UNIVERSITATEA DIN BACĂU FACULTATEA DE LITERE

BACĂU 2007

COORDONATOR: prof.univ.dr.Cmeciu Doina AUTORI: Asist.univ.drd. Andrioai Gabriela: II.1.1.; II.2.2.1-4; II.2.7.5-8; III.1.1.7-8 ; III.1.6.2-3. Conf.univ.dr. Bonta Elena: I.2; I.3; I.4; III.1.1.3-.4; III.1.1.11 ; III.11. Asist.univ.drd. Bonta Raluca: III.1.1.1-2 ; III.1.1.10; III.1.1.3. Lect.univ.dr. Cmeciu Camelia Mihaela: III.1.1.10; III.1.1.5; III.I.1.2. Prof.univ.dr. Cmeciu Doina: I.1; III.11; III.2; III.3; III.5. Asist.univ.drd. Corban Carmen Diana: II.2.3.1-5; II.2.6.1-2; III.2-4. Asist.univ.drd. Culea Mihaela: II.2.5.5-10; II.2.7.1-4; III.1.1.11; III.1.5; III.5-6. Asist.univ.drd. Dinulescu Mariana Alexandra: III.1.4-5; III.1.6.1. Asist.univ.drd. Horubet Mircea: III.1.1.9; III.1.1.1-2. Asist.univ.drd. Morarasu Nadia Nicoleta: I.4; II.1.1-3; II.2.2.5.1-4; III.1.6.1-3. Asist.univ.drd. Nica Ioana: II.2.4.1-5; II.2.6.3-5; III.1.1.1-2; III.1.1.5-6. Asist.univ.drd. Popescu Roxana-Iuliana: II.2.1.1.-6; III.1.1.10; III.7-10.

CONTENTS

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS

PART I GENERAL ENGLISH TOPICS
I.1. Education in Great Britain................................................................................................ 7 I.2. Shopping in London.................................................................................................... ....16 I.3. Getting to Great Britain & Away.................................................................................... 24 I.4. Engineering Jobs and Career Opportunities................................................................... .33

PART II TECHNICAL ENGLISH TOPICS
II.1. GENERAL TECHNICAL TEXTS
II.1.1. The Importance of Learning Engineering English or Technical English.............50 II.1.2. The Industrial Revolution.....................................................................................53 II.1.3. The Romanian Industry after 1990.......................................................................56

II.2. SPECIALIZED TECHNICAL TEXTS II.2.1 TEXTS FOR INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING AND INDUSTRIAL DESIGN
2.1.1. Industrial Design......................................................................................60 2.1.2. Automotive Design..................................................................................64 2.1.3. Graphic Design........................................................................................68 2.1.4. Driving an Electric Car............................................................................71 2.1.5. Cigarette Pack Graphics..........................................................................74 2.1.6. Denim......................................................................................................78

II.2.2. TEXTS FOR INDUSTRIAL ENERGETICS AND MECATHRONIC ENGINEERING
2.2.1. How Radar Works....................................................................................84 2.2.2. The Electric Circuit and its Elements.......................................................87 2.2.3. Electrical Generators................................................................................90 2.2.4. Random Noise in Electronic Devices.......................................................93

II.2.3. TEXTS FOR INDUSTRIAL MANAGEMENT
2.3.1. Management.............................................................................................96 2.3.2. Management – Historical Development (1).............................................99 2.3.3. Management – Historical Development (2)...........................................102 2.3.4. Industrial Management...........................................................................106 2.3.5. Quality Management..............................................................................110

II.2.4. TEXTS FOR MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
2.4.1. Mechanics...............................................................................................114 2.4.2. Determination of Velocity Ratio............................................................119 2.4.3. Aeroplane Crashes..................................................................................123 2.4.4. Train Crashes..........................................................................................127 2.4.5. Sea Collisions.........................................................................................131

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II.2.5. TEXTS FOR CHEMICAL, BIOCHEMICAL AND FOOD ENGINEERING
2.5.1. Acids, Bases and Salts...........................................................................135 2.5.2. Oxidation and Reduction........................................................................137 2.5.3. Catalysis.................................................................................................140 2.5.4. Aminoacids and Proteins........................................................................143 2.5.5. Food Fats................................................................................................146 2.5.6. Can Honey Heal?....................................................................................149 2.5.7. Are You Looking After Yourself? ........................................................153 2.5.8. The Humble Spud...................................................................................157 2.5.9. Eating Out – Some Rules For Diners.....................................................160 2.5.10. Food Poisoning.....................................................................................163

II.2.6. TEXTS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING
2.6.1. Development of Environmental Engineering........................................166 2.6.2. The Scope of Environmental Engineering.............................................169 2.6.3. Micrometereology..................................................................................173 2.6.4. Earthquakes (1).......................................................................................176 2.6.5. Earthquakes (2).......................................................................................179

II.2.7. TEXTS FOR INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY
2.7.1. The Era of Communication...................................................................182 2.7.2. Microchips: A Look to the Future.........................................................186 2.7.3. Computer Viruses..................................................................................191 2.7.4. Messaging..............................................................................................195 2.7.5. Sampled-Data Systems..........................................................................198 2.7.6. Stored-Program Concept.......................................................................201 2.7.7. Time Sharing.........................................................................................204 2.7.8. Error Detection......................................................................................207

PART III ENGLISH GRAMMAR (THEORY AND PRACTICE)
III.1. THE VERB III.1.1. THE INDICATIVE MOOD
1.1.1. The Present Tense Simple......................................................................211 1.1.2. The Present Tense Progressive...............................................................213 1.1.3. The Past Tense Simple...........................................................................218 1.1.4. The Past Progressive...............................................................................219 1.1.5. The Present Perfect Simple....................................................................224 1.1.6. The Present Perfect Progressive.............................................................225 1.1.7. The Past Perfect Simple..........................................................................230 1.1.8. The Past Perfect Continuous..................................................................231 1.1.9. The Future and Futurity.........................................................................236 1.1.10. Modals and Semimodals......................................................................243 1.1.11. The Passive Voice................................................................................254

III.1.2. THE SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD.................................................................258 III.1.3. THE CONDITIONAL MOOD................................................................261 III.1.4. THE SEQUENCE OF TENSES..............................................................267

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III.1.5. DIRECT AND INDIRECT/ REPORTED SPEECH..........................274 III.1.6. NONFINITE FORMS
1.6.1. The Infinitive..........................................................................................280 1.6.2. The Participle..........................................................................................281 1.6.3. The Gerund.............................................................................................282

III.2. THE NOUN............................................................................................................286 III.3. THE ARTICLE............................................................................................295 III.4. THE ADJECTIVE................................................................................................301 III.5. THE PRONOUN...................................................................................................308 III.6. THE NUMERAL..................................................................................................314 III.7. THE ADVERB......................................................................................................319 III.8. THE CONJUNCTION........................................................................................324 III.9. THE PREPOSITION...........................................................................................330 III.10. THE INTERJECTION.....................................................................................339 III.11. LIST OF IRREGULAR VERBS....................................................................342

BIBLIOGRAPHY..................................................................................................................349

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LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS

abbr. = abreviere. ac. = acuzativ. adj. = adjectiv adv. = adverb. agr. = agricultură. alim. = termen alimentar. AmE = engleza americană. anat. = anatomie. appr. = în sens admirativ. arheol. = arheologie. arhit. = arhitectură. astr. = astronomie. auto. = auto(mobilism). autom. = automatică. av. = aviaţie. biol. = în biologie. bis. = (termen) bisericesc. bot. = botanică. BrE = engleza britanică. chim. = în chimie. cib. = cibernetică. cin. = cinema. com. = comerţ; în domeniul comercial. comp. = gradul comparativ (d. adjective). conj. = conjuncţie. constr. = construcţii. d. = despre. dim. = diminutiv. disappr. = în sens peiorativ, dezaprobator. ec. = economie. el. = electricitate. ent. = entomologie. etc. = et cetera; şi aşa mai departe. etym. = etimologic. farm. = farmaceutic. fem. = feminin. ferov. = (termen) feroviar. fig. = în sens figurat. fin. = finanţe. fiz. = fizică. fiziol. = fiziologie. gen. = genitiv.

geogr. = geografie. geol. = geologie. geom. = geometrie. inf. = infinitiv. info. = în informatică. inf. = informal, neoficial. interj. = interjecţie. intr. v. or v.i. = verb intranzitiv. irreg. = neregulat (d. verbe) jur. = juridic; termen legal. lit. = (uzaj) literar. man. = management. masc. = masculin. mat. = matematică. med. = medicină. met. = metalurgie. meteor. = meteorologie. mil = (termen) militar. muz. = muzică. n. = substantiv. n.ph. = expresie substantivală. nav. = navigaţie. nom. = nominativ. pict. = pictură. pl. = plural. pol. = politică. prep. = prepoziţie. pron. = pronume. psih. = psihologie. pt. = pentru. reg. = regulat (d. verbe). rel. = religie. sg./ sing. = singular. smb. = cineva. smth. = ceva. sp. = scriere corectă; ortografie. superl.= gradul superlativ adjective). tehn. = termen tehnic, tehnică. tel. = telecomunicaţii. tr.v. or t.v. = verb tranzitiv. usu. = de obicei. v. = verb. v.ph. = expresie verbală.

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5

PART I GENERAL ENGLISH TOPICS .

Scotland & Nothern Ireland have their own education systems. Drama. Schools in England are supported from public funds paid to the local education authorities which are responsible for organizing the schools in their areas. including vocational qualifications if they are 16. The system of education is determined by the National Education Acts. Education in Britain mirrors the country's social system: it is class-divided and selected. combine part-time study with a job. But a growing number of school students are staying on at school. Another important feature of schooling in Britain is the variety of opportunities offered to schoolchildren. stay at school. Economics. Schools in Britain provide careers guidance. the age of entry into higher education or universities. 14 and 16. Computers play an important part in education. when they are tested. According to The National Curriculum schools are allowed to introduce a fast stream for bright children. but there is also a considerable number of public schools. The National Curriculum does not apply in Scotland. an Art pupil will do English Language and Literature. General Science. Geography. secondary and further education. In addition many children attend informal pre-school play groups organized by parents and voluntary bodies. move to a college as a full time student. Most pupils go to schools which offer free education. The tests are designed to be easier for teachers to manage than they were in the past. that means that education is compulsory from the age of 5 to 16 /11 years. Technical subjects for girls. History. although fee-paying independent schools also have an important role to play. Polytechnics or colleges. School-leavers without jobs get no money from the government unless they join a youth training scheme. Home Economics for girls. Art. Besides these subjects they must do some general education subjects like PE. Until that year. perhaps through the Youth Training programme. The National Education Act in 1944 provided 3 stages of education: primary. which provides a living allowance during 2 years of work experience. A specially 7 . Most pupils will also be entered for GCSEs (General Certificate of the Secondary Education) or other public examinations. some until 18 or 19.1. The English school syllabus is divided into Arts/or Humanities/and Sciences which determine the division of the secondary school pupils into study groups: a science pupil will study Chemistry. Mathematics. Biology. foreign languages. Technical Drawing. The National Curriculum introduced in 1994 sets out in detail the subjects that children should study and the levels of achievement they should reach by the ages of 7.I. EDUCATION IN GREAT BRITAIN Great Britain does not have any constitutional provisions for education. In England about 47% of three and four-year-olds receive education in nursery schools or classes. The majority of schools in Britain are supported by public funds and the education provided is free. Everybody has a duty to make sure that the child goes to school until he or she is 16. Music. headmasters and headmistresses of schools were given a great deal of freedom in deciding what subjects to teach and how to do it in their schools so that there was really no central control at all over individual schools. Physics. Actually after young people reach 16 they have 4 main 'roads' of their next life: they can leave the school. There is no law which provides for education on the underfives. 11. where each school decides what subject it will teach. They are maintained schools. The system of options exists in all kinds of secondary schools.

primary ~ = învăţămînt primar. to burn the midnight oil. 2.c. or careers officer helps school students to decide what job they want to do and how they can achieve that. . higher ~ = învăţămînt superior. erudition. practical~ / training.: to acquire/gain knowledge. scholarship. educationist. philosophical ~. învăţămînt.b. wide reading. private tuition = lecţii particulare.1. = a educa. = pedagog teoretician. economic ~. I. vocational ~ = învăţămînt profesional. university ~ = învăţămînt universitar. EDUCATION I. instruire.a. tuition = învăţămînt. învăţat (an ~ man. I. I.: education. guidance. = educativ.ru) A. 3. = eg. painstaking = sîrguincios.keldysh. VOCABULARY I. Synonyms . 8 . = educator. secondary ~ = învăţămînt liceal. . educator n. the educated). instruction. to study. . educationally adv. educative adj. educationalist n. teaching. political ~. to learn by heart = a învăţa pe de rost. = instruit. = 1. câteodată prin circuit închis). to grind = a toci. compulsory ~ = învăţămînt obligatoriu.1. educational adj.d. acquisition of knowledge. Related words Ministry of Education = Ministerul Educaţiei Naţionale (în Anglia). study. a school for the ~ subnormal. hard-working. a instrui. religious ~. feminist ~. Types of education .artistic ~.v. learning. Entry words education n.: diligent.1. free ~ = învăţămînt gratuit. tutorship = meditaţii.all-round education = învăţămînt de cultură generală. cultivation. further ~ =învăţămînt după terminarea şcolii obligatorii exceptând cel universitar). = educaţie/învăţămînt (an ~ film/institution). to plunge into reading. to educate v. to be taught. pre-school ~ = învăţămînt preşcolar. to bone up on = a toci. Educational television = televiziune publică (televiziunea ce asigură instruirea elevilor (a studenţilor.adj. industrious.n. educated adj.1.trained person called careers advisor. (adapted from Internet URL: http://schools. educaţie. grind = toceală.

The old system of education: . ~ work = activitate şcolară. C = the "bottom stream". regardless of ability. private tutor = profesor particular. master. locul unde sînt educaţi şi instruiţi elevii. cursuri. ~ holiday: Easter ~. colegiu. 2. C: A = "the top stream".1.a. = 1. senior lecturer = lector. absolvent. crammer = meditator. . Places where education is performed kindergarten. winter~. university. People involved in the educational process teaching staff = corp profesoral/didactic. ~ subject = obiect de studiu. . instructor. banc de delfini. tutor = îndrumător. while others are "unstreamed": children of mixed ability are placed together in the class. I.I. 2. a învăţa. summer ~.The new system of ~ = under the new system there is no examination at the age of 11. lecturer. training centre/college = centru de perfecţionare/institut. coach = preparator.The "monitorial" system = the younger pupils were largely taught by the older ones. clasă.tutor/professor’s assistant on probation=preparator universitar. 6. Entry words school n. a sfătui. mistress. 7. a dresa. The average size of a class is 30 pupils. college = colegiu. Christmas ~. 5.secţie.The "Eleven Plus" = children took an examination at the age of 11. a trimite la şcoală. SCHOOLING II. polytechnic. metodă (idei. The grammar and secondary modern school were replaced by large comprehensive schools in 1965 to provide an equal secondary education for all people. II. 4. .3. (pl) examen. ~ bag = ghiozdan.3. ~ leaver = elev care termină şcoala.2. spring ~. . profesor. reader = conferenţiar.its name comes from the medieval system of teaching Latin grammar as the basis of education. If they failed they went to secondary modern schools which were closed after 1965 when comprehensive schools were introduced.streams A. 9 . school. a mustra. curent literar/ artistic. ~ day = zi de şcoală. (day-care) centre. II. Some comprehensive schools are "streamed" . meditator. 5. grup de balene.=1.1.2. lecţii.teacher = învăţător. nursery = grădiniţă.b. opinii împărtăşite de un grup de oameni). Systems of education . a instrui. to school v. dascăl. B. II. 3. professor. ~ yard = curtea şcolii. facultate. pedagogue. If they passed they went to a grammar school . 4. Related words schoolage = vîrstă şcolară.

cleaner = femeie de serviciu. Sunday ~ = cursuri de duminică (pentru ore de religie în special). . doctoral candidate = doctorand. fresher/freshman = student în anul I/boboc. . schoolgirl). şcolar. vicechancellor = (pro)rector. summer ~ = cursuri de vară.assessor = someone who checks for quality = inspector. head of a chair = şef al unei catedre. evening ~ = cursuri serale. . persoană care studiază. erudit. fellow student = coleg de facultate. . instituţii. . Types of schools/academies/colleges/courses/centres . . classmate. .student = elev.4. non-academic ~ = less able pupil. dean = decan al unei facultăţi. ..scholar = bursier. savant. . om învăţat.caretaker = intendent al unei clădiri. People in charge of a school/university .learner = elev. apprentice = ucenic. the council of the Senate = biroul senatului. don = membru al corpului didactic universitar. schoolmate. middle ~. . post-graduate = persoană care continuă studiile după terminarea facultăţii. fellow = membru al consiliului. supervisors = personal de supraveghere (kitchen/midday supervisor). governing board = consiliu de administraţie. schoolchild (schoolboy. the Senate = senat.private schools: public ~ = fee-paying ~ = şcoală privată/cu taxe/particulară. pupil: academic pupil = elev dotat.graduate = licenţiat.chancellor = the head of a British university = rector onorific. deputy master = director adjunct. schoolboard = consiliu de administraţie. ~ of music = conservator. headmaster/headmistress = director/directoare.day school = cursuri de zi. . Military ~ = Academie militară.parent teacher association = PTA. 10 . junior~. colleague = coleg de serviciu. high ~ (= liceu). .state schools: approved~ (= şcoală de corecţie). persoană marcantă. primary ~.comprehensive ~. grammar ~. examination board = comisie de examinare. umanist: Greek ~ = elenist.undergraduate = student. deskmate = coleg de bancă.beginner = începător. mixed ~ = şcoală mixtă. governing body = the members of the governing body of an English school may be appointed by the LEA or may be elected by parents and staff. . secondary modern ~. cercetător.Academy of Economic Sciences. He is usually a prominent statesman or Peer and is elected for life. student. formmaster/mistress = diriginte/dirigintă. savant = orice persoană care studiază.single sex school = şcoală de băieţi / de fete.3. II. II. rector = rector.residential ~ = boarding ~ = şcoală cu internat. nursery ~. persoană care urmează cursuri post-universitare.

oral/written examination. TV ~ = courses for the Open University students.college of commerce = colegiu/institut de comerţ.adult education centre = centru de învăţămînt pentru adulţi. bacalaureat. lab-classes = ore de laborator. It is an examination taken by pupils at the age of 18 and it is open to anyone who has studied for it.The "O" level exams = the General Certificate of Education. In order to be accepted by a university a pupil needs eight good grades at "O" levels and 3 "A" level passes.5.academic/school year. final ~ = qualifying school-leaving exam = examen de absolvire. lecture = oră de curs. Periods of study and recreation . . etc. semester = semestru. ~ of Dentistry. tutorial = consultaţie. ~ of Medicine.advanced courses = cursuri pentru avansaţi. ~ of Ecology. youth training centre = a centre training unemployed school-leavers.Advanced Level . ~ of Earth Sciences. technical ~ = şcoală tehnică postliceală. class = oră de predare. full-time and postgraduate.~of Engineering. ~ of Social Work and Social Policy. form class = oră de dirigenţie. Degrees. training period = a period that involves teaching or learning the skills that are needed for a job = perioadă de practică. II. entrance ~ = examen de admitere. business correspondence. . ~ of art. ~ of Chemistry. Assessments . II. science of commodities = merceologie.). qualifying ~ = examen de calificare. tourism. ~ of Agriculture and Land Use. ~ of Sociology. ~ of Statistics. vacation = vacanţă în universităţi/colegii. Grades go from A to G. extra-mural ~ = cursuri fără frecvenţă. sandwich ~ = cursuri intensive. This is the name of the examination taken by school children at the age of sixteen. ~ of Law. seminar = seminar. ~ of Economics: (marketing = studiul pieţii. degree ~ = cursuri pentru obţinerea unei diplome. management = ştiinţa conducerii.. Ordinary Level.Faculty of Arts. ~ of education = institut pedagogic.was introduced in 1951. The "O" levels are taken in eight or nine subjects while the "A" levels in two or three subjects. practical ~ = ore de lucrări practice. cursuri ţinute de profesorii unei universităţi în afara instituţiei la care sînt încadraţi. . but pupils can fail completely. Certificates. course = un număr de prelegeri universitare. ~ of Biology. training ~ = institut de perfecţionare.holiday = vacanţă şcolară. preliminary ~ = examen pregătitor. was replaced by the General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE). teaching practice = practică didactică. term = trimestru. partial ~ = examen parţial. Seven independent boards at the major universities are required to write the "A" levels topics for the exams which are 11 . . etc.6. The "A" Level . Examinations. . courses may be part-time.

Stationery and other requirements A4 paper = hîrtie format A4. of Phil. . lace / toy / soft toy making. Botany. doctoral thesis = teză de doctorat. The Ph. adults. II. then for a Ph.D = degree of Doctor of Philosophy.Tuition. II. string group.7. thesis. glueing. Geometry. dyeing (= vopsitul ţesăturilor). is required to show ability to conduct original investigations. Algebra.Extra-curricular activities involving teachers. carbon paper = indigo. dissertation = dizertaţie. book-marker = semn de carte. Design: fashion ~ (= design vestimentar). Geography. Children receiving tuition are expected to take part in the musical ensembles and teams of the school. painting. choir. gymnastics.D thesis must run to 100. Drama. Psychology.diploma paper = lucrare de licenţă. Students who wish to study for such degrees are usually registered in the first instance for a Master of Philosophy. Writing. .000 words. . Arithmetic. research project = proiect. swimming etc. perie. Religious Education = RE. If the pupils fail.000 words and should make a significant contribution to knowledge. outings (= excursii scurte de o zi). Computer Studies. photography. wind band. History.8. cardboard = carton.Club and society activities: library work. expedition work. to test ideas whether the candidate's own or those of others and to understand the relationship of the candidate's investigations to a wider field of knowledge. Art and Craft: metalwork. 12 . modelling. Archeology. .degrees = grade didactice. Reading. referat. The PE and Music Departments in most English schools are also served by visiting teachers who can be available for the child with the ability and will to learn how to play an instrument or to take part in a wide variety of games and outdoor activities. Master of Arts (= grad didactic intermediar între licenţă şi doctorat). environmental ~ (= design ambiental). colouring. other mates. Sciences (= ştiinţe exacte). The M. extended excursions to other parts of the country. Home Economics = HE: cookery and needlework. woodwork. karate. they can re-take the exams in November or January. ball-point pen = pix. Geology. Master of Philosophy = this is a research degree. of not more than 65. Physics. sewing. blotter = sugativă. brush = pensulă. drawing. Social Sciences. baccalaureate = university degree of bachelor.Arts (= obiecte umanistice).taken in May and June. blotting paper = sugativă. Philosophy. Physical Education = PE: athletics. . keyboarding (= dactilografie). cricket. Curriculum/ curricula . essay = eseu. Bachelor of Arts / Science = licenţă. charity work. cassette.

sharpener = ascuţitoare. leisure/recreation ~. propelling pencil = creion automat. cover = copertă. headed paper = hîrtie cu antet. soft cloth = cîrpă. School facilities facility/facilities = dotări. indoor ~. copy-book = caiet. classroom ~. drawing = schiţă. xerox ~ = hîrtie de xerox. educational ~ = dotări de învăţămînt. desene. II. refill pad = rezervă (plicuri). folder = pliant. student's pad = mapă studenţească. coloured chalk = cretă colorată. refill = mină rezervă. water colours = acuarele.colour and wipe-off book = carte de colorat care poate fi ştearsă. writing pad = mapă cu plicuri. envelope = plic. tracing = schiţă. map. reproducere. label = etichetă. typewriting paper = hîrtie de scris. L-shaped square = vinclu. flip chart = diagramă (care se înfăşoară şi se deschide uşor). grafice care uşurează transmiterea informaţiilor. desk. pocket-calculator. set tracing square = echer. jotter/note-book = caiet de însemnări/de notiţe. desen. computer. material folosit la orele de desen pentru a şterge pensula. rubber = radieră. dosar. pencil-box = penar. coloured pencils = crayons = creioane colorate. drawing pin = pioneză/capsă pentru hîrtie. protractor = raportor. stapler = capsator. nib = peniţă. simple charts = tabele. blackboard. drawing paper = hîrtie de desen. teacher's desk. punch = perforator. paper = hîrtie. 13 . staple = agrafă/capsă pentru prins două coli de hîrtie. ink-pot = călimară cu cerneală. mapă. the gummed flap of an envelope = partea plicului cu lipici pe ea.10. title strip = etichetă cu titlu. fountain pen = stilou. a pair of compasses = compas. ruler = linie. ink = cerneală.

science ~. cylinder = cilindru. 14 .28 ft (feet). physics) lecture hall = amfiteatru.09 yd or 3. 1 ounce = 28. 1mm = 0. drawing-board = planşetă. diagonal = diagonală. straight line = linie dreaptă. library (including: lending department = secţie de împrumut.5 = (nought) point five.4mm = 2. II. . concave = concav. Shapes angle = unghi. 1 km = 0.35 g.51 quintals. 1 m = 1. 1 kg = 2. vertical line = linie verticală. festivity hall = sală de festivităţi. research ~ = dotări pentru cercetare.Capacity: 1 pint = 0.035 ounces. computer room. handball. 15 1/4 = fifteen and a quarter.8 kg or 0.25 = sixteen point two five. reading-room = sală de lectură. rectangle = dreptunghi. 1 stone = 6. cube = cub. 3 feet = 1yd. heated indoor ~ = bazin de înot . 1 gallon = 4. pyramid. acoperit). chemistry. oblong = dreptunghiular. II. triangle = triunghi. 1/20 = a twentieth. club.45 kg.application form = formular de cerere. Facts and figures .546 litres. games hall (equipped for basketball. square = pătrat.Length: imperial and metric equivalents:1 yd (yard) = 0. hexagon. card catalogue = fişier. 1 hundred weight = 50.. arts ~. swimming pool. laboratory = lab (containing special equipment for experiments or research in biology. . 2. gymnasium = sală de gimnastică. horizontal line = linie orizontală.35 kg.54 cm. convex = convex. duster = cîrpă de şters tabla. pentagon.33 = (nought) point three three.outdoor ~. crescent = semilună. 1 in (inch) = 25. meteorological office weather station = staţie meteorologică. . cross = cruce.035 ounces. playground. study-carrel = boxă pentru studiu individual. vulgar fractions: 1/2 = a half. assessment = evaluare. II. 1/3 = a third. decimal ~: 0. cinema-projection hall = sală de proiecţie. 2/3 = two-thirds. chalk = cretă. cone = con. dome = în formă de boltă.13. 0. computing facilities.62 miles.04 in.11.Fractions: 1. Secretarial work . foreign languages. etc.98 tons.cu apă caldă. oblic. photocopying room). art and craft room = atelier. circle = cerc. 1 tonne = 0. 16. light-switch = întrerupător. 1 pound = 0.91m. octagon. workshop = atelier şcolar.12. 1 litre = 1.Weight: 1 g = 0. reading-table.759 pints.21 pounds.

pass mark = notă de trecere. . weak. 4. The course . the less you know . pass = examen luat cu un calificativ satisfăcător.. grade = calificatif la un examen (grades may be: excellent... very good. list of attendance = caiet de prezenţă. .what do you think about learning? 15 . external ~ = comisie de examinare din exteriorul şcolii). good. TOPICS FOR DISCUSSION 1.. He/She was awarded Grade Excellent/Pass/. reference = referinţă. to issue a card = a elibera o legitimaţie.. copy = copie. Secretary. Date.. Requirements of application forms To complete such forms applicants should: . from . examination board = comisie de examinare (internal ~ = comisie de examinare din interiorul şcolii. poor / lowest)..consult the prospectus before making formal application. Samples of certificates: .... roll-call = apel. included lectures and tutorials on . letter of recommendation = scrisoare de recomandare.Certificate of attendance: X attended the Summer school at the University of . form = slip = formular. . 5. out of . The influence of education on personality. degree = diplomă. What is success in education? Is education motivated by self-interest? The more you learn. .use a typewriter/write legibly/or use block letters. caracterizare.. Examination Board.give reference forms to referees.. strigarea catalogului. to..submit (= a prezenta) a record of their activity to date.. at this Institute/Teacher Training Institute/University/etc.signature.. to . matriculation = înmatriculare... Area officer . English/Welsh/Scottish teachers. qualification = calificare.. to give a certificate/reference/a certificate of competence.to award a certificate = a acorda un certificat. course in .Certificate of qualification: This is to certify that (= se adevereşte prin prezenta că . .. certificat.certificate = adeverinţă. The drawbacks and advantages of boarding-school education. 2. to certify = a adeveri. ..) X has been awarded this certificate in .... Director.. B. . typewritten copy = exemplar dactilografiat. The qualities of a good language learner. 3.. report = referat. to fill in an application form = a completa o cerere.. înregistrare. He/She attended .. from .. and was attended by . overseas members and . hours of the ... grad didactic. average. . registration = înscriere.

Most stores have a doorman who is there to open the doors for you. A huge number of cafes gives you chance to explore different foods. Leaving it all behind. expensive furniture. It can boast that it is the store that has delivered an elephant to Ronald Reagan. Oxford Circus or Tottenham Court Road.I. The best known street for shopping in London is Oxford Street. So if you are looking to buy designer clothes. smile at you and wish you a nice day. sit outside and just watch surrounding streets waking up. in 1849. Currently it is 16 . or maybe go to an Auction then this is the right place for you to be in. The second London street that you are most likely to visit to do your shopping is Regent`s Street. The nearest tube stations are: Marble Arch. Harrod’s store. This presentation concentrates on the shopping streets and places that anyone is most likely to visit. The good news about shopping at Oxford Street is that so many big retailers are represented here that you will be spoilt for choice. began. and Piccadilly Circus on the other. go there on Sunday morning. gooseberries to Saudi Arabia and a skunk to an American`s ex-wife. These streets have designer shops ready to dazzle you. the Hamley`s store.2. Hamley`s is every child`s dream come true. The main difference with these two streets compared with the Oxford Street is the friendliness of staff working there and the price of the things they will try to sell you. Just on the northern side of the Hyde Park you will come across dozens of artists who bring their paintings here so you can appraise them and maybe buy from them. clothes. The bad news is that you may have to be prepared to struggle from store to store. Packed with all kinds of toys this shop will make a hole in your pocket from demands from your children. Inexpensive restaurants and the chance to buy Far East spices are there and if you are here for a Chinese New Year then you are in for a treat. Still looking and not buying? Then go to the Bayswater Road. SHOPPING IN LONDON London is world famous for its shopping areas and famous shops. Henry Harrods. The main reason for us mentioning this one is. a few minute`s walk is Shaftesbury Avenue from where Soho and the world famous Covent Garden and Chinatown are waiting for you. To experience a different culture and taste an exotic meal go to Chinatown. Just off Oxford Street. and so on. Any time of the day or night there is always something going on in Soho. less known and less crowded. To avoid the worst of the crowds you have to be an early riser and come between 9am and 10am. With Oxford Circus tube station on one end. this street is packed with all kinds of shops. This was the first store in the world to install an escalator and Victorian customers were so overcome by the experience of riding a "moving staircase" that the store posted attendants at the top of the to administer brandy to gentlemen and smelling salts to the ladies. Covent Garden with its market is a trendy place to have cup of coffee or maybe something stronger. when most of the other London shoppers are either in bed or having a breakfast. but more expensive are New Bond Street and Old Bond Street. where you can buy souvenirs. Although many of whom of these artists are amateurs you may be pleasantly surprised by the craftsmanship displayed. Bond Street. the most famous shop in London. paintings. as a small grocer`s shop and was further developed by the son of the founder. If you can force yourself to rise early.

2.a. .owned by the Egyptian Mohamed Al Fayed and employs in excess of 3000 staff. Loan periods (= perioadele de împrumut) vary.You may copy Library or private material under supervision. capital = capitală. 17 . by applying in person to the Issue Desk. bars. .The Lending department/Loan Room (= secţie de împrumut). You can renew your books or reserve any that are on loan (= împrumutate) to others. The classmark is a combination of letters and numbers that tells you where the book can be found on the shelves.uk/Shopping/) A. restaurants and even own pub this store is London`s third top attraction with around 30. townsman/woman = orăşean/că. . It is in two sections: the name section (lists all the books by author or editor.1. To borrow books. I.târg. Entry words town n. Books are arranged in classmark order.The Restricted Loan Room contains a collection of material which is in heavy demand and this is why it is allowed out of the Library for short periods only. you will need a borrower's badge. Services offered to people I. For overdue books (= cărţile aduse cu întîrziere). (adapted from Internet URL: http://www. oraş. orăşeni.000 customers passing it trough on daily basis.1. toţi locuitorii unui oraş. Here you can find the card catalogue (= fişier). in the Photocopying Room. The badges can be obtained from the Issue Desk. . The book number or call mark (= cota cărţii) is special to each copy or volume of a work. country-town = oraş de provincie. metropolis = metropolă.b. the subject section (lists the same books by their subject). = orăşenesc. city = oraş mare. orăşeni. .Record Library is a large lending library of records and cassettes.1. Synonyms county town/seat = oraş de reşedinţă borough = târg.londononline. TOWN I. Related words townspeople/townsfolk = town-council/hall/house = primărie. centru administrativ. If you lose or damage a book.1. 3. = 1. Periodicals are arranged within each class in alphabetical order of their titles. I. 2. Most material can be borrowed only overnight or for the weekend.c. market town = orăşel.An English public library has different departments. At the public library . townlike adj. 2. and often title). you will be invoiced for the replacement/repair cost. there is always a fine. I.Audio Visual area contains the Library's stock of video-tapes and the machines for using them. VOCABULARY I. It is four acres in size and with more than 300 departments.co.

service ~ = magazin de deservire. II. their prices are cheap and reasonable.corner shops (they are small grocer's shops. filială a unei firme de magazine (can be found in different towns.. shopper n. . 18 . it has different departments). Synonyms shop = (department) store.vînzător.supermarket/self-service system shop = magazin cu autoservire (specialized in food products and household goods). . Many bibliographies and abstract journals are stored on computer databases.1.debit. stall = chioşc. II. especially built outside the town).supraveghetor într-un magazin. .d. shopping n.atelier. 3.b. ~ lifter = persoană care fură din magazin.Academic Network is a communication network that connects computers at British academic sites including universities.magazin. 4. 2.a. usually in a covered area. ~ man = 1. ~ girl = vînzătoare. usually to be found in the centre of a town. SHOPPING IN TOWN II.1.department store/general store = magazin universal (offers a large variety of goods.lucrător într-un atelier. . 2. Related words shop-assistant = vînzător într-un magazin. ~ walker = 1.băiat de prăvălie.individual shop = magazin mic de tip "boutique". ~ steward = reprezentant al muncitorilor la tratativele cu patronii. tîrguieli.shopping mall/shopping centres = centru comercial (a modern town development. politechnics and research institutes. 4. Online searches are faster and more comprehensive than the manual searching of printed bibliographies. shopping area = zonă comercială. ~ window = vitrină a unui magazin. Entry words shop n. = cumpărături. warehouse = depozit. . Shopping II.tarabă. sometimes they can afford cut prices). they open earlier than other shops and close later.chain stores = lanţ de magazine. many of them open on Sundays.1.1. others offer a wide range of goods. = a face cumpărături. Types of shops .hypermarket (a big shop with different types of goods. . II. which are accessible at remote terminals via worldwide telecommunication networks. usually on the corner of the street. a face tîrguieli. they include food stores. as well). they offer most food and household products.dugheană. It allows you to access other online library catalogues. a wide variety of shops are concentrated in one place. 3. II.responsabil de raion într-un magazin. under the same name. = 1. some are specialized only in one kind of goods.c. 1. ~ keeper = negustor.mic comerciant. to shop v. 2.prăvălie. = cumpărător.

muffler = fular. jacket = jachetă single-breasted ~ = ~la un rând de nasturi. drawers/slips = chiloţi. ladies' fashion. batic. dinner-jacket = smoking.ham-and-beef counter = raionul de mezeluri. scarf = eşarfă.chemists’.At the knitwear goods department (= la raionul de tricotaje) cardigan = jachetă tricotată cu nasturi în faţă. . shirt = cămaşă. night gown = cămaşă de noapte. sheepskin coat = cojoc. 19 . . jerseu. ladies' and children's ready-made-clothes department/men's wear. garters = jartiere. stockings = ciorapi. stretchies =şosete supraelastice. knee-length stockings = ciorapi trei sferturi.fish counter = raionul de pescărie. fur-coat = haină de blană.vegetables and fruit counter = raionul de legume şi fructe. two-pieces ~ = ~ fără vestă. wintercoat = palton.II. overcoat = pardesiu.bakery counter = raionul de produse de panificaţie.2. bra = sutien. In a foodstore In a foodstore (= magazin alimentar) you can buy foodstuff from different counters: . . double breasted~=~ la două rânduri. .street market (has a special characteristic atmosphere.confectionery/sweets counter = raionul de dulciuri. suspender belt = portjartier.At the hosiery department (= la raionul de galanterie) bathing suit = costum de baie. handkerchief = batistă. shoe shops. but you can also find clothes or antiques. children's clothes (= la raionul de confecţii pentru bărbaţi şi copii). scampolo. tie = cravată.3. . In a department store . it is open on Saturdays and Sundays but it can also be open on a particular day of the week). II.drinks counter = raionul de băuturi. jumper/jersey/sweater/pull-over/slipover = pulover. . waistcoat = vestă. suit = costum de haine. dressing-gown = capot. T-shirt = tricou. . coat = haină. dress = rochie. towel = prosop.dairy counter = raionul de produse lactate. socks =şosete.meats and fowl counter = raionul de carne şi păsări. mackintosh = impermeabil din cauciuc. uniform = uniformă. headkerchief = basma.groceries counter = raionul de băcănie. skirt = fustă. tailor-made suit = taior. sells especially vegetables. trousers = pantaloni. . . .At the gentlemen's. . offers colour to the place around. three-pieces ~ = ~ cu vestă. many of the shops have no doors). raincoat = haină de ploaie sack coat/sports jacket = sacou. clothes shops electrical shops and boutiques.

satin. gloves = mănuşi umbrella = umbrelă. voile = voal. perfume. briefcase = servietă. high-heeled ~ =~ cu tocuri înalte. chiffon = şifon. mouth water. poplin.At the leather goods department (= la raionul de marochinărie) belt = curea. wool = lînă. prints = imprimeuri. leather~ = ~ de piele. blade = lamă de ras. silk = mătase. leather girdle = cordon din piele. nail-scissors = foarfece de unghii. panties all/stretch tights = dresuri. earrings = cercei. nail-file = pilă de unghii. cotton = bumbac.At the footwear department (= la raionul de încălţăminte) boots = bocanci. yard goods = metraje. napkin = şervet. rubbers = tenişi. all-wool = lînă pură. engraving = gravură. serge = serj. valise. artificial ~ = ~ artificială. overshoes/snow boots = şoşoni. embroidery = broderie. cream = cremă. cufflink = butoni pentru manşetă. curtains = perdele. necklace = colier.Perfumery and cosmetics department (= raionul de parfumerie şi cosmetice) 20 . . . suitcase = geamantan. linen-fabrics = pînzeturi.At the jewelry department (= la raionul de bijuterie) bracelet = brăţară. .At the drapery and textiles department/yard goods department (= la raionul de stofe şi textile/de produse textile. ring = inel (wedding = verighetă). damask. . heelless/low-heeled ~ = ~ cu tocuri joase. pure ~ = ~ naturală. buckle = cataramă. nylon. unbleached linen = pînză nealbită. strap = curea de ceas. knee-high ~ = cizme. slippers = papuci de casă.panties = chiloţi (scurţi de damă). pyjamas = pijama. trainers = adidaşi. handbag = poşetă. table-cloth = faţă de masă. costume naţionale. velvet = catifea. powder = pudră. underwear = lenjerie de corp. tergal. present = cadou. alum = piatră ponce.At the handicraft department (= la raionul de artizanat) ceramics = ceramică. undervest = maiou. . chain = lanţ. earthen-ware = vase din lut. wallet = portofel. obiecte din national costumes = ceramică. metraje) calico = stambă. watch = ceas de mînă. suedette = diftină. souvenir. bleached linen = pînză albită. taffeta = tafta. shoe string = şiret de pantofi. brooch = broşă. after shave = loţiune după ras. comb = pieptene. walking~ = ~ de stradă. . cashmere = caşmir. sandals = sandale. cloth = postav.

lipstick = ruj. deodorant. varnish = lac de unghii. hoop = cerc (de joc). horn = corn. hair spray = fixativ. shaving ~ = ~ de bărberit. reel = mosor. a spool of sewing silk = papiotă. shampoo. hairclip = agrafă de păr. trombone. razor = brici. hair-net = fileu pentru păr.-set. alămuri. mouth organ = muzicuţă. car = maşină. tooth-paste = pastă de dinţi. viola. piano = pian.At the musical instruments department (= la raionul de instrumente panpipe = nai. hair-brush = perie de păr. flute = flaut. trumpet. ball. soap-box = săpunieră. upright~ = pianină. guitar = chitară. kite = zmeu. drum = tobă. skipping rope = coardă de sărit.At the toy department (= la raionul de jucării) 21 . instruments = instrumente. skooter = trotinetă.At the haberdashery department (= la raionul de mercerie) . shaving-set = trusă de bărbierit. mascara = rimel. (violon)cello. ribbon = panglică. button = nasture. toy = jucărie (toy rabbit/bear/bus). electric~ = aparat de ras electric.face/skin ~ = ~ de faţă. brass wind ~ = ~ de alamă. radio-set. record = disc. marbles = bile. safety = aparat de ras. zipper = fermoar. string ~ = ~ cu coarde.V. electric organ = orgă electronică. clockwork train = tren mecanic. rocking horse = cal balansoar. roller skates = patine cu rotile. (toy) balloon. lute = cobză. tooth-brush = perie de dinţi. muzicale) . harp. looking-glass = oglindă. tape = bandă (pentru magnetofon). scissors = foarfece. make-up = fard. cord = şnur. clockwork train = tren mecanic. pipe = fluier. sponge = burete. cassette recorder. crochet/hooked needle = croşetă. varnish remover = dizolvant. thread = aţă. accordion. T. knitting = ac de împletit. violin = vioară. cassette = casetă. saxophone. curler = bigudiu. sand moulds = forme de nisip. doll. hand ~ = ~ pentru mîini. hook = capsă. mandoline. banjo. eau-de-cologne. swing = leagăn. . tweezers = pensetă. contrabas. xylophone. thimble = degetar. clarinet. tape recorder. percussion ~ = ~ de percuţie. pincushion = perniţă pentru ace. wind ~ = ~ de suflat. bow ~ = ~ cu arcuş. record-player. hair-restorer = loţiune pentru păr. needle = ac de cusut.

Collective nouns used to indicate quantity a tin of soup/pears. . fur = blană. racket = rachetă (pentru tenis). basketball.At the tobacconist's (= la tutungerie) cigar = ţigară de foi/trabuc. a ball of string. table tennisball. matches = chibrituri. gold = aur. copper = cupru. tent = cort. a punnet of strawberries.At the electrical appliances department (= la raionul de aparate electrice) . ceramics. steel = oţel. lighter = brichetă. fishing-line = aţă (sfoară) de undiţă. rucksack = rucsac. a pack of cards. gym tights/trainings = costum de gimnastică/sport. Materials used to make objects aluminium. mace reed = papură. tobacco = tutun. camping case = trusă camping. an ear of corn.. cigarette case = tabacheră. a skein of silk. fish-hook = cîrlig de undiţă. cigarette holder = ţigaret.At the chemicals department (= la raionul de chimicale) . ball. chess = şah. (filter tip ~ = ~ cu filtru. a quiver of arrows.At the household goods department (= la raionul de articole de menaj) . 22 . pipe = pipă. without tip ~ = ~ fără filtru).At the florist's (= la florărie) . tobacco-box = tabacheră pentru tutun.At the sports articles department (= la raionul de articole sportive) air mattress = saltea gonflabilă. chessboard = tablă de şah. clay = argilă. match-box = cutie de chibrituri. lighter flint = piatră de brichetă. ski sticks = beţe pentru schiuri. . a jar of jam. a box of matches. a cube of sugar. ninepins = popice. skis = schiuri. stamp. plush = pluş. silver = argint. a bar of soap. cigarette. puck = puc. stockinet = tricot.At the glassware department (= la raionul de sticlărie) .At the stationer's (= la papetărie) . glass = sticlă. bronze. a packet of biscuits/crisps. a joint of meat. wax = ceară. a roll of film. plaster = ipsos. bicycle. half a pound of butter/cheese. velvet = catifea. a bunch of grapes. a tube of toothpaste. sledge = sanie. tin plate = tinichea necositorită. cellophane. football. fishing-rod = undiţă. crystal. amber = chihlimbar.At the newsstand (= la chioşcul de ziare) II. a loaf of bread. lace = dantelă. a bottle of lemonade. leather = piele. a pad of paper. anorak = hanorac. a dozen of eggs. cobalt. a crate of beer. cast iron = fontă. II. rugbyball.5.4.

Advantages and disadvantages of doing one's shopping in a department-store. A larger size.Would you mind giving me that pair of trousers? . 23 .6.Can you let me have this jumper? .Can I have three metres of that material? . please. 2. 4. 3.Can I see that blouse? . Imagine a dialogue between a shop-assistant and a lady who cannot make up her mind. Imagine the dialogue with the shop assistant. Asking for something in a shop . 5.I wonder if you could give me another pair of shoes.Can I possibly have half a pound of butter? . Talk about the advantages and disadvantages of living in a small town.II. B. Describe the main street in your town at midday and at midnight. TOPICS FOR DISCUSSION 1. You want to buy a present for your friend's birthday.

Getting There & Away London is one of the most important transport hubs in the world. freight vehicles and buses on specially designed one and two-decker railway carriages. followed by Gatwick. a car becomes a serious temptation. British Rail International's European trains leave from London's Victoria or Liverpool Street stations. Stansted and Luton. which screen 24 . For the first time since the ice ages. but the best known ones are the classical night ferries to several destinations. GETTING TO GREAT BRITAIN & AROUND I. check the Sunday Times. The best resource. Youth fares are available for holders of the National Express Discount Coach Card. Excellent discount charter flights are often available to full-time students aged under 30 and all young travellers aged under 26 (you need a youth card). most people going to and from the Continent bought combined rail/ferry or coach/ferry tickets between London and European capitals like Paris. But the most popular services continued relatively unchanged. Until the opening of the Channel Tunnel. A small saving on the fare may not adequately compensate you for an agonizing two days on a bus that leaves you completely exhausted for another two days. Brussels and Amsterdam. The shuttle runs between terminals at Folkestone in the UK and Calais (Coquelles) in France. As a result there are an enormous number of travel agents. As always. Buses are nearly always the cheapest way to get around. Even without using the tunnel. most travellers are going to want to get to the national parks and small villages where transport is worst. Getting Around Although public transport is generally of a high standard. There are international air links with London. Manchester. you can still get to Europe by bus or train – it's just that there's a short ferry/hovercraft ride thrown in as part of the deal. No one knew what will happen to the old British Rail International rail/ferry. Eurolines also has some good-value explorer tickets that are valid for up to six months and allow travel between a number of major cities. a division of National Express (the largest UK bus line). you can get almost anywhere.3.I. on main routes. II. they are confined to major roads. plenty of time. Eurolines. Edinburgh and Glasgow. Newcastle. France and Belgium. however. the Sunday Observer and the Sunday Independent. If time is limited. Unfortunately. buses are the cheapest and most exhausting means of transport. in particular. some of dubious reliability. but shoestringers will find cheap flights all wind up in one of the four London airports: Heathrow is the largest. however. walking and occasionally hiring a bike. they are also the slowest and. is TNT Magazine. and are available through the large student travel agencies. the occasional taxi. There are a bewildering range of alternatives between Britain and mainland Europe. has an enormous network of European destinations. Another service is a high-speed rail passenger service (Eurostar). operated by the national railway companies of Britain. London is an excellent centre for cheap tickets. Britain has a land link (albeit a tunnel) with Europe. cars. Eurotunnel operates a round-the-clock shuttle service (Le Shuttle) for motorbikes. and budget flights (especially stand-by and last-minute offers) can be very good value. although with a mix of local buses. rail/hovercraft services because of the tunnel service. The ferries/hovercraft all carry cars and motorbikes. although discount rail tickets are competitive. including Ireland and Eastern Europe.

2.(tehn. 2. walk = plimbare.3. 189-193) A. I. journey = călătorie (pe uscat).) cursă a pistonului. travelling agent = agent turistic. pp. by motorcycle and side = motocicletă cu ataş. excursion.Generalities . travelling adj. Related words agency = agenţie turistică. Entry words travel n.3.: Western Europe. I. VOCABULARY I. goods ~(= ~ marfar).) pod rulant. travel ticket = bilet de călătorie. wayfare = drumeţie. ride = plimbare. Mark et al. 3.b. călătorie călare sau cu bicicleta. outing = plimbare de o zi în aer liber. = călător. I. = 1. (adapted from Amstrong.a. by train = cu trenul.a fi comis voiajor. cu maşina. trains can be competitive. to travel v. impressions/notes = impresii/note de călătorie. globetrotting = cutreierare a globului pământesc. local 25 . voyage = călătorie (pe mare). down train (= tren din capitală sau oraşele principale spre provincie). by (motor) coach = cu autocarul.express ~(= ~ expres). a Lonely Planet Shoestring Guide.(tehn. companion = tovarăş de călătorie.fast ~ (= ~ rapid. wanderings = hoinăreală.1.By land (= pe uscat) We can travel in town or outside the town: by bicycle. With discount passes and tickets. TRAVELLING I. they are quicker and often take you through beautiful countryside that is still relatively unspoilt by the 20th century. trip = excursie.1.călător. = 1.1. = 1.a călători. sail = călătorie cu o ambarcaţiune cu pînze. Synonyms drive = plimbare cu trăsura. Ways of travelling and means of transport for people I. 2.you from the small towns and landscapes that make travel worthwhile in the first place. traveller n. yachting = călătorie de plăcere cu iahtul. expedition.comis voiajor. tour. accelerat). by car.a. passage = călătorie (pe mare). by motorcycle = cu motocicleta. hike = excursie pe jos.c.călătorie (de obicei mai lungă).

helicopter/hoverplane = ambulance~ = ~ sanitar.. . A motorway is very wide.~(= ~ local. The middle lane has traffic going at a speed (= viteză) of sixty or seventy miles an hour.in future: the hovertrain. connections (= legături). They give information about arrivals. The thick lines are for the main roads (going long distances across the country and from town to town). Motorways are the newest roads.slow ~ (= ~ personal.nowadays: the strongest and most fashionable means of transport is the hovercraft (= vehicul pe pernă de aer. motor ~ = ~ motor. boat = barcă. departures. yacht = iaht. I.b. On a road map they are marked by thick lines or thin lines.3. ferry ~ = bac. passenger ~(= ~ de pasageri). delays (= întîrzieri).c. ship's ~ = şalupă. Travelling by car/by motor coach/by bicycle A road is usually long. . travelling at speeds up to 300 miles per hour (m. vessel/liner = vas de linie. airplane/plane = avion. On it stands a barrier (= barieră). jet plain = avion cu reacţie. about the platform (= peron) the trains leave from or come to. stradelă de ţară). . It was invented by the British engineer C. steamship/steam vessel/steamer = ~ cu aburi. Cockerell.S. The left-hand lane is used only for passing other traffic (= pentru depăşire). It goes from one town to another or from village to village. I. It hovers over (= pluteşte peste/deasupra) water or land on a cushion of compressed air. Travelling by train .car lift = telecabină.3. through ~ (= ~ direct).By water (= pe apă) by sea = pe mare.many years ago: by carriage/coach = cu trăsura. The right-hand lane (= banda de pe partea dreaptă) is for slow traffic.rocket/spaceship = navă spaţială. and across the Channel to France. sleeper/over-night ~(=~cu vagon de dormit).All the information about trains is offered by the timetable (= mersul trenurilor) or by the information desk (= birou de informaţii) at a railway station. by mail coach = cu poştalionul.p. feribot. . rowing ~ = barcă cu vîsle. jawl ~ = iolă.h). by cart/waggon = cu căruţa. jolly ~ = bărcuţă. cursă). . long distance ~(= ~ de cursă lungă). The thin lines are for by-roads (= drumuri laterale) or country lanes (= alee.aircraft = aparat de zbor.By air (= pe calea aerului) .cable railway/ropeway/rope railway = teleferic. . It is used for regular passenger services around Britain's coast. The roadway (= şosea. passenger ship/liner = ~ de pasageri. parte carosabilă a străzii) has lanes (bands)/ carriageways (= benzi de circulaţie). pachebot cu curse regulate. up ~ (= ~ din localităţi de provincie spre capitală sau oraşele principale). ship = vapor. Between the three lanes going one way (= într-o direcţie) and those going the other way there is a grassy space. cursă). If a car bursts a tire (= are explozie de cauciuc) and runs off 26 . A motorway has three lanes going each way. . Lines marked down the road divide it into lanes.

The Romans were the first great road builders. blinker = semnalizator de direcţie. spring = arc.battery = baterie de acumulatori. gear box = cutie de viteze. lamp = far (head lamp with high and low beam = far cu fază lungă şi scurtă. bonnet/engine hood = capotă motor. door handle = mînerul uşii. They are "built-up" (= aglomerate). schools. along them. door lock = încuietoarea uşii. Later. silencer = muffler = tobă de eşapament. inflator = pompă de aer. They are marked by milestones (= borne kilometrice) and have road traffic signs that help the traffic. Accessories .The parts of a car. stone (= piatră) or asphalt. folding squab = spătarul rabatabil al scaunului. Modern road building began during the Industrial Revolution. radiator grill = mască radiator. (adapted from Illustrated Colour Dictionary and Webster’s Illustrated Dictionary Encyclopedia) . after they pass a driving test (= examen pentru luarea permisului de conducere) and get a driving licence (= permis de conducere). It will not run into the other three lanes of traffic. mudguard = apărătoare de noroi. . macadamized roads were built. rear side panel = aripă spate.the road. is called a driver. păcură) or asphalt. number plate = număr de înmatriculare. boot-lid/trunk lid = capotă/portbagaj. to ensure an uninterrupted flow of traffic. carburator = carburator. rear axle = puntea (axa) din spate. shock absorber = amortizor. rear view mirror = oglindă retrovizoare. houses. Roads can be made of gravel (= pietriş). back ~ = ~ din spate). boot/trunk = portbagaj. fender = aripă protectoare din faţă. but their stony surface was not good for vehicles with rubber tires. differential = diferenţial. dashboard = tablou de bord. chassis = saşiu.Only people over 18 may drive a car. to make them smooth. bumper = mască/bară de protecţie. seat = scaun (front ~ = ~ din faţă. they have shops. They made roads of gravel and stones. etc. They are covered with tar (= gudron. rear window = parbriz spate. sparkling plug = bujie. Streets are short roads in towns and villages. 27 . factories. petrol tank = rezervor de benzină. A person driving a car. it will hit the barrier and stop. Instead of crossroads there are flyover bridges (= poduri suspendate). There are no crossroads on motorways. No cyclists or pedestrians are allowed on motorways. The surface paving stones were arched in the middle so that rain ran off into ditches.

water temperature indicator = indicator de temperatură a apei. cigarette-lighter = brichetă. horn = claxon. saddle = şa. tire = pneu. steering gear = casetă de direcţie. mudguard. accelerator pedal = pedală de acceleraţie. fresh-air lever = manetă de aerisire. air-brake = frînă pneumatică. windshield wiper = ştergător de parbriz. chain = lanţ. . wheel = roată (spare ~ = ~ de rezervă). air-mail = poştă aeriană. airport = aeroport. direction indicator control light = lampa de control a semnalizatorului de direcţie. Travelling by plane air = aer. wheel = roată. I. oil pressure gauge = indicator al presiunii uleiului.d. lamp. air-chamber = cameră de aer. wiper switch = comutatorul ştergătorului de parbriz. pump = pompă. wheel hub = cap de roată (cromat). airman = pilot. air-base = bază aeriană. high beam indicator = lampă de control a fazei lungi. valve = valvă. ignition key = cheie de contact. direction indicator lever = manetă comutator de semnalizare a direcţiei. hand brake light = lampă de control pentru frîna de mînă. speedometer = vitezometru.3. ampermeter = ampermetru.accelerator knob = buton de comandă a şocului. hand ~ = ~ de mînă). spoke = spiţă. gear lever = manetă schimbător de viteze. tool bag = geantă pentru scule. radio receptor = radio. supapă. windscreen = parbriz. air-pocket = gol de aer. airplane = avion. ventilator = clapetă aerisire. brake.tail light with stop light = lanternă spate cu lampă stop. air-liner = avion de pasageri. handle bars = ghidon. tire = pneu. rear light = lumini spate. gasoline level gauge/indicator = indicatorul nivelului de benzină. wheel disc = discul roţii. brake = frînă (foot ~ = ~ de picior.The parts of a bycycle bell = sonerie. glove compartment = torpedo. sun-visor = para-solar. pedal. aviator. clutch pedal = pedală de ambreaj. . reflector. wheel rim = jantă. steering wheel = volan. 28 . air-bladder = băşică de aer. ventilator lever = maneta trapei de aerisire. heater fan switch = comutatorul ventilatorului sistemului de încălzire. air-borne = aeropurtat.

controllers organise the landing and take off of each airplane. The runways are usually parallel and in line with the prevailing wind. international flight = zbor internaţional. domestic/internal flight = zbor intern (pe rută internă). regular/scheduled flight = zbor conform orarului. charter flight. . air-shed = hangar. air-jacket = haină pneumatică de salvare. air-line = linie aeriană. airproof = ermetic. airship = dirijabil. automatic pilot = pilot automat. from a height (= înălţime) of 5 or 6 miles (6 to 8 kms) onto a concrete (= beton) runway about 3 kms long and 60 meters wide. non-stop flight.types of flight all weather flight = zbor în orice condiţie. aircraft = avion. wing = aripa. it moves along. modern and well-equipped airplanes. As soon as an airplane has landed. air-sick = care are rău de avion. airway = rută aeriană. air traffic = trafic aerian. passanger cabin/compartment. aircrash = accident de avion. engine. airfield = aerodrom. so that an aircraft can land against the wind. The center of operations at the airport is the air traffic control tower (= turnul de control al traficului aerian). Here. cockpit = carlingă. baggage hold = cabină. seat-belt = centură de siguranţă.Parts of a plane aileron = eleron. daily flight = zbor zilnic. air-screw = elice. Travelling by air is as safe as any other means of transport. air-cushion = pernă pneumatică. air-highway = traseu aerian. modern compasses (= busolă). cală pentru bagaje.Airports Airports have three main purposes: they must handle passengers. blind flight = zbor fără vizibilitate. navigation light. . information about weather. they must be sure that all aircraft take off and land (= a ateriza) safely and on times. air-force = aviaţie militară. they must provide hangars and workshops so that planes can be checked regularly. motorless flight = zbor fără motor. or taxis (= rulează) to 29 . any risk is eliminated by: thorough inspection of the planes before taking off (= decolare). which is always safer. airspace = spaţiu aerian. rudder = cîrmă de direcţie. seat (reclining ~ = scaun rabatabil). intercom = sistem de comunicare internă a avionului. mail and freight (= încărcătură). wheels (retractable main ~ = roată retractabilă). . aeronavă. radio aerials. radio beacons (= semnale radio).air-conditioning = aer condiţionat.

(adapted from Illustrated Colour Dictionary and Webster’s Illustrated Dictionary Encyclopedia) . larboard = babord. A vessel is a craft bigger than a rowboat. safety-boat = barcă de three decker = vas cu trei salvare. After a while the dugout and the raft were built up with sides of wooden planks (= scînduri). Until the 1800s. railing = balustradă. When there were no reeds or logs. berth = cuşetă. punţi. Fuel tankers move in to refill to airliner's tanks. Here trucks are waiting. ~ house = cabina căpitanului. It combines many of the capabilities of all three: it can carry heavy loads (= încărcătură) over land. which was a raft (= plută) made of logs or bundles of reeds tied together. and it is quite different from any wheeled vehicle. boats were made of skins (= piei de animale) stretched over a light framework. sailing boats and row boats are used by people in all parts of the world. raft = plută. engine room = sala maşinilor. R: The Story of Flight) I.an area called apron. ready to carry baggage to the terminal. deck = punte. Different types of boats and sails were fitted so as to catch as much wind as possible. starboard = tribord. ~ for radio beacons = semnale luggage room = magazie pentru radio pentru bagaje. It is well provided with everything necessary to allow for the navigation in the best conditions (a good crew and all sorts of facilities).3. motorboats. A cushion of air is maintained between the craft and the surface by driving air at pressure under the hovercraft. stern = pupă. But it is not dangerous to be on board a ship/vessel in such conditions.e. The first real boats appeared later. all boats were driven by sails (= pînze) and oars (= vîsle). ship or airplane. hold = cală. main ~ = ~ principală. mast = catarg.The component parts and the accessories of a vessel: anchor = ancoră. captain's bridge = punte de comandă. used for navigation. One was the dugout (= pirogă) canoe. prow = proră. The hovercraft is an entirely new form of transport. propeller = elice. This cushion supports the weight of the craft and keeps it 30 . The first boats date back to prehistoric times. (adapted from Bowood. Cleaners arrive to empty the cabin and load (= a încărca) on food for the next flight. Travelling by boat It is pleasant and exciting to have a row (= plimbare cu barca) or a voyage on board (= la bordul) a yacht or a vessel. antenna = antenă. Being in a boat or yacht on a rough (= agitată) sea is quite dangerous. and were simply floating logs (= trunchiuri de copac) or driftwood paddled with the hands. it can operate on the sea and is airborne in operation. The invention of the steam engine made paddle wheels and propellers possible. safety-belt = colac de promenade~. lower ~ = ~ inferioară. salvare. Today. cabin. life ~ = ~ de salvare. porthole = hublou.

clear off the surface.it takes a short time. It is necessary to raise the chamber pressure only a little above atmospheric pressure. propeller pitch indicator. air speed indicator. r. Generally.advantages: . (revolutions per minute) indicator.it is relatively cheap. The propeller used to drive the hovercraft is usually an aircraft type.independence of choosing the route.each passenger has his/her own seat. Lift is entirely dependent on the speed of the engine driving the lift fan. . Electrical power is used to start the engine and ignite (= a pune în funcţiune) the fuel driving the engine. The supply (= aprovizionarea) is obtained from a generator which charges a battery to maintain a supply when the engine is stopped. The lights. . Fuel is pumped to the throttle valve by means of an electrically driven pump. . The idea of supporting a vehicle on a cushion of air developed from early attempts at producing vertical take off aircraft. The cabin for passengers is typical of the passenger aircraft except that seat belts have not so far been considered necessary. It requires tremendous power to drive it and uses most of the power developed by the engine.it is not dangerous. Should an emergency occur. the hovercraft requires lift and propulsion. The hovercraft's air cushion is like a leaking tire. radar equipment and many instruments require (= cer) electricity. to carry all of the instruments for safe operation of the hovercraft. Piston type engines have been used in early hovercraft. the commander needs to be a person combining many of the piloting skills of an aircraft pilot with the navigational skills of a sea captain. The fuel used is either low grade petrol or kerosene. . . The propellers used on hovercraft are fourbladed (= cu patru lamele). Basically.S. This type of engine is smaller and lighter.Any journey or voyage has advantages and disadvantages . radio. . Consequently. a throttle valve (= fluturaş) and as many injectors as there are combustion chambers.p.it is comfortable. E. and also the wish to increase the speed of boats by feeding air beneath them to ease (=a uşura) their passage over the water. Most craft are fitted with flexible skirts which contain the cushion of air. Hovercraft are generally used more over the sea than elsewhere.: The Hovercraft) . 31 . but current models favour the use of gas turbines.it doesn't make noise. They include: compass (= busolă).m. An instrument panel (= panou/tablou de bord) is fitted in front of the commander. in principle. Air must be pumped in continuously to maintain the necessary lift. (adapted from Hayden. in order to lift the hovercraft. so the controls must be aerodynamic . a pump. lifejackets are available under the seats. The fuel system is quite simple and consists of a fuel tank (= rezervor). a hovercraft has no physical contact with the surface over which it is travelling.rather like aircraft controls.you can eat/drink/read/sleep. engine. This is done by a lift fan (= ventilator). .

Road transport makes use of motor-vehicles. shipment.you can see many things.you can't choose the route. Means of transport for goods .4.you can get air/car/seasick.you can stop where you want. 3. to transport (vb.you can meet other people. . Describe your first trip on a plane.it is not comfortable. .disadvantages: . What are a few of the effects that the development of air travel has had on modern life and world events? 2. Road transport is more expensive than railway transport. .it is dangerous.The development of our national economy led to the development of transport. you can't stop where you want. tankers (= tanc petrolier. Imagine the dialogue. to carry. cargo-boats. removal. transference. . tank ~. to ship. transportation. Describe a journey you have just had.it makes noise.): carriage. 32 . B. . .it takes a long time to get where you want.): to convey. tipping ~ (= autocamioane. barges (= şlepuri). trailers (= remorci) and semi-trailers..transport (n. . .it is (quite) expensive. . Talk about advantages and disadvantages of different means of transport. . You are on a train with a fellow-passenger who has visited the town you live in.it is crowded/cramped. Water transport uses bulkcarrier (= vase ce transportă încărcături mari).you can't read/sleep. petrolier). basculante). TOPICS FOR DISCUSSION 1. shipping. 4. . There are also different types of lorries: refrigerated ~. 5. . navă tanc. conveyance. I. .

In the UK there is a severe shortage of civil engineers. airport terminals in Toronto and Tel Aviv. The professional status of chartered engineer also commands international respect. it becomes easier once you have gained two or more years’ industrial experience. GE. for example. an oil platform in the Philippines and the Channel tunnel are among their completed projects. has employees in 28 countries and BT offers career opportunities across Europe. but not impossible. Organizations such as Ford. This was followed in 2004 with a move to allow all new graduates in engineering from UK universities to stay in the UK for at least a year after graduating.4. ENGINEERING CAREERS AND JOB OPPORTUNITIES Leading firms in the engineering sector are among the most international in their outlook. and in 2003 the government relaxed its work permit rules for these engineers from overseas. Many large companies participate in fairs on campus. Vodaphone. While it is relatively easy to get employment around the world as an engineer.I. Websites of the professional bodies provide lots of careers and job information. Project work could take you anywhere – the Hong Kong metro. Telecommunications companies are also big on global reach. Siemens. initial training and experience. work experience before graduation is more restricted and it is quite possible to graduate without any. although we have sandwich courses. Each professional body has a list of organizations that offer accredited training for 33 . It is unusual. Fortunately. Allowing the numerous overseas students who come to the UK for an engineering education to stay will certainly alleviate this problem. The industry is used to working in multinational teams. Apply directly to those firms you find attractive that are offering career opportunities in your area of engineering. for a graduate with a first degree to immediately gain employment in the USA. companies in the UK are placing increasing value on work experience or internships during vacation time and/or sandwich degrees. The order in which these occur differs around Europe. with seismic investigations and the drilling of wells often taking place in the most remote regions. There are numerous publications advertising vacancies in the engineering sector every year. which takes around seven years and includes education. This inevitably places more emphasis on industrial training after graduation. The French and Germans prefer their students to gain industrial experience at home and abroad during the course of their studies. has offices in eight European countries and 16 elsewhere in the world. An MEng degree from a UK university is recognized worldwide as an excellent grounding. Philips. In the UK. engineering qualifications are very portable. Oil exploration has always been international in nature. and English is their business language. When and if the telecommunications and automobile industries get back to ‘normal’ levels of recruitment there will be shortages of good engineers. However. Fairs offer the chance to talk to firm representatives face-to-face and can provide an opportunity to make contacts. Arup. The Association for Consultancy and Engineering (ACE) produces information on the international work of its members. Attending a careers fair can be a great way of discovering who is recruiting. Nokia and Shell all recruit internationally and visit recruitment fairs across Europe. A career in engineering can be truly international. All European Union (EU) countries have an agreement on what they call the ‘formation’ of a professional engineer. for example.

= 1. vocation. task. jobbery n. treabă. budgets and clients’ expectations. clients and suppliers. (adapted from Internet URL: http://www. odd. = 1. Company training schemes often lead to professional qualifications. negotiating with suppliers. slujbă. Alternatively. afacerist. In addition to your technical abilities. affair. work. serviciu. 3.a. or a project for a client. = speculă la bursă. Related words jobber n. 3. mission. = 1. plus training in the area in which you will eventually work.d. employment. post. funcţie. over-time. . Synonyms activity. Speculative applications to firms of your choice often pay off. In addition to technical competence. I. antreprenor. 34 . Your career can develop in many different ways within the engineering sector. a închiria cai şi trăsuri.c. afacere. This may involve managing a facility such as manufacturing. 2.uk) A. risky.prospects. JOBS I. lucrări mărunte. send in a speculative application. = şomer. 2. the engineering sector also wants team players who can solve problems and communicate with customers. profession. occupation. 2. perhaps marketing the products you know so well technically. They also appreciate the ability to recognize commercially promising approaches rather than expensive solutions that cannot be marketed.full-time. = persoană care închiriază cai şi trăsuri. if they match your requirements. before moving into a management position. muncă. îndeletnicire. îndeletnicire. Most companies will list the required competencies on their website and it pays to study these carefully before embarking on an application.1. ocupaţie. jobmaster n. engineering consultants.1. 4.attractive. VOCABULARY I. You might start in a technical function and develop as a professional. responsibility. I. to job v. Selection procedures always include questions about competencies. your career could progress in a different direction.new graduates intent on gaining professional qualifications. complete a project or write a report to gain professional recognition. business. charge. optimizing supply chains or hiring new technical staff in human resources. intermediar. trade. well-paid. . The schemes will usually include secondment to various departments. assignment. you will also develop the skills necessary to manage people.low paid. You can discover details of trade associations and of their members as well as whether they are electronics companies. jobless adj. dull. calling. aerospace manufacturers or active in other parts of the engineering industry. a face afaceri.1.ac. Investigate their vacancies and career development opportunities and. career. part-time. position.b. lucru. I. Entry words job n. duty. You may need to keep a diary of your experiences. Types of jobs . Be prepared to complete aptitude tests as part of the application and interview process. function.1.

. • managerial skills. if required to work in an international company. • accuracy and attention to detail. • problem solving and analytical ability. At the interview you should wear your best clothes (to give a good impression). I. The letter must be accompanied by a Curriculum Vitae (CV) that should be typed. a admite.. look tidy. • creative ability.2. .indoors. It must include personal details. you must prepare for the interview when you must appear in front of an employer (= patron) or a group of selectors.. • a high level of scientific knowledge and the ability to apply this knowledge to practical problems. • fluency in a second language. qualifications etc. of.Newspapers and magazines have advertisements (= reclame) concerning possible jobs. Looking for a job/getting a job . qualifications and positions held..A letter of application looks like this: Sir.. • organisational skills. • communication and interpersonal skills.. (signature) For engineering positions.. it must be clear and not too long.. I wish to apply (= a solicita) for the job. (newspaper) . I hope you will be kind enough to consider my application and grant (= a acorda. With reference to your advertisement in .. such as time and resource planning.. . show enthusiasm for the job. skills and achievements (= realizări). make notes on your experience. • IT skills. If you get a positive answer. 35 . Yours sincerely.. potential candidates will need to show evidence of the following: • technical knowledge. Then. If you are looking for a job you have to read the job columns in the newspaper. you must write a letter of application (= cerere) or if possible. to fill in an application form (= formular de cerere). (date) . . a aproba) an interview.. My address is . outdoors.

Bacau.com Romanian 10 July 1981 From November 2006 to the present SC MACHINE TOOLS SA Bacau. EDUCATION AND TRAINING • Dates (from – to) • Name and type of organization providing education and training • Principal subjects • Dates (from – to) • Name and type of organization • Principal subjects • Title of qualification awarded • Dates (from – to) • Name and type of organisation providing education and training • Title of qualification awarded From 2005 to the present University Of Bacau. The Faculty of Engineering Mechanical engineering BEng From 1998 to 2001 “Vasile Alecsandri” High School. sub-contractors. The Faculty of Engineering Enrolled for a Master degree program in the Management of industrial production From 2001 to 2005 University Of Bacau. testing and evaluating theoretical designs. suppliers and customers.1. 600078.CURRICULUM VITAE PERSONAL INFORMATION Name Address Telephone E-mail Nationality Date of birth VALEANU VALERIU 1 Letea Street. Romania 0234-655525 valeriuvaleanu@yahoo. developing. Romania Manufacturing industry Mechanical engineer on probation WORK EXPERIENCE • Dates • Name and address of employer • Type of business or sector • Occupation or positions held • Main activities and responsibilities as a teaching assistant • designing • • • • • and implementing cost-effective equipment modifications to help improve safety and reliability. often including those from other engineering disciplines. developing a project specification with colleagues. managing projects using engineering principles and techniques. planning and designing new production processes. Apt. Bacau Baccalaureate ROMANIAN English and French: very good MOTHER TONGUE OTHER LANGUAGES Reading. discussing and solving complex problems with manufacturing departments. B category 36 . writing and verbal skills Additional information driving licence.

