is the vaguest of connectives. Nor represents a clear case of coordination. a conjunction is an invariable grammatical particle and it may or may not stand between the items it conjoins. Both. which introduces some syntactic difference. THEORETICAL CONSIDERATIONS A conjunction is a word that connects other words or groups of words. provided that. the conjunction for can be seen as a sentence connector. 324 . either.III. * or is used to show choice or possibilities: He will be here on Monday or Tuesday. Yet and so resemble coordination in some respects. etc. There are three types of conjunctions: coordinating.concession * or – reformulation .summation . In general.

(temporal clause) Gerald had to begin his thesis over again when his computer crashed. . (conditional clause) Midwifery advocates argue that home births are safer because the mother and baby are exposed to fewer people and fewer germs. 325 . * so is used to show result: I was tired so I went to sleep. . She told me that her father had died.) The most common correlative conjunctions are: both . Correlative conjunctions always appear in pairs -. Corinne is trying to decide whether to go to medical school or to go to law school. Note: some words which appear as conjunctions can also appear as prepositions or as adverbs.you use them to link equivalent sentence elements. nor not only . Some of the more common subordinating conjunctions such as: after before unless how whether although if until/till once as since when since because than while that Subordinating conjunctions can introduce a direct object. causal.* but is used to show opposite or conflicting ideas: She is small but strong. temporal. your cheque will be mailed on Tuesday. he never married.and either . A subordinating conjunction introduces a dependent clause and indicates the nature of the relationship among the independent clause(s) and the dependent clause(s). . . (Technically correlative conjunctions consist simply of a co-ordinating conjunction linked to an adjective or adverb. The explosion destroyed not only the school but also the neighbouring pub. (direct object clause) After she had learned to drive. or neither . Alice felt more independent. but also Both Jan and Meg are good swimmers Bring either a Jello salad or a potato scallop. . . Correlative conjunctions are pairs of conjunctions that work together. (concessive clause) c. indirect object. . (temporal clause) If the paperwork arrives on time. b. conditional clause or contrast/concessive subordinate clause. (causal clause) Although he had a lot of money. . Subordinating conjunctions connect two parts of a sentence that are not equal. Note that you can also use the conjunctions "but" and "for" as prepositions.

What's more b. c. b. so 6. e. Choose the conjunction which fits best in the sentence: 1. when. so. while. d. because III. d. a. either. b. if. b. or 2.__________. e. c. d. nor. if. he is generous. Therefore d. e. I am hungry …… I don't want to eat. e. But 4. Harrison is kind. her mother stayed in Boston a.___________. d.or. Therefore d. so 5. ___________ it is instructive. so c. Choose the best answer for these questions: 1. Nevertheless c. b. c. a. He ate …….explain. a. he was hungry. d. or d. and 5. so. or II. but. d. Besides b. Furthermore b. Which conjunction is used to connect two equal parts of a sentence? a.or.. c. b. so. Which conjunction is used to connect two unequal parts of a sentence? a. after. e. a. Alice moved to New York. a. a. c. what’s more 326 . so. ___________he had an active career. However c. moreover b. Adams was an invalid. and. Come ……get it. Therefore d. or. and. but. e._____________. so 3. He will eat …… he gets home. I would tell you…… I knew. after 2. Television is entertaining. as. when. e. or. Choose the conjunction that most appropriately completes the sentence. but. b. d. since. d. because.B. You have disobeyed me. c. before. b.so.although. c. Even so c. b. c. a hamburger? a. until. and. and. c. since 3. I will not help you again.and 3. EXERCISES I. d. a. but 2. Which conjunction is used with the correlative neither? a. or 4. 1. e. b. c. Mr.but. if. a. Do you want pizza …. unless. than. but. a.

what’s more c.. It's a good job we weren't going any faster or someone could have been killed. a. c. 4.b. so 7. d. e. I prepared my English lesson. so d. If I had seen him.. Luckily she didn't find out or she would have been furious. You are not allowed to park in the school. . He didn't realize what was happening or he would have run away. 3. unless you are a member of staff. 5. besides b. even so c. nevertheless c.. Henry Ford said you could have any colour you wanted. Should he telephone while I'm out. Had I known you were coming. 5.. Rewrite these sentences as conditionals Model: Unfortunately I didn't see him.. . You can borrow the money. Fred will be at school next week. b. a. . It only happened because you didn't follow the instructions. . therefore IV. Unfortunately he didn't pass his exams or he might have gone to university. would have invited you to lunch. George says he will come. furthermore b. Fortunately I didn't hear what she said or I would have been very angry. I could have given him your message 1. He'll probably get lost. however b.. Match the two parts of these conditional sentences.. . It's lucky we booked a room or we would have had nowhere to stay.. 4.. 2. ________. I live too far to visit you often. but c. consequently d... I wrote my French paper. 9. as long as it was black. therefore d. a. He was so tired that he went home at lunchtime . .. and 8. . 7. you are never home. . 1. otherwise 6. a. 3. They got in because you didn't lock the door properly. 6. 327 . otherwise d. The road was wet and slippery. 8.. would you ask him to call back later? provided he has recovered from his cold. . _________ there were many accidents. ___________. 7. 8. 2. 6... so I couldn't give him your message .. . IV.