~ people = muncitorime. 2.lucru.cultivare (a unui teren). acţiune (a unui medicament). a prelucra. mobil. to work in a slapdash way = a da rasol.(fig) prozaic. 37 . to work (on) short hours = a şoma.working alone. workable adj. to work in relay = a munci în schimburi. a conduce (o acţiune). manual work.treabă. 2. 3. to work for = a presta zile muncă. de exploatare. a avea o slujbă. în vigoare. = 1.(pl) muncitorime. 3. a lucra.1. working away from home. 4. ~ sheet = carte de muncă. = 1. 6. a lucra de mîntuială. 4. ~ load = normă. sarcină.lucru. activitate.execuţie îngrijită. ~ man = muncitor. to work by agreement = a lucra în acord. execuţie. 2. II. 5. 5. ~ mate = coleg de muncă.c. măiestrie. 2.1. = 1.executabil. pentru zilele de lucru.efect. care munceşte. workmanlike adj.muncitor.asupra căruia se poate acţiona. ~ force = forţă de lucru. a executa. 4. ~ room = atelier.(pl) construcţii. workaday adj. ~ of art = operă de artă. 3. ~ out = stagiu.b. research work. 5.(fig) acţiune. a manevra. 2. creative work. to work whole-heartedly = a munci cu avînt. worker n.manevrare.7. 5.albină/furnică lucrătoare. operă de artă. working outside. lucrător. = 1. antrenament. .a. muncă. 2. cîrmuire. 3.prelucrare mecanică. working adj. working n.brainwork.II. de lucru. 6. 4. secţie (într-o uzină). II. working inside. Related words work-bag = sacoşă de lucru (pentru croitorie). 2. workmanship n. 3. 9. to work overtime = a face ore suplimentare.(pl) fabrică mare. = 1. ~ house = fabrică. a cîrmui (o maşină). extra-work. a înfăptui (un plan). iscusit. to work v. muncă. maşinărie. Types of work . îndemînatic.îndemînare. = 1.de lucru. 2. ~ shop = atelier. lucrător.1. WORK II. 2. = 1.lucrătură. 8.fermentaţie (a vinului).operă (work of art). Entry words work n.cultivare (a pămîntului). 6. 4. ~ box = cutie pentru materiale si unelte. 3. făcut de mîini îndemînatice. working-clothes = haine de lucru. azil de săraci. ~ book = broşură.fabricaţie. uzină.lucrare.(fig) agitaţie. ~ horse = cal folosit în special pentru muncă. 5. voluntary work. ~ bench = banc de lucru.(pl) mecanism. a elabora. = 1. bine executat. office work. cărticică. = 1.muncitor.

Places of work agency/firm = agenţie.2. beauty shop/saloon parlour.dispozitiv. mijloc.Technology = tehnologie. mine = mină.Technique = tehnică. .ansamblu de maşini. thermo. . utilaj. pig breeding ~ = fermă de porci. dockyard/shipyard = şantier naval. hosiery. . . . 2. conservatoire. aparat. circus.machinery = 1. news-stand. faculty. safety helmet = cască de protecţie. inquiry office. aparat. 3. . compassing. chambers = birou de avocatură. carrying.mecanism. pen and ink. prosecutor's ~ = procuratură. 2. bakery = brutărie. electrical equipment. furriery = blănărie. lifting. booking-office. aviary = crescătorie de păsări. production line work.Tools/equipment: hitech equipment.aparat. hydro. studio = atelier (al unui pictor). night club. creating. embassy = ambasadă. clockmaker's/watchmaker's. protective clothing. county hall = prefectură. .~ = hidrocentrală. law-court = judecătorie.plan. .echipament. mecanism.aparatură. orphanage.Clothes: overalls = salopetă. 38 . office = birou. What does work imply? . instrument. sculă. 2. dental surgery = cabinet dental. dairy = lăptărie.equipment = echipament. fishery = cherhana. mecanism.tool = unealtă. barkery = tăbăcărie.device = 1. printing house = tipografie. foundry = topitorie.~ = termocentrală. proiect. saltworks = salină.costum. aprovizionare. = a technical method of achieving a practical purpose. .Actions: calculating. farm = fermă.3. . haberdashery. tribunal. II. surgery. 3. physical equipment. publishing house = editură. inventing.gear = 1. moving. bar. . mechanical tools. dyehouse = boiangerie. smithy = fierărie. outdoor work. editorial office = redacţie.outfit = 1. theatre. butchery = abator. bookshop. specialist tools. millinery.înzestrare. grocery. airport. hairdresser's.II. research work. quarry stone pit = carieră de piatră. library. companie. post-office. power station = centrală. dispozitiv. flower shop.apparatus = aparat. police-station. . farriery = potcovărie.procedeu. box-office = ghişeu la teatru.machine = maşină. 2. school. poultry ~ = fermă de păsări. restaurant.mechanism = mecanism. schemă. . tobacconist's. barber's.

= 1. people are paid. the one dealing with it = biologist (= biolog). = angajat. a angaja.hospital. plants and animals). the one dealing with it = astronomer (= astronom). Law 9. = 1. Payment For their work. deals with living beings and life processes. II. . II.dealing with the operation of aircraft or with their design and manufacturing. They receive payment (= plată. employee n. = a da de lucru. Arts 7. for a doctor/lawyer. = patron.salary = salariu. întrebuinţare. meteorologică. III. Science and research 2. according to contract. leafă (for intellectual work) = payment made at regular intervals for services. Building 4. Unemployment . plumbery = atelier de topit şi prelucrat plumb.1. . 39 .science n. 2. joiner's shop = atelier de tîmplărie. = angajat. Science and research .wages = salariu. sumă plătită). 3. meat-processing factory = combinat de industrializarea cărnii. laundry. hotel. . weather-station = staţie laboratory. magnitude and constitution). employer n. to employ v.utilizare. DIFFERENT FIELDS OF ACTIVITY 1.ocupaţie.5. remuneraţie = the charge for a professional service.the study of living things (organisms. serviciu. Health 5.Sciences and scientists Aeronautics .4. = slujbă. Army. Astronomy .industry.People receive: . Economics . a branch of study concerned with observation and classification of facts and especially with the establishment of verifiable general laws. Religion 10. = şomer. slujbaş.Other fields of activity III. upholster's = atelier de tapiţerie. dulgherie. Biology .accumulated systematized knowledge especially when it relates to the physical world. according to a pay-roll (= stat de plată). . Public services 8. Money is given by a paymaster (= casier). works = uzină. Education 6. unemployed n. serviciu. leafă (for physical work) = payment for labour or services. 2. transport.employ n. agriculture.fee = onorariu. commerce/trade.the study of celestial bodies (their motions. Cultural life. employment n. employed n.

Medicine . Aerodynamics = the branch of aeromechanics that deals with the forces (resistance. .It is the work of 40 . the one dealing with it = geographer (= geograf). Biotechnology: genetics ~ = the study and manipulation of the genes in plants and animals. Bionics = the science of designing instruments or systems modelled after living organisms. Sociology = the study of the development and structure of society and social relations.deals with restoring and preserving of health. Cybernetics = the science dealing with the comparative study of the operations of complex electronic computers and the human nervous system. Sonicity = the study of sound waves. Ecology = the branch of biology that deals with the relations between living organisms and their environment.deals with the composition. especially as recorded in rocks. . Technics = the study and science of mechanical and industrial arts. So. photoelectric cells. pressure. Geology . the one dealing with it = geologist (= geolog). Mathematics = the science of numbers and their operations and the relation between them. devising. Philosophy = a critical study of fundamental beliefs and the ground for them.) exerted by air or other gases in motion. = cercetător to research v. it is the result of inventing (making something for the first time. Embryology = the study and manipulation of human embryos. Electronics = the science that deals with the behaviour and control of electrons in vacuums and gases and with the use of electron tubes. fabricating).New sciences Aerodinetics = the science of soaring in a glider. Oncology = the branch of medicine dealing with tumors. the one dealing with it = chemist (= chimist). the one dealing with it = mathematician (= matematician). Geography . transistors etc.Chemistry . the one dealing with it = physician (=doctor). = cercetare researcher n. the one dealing with it = physicist (= fizician). the result is an invention (= invenţie). the one dealing with it = psychologist (= psiholog). Psychology = the science of mind and behaviour.Research n. Physics = deals with matter (= materie) and motion. the one dealing with it = sociologist (= sociolog). structure and properties of substance and of the changes they undergo.the study of the Earth and what happens on it. Sociology = the study of the relationship and adjustment of human groups to their geographical environment.deals with the history of the Earth and its life. = a cerceta The work of research teams of scientists and engineers is hard. meaning something new. etc. the one dealing with it = philosopher (= filozof). Microbiology = the science of using bacteria (microbes) in industrial processes. Sometimes.

distance. the Mosque of St. he used it to study the heavens and discovered the mountains on the Moon.Scientific Marvels (starting with the invention of the printing press and ending with the atomic age). The telescope was invented by Galileo in 1611. the Colossus at Rhodes. Other inventions brought revolution in the way society organizes itself. which are very accurate watches telling the true Greenwich time while travelling round the world. If a current of electricity passes through a fine thread or filament of carbon it will glow white hot and give a strong light. It determines the direction. the spots on the Sun. In 1884 Charles Parsons's steam turbine worked.the inventors (=inventatori). The Catacombs of Alexandria. making a vacuum. Inventions in power and machinery brought the industrial revolution. the Pharos. the Statue of Zeus Jupiter at Olympus. C. Stonehenge. In 1781 James Watt patented the steam engine which drove a wheel round. inventions in products brought the revolution in comfort and enjoyment.The Wonders of the Middle Ages: the people considered that there existed some other sights quite so wonderful = the Colosseum of Rome. the Pyramids of Egypt. height and speed of a reflecting object. the Great Wall of China. hauled a train at 30 miles an hour. Maxwell's "radio waves" (1864) had been correct. In 1831 Michael Faraday induced (= forced) an electric current which meant the beginning of the dynamo. jets of steam expand between the vanes (= paletele de pe un ax) on a shaft and those on the casing. . 41 . The first English printer was William Caxton who set up his printing press in Westminster in 1476. the Mausoleum at Halicarnassus. Not long before 1939 the first radar set was invented. Edison Thomas discovered that electricity could be used for lighting. providing power. When at sea on long voyages sailors use chronometers. the millions of stars forming the Milky Way. . the Temple of Diana at Ephesus. Heinrich Hertz proved that J. In the steam turbine. and spin it round.The Wonders of the Ancient World: the Hanging Gardens of Babylon. Graham Bell in 1876. the Rocket. Sophia in Constantinople. These waves are known as "Hertzian waves" and they can be transmitted without wires across space. The printing press (= tipografie) was invented by the German Johann Gutenberg who printed the Bible in 1456. THE WONDERS OF THE WORLD . The thread of carbon is enclosed in a glass bulb from which the air has been extracted. The sextants invented in 1731 are instruments by means of which seamen can tell their exact position by observing the angle of the sun or a star above the horizon and then making a calculation from a book of tables. The telephone was invented by A. the sattelites of Jupiter.000 miles a second can be reflected like sound or light waves. Lighthouse at Alexandria. the Porcelain Tower of Nanking. Radar is possible because radio waves. In 1829 George Stephenson's famous railway engine. or electric generator. the Leaning Tower of Pisa. But it was Guglielmo Marconi who discovered the importance of an aerial-earth system and so made radio transmissions over great distances a real possibility. or in health. travelling at 186.

. 2. in 1851.economie (a unei ţări). In 1911 Ernest Rutherford stated that an atom consists of a central nucleus which has a positive electric charge and constantly circling electrons with a negative electric charge.a. persoană economă. together they built the Rolls-Royce motor car.organizare. drive the dynamos that make electricity. Baird.The history of T. agonisire. If placing a hand in front of the apparatus. this kind of engines are named after him. The first photo was taken by W. In 1906 the wellknown sportsman Charles Rolls went into partnership with Henry Royce. 2.econom. printers. The first motor car was made in 1875 by the Australian Siegfried Marcus but the German Carl Benz made motocars for sale in 1885. chibzuit.economie politică.care aduce cîştig. (apud Cmeciu. sets began in 1922 and the inventor of the black and white T. This is a tremendous discovery as it forms the basis of modern nuclear physics and of the industries producing atomic power and nuclear energy. rentabil.economie. then it goes into the boilers where it makes steam drive the turbines which. economist n. uranium.econom. = 1. Doina & Elena Bonta: Essential English Topics) III.V.economic.a face economii. the cinema industry was born. privitor la economie. flight simulators. although many people had a hand in inventing photography. = 1. strîngătoare. 2. mostly in the United States. H. At an atomic power station the reactors get very hot. The pneumatic tyre was John Dunlop's discovery who made tyres of rubber tubes filled with air. =1.economist. Stuart. = 1. glass plates were used for the first time and in 1884 film was made of celluloid. gradually. beneficiu. 2. 2.2. adunător. The colour Television is a very recent invention. The Diesel engine was first devised by an Englishman. a aduna în mod chibzuit. made a chemically-coated paper nearly glow. The German Rudolf Diesel was also working on the same idea. The discovery of the transistor in the 1950s and of the small silicon chip with printed circuits on it in the 1960s made miniaturisation possible and brought computers into every field of activity. The jet engine was Frank Whittle's invention and was patented in 1935. economic adj. Many improvements were made by inventors. The French Daguerre used copper plates covered with silver. digital watches. economy n. the rays passed through the flesh but left a picture of the bones on a photographic plate. pocket calculators. In 1895 the German Röntgen discovered that rays coming from a tube through which high-voltage electricity was passed. Automatic cookers. in 1890. 2. economical adj. 3. The first public showing of a film was in London in 1890. = 1.economic to economize v.=1. Fox Talbot in 1835. and although his invention was patented two years after Stuart's. Atomic energy is obtained by splitting atoms of a rare metal. Economics economics n. In 1903 a complete exciting story was filmed and. A. Röntgen called them X-rays which are now used in radiography.economie. the gas passing through them becomes hot too. an engineer. Few inventions have made such a tremendous difference to everyday life as the internal combustion engine (= motor cu ardere internă). The next development was the moving picture and here again a number of people were concerned.Types of economy 42 .desk-top computers are only few of the new computerbased inventions.V.a economisi. was J. in turn. in a reactor. L. then.

sîrguincios.Industrialization represents the essential factor for the advance of national economy. burghiu (for boring holes in wood or metal). to industrialize v. technician. plane = rindea (for smoothing). weaver = ţesător. ciocan (for holding. industrialism n.. . etc. It also guarantees the independence and the overeignity = suveranitate) of a country. grain growing ~ = ~ cerealieră. = industrial. uzină). feudal ~.People working in a factory engineer. storeman = magazioner. locksmith = lăcătuş. capitalist ~. plant/works (= fabrică. mechanic. . chisel/scoop = daltă. . manipulant. printer = tipograf. pulling wires/nails).Places of work in industry enterprise (= întreprindere). chuck/jaws/vice = menghină.agrarian economy = economie agrară. = harnic. = hărnicie. screw-wrench = cheie franceză. instalator. planned ~ = ~ planificată. sorter = sortator.Things they use . socialist ~. staker = fochist. .foreman (= maistru). screw = şurub. screw-nut = piuliţă. . industrialist n. bending. industrious adj. state ~. national ~. painter = vopsitor. operator = operator.). complex ~. polisher = şlefuitor. hammer = ciocan (for driving nails into a piece of wood.simple: lever = pîrghie. welder = sudor. worker. pass-key = şperaclu. industrial adj. = industrialism. = industrie.Tools anvil = nicovală. pincers = cleşte (for pulling out nails. holding something). 43 . world ~ = ~ mondială. pliers = patent. market ~ = ~ de piaţă. . industrialization n. = industrializare. = industriaş.factory.Machines . branch ~ = ~ de ramură. = a industrializa. callipers = şubler. milling machine operator = frezor. It plays a very important part in the development of productive forces.2 b. turner = strungar. the development of productivity (= productivitate) and is decisive for the rise of the people's living standards (= nivel de viaţă). III.Types of workers fire-teaser = fochist. fitter = montator. Industry industry n. file = pilă (for smoothing or cutting hard surfaces). borer/drill = sfredel. industriousness n. inflationary ~ = ~ inflaţionistă.

the inclined plane = plan înclinat. pulley = scripete. wheel = roată. wedge = pană, ic. - complicated: boring/drilling machine = maşină de găurit. comber/carding ~ = ~ de dărăcit. cutting off ~ = ~ de retezat. forging ~ = ~ de forjat. gear cutting ~ = ~ de prelucrat roţi dinţate. grinding ~ = ~ de rectificat. lapping ~ = ~ de rodat. milling ~ = ~ de frezat. punching ~ = ~ de perforat. sewing ~ = ~ de cusut. sheet bending ~ = ~ de îndoit tablă. sorting ~ = ~ de sortat. spinning ~ = ~ de filetat, de tors. straightening ~ = ~ de îndreptat. thread rolling ~ = ~ de rulat filet. tool grinder ~ = ~ de ascuţit unelte. lathe = strung. automatic ~ = ~ automat. copying ~ = ~ de copiat. pipe threading ~ = ~ de filetat ţevi. spinning ~ = ~ de presat. universal ~ = ~ universal.

- Raw material used in industry
coal = cărbune. salt. crude ore = ţiţei. solid fuels = combustibili solizi. iron = fier. timber. natural gas. wood. oil and derivatives of the oil industry. hard ~ = lemn de esenţă tare. raw skin = piele brută. soft ~ = lemn de esenţă moale. rubber = cauciuc.

- Processing (= procesul de prelucrare) includes:
boiling = fierbere. breazing/welding = sudură. buckling = deformare, îndoire. casting = turnare. chipping = dăltuire, tăiere. chip removal = aşchiere. dismantling = demontare. drilling/ boring = găurire. forging = matriţare. greasing = ungere. grinding = şlefuire. metal working = prelucrare (a metalului). milling = frezare. quench = călire (prin răcire bruscă). reaming = filetare. riffling = striere, zimţuire. riveting = nituire. soldering/welding = sudare.

- Types of factories and plants/works
cannery = fabrică de conserve. car factory. metal works = uzină metalurgică. brewery = fabrică de bere. paper mill = fabrică de hîrtie. brickyard = fabrică de cărămizi. saw mill = fabrică de cherestea.

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distillery = fabrică de spirt. shoe factory. electric plant = uzină electrică. soap manufactoring = fabrică de săpun. furniture factory. steel works = oţelărie. glass manufactory house = textile factory. lumber mill = fabrică de waterworks = uzină de apă. cherestea. weaving mill = ţesătorie. stocking manufacturing = fabrică de ciorapi. machine building plant = uzină constructoare de maşini.

III.2.c. Engineering
- engineering n. = 1.inginerie. 2.construcţie de maşini. engineer n. = inginer. to engineer v. = 1.a construi (în calitate de inginer). 2.a lucra ca nginer.

Engineering is regarded as the most important branch of industry. It produces machine tools for all branches of the economy: agriculture machinery; aircrafts; ballbearing (= rulment); computers; cars; control equipment for: iron and steel industry, chemical industry, oil refineries, glass industry, food industry; diesel electric locomotives; electrical generators; engines; equipment for nuclear plants; electronic equipment; electric equipment; fitters; high-precision testing and control apparatus (microscopes, cameras, laboratory, apparatus, installations for research); oilfield equipment; tools for mining, forestry and light industries. - Sub-branches: electronics, electrotechnology, electronic goods, hidraulic and pneumatic components and installations, optics, precision mechanics. - Engineers can be: - mining engineers = find useful minerals. - metallurgical ~ = separate metals from unwanted substances and make them usable. - chemical ~ = use chemicals to make things as explosives, paint, plastics, soap. - civil ~ = build bridges, tunnels, roads, railroads, ports, airports, etc. - mechanical ~ = make and use machines; design jet engines and factory machinery. - electrical ~ = work with devices that produce and use electricity. Using tools and machines implies perfect knowledge of their component parts, skills in handling and controlling them, awareness of possible accidents, as well as control of emergency situations. Engineers have a new tool now: the computer. It is used in laboratories and offices. The computer was used shortly after the war, to work out complicated mathematical problems in science and engineering. It accepts information, stores it, performs mathematical operations, as well as logical operations, supplying the results of these operations as new information. It has the capacity of controlling the industrial process and checking the processes automatically. Computers use terms such as: analogue = something that varies continuously; the opposite of digital. binary members = a number coded in a series of 0 and 1 digits, in which the value of each digit is twice the value of the digit to its right. bit = a single digit of a binary number. Eight bits are known as "byte".

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BASIC = Beginner's All Purpose Symbolic Instruction Code; language most widely used by microcomputers. CPU = Control Processing Unit; it is the "brain of the computer"; it reads instructions put into the computer and passes them on to other parts; it sorts out information and does calculations; it sends the results to the input device. floppy disk = a circular piece of thin plastic coated with a thin layer; the magnetic material used in recording tape; it can be used to store large quantities of binary information. data = the information which is given to a computer for processing. databank = large stores of data for computers. digital = something that is separated in units; the opposite of analogue. input = the data fed into the computer through devices (which are: keyboards, sensors, cameras, etc.). interface = a device placed between the computer and equipment connected to it, which translates input into a code of electronic pulses, and which translates the computer's results from the pulse code into a form the output device can act on. hardware = the computer itself and devices connected to it. output = the result of the computer's processing; it might be displayed on a screen, printed as words or pictures or cause the movement of a robot's arm. programme = the set of instructions for the computer either stored in its permanent memory or fed. RAM = Random Access Memory: the part of the computer's memory which temporarily stores information fed into it. ROM = Read Only Memory: the part of the computer's memory which contains instructions the computer always needs to help work. software = the term given to the computer programme. VDU = Visual Display Unit: the screen on which information from the computer is shown. word processor = a specialized typewriter with a VDU used for producing letters in an office.

History of engineering Computers have different applications. The scientific technological revolution has coupled man with the computer. The whole way to this coupling was a long and difficult one. It started with the stone and continued with the wheel and the engine. The industrial revolution coupled man with the motor car. Iron was the key to the industrial revolution. New techniques of manufacture (= fabricare) and the use of machines powered by waterwheels and steam engines took the place of the traditional tools: hammers, files or hand-working machines (spinning wheel and hand-looms = război de ţesut manual). The great advances in both the quality and the quantity of iron contributed to the development of mechanization. The introduction of steam (= abur)-driven machinery was the greatest achievement of the industrial revolution. Later, the internal combustion engine (= motorul cu ardere internă) began to be used. It is a type of engine that works by the combustion of a fuel (= combustibil) and air mixture within the cylinders of the engine. It is of two types: gasoline engine and Diesel engine.

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In the gasoline engine, the fuel, a mixture of gasoline and air is ignited by an electric spark (= scînteie). The explosion in the top of the cylinder forces the piston downwards. The piston helps to turn the crankshaft (= arbore cotit). It is used in automobiles (where 4 - 6 - 8 cylinders are firing one after another). The piston moves up and down inside the cylinder. It is connected with the crankshaft by a connecting rod (= tijă de legătură). It has also a flywheel (= roată motrice cu aripi; volant) that keeps the crankshaft moving when no pressure is exerted upon the piston. One valve has the role of admitting the air and fuel into the cylinder; another one allows the exhaust gas to escape. In the Diesel engine the air is compressed in the cylinder. It becomes very hot and when the fuel oil is injected into it, it explodes without a spark to set it off (= a pune în mişcare). The newest type of engine is the jet engine. It works on the same principle as a rocket. The air is drawn into the front of the engine and is burned with paraffin. The gas so formed expands violently and rushes out of the back of the engine - in a jet, and propels the aeroplane forward with great power. In a rocket, the air is not pushed back in order to make it go forward; its movement is caused by the action and reaction of the expanding gases in its combustion chambers. Jet engines weigh less than piston engines and they go wrong less often. A jet engine burns cheap kerosene instead of costly gasoline (adapted from Illustrated Colour Dictionary) III.2.. Building
- build n. = constucţie; statură. building n. = clădire, construcţie. building-up n. = construire. builder n. = constructor. to build v. = a construi, a clădi. building-site n. = şantier. - A building-site is the place where new buildings are erected/built.

- People working on a building site:
architect = arhitect (designs buildings and supervises their erection). bricklayer = zidar (a person who builds or paves with bricks = cărămizi). builder = constructor. civil engineer = inginer constructor. construction worker = muncitor constructor (measures wood and cuts it into pieces; carries bricks and metal parts; repairs buildings; follows a building plan in order to make houses, apartments, stores). craner = macaragiu (one who works on a machine for lifting and carrying heavy objects). decorator = paints and papers rooms. dyer = vopsitor (uses materials for colouring and staining). electrician =designs, installs, operates or repairs electrical equipment. glazier = geamgiu (fits glass into windows). plumber = instalator (unites metal or plastic parts either by heating, hammering or pressing together). welder = sudor (unites pieces of metal into homogeneous mass).

III.3. Positions In any field of activity there are persons who have a high position, who lead, run and supervise the activity. Such a person is always called chief or boss. So, we talk about:

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the captain of a crew or of a team. commander (of an organized body). conductor (of an orchestra). headmaster/headmistress (of a school). post master = director de poştă. dock ~ = şef de şantier naval. station ~ = şef de gară. principal. manager (of a hotel, or a theatre).

B. TOPICS FOR DISCUSSION 1. Careers for women. 2. What is success in engineering/law/medicine, etc.? 4. What would you like to be and why? 5. Talk about unemployment in your country. 6. You want to find a job for your summer holiday. Write an advertisement.

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PART II

TECHNICAL ENGLISH TOPICS
II.1. GENERAL TECHNICAL TEXTS II.2. SPECIALIZED TECHNICAL TEXTS

II.1. GENERAL TECHNICAL TEXTS
II.1.1. THE IMPORTANCE OF LEARNING ENGINEERING ENGLISH OR TECHNICAL ENGLISH The world of modern science has progressed across hitherto impassable barriers. Never was it more important to have available information on the countless facts of modern scientific knowledge and achievement. The rapidly changing technology demands more and more science oriented engineers. They have to refine and foster widespread application of the developments which have kindled the expansion of computers, television, synthetic materials, high temperature alloys, new communication systems and, more recently, the rapidly unfolding fields of nuclear and aerospace engineering. The sharp upgrading in engineering has been emphasizing the need of updating the engineer’s knowledge in order to meet the technological needs of today. Research people need knowledge of reports and publications in many languages. The barrier that is set up by a difference in language may constitute as serious an obstacle in pure science as in practical world of technology. Applied scientists are as anxious as anyone to learn of the technical progress in other countries, and they are certainly more interested in getting their information quickly and to apply it. There are three ways in which scientific information may be acquired: 1. by adequate translation; 2. by persuading scientists to publish their work in the better-known languages; 3. by teaching scientists to read foreign languages. But translations are not always accurate and sometimes they are hopelessly obscure. The scientific vocabulary is now so specialized that it may be unintelligible but for the specialist. It is quite impossible to translate all the received documents. Thus is not possible to keep pace with the latest discoveries only by translations. In this case even translating machines are not of great use. It is a great asset for any engineer to be able to read foreign technical publications in the original. Specialists should be persuaded into learning engineering English because the abstract specialized vocabulary is quite limited and it can be easily and rapidly mastered by reading typical technical texts. Engineering English is no longer a problem nowadays. Every engineer can easily and rapidly master it, provided he is set on learning it. This is the conclusion to be drawn as far as the difficulties in the search for technical information are concerned. A great philosopher used to say:” The knowledge of a language is another weapon in life”. (adapted from Dănilă Viorica, Engleza tehnică şi Dicţionar de termeni şi expresii)

A. VOCABULARY
I. WORDS AND PHRASES asset n. = 1. avantaj. 2. valoare. expansion n. = extindere.dezvoltare.

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to foster v. = 1. a avea grijă de. 2. a incuraja, a favoriza. 3. a stimula. 4. a dezvolta (un talent). 5. a nutri (speranţe). provided he is set on learning it = cu condiţia să fie hotărât să o înveţe. the rapidly unfolding fields = domenii care se dezvoltă rapid. to keep pace with vb. = a ţine pasul cu. to kindle v. = 1. a aprinde, a amorsa focul. 2. (tehn.) a amorsa. 3. (fig.) a stârni (interesul, mânia). to progress across hitherto impassable barriers = a se dezvolta peste bariere de netrecut până acum. vocabulary n. = 1. vocabulary. 2. lexic. 3. listă de cuvinte. 4. (info.) lista codurilor de instrucţiuni. scientific ~ = vocabular ştiinţific. specialized ~ = vocabular de specialitate. updating n. = actualizare (a informaţiei). upgrading n. = 1. concentare. 2. întărire. 3. îmbunătăţire. 4. promovare. II. LEXICAL COMMENTARY technical adj. = tehnic. ~ account = cont tehnic. ~ adviser = consilier tehnic. ~ atmosphere = atmosferă tehnică. ~ conditions, specifications = specificaţii tehnice. ~ control = control tehnic. ~ data management = gestiune de date tehnice. ~ education = 1. invatamant tehnic. 2. învăţământ profesional. 3. calificare profesională. ~ expression = termen tehnic. ~ manager = director tehnic. ~ office = 1. birou de proiectare. 2. birou tehnic. ~ orders = prescripţii tehnice. ~ progress = progres tehnic. ~ publications = publicaţii cu caracter tehnic. ~ revision = revizie tehnică. ~ service = serviciu tehnic. ~ studies = cercetări/studii tehnice. ~ text = text cu caracter tehnic. technological adj. = tehnic, tehnologic. ~ advance/breakthrough = realizare tehnologică. ~ gap = decalaj tehnic. ~ needs = cerinţe, necesităţi tehnice. ~ restraint = limitare tehnologică. ~ unemployment = şomaj tehnologic.

B. EXERCISES I. Reading and comprehension 1. What does the rapidly changing technology demand? 2. What knowledge do research people need? 3. What are scientists interested in? 4. What is the importance of learning technical English? II. Find the family of words of the verbs: to achieve, to invent and to create. III. Choose the most suitable word for each space: When faced with some new possibly bewildering technological change, most people react in one of the two 1. ………… They either recoil from anything new, claiming that it is unnecessary, or too 2. ……….or that it somehow makes life less than 3………………. Or they learn to 4…………….. to the new invention, and eventually 5………………how they could possibly have existed without it. 6…………… computers as an example. For many of us, they still represent a 7 ………….to our freedom, and give us a frightening sense of a future in which all 8……………..will be taken by machines. This may be because they seem mysterious, and difficult to understand. Ask most people what you can 9……………

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appliances b. through c. up with c. extensive d. control c. since change is not always an improvement. a. a. in existence 13. fears d. that don’t have to be 15………………. conform c. a. a. human d. manage c. But it does not take long to learn how to operate a business programme. a. and you usually get 10……………answers about how ‘they give you the information’. widespread b. even those of us who are familiar with computers. such b. instructions d. kinds b. a. a. a. discuss 7. vague 11. In fact. types d. criticisms c. apply b. a. the coal fire. complicated 3. wired b. plugged d. wonder b. measures 9. connected 52 . have very little idea of how they 11 …………. run 10. such as books or board games. chances c. batteries c. future 14. threat d. personal c. work b. a. ways c. propose b. hundreds d. tiresome d. risk b. technological d. there is a lot to be said for the oil lamp. even if things occasionally go wrong for no apparent reason. admit d. rather than change itself. and use them in our daily work. use d. a. react b. to work. Presumably much the same happened when the telephone and the television became 12 …………….A home computer for. As we discover during power cuts. hazard 8. lively b. are 12. a. objections 15. adapt 5. decide 6. suppose c. moments 2. consist d. thus d. use d. obscure c. What seems to alarm most people is the speed of 13 …………………change. physical c. and forms of entertainment. 1. a. take c. machinery b. a. learn c.. much b. And the 14……………… that are made to new technology may well have a point to them. decisions b. formerly 4.

2. The population boom is attributed to several circumstances in Britain at that time. 3. a man named Macadam had the idea of solidifying road with small stones. Britain's foremost industries were wool and cotton weaving. Industrialization was complemented by a dynamic approach to cheap transportation. labour-saving machine n. a series of ingenious labour-saving machines were invented. a cotton-spinning machine that replaced the spinning wheel. people were marrying younger and producing larger families for whom they could earn the means to provide. de primă însemnătate. Britain experienced a tremendous population growth and increasing trade at home and abroad. foremost adj. = 1. power loom n. The death rate dropped. = explozie demografică. to complement v." Already enjoying a vigorous commercial economy. Once the countryside was dotted with mills beside rivers and streams. to effect v. The canal system reduced coal prices and provided easier access to raw materials and markets. = de frunte.000 miles by 1815. Good harvests had produced abundant and therefore cheaper food. probably as a result of improved water supplies and the availability of soap. THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION Britain was the first country to experience the Industrial Revolution. Furthermore. about the middle of the eighteenth century. = a cauza.2. population boom n.II.) năpastă.a complini. = război de ţesut mechanic. The plague years were over. Labour was thus accessible for the development of an industrial society. = prelucrare metalurgică (topire) a cărbunelui. a completa.a complementa. Production of iron depended upon coal smelting. VOCABULARY I. plague n. They would dispense with water power and rely on steam for increased production. This period of British industrial expansion is called the Industrial Revolution. industrial expansion n. and the population increased. Industry's need for fuel sparked expansion in coal mining. (fig. The iron industry moved to the central and northern sections of Britain for coal. (adapted from McGraw-Hill. Hargreaves' spinning jenny.1. 2. and Cartwright's power loom rejuvenated both the cotton and wool industries. A network of canals was constructed and covered 2. Never again would England be an agricultural nation. ciumă. so road traffic was made easier. a produce. WORDS AND PHRASES coal smelting n. = dezvoltare industrială. but the need for coal drove the textile industry into the North where it continues to operate to this day. Following the invention and improvement of the steam engine. Encyclopedia of Science and Technology) A. which produced cheap iron for machines and buildings. 53 . a provoca. With opportunities for work in industry. The rapid change in the nation's economy was effected by the steam engine and various power-driven machines. Between 1733 and 1789. and by 1850 it was "the workshop of the world. water power was supplanted by steam power with its ensuing requirement of access to fields. = maşină care face/presupune economie de (braţe de) muncă. = 1.

power-driven machine n. materie primă. extra work. spinning jenny n. we use negative adverbials at the beginning of a clause. raw material n. Industrial Revolution – the complex of radical socioeconomic changes. good results). Scientists can produce statistics and figures that can prove almost anything. The government will have to generate the extra funds somehow or other. 2. Give can be used for positive or negative ones (pleasure. = a înlocui. ‘Cause’ verbs and their collocations Cause usually collocates with negative results and situations (sadness/unhappiness. steam engine n.3. aprovizionare cu apă. tremendous adj. income.2. an accident. James Hargreaves – English engineer. water supplies n. and in computer contexts. 2. e. material brut/primar/de bază. This car is giving me so much trouble. such as the ones that took place in England in the late 18th century. II. Produce is more neutral. = 1. publicity). LEXICAL COMMENTARY II. John Macadam – Scottish inventor of the macadam road surface. wool and cotton weaving n.1 Industrialization is the process of converting to a socioeconomic order in which industry is dominant. II. Edmund Cartwright – British cleric and inventor of the power loom. Raw materials are unfinished goods used in the manufacture of a product. 3. atelier (de lucru. a semi-finished material. II. the subject and the verb are inverted. a asigura. to supplant v. to provide v. = roată de tors. Steel is then used as an input in many other industries to make finished products. It is used in formal contexts (revenue. happiness. trouble. spinning wheel n. = ţesutul lânii şi al bumbacului workshop n. = 1. Inversion after negative adverbials In formal and literary language. an illness. The new computer system has caused us a lot of problems. a aproviziona. = alimentare. documents. secţie. enthusiasm. 2. and deals with more concrete results. the inventor of the spinning jenny. trouble). = maşină cu abur. 54 . = prima roată de tors mecanică. de reparaţii). For example. = energie a aburului. interest. controversy. 3. şantier. = a reîntineri. to rejuvenate v. a steelmaker uses iron ore and other metals in producing steel. problems. a da. I'm going to get rid of it. Never again would England be an agricultural nation.g. Generate is often used in contexts where people are forced to do more than usual. it entails both technology and profound social changes. e. His stomach cancer was caused by exposure to atomic radiation. = extraordinary/grozav/fantastic de. = maşină acţionată de motor. steam power n. a reason for. money. = 1.g. that are brought about when extensive mechanization of production systems results in a shift from home-based hand manufacturing to large-scale factory production. a lua locul.

Primul domeniu în care a fost utilizată maşina cu abur a fost industria textilă.. me so much pleasure..B.. 1.............. on no account...... Apariţia revoluţiei industriale a avut ca efect creşterea producţiei. EXERCISES I.. Primul stat în care a avut loc revoluţia industrială a fost Anglia. Write new sentences with a similar meaning with one of the adverbials: never before... expanding trade.... His stupidity .. The book . What are the circumstances that contributed to the population boom in Britain? 4. V... 4.. 5... a full-scale war between the two regions.... he's lost all his money... only by. 4. due to.. Reading and comprehension 1. a lot of anger amongst female readers..... Rewrite these sentences using a more formal connecting expression to replace 'because of’: thanks to. 1.. in none of us being able to get home that night..org) 55 ... Give examples of British inventors of labour-saving devices.. With the drop in the death rate and the increase in the birth rate.. by a sign falling from a shop front in the heavy winds.. Decide which “cause” verb best fits each gap. The decision by the government to relax the regulations has ... as a consequence of.... 3. reglare şi alimentare a maşinii.. 3..wikipedia. We got there in time.... 5.. owing to... 4. 1. not until. scarcely. as a result of.. We need to . Translate into English: Revoluţia industrială este procesul tehnic complex prin care munca manuală este înlocuită cu maşinismul... all traffic is being severely delayed.. 2.. a crisis..... I don't necessarily want to .... II. III... The flight was cancelled because of bad weather.. A vigorous commercial economy... There may be more than one possible answer. În acest proces muncitorului îi revenea rolul de supraveghere..... Production of iron depended on coal mining. 2.. IV.... 6. Your letters have ... Because of the crash on the motorway.. a lot of investment in the poorer regions.. and a population boom were the conditions requisite for making Britain the first industrial nation. 5. My computer crashed................... 7... 8. (adapted from Internet URL: http://ro. but I have some bad news to tell you all. 2.. because of your advice.. Britain experienced a tremendous population growth and increasing trade at home and abroad.. Good harvests had produced abundant and therefore cheaper food than before. Because of one bad decision after another.. a list of names and addresses by six o'clock tonight.. Her death was .. dezvoltarea oraşelor şi a ştiinţei... What does the process of industrialization imply? 2.. because of which I lost all the data. What made Britain the first country to experience the Industrial Revolution? 3. 3...... The Governor's remarks almost..... more labour was available for industry. Please don't stop writing them.....

and they have been joined by the production from Arges. and many others. which have done well in foreign markets. while electricity and fuels increased their share from 13. compared with 13. The machine-building and metal-processing industry is the main branch of the industrial economy. being exceeded in importance by food processing and even the textile and ready-made clothing industry. is largely concentrated in the southwest and west. showed a slight relative advance.3 percent in 1950. half of Romania's bulk coal production comes from the Petrosani Depression alone.6 percent. accounting for nearly a third of industrial production. and Târgu Jiu. most deposits are found in the mountain areas. has switched from production of sawn timber to finished products. The main centres are at Turda. Three branches became much more important: engineering and metalworking accounted for 25. and metallurgy. Craiova. Brasov. and gases produced as by-products of the oil industry are becoming increasingly important. The emphasis. which also dates from the Dacian-Roman period. Aluminium production is a more recent development. and zinc are also produced. THE ROMANIAN INDUSTRY AFTER 1990 The industrial sector increased its relative contribution to national income. small quantities of lead. gold. which lies within the Carpathians. The nonferrous metallurgical industry. A large lignite field in the Motru Valley supplies two of the largest power stations in the country. In contrast to metallurgy (which relies on imports of ore and coke to supplement the modest domestic resources).1 to 9. with copper.II. cement manufacture represents an important subbranch. It provides a good index of the changing priorities in the Romanian economy: before World War II it accounted for only 10 percent of the total. and food processing. textiles and clothing. as well as to widen and diversify the range of production. The largest coal reserves are those of bituminous coal. Oil was also discovered in the Romanian sector of the Black Sea in 1981. Bicaz. including furniture and chipboard. Fieni. Cluj-Napoca. Medgidia. Arad. Rovinari and Turceni. The building materials industry also utilizes a wide range of resources across the country. the timber industry can rely on domestic raw materials. Two other branches.8 percent of all industrial production in 1990. The main relative declines were in wood processing and paper.2 to 19 percent and chemicals from 3. Ploiesti. The Romanian iron industry has particularly strong connections with Galati as well as with Hunedoara and Resita (the last having a record of activity extending back to the 18th century). metallurgy and building materials. electricity. Natural gases – mainly methane – are produced in the centre of the Transylvanian Basin. A chain of modern wood industrialization combines turns out a range of products. Contemporary centres of production are Bucharest. 56 . There has been a strong tendency to concentrate on such modern branches as the electronics industry. The following review gives priority to fuels.3. with a considerable degree of regional specialization. Oil deposits are found in deposits in the plains. and silver production still active. in what is a traditional industry. mercury. Resita. Bacau and Prahova districts have long been famous for their oil-refining industry. but it underwent a radical structural change. Except for the Baraolt Basin.1.

uzină electrică. machine-building ~ (a construcţiilor de masini). II. WORDS AND PHRASES bituminous coal n. rubber ~ (a cauciucului). glassware ~ (a sticlăriei). Finally. produs auxiliar/secundar. = 1. consumer goods ~ (a bunurilor de consum). a repara. a verifica. continued to grow in absolute terms. Silkworm production retains a modest importance. wood industrialization combine (pulp and paper combine) n. = 1. 57 . 3. iron ore ~ (a minereurilor de fier). superficial. = cărbune bituminos. termocentrală. neînsemnat. 3. 3. produs derivate. to exceed v. A. to overhaul v. a suferi. nevertheless. . fertilizer ~ (îngrăşămintelor). has lent much to the beauty of local folk costumes. a creşte. handicraft ~ (meşteşugărească). national income n. Branches of industry Engineering is regarded as the most important branch of industry. The closely connected ready-made clothing industry has undergone considerable expansion.The long-established textile industry has also undergone a steady development since its radical overhaul in the 1930s. and processing plants are distributed throughout the country. lumbering ~ (forestieră). electrical engineering ~ (electrotehnică). shipbuilding ~ (constructoare de nave). scădere. plastics ~ (a materialelor plastice). Silk. = declin. 2. textile ~ (textilă). 2. = venit naţional. II. oil extraction ~ (de extracţie a ţiţeiului). despite the introduction of synthetic fibres. sawn timber ~ (a cherestelei). 2. = 1. VOCABULARY I. decline n. = instalaţii de prelucrare industrială. foundry ~ (metalurgică). = 1. micşorare. shipbuilding) vs. to increase v. knitwear ~ (a tricotajelor). banking). with a heavy investment in new plants. 2. by-product n. 4. a trece prin. to undergo/underwent/undergone v. readymade clothes ~ (a confecţiilor). light industry (manufacturing TV sets). slight adj. a urca. puţin. a examina. = placă aglomerată din aşchii de lemn. The main branches of industry are: building industry (industria constructoare). 2. the food industry – formerly the foundation of the economy – has been all but eclipsed by the rapid development of other branches. a depăşi. processing plants n. LEXICAL COMMENTARY II. petroleum ~ (a petrolului). the weaving of which was long the occupation of peasant women in the south and southwest.heavy industry (steel works. coal industry (industria cărbunelui). food ~ (industria alimentară). pulp ~ (a celulozei). processing ~ (prelucrătoare). It has. a reconstrui. = 1. a întrece. = 1. wood working ~ (de prelucrare a lemnului). footwear ~ (industria încălţămintei). service industry (serving people: tourism. 2.1. a sui. machine tool ~ (a construcţiilor de maşini-unelte). power station/plant n. = combinat de industrializare a lemnului. chipboard n. paper ~ (a hârtiei). 2. 3. = 1. centrală electrică. a se înmulţi. iron and steel ~ (siderurgică).2.manufacturing goods (making things) vs. Aspects of industrialisation .

.. privatisation (selling off state companies to private ones) vs. partly owned by private industries or businesses)... money laundering = spălare de bani......... Reading and comprehension 1.. 4. (partly stateowned... low-technology (involving little or no computer technology).. In this area there are a lot of industries that use computers and things... .. Problems in industry black market = piaţa neagră. 4.. is a problem for people who make a living writing books.... nationalisation or stateownership..... copyright infringement = încălcarea drepturilor de autor..- high-technology (software industry) vs. and now we're more dependent on industry that makes things like bicycles and furniture. Use expressions relating to problems in industry to fill the gaps in the sentences below: 1.... B..g.. industrial espionage = spionaj industrial.. while in the north. copiere a unui soft commercial fără autorizarea producătorului)... In what regions is the oil industry more developed in our country? 4.. is a huge international problem... Use the expressions explained above to rewrite these sentences with more appropriate vocabulary instead of the underlined words........... many big industries are run as public-private partnerships. and selling industries off is the typical pattern all over the world now. 3. as police and banks try to trace money from the illegal drugs trade and terrorism.. 58 . What raw materials are there used in the metallurgical industry? 5. The designs for the new aircraft were photographed illegally and sold to a rival company.. EXERCISES I... The idea that everything should be owned by the government is not very popular any longer... Industry with big factories producing things like steel and so on has declined..... 1.. How did the textile industry and the food industry evolve in the past years? II........3.... 3. software piracy) = piraterie industrială (ex...... The economy cannot depend only on things like restaurants and hotels. Use diagrammatic representations (graphs or pie charts) to show the changes undergone in the industrial production over the past forty years..is a serious problem in many parts of the world.. 2.. 3... Illegal editions mean that the author receives no payment...... with factories producing illegal copies of top brand names.. 2..... industrial piracy (e.. ... What are the main branches of Romanian industry after 1990? 2. II.... ..... It was a serious case of. they depend more on industries that don't use such up-to-date technology..... III. bursa neagră.. We need to encourage industries that make things we can sell.... piraterie soft.

There is a big .. La şapte ani de la apariţia legii privind eficienţa energetică. 2007) 59 .5. cu măsuri de economisire a energiei... February 9. creându-i acestui sector probleme de competitivitate. de 15 ori mai mare decât în ţările dezvoltate. in the importation of untaxed luxury cars in some countries. Cu toate acestea.. Translate into English: Deşi legea obligă companiile din industria energofagă să elaboreze un plan de reducere a consumurilor de energie. Nici privatizarea industriei nu a determinat modificări importante în ponderea consumului de energie. IV.. industria chimică are indicatorul de intensitate energetică cel mai defavorabil. Raportat la celelalte ramuri ale industriei româneşti... (adapted from Adevărul. ceea ce înseamnă că s-a facut o restructurare „nesănătoasă". cu investitii puţine în echipamente performante.. din peste 400 de întreprinderi. cu un consum foarte ridicat de energie electrică. foarte puţine s-au ocupat serios să facă aceste planuri de eficienţă energetică... situaţia industriei româneşti din punctul de vedere al consumului energetic este gravă... prea puţini s-au grăbit să respecte această cerinţă.

took pride in their work. with mass production and specialization of labour and the appearance of middlemen. The development of industrial design led to 60 . one or several are handmade and tested at proving grounds before final machine dies are ordered and production begins. and the planning of exhibitions. the scope of the profession enlarged to include the design of capital goods.1. A design program is planned. Factory workers tending machines had little involvement with a product and felt no responsibility to the buyer. and the client is then presented with design studies. such as castiron stoves and building units. and transportation equipment. and techniques. The term industrial design was originated in 1919 by the American industrial designer Joseph Sinel. Every design problem requires special procedures. often in the form of a small model or of a mock-up. although many products. Factory owners were often chiefly concerned with profits. and company policy and equipment-specialists associated with the designer conduct a study of competitive products and an extensive field survey of the manufacturer's plant.2. such as the English designer William Morris and members of the Arts and Crafts movement. The development in the 18th century of the factory system. As a result. budget allocation.2. such as farm machinery. In the case of an automobile. but there is a general routine applicable to all. timing. for example. were functional many more were ugly and badly made. Before the Industrial Revolution. industrial tools. A few late 19th-century reformers. who were usually involved in the whole process of creation.1. but these attempts at improved design had little effect on mass production at the time. It is concerned with aesthetic appearance as well as with functional efficiency. Rough sketches are chosen for further refinement and study. goods were handmade by artisans. The success of a design is measured by the profit it yields its manufacturer and the service and pleasure it affords its owner. The industrial designer is essentially the creator of a pattern to guide the operations of skilled persons or machines. They influenced art nouveau style and the Vienna Secession movement. SPECIALIZED TECHNICAL TEXTS II. and preliminary designs of the proposed product are then sketched on the basis of the available plant facilities. INDUSTRIAL DESIGN Industrial Design represents art and science involved in the creation of machinemade products.1. working drawings indicating the choice of materials and the specifications for finishing and assembly are prepared. changed the situation. Applications of machine-made ornament in hopes of disguising low quality and pleasing a mass market were usually an aesthetic failure. industrial designers dealt exclusively with machinemade consumer products. and often sold their wares directly to the customer. however. After the industrial designer is informed of the needs of the client-including data on the intended market for the product. TEXTS FOR THE INDUSTRIAL DESIGN SECTION 2. Following the selection of the approved design. Initially. commercial buildings and packaging. A handmade working model is then manufactured and submitted to the client for approval. protested and advocated a return to the standards of medieval handicrafts. Eventually.II.

= rău. = a duce la. = echipament. deal. = utilităţi. 2. fabricat) de mână. profit. aesthetics n. echipament. randament. ware(s) n. = (produs. applicable adj. desen. n. n. articole. = rafinament. = desene. desingning engineer n. producţie. 1. WORDS AND PHRASES Industrial Design = Proiectare Industrială (Design/Desen Industrial). 3. a executa un proiect/un plan. tentativă. (adapted from www. 1. such as the method of encasing a product to be redesigned in soft modelling clay. desen/model industrial. in order that the modifications in the design may be moulded directly from the old products. Another industrial-design method is based on the fact that small models do not reflect accurately the design characteristics of the fullscale product. specialist în estetica industrială. proiectare. model. plant n. a ceda. 1. led. 2. v. = a avea de-a face. exploatare. proiect. n. = aplicabil. attempt = 1. fabrică. utilaj.the creation of new procedures. client-including data n. instalatie. = 1. meserie. a aduce. a îndupleca. = estetică. debit.= hârtie de desen. 3. = 1. 4. facilities n. 2. 2.com) A. VOCABULARY I. sold v. sketched adj. uzină. appearance n. mecanism. = a vinde. a proiecta. = desenator. constructor. fabricate.wikipedia. încercare. dealt with v. 5. 4. 2. a (se) încovoia. handmade adj. a desena. a face. productivitate. II. v. 3. to advocate v. aesthetic adj. ceramică. = estetic. = 1. aparenţă. desingning n. desenat. dealt. = a sprijini. design paper n. 2. = ambalare. stilist. = date ce includ clientul. sell. lead. 2. machinery n. 5. plantă. a (se) îndoi. 2. 1. designer n. led v. facilităţi. machine-made n. a preda. design = I. articol de artizanat. yield = I. II. a concede. To view the design in full scale. packaging n. 61 . schiţă. a închina. instalaţie de exploatare. manual. tip. a aduce un beneficiu de. badly adv. venit. a raporta. = proiectare. fabricat) de maşină. refinement n. = (produs. îmbuteliere. = maşinărie. mecanism. drawing n. 5. utilaj. proiectant. = produse (finite). = schiţat. the profession employs a photographic system in which a small drawing is projected to full scale on a section of a wall.= inginer proiectant/constructor. a da. a încerca. a oferi. sold. a înclina. îmbidonare. v. equipment n. recoltă. înfăţişare. a rezista. plan. a da randamentul. muncă manuală. 3. Revisions of the design are then made directly on the wall projection by the industrial designers. 3. a produce. handicraft n. ambalaj. Distortion often occurs in magnification as a result of highlights and shadows that change basic spatial relationships.

people who speak English satellites which carry messages systems which process data oven which burns oil surface which carries load lubricant which contains grease 62 . a consta in. LEXICAL COMMENTARY to yield v. What does the process of designing imply? 5. give away. led. etc.). The reaction yield has been separated into several elements.( ce se află) The town lay in a sheltered valley. (ai minţit) B. II. = scară. at the foot of some hills. to lay. Change according to the model: Model: client-including data = data which include clients. scală. Wiener and C. a aşeza. a result. = argilă. led = a duce. (au pus baza) Any rush decision may lead to unforeseen consequences. a conduce la. a se afla. ( au pus accent) N. 2. The bar may yield to the application of dynamic loads.pattern n. What does Industrial Design include? 3. lay. (este aşezat) He laid out the main exhibits side by side. -ed =a minţi. Reading and comprehension: 1. What does an industrial designer do? II. clay n. lut scale n. (a aşezat) They have laid emphasis on the economic considerations that account for this decision. yield n. laid. tipar. (poate duce la) Once you have lied to somebody he will lose his faith in you. (constă în) The principle lying at the basis of this theory must be made clear. = şablon. -ed. cease opposition. This technique might yield better results The land in the valley yields very rich crops. What is Industrial Design? 2. laid = a pune. EXERCISES I. 3. Higher-yield seeds have been used this year. give a natural product. etc. to lead. 1. When did it first appear? 4. to lie. = amount produced (in agriculture. Shannon laid the basis of the modern theory of communications at the beginning of our century. This theory has yielded ground in the last few years. Examples: The main difficulty lies in checking the values of some parameters. lain = a sta. by a reaction. Do not mix up the following verbs: to lie. They have obtained bigger yields per hectare by using modern fertilizers.

7 Let’s go ________________ to Paris for the weekend. to acquire. 1 My favourite/preferred time of year is Spring. 7 The car has got a small engine/machine and is very economical to use. 0 Before we set off. 6 Joanna put ________________ a thick pair of boots as it was snowing outside. 3 Christine said she’d drop ________________ to see her aunt on the way home from Scotland. to create. Complete each sentence with a word from the box. to assume. 6 At present people resign/retire at 65. 5 I’m always pulling up crops/weeds in the garden. sau combinarea şablonului si a culorii într-o forma tridimensională cu valoare estetică. 8 Lots of chemicals farmers use harm/spoil the environment. IV. I’d like to try ________________ this jacket.III. O proiectare industrială constă in crearea unei forme. 1 Excuse me. Give me those cutters/scissors and I’ll cut it. He’s really let me ________________ . 4 Do you think my new shirt will go ________________ these trousers? 5 Paul promised to help me with the decorating today but he’s gone to a football match instead. They’ve even got the same ears! V. 63 . we listened to the climate/weather forecast. 3 Can I just write that date down in my agenda/diary? 4 Your hair is too long. configurarea sau compunerea unui şablon sau culori. 8 Did you know that Louise is going ________________ with my ex-boyfriend? 9 Robbie wanted to dress ________________ as Batman for the party. 10 Bill thanked the guest/host for the party and went home. 9 Julie’s studying to become a primary school professor/teacher. to introduce. o marfă sau un articol de artizanat. Underline the correct word in each sentence. VI.sau tridimensional folosit pentru a produce un produs. 10 Jack takes ________________ his father. I’ve never been there. Where are the changing rooms? 2 I’ll lend you the money but you must pay me ________________ by Friday. They get everywhere. to complete. to accept. Translate into English: Drepturile proiectării industriale reprezintă un bun intelectual care protejează proiectarea vizuală de obiecte ce nu sunt pur utilitare. In the future it may be different. to substitute. 2 Our main bureau/office is in Swindon. Give the nouns corresponding to the following verbs: to appear. Proiectarea industrială poate fi un şablon bi. One of the words is used twice. after away back down for in on out up with 0 I’m longing for a few weeks holiday.

2. this is generally shared amongst the design team as the lead designer sees fit. Exterior design is first done by a series of digital or manual drawings. contrast. The design and development of a modem motor vehicle is typically done by a large team from many different disciplines. Automotive design in this context is primarily concerned with developing the visual appearance or aesthetics of the vehicle. Here the focus is on ergonomics and comfort of the passengers.1. and development of all interior and exterior colours and materials used on a vehicle. headliner. and architecture. The task of the design team is usually split into three main aspects: exterior design. and along with the drawings. but it does play an important role. motorcycles. colour and trim design. fabric designs. seats. fashion. Colour and Trim design (AKA Colour and Materials design) The colour and trim designer is responsible for the research. Practice Originally it grew out of the American car industry where artists working with water based paints would create visuals for future ideas. Specific research is done into global trends in design for projects two to three model years in the future. Interior Design Interior Design is a multi-faceted profession in which creative and technical solutions are applied within a structure to achieve a built interior environment. plastics. Designers draw inspiration from other design disciplines such as: industrial design. buses. trucks. AUTOMOTIVE DESIGN Automotive design is a profession involved in the development of motor vehicles or more specifically road vehicles. Graphic design is also an aspect of automotive design. It is practiced by designers who usually have an art background and a degree in industrial design or transport design. vans. grains. coaches. The data from these models are then used to create a full sized mock-up of the final design.2. Trend boards are created from this research in order to keep track of design influences as they relate to the automotive industry. 64 . so whether it is how comfortable a car is or how good it looks depends on different individuals. switches. Colour. dials. interior design. kick or tread strips. carpet. trim panels etc. texture and pattern must be carefully combined to give the vehicle a unique interior environment and personality. shape and surfaces of the vehicle. This includes: automobiles. liveries etc. The designer's role is to put a little bit of both into the automobile. home furnishing. They work closely with the exterior and interior designers. Clay and or digital models are developed from. shape and surfaces for the facia. leather. Graphic design The design team also develops graphics for items such as: badges. The designer then uses this information to develop themes and concepts which are then further refined and tested on the vehicle models. wood trim and so on. These include paints. though is also involved in the creation of the product concept. Exterior design (styling) The stylist responsible for the design of the exterior of the vehicle develops the proportions. The stylist responsible for the design of the vehicle interior develops the proportions. design. Progressively more detailed drawings are executed and approved. Exterior design is not the most important factor in the program. People are different in tastes.

3. to keep track. = tipuri de plastic. fasciae n.com) A. grain n. = confort. = suprafaţă. = tablou de bord. amongst prep.ph. mulţumire. wood trim n. mock-up n. = tendinţă. coach. grăunte. = a (se) juca. = tesătură.ph. = modele de lut şi/sau digitale. diligenţă. fibră. stofă. van n. autocar 2. 3. smooth ~ = suprafaţă netedă. comfort n. carpet n. plastics n. v. material. = dubă. home furnishing n. fabric n. = ambianţă. consolare. = vopseluri. = camion. vagon de pasageri (obişnuit). 2. sământă. = muchie. biotehnică. truck n. = dublură. camion de mobilă. model. to play. facia. granulaţie. leather n. facet n. = 1. = capitonarea capotei. meditator. = panou (îmbrăcat in ţesătură. to draw inspiration v. căptuseală. 65 . lining n. fibrozitate. a ţine socoteala. In many ways it has a lot to do with our moving forward in the universe and the expression of ideas. = machete.ph. materials design n. = 1. trăsură. structură granulară. Many designers find places in the film creating designs and models on film sets such as Star Trek and Blade Runner. multi-faceted adj. = a se inspira. = a înregistra. 4. = proiectarea materialelor. fatetă. = dintre. granulă. creating visions of future worlds often not event on Planet Earth. fir. (adapted from www.wikipedia. trend n. = ergonomie. suprafaţă. headliner (roof's fabric lining) n. environment n. = potrivit. ph. cereale. WORDS AND PHRASES vehicle n. VOCABULARY I . antropotehnică. Automotive design tends to differ from the industrial design disciplines in that it has an important kinetic dimension that involves emotion and dynamics. corespunzător. bob. paints n. clay and or digital models n. = mobilier si ornamente interiore. = covor. surface n. It also tends to drift into futurism and fantasy art.ph.ph. = vehicul. = loc (de şezut / stat). seat n. material plastic etc) care acoperă structurile caroseriei în habitaclu. antrenor. = ornamente de lemn. trim panel n. mediu. These qualities have a strong influence on the way designs are created. ergonomics n. v. especially with regard to exterior designs and the visuals. = multi-faţetat.-es n. = piele. rough ~ = suprafaţă aspră/neprelucrată. fit adj.The automotive designers today continue in this tradition but use more sophisticated tools such as coloured markers and computers. adaptarea muncii la om. printre.

loc. 1. 2. 1. lead: drawn to despair. drew. To bring about deliberately. canapea. To cause to come by attracting. To take or pull out: drew a gun from beneath the counter. drew from the experience of fellow workers. 4. loc (în parlament etc. = cadran. v. background n. semn. 6.= vizitiu. dial n. attract: afraid the casino will draw undesirable elements to the town.). LEXICAL COMMENTARY coach box n.v. 7. disc cu numere. 3. scaun. to split v. = (into) a împărti în. playful adj. To take in a draft of air: The flue isn't drawing. a team of horses drawing a wagon. art ~ = istoric (trecut) artistic. To cause to move in a given direction or to a given position. intr. drawn v. coach-and-four n. seat n. = întrerupător. 8. To proceed or move steadily: a ship drawing near the shore. to play. = a fi purtat. a sparge. drag: draw the chair closer to the table. ~ the atom = a dezagrega/a fiziona atomul. = a (se) juca. bilet. = insignă. to draw. bancă. To cause to flow forth: a pump-drawing water. to grow. 4. To use or call upon part of a fund or supply: drawing on an account. grew. To bring to a certain condition or action. ~ frame = rama scaunului. 8. 2. tăblie (a scaunului). 9. istoric (trecut. 4. as by leading: The teacher drew the children into the room to see the decorations. = zburdălnicie.badge n. 5. provoke: draw enemy fire. To pour forth liquid: The patient's veins don't draw easily. To cause to move after or toward one by applying continuous force. To conclude a contest without either side winning. 13. To compose or write out in legal format: draw a deed. a proveni din. = clasa a doua. experientă). livery n. = capra vizitiului. draw a penalty on an opponent. drew out a fat wallet. To select or take in from a given group. 66 . 5. tie: The chess players drew in 32 moves. grown (out of) v. To contract or tighten: material that draws when it dries. 2. type. = livrea. coachman n. 10. 7. 12. a se îndrepta spre. vessel. ~ box = capra vizitiului. To attract customers or spectators: The new play is drawing well. tr. To make a likeness with lines on a surface. To require (a specified depth of water) for floating: a boat drawing 18 inches. sketch. or region: draw clients from all levels of society. to drift v. 3. To move or pull so as to cover or uncover something: draw the curtains. loc (de şezut / stat). ~ the differences = a da diferenţa pe din doua. a despica. II. = glumeţ. ~ belt = centură de siguranţă. 3. coach class n. switch n. = a se dezvolta din. 11. = fundal. playfulness n. drew them to resign. v. a blow that drew blood. To formulate or devise from evidence or data at hand: draw a comparison.= 1. = caretă cu patru cai.

POLLUTE 6. EMPLOY 8. Este o plăcere să conduci noul Opel GT mulţumită motorului situat în partea din faţă şi a tracţiunii spate. Who can practice automotive design? II. 0 Nowadays it’s very important to get a good education . I’ve been out of work for ages. KNOW 2. fapt ce asigură o distribuire echilibrată a greutăţii. My pencil has broken! Have you got a ____________? SHARP 3. ENGINE 5. Noul Opel GT este prevăzut să iasă pe piaţă în primăvara anului 2007. tracţiune spate şi un motor turbo pe benzină cu patru cilindri. Într-adevăr. What does interior design presupposes? 5. It’s very difficult to live in London on a low ______________. APPLY 4. Design-ul a fost inspirat de conceptul VX Lightning creat de GM Advanced Design Studio din Birmingham. Opel GT este maşina sport a anilor `70. (http://www. What does exterior design imply? 4. It’s not much fun being ________. pentru mulţi iubitori de maşini. Cu linii distincte. Pontiac Solstice şi Saturn Sky. care a fost produs între 1968 şi 1973. EDUCATE 1. Our team is very _________. Illustrate five meaning of the verb to draw. Complete each sentence with a word formed from the word in capitals. Acum legendarul nume se întoarce: Opel a prezentat noul GT publicului în premieră la Salonul Auto de la Geneva 2006. Translate into English: Un nume răsunător nu trebuie să fie lung. acolo unde sunt produse şi celelalte modele înrudite lui. What does colour and trim design mean? 6. Noul GT va fi produs în Statele Unite.html) 67 . as a transitive verb and five meanings as an intransitive verb. We’ve won three international competition this year.B. Acesta accelerează noul GT de la 0 la 100 km/h în mai puţin de 6 secunde şi permite o viteză maximă de peste 230 km/h.0 litri ECOTEC turbo pe benzină. EXERCISES I. Her brother works in the factory as an ____________. noua maşină sport va fi ecoul succesului înregistrat de conceptul original GT. III. If you go to court you will need a good _____________. I don’t have much ____________ of European history. What is Automotive Design? 2. LAW 9. I find it difficult to breathe. What is the task of the design team? 3. SUCCEED 10. Reading and comprehension: 1. Marea Britanie în mai 2003 la a 100-a aniversare a mărcii Vauxhall. COME IV.streetracing. The ________ in this city has got worse. POLITICS 7. Tomorrow I’m going to send off my ____________ form for the job. Tony Blair is one of Britain’s most famous __________. şi a celor 260 de cp ai motorului 2.ro/lansari-si-noutati/noul-opel-gt.

art). The eye of the viewer will focus on the area of emphasis or center of interest first. or facilitate understanding. human computer interaction. slick. dominance and unity. the visual pleasantness of a work of design is a result of how the composition of the elements of design follows the principles of design. line. unity. like plants and animals. proximity. Texture can be rough. blue and yellow. and information signs. Designers may produce ethnographies as part of the qualitative research for defining needs or features for a product. As a composition is developed an artist may stress some elements of the design over others. Wherever the ends of a continuous line meet. the list is endless. asymmetrical and radial. The elements of design are the fundamental. A line is the track made by a point moving in space. colour. There are three different types of balance: symmetrical. A relatively recent development is the closely related practice of experience design. Some fundamental principles of design are alignment. Space can be two-dimensional. the boundary between two areas of contrasting colour is an implicit line). texture and colour. packaging. Geometric shapes such as circles. form (shape). interior design. There is no authorative classic theory of design. pattern. including. visual design. and overlaps significantly with other disciplines. but not limited to.1. rhythm. scratchy. stress and tension. bumpy. a shape is formed. or colors create movement and rhythm in a composition. negative and/or positive. emphasis.3. motion pictures. All colors are mixed from three primaries: red. Repeated shapes. service or communication object.2. has a texture or surface. since the recognition of these qualities has existed for thousands of years. uniform measurements and don't often appear in nature.com) 68 . photography. repetition. three-dimensional. lines. product design. Graphic design is a porous discipline. architecture. contrast. and white space. illustration.g. digital media. Balance is achieved by the resolution of weight. information design and interaction design. The principles of design are general characterizations of relations between elements in a composition: balance. those things nearest to us can partially overlap objects that are farther away. Wherever the ends of a continuous line meet. silky. movement. proportion. then take in the rest of the composition. According to the classic theory of design (or graphic design. animation. soft. smooth. They refer to point. a shape is formed. but only in the late 19th century did it become identified as a separate entity. Graphic design as a practice can be traced back to the origin of the written word. It may be applied in any media. such as print. GRAPHIC DESIGN Graphic design is the applied art of arranging image and text to communicate a message. Organic shapes are associated with things from the natural world. triangles or squares have perfect. the visual arts. texture. isolated parts or element of design may appear explicitly or implicitly (e. As in the real world. and composition in art. including works of art. rhythm. user interface design. Everything.wikipedia. First conceptualized accounts have probably appeared in early books about architecture. proportion. prickly. balance. (adapted from www.

-ies n.= ambalare. porous adj. = proiectare/design experimental. EXERCISES I .= trăsătură caracteristică. boundary cluster set = mulţimea punctelor limită la frontier. medii (sg. margine. feature n. recognition n.= limită. reviste. What is graphic design? 2.ph. = autoritar. boundary value = valoare limită. print ~ = mijloace scrise (ziare. VOCABULARY I. etc). product design n. = recunoaştere. movement n. boundary value problem = problemă la limită / la frontieră. a boundary emission = emisiunea la limita de bandă. pleasantness n.ph. What are the elements of design? 4.= animaţie. animation n. media). = aliniere. only in the late 19th century did it become identified = de-abia în secolul al XIX-lea a ajuns sa fie identificată. = proiectarea produselor. şablon. = accent. a se suprapune. = model. authorative adj. B. = echilibru. = spaţiu liber. packaging n. motion pictures n.)= mijloace. proximity n. boundary equation = ecuatie limita. = ritm. (pl. balance n. = a fi identificat. = mişcare pattern n. = etnografie. texture n.= a încălca.ph. digital ~ = mijloace digitale. information signs n. proportion n. granită. ies n. experience design n. alignment n.ph. = poros. = proporţie. amabilitate. WORDS AND PHRASES media n.ph. rhythm n. = gentileţe. Examples: boundary behaviour = comportare la frontieră / la limită. = textură.ph.A. to be traced back v. emphasis n. II. ethnography. What are the principles of design? 3. = proximitate. to overlap v. LEXICAL COMMENTARY boundary. What is the relation between the principles and the elements of design? 69 . white space n. Reading and comprehension: 1. = filme artistice. = simboluri informaţionale .

can be mechanical. Translate into English: Aria unei figuri în plan poate fi aproximată cu numarul de puncte cu coordonate întregi pe care le conţine. locus. The manipulator is the component that provides movement in any number of degrees of freedom. It can any programmable device from a rotary drum switch to a full computer. 0 By 11. între numarul de puncte întregi conţinute în poligon. IV.. The robot controller functions as the brain and nervous system of the robot. ..-decagon III.ro) 70 . vacuum... or magnetic device for part handling. formula..-quadrilateral/square. cu atât aproximaţia este mai buna. . În dimensiune superioară însă..-septagon. Este exact locul unde intervine Geometria Algebrică. înlocuind poligonul cu un politop convex... (Marian Aprodu. It was impossible for him to lie.. tooling. including the power supply.-pentagon.00 I felt so tired/tiring that I went to bed. numarul total de puncte întregi de pe laturi şi aria poligonului.www..... 3 That meal we had yesterday was horrible. 4 Have you got any more clothes to put in the dishwasher/washing machine? 5 I’ve told you now/time and again to do your homework! 6 John hates waiting more than ten minutes for a bus. It’s very hot in here. focus. axis.octagon. 8 Shall I turn the central conditioning/heating off.. spectrum. 9 Marcus always said/told the truth.. V.... În cazul unui poligon convex cu vârfuri întregi. calculul volumului devine complicat. De aici încolo. give more information on the uses of robots: Industrial Robots The following are the three basic components of an industrial robot: controller.. Introducere în geometria varietatilor torice .. He gets very impatient/unpatient. industrial robots are classified into: simple robots. Give the plural form of the following nouns: datum. medium. The manipulator consists of the base and the arm of the robot. usually hydraulic. IV. manipulator. Underline the correct word or phrase in each sentence. Generally. I particularly/properly disliked the fish.. .nonagon. index. date. Translate the following text into Romanian. 10 It was awful/awfully difficult to read the sign as it was so dark. medium technology robots and sophisticated industrial ones. The hand or gripper.imar..-hexagon.. maximum. electric or pneumatic. 1 How many photos did you make/take on holiday? 2 I read a really interested/interesting article in the newspaper today. există o legătură directă cu formula Pick (1899)... Cu cât figura este mai mare..II. matrix. este nevoie de instrumente de lucru mult mai puternice decât o simplă analiză combinatorială.. 7 Sharon was early for her appointment so she read a magazine to lose/pass the time. Write the number of sides corresponding to the names of shapes: Example: 3-triangle . criterion.

reliable and handle well. however by doing this. The Citi-Car uses eight special 6 volt "deep cycle" batteries. They are comfortable. So-called solar powered cars are in reality solar charging battery powered cars. Most electric cars today have built in battery chargers and all that is required to recharge is a long extension cord and plug into a regular 110 Volt home outlet. weighs 390 lbs. stronger then most conventionally produced gasoline cars. WHAT ABOUT SOLAR POWER? With current technology. The top speed of the Citi-Car is however only 40 miles per hour. The average driver drives an estimated 28 miles per day.3 feet high. one is able to travel up to 70 miles distance per day. due mostly to the weight of the batteries. Until recently. The GM Sunraycer is 71 . most electric cars are structurally very strong. Nevertheless. A set of eight deep cycle batteries can cost as little as $450. it has a normal range in the summer of about 40 miles and in the winter time about 30 miles per charge. there have been remarkable developments in the area of solar cells and in the development of ultra light weight solar charging battery powered cars.1. with tubular steel frames. Though the electric car itself does not burn fuel. though an electric motor is more efficient at high rotational speeds. An electric car operator must be constantly aware of this problem while driving in populated areas. For this reason. they are built the same way as most racing cars. 6. most power plants use fossil fuels to generate electricity.6 miles per hour over a total of 44. For example. Most electric cars are much heavier then they look. it is not possible to effectively run a car directly from the sun. It takes about 7 hours to fully recharge the batteries.4. even at top speed. the GM Sunraycer. not exactly. The sun is used to charge the batteries. weighs about 1600 lbs. With intermittent charging throughout the day. Since most electric cars are limited production cars. When recharging. NO POLLUTION? No.2. most electric cars fell into two categories--cars converted from gasoline power. is 3. ACCELERATION: An electric motor has what is known as continuous torque and therefore has almost the same horsepower at any speed. produces less then 20% of the pollution created by a standard gasoline powered car. Under normal conditions. Electric cars are so quite that they can be a danger to pedestrians crossing the street since pedestrians can not hear the car coming.6 feet wide and 19.9 driving hours.7 feet long and averaged 41. It is estimated that an electric car. the life of the batteries is shortened. such as a VW or a Chevy Chevette or tiny cars such as the 1975 CitiCar. It is possible to greatly reduce the charging time by increasing the charging voltage. this translates to about two years of use. DRIVING AN ELECTRIC CAR Electric cars are in many ways similar to gasoline powered cars. BUT ARE THEY SAFE? There are many different types and sizes of electric cars. so we must consider the pollution created at the power plant. Electric cars are very quiet. In the case of the Citi-Car. the Citi-Car uses about the same amount of electricity as a 150 watt light bulb. charging from a conventional fossil fueled power plant. The Citi-Car for example. As a result. So quiet that you can barely hear the motor run. These batteries weigh more then normal car batteries and are designed to endure up to 2000 charges. The Citi-Car can out accelerate most cars from 0 to 20 miles per hour. an electric car normally has better acceleration from standstill than the acceleration of a gasoline powered car.

a realimenta. scurgere. = de încredere. running characteristics = performance characteristics. a băga în priza.59237 grame) 3. plug = I. running in period = testing period for engines or new machinery. pedestrian n. = maşină pe benzină. = greutate.6 feet wide = 6. to endure v. 1. amount to (expenses). a 150 watt light bulb n. = orificiu. ARE THERE MORE ELECTRIC VEHICLES OVERSEAS? There are more electric vehicles in the United States than in all other countries in the world combined. = 1. weight n. to run out of = to become shod of (supplies). ieşire. Other solar cars have attained speeds of over 110 mile per hour. top speed n. tubular steel frames n. impas. torque n. horsepower n.3 feet high = 3. n. to work. running order = operating condition.considered one of the most advanced "solar" cars in the world and in 1987 won the Solar Challenge race in Australia--a 1. = cuplu de torsiune. ph. to be in operation.ph. 19. for example. rotational speed n. II.didik.7 feet long =19.7 picioare (în) lungime. = a scurta. to recharge v . = 1. 2. performance. 3. WORDS AND PHRASES gasoline powered car n. to run up to = to go up to. = un bec electric de 150 watts. ph. standstill n. 2. charging voltage n. = pieton.950 mile race. to shorten v. = a reîncărca. (adapted from http://www. fossil fuel n. be out of operation. has fewer than 2000 registered electric vehicles. oprire. 30 miles per charge = 30 mile de încărcare. = uzine electrice.609344 km).000 in California alone). journey to and for. cycle. to weigh v. VOCABULARY I. = cal putere. = a suporta. power plants n. = cablu de alimentare electric. to manage.000 registered electric vehicles in the United States (over 15.ph. 6. v. outlet n. = viteză maximă. extension cord n. 72 . to handle v. Japan. = a (se) manevra. built-in battery chargers n. There are over 40.ph. = combustibil fosilă.htm) A. 70 miles distance per day = 70 mile pe zi (1 mile=1. = tensiune de alimentare. LEXICAL COMMENTARY to run v. 2. reliable adj. to run down = to stop working. II. = operation. = încărcători cu baterii încorporate.6 picioare (în) lătime. = a cântări. to run into somebody = to meet somebody by chance. = rame de oţel tubulare.3 picioare (în) înăltime.ph. 390 lbs = 390 pounds (1 pound =453.ph.ph. run n. = viteză de rotaţie. priză electrică.com/driving2.ph. ph. incetare.