even though 2. Although we set off early. although 5. We all thought Mary would win. g.………. He wanted to keep his car out of sight so he left it in the road. he still wasn't tired. 5. Use one of these phrases to complete them. 7. unless someone shows him the way. and it was. (to) VI. we had no time for lunch. .f. (so as to) 2. although. you're not as tall as he was. even though it was very warm. 6. (so as to) 7. 2. the weather was awful. Most people thought the play would be a success. Model: I knew he would complain about everything. 1. We hoped he would dowell at school. What do I need to know. 1. That way you will avoid being misunderstood. and they did. or even though. V. h. Everyone believed he would run away. (in order to) 5. so long as you promise to pay it back. even though his English was very good.. 328 . (in order to) 8. although he can be very annoying at times. ………. A lot of people learn English because they want to study in English. we only arrived just in time. Model: Although we were desperately hungry. she kept her coat on. we had no time for lunch. 1. Rewrite these sentences to include a 'to'-infinitive purpose clause introduced by the words given in brackets. I don't play the piano now.. If you want to have a hundred students. I really like John. and he did. (in order to) 3. and he did. if I want to be a good doctor? (in order to) 4. He complained about everything just as I knew he would. I came to live in the country because I wanted to have trees around me instead of buildings. Model: Everyone was pushing because they wanted to get to the front of the queue. (in order to10 I wanted to get to Madrid so I had to travel overnight from Barcelona.………. 4. (in order to) Everyone was pushing in order to get to the front of the queue. The sentences below all have though. Though he hadn't stopped working all day. I used to when I was younger. 8. 3. (in order to) 6. You look very like your grandfather. although 4. provided he can stay overnight. You said they would arrive late.. . and she did. Try to write clearly. Rewrite these sentences with Just as. She turned up early because she wanted to get the room ready. 3. . and he did. We enjoyed our holiday. VII. he was difficult to understand. you will need at least three teachers. They had to eat grass and drink melted snow if they wanted to stay alive.

All the streams were frozen 3.. The food was very good. Unele fiinţe cum ar fi ursul şi şarpele hibernează în timpul iernii. Translate the following sentences into English: 1.VIII. I had to get off my bike and walk It was such a steep hill that I had to get off my bike and walk 1. 11. The winter was bitterly cold. iar acum este inginer în cea mai mare uzină din oraş. să spunem pe la ora 5 ? 4. Erau o mulţime de oameni la petrecere. S-au referit apoi la ceea ce citiseră cu o zi în urmă. 329 . Ei au reacţionat ca şi cum n-ar fi ştiut nimic de acel concurs. We didn't want to go home 4.. It proved to be a very difficult problem. Ceea ce încearcă ea să ne explice este că la ora aceea nu era nimeni acasă. Nobody believed anything he said. Şi. 15. 6. 2. Ken got very excited. Everyone took him for a student. Her writing was very small. Ne-am sculat foarte devreme ca să admiră m răsăritul soarelui. 10. 14. Ce-ar fi sa trecem pe la el după amiază. "Unde este voinţă este şi putinţă" – spune un poroverb englezesc. His favourite shoes were very badly worn. He was a dreadful liar. 2. 5. cum ar fi familia Brown. Model: The hill was very steep. Haideţi să ne intâlnim din nou lunea viitoare. that. Am probleme cu maşina încă de când am cumpărat-o. care se cunoşteau. familia Smith.. I had to get off my bike and walk The hill was so steep that I had to get off my bike and walk 1. Împrumuta bani oricui îl ruga. Oricine îl vede rămâne uimit. His clothes were very old. Rewrite these sentences with so . that. I could hardly read it. familia Johnson. Convingerea noastră este că a înţeles aceste lucruri ţi că îşi va face datoria. fratele meu. We had a very good time. Orice ai spune sau ai face nu mai are nici o importanţă. 13. 3. He kept jumping up and down IX. 7. a muncit din greu. He looked very young. 12. He had to throw them away 4. 9. We all ate far too much X. 8. Model:The hill was very steep. 3. Now rewrite these sentences with such . Nobody could solve it. de exemplu. They were falling apart 5. E pacat ca nu mergi la cinema cu noi.. 2. 5. Nu se ştie cine a spart vaza aceea. adică pe 12 iulie.

between. a preposition locates the noun book in space or in time. at. The professor can sit on the desk (when he's being informal) or behind the desk. locating something in time and space.9. beneath. down. A preposition usually indicates the temporal." you invariably use your hands to show how something is situated in relationship to something else. off. an adjective. until. before the desk. She read the book during class. and if he could live without the desk. along. up. through. he often looks across the desk and speaks of the desk or concerning the desk as if there were nothing else like the desk. to. spatial or logical relationship of its object to the rest of the sentence as in the following examples: The book is on the table. since. behind. into. THEORETICAL CONSIDERATIONS a. out. The word or phrase that the preposition introduces is called the object of the preposition. or an adverb. in. A prepositional phrase is made up of the preposition. Because he thinks of nothing except the desk. Prepositions are nearly always combined with other words in structures called prepositional phrase. near. from. THE PREPOSITION A. or telling when or where or under what conditions something happened. A prepositional phrase can function as a noun. he can bump into the desk or try to walk through the desk (and stuff would fall off the desk). In itself. acting as an adjective or an adverb. underneath. before. against. upon. but they tend to be built the same: a preposition followed by a determiner and an adjective or two. followed by a pronoun or noun (called the object of the preposition). throughout. Consider the professor's desk and all the prepositional phrases we can use while talking about it. He can stand beside the desk (meaning next to the desk). except. above. pronouns and phrases other words in a sentence. onto. across. Prepositional phrases can be made up of a million different words. to the desk. till.III. by the desk. and even past the desk while he sits at the desk or leans against the desk. A preposition links nouns. It describes a relationship between other words in a sentence. over. Passing his hands over the desk or resting his elbows upon the desk. in turn. For instance. and without. You can walk toward the desk. below. around the desk. modifying a noun. a word like "in" or "after" is rather meaningless and hard to define in mere words. for. or even on the desk (if he's really strange). beyond. The book is leaning against the table. of. and then his feet are under the desk or beneath the desk. with. takes on a modifying role. The book is beneath the table. between the desk and you. on. what's in the desk. despite. In each of the preceding sentences. during. around. what he paid for the desk. toward. past. when you do try to define a preposition like "in" or "between" or "on. This whole phrase. inside. under. among. by. 330 . If he's clumsy. beside. sometimes you wonder about the desk. within. after. but. She held the book over the table. The most common prepositions are: about. like. You can sit before the desk (or in front of the desk). outside. The book is beside the table. its object and any associated adjectives or adverbs.