. whom I hadn't seen for years. The outlay (expenses) for the re-equipment of the laboratory might.. .in this area today because extensive road repair is being undertaken. B. Do electric cars pollute the environment? 5.. a long journey by sea or in space _______ IV. Before they start operating these new machine. tour. a holiday on a large ship _______ 6. Translate into English: Motorul electric primeşte energia electrică şi o transformă în energie mecanică. travel. III. the general activity of moving from place to place (uncountable noun) ______ 2. usually over a long distance or long time_______ 3. motoare în derivaţie şi motoare compound. Cars taken straight from the assembly line will need a . they will have to get perfectly familiar with their….. The pew plant will be .. by the board of directors. because nobody wound it up last night. Există multe tipuri de motoare electrice. . Match the following words with the definitions: cruise. The curve described by the beam of an oscilloscope during one .. to run B. and coming back again _______ 4 a circular journey during which you visit several places _______ 5. journey. too. a plant) run to run into somebody running characteristics to run out of running order run down (adj. can coincide with the curve described during the next.. Reading and comprehension: 1. to test their reliability and performances. 73 .. Can an electric car run with solar power? II. What are the characteristics of an electric car? 2.. Yesterday. . No buses or trams will. Fill in the blanks with one of the following A.) running in period to run down to run up to A.. going to a place.... trip. .. millions of lei.. I didn't recognize him at first as he looked rather. staying there. How is the acceleration of an electric car compared to that of a gasoline powered car? 3. motoare polifazate şi motoare monofazate. Motoarele cu curent alternativ pot fi: motoare sincrone. exhausted. going from one place to another. to run (a school. while coming out of the library I . B. = tired. very smoothly. The clock in the hall ':1as .. It's no use trying to start the engine if the battery has .run down adj.. The purchase of new equipment was inevitable since the old one was no longer in .. . an old friend. Those old and noisy pieces of machinery have been replaced by new ones which . Motoarele cu current continuu pot fi grupate în 3 clase: motoare cu excitaţie în serie.. EXERCISES I. voyage 1. We might. Are electric cars safe? 4.. petrol if the next filling-station is closed.

harababură. Cigarette packaging is no exception. Thus. However. packaging must perform many sales tasks. dezordine. have a look at these questions and answer them as you consider best: 1. this is witnessed by others. however. sales tasks n. states: ‘a cigarette package is part of a smoker's clothing. = vanzare cu bucata. = agitatie. once a consumer embraces a cigarette brand. This high degree of social visibility leads cigarettes to be known as ‘badge products’.1. providing a living testimonial endorsement of the user on behalf of that brand and product. As a crucial part of the both the product and promotion. it must look new and different enough to attract the attention of the consumer.ph. it is quite unlikely that they will change. What role does packaging play to maintain brand choice against increasing concerns about smoking health risks? (adapted from www. packaging assists consumers to select among other relatively homogenous products. When there is less opportunity to establish brand imagery through traditional methods of advertising.2. with a high concordance between the brand first smoked and the brand eventually selected as usual brand. play in influencing potential consumers -especially starter smokers. promotion.price. retail n. and pack construction. and placementare concepts that summarize the domains of marketing strategy. Brand choices are usually made early during the life of a smoker. To do this. A cigarette package designer. Firstly. describing the product. with less than 10% changing brands annually. The primary job of the package is to create a desire to purchase and try.com) A. So. for example. the primary function of a package was to simply contain and protect the product. VOCABULARY I. as well as being left on public display during use.designboom. CIGARETTE PACK GRAPHICS Traditionally. = sarcinile vanzărilor. unlike many other products where the packaging is discarded after opening. smokers generally retain the cigarette pack until the cigarettes are used and keep the pack close by or on their person. What roles do colour. and when he saunters into a bar and plunks it down. factors such as increased competition and clutter on the retail store shelf have meant that for most products. In the case of cigarettes. The often cited ‘four Ps’ of marketing . product. pack size. Thus. packaging plays a more important role in establishing and driving brand image. as is increasingly becoming the case as advertising restrictions come into force. but also other subgroups of consumers . he makes a statement about himself.to select one brand over another? 2. Cigarette brands enjoy the highest brand loyalty of all consumer products.5. John Digianni. cigarette packs are constantly being taken out and opened. and helping to make the sale. such as attracting attention. WORDS AND PHRASES clutter n. packaging is even more critical for several reasons. 74 .’ When a user displays a badge product.

connections. .an accurate determination. .instructions. = stilul legat de marcă. a inlătura. a arunca (cărtile la joc). . . To execute . 75 . .a choice. a executa into English: To do -a syntax analysis. . brand.improvements. = a imbrătisa.transistors.adjustments.a task. To perform -a specified activity.ph.an experiment.operations.an approximation. To accomplish .a decision.a logical process. .a comparison. a measurement. brand n. an investigation. . badge products n. = marcă. = omogen. predictions. to saunter v.validity checks. To effect -a regulation.an experiment .work on a body.experiments. advances.simplification. . a function.ph. . .ph.homogenous adj.a study. circuits. . . To carry out .efforts. = a arunca. . calculations. . .duties. = a face o plimbare.an operation.calculations. a indepărta. .a research project.generalizations. diodes.an analysis. . . .specific jobs. attempts. brand imagery n. .commands.a process. . . to discard v. an assessment.a command.an assumption. . . To make .a list. = produse de marcă. = expunere/prezentare publică.a calculus by hand. . to plunk something down v.an instruction.your duty. II. LEXICAL COMMENTARIES Mind the possible ways to render the Romanian a face.an extension. a aseza (ceva pe). public display n. . . .operations.progress. . = a renunta. to embrace v. compact. . . . .

.. 76 . make up with = a se împăca cu cineva. what is wrong with it. 5. Regulation is . 3. 13.. 2. While accompanying Davy on his tour in Europe. Faraday had many duties to . of a number of elementary particles. a executa as required in each sentence: 1. Take a look at this diagram. The assumption is . 8. a series of experiments successfully demonstrating the existence of electromagnetic induction. Why is cigarette packaging important? 3.B... A computer . I can't make . a recupera.. Reading and comprehension: 1. at the Electronica Factory... make out = a întelege. Some computers could ……five million internal operations.. A computer program 'consists of a huge number of individual instructions which are . The state of a body can be changed by …… work on it... What is the function of a package? 2.. its functions fast and accurately... When he made . An individual fact . They always try to . 3.. 15.. 1.. make up for = a compensa. when he finished his work. 10. 7. that the system is stable. In ten days Faraday . he admitted he had been wrong. Mathematical logic can be…. He made straight …. 4. their duty to the best of their ability.. A further extension to sampled data systems was ..… several initials. EXERCISES I.. his friend. The term is made ... 2. in the use of light pens are quite spectacular. make for = a se îndrepta spre. 5.. one by one to operate on data.. Every molecule is made . the time we wasted with setting up the device for our experiment. a completa. at the expense of the response speed. Such transistors are currently ... with respect to a set point. though we tried very hard. 9. nothing more than provide the single piece of information it contains.... III. 6. Supply one of the English equivalents for the Romanian a face. Use the right preposition or adverbial particle from the list below in the following sentences: make up of = a alcătui.the library. How can a brand influence people’s choice? II. 4. 11... We couldn't make ..by letting the ON and OFF states refer to true and false.. The developments being . 12. the inscription on the stone. Let us quickly check the results and make . with the post war development of Z-plane operational methods... This simplification was . after their quarrel. 6.. 7. 14.

mărime). bazat pe o textură repetitivă care pune în valoare elementele identităţii vizuale (logo şi paletă de culori). 7 My sister won first place/prize/class in a cookery competition last weekend. Acesta este definit prin legătura deosebită pe care o are ambalajul cu produsul şi prin funcţiile concrete care le deţine. 10 I enjoy window shopping/buying/looking when I haven’t got much money to V. 5 After he was made redundant. pericol. Cu toate aceasta sau chiar prin aceasta ele au o importanţă foarte mare în potenţialul de diferenţiere pe piaţă şi reprezintă chiar o strategie investiţională cuprinsă în forma de prezentare.IV. 6 The level/cost/price of living is much higher in the south of the country. logistic sau chiar de la producător. 77 . sensibilitate. cerinţele unui ambalaj depind de conţinut (de ex. 8 ‘I’ve got a spare ticket for the tennis court/game/match on Friday. Translate into English: Ambalajul constituie forme de acoperiri care au un anumit scop: de acoperire a unui produs sau a unui conţinut. mediul înconjurător. De aceea. identificând în mod unic brandul în rândul produselor concurente având drept culoare dominantă tonuri albe sau reci şi fiind identificate primar eventual doar prin logo. de funcţiile şi cerinţele care trebuie îndeplinite şi care pot veni de la consumator. consistenţă. 4 They booked their holiday through a tour/trip/travel agent on the High Street. caldă şi optimistă. Despre posibilele soluţii încă nu există claritate (ambalaje de unică Designul ambalajului. Designul ambalajului poate fi văzut ca un caz special al designului produsului. S-a ajuns în unanimitate la concluzia că acestea trebuie reduse. Would you like to come with me?’ 9 Keith prefers to wear shirts with short sleeves/arms/cuffs to work. Underline the most suitable word. 2 I always put the central conditioning/heating/warming on as soon as it starts to get cold. Chris got a temporary job/work/employment in a restaurant. 0 Anyone who has high stress levels/layers/rates should read this book. comunică o imagine tânără. 1 Margaret has some beautiful flower boxes on her window sill/frame/shelf. societate. 3 The departs/departure/leaving lounge is a non-smoking area. Din cauza creşterii în ultima vreme a gunoiului de ambalaje. care poate fi uşor folosit. Prin îmbinarea produsului cu ambalajul se obţine un pachet. au fost create discuţii critice despre materialele şi mărimea ambalajelor. comerţ.

Since no teenager would be caught dead in anything their parents are wearing. • the 1960-70's: hippies & the cold war: different styles of jeans were made. After the war. is in trouble.who often wore jeans in the movies-became very popular. like Wrangler and Lee. In 1853. and cotton plantations increased. Sales of jeans went up and up. • the 1950's-rebels: in the 1950's. styles. DENIM Denim is also called blue jeans. it certainly goes out of 'fashion' from time to time. The material. as the fabric phenomenon of the last centuries: the 18th century: in the eighteenth century as trade. These years the youth market was not particularly interested in 501s and other traditional jeans styles.2. a nation grieves. Some schools in the USA banned students from wearing denim.6. • the 1930's: westerns cowboys . secondhand. combat and carpenters and branded sportswear pants. but it had to be in different finishes. jeans became a symbol of 'western decadence' and were very hard to get. when famous designers started making their own styles of jeans. slave labour. chinos. • the 19th century or the California gold rush: the gold miners wanted clothes that were strong and did not tear easily. it is also woven in coloured stripes. such as khakis. supplying clothes. It was the symbol of the teenage rebel in TV programmes and movies (James Dean in the 1955 movie A Rebel Without A Cause). Eleven North American factories close. 78 . • the 1980's –designer jeans: jeans became high fashion clothing. because they wore clothes made from it. Leob Strauss started a wholesale business. or Levi's.. authentic. the latest generation of rebellious youth turned to other fabrics and other styles of casual pants. denim became popular with young people. etc. Strauss later changed his name from Leob to Levi. new cuts.and thrift shops. began to compete with Levi for a share of the international market. with their own labels on them. mainly because their parents: the 'generation born in blue' were still busy squeezing their aging bodies into them. In many non-western countries. or in the form of aged. serge de Nimes: serge (a kind of material) from Nimes (a town in France). shapes. workers wore jean cloth because the material was very strong and it did not wear out easily. to match the 60's fashions: embroidered jeans. called jean. The word 'denim' probably came from the name of a French material. The traditional denim is a durable twill-woven cotton fabric with coloured (usually blue) warp and white filling threads. dungarees. Levi Strauss & co. discovered in markets. painted jeans. rival companies. vintage jeans. not conventional jeans stores. Denim has quite a history. • the 1990's: recession: although denim is never completely out of style. who sometimes wore them when they were off duty.1. jeans. They still wore denim. The word jeans comes from a kind of material that was made in Europe. was named after sailors from Genoa in Italy. the number-one producer of jeans and the "single most potent symbol of American style on planet earth" (as the Los Angeles times succinctly put it). • the 1940's – war: fewer jeans were made during the time of world war 2. psychedelic jeans. but they were introduced to the world by American soldiers.

Chloe and Versace.Who started to prewash them? Jack Spence for Lee . Dior. beaded. which easily tore away from the jeans. The products need to be reinvented from time to time and jeans have been back on designers catwalks. . micro and niche markets. Freed of all social and creative restrictions. The durability of indigo as a colour and its darkness of tone made it a good choice. Two-way stretch fabrics and special coatings or rubberized effects continue to be a strong trend. It can also be found in home collections. rotten or dirty look in line with the trend for vintage denim looks set to be around with the 'homespun look' with his irregular appearance. The warp yarn is traditionally dyed with the blue pigment obtained from indigo dye. Lighter. But if denim is making a major fashion statement. The single most potent symbol of fashion. The shabby. which was at the end of the 19th century. but he did not have enough money. seen globally. Denims come with either polyamide. softer denims in dress and shirting weights were introduced. when Levi sewed a leather label on their jeans. beat-up. indigo was the most significant natural dye known to mankind. denim is assuming any number of disguises and contexts to be worn in and has broken through almost any limitation on price. so in 1872. (adapted from www. The label showed a picture of a pair of jeans that were being pulled between two horses. he wrote to Levi Strauss and offered Strauss a deal if Strauss would pay for the patent and Strauss accepted. . when frequent washing was not possible. Davis wanted to patent his idea. at Chanel.britannica.com) FACTS . In 1870 BASF in Germany. fragmented. linked with practical fabrics and work clothing. hemp or wool and for the luxe looks even silk and cashmere are turning up in new denims to give them different aesthetics. The last generation has a vast quantity of brands to choose from. Various natural fibers. on the internet. polypropylene or with polyester and a special bonding with a 100% nylon net for a more active look. where does that leave the traditional jeans brands? The old mass market has segmented. such as linen. sell out instantaneously at $3715 a pop. bed spreads and furniture-coverings. a different perception of the cult value of owning small insider labels and a fanatical loyalty only to what is hot on a daily basis. And then. Denim is no longer a cotton only product. Tom Ford's feathered. Until the introduction of synthetic dyes. there was the shining image of Helmut Lang's silver-sprayed pants. Jacob Davis had the idea of using metal rivets (fasteners) to hold the pockets and the jeans together so that they would not tear.Who started with stone-wash? Francois Girbaud • 79 . .2000: reinventing denim: something decidedly weird is happening in the world of denim. striding out beyond our conception of basic utility. shattered into a multitude of mini. summer '99. lycra. appearing in cushions.When did the label first appear? The label first appeared in 1886. in 1894 the process was perfected. torn-knee Gucci blue jeans.Why is denim blue? Denim is unique in its singular connection with one colour. originally suppliers of natural indigo had started the search for a synthetic substitute.Who invented the fasteners? A big problem with the miners’ clothes was represented by the pockets.

branded sportswear pants n. = întrecand. $3715 a pop n. = îmbrăcăminte specială. twill-woven cotton fabric n. phenomenon n. stripe n. a se întrista. feathered adj. cu pene. wove. = nuante de kaki. beaded ~ = jeanşi impodobiţi cu mărgele. = pantaloni cu argintiu. = a supăra. împănat. VOCABULARY I.com) A.olah. to wear out. thrift shops n. to grieve v. = legătură. = finisaje. 2. finishes n.= magazine economice. painted ~ = jeanşi pictaţi. = a (se ) vinde. stofă. 3. to weave. ph. Turkish stones are preferred for their porosity and cleanliness or stones from Sicily. phenomena). fig. = fenomen (pl. nylon net n. khakis n.= ciudat. = a rupe. = ţesături elastice în ambele sensuri. = fir de umplutură. avut. bonding n.= podium de modă. ph . ţinte. silver-sprayed pants n. = zilnic. = material din bumbac cu ţesătură în diagonală. = a lua cu asalt. ph. = salopete. = plasa de nylon. = a (se) uza. = 317 $ perechea.ph. urzeală. carpenters pants n. embroidered ~ =jeanşi brodaţi. torn-knee ~ = jeanşi sfaşiaţi. cuts n. material. to go up v. avântat. niche markets n.= 1. out of style adj. jeans n. ph. = chinezării. to beat-up v. out of 'fashion' adj. then pumice. combat pants n. = nişele de piată. special coating n. filling thread n. vintage ~ = jeansi vintage ( cu o aparenţă de uzat: găuri. fig. worn v. franjuri şi tivuri descusute). because they floated around with the jeans. banned students from wearing denim = a interzis studentilor să poarte denim. = în afara serviciului.ph. = pantaloni sport de firmă. striding out v. ştrasuri sau broderie. weird adj.ph. off duty adj. = pantaloni de camuflaj. = dungă.Who started sandblasting? Different brands used it in 1988 in Italy (adapted from www.-What stones where used? First pea gravel. ph. two-way stretch fabrics n. bogat. but their supply is limited. = ţesatură. = ţesătură. chinos n. . wore.ph. = a creşte.ph. instead of lying on the bottom of the water. warp n. = stil demodat. paiete. = demodat. porţiuni decolorate. 80 . înaripat. WORDS AND PHRASES fabric n. catwalk n. to tear. to sell out v. = jeansi. woven = a ţese. torn v. ph.= tăieturi.ph.ph. on a daily basis n. tore.

fiber n. to float v. = vopsit. 2. a (se) transforma. = 1. = a prespăla. obscen. dyed adj. LEXICAL COMMENTARY at every turn = la tot pasul. silk n. = capse. simplu. = fibră. 3. While originally done only by hand. rând . fig lucru simplu. cariat. she has turned fifty = a împlinit 50 de ani. fasteners n. = pietricică. marijuana. 2. by turns = cu schimbul. a (se) roti. to turn off = a închide (un robinet). to prewash v. 2. = caşmir. lucrat în casă. cleanliness n. = rotire. 3. cotitură. Identify some stages of denim usage in clothing. pumice n. aptitudine. = a laundry process where jeans before washing are literally shot with guns of sand to make the jeans look as if they have been worn. plimbare. warp yarn n. n. to turn on = a excita. to turn up = a se ivi. to turn in = a se culca. to turn down = a refuza.ph.= fir textile in tesătură. stricat. shabby adj. What are the new types of denim? 5. groaznic. Chemicals are now used in many laundries replacing sand. What is denim? 2. = 1. pea gravel n. Reading and comprehension: 1.rubberized effects n. = curăţenie. 1. 2. to turn v. sărăcăcios. 2. label n. clame. II. modest. canepă. a deveni. turn n.= a (se) învârti. fermoare. sandblast n. homespun = I adj. puma. dirty adj. întoarcere. = mătase. curbă. = în pas cu. cashmere n. EXERCISES I. = in. = murdar. to turn out= a se dovedi. = etichetă. = a pluti. to turn out = a da afară. II. jerpelit. this processing has recently become automated. B. = lană. = 1. zdrenţăros. ţesătură de casă. fig. What is the colour of denim and why? 81 . ph. = efecte cauciucate. = cuguar. etc. to turn a deaf ear = a refuza să dea ascultare. Who prefers to wear denim? 4. hemp n. rotten adj. fără haz. (sablare). linen n.1. wool n. 3. in line with prep. a (se) întoarce.

tablecloths b. e. used for making scarfs. used for making shirts or trousers l. i.dry clean only 82 . used for making dresses. kind of soft leather made from the skin of goats.do not iron ….dry flat …. 12. used for making trousers or suits j. with the flesh surface rubbed into a soft nap. etc. 5. used especially for making shirts. a coarse cotton cloth used for jeans III. 10. corduroy. a delicate fabric of interlacing threads. 3. leather. 2 cotton. suede. What do the following symbols mean? Match the symbols with the corresponding instructions …. 4. etc. 8.drip dry …. used for making gloves. bed-sheets. used for making sweaters c. bags. denim. d.tumble dry …. gloves. a soft. etc. etc. k... Match the following names of materials with their definitions 1.. etc.do not wash …. material made from the soft thread from the cocoons of certain insects. velvet. 7. 11. flannel. do not use chlorine bleach …. underwear. linen. thick strong cotton material with raised lines on it. 9. synthetic fibre used for making stockings and blouses h. nightgowns. thread spun from a soft white fibrous substance found round the seeds of a plant: used for making shirts.hang to dry …. nylon. 6. shoes.hand wash in lukewarm water …. f. lace. material made from animal skins. Kinds of material. silk.II. g. a. woollen cloth of loose texture. etc . cloth with a thick soft nap on one side. g.. cloth made from soft hair of sheep. nappy. wool a.cloth made of flax. used for making shoes. used for making wedding dresses.

…. Bumbac 80% Polyester 15% Nylon 5%. 4.pleated. …. striped V.checked. 2.. …. 83 . Translate into English: 1..IV. 3. …. Un produs textil care conţine două sau mai multe tipuri de fibre înregistrat cu 85% din produsul final trebuie să fie marcat cu tipul de fibră urmat de un procent. o jachetă cu căptuseală – conţinutul fiecăreia trebuie menţionat pe etichetă. Cuvântul 'pur' trebuie utilizat numai în cazul în care produsul este confecţionat dintr-o singura fibră. Orice material decorativ care se găseşte în produs în proporţie de 7% sau mai puţin este exclus din indicarea conţinutului de fibre.... ‘mătase acetat’ nu este permis. Cuvantul 'mătase' nu poate fi utilizat pentru descrierea texturii oricărei alte fibre.. Match the styles with the pictures..crew/turtle neck …. .baggy. ex. .. ex.. Dacă un produs are în compoziţie două sau mai multe componente cu conţinut diferit de fibre.floral... ex.belted ….high heeled. 5.

You know that when you shout you may sometimes hear an echo. There are many other kinds of radar devices. called “blips”. Another kind is the speed-trap radar used by the police. Limba engleză pentru ştiinţă şi tehnică. these signals from the radio waves are sent electrically to the control room. Each kind has extra features. the principle of radar is the same: send – bounce – report. turned off. the electric charge of its “echo” reaches the arm. Radar must wait for the return of waves. The big radar antenna at an airport turns round and round watching the skies. the observer knows the distance of each plane from the airport. When a plane approaches. In all of them.II. The antenna fans up and down. the idea of radar is simple. But observers in the control room can recognize a blip that means a plane. one kind is used on ships to prevent crashes. the farther away they have been. From its centre an arm swings round. By watching the blips.123) 84 . The radar transmitter sends out its waves in pulses lasting one or two thousands of a second. There they appear on a screen as little spots of light. A radar device sends out very short radio waves. While both the antenna and the arm on the screen are swinging. matching the swings of the radar antenna around the sky. HOW RADAR WORKS Many people think that radar is something mysterious and hard to understand. But radio waves move very much faster than sound waves. too. though. The sound waves of your voice bounce against a hill or a wall and return to your ear. A blip does not look like a plane. The waves bounce back from any solid object they meet and report where it is. though it is circular.2. At the same time.2. The distance is figured electrically by measuring the time that each radar signal takes to bounce back. To hear an echo. becomes a receiver. The word “radar” stands for “radio detection and ranging”. The bouncing of these radio waves is very much like that of sound waves. Your ear is the receiver.1. TEXTS FOR INDUSTRIAL ENERGETICS AND MECATRONICS 2. The trail of the blip shows the plane’s direction.2. The longer they take. Andrei & Porţeanu . Between pulses. you must wait until the sound waves have time to return to you. The reflector focuses them on the receiver. It sends out a narrow beam of radio waves. As each new blip appears. The charge causes a blip at the point on the screen that matches the plane’s position. Your voice is transmitter (sender). the blip glows. the old blip fades. Actually. For instance. They bounce back from the plane to a big reflector near the receiver. p. The radio waves hit any airplane that comes within about 30 miles of the airport. (Bantaş. The screen is like a television screen. the observer can “see” airplanes coming and trace their courses. the transmitter. It brushes the sky in a circle about 30 miles in radius. Rodica. The screen is coated with a chemical that holds the blip’s light for a short time. From the receiver. For one or two thousandths of second this ear picks up echoes.

= 1. to advocate = a susţine.a ricoşa. = radiobalizare. = antenă simultană. undă. 2. radiolocaţie. = 1. 3. traversă. vibraţie. Reading and comprehension: 1. a acoperi. grindă. Where does the word radar come from? 3. B. = sarcina electrică. WORDS AND PHRASES beam n. radius (-i) n.. staţie de radar. a placa. radiolocator.a îmbrăca. to bounce v. reflector. val. distanţă. ~ antenna = antena radar.. traversă de punte. where? 5. întindere. electric charge n. 6. 2.. pulse n. = 1. 2. Have you ever seen a radar? If so. VOCABULARY I. 4. val (de căldură. Match each problem (a–j) with a solution (1-10). nimb. a sprijini) He stood for justice at the latest national conference. 2. ~ transmitter = emiţător / transmiţător / manipulator / microfon / staţie de radio / emisie. duplexer n. radar. fluturare a mâinii.a oscila. 3. spiţă (la roată). What principle lies at the basis of all radar operation systems? 4. ground ~ = undă terestră. mănunchi de raze. The door squeaks. radio ranging n. electric ~ = electromagnetică.a se reflecta. Make up sentences of your own with the phrasal verb to stand. imagine reflectată. = 1. rază calorică.a se balansa. =1. 5. traversă mobilă. lăţime (a navei). = 1. LEXICAL COMMENTARY to stand against (to withstand. 3. reflectare. rază (de cerc). light ~ = undă luminoasă. semn cu mâna. 2. EXERCISES I. to swing v. What is radar? 2. 2. heat~ = val de căldură. What other forms of communication can you list? II. reflecţie. a. rază. a rezista la) No one could stand against this argument. = impuls. to stand for (to be in favour of. punct luminos. speed-trap ~ = zona de control a vitezei. to coat v. 3. reflex.a lovi. 3. 85 . radar n. to stand back (to move back = a se da îndărăt) They stood back to let the car pass.A. 2. (braţ de) balanţă.a se roti. bară. violenţă) radio ~ = undă radio. 3. What radar applications do you know? 6. III. unică de emisie – recepţie. = 1... to resist = a se împotrivi. = impuls scurt. to stand out (to be distinct/better than others = a se distinge) His work stands out from that of others to stand up for (to defend = a apăra) The rebels stood up for their rights. 2. reflector n. = 1. blip n. II. travers. . aureolă. ~ devices = aparat/ dispozitiv /mecanism/ instrument radar. sound ~ = undă de sunet. teamă. wave n. radiodetecţie.

... c... Instalaţiile de radio locaţie de acest fel folosesc o emisie continuă şi recepţie curentă... The transmitter and the receiver have the same………… 7. d. i.. The battery is dead.and are reflected as an ……. 1. . . The pencil is blunt. h.. 5. în meteorologie şi în multe altele. 2.by the ………...points gives the direction of the…………. 6. The TV isn’t picking up the signals from the video recorder.. The wall looks very bare.. It needs replacing. antenna...of the target. It needs painting. It needs tightening... target. detection. range. 8. My watch has stopped.back to the antenna.. 4..of the ship was beyond our capabilities. echo.. It needs re-programming. It needs adjusting 10... pentru orientarea avioanelor...is a device used to isolate the transmitter from the receiver during radar operation. 9. 9... The car's got a few t h i ng s wrong with it. The light bulb is flickering. El se întrebuinţează cel mai adesea pentru detectarea obiectelor în mişcare. 3. f. The……………is used to measure the distance. The direction at which the………. pentru cercetarea fundului mării. . V..b. 86 . .. It needs winding up. e. Radarul care foloseşte efectul Doppler este capabil nu numai să pună în evidenţă direcţia unui obstacol. indicator. dar şi să evalueze viteza cu care acesta se apropie sau se îndepărtează. 10. 4. 1. The car seat is too far back... 3. duplexer. 8. The……. IV. It needs recharging.. . 7.was used for the ………………of the ship 6. 5.. 2. The screw is c o mi n g loose. j... Fill in each blank with a one of the following words: radar.. Pe acest principiu sunt construite instalaţiile de radar ale poliţiei pentru depistarea autovehiculelor care circulă cu viteză excesivă. The distance from the spot to the center of the screen corresponds to the………. Domeniul de aplicare a radarului este foarte variat. . It needs oiling.. g.. .... The……………. The pulses are sent by an………. It needs servicing.... It needs sharpening.. Translate into English: Radarul este una din cele mai importante cuceriri ale ştiinţei secolului XX.. .... The time interval is measured through an………………. Funcţionarea radarului se bazează pe fenomenul e reflecţie a undelor electromagnetice în banda de frecvenţă ultrascurtă.. Many ships use a PPI (plan position indicator) indicator as well as other………. …………….

povară. primary cell n. dispozitiv de ghidare. director. concentrare. însemnătate. 3. (adapted from Bantaş. = element galvanic. collector. The magnitude or intensity of the current in the circuit depends on the magnitude of the e m f and the resistance of the whole circuit. 4. grămadă. 8. putere. and two conductors connecting the receiver and power source terminals. device n. 4. 2. being the basis of many practical calculations. = 1. = 1. mulţime. the current 1 in a circuit is directly proportional to the e m f E and the inversely proportional to the resistance R of the whole circuit. deviz. buclă. buclă. = 1. which plays a very important role in electrical engineering. Ohm’s law can be applied to the circuit as a whole and. încărcătură. or electric motor). primitor. arc. 4. ochi. This is called an electric circuit. Limba engleză pentru ştiinţă şi tehnică. recipient. Both the external circuit and the source possess resistance. WORDS AND PHRASES conductor n. rezervor. electrizant. The direct cause of flow of electric current in a circuit is the electromotive force (E M F) of the power source. 2. p. receptor. 2. 2. or power source (e. dirijor. THE ELECTRIC CIRCUIT AND ITS ELEMENTS The simplest electric circuit consists of a source of energy. electric adj. separately. With respect to the source. = 1. along which an uninterrupted stream of electric charges (an electric current) flows.2. 4. 7. mecanism. a receiver of energy (e. load n. conductor. = 1. 3. = sursă de energie. vigoare. 6.g. on the contrary.solicitare. încordare. 69) A. an electric lamp. (aici) flux. 2.2 . crăpătură. sarcină. tensiune. 2.2. VOCABULARY I. According to this law. = 1. 4. to any portion of the circuit outside the power source. shape and dimensions of the conductors comprising these parts of the electric circuit. Conventionally. taxator. atenţie. forms a closed loop. = 1.2. intensity n. = 1. încasator. 3. receiver n. instrument. 3. responsabil. The direction of the current is thus from + to – in the external circuit and from – to + inside the source. 2. the direction of the current in the circuit is taken to coincide with the direction of the e m f. transforms the electric energy to other forms of energy: radiant. curgere. coloană de ghidaj. The relationship between these quantities is expressed by Ohm’s law. loop n. the energy receiver. chemical. radiant. intensitate. fisură. 3. punct slab. 3. consignator. Rodica. which is often simply called electric energy. mărime. viciu. 5. flaw n. dimensiune. tărie. 87 . the conductors and receiver (load) from the so called external circuit. orificiu. 2. power source n. şiretlic. the value of which depends upon the material. Andrei & Porţeanu . = 1. greutate. mechanical and so on. electric heating device. defect. The power source transforms mechanical. magnitude n. thermal. accumulator. importanţă.5. resort. preceptor. or other energy into electromagnetic energy. dispozitiv. procedeu (stilistic). luping. 3. 5. together with the conductors and receiver (load) connected to it. destinatar. truc.g. ruptură. electric. a primary cell. The power source. deschidere. or generator). aparat. 4.

venitul). a culege. to take from = a diminua (valoarea. tipar. etc. = 1. (nav) a lua (pasageri) pe bord. a copia. 5. 4. to take after = a semãna cu.). II. to take in = 1. 2. shape n. to take into account = a lua în considerare. 3. a demola. 4. 7. a pricepe. 2. to be taken ill = a cãdea bolnav. la restaurant).) a decola. a strange. 4. a invita. = termic. a duce (la teatru.aspect.legătură. 5.relationship n. a sustrage (un document. a recurge la. 7. a duce cu sine (pe cineva). to take a nap = a trage un pui de somn. to take leave = a-şi lua rãmas bun. a scãdea. to take a bath = a face baie.= 1. a ridica. 4. mostră. 4. to take on = 1. 2. a duce (pe cineva undeva). to be taken in a trap = a cãdea în cursã. a scoate (o hainã). a tãia (respiraţia). to take to = 1. 4. a fi abonat la. 2. 5. 3. 2. a adopta (un copil). 88 . thermal adj. 8. to take to one's heels = a o şterge. aspect. to take up = 1. to take off = 1. 5. a scoate la plimbare. 3. a retrage (un copil) de la şcoalã. final. a adãposti (pe cineva). (fig) a lua o mãsurã. 5. 3. 2. 3. formă. a lua în mânã (o afacere). a-şi asuma (o responsabilitate). 2. 4. a scoate (un dinte). a reduce (preţul). a aduna. 4. calc. ultim. a lãsa mai ieftin. 3. to take over = 1. to take along = a lua cu sine. a înlãtura. a demonta. to take away = 1. to take a look/glance = a arunca o privire. to take somebody by the hand = a apuca pe cineva de mânã. a dezbrãca. a include. etc. a pleca. (av. înfăţişare.). a primi (un ziar). a se îndrepta (cãtre). chip. etc. a umili.). to take off = 1. a face un pas. a accepta (o provocare). 3. to take offense at = a se supãra pe. a se mãsura (cu cineva). a ucide. a sesiza. 3. a lua. 5. LEXICAL COMMENTARY Phrases / idioms with the verb to take to take something in one's hand = a lua ceva în mânã to take a taxi = a lua un taxi. to take out = 1. caloric. a întreprinde. terminus. 2. 2. a prelua (un serviciu. 2. a porni. terminal (la aeroport). relaţie. to take effect = a fi eficace. to take a journey = a face o cãlãtorie. capăt. terminal n. a bea. 3. a conduce mai departe. sfârşit. a suprima. 2. raport. 2. to be taken in the act = a fi prins asupra faptului. a relua (un refren). 6. 8. to take five from ten = a scade cinci din zece. a trece (pe cineva dincolo de un râu. to take a step = 1. 3. = 1. fierbinte. 2. to take great pleasure in = a-i face mare plãcere sã facã ceva.configuraţie.bornă. a trage pe sfoarã. 6. 2. a lua. ţinută. a îndepãrta. a nota. model. to take down = 1.

ar trebui folosite osciloscoape de înaltă tensiune. Opiniile lui nu au coincis niciodată cu părerile mele. masks and other (4) .. With mechanization it is difficult to find work as an unskilled………………… 9. Legile lui Ohm se aplică circuitelor electrice. labourer. IV.... If the motor does not engage. Nowadays you often find that the top ………………in a company is a woman... safe. I have been working as a used car……………….. 7. remove it and (2) . S-au putut urmări două mărimi variabile simultan pe ecran. In the following text. 1. protect.. complete each space with a word or compound word formed from these words: cylinder. 7. 2. client.. For instructions on how to remove the outlet valve. chef in a large hotel. I’m starting next week as a …. If you have any problems with your work. David was not content until he had become a rich……………………. industrialist... 1.. the lead-pipe. All engineers installing or repairing this machinery must observe all necessary (3) . Translate into English: A. trainee.. 5.. EXERCISES I. Importanţa acestei descoperiri constă în largul ei domeniu de aplicare. What is the direct cause of flow of electric current in a circuit? II. A company should make every………………. What is a loop? 3. fight. Te-am aşteptat ieri seară să ne aduci ştiri despre experienţa ta. Se poate explica principiul de funcţionare al unui astfel de tub cu ajutorul unei diagrame simplificate. pentru a înregistra procese foarte rapide. please refer to the (5) . Reading and comprehension: 1. described on page 28 of this manual. 6. Attach the rotating motor to the (1) . precautions. 3. 4. executive.. Complete each sentence with one of the words given: agent. “Happy chips” is the number one……of potato crisps in the country. Aşadar. talk to the ……………….. Our firm is quite a long way ahead of our nearest………………………. III.. 2..for the past six months... equipment.B. Our company is the ………for several large insurance companies. Computerul nostru va foi conectat la banca naţională de date. 89 . 9. Absenţa inerţiei s-ar putea să fie determinată de viteza axială a electronilor. Use each word once only. This includes the wearing of goggles. dealer. What is an electric circuit and what does it consist of? 2.. 8.. Noi depindem de rezultatele tale pentru a termina lucrarea. Conţinutul cărţii trebuie să corespundă cu descrierea ei.. 4. 5. lead-pipe. Banii pe care i-ai câştigat sunt proporţionali cu timpul cât ai muncit. Energia solară poate fi transformată în energie termică şi electrică. foreman. 10.. Osciloscopul este cât se poate de util în studierea proceselor periodice. proceed.. 6.. B.feel important. Screw the motor down into place. Alegerea unui ecran corespunzător va trebui să fie făcută cu mare grijă. 3.. 8.. competitor. producer.

2. provides the required amount of magnetic flux across the air gap and through the armature of the generator. The e. hence today practically all direct-current generators have at least four poles. with definite air passage through the machine. Since the angular velocity of any type of internal-combustion engines is not uniform.2. Practically all modern alternating current generators are wound three-phase. This requires forced ventilation and in order to place the ventilating air properly at the point where it will do the most good. Direct-current generators used for lighting should not have a voltage regulation higher than 2 percent. and hence very high values of current under short circuits. a voltage is generated in it. In contrast to such a value. The range of operating conditions for this type of units is very great. the amount of heat liberated will be much greater in proportion to the size of the machine.f. generators can be divided into alternating and direct-current generators. The excitation of direct-current generators is provided by a stationary electric circuit consisting of one or more field coils of wire placed on each of the field poles. The voltage depends on the speed at which the magnetic lines of force are being cut by the coil. According to the current produced. Water-wheel type alternators are driven by water turbines. It is more important to the operating engineer that generators be able to stand without injury a complete short-circuit than to have generators of good voltage regulation. The simplest form of electrical generator is a two pole magnet. Such machines are known as “bipolar” generators. The high speed at which these generators run necessarily makes their relation of length to diameter much greater than in the definite-pole engine type machines.m. With the demand for high capacity generators it was found necessary to use more than two poles. The magnet motive force produced by these coils. ELECTRICAL GENERATORS An electrical generator is a rotary converter which transforms mechanical energy into electrical energy. water-wheel type. great care is necessary in closing the switches at the proper instant. High-speed generators will have smaller diameters and fewer poles than low speed generators. the regulation of an alternator at 80 percent power factor may be as high as 42 percent. (electro – motive force) of the incoming machine must have the same frequency as the line.3. with a coil of wire mounted in such a manner that it can be rotated between the poles to cut the lines of force passing from pole to pole. turbo-generators are totally enclosed. Good voltage regulation of alternators means very low synchronous reactance. The difference between two instantaneous e. or steam-turbine type. various synchronizing devices are 90 . The early types of direct-current generators had only two poles. When an alternator is to be connected in parallel with others already in operation.m. also since a high-speed machine is so much smaller for the same capacity than a slow-speed one. values will circulate a shortcircuit current which may be injurious to the apparatus. Alternating-current generators can be classed as engine type.f. In order to indicate to the operator the proper moment for closing the switches. Turbo-generators are all of the horizontal type. As the coil rotates. when current flows through them. it is necessary that such generators be operated with a large flywheel mounted on the same shaft as the generator and the engine.

micşorare. 10. to cut and run = a o lua la sãnãtoasa. p. a pregãti dinainte to have one's work cut out = a trebui sã munceascã din greu. 11. (fam) cut and dried = de-a gata. LEXICAL COMMENTARY Phrases / idioms with the verb to cut to cut down = 1. Limba engleză pentru ştiinţă şi tehnică.2. to cut short = a scurta. a reduce. 9. = dispozitiv de sincronizare. = turbină cu aburi. = spirală/buclă. to be cut out for = 1. serios. to cut no ice = 1. incoming machine n. sursă. to cut up rough = a se înfuria. to cut off all communications = a întrerupe orice legãturã. high-speed generator = generator de mare viteză. to cut out = a decupa. Rodica. short circuit n. = motor cu combustie internă. iuţeală. (şi shortcut) scurtãturã. generator. = generator de mică viteză. = alternator. a cosi. a întrerupe. 2. a exclude.) incizie. = scurtcircuit steam. 3. 3.alternator = turboalternator. a desprinde prin tãiere. cut v. deconectat. = maşină care se pune în paralel. 4. a nu face impresie deosebitã. = viteză. velocity n. Andrei & Porţeanu . 6. generator n. fason. = reglarea tensiunii.2. a secera. a pune capãt la. 155) A. a izola. B. to cut off an arm = a amputa un braţ. în aramã). a nu avea succes.used. a dezmoşteni (pe cineva). internal-combustion engine n. to cut off = a tãia. What is a generator? 91 . felie. 12. turbine . a doborî. to cut off with a shilling = 1. bucatã.2. EXERCISES I. 2. synchronous reactance n. II. angular velocity (-ies) n. = viteză unghiulară. Reading and comprehension: 1. a nu mai da bani (cuiva). WORDS AND PHRASES alternator n. loviturã. water wheel generator = hidrogenerator. (adapted from Bantaş. preţuri). 8. synchronizing device n. scoatere a unei pãrţi (dintr-un text).turbine n. a reduce (cheltuieli. coil of wire n. voltage regulation n. tãieturã. low-speed generator n. a fi nãscut. gravurã (în lemn. = 1. potrivit pentru. (la telefon) to be cut off = a fi întrerupt. croialã. to cut in = a interveni în discuţie. a nu avea effect. linie (a trãsãturilor). (fig) lipsit de prospeţime. tãiat. (med. ventilating air n. 7. 5. 2. = ventilaţie cu aer. a întrerupe brusc. 2. = 1. VOCABULARY I. (text) cupon. definite-pole engine type machine = maşină cu poli aparenţi. to cut to pieces = a distruge. = reactanţă de sincronizare.

to going on holiday. 3. 3. you ……………………sick.to each other since their last quarrel last week! 7. International charity/organisation/aid is being sent to help the victims survive the winter. Translate into English: 1. I hope that by the end of the month I ………………… all the decorating. 92 .a good meal. 4. Complete each sentence with an appropriate word or phrase: 1. Mary is always so sympathetic/cheeky/cheerful – you always see her smiling and happy. 5. This is the first jazz concert I …………………………to. I broke my chin/nose/face when I was young – my brother punched it! The last time I had toothache I had to get an urgent appointment at the dentist’s/doctor’s/hospital.. Don’t eat any more ice cream. Este de dorit ca maşina să fie testată în condiţii normale de lucru. 10.. Chris uses an electrical/electrician/electric shaver when he goes on holiday. Point the icon/cursor/mouse to the place on the screen where you want to type. 2. Pentru o funcţionare îndelungată este important ca piesele să fie bine reglate. 4. The tree twig/trunk/branch was about two meters wide because it was so old. 6. 4. Flies were buzzing/barking/galloping around the uncovered meat in the kitchen. 5. Do ……………. Este posibil ca generatoarele de curent continuu să aibe patru poli. What are the component parts of a generator? How are generators classified according to the current produced? How many types of alternating current generators do you know? What precautious ought to be taken about switches and when? II. Underline the most suitable word. Penny………………. but she ended up very disappointed. Pentru ca reţeaua să fie economică este de dorit să fie dotată cu receptori de putere potrivită. going to the football match tomorrow? 8. Pentru a asigura o sudură durabilă este de dorit ca piesele să fie curăţate înainte de sudare.2. Can you remember what you………………………… ten years ago today? 2. Pentru a micşora uzura pieselor este important ca acestea să fie bine prelucrate. I was really greedy/grateful/frank when you came to see me in hospital because I was feeling a bit lonely. 5. and then click. 9. I have hated this place ever ……………………………here. III. 6. IV. 3. 7. Sheila and George……………. once I…………………. The invasion/earthquake/devastation made a lot of buildings collapse and thousands of people were made homeless. Este important ca studentul să cunoască în detaliu condiţiile de funcţionare ale unui generator. I began to recover my strength later. We can’t go skiing because it……………….enough yet.

This fluctuation voltage arises because the free or conduction electrons in the conductor are all in random motion. Random noise appears as a hiss in radio receivers and as snow on the screen of a television receiver. cupru şi zinc) electronic adj. fiz) electron. The first results from the fact that the electrons in the circuit elements of the amplifier are in a state of continuous agitation. (met. The frequency spectrum of a source of noise can be calculated and can also be approximated experimentally from measurements. The second cause arises from the statistical fluctuations in the various thermal and electronic processes involved in charge – carrier emission. Excess noise and flicker noise. electron n = electron (el. Three different spectral distributions over a bandwidth are possible. 93 . Automatică şi calculatoare. RANDOM NOISE IN ELECTRONIC DEVICES The term “noise” or “random noise” is used to describe any spurious signals which ultimately appear in the output of an electronic device. poligr) electron (aliaj uşor de magneziu. Random fluctuation components exist in these processes even if the time average current is constant. free of = lipsit de. Among the various sources of noise in the electronic device. resulting in slight deviations in the statistical most probable distribution function. electronic process = process electronic . Such uncorrelated noise sets a lower limit to the signal levels possible with a given device. There are two fundamental sources of internal noise. Flicker noise arises from surface imperfections in emission processes. there is a fluctuation voltage which appears across the open-circuit terminals. among other factors. 2. Consequently. şuierat. Independent of any signal that might be applied to the terminals of a resistive circuit element. It has been found that the flicker effect produces noise components that are important at the lower frequencies and the resultant noise roughly varies inversely with the frequency. diffusion. 3. shot noise is important. = electronic. lăţime de banda a informaţiei. fără. (adapted from Blându. = 1. mean squared value n. p.bandă de transparenţă. Moreover. It can cause spurious operation of electronic circuits. VOCABULARY I. = zgomot de fond. = valoare medie pătratică. aluminiu.2. recombination and drift.2. This activity produces fluctuations in the electron distribution within the elements and this appears as a thermal-agitation voltage. it is reasonable to expect that thermal agitation voltages of all frequencies are produced.gamă. electronic device =disopzitiv electronic. bandă de transparenţă a ueni antene. Mihaela: Limba engleză. The shot effect results whenever charge carries are produced at an emitting surface or diffuse across a junction. Noise may be produced by causes which are external or internal to the system. WORDS AND PHRASES bandwidth n. the total rms (root mean square) voltage expected in a circuit which is frequency sensitive will depend on the bandwidth of the circuit. Thermal noise. electronic circuit = circuit electronic . sâsâit.4. 108) A. because this thermal agitation motions are random. Shot noise. hiss n.

= (tehn. to set one's wits to a question = a cãuta rãspuns la o problemã. a pãta. a echipa (pe cineva). circuit rezistent. to set out a curve = a trasa o curbã. a pune o semnãturã pe un act. to set a stick in the ground = a înfige un bãţ în pãmânt. to set off = a scoate în evidenţă to set out = 1. Which is the second? 4. to set a hen = a pune o gãinã pe cuibar. to set the fashion = 1. spurious signal = semnal accidental. thermal agitation = agitaţie termică. = zgomot. = parazitar. to set the course = nav. How is random noise defined? 2. root mean square voltage = tensiune medie pătratică. to set the clock = a potrivi ceasul. a aranja. 2. 2.) grafic. to set a problem = a pune. B. a stabili moda. (nav) a se îmbarca. ~ figure = factor de zgomot. to set one's heart/mind to = a-şi pune în cap sã obţinã. to set fire to = a da foc la. a începe (o cãlãtorie sau o expediţie). resistive circuit adj. to set forth = 1. a ridica o problemã. plot n. (poligr) (despre cerneala umedã) a se întinde. to set a file = a recondiţiona o pilã. a trasa. cu paraziţi. vb. band-limited white ~ = zgomot alb cu bandă limitată. 2. to set out = 1. II. lucru). to set out in pursuit of somebody = a porni în urmãrirea cuiva to set to = a se apuca de lucru. to set a person against another = a aţâţa o persoanã împotriva alteia. a declara. to set a day = a fixa o zi. flicker ~ = zgomot de licărire.shot ~ = zgomot de alice. random ~ = . a da tonul. a reprezenta graphic. 2. noise n. LEXICAL COMMENTARY Phrases / idioms with the verb to set to set a book on a shelf = a aşeza o carte pe o poliţã. a pune o mâncare pe masã. to set a violin = a acorda o vioarã. What is the thermal noise caused by? 94 . a porni la drum. a trasa ruta. time average constant = constanta de timp medie. white ~ = zgomot alb. to set one's hands to = 1. EXERCISES I. to set out one's ideas clearly = a-şi orândui ideile. to set a scene = a monta un decor. to set an example = a da un exemplu. to set somebody on his way = a îndruma pe cineva pe calea cea bunã.= 1. to set a task = a trasa o sarcinã. Which is the first fundamental source of internal noise? 3. circuit capabil să reziste.most probable distribution function = funcţia de distribuţie cea mai probabilă. 2. 2. curbă. a se pune pe (treabã. spurious adj. a rândui. to set a dish on the table = a aşeza. a ridica o curbă prin puncte. Reading and comprehension: 1. a porni la drum. 2. to set off = 1.

even if things occasionally go wrong for no 14 apparant reason. control. send. compute. employ. Pe de altă parte. deci. receive. III. most people react. such 21 as books or board games. In fact. pentodele cu un curent mic de ecran sunt mai puţin zgomotoase decât cele cu un curent de ecran mai mare. since change is not always an 19 improvement. create. direct. What seems to 16 alarm most people is the speed of technological change. Or they learn to adapt to 3 the new invention. pass-by. listen. or too complicated 2 or that it somehow makes life less personal. semnalul de ieşire va depinde de transconductanţă. As we discover during power cuts there is a lot to be 20 said for the oil lamp. rather than is 17 18 change itself. even those of us who are familiar with computers'. Indicate correct lines with a tick. They either recoil 1 from anything new. How does shot noise differ from flicker noise? II. they still represent a threat to our freedom. reflect. Ca urmare. what you can use a home computer 9 for. What is shot noise? 6. When faced with some new and possibly bewildering technological 0 change. support. and forms of entertainment. the cote fire. claiming that it is unnecessary. own. că distribuirea curentului catodic între ecran şi anod produce zgomot. 22 IV. and eventually wonder. Rezultă. how they could possibly 4 have existed without it. write. că pentru un raport semnal/zgomot mare tubul ar trebui să aibă o transconductanţă mare şi să lucrez la un curent anodic mic. In most lines of this text there is either a spelling or punctuation error. Build up nouns by adding the correct suffix to the following verbs: carry. Translate into English: Principala sursă de zgomot într-un tub electric este zgomotul de alice care apare în procesul de emisie electronică a catodului la care se adaugă zgomotul de licărire care devine important la frecvenţe mai mici de 1000 Hz. in one of two ways. S-a găsit de asemenea. Zgomotul de alice total va fi proporţional cu curentul anodic. and difficult 8 to understand. Ask most people. indicate. have very little idea of how they 12 actually work? But it does not take long to learn how to operate a 13 business programme. or show the correct punctuation. 11 and use them in our daily work. produce. 95 . And the objections that are maid to new technology may well have a point to them.5. and you usually get vauge answers about how 'to give you 10 information'. Presumably much the same happened when 15 telephone and the television became widespred. lead. follow. speak. Write the correctly spelled word. În general triodele funcţionează cu un zgomot mai scăzut decât pentodele de tip comparabil. transmit. and give us a 6 frigtening sense of a future in which ail decisions will be taken by 7 machines. This may be because they seem misterious. that dont have to be plugged in to work. Take computers as an example. for many of 5 us.

find this definition. many people refer to 96 . • Planning: deciding what has to happen in the future (today. Frenchman Henri Fayol considers management to consist of five functions. natural. According to the Oxford English Dictionary. while useful.checking progress against plans. etc. Nonetheless. the word manage comes from the Italian maneggiare (to handle — especially a horse).1. over the next five years. although this then excludes management in places outside commerce. • Organizing: making optimum use of the resources required to enable the successful carrying out of plans. planning 2. • Controlling: monitoring . • Leading/Motivating: exhibiting skills in these areas for getting others to play an effective part in achieving plans. who wrote on the topic in the early twentiethcentury. often classified as planning. co-ordinating 5.II. Management has to do with power by position. Functions of management Management operates through various functions. defined management as "the art of getting things done through people". and the connection of managerial practices with the existence of a managerial cadre or class.2. or as the actions taken to reach one's intended goal. as for example in charities and in the public sector.3. MANAGEMENT The term "management" characterizes the process of and/or the personnel leading and directing all or part of an organization (often a business) through the deployment and manipulation of resources (human. leading/motivating and controlling. TEXTS FOR INDUSTRIAL MANAGEMENT 2.3. organizing 3.) and generating plans for action. which in turn derives from the Latin manus (hand). One habit of thought regards management as equivalent to "business administration". intellectual or intangible). organizing. which may need modification based on feedback. From this perspective. The French word mesnagement (later ménagement) influenced the development in meaning of the English word management in the 17th and 18th centuries. as the action of measuring a quantity on a regular basis and of adjusting some initial plan. next year. whereas leadership involves power by influence. however. capital. 1. next month. suggesting the difficulty of defining management. Theoretical scope Mary Parker Follett (1868–1933). The phrase "management is what managers do" occurs widely. next week. One can also think of management functionally. This applies even in situations where planning does not take place. far too narrow. the shifting nature of definitions. controlling Some people. leading 4.

a rezolva (o problemă) whereas conj. a duce la bun sfârşit. useful adj. a impune. efficacious adj. to handle v. time. (adapted from http://en. for example of a corporation. 4. 2. a conduce. = 1. a mânui. to lead. a ajunge. to manage v. mişcător. a ghida. = a îndeplini. a reclama. = în timp ce. conduită. Diet may be as efficacious as medication in controlling the condition. 97 . 2. to exhibit v. a conduce.org/wiki/Management) A. v. = a reuşi. VOCABULARY I. îndemânare. obişnuinţă. a fi in fruntea. 2. habit n. 2. ~ forth = a arăta. shifting adj. = 1. intangible adj. ~ on = a continua. = îngust. deprindere. to make ~ use of = a folosi în mod optim. schimbător. 3. mic. purtare. = 1. mobil. a căra. to carry out v. = (formal) potentially successful in producing a desired or intended result(formal): This idea exerts a direct and effectual influence on his thinking. a atinge (un scop). = util. limitat.= (formal) having the power to achieve a desired result. to enable v. a prezenta. a conduce. a manifesta. = 1. a izbuti să. = 1. ~ to + inf. deployment n. = a verifica. to check v. 2. a obliga. = 1. Speakers of English may also use the term "management" or "the management" as a collective word describing the managers of an organization. a manevra. WORDS AND PHRASES personnel n. = causing a result. ~ forward = a duce mai departe. a cere. and some institutions (such as the Harvard Business School) use that name. 3. pricepere. optimum adj. to require v.university departments which teach management as "business schools". = capable of achieving the desired result with the minimum use of resources. = abilitate. a discuta. led v. efficacious effective adj. 2. 3. a sprijini (despre un stâlp). 2. a dirija. = a da posibilitatea. a administra. folositor. ~ a goal = a atinge un scop. nestatornic. public ~ = sector public. nonetheless adv. = personal. a necesita. a pretinde. a duce. ~ out = a îndeplini. = 1. II. a permite. a expune. a conduce. 2. LEXICAL COMMENTARY to carry. a susţine. especially the desired or intended result: an effective solution to the water supply problem efficient adj. = intangibil. a dirija. a guverna. a purta. 3. a continua. a manipula. = totuşi. led. narrow adj. = desfăşurare (de forţe). = 1. a duce la bun sfârşit. = sector. especially an improvement. skill n. aexpune. = optim.wikipedia. 2. a mânui. a etala. effective. obicei. a dirija. cu toate acestea. and effort: an efficient use of personnel effectual adj. = 1. to reach v. effectual. sector n. a transporta. a purta a avea bani asupra sa. efficient. a conduce.

. and.I. modest. (2) also to construct minute and intricate instruments. Surely a machine with so many diversified properties . Translate into English: Planificarea este funcţia cea mai importantã a managementului. and then . not stand (even) a dog's chance... that this machine could build . VI. VII.. to be catty.. Let us say that our machine could . im-. logical. III. honest. carry out in sentences of your own.. (6) conditioning.... Rezultatele planificãrii sunt reflectate în planurile de activitate. What does management mean? 2. some capable of . like a cat on hot bricks: to see which way the cat jumps: as faithful as a dog: to give/throw something to the dogs... (12) up plans for skyscrapers and then . The fact is that . (14) them.. What are the five functions of management according to Henri Fayol? 5. (http://www. moreover. V. in-. carry forward. What does the phrase “managers is what managers do” suggest? 6... allowing it to range . a sweet –smelling flower 3.. literate. Uses carry forth.unibuc. un.. Celelalte funcţii derivã din aceasta şi conduc la îndeplinirea obiectivelor. il-...htm) 98 . a heartbreaking story Then translate them into a self-supporting member of the family a blood-freezing scream IV. (8) propel itself across the land ... a sinewy-looking animal 5. a dog in the manger. (1) a system of levers and cables with the capacity to lift hundreds of pounds. Suppose. Romanian . (5) heating and . (18) mankind.with each of the following words: attentive. Reading and Comprehension: 1.. to let the cat out of the bag. (13) them. Fill in the blanks using only one word for each space: Imagine a machine consisting . 2.. practicable.. (16) to the moon. but .. What is the difference between management and leadership? 3. as sleek as a cat. carry on.. natural.. aware. Use one of the prefixes dis-. to lead a dog's life.. How did Mary Parker Follet define management? 4.. (19) of us possesses this miraculous machine: our own flesh and . respectful.. deoarece reprezintã activitatea de luare a deciziilor. a nasty-tasting medicine 6.. Look up the following phrases and use them in sentences of your own: to lead a cat-and-dog life. (10) the sea . fortunate. such . (9) speeds of 30 feet per second and higher.. could function 600 feet . relevant... Suppose that this machine had .. write its own symphonies. discreet. Imagine that it . (4) . loyal.ro/eBooks/StiinteADM/management/2. (7) the tropics to the poles. 4. Explain or paraphrase the following. (17) prove enormously helpful .. 1.... too. (20) body. resolute. What is the meaning of “management” as a collective noun? II. Se stabilesc obiectivele şi cele mai adecvate cãi (strategii) pentru atingerea lor. (3) the jewelled movements of watches. (11) given helium and oxygen fuel mixtures at high pressures. ir-... cautious. (15) machines.

However.1873) provided a theoretical background to resourceallocation. interchangeability of parts. to trace v. however. and Matthew Boulton (1728 .1809) developed elements of technical production such as standardization. = 1. a se ivi. and pricing issues. a trasa. Others. trader n. marginal economists Alfred Marshall (1842 . ~ from the dead = a se scula din morţi. By the late 19th century. cu toate acestea. a urmări în decursul istoriei.1819). = 1. totuşi. arose. 2. cost-accounting. as the contemporary usages had it. WORDS AND PHRASES to arise.org/wiki/Management) A. = 1. "managed" in profitable quasi-mass production. a desena.1825). v. a se ridica. Joseph Wharton offered the first tertiarylevel course in management in 1881. = comerciant.2. however adv. innovators like Eli Whitney (1765 . About the same time. arisen. oricum. 2.1790) and John Stuart Mill (1806 . Slave-owners through the centuries faced the problems of exploiting/motivating a dependent but sometimes unenthusiastic or recalcitrant workforce. a apărea. negustor. and work-planning. That environment saw 4 million people. industrial dynasties or groups of shareholders) and day-to-day managers (independent specialists in planning and control) gradually became more common. Given the scale of most commercial operations and the lack of mechanized record-keeping and recording before the industrial revolution. given their small scale. the split between owners (individuals. production. 2.1924) and Léon Walras (1834 . it made sense for most owners of enterprises in those times to carry out management functions by and for themselves.3. Some see it (by definition) as a late modern (in the sense of late modernity) conceptualization. 99 . pyramid n. = piramidă. innovations such as the spread of Hindu-Arabic numerals (5th to 15th centuries) and the codification of double-entry book-keeping (1494) provided tools for management assessment. did not feel compelled to face the issues of management systematically. 19th century Some argue that modern management as a discipline began as an off-shoot of economics in the 19th century. Some writers trace the development of management-thought back to Sumerian traders and to the builders of the pyramids of ancient Egypt. But with growing size and complexity of organizations.1910) and others introduced a new layer of complexity to the theoretical underpinnings of management. Many of these aspects of management existed in the pre-1861 slave-based sector of the US economy. MANAGEMENT – HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT (1) Difficulties arise in tracing the history of management. planning and control. detect management-like activities in the pre-modern past. quality-control procedures. a urmări filiaţia. 3. but many pre-industrial enterprises.wikipedia. Classical economists such as Adam Smith (1723 . VOCABULARY I.2. a urmări. a schiţa. a decurge din. ~ from = a reieşi. (adapted from http://en. James Watt (1736 .

to spread. a se răspândi. to fly in the face of something = to defy something deliberately or recklessly. an unpleasant fact or situation. = strat. = a furniza. proporţie. mărime. = 1. înveliş. when the cause of the problem is staring you in the face? to be staring something in the face = to be facing something undesirable but inevitable. Reading and Comprehension: 1. dynasty n. fond. book-keeping n. propagare. scală. split. = 1. She was standing by the broken window with guilt written all over her face. a se împrăştia. = fundal. to show one’s face (somewhere or at something) = to put in an appearance somewhere. LEXICAL COMMENTARY to be staring somebody in the face = to be obvious but unnoticed. spread n. Why call in a management consultant. on a large ~ = pe scară mare. a fi orientat spre. split n. răspândire. face to face = in the actual presence of another person in direct contact with. a se confrunta cu. 2. EXERCISES I. despicare. written all over somebody's face = obvious from somebody's expression (informal). a se întinde. to provide v. split v. = proprietar de sclavi. = 1. planning and control? 3. = a creşte. to get in somebody's face = to annoy somebody (informal). get out of my face = used for impolitely telling somebody to stop annoying you (informal). întindere. layer n. to face v. or having first-hand knowledge of. 2. to grow. difuzare. a forţa. = lipsă. a dezbina. a se desfăşura. extindere. a despica. dezbinare. 2. scară. scale n. spread v. to have a long face = to look miserable or disappointed. ~s = cântar. What were the factors that led to the split between owners and day-to-day managers? 100 . in (the) face of something = when confronted by or in spite of something. dimensiune. II. 2. 2. = dinastie. = contabilitate. When did management appear? 2. a diviza. 2. to compel v. a se propaga. = a obliga. 3. He won't dare show his face at her house again. B. = 1. a se desface. grew. shareholder n. background n. = 1. to split. growing adj. grown v. We were staring bankruptcy in the face.slave-owner n. = acţionar. = 1. remained united in the face of strong opposition to set one’s face against something = to oppose something with determination. lack n. spread. = crescând. sciziune. What were the factors that provided tools for management assessment.

British Museum and the old houses in ... offend... II. is in ... (9) Piccadilly Circus or ... to feel blue.. to paint the town red. signify. (35) English Channel by .. Illustrate the meanings of face in sentences of your own........ a black outlook. green-eyed. (24) Russell Square. .. Translate into English: Problemele de eticã constituie adevărate dileme manageriale pentru că ele reprezină conflicte declanşate între performanţele economice ale firmei (venituri-costuri-profit) şi performanţele sale sociale (formulate în termenii obligaţiilor personale. mix. transform. see.. seize.. I find accommodation at . (2) former British Empire.unibuc.. although I am certain that in .. . (31) visitors can see . suppose.. not far from .. (8) underground to central London. (27) Parliament.. I walk around . (26) Big Ben strike the hour. (28) Westminster and consists of . in the pink (of health). (18) two museums that I have no time left for anything else. a white elephant.. (29) House of Lords and . (25) Houses of Parliament and listen to . (7) Heathrow airport.. see . succeed. (6) tourist attraction too.. (13) walking distance of . dar cei mai mulţi dintre noi suntem de acord că ele includ elemente de protecţie a loialităţii angajaţilor. (4) United States and .... (17) Tate Gallery and there are so many beautiful things to see in ... remember. I travel by . On my second day I wander about .. VI.. as everybody knows. imagine.. laugh. starve. maintain... desigur. (22) University of London has most of its offices. reveal.. then .ro/eBooks/StiinteADM/management/2. James Watt and Matthew Boulton develop? 6.4. When my English vacation draws to . utter. know. (11) inexpensive hotel.. IV. to .. withdraw.. it is ... bury. de realizare a unor produse şi servicii utile şi sigure. deschisă spre mici interpretări. I decide to cross . atât în interiorul cât şi în exteriorul organizaţiei). disappear. de menţinere a competitivitãţii pieţelor. lose.. (16) National Gallery and ... (3) United Kingdom that I would like to visit most. When did modern management begin? 5. (20) intellectual centre of Britain's capital city.. in a brown study. the yellow press.. think. (19) Bloomsbury. (30) House of Commons. Natura acestor obligaţii poate fi.. Later.. (21) Senate House. (10) Marble Arch. Explain the figurative use of colours in the following: a black look. What innovations did Eli Whitney. once in a blue moon..... (adapted from http://www. to see red... within . (1) countries of .. (23). give.. Give the nouns corresponding to the following verbs: begin. V. . (14) Buckingham Palace. confess... where .... (5) Canada one can find many .. add... (32) latter at work on some days of . (15) first day I visit . to get the green light... III... Insert the necessary articles: Of all .htm) 101 . (34) end. fly. Name the marginal economists that introduced a new layer of complexity to the theoretical underpinnings of management. inquire. .. (37) rail. having landed at . I sometimes dream that. (36) ferry-boat and from there to travel home across the Continent by .. (33) week. (12) Thames..

Towards the end of the 20th century. In 1912 Yoichi Ueno introduced Taylorism to Japan and became first management consultant of the "Japanese-management style".3. Ronald Fisher (1890-1962). Some of the more recent developments include the theory of constraints. Frederick Winslow Taylor's Scientific management (1911). Dodge.2. Frank and Lillian Gilbreth's Applied motion study (1917). management by objectives. The first comprehensive theories of management appeared around 1920. and Thornton C. many in the same vein. and various information-technologydriven theories such as agile software development. Max Weber (1864-1920). It resulted from Alfred Sloan (chairman of General Motors until 1956) commissioning a study of the organisation. Gantt's charts (1910s). as well as group management theories such as Cog's Ladder. sometimes known as "management science" (but distinct from Taylor's scientific management). attempts to take a scientific approach to solving management problems. Mary Parker Follett (1868-1933). particularly in the areas of logistics and operations. In this context many management fads may have had more to do with pop psychology than with scientific theories of management. namely: • Human resource management • Operations management or production management • Strategic management • Marketing management • Financial management 102 . reengineering. Walter Scott and J. H. business management came to consist of six separate branches. people like Ordway Tead (1891-1973). while other writers. Peter Drucker (1909-2005) wrote one of the earliest books on applied management: Concept of the Corporation (published in 1946). People like Henri Fayol (1841-1925) and Alexander Church described the various branches of management and their inter-relationships. The Harvard Business School invented the Master of Business Administration degree (MBA) in 1921. Chester Barnard (1886-1961). such as Elton Mayo (1880-1949). Fry introduced statistical techniques into management-studies. Patrick Blackett combined these statistical theories with microeconomic theory and gave birth to the science of operations research. As the general recognition of managers as a class solidified during the 20th century and gave perceived practitioners of the art/science of management a certain amount of prestige. and Henry L. MANAGEMENT – HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT (2) 20th century By about 1900 one finds managers trying to place their theories on what they regarded as a thoroughly scientific basis. Operations research. so the way opened for popularised systems of management ideas to peddle their wares. Mooney applied the principles of psychology to management. J. His son Ichiro Ueno pioneered Japanese qualityassurance. Duncan wrote the first college management textbook in 1911. Examples include Henry R. In the 1940s. Rensis Likert (1903-1981). In the early 20th century. and Chris Argyris (1923-) approached the phenomenon of management from a sociological perspective.3. Drucker went on to write 39 books. Towne's Science of management in the 1890s.

= practicant amount n. (from) a rezulta. = a consta din responsible for adj. temei. bestow. to confer = (formal) to give something such as a title. given v. = a da . to give blood for blood transfusions or organs for transplant. textbook n. He was presented with a consolation prize. a deschide drum/cale. WORDS AND PHRASES basis. = restructurare information technology n. a soluţiona. to attempt to v. 2. in a medical context. reengineering n. or. Several other honorary degrees were conferred at the ceremony. = responsabil de II. to bestow = (formal) to present something. = a încerca să approach n. 2.• Information technology management responsible for management information systems (adapted from http://en. present. 2. în aceeaşi manieră microeconomic theory n. to somebody. ~ birth to = a da naştere la. = fenomen corporation n.org/wiki/Management) A. punct de plecare. honor. LEXICAL COMMENTARY give. nervură. = cantitate to consist of v. a decurge din.wikipedia. = logistică constraint n. grant (to hand over something to somebody) to give = to place something that you are holding in the temporary possession of another person I gave her my key. gave. = bază. 103 . logistics n. quality ~ = managementul calităţii. = 1. confer. ~ in = a avea drept rezultat. The award for lifetime achievement was bestowed on her not long before she died. = a rezolva. in the same ~ = în acelaşi stil. venă. = tehnologia informaţiei recognition n. = 1. = teorie microeconomică give. = manual pioneer v. VOCABULARY I. = 1. = constrângere management n. = corporaţie to result v. = 1. dispoziţie. management. = recunoaştere practitioner n. a fi un pioner/deschizător de drumuri. donate. comprehensive adj. = cuprinzător phenomenon. conducere. vâna. bases n. or favor to somebody. ton. 2. = abordare to solve v. to present = to give something in a formal or ceremonial way. to donate = to give a contribution to a charitable organization or other good cause. = preşedinte al unei adunări vein n. especially something valuable or undeserved. chairman n. phenomena n. ~ by objectives = managementul prin obiective. The painting was donated to the gallery by the artist's widow.