My brother is coming on Monday. And we use in for the names of land-areas (towns.m. and in • We use at for specific addresses. Durham is in Windham County. 331 . Prepositions of Time: at. Everyone in the class except me got the answer. and on and No Preposition IN AT ON NO (the) bed* class* the bed* PREPOSITION the bedroom home the ceiling downstairs the car the library* the floor downtown (the) class* the office the horse inside the library* school* the plane outside school* work the train upstairs uptown * You may sometimes use different prepositions for these locations. And the professor can sit there in a bad mood [another adverbial construction]. Mrs. It's too cold in winter to run outside. or a year. Some prepositions do other things besides locate in space or time (My brother is like my father. It is possible for a preposition phrase to act as a noun (During a church service is not a good time to discuss picnic plans. Prepositions of Location: in. throughout the class. etc. on. at. in time: during the class. Smith lives at 55 Boretz Road in Durham. Prepositions of Place: at. countries. He started the job in 1971. • We use on to designate names of streets. b. Those words in bold are all prepositions. after the class. Her house is on Boretz Road. Prepositions can be classified into: prepositions of time. a season. but nearly all of them modify in one way or another. of movement. etc. counties.All of this happens.). c. She lives in Durham. She likes to jog in the morning. and in • We use at to designate specific times. avenues. but this is seldom appropriate in formal or academic writing.In the South Pacific is where I long to be ). • We use on to designate days and dates. and continents). Prepositions of Movement: to and No Preposition • We use to in order to express movement toward a place They were driving to work together. The train is due at 12:15 p. We're having a party on the Fourth of July. of time. d. of course. on. of place. states. a month. until the class. He's going to quit in August. She's going to the dentist's office this morning. • We use in for nonspecific times during a day. before the class.

months. hours. The British and Irish have been quarreling for seven centuries. She's been sitting in the waiting room since two-thirty. He's worked here since 1970. She's lived there for seven years. adjectives. in other languages. they would have become one word.• Toward and towards are also helpful prepositions to express movement. Prepositions of Time: for and since • We use for when we measure time (seconds. downtown. days. inside. (In fact. • We use since with a specific date or time. These are simply variant spellings of the same word. years). Adjectives. downstairs. He held his breath for seven minutes. This is a big step towards the project's completion. • With the words home. and Verbs. we use no preposition Grandma went upstairs Grandpa went home. They both went outside. and verbs. use whichever sounds better to you.) This occurs in three categories: nouns. minutes. f. upstairs. e. outside. We're moving toward the light. uptown. NOUNS and PREPOSITIONS approval of awareness of belief in concern for confusion about desire for afraid of angry at aware of capable of careless about familiar with apologize for ask about ask for belong to bring up care for find out fondness for grasp of hatred of hope for interest in love of fond of happy about interested in jealous of made of married to fond of happy about interested in jealous of made of married to need for participation in reason for respect for success in understanding of need for participation in reason for respect for success in understanding of proud of similar to sorry for sure of tired of worried about ADJECTIVES and PREPOSITIONS VERBS and PREPOSITIONS 332 . Prepositions are sometimes so firmly wedded to other words that they have practically become one word. such as German. Prepositions with Nouns.

• The book fell off of the desk. She doesn't believe in getting lost in the wood. I agree with playing darts. The reporter is blamed for writing bad stories. • She wouldn't let the cat inside of the house. we must be careful not to omit one of them. You can wear that outfit in summer and in winter. in principle • argue about a matter. we fall into some bad habits. We use the Gerund after the following phrases: accuse of agree with apologize for believe in blame for complain about concentrate on congratulate sb. with to show differences (sometimes similarities) • correspond to a thing. She complains about bullying. with a person. but we must be especially careful not to use them in formal. He is not sure how to cope with getting older. academic prose. Idiomatic Expressions with Prepositions • agree to a proposal. using prepositions where they are not necessary. The female was both attracted by and distracted by the male's dance. on cope with decide against They were accused of breaking into a shop. the preposition does not have to be used twice. with a person. with other people Unnecessary Prepositions In everyday speech. • She met up with the new coach in the hallway. The word that is joined to the verb is then called a particle. He was fascinated by and enamored of this beguiling woman. with a person • live at an address. [use "behind" instead] • Where is your college at? Prepositions in Parallel Form When two words or phrases are used in parallel and require the same preposition to be idiomatically correct. in a house or city. The children were interested in and disgusted by the movie. with a person • differ from an unlike thing. 333 . They apologize for being late. It was clear that this player could both contribute to and learn from every game he played. It would be a good idea to eliminate these words altogether. They decided against stealing the car. [or use "in"] • Where did they go to? • Put the lamp in back of the couch. Do you concentrate on reading or writing? I wanted to congratulate you on making such a good speech. However. on a price. Please refer to the brief section we have prepared on phrasal verbs for an explanation.A combination of verb and preposition is called a phrasal verb. for or against a proposition • compare to to show likenesses. when the idiomatic use of phrases calls for different prepositions. • He threw the book out of the window. on a street.