(8) playing in films... Supply the correct prepositions in front of the gerunds and gerundial constructions: The rainy weather prevented us .to grant = to agree to allow a request. He is very proud . (16) meaning.... B. Jennifer grew tired . to bite one’s lips. (3) bearing her husband's rudeness. (10) violence.. 8.. (5) Romanian . (1) taking our usual morning walk. EXERCISES I... Who applied the principles of psychology to management in the early 20th century? 7. When did Yoichi Ueno introduce Taylorism to Japan? 3. favor. (5) your refusing such a tempting offer. (6) devoid . Allow me to congratulate you .. (17) sense.... As I work the morning shift.. abstain .. Fill in each space with the correct preposition: killed . (9) giving her an expensive birthday present. (11) attending social functions... (4) our being in the right place at the right time.. We were granted the right to appeal.. translated . travel .. (19) fear... I am used . What are the six separate branches of business management? II. or formally or officially to give money or property. (11) drugs. (4) a girl.. (10) getting up early.... or privilege.. (7) enemies. (7) humiliating other girls.. English. tremble ... attitude .. (2) snow. What does operations research attempt to do? 9.... When did the first comprehensive theories of management appear? 5.. faithful . We are quite surprised . What did The Harvard Business School invent in 1921? 6. (12) a great speed. to keep a stiff upper lip. to see eye to eye with somebody... to escape by the skin of one’s teeth. to make eyes at somebody. (12) being nominated for the prize. There is no harm . (2) having become a lionized author. covered . III. written . Name some writers that approached the phenomenon of management from a sociological perspective. dependent ..... (14) the bell.... addicted . She has always experienced great difficulty . Reading and Comprehension 1. to smack one’s lips... Find the best Romanian equivalents for the following phrases: up to the eyes. to have a sweet tooth. (18) one's wife. Duncan write the first college management textbook? 2....... Everything depends . (3) ink. saved .. At dinner he got on my nerves . (8) abstract art.. engaged . Who pioneered Japanese quality-assurance? 4. in the teeth of. (9) strong beverages. thirsty . (15) air. She takes great pleasure ...... Acting on the stage is very different . to hang (up) on somebody’s lips. (1) a car accident. filled . tooth and nail.... (13) bankruptcy. IV. (20) power 104 .. saved . full . (6) drinking water between the courses. When did J.. to keep an eye on. surrounded .

some with . scheletul organizaţiei. ea clarifică compartimentele şi sarcinile posturilor individuale. (14) ocean.... Supply articles where necessary: Long before ... (31) earth had at last come true.. Comunicarea se desfãşoară între compartimente şi posturile definite. Translate into English: Structura unei organizaţii este considerată cadrul.. În al treilea rând.. There are . (4) earthly paradise. (24) South who owned many vessels filled with . (26) later explorers reached ..... across .... (6) perfect climate. he wrote: " .. (17) trees of . (8) Atlantic Ocean. . (18) thousand kinds. VI. (20) fruit. (15) islands are fertile to ..... (http://www.htm) 105 ..... (9) Caribbean landscape and described ." When . lay to . În al doilea rând. (12) report sent home from .. (22) signs that there was .unibuc.. Mai întâi. adică cine este superiorul şi cine este subordonatul... (11) newlyfound islands. (23) king in . (13) other side of . (3) Europe believed that .. (19) flower. structura presupune numeroase scopuri.. precum şi responsabilii de realizarea sarcinilor... (25) gold. (27) Andes and found ...... clarifică canalele de comunicare. Scopul ei este sã reducă sau să uniformizeze incertitudinea privind comportamentul salariaţilor.. (21) West Indies he wrote: " I learned by . clarifică ierarhia organizaţională... with ... (28) gold for . it seemed that their dreams of . ..V... structura organizaţiei permite managerilor să aloce resurse către obiectivele definite prin plan.. (30) paradise on . In .. (1) birth of Christopher Columbus..... În final." From .. Columbus wrote of . (7) West. some in ..ro/eBooks/StiinteADM/management/2. (29) taking. (10) abundance and fertility of .. (16) extraordinary degree... Din perspectivă managerială. (5) land of plenty. In his letters...... (2) people in ..

including office work. The flow of materials through the plant is supervised to ensure that neither workers nor machines are idle. INDUSTRIAL MANAGEMENT The term industrial management applies to highly organized modern methods of carrying on industrial. The growth. Soon after 1910 American firms established the first personnel departments. Over the years. Charts are used for recording the accomplishment of both workers and machines and for comparing them with established standards. where the manufacturing process could be supervised. During the 1980s and 1990s. thus adding to the welfare of employees and enhancing morale. especially manufacturing. and in complexity of operation. and eventually some of the larger companies took the lead in creating environments conducive to worker efficiency. was accompanied by much waste and inefficiency. Careful accounts are kept of the cost of each operation. In the United States many engineers. who in the 1880s undertook a series of studies to determine whether workers used unnecessary motions and hence too much time in performing operations at a machine. an assistant foreman in the Midvale Steel Company. began to seek ways of improving plant efficiency. In the next hundred years factories grew rapidly in size. especially labor unions. including the machines and materials to be used. and each step in its manufacture is planned. and people and machines were brought together under one roof in factories. Constant inspection is made to keep output up to standard. Specialists are employed to keep machines in good working condition and to ensure the quality of their production.4. financing. plant cafeterias. When a new article is to be manufactured it is given a design that will make it suitable for machine production. however. The Development of Industrial Management Studies of Worker Performance The first sustained effort in the direction of improved efficiency was made by Frederick Winslow Taylor. better sanitation. Other Aspects of Management The principles of scientific management have been gradually extended to every department of industry. Records were kept of the performance of workers and standards were adopted for each operation. operations. including group health and life insurance and liberal retirement pensions.2. spurred by the increased competition of the postCivil War era. The Rise of Factories Before the Industrial Revolution people worked with hand tools. This was the beginning of shop management. cutbacks and downsizing in many American businesses substantially reduced many of these benefits. in degree of mechanization. Management of the Machine Industrial management also involves studying the performance of machines as well as people. In the third quarter of the 18th century steam power was applied to machinery. The early studies resulted in a faster pace of work and the introduction of rest periods. workers and their unions also sought and often won higher wages and increased benefits. Many such improvements were made at the insistence of employee groups. and facilities for rest and recreation were provided. and superfluous motions were eliminated. manufacturing articles in their own homes or in small shops.3. however. Safety devices. others make provision for employee 106 . Some corporations permit employees to buy stock. and marketing. Each operation required to turn out an article or part was analyzed and studied minutely.

3. creştere. growth n. progres. = 1. structură. mecanism. = aburi. a îmboldi. supraveghetor. have made automatic and semiautomatic machines a reality. = a fabrica . 2. The system was also applied in Japan. uzină. a întreprinde (o acţiune). One Japanese innovation. dezvoltare. mechanization n. thus significantly reducing costs and improving quality. mecanism. cat ~ = rafinărie de petrol. = 1. companies looked to increase their competitiveness by adapting Japanese methods for improving manufacturing quality. maşini. steam n. VOCABULARY I. = 1. waterpower ~ = centrală hidroelectrică.encyclopedia. particularly in the areas of computers. (http://www.representation on the board of directors or on the shop grievance committee. and some have made efforts to solve such difficult problems as job security and a guaranteed annual wage. 4. 2. 2. 2. creştere. a conduce (un proces). Modern Trends Modern technological devices. 5.com/doc/1E1-indust-man. = 1. brigadier. group assembly gave a group of workers the responsibility for assembling an entire car. Many corporations provide special opportunities for training and promotion for workers who desire advancement. pilot ~ = instalaţie pilot / experimentală. allowed workers to offer management suggestions on how to make production more efficient and to solve problems. Japanese managers were able to cut waste. electronics. 107 . machine ~ = uzină constructoare de maşini. sought. maistru. Such technological changes and the need to improve productivity and quality of products in traditional factory systems also changed industrial management practices. dezvoltare. to spur v. cultivare. 2. a duce mai departe. plant n. sought v. sporire. primul jurat. draining ~ = instalaţie de drenare. masinarie. mărire. improve productivity. where managers developed a number of other innovative systems to lower costs and improve the quality of products. a confecţiona . and mechanics. In the 1980s and early 90s many U. 4. a îndemăna. = 1. foremen n. to seek. = a căuta. which had once been criticized for producing low-quality goods. instalaţii mecanice. maşinărie. combinaţie.html) A. Japanese companies. = 1. had established a reputation for efficiently producing high-quality. Workers were also given the right to stop the assembly line if something went wrong. 2. machinery n.S. By the early 1980s. instalaţie. and reduce inventory. to manufacture v. ~ power = energie cu abur. The development of such automation is bringing about a second industrial revolution and is causing vast changes in commerce as well as the way work is organized. known as quality circles. organ de maşină. In a contrast to older manufacturing techniques where a worker was responsible for assembling only one part of the car. foreman. cultură (a unei plante). a se grăbi. thermodynamics. 3. coke ~ = cocserie. By carefully controlling the manufacturing process. high-tech products. In the 1960s Swedish automobile companies discovered that they could improve productivity with a system of group assembly. utilaj . = mecanizare. a se ocupa cu. şef de echipă. a fi angajat în (o afacere). a produce. a continua. WORDS AND PHRASES to carry on v.

1.). automation n. a întoarce (o pagină). = dacă. motion n. a convoca. undertook. = 1. pensionare. = 1. retirement n. 3. a da afară. a-şi face apariţia. 3. suitable adj. 2. to turn up = a se ivi. =asigurare pe viată. a lua măsuri. care duce la. a încerca. curs (al unui râu). II. a-şi sufleca. a monta. self-~ = mişcare independentă. 2. a alunga. tăiere. = 1. goods n. a concedia. device n. = moral. tabel. indoor ~ = instalaţii sanitare. a răsfrânge. = a mări. a face. stock n. 2. board of directors n. a garanta. curent. a fabrica. flow n. a întoarce înapoi. inventory n. = comitet de conducere. scurtare. a izgoni. (against) a se asigura (împotriva). = favorabil. nor = nici . grafic. a răsfoi. 3. = bunuri. curgere. a răsturna (un guvern). = 1. nici chart n. = de calitate inferioară. 4. revendicare. to turn into = a (se) transforma. = bufet/restaurant cu autoservire. LEXICAL COMMENTARY to turn back = I. a aprinde (lumina. a întoarce/a scoate (picioarele) în afară. a aduna. flow ~/diagram = schema procesului tehnologic.. a face să se întoarcă. reversing ~ = mişcare în sens retrograd. 3. 2. reducere. = 1. whether conj. = sanitaţie. rotary ~ = mişcare de rotaţie. morale n. 2. to turn down = 1. life insurance n. = automatizare. care cauzează/determină. a asigura (îndeplinirea planului. retezare. a confecţiona. labor union n. to enhance v. = 1. nedreptate. minutely adv. a spori. a produce. = sindicat. high-quality adj. a alunga. a asambla. diagramă. a face. autopropulsie. retragere. a (se) preschimba în. assembly n.corespunzător. = dispozitiv. fonduri. prosperitate. = 1. adunare. asamblare. micşorare. vărsare. = potrivit. a experimenta. a întreprinde. hartă marină. = mişcare. rest n. 3. 2. montare. 2. ~s = acţiuni. undertaken v. a evacua (un chiriaă). a întoarce pe toate părţile 3. brought. radioul etc.. a da drumul la (apa etc. agregat. a proba. grievance n.. a deschide. = capital. to ensure v. scurgere. neither . 2. a îndoi. to bring. = inventar low-quality adj. a prelua. a întoarce/răsturna (brazda). 108 . = 1. a se întoarce din drum. cutback n.). pensie. a intensifica. a reduce intensitatea luminii/sunetului. a rumega (în minte). = 1. ~ line = linie de asamblare. = bunăstare. 2. a lua. a refuza/respinge o ofertă/ propunere/pe cineva. plângere. ~ pension = pensie de bătrineţe. 2. 2. to turn in = a preda (pe mâna poliţiei). to turn out v.). = odihnă. conducive to adj. flux. sanitation n.). a medita/a chibzui asupra. II. = de calitate superioară. cafeteria n. = minuţios. brought about v. perpetual ~ = mişcare perpetuă. = a cauza. = 1. 2. independenţa etc. to turn over = 1.to undertake. în amănunt. welfare n. 2. 3.. doleanţă. a iniţia. to turn off = a opri (apa etc. abuz. salubritate. a izgoni. to turn on = 1. to assemble v. a da afară.). schemă. a stinge (lumina etc. 2.

so as to form well-known similes. What is Frederick Winslow Taylor famous for? 4. Give 12 compound-adjectives having the same structure as different-coloured and based on the adjectives open. controlului şi monitorizării acestora. sight. A 1. a rock 7. foot. wind. reducerea consumurilor specifice de materiale şi energie. though V. prin folosirea cu maximă eficientă a sistemelor numerice pentru reglarea automată şi optimizarea regimului de funcţionare. Why are charts used? 7. turn out. swift 10. the hills 4. What right were Japanese workers given? II. short. with the words in list B.com/doc/1E1-indust-man. What was the result of Taylor’s studies? 5. How did Swedish automobile companies improve productivity in the 1960s? 9. firm 4. în contextul în care majoritatea acestor procese necesită cunoaşterea în timp real a parametrilor de funcţionare. în vederea supravegherii. green 5. turn up. hair. How did people manufacture articles brfore the Industrial Revolution? 3. large 6. turn in. light 7. EXERCISES I.html) 109 .B. hand. soft (using each of them 4 times) and the nouns eye. Group the words in list A. turn into. honey 5. a bee 2. head. blue 2. precum şi la diminuarea până la eliminare a riscului privind poluarea mediului. which have actually become clichés: B. turn off. sweet 9. turn on. white 10. heart. old 8. Why is the flow of materials through the plant supervised? 6. la creşterea productivităţii muncii. air 1. the sky 8. temper. What does industrial managemnet apply to? 2. IV. grass 3. busy 3. (Adapted from http://www. Conducerea asistată de calculator a proceselor de fabricaţie "dupa reţetă" contribuie la creşterea calităţii produsului final. Reading and Comprehension: 1. Echiparea instalaţiilor tehnologice de aditivare cu aparatură de automatizare reprezintă o necesitate în acest domeniu. mouth. Translate into English: Problematica conducerii şi supravegherii automate a proceselor tehnologice de fabricaţie a uleiurilor aditivate este de actualitate. wit. life 6. mind. turn down. What improvements were made at the insistence of labour unions after 1910? 8. Use the following phrasal verbs in sentences of your own: turn back.encyclopedia. turn over. preceded and followed by as. snow 9. III.

which were applicable in different types of industries. ISO 9002:1987 and ISO 9003:1987. and take on leadership. Quality Improvement W. It is defined by four keys: • Plan: Design or revise business process components to improve results • Do: Implement the plan and measure its performance • Check: Assess the measurements and report the results to decision makers • Act: Decide on changes needed to improve the process Quality Standards The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) created the Quality Management System (QMS) standards in 1987. The following diagram is the Shewhart cycle (PDCA) for quality improvement. The last revision was in the year 2000 and the series was called ISO 9000:2000 series. based on the type of activity: designing.5. The philosophy is to keep improving the quality of an organization. and the organizations previously holding these standards need to do a transition from the old to the new standards.3. ISO 9002 and 9003 standards are not valid. The version of these standards was revised in 1994 and was called the ISO 9000:1994 series. ISO 9001:2000). However the ISO 9002 and 9003 standards were integrated and one single certifiable standard was created under ISO 9001:2000. 9002:1994 and 9003:1994 versions. made popular by Deming.e. • management should learn their responsibilities. production or service delivery. • improve constantly. The ISO 9004:2000 document gives guidelines for performance improvement over and above the basic standard (i.2. 110 . QUALITY MANAGEMENT Quality management is a method for ensuring that all the activities necessary to design. These were the ISO 9000:1987 series of standards comprising ISO 9001:1987. Since December 2003. He has formulated 14 points of attention for managers. productivity. develop and implement a product or service are effective and efficient with respect to the system and its performance. and competitive position. comprising of the ISO 9001:1994. • institute a programme of education and self-improvement. among which: • break down barriers between departments. The standards have been regularly reviewed every few years by the International Organization for Standardization. Edwards Deming is best known for his management philosophy establishing quality.

= a verifica. II. It gives one single integrated standard for the food industry and is expected to become more popular in the coming years in such industry. = standard. series n. guideline n. = a se adresa. so that key actions. to check v. = risc. = reper. pericol. to improve v. = serie. This standard covers the values and principles of ISO 9000 and the HACCP standards. means n. to design v. primezdie. preventative adj. a concepe. = a certifica. quality ~s = standarde de calitate. = 1. chemical and biological hazards as a means of prevention rather than finished product inspection. comprising adj. to assess v. a sfărâma. known as Critical Control Points (CCP's) can be taken to reduce or eliminate the risk of the hazards being realised. WORDS AND PHRASES quality management = managementul calităţii. safety n. = a măsura. = a crea. meant for the food industry. HACCP is used in the food industry to identify potential food safety hazards. = mijloc. The system is used at all stages of food production and preparation processes. to certify v. with respect to = în ceea ce priveşte. standard n. Recently the International Organization released a new standard. or start treating somebody fairly (informal). = prevenire. VOCABULARY I. = furnizare. hazard n. to break down v. = cuprinzător. preventive) approach n. 2. = auto-perfecţionare. series. to implement v.wikipedia. distibuire. to address v.org/wiki/Quality_management) A. delivery n. = siguranţă. to measure v. = a acoperi. Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP) is a systematic preventative approach to food safety that addresses physical. LEXICAL COMMENTARY to break even = to make neither a profit nor a loss from a venture. ISO 9000 standards do not certify the quality of the product or service. means. a dărâma. = a evalua. to give somebody a break = to stop nagging or criticizing somebody. keep + vb-ing = a continua să. (adapted from http://en. a distruge. to cover v. = preventiv (syn. 111 .The Quality Management System standards created by ISO are meant to certify the processes and the system of an organization and not the product or service itself. livrare. = a revizui. = a îmbunătăţi. prevention n. self-improvement n. a doborî. = a implementa. = abordare. ISO 22000. to review n.

112 ... I walked a lot... I had to be very careful. a break for refreshments. break out.. any manners at all. spending a lot of time at Tate Gallery.. III.. I realize that even ...... I did not have to pay for hotel accommodation.. How many points of attention for managers did W. What is W. generally referring to separation.... to make a clean break = to end a relationship or association completely and permanently Break or brake? Do not confuse the spelling of break and brake. For breakfast. which sound similar. (2) 1 didn't know about the English way of life. and they have a whole section devoted to him. 2. (12) money.. destruction. What is HACCP and where is it used? II.. to break the rules.. but there are . but break has a wider range of meaning and is the more frequent of the two.. break into.. spirits. Brake means "a device used to slow or stop a vehicle" or "apply a brake" and is sometimes B. (8) milk every morning.. compasses. I had only .. Explain the meaning of the following plurals: colours. I am relieved .. their wishes. glasses.... (7) biscuits and . By whom and when were the Quality Management System standards created? 6.... Put one of these words in each of the gaps below: that to with at of on for in by 1.. or interruption.. Reading and Comprehension 1. Use in sentences of your own the following phrasal verbs: break asunder... Edwards Deming formulate? Enumerate four of them. break away. IV. because I knew . What is quality management? 2.. a little. It seems entirely compatible .. their accommodation. thinking I might buy . On top of all. violation. (9) of Turner's art. Before I left for London.. Edwards Deming best known for? 3. as in to break a window. don't fix it = do not try to improve something that is satisfactory as it is (informal).if it ain't broke. pains. Now that I am back... break up.. Both words can be used as nouns or verbs... spectacles..... I visited the museums to which admission is free. (13) for the return trip. admit that I feel extremely ashamed . (the) few.... break down. my fellow-countrymen on occasions such as this. I had saved . saw all the sights. (6) to pay for everything.... see that they are pleased .. (10) friends in London and they put me up for the duration of my stay. I had to save . Luckily. (4) money. V.. (3) 1 knew was hardly correct.. as I have . (5) books and postcards. minutes. (11) things you can do if you have so . What are the four key elements of the Shewhart cycle? 5. Insert (the) little. but once in London I found out it was too . EXERCISES I. I am almost embarrassed .. 4.. (1) things about my trip to Great Britain. particularly when they seem utterly devoid .. a few in the following sentences: I would like to tell you . I thought there was .

......... I know he's very sure ... Isn't it amazing ...... Obiectivul acestuia este de a stabili cerinţe internaţionale pentru sistemul de management al calităţii în orice domeniu (producătorii. VI. It's a pretty awful thing . but I really am upset .. upsetting her...... do it properly.. but we are not convinced his success can be taken for granted.. so many people take an interest . I was interested ... 5........ have to admit.... Managementul calităţii reprezintă ceea ce practică organizaţiile pentru a asigura produse şi servicii în conformitate cu cerintele clientilor sai.. admit that I am saddened ..... share these weaknesses with many others... she's leaving. Un certificat ISO 9001:2000 dovedeste ca un anume sistem de management al calităţii întruneşte toate cerinţele acestui standard internaţional...... I a m a w a r e .. read that many fans had expressed amazement ... young Paula's being written out of my favourite soap.... I know I should be ashamed .html) 113 .. the job and the one most likely ..... It is probable .. proving he can pass. 7. y o u r deficiencies and the areas you are lacking practice ..ro/produse/iso9001..... 4.. Translate into English: Standardul ISO 9001:2000 este un standard generic.... the result.3..dqsromania. (http://www.... such obscure sports? 8............ I'm afraid speak to her about this because I'm frightened .. servicii.. 6. he will prove to be the most likely person ..... himself and is intent .. just as I am aware you . creaţie)..

biomedical engineering and biomechanics were spawned from the study of mechanics. characterize classical mechanics as dealing with "large" bodies (such as engine parts). while quantum mechanics is a comparatively recent invention. of the widest scope. and machines. classical mechanics is able to solve problems which are unmanageably difficult in quantum mechanics and hence remains useful and well used.II. Both are commonly held to constitute the most certain knowledge that exists about physical nature. classical reformation. mechanisms. the application of physical knowledge for humanly defined purposes. For practical problems. materials engineering. Einstein's general and special theories of relativity have expanded the scope of mechanics beyond the mechanics of Newton and Galileo. It is therefore a huge body of knowledge about the natural world. and the subsequent effect of the bodies on their environment. Essential in this respect is the relentless use of mathematics in theories. In this sense. civil engineering. while quantum mechanics didn't appear until 1900. although relativity is categorized as a classical theory.There are no contradictions or conflicts between the two. and can be seen as encompassing classical mechanics.1. Just as one could. However it was Galileo. and quantum mechanics with "small" ones (such as particles). in the loosest possible sense. there is no contradiction or conflict between the two subjects. dealing with the macroscopic world that humans perceive. this is only true on the hypothetical or foundational level.4. MECHANICS Mechanics is the branch of physics concerned with the behaviour of physical bodies when subjected to forces or displacements.g. While it is true that historically quantum mechanics has been seen as having superseded classical mechanics. as well as the decisive role played by experiment in generating and testing them. each simply pertains to specific situations. Mechanics also constitutes a central part of technology. Relativistic corrections were also needed for quantum mechanics. aerospace engineering. The discipline has its roots in ancient Greece where Aristotle studied the way bodies behaved when they were thrown through the air (e. and made small corrections to them. Classical mechanics is older than written history.The major division of the mechanics discipline separates classical mechanics from quantum mechanics. it could be said that relativistic mechanics deals with "fast" bodies. mechanics is used to design and analyze the behavior of structures. TEXTS FOR MECHANICAL ENGINEERING 2. so long as the specific circumstances are carefully kept in mind. and non-relativistic mechanics 114 . Classical mechanics has especially often been viewed as a model for other so-called exact sciences. In this connection. a stone). as a sub-discipline which applies under certain restricted circumstances. Important aspects of the fields of mechanical engineering. Mechanics encompasses the movement of all matter in the universe under the four fundamental interactions (or forces): gravity. the strong and weak interactions. A person working in the discipline is known as a mechanician.4. According to the correspondence principle. Kepler and especially Newton who lay the foundation for much of the so called Newtonian mechanics we know today.2. the discipline is often known as engineering or applied mechanics. Analogous to the quantum vs. formally at least. Quantum mechanics is. structural engineering. Mechanics is the original discipline of physics. classical mechanics came first. and the electromagnetic interaction. Historically.

scop. fără preget. = I. periscop. libertate. a cauza. = 1. 2. Thus the often-used term body needs to stand for a wide assortment of objects. a conţine. 2. a percepe (cu mintea). 5. a cuprinde. fizic.. (adapted from http://en. a se referi la. a închide. Rigid bodies have size and shape. 4. corp. necruţător. cadavru. a aparţine de sau cu dat. to pertain to v. projectiles. elastic. This means that all mechanics. 3. to perceive v. it is beyond my ~ mă depăşeşte. bot. un om cu orizonturi/vederi largi. Other distinctions between the various subdisciplines of mechanics. parts of solids. a avea drepturi/autoritate asupra cu gen. a determina. treated as mathematical points in classical mechanics. or non-rigid. "fast" and "slow" are subjective concepts. a mind of wide ~ o minte/un spirit cu vederi largi. 2. posibilităţi. held v. orizont.org/wiki/Mechanics) A. 2. a-şi da seama de/că. 3. stars. bis. fig. 3. parts of machinery. a deţine. a chinui. 1. These subjects have both classical and quantum divisions of study. While analogous motions of an atomic nucleus are described by quantum mechanics. ca sg. an undertaking of wide ~ o iniţiativă sau o intreprindere de mare amploare/de anvengură. a privi cu ac. individ. (d. to keep ~ and soul together a-şi ţine zilele. to hold. implacabil. VOCABULARY WORDS AND PHRASES mechanics n. 2. such as orientation in space. diapazon 4. strămutare. relentless adj. a elimina. a poseda 4. 1. a avea de-a face/legătură cu. is described by the relativistic theory of classical mechanics. înlocuire. mecanică. naos. trup. corp. a năpădi. 5. a vedea. a percepe (cu simţurile). regarding its orbit and attitude (rotation). but retain a simplicity close to that of the particle. = 1. adding just a few so-called degrees of freedom. etc. 1. he has full/free ~ are deplină libertate de acţiune. 2. câmp. = 1. displacement n. înv ţintă. navă 7. 115 . whether classical or quantum. lungime de lanţ filat la apă. a ocupa. parte principală. neabătut. = 1. a înlătura. 3. a sta/ a şedea bine cuiva. i. 2. sferă.). intindere. = 1. parts of fluids (gases and liquids). within the ~ of în limitele/cadrul cu gen. a (se) socoti. fiz. body n. 3. a zări. a încojura. transfer. = 1. a încercui. II. For instance: The motion of a spacecraft. = I. to give free ~ to one’s imagination a da frâu liber imaginaţiei. a da la o parte. = pl 1. i. Otherwise. a stăpâni. a (se) considera. 4. one may frequently arrange the situation in such a way that this is not really required. aspect mecanic (al unei operaţii etc. a observa. concern the nature of the bodies being described. a asalta. 4. a înţelege. corp neînsufleţit. held. However. de domeniul cu gen. neprecupeţit. a trăi de azi pe mâine.e. a recunoaşte.e. aparat optic. On the other hand. neînduplecat. Particles are bodies with little (known) internal structure. spacecraft. opt. a îndepărta (un funcţionar etc). nav. şi ca sg. a observa. potentially needs to be described relativistically.wikipedia. deplasare. 2.with "slow" ones. in sfera. 6. om. 2. including particles. înfăţişare fizică. 3. cu). a stăpâni. nu este de competenţa mea. = 1. persoană. tehn. 2. scope n. neîndurător. a fi caracteristic/propriu cu dat. depending on the state of motion of the observer. a ţine (în mână). bodies may be semi-rigid. fluid. a pricepe. (by) a înlocui (prin. to encompass v. griji etc) a nu da pace (cuiva). 2. as an observer. asiduu. 5. tulpină (de pom). to supersede v. gamă.

= 1. ~ engine tractor. = I. a împărţi. conduită. to conquer the ~ şi fig. 1. flying ~ aerodrom. fuzelaj. administra. scoruş. 9. 3. 3. datul cărţilor. Mechanics is the branch of chemistry concerned with the behaviour of physical bodies. a da. What type of mechanics is known to better solve practical problems? 5. exerciţii tactice pe teren. câmp. in the ~ of literature în domeniul literaturii. deal n. câmp. mil unitate. cib. ~ night seara/noapte memorabilă/de pomină. ~ duty mil. dealt v. la baseball). LEXICAL COMMENTARY to deal. ieşire în teren. păşune 2. corp ceresc. teren. fond (al unei picturi). pol sistem de măsuri (guvernamentale). a învinge. pol. a da trup cu dat. EXERCISES I. etc. zi plină de evenimente. excitaţie II sport. astr. while classical mechanics is a comparatively recent invention. a pune bazele – l____ the f_________ 2. II. 3. av. Historically. Tick the statements true or false: 1. ~ day mil. manevre. 12. B. el. Each line stands for one word: 1. a face (cărţile). bazin. a începe lupta. 6. to keep the ~ a continua lupta. field n. = I. What does mechanics encompass? II. sport participanţii la o competiţie sau cei mai valoroşi participanţi la o competiţie. regiune. 9. 2. comportare. Complete the following phrases. to lose the ~ a fi învins. majoritate.8. to enter the ~ şi fig. corp. to take the ~ a se duce la război. Phrases to learn. a pierde bătălia. II. The discipline of mechanics is often known as engineering or applied mechanics. 4. min zăcământ. au extins orizontul mecanicii – e______ the s______ of m________ III. teren (deschis). 2. ambele sunt considerate ca – b______ a__ h______ to 4. to ~ smb a blow a lovi pe cineva. grup. Reading and comprehension 1. 1. to hold the ~ a-şi menţine poziţiile. ~ basil bot. câmp de luptă/bătaie sau luptă. masă. sistem. ~ ash bot. 13. 11. 2. 1. What are the differences between classical mechanics and quantum mechanics? 4. 7. fig. sferă. 2. zi consacrată vânătorii. 14. mod de a trata. bătălie. retortă. aeroport. dealt. What are classical and quantum mechanics? 2. organizaţie. a prinde şi a arunca înapoi (mingea. Which are some of the most important names related to mechanics and physics? 3. servit. magnetic etc). domeniu. serviciu activ. alambic. 10 el. a prezenta pe teren (jucătorii de fotbal etc). totalitate. a fi victorios. 10. 116 . mulţime. 5. 16. grup. excursiilor etc. 2. astru. fig. busuioc. to do/make a ~ with smb a face o afacere cu cineva. a întruchipa. a intra în luptă. auto caroserie. fig. a distribui. quantum mechanics came first. aspecte importante ale domeniilor – i________ a______ o_ the f________ 3. organ. câmp (de vedere. 8. ~ artillery artilerie de câmp. unitate de informatie. ogor.

pincers. 19. Se poate vorbi despre cercetare fundamental-orientată în domenii ca: deformaţiile corpurilor plastice. previziunea mişcărilor seismice. 20. whether classical or quantum. IV. paintbrush. motoare cu ardere internă fără piston. 8. În domeniul fizicii. drill. 9. A … is a tool used for making holes. 6. noi surse de energie. Translate into English: 1. întrevede un interes comercial real. Mother poured the soup through a … to remove all the lumps. device 1. The hairdresser took a pair of … and cut the girl’s hair. The carpenter uses a … to make a smooth surface. When I opened the door. John was standing on a … painting the ceiling. 5. potentially needs to be described relativistically. I needed a … to open this tin. A … is a blade with sharp teeth along one edge. A … is a kind of strong tool for holding an object firmly. Nuts can be loosened or tightened with a … 15. Complete the sentences below with one of the appropriate words or phrases connected with TOOLS: axe. 10. We drive a nail into wood with the help of a … 4. A … is a small wooden hammer. shears. hammer. tin opener. marea întreprindere. În această categorie pot fi incluse şi cercetările fundamental-orientate. quantum mechanics is able to solve problems which are unmanageably difficult in classical mechanics and hence remains useful and well used. studiul deformaţiilor plastice ale corpurilor solide. 2. A … is a steel tool with a rough surface for smoothing or rubbing away wood or metal. Garden hedges are cut with the … 18. sieve. spades. Screws can be turned with a … 6. 3. saw. 16. but retain a simplicity close to that of the particle. I saw some children carrying their buckets and … to the beach. tape measure. mallet. spanner. studiul acceleraţiilor de ordin superior. V. One can cut down trees or chop logs with the help of an … 11. Rigid bodies have size and shape. file. All mechanics. screwdriver. brush. Cement or plaster can be spread onto walls with a … 17. Particles are bodies with little (known) internal structure. We pull corks out of bottles by using a … 12. trowel. 5. 117 . Tailors use … to measure the cloth or the size of your body. 13. cercetarea fundamentală poate fi cercetarea relativităţii sau cercetarea structurii materiei. etc. cercetări teoretice dirijate către progresul ştiinţei fără luarea în considerare a posibilităţilor de aplicare practică într-un viitor previzibil. 7. caracterizate prin faptul că sunt dirijate de către domenii în care compania. 7. Cercetările fundamentale sunt. scissors. plane. în general. You put paint onto something using a … 14. de exemplu. used for cutting wood or other materials. ladder.4. For practical problems. corkscrew.

mai competitive. Ca domenii de cercetare aplicativă se pot exemplifica: mărirea capacităţii portante a angrenajelor sau a rulmenţilor. a unor procese tehnologice perfecţionate şi mai economice. extinderea sau restrângerea liniilor tehnologice. în scopul realizării unor produse cu calităţi superioare. 118 . etc. în condiţiile aceluiaşi volum de material. obţinerea unor materiale plastice care să înlocuiască materialele metalice neferoase deficitare. Cercetările aplicative sunt cercetări dirijate către obţinerea de noi cunoştinţe care au aplicabilitate imediată în exploatarea comercială a produselor şi proceselor tehnologice. studiul proceselor tehnologice în vederea creşterii performanţelor produselor.2. obţinerea unor aditivi pentru uleiuri în vederea micşorării uzurii. obţinerea uleiurilor sintetice cu proprietăţi superioare din punct de vedere al peliculei de lubrifiant.

the rope also being fastened tot the bottom block. and then consider what happens to the load and the effort. The final deposit in the rusting of iron is a particular iron oxide chemically combined with water. In some cases it may be advisable to imagine the effort to move one meter. the velocity ratio of a lifting arrangement of this particular type is given simply by ‘the number of ropes which descend to the bottom block’. moist air. They are connected by a continuous rope. is attached to the body of one pulley block. the blocks would approach each other by x/9 and hence the load would be lifted by x/9. each machine should be treated on its own merits. eight ropes would descend to the bottom block). producing 119 . and this shortening is shared by ‘the ropes which descend to the bottom block’. We will consider some standard types of machines and determine their velocity ratios. (If the end of the rope were fixed to the top block. If there are n pulleys on the bottom block but the rope is fixed to the top block. the total length of rope between the blocks shortens by this distance x. In other cases it may be advisable to let one particular spindle rotate by one revolution. while the load is suspended from the ‘bottom’ pulley block. and follow the events through the machine to determine the corresponding movement of the load. after passing around pulleys alternately in the two blocks.2. DETERMINATION OF VELOCITY RATIOS In determining the velocity ratio of a particular machine. the rapidity of this type of corrosion depending upon the prevailing conditions. In the case where nine ropes descended to the bottom block. Most metals are oxidized by the atmosphere. In operation. the velocity ratio is 2n.2. iron compounds called ferrous hydroxide and ferric carbonate are formed. Corrosion is generally considered to be an electrolytic process in which small electric cells are formed on the surface of metal. The actual reactions are extremely complex.4. it will be observed that both air and water are necessary for the corrosion of iron by rusting. then. such as a beam. In general terms. Corrosion Corrosion is the removal of particles of metals and alloys by chemical action. The other end of the rope. If the effort moves a distance of x. Such an electric cell needs an electrolyte such as acidified water. the velocity ratio is 2n+1. Hence if the surrounding air contains sulphur compounds. to one end of which an effort is applied. If four separated pieces of iron are left for a time in dry air. Pulley blocks Although many science laboratories contain interesting arrangements of pulley blocks which provide useful exercises in determining velocity ratios. tap water and air-free water respectively. these will react with moisture to form acidic solutions. industrial applications are mainly confined to pulley arrangements consisting of two separate sets of pulleys mounted in pulley blocks. Colloquially it would be said then ‘nine ropes descend to the bottom block’. If there are n pulleys on the bottom block. the ‘top’ pulley block is attached to a fixed point. Let us presume that in one particular assembly the bottom block has four pulleys and that the end of the rope is finally attached to the bottom block. but there is reasonable ground for suggesting that during the process of oxidizing iron to the hydrated oxide of iron known as rust.

= 1. ch. = umezeală. pulley n. traversă. revoluţie. = 1. a retuşa. 3. 3. a creşte în lungime. moisture n. 8.. bloc. 6. infundare. a bloca. rânduire. pl. tehn. 2. 14. potrivire. balustru. bloc. probă (a unui metal preţios). a sedimenta. aureolă. fig. to raise the ~ a ridica blocada. umiditate. in the ~ în bloc. mod de a aranja. baracă. fort. 2. deposit n. 9. (braţ de) balanţă. blockish adj. clişeu. ~ in a schiţa. sediment. blocadă. adaos (nedorit). = prostănac. nav. poziţie. 3. gripare. a precipita. = 1. lujer. a strica. relaţie. B. pregătiri. LEXICAL COMMENTARY block n. corrosion n. motriv. troliu. a depozita. ec. 2. 6. raport. (mişcare de) revoluţie. 3. = 1. spindle = n. geol. 1. sabot. geol. traversă mobilă. a împiedica. blum. coroziune. tehn. tel. zăcamânt. 7. a opri. nimb. a depune. 9. 5. 5. a bloca. roată de transmisie. text. II. aranjare. accord. osie. strat. carnet de notiţe. grindei (de plug). 2. a creşte drept şi subţire. 2. 3. eşafod. 5. pleasure without ~ plăcere neumbrită de nimic to alloy v. înţelegere. aşeza. vrej. pol. blockade n. deposit. proporţie. tijă. icre etc). = 1. (în S. = blocare. baricadă.. precipitat. adaptare. 3. poligr. 3. filos. min. tehn. a depune (mâl etc. cauză. bani depuşi la bancă. etc) într-o anumită direcţie. lăţime (a navei). a depune (ouă. 2. ruginire. scripete. bloc de piatră. 2. a creiona. amenajări. 12. mil. to spindle v. to deposit v. rază. răscoală. butuc. buştean. sediment. 4. raţiune. 15. met.A. alloy n. 6. rânduială. 4. învoială. blockage n. a se întinde. mat. 7. tehn. What is one of the standard types of machines mentioned in the text? 120 . 4.U. mănunchi de raze. a pune piedici în calea cu gen. 3. 4. depunere. 7. grindă. G. Consequently. 5. bloc. fig. cap sec. WORDS AND PHRASES velocity n. arrangement n. med. calapod. amestec. 2. pp. aranjamente. fig (om) prost. = 1. pol. ratio n. = tehn. Reading and comprehension 1. geol. lit. = 1. 13. 11. in direct ~ direct proporţional. ~ up a umple (cu cărămidă). scripete. clasificare.electrolytes which accelerate corrosion.. rotaţie. 3. 3. pilier. corrosion of metals in industrial areas is more rapid than in rural areas. muz. strat. corodare. bară. ch. Book 1. 2. 4. aranjament. (Page. revoluţie. M. grămadă. raport de transmisie. casă de bârne. reglare. nav. bot. deposit. met. 3. a depune. to block v. turaţie. măsuri. ax. 2. a bloca. distribui etc. agr. tehn. VOCABULARY I. răzmeriţă. netot. constr. beam n. deposit. punere în ordine. 10. 157-8) A. prelucrare. tehn. traversă. sport a stopa. traversă de punte. ec. = 1. 8. lespede. 4. a se lungi. revolution n. Science for Mechanical Technicians. astr. a umbri (fericirea etc. fus. ordine. fig. ~ out a schiţa (un plan). grupare. 2. EXERCISES I. blocare. calotă. poligr.). aranjament. arbore. a pune. 8. mişcare giratorie. met. a aşeza. tehn. = 1. 2. = 1. = 1. = viteza de deplasare (a unui obiect. aliaj. bloc de oţel. aranjament. rotire. = 1. = 1. a alia.) corp de case. butuc. nav. bot. corelaţie. 2. ~house mil cazemată. tehn. 2. bloc.).

121 . wing. exhaust-pipe. silencer. 2. A … is a sign on the front and the back of a car that shows its registration number. 4. 5. Tick the statements true or false 1. bonnet. windscreen. 6. The … in a car is a device that sends electric current to the spark plugs in the engine. tyres. The … is the panel facing the driver’s seat where most of the switches are. 6. Neither air nor water are necessary for the corrosion of iron by rusting. bumper. 7. 4. windscreen wiper.2. engine. The … carries the gas or smoke out ofr the engine of a car. 12. 10. The velocity ratio of a lifting arrangement of this particular type is given simply by ‘the number of ropes which mount to the top block’. 19. The car won’t start because the … needs recharging. If there is no water in the …. petrol gauge. 15. If there are n pulleys on the bottom block but the rope is fixed to the top block. choke. 18. One makes a car turn left or right by turning the … 7. distributor. III. horn. The … is a piece of equipment fitted to a car to reduce its noise. 4. number plate.… engine. It is dangerous to drive with a dirty …. The driver blew his … when a child ran in front of his car. A … is the framework that a vehicle is built on. 5. ignition. 17. spark plug. speedometer. 16. steering wheel. 14. Remove the … and loosen the nuts with a spanner. 3. 11. boot. 13. dashboard. radiator. A … is a bar at the front and the back of a car that provides extra protection if the car collides with anything. His new car has a five. chassis. Corrosion of metals in rural areas is more rapid than in industrial areas. cylinder. headlight. each machine should not be treated on its own merits. When you press the … with your foot. What is this machine used for? What is velocity ratio? How would you define corrosion? What are the factors that influence corrosion? II. 8. 3. the velocity ratio is 4n. 9. In determining the velocity ratio of a particular machine. The … dropped swiftly toward zero showing that we had run out of fuel. clutch. brake 1. battery. 2. Industrial applications are mainly confined to pulley arrangements consisting of two separate sets of pulleys. your engine will overheat immediately. He switched on the car’s … and the engine started running. seat. The … in the engine of a car is a device that reduces the amount of air going into the engine and makes it easier to start. hubcup. you can’t see the road well. safety belt. the car goes faster. 20. The car’s … read 80 miles per hour. 3. 5. Complete the sentences below with one of the appropriate words or phrases connected with THE CAR: accelerator. Let’s lift the … and have a look at the engine. Corrosion is the removal of particles of metals and alloys by physical action.

IV. 27. Se observau totuşi deteriorări întâmplătoare. Elemente sau sisteme aparent identice din punct de vedere ale materialului. mai ales la elementele aflate în mişcare. la baza proiectării maşinilor a stat criteriul obţinerii unei durabilităţi cât mai ridicate. nu trebuie să apară deteriorări). Uzura morală. A … in the engine is a device which produces the electrical spark that ignites the fuel. Până acum câteva decenii. implicaţiile economice. 28. 25. la circuite. 122 . datorate unor cauze imprevizibile. pe de o parte. Cu cât complexitatea sistemelor moderne este mai mare.. repartiţia durabilităţii elementelor aparent identice este aleatorie. 30. mult mai frecvent pot apărea deteriorări întâmplătoare ale elementelor componente. I stepped hard on the … and the car stopped. Unele sisteme sunt destinate să funcţioneze o perioadă scurtă de timp (în care. As it was getting dark. I would have been killed if I had not been wearing a … 29. poate să impună limitarea durabilităţii.21. 22. Translate into English: Fiabilitatea unui sistem (fie acesta un simplu element. Open the … and put my suitcase in. Echipamentele moderne sunt mult mai complexe. A … is a movable arm of metal with a rubber edge that clears rain from a windscreen. Nu se puteau identifica mijloace pentru a le evita. The … of this car don’t have enough air in them. însă. Evoluţia ştiinţei şi tehnicii. I switched on the … to light up the road ahead. Mai mult. o maşină. formei şi tehnologiei. Nu se putea cuprinde în calcule previziunea acestor deteriorări. etc. pe de altă parte. un mecanism. prezintă durabilităţi diferite. The front … of the cars was damaged in the accident. de exemplu. 24. au făcut ca obţinerea unei durabilităţi cât mai ridicate să nu mai constituie un unic criteriu în proiectare. electronic sau hidraulic. puse în exploatare în aceleaşi condiţii de solicitare şi de mediu. I couldn’t get my … started so I left the car there. un sistem format din asemenea circuite. un circuit electric. cu atât posibilitatea apariţiei deteriorărilor întâmplătoare este mai mare. un ansamblu mecanic. etc) este probabilitatea ca acesta să funcţioneze (să îndeplinească corect funcţiunea) o anumită perioadă de timp în anumite condiţii de funcţionare şi de mediu (impuse prin temă). 26. noţiunea de fiabilitate fiind inclusă în noţiunea de calitate. please! 23. The … is the mechanism that allows the power from the engine to be disconnected from the wheels when you change gear.

runway n. the wreck caught fire and burned. aterizare).2. = a mutila. = a pica în zig-zag. Civil aviation experts examined the wreckage the next day and blamed the pilot’s handling of the aircraft for the disaster. = a se prăbuşi în picaj. Most of the victims were found still strapped in their seats. ablaze adj. It had suffered engine failure and the pilot had sent a mayday call requesting an emergency landing. = a (se)prăbuşi. Rescue teams sealed off the site and began examining the mangled wreckage. Eyewitnesses reported hearing a faltering engine noise and seeing a pall of black smoke behind the craft. a avea sincope. = a pierde din putere. ran across to the plane but it was already ablaze.3. negru. pall n. Otto. = nor gros. 123 . wreckage n.= rămăşiţe. mayday call n. AEROPLANE CRASHES 1. WORDS AND PHRASES to plough v. Four people died yesterday when their aircraft bound for Pamon crashed and burst into flames soon after take-off. = îndurerat. As fuel poured out. 27. taxi v. but they burned to death before the fire-fighters arrived. the plane had burst into flames and had plummeted to the ground. An airbus crashed fifty yards short of the runway at Bradley Airport yesterday and exploded on impact. bereaved adj. The son of the pilot. = a smulge. vol. Surprisingly. pp. 2. falter v. it is likely that they will be sued for damages by the victims’ families. în bot (av. Though messages of sympathy were sent to the bereaved by airline authorities. I) A.). resturi. = în cod internaţional: semnal de ajutor. = în flăcări. nose-dive n. = pistă (decolare. îndoliat. = distrus. take off and crash after a nose-dive. mangled adj. within seconds of being cleared to land. 250. The inquiry revealed that it was to be the plane’s last flight before an engine overhaul. The plane ploughed into a field and broke apart.4. He attempted to rescue the passengers but had to be dragged away from the scene for his own safety. where emergency exists are located. there was no “black box” flight recorder on the aircraft but radio transmissions indicated that the accident was probably caused by a technical error. But. impact n. overhaul n. There were no survivors among the 123 on board including 10 crew members. plummet v. trying to piece together what had gone wrong. (Otto. VOCABULARY I. B. = revizie generală. Limba engleză pentru jurnalişti. zdrobit. = a merge pe sol (înainte de decolare sau după aterizare. who had watched the plane taxi across the field. 126. The bodies were so badly burnt and mutilated they had to be identified from dental records. drag v. He said he could hear the people in the plane screaming. The wreckage suggested that the fire was the fiercest over the wings. = impact.. mutilate v. M.

LEXICAL COMMENTARY to bereave of. răpire. pornit. în drum spre – b__________ f__________ 3. a trimite condoleanţe celor îndureraţi/îndoliaţi – s_______ m__________ of s__________ to the b__________ III. vehement. 6.II. a învinui pentru dezastru – b_______ f_________ the d_________ 5. deprivation. fierceness n. = feroce. The pilot of the airbus was unaware of the danger. What suggests that the pilot of the jet was aware of the danger? 4. 8. active. aprig. a răpi cu ac. a încerca să salveze – a___________ to r_________ 4. cu violenţă. = 1. 4. What are the basic differences between the two accidents described in the report? 2. The airline may be held responsible for negligence. energic. B. The plane ploughed into a field on the outskirts of Palmon. Tick the statements true or false: 1. extraordinary. 10. All the occupants of the plane died because of the impact of the crash. a identifica după fişele dentare – i_________ f_____ d_____ r________ 7. 11. Could the people in the first accident have been saved? 3. = ferocitate. 9. a suferi avarii ale motorului – s_________ e__________ f___________ 6. insuportabil. bereft of v. 2. sălbatic. What methods are used to establish the cause of the accident? II. The airbus burned very quickly. (d. Some of the bodies could not be identified immediately. = pierdere grea. The inquiry concluded that the accident happened because of a human error. grozav. rău. Each line stands for one word: 1. violent. 4. IV. Phrases to learn. bereavement n. The airbus was to be removed permanently from service following that flight. then crashed. Complete the following phrases. grozav. synonyms: affliction. căldură. înverşunare. cumplit. 3. 2. hapsân. a se aprinde şi a arde în flăcări – c______ f_________ and b________ i_____ f_______ 2. fierce adj. Because of the heat. nestăpânit. The son of the pilot was sitting in a taxi when the accident happened. vânt) insuportabil. impetuozitate. 12. feroce. hain. fioros. 3. he was unable to help the people inside the wreck. cu sălbăticie. The plane first burst into flames. 5. fiercely adv. death. EXERCISES I. a izola locul – s_________ o_________ the s___________ 8. Complete the sentences below with one of the appropriate words or phrases connected with TRAVELLING BY AIR: 124 . Reading and comprehension 1. loss. a lipsi/a deposeda/a priva/ a văduvi de. destitution. = 1. 7. 2. violenţă. 123 people died in the accident.

undercarriage. is the … 7. Why are plane crashes so well-remembered? Why do they provoke general sympathy and official days of mourning? VI. cockpit. plane crashes are rare. gate. The … assists the chief pilot to fly the plane. All the aeroplanes have retractable … 4. copilot. parachute. Can you guess how you would react and what you would be thinking about? Statistically.aileron. An … is a flap on the back edge of the wing of an aeroplane that can be raised or lowered in order to control the movement of the plane. Departure Lounge. fiind cuprins de flăcări. plane crashes. 11. The plane sped up the … and soon took off. 12. flight. 16. pasagerii au ars în avionul naufragiat. 13. 19. runway. Passport Control. when taking into account the number of flights taking place every day. You receive a boarding pass at the … 18. How long is the … to London? 2. Put yourself in the position of a passenger on a plane which is about to crash. Cu o lună în urmă. The … and crew were all killed in the air crash. s-a înălţat în aer. 10. The … is that small area of a plane looking after passengers and serving meals to them. ticket 1. airport. 6. When you go through … your hand luggage is checked. A … is an aircraft that does not have an engine but flies by floating on air currents. An … is a place. thousands of people have gone through the ordeal which you are trying to imagine. glider. pilot. stewardess. 14. That tall building in the airport. food is sometimes dropped by … to isolated villages. V. We show our passports for … before we go through Security check. 3. pe acelaşi 125 . A … is a large building where aircraft are kept. 9. Security Check. control tower. după care s-a prăbuşit deodată la pământ. Translate into English: Un avion care zbura spre Palmon s-a prăbuşit şi a izbucnit în flăcări imediat după decolare. from which people direct the movement of aircraft on the ground and in the air. Check-in-counter. Duty-free Shops. A … is a woman who works on a plane looking after passengers and serving meals to them. Passengers wait for their flight to be announced in the … 17. usually with a lot of buildings and facilities where aircraft land and take off. Câţiva martori au văzut cum avionul a decolat. Înainte ca pompierii să ajungă la locul accidentului. 2. In severe winters. 20. When you hear the announcement for your flight you should proceed to the … to board the plane. 5. The … is the main part of the aeroplane. 15. In airports you can buy goods at a cheaper price at the … 8. Would you ever fly again if you had survived a plane crash? 3. The captain and the stewardess have already reviewed the emergency procedure and n0ow you have twenty seconds before the plane crashes. hangar. Topics for discussion 1. Yet.

aeroport s-a prăbuşit un turboreactor. Pilotul a solicitat o aterizare de urgenţă datorită avariei. s-a prăbuşit la pământ. La bord nu s-a înregistrat nimic pe „cutia neagra”. Incendiul nu a permis ca acţiunea de salvare să fie eficientă. 126 . Nimeni nu a supravieţuit dintre cei o suta doi oameni îmbarcaţi. Cauza accidentului a fost o avarie de motor. Până acum nu s-au comunicat cauzele accidentului. înainte de revizia generală a motorului. Înainte ca avionul să reuşească să aterizeze. Acest zbor trebuia să fie ultimul.

A 3000-ton crane was moved into position to begin lifting the derailed coaches. The Transport Secretary ordered an inquiry into the cause of the accident and called for an improvement in “fail-safe” systems designed to make such accidents impossible. It seems that the driver of the express train made the fatal error. 33. Firemen used cutting gear to reach the injured and the dead who were pinned under the wreckage. = a avea grijă. coach n. to brake v. TRAIN CRASHES At least twenty-four people died and more than eighty-five were seriously injured after two passenger trains collided this morning near Shockville. Emergency procedures were immediately put into operation. The derailed coaches fell into the path of an empty goods train which was just pulling out of the station. 251. fig. the 7. When the train crossed from the fast slow track and entered the station. The driver of the express train. 2. drum de fier. distributed powerful painkillers and reassured those in agony while waiting for the stretcher-bearers to carry away the wounded. = a fi ţintuit. şină. = a duce lipsă. but signal failure was ruled out. = a face o coliziune. It is hoped that. a deraia. WORDS AND PHRASES to collide v. pp. (Otto. services will be restored. cale ferată. it was too late to brake effectively. a o lua razna/alăturea cu drumul. It was revealed that the commuter train was running 3 minutes late. track n.4.2. vol. = a deraia. transport feroviar. B. Others offered their cars to ferry the less seriously injured victims to nearby hospitals. to pin v.25 from Gloomford. Scores of rescuers worked throughout the day to clear the wreckage and extract victims. Many came forward to donate their blood when supplies ran low.4. to run low v. = întârziere. M. = şine de cale ferată. to derail v. Paramedics and doctors set up saline drips. = 1. acţiuni ale 127 . passed a red signal and smashed into a packed stationary commuter train. 3. to get off/to run off/to leave the ~s a. ferov. a sări de pe linie b.. I) A. VOCABULARY I. to tend v. II. = a trimite pe o altă rută. to praise v. Thermal-image cameras had to be used to find survivors in the unrecognizable metal tangle. fin. = a frâna. Otto. An emergency telephone line has been made available for relatives. maybe due to some distraction. all rail traffic is being rerouted. = staţionat. failure n. = vagon de cale ferată. stationary adj. by tomorrow morning. by ~ pe cale ferată. Limba engleză pentru jurnalişti. cu trenul. to reroute v. LEXICAL COMMENTARY rail n. a nu putea să te mişti. = a lăuda. a deraia. He praised the swift reaction of the emergency services and the people who came to tend to the injured. 128. Meanwhile.

3. Only two trains were involved in the collision. tren aglomerat din suburbii (de navetişti) – p_________ c________ t_______ 3. 6. Reading and comprehension 1. rail v.societăţilor/companiilor feroviare. The express train should have stopped for the light. alunecător. a blama. What did the rescue operation involve? 3. a critica. mănă curentă. gratii. balustradă. ~ chair ferov. ~ off a separa/despărţi printr-un gard/printr-o împrejmuire. = 1. a îngrădi. grindă. The accident temporarily disrupted railway services. a transporta pe calea ferată. a exclude – r_________ o__________ 6. bară. grătar de protecţie (în faţa locomotivei). a administra medicamente puternice împotriva durerii – d________ p_________ p_______-k__________ 8. cu linie dublă. 6. ~ head ferov cap de linie. grilaj. Medical help was improvised on the spot. 8. a înconjura cu un gard. a săvărşi o greşeală fatală – m__________ a f______ e_________ 7. Phrases to learn. The commuter train should have stopped for the light. 4. What is the purpose of setting up the emergency telephone service? II. a ordona desfăşurarea unei anchete – o_______ an i___________ 9. B. ~ against/at 1. a blestema. What kind of trains were involved in the collision? 2. Existing “fail-safe” systems are effective in preventing train accidents. a ocărî. 9. ~ guard ferov. a asigura folosirea unei linii telefonice – m________ a t_________ l______ a_______ 11. 4. a porni din staţie – p_______ o______ o_______ the s__________ 4. cuier (pt pălării). drug. a ţine de rău. staţie de descărcare. The accident wouldn’t have happened if the signal had been green. What was the public’s response to the accident? 4. 11. mil. a suferi grave leziuni corporale – to be s______ i__________ 2. What caused the biggest problem was locating and reaching the survivors. The Transport Secretary was impressed by the dedication of the rescue teams and bystanders. double-railed ferov. traversă. scaun pentru şină. 3. pl. 2. gard (de ostreţe). Each line stands for one word: 1. 128 . EXERCISES I. 7. a împrejmui cu o balustradă. a avea o întârziere de trei minute – r___________ three minutes l______ 5. 5. a împrejmui. 2. a reface transportul feroviar – r________ r_______ s_________ III. punct terminus. The rescue teams were too shocked by the scale of the disaster to act effectively. 5. 7. zăbrele. automotor. to lean over the ~s a se apleca peste parapet/balustradă. a expedia/a trimite cu trenul/pe calea ferată. 10. parapet. ~ car ferov. a dona sânge – d_________ b___________ 10. împrejmuire. 2. Tick the statements true or false: 1. Complete the following phrases. cuzinet al şinei. The slow track leads to the platforms.

15. Of all the means of public transport. Topics for discussion 1. 13. 7. left luggage office. VI. engine. sprocket. What are members of the public who witness such accidents supposed to do? In what way can they be helpful? 3. The old lady could finally find a … to carry her suitcase from the train. spokes. freight car. Complete the sentences below with one of the appropriate words or phrases connected with TRAVELLING BY TRAIN: buffers. chain. Bicycle lights are powered by a … 2. The … is a shield over the wheel to keep mud from splashing upwards. 16. The … blew his whistle and waved his flag. 14. I put my suitcase on the … and then I took my seat. A … is the place where a railway line is crossed by a road. … have been standardized. luggage rack. ticket. timetable. trains seem relatively safe. valve 1. gauges. 8. 17. saddle. we still have one hour till he arrives. A … is a train with beds for sleeping through the night. carriage. Discuss the usefulness of emergency phone information lines that are set up when trains or planes crash. 19. reflector. … are metal discs on springs at the front or at the back of a railway train to prevent the train from crashing. 129 . … are bars that connect the outer ring of a bicycle wheel to the centre of it. level crossing. pump. Goods are transported in … 20. The train … only costs $50. What would you say if you had to inform a caller that the relative he is inquiring about lost his life in the accident? V. waiting room 1. signalman. forks.IV. We left our suitcase at the … 18. A … is the building by a railway line where the trains stop to pick up passengers or goods. A … is a short railway track. On the rail system of most countries. A …’s job is to control railway signals. We’ll be sitting in the second … form the front of the train. Complete the sentences below with one of the appropriate words or phrases connected with BIKE/MOTORBIKE: bell. station. 3. People can sit and wait in the … until it is time for their train. hub. terminus. dynamo. handle-bars. buffet. sleeper. pannier. porter. 3. 2. Our train was pulled by a new … 10. off the main track. crossbar. Let’s get a coffee at the …. 9. 5. siding. 12. guard. where trains stand when they are not being used. junction. This is a busy railway … where lines from all over the country meet. mudguard. Yet. The … is the station at the end of a railway line. 11. The … shows the times when the trains are supposed to arrive or depart. 4. pedals. Do railway accidents differ in any way from the other accidents? Do they pose any special difficulties for rescue teams? 2. train crashes do happen often with very high death toll. 6.

Vagoanele deraiate s-au răsturnat pe linia vecină. chiar spre un tren marfar. Translate into English: Astăzi dimineaţă s-a produs o coliziune între două trenuri de persoane. Se impune necesitatea îmbunătăţirii sistemelor de siguranţă. 14. 10. The … is the seat on a bicycle or motorbike. You push the … with your feet in order to make the bicycle move. Ministerul Transporturilor a solicitat investigaţii. 130 . The cyclist was thrown over the … when the bike crashed. VII. by the drivers of vehicles with headlights. A … is the horizontal metal bar that goes between the handlebars and the saddle on a man’s bicycle. 8.4. 12. De mâine dimineaţă trenurile vor circula după orar. A … is a device on the tyre that allows air to pass in one direction only. 5. We can force air into a tyre under pressure. S-a pus la dispoziţie celor interesaţi un număr de telefon la care se pot obţine informaţii despre soarta victimelor. A … is a wheel with one or more rows of teeth that fit into the holes in a chain. Expresul din Gloomford a trecut pe culoarea roşie şi s-a ciocnit cu un tren local aflat în staţie. 9. at night. A … is a small piece of specially patterned glass or plastic which is fitted to the back of a bicycle so that it can be seen. 13. The … is the central part of a wheel to which the axle is joined. 7. A bicycle … makes the wheels turn. 6. În accident au pierit peste douăzeci de persoane şi aproape o sută au fost rănite. 15. The cyclist rang his … when he passed by. care tocmai pleca. The … on a bicycle or motorbike are two pieces of metal to which the front wheel is attached. by using a … 11. S-a exclus ideea ca semnalizarea defectuoasă să fi fost cauza accidentului.

to plunge v. causing the vessel to list sharply. paralizat. (Otto. numb adj. = a se scufunda.4. = aici: a lăsa fără. the captain gave the order to abandon the vessel but it went down too quickly for many to get to the deck and lifeboats. Anturia’s major port. sunken adj. The families of the victims are numbed with shock and the world is deeply saddened by the tragedy. Otto. to perish v. Experts still cannot figure out how the disaster happened. 2. 131 . to hamper v. = a se scufunda. The crew appeared ill-prepared to handle such an emergency and safety devices seem to have been faulty. cale. happened when a ferry cut across the path of a tanker. I) A. path n. Teams of divers are working around the clock searching the sunken ferry and retrieving bodies. WORDS AND PHRASES shallow adj. Only a handful of the panic-striken passengers are known to have survived. VOCABULARY I. = a lovi în plin. = a se înclina pe o parte. to retrieve v. 31. 3. = a împiedica. 253. As the tanker rammed it.5. vol. because most of them were trapped below decks. A shipping tragedy. The impact of the collision cut electricity plunging the ship into darkness as water quickly began to fill the craft. The rescue teams are trying to identify the drowned. = drum. to capsize v. Scores of dead passengers were pulled from the water because without proper clothing. but there are speculations that unsecured cargo shifted. = a muri. 134. to keel over v. Water rushed in through the doors and the ferry went down with a heavy loss of life. in which one hundred and eight people are believed o have perished. Eighty people are feared drowned in a ferry disaster which took place in the early hours of the morning. to mount v. = puţin adânc. Rescuers mounted an air-sea search involving lifeboats and helicopters. to list v. = scufundat. dense adj. Rescue efforts were hampered by adverse weather conditions and low temperatures. = a organiza. Those passengers who are still unaccounted for are believed to be still trapped inside the submerged vessel. B. to ram v. M. A ferry is reported to have capsized soon after leaving the harbour of Icenberg in what could be the worst tragedy since the Titanic. SEA COLLISIONS 1. = dens. sank in shallow coastal waters after striking a reef in dense fog 3 miles off Gueno. = a recupera. pp. As the ship began to keel over. The Rose of the Seas bound for Galamos. the ferry was sliced in two and sank within seconds. The officials are putting the figure at three hundred and fifty drowned.. = înmărmurit.. the chances of survival in cold water are few. Limba engleză pentru jurnalişti.2.

workable adj. There was no electricity because water has flooded the ship. folos. mari pierderi în oameni – h_________ l_________ of l_________ 10. 132 . Each line stands for one word: 1. obişnuit. The ferry was on its way from Galamos to Gueno. workaday adj. 5.t_________ b________ d_________ 8. de fiecare zi. pasageri cuprinsi de panica – p_________-s________ p_________ 7. a strecura. tehn capacitate de a fi prelucrat. 7. cuvinte. a fermenta (d. 6. muncă. a cauza. 8. activitate. EXERCISES I. = cenuşiu. a da ordinal de părăsire a vasului – g_________ an o_________ to a____________ the s__________ 3. all in the day’s ~ potrivit aşteptărilor. The tanker went down alongside the ferry. a munci. Tick the statements true or false 1. o maşinărie) care funcţionează sau poate fi pusă în mişcare. echipaj slab pregătit – i__________-p________ c_________ 11. 3. realist. 3. tehn a funcţiona. a coase. 4. to work v. a lucra zi şi noapte – w_______ a__________ the c_________ 4.II. ~ in 1. It is likely that eighty bodies will be found inside the wreck. mighty ~s minuni. Complete the following phrases. = 1. = 1. a determina. a fi inserat (într-un text). 6. prosaic. What caused the heavy loss of life in each one of them? II. se aflau sub puntea superioară . a convinge. 3. The wreck is lying at a depth of three miles. 5. The ferry sank as a result of a collision. What were the causes of the accidents described above? 2. LEXICAL COMMENTARY work n. uzinabilitate. a se scufunda în câteva secunde – s_________ w________ s__________ 6. aplicabilitate. drojdie). med a avea effect. idei) a se strecura. masă de lucru/montaj. a tricota. pl mechanism. 3. încărcătură nefixată bine – u_________ c___________ 9. B. 9. = 1. 2. The ferry sank too quickly for the passengers to get to the decks. lucru. treabă. tehn prelucrabil. 2. a produce. a introduce a insera (abil într-un text). şansa de a supravieţui – c___________ of s___________ III. condiţii meteo nefavorabile – a_________ w_______ c_________ 13. a lucra. Phrases to learn. instalaţii (echipamente) cu defecte – f__________ d____________ 12. 7. (d. (d. Reading and comprehension 1. 4. a expedia repede pe cineva. to make short ~ of smb a termina repede cu cineva. 2. impact al coliziunii – i_________ of the c__________ 2. a modela 8. 2. a broda. un plan) aplicabil. tăiat pe jumătate – s__________ i____ t________ 5. realizabil. fig a influenţa. 2. the ~s of a watch mecanismele unui ceas. So many people died because the captain delayed giving the order to abandon the ship. workability n. The rescue operation is being carried out only during the day. utilitate. ~bench tehn masă de tâmplărie. = 1. (d. 2.

Is sea travel any safer nowadays than in the old days when people crossed the oceans on sailing ships? 2. A … is a large building where large quantities of goods are stored until they are exported to other countries or distributed to shops to be sold. 27. Ships use … to avoid colliding with each other in fog. breakwaters. 22. capsize. deck. submarine. 18. radar. ship. In case of a collision at sea there are certain rules that are supposed to be followed concerning evacuation. propeller. 20. The smoke was pouring from the … 14. gangway. crew. bridge. When the … spins round. 2. We threw a … to the man who had fallen into the sea. 26. dock. Bob took me down the river in his old … 5. They cast the … to hold the ship on position. 9. steamships. I pulled on the … to make the boat go faster. The divers found the … of an old ship on the sea-bed. 11. sailor. I made my way to the upper … to admire the seascape. The … is the ship’s officer who is one rank below the captain. poop. The … are waiting for instructions from the Captain. 21. It is believed that the accident happened because of the crew’s negligence. Do you know when … replaced sailing ships? 12. The depth of the sea or position of an underwater object can be determined with the help of … 4. A … is a sailing boat used for pleasure. 6. 10. rudders. 24. What factors may increase the risk of passengers’ drowning in case of a collision or fire? 3. A … can travel under the surface of the sea. 7. 13. 16. Some ships … when struck by huge waves. warehouse. bow. We’ve booked a first-class … on this ship. boat. Complete the sentences below with one of the appropriate words or phrases connected with SHIPPING: anchor. Do you know what they are? V. it causes the ship to move forward or backward. 19. periscopes. A … sank last week and all the passengers and crew were drowned. mast. harbour. The … with its flashing light. Topics for discussion 1. cabin. The … is a vertical piece of wood or metal at the back of a boat which is used to steer the boat. 17. 133 . My brother is a … in the Romanian navy. The sailor climbed the … 8. 25. lifeboats. mate. Many people died of hypothermia. funnel. 15. wreck. sonar. … are carried by ships to save people in case the ship sinks. All the ships stayed in the … during the storm. IV. lighthouse. 23. 11. A … is s ea voyage for pleasure. yacht 1. guides ships or warns them of danger. A … is a movable bridge by means of which people can get on or off a boat. captain. 3.10. lifebelt. Is taking a cruise on a sea liner as romantic as is widely believed? 4. cruise. oars.

unloaded or repaired. Translate into English: 1. Any ship is commanded by its … 35. S-a răsturnat complet şi. 33. Se presupune că încărcătura neasigurată s-a mişcat şi a produs înclinarea navei. probabil. 34. 32. A … is a small round window on the side of a ship. s-a scufundat feribotul Rose of the Seas. … are used in submarines in order to see above the surface of the water. Feribotul s-a ciocnit de un recif de corali la douăzeci de mile de Gueno. Scafandrii investighează feribotul scufundat pentru a descoperi corpurile pasagerilor. S-au salvat doar câţiva pasageri. Echipajul feribotului nu era pregătit pentru o avarie de acest gen. 30. pe care. Feribotul s-a scufundat la scurt timp după părăsirea portului din Icenberg. Salvatorii acţionează din bărci de salvare şi elicoptere. The … of a ship is the raised part from which the ship is steered and where the captain stands. 3. multe persoane nu au ajuns la bărcile de salvare. au pierit o sută opt persoane. built in order to protect a harbour. 134 . 31. The … is the raised part at the back end of an old sailing ship.28. A … is a place in a port where ships are loaded. restul au pierit blocaţi sub punte. 29. … are very large walls of stone that extend from the shore into the sea. s-a izbit de un petrolier. 2. deşi căpitanul a ordonat părăsirea vasului. V. Materialul de salvare s-a dovedit ineficient. The … is the front part of a ship which cuts through the water when the ship is moving forward. la primele ore ale dimineţii. Astăzi. Condiţiile atmosferice nefavorabile au îngreunat acţiunea de salvare. Un alt feribot.

sulphuric acid n. and the presence of oxygen constitutes or produces their acidity”. litmus). and phosphorus. In the kitchen.(fig. With increasing knowledge. sodium chloride. 6. acrime. carbonate (a salt of carbonic acid) n.şasiu. = basiditate (calitatea de a fi o bază). The bases include the oxides and the hydroxides of the metals. = 1.(tehn. metallic oxide. 2.1. salinity n. (adapted Dobrovici. are usually corrosive. part or all of which can be replaced when the acid is treated with a metal. hydroxide n.) acru. pp.temei. BASES AND SALTS In his study of the properties of oxygen.e. 5. ACIDS. = hidroxid (compus al oxidului cu apa). adj. = 1.g.g. 2. WORDS AND PHRASES acid n. 2. The term was originally intended to express the idea that the metal or metal oxide was the more important constituent.(fig. BIOCHEMICAL AND FOOD ENGINEERING 2. basicity n. A base is substance which reacts with an acid to produce a salt and water. 5. 4. = 1. gives the acid characters to the acids. = acid sulfuric. Humphrey Davy suggested the possibility that hydrogen. Viorica & Ioan Bostaca: English in Medicine.bază. sodium chloride n. Lavoisier noticed that when certain elements were burnt in oxygen. sulphur. = salinitate. aciditate (calitatea de a fi un acid). it was found that Lavoisier's theory led to confusion and error.fundament. it can be said that acids usually have a sour taste.5. base n.(fig. hydroxide. 7. 135 . In modern Chemistry. the word "salt" is a descriptive term applied to a distinct family of substances and not to any particular individual. In 1815. the resulting oxide forms an acid with water .suport.) aspru.postament. redden the blue colour of vegetable substance (e. and it was gradually abandoned by chemists. sarcastic. acidity n. = acid. = carbonat. VOCABULARY I. Hence Lavoisier concluded (1777) that "oxygen is an essential element common to all acids. A salt is produced by replacing all or part of the hydrogen of an acid by a metal or basic radical. and certain groups of elements equivalent to a metal. "salt" is colloquially applied to one specific individual.77-78) A. = oxid de metal. but he did not rush to the other extreme and say that all hydrogen rounds are necessarily acids. = clorură de sodiu.5.II. or carbonate. In a crude sort of way. and contain hydrogen. 4. = radical basic.2. TEXTS FOR CHEMICAL. basic radical n.) caustic. = hârtie turnesol.fundaţie. litmus paper n. 3. metal oxide n. 3.) cu caracter acid. This idea was dropped when it was recognized that the acidic constituent of a salt is just as important as the basic constituent. not oxygen. the foundation or base of a salt.

to give. III. to intend. The hydrogen determines the characteristic properties of the compounds. 3. VI. Salts are compounds when metals replace the hydrogen in acids. Acids. to show. to result. possibility. Denumirea bazelor se formează adăugânduse. to burn. to conclude. to suggest. V. Give antonyms to the following words: common. O proprietate esenţială a metalelor este aceea de a forma oxizi bazici. 136 . to know. de regulă. EXERCISES I. to detect. salts and bases are three great classes of chemical compounds.B. to recognize. What is a base? Give an example of a base. 7. Why was this theory of acids abandoned? 4. to produce. Sodium chloride is an indispensable article of animal food. to treat. to displace. Greutatea atomică a unui element reprezintă o valoare intrinsecă a elementului respectiv. 5. Read the following sentences and make questions: 1. necessarily. What was Lavoisier's oxygen theory of acids? 3. II. specific. Denumirile acizilor derivă din denumirile acelor elemente din care provin.cuvântul hidroxid (conţine ân molecula grupul hidroxil OH). Give the principal forms of the following verbs: to notice. to produce. Înroşirea hârtiei albastre de turnesol este inerentă în cazul prezenţei unui acid. What was Davy's opinion about acids? 5. to find. Give nouns corresponding to the following verbs and translate them into Romanian: to result. What is a salt? Give an example. Denumirile sărurilor derivă din denumirile acizilor şi ale metalelor din care ele se formează. increasing. 4. to say. The salts are the largest class of compounds in nature. to constitute. Translate into English the following sentences: La sfârşitul veacului al XVIII-lea s-a schimbat împărţirea elementelor chimice în două grupe: metale şi metaloizi. to apply. Reading and comprehension: 1. What are the properties of the acids? 6. What did Lavoisier notice when certain elements were burnt in oxygen? 2. IV. 2. Drept criteriu de baza pentru stabilirea grupei de care aparţine un element sau altul serveşte caracterul chimic al produselor care s-au obţinut de pe urma oxidării elementelor respective. similar. to react. to lead. distinct.

that the idea has been still further extended. (adapted from Dobrovici. reduction must also be similarly extended. As chemistry developed. Viorica & Ioan Bostaca: English in Medicine. 3. For example. Conversely. as understood when referred simply to changes in the oxygen and hydrogen content of a compound. for example. and similarly. adăugare. Ferric oxide in its turn is a base which with acids forms ferric salts.5. or vice versa. on exposure to air.adaos. the addition of hydrogen closely resembles reduction as previously understood. 2. is thus a process which adds oxygen to an element or compound. Similar reasoning to the above indicates that the conversion of mercuric chloride. WORDS AND PHRASES addition n. Fe2O3. Hence the term oxidation must be extended to cover this process. This is the original idea underlying the terms oxidation and reduction. by the oxygen of the air. is a base which gives rise to a series of salts called the ferrous salts.clearly oxidation has occurred. to ferric oxide. ferrous oxide. The same reagents will often bring about both addition of oxygen and removal of hydrogen. adăugire. Now a solution of a soluble ferrous salt. in the simplest case. the removal of oxygen from a compound containing it.2. for example. HgCl2.2. Ferrous oxide can be oxidized.) adunare. FeO. as for example when barium oxide is heated in air to a suitable temperature and thereby converted into barium dioxide. is known as reduction. is a process of reduction. For example. 4. Ferrous and ferric salts thus stand in the same relationship to each other as ferrous and ferric oxides.(chim) adiţie. OXIDATION AND REDUCTION The conversion of an element into its oxide by direct combination with oxygen is the simplest case of oxidation. any process which will convert an element into its oxide is an oxidation. But ferrous chloride can be converted very simply into ferric chloride by the action of chlorine which must be reckoned to be an oxidation since it is agreed that the conversion of ferrous chloride into ferric chloride is an oxidation. and is the simplest use. The reverse of this process.) corp străin. = 1. (matem. 137 . the idea of oxidation and reduction was extended to cover these cases. that is. pp. Thus. It soon became evident. But no oxygen has taken part in the process. For example.82-3) A. VOCABULARY I. An analogous process may involve the combination of a compound already containing some oxygen with still more oxygen. ferrous chloride is converted partly into ferric chloride and partly into ferric hydroxide. Similarly. the copper oxide is said to be reduced to copper. 5. when calcium is heated in air it is oxidized to calcium oxide. Oxidation.adiţionare. Hence. and the changes brought about in the state of combination of an element are similar. that the process of removing hydrogen from a compound containing that element involves something closely akin to oxidation as indicated above. will slowly turn to the ferric salt . completare. when copper oxide is converted into copper by passing hydrogen over the heated oxide. 6. however. it was realized that some processes which do not directly involve hydrogen and oxygen at all are in principle so closely related to oxidation and reduction. (tehn.

Synonyms suitable . = săruri feroase. ferric salts n. What was realized as Chemistry developed? 5. "the parents found the girl suitable for their son". 4. LEXICAL COMMENTARY Chemistry = the science dealing with the intimate constitution of substances. Does hydrogene intervene in this conversion? 6. "a funeral conducted the appropriate solemnity".(rel. = săruri ferice. "water fit to drink". ferrous oxide = oxid feros. ferric hydroxide = hidroxid feric. the removal of oxygen n. "an eligible bachelor".) conversiune. schimb. "fit for duty". Are oxidation and reduction reciprocal processes? 7. "it is fit and proper that you be there". preschimbare. How was the idea of oxidation and reduction extended? 4. the elements and their mutual reactions. transformare. "Is this a suitable dress for the office?". fit to – meeting adequate standards for a purpose. schimbarea categoriei gramaticale. eligible – qualified for or allowed or worthy of being chosen. worthy – worthy of being chosen especially as a spouse. = clorura mercurică.= 1. desirable. = oxidare. suitable for a particular person or place or condition etc. appropriate . What happens when barrium oxide is heated in air? 3. II. B. chemical compound = a substance formed by chemical union of two or more elements or ingredients in definite proportion by weight. 2. "do as you see fit to". 6.barium oxide n .(tehn.= oxid de barium. "a fit subject for discussion". 2. by the chemical action if" any resulting. conversion n. fit. reduction n. What is the extended definition of oxidation and reduction? 138 . = reactiv. and the phenomena resulting from the formation and decomposition of compounds. EXERCISES I. = oxid de cupru. 5. reagent = something added to a complex solution to determine. "eligible for retirement benefits". Reading and comprehension: 1. oxidation n. reagent n. the presence or absence of a certain substance. fit for.) conversie. ferrous salts n. = scoaterea oxigenului. 3.dezoxidare. "it seems that an apology is appropriate". mercuric chloride n. "a tractor suitable (or fit) for heavy duty".= 1.suitable for the desired purpose. What is oxidation? What is the simplest case of oxidation? 2. copper oxide n. "not an appropriate (or fit) time for flippancy".meant or adapted for an occasion or use. mercurous chloride = clorura mercuroasă.reducere. conversiune. Inorganic Chemistry = the chemistry of compounds not containing carbon. Organic Chemistry = the chemistry of substances containing combustible carbon compounds. ferric chloride = clorura ferica. "eligible to run for office". ferric oxide = oxid feric. ferrous chloride = clorura feroasă.

simple. He didn’t think fit to do what I suggested. 139 . Do you think that I did a suitable translation? III. 4. 10. similar. slow. IV. dezlipirea sa. Reacţiile din al doilea tip se numesc reacţii de oxidare – reducere. Translate into Romanian paying attention to the words: suitable. close. Is he fit to travel yet? 6. 9. This book is not appraopriate for children. This is not a suitable word for the Romanian "căldură" is "heat". previous. Don't forget to take suitable clothes for cold weather. iar prin reducere. Denumirea ne arată că prin oxidare se înţelegea initial numai alipirea oxigenului. clear. Give adverbs corresponding to the following adjectives: direct.II. fit. 8. 7. 2. That man is not fit for the position. 1. Translate into English: Toate procesele chimice anorganice pot fi împărţite în două grupe: a) reacţii care au loc fără schimbarea valenţei elementelor ce reacţionează şi b) schimbarea valenţei. appropriate. 5. He has been ill and is not fit for a trip. Sensul cuvintelor “oxidare” şi “reducere” poate fi totusi generalizat dacă se ţine seama de faptul că oxigenul atrage întotdeauna electronul din elementul care se uneşte cu el. We must decide on a fit time and place for the meeting.

Thus. = amoniac. • In a reversible reaction. as well as its acceleration. Such substances are called catalysts or catalytic agents and the general phenomenon of the alteration of the speed of reaction by the presence of catalytic agents is termed catalysis. Viorica & Ioan Bostaca: English in Medicine. 2.2. 1. As an example of homogenous catalysis in the vapour phase. the commonest examples of this type are those of the catalysis of reactions in solution where the catalysts are also soluble. though the more familiar and more practically important cases of catalysis concern the increase in speed. and the production of ammonia by the combination of nitrogen and hydrogen in presence of ferric oxide and traces of molybdenum.5.. • Only a small amount of catalyst is necessary to produce a measurable effect. of substances which do not appear in the equation for the reaction. = suprafeţe de separare. A catalyst may thus be defined as a substance which. when present in comparatively small amount. WORDS AND PHRASES alteration of the speed n. In heterogenous catalysis. influences the speed of a chemical reaction without itself undergoing any permanent change in quantity or chemical composition. that is to say. Important examples are the manufacture of sulphur trioxide from sulphur dioxide and oxygen in the presence of platinum. ammonia n. = modificarea vitezei. It is also affected by the presence of small quantities of foreign substances. mention may be made of the fact that carbon monoxide and oxygen will not combine unless a trace of water vapour is present. boundary surfaces n. Cases of homogenous catalysis are those in which the catalyst is not separated from the reacting mixture by a surface. pp. VOCABULARY I. and also upon the concentration of the reacting. temperature and pressure) under which it takes place. but only alters the speed of the reaction.3. CATALYSIS A chemical reaction depends upon the physical conditions (i.e. 140 . the catalyst is separated from the reacting mixture by boundary surfaces. substances. A typical example is the acceleration of the hydrolysis of ethyl acetate by the presence of a small quantity of a strong acid such as hydrochloric acid. and which can be recovered unchanged chemically after the reaction is over. The phenomena of catalysis are usually considered under two main headings: homogenous catalysis and heterogenous catalysis.86-7) A. it does not alter the final state of equilibrum in a reversible reaction. Catalysis is generally taken to include the retardation of a reaction. the catalyst alters the speed of the forward and back reactions to the same extent. • The catalyst cannot start a reaction. (adapted Dobrovici. The usually accepted criteria of catalysis are: • The catalyst must remain unchanged in amount and in chemical composition at the end of the reaction. The addition of the acid causes a very large increase in the rate of hydrolysis.

sulphur dioxide = bioxid de sulf. Reading and Comprehension: 1.) recul. catalyses) = the action of a catalyst. homogenous catalysis = cataliza omogenă. = molibden. measurable effect n.symbols and signs expressing a chemical action. chemical reaction = interactions in which atoms exchange or share electrons. What is catalysis? 5. forming new chemicals. = oxid de carbon. mod de a reacţiona. main headings n. LEXICAL COMMENTARY catalysis n. retardation implies any agent that retards or delays or hinder (are sensul de întârziere. (pl. EXERCISES I. tărăgănare). 7. catalysis equation for the reaction n. Is there a large amount of catalyst necessary? 7. = un efect apreciabil. 5. General meaning: the extent to which something is delayed or held back. 4. = a sentence in chemical language. = acetat de etil. (fiz) compresiune. reacting substances = substanţe reactante. The delay of the train is because of the heavy snowfall. sulphur trioxide = trioxid de sulf. = agent catalizator. = amestec reactant. What does a chemical reaction depend upon? 2. chemical composition = The unit cell of any substance will contain one or and integral multiple of chemical formula units. 6. molybdenum n. lack of normal development of intellectual capacities. = grupe principale. 3. delay is the act of delaying. Are there any substances which do not appear in the equation for the reaction? 3. reaction n. Synonyms … the retardation of a reaction retardation. (tehn. = 1. After a delay of two hours they arrived at the office. The retardation in development of the children may have many causes. How are these substances called? 4.carbon monoxide n. What are the usually accepted criteria of catalysis? 141 . imediat without further delay = fără să mai întârzii B. especially an increase in the rate of a chemical reaction. delay are synonyms. How may we define a catalyst? 6.) şoc.) forţă de reacţiune. II.reacţie. inactivity resulting in something being put off until a later time (întârziere. The retardation was due to the snow. a sequence of . ethyl acetate n. (fiz. = ecuaţia reacţiei. without delay = fără întârziere. reversible ~ = reacţie reversibilă. Mineral formulas are based on the relationship to unit cell volume and the positions of atoms within the unit cell. equation (chemical) n. 2. catalytic agent n. reacting mixture n. heterogenous catalysis = cataliza heterogenă. (psihol. răspuns.despre mişcare sau progres).

A . 6.. Give antonyms to the following words: concentration.acidul sulfuric – sunt bazate pe procesele catalitice. Toata gama proceselor catalitice poate fi redusă la doua cazuri generale: cataliza omogena şi eterogenă... III. alteration. soluble. Did you notice the . Deşi primele observaţiuni referitoare la influenţa substanţelor .. I have noticed a great . 7. My opinions have undergone a . after the reaction. în cazul al doilea însă aparţin unor faze diferite. There is much . Fill in the blanks choosing the words among the following synonyms: change. small quantities... in him lately. unchanged.. Translate into English: Metodele tehnice servind la fabricarea celui mai important produs al industriei chimice .... in the weather is announced. .. Are there many types of catalysis? 9. it is not the same as it was fifteen years ago when I was a student. 3. in her voice? 5..străine" în desfăşurarea proceselor chimice au fost făcute încă din secolul al XVIII-lea. main. you made to your coat did not change its style.. I noticed the .. modification: 1. We breakfast at 8 o'clock for a . usually.8.. IV. strong. The . 8.. II. appear. 2. 4. of his tone. cât şi catalizatorul aparţin uneia şi aceleiaşi faze. 142 . Primul se caracterizeaza prin faptul că atât substanţele din reacţie. in this town. 10... dezvoltarea rapidă a studiului catalizei începe abia în secolul nostru. presence. What is homogenous catalysis? Give an example. What is heterogenous catalysis? Give an example.

some amino acids contain a second carboxyl group (e. lysine) or the imidazole ring (histidine). and then briefly at the proteins they make up. Some a second basic group. all this work rests on the basic principles of organic structural theory: on the concepts of bond angle and bond length. in the last analysis.g. muscle. Fibrous proteins serve as the chief structural materials of animal tissues. the number of different protein molecules that are possible. or sails.g. hydrogen bonding. or a potential carboxyl group in the form of a carboxamide (e. The difference in solubility between the two classes is a result of a difference in molecular shape. proteins must almost certainly be ranked first.group alpha to it. The number of different combinations. or they are the substance of life. acidity and basicity. Each of these ring systems or functional groups its own typical set of reactions. Twenty-six acids have been found in proteins. All are alpha-amino carboxylic acids. This common feature gives the amino acids a common set of chemical properties. resonance. configuration and conformation. Proteins are divided into two broad classes: fibrous proteins. AMINO ACIDS AND PROTEINS The name of protein is taken from the Greek proteinos which means first. halogen or sulphur atoms. which are insoluble in water. Proteins make up a large part of the animal body. In other respects. They are the principal material of skin. these are called acidic amino acids.4. Our chief purpose will be to see the ways in which the structures of se enormously complicated molecules are being worked out. these units can be of twenty-six or more different kinds. proteins are high polymers. It is likely that tens of thousands of different proteins are required to make up and run an animal body.. and how. and blood. which must be fed to young animals if proper growth is to take place: these particular amino acids evidently cannot be synthesized by the animal. they hold it together. We shall look first at the chemistry of the amino acids. phenolic or alcoholic hydroxil groups.5. and this set of proteins not identical with the set required by an animal of a different kind. and globular proteins. which are soluble in water or aqueous solutions of acids. group size and shape. asparagine). is almost infinite.. and many hormones. Some of the amino acids contain benzene or heterocyclic ring systems. They make 143 . and the monomers from which they are derived are the amino carboxylic acids. the structure of these compounds varies rather widely. aspartic acid or glutamic acid). bases. Certain of these are the essential amino acids. antibodies. In addition to I carboxyl group and the amino. This name is well-chosen. nerves. and they run it. that is. a function to which their insolubility and fibre-forming tendency suit them.g.2. the other materials in its diet. of enzymes. one of which is the ability to form the long amide chains that make up proteins. Of all chemical compounds. They are polyamides. which is indicated in a rough way by their names. which may be an amino group (e. Chemically.. in two cases (proline and hydroxyproline) the amino-group forms part of a pyrrolidine ring. They are found in all living cells. optical activity. these are called basic amino acids. A single protein molecule contains hundreds or even thousands of amino acid units. tendons.

= celule vii. which transports oxygen from the lungs to the tissues. = proteina albuminei oului. especially solubility: for example. coagulated by heat). = nucleu imidazolic. = carboxamida. shows the phenomenon of denaturation. responsible for allergies and for defence against foreign organisms. hair. = nuclee heterociclice. is denaturation of the protein egg albumin. globulins (insoluble in water. precipitins. carboxamide n. Denaturation causes a fundamental change in a protein. for example. many hormones. polypeptides do not undergo denaturation. heterocyclic ring systems n. = a chemical substance. itself remaining apparently unchanged in the process. in tendons. They make up: all enzymes. fibrous protein fibrin. egg white n. high polymers n. in particular destroying any physiological activity. the clotting of blood n. antibody n. presumably because their molecules are smaller and less complex. it contains a relatively large amount of sulphur. imidazole ring n.up: keratin. albumins (soluble in water. and thus causes the clotting of blood. or various other agents. are antibodies. proteins are subdivided on the basis of physical properties. = polimeri inalţi. or neutralizes their toxin. the nucleic acids. nails. = 1. for example. (adapted Dobrovici. called denaturation. Globular proteins serve a variety of functions related to the maintenance and regulation of the life process. antibodies. strong. etc. II. is caused by heat. in skin. functions that require mobility and hence solubility. alpha-amino carboxylic acids n. antitoxins. = albuş de ou. horn. insulin (from the pancreas). formed in one organ or part of the body and carried in the blood to another organ or part which it stimulates to functional activity or secretion. = coagularea sângelui. which is converted into the insoluble. keratin n. protein egg albumin n. which acts as a ferment. in muscle. = any substance in the blood-serum or other fluids of the body which exerts a specific restrictive or destructive action on bacteria or other noxa. = nucleu pirolidinic. Only one other class of compounds. LEXICAL COMMENTARY enzyme n. wool. WORDS AND PHRASES denaturation n. as. secreted by the body cells. Within the two broad classes. Viorica & Bostaca. Irreversible precipitation of proteins. The extreme ease with which many proteins are denatured makes their study difficult. myosin. living cells n. hormone n. pyrrolidine ring n. Ioan: English in Medicine. It is insoluble in the gastric juice 144 .115-6) A. in silk. soluble in dilute salt solutions). VOCABULARY I. inducing chemical changes in other substances by catalysis. and feathers. albumin in eggs. hemoglobin. = alfa-aminoacizi carboxilici. pp. = a scleroprotein or albuminoid present largely in cuticular structures. fibroin. denaturare. collagen. ids or bases. fibrinogen. Although closely related to the proteins. Coagulation of egg white by heat. = an organic substance of colloid structure. agglutinins etc.

varieties of albumin are found in blood. to convert. Reading and comprehension 1. Organismul animal foloseşte numai aminoacizi. 5. B. ci sunt luaţi de acesta din hrană. to maintain. the part was. 9. to fold.. to require. EXERCISES I. it.. exactly. the plan.. fibroin n. this piece of furniture in one month. = a white insoluble protein substance forming the main portion of cobweb and silk.. to indicate. Though difficult... What are the chemical properties of the amino acids? 7. execute. bone (ossein and cartilage). A cold prevented him from ... s-a constatat că unii aminoacizi sunt indispensabili creşterii animalelor tinere şi funcţionării normale a organismului adult. Because of his efforts things are . They .. When one promises a thing. albumin n. milk and muscle. What are the essential amino acids? What kind of acids are they? 6.. What are proteins from the chemical point of view? 2. 1.. in this play? 11. 6. to denaturate. to tend. The head of department. proteinele sunt hidrolizate până la aminoacizi.. to be... What operation is he . What do some of the amino acids contain? II. How many amino acids have been found in proteins? 5. IV.. accomplish... to subdivide.. 4. 2. How many proteins are required to make up and run an animal body? 4.. three plays within a week. 145 .the orders willingly. to approach. Give nouns corresponding to the following verbs and translate them into Romanian: to divide. ? III. Aceşti aminoacizi numiţi esenţiali nu sunt deci sintetizaţi de organismul animal. Translate into English: În cursul digestiei. 3. We could not . to destroy. = an albuminoid present in connective tissue. What part did he . He . 12. one must.and it is for this reason sometimes used for coating pills which are intended to be dissolved only in the intestine.. pentru construirea propriilor sale proteine şi pentru alte sinteze sau degradări. on boiling with water it is converted into gelatin. collagen n. his work. Alţi aminoacizi pot lipsi din hrană fără nici un inconvenient. the will of the president. We .. 8. 10. Prin experienţe de alimentaţie cu amestecuri de aminoacizi. to coagulate. 7. What does a single protein molecule contain? 3.. to transport. Fill in the blanks choosing the words among the following synonyms: perform. to determine. = a simple protein widely distributed throughout the tissues and fluids of plants and animals. nu şi proteine sau peptide. When she promised a thing she was scrupulous in .. it..

conferinţã. = hidrat de carbon. and claims to be best-selling diet ever. Verdict: Initial weight-loss is likely to be due to losing water rather than fat. VOCABULARY I. Unfortunate side effects have been reported.dietã. f. Verdict: Digesting food does burn the calories. a pune la regim. Extremely fashionable but with debatable scientific basis. alimentaţie. but in such tiny proportions.a ţine. You might be thinner.5. biscuits. WORDS AND PHRASES carbohydrate n. Hay diet Premise: It’s not what you eat. It’s difficult t eat more meta without eating more fat. 38) A. logically.5. low-fat plan. 3. d. lead to weight gain. It’s a myth that sweets make you fat and rot your teeth. Verdict: A mixture of foods is necessary for a healthy metabolism – vitamin C. p.hranã. 146 . you’ll lose weight. Grapefruit diet Premise: More energy is spent digesting grapefruit and other fruit like celery than is contained in the food itself. adunare parlamentarã. regim alimentar (to be on diet = a fi la dietã). Cabbage soup diet Premise: By eating nothing but soup made from cabbage and a few other vegetables you can lose up to six kilos a week. By replacing sugar. which is linked to hart disease and cancer. diet n. e.dietã. = 1. Mixing acid and alkaline is strictly forbidden. potatoes and bread with meat. no fat. Inside Out.2. 2. c. advocating lots of fruit and fibre.congres. chocolate and sugary soft drinks – ‘not the villains they are made out to be’. 6. No-carbohydrate diet Premise: High-carbohydrate diets. Verdict: Commonsense disguised as new scientific breakthrough. the thinner you get. Verdict: Most of the weight loss is due to water loss. and the weight returns when you move back on the solids. it’s what you eat it with. but your arteries won’t be happy. helps the absorption of iron. F-plan diet Premise: This is the original high-carbohydrate. so shouldn’t be eaten with protein. Carbohydrates can’t be digested in acid conditions. pasta. 5. vegetables and dairy products. The 80s favourite has been translated into sixteen languages. you would have to eat a vast amount to notice any difference. FOOD FATS Diets a. 4. so tuck into another bar of chocolate. Vaughan Jones. Upper Intermediate. so fruit should never be allowed anywhere near a main meal. not fat. b. Verdict: Just as a dentist! (Sue Kay. The more you eat. for example.a ţine regim. System S diet Premise: The way to get thin is to eat sugar-coated cereals.

How can physical exercise improve mental and social health? 3.weight n. COOK 5. He ………. milk. he is a man of weight = e un om cu greutate. 2. metabolism n. to get/grow ~ = a se îngrãşa. cauliflower.lãptãrie. chocolate. cheese. 3. = 1.(fig. Reading and comprehension: 1. EXPENSE 7. Our holiday was quite ……….fibrã. beer. CRIME 9. = 1. pasta.recently so you can never find one that works. sausages. peas. grapes. melon. 1. 2. fish. 3. ice cream. bread. Complete each sentence with a word formed from the word in capitals.unsoare. potatoes. = metabolism (reacţiile chimice care au loc în organism). A lot of telephone boxes have been ………. BRAKES 3. III. (şi dairy farm) fermã pentru creşterea vacilor cu lapte. calory (-ies) n. 4..) a împovãra. = 1. naturã. cakes. 3. fat(s) n. (fig) fire.. juice. to cut up ~ = a lãsa o moştenire serioasã.and he’s in prison for burglary and the moment. 2. influenţã.importanţã. to live on the ~ of the land = a huzuri.a îngreuia. VANDAL 8. beans.. John Irving is my favourite ……….. GROW 6. but he was going too fast and went straight over the handlebars. carrots. 2.greutate. cucumbers.. onion.magazin de produse lactate. When can you say that a person is healthy? 2. to lose ~ = a slãbi. Katy went on a ………course last year to learn how to make curries. biscuits. bananas. a copleşi. I wouldn’t want to be a ……………… because I’d have to be away from home so much. Can we speak about food education? 4. bring arguments each time: apples. pears. 4. to carry ~ = a fi influent. fibre n. lettuce. coffee. povarã. plums. unturã.) greutate. Sarah’s uncle is a ……. Could I have some more? TASTE 4. 5. încãrcãturã.. That soup was very ……………. = calorii. weight v. adj = gras. to put on /gain ~ = a se îngrãşa. water melon. B. radishes. grãsime. = 1. EXERCISES I.filament. dairy n.. mushrooms.and I’ve just finished his latest book. Can teachers help students with having a healthy life as related to food and physical exercise? Would you suggest any measures for that? II.…his shoes already and is complaining that they’re too tight. tomatoes. chicken. a adãuga o greutate la. dairy products = produse lactate..sarcinã.greutate folositã la cântãrit.. jam. garlic. Dan has . tea. NOVEL 147 .because we took a tent instead of staying in a hotel and we hired bikes instead of a car.as he came up to the corner. SAIL 2. Read the list of food and drink below and tell your fellows what you like and what you don’t. 2.. beef.vaci cu lapte (ale unei ferme).(fig. = 1. peaches. pork. eggs. valoare. bacon.. oranges.

every evening. heard of. they resort to all kinds of diets to lose weight.’ VI. etc. ENTERTAIN IV. Point out the advantages and the disadvantages of your own diet.. Make up a list of what you should do and what you shouldn’t do while dining out. Describe a ‘miracle diet’ you’ve taken up. which are not always good for their health in general. The cruise ship that we were on was fantastic – there were different……….10. You are dining out with your girl/ boyfriend. Female adolescents are particularly interested in having a slim. For this. V. attractive appearance. Write an essay of about 300 words on the following topic: ‘An ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure. which you consider to be harmless for your health. 148 . including a jazz singer and an amazing magician.

9. a explora. a distruge. terapie. but may also have some downsides.medicament. cercetare (research work = cercetare ştiinţificã). 2. îngrijorare. 8. tonic. 3. 7. 149 . 3. relaxant. p. and it can cause blood-sugar levels to rise quickly. ruinã. slãbire (a sãnãtãţii). discomfort n.nelinişte. as this is just as likely to cause tooth decay as any other sugary treat.medicinã. = 1. a suferi. doctorie. = bactericid. investigaţie. leac. dulciuri. a se ruina. a suporta. 2.decãdere. 2. a studia. although research clearly shows that people with stomachs experience some relief soon after taking honey. Peter Sunderland. vb. to take medicine v.2.incomoditate. Secondly. descompunere.6. = (aici) bunătate. neajuns. 4. 4. 2. dummy n. 8.a strica.dezavantaj. = 5. 3. = 1. a transporta. 6. a căptuşi.moral.termen. a îngrijora. = 1. treat n. 3. is a specialist in stomach disorders. soothing adj.a aduce. a purta. cusur. Like all foods. a purta (o marcã. = benefic.reper. component(ã). hidr. remediu. studiu.a prezenta. healthy adj.. There is some doubt in the medical world as to whether UMF can destroy bacteria completely. = 1. but effective alternative to taking medicine: honey.a rodi.lipsã de confort.dătător de sănătate. borne/born) vb. a doctor from New Zealand. = 1. research n.(fam.a incomoda. line vb. 2. vb. a few reservations should be borne in mind. un sprijin). 3. a cerceta.sănătos. honey can be healthy if eaten in moderation. putrefacţie.(despre dinţi) = carie dentară.). = calmant.inconvenient. Honey contains the same number of calories as other types of sugar. VOCABULARY I.a avea. (Nick Kenny. leac. it is common knowledge how soothing hot water laced with honey and lemon can be for sore-throat sufferers. 3. 5. 5. = (aici) a umple. medicament. a da rod. farmece. 2. 7. 2. 4.a administra medicamente. Molan claims that the active component in honey is an antibacterial agent called UMF. to bear (bore.(geol. decay n.ruinare. 3. however. Dr. a purta (sentimente). a procura (un ajutor. explorare (geologicã etc.) cercetare. (înv) = 4. prăbuşire. WORDS AND PHRASES medicine n. component n. In accepting the beneficial effects of honey. a duce. That is why it’s best to line the stomach with some fibre first. a cãra. for example by following a main meal with a desert that incorporates honey. CAN HONEY HEAL? Peter Molan. = 1. 20) A. Thirdly. vrãjitorie. the popular belief that honey is healthier than sugar isn’t entirely well-founded. 4.a nelinişti.2.a purta. = (aici) suzetă. Firstly. under no circumstance should a baby’s dummy be dipped in honey before the baby sucks it. defect. = 1. vb.a vindeca. vb. un semn). CAE Practice Tests. beneficial adj. declin. 6. Is this yet another case of science simply giving credibility to what we have always known? After all.) a înghiţi hapul.a îngriji. = 1.a aduce dobândă. = 1. 2. tulburare.a face sa decadã.a face sã putrezeascã. 3. eating too much honey on an empty stomach can cause discomfort. a îndura. He offers his patients a simple.magie. antibacterial adj.a decãdea. downside n.5. 5. a aduce pe lume. a stingheri. a nutri. folositor.a da naştere.

EXERCISES I. drinking strong coffee. You build up stamina by: a. one hour very day. A balanced diet should include: a. cereals. 2. Then compare your answers with a partner. exercising regularly. What is the aerobic system? a. lungs and blood circulation. fibres and sugar. morphine c. to bear the weight of = a suporta povara. to bear witness = a aduce mãrturie. b. 5. Which of the following activities are best for keeping supple? a. horse-riding and jogging. c. to bear a grudge against somebody = a purta picã cuiva. b. calories. to bear in mind = a purta în minte. c. LEXICAL COMMENTARY Phrases / idioms with the verb TO BEAR to bear a child = a da naştere unui copil. rowing. b. b. B. twenty minutes three times a week. carbohydrates. to bear a resemblance/likeness = a fi asemãnãtor cu. gymnastics and karate. Reading and comprehension: 1. endorphins b. 150 . walking. to bear the expenses = a suporta cheltuielile. oxygen and carbon dioxide. one hour three times a week. the heart. make a list with the explanations) 1. to bear fruit = a da roade. a ţine seama de. b. record or tape. Do you know how it is made? II. 6. caffeine and glucose 4. eating fruit. Do the quiz below. To keep healthy you should exercise for at least… a. protein and fat. to bear a message = a duce un mesaj to bear a hand = a da o mânã de ajutor. c. water-skiing and wind-surfing. c. The ‘happy hormones’ that are released during exercise are called… a. an exercise video. c. yoga. What are the recognized positive effects of eating honey? 2. When is especially recommended to eat honey? 4.II. dolphins 3. When is it considered bad for the organism? 3. (tip: first of all look up for the meaning and content of the terms in italics.

tastes delicious. keeps the doctor away? (adapted form Sue Kay. you will die sooner. diet. chips. bacon. Sunbathing is: a. b. My sister likes chicken………. c. A………is a flat. Does Alice take any…………in her tea? 2.is a typical British meal. The main course of the meal consists of green………. medium. Would she like…………and eggs for breakfast? 20. loaf. honey. 10. We often make a……….7. 6. cheese. causes stomach aches. 13. A hangover is: a. menu. dish. very good for one’s bones.stuffed with rice and minced meat. icecream. My sister went on a…………. b.as a dressing for the salad. cream. c. 8. Complete the sentences below with one of the words or phrases connected with eating: appetizer. peppers.. pork. 5. How does he want his……. An apple a day: a.of bread.: rare. vinegar.very much.and butter? 4. a secret cure. If you drink too much coffee: a. soup. steak. They have cakes and icecream for………………. sandwich. Fish and……….with us this afternoon? 22.to lose weight. is good for your skin. a severe headache. bread. 11. noodles. course. an object you hang. b. meat. your heart gets diseased.. mustard. 15. tea. Your chicken soup with………. 9. Upper Intermediate. sugar. c.containing fish and garlic. 8. fried or scrambled……? 14. 16.. Would Jack rather have boiled. feast.. or well done? 12. What kind of………did Margaret have at the party? 7. wolfed. dough. You feel more energetic for some time. fried or grilled and then eaten in a bread roll. The English usually have a large meal in the evening and only a………at lunch time. pickles.with lettuce and tomatoes. salad. yoghurt 1. snack. eggs. Aunt Betty served us an interesting……………. mayonnaise. the best way to look better. carcinogenic. helping. eats. Our neighbours eat a lot of vegetables. dessert. 10.. b. Would you like some………... but no………… 19. c. provisions. 21. hamburger. 18. 35) III. round cake of minced meat. Vaughan Jones. Will you have……………. picnic. 3. Inside Out. p. salt. 151 . 9. Tom went to the baker’s for a……………. We mix some oil and ………. In summer children eat a lot of……… 17. We generally start our meals with an……….

26.. …………………is a sweet. thick fluid made by bees from the nectar of flowers. 37. 30.to sprinkle over the pasta. 29. 32.is a thick sauce made of egg yolk.and read it through.. Muslims never eat…………. IV. 40. 28. mother gave me a large…. Our food is in the…………….. 27.for a long time before she baked it.of pudding. 33.basket. For dessert we have strawberries and………………. ……………. A……………consists of two pieces of bread. The beggar……down what the woman gave him and hurried out. oil and lemon used on salads. I’m going to grate some………………. usually spread with butter. 36. Do you want some………….please! I want to add some to my soup.? 39. He sat down in the café. Pass me the………….. 25. Mother kneaded the………….23. picked up the………….. and with some other cold food between them. 34. Take out all the words referring to types of food.or salad? 35. Now that we have had soup. The Queen invited us all to a…………in her palace. 152 . 38. activities related to eating or verbs denoting processes when cooking.. eaten with meat. My grandparents get their weekly…………at the village shop. ……………is milk that has turned thick and slightly acid. When I got home. what’s the next……. 31. ……………is a yellow or brown paste which tastes hot and spicy. 24.

a trage. it would improve our appearance a great deal.2. If you get a good night’s rest. nedreptate. knees and ankles are in line with each other. Make sure you get a good night’s sleep by going to bed and getting up at regular times: don’t burn the candle at both ends. It is not called beauty sleep for nothing! Lack of sleep can cause acne or dry skin. Stand in front of the mirror with your feet part and your legs straight. a lungi. = a fi într-o formă fizică bună. people are always searching for more ways of keeping fit and healthy. WORDS AND PHRASES hectic adj. = 1. a se menţine. 50-1) A.5.pagubã. = a te menţine în formă. Nevertheless. 2. if your diet is balanced.ocupat. to warm up vb. = a reduce. A Pre-First Certificate Course. 2. = a te încălzi. prejudiciu. a întinde. it will soon start to have a bad effect on your skin. Running is an excellent exercise. you should warm up first. try and find an area that doesn’t have much pollution and get moving! Many young people feel guilty about eating too much chocolate. During the day. though there is no evidence to support this. = 1.ranã. So don’t just go for a pleasant stroll. Rising Star. It’s ok if you go to bed late occasionally but if you regularly cut down on your sleep. You should be looking and feeling better already! Most of us live in large polluted cities. you needn’t feel guilty: eating chocolate in moderation is fine – but don’t eat it instead of a proper meal! (adapted form Luke Podromou. Did you know that standing. VOCABULARY I.7. you may end up sleepless all night. a netezi. Always wear comfortable clothing and make sure your trainers are in good shape. stricãciune. avarie. Chocolate does contain a lot of fat. A brisk walk is one of the best things you can do for your circulation and appearance. 153 . a încorda.rãu. shoulders. leziune. Before you start running. a diminua a renunţa la. you will put less pressure on your knees. to keep fit vb. to stretch vb. injury n. it will do your appearance a world of good. 2. and some even say they are addicted to it. If you wear shoes that give good support to your whole foot. you might do yourself an injury. however. hips. Walking slowly is useful but a quick pace gets more oxygen into your lungs. Susan Jones has been looking into some of the ways of looking good and feeling good. Try to exercise on soft ground as this will protect your knees and hips from too much stress. = 1.a strânge. to cut down on vb. keep active: if you don’t get enough exercise during the day. check that your ears. = (aici) a rezista. a extinde. at a pace you can keep up for about 15 – 20 minutes. 3. to burn the candle at both ends = a te culca târziu şi a te trezi devreme. to keep something up vb. using slow movements that make all your muscles work. You should start exercising slowly. But be careful! If you stretch when your muscles are cold. and therefore any addicts out there would do better to eat less. sitting and walking badly can make you look heavier than you really are? If we watched the way we sat and stood. Pull in your tummy. to be in good shape vb. agitat. If we got more fresh air we would look healthier and more attractive. a face încălzirea înainte de un exerciţiu fizic. ARE YOU LOOKING AFTER YOURSELF? In the hectic world of today. pp.

addiction n. desserts. Go for a run 2. nãrav. dependenţã. polluted adj. a progresa. Find time to relax C. 154 . 4. Get a good night’s rest B. warm temper = fire iute.dovadă. What types of exercises does the text refer to? 3. Look up for phrases containing the word keep and form sentences with them. What do you do to keep fit? 4. LEXICAL COMMENTARY Phrases and idiomatic expressions with WARM warm coat = o hainã cãlduroasã. = poluat. stomac. a perfecţiona. 6. B. What are the bad effects of a sleepless night? 6.) mãrturie. One of the paragraphs speaks about unbalanced diets. a folosi. a se dezvolta. a profita de. to improve vb. to make things warm for somebody = a da cuiva de furcã. a ameliora. 2. to warm oneself at the fire = a se încãlzi la foc. 7. II. 2. to stroll v. 5. = 1. a înainta. dinner.înclinaţie.patimã. A. depoziţie. There is an extra heading that you don’t need to use. Reading and comprehension: 1. stroll n. a creşte. etc. a merge mai departe. warm welcome = primire cãlduroasã. tummy n. a îmbunătăţi. = abdomen. claritate. Think of the food a balanced diet should contain. to be warm = a-i fi cald. Why is a good night sleep essential for our health? 5. 3. Sit up straight! D.a hoinãri. 2. = plimbare (scurtã). warm heart = suflet generos.a colinda. (jur. Choose the most suitable heading from the list A – F below for each part 1 – 5 of the article. Describe it by separately listing the food for breakfast. IV. lunch. Spend more time in the open air E. = a fi activ.to keep active vb. What are the effects of pollution for our health? What about its effects upon the natural world? 7. Don’t overdo it F. Look up for different phrases/ expressions containing the verb to burn. III. EXERCISES I. 3.= 1. = dependent de un drog. a se perfecţiona. a cutreiera. = 1. a face progrese. to warm up to one's subject = a te entuziasma pe mãsurã ce vorbeşti. a trage folos din. = 1. What types of addiction do you know and what are your suggestions for those who are addicted? II. evidence n. 2. addict n. a se îmbunãtãţi. a desãvârşi.

waiter. We ordered a dry white wine to go……this course. from the moment the first starting pistol (6)…fired. B.a pool of cold muddy water.in my life was………. The meal began…………. memorable and extravagant meal.trying their venison stew. She is considered the best cooker in Italian meals.meant running up to do my best jump and then landing (9)….doubt that was the most delicious stew I’ve ever tasted . The only thing we felt…. often typical of a particular area.hard that we 155 ... 1. very (2)….France..seafood: shrimps. The separate stages in which a meal is served.. 2. prawns and freshly-cooked shellfish. Switch the cook off and take the foods out. Match the following words with their meanings below: meal.a plate…….the old quarter………a town……. VIII. 8.B…afternoon was a disaster.. We spent the next day suffering……….me at all. I was in the high jump. 7. When the parents are away we must prepare our own dishes. Then we called………the bill and decided to split it…….V. Boil the spaghettis for then minutes in a large saucepan. It was raining (10)…. 2. VI. on which a cup is placed. 7. cooker. The machine used when we cook. I told the chef I had never eaten such a delicious receipt! VII. C or D) best fits each space: School sports day Our school sports were held last week. This particular restaurant was famous………its venison – that’s the meat you get………deer and so we couldn’t leave…….eating such rich food but it didn’t seem to disagree……. 3. A person who makes food. dish saucer. Food which is eaten at about the same time every day. I’m no expert…….. Decide which answer (A. 8. 4.. 9. A man whose job is to serve customers at their tables in a restaurant. A certain style of cooking. Correct the following sentences: 1. course.. I’m not accustomed……. (8)…. 6. cook. ……….cookery but I know what I like and…….the house before we left. and the (1)..this time we were nearly bursting. 4. which was absolutely………of this world. 5. 5. Put the missing prepositions into the gaps in this text: The best meal I ever had…….. a main course and a dessert.people bothered to turn (3)….now was coffee and a light dessert. 6. Stuffed cabbage is a traditional food in my country.our hotel and fell……bed. After that we staggered back……. I eat chips and eggs with my salads.the after-effects but really we had no regrets………eating such a marvelous. For a start.a restaurant……. A shallow dish. Then we had a whole lobster…………the two of us. Breakfast usually consists of three dishes: an appetizer. 3. Food prepared in a particular way. The manager very kindly offered us a drink………. until the last medal had (7)… presented. typically having a circular indentation in the centre. cuisine.us.. It rained (5)… afternoon. and there is nothing (4)… than trying to win a race with only three or four people cheering you on. My mother cooks excellent cuisines.

A so B as C and D very 11. 1.time I tried to throw. A by B the C entire D all 6.000 metres. A there B again C to D back IX. 156 . A under B on C through D about 13. A which B and C so D nevertheless 9.couldn’t see the runners in the 5. the javelin kept slipping from my hand. it disappeared in the direction of the railway line.the other side of the field to shelter under a tree. and was never seen (16)…. trying to convince them it is the most delicious kind of food in the world. but (13)…. A worked B found C looked D turned 12. A on B at C in D to 10. I couldn’t see where I was throwing. A little B small C few D rare 3. and it (11)…. In (14)…. and when I (15)…. Think of your favourite recipe.. A like B better C left D worse 5. My other event was the javelin. A first B in C every Da 14. A to B had C been D itself 8. A did B had C should D have 16.case.finally manage to launch my javelin into the air. A this B the C whatever D any 15. then describe the cooking instructions to the class. A had B was C has D been 7. A all B whole C total D final 2. A up B about C round D over 4.out that they had all stopped (12)….

The original potatoes were misshapen and full of large. add the potatoes and fry for some 5 minutes. 94) A. especially of a diet) food of the poor. When they start to pop. Serve with salt and freshly ground black pepper. stirring all the time. New potatoes taste great. Potatoes tend to be either floury or waxy in texture. Cut each potato lengthways and brush with melted butter. 2. onion or parsley mayonnaise or yoghurt dressing Boil the potatoes in their skins and then peel and slice while still warm. Then add the cayenne pepper.2. VOCABULARY 157 . throw in the sesame seeds. Then put under a hot grill until golden brown. drain and peel. Potato salad 1 kilo medium sized waxy potatoes 2 tablespoons chopped chives. (adapted from Jones. p.8. however. which is easier than you may think – you can even grow them in large flower pots in your balcony! If you buy potatoes in a greengrocer’s. make sure you look for them with plenty of damp soil on them because thye’re likely to be fresher than the ones that have been around long enough to have been washed. graded and bagged in polythene! Flavour and nutrition are better retained if the potatoes are cleaned and then boiled in their skins. Leo. 3. the former being good for boiling whilst the latter are best for frying or eating cold. Progress Towards First Certificate. Here are some easy recipes for six people (or four hungry ones!): 1. Add the chives.5. smooth-skinned and free from deep eyes. onion or parsley to the dressing and coat the potato slices evenly. THE HUMBLE SPUD Potatoes have been a staple food of the Old World for so long that it’s easy to forget that they originated in the New World. rather than peeled before boiling. Cut into 2cm cubes and allow to cool. Leave to cool in the refrigerator before serving. Grilled potatoes Boil or steam 1 kilo medium sized potatoes in their skins. salt and lemon juice and continue frying till crisp and brown. Heat the oil in a frying pan and when hot. The first ones came to England from Chile in 1586 and the new vegetable soon became popular and in parts of Europe replaced bread as the staple (therefore the main or important element of something. deep eyes unlike modern varieties which have been bred to be disease-free. drain and peel them while still warm. You can’t do better than to grow your own. Potatoes with sesame seeds 1 kilo potatoes 6 tablespoons vegetable oil 2 tablespoons sesame seeds about ¼ teaspoon cayenne pepper or chilli powder 1 teaspoon salt juice of half a lemon Boil or steam the potatoes in their skins. steamed and unpeeled with butter and salt.

jilav. Nothing is worse than cold chips. = 1. 4. calitate (a unui produs).I. producţie principalã (a unei regiuni. 2. = boală. Nobody I know likes warm milk. What other vegetables can be considered ‘staple food’? II. EXERCISES I. 3. = ceros (pentru a descrie cartofii roz). floury adj. materie brutã. = chitanţă. to grow smaller = a se micşora. 3. 2. Which are the best potatoes for eating cold? 5. = făinos (pentru a descrie cartofii albi). 2. I don’t know …………………. 2.ochi.umed. 4. 2. misshapen adj. etc. 158 . alimentaţie. (fig. 3. forgotten v. la o frânghie). 2. damp adj. LEXICAL COMMENTARY Phrases / idioms with the verb TO GROW to grow old = a îmbãtrâni.. to grow smth upon someone = a se impune. alimente de bază. Where and when were the first potatoes discovered? 2. 5. = 1.a curãţa de coajã (cartofi. to eye v. Hardly………………………. etc. nutriţie. de larg consum. materie primã. = 1. to steam v. = (aici) cu o formă neregulată. to forget. to grow to manhood = a ajunge la vârsta bărbăţiei. legume. How were the first potatoes as compared to the modern ones? 4. polythene n. aliment. laţ (la un şnur. 2. a rade coaja (la lãmâi. = 1.a uita. 6. portocale. (aici) tubercul (a round. waxy adj. fibrã (fine staple wool = lânã finã).). How do cooks make this ‘staple food’ more interesting? 7. this habit grew upon him = acest obicei a pus stãpânire pe el. Reading and comprehension: 1. Practically no one came to the restaurant yesterday. = 1. = 1. = (aici) a gãti/fierbe legume (în aburi). peel v. Finish the second sentence so that the meaning stays the same: 1. = reţetă (prescripţie de amestecare). dark spot on a potato from which a new shoot can grow). nutrition n.a nu se gândi la interesele sale.( text.a fi uituc. recipe n. to ~ oneself v. From where were they brought to England? 3. = 1. receipt n.a uita de sine. There isn’t…………………….) fond. a nu ţine minte. a se comporta nepotrivit. zarzavat. forgot. 2. vegetables n. recipisă.hrãnire. = 1. = polietilenă. ureche (la ac). disease n. What sort of potatoes are we advised to buy? 6. 4. 2.). a unei ţãri). II. 2.) fir.a se uita la. = 1. eye n. All the recipes in this cookbook are difficult to follow. B..a scruta cu privirea. WORDS AND PHRASES staple n.

Take out all the verbs referring to the actual stages in the cooking of potatoes. Now imagine you are cooking a chicken soup. III. but then I come home really tired after work and I just don’t feel (5)…to it. I last………………………… She doesn’t drink as much as she used to before. so I guess I’ll just have to put (8)…with being unfit! 0 A back B through C out D off 1 A over B across C up D down 2 A up B over C out D after 3 A out B over C up D out 4 A out B by C down D off 5 A up B off C over D out 6 A away B over C across D without 7 A in B out C up D off 8 A out B up C on D off IV.on eating so many cakes and pastries and take (2)…some kind of exercise. describe the whole process minutely. I haven’t……………………. She no longer………………. Every few months I make a decision to join my local fitness club. 8.C. the real problem is chocolate. I know it’s fattening but I just can’t do (6)…it. Actually. It’s only two kilometres but it really wore me (0). I want to go and join.. 7. I need to get fit. 159 ..5. but then I think of a good excuse to put it (4)…. I love it. B. Write about the main good things about the different kinds of meat that people eat and about the positive effects of vegetables for our health.. I don’t think I’ll ever be able to give it (7)…. I don’t often eat out because it is expensive. 6. Decide which answer (A. V.. I hardly……………………… I’ve got no time to cook something difficult right now. though. I’ve been thinking it (3)…for some time.. C or D) best fits each space: Getting fit I walked home the other day instead of taking the bus. To be honest. None of……………………… I haven’t eaten pork since last Christmas. There’s only one conclusion – I’m going to have to cut (1)….

However. criticisms. Try to notice what the prices include and what they don’t include. The Guide also advises you to ring up if you’re going to be delayed by more than a quarter of an hour. your table may be given to someone else. In particular look for any mention of cover charges. don’t tell them. You might be in for a nasty shock when the bill comes if you haven’t budgeted for these extras and not all the menus you’re shown at table mention these items. if you don’t. If you have a disastrous one. a very old person. at the end of the meal. or both. someone will probably ask you ‘Everything all right?’ and probably expect the answer ‘Fine. says the Guide. honestly.9. make sure you spend some time reading the menu outside quite carefully. when you’ve been given the bill and are ready to pay you should thank the staff. Progress Towards First Certificate. don’t blame the waiter. Smith or a Ms. In this case ask to see the manager and tell him you didn’t really enjoyed the meal and make sure you explain why. it may be just a single mistake. don’t be afraid to order two different dishes and to swap with a companion half-way through. you may need some advice. So if you’re eating with a small child. the people at the next table deserve consideration. though how could anyone trace a Mr. according to the Guide. a vegetarian or a Muslim let the staff know at least a day ahead so that you can all be sure of having the right food and a good time. Giving the waiter a big tip is no substitute for a warm thank you and a smile – if you’ve been served professionally and cheerfully you should reward the waiter with both gratitude and money! And if the food was poor.5. p. By following these rules and guidelines. There’s nothing worse than being rushed into making a choice you’ll regret later. EATING OUT – SOME RULES FOR DINERS If you don’t very often at out in a restaurant. too. Apparently this is a legal requirement. you know… While you are eating. 93) 160 . Several rules for people eating out are given in the latest issue of the Good Food Guide. a good restaurant deserves to do good business whereas a bad one perhaps shouldn’t be in business at all. Some of the rules seem to favour restaurant staff more than they are likely to help diners! For example the Guide tells its readers to be sure to phone up and cancel any booking they make which they can’t keep. But if you were very pleased. tell your friends to go to the same place. Good food does not go with cigar smoke. By the way.2. Another rule they give is to let the restaurant know in advance if a member of your party has any special needs. At the same time. you can help yourself and others to enjoy better food. If you want to smoke you should ask them if they mind. Once inside and seated comfortably at a table that suits you look at the menu carefully and insist that you’re allowed enough time to decide at leisure what to order. too. Finally. lovely!’ but experienced diners treat this as a serious enquiry and are prepared to offer compliments. he is not a cook. service charges and VAT. and it’s only polite. (adapted from Leo Jones. Jones who didn’t turn up with a party of six is anyone’s guess. Before you go inside the restaurant. Another rule is to ask the staff many questions: how is this dish cooked? What goes with what? What’s that tasty looking dish the people at the next table are having? Can I talk to the chef? and so on. The restaurant may otherwise be holding a table and turning away customers at its busiest time. a disabled one.

to be on the staff of = a funcţiona la. consultaţie (a doctorului. 2. = 1.= personal al unei edituri. dezgustãtor. serviciu. = 1. stricat. tip n. indecent. consideration n. = 1. (despre persoane) invalid. 3. aviz. staff of a school n. VOCABULARY I. a conduce. 2. 2. a ~ taste = un gust neplãcut. editorial staff n. booking n. = personal diplomatic. 4. chef n.). rãu(voitor). solicitare. 4. obscene. nevoiaş. (aici) persoanã care ia masa. considerare. etc. 2. pont. (nenumărabil) sfat. nasty adj. 3. amânare. 5.) letter of ~ = scrisoare de aviz. meniu la un restaurant. respect. = 1. aviz. elegant. recompense. a piece of ~ = un sfat bun. = întârziere. to be in charge of = a se îngriji de. studiere. 4. B. 2. rezervare. stimă. without ~ = fãrã întârziere. cerinţã. 3. VAT n. WORDS AND PHRASES advice n. imediat. vagon restaurant. exigenţã. medical staff n. requirement n. a juristului): you should take legal ~ = ar trebui sã consulţi un jurist. = 1. (man. = preţ. diplomatic staff n. 2. cerere. (tehn. aparate) scos din uz. extremitate: to have it on the ~ of one's tongue = a-i sta pe limbã. at one’s own charge = pe propria cheltuialã. fel de mâncare. delay n. favour n. (despre maşini. = notã de platã. 2. reflectare. = favoare. standing ~ = fel de mâncare care se serveşte zilnic. sfat. the one (officer) in charge = cel de serviciu/ ofiţerul de serviciu. reţinere. diner n. 2. solicitare. 3. vârf. analizã. poor adj. a rãspunde de. sãrac. disabled adj. înregistrare. (aici) de calitate slabã.A. = bucătar şef. bunăvoinţă. according to our latest ~s = potrivit cu cele mai recente informaţii. 3. capãt. 2. to foot the ~ = a suporta cheltuielile. = (value added tax) taxă pe valoare adăugată. = 1. farfurie. side ~ = garniturã. (aici) bacşiş. 2. consideraţie. 3. ~ weather = vreme urâtã. = 1. = (aici) comandă (la un restaurant). Phrases with the word CHARGE charge n. = corpul didactic al unei şcoli. bill n. = 1. despãgubire. şic. to wash the ~es = a spãla vasele. = vegetarian (persoană care nu mănâncă produse din carne). dish n.) listã de opţiuni oferitã utilizatorului de un program de calcul. vegetarian n.= personal sanitary. = 1. = 1. comandã telefonicã. bursã. to take into ~ = a ţine seama de. order n.= 1. cumpãrare. 2. (pl. menu n. neprietenos. = personal.) (advices) înştiinţare. mâncare. informaţie confidenţialã (la curse. scârbos. to give somebody in charge = a da pe cineva pe mâna poliţiei. incapabil de muncã. Phrases/ idioms with the word STAFF staff n. = 1. 161 . 2. cheltuialã. to meet all the requirements = a face faţã tuturor cerinţelor. LEXICAL COMMENTARY A. (pl) veselã. II. tasty adj. gustos.

cuisine. or another person in a restaurant. Reading and comprehension: 1. Try to manage in such a situation. Am. rations. Michael Quinn. Make up a list with some basic requirements or rules you would impose on all restaurants (regarding the atmosphere. Much recommended. fare. cooking. The words below are synonymous with the noun ‘food’. Are you sure this meat has been cooked enough? It sees very… DO 5. eats. VI. V. Write between 15 – 20 lines. the food itself)? II. What are the basic rules described in the article? 2. edibles. nosh. chow. offers a three-course surprise luncheon. 6. informal) chuck. The waiter told us about the dish but we didn’t understand his… EXPLAIN 2. And yet. Daily 12. vittles. sustenance. (archaic) victuals. oyster wrapped in pancakes with truffle sauce and champagne sorbet. supplies. VII. champagne. This sauce is much too runny. What seems to be most important when you dine out (atmosphere. the menu is in Spanish and French and you only speak English. the personnel‘s training. She gave us enormous portions – that’s typical of her… GENEROUS 4.B. the cooking and serving conditions but also the morals and the attitude of the staff). tuck. Give an account of a conflict or misunderstanding you had with a waiter. provisions. there are differences in meaning and usage between them. We had roast lamb with coffee-flavoured sauce: an unusual… COMBINE 8. you may get an… DIGEST IV. The tea was so weak it seemed like hot water. foodstuffs. the hygiene. This product contains no artificial preservatives or… FLAVOUR 6. meals. III.30 – 2pm. different cooking. bread. daily bread. meat. Don’t you think it needs… ? THICK 3. Be careful! If you eat too fast. commons. subsistence. Before using this knife to chop the onions. all sort of wine. nourishment. nutriment. Imagine a conversation with a Spanish waiter. refreshments. (N. vivers. solids. You are a food inspector. head chef. EXERCISES I. stores. viands. (British informal) scoff. Write an advertisement for you favorite club/ disco/ restaurant/ pub/ fast food starting from the example below: The Ritz Piccadilly. the arrangement of the room. You have never been to Spain before. grub. waiters. It was almost… TASTE 10. Form another word from the word in capitals to complete each sentence referring to food: 1. nibbles. 162 . Would you follow the rules and pieces of advice suggested in the article? Are there any you disapprove of? Could you think of others that are more important? 3. baking. music. Sun until midnight. Discuss them for each term. eatables.30 – 11pm. Delights for eye & stomach! Sound of live jazz. cook. see if it needs to be… SHARP 7. Have you ever tried adding honey to natural yogurt to…it? SWEET 9.

The alarming rise in the number of infections is the price the consumer pays for the development of factory poultry farming and cheap meat feedstuffs. or at an unsafe temperature. pre-packed salads or porkpies may. A newly proposed Code of Practice will make it an offence to ‘render food injurious to health’. a pleca. VOCABULARY I. tuşind. infectat. according to health experts. atac. = 1. p.2. jignitor. 3. jignire. provisions n. injurios. making it unsuitable for consumption. withdrawn v. = bacterii. pornire violentã. 2. vol. hygiene rules n. FOOD POISONING Food served and sold in delis. to ~ out/up = a spune ceva tuşind. It is. a trage (înapoi). contaminated adj. be contaminated with salmonella bacteria. to ~ down = a reduce (pe cineva) la tãcere. = restaurante gen fast-food. a retracta (o ofertã. a se retrage. offence n. izbucnire. weapons/arms of ~ = arme de atac. = 1. precautions must be taken to minimize the risk of customers touching products or coughing over them. for example.) crimã. Today’s warning has been issued following a dramatic increase in food poisoning. to ~ a privilege = a retrage un privilegiu. = 1. = 1. 5. 3. supermarkets and take-away bars can cause serious food poisoning. agresiune.10. to withdraw. bacteria n. to take ~ = a se simţi jignit. 3. enforcing the provisions of food safety legislation. 4. injurious adj. a tuşi. consumption n. consumare. outbreak n. I. explozie (de bucurie). etc. = 1. = păsări de curte. to ~ the curtain = a trage perdeaua. Here is the News. ale unei legi). erupţie. poultry n. consumaţie. 2. o afirmaţie. dãunãtor. revoltã. = infecţie alimentară. (adapted from Barbara & Marcin Otto. act ilegal. and that strict hygiene rules should be applied to storage and display of dishes. = baruri cu autoservire. 5. = prevederi (ale unui document. 2. take-away bars n. food poisoning n. a lua. such as seafood dishes. Ready-to-eat food. recommended that temperature readings be taken at four-hourly intervals. Most outbreaks are caused by Salmonella enteritidis commonly associated with the consumption of chicken eggs or egg products due to shell contamination. to cough v. 163 . = 1. withdrew.5. = contaminat. a retrage. ofensã. English for Journalists. = reguli de igienă. It may also have bee on display to long. a expectora. Almost every day newspapers report that cooked meats and poultry dishes are being withdrawn from sale. 182) A. WORDS AND PHRASES delis n.). Also. (aici) început de epidemie. pãgubitor. 2. (jur. 2.

In Britain horses have. If the weather doesn’t break. The area around the Wash. the situation in agriculture is…serious.. the corn will be…in about a fortnight’s time.. (0). (14)…many young people have started smoking (15)…the governments are quite worried and are taking measures to reduce the number of smokers in (16)…countries.…the cowmen. Reading and comprehension: 1.on. Fill in the blanks using appropriate words and forms form the list given below: particular(ly) extreme(ly) fertile significant(ly) virtual(ly) primary/ primarily principal(ly) grateful(ly) valuable busy/ busily ripe entire(ly) 1. 9. In (13)…of their healthy lifestyle. = a member of a large group of unicellular micro-organisms which have cell walls but lack organelles and an organized nucleus. 4.II. What does the Code of Practice refer to? 4. Put one suitable word in each space: Diet and health It is said that people from Mediterranean countries. B. Grain yields have increased…in the post-war period. (2)…a large extent this must be due (3)…their better diet.disappeared as draught animals. have traditionally consumed very little meat. = a food provided for cattle and other livestock. He was very…for her advice. feedstuffs n. 6. III.average. but (11)…today people from this region eat a lot of fish. How is food poisoning generally treated? II. and they also eat far (5)…fatty foods like cakes and hamburgers. Farm workers work long hours. 5. What products do you consider to be injurious to health? Do you ever/ often/ never eat food form snack bars? 3.. 7. The people from southern Italy. 11. 10. is very… 8. There is one surprising thing. 2. As a result of the bad winter and the floods. (6)…life expectancy is the longest (7)…all. What types of bacteria can cause food poisoning? 6. which consists of black earth and silt. I’m not… satisfied with the new milking machine. (12)…. 3.. Farmers are very…at harvest time. In fact. What sort of food is served in delis? 2. people from southern Europe smoke a lot. (8)…the past this habit might (9)…been caused (10)…poverty. LEXICAL COMMENTARY bacteria n. 12. Wheat is grown…for human consumption. The farm manager thanked the land-improvement expert for his…advice. The…grain crops in China are rice and millet. including some which can cause disease. Southern Europeans eat healthy foods (4)…as fish and vegetables. live longer (1)…people from the north of Europe. What is forbidden for consumers when they are near food? 5. 164 . EXERCISES I.

milk. V. VI. etc. încrederea în viitor şi eliminarea oricăror complexe care le întunecă existenţa. scopul principal al acestui tip de organizaţie este combaterea pe căi proprii a discriminării oamenilor graşi şi introducerea în vigoare a „drepturilor oamenilor corpolenţi”. VII. 165 .). etc. What does it include and what are the advantages and drawbacks of a vegetarian living? Discuss some products in turn (e. They are caused by the youth’s desire to be socially accepted by the other teenagers. Look for some of the chemical additives used in processing food in the food industry. Some of the major problems of female adolescents are anorexia (also anorexia nervosa. Grade them according to their degree of risk for the consumers’ health. and a distorted perception of one's own body – New Oxford Dictionary of English) and bulimia (an emotional disorder involving distortion of body image and an obsessive desire to lose weight. or fasting – id. Scopul fundamental al organizaţiei este de a le reda celor graşi sentimentul propriei demnităţi. Aceşti oameni trebuie să lupte cu stereotipul potrivit căruia oamenii graşi sunt leneşi. Many people nowadays start a vegetarian style of life. an emotional disorder characterized by an obsessive desire to lose weight by refusing to eat. meat.). in which bouts of extreme overeating are followed by depression and self-induced vomiting.IV. vegetables. Din fragedă copilărie cei graşi sunt expuşi ocărilor şi şicanelor din partea celor de o vârstă cu ei. eggs. Translate the following text into English: S-a înfiinţat o nouă organizaţie care include persoane supraponderale. How could you convince such a person to give up these self-caused diseases? VIII. cheese. purging.g. Persoanelor supraponderale le este greu să trăiască într-o societate care pune mare preţ pe menţinerea unei siluete zvelte. Adeseori discriminarea duce şi la respingerea acestora în cazul interviului pentru o slujbă mai bună. to have a more appealing body. capacitatea de a-şi aprecia valoarea. proşti şi lipsiţi de voinţă. soy. Make up a list containing the producers’ obligations and the consumers’ obligations regarding food displayed in shops. Obezitatea este o infirmitate. respectul de sine.

WORDS AND PHRASES environmental engineering = ingineria mediului. air. water. While the agricultural benefits were outstanding and crop yields increased dramatically. preserve (the present condition). healthful water supply for the metropolis of Rome. Conservation movements and laws restricting public actions that would harm the environment have been developed by various societies for millennia. and malaria was controlled better than it ever had been. VOCABULARY I.1.org/wiki/Environmental_engineering) A. environment n.6. In the 15th century. Modern environmental engineering began in London in the mid-19th century when it was realized that proper sewerage could reduce the incidence of waterborne diseases such as cholera. The story of DDT as vividly told in Rachel Carson's "Silent Spring" is considered to be the birth of the modern environmental movement and the development of the modern field of "environmental engineering”. the main task of environmental engineering is to protect (from further degradation). = mediu. numerous species were brought to the verge of extinction due to the impact of the DDT on their reproductive cycles. ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING Environmental engineering is the application of science and engineering principles to improve the environment (air.S.6. and land for human habitation and for other organisms. The introduction of drinking water treatment and sewage treatment in industrialized countries reduced waterborne diseases from leading causes of death to rarities. they have applied thoughtful principles to attempt to improve the quality of their environment. regulations. Development of Environmental Engineering Ever since people first recognized that their health and well-being were related to the quality of their environment. Notable examples are the laws decreeing the construction of sewers in London and Paris in the 19th century and the creation of the U. TEXTS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING 2. as societies grew. and/or land resources). One example is the widespread application of DDT to control agricultural pests in the years following World War II. and the application of good engineering practices. conservation. to provide healthful water. = sănătos. actions that were intended to achieve benefits for those societies had longer-term impacts which reduced other environmental qualities. Briefly speaking. Bavaria created laws restricting the development and degradation of alpine country that constituted the region's water supply.2.wikipedia. benefic. and to remediate polluted sites.II. healthful adj. thus reducing world hunger substantially. Negative environmental effects can be decreased and controlled through public education. In many cases. (adapted from http://en. The Romans constructed aqueducts to prevent drought and to create a clean. national park system in the early 20th century. and enhance (the environment). 166 .

widespread adj. outstanding adj. 2. = datorită. pollution n. related to = legat de. = a scădea. When the subject is the child. How can negative environmental effects be decreased? 3. = dispariţie. = apeduct. In meanings relating to birth. = metropolă. aqueduct n.to pollute v. = a împiedica. transmis prin apă. to decree v. to prevent v. or when the verb is passive followed by the preposition by: Maria had already borne six children. = beneficiu. = secetă. born/borne. What’s the main task of environmental engineering? 167 . Born is also the adjective used in a combination. born. When and where did modern environmental engineering begin? 4. pest n. = a decreta. to decrease v. II. and that healthful is the word for such things as habits or foods promoting good health. to improve v. What is environmental engineering? 2. drought n. DDT = (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane) DTT. = 1. sewer n. B. The twins were borne by an Italian mother. or status of birth: newly born pups and a southern-born poet. transportat de apă. There is nothing wrong with observing this distinction. = poluare. referitor la. millennium. LEXICAL COMMENTARY Healthy or healthful? It is sometimes argued that healthy should be used only to describe a living being in good health. borne is used when the mother is the subject of the verb. EXERCISES I. to recognize v. = remarcabil. milennia n. bore. a diminua. to indicate condition. to achieve v. benefit n. = mileniu . = răspândit. Reading and Comprehension: 1. due to prep. = a polua. His account is simply not borne out by the facts. but there is also nothing wrong with using healthy as a synonym for healthful. a dobândi. is the form used: He was not born in a hospital. an old past participle of bear. = canal . = a recunoaşte. = canalizare. waterborne adj. = a îmbunătăţi. extinction n. = a obţine. as reputable writers have been doing for centuries Borne or born? Borne is the past participle of the verb to bear. What was the impact of the DDT on the reproductive cycles of some species? 5. The following points should be borne in mind. = dăunător. metropolis n. sewerage n. location.

.. (16) to being a state .. prowling night-time Tokyo with the . when you are . (9) the "big picture" reforms are in place. . (10) of deer.. She spun away from him and.. (13) of killer-bees.. (2) is that Russia is at a "critical juncture" in its economic transition process. (8) of fish. (10) pushing them to the heart of the economy... (18) of experts. but I know you are responsible.. The reform process...... (TO MOVE) 6. (11) of grapes... almost in the same . 5. (1) Reforms The view of the 67 group of leading industrial .org/books/work_list. But "Gazprom" remains .. success now depends . That is putting it . (17) a state. (4) of lions....academicdirect. (5) of stars. (13) up the power of the former ....... This is not an easy task. a .. (2) of outlaws. (5) looked to be still largely on track. was struck by how alien this type of architecture was.. (16) of trustees.. (TO PROVE) 3.php?user) 168 .. (14) of bombers. (TO MOCK. (9) of hounds. of air stirred in the branches of the maple-trees in the garden. a ... The speaker suddenly found himself at a . a .. After . (4) only a year .... a .. (19).. produselor alimentare şi deşeurilor. that you ordered my sister's murder. (TO FLY) 8. (TO STEAL) 4.. I have no objective . Complete the sentences with nouns corresponding to the verbs written in capital letters at the end: 1... (7) of puppies. a . IV.. a ... Not a ... (3) of swine. Fill in the blanks with the appropriate noun: a . (18) naturally...... In particular. this .. Fill in the blanks using only one word for each space and then translate the text: Russian Energy Giant Shrugs .. from the Americas are delayed because of a thunderstorm over the Atlantic. (15) of sticks. (20) to change.. (6) that . hurled herself through the doorway. of his namesake.. for words...II. (17) of mountains. wholly without ... a . a .. a . Analiza acestora precizează măsura în care aceste transformări au fost provocate de oameni.. I'm sure we have made the right . cum şi în ce condiţii. (8) to the economic stagnation which is gripping the country. (14) monopolies... (11) restructuring the country's industrial . a ... apei.. (TO CHOOSE) 7. (6) of events... ... The problem is that .. (The European) V. solului.. (3). a . has stalled to such an . (15)... Wolf. a ... Take "Gazprom". a .. (7) Russian analysts can see an early .. a . a .. as Russia's energy companies are showing.... (1) of workers. surrendering power does not . My marriage is a . a . Translate into English: Ştiinţa mediului înconjurător se ocupă cu schimbările chimice.... fizice şi biologice care au loc în mediul înconjurător prin contaminarea sau modificarea naturii fizice şi biologice a aerului. (http://lori. Improving efficiency within it is clearly in everybody's . (12) of beads.... All the . (12) and . aplicarea ştiinţei şi tehnologiei poate controla şi ameliora calitatea mediului înconjurător.... (TO LOSE) III. TO FEEL) 2. a ......

precipitators. septic. substantial resources are applied to the treatment and detoxification of this waste before it is discharged into a river. traffic impacts. In this division. risk of non-infectious illness. fire suppression.6. environmental chemistry. and other devices are utilized to remove 169 . etc. mechanical engineering. the water needed for various needs in that watershed. If impacts are expected. the seasonal cycles of water movement through the watershed and they develop systems to store. Environmental engineering emphasizes several areas: process engineering. radioactive. water and wastewater treatment (sanitary engineering). Air quality management Engineers apply scientific and engineering principles to the design of manufacturing and combustion processes to reduce air emissions to acceptable levels. geology. waste reduction/management. water is treated to minimize risk of infectious disease transmittal. flora and fauna. visual (landscape) impacts. Scrubbers.2. In the case of potable water supply. chemistry. They evaluate the water balance within a watershed and determine the available water supply. public health. Some consider environmental engineering to include the development of sustainable processes. treat. habitat quality. biology. biological. Engineers and scientists develop collection and treatment systems to carry this waste material away from where people live and produce the waste and discharge it into the environment. but rather deposit such waste into water and convey it from households via sewer systems. and create a palatable water flavor. Environmental impact assessment and mitigation It is a decision making tool. and pollution prevention/cleanup. Environmental engineering is a synthesis of various disciplines. THE SCOPE OF ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING Pollutants may be chemical. they then develop mitigation measures to limit or prevent such impacts. Environmental engineering is the application of science and engineering principles to the environment. ecology. Water distribution systems are designed and built to provide adequate water pressure and flow rates to meet various end-user needs such as domestic use. social impacts. lake. or ocean system. There are several divisions of the field of environmental engineering. Water supply and treatment Engineers and scientists work to secure water supplies for potable and agricultural use. ecological impacts. and/or honey bucket systems. Developing nations are striving to obtain the resources to develop such systems so that they can improve water quality in their surface waters and reduce the risk of waterborne infectious disease. They apply scientific and engineering principles to evaluate if there are likely to be any adverse impacts to water quality. noise impacts. chemical engineering. air quality. and irrigation. agricultural capacity. incorporating elements from the following: civil engineering. In developed countries. and convey water for various uses. after-burners.2. Water is treated to achieve water quality objectives for the end uses. engineers and scientists assess the impacts of a proposed project on environmental conditions. thermal. or even mechanical. Wastewater conveyance and treatment Most urban and many rural areas no longer discharge human waste directly to the land through outhouse.

potable adj. ~ operator = operator de sistem. = a se strădui. solar ~ = sistemul solar. = scruber. deşeuri. to overlap v. democratic ~ = sistem democratic. tracking ~ = sistem de urmărire. detoxification n. smog n.wikipedia. 4. prior to = înainte de. strove. and reactive organic gases from vapors prior to allowing their emission to the atmosphere. tratare. = dispononibil. striven to v. = rază de acţiune. (adapted from http://en. Scientists develop dispersion models to evaluate the concentration of a pollutant at a receptor source or the impact on overall air quality and smog production from vehicle and flue gas stack emissions. pollutant n. the ~ = organismul. to strive. treatment = 1. VOCABULARY I. LEXICAL COMMENTARY system n. scrubber n.org/wiki/Environmental_engineering) A. electric ~ = sistem/reţea electric(ă). 2. = ardere. orânduire. 3. general. palatable adj. a descărca. social ~ = sistem social. sustainable adj. available adj. EXERCISES I. = a scoate în evidenţă. reţea (hidrologică. assessment n. regim. 5. What types of pollutants are mentioned in the text? 170 . collection system = sistem de colectare. to store v. = ecologic. = total. aromă. operating ~ = sistem de operare. delicios. 3. wastewater ~ = tratarea apei reziduale. waste n. Reading and Comprehension: 1. = a depozita. global. = a (se) suprapune.particulate matter. sistem. = evaluare. epurator de gaze. watershed n. a vărsa. ~ software = software de sistem. metric ~ = sistem metric. metodă. sistem de organizare. rebuturi. flavor n. = resturi. a emite. synthesis. = ceaţă cu fum. = potabil. sulfur oxides. = a evalua. This field is beginning to overlap with energy efficiency and the desire to decrease carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gas emissions from combustion processes. overall adj. educational ~ = sistem educaţional. gustos. nitrogen oxides. to discharge v. = poluant. = cumpăna apelor. = sinteză. B. to emphasize n. WORDS AND PHRASES scope n. rutieră). II. = 1. 2. = savoare. sistem. nervous ~ = sistem nervos. = detoxifiere. a emana. syntheses n. to assess n. tratament. 2. = 1. = plăcut la gust. electrică. combustion n.