9. How can I prevent Kate from working in this shop? He doesn't rely on winning in the casino. Heathcliff could see a light _____ the window. Sue dreams of being a pop star. I let the cat sit _____ my lap. Audrey lives _____ Third Street. From afar. 1. 11. Daria's books are lying _____ the floor. The girls insisted on going out with Mark. You must get used to working long hours. 19. The rancher built a fence to keep his cows _____ the pasture. If William doesn't make any money on his book. 5. Passengers are not allowed to use electronic devices _____ airplanes during takeoff and landing. I'll use my cellular phone when I'm _____ the bus. Kevin and Mack are out practicing _____ the football field. those guys _____ the ring are just pretending. Complete the following sentences with the correct preposition: at. B.depend on dream about/of feel like get used to insist on look forward to prevent sb. 334 . succeed in specialize in stop sb. 16. Do you live _____ the city or _____ the country? 7. but never while I'm _____ the car. rely on sth. How then can I succeed in learning chemistry? The firm specialized in designing websites. 4. The car stalled and got stuck _____ the street. from talk about/of think of warn sb. 18. The patient worries about having the check-up. The girls didn't want to spend a long time _____ the carnival. They often talk about travelling to New Zealand. Wrestling isn't real. We warned them against using this computer. Frank thinks of playing chess. The shepherd boy grazed his flock _____ the grassy hillside. 8. from sth. Will you wait for me _____ the bus stop? 2. 20. in. or on. 17. while Marty works _____ web design. They feel like going to bed. Trent arrived _____ the school building just in time. 13. EXERCISES I. 14. I'm looking forward to seeing you soon. he'll be out _____ the street. 15. but then suddenly it jumped _____ my face! 6. 10. Jane is _____ her bedroom. 3. 12. The old house had so much grime _____ the windows that Bradley could hardly see inside. against worry about Success may depend on becoming more patient. I stopped Andrew from smoking. The audience threw tomatoes _____ the terrible comedian. David works _____ the field of network administration.

Fill in with the appropriate preposition: 1. in Kowloon.bullying. But my holidays were great. on Yellow Mountain. ages.going out with Kerry. a boat on the West Lake. e.. in the Dao Yu Islands.. 2.losing the match. a. in the Himalayas 6) Lakes and Rivers. 5. in Beijing. III. on Hong Kong Island Islands . Has anyone found it? (for/after/of/to) 7. You can look the word …. Don't wait …. waiting for you (of/ with/ on/ in) 2.Madonna. The girls insisted …. e. e. Check these rules.the weather and the people there.in. e. 6. 10.in a dictionary.. The driver parked the bus…. ……summer I like to travel …. V.at .. I haven't smoked…. (to/by/in/with) 6.me. so we waited….Germany. Find the correct preposition: I'm Peter and I live ….. She doesn't feel ….on (e. the streets.groups of islands. at university. e.. at my friend's flat 1.g.Munich to Rome... districts. my key.in. (since/ for/at/to) 3.g.g. Do you agree …. e. 8.the restaurant …. She had problems …. 4) Islands .the restaurant. in China 3) Cities.one hour. in Europe 2) Countries . …. counties. 7. on the Peak Mountain ranges . (at/for/after/on) IV.him.the airport we went to our hotel ….staying in a foreign country? 9. (of/ from/ by/ on) 8.g.g. So we were angry ….playing volleyball. at home. in Asia. then say which question is correct: 1) Continents . (on/up/through/with) 5. (among/between/through/on) 4.in..Italy. provinces. Choose the correct preposition.. e. e. towns... on Mount Everest.single mountains . She complains….the restaurant which we didn't know. areas and villages . e. The police car chased the robbers …. They are afraid …. swimming in the West Lake 7) Seas and Oceans.campfires and went dancing……the early mornings.in. My friend is good….being late... on Lantau. 1. We stopped ….. at work.bus.living on a small island. The song was written …..g.II. Andrew apologized …. We are looking forward …. 4. The driver was walking ….g.g. at the doctor's..a small restaurant for a quick meal. I can't come to the party. e. Brazil is at South America.going out at the weekend..on.g.working on the computer. Brazil is of South America b.in. I'm tired…. I'm looking ….g.g. because ….in. in the South China Sea 8) Places that are different for different people. in the Spratleys 5) Mountains .reading the instructions. in the Pacific Ocean. Nobody could find the bus and the driver. on the surface) in (under the surface). We sat …. 3. Laura dreams …. 335 .on..the small park …. Last summer I took a plane ….. Edward thinks climbing trees in the afternoon.

Reaching to tap Tiny's shoulder again." 6 Bubba was stumped. New York is at the United States. 6. d. The last question read. Two examples are given: The Final Exam 1 Two football players were taking an important final exam. "Bubba. they would be academic probation and not 3 allowed to play the Sugar Bowl the following week. a. I live of home. I live on Bucharest. d. New York is on the United States. Hong Kong is of the South China Sea. "I remember now. a. Some lines are correct. Hong Kong is at the South China Sea. Bubba. 5. He looked around to make sure the professor 12 hadn't noticed then he turned Bubba. Brazil is in South America. you're so 13 stupid. What's the answer the last question?" 11 Tiny laughed. d.. "Tiny. Mount Everest is the tallest mountain on the Himalayas. mark them with an X.. b. 4. c. Mount Everest is the tallest mountain of the Himalayas. The exam 4 was fill-in-the-blank. c. Hong Kong is in the South China Sea.. c.c. b. 2. Everyone knows Old MacDonald had a farm.. VI." 14 "Oh yeah. a.. Farm is 19 spelled E-I-E-I-O.. I live at Bucharest. b. Tiny.. He 16 stopped. how do you spell farm?" 18 "You are really dumb. I live in Bucharest. That's so easy. a. I live at home. If 2 they failed. Making 8 sure the professor wasn't watching. he 17 whispered. b. Brazil is on South America." 1 X 11 2 on 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 336 ." He picked up his 15 No. b. 3.2 pencil and started to write the answer the blank. I live on home. New York is of the United States." said Bubba. c. He knew 7 he needed to get this one right to be sure he passed. a. Mount Everest is the tallest mountain in the Himalayas. 5 "Old MacDonald had a . he tapped Tiny the 9 shoulder. Mount Everest is the tallest mountain at the Himalayas. 10 "Pssst. Identify the missing prepositions in the text and write them in the table below the text. c. He had no idea the answer. New York is in the United States.

along with. by. …………. A man walks _ a health food restaurant _ a day _ the office. after. …………. close to. under C. out of D. on. for D. along. by. with. beneath B. on. …………. He glances sly around and then _ his shoes. off. It is either incorrect or does not fit in with the sense of the text. to. at. into. after. . Deşi eram foarte grăbiţi. near. …………. is that silk? Very nice choice!" A.………… IX. on. A. from. "That's a beautiful tie. _ a shrug. to. 4. in. of. of. at. in. sits down and orders a nice big dish _ brown rice and stir-fry veggies. of. he pops a few more uts _ his mouth. in B. under D. which he tucks selfsly _ the stool. near. 337 . took off all her clothes 8 and said “Take what you want!” 9 The first engineer nodded in approvingly 10 “Good choice. …………. …………. 7 She threw the bike at the ground. A. my man. Nu ştiam că te interesează istoria medievală. 5. from. before. …………. 2. …………. of. ea a insistat să ne oprim şi să cumpără m câteva ziare. without. What is the correct combination of prepositions for each paragraph? 1.VII. of. of. near. after. near. at. dar nu este întotdeauna impresionată de calitatea programelor. for 2. I was walking along 5 yesterday. by. minding my own business when a beautiful 6 woman rode up on this bike. to. asked the first. "Those shoes are stylish. Trebuie să vă conformaţi regulilor jocului. of. and as he starts to chew he hears a voice say. He grabs a handful _ peanuts _ the bowl _ the counter _ the cash register while he's waiting _ his order. out of. In some of the lines of the following text there is one unnecessary preposition. at.” …………. into C. by. For each numbered line find this preposition and write it down on the right: 1 An engineering student was walking across campus when 2 another engineer rides up in a shiny new motorcycle. Ei îi place să asculte radioul. next to. by. at. at 3. under VIII. for B. from. they Italian leather? They look great!" whirls around again but sees no one _ him. on. to. for C. 3. close to. Alegeţi trei numere la întâmplare şi înmulţiţi-le cu cinci. of. the clothes probably wouldn’t have fit in. in. Next he hears a voice. he around and doesn't see anyone _ him who could've speaking _ him. 4. Translate into English: 1. Wondering who would make such a strange comment. on. 3 “Where did you get such a great bike?”. off. The second engineer replied: “Well.

10. iar tu ai lăsat-o să iasă în stradă? 338 . Cu ce mergi la serviciu în fiecare dimineaţă? Cu metroul sau cu autobuzul? Sau poate cu maşina? 9. 8. De ce te uiti aşa la mine? Te-am rugat să ai grijă de pisică. John a fost pedepsit pentru că nu şi-a făcut tema la timp. Produsele companiei noastre sunt mereu in conformitate cu standardele de calitate.6. Fusese acuzat ca ii furase poşeta acelei doamne îin negru. 7.

How are you today?" "Hello! My car's gone!" "Hey! look at that!" "Hey! What a good idea!" "Hi! What's new?" 339 . she's dead now. When interjections are inserted into a sentence. Um or Ah! They have no real grammatical value but we use them quite often. eh?" "Lima is the capital of. they have no grammatical connection to the sentence. You should learn to recognize them when you hear them and realize that they have no real meaning.Peru." "Hello John.er. that feels good. it can't be heped. Interjections are uncommon in formal academic prose." "Ah well. We usually follow an interjection with an exclamation mark. Interjections are short exclamations like Oh!.10. They are extremely common in English. joy etc expressing greeting example "Ah. An interjection is sometimes followed by an exclamation mark (!) when written. It is not grammatically related to any other part of the sentence. The table below shows some interjections with examples.." "Ah.. Interjections like er and um are also known as "hesitation devices". interjection meaning expressing pleasure ah expressing realization expressing resignation expressing surprise alas dear expressing grief or pity expressing pity expressing surprise asking for repetition eh expressing enquiry expressing surprise inviting agreement er hello." "Ah! I've won!" "Alas. hullo expressing hesitation expressing greeting expressing surprise hey hi calling attention expressing surprise. or to indicate that they are thinking about what to say. usually more in speaking than in writing.. eh?" "Eh! Really?" "Let's go. THE INTERJECTION A." "Eh?" "I said it's hot today." "What do you think of that.III. now I understand. THEORETICAL CONSIDERATIONS An interjection is a word added to a sentence to convey emotion. People use them when they don't know what to say." "Oh dear! Does it hurt?" "Dear me! That's a surprise!" "It's hot today.. except in direct quotations.

" "Well I never!" "Well. sit still! Say. anger _________________ 340 .. umm well expressing pain expressing hesitation expressing agreement expressing hesitation expressing surprise introducing a remark Characteristics: 1. Use an appropriate interjection of your own for each of the emotions listed. 5. Well. Underline the interjection in each sentence: 1.I don't know the answer to that. Ouch! Someone stepped on my toe! 4. I'm not so sure. Followed by an exclamatory mark (!) It may be followed by a related sentence. a word of mild emotion ends in comma (part of the sentence) Oh." "85 divided by 5 is. who told you about the party? II.." "Oh! You're here!" "Oh! I've got a toothache." "Oh. confusion _________________ 6. astonishment_________________ 2. Say. joy _________________ 5. Hooray! We won the championship! Help! I can't hold on any longer! 2. A word of strong emotion ends in exclamation point (separate from rest of sentence) Hey! Leave my friend alone! Wow! I never thought she's go out with him! 3. Aha! There are some empty seats! 3." "Shall we go?" "Uh-huh.um. 1. please say 'yes'!" "Ouch! That hurts!" "Uh. EXERCISES I. A word may stand alone Hooray! Help! 2. I wish that giggling would stop.17. severe pain _________________ 3.... Shhh! 6. o expressing pain expressing pleading ouch uh uh-huh um.. relief _________________ 4. what did he say?" oh. I suppose I should have studies more.hmm expressing hesitation. Brrr! The theater is as cold as ice! 2. are you busy? B. doubt or disagreement expressing surprise "Hmm. it is an exclamatory word that usually expresses a strong emotion.