.. oats. (BRAVE) 11......... (7) be a barren and lifeless world of deserts..... Such ...... a . 5. a . a .on the battlefield had never been displayed by anyone. created very diversified life forms on Earth.. barely and sugar cane. (PARTNER) 3... a . ........ Life at the tropics is unbearable because of the high degree of . a ... (1) of money.. a .. If I let you down. a ...... (BOY) 2.. Ion Creanga became famous through the publication of his book Memories of My .. (4) of advice.... (21) of spaghetti.. (19) of hay. The Preraphaelite .. a .... a . it was out of mere .. rice. to get what he wants. (12) its wheat.. (11) of soap.. (5) the world of plants... (WIDE) III.. (8) of sand. (COWARD) 10. (25) of armour. ..... (16) of rice...... a .... (6) and our planet .. (2) him and a large part of this belongs ... of the river prevented the villagers from building a bridge across it... (LONG) 9.... (10) important of these.. 6... IV. a .... (18) of corn. a ..... a . a ... (8) use than others.. animal life could not .. a ... (20) of machinegun fire. a . (9) our lives depend are the food crops. a .. Why do environmental engineers evaluate? What do engineers do if impacts are expected? Why is water treated in the case of potable water supply? What are developing nations striving to obtain? How can air quality be preserved? II. 6. God... a ... Complete the sentences with abstract nouns derived from the words in capital letters at the end: 1. The grass family is probably the .2.... (7) of grass.. High on the list of plants upon . The . (BROTHER) 4. (TO DESERT) 8. 3. (12) of laughter. a .... a ..... (2) of beer. (24) of ammunition. In this country.... (13) a certain amount of 171 . (14) of thunder.... (10) of sugar. (4) the extraordinary variety of living organisms that make . I wouldn't have imagined he would go to such .... (ILLITERATE)... The soldiers were court-martialled and found guilty of ...... 4.... (15) of bacon.. Fill in the blanks with the appropriate partitive: a . in His . has been done away with completely.. (3) the plant kingdom. so I don't really think we can form a ......Our interests are incompatible. ... (1) all the other living matter .. (3) of water.... (17) of luggage. Some plants are of . a . was a trend that laid emphasis on the aesthetic component of every work of art.. (11) it supplies the world .... a .... (6) of bread.. (5) of information.... (22) of wind. Fill each of the following blanks with only one suitable word: Man’s existence on earth depends ... (WISE) 5..... . (HUMID) 7. a .. (9) of salt...... (23) of dust...

. (17) as the great ... (18) of fruits...... calcar şi praf de ciment de la operaţiile de ardere în cuptoare... Dezvoltarea metodelor analitice de separare.. (20). as .. Translate into English: Studiul proceselor de ardere a combustibililor ca poluanţi ai aerului sunt o preocupare foarte importantă..... identificare şi determinare a furnizat informaţii preţioase privind prezenţa în aer a unor particule poluante ca: var. (14) more or .........php?user=lori&id=111) 172 . (http://lori. V.. (19) tea and ... oxizi de fier de la topirea minereurilor şi fluoruri de la procesele metalurgice.... Then there are root crops . these are all . Automobilul a adăugat o nouă categorie de particule poluante.. cocs şi hidrocarburi policiclice aromatice provenite din cocsificare.. (15) as they are grown.processing.. (16) as potatoes and carrots.. Other grasses provide the basic foodstuff for cattle and sheep....academicdirect....org/books/work_list... Some plants give us beverages .

life is abundant only in a very shallow layer at the surface. difficulties arise because at this level the temperature of the air is not only liable to large fluctuations. if anywhere. He must observe events ‘as they come’. The detailed study of the lowest layer of the atmosphere. strat. bot mlădiţă.3. = 1. 3. 173 . W. however. albie. mil a învălui. a înveli. 3. vlăstar. matcă (de râu). it presents problems of great scientific interest. usually referred to as micrometeorology. still limited by its inability to control the processes or to isolate different effects.. differing considerably from those which occupy the attention of synopticians and climatologists. is therefore of considerable economic importance. fig a învălui. WORDS AND PHRASES to envelop v. care is taken to ensure that they are representative of air masses over large areas. layer n. banc. But quite apart from these features. strat de aluviuni. a cuprinde. and for this reason. 7. “Science” Magazines. and he is encouraged to do so because it is possible to measure the properties of the atmosphere at these levels with laboratory accuracy.6. for the air within a fraction of an inch above the ground to pass from frost to almost tropical heat. 2. pasăre (găină) ouătoare. 6. înveliş. If the thermometer is placed very near the ground. There is very little of weather forecasting in such studies. These features. on flat land free from obstructions (air-fields are particularly favoured) and temperature and humidity are usually measured at about 4 feet above the ground. 2. batiu. The climate of Lilliput is much more severe than that at the breathing level of a human. VOCABULARY I. He is. on which meteorologists are often asked to advise. tehn banc. especially in hot weather. M. In addition. but also depends very much on whether the ground in the immediate vicinity is bare or covered with vegetation. Instead. pat.. = 1. and not as he would like to arrange them. and it is in micrometeorology. 4. MICROMETEOROLOGY Although living organisms have been found in the atmosphere up to very great heights. that the mathematician really comes into his own.2. and even in temperate climates it is possible. constr pat (al drumului). Kanes. and he is never able entirely to separate an effect from others present at the same time. as far as possible. which is also the normal habitat of small creatures. where the temperature is much more representative of the air mass as a whole. are not found to such a marked degree at 4 feet and above. for synoptic meteorology and climatology. in a single day. as the laboratory worker can. Thus the site is chosen to be. 12) A. a împresura. Meteorological observations are made. which are purely local. differs in many ways from that recorded at 4 feet. 8. there is need to study the behaviour of the air near the surface in detail because of numerous matters of interest. geol zăcământ. such as the dispersal of smoke and of atmospheric pollution generally. The climate into which a plant first emerges. We spend our lives at the bottom of the great ocean of air which envelops the earth and this is broadly true of all air-breathing creatures and plants. the micrometeorologist applies the normal methods of mathematical and experimental physics. a încercui. a înfăşura. 5. p. (Hall. for the most part.

= 1. = 1. a ieşi la iveală/lumină. gol. înv sau poetic a se scula (în picioare). sărac. ~ to adj. oprire. liable – liable for adj. 3. = 1. fără vlagă/viaţă. (care este) pasibil să. plat. b. lipsit (de). gol.). 3. Britain has a temperate … 3. 5. 6. cu inf = 1. 174 . poetic a se scula din morţi. a se ridica. extinct. neacoperit. = dispersare. B. pantof fără toc. ţinut mlăştinos. a aşeza în stive. astupare (a trecerii etc). to fall ~ a cădea lat. direct. ros. muz bemol. 6. a ~ possibility doar o posibilitate (nimic mai mult). = răspunzător pentru/de. 2. to arise. 2. 4. piedică. 4. gol. vânt) a se stârni. suprafaţă întinsă. fin fără dobândă. arisen v. the ~ of the hand latul palmei. obstruction n. baltă. = 1. precis. lat. What are the factors that influence the temperature of the air? 5. numai. hotărât. şes. 3. 3. = 1. desfrunzit. Fill in each of the blanks below with one of the following words: breathe. environment. to emerge v. sec. recycling.). = 1. neinteresant. categoric. 6. găgăuţă. slab. bare adj. a dezbrăca. lat. Where should the thermometer be placed so that the meteorological observations can be properly made? 4. 4. cu capul descoperit. Reading and comprehension 1. climate. 5. What are the methods normally applied by the micrometeorologist? II. 2. in ten minutes ~ exact în zece minute. LEXICAL COMMENTARY flat adj. sterp. This country is rich in natural … 4. jerpelit. (d. II. blocare (a drumului etc). 9. despuiat. care poate să. 8. 2. răsuflat. flat n. barieră. ~ denial refuz categoric. a apărea. ~ nonsense curată prostie. 2. ferov vagon platformă 9. How could you define micrometeorology? 2. (d. (of) sărac (în). arose. rar a se înălţa. 7. 2. adj cu prep pasibil de. insipid. deşert. ec care stagnează.to layer v. She was unable to … because of the smoke. flat adv. a da în vileag/la iveală. = 1. 10. împărţire. precis. 2. a aşeza în straturi. obstrucţie. muz cu un semiton mai jos. obstacol (pomi căzuţi în drum etc. soare etc. pollution. (d. a stivui. băuturi) stătut. med constipaţie. Why do you think is micrometeorology important? 3. nerod. întins. pustiu. 5. radioactive. a învia. the tyre is ~ cauciucul s-a dezumflat/are pană. searbăd.) poetic a se înălţa. a răsari. resources. 3. ~ hand mână/palmă întinsă. poetic a se ridica. lipsit de energie. EXERCISES I. obligat să. chiar. a apărea. a se ridica. 4. a despuia. dispersal n. a se ivi. barcă cu fundul lat. câmpie. el neizolat. 3. lat. fig a dezvălui. simplu. împrăştiere. = a se ivi. neroditor. a se burzului. 6. o glumă) fără sare. pe drum drept. tocit. întins. 7. 4. predispus la. (d. on the ~ a.= 1. plictisitor. (d. expus la. simplu. 2. poisonous. survival 1. a dezgoli. to bare v. împiedicare. 4. pict în două dimensiuni. împiedicare. 7. o problemă etc.) a se ridica. 2. exact. exact. tehn faţetă. distribuire. neted. Mammoths became … thousands of years ago. 8. tărm jos/coborât. 2. gol. 8. a se scula (cu arma în mână etc.

4. Topics for discussion What are the consequences of: 1. 6. 19. Many islands are home to species found nowhere else. Once a species becomes endangered. and ecosystem diversity. IV. 17. The total number of species is not known. 12. 5. Fewer than 100 species currently provide most of the world’s food supply. Famers need a diversity of crop varieties in order to breed new plants that resist insect pests and diseases. 14. How much do you know about biodiversity? Say if the following statements are true or false: 1. A child can easily adjust to changes in its … 9. The biological resources of developing countries are a potential source of income. Creating parks and zoos is the best way to preserve biodiversity. 11. grasslands. The Earth has many more species than it needs. 9. Not all mushrooms are edible. We were shocked by the … on the beach. Biological diversity is more threatened now than at any time in the past 65 milion years. 2. If you … things that have already been used. 6. Biodiversity includes geneticx diversity. such bottles or sheets of paper. Some habitats have more species than others. acid rain. 7. 5. species diversity. Most species are of no direct benefit to humans. it is doomed to extinction. 10. 3. water pollution. Large plants. wetlands. 175 . Two major causes of biodiversity loss are population growth and the increasing consumption of natural resources. you process them so that they can be used again. and other habitats contributes to the loss of biodiversity. 3. Many species become extinct without ever being identified.5. 18. III. 8. Coral reefs are as rich in biodiversity as tropical forests. 4. 8. and mammals make up about half of the world’s species. using sprays. 2. radioactive pollution. 10. 13. nuclear waste dumping. 16. soil pollution. The loss of forests. air pollution. 7. About ten million species have been identified by scientists. I have just been told that there are serious problems with nuclear … waste disposal. some of them are … 6. birds. They have a very poor chance of … 7. 15. More than half of the world’s species live in tropical forests.

de fum. = a priva (de ceva). two strong quakes. Otto. = nor negru. sprung) v. calamitous adj.6. 148. moloz. 176 . most of its surviving inhabitants have been left homeless. = a disloca / a (se) cutremura. 19. The high magnitude quake measured 7. Those who did not immediately leave the affected area paid for it with their lives. a demola. No aftershocks were reported. EARTHQUAKE (1) At least 5. VOCABULARY I. = a îngropa. = a rupe. even after years of reconstructive work. mounds of debris n. rubble n. = magnitudine. to rupture v. = undă seismică. I) A. (Otto. tremor n. = dezastruos. With half the city reduced to rubble. It is now predicted that. a da naştere. = a declanşa. Other buildings were gutted by fire from ruptured gas pipes and a pall of smoke still hangs over the town. are said to have been completely wiped out. All the structurally-damaged buildings will have to be razed.4. to trigger v. It followed a fortnight of tremors and its epicentre was some 150 miles southwest of Zento. to deprive of v. B. At two in the morning. catching the inhabitants in their sleep and leaving homes badly damaged. Zento will never look the same again. a secţiona. The quake also triggered devastating landslides which destroyed a power station. = sfărâmături.2. the Ishmadic capital. pall of smoke n. depriving one-third of the country of electricity. magnitude n. pp. to spring up (sprang. built of precast concrete slabs. They were the first to collapse on their occupants and they are now being blamed for the high death toll as there are few which withstood the tremors. This small mountainous country is prone to seismic disturbances as it lies on a seismological fault. to heave v. to raze v.000 people are estimated to have died and thousands of others to have been injured in a destructive earthquake which devastated large areas of Ishmad. which have sprung up in recent years. Three small villages. WORDS AND PHRASES (seismic) disturbance n. = a rade. to entomb v. compact. = a rade de pe faţa pământului. This tragedy proved particularly calamitous and the still incomplete statistics speak of unprecedented damage. close to the epicentre. vol. thirty minutes apart. = mişcare seismică. =a răsări (a se înălţa) din pământ. = mormane de dărâmături. rocked the capital.: Limba engleză pentru jurnalişti. Hundreds of bodies lie buried under the ruins and the death toll mounts to as rescue workers dig into the mounds of debris to find those entombed. to wipe out v. Many schools and hospitals disintegrated as the earth heaved. 112.7 on the Richter scale and was the strongest this area has experienced in more than a century. cutremur. M. Hardest hit were the badly-constructed high-rise apartment blocks.

~ in a intra. Reading and comprehension 1. a cerceta. a privi (drept în faţă pe cineva). uitătură. fig a vedea situaţia care s-a creat în jurul (cu gen). ~ about a privi. a-I lăsa pe locuitori fără acoperiş deasupra capului – l______ the i________ h______ 7. a suporta undele seismice – w______ the t_________ 8. a părea. a. Did the quake come as a complete surprise? 3. (d. ~ down a privi în jos. EXRCISES I. = 1. figură. Phrases to learn. a lua (ca exemplu negativ pe cineva). the capital of the country? 5. 6. = 1. The quake is indirectly responsible for the lack of energy in some parts of the country. ~ down upon/on a privi (pe cineva) ca inferior. a lua în considerare (ceva). căutătură. 3. a studia. numărul morţilor creşte mereu – d________ t________ m______________ 6. Why did fire accompany the destruction? 6. a se uita de jur împrejur. a avea aerul. a fi spectator. a dispreţui. privire. a găsi pe cineva în timpul somnuliu – c__________ somebody i_____ his s_______ 4. 2. ~ into a se uita/privi înăuntrul. Tick the statements: true or false 1. ~ about for a căuta/a urmări cu privirea. a fi expus cutremurelor – be p_________ t________ q__________ 3. to look v. Most of the victims were killed by collapsing buildings. aspect. It is not the first or the last earthquake in Ishmad. to judge by ~s a judeca după aparenţe. Thirty quakes were felt in the space of two hours. Each line stands out for one word: 1. a da înspre. a arăta. mistuit de foc – g________ b___ f_______ III. a fi în căutarea (unui post). o casă) a fi orientat spre. 4. B. ~ at a se uita/a privi (la televizor). We know exactly what the number of casualties is. ~ after a avea grijă de.înfăţişarea.II. a privi la. a se afla sub dărâmături – l_______ b__________ u_________ the r___________ 5. 2. fig a răsfoi (o carte). 3. There had been no previous indication that a quake might be coming. 2. LEXICAL COMMENTARY look n. 177 . pl înfăţişare. a se uita. ~ ahead şi fig a privi înainte. a socoti inferior. a-şi pleca privirea. on the Richter scale is not regarded as particularly strong. What is the town’s future? II. a examina. a se uita prin. a devasta ţara – d____________ the c______________ 2. What architectural mistake was made in Zento. a privi. to ~ oneself a-şi purta singur de grijă. 5. ~ on a avea vedere înspre. What information do you get about the country of Ishmad in this report? 2. Complete the following phrases. a trece pe la cineva. a fi cu faţa la. a se uita în jurul (cu gen). fig a cerceta. Why can’t the precise number of dead be given at this point? 4. a examina.

7. Those who survived still have a place to live. 8. Buildings built of concrete were strong enough not to collapse. 9. Fires were started by gas explosions. 10. Structurally damaged buildings will be reconstructed. 11. The report tells us that the capital of the country will be moved from Zento after reconstructive work. IV. These are some of the most severe problems the earth is facing. Match the problems with their effects as well as with the solution to them. You can use the same words more than once. Problems air pollution, water pollution, animals and plants in danger, global warming, energy shortage, destruction of ozone layer, human and industrial waste, changes in the local climate, acid rain, spreading deserts, nuclear accidents, deforestation. Causes Overuse of natural resources, uncontrolled fishing and hunting, poisonous chemicals released into the air by cars and factories, chemicals from aerosol sprays and fridges, pesticides as well as dangerous chemicals from factories that are poured into the rivers, seas, oceans. Solutions Nuclear plants should be supplied with high technology equipment and more strictly controlled, we should use bicycles instead of cars, we should not leave TV or the electric lights on when we do not use them, people should use litterbins, we should plant more trees, governments should encourage those industries that use cleaner methods of production, we should save as much paper as possible, factories that pollute the soil or water should be severely fined, harsher punishments for illegal fishing or hunting, factories should be equipped with filters for their funnels, cars should use unleaded petrol, people should be educated about the importance of recycling, Ecology should be a compulsory subject at school, governments should sponsor research into pollution prevention, public awareness about the protection of the environment should be raised. V. Translate into English: În timpul cutremurului de ieri, mari suprafeţe ale Ishmadului au fost complet distruse. Seismul, cu o putere de 7,7 pe scara Richter, a fost cel mai puternic seism înregistrat pe acest teritoriu în ultimul secol. Catastrofa a fost precedată de o serie de şocuri resimţite în decursul ultimelor două săptămâni. Potrivit relatărilor, trei sate au fost măturate de pe suprafaţa pământului. Cutremurul a provocat deplasări de teren şi inundaţii. Din caza ruperii liniei de înaltă tensiune, o treime din ţară a rămas fără curent electric. Jumătate din capitala Ishmad zace sub dărâmături. Trupele de salvare încearcă să se strecoare printre grămezile de ruine în căutarea oamenilor aflaţi sub dărâmături. Cel mai mult au suferit blocurile înalte. Puţine clădiri au rezistat undelor de şoc. Multe dintre ele s-au prăbuşit peste locuitori şi au cauzat numeroase victime. Multe clădiri au fost mistuite de foc.

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2.6.5. EARTHQUAKE (2) A powerful earthquake devastated Palmon, in southern Anturia, in the early hours of yesterday morning. Buildings rocked and fell apart as the tremor struck the area. The city centre was completely obliterated while residential districts suffered similar levels of damage, as well as massive casualties. According to reports from the scene, entire buildings disappeared into fissures. The death toll is, as yet, unclear but it will run into tens of thousands. Temporary shelter in tents is being offered to the homeless who seek refuge in improvised camps outside the city, but most are stumbling down rubble-strewn streets, dazed and frightened, waiting for the bodies of their relatives to be recovered. Search-and-rescue teams, aided by dogs, are looking for survivors, but the dogs get very distressed climbing through the rubble, which is heavy with the smell of disaster. The teams have also brought with them special equipment to help search for and pinpoint the thousands trapped in the ruins. They have sophisticated thermalimaging infra-red cameras, which can detect the heat generated by a survivor’s body. Sound devices are not being used because the noise at the scene of the emergency renders them useless. Relief efforts are being hampered by sub-zero temperatures, which diminish the chances of survival for those still alive and buried. Most of those found are dead. Previous earthquakes have taught that the first 24 hours are critical. If adequate measures are not taken immediately, the body count increases dramatically. The injured who are pulled out from under the rubble, must often have gangrenous limbs amputated immediately. This is the only way to save them from the fatal toxic shock which sets in when a limb is crushed. Official media reports said that the quake levelled all hospitals, and thousands of grievously injured are being treated in field conditions. As supplies of blood ran low, an appeal was issued for international aid. Worldwide disaster funds were set up to assist tragedy-stricken Palmon. (Otto, B, Otto, M., Limba engleză pentru jurnalişti, pp. 20, 114, 249, vol. I)

A. VOCABULARY
I. WORDS AND PHRASES to obliterate v. = a distruge, a şterge de pe faţa pământului. casualties n. = victime. fissure n. = fisură, talie. to stumble down v. = a se împletici. to strew, (strewed, strewn) v. =a împrăştia, a risipi. to recover v. = a găsi, a descoperi. distressed adj. = neliniştit, nervos. to pinpoint v. = a localiza. sophisticated adj. = sofisticat. to render useless v. = a face (a deveni) nefolositor. to hamper v. = a îngreuna. limbs n. = membre ale trunchiului, braţe, picioare. grievously adj. = grav (rănit). to run low v. = a duce lipsă.

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II. LEXICAL COMMENATRY level n. = 1. tehn nivelă (cu bulă de aer), boloboc. 2. geod cotă, nivelmetru. 3. constr dreptar, nivelator. 4. şi fig nivel, treaptă, înălţime (a unui munte), to find ones (own) ~ a-şi găsi oameni pe măsura sa. 5. câmpie, şes, on the ~ cinstit, adevărat. 6. min orizont, galerie de etaj. 7. mil linie de ochire. level adj. = 1. plan, drept, orizontal, neted, ~ with the ground la acelaşi nivel cu pământul. 2. uniform, regulat, monoton. 3. (d. character) echilibrat, liniştit, calm, netulburat, ~-headed echilibrat, judicious, cu scaun la cap, clar, ~ gauge tehn indicator de nivel, ~ crossing pasaj de nivel. to level v. = 1. a nivela, a aduce la acelaşi nivel. 2. fig a egaliza, a uniformiza, a egaliza, ~ at a îndrepta (arma) spre, a ochi, ~ away şi fig a nivela, a desfiinţa, a aboli (privilegii), ~ down a coborî nivelul.

B. EXERCISES I. Reading and comprehension 1. Which parts of the town have suffered most damage? 2. Why aren’t some of the survivors staying in the shelters provided? 3. What methods are used to look for survivors? 4. What factors are making the search difficult? 5. Why are the first 24 hours vital in a rescue operation? 6. What was the international response to the tragedy? II. Phrases to learn. Complete the following phrases. Each line stands out for one word. 1. a se transforma într-un morman de moloz – f_____ a__________ 2. a înregistra pagube şi pierderi multiple – s_____ d__________ and c__________ 3. a oferi adăpost temporar celor fără casă – o_________ s________ t___ the h______ 4. a găsi trupurile – r____________ the b__________ 5. a detecta căldura emanată de corp – d________ h_________ g_______ b__________ a b__________ 6. a îngreuna acţiunea de salvare – h___________ r____________ e_________ 7. a diminua şansele de supravieţuire – d________ the c_______ of s__________ 8. a aplica măsuri adecvate – t____ a m_________ 9. a lansa apel pentru ajutor – i______ an a_______ for a_________ III. Tick the statements true or false: 1. More people died in the city centre than in the residential areas. 2. The number of victims is estimated at between 1,000 and 10,000 people. 3. Temporary shelter has been improvised outside the town. 4. Many people do not want to leave the affected area. 5. Those who have stayed are waiting for the recovery of their possessions. 6. Dogs are not very effective in these circumstances. 7. The cameras described in the report can locate those who are still alive in the ruins. 8. There is too much noise for sound devices to be effective.

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9. Low temperatures make rescue work slow. 10. Rescue teams are facing an entirely new situation. 11. Survivors have little chance of saving their injured limbs. 12. The injured are being treated in hospital buildings. IV. Topics for discussion 1. Why do people feel so helpless when confronted with an earthquake? 2. Discuss the difficulties which have to be overcome when working at the sites of disasters such as those described in the texts? 3. Consider the emotions felt by both rescue workers and relatives of a person who, still alive, is trapped in the rubble, especially if they know that the teams will be unable to reach him in time. 4. Discuss the following statement: Earthquakes are a manifestation of God’ s wrath. V. Translate into English: Zeci de mii de oameni au murit ieri în timpul cutremurului din Palmona. Clădirile sau înclinat şi s-au prăbuşit. Centru oraşului a fost complet distrus. Pentru cei rămaşi fără acoperiş deasupra capului s-au pregătit adăposturi în tabere dincolo de oraş. Mulţi oameni aşteaptă scoaterea de sub dărâmături a trupurilor celor apropiaţi. Grupele de salvare, ajutate de câini, îi caută pe supravieţuitori. Pentru a depista mia rapid oamenii de sub dărâmături, grupele de salvare se folosesc de dispozitive speciale. Acţiunea de salvare este îngreunată de ger. Spitalele s-au dărâmat, astfel încât răniţilor li se acordă ajutor în condiţii de campanie. Se termină rezervele de sânge. S-a lansat un apel pentru ajutor internaţional.

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II.2.7. TEXTS FOR INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY ENGINEERING
2.7.1. THE ERA OF COMMUNICATION In less than 20 years, the phenomenal progress in information technologies and telecommunications has immersed us in an all-communicating world. Computers, telephones, televisions, domestic appliances and cars are packed full of electronics for the exchange of data and information and providing ‘intelligent’ services designed for maximum efficiency and user comfort. Work, business, administration, health, culture education….the ‘e’ prefix has been appended to just about every area of human activity. The information and knowledge society is changing our lifestyles and even our psychological and social behaviour. Nevertheless, it remains difficult to predict where this spectacular progress in electronics and data processing is going to take us next. A little over a century ago, the Western Union saw no future for such an ‘unreliable’ invention as the telephone. Just 25 years ago, the head of Digital Equipment saw no valid reason to want to own a personal computer. In the late 1980s, few prospective studies predicted the imminent arrival of such a revolutionary and all-pervasive device as the Internet would prove to be by the mid 1990s. On the other hand, the bright future awaiting high-definition satellite TV has failed to materialize. More recently, the premature enthusiasm for the wireless Internet shows that even when the developments do come, the path is not always smooth. In a sector, which cultivates the immaterial, there is sometimes a cruel gap between the potential promised by technological progress, the valuation of the innovation and the making of new products and applications. However, one law has proved pertinent: that of the visionary Gordon Moore, drawn up in 1965, who prophesied that the performance of electronic components (memory and processors) would double every 18-24 months, at a fixed cost. Between 1970 and 2002, for example, the number of transistors per cm2 on an electronic chip increased from 2,300 to 24 million, with transistors measuring 0.1 µ square. Although the race of miniaturization and power is certainly not over yet, the experts do believe that, within the next 15 years, the increase in microprocessor density is likely to come up against a physical limit: the size of atoms. We will then enter the true age of nanoelectronics. The increased capacity to progress and store information is of course at the heart of the digital revolution. It is thanks to this – coupled with the Internet as a data transfer support – that data, sounds, pictures and text can be converted into the same binary language. This ‘homogeneity’ opens the door to a convergence of previously isolated applications, such as the telephone, radio, publishing, television and computing. The creation of transmitting infrastructures, offering increased capacities for sending these considerable information packages is currently the crucial development which will enable us to benefit to the full from this new potential. (adapted from Cristina Miu, English for IT, pp. 164–5)

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A. VOCABULARY
I. WORDS AND PHRASES to immerse v. = 1. a (s)cufunda, a afunda. 2. (fig) immersed in debt = înglodat în datorii. appliance n. = 1. aplicare. 2. dispozitiv, aparat. 3. (pl.) aparate electrocasnice. to provide v. = 1. a prevedea, a înzestra. 2. a aproviziona; he provides us with vegetables = ne aprovizioneazã cu zarzavaturi. 3. a procura (pentru cineva). 4. to ~ for = a veghea asupra/ a lua mãsuri în vederea; to ~ against = a lua mãsuri împotriva. 5. a prevedea că; a stipula că. to append v. = a anexa (la). progress n. = 1. progres; to make ~ = a face progrese. 2. dezvoltare, evoluţie. 3. curs, desfăşurare; v.= 1. a progresa, a înainta. 2. a se dezvolta prospective adj. = de viitor, în perspectivă. wireless adj. = fără fir. smooth adj. = 1. (despre suprafeţe) neted, fãrã asperitãţi. 2. mătăsos, moale; smooth skin = piele moale. 3. liniştit, calm; lin; the sea is smooth as a lake = marea e liniştitã ca un lac. chip n. = 1. (el.) pastilã, substrat al unui circuit integrat; aşchie de siliciu microelectronicã. 2. (inf.) deşeu rezultat din perforarea unei benzi de hârtie. store n. = 1. (autom.) memorie. 2. (man.) rezervã, stoc, provizii. 3. (tehn.) rezervor, deposit. information n. = 1. (only sing.) informaţie. 2. veste, anunţ; in order to render a plural meaning we use ‘items of information’. potential adj. = 1. puternic, eficace. 2. posibil; potential danger = pericol posibil; n. = potenţial.

II. LEXICAL COMMENTARY
Phrases / idioms with the word HEAD from head to foot = din cap pânã în picioare. to win by a head = a întrece cu un cap. to beat somebody's head off = a bate mãr pe cineva. to keep one's head above water = a se menţine la suprafaţã. to make head = a inainta, a progresa. to be off one's head = a fi ţicnit. to talk somebody's head off = a zãpãci pe cineva cu vorbãria. to lose one's head = a-şi pierde capul. the head of a car = capota unei maşini. under the same head = sub acelaşi titlu, în aceeaşi categorie. to gather head = 1. a prinde forţã. 2. a lua proporţii. to come to a head = a deveni critic.

B. EXERCISES I. Reading and comprehension: 1. What does an ‘all-communicating world’ involve? 2. What major means of communication are mentioned in the text? Can you think of others? Describe each of them (the ones in the text and the ones you thought of) by referring to their: history, usage, users, medium of data transmission: visual/ auditory/ both, functions, etc.

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3. The text (the end of paragraph 1) suggests that the modern strive for information and knowledge is changing our lives on the whole. Think of some positive and negative effects of such a contemporary phenomena. 4. What are the devices that contribute to the digital revolution? 5. What does ‘nanotechnology’ mean and in what ways will computing benefit form the development of nanotechnology? 6. The text develops three main key-words related to the modern technology: miniaturization, power and convergence. What do they refer to? II. The computer and other means of artificial intelligence are mainly appreciated for their capacity of processing, storing and transferring information and of making it more accessible. What other operations are specific to these applications? III. What does the age of miniaturization mean for you? Think of the major types of computers (mainframe, microcomputer/ personal computer, supercomputer, server and modern gadgets. PDA, laptop, workstation, palmtop, portable computer, clipboard computer, pen computer, lapsize computer). IV. Use the various meanings of the word head in sentences of your own. V. Translate using the different meanings of store: 1. Bagajul ei de cunoştinţe impresionează pe toţi cei care o întâlnesc. 2. În aşteptarea unei ierni friguroase, ei şi-au făcut un stoc mare de provizii. 3. Ei nu vor pune niciodată preţ pe lauda lui deoarece se ştie că nu-şi respectă niciodată promisiunile. 4. Viitorul îi rezervă numai bucurii pentru că munceşte din greu pentru îndeplinirea viselor sale. 5. Stocul de informaţii nu va fi divulgat nimănui. VI. Translate the following sentences into Romanian paying attention to the noun information: 1. Aş dori să aflu nişte informaţii legate de folosirea acestui dispozitiv. 2. Veştile primite de la tine m-au descurajat. 3. Biroul de informaţii ne-a furnizat toate datele necesare. 4. Se pare că suntem într-o eră în care predomină informaţia digitală. 5. Specializarea pe care ne-am ales-o ca studenţi este Tehnologia informaţiei. VII. To make their Internet writing seem more informal, people use abbreviations and emoticons. Explain the following: • Abbreviations: B4; BTW; FAQs; L8R; OTOH; FYI; IMHO; LOL; ASAP; CU; WYSIWYG; • Emoticons: ☺ ;) :-)) :-O :-/ VIII. Read the following text about current tendencies in Internet use and then answer the questions below: The internet is entering the mainstream of contemporary society, as more and more people are going to be users soon, and access is growing, which means we can expect to

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the college-educated look like the non-college-educated. as recent developments suggest. Constantin: Practical Course of English. (adapted from Chilărescu. The text claims that the Internet has become a factor which fights against all types of discrimination and breaks all spatial barriers. so they don’t read hard copy any more. Does this make you feel less individualized? 4. Internet users indicate that they are spending less time reading newspapers. Now write an essay of about 350 words on the topic: ‘For and against using the Internet’. because Internet use demands more concentration.see large changes for communities and society as a whole. Comment on the following statement: ‘All your friends now have an @ in their names’. people may be able to view a TV programme on the same screen where they are working on the Internet simultaneously. Once people have access. How frequently do you chat with your friends or with some strangers on the Internet? 7. pp. What exact operations do you perform on the Internet? What about your family? 5. It is interesting to note that the Internet is increasingly becoming a democratic factor. In the near future. blacks look like whites. their attention will be fragmented. displaying the power to dissolve differences among categories of the population. 185 . may lead to further integration of media and information delivery technologies. Once people have access to the Internet. Mihaela & Paidos. there are more similarities than differences in terms of how much they use it and the activities they use it for. except for those above age 65. but even if they do. It may very well be that they are reading news on the Web. It is too early to tell if people will do this sort of multitasking as part of their daily routine. Does virtual reality inspire you as a substitute for actual reality? 6. Could you think of some personal examples? 3. It is becoming clear that a large majority of those who use the Internet more than five hours a week deduct those hours from their TV time. 158–9) 1. What are the social and psychological effects of net addiction? 2. and age groups tend to be more homogenous than we might have thought. This trend is likely to have a major impact on the economics of the media industry and.

Variety or uniformity? Will we be surrounded by an enormous variety of products? Or will the result of micros be cheap uniformity? Either of these is possible. We have to accept the microchip. or even those who can’t understand it. as families retreat into a private world of video games and computer holograms. computers will surpass humans in more and more ways. A divided society? The coming of the micro will benefit many people: others may be left behind. We can guard against some of the problems. As the costs of microchips continue to fall. programming costs need to come down. There is the problem of alienation: people who cannot find a place in the technological age of the future. On the other hand.2. It’s predicted by some people (and hotly disputed by others) that the intellectual capabilities of the human brain will be overtaken in the early years of the next century. we will no longer be the most intelligent entities on this planet. Accepting the microchip brings benefits and problems.2. the first computers of thirty years ago are as dead as the dinosaurs. and a whole range of ‘smart’ machines to inform. or face the alternative of opting out of the free world market. Microchips give us cheap computing power in a tiny space. be alive to the danger of the misuse of information held on computer files. it becomes economically worthwhile to use them in more and more ways. and machines which are easy to use. help for the sick and the disabled. and new machines (including computers) can be made easy to use. greater control over pollution and the use of natural resources.7. low-cost computing power has begun to convert science fiction into reality. If the cost remains high. What will the world of the future be like: here are some ideas to consider: 1. computers which are 30. Today. 2. Conclusions: The microchip revolution is based on size and cost. products will have to be made in large quantities – in order to spread the cost. the possibility of higher living standards through increased productivity. We can. there’s the problem of people whose skills are made 186 . Finally. the result could be an inward-looking and immobile society. 4. A simple electronic calculator goes far beyond the human brain in speed and accuracy – but only in a very closely defined field.000 times cheaper can beat them hollow. To guard against this problem. and to enjoy the social aspects of office life and escaping from their homes. MICROCHIPS: A LOOK TO THE FUTURE Massive and unreliable. Something can be done for both groups – public viewdata terminals can give free access to information. There are signs that this may happen: some manufacturers are now using relatively unsophisticated chips. The main factor is the cost of writing programmes. entertain and serve us. To get variety. When this happens. Beyond the human brain. people seem to need human contact. we need education and training schemes.000 times smaller and 10. People at risk are those who can’t or don’t want to use new technology. money and care is spent in programming them. 3. for example. In the future. High-speed. Goodbye humans? If people work at home and do their banking and shopping at home. The benefits include greater efficiency in finding and using information. provided time. No one knows how we could cope with this wounding loss of status. which can be cheaply programmed for simple functions.

de valoare. = 1. 2. = 1. = (with) a ţine piept. = 1. The wealth needed to pay for schemes like these is more likely to appear if we use the microchip. to come down v. aplicaţie. operaţie.) to feel ~ = a se simţi prost. = a întrebuinţa greşit. B. pp. Reading and comprehension: 1. dispozitiv. Leo: Progress towards First Certificate. 140–1) A. benefic. 2. 2. voluminous. mecanism. overtook. to ~ with = în primul rând. ieftin. mare. retragere. began. masiv. programare. to get/break free = a scãpa. to begin. function n. = 1. teafăr. worthwhile adj. 3. EXERCISES I. redundant. totalitate. = 1. funcţie. a surprinde. a fi exclus. retreat n. stingere. fãrã valoare. = 1. solid. free admission = intrare gratuitã. programming n. free time = timp liber. 2. ~ of authority = abuz de putere. a descreşte. = nedem de încredere. misuse n. a se elibera. ~ and nasty = ieftin şi prost.redundant by machines. 3. neînsemnat. a depãşi. WORDS AND PHRASES massive adj. free adj. dirt ~ = ieftin ca braga. întreg. a lua pe neaşteptate. acurateţã. precizie. 2. 2. întrebuinţare abuzivã. 2. (cheap – cheaper – the cheapest) = 1. = 1. pentru început. justeţe. What is a microchip? 3. exactitate. to opt out v. (fam. suplimentar. overtake. begun v. VOCABULARY I. there’s a need for education and retraining. accuracy n. 2. intact. overtaken by the rain = surprins de ploaie. II. machine n. folositor. = 1. (adapted from Jones. abuz. 2. LEXICAL COMMENTARY Phrases/ idioms with the word FREE to set free = a pune în libertate. unreliable adj. to cope v. ~ of words = întrebuinţare abuzivã a cuvintelor. 2. duty free articles = articole scutite de taxe vamale. 2. independent. cheap adj. 2. to be free with one's money = a fi mânã spartã. = 1. = 1. Again. redundant adj. whole adj. maşinã (-unealtã). to give somebody a free hand = a da mânã liberã cuiva. greu. free of = în afara. a ajunge din urmã. to speak with free tongue = a fi slobod la gurã. excedentar. maltratare. activitate de elaborare a unui produs program. = a începe. întreagă. What are the advantages and the drawbacks of microchip use? 187 . = 1. degajat. vb. = 1. 3. a face faţã. What did the first computers look like and what could they perform? 2. overtaken v. = (aici) a ieşi. = (aici) a reduce. liber.

Write a short history of computers focusing on the developments in computer technology since the first type of computer. (350 – 400 words) VI. touch-screen. money C. conversations B. paint programme. If you need to climb onto the roof. interface. we need to change the …… e) iron 5. software 4. Having a computer allows you to have all kinds of information at your … A. job B. digital vs. A. in-line D. all products are likely to become very similar to each other unless a. microchips are used. discussions D. speakers. analog computer. Video …can only be done if you have a camera with your computer. details B. When you connect to the Internet it is said that you are… . hardware C. Can computers replace or exceed the capacities of human brains? II. C or D best fits each space: 1. A. mechanism C. floppy discs. PDA. b. monitor. A. What categories of people are unlikely to find a place in the technological world of the future? 5. production costs fall. PC. A computer should be seen as a …we use to help us do our work. joystick. 6. subject C. Do you think that growing use of computers could lead to the collapse of what ‘society’ means? According to the text. silicon chip. I need an …………… b) bulb 2. Most hard discs today have a…capacity of 200 megabytes. Model: Look! It’s not working because the plug isn’t in the…J……… a) battery 1. storing B. disc B. on-line B. programming costs fall. software and hardware. printer. A. bit. B. A. viruses D. the more…you can store. field 3. mouse. A. data D.4. Hang your coat over there on that …………………………… d) hook 4. pen computer. memory C. use a ……………………… f) ladder 188 . display. integrated 8. My shirt got very creased in the suitcase. meetings 5. fingers D. arm B. III. tool D. topic D. keyboard. hand 2. conferencing C. The Internet allows users to download free… A. desktop. sites B. light pen. storage 7. Define the following terms: CD-drive. huge D. on C. source V. c. try to tighten the ………… c) glue 3. minicomputer. d. Read the following sentences and decide which answer A. If the shelf is coming off the wall. When a lamp suddenly goes out. She is a specialist in the …of Information Technology. transactions 6. fingerprints C. Choose the word on the right to complete each sentence. Would you agree to an entirely virtual type of education? Describe the way in which you perceive the future of education in Romania and in other countries. the public demands vary. The bigger the memory on your hard disk. IV.

He doesn’t …his work thoroughly and has …very little progress. a mess of her life. the burglars cut the ……………… 9. Cei care lucrează zilnic la calculator intră în contact cu efectele neplăcute ale acestuia. To stop the alarm working. 7.. …. ca oricare descoperire nouă. dacă sunt îndeplinite. I … wrong. for the exit. Everybody… fun of me but I will …. Pe termen lung.000 u …of product ref TG67 and 2. depresii.you honour. slăbirea vederii sau un sentiment de nelinişte. we are sure that we can do more bu … with you in the future. ……. cars always carry a spare ……………… 10. and we can supply a bank g … 3. Translate the following text into English: Calculatoarele personale au devenit în ultima vreme atât de populare. 3. I feel so tired! g) lock h) razor i) screw j) socket k) compass l) tyre m) wire VIII.. The envelope won’t stick down properly. I’ll have to apologize and … it up to her somehow. ale sistemului nervos sau ale coloanei. In case of punctures. The first letter(s) have been given each time to help you: Dear Ms Newman Thank you for sending your current catalogue and price l …last week. We can find no mention of delivery times in your do … We need these items by the end of October at the la … If we can r…an agreement on these matters. it … wonders. I need some ……… VII. She has …. whatever you want.. Fill in the blanks with to do or to make: 1.000 of product ref K800. Do you give any d …on an order of this s …? 2.. pentru a le fixa poziţia în funcţie 189 . However. 1. 8. We are a w …-k……. 4. over twenty years. încât îţi vine greu să-ţi mai imaginezi activitatea în şcoli. but I haven’t got a……………………. permit evitarea unor astfel de neplăceri. Your behaviour ……. This key doesn’t work. The earthquake has … great damage to the city. Would you be pr …to let us have the goods on cr …? Our normal t … of payment are 60 days after d …. It … no difference to me. there are one or two things we would like to clarify before going ahead with a firm o. We look f …to hearing from you soon. acasă sau la birou fără ele. I need to recharge the ……… 12. use your…………………………. Paul Grice IX. 10. calculatorul are defectele sale. We are interested in p… 5.6. no harm. Există unele condiţii care. company that has been in the market f…. Totuşi. This medicine is excellent. Ecranul şi tastatura are trebui să fie mobile. Complete the following email by writing one word in each gap. If you get lost in the forest. cum ar fi durerile de cap. 6. My mobile phone isn’t working. 2. 9. They must have changed the ………. I need to have a shave. 8. …. 7. utilizarea excesivă a computerului poate cauza disfuncţii ale vederii. up your mind and … what is right one in your lifetime. I can’t . 5. 11.

trebuie să stăm cu spatele la lumina puternică de afară. privirea nu trebuie îndreptată spre lumina soarelui. atunci când este folosit cum trebuie. computerul. Poziţia corpului trebuie să fie dreaptă pentru a nu duce la modificarea coloanei. De asemenea. 190 . este un instrument de lucru foarte util.de nevoile celui care le foloseşte. din contră. Pentru a nu obosi ochii excesiv. În concluzie. Ecranul ar trebui să fie plasat sub linia privirii. se recomandă întreruperi frecvente din lucru şi utilizarea unor ecrane protectoare.

) book. = 1. vol. 184) A. are spread through exchange of ‘infected’ computer discs. the virus suddenly bursts into life. The latest computer virus designed by invisible computer saboteurs has been triggered. By multiplying. (d. = 1. It is just one out of several thousand distinctive viruses worldwide which. to dub v. Trojan Horse. so-dubbed because it infiltrates in disguise. = 1. Electronic viruses are not always hostile. neprietenos. 2. (fam. a unge. Frodo is called a stealthy virus because it is very effective at hiding and lying dormant until activated. adesea deteriorând informaţii. 3. vierme. a investi (un cavaler). worm n. they only irritate users by writing nonsense or playing tunes when activated. schilod.~ = şoarece de bibliotecã. Only by standing within the law as far as copyright is concerned. n. (aici) a porecli. glow ~ = licurici. with the words ‘Frodo lives’ illuminating their screens. II.2. dormant adj. they eventually render the system ineffective by filling up all available disc space. animale) în hibernare. hostile adj. The remedy for computer users. Since the virus installs itself from infected floppy discs. The most dangerous ones. WORDS AND PHRASES crippled adj. Here is the News. (adapted from Barbara & Marcin Otto. (d. (d. with sinister names like Dark Avenger or Datacrime are said to be on dramatic increase. = 1. opritoare.3. = piedicã. = 1. 2. virus. COMPUTER VIRUSES All over the world today. repeatedly replicates itself and wipes out the existing software by overwriting hard discs. ascuns. can one avoid the often irreversible damage to computer data. to trigger v. agent infecţios. March 6th. who are bracing themselves for the attack. conceal erotic pictures in business files or other very serious documents. unlicensed. The deletion of data can cause considerable disruption and financial loss to a company which owns affected systems and many firms are believed to be carrying the virus. adormit. a consacra. is to run anti-virus software to detect and destroy the menace in time. 3. or to bypass the virus’ trigger date by moving a computer’s clock a day forward to March 7th. un vulcan) inactive. stealthy adj. = 1. (aici) deteriorat. p. Companies are also advised to have a constantly updated backup system to replace damaged file. (aici) (comp. may. Some do not erase information. = tainic. a declanşa. = ostil. pirated software should never be run on company computers. VOCABULARY I. earth ~ = râmã. 2.) program care poate dăuna unor fişiere ale calculatorului. like disease. computere) computer ~ = un cod capabil să se reproducă. But computers can also be attacked by worms which move information around. silk ~ = vierme de mãtase. infecţie.7. Computer users were warned today and the virus bears the name of the Italian artist because it was triggered by the birth date of the famous man. 2. infirm. English for Journalists. Upon switching the computer on. many computers are waking up crippled. refractar. 191 . The deadly Michelangelo virus is to strike this year on Friday. 2. deformat. for example. virus n.

acte. archive. 55. browse. a crãpa. folder. from Mark Powell. cursor. = 1.to burst. 2002) IV. a da buzna în. tea leaves. muguri) a crãpa. more commonly referred to as a complete waste of time. creator of the Dilbert cartoon. EXERCISES I. burst v. you can read horoscopes. Or you can put well-researched facts into sophisticated computer models. to update v. 5. What are generally their reasons? Can you give some examples of famous Romanian hackers? Do you know anything of the legislation regarding such an offence? III. p. = a se reproduce. Reading and comprehension: 1. scrisori). a izbucni. Comment upon the following quotation: ‘There are many methods for predicting the future. corrupted file. teanc de hârtii pãstrate la dosar.= a clasa. (aici) fişier. What other viruses do you know? 5. What can viruses cause to computers in the following cases: individual users. = 1. a plezni. = nelegal. Collectively. Explain the following computer terms: copy. these methods are known as nutty methods. acronym. What examples of viruses are given in the text? 3. What other methods of protection would you recommend to large firms and to individual computer users? 8.’ (Scott Adams. tarot cards or crystal balls. cookie. 3. geek. sã plezneascã. II. bit. burst. Do you use pirated software? Bring arguments for your answer. 3. chip. emoticon. a se autocopia. a ţâşni. Oxford. hacker. a îndosaria (hârtii. pirated adj. What is a computer virus? What is a worm? 2. 192 . (d. = a moderniza. LEXICAL COMMENTARY Phrasal verbs and idiomatic expressions with BURST to burst in = a nãvãli înãuntru. file n. chat forum. piratat. B. v. the national military computer system? 6. II. a clasifica. (d. a da buzna înãuntru to burst into = a se repezi. In Company. Is the designing of viruses a crime punishable by law? What kind of punishment can you think of for the perpetrators of electronic viruses? 7. Macmillan. the government. A rather large modern phenomenon in the computer world is hacking. a izbucni to burst into laughter = a izbucni în râs to burst into flames = a izbucni în flãcãri to burst into tears = a izbucni în lacrimi to burst out = a izbucni to burst out crying = a izbucni în plans to burst with envy = a muri de invidie. dosar. (d. a se desface. sã explodeze. download. companies. 2. to replicate v. 2. Are all viruses dangerous? 4. 4. a face sã izbucneascã. For example. a da buzna. a îmbunătăţi. nori) a se rupe. Intermediate. furtuni) a izbucni.

menu. memory. software. as a Word document.hard copy. scroll. Translate the following text into English: Spărgătorii de reţele computerizate vor fi urmăriţi în justiţie şi vor fi aspru pedepsiţi pentru pătrunderea ilegală în sistemele de computere odată cu intrarea în vigoare a unei legislaţii mai clare. 193 . First Certificate grade A. Intruşii caută prin documente şi. I have a lot of energy and enthusiasm and am also responsible and reliable. and you can email. processor. Could you explain the following metaphors: mouse. Legea referitoare la spargerea calculatoarelor este cea mai recentă încercare de eradicare a plăgii manipulărilor ilegale care implică perturbarea şi sabotajul operaţiilor pe computer. 2. dacă doresc. One reason why computer words are so user-friendly is that many are metaphors. 6. zap. I would be grateful if you would consider my application. recycle bin? VII. 3. toate datele devin valabile pentru utilizatori neautorizaţi. care sunt adesea indivizi foarte înzestraţi. bug. Folosind modem-uri şi reţele de telefonie hackerii utilizează informaţii secrete acumulate în memoria computerelor după ce au ghicit sau au obţinut în mod ilegal parolele sau codurile speciale care blochează accesul neautorizat la sistem. upgrade. You will see. I have attached my CV. I am interested in applying. that is they make a comparison between two things. Dear Sir / Madam / With reference to your advertisement on the JobFinders. prin ştergerea memoriei computerelor în câteva secunde şi chiar prin distrugerea hard discurilor.com website. vaporware. the travel industry. Job application a. Put the parts below into the correct order to make a complete email for someone applying for a job. VI. Hackerii afirmă că de fapt este vorba doar de securitate şi că doresc să ajute băncile să-şi perfecţioneze sistemele de securizare împotriva unor agresiuni mai dăunătoare. O nebunie de ultimă oră include încercări de şantaj asupra băncilor. log off. deşi neadaptaţi din punct de vedere social. Având în vederea noua legislaţie. screen. hardware. web traffic. as I enjoy working with young people. worksheet. V. În momentul când spargerea reuşeşte. the summer programme where I worked last year. partition. wizard. set up. făptaşii unor asemenea delicte vor fi aspru pedepsiţi. browsing. The structure could help you for your own applications in the future: 1. Ţintele de până acum ale efracţiilor electronice au inclus spitale unde sreuşit să se creeze haos printre dosarele pacienţilor. au timp berechet la dispoziţie pentru a dovedi că nici un sistem computerizat nu este protejat în mod absolut. spărgătorii cerând bani pentru a dezvălui cum au reuşit să spargă sisteme presupuse a fi foarte sigure. Mulţi spărgători sunt răspunzători de crearea şi implantarea de viruşi care provoacă distrugeri prin imobilizarea sistemelor. virus. You will notice that I have supervised children on a range of sports and cultural activities as well as dealing. During the last few summer holidays I have. I am available for interview in Naples any weekend afternoon. quit. Hackerii. 4. pot provoca prăbuşirea totală a sistemului. 5.

b. worked as a youth leader in Italy. Highlight the structures you would use following the structure: • Greeting (formal) • Reason for writing • Your background and experience • The job itself • Referring to your CV • Final comments • Close 194 . 10. with transport arrangements and tickets. 8. from my attached CV that two people can be contacted as references. Underline any useful expressions and information you need when applying for a job. You will also notice that my English is good and I have 12. for the post of tour leader for Italian school students. 11. in the job of tour leader. and I enjoyed the work very much. one is a university professor and the other is from 13. taking students to London. to do something more varied and challenging. I look forward to hearing from you soon. and for this reason I am interested.7. I feel that I would be wellsuited for this job. 9. me or telephone me on the number below. Yours faithfully. I am 26 years old and am currently studying. Next summer I would like.

= messages distributed by electronic means from one computer user to one or more recipients via a network. That’s why most of us don’t want to use a word processor to write our emails. II. to spell-check vb. Intermediate. etc.). precauţie. etc. to fire-off vb. rushing the writing process. We certainly don’t want to waste our time messing about with fonts and margins. to dig for information =a face cercetãri. avertisment. tonul. 2. memoriu. (short from memorandum) notă. a-şi stãpâni (mânia. = a verifica ortografia. EXERCISES I. MESSAGING We have been trained throughout our business careers to suppress our individual voice and to sound like a ‘professional’ – that is. I just make it short… A lot of the spontaneity in e-mail messages comes from writers breaking through their natural caution and reserve. and we cc the CEO whenever we feel like it. a înãbuşi (un scandal. 2. especially in business. memo n. LEXICAL COMMENTARY e-mail n. (adapted from Mark Powell.7. My expectation of the response time to many messages I send is today.). întrebare (pusã cu scopul de a încurca pe cineva). = (abreviere de la chief executive officer) director. etc. A professional memo obeys rules such as one page is best. 3. We want to be free of the expectation that we’ve spell-checked it or even re-read it before firing it off. If I do not want to give a detailed. = 1. 3. 5. they sound like us. = 1. (com. caution n. suprima (un ziar. 2. they’re funny. giving themselves permission to be blunt. etc. VOCABULARY I. semn de întrebare. a coborî (vocea. WORDS AND PHRASES to suppress vb. In Company.). Reading and comprehension: 1. = 1. memo n.4. This urgency means I’m more likely to write quickly and conversationally when I respond to a message.) borderou. investigaţii. CEO n. a căuta . etc. dig out a memo you wrote four years ago and compare it with how you’d write an e-mail about it now. to sound like everyone else. no jokes. 2. p. If you need to hear how the professional voice sounds. spell-check it carefully and send it to as few people as possible.2. = a trimite. agenda. = (informal) a written message. memorandum. not tomorrow or a week from now. cc n. prudenţã. to make a ~ of it = a nota (ceva). to dig out vb.). E-mail is a more immediate medium than paper. long answer. honest and sincere in response to a query. a reprima (o revoltã. query n.). ~ book = carnet. = (abreviere de la carbon copy) indicaţie că materiaul a fost trimis şi la o altă persoană. Now we write e-mails. = a scoate la suprafaţă. They’re short.= 1. B. What does the term ‘communication’ refer to? 195 . manager general. 4. 78) A.

Read the following statistics and discuss the questions with a partner: At the end of the 20th century. III. You are considering various methods of promotion. word. letter. Here are some of the synonyms of the noun ‘message’. memo. intelligence. • Direct mailing by post. dispatch. note.2. Besides e-mailing. notification. 6. what other forms of communication do you know? Classify them according to the frequency of usage. e-mail. announcement. According to Newsweek magazine. You and your partner are working on a project to promote a new line of pizzas which people can order by phone or over the Internet. that figure will soon drop to less than 10% as we all switch to e-mail and other forms of digitally transmitted data. a. bulletin. number of users. • Radio and TV commercials. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of these ideas: • Cold calling to selected phone numbers. Do you think the shift towards e-mail is a good thing? Online retailer Amazon.com currently stocks 213 books on ‘netiquette’ or how to write your e-mail. memorandum. 30% how you sound and only 10% what you actually say. statement. 3. 90% of the world’s telecommunications were phone calls. report. • Flyers delivered by hand to people’s homes. Write three e-mails as follows: 196 . line. Explain each term in turn so as to find differences between them: communication. news. V. 4. 5. spatial spreading. You can even buy a course on ‘cyber-grammar’ and manners in electronic communication! a. history. missive. availability. Are you getting more e-mail than phone calls these days? b. What does ‘spam’ mean for you? What are the different types of spam? How much spam do you receive and where does it usually occur? Is it a big problem for you? VI. If this is true. communiqué. piece of information. VII. How do people communicate? What are the situations when we need to send messages? What were the traditional means of communication? What are the ways modern people use to communicate except for e-mailing? What are the benefits of e-mailing? What about its drawbacks? II. Is e-mail really that difficult? Communication experts repeatedly tell us that 60% of communication is how you look. etc. evolution. does it mean that phone calls are only 40% and e-mails only 10% effective? IV. Is this al really necessary? b. You work in the marketing department of a fast-food chain. • Spamming to e-mail addresses on a database you have obtained.

Please find attach my report. chain letters (where terrible things will happen to you if you don’t pass on the message to fifteen other people) and jokes from friends and (6)…. 9.. although in my experience this often doesn’t seem to make any difference. and 15% calculated that they (4)…at least an hour a day dealing with spam. IX.. in a recent survey. Sorry. However. I am write with regard to your recent email. unlikely. With a national UK (14). most of it is relatively (7)…. If the data analyzed in the survey is correct. To the CEO: subject: Nokia report. To a colleague at work. offering some service or product I am (1) …to want. adopt. It will be more better for me if we meet on Tuesday rather than Monday. it’s a real (8).for many businesses.force is unproductive for this reason at any time during a working day. hoax. In some cases I can (2) …where they got my e-mail address fro. 1. Apart from spam which tries to sell products or services. 197 . I will be grateful if you could send me more information. while you are (12)…with spam you are not doing the work you were hired to do. Even so. work. 2. The easiest remedy is just to delete any messages which come from an unknown sender or look suspicious. 7. 11. subject: none.bill of £367bn a year. there is also the problem of (5)…virus warnings. 75% of those who were questioned claimed to receive as many as five junk e-mails a day. More legitimate spammers often give you the option to ‘unsubscribe’ so you don’t (11)…any more of their messages. guess. but I been really busy. this unsolicited junk e-mail is not a problem.30 instead? 10. as promised in Friday’s meeting.4% of the national (13). please do not hesitate to contact me. I don’t can help you on this matter.. receive. I’m afraid but we haven’t received your payment yet. Complete the text below about ‘spam’ using the words given: headache. I look forward to receiving this information so soon as possible. set Looking back over the e-mails I have received in the last coupe of weeks. There are various strategies you can (9)…with spam. Correct the mistake in each sentence: 1.On the other hand. in the UK. For me. harmless... 3. To deal with nuisance mail which comes from a regular source. Please send me your comments until Friday at the latest. carried. (3)…out for the company Novell Inc. 4. colleagues. spend.Although sometimes the content involved can be offensive and contain racist or sexist language. 6. dealing. I’m sorry I haven’t written for ages. If you require any more informations. in terms of wasting employees’ time. I can just erase it from my computer. 12. but in others I have no idea. The following sentences taken for e-mails contain mistakes.• • • To a friend you haven’t seen for a very long time. one solution is to (10)…up you e-mail programme to ignore mail from that particular address. this means that for UK businesses spam represents an annual cost of around £5bn. I can see there is at least one message a day from someone I don’t know.. I hope we can to meet up soon. Can we meet at 8 Feb at 14. VIII. subject: asking for help on a project. wage. just missing the person. 8. 5.

5. A sampler is a mathematical fiction and corresponds to a physical sampler. The next logical step to holding the sample value constant throughout the sampling interval is to cause it to be a linear extrapolation of the last two samples. Such a device is called a first-order hold.2. or at most a negligible time compared with any of the response times of the system. At time T and all multiples of T the output is a pulse. In general. to hold the value for the complete sampling interval. p. however. Examples of control systems which often include a digital computer as one element are digital machine-tool controls and inertial navigation systems for aircraft and space vehicles. SAMPLED-DATA SYSTEMS A sampled-data system is a control system in which information is transmitted only at discrete time called sampling time. Thus. It is thus absolutely necessary that the sampler be followed by a special device called a hold circuit or clamper whose function is to hold or remember the value of the impulse at the sampling instant for a finite portion of the sampling interval T. Limba engleză. the signal is different from zero only at the sampling time and equal to it for the remainder of the period. Probably the most direct application of sampled-data theory is to control systems that have telemetery links somewhere within the loop. we obtain a stepped function. Generally speaking. = transformata z modificată/întârziată. Automatică şi calculatoare. (Blându. One of the more successful approaches to the problem has been analysis in the frequency domain by a special integral transform. WORDS AND PHRASES first order hold n. quantizing n. It is convenient under certain circumstances to analyse linear and nonlinear continuous systems by sampling methods. modified z transform n. and the output is zero. called the z transform. VOCABULARY I. Attempts have been made to apply conventional Fourier analysis and frequency-response and subject to error. It is assumed that the sampler closes and opens at a constant repetition rate and remains closed for zero time. 249) A. therefore. Another application occurs whenever a digital computer is included in a control system. the impulse imparted to an element is zero. sampled-data systems are nonlinear. and at all other instances is zero. The concept of the hold circuit can be extended beyond the zero-order hold or clamp. they may be considered as linear or time-varying-parameter systems. Intuitively one would expect this sampling process to contribute phase-lag to the top and tend to make the sampled-data system less stable than an equivalent continuous system. rather than a train of finite-height zero-length pulses (of zero area). if certain matters such as quantizing distortion are ignored. = element de reţinere/extrapolator. rather than continuously as in conventional systems. = dispozitiv de extrapolare de ordinul 1. This is called a zeroorder hold. Mihaela . = cuantificare. This is especially true when a digital computer is being used to carry out the calculations. Since as the sampling time approaches zero. It is advantageous.7. 198 . hold circuit/clamper n. the area of the physical pulse goes to zero.

3. 4. inertial adj. 5. 2. to step on the gas = a apãsa pe accelerator. What is the function of a hold circuit? 5. = moment de eşantionare. 3. pulse n. (fig) a intervene. a analiza sintactic. 2. semn. sisteme discrete. EXERCISES I. to step up = a spori. a face digresiuni. indicator. a diseca. I see her ……… Friday afternoon. telemetery link n. imbold. semnal. 2. = circuit/linie de telemăsură/telemecanică. 5. Which is the next logical step to holding the sample value constant throughout the sampling interval? II. = 1. 199 . ritm. mişcare înainte. to step v. semnalizator. ritm. 2. a se emancipa. 2. to step in = 1. îndemn. a analiza. to step it = a dansa (un dans). impulse n. Fill in every. What are sampled data systems? 2. B. Which are the most direct applications of sampled-data theory? 3. a studia. Reading and comprehension 1. to step across = a traversa. mãsurã. = transformator ridicător/ survoltor stepped function n. 2. făcut în virtutea inerţiei. caracter impulsiv. a da.sisteme eşantionate/cu eşantionare. to step into = a intra în. a lungi pasul. = a pãşi. to impart vb. pas (de scarã). sentiment. pulsaţie. step n.signal n. = element de reţinere extrapolator de ordin zero.= 1. ……… customer makes payment over the counter. 3. 4. dispoziţie. a examina minuţios. a ieşi. aparat optic. each as required: 1. 4. = 1. de/referitor la inerţie. treaptã. LEXICAL COMMENTARY Phrases / idioms with the verb TO STEP to step v. step on it = grãbeşte-te. repezeală. 3. analyse v. a cerceta. 2. 3. 5. impuls. impulsivitate. împingere. = 1. = a împărtăşi. zero order hold n. II. a merge la pas. = 1. puls (al vieţii). = 1. automat. 2. What is a sampler? 4. stare de spirit. 4. îndemn. a face (un pas). grad. ochi de păpuşă. inert. = 1. 2. sampling time n. = transformator coborâtor/ redactor step up transformer n. a face analiza sintactică. a merge la pas to step forward = a pãşi înainte. sampled-data system n. a pãşi. 2. a călca step down transformer n. 2. impuls. (fig) demers. urmã. semnal. 7. to step aside = 1. = funcţie în trepte. 3. or at the cash desk if this cash system is employed. = 1. transmisiuni. a mãri producţia. sisteme în impulsuri. puls. a se da la o parte. pas. vitalitate. a intra. 6. 3. She does her shopping her ……… week. to step out = 1. 2.

3. 7. Pentru ca inginerul practician să ajungă la o configuraţie a sistemului de comandă cu reacţie care satisface cel mai bine cerinţele unei aplicaţii anumite. The network has two cables……. este important să fie disponibilă o tehnică generală de proiectare. 4. Este esenţial ca proprietăţile intrării să fie bine înţelese. 7. Our teacher should be … for … against our idea. neither … nor: 1. I shall have … the main course … the desert. The group has two digits……… 6. 200 . IV. Fill in the blanks with either … or. ……… of you must visit the new supermarket. 7. Her kids were … smart … handy. ……… person knows how to buy in a self-service shop. Why stop at this pub. The circuit has two wires……… 3. Este de dorit ca semnalul de ieşire să fie o funcţie liniară a semnalului de intrare. He eats … fish … meat. 8. Translate into English: Este de dorit ca amplitudinea oscilaţiilor din bucla de comandă să aibă oarecare legătură cu funcţionarea în buclă închisă care probabil va avea loc. 6. După ce construcţia sistemului cu reacţie este desăvârşită. The mechanism has four bars……. I am … thirsty … hungry. 8. The circuit has three phases…….4. 5. 2. dacă este posibil. The fan has two blades……. 8. ……… of them gets a string basket on entering the shop. 6. The lorry has four wheels……… 9. They were a lot of bottles and jars on ……… side of the shop-assistant. III. This wall is … blue … green. so what will he order? 9. În transformarea mărimilor analogice în formă digitală este adesea necesar ca mărimea analogă de intrare măsurată (sau eşantionată) să rămănă constantă în tot timpul perioadei de transformare. 4. 5. 10. The switch has two poles……. V. Pentru a proiecta un servomechanism bun este important ca proiectantul să aibă cunoştinţe detaliate despre operaşia care trebuie executată. … Lucy … Jane likes to climb the mountain. Write a phrase that corresponds to the given sentence according to the model: Model: the magnet has two poles = a two-pole magnet 1. She has … luck … the opportunity to find a better job. 2. 5.. The engine has six cylinders……. este recomandabil ca acesta să fie verificat experimental. The instruction has five addresses………. I have … time … money to go on that trip. ……… of these housewives got a kit for presentation at the cash desk.

Because adequate storage capacity at a reasonable cost is available only with electronic components. and so on. As the name implies. Usually. or for accepting the final results of the operations (output devices). desk calculators. some of which have been quite sophisticated in recent years. or switches. that can often be represented by the theoretical model. a requirement that is obvious to anyone who has performed problems in arithmetic involving several steps to arrive at the final answer. p. respectively. notably the actuation of whatever devices are used for supplying information to the system (input devices). but our concern here is not in the design of individual parts. THE STORED-PROGRAM CONCEPT The concept of the stored-program/programme is probably the most significant single feature of nearly all modern electronic digital systems. First of all. the arithmetic and control unit does the actual work of performing whatever operations are specified by the program and it also controls the performance of all miscellaneous functions.2. In principle. In principle. A program is said to be “stored” when the coded digital information representing that program is stored in a storage unit (usually the same unit) used for the storage of intermediate results and other data involved in the computations or other forms of data processing. in that it can be “coded” into sets of digits. although a few problems can be solved with less capacity. All manner of coding arrangement and system design can be imagined. Rodica. a few hundred words of storage capacity is considered a bare minimum. 139) 201 . Thus. substantially all stored-program systems ever built have been electronic. The arithmetic and the control unit and the storage unit can be vaguely associated with the combinational switching circuit and the multistage device. Porţeanu . but basically all modern systems rely on the fundamental concept that the system is divided into two principal parts – an arithmetic and control unit and an information storage unit. A major purpose of the storage unit is to store the results of intermediate operations.7. In some respects. but with a view to a useful realization of the concept. the really distinguishing feature of modern digital systems is that they do perform long sequences of operations rather than the essentially one-at-a-time manually controlled operations of the earlier business machines. a storage unit of substantial capacity is needed.6. the concept is quite simple but because of multitudinous variations and elaborations. A control unit may contain small parts. plug wires. Limba engleză pentru ştiinţă şi tehnică. the purpose of the program is to direct a digital system through a sequence of operations. The manner in which the code is selected to represent the operations is a function of the system design. Andrei. a “stored-program” system in which the program is stored in such a unit and not in some different medium such as punched cards. The key idea in designing a system that will perform a long sequence of operations is that the information specifying the operations to be performed is essentially digital information. the subject of the stored program is now quite extensive. In fact. a counter for example. (Bantaş. the coding details and the system design details are so closely interrelated that the two subjects are essentially the same. in the theoretical model. a stored-program system need not be built with electronic components.

7. folosire/întrebuinţare greşită. in ~ în succesiune. = utilizabil. estimare plug wire n. 3. 4. capacitate de zbor. digital control unit n. van uselessly adv. 2. bare minimum n. lipsit de valoare. EXERCISES I. useful adj. user n. data processing n. a se comporta/ a se purta cu/ fata de. = zadarnic. (aici) şir. (aici) fişă de conectare. valoare. inşiruire. obicei. joc. a lua din. tejghea. 2. priză. sequence n. cin. realizare. etc. ţel. a consuma. secvenţă. obuz. randament. muncă grea. B. What are. 2.character util/folositor/rodnic. = 1. What is a control unit? 202 . utilizare. folositor. 3. performance n.a folosi. 2. ţintă. cu folos. (aici) utilizator. = cartele perforate. = minim absolut/limită minimală. Do you agree with children spending most of their spare time in front of a computer monitor? 3. cifric. valoros. întrebuinţare. 2. = 1. uz uzanţă. 5. a întrebuinţa. the pros and cons of computer games? 4. 2. evaluare. faptă reprobabilă/urâtă. = program memorat. a brutaliza. expoziţie. util. (aici) executare. = (aici) numeric. = 1. îndeplinire (a îndatoririlor etc. capabil. a uza. bujie. LEXICAL COMMENTARY Family of words use n. Do you spend a lot of time playing computer games? 2. usage n. = calcul. 2. productivitate. interpretare. zadarnic. 3.A. = utilitate. a utilize. uzaj. 3. prestidigitaţie. rodnicie. bun. glonţ. useless adj. plug n. What is a stored-program? 5. misuse n. = procesarea datelor. 3. =1. inutil. consumator. a trata (pe cineva). secvenţă. II. fără rost. ordine. = inutilitate. scop. a maltrata. WORDS AND PHRASES stored program (programme –British spelling) n. care poate fi utilizat / folosit. util. 3. VOCABULARY I. 3. trucuri. în mod folositor. piesă. a abuza de. gură de incendiu. = cablu cu fire. datină. 3. ghiseu. pedeapsă. = 1. datină. usable adj. usefulness n. = a întrebuinţa greşit. folosire. v. socoteala. episode. 2. punch-cards n. = în mod util/folositor. 2.) performanţă. 3. = 1. apreciere. 6. 2. = 1.spectacol. zadarnic. anat. 2. 9. counter n. 8. folositor. = 1. succesiune. sequel. 4. = 1. (aici) contor. în van. lipsă de valoare. 4. = 1. = unitate de comanda. a brutaliza to misuse vb. practică (curentă) to use = 1. fişă. de nădejde. a abuza de. profit. discret. in your opinion. chin. 2. computation n. concret. suită digital adj. fără (nici un ) effect. uselessness n. utilizare. 4. 4. folosire. util. Reading and comprehension: 1. nefolositor. performanţă. obicei. usefully adv.

Scientific discoveries may be……… 8. 4. Brad Pitt plays in this film. It looks awful. 5. Programele cele mai utilizate sunt de obicei cele relocatabile.II. 7. 3. Un program absolut poate fi executat numai dacă este încărcat în memorie întotdeauna la aceeaşi adresă. 2. Această adresă depinde de locul amplasării programului în memorie care este stabilit în aşa numita fază de încărcare (loading faze) pe baza unei evidenţe a spaţiului neocupat încă. This is a very ……… tool for this experiment. The glass apparatus has broken because of rough……… III. How many …………………… What …………………… 10. The ………. More than twenty families live in this house. Programele pot fi de două feluri: absolute şi relocatabile (relocatable). Pentru a începe executarea programului trebuie cunoscută adresa primei instrucţiuni din program. 2. Why …………………… What …………………… 8. I don’t feel quite well today. How …………………… Where …………………… 7. We want to travel to England every 6. She likes my new dress. Vacuum tubes are no longer………. Fill in the blanks with items from the family of the word use: 1. Students must learn ……… of this device. 203 . This house is too expensive for us. Who …………………… How …………………… 4. Write questions to the following statements: 1. He resembles her father. 3. There are many computer ………nowadays. money on junk food. year. of chemistry have changed along centuries. The Browns usually spend a lot of 9. Translate into English: Conceptul de program memorat presupune existenţa în memoria unităţii centrale a succesiunii de comenzi ce urmează a fi executate înainte de a se începe îndepărtarea lor. 6. How …………………… IV. Un programn relocatabil poate fi încărcat începând de la orice adresă a memoriei. The chalet is about half a mile from here. Who …………………… Whom …………………… 5. They………that apparatus and now it is out of order.

and of course. from operating a small portion of one program to a portion of another. One program may be a heavy user of input and output components. 259) A. optimizes the allocation of computer systems resources to meet the demands of all these programs. might require something of the order of tens of milliseconds. it might take a few microseconds to compare the message with another character string. Limba engleză. The programs that share the computer under the monitor’s control are called user’s programs. p.2. but much data movement. Another may be a mathematical program using few data but performing great many functions on the data. Once the character string is in the computer. as might be done in an instructional system. though.7. No computer with a single processor actually operates more than one program in its CPU at one time. The characters are four-case shifts (two up-shifts and two down-shifts). Getting the computer to do this switching is a complex operation. During this second. and guarantees each user that his program will be serviced within some stated period of time. First. some computers could have executed five million internal operations if left free to do so while the console operator was typing. the components of a computer act at vastly different speeds. itself. Automatică şi calculatoare. and end-of-message symbol. the letters johnsmith. VOCABULARY I. Let us now look more closely at the computer and program characteristics that make time-sharing possible. The electric typewriter terminals operate usually. That is. Man-machine processing would be prohibitively expensive if the computer were to stand idle while the man composed a message and transmitted it at 10to15 characters per second. the greater part of the total system is idle while only one or two components are performing some operation.7. the computer interprets and executes only one demand at one time. TIME-SHARING Time-sharing is a method of sharing a computer or allocating its resources among several users. Storing the message on a disk memory. WORDS AND PHRASES down-shift = deplasare în jos. 204 . at a maximum of 15 characters per second. A second characteristic of computers that makes time sharing possible is that different programs will use different mixes of the available resources. Mihaela. one which is. Timesharing is a method of operating a computer which allows more than one program to be in operation at one time. A general purpose digital computer is actually a collection of subsystems with widely varying characters. Typically. four-case shift = deplasare cu 4 spaţii. a space. To transmit the string John Smith requires 15 characters and a full second. although there may be overlap between command execution in the main processor and input or output operations. performing relatively little computation. Once an input or output operation is initiated most modern computers allow it to proceed while the central processor returns to operation of a program. performed under the control of a complex computer program usually called a time-sharing monitor. and to do this so fast that human users do not realize that they are not receiving the full attention of the computer. since they are supplied by the users of the time-sharing system. But what can be done is to switch rapidly back and forth. (adapted from Blându.

cordon. 2. for the time being = pentru moment. overlapping operation = operaţie de suprapunere în timp. venituri. moment. at times. 3.idle adj. clauză. 2. poveste de necrezut. LEXICAL COMMENTARY Phrases / idioms of the word TIME in the day time = în timpul zilei. to time v. once upon a time = a fost odatã ca niciodatã. 6. filament. datã. 9. timp. ritm. orã. vreme. a cronometra time-sharing monitor = monitor pentru timp partajat. receipt n. vreme. 2. (aici) primire. up-shift = deplasare în sus. to beat time = a bate mãsura. coardă. adeverinţă de plată. încasări. prescripţie. rãgaz. instructional system = sistem de instruire. a calcula durata (unei expuneri. a vorbi mai departe. timp. prilej 6. 4. nefolositor. 3. a repartiza. fără temei. acţiuni. coloană. fibră. 205 . şomer. in no time = cât ai bate din palme. a potrivi (ceasul). = a aloca. interrupts = întreruperi. 3. time and again. de nenumãrate ori. condiţie. a actiona. indolent. a se simţi bine. 4. 5. şir. profil. rand. sfoară. 3. from time to time = din când în când. prostesc. vremuri. (aici) secvenţă. inutil. to work against time = a munci fãrã a pierde o clipã. 5. 4. leneş. = 1. 5. at one time = la un moment dat. strună. 5. nelalocul lui. ocazie. a înainta. reţetă. (aici) neocupat. a nimeri momentul (pentru o acţiune). chitanţă (de primire). time n. 4.= 1. five times five is twenty-five = de cinci ori cinci fac douãzeci şi cinci.). to have a good time = a se distra. 2. (muz) mãsurã. to keep time = a ţine mãsura. oficiu de depunere a banilor. 8. 8. to allocate v. out of time = în contratimp (despre un ceas) . a proceda. 7. (mai ales pl) epocã. II. there is a time for everything = toate la vremea lor. remediu. a continua. a distribui. a pune la punct (un motor. 2. a well-timed remark = o remarcã oportunã. (mat) ori. vang. etc. timing mechanism = mechanism de temporizare. 4. briu. a destina. turn-round time = timp de răspuns. stupid. făcut în dorul lelii/ (aşa) ca să fie. 3. trândav. 7.2. a ponta. a fixa ora (pentru). to lose/waist time = a pierde vremea. to time one's arrival = a-şi alege momentul sosirii. prohibitive = prohibitiv. to bide one's time = a aştepta prilejul. string n.3. = 1. wait till next time = aşteaptã pânã data viitoare. 6. a long time ago = cu mult timp în urmã. to keep good/bad time = a merge bine/rãu. şirag. 6. 9. etc. = 1. to proceed v = a merge mai departe. tempo. oarã. =1. many a time = de multe ori. ceas.). şiret. 7.

. please exercise great care if you are attempting to repair the (5) .. spune-i să mă sune. aţi înţelege chiar şi mai bine de ce partajarea în timp este nu numai posibilă. adjust. Dacă ar fi să nu folosim calculatorul mai des decât atât. many) airplanes passes over here. IV. Which is the usual approach to time-sharing? II. (much. apply.. 2. The system comes with an (3) . The cover must he completely removed for repairs to be carried out... 4.. aceasta ar însemna o mare risipă de timp şi de bani.. 206 . 5. 5. yourself. many) valuable information.. Complete each space with a word or compound word formed from the following words: install. few) milk in the bottle... Dacă cumva s-ar întâmpla să nu furnizeze programele la timp. maintain.. EXERCISES I... which can be kept fully extended or half down. There are (much. 2. How (much.. 7. cred că ne-am descurca. Regular (2) .. What is time-sharing? 2. As with all (4) . many) fruit trees are there in the orchard? 6. 4. 6. Installation of your new energy-efficient domestic gas boiler is free of charge.. 3. electric. Copy the following sentences choosing the correct adjective: 1. How does a computer work in time-sharing? 4.. cover. Dacă ar fi să calculăm şi alte caracteristici ale calculatorului. and will be performed within S days of payment. many) wooded hills in our country.. III.. Which is the second? 6. They made (little. few) mistakes in the test paper.. 3. Reading and comprehension: 1. dar şi necesară. Dacă cumva datele ar fi înregistrate manual. We have received (much. operaţia aceasta ar lua mult mai mult timp. Why is time-sharing a profitable technique? 3. Translate into English: 1. Dacă s-ar întâmpla să aibă nevoie de banda magnetică acum. Dacă ar fi să explicăm noţiunea de partajare în timp.B. Which is the first factor that makes time-sharing possible? 5. There is (little.. There is (little. from a qualified engineer is advised. equipment.. few) water in the bucket. n-ar merita să-l cumpărăm.

4. bacterie. diagnosing and correcting errors (also known as bugs) which may occur in programs or systems (both hardware and software). Correcting source codes may be done directly by removing incorrect statements and substituting correct ones if the program is on a suitable medium such as punched cards. Programs written in a symbolic language require compilation. the cause of the error must be diagnosed. or correction may be applied by using source code maintenance routine. gândac. microb. p. the programmer may use a trace or diagnostic routine which performs the program on the computer in the normal way. Limba engleză. = listă de compilare.7. 2. but at the same time provides a printed record of the action taken by each instruction. a correction must be applied to the program. = mijloace auxiliare bug n. and print some indication of the type of error which are called diagnostics. WORDS AND PHRASES aids n. VOCABULARY I. Programs may be corrected by several different methods.8. Various methods of error diagnosis may be used. and the latter the result of incorrect coding of the program. ERROR DETECTION Debugging or error detection is the technique of detecting. the source code must be corrected and the program recompiled. or through an unexpected halt. Another technique for correcting programs is to apply a patch. Test data of this sort is presented to the program either directly in the form expected in normal running. Mihaela. The former are the result of incorrect appreciation of the problem. or through compilation errors. If the program is written in a symbolic language. (adapted from Blându. compilation list n. This consists in deleting the incorrect instruction and substituting a branch to a section of coding correcting the error. The process of compilation enables syntax errors involving incorrect handling of the symbolic language to be detected. Once an error has been detected. Errors are detected by observing that programs do not produce the results expected from them. Instead of performing the computer’s actions himself. microfon secret. either through incorrect results from test data or simulated operating conditions. This involves the programmer in performing each step of the program each step of the program as if he were the computer. ploşniţă. 253) A. The two main types of program errors that may occur are logic errors and syntax errors. deficienţă. 5. Detecting errors by means of observing results involves testing programs with samples of data which the program would expect to be presented with in normal running. or translation into the machine language understood by the processor. 207 . A dry run may be performed on the program flowchart or compilation listing. 3. = (aici) eroare. Automatică şi calculatoare.2. or by means of simulated input conditions. defect. compiler n. or by failure of a program written in a symbolic language to compile correctly. insectă. checking and recording the action of each instruction or flowchart step. = compilator. The incorrect instruction may be altered if the program exists in machine code on an external medium such as punched cards. Most compilers reject incorrectly used statements. cărăbuş. Once the cause of an error has been detected.

pată. he had the news at first hand = a primit ştirea la prima mânã. 2. a se opri. hand in hand = în deplin acord cu. = 1.. întăritură. 9. 2. at hand = la îndemânã. II. dry run n. viciu. a aresta. circumspecţie (a unui poliţist) to amend v. a perfecţiona. cu asprime. 2. = program de întreţinere. hand-to-hand fight = luptã corp la corp. în discuţie. a se ocupa de. a face negoţ cu/de. a închide. to bear a hand = a da o mânã de ajutor. 6. bandaj. a face să funcţioneze. defect. 4. a ţine închis . on the other hand = pe de o parte . punct slab. închisoare. crăpătură. 2. a elimina. modern. = I. LEXICAL COMMENTARY Phrases / idioms with the word HAND done by hand = fãcut de mânã. a se face un popas. în partea dreaptã on the one hand . 7. 208 . maintanance routine n. with a heavy hand = cu duritate. to take into one's hands = a lua în mâinile sale. a rezolva. interval scurt (de timp). furnizare. a dirifa.. II. a restrânge (subiectul etc. = a anula. bucată ( de pânză). under hand = pe sub mânã. to fall into the hands of = a cãdea în mâinile cuiva. 3. a pune la punct. 3. a very clear hand = un scris foarte clar. = 1. = parcurgerea programului (de programator). graniţă. prints n. trace/diagnostic routine n. input n. 4. spaţiu verde. a manipula. putere de alimentare. rest.. intrare. under his hand and seal = semnat de propria sa mânã şi sigilat. hotar. a limita. on the right hand = pe mâna dreaptã. a purta. = program de diagnoză. a se opri din mers. a poposi. detectarea erorilor. 4. cu îndrãznealã. a manevra. 5. to live from hand to mouth = a trãi de azi pe mâine. = 1. halt n. es n. a mânui. (aici) a corecta. a conduce. apriva de libertate. n.). on hand = în mânã. out of hand = dintr-o datã. a şterge. = petec. rămăşiţă. un proiect de lege). în mânã. = admisie. a trata. cu aroganţã.compilation listing = listă de compilare debugging n. 2. alimentare. absorţie. a îmbunătăţi. limită. zonă. 2. plasture. a discuta. raion. = punerea la punct a programului. la zi to confine v. a înceta să se mişte. a amenda (un text. 4. off hand = pe neaşteptate. 5. 2. fãrã ezitare. = tipărituri source code = cod sursă flaw n. a comanda.. my hand is out = mi-am pierdut îndemânarea. ruptură. factory hand = muncitor în uzinã. up to date = actual. bucată rămasă. fisură. energie / putere consumată.1. 2. 2. pe de altã parte.. from hand to hand = din mânã în mânã. 1. in hand = 1. 8. 2. = oprire. to handle v. with a high hand = 1. 3. to delete v. patch. hands off! = jos mâinile! hands up! = sus mâinile! hand in hand = mânã în mânã. 3. în ascuns.

Reading and comprehension: 1. The set wouldn't work because there was a faulty connection/joint/link. This small vacuum cleaner is motivate/powered/run by batteries. Tom is drinking the sixth glass of wine this evening. I need a larger bolt/screwdriver/spanner. Don't touch that wire! It's live/lively/living. as an electrical/electricity/electrician y1electrician engineer. The lead/plug/wire isn't long enough. The electrician twisted the wires together using a pair of hammers/chisels/pliers. Which methods are used for error diagnosis? 5. Translate into English: Punerea la punct a programului înseamnă găsirea. 4. They are talking about film stars. 3. Which are the types of error that may occur and what are they due to? 3. 7. EXERCISES I. Se pot aplica corecţii programului în timpul execuţiei. I’m looking for my shoes. That woman is at you. The hair-drier is fitted with a three point cable/plug/socket. Principalele două tipuri de erori de programe sunt erori logice şi erori sintactice. Acest tip de erori se corectează foarte uşor. Oh dear the lights have gone off! The cable/fuse/safety must have gone. 6. Erorile sintactice sunt detectate de către compilator care indică şi instrucţiunea din codul sursă care a produs această eroare. I buy coffee beans and put them in a grinder/mixer/blender. Nobody is watching that soap-opera now. She’s wearing the new fur coat tonight. Ask questions to the underlined parts of the following sentences: This man is singing pop music. 11. 12. Can you lend me that cassette? I want to record/transcribe/write it. 4. după ce a fost încărcat în memorie. cauza ei trebuie să fie aflată şi apoi se corectează. III. 8. I can't use my drill here. He’s going to the office by tube today. She is feeling fine now. Turn off the mains first in case you get a/an impact/jolt/shock. diagnosticarea şi corectarea erorilor. 9. Define the term “debugging”. I can't undo this nut. How can programs be corrected? 6. Underline the most appropriate word in each sentence. Erorile logice se pot detecta numai în timpul execuţiei programului (at running time). 10. 2. Jim has just started work. The good thing about this knife is that the blade/point/edge can be replaced 14. 5. Programe speciale de punere la punct (debuggers) simplifică mult corectarea erorilor. modificând programul. 1. 2. Odată ce eroarea a fost detectată. Explain how errors are detected. 13. The appliance is powered by a small electric engine/machine/motor. 209 . Is debugging confined to programs? II. I’m going out with my girlfriend tonight.B. IV.

PART III GRAMMAR (THEORY AND PRACTICE) .

during an interval. THEORETICAL CONSIDERATIONS I. regularly. THE INDICATIVE MOOD 1.Step-by-step instructions and demonstrations (recipes or magicians): 211 . Interrogative [the auxiliary to do + subject + the short infinitive of the main verb]: Do I learn? Do you learn? Does he/she learn? II. habits/repeated actions with a given frequency. ever. frequently.1. Man is mortal. The earth moves round the earth. b. d. He always smokes a cigarette after breakfast. normally. from time to time. which adds an -s]: I/ you/ we/ they learn he/ she learns b. twice a day/ week/ month/ year …. instantaneous actions: . rarely. Affirmative [the form coincides with the short infinitive.III.1. whenever. My mother seldom drives our car. THE VERB III. General timeless statements (eternal truths): Every solution breeds new problems. seldom. usually. never. g. often. sometimes. except the 3rd person singular. Despair gives courage to a coward. as a rule. a rabbit pops out. a particular event that refers to a particular moment of time.1. Negative [the auxiliary to do + not + the short infinitive of the main verb]: I/you/we/they do not (don’t) learn he/ she does not (doesn’t) learn c. I place this flower into the hat and look. e. USES Present Simple is used to express: a.1. FORM a. f. 1. hardly ever. A rolling stone gathers no moss. occasionally. THE PRESENT TENSE SIMPLE A. Geographical or mathematical statements: Bacău lies on the Bistriţa. The adverbs of frequency include the following: always. Definitions: What is a nymph? Nymphs often accompany various gods and goddesses c. generally. every day/ week/ month/ year. Proverbs and sayings: Still waters run deep.

212 . If your cousin comes here tomorrow.] III. . indicativ prezent: Ice melts in the sun.officially planned actions (timetables. b. with future reference. in story-telling with a past reference Clarissa Dalloway goes out to buy flowers for a party she is to have at her house.Woolf) . = Am aflat/ am auzit că şi-a pierdut copilaşul. c. = Bem cafea în fiecare dimineaţă. School starts in September. She prepares for her party when she is interrupted by Peter Walsh… (V. I do (take this woman to be my lawful wedded wife)./ Avion prăbuşit în Paris. the action fixed in advance is supposed to happen in the future: . I’ll phone you when I get home. Ways of translating a. etc.Special exclamatory sentences (with initial adverbials: here.Sport commentaries: The player hits and the ball goes straight into the audience.To get to the station you go straight on to the traffic lights. [uttered by the captain when smashing the bottle against the stem] . Tomorrow is Tuesday. we’ll go to the cinema. down. next I fry the eggs … .Performatives imply the fact that “the uttering of the sentence is the doing of an action” – Austin (1975: 5). . up. then you turn left First I take a bowl and break two eggs into it. . [uttered by the bridegroom during a marriage ceremony] I name this ship Lady. She returns tomorrow morning. there.): Here comes the winner! There goes our train! h. We drink coffee every morning.planned activities where the idea of certainty is implied: We leave London at 11:00 next Monday and arrive in Paris at 14:00.Stage directions involve the theatrical quality of the instantaneous present in stage rhetoric: George enters the room and draws the curtain.in newspaper headlines in order to draw the attention of the reader: Plane crashes in Paris. statements about the calendar) that refer to events regarded as immutable: The train for London leaves at six. -subordinate clauses of time and condition: My son will look after his little sister while I am away. perfect compus (historic present – verbs of linguistic communication): I hear she lost her baby. = Gheaţa se topeşte la soare. = Îţi voi da telefon când voi ajunge/ ajung acasă. i. viitor sau prezent (adverbial clauses of time and condition): I will pick up the cherries if he asks me. [Avionul s-a prăbuşit în Paris. = Voi culege cireşele dacă mă va ruga/ mă roagă.

Those children are constantly making noise. 213 .1.temporariness: She’s singing. My mother usually cooks lunch. sarcasm associated with a habit. [a temporary activity that has a limited duration] . When the verbs that designate states are used in the progressive they are interpreted as a form of behavior/ activity]. [states used in the Simple Present Tense signify a permanent trait. In this case the verbs are usually combined with such adverbs as: always. d. irritation.1. but the progressive shows exactly this lack of completion.incompletion: She’s drinking a glass of milk. THEORETICAL CONSIDERATIONS The progressive aspect shows a situation that is in progress. b. while cooks shows a permanent habit. c.2. Affirmative (the present tense of the auxiliary verb to be + the present participle – V+ing) [see Appendix II for the spelling of the present participle]: I am learning you/ we/ they are learning he/ she is learning b. From this brief definition we infer that the meaning of the progressive reveals the following concepts: . The pupil is just writing the exercise.] I. to express an action happening at the moment of speaking (the action spanning from past to future is incomplete at the moment of speaking and is still taking place). but today I’m cooking. It is the most usual way of expressing one’s immediate plans: What are you doing tomorrow? I’m meeting my friend.] John is a polite young boy. to create a contrast between a temporary action and an action usually performed (habitual present) and to show that the repetition takes place over a limited period. FORM a. THE PRESENT TENSE PROGRESSIVE A. Interrogative Am I learning? Are you learning? Is he/she learning? II USES The Present Tense Progressive is used: a. continually. to express a definite action planned for the near future. [the habit is temporary. It anticipates the action thus having a future time reference. A proper result – accomplishment – would be that the glass is empty. It indicates that the duration of the action is limited. but today he is being rude. constantly: You are always borrowing money from me. [the temporary activity is not complete. The idea of immediate present is often emphasized by just and now: The children are sleeping now. Negative I am not learning you are not learning he/ she is not learning c. to express a meaning of annoyance.

se uită la TV. to express an action in a subordinate clause of time or condition: The child will play in the garden while his mother is cooking dinner. = Ei nu-şi fac temele acum. the semelfactive ones. g. = Permanent aruncă vina pe mine. He’s growing older and older. h. with activities/ processes (to get or to grow) to express a transition from one state to another taking place over a period: It’s getting dark. with achievements. for an action intended to be polite as it shows lack of commitment: I’m hoping you’ll give the book to John. (the emotional use linked to the progressive is rendered into Romanian by an emphasis on the adverb rather than on the verb) b. they imply duration: The player is kicking the ball. which describe momentary events. they are watching TV. indicativ prezent They are not doing their homework now. III.viitor/ prezent What are you doing tomorrow? = Ce vei face/ faci mâine? 214 . ⁄ He is continually finding fault with me. Ways of translating the Present Tense Progressive into Romanian a. I will not disturb her if she is learning.e. When used in the progressive. He is nodding approval. (→I’m hoping is preferred to I hope as the latter leaves little room for polite refusal) f.

b) goes. Choose the correct form of the verb: 1. 10. a) doesn’t like. but today as I am late I (go) by bus. c) doesn’t grow 8. Apricots (ripe) in early summer. I (see) what you mean! You can’t join us today as you (feel) ill. Can you tell me how often … your dentist? a) you visit. What’s your opinion about the new book published by the University? What do…? 5. b) is liking. (See) the doctor this afternoon? 5. How many cups of coffee … every day? a) you drink. b) you do drink. c) does appear 10. 7. c) Is it 7. b) is appearing. I (doubt) if they (understand) what you (talk) about. b) is growing. We live in Manchester and I don’t understand why my daughter … to London so often. He … to be a little stupid. Put the verbs in brackets into the Simple Present or Present Progressive Tense: 1. b) do you visit.B. and they (smell) wonderful. You are always … 2. EXERCISES I. c) do you drink 2. 9. Even if Phil is a serious person. b) do know. It is well known that rice … in Britain. I … the answers to the test we are going to take tomorrow. I can keep an eye on your children till your husband … back. c) likes 3. c) does not go 9. I like watching football matches and so does my girlfriend. How he (feel) now? You (think) of going to see him at the hospital? 6. a) is going. c) gets 4. Look at these pictures! Why … buy one for your father? a) don’t we. c) aren’t we III. I (love) the roses you sent me. 8. He (work) very hard at the moment and (deserve) to succeed. If … 215 . a) will get. 2. Rephrase the following sentences so as the meaning stays the same: 1. My younger brother keeps on bothering me. … true that Julia speaks four languages fluently? a) It is. b) we do. he … comedy. II. In case of accident call the police. How much …? 6. a) grows. 4. isn’t he? a) appears. I (walk) to school every day. Bread costs 10 000 lei in Romania. but in China. trust me.This room … 3. Both of us … 7. 3. b) Does it. She always (complain) about something. c) don’t know 6. My younger brother … 4. There is a smell of roses in this room. We constantly (see) you outside the cinema. a) know. b) is getting. My friend (come) to see us next month. I’m annoyed because you lose your pocket money every time I give it to you. c) are you visiting 5.

to stay..8.. (to listen) 4. to deal. with his nose. Usually she . but today he plays football.. to do. at the moment. She . At the moment I …. to begin. to get. Most of the time I …. Don’t shout that loud! I . and I’m sure it’ll be fine when you …... to a scientific broadcast. it …. Dear Sally. . She . Next week I …. 6. the silk to see how soft it is. to get busier. I …. inquiries.. just to let you know that I’ve arrived and that everything is fine. to the island of Crete which is where most of the people in the company …. More and more people … IV.. Sunrise is at 5:30 tomorrow morning.. Christmas is coming in December. quite a lot of sightseeing. it’ll be different when the tourist season ….. I write a letter to Mary. See you soon. which should be nice. them off. to live. (to smell) 8. naughty. with bookings and …. to rain. will you? I . to rent. Can you give me your pen? Or do you use it? V. A man . Diana and her grandmother are exactly alike. Are you liking coffee or tea? 9. using Present Tense Simple or Progressive: to start. Correct the mistakes in the following sentences: 1. these lovely flowers.. not to seem. The number of people who own expensive cars is increasing. He usually plays tennis after breakfast... the water for coffee in a special pot. (to feel) VI. Wait a minute. (to boil) 2. forward to it already. in the summer. Even now the restaurants ….. to be too demanding. (to be) 9.. a very quiet child but now she . a villa there for the summer. to write. Love. The job …. to come. The sun … 9... Don’t interrupt them! They . He is always going to work at 7 o’clock in the morning. Fill in the blanks with the correct form of the verbs: 1. Still. to answer. to look. But I …. Diana … 10. 3. I …. Fill in the blanks with the following verbs.... all right. I . to move. (to see) 6. They are saying the earth is going round the sun. I …. Here is coming your husband! 4. (to hear) 3. 8. Does his brother knows that you are going to leave the town without paying the debt? 2. (to boil) 5. I . Jenny 216 . (to feel) 10. 5. at a hotel in Athens and I …. 10. to suppose. you very well.. 7. The weather’s not particularly good – as a matter of fact. better slowly. You cook lunch right now and then you rest.. next month. (to smell) 7. it ….. Come and make the coffee! The water . I can’t answer the phone.

You feel thirsty on a hot day. Bake in the preheated oven for 45 minutes. 3. but I occasionally take the half past seven tram. discarding cooking liquid. 10. Lightly oil preheated grill. 2/3 cup water. În vreme ce musafirii vorbesc despre vreme. nu-i aşa? 8. for all I know. 1 teaspoon hot pepper sauce. 1 cup water. baste again with barbeque sauce. Totul este bine când se termină cu bine. 10.” 6. “You come to school on foot. 9. Noi nu mergem aproape niciodată la operă din păcate. brown sugar. Nu pot s-o pornesc. Maşina îmi face figuri astăzi. Ask questions about the underlined parts of the following sentences: 1. hot pepper sauce. In a medium saucepan. noi. and salt. 1/3 cup Worcestershire sauce. bring to a boil. 9. I brush my teeth three times a day. cover. IX. 3. butter. le turnăm ceai în pantofi. Worcestershire sauce. Transfer ribs from the oven to the grill. You are a reliable person. Întotdeauna îmi arde pantalonul când îl calcă! 3. Mergi la petrecere duminică? 7. 4. Translate the recipe and comment upon the uses of the verbs: Southern Grilled Barbecued Ribs INGREDIENTS: 4 pounds baby back pork ribs. 2. water. Tatăl meu rareori se uită la televizor duminica. 2. I have my English lessons at school. 1 cup ketchup. Turn ribs. VIII. 6. 1/4 cup prepared mustard. Grill over medium heat for 15 minutes. and simmer barbeque sauce for 1 hour. turning ribs once. 5. De ce deschizi uşa cuptorului de atâtea ori? Lasă prăjitura să se coacă! 217 . 5. Translate into English: 1. 4 tablespoons butter. Baste the ribs with their juices halfway through cooking. and grill 8 minutes. 8. Ce faci zilele acestea? Văruiesc bucătăria. 2. 4. don’t you?” “Yes. Preheat grill for medium heat. Baste ribs generously with barbeque sauce. 1/3 cup vinegar. vinegar. mustard. and grill 8 minutes. 1/8 teaspoon salt DIRECTIONS: 1. copiii. We read only critical books. and stir. Pour diluted vinegar over ribs and cover with foil. 7. I am free this afternoon because I don’t have to work on holidays. Preheat oven to 175 degrees C. 1/2 cup packed brown sugar. Place ribs in two roasting pans.VII. Se simte mult mai bine acum. 4. mix together ketchup. Mai bine luăm autobuzul. We sit on this bench two hours every Sunday. Reduce heat to low. Pour water and vinegar into a bowl. We clean our car before leaving for a picnic. You watch all the matches on TV.

or objects. [the implicature is that he is no longer a child]. a long time ago.1. after which he produced over 1. He did not become a painter until the age of 27. it shows an action often done in the past (habit). once upon a time. the other day They arrived yesterday. last night/week/month/year. which implies that an event/ state definitely took place in the past and it will not happen in the present or future. such as: everyday. on October 24th. put his coat on. Interrogative [auxiliary did + subject + the short infinitive of the main verb] Did I/ You/ He/ She/ We/ You/ They walk? Did I/ You/ He/ She/ We/ You/ They go? II. We bought this car five years ago. We had water melon everyday. • Larger situation (in historical or bibliographical statements about specific persons. locations. He left the army in 1945 and settled down in Australia. unlike the paraphrase with would. USES The Past Tense Simple is used: a. THE PAST TENSE SIMPLE A. FORM a.1. at the turn of the century.500 oil-paintings and drawings before committing suicide. to show an event at past reference: • Immediate situation (domestic sitations where the adverb of time could be implied) He woke up (at seven in the morning). 218 . once. shaved. went downstairs. in 1995. thus referring to a certain sequence. worked and finally died. They involve general knowledge about the situations described. often. during the war.] Actions are completed at a definite point in the past (when the time is given): Yesterday.3. had breakfast. frequently. hurried to the bus stop and caught a bus to the station. the 2nd form in the dictionary for irregular verbs] (see Appendix I for the pronunciation of ed and spelling rules of regular verbs) I/ You/ He/ She/ We/ You/ They walked/ saw/ ran b. Negative [auxiliary did + not + the short infinitive of the main verb] I/ You/ He/ She/ We/ You/ They did not walk (didn’t walk) I/ You/ He/ She/ We/ You/ They did not go (didn’t go) c. 1955. = He used to spend all his childhood in London. b. THEORETICAL CONSIDERATIONS I.) Vincent van Gogh was born in Holland. Affirmative [-ed for regular verbs. etc. got out of bed. with adverbs that express frequency. It can be paraphrased by means of used to. [it is a matter of cultural knowledge that Vincent van Gogh is a historical personage (a famous Dutch post-impressionst painter) who was born. washed. in 34 BC. a few hours/minutes/years ago. dressed. He spent all his childhood in London.

indicativ prezent Irene told me that she wrote a poem. The same polite use can be rendered by past modal forms with present or future reference (Could you help me for a moment? Would you come this way. She stood there motionless. THE PAST TENSE PROGRESSIVE A. Ways of translating the Past Tense Simple into Romanian a. entered and slammed the door. = Mergea adesea la pescuit când era copil. FORM a. Negative [Past Tense of the auxiliary to be + not + Present Participle (V+ing)] He was not walking when he met her. c. 1. being most often associated with politeness. Affirmative [Past Tense of the auxiliary to be + Present Participle (V+ing)] He was walking in the park when he met her. [the implicature is that he was still a child at the moment of speaking. wonder It is considered to be more polite than the present tense. = Bătuse/ bătu. b. III. THEORETICAL CONSIDERATIONS I. It occurs in everyday conversation and the Simple Past Tense has present time reference. = Stătea acolo nemişcată. imperfect (with habitual past. please?) Did you want to see me now? I wondered if you could help me. attitudinal past or if the verb is lexically durative) He often went fishing when he was a child.4. Interrogative [Past Tense of the auxiliary to be + subject + Present Participle (V+ing)] Was he walking in the park when he met her? II. c. mai mult ca perfectul/ perfect simplu (to show sequence for past perfect value) She knocked. perfect compus/ perfect simplu He rang the bell and opened the door. intră şi apoi trânti uşa. so a possible future interpretation] c. I thought we might go and see a movie. = A sunat la sonerie şi a deschis uşa/ Sună la sonerie şi deschise uşa.1. = Irene mi-a spus că scrie o poezie. b. It is used with verbs such as hope. = Mă gândeam poate mergem să vedem un film. think. it is related to the speaker’s attitude rather than to time.He would spend all his childhood in Lodon. want. d. USES The Present Progressive Tense has the following uses: 219 .

Ways of translating into Romanian a. wonder it makes a request sound more polite but less definite I was wondering if you'd like to come out with me one evening. it marks a gradual progress without any temporal marker The car was getting worse. and the engine was making more and more funny noises.it is pronounced /id/ after /d/ and /t/ B. [It is a case of Indirect Speech in direct object clauses. /s/ etc. . /f/. 1926) thus making the simple forms more precise: I was buying a shirt when I first met my wife [the meeting was completed within the framework of shirt-buying] It is used with adverbial structures such as: this time last week/ month/ year or with adverbial clauses of time This time last week I was flying to Paris. b. d. /l/. /m/. c. The progressive changes the meaning of the physical perception verb to see into to visit.it is pronounced /t/ after unvoiced consonants (except /t/): /p/. . c. /k/. viitor (in direct object clauses) He thought he was seeing her in the evening. b. want. it has a future reference in the past He thought he was seeing her in the evening.a. it shows annoyance. When I saw him he was running away.= Dormeam când el a intrat. = Mi-a spus că scrie un roman acum. The paraphrase could be He thought he would see her in the evening. One of the headlights was gradually falling off. Pronunciation of -ed . imperfect I was sleeping when he came in. /z/ etc. it has a polite use with verbs such as hope. = Credea că o va vizita deseară. criticism of a habit My husband was forever getting into trouble. e. it shows duration of an event It happened while I was living in the countryside last year. Appendix I A. The progressive form of a verb can function as a time background when the speaker feels that the actions are framed (Poutsma. f. prezent (in direct object clauses) She told me she was writing a novel then. think. /g/. /v/.it is pronounced /d/ after vowels and voiced consonants (except /d/): /b/. Spelling rules of regular verbs (Past Tense affirmative) • most verbs add -ed 220 . /ŋ/.] III.

Continue the following sentences using the Past Tense Progressive: 1. 4.. 2.. They (wind) up the evening with a song.travelled verbs ending in -y preceded by a vowel add -ed with no other change: to play – played to stay – stayed verbs ending in -y preceded by a consonant change -y into -i when adding -ed: to try – tried to study – studied verbs ending in c have ck before -ed: to picnic – picnicked • • • B. The TV was on but nobody . The smell of the roses (creep) into the room. in British English l is doubled after a short vowel even if the vowel is not stressed: to travel . The company (not/ disclose) how much it expects to gain from the two deals. The discussion (take place) in a famous villa.. Put the verbs in brackets into the Past Tense Simple: 1. One day an idea (strike) Mary. 9. II. 221 . Her parents helped with child care while she . x) preceded by a single vowel. double the consonant when adding -ed: to hop – hopped to pat – patted verbs of more than one syllable ending in a single consonant preceded by a single vowel double the consonant when adding ed only if the final syllable is stressed. 8. Compare: to prefer – preferred and to visit – visited to omit – omitted to listen – listened Exceptions: a. 6. Our blood almost (freeze) in our veins. 3.• • • to visit – visited to help – helped to gain – gained verbs ending in -e add just -d to dance – danced to hope – hoped one-syllable verbs ending in a single consonant (except c. to kidnap – kidnapped to handicap – handicapped b. EXERCISES I. 7. 3.. 10. He (stick) to his opinion.. 5. When (you/ meet) the company accountant? 2.. w. My neighbour burnt his hand while he . You (feel) out of place in your suit and tie. This (teach) him a bitter lesson.

We saw an accident while we . At first I (not understand) his question. For a ruin it was in good condition. I watched TV while my sister read the magazine.. Dave fell asleep while he .... Put the verbs in brackets into the Simple Past or the Past Progressive: 1. Suddenly I (notice) that the other people (look) at me. I (want) to ask him why he (smile) and why the other people (look) at me. 3. After . III.. 10. I (tell) him that it (be) very good. 8. If I (win) a big prize in a lottery I’d give up my job. VI. 7. IV. Last week they were placing an advertisement in the local paper for a secretary. I left the house but first I checked that I had my key. 8. Just then the waiter (come) over to me. 3. 9. Rephrase the following sentences so as the meaning stays the same. 8. 2. 4. Use Present or Perfect Participle: 1.. 10.. He read the script while she talked to the Production Director. 4. I was falling in love with anyone. too. 7. 5. He bought the book. If I am not busy I would help you. 9.. We visited the States this time last year. I (walk) in the park quietly when a dog (attack) me. 222 . Suddenly I (realize) that I (not have) my trousers on! That was why everybody (laugh) at me. As he (cross) the street he (step) on a banana skin and (fall) down. The young man (jump) on to the bus while it (run). It was taking me a few seconds to realize I looked foolish. 6. When the dream (begin). Then the waiter (ask) me if I (forget) anything.. but then he realized he didn’t need it. The doorbell rang while I . I (have) a bath when the phone (ring). When the rain began they . 9. 10. When the reasons behind the decision were explained it was all becoming clear.4. Some of them (point) at me. as though the place . She was reading while her brother . but then I (look) down at myself... He (ask) me if I (enjoy) my meal. Correct the mistakes: 1.. V. What did you do when he was coming home? 7. I (sit) all alone in a restaurant. I (not understand) why.. When the doorbell (ring) she (sleep). He (stand) a long time in the darkest corner of the room. While I (swim) someone (steal) my clothes. 6. 5. 2.. Last summer they were spending their holiday in Switzerland. 2. While I (water) the flowers it (begin) to rain. just like everyone else.. He (smile). Put the verbs in brackets into the Simple Past or the Past Progressive: Last night I (have) a very strange dream.. Somebody followed her while she . When the train (arrive) many travelers (wait) on the platform. 6. 5. but something (stop) me.

Before . He bought a new car but first he checked all the prices. Păreai foarte ocupat când te-am întâlnit aseară.. Din păcate. Eu aveam toată încrederea în puterea mea.. 4. VII. 8. cum toate cărţile pe care am vrut să le citesc. mi se păreau uscate. 223 . Cum tot cearşaful şi perna erau prea calde... trecu prin sufragerie.. 3.. 6.. 10. când eu am sosit Ana tocmai pleca. The police were approaching the house when they saw the burglars running away.. 5. I went out for the evening but first I went to the hairdressers’.. Era foarte extravagantă. 8. fără să poată rosti un cuvânt. but then she fell asleep. În timp ce musafirii se distrau hoţii au intrat în casă şi le-au furat hainele de blană. şi se strecură printre o mulţime de lume necunoscută. Întotdeauna purta o servietă când mergea la birou.. Ce făceai? 7. 6. 2.. am coborât către ora cinci în grădină. 3. 4.. 9. Before . unde nu era nimeni. 10. Când am intrat în muzeu am văzut multe tablouri impresionante. John was parking the car when he noticed the flat tyre. While . întotdeauna îşi cumpăra haine noi. 5. She was skiing in Sinaia and met her friend Mary. He tried to repair his car but first he checked his tools. 7. While .Before .. I took a pil land then I felt much better.. ca un om care pleacă la drum ştiut periculos pentru că se simte în stare să se apere.. n-avem prea multă grijă. pe urmă îl strânse în braţe cu ochii scăldaţi în lacrimi. Deschise uşa încetişor. Bunica încremeni o clipă.. aşa că nu am vorbit decât foarte puţin. Before . After . She cleaned the house. After .. 9. Translate into English: 1. care nici nu-l luă în seamă. While ..

[but I don't talk with him any longer. Negative: she/he/it has not/ hasn’t eaten. When it is used with the simple past tense. My mother has washed three shirts today. for expresses a completed period of time: I have known him for two years. [They solved the problem a few minutes ago.Since denotes from some definite point/ period in the past till now. THE PRESENT PERFECT SIMPLE A. c. I/you/we/they have not/haven’t eaten c.1. [The result that is expected implies the murderer’s confession.] He has been courting Ann for seven years now. The murderer hasn’t confessed his crime yet. The Continuative Present Perfect can show: . I/you/we/they have taken a test.a state leading up to the present: This hut has been deserted for three days/ a long time/ for ages. [I still know him. b. Affirmative [the present tense of the auxiliary ‘to have’ + the Past Participle of the main verb]: she/he/it has already worked. FORM a. THEORETICAL CONSIDERATIONS I. USES The Present Perfect Simple is used: a. ever. for an uncompleted action that one is expecting. . often. Have I/you/we/they eaten…? II.] I talked with him for two years. seldom. But you've only just filled it.] Only just expresses surprise or impatience: My pen has run out again. for an action which is just completed but the resulting state is still present. .] d. This use of the Present Perfect shows indefinite event(s) in a period leading up to the present moment. Cynthia has not visited us since yesterday /Tuesday /1998 / her son left for Canada. but he has not still asked her to marry him. [The action of washing the three 224 . Interrogative: Has he/she/it eaten…?. this morning/ week/ month/ year. always) are used for general experiences.For denotes a length of time till now.1. Using the Present Perfect suggests that we are still waiting for the result of the respective action. The Past Tense is also used but it shows that the action has no connection with the present. Adverbs of indefinite time or expressing frequency (never. Just and already are the most common adverbs of time used to express a recently completed action: They’ve just solved the problems.5. It is used with adverbs of time such as yet and still. an action begun in the past but still continuing to the present moment. but only with non-continuous verbs. while adverbs of time such as today. suggest a limited experience. b.

indicativ prezent: We’ve been here since the beginning of the show. perfect compus: They haven’t seen me since 1983. 1.] My mother has been washing my brother’s shirts today. in newspapers and broadcasts . We will ring you as soon as/ after he has come back from work g.1. = Suntem aici de la începutul spectacolului. The emphasis is on duration. We are drinking beer now.shirts is completed. The action of washing the three shirts is completed. b.] e. but not the action of washing shirts because the day is not over. in adverbial clauses of time in order to express a future action. f. I/you/we/they have been working b. The emphasis is on achievement. [has been washing = the Present Perfect Progressive.6. THE PRESENT PERFECT PROGRESSIVE A. We have been drinking beer for ten minutes. THEORETICAL CONSIDERATIONS I. [washed = the Past Tense Simple. FORM a. The Romanian indicativ prezent is the translation both for the Present Tense Simple/ Progressive and the Present Perfect Simple and Progressive. = Ei nu m-au văzut din1983. = Bem bere acum. Affirmative [the present tense of the auxiliary ‘to have’ + the Past Participle of the auxiliary ‘be’+ the Present Participle of the main verb]: She/he/it has been working. The curvy blonde revealed she has fallen head over heels for the ex-Manchester United Star. and so it is the action of washing for today because the day is almost over. prior to the one represented by a future tense in the main clause: We will paint the fence after we have had lunch.to introduce an action which will then be described in the simple past tense: Abi Titmussi has admitted she is smitten with hunky Lee Sharpe. in adverbial clauses of condition: John will go home if his wife has cooked dinner. so the Present Perfect denotes an incomplete period of time. Compare the following sentences: We drink beer every evening.] My mother washed three shirts today. (Online Star – 21 Jun 2005) III. Ways of translating a. = Bem bere de zece minute. Negative: she/he/it has not/hasn't been working. I/you/we/they have not/ haven’t been working c.= Bem bere în fiecare seară. Interrogative: has she/he/it been working? Have I/you/we/they been working? 225 .

b. this tense offers a more general meaning of lately in order to enhance this meaning. Who has been eating my dinner? [Some of my dinner is left. [they are still living in London] . smell.Since and for .My parents have lived in Bacău all their lives. or feel the results of an action that has recently stopped. and since morning. 226 . She has been lying about her whereabouts lately. but for more permanent actions the simple forms are preferred: She has been living in my flat for the last month. [lived . Ever since I was a child. He lived in London for two years. to show that the action is not completed. [I can tell from your black eye. .] She has been crying. I have been living in the same house.the adverbs of time recently and lately.Observe the use of the progressive aspect with how long and of the simple aspect with how many: How long have you been waiting for her? How many hours have you waited for her? . The Present Perfect Progressive can be used without a duration such as for ten minutes. Recently. [the activity of knocking is still going on] It can be used with: .II. I have been demanding an explanation for hours but nobody has yet dared to speak up. to suggest that one can see. [Look.] . You have been fighting again.non-durative activities (processes) used in the progressive get an iterative interpretation. USES The Present Perfect Progressive is used: a.] d.] Who has eaten my dinner? [All my dinner is gone.the Past Tense Simple. to show duration from the past until now. hear. we have been feeling rather tired with his haughtiness. It can be used with habits (recurrent events): She has been teaching this class since Christmas. [the activity of knocking stopped] Someone has been knocking at the door. her eyes are red. to convey feelings of irritation. whereas used in the Simple Present Perfect describe rather one single instantaneous situation: Someone has knocked at the door.to express more temporary actions and situations. He doesn’t live in London anymore.] c. Without these precise durations.

Give an alternative for the following sentences: 1. (It’s the middle of the afternoon) I’m really hungry. It seems like years ……. 5. 8. 9. 3. They began eating Chinese food several years ago. She went shopping twice last week. and once when I (be) a child”. …. “ When (you/ first/ meet) him?” “I (meet) him at Christies eight years ago”. It's a long time ……. 2. 4. It's over a month since I went to their place. (It’s 10 o’clock in the morning) “(you/ see) Mrs Carter this morning?” “Yes. 227 . you last quarrelled with anybody! 2. I (visit) it two years ago. I (not/ have) any breakfast this morning and I (not/ have) time to go out for anything to eat this afternoon. I've been feeling rather depressed. “Really? How long (you/ know) him?” “Oh. III. 7. II.. perfect compus Who has been eating my cake? = Cine mi-a mâncat din prăjitură? Perfectul compus + adverbs to render the speaker's emotions: He's been drinking wine again! = Bineînţeles că iar a băut vin! [That is why he’s tired/ drunk. It's over a fortnight since he went to the barber's. 2.III. We haven't seen a good film …. They don't think much of him as a policeman: he hasn't caught a burglar ……… at least seven years. The window got broken last week. indicativ prezent They have been widening the road for one week. I (visit) it twice. Complete the following sentences with for or since. Ways of translating a. 6. ……. but she (go) out soon afterwards”. the past ten days . 1. “(you / ever/ visit) Switzerland?” “Yes. She began wearing glasses a month ago. Petrol has become more and more expensive …. 4.] B. 5. I (see) her when I (arrive) in the office. 6. …… you brought me that dog my cat hasn't turned up yet. 8. EXERCISES I. 1. 3. = Mănâncă de la ora 5. = Lărgesc strada. 4. It's a long time since we had diner at the Decebal. in fact not … we went to see The Titanic together. 10. They went to the park once last week. at least two months. Complete the conversations using the present perfect simple or the past simple of the verb in brackets. Elizabeth II became queen in 1952. 7. the end of last year. b. ten days ago. It's years since we went to a movie. you cooked a really delicious meal. ”I know Mr Robinson”. They have been eating since five o’clock. she's had nightmares every night. for quite a long time now”. 3. they came.

A) laid B) has lain C) lay D) has laid. 10. A) will strike B) has been striking C) strikes D) has struck.9.... 7. twins. he …. It was a terrible earthquake a few minutes ago. You must wake him. They (walk) ten miles. A) was B) don’t be C) haven’t been D) have been . He …. in touch with my brother for three weeks. 5.... I am sitting for my portrait … the last six months but the artist hasn't finished it yet. Why you (be) so long in the garage? 9. That's why you are tired. They (walk) for three hours. You (hear) the news? Cynthia and Paul are engaged! 3. just an egg on the straw of the stable.. He's been sleeping soundly … ten hours! IV. 6.. 4. your own house? A) did you paint B) do you paint C) have you been painting D) are you painting. 10. you…. ‘How old is your sister?’ ‘She’s 20. …. The hen …. I ( pump) them up. VI. so the match (be) postponed. down with a sudden crash. The tree in front of our house …. It (rain) for two hours and the ground is too wet to play on. That's not new. in bed.. 228 . I (know) it for ages! 4. How long …. He must have fallen asleep. V. A) has been grief-struck B) is grief-stricken C) has been grief-stricken D) was grief-stricken. 2. Since his wife died. It’s the first time in our family when a woman …. A) fell B) has fallen C) has falen D) felled 8. his fiancée four times this week. 3. Put the verbs in brackets into an appropriate tense: 1. 8.. the police will start searching the thieves. he ever …. so I …. Choose the correct variant: 1. . how to play chess? A) does he ever knows B) has he ever known C) did you ever know D) does he ever know. 2. He told me that his elder brother (dig) a hole for three hours in order to find the treasure.. 7. It’s three weeks since I last spoke with my brother. A) bears B) has born C) has borne D) bore.’ ‘She (read) Shakespeare as a child?’ 2. She ought to give up smoking.. He (lie) under that nut-tree for ages. You (read) ever Shakespeare in the original? 3. Use the present perfect simple or progressive for the verbs in brackets: 1. It’s Sunday evening and he gave up calling her. 9. A) has called B) has been calling C) called D) is calling. 6. He …. She (sleep) on every bed in this house and she doesn't like any of them. 10. She (cough) a lot lately. The tyres were flat. 4. 5. A) has breaked B) has broken C) broke D) breaked / A) lay B) has lain C) has been laying D) has been lying. his leg last week and since then he …. eight. You (walk).. After the clock …..

Îşi dau întâlniri pe holurile universităţii de când sunt în anul I. A muncit. Nu mi-ai adresat nici un cuvânt de când am păşit pragul acestei case.5. But for three years. (National Geographic) 4. She will be glad after her marriage (take) place. Acest castel era nu de mult o ruină. my mom asked. ’That’s as easy as falling off a log’. 6. (National Geographic) VIII. 2. I’m quite upset. I (not know) what you (wait) for. 7. VII. Translate into Romanian and identify the verbs underlined: 1. The blame for this situation has been laid at the door of the current status and mood of society. pe când eu.' 4. To the uninitiated. Translate the following sentences into English: 1. 'De când nu se mai înţeleg?' 'De vreun an. 5. (Newsweek) 3. Already the sun’s energy is being put to limited use in homes and buildings around the world. 10. sărăcuţa. Întreab-o pe Maria'. dar de când se amenajează parcul parcă arată altfel. you may think. n-a mai fost reparat de vreo doi ani. 8. Since the legendary Prometheus first stole the fire of heaven. 6. He always (love) by women. After having heard (you have heard) an expert. ’How long you (put up with) this chatterbox?’ ’Since I (get) married’.(The Sunday Post) 2. cred. We (get) a phone call 15 minutes ago and a man (yell) that there (be) a bomb in our building. making a speech carries with it a certain glamour. 'De când se întâlnesc?' . N-am băut cafea azi dimineaţă şi mă doare teribil capul. virtually all energy consumed by man has been fathered by the sun. The police (search) for it since then but no bomb (find) yet. 9. He may be 50. 9. but up to now he never (follow) it. (National Geographic) 5. a panel of drug experts working for the US Food and Drug Administration has been analyzing the ingredients of these patent medicines to see if they really live up to their advertising. pene şi frunze să-şi facă un cuib unde să clocească ouăle.' 10. He always (ask) for my advice. Ce fata harnică eşti! Ai terminat toată treaba aşa că te odihneşti acum. toată ziua: a adunat beţişoare.'Nu ştiu nimic. se tot ceartă mereu. Niciodată n-am mai întâlnit un om aşa de generos ca el! 8. 3. ’Ce drum plin de gropi!' . cât mai am de lucru! 7. ’Why you (not help) yourselves?’. The table (lay) 20 minutes ago. 229 .'Păi. but he still (have) a way of attracting the opposite sex.

a Simple Past Tense is preferred for the target verb as well as for the verb showing the point of reference: Mary said some rather horrible things to me and I felt pretty upset. [habitual meaning in the past] . after. he had worked a lot for this company. until. to express a past action that becomes the background for another action in the past. FORM a. thus showing a sequence of events. Events. so I couldn’t read. to express a past hope. to intend. Woods (had) heard the news before I reached the company. now that. expectation. [event meaning. [the effect of me being upset was caused by what Mary had said. [state meaning] I had broken my glasses. She had thought of paying us a visit but the bad weather made her change her plans. I had meant / intended to call on our bankers. THE PAST PERFECT SIMPLE A. to expect. THEORETICAL CONSIDERATIONS I.“Cause-effect” use – the situation related to the point of reference relevant for the Past Perfect can be interpreted as the cause for the action expressed through a Past Tense (target verb). Woods had heard the news. I felt pretty upset because of the horrible things Mary had said to me. intention or desire that was not realised. Negative [the Past Tense of the auxiliary have + not + Past Participle of the verb] I had not / I hadn’t forgotten c. once. It is used with verbs such as to hope. Mr.1. Affirmative [the Past Tense of the auxiliary have + Past Participle of the verb] I had forgotten/ I’d forgotten b. I didn’t reach the company until after Mr. 230 . having a resultative use] Mr. to mean (= to intend)or to want We had hoped that you would be able to get that contract.1. Pitt shouldn’t have sacked John. b. I reached the company after Mr. but I was prevented from doing so.7. Interrogative [the Past Tense of the auxiliary have + subject + Past Participle of the verb] Had I / hadn’t I forgotten? II. Woods had heard the news.] When the events are presented in the order in which they happened. c. We can use it with the following conjunctions: when. she had been a true-born French. USES a. before. This use can be found in narrative texts. states or habits anterior to a time of orientation in the past: Even if she looked like an English girl. and as soon as that introduce adverbial clauses of time.

Interrogative: Had he been/ hadn’t he been waiting for us? II.• In adverbial clauses of time in order to express a future action that takes place before another action expressed by a Future-in-the-Past: She told me1/ she would pay me a visit2/ after I had come back from the city3/. THEORETICAL CONSIDERATIONS I.She told me that she had already read the report. (DS) . the past action is shown to be finished a little time before another past action.(IS) ‘They left the Stock Exchange a few months ago'. [a habit in the past = recurrent event] Ken gave up smoking two years ago. (DS) . No sooner had the curtain fallen than they rose to go. Each adverb triggers inversion in the subordinate clause and it has a correlative in the main clause. (IS) III.8. FORM a.+ present participle of the verb]: I had been/ I’d had been waiting for Ann since two o’clock. Ways of translating the Past Perfect Simple into Romanian a. ‘I have already read the report’.1. USES The Past Perfect Progressive is used: a. to show an activity or event. Affirmative [the past tense of to have + been – past participle . = Îl cunoşteam pe Romeo dar nu l-am văzut/ nu-l văzusem de când m-am căsătorit. = A spus că-i va da o broşa de aur după ce se vor căsători. viitor: He said he would give her a gold brooch after they had got married. THE PAST PERFECT PROGRESSIVE A. c. d. He had been smoking for 17 years. we can say that something had been happening for a period of time before something else happened). • In adverbial clauses of time introduced by restrictive adverbs such as hardly/ barely/ scarcely/ no sooner. Mr.I was told that they had left the Stock Exchange a few months before / earlier / previously. Woods had been working for 30 years when he finally retired in 1995. 1. The Past Perfect is common in reported/ indirect speech to express a Present Perfect or a Past Tense from Direct Speech. perfect simplu: He started the car after he had checked the engine. b. perfect compus/ mai-mult-ca-perfect: I knew Romeo but I hadn't seen him since my marriage. c. = Şoferul porni maşina după ce verifică motorul. which had been in progress up to a past moment (in other words. Negative: I had not been/ I hadn’t been waiting for you. 231 . Hardly / scarcely had I entered the door when the telephone rang. b.

(I. [the result is his blue eye]. as the two sentences above:: I had been waiting for her for half an hour when she finally arrived. c. b.] d. = A spus că o aşteaptă pe prietena ei de o jumătate de oră. 232 . c. mai-mult-ca-perfect/ perfect compus/ perfect simplu (in narrative texts): Mr.The children explained to their teacher that they had been taking English courses for two years. They had been working since eleven o’clock.S) III. She told me that her son had been fighting. prezent: She said she had been waiting for her friend for half an hour. imperfect: I had been driving for twenty minutes when I ran out of petrol.S). in Indirect Speech. Woods had been working for 30 years when he finally retired in 1995. (D.S) . they explained to their teacher. Ways of translating into Romanian a. (I. It does not express a frequently repeated situation (habit meaning) in the past. perfect compus (for the emotional use): I had been trying for hours to get our customer in Baghdad on the phone.S) ‘We have been taking English classes for two years’. = Ore întregi am încercat să-l prind la telefon pe clientul nostru în Baghdad. to show that the effect of the action is still apparent. b. I had been trying for hours to get our customer in Baghdad on the phone. Ann told to her friend. = Domnul Woods lucrase/ a lucrat/ lucră timp de 30 de ani când în cele din urmă s-a pensionat/ se pensionă în 1995.• To underline the continuity of a past action up to a past moment or just before it. we might sense a tone of irritation] d. (I.S) “Have you been crying?” (D. = Conduceam de douăzeci de minute când am rămas fără benzină. (D. to convey the speaker’s emotions of irritation . [This emotional use is rendered in Romanian by placing the adverb of time at the beginning of the sentence. in order to express a Past Tense Progressive or a Present Perfect Progressive from Direct Speech: ‘I was reading a novel at six o’clock yesterday’.S)Ann explained to her friend that that she had been reading a novel at six o’clock.She was asked whether she had been crying. [besides the meaning of an action that seems to have been happening for a long time.

A woman walked into the room. in the garden all afternoon. 9. He cooked lunch. 4. It was his first flight. She boasted about it. Maggie took a hot bath because …………. Henry’s family were very impressed to discover that he ………. We had looked for it for hours. 3. Maggie worked in the garden all afternoon. (see) I …………. When (you/meet) the company accountant? 3. 10. I (look) everywhere for ideas since I failed to hand in that project. very hard all morning. 2. It was our first time there. He (always / look) so young. Patrick’s mother told him off when he came home late because she ………….B. Simon played tennis yesterday. 1. I lost my watch. Starting from the information given. her an extra half hour for lunch because she …. Henry came home from work early. 8. EXERCISES I. Use the verb given in brackets. 2. top in the final exam. (fly) He ………… 2. His family were very impressed. Her boss gave her an extra half hour for lunch. I was very pleased when my son found it. (play) He ………… 4. Her father bought her a car as a reward. I was very pleased when my son found my watch because we ……. Read the situations and write sentences ending with BEFORE. lunch when he came home from work early. We (try) to find new services which (be) sophisticated and (have) added value. complete each sentence with a suitable verb in the Past Perfect Simple or Progressive. Mary came top in the final examination. 5. The man sitting next to me on the plane was very nervous. Ann worked very hard all morning. for it for hours. She was a complete stranger to me. 5. Ann boasted that her boss …………. 6. III. They (have) no money because they (spend) everything on duty free whisky. II.. When (you/be) in this house last? 4. (be) We ………… 233 . but he (seem) to have aged in the last weeks. Put the verbs in brackets into a suitable past tense (Past Tense or Past Perfect): 1. He came home very late. Then she took a hot bath. 6. Patrick went to the disco. His mother was worried and she told him off when he got in. Mary (discover) an addiction to housework which she (never/feel) before. 7.. Mary’s father bought her a car because she …………. He wasn’t very good at it because it was his first game. 1. about him all evening.… 3. Last year we went to Denmark. Yesterday. at the party he (feel) out of place in your suit and tie. I (realise) someone (use) my camera because there were finger marks on the lens. They (say) heavy industry (pollute) our rivers with noxious chemicals for ages.

(to come back.. IV. Choose the best alternative to complete each sentence: 1. to find. To my surprise I ……. 1. no answer.. many times but they ….already………. a) was looking b) has been looking c) had been looking d)are looking 5.. never a princess in the flesh.30 as I ……. John apologised………. the office during the night. He …..d) visited/ the 2. .to my girl friend her sister……………my letters. He …. a) have seen b) was seeing c) saw d) had seen VI.. I .. We arrived at work in the morning and found that somebody …………... just …. William... a) had fallen over b) has been falling over c) has fallen over d) fell over 6. Look. Richards this morning but …. a) saw b) was seeing c) hasn’t seen d) has seen 7. a French princess in the flesh.. I had hardly…………… 4.. He ….. to look) 4.. to go out) 3. (to be... (to apply.. It’s over a year since anyone .. (to get.. He . a) left b) has left c) will have left d) had left 4. The police officers……………. He ……. (sign) They . very surprised. to reply) 5.b) had visited/ the c) visited/ .. I met Mary as soon as I left home. a lot during the football match. I tried to phone Mr. to wait) V. I arrived at the company for an interview at 12. Rewrite each sentence beginning as shown: 1. Fill in the blank spaces using the verbs in the brackets and paying attention to the sequence of events in order to get meaningful events... to call) 2. 2. Last year when I was in France.. By the time………… 234 . The train had left before we got to the station. He .. a) discovered/ was writing/ had read b) had discovered/ had written/ had been reading c) discovered/ had been writing/ had been reading d) had discovered/ had been writing/ had been reading 3.. So we ………. I caught flu as soon as I had recovered from measles. . Mary’s aunt………. “I’d like to say sorry I missed your wedding”. a) has spoken withb) spoke with c) had spoken d) has been speaking with 8. the assistant marketing manager the previous month.... He ……...5... (to break into. Yesterday Kevin ………. but he hopes that he will have the chance one day. I had no sooner……… 3. It was their first contract.. We……………...for the thieves for two days when they found them near the village. By the time we got home. he has cuts on his legs. to be.. a) have visited/ .. to write. After eight years I………………that all the time I……………. They concluded a contract two weeks ago... Joan said. my husband in there who ………..Netherlands last summer. I met Jim a few days ago..

Baiatul arata ca asi cum nu s-ar fi spalat niciodata pe maini. No sooner…………. The train left before I arrived.. Hardly……………….. Intrunirea tocmai incepuse cand am intrat. They got on the train and immediately it left. 7. Familia Miller a locuit in casa aceea treizeci de ani. The minute he entered. 8. 4. De cat timp se cunosteau cand Tina s-a casatorit cu Robert? 10. 6. I didn’t realise my mistake until………. 8. 3. I realised my mistake after I’d handed in the test. 2. 6. 2. ca am mancat florile pana sa vina chelnerul.7. I was wondering why nobody hadn’t answered it. a horrible idea had stricken me. I haven’t played football for two weeks: It’s two weeks …………… VII. 3. 5. 4. 7. Am verificat preturile mai multor companii occidentale inainte de a incepe sa importam aceste video-recordere din Singapore. The grass was wet because it had raining all day yesterday. Isi vopsise parul. Almost all the guests left by the time we had arrived. Mi-era asa de foame. How long they go out together when they finally get married? 9. Correct the following mistakes: 1. Din pacate. Scarcely Sandra had come in than she started work. The man sitting next to me on the plane was very nervous because it was his first flight. Nu-i de mirare ca nu am recunoscut-o ieri pe Judith. The telephone rang for almost a minute when I got into the room. 9.. I just got into bed when somebody knock at the door. 5. VIII. vasul s-a scufundat inainte ca elicopterul sa ajunga la locul dezastrului. 7. He……………… 5. Why did you left when he call on you? 8. The car changed its direction when it hit the tree. Alice had no sooner sung a song than she began another. 235 . 6. pana cand a distrus-o un cutremur. Translate into English: 1. Proiectantul facuse patru schite inainte de a se apuca de proiect. 10. In ianuarie am obtinut rezultate mai bune decat se asteptase oricine.

in a day/ week/ month/ year . Future Progressive/ Continuous [Will/ shall +Progressive infinitive = be + Ving] This time next month we will be visiting the Louvre museum.” 236 .” “It’ll be Mary’s daughter. Be going to + Infinitive f. Be on the point / verge of + gerund k. the activity of teaching English is in progress. on Monday. [the prediction is the following: this time next year. futurity. THE FUTURE AND FUTURITY A. Be to + the infinitive of the verb i. THEORETICAL CONSIDERATIONS In Modern English futurity is closely interrelated with modality. She’s going to have a baby. there are certain adverbials that place an event/ state on the axis of future: . Future Perfect Progressive / Continuous [Will/ shall + have been + the present participle of the verb] He will have been driving the same truck for two years in September. Instead.unanchored adverbials (in May.1. USES The above forms and patterns are used to express the following concepts and types of future events: a. in the sense of a specific form the verb takes to “signal” futurity. Predictions: • FUTURE SIMPLE: Jane will still be in Paris in five months. That is why there is no future tense proper in English. She will arrive tomorrow.9. is rendered by means of modal auxiliaries/ semi-auxiliaries and other linguistic patterns that contain future meaning. FORMS AND PATTERNS USED TO TALK ABOUT A FUTURE EVENT a. d. in spring) whose future interpretation depends on the context. Be about to + the infinitive of the verb j. Simple Present h. • BE GOING TO + INFINITIVE: Look at Jane. I.] • a present event ( FUTURE SIMPLE):“Someone is shouting.1. Present Progressive/ Continuous g. Be due to + the infinitive of the verb II.explicitly future time adverbials: tomorrow. Look out! That brick is going to fall! • a temporary event going on at a future reference time (FUTURE PROGRESSIVE): This time next year I’ll be teaching English. Future Simple [Will/ shall + Infinitive] They will confess their crime. Future Perfect [Will/ shall + have + past participle of the verb] They will have brought up the furniture by then. b. Besides the different tenses expressing futurity (discussed in the other chapters). c. intermingle with modality or aspect. e. next/ week/ month/ year.

e. • BE ON THE POINT OF / ON THE VERGE OF + V-ing Don’t disturb him now. Don’t worry..m. [the decision was taken by the manager. He’s on the point of falling asleep. within the next.m. He’s (just) about to get on the bus. An event that is about to happen • BE ABOUT TO + INFINITIVE Hurry up. Arrangements • personal arrangement for the near future (PRESENT PROGRESSIVE): I’m seeing my dentist tomorrow.m. it refers to institutions or things whose going-on is scheduled by an external authority. • an event arranged by external factors (SIMPLE PRESENT ): Mary works in the marketing department next week. • official arrangements. f. hour/ week] • a future event which is probable/ improbable to happen (BE LIKELY/ UNLIKELY TO + INFINITIVE): He’s likely to run out of petrol. but the rain may delay it.) • PRESENT SIMPLE The plain takes off at 7 p. who is an exterior authority] • a polite way of refusing an invitation or asking about someone’s arrangements (FUTURE PROGRESSIVE):Your birthday? I’m really sorry. [we generally use adverbs such as: by then. d. But I’ll be sitting for the English exam on Saturday. soon. when the event cannot be changed (BE TO + INFINITIVE): All the students are to be present in the schoolyard at 5 p. Timetabled events (the subject is not human. premeditated (BE GOING TO + INFINITIVE): What are you going to do today? I’m going to lie in bed all day. • BE DUE TO + INFINITIVE (timetable may change) The show is due to start at 8 p. tomorrow. • BE GOING TO + INFINITIVE Look at that old lady! She’s going to fall! 237 .• an event the speaker expects to be completed by a particular future reference time (FUTURE PERFECT): They’ll have filled in the application by the time you arrive. I’ll lend you some. c. She is on the verge of bursting into tears. • that have already been decided on before the speech event. Intentions and decisions • made during the speech event (WILL + INFINITIVE): I’ve run out of money. b. Formal commands and instructions (BE TO + INFINITIVE): You are not to go to the library this week.

l. He won’t come. (future) 238 . Requests Will you give me a hand? [to be more polite use would you] (informal) Give me a hand.00 tomorrow morning. m. I’ll do it for you. Offers (WILL/SHALL/WON’T + INFINITIVE) Sit down. Routine. j. • the speaker makes a statement of fact about a future event (WILL + INFINITIVE) The sun will rise at 6. whatever your sister says. h. characteristic behavior (WILL + INFINITIVE) His elder sister will always be the first to leave the party. refusal • subject’s willingness to do something (WILL + INFINITVE) He’ll do anything for money. Shall I do it for you? Will you have another helping? i. In order to do that. habitual future events • the speaker sees a future event as certain because it is part of a routine (FUTURE PROGRESSIVE): We’ll be having our monthly meeting on Thursday. will you? (insistent request) k. Each animal shall be confined in a container. My secretary will take care of you. insistence (WILL + INFINITIVE) I wìll date him. (will is stressed) • refusal to do something (WON’T / SHAN’T + INFINITIVE) Believe me.g. • determination. (FIP) • would + progressive infinitive (future progressive): in reported speech. involving a sequence of events They will have sold all the goods by Monday. • habits. Orders / Instructions (formal documents) You will/shall keep an eye on the students till they finish their papers. we transfer the forms with future meaning in the past: • would + infinitive : in reported speech. Willingness. (future) I hoped you would water the whole garden. involving a sequence of events I think you’ll be selling furniture in two week’s time. Boys will be boys. (future) I thought you’d be selling furniture in two week’s time. Future in the Past (FIP) There are situations in which we have to express a future event from a viewpoint in the past. (FIP) • would + have + past participle (future perfect in the past): in reported speech. Promises (WILL + INFINITIVE) Don’t worry. involving a sequence of events I hope you’ll water the whole garden.

Ways of translating future a. b. Are you going to discuss the matter with your mates? 7. They (play) some Beethoven next. He is about to leave/ on the point of leaving. viitor anterior/ viitor (in adverbial clauses of time) The children will play…after they have finished…[…se vor juca…dupã ce vor fi terminat / vor termina…] B. = …Te duc/ voi duce eu. I’ll drive you. 3. I (take) my parents to the ballet tomorrow. = Mâine il ajut. Are you going to sing at the concert tonight? 8. viitor/ viitor anterior (in main clauses) I’ll have finished …by six pm. II. 5. Put the verbs in brackets into an appropriate tense: 1. 9. He (sing) in Paris next week. 6. We (meet) him at the airport at five. (FIP) III. How you (get) to the party tomorrow? 2. Are you going to spend your money in a hotel? 4. Peter (call) for you at nine. 10. Replace be going to by will / shall + be + V-ing (future progressive) and show the differences in meaning (mention whether they are interchangeable): 1. I’m going to meet Tom. Are you going to take it with you? 3. 4. It’s eight. prezent/ viitor (in main clauses) The train for Paris leaves at 6. 8. = Voi termina/ voi fi terminat…pânã la… c. We (leave) as soon as it (cease) raining. the day after tomorrow. Are you going to creep up the stairs? 239 . EXERCISES I. = Trenul pentru Paris pleacã la 6. Hurry up! The train (leave) in a minute.I was sure they would have sold the all the goods by Monday. Are you going to tell him the truth? 5. = E gata sã plece/ E pe punctul de a pleca Don’t bother. My friend (sit) for an exam on Monday. 7. = Va accepta…dacã îi voi spune/ îi spun… d.m. Are you going to make all the arrangements? 6. Are you going to come by air? 9. = Îl voi intâlni/ Intenţionez/ Am de gând sã-l intâlnesc pe Tom. I’ ll be helping him tomorrow. Are you going to sleep in the armchair? 2. viitor/ prezent (in direct object clauses and adverbial clauses of condition and time) He said he would be back… = A spus cã se va întoarce He will accept the proposal if I tell him the truth. She told me she (see) the doctor at five p.

a) will settle b) settle c) are settling d) have settled 2. 10. How much you (give) me for this book? IV. the governor. I’ve put the spare part where you told me. 5. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct tense (present. Brown. If you accept the bargain you (have) to pay for it. she … a) will be leaving b) is leaving c) will have left d) will left 6. Look at the sky. I (plant) an oak tree here. wait till the grounds …. future): 1. ‘That (be) Mr. By the end of the year all our debts … . when I told him to. If this terrible heat (not come) to an end we’ll suffer from hunger next year. What (offer) your daughter for her graduation? 9. 2. 7. a) is b) will have visited c) will be d) has visited 4. 6. 7. When we (provide) all the facilities we’ll speak about leaving the country. I’ll wait for her in the restaurant till the clock (strike) four. I (give) you one of these pills. present perfect. It's no use phoning Irene at the office. John said he would give me a ring as soon as he … Paris. a) will have been paid off b) will be paid off c) will be being paid off d) are paid off 5. ‘There’s someone at the door. 3. All right. The petrol tank (explode).” a) will have decorated b) will be decorating c) will decorate d) am going to decorate 240 . This airplane (crash) 4. I … it by then. In three days’ time I (fly) over the Atlantic ocean. This device is cheap and useful. Pour boiling water on the coffee grounds. 4. Ann (miss) her bus. a) reaches b) reached c) will reach d) will be reaching 3. Are you going to take your medicine? III. 10. Choose the correct form of the verb: 1. You (tell) me the whole story? 9. What (you do) this weekend? I was thinking of visiting the international exhibition of furniture. then strain it into a clean jug.10. I think I (buy) it. V. 3. It (snow). What your teacher (do) with that big dictionary? 6. By the time he … fifty he …all the countries in the world. Put the verbs in brackets into the going to form and make a context for each sentence: 1. 2. “Couldn't they stay in your spare room at Easter?” “Yes. He visits a new country every year. 5. 8. When the gardener (water) the flowers? Model: When is the gardener going to water the garden? Context: He should have done it two days ago. Now what I (do) next? 8.