You must be kidding. I bumped my head. 6. (Joy). (Hesitation). 4. I don't know if I can stand it any longer. 1. VI. I’m so happy you’re here for a visit. Fill in each blank with an appropriate interjection. write an appropriate interjection for the feeling shown in parentheses. I don’t know the answer. 1. Begin with the interjection in parentheses. (Impatience). I guess I'll have to make a speech (Well) _____________________________________________________ 3. Ouch 1. no disappointment ouch pain wow. 10. 5. (Disappointment). (Surprise). 8. Rewrite each sentence below. They're announcing the winners (Psst) _____________________________________________________ 2. (Pain). That’s the biggest balloon I’ve ever seen. darn. I don’t know which way to go. 7. (Help) _________________________________________________ V. There isn’t enough snow to go skiing. oh. 2. I wish you’d hurry up. where we are. 6. Interjection Emotion oh. 10. I can’t figure out. 3. good heavens surprise aw. goodness joy uh hesitation tsk impatience Model: (Pain)! That really hurts. (Surprise)! We won the game. Model: Wow! We had a fabulous trip.III. 341 . that was a terrific movie. 7. Add the correct punctuation after each interjection and at the end of each sentence. 8. (Hesitation). I didn’t think the paper was due today. That wasn't so bad after all (Phew) _____________________________________________________ 4. The picnic has been rained out again. 4. I didn’t expect to see you here. (Joy)! What a great present. 9. 9. That was a close call. I just banged my knee. 2. (Pain)! I cut my finger. 5. I can’t wait all day. Use commas or exclamation marks as punctuation. In each blank. 3. we’re late again.

= a (se) legăna. = 1.a suna. LIST OF IRREGULAR VERBS INFINITIVE PAST TENSE [æ] begin drink ring run shrink da sing sink spring stink swim began drank rang ran shrank sang sank sprang stank swam PAST PARTICIPLE [ʌ] begun drunk/drunken* rung = a începe. shrunken and sunken are used attributively.a strânge (tare). = 1.a se lăsa în jos. a înfige. a se înapoi.a fila. = a cînta. a spânzura.2. a se sustrage. a agăţa. a împlînta.a mirosi urît. = 1. = a înota.a declanşa(un arc. a se învîrti/roti. = 1.a ustura. swing swung swung win won won wring wrung wrung 342 . 2. 2.11. a răsuci. = 1. a se lipi de.a se scufunda. a toarce. cling dig fling hang sling slink spin stick sting strike [ʌ] clung dug flung hung/hanged slung slunk spun stuck stung struck [ʌ] clung dug flung hung/hanged slung slunk spun/span stuck stung struck/stricken* = a se ţine de. = 1. = 1.a lovi. 2. 2. 2. = 1.3. 2. 3.a răsuci. a agăţa. 2. = 1. = a bea. a izbi.a săpa. a izvorî (d. = a câştiga.a apune.III. = 1. = 1.a simţi (un miros urît). a asfinţi. 2. a înfige. 2. a lipi.a înţepa.a răsuna (de). a atârna. 5. a vîrî. 3. a ţâşni. 2. mină). a rămîne ataşat. a avea originea. * stricken is used attributively. = 1. 4. a (se) balansa.a stîrni (vînatul). run shrunk/shrunken* sung sunk/sunken* sprung stunk swum * drunken.a intra la apă. a azvîrli. 2. a atîrna. = a se furişa.a suna. a bate (ceasul). = a arunca.a trage cu praştia. a stoarce. 3.a se micşora. 2. apă). a face să sune. a ţiui.a sări. = 1. = a alerga.

= 1. = a intenţiona. = a se trezi. a îndura.a se deplasa cu repeziciune. a iuţi (pasul). din faţa). = 1. a educa. = a fugi. break broke broken choose chose chosen freeze froze frozen steal stole stolen speak spoke spoken wake woke woke/woken weave wove/weaved woven/weaved [o:] bear swear tear wear bore swore tore wore [o:] borne/born sworn torn worn = 1.a simţi. = 1. 3. 3. a frânge. = a visa. 2. = a fura. = a mirosi. a se furişa. a se exprima. a căra.a purta (părul. = a dormi.a dibui. 3.a întîlni. a duce.a accelera. 2. 2. a opri. a fi îmbrăcat. 2.a întîmpina.a ţese. 2. 2.a îndruma.a pronunţa dreamed/dreamt dreamed/dreamt fed fed felt felt fled fled kept kept knelt led leapt left meant met read slept smelt/smelled sped/speeded spelled/spelt knelt led leapt left meant met read slept smelt/smelled sped/speeded spelled/spelt 343 .a jura.a se tîrî. = 1. 3. 2. = 1. 3. a menţine. = a vorbi. a părăsi. a se jura. a depune jurământ. = 1. 2. 2. a paşte. = a citi. a sfîşia. a tatona. a rupe.a (se) ţese.a (se) purta (o haină). 3. = a creşte. a se înfiora.a sări peste. a rupe. = a lăsa. 2. [e] bereave bleed breed creep dream feed feel flee keep kneel lead leap leave mean meet read sleep smell speed spell bereaved/bereft bled bred crept [e] bereaved/bereft bled bred crept = 1. = 1. (a lucra la război). a alimenta. = 1.a ţine. = 1.a urzi (un complot).a pipăi. barba). a trece peste. a pune deoparte. = 1. 3. = a alege.a face să sară. a se deştepta. a merge repede.a păstra.a uza. = 1. a nu restitui. = a îngheţa. = a sîngera. a conduce. a conduce.a priva. a purta. = a îngenunchia. 2. a se strecura.a răpi.a scrie literă cu literă. a suporta.a păstra. 2.a hrăni. a scăpa cu fuga (de. = 1. a ponosi. = 1.a înjura. a transporta. 2.a călăuzi. a (se) naşte.a fura. a se grăbi.a smulge. 2.[ou] [ou] = a sparge. 2.

draw overdraw withdraw drew overdrew withdrew [u:] = 1. [ou] drive ride rise arise drove rode rose arose [ i] driven ridden risen arisen shriven smitten stridden = 1.a goni. 4. 2. 2. 3. a se gîndi.a afecta. = 1. a trage concluzii. 2. 344 shrive(old use) shrove smite smote stride strode . a socoti. blow fly grow know throw blew flew grew knew threw [o:] = 1. 3. = 1. beseech bring buy catch fight seek teach think besought brought bought caught fought sought taught thought = a implora. a curăţi.a lovi.vînt). = 1. a preda. a gîndi. soare). a face paşi mari.2. 5. a izbi. 3. = a aduce. = a cumpăra. = a şti. = 1. 2.a vrăji. 2. = a se mărturisi (la preot). a trage (înapoi). a cultiva. a întinde (arcul). a medita. = a plînge. = a arunca. 2. a sufla greu. a fîlfîi. a-şi închipui.a călări.a păşi. = a mătura. a trage.a bate (d. a sufla.a lua. = 1. 4. a depăşi (contul la bancă). 3. a retrage. = 1.a căuta. 4. = 1. a cunoaşte.lună). a-şi imagina. 3.a răsări. a cugeta.a conduce (un vehicul). = 1. a călări (un cal). a sări.a se ridica. 2. 2. 2.a urmări un scop.a călători (cu un mijloc de transport public).a se ridica (d. a deveni. = 1. = 1. a apărea. 3. 2. 2. 2. a azvîrli. a desena.a crede. 3.a crede. a fugi. a face progrese. a exagera. a gîfîi. a flutura.a încăleca.sweep weep swept wept [ u:] swept wept [o:] drawn overdrawn withdrawn [ou] blown flown grown known thrown [o:] besought brought bought caught fought sought taught thought literă cu literă. a o lua la goană. = a lupta. a mîna. a zbura. a deduce. = a prinde. = a învăţa (pe cineva). a răsări (d. 2. a se ivi.a se scula.a creşte. a (se) retrage. a chibzui. = 1. 3. a concepe.

4. a cheltui. a măcina. a şerpui. 5. 3. sînge). 4. = a răni.a regla.a desface.a despica. a sfîşia. 2. a aşeza. 2. = a sfărîma. a (se) crăpa. = a permite. = a elibera. a despica. a lovi. = a găsi. a îngădui. 2. = a da cu împrumut.a asfinţi. 2. = a bate. a lăsa. = a scrie. a (ră)suci (ceasul). = 1. 2.a revărsa. a izbi. = 1. a apune. = 1.a răspîndi. = a radiodifuza. a se scoroji.a întinde. = 1. a desfăşura. a se strădui. = a închide. 5. 2. a îmbrînci.strive thrive write strove throve/thrived wrote striven thriven written = 1. păreri). 3. = 1. 3. a scăpa. a potrivi. = 1. = a pune. a pisa. a (se) îndoi. 2. = a pune/face un pariu. = a prospera. 3. 3. a irosi. a izbi. 345 .a pune. = a trimite. = a lovi. a răspîndi în jur. a petrece (timpul). = a costa. = 1. 2.a rupe.a lepăda (frunze). a se lupta. 2. = 1.a dezbina. = a tăia. = a izbucni. = a arunca. = a (se) despica.a coti. a propăşi. (no change) bet burst broadcast cast cost cut hit hurt let put rid set shed shut slit split spread thrust bet/betted burst broadcast(ed) cast cost cut hit hurt let put rid set shed shut slit split spread thrust [t] bend lend rend send spend bent lent rent sent spent [au] bind find grind wind bound found ground wound bet burst broadcast(ed) cast cost cut hit hurt let put rid set shed shut slit split spread thrust [t] bent lent rent sent spent au bound found ground wound = a lega.a tăia. a risipi. a se schimba (d. a se răsuci/încolăci. a exploda.a scinda.a vărsa (lacrimi.

a clătina. a invita.a porunci. a pofti 3. a scuipa. = a (se) ascunde. 2. = a da. [d] hew mow saw sew show sow strew hewed mowed sawed sewed showed sowed sown strewed [n] hewn mown sawn sewn shown strewn = a tăia. a ura. = a înţelege greşit vorbele cuiva. a relata.a dori. 2. = 1. a pufni (d. 2. a dojeni. 4. 3. = 1. a zdruncina. a prezice. = 1. a mustra. bade/bid forbade forgave gave [æ] sat spat = 1.a ferăstrui. 346 . take took [ei] taken [i] bidden/bid forbidden forgiven given [æ] sat spat bid forbid forgive give sit spit dispreţ.pisici). a despica. = a împărtăşi. = a certa. = a ierta. a tremura. = a semăna. a participa la.ou sell tell foretell sold told foretold [i] bite chide hide bit chid/chided hid [u] forsake mistake partake shake forsook mistook partook shook ou sold told foretold [i] bitten chid/chided hidden [ei] forsaken mistaken partaken shaken = a părăsi. a împrăştia. = 1. = 1. = a muşca. 3.a tăia cu ferăstrăul. = a interzice. a speria.a răspîndi. a intimida.a zgudui. a zice. = a prevesti.a scutura.a oferi un preţ.a spune.a secera. = a (se) coase.a acoperi/presăra (cu). 2. = 1. a cosi. 2. a manifesta 3. 2. 4. = a arăta. a presăra.a tunde (iarba).a povesti. = a sta jos. = a lua. = a vinde. a abandona. 2.

blend blended/blent blended/blent = a amesteca.a locui. a răbda. 3.a subjuga. 2. lie lay lain = 1. fall fell fallen = a cădea. 2. hear heard heard = a auzi. get got got/gotten = a căpăta. a aşeza. foresee foresaw foreseen = a prevedea. * laden. hold held held = 1.a locui. lean leant/leaned leant/leaned = a se înclina. 3. 2. deal dealt dealt = 1.abide = 1. a culca. dwell dwelt dwelt = 1.a rămîne. mislay mislaid mislaid = a pierde. 2. a acţiona. a întrece. knit knitted/knit knitted/knit = a împleti. a deţine. behold beheld beheld/beholden = a zări. a sta. a prepara. emoţii). a se apleca. 2. load loaded loaded/laden* = 1. a refuza. lay laid laid = a pune jos. a îndeplini.a trece prin.a fi culcat. undergo underwent undergone = 1. a opri. lose lost lost = a pierde. 4.a auzi din întîmplare. 2. a pune stăpânire (d.). melt melted melted/molten* = a se topi.a reţine. a copleşi. light lighted/lit lighted/lit = a aprinde. bless blessed/blest blessed/blest = a binecuvînta. a poseda. a săvîrşi.a suferi. 2. 5. a avea. a întrezări. a împiedica. be was/were been = a fi.a acoperi. a opri. build built built = a construi. withhold withheld withheld = 1.a repartiza. 2. 4. a imobiliza. 3.a păţi. a proceda. a zăpăci.face. 347 abode Miscellaneous abode . overcome overcame overcome = 1. a fabrica. learned. a conţine. 2. a surprinde (o conversaţie etc. learn learned/learnt learned*/learnt = a învăţa. a obţine. a fi întins. 3. a tricota.a avea de-a face cu cineva.a învinge. 2. pay paid paid = a plăti. outdo outdid outdone = a întrece. have had had = a avea.a insista asupra. overhear overheard overheard = 1. molten (iron) are used attributively. a zăcea. a primi. beat beat beaten = a bate. make made made = 1. come came come = a veni. eat ate eaten = a mînca. burn burned/burnt burned/burnt = a arde. clothe clothed/clad clothed/clad = 1.a îmbrăca. forget forgot forgotten = a uita. a distribui. 2.2. a se supune.a ţine. durere). a reţine. 3.a încărca. a vedea. a copleşi (d.a face. 2. go went gone = a merge. do did done = 1. become became become = a deveni.

(d. a ţine piept. a recita (versuri). = a rezista. a face. 4. a se da pe gheaţă. a călca. a se atinge de. a spune. 2. a afla. = a păşi. a prelucra. a lua cunoştinţă despre.a strica.a încălţa. = 1. a pricepe. plante). 3. = a (se) umfla. = a sta în picioare. a da buzna. a încolţi (d. = 1. = 1. 2. a se ofili.a răsfăţa. a aluneca. = 1. 3. 3. say said = 1. 3. a pune la treabă.a tăia (subţire).a-şi exprima părerea. a înfăptui. a munci. (adapted by Doina Cmeciu and Elena Bonta from Eckersley. a trece pe nesimţite. = 1. = a tunde. 2. 4. 2. = a vedea. = 1. = 1. 3. a zice.a înţelege. 2. a se pronunţa. maşini) a funcţiona. a vîna.: A Comprehensive English Grammar) 348 . a răsturna.a da pe dinafară.a vărsa. 2.a se năpusti. a executa.a exprima în cuvinte.a potcovi. 3. 6. a afirma. a avea succes. 2. see shave shear shine shoe shoot slide spill spoil stand understand withstand swell tread work saw seen shaved shaved/shaven sheared shone shod shot slid sheared/shorn shone shod shot slid spilled/spilt spilled/spilt spoiled spoiled/spoilt stood stood understood understood withstood swelled trod worked withstood swollen/swelled trodden/trod worked/wrought* * wrought (iron) = (fier) forjat. = 1. 2. C.rot rotted rotted/rotten* said * rotten is used attributively. a produce.a (se) bărbieri. a se prăpădi. 7. a putrezi. 5. 8. = a străluci. a merge. a se freca de.E. a se caria. 2. 5.a se strica. 2. a trage cu arma. 4. a fermenta. = 1. a lucra.

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IV.ru.com. 352 .org/books. Internet Url: http://www.britannica. Internet URL: http://www.ro/eBooks/StiinteADM/management/2.designboom. Internet URL: http://www.org/wiki/Management.wikipedia. INTERNET SOURCES: • • • • • • • • • • • • Internet URL: http://www.uk Internet URL: http://en.html. Reader’s Digest. Internet URL: http://lori.prospects.co.htm.encyclopedia.com. Bristol.londononline. Washington. Internet URL: http://www.academicdirect. D. Internet URL: http://schools. Internet URL: http://www.wikipedia.org/wiki/Environmental_engineering.unibuc.wikipedia.olah. Internet URL: http://www.III. JOURNALS.com/doc/1E1-indust-man.org/wiki/Quality_management.uk/Shopping/. Internet URL: http://en.keldysh. from 1992 to 1996).ac.C. NEWSPAPERS AND MAGAZINES • National Geographic (vols. Internet URL: http://en.com. (from 1992 to 1997).