“Your hair is getting terribly long.The result of our appeal against the parking fine is due tomorrow. won’t 8. His fate is to become a great singer. a) will be taking b) will take c) will have taken d) takes 9. Everyone in the village lived in fear of the volcanic eruption. be 10.7. Do not change the word in any way: 1. a) will be finished b) will have been finished c) is finishing d) finishes VI. What time is the train for Paris? leave Model: What time does the train for Paris leave? 2.” “Don't worry. She can't come to the beach with us because she … an exam on Sunday. His wife is pregnant again. You can be sure that at the end of the school the car will be in front of the house. (impending) 241 . (due) . which was imminent. If he isn’t ill you’ll find him playing tennis in the court. The aircraft is on the point of landing. leave 5. The members of the crew have planned to leave the ship tomorrow. Will you promise that you won’t get drunk again tonight? (not to) 5. unless 4. have 7. He will recognize her at once when he … her. have 9. The show will start in half an hour. Turn that music down! It’s so loud that it’ll definitely wake all the neighbors. about 6. a) will see b) sees c) will be seeing d) is seeing 10. What does your boy friend intend to do? going 3. (disturbed) 2. According to the latest forecast. (bound) 3. I’m bound to work here till the end of my life.” a) will be getting b) will get c) get d) will have got 8. Rephrase each sentence so that it contains the word in capitals. the tunnel … next year. (discovering) 4. (likely to) 6. Use the word or phrase given so that the meaning stays the same Example: The result of our appeal against the parking fine should arrive in the post tomorrow. It is probable that the road-sweeping contract will be withdrawn from Dustbugs. Scientists in the human genome project feel that they are about to discover the secret of life. I… it cut on Wednesday. 1. Do not disturb the chimpanzees during feeding time. start VII.

eu voi fi terminat deja facultatea. Nu te culca înainte de a-ţi lua medicamentul. 5. If we want medical research to provide cures for all known diseases. el va fi terminat romanul. Translate into English: 1. Nu credeam cã la ora aceea tu vei mai cânta la pian. Până să începi tu nuvela. (about) 10. (unlikely to) 9. Tu nu vezi? O să plouă cu găleata. (is) VIII. Unde mâncãm în seara asta? La bunica? 8. 10. 6. Când vei ajunge tu student.7. it must be adequately funded. Cu siguranţă o să încerce să vă facă să credeţi că e nevinovat. 4. 242 . 9. o va cumpãra. The store is going to close in five minutes. Il voi ajuta după ce îmi va spune cum s-au petrecut lucrurile. Ne ameninţă că o să ne dea pe toţi afară pentru că susţinea el că nu suntem buni de nimic. 2. I really don’t think that the examiner will accept a handwritten script these days. 7. Please make your purchases and proceed to a check out. Dacã Irina va gãsi cartea. (envisages) 8. 3. The designer believes that he will he be able to finish the specifications by tomorrow afternoon.

or whether a course of action is recommended or allowed. one semimodal which is frequently used is have (got)to. MODALS AND SEMI-MODALS A. will/would Note: Need to. Negative: cannot. for example to indicate how certain. Can expresses ability (can=be able to) • physical power/capacity: Can you lift this piece of furniture? • knowledge/skill: Can they solve this problem? • circumstances: Can Susan come to our meeting on Wednesday? ( it may be paraphrased by be in position to: Is Susan free to do so? Is Susan in a position to do so? c. CAN FORM a. Interrogative: can + subject + infinitive USES a. shall/should. Jane can’t have much experience in teaching. couldn’t (used only in spoken and informal written English) c. or how frequently something happens. Affirmative: can b. may/might.10. THEORETICAL CONSIDERATIONS I. can’t (used only in spoken and informal written English) c. However. Can/ could. probable. dare to.1. ought to are marginal modals. Interrogative: could + subject + infinitive 243 .Negative: could not. Jane can’t have taken your money. MODALS There are nine central modals in English. obligatory something is.) They are used to add meaning to a main verb. Can expresses permission Can he stay a little longer? They can’t have lunch at 12. (in my opinion it’s impossible) d. What can I do around here? Hello Paul. b. What can we do for you? COULD FORM a.1. in conversation. can is used: • to make suggestions • to offer to do something or to make polite requests by either asking people to do things or asking for things. Affirmative: could b. necessary. Can expresses negative deduction: Jane can’t be working so long. In questions. possible.must. (Other terms used for them are ‘modal verbs’ and ‘modal auxiliaries’ and ‘modal auxiliary verbs’.

’ May also indicates that someone is allowed to do something or has the choice of doing something. Any two persons may marry in Scotland provided that both persons are at least 16 years of age on the day of their marriage. Affirmative: may b. This second use is chiefly limited to quick responses to ‘may’. (=was able to) b. (=Mary is very happy indeed) The news couldn’t have come at a better time.’ d. (It’s out of the question) The patterns could + bare infinitive and could + have + past participle are used to talk about possibility in the past. ‘Where’s Peter?’ ‘He could be in the study. Could expresses ability (be able to) Tom could run ten miles when he was young.’ (=Perhaps he is in the study) Note: with could in this use the degree of possibility is less sure than with ‘may’ or ‘might’. you may. MAY FORM a.Negative: may not c. Couldn’t as an extinction of can be used in not-so-polite requests.30. e. usually because of a rule or law. I remember how it could snow in the mountains even in summer. Could have done expresses: i. could is used to mark a present or future possibility. an action which in our opinion has not taken place She couldn’t have overslept (it my opinion it isn’t possible) They couldn’t have waited for two hours. Could expresses condition: I could buy you a book.’ ‘It may be Peter. . Couldn’t you (wouldn’t it be possible for you to) give me your phone number? Could not and couldn’t are used with comparatives to emphasize that someone or something has as much as is possible of a particular quality (possibility or impossibility). Excuse me. May expresses (a) asking for permission as well as in (b) granting permission.’ ‘You could have left them in your office. Mary couldn’t be happier. Interrogative: may + subject + infinitive USES a.USES a.’ (=Perhaps it is Peter) 244 . you may not!’ b. I may be watching the documentary film on television. In conversation. ‘I can’t find my keys anywhere. an action which is not performed: He could have helped you (but he didn’t) ii. May not indicates that someone is not allowed to do something (=prohibition). ‘’May I join your trip?’ ‘No. May expresses possibility in the present and in the future: Don’t phone at 9. May I have a look at your newspaper? ‘Could I make a suggestion?’ ‘Of course. (if I want) Couldn’t he fiind a better job? (if he wanted) c. ‘There’s someone at the door.

may is also used as a polite way of interrupting someone. We aren’t sure what we are going to do next weekend. Brian. I work hard for a living. (Perhaps I will go to Greece) c. In formal spoken English. In conversation.I haven’t decided yet where to spend my holidays.) c. asking a question or introducing what the speaker is going to say next. ‘Betsy is late’. We can use might + have + past participle to talk about possibility in the past. You know. 245 . might is used to talk about present or future possibility. d.Might (not) + have + past participle is used to express uncertainty I suppose I might have been rather critical. whatever you may think. Might can be used to ask for permission in a less direct way. Might I make a suggestion? Might I ask what you’re doing here? b. We might go in the mountains. (=Perhaps we will go to the mountains. or introducing what the speaker is going to say next. making a suggestion. ‘If I may interrupt for a moment.’ John said. (it’s possible that they were connected) The chaos may have contributed to the deaths of up to 20 people. May/might+have+Past Participle expresses posibility about a past action: The events may or may not have been connected. May is used when the speaker is mentioning the reaction or attitude that he/she thinks someone is likely to have to something he/she is about to say. mightn’t (used only in spoken and informal written English) c.’ (=Perhaps she missed / had missed her train). ‘She might have missed her train. might is used to make a suggestion or to give advice in a very polite way. asking a question. For offers and polite requests: May we recommended a weekend on the Black Sea Coast? Do sit down. Affirmative: might b. (it’s possible that it has contributed) d. Anyway. e. may I just ask you one other thing? f. Interrogative might + subject + infinitive USES a.Negative: might not. when used as a polite way of interrupting someone. They might not have received our message yet. I may go to Greece. In conversation. Might + have + past participle is used to express annoyance at someone’s failure to do something (See similar pattern with ‘could’ in this emphatical use of expressing the speaker’s annoyance) You might have told me before! f. It is similar to could. MIGHT FORM a. And may we offer you something to drink? May I come with you to the conference? e.

Must is used to make suggestions or invitations very forcefully. Must is used in exclamations to express surprise or shock. Must not expresses prohibition: (nu trebuie) You must not come late to lectures c. I have to be there before 2. Affirmative form: b. Must expresses deduction: She must be rich (=I’m sure she is rich) The past form of this construction is: She must have been rich when she was young. I’ve got to be there before 2. Come to dinner. You must be cold. Must in conversation is used most of the time to mark logical necessity. Must/have to/have got to express obligation: (trebuie) I must be there before 2. e. MUST FORM a. You must see the painting George has given me as a wedding present. This must be a very difficult job for you. g. Now I must/have (got) to get your clothes ready for packing. (British English) Sometimes the context allows the use of either must or have to. You must be very worried by now. Your feet must feel wet now. Might is used in idiomatic expressions such as I might add and I might say in order to emphasize a statement that the speaker is making. your must/’ll have to buy some more when you get there. Must is used in remarks and comments where the speaker is expressing sympathy. f. I didn’t come as a great surprise to me. (=I’m sure she was rich) d. Interrogative form: must + subject + infinitive USES a. g.Negative form: must must not. mustn’t (used only in spoken and informal written English) c. It’s not very warm and you’re not wearing a coat.They might be wise to stop advertising on television. Must expresses the speaker’s intention to do something I must be getting back. I might add. ‘Go! Please go. Must + bare infinitive refers to the speaker’s certainty about a present action. depending on whether the speaker feels that the obligation comes from herself-himself or from elsewhere. h. Relatives ring up constantly. You must visit me. It might be a good idea to tell your husband. i. Ann’s mum must not care. I see you’re got only three decent shirts. b. (=I am sure that you are cold). not always for the best motives. I might say.’ ‘You must be joking!’ I really must be quite mad! 246 .

Negative: shall not c. (conversation). Affirmative: shall b. Will (related to the present) refers to activities or events that are repeated and which we notice. Interrogative:will + subject + infinitive USES a. will you? (Would can be used as a less definite. I will say no more on these matters. b. I shall try to show that our political practices accept integrity as a distinct virtue (academic prose) b. I shall definitely help him to finish his work. She’ll always help people if she can. Affirmative: will b. more polite form of will in this meaning. Will marking assumption It won’t be that difficult to do. Interrogative:shall + subject + infinitive? USES a. In conversation. c. Shall can be used with all persons to emphasize something which the speaker feels is certain to happen or wants to happen. He will be devoting more time to writing. I won’t be here early enough to show you before school. (Note that shall is associated with I and we in questions. Will is also used in questions in order to ask or tell someone to do something (volition). Will expresses prediction of events or states not involving personal agents. broadcasting and lecturing. Will you drive me home? Wipe the jam off my mouth. Will is used in questions in order to make polite invitations or offers Will you stay for dinner? Won’t you sit down? d. In conversation. e.Negative: will not. important though they are. won’t (only in spoken English and informal written English) c. see would in this use). shall is typically used as a volitional modal in questions acting as offers or suggestions. 247 . will is commonly used to mark logical prediction as well as personal volition (and prediction of one’s own future actions). such as people’s habits or characteristics of things Kate is very kind.You must have gone out of your mind! SHALL FORM a. Art thieves will often hide an important work for years after it has been stolen.) Shall we post this letter for you? Shall we play tennis tomorrow? WILL FORM a.

Would expresses prediction. Nobody would agree with that idea. ‘d (in spoken and informal written english often abbreviated) b. Should + have + past participle is used to refer to something which was supposed to happen. The paint wouldn’t stick to the wallpaper. Would marking assumption She would just feel better if she went out. Affirmative: should (note that should as a modal is never contracted to ‘d. of events or states not involving personal agents. Would not may expresses refusal in the past. People* should let one know before failing to keep an appointment. (but it didn’t) 3. Affirmative: would. offers or requests: Would you like a drink? Would you prefer to stay in or go out this evening? d. e. b. from laws. Interrogative: should + subject + infinitive USES a. c. Should and ought to are very similar in meaning.) This restaurant* should really be very expensive. I knew Trevor wouldn’t come with me. It may also express refusal in inanimate objects. 2.g. where the sentence is a suppressed conditional sentence. ought to is also possible. Should is used for duty and advisability. unlike conditional ‘should’) b.Negative: would not. Would is used in sentences expressing certainty. I would just read the book as well.Negative: should not. Should is related to expectation (Where* should appears.In the Western Isles it’ll rain for days on end. (duty) 248 . It should have rained. Interrogative: would + subject + infinitive USES a. but we often prefer ought to to talk about authority which comes from outside the speaker e. Cheap money would have the same effect by increasing private investment. (if we asked them) SHOULD FORM a. wouldn’t (used only in spoken and informal written English) c.Would is used in questions in order to make polite invitations. shouldn’t (used only in spoken and informal written English) c. WOULD FORM a. The meaning is past of hypothetical.

HAVE TO FORM a. Affirmative: has/have/had to b. Have to expresses the ‘external’ obligation that has its origin in circumstance (necessity) or in a person other than the speaker or writer. They* should have let us know that they weren’t coming. needn’t +have+ Past Participle expresses an unnecessary action which was performed: I needn’t have waited. (but he did) Nu era nevoie sa ia un taxi. He needn’t have taken a taxi. NEED FORM a. They didn’t need to do anything (And so they didn’t do anything) N-a fost nevoie ca ei sa faca ceva. Affirmative: need b. in questions should is used when the speaker is asking someone for advice. (My parents insist. (but I did) Nu era nevoie sa astept. do/does/did+ subject + need to+ infinitive USES a.) 249 . should can be used to express a strong obligation politely. you needn’t. In conversation. Guests should vacate their rooms by midday. don’t/doesn’t/didn’t need to c. or information. you must. I have to be home by 10 o’clock. didn’t need to expresses absence of obligation in the past: I didn’t need to wait (And so I didn’t wait) N-a fost nevoie sa astept.I think you* should check to see if our Austrian partners are coming (advisability) 4. 5. he does/No. needn’t . b. (It’s not necessary-according to the speaker) You don’t need to do it now.Negative: doesn’t/don’t/didn’t have to c.Negative: need not. In writing.do/does/did not need to. Interrogative:need + subject + infinitive. Yes. c. (It’s not necessary-external circumstances do not require the action to be performed) Interrogative forms are the following: Need I go there? No. (The speaker’s questions involve a degree of uncertainty) Should I or shouldn’t I go to university? What should I do? Should we tell her about it? 6. Should + have + past participle is used to express the non-fulfilment of a duty. permission. Does he need to go there? Yes. he doesn’t.. needn’t/don’t need to express absence of obligation You needn’t do it now. Interrogative: does/do/did + subject + have to+infinitive? USES a.

’ II. d. Have to + bare infinitive refers to a past obligation. I always have to work late on Tuesdays evenings. We normally use have to.be sure to. often). would sooner. Had better + bare infinitive expresses a strong recommendation in a particular situation. It’s going to be cold tonight. Affirmative: had better. I hope the plane leaves on time and that I won’t have to wait at the airport. I’d better iron my shirt. HAD BETTER FORM a. e. be able to. b. I’ve got to work late this evening. c. There are a number of fixed idiomatic phrases with functions similar to those of modals. be supposed. (Note: needn’t have is used when the speaker did do something although it was not necessary.We have to drive on the left in Britain.would do well to.had best. ‚d better b. We’d better turn on the heating. especially when we use one word adverb of frequency (always. for things that happen repeatedly.be going to. ‘The last time you went you took Hong Kong dollars with you. it’s easy to change money when you get there. but the meaning is present or future. I’m going to an interview tomorrow.be meant to. I don’t have to leave for another conference. Don’t have to and won’t have to are used to express absence of obligation in the present and future. would just as soon. be bound to. would rathe.) We had to go to Germany.be unable to. Didn’t have to expresses the absence of obligation in the past when the speaker did not do anything because it was not necessary. not have got to.) Note: that have to is used to replace must where the modal does not have corresponding forms. Note: that we always use had (not ‘have’) with better in this structure. (Note: have got to is not used to talk about the past.be liable to. 250 . not past. but I needn’t have. Interrogative: had+S+better+inginitive? USES a.had better. Had better often suggests a kind of threat or warning. b. we normally use had to. (That is the law. and is stronger than should or ought to.) They didn’t have to pay tax. Negative: had better not c.’ ‘Yes.

They were able to work together very efficiently. Do you know where he is? 1. used you. Read the situations and use the words in brackets to write sentences with must have and can’t have. a. The children are not allowed to watch violent TV programmes. (Abraham Lincoln in this. Replace the words in italics with a construction using a modal verb related to ability/ inability. 5. c. ………… 4. Read the situations and make sentences from the words in brackets. I can’t find my umbrella. (she/ play/ tennis)………. (it/ be/ in the car)………. EXERCISES I. I wonder where she is. (she/go/ out )………. 1. Use may or might. II. Have you seen it? 1. (she/ go/ shopping)………. (they / listen/ to our conversation). (he/ be/ in the bath)………. his famous saying. 3. I was woken up in the middle of the night by the noise next door. III. 2. I can’t find Helen anywhere. When he woke up this morning. ‘Would you allow me to make one small suggestion?’ she said. (he/ not/ hear/ the telephone)………. Mr. ………… 3. but it’s impossible to fool all the people all of the time. Did you hear that sharp noise? I think it’s possible that one of the book shelves has broken in the study next door. 4. 2. the light was on. (you/ leave/ in the office)………. d.B. 1. I’m looking for Bob. permission/ prohibition or possibility/ impossibility. (he/ forget/ to turn it off) ………… 251 . b. 2. Would you allow me to use your laptop computer for a moment? It’s possible that my computer has a bug in the software. 7. (the neighbours/ have/ a party) …………. Later. at a news conference. 9. They knew everything about our plans. not one). Ben passed the exam without studying for it. 6. It’s possible to fool all the people some of the time and some of the people all the time. 8. Fiona did the opposite of what I asked her to do. I was able to speak German quite well as a child. 2. 2. The company say they’re able to keep pricing competitive. 1. Peel was able to convince the competition that it would be possible for them to become partners in that huge long-term project. (the exam/ very difficult). 1. (she/ understand/ what I said) ………… 3. 10. It was impossible for anyone to get in because no one knew the password. 2. (he/ watch/ TV/ in his room)………. Why didn’t Tim answer the phone? I’m sure he was in the house at the time.

(they/ go away) ………… 8. Complete the sentences using must or a form of have to. The phone rang but I didn’t hear it. Amy is extremely rich. The jacket you bought is very good quality. but could you tidy the shelves in the storeroom. Catherine isn’t working tomorrow. 4. pay. He really … have told his brother about this deal. The meeting’s finished. 1. wear. It was supposed to be absolutely confidential. 10. (the driver/ see/ the red light) ………… IV. 10. I haven’t seen the people next door for ages. shave. Karen … on Sundays. (I / asleep) ………… 7. We’ve got plenty of time. Fill the gaps in the sentences with must (n’t). I’ve got a few things to do but I … them now. I’m not particularly busy. 13. Sometimes two answers are possible. cook. The diet … be maintained unchanged for about a year. so she … early. climb. 12. William … a suit to work but he usually does. 5. There’s a lift in the building. Complete these sentences using don’t/ doesn’t/ didn’t have to + one of these verbs: arrive. Paul has got a beard. be. What are you doing here? … you be at the meeting downtown? 4. She arrives early because she wants to. We … find out what’s been decided any moment now. tell. The lights were red but the car didn’t stop. 14. 2. 11. (He/ leave/ it in the restaurant last night). You … have typed this – a handwritten note would have been quite adequate. 252 . There was no queue. Peter can’t find his umbrella. You … make so much noise. 5. I went to the bank this morning. I … get some in the morning. I … have posted these yesterday afternoon and I completely forgot. We’ve run out of paperclips. go. Midday tomorrow is the deadline. wait. 2. so he … 9. The car park is free – you … to park your car there. 3. V.5.(it/ very expensive) ………… 6. You … clean the office because we haven’t been using it today. Sue … at work so early. get up. VI. 3. 8. You … finish that report tonight if you’re too tired. I’m going to be in trouble. You can tell me if you want but you … me. work. work 1. so we … the stairs. We … yet. 7. 15. go. ………… 9. We aren’t spending our weekend at home. You … a good player to enjoy a game of tennis. 9. so we … our meals. We’ll be asked to leave otherwise. please? 6. 6. so I … 7. needn’t or should( n’t). She … 8. A man was slightly injured in the accident but he … to hospital.

2. He expressed the hope that on Monday elementary school … (reopen). She’s been studying very hard. 7. I couldn’t go to the party last night because I … babysit for my sister. 3. He kept trying to start the car and the battery got flatter and flatter. You … and see us more often. Put the verbs in brackets into a modal construction using will or would. John … hurry. We were the better team. (win) 7. I … what you said. You … get a visa to visit the United States. 9. 1. He has insisted that his organisation … (negotiate) with the government. I … (imagine) that you can’t grow seeds actually in these big plastic bags. 8. She … she’s much better than me. I don’t like … work at weekends. 2. 10. I … this morning but I was feeling a bit ill. 7. It … (cost) very much more for the four of us to come from Italy. but he had moved on to another topic. You … (come) 3. 6. (arrive) 10. 4. then at least allow me to lend you something. Margaret … the exam. Complete the sentences with should (have) + the verb in brackets. You missed a great party last night. 5. 9. (pass) 2. 1. ‘Is John here yet?’ ‘Not yet. Mr. The holiday … (do) him the world of good. Within ten weeks of the introduction. If you … (let) me pay for a taxi. I’m sorry that I didn’t take your advice. What do you think I … ? (do) 5. so it … by now. 5. I … take it three times a day after meals. She … (like) to ask questions. VII. VIII. It’s getting very late. The doctor gave me some medicine. 3. We … go now. I posted the letter three days ago. Jane will … do her homework tomorrow. Mason … wear glasses since he was a child. (do) 6. We don’t see you enough. but he … here soon?’ (be) 9. I’m in a difficult position. 4. … (you/ work) home last night? 10. The Prime Minister is now 65 years old and in all probability this … (be) the last election that he is likely to contest. (win) 8. 6.1. He’s plenty of time. I … stay in bed yesterday because I wasn’t very well. I’m playing tennis with Jill tomorrow. (come) 4. We lost the match but we … . 8. until it … (turn) the engine at all. (go) 253 . 34 million people … (reach) by our television commercials.

11. Object (by + agent) I. c. THEORETICAL CONSIDERATIONS Besides mood. FORM The active subject becomes the passive agent. Changes form Active to Passive: Active Passive Present: writes is written Present Progressive: is writing is being written Present Perfect: has written has been written Past: wrote was written Past Perfect: had written had been written Future: will write will be written Future in the past: would write would be written Modal verbs: must do must be done Modal + perfective: might have done might have been done The Infinitive My sister loves to be admired by everybody. the verb to be in the appropriate tense (that of the main verb). aspect. a verb has another grammatical category. b. [perfect infinitive] -ing forms While being asked about his whereabouts. The voice system in English makes possible for the action of a sentence to be viewed in two ways: Her mother ironed the blouse.1. Interrogative: be (the appropriate tense) + subject + the past participle Was the problem solved yesterday? Has a doctor been sent for? II. She hoped her book to have been accepted by the publisher. The book was sold by John. the main verb is in the Past Participle. and tense. he felt a cold shiver running along his spine. Negative: subject + be (the appropriate tense) + not + the past participle It isn’t known who made the mistake. [active voice] The blouse was ironed (by her mother). [present participle] 254 . Subject Predicate Direct Object The blouse Subject PASSIVE VOICE was ironed Predicate by her mother. THE PASSIVE VOICE A. Affirmative: John sold the book.1. the direct object becomes the passive subject. [passive voice] • The active and passive sentences have the following representations: ACTIVE VOICE Her mother ironed the blouse. namely the voice. preceded by by: a.

Causative ‘have’ . This dress doesn’t suit you. . The omission occurs: . . Ways of rendering the English Passive into Romanian a. . She was born after the war. . to belong. to go into.when the agent is so obvious that there is no need to mention it: The thief will be arrested. The direct object is the sufferer: She has her hair cut.* Her mother bore her after the war. to resemble. Constraints a. to lack. . bag = concrete subject] b.* You are not suited by this dress. Active voice into Romanian (+ the appropriate tense of the verb) 255 .] V.* A new Jeep is had by Tom. but a hairdresser for example. to be drowned (when no agent is implied). on the contrary there is another agent implied. to hold. to become. not a concrete one.when the agent is left out as redundant: He had a cup in his hands a few seconds ago.* I was let leave > I was allowed /given permission to leave early. Phrasal verbs – to look into. 4. – * This bag had been looked into. .The verbs to have and to get can occur in the following construction: have/ get + direct object + past participle = somebody does something for/ to you. 3. IV. to suit – require only an active construction: Tom has a new Jeep. in Nominative + Infinitive constructions. he was taken by t he police. verbs of ‘wanting’ and ‘liking] are used in the active voice: She wanted me to be there.Before having been asked about the robbery. . This delicate matter had been looked into. [the auxiliary has is actually a causative verb. Agent constraints The agent by-phrase is generally optional. verbs of “being” and “having” – to have ( = to own) to be. [perfect participle] I enjoy being taken out to dinner.These constructions show semantically that the grammatical subject is not the agent/ doer of the action.* I was wanted to be there. . He was thought to be honest. one that is not mentioned. . I will have you arrested! . to arrive at – can be used in the passive only when the subject is an abstract patient. [matter = abstract subject. and now the cup is broken. Verb constraints 1. I like that car. the verb to let has no passive form. we use a passive of to allow/ to permit/ to give permission: He let me leave early .when the agent is irrelevant or unknown: My car has been stolen. to seem .in impersonal statements: Passengers are asked not to enter this area. Do you mind her having been arrested? [perfect gerund] III. . 2.* People thought him to be honest 5.* That car is liked. passive only: to be born. simple present tense – meaning: she will not perform the action of cutting her own hair.

2. 5. They are just lengthening the road. – viitor] c. [Geamul s-a spart. All the people know the President well. People don`t pay babysitters a lot of money. EXERCISES I. [Va fi bine îngrijită. Police had to break the meeting immediately. Father did not allow me to go to the party last night. 4. He has used this apparatus only once since that day. The building was being guarded by the police. – perfect compus] This matter will be dealt with at once. Passive voice into Romanian (+ the appropriate tense of the verb to be) The letter was written by John. 6. Someone will have to be found to take my place. Reflexive voice into Romanian A noise was heard. – perfect compus] The children will be offered many toys. [Oamenilor le este frică de cutremur. No one talked about this at the meeting. The President…. – viitor] A decision was arrived at.] b. 9. (causative ‘have’) [M-am fotografiat săptămâna aceasta. 10. [S-a auzit un zgomot. Both drivers will be taken to the hospital by the ambulance. Turn into Passive Voice: 1. A speech to the nation was made by the Prime minister. He is expected to be back at the end of the week. [Ne vom ocupa imediat de această problemă. 7. On very few occasions…. 8. 256 . 9. [Scrisoarea a fost scrisă de John. He admitted this on very few occasions. The watch has been repaired skilfully. 5. The President denied access to the affected area. The road….. My car was just being repaired by Tom when I arrived. The murderer was arrested in less than two hours. [Peştele se mănâncă cu mujdei. III.. II. 2. 7. 3. 3. Finish the sentences: 1. – prezent. They are closing down a lot of factories nowadays. 4. – perfect compus] They will take good care of her. People strongly assume money brings happiness. 2.. [Copiilor li se vor oferi multe jucării. 3. 6. – perfect compus] Fish eats with garlic. Turn into Active Voice: 1. B. You should meet them at the airport tonight.People are getting frightened by earthquake. 8. The accident had been seen by a crowd of people. – prezent] The window broke. – perfect compus] I’ve had some photos taken this week. The goods had been sent to the required address. Social workers were doing valuable work. 10. [S-a ajuns la o decizie. – viitor.

(Future Tense) 3. 7. (Present Continuous) 8. he will take me for a walk. 5. I think he is the very person that can (ask) about it. 7. Rewrite each sentence using the words in capitals. 257 . IT 7. At this time yesterday. A new…. FINISHED V. Gym exercises…. (Infinitive) 6. (Past Perfect) 7. A new meeting on this problem (arrange) by the Commonwealth Prime Minister. DISCOVER 2. REPAIR 6. Not until later…. Bell în 1876. INTRODUCE 3. Never…. 4. 5. They (invite) to Bucharest this week. The author has included key answers at the end of the book .. 8. G. The man had never before made such a firm promise. I am sorry. Police had not found out the identity of the victim.. I don’t know his name. BY 9. The satellite will give us new pictures of the planet Mars. Progresele tehnice sunt analizate cu atenţie în toate centrele de ştiinţă din lume. 6. Make sure the sentences are passive. 1.. I can’t believe she (recognize) by her uncle. 8. După toate datele primite. He…. 6. They were trying a new check-out system in the library. She now believes she (take in) by all his lies. IDENTIFY 4. Someone should give him the required information... They have found some very old coins in a churchyard. The yesterday newspaper (buy) by many people.. IV. Toate acele case au fost distruse de recentul cutremur. All his statements…. (Infinitive) 10. Translate into English: 1. (Present Perfect) VI. RECEIVE 5. The announcement (make) immediately after midnight. (Present Tense) 2. EXAMINE 10.4. (Past Continuous) 9. 2. Use tenses of the Passive Voice as required: 1. The building is thought to date from the 10th century. They are looking into the files very carefully. As soon as he finishes his report. Se insistă foarte mult asupra învăţării asistate de calculator. 3. se calcă uşor. 9. They didn`t find out about the results until later. The new proposals (discuss) when he entered the meeting hall. (Past Simple) 5. About 100 new flats(build) by the end of the year. Ţi se va permite să vizitezi tot muzeul cu condiţia să nu atingi exponatele. the mechanic was repairing my bike. Se ştie că telefonul a fost inventat de A. I will never tell them the truth about the accident.BEEN 8. 9. Traffic rules must (obey). (Past Tense) 4. They…. Mi s-a spus că s-au discutat multe aspecte interesante la conferinţa de ieri. Acest material este foarte bun. casa va fi demolată mâine. Everyone knows that gym exercises are good for health. 10. Chinese people inhabit this beautiful island. She has proved that all his statements are lies. Se observă că ştiinţa a evoluat foarte mult în ultimii ani.

III. 1. 2. THE SUBJUNCTIVE
A. THEORETICAL CONSIDERATIONS The Subjunctive is a grammatical mood used in (in)dependent sentences in order to refer “to events which are not certain to happen – which we hope will happen, or imagine might happen, or want to happen.” (Swan, 1990: 580) I wish I were younger. (unfortunately I am not) From a formal point of view, there are 2 types of Subjunctive: a. the Synthetic Subjunctive b. the Analytical Subjunctive. a. THE SYNTHETIC SUBJUNCTIVE I. FORM AND USES - The Old Subjunctive (the Present Subjunctive) resembles the form of the Short Infinitive of the verb for all tenses and persons and is used to express supposition, purpose, fear, suggestion, request, wish, necessity etc. It is important that he come/ be invited to the party. From a semantic point of view, the Old Subjunctive can be classified into: ● The Formulaic Subjunctive – in the formal and old-fashioned style, it is used in independent/ main clauses that contain certain idioms to express wishes, prayers or protests (often involving supernatural powers). God save the Queen! Be that as it may, she will carry on with her plan! ●The Mandative Subjunctive is used in subordinate 'That–clauses' to express desire, demand, requirement, obligation, necessity, suggest, command etc. He made the suggestion that the thief come and explain everything. - The Modern Subjunctive (the Past and Past Perfect Subjunctive) conveys the idea of unreality, regret about a situation, improbability, and doubt. The Past Subjunctive is used when the action referred to is simultaneous with or posterior to the reference time (usually used for present and future time). The Past Perfect Subjunctive resembles the form of the Indicative Mood, Past Perfect for all tenses and persons and it is used when the action referred to is anterior to the reference time (used only for past time). If I were you, I wouldn’t wait for him any longer. I wish I had known the truth about this matter. II. Ways of translating the Synthetic Subjunctive a. conjunctiv prezent: God bless the King! (Dumnezeu să-l binecuvânteze pe rege!) I wish he were us. (Aş vrea să fie aici.) b. imperativ: Expenses be hanged! (Dă-le încolo de cheltuieli!) c. indicativ prezent: Suffice it to say that he was caught stealing the pearls! (E de ajuns să spunem ca a fost prins furând perlele!) d. conjunctiv perfect: He wishes he had been there. (Ar dori să fi fost aici.) e. condiţional optativ: He looked at me as if he had seen a ghost. (S-a uitat la mine de parcă ar fi văzut o stafie.)

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b. THE ANALYTICAL SUBJUNCTIVE I. FORM AND USES - The Subjunctive Equivalents (or modal auxiliaries) are often used to replace the Old Subjunctive in informal English. His uncle urged that he should sit down and wait. No matter how pretty she might be, she can’t be your girl friend. II. Ways of translating the Analytical Subjunctive a. conjunctiv prezent: It is necessary that your father should sign the application. (Este necesar ca tatăl tău să semneze formularul.) b. conjunctiv perfect: It is impossible (that) he should have failed the exam. (Este imposibil ca el să fi picat examenul.) c. condiţional optativ: However disgraceful it may be, you must give him a hand. (Oricât de dezonorant ar fi, trebuie să-l ajuţi.) d. condiţional optativ/ indicativ: I wish you would call me earlier! (Tare aş dori să mă suni mai devreme!/ De ce nu mă suni mai devreme?)

B. EXERCISES
I. Build up sentences with the following words using the Subjunctive: 1. He recommended that (I, some money, to lend, to his friend). 2. She orders that (to see, the vet, at once, her dog ). 3. I suggest that (immediately, to return, all of you, in the classroom). 4. The Prime Minister demanded that (to house, from USA, the delegates, at the best hotel). 5. They insist that (John, to resign, tomorrow). 6. He urged that (to work, the employees, more efficiently). 7. I propose that (in the morning, to be, at six, in my office, you). 8. Mary required that (the diploma, the schoolmaster, her, to give). 9. The doctor insisted that (to take, before meals, the pills, every day, he). 10. The mayor demands that (to keep, all the citizens, clean, the town). II. Rephrase the following sentences using 'wish' to express regret for a present action (the meaning must stay the same): 1. It’s a pity you leave so soon. 2. I regret he doesn’t know how to start the engine. 3. I’m sorry the delivery comes come so late. 4. It’s a pity you get only poor marks at the exams. 5. I regret the girls don’t pay attention to the explanations. 6. It’s pity I can’t fix the car. 7. I’m sorry they are fighting every day.

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8. It’s a pity you don’t speak to each other. 9. I regret our teacher drinks so much coffee. 10. It’s a pity you don’t try to improve your pronunciation. III. Rephrase the following sentences using 'wish' to express regret for a past action (the meaning must stay the same): 1. I didn’t meet her yesterday. 2. It was time for us to leave. 3. Mike failed all his exams. 4. He didn’t bring the money for the dictionary. 5. We didn’t study semantics last term. 6. They didn’t know how to act under such circumstances. 7. She wasn’t there at the right moment. 8. We didn’t spend much time together. 9. They didn’t have any children. 10. I didn’t understand her real problems. IV. Use the past tense and the past perfect forms of the Subjunctive after: as if / though, suppose, even if/ though according to the meaning: 1. He looked as if he (see) a ghost. 2. He wouldn’t solve the exercise even if he (try). 3. Suppose you (be) there, what would you have done? 4. The criminal behaved as though he (not know) anything about the murder. 5. He smiled friendly as if he (recognize) her. 6. I wouldn’t sell my honesty even though he (give) thousands of dollars. 7. You treated those people as if you (not meet) them before. 8. You treated the girl as if you (not know) her. 9. Suppose you (have) a flat of your own, would you put me up? 10. I wouldn’t invite him even if you (ask) me to. V. Rephrase the following sentences using it’s impossible/ normal/ natural/ unbelievable with should according to the model: Example: She can’t be here at this hour. It’s impossible (that) she should be here… She can’t have been there at that hour. It’s impossible (that) she should have been there… 1. This can’t happen again. 2. Allan can’t have lied to his parents. 3. You can’t leave her alone after all she has done for you. 4. Your best friend can’t abandon you in the middle of the battle. 5. They can’t have eaten all the food. 6. He can’t go abroad this week. 7. You can’t have done such terrible mistakes. 8. Peter can’t ask Mary to marry him. 9. That wind can’t have destroyed the whole city. 10. You can’t utter such heavy words.

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III.1.3. THE CONDITIONAL MOOD
A. THEORETICAL CONSIDERATIONS I. Definiton The Conditional is the grammatical mood expressing suppositions, doubt or different types of conditions – real, (im)probable, (im)possible/ hypothetical . The conditional mood can cover two types of structures: • dependent clauses made up of two parts: the main clause/ MC and the adverbial clause of condition/ IfC: I would leave if I had enough money. • independent clauses where the IfC is rather implied from the context. They can be part of a dialogue or of free indirect speech/ thought: ‘I told you what had happened to Paul and how he reacted. What would you have done?’ ‘I would have fired those that had robbed the company.’ II. Conditional Clauses In English, there are three main types of Conditional Clauses.

TYPE CONDITION

MAIN CLAUSE I will pass the exam Voi trece examenul Future Form (will + Infinitive)

IF
if daca

“IF”/CONDITIONAL CLAUSE I study harder. voi invata mai mult. Present Form

I.

possible to fulfill

II.

in theory possible to fulfill

I would pass the exam As trece examenul Present Conditional (would + Inf.)

if daca

I studied harder. as invata mai mult. Past Form

III.

impossible to fulfill

I would have passed the exam As fi trecut examenul

if daca

I had studied harder. as fi invatat mai mult.

Perfect Conditional (would + have Past Perfect Form (had + Past Participle) +Past Participle) III. Mixed conditionals In addition to all the tense variations that we can use in first, second and third conditionals, it is also possible to mix conditionals so that, for example, the if clause uses a verb form used in the first conditional and the main clause uses a verb form used in the third conditional. The context defines the meaning. The most common mixed conditional is:

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Type III if + past perfect If I had worked harder at university,

Type II would/could/might+ infinitive I would have a degree now.

Here are some other examples of mixed conditionals : Type 1 Type II If you come to the party tomorrow, I wouldn't bring Mike with you. Type II Type III If she loved him, she would have stayed with him. IV. Conjunctions which can replace IF • Unless + affirmative verb (If + negative verb) places a negative condition Unless you come at once, I’ll take it with me. (If you don’t…) Unless you had a lot of money, you couldn’t buy it.(If you hadn’t…) Unless he is happy to see me, I won’t come to bother him. (If he is unhappy) • Providing / provided (that) – used when there is a strong idea of limitation (chiefly used with permission) You can borrow her bike provided (that) you bring it back by 10 pm. • But for + a proper name/a noun/a pronoun = If it were not for/ if it hadn’t been for My best friend has come to help me. But for him, I wouldn’t get the diploma. But for his trust, I wouldn’t have succeeded. • Suppose/supposing = what if/ what…happen if? Suppose he doesn’t come on time? = What if he doesn’t…? = What will happen if he…? Suppose I hadn’t sent you the document? = What if I hadn’t sent…?= What would have happened if I hadn’t sent… • In case usually refers to a future condition that may or may not arise: In case I receive any news, I’ll let you know. • If so and If not, used instead of complete clauses: Is anybody feeling cold? If not, let's put the central heating off. You may have some difficulty operating the machine at first. If so, do not hesitate to telephone our service department. • On condition that = if He will give you the day off on condition that you work on Saturday too. • As long as = if Cynthia is welcome to stay with us as long as she shares the rent. V. Inversion The sentence must begin with the IfC where an inversion of the subject with the lexical verb or auxiliary verb is performed. Were I (If I were) the rector of the University, I wouldn't approve of this. [in written language, in literary style] Had she known (If she had known) about it, she would have come home at once. [in written or spoken language] Should it be necessary (if it should be necessary), I will leave by the 10 pm

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train. [in written or spoken language, to express a polite suggestion] VI. Ways of translating a Conditional structure In English there is a dependency between the forms of the verbs in the two clauses; they express the same kind of action, situated in the same period of time (past, present or future), and yet, they have different forms (tenses), unlike the Romanian language where we have the same forms in both the MC and IfC. Type 1: • Viitor/prezent & viitor/prezent I will leave if I have money. [Voi pleca/ Plec dacă voi avea/ am bani] • prezent/ viitor + cumva & imperativ If you should run into Paul, tell him he owes me an answer. [Dacă cumva te întâlneşti cu Paul, spune-i că mi-e dator cu un răspuns.] • perfect compus & prezent/perfect compus/viitor If I did that, I apologise. [Dacă am făcut asta, îmi cer scuze.] If I said that, I was mistaken. [Dacă am spus asta, am greşit.] If she made a mistake, she will try to correct it. [Dacă a făcut o greşeală, va încerca să o îndrepte.] • viitor/ prezent + conjunctiv prezent (verb lexical) & prezentul (unei verb care va reda sensul modal al lui will: a vrea sau a refuza) If he won’t do it, we’ll have to do it ourselves. [Dacă refuză să facă asta, va trebui să facem noi singuri.] Type 2: • condiţional optativ prezent I would leave if I had money. [Aş pleca dacă aş avea bani.] Type 3: • condiţional optativ perfect I would have left if I had had money. [Aş fi plecat dacă aş fi avut bani.]

B. EXERCISES
I. Put the verbs in brackets in the correct form: 1. If he (meet) her, he will invite her to the theatre. 2. If the weather (be) fine, we’ll go for a ride. 3. You (disappoint) your students if you don’t come to the last class. 4. Unless he (study) economy, he will become an accountant. 5. You can make your dreams come true, provided you (work) hard. 6. Unless you have an interpreter, you (can) to understand each other. 7. Suppose she (not admit) she has made the mistake. What will you do? 8. If you take these pills, you (feel) much better. 9. They’ll blame you, if the plan (not to work). 10. Trevor (not to make) his decision, if he doesn’t talk to his lawyer. 11. If you had made a good work, he (congratulate) you. 12. They wouldn’t have lost if they (take) the map with them. 13. If you ( not to threaten) her , she wouldn’t have told the police. 14. He (hurt) him if he hadn’t been a well – educated man. 15. Peter would have walked if he (repair) his car.

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16. She (not to expect) so good results if she hadn’t worked so much. 17. I wouldn’t have made up my mind so quickly if it (be) for her. 18. You (have) your hair cut if your father hadn’t asked you to. 19. She wouldn’t have been so relaxed if she (pass) the exam. 20. She (not to expect) so good results if she hadn’t worked so much. 21. I wouldn’t have made up my mind so quickly if it (be) for her. 22. You (have) your hair cut, if your father hadn’t asked you to. 23. She wouldn’t have been so relaxed, if she (pass) the exam. 24. You would have caught the train, if he hadn’t kept you so much. II. Choose the most appropriate conjunction (unless, suppose, supposing, provided) and fill in the blank spaces: 1. I will accept your invitation …you send a car to take me. 2. You can go fishing tomorrow …it rains. 3. I will repeat the requirement…you don’t understand. 4. They will come with us on the trip…we invite them. 5. He can’t pass the exam …he sits for it. 6. What would you do…he doesn’t give you the key? 7. …you admit you were wrong, she won’t forgive you. 8. …Mary were your manager. How would you behave? 9. I’ll buy the furniture…I have enough money. 10. They will never finish their work…somebody help them. III. Find and correct the mistakes in the following sentences: 1. Had I know the truth, I wouldn’t have asked that silly question. 2. I’ll lend you the dictionary provided you brought it back on time. 3. Suppose you are the president. Would you declare war? 4. She will join you unless you don’t tease her. 5. Were you a soldier, will you die for your country? 6. I wouldn’t have turned down that idea, if I had known it was his. 7. All the runners would be exhausted if the race had taken place on such a hot day. 8. Were he honest to her if he hadn’t trusted her? 9. I’ll retire when I would reach the age of 55. 10. Would the project have been implemented supposing he put it forward? IV. Rephrase the following sentences using the conjunction if: 1. I didn’t go out yesterday because the weather was so bad. 2. Mary was shy with boys because her father didn’t let her meet them. 3. She was attracted to Tom because he seemed so pleasant. 4. Tom wanted to marry her because she was rich. 5. Her father liked him because he thought Tom was a politician. 6. Mary believed his story because she had so little experience of men. 7. She married him because she thought he really loved her. 8. He treated her badly because he didn’t love her. 9. She shot him because he was so terrible to her. 10. All this happened because her father was so foolish. V. Complete the following sentences: 1. But for John, your sister………… drowned.

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If he hadn't died so young. everything would be all right now. A. even………… 5. F. ………………………… . 4. If you…………. (supposing that / unless / on condition that) Example: Mr Davidson says he'll come and give a talk at the conference on condition that we pay him a reasonable fee.for a walk. do you think you would give up work? (Supposing that / Providing that / As long as) 5. C. would have had them by now. 3... Mr Davidson says he'll come and give a talk at the conference if we pay him a reasonable fee. ……. they'll be here in a few minutes.otherwise.a new car. Unless he…………. 7. If I really wanted to have children. you could always ring them up. J. If you had a lot of money. H. I won’t ever go shopping. (what if / even if / if only) 4. 8. G. D. I. I won't help him if he doesn't ask me properly. everything would be all right now. Match the clauses and write the mixed conditional sentences in your notebook. C.fail the exam..then I’d like it back. what will I do then? (Imagine / What if / 265 . If you had told me about this problem earlier. If he didn't work so hard all the time. VII. 6. E. his wife would never have left him. F. If the train arrives on time. Had your father heard…………. G. Example: If you had told me about this problem earlier. If he was feeling ill this morning. I………… …….. 1. VI.. I wouldn’t be a teacher. he probably won't be at the meeting. . (provided / unless / as long as) 3. Rewrite the sentences replacing if with the most appropriate conjunction. please. If it hadn’t…………. If you were a more sensitive person. Helen wouldn’t agree with you. If I could get a job. Thanks for your encouragement.. I'm sure he'd be a famous musician by now. you wouldn't have said that to her. A. If you will…………. you wouldn't be so busy this month. If you’re coming with us I. If you had worked harder last month. we would be there by now. J. the whole truth. 2. If they don't contact you soon. If he doesn't agree to my request. would you hurry up and get ready? H. if…………a long time ago. 10.2. B. If the train hadn't been delayed. B. D. (What if / Assuming that / On condition that) 6. provided………… 9. E. life here would be perfect.

13. dacă aş fi ştiut ce se va intâmpla. Dacă l-ai vedea cum arăta nu l-ai mai recunoaşte. If Rosie gets this new promotion. 20. Nu ai fi acum aici. dacă nu l-ar fi ajutat colegul său. dacă ai citi mai mult. 17.Provided that) 7. În cazul în care voi uita . spune-i că sunt la restaurant. 15. 19. Oamenii au încredere în tine dacă şi tu ai încredere în ei. 266 . îl voi chema pe domnul director. Dacă vrei să ne însoţeşti. Ce-ar face directorul dacă s-ar întâmpla să te găsească fumând in curtea şcolii? 10. 18. If the helicopter hadn't been there to save her. (as long as / assuming that / supposing that) 8. centrul oraşului ar arăta dezolant. 6. N-am să pot repara frigiderul decât dacă vine mecanicul. 7. 12. 4. 2. we'll have enough money for a holiday abroad this year. (If only / Provided that / Even if) 10. 8. 16. (Even if / Provided that / Supposing that) VIII. If you'd offered to pay me a thousand pounds. 14. Dacă cumva mă caută Jack. Imaginează-ţi că ţi-ar fi vopsit baia în negru. I wouldn't have done it. 3. 5. Dacă nu ai fi atât de mincinos. dacă nu ai fi cheltuit toţi banii pe cai. Dacă nu ar fi grădinile şi parcurile. n-ai fi acum in situaţia regretabilă ca nimeni să nu aibă încredere in tine. vom mai lua un cort. 11. 9. Vei avea nevoie de bani în cazul în care renunţi la serviciu. Dacă v-ar face plăcere să lucraţi în biroul meu. comunicaţi-mi până mâine seară. nu ezita să-mi aminteşti de această problemă. Translate into English: 1. You can go out tonight if you get back by midnight. Ai fi ştiut răspunsul. what would have happened then? (If only / Imagine / Unless) 9. Petre ar fi avut necazuri la examene. Friptura ar fi bună dacă ar fi caldă. Poate să participe la Jocurile Olimpice numai dacă se antreneaza intens. Dacă aţi binevoi să aşteptaţi câteva clipe. Dacă n-ar fi fost Maria nu aş fi primit cecul. N-aş fi consimţit niciodată să părăsesc linia frontului.

267 . We all know that the Prime Minister will appoint a civilian as defence minister. 3.III. When the main verb is in the Future Tense the speaker can use all tenses in direct object clauses apart from the future tenses: Trevor will let them know that they are safe. We can distinguish the following types of subordinate clauses: a. Adverbial Clause of Time/ Place/ Manner/ Comparison/ Reason/ g. Direct Object Clauses There are several grammar rules related to the sequence of tenses in direct object clauses the speaker has to follow. There is no tense limitation in the direct object clause when the main verb is in the Present Tense or Present Perfect Tense: I know Paul has sent the book. He explained that the population of London is around 9 millions. Relative Clause f. Subject Clause d. hope. SEQUENCE OF TENSES A. THEORETICAL CONSIDERATIONS A complex sentence contains a main clause and one or more subordinate clauses. When the main verb is in the past the verb in the direct object clause ought to be in the past too.4. Susan knows that you led a rifle platoon during the Second World War.American. realise. Walter said himself he would be satisfied with whatever he could get. Peter thought he was right. believe. Condition/Purpose/Result/Concession a. Prepositional Object Clause c. Direct Object Clause b. I realised he is a South. Predicative Clause e. Note: It does not apply in the following cases for statements which are still valid in the moment of speaking ‘now’ have the verb in the present tense although it is also correct to change the verb into the past or with verbs such as know. 2. 1. 1. think. regret etc. Subordinate clause action versus main clause action Tense clause Past Perfect Past Perfect Past Perfect in main Tense in subordinate clause Past Perfect Past Tense Future-in-the-past Anteriority Simultaneity Posteriority Tense/Past Tense/Past Tense/Past He told me he had spent his early life in Sri Lanka before moving to England.

The above pattern is also used in polite requests I wish you would be quiet. Brown was right. urge. arrange. . Mr. require. be amazed.4. The subjunctive is used in direct object clauses after verbs like ask. order. Note that the pattern wish + that-clause is translated in Romanian by the pattern ‘conditional + subjunctive’. . The use of the tenses in direct object clauses after the main verb ‘wish’ . (simultaneity) that the competition would apologise. Prepositional Object Clause The rules of the sequence of tenses applies in the prepositional direct object clause too. They wish(ed) she had joined their company two years ago.the subjunctive (past or past perfect) is also used indirect object clauses after would sooner/rather when the person who expresses the preference is not the subject of the action to follow.wish + past perfect (=past perfect subjunctive) when the regret is related to the past reality. = Aş prefera ca el să plece în Spania. = Aş dori ca el să muncească mai mult I wished he had worked harder.present tense/should + bare infinitive to express simultaneous actions. The two parties agreed upon it that it had been an unfortunate misunderstanding. . I’d rather he went to Spain. I’d rather he had visited the = Aş fi preferat ca el să fi vizitat Muzeul Prado Prado Museum in Madrid. and the same for the pattern subject1 + would rather/sooner + subject2 + subjunctive (past or past perfect).wish + present tense/future tense when ‘wish’ means ‘hope’. be surprised. Catherine wishes he would become a reliable person. (anteriority) that Mr.wish + past tense (=past subjunctive) when the regret is related to the present reality I wish(ed) John were/was here with us on this wonderful trip. be disappointed in a present tense the verb in the prepositional object clause will be formed by the following patterns: . (but she doesn’t think he will). propose. 268 . recommend. (=Susan hopes he will finish his work soon).wish + would + bare infinitive to express a future action the speaker wants to happen but which has less chances to fulfill. . b. I would rather he talked less. I’d sooner Boris had improved his knowledge of English. demand. 5. din Madrid. be astonished. = Aş fi dorit ca el să fi muncit mai mult. Helen wishes he will finish his work soon. Either subjunctive can be used. suggest. (posteriority) • When the main verb is formed by one of the idiomatic expressions be sorry. Hill suggested that their candidate should be supported/be supported by the Socialist too. I wish he worked harder.

(= Rupert este surprins că ei îşi petrec concediul în acest micuţ sat) -present perfect/past tense or should + perfect infinitive to express an anterior action. It is strange that Tim arrived at the office so early. Simultaneity: present tense or should + infinitive It is strange that they buy/should bought such expensive goods. (=E ciudat ca Tim să ajungă la birou atât de devreme. b. It is unlikely that Ralph has signed/will sign the contract (=Este puţin probabil că Ralph a semnat/va semna contractul) • When the main verb is in the past the verb in the subject clause ought to be in the past too.) There is no tense limitation in the subject clause when the main verb is in the present tense. a. (posteriority) • After idiomatic expressions like it is strange/ alarming/surprising/ annoying gratifying/splendid (the main verb is in the Present Tense) the subject clause verb will be used in the following patterns. Anteriority: present perfect/past tense or should + perfect infinitive It is gratifying that he waited/should have waited until the plane landed. Mr. It is strange that Tim should arrive at the office so early. Simultaneity: past tense or should + infinitive It was surprising that they worked/should work until midnight.Rupert is surprised that they spend/ should spend their holidays in the little village. Simultaneity : past tense or should + infinitive Our boss was disappointed we were/should be so late. Anteriority: past perfect or should + perfect infinitive It was splendid that they had cooked/should have cooked dinner before our • 269 .) • When the main verb is in the past the speaker has to apply the corresponding sequence of tenses a. Hill is glad that our German partner has accepted/should have accepted the goods (= Domnul Hill este mulţumit că partenerul german a acceptat mărfurile. a. The indicative mood shows the subject clause action is seen as being fulfilled while the subjunctive indicates an assumption. When the main verb is in the Past Tense the following patterns ought to be used. (=Lui Daniel i-a părut rau că tatăl său şi-a vândut maşina) c. (= Şeful nostru a fost dezamăgit că noi am venit aşa de târziu) b. Subject Clause The speaker can use both the indicative mood or the subjunctive mood. (=E ciudat că Tim a sosit la birou atât de devreme). It was a surprise that they had delivered the goods on time (anteriority) that Ann behaved like that (simultaneity) that the Prime Minister would deliver a speech. Anteriority: past perfect or should + perfect infinitive Daniel was sorry his father had sold/should have sold his car.

(=Când am câteva zile libere. When the main verb is in the past the verb in the predicative clause ought to be in the past too. (=Au părăsit firma de îndată ce s-au terminat negocierile. important. (= I-am arătat lui John rochia pe care o voi purta la viitoarea noastră petrecere. Pitt has talked about it. Relative Clause There is no tense limitation in the relative clause. (=Aş încerca să-l contactez pe domnul Blake înainte de a părăsi oraşul. Note that the indicative mood relates to a fulfilled action while the subjunctive relates to an assumption.) They left the company as soon as they had finished their negotiations. The analytical subjunctive pattern may/might + bare infinitive is used after idiomatic expressions like it is possible. that we were very busy. essential. we’ll have supper at the Lido. The problem was that they had talked to him before. It is/was necessary that he should earn more money. inevitable .coming. that Mr.) When they left for University this morning.) My new watch. necessary. it was terribly cold. eu îi voi scrie o scrisoare lui Sean.) f. Blake before he left the town. I showed John the dress I’ll wear at our next party. Adverbial Clause of Time When I have some days off. vital. (=Ceasul meu cel nou pe care l-am cumparat acum o lună este foarte bun. (=În timp ce tu pregăteşti cina. • The analytical subjunctive pattern should + bare infinitive is used after idiomatic expressions like it is/was advisable. which I bought a month ago. Predicative Clause There is no tense limitation in the predicative clause when the main verb is in the Present Tense. While you are cooking dinner. right. e. imperative.) I would try to contact Mr.) Tom will join us as soon as he has finished his work (Tom ni se va alătura dupa ce-şi va fi terminat ceea ce avea de făcut. desirable.) After the show is over. The important fact is that he was sent abroad. merg la mare). that Sean would leave the next day. I’ll write a letter to Sean. (=Când au plecat la universitate în această dimineaţă era îngrozitor de frig. (=După spectacol vom cina la Lido. it is probable (see also ‘The Subjunctive’ and ‘Modals and Semi-Modals’) It is possible that Jane may arrive tonight. I go to the seaside.) 270 . that the contract will be soon concluded. • d. is very good.

(=Aţi vrea să puneţi cele două dicţionare unde le este locul) Wherever they went. The Romanian pattern ‘cu cât …. Adverbial Clause of Place There is no tense limitation in the adverbial clause of place. Even though he did not study marketing The analytical subjunctive pattern may/might + infinitive can be used in the 271 . He was as busy as you had thought. The harder he works. Adverbial Clause of Concession Both present and past tenses in the indicative mood can be used. (=Îşi făcea atât de bine serviciul încât nu-l vor uita. He did his job so well that they promised him a pay rise (=Îşi făcea atât de bine serviciul încât i-au propus o mărire de salariu. (pattern : future tense in the main clause + present tense in the adverbial clause of comparison) The more frequently they travelled abroad the more they enjoyed it. The subjunctive can also be used in the adverbial clause of comparison He behaves /behaved as if he were the company chairman. l. they met nice people. Though he has never studied marketing Although he is very young he is a successful businessman. k. Adverbial Clause of Manner There is no tense limitation in the adverbial clause of manner. I stayed in bed longer this morning because I hadn’t been able to sleep all night. (but they haven’t/hadn’t) j. you are going to be. (but he isn’t/wasn’t) They talk/talked as if they had known him. Adverbial Clause of Result There is no tense limitation in the adverbial clause of result. Adverbial Clause of Reason There is no tense limitation in the adverbial clause of reason.g. (pattern: past tense in the main clause + past tense in the adverbial clause of comparison). Audrey will do just as you told her. the better results he will get. I am now. Would you please put those two dictionaries back where they belong. Adverbial Clause of Comparison There is no tense limitation in the adverbial clause of comparison. a man could be. that they’ll never forget him. (= Oriunde mergeau. i. because today is Sunday. cu atât … ‘ can be expressed as follows. întâlneau oameni amabili) h.

Almost as soon as I entered the company …. I (drive) for at least an hour when I finally (find) his place. had read) a novel as absorbing as this one. have read. If I (had had. are) mortal. She was nicer than … 5. I was glad to hear that her brother (was. his works were published by many magazines. Supply the most logical form of the verb in the following: I just (go) to bed after a very hard day when the phone rang. He said that many years ago … 6. “She (mean) more to me than anyone… even my own wife!” he said. Complete the following sentences. 10. using a clause: 1. It (seem) Milly already (die). B. did not buy) her dress when she was in town last week. He remained silent as soon as he (had heard. is) industrious. 9. 5. It is a long time since I (read. It (snow) heavily that day and I (not know) the way. 2. 8. I learnt recently that Jupiter (is. Select the correct word or expression in brackets in each of the following sentences. (= Oricine ar suna dă-mi-l la telefon) Note that the above pattern is translated into Romanian by using the conditional. had gone) the day before. He (stand) there. They spoke English much better than … 7. He walked so far that he (tired. 3. Black asked me yesterday where I (have gone. 9. … . After Einstein (had become. the more I liked him. I would have done a better job of cleaning the house. Give the reason for your choice: 1. went. His illnes showed him that all men (were. EXERCISES I. They announced that … II. Even then all I (can) (make out) (be) that someone called Milly (have) a very bad accident. 4. waiting for me.adverbial clause of concession too. The old woman who confronted me in the street … 4. We arranged to hire a coach that … 8. I (assume) a terrible tragedy (take place) with overtones of 272 . … that they might come across our letter. It (be) an eccentric farmer. have had) more time. had tired) himself. I never (meet) him before. 3. I (have not) the slightest idea who she (be) but I obviously (have) to go. was) the largest of the planets. heard) that. put him through. He declared that … 10. I (can) (see) that he (cry). although I often (hear) people talk about him. III. Mr. 2. He (seem) quite hysterical and he (talk) for a minute or so before I (understand) anything. 6. became) famous. 7. She (has not bought. (see ‘The Analytical Subjunctive’) Whoever may/might phone.

N-a fost un secret pentru nimeni că reuşita lui se datorează. Translate into English: 1. and (burst) into tears again.a possible scandal. 8. 9. în mare parte. nefiind anunţat din timp. dar nu a vrut să creadă. “I (will not) (leave) her out in the cold!” he said. A venit să mă vadă. dar m-am întrebat de ce ai făcut un secret din asta. 5. Îl admir mai puţin decât l-am admirat pe bunicul său care a fost un om adevărat. I s-a spus în repetate rânduri că cinstea e cea mai bună dintre politici. 6. Ori de câte ori treceam prin faţa şcolii mă întrebam ce or mai fi făcând foştii mei profesori şi unde sunt oare colegii mei. simt nevoia să-ţi spun cât de mult aş dori să fim prieteni. Milly clearly (be) a secret sweetheart of his. şi am aflat că acum a păţit-o. 2. Te voi suna când voi porni de acasă spre tine. 4. iar la întoarcerea mea tocmai plecase să se întâlnească cu un alt prieten de al lui. 7. 273 . gândindu-se că este mult mai frumoasă decât şi-o închipuise vreodată. sârguinţei cu care a învăţat în tot timpul care a trecut de la sosirea lui la facultate. Ştiam că ai să vii la mine. I (be) about to tell him he (cannot) (expect) me to cover anything up when he (open) the barn door and (point) his torch at a motionless shape on the straw. De îndată ce a văzut-o. dar mă simt de parcă aş fi venit de mult. a rămas tăcut. Ori de câte ori te întâlnesc. 3. ca să nu risc să fii plecat. Am sosit aici doar de trei zile. cu toate că i-ar fi plăcut să se sfătuiască cu mine. IV. deoarece are mai multă încredere în mine. dar nu eram acasă. 10. I must (admit) I (be) even more shocked when he (tell) me he (put) her in the barn. “She (be) such a good cow! I (will not) (let) anyone but a doctor touch her!” he said. decât în el.

DIRECT AND INDIRECT/ REPORTED SPEECH A. to beam. ‘Methane is often regarded as the second most important greenhouse gas after carbon dioxide’. [IS] TENSE in DIRECT SPEECH PRESENT SIMPLE ‘I want to stop’.1.the location of the action (changes concerning the adverbs of time and of place). to insist (to say emphatically).the time of the action (changes concerning the tenses of the verbs). without altering the meaning of the person’s remark or speech.the speaker (changes concerning the persons of the pronouns). to complain (to say irritably). to warn (to say about undesirable consequences). 274 . he explains.’ She said she was leaving. tell. [DS] He explains than methane is often regarded as the second most important greenhouse gas after carbon dioxide. said John. and the quotation marks are not used. interrogative or exclamatory sentences) III.Tenses are moved into the past (backshift) after a past tense reporting verb: ‘I’m leaving. to demand. direct statements can be reported without any changes of tense. THEORETICAL CONSIDERATIONS When we change a statement from the Direct Speech (DS) to the Indirect Speech (IS) we change some of the words that the person said. to inquire. etc. to ask.When the reporting verb (say. said Sue. PRESENT PROGRESSIVE ‘I’m going home’. to reply (to say in response). to observe.a. to remark. remark.5.the structure of the sentences (changes concerning imperative.a.1. present perfect or future. Tense Backshift . .) is in the present. to report. TENSE in INDIRECT SPEECH PAST SIMPLE Sue said that she wanted to stop. Morphological changes III. to tell. to protest (to say with reservation). to point out. to announce. to twinkle and others according to the situation.III. . He said (that) breakfast would be a cheerless affair for the Prime Minister that morning. I. . to sob. Indirect speech (IS) The changing from DS into IS brings a number of constraints that affect: . Direct speech (DS) The verbs of reporting and thinking are: to say. . to snort. II. PAST PROGRESSIVE John said that he was going home.

‘I had seen the film before’. Christine said. said Tom. PAST SIMPLE ‘The Second World War lasted nearly six years’. PAST PERFECT PROGRESSIVE Robert said that they had been working very hard at the office lately. PAST PERFECT PROGRESSIVE Helen confirmed that she had still been working at eight o’clock in the evening the day before. 275 . PAST PROGRESSIVE ‘I was still working at eight o’clock yesterday evening’. FUTURE SIMPLE ‘Ann will find a wide variety of choices available in university cafeterias’. FUTURE PERFECT SIMPLE ‘I’ll have finished my work by the end of next week’. FUTURE IN THE PAST Tom said that Ann would find a wide variety of choices available in university cafeterias. FUTURE PERFECT PROGRESSIVE IN THE PAST Mary said that she would have been working non-stop for over three weeks. [DS] Christine said that she had seen the film before.PRESENT PERFECT SIMPLE ‘Sally has finished’. remarked Simon. she said. he explained. FUTURE PERFECT PROGRESSIVE ‘I’ll have been working non-stop for over three weeks’. Notes: • Verbs already in the past perfect. announced Will. do not change. FUTURE PROGRESSIVE ‘I’ll be using the car myself on the 27th’. conditional sentences type 1 and zero conditionals (= real situations) undergo backshift. said Robert. FUTURE PERFECT IN THE PAST He explained that he would have finished his work by the end of the following week. PAST PERFECT SIMPLE Simon remarked that the Second World War had lasted nearly six years. confirmed Helen. said Mary. PRESENT PERFECT PROGRESSIVE ‘We have been working very hard at the office lately’. PAST PERFECT SIMPLE Will announced that Sally had finished. FUTURE PROGRESSIVE IN THE PAST She said that she would be using the car herself on the 27th. [IS] • After a past tense reporting verb.

now. if the event is clearly hypothetical and impossible. Adverbs and adverbial phrases of time and place If we report words like here. used to. He said. should. She said. Peter said.2. SPEAKER’S WORDS INDIRECT SPEECH here there this that/ the now then today that day 276 . ‘I might not be back until next week. ‘I’m too busy to come’. ‘If I had gone by bus to the office. [IS] III. could and must do not normally change. ought to. time changes are made. Must can be reported as either had to or remain as must: He said. today in a different place or at a different time. [IS] • In spoken language the tense backshift does not apply when direct speech is reported very soon afterwards. will changes to would. I could find the way’. ‘I’d like to join an aerobic class to improve my fitness. ‘You’ll feel a lot better about yourself if you work on solutions to your upsetting situations.’ [DS] She said that she’d like to join an aerobic class to improve her fitness. C. ‘The population of London is around 9 million’. had better. Pronouns and possessive adjectives normally change from first or second person to third person except when the speaker is reporting his own words. [IS] Exceptions from tense backshift • Tense backshift is optional in the cases of the habitual uses of the simple present tense. I would have missed the meeting.’ He said that he knew a wonderful restaurant where they could have lunch that week. Changes of viewpoint: demonstrative pronouns/ adjectives This used in time expressions usually becomes that. [IS] B. he explained. [DS] He explained that the population of London is around 9 million. ‘If I had a map. Morphological changes of pronouns. adjectives and adverbs A.’ [DS] He said that he might not be back until the following week.• • • He said. Would. [DS] She said she’s too busy to come. [DS] He explained that if he had had a map he could have found the way. he explained. shall changes to should and may changes to might. [IS] In reported hypothetical situations in the present (= conditional sentences –type 2).a. she said.’ [DS] Peter said that if he had gone by bus to the office he would have missed the meeting. [IS] If the reporting verb is in a past tense.’ [DS] He said that they would feel a lot better about themselves if they worked on solutions to their upsetting situations. [IS] Hypothetical past conditional sentences type 3 do not change. ’I know a wonderful restaurant where we can have lunch this week. might. modal auxiliaries change where there is a ‘past’ equivalent: can changes to could. they often change.

’ 277 . ‘Throwing good money after bad may not be a good idea. B. [IS] • Wh-questions are introduced by the wh-word (when. • advice: Albert said. • warning: Ruth said. ‘ You should phone the police.b. Interrogative sentences • Yes/ no questions are reported using if. ‘Do you like hamburgers’ I asked her. why. ‘Stay away from me. Syntactical changes III.1. • command She said. Put the following statements into indirect speech: 1. John warns. etc.’ Ruth warned them to stay away from her. The word order is the same as in statements and we do not use a question mark.’ 3.2.’ Albert advised them to call the police. [IS] III. Oscar?’ Ann asked Oscar to help her with her bags. 2. where. what.) which begins the questions in direct speech.’ said Steven to Grace.b. Mr. Steven told Grace not to touch his glasses. ‘Where do you come from?’ [DS] She asked (me) where I came from. requests. • negative orders: ‘Don’t touch my glasses. warnings or pieces of advice) using the structure verbs + (object) + to infinitive. who. ‘It’s not a very good time to sell at the moment.tonight tomorrow the day after tomorrow yesterday the day before yesterday next week/ year/ Monday/ August last week/ year/ Monday/ August a year/ week ago that night the next day/ the following day in two days time the day before/ the previous day two days before the following week/ year/ Monday/ August the previous week/ year/ Monday/ August a year/ week before/ the previous year/ week III. EXERCISES I. Blake says. ‘ Could you help me with my bags. • request: Ann said. ‘Get out of my room!’ She ordered me to get out of her room. [DS] I asked her if she liked hamburgers. She said.b. he explains. ‘The company believes that products will sell well in the run-up Christmas’. Imperative sentences We often report directives (orders.

II. ‘Can you lend me some money?’ Ken asked me. V. Ann says. you’ll get a ticket. assure. Report these sentences: 1. regret. ‘The marketplace was jammed with a noisy crowd of buyers and sellers. ‘Let’s wait here!’. 10. as long as you keep your head. she said to Mary. OK?’ 3. Blake. 4. You invoiced a client twice the sum he/she was due to pay. ‘I won’t forget shopping.’ 4. said my boss. Richard?’ said James. promise. ‘Would you like to join us to dinner?’ said Paul. 7. ‘Don’t smoke in here!’. ‘You really must come and visit us next weekend!’ 8. asked Charles. ‘Switch off the TV. ‘It’s a shame you couldn’t make it to the party last night.’ she told David. repair the situation. reproach. You are questioning the bank you work with for a surcharge. ‘No it wasn’t me. insist. You want a foreign client to repeat his words because you were unable to pay attention. 5. ‘Can I help you?’ he said.’ said Dr. ‘I don’t really think that what you said makes sense. ‘Experts have been discussing how to improve the fight against crime. 4. Rankin. ‘You should stop smoking. ‘Well done! I always thought you’d pass. ‘Happy Birthday’. ‘She’s leaving the day after tomorrow.4.’ 5. ‘Stay away from me. 13. remind. claim.’ said Ken.’ said Mike. 3. you’ll manage all right. ‘Will you carry my briefcase for me please. ‘I’ve lived most of my adult life in London. and mass hysteria broke out. 8. 11.’ 6.’ said Walter. ‘My Marketing Director is hoping he can sell the idea to clients. 2. deny.’ 5. warn 1. suggest. 2. 6. he said. 9. she said. ‘Don’t forget: you’ve got to hand in your work this evening. You have to convince the board that your proposals about merging are the best policy for the future.’ 9. ‘You shouldn’t have behaved like that. ‘All the lights went off. ‘Don’t worry.’ he said. What exactly would you say in these situations? 1. 3.’ 8. ‘Damn that map!’. 278 .’ said Ann. I didn’t borrow your bike. 14. congratulate. ‘Residents are advised not to put their rubbish bags on the pavement outside their houses. 10. 12.’ 7. You should be ashamed of yourself!’ VII.’ said Mr. 6. ‘I’ll let you know as soon as they get here. 7. ‘If you park on this double yellow line. ‘Would you like to come to my party?’ said Collin.’ 10.’ 2.’ said Ann. disagree. 9. Use these verbs to report what the people said in as few words as possible. ‘Are all of these organisations running as independent businesses? Do they have very little contact?.

7. ‘You certainly studied it a week ago. ‘I really think you should see a doctor. 4. ‘Don’t go away so early’. You don’t want to attend a meeting presided by your boss because you know he’s boring and inefficient. ‘I’m sorry I didn’t phone you earlier.’ they claimed. 6.5.’ Ann offered……………………………. ‘If you like. Bob.. can you remember to buy some bread?’ Paul reminded…………………………… 2. Dave’. ‘I’ll definitely take you to the park. ‘Sue. 8. I’ll share the bill with you.’ the teacher said. 5. she advised him. 9. Definitely not! Cathy refused…………………………. ‘Why is he going to do this?’ Matt asked. shall we?’ Wendy suggested………………………. 3. 8. ‘Yes. 10. ‘I don’t really think it’ll snow tomorrow. I must set things in order there’. ‘It is raining hard now.’ Jill apologized………………………… 4. ‘No.’ Will advised………………………….. ‘I am going to London tomorrow. I won’t work on Saturday. ‘He has been working hard lately so you must let him rest a while’ she begged. ‘Let’s wait for Jane here. I’m sorry. beginning as shown. 7. you will learn’ he warned the students.. I’ll help you do the decorating. he decided... ‘It’s not true! I have never been arrested. 5.’ Mike suggested. all right. Rewrite each sentence. so that the meaning stays the same: 1. 10. 6. VIII. Chris..’ they assured us. you must remember this. ‘If you listen carefully. ‘We’ll know the results in a week. Turn into Indirect Speech: 1. ‘They needed our help so we offered them help.’ Tom promised the……………………. ‘Let’s go out to the pub for lunch. 279 .’ I doubt…………………………………. 3. Brenda agreed………………………….’ Larry denied……………………………. We can’t leave’ Claire said. IX. children. 2. 9.

tense. II. Passive Voice) The teacher told us to read a book about Shakespeare.6. The nonfinite verbs may have some of the categories above mentioned: voice (I would like not to be watched. FORM a. Affirmative: to write. divine.] I didn’t want to have said this. to forgive. to see. Perfective Aspect – past reference) The shop is said to have been broken into. THEORETICAL CONSIDERATIONS The six grammatical categories according to which a finite verb is inflected are: person. (Present Infinitive. respectively. passive voice) or aspect (He is said to have stolen the goods. I saw the dancing bear in the park. the Participle and the Gerund can act as a verbal adjective and as a verbal noun. aspect. NONFINITE FORMS A. If there appear some morphological changes in the context where the ing-forms occur. modul indicativ (timpul prezent. voice or take direct objects: It does him good to take long walks.] Do you expect the shop to be opened on Sunday? [Te aştepţi ca magazinul să fie deschis duminică?] c. not to see. not to bring I wanted him not to swear strangers. voice and mood. conjunctiv prezent/ perfect (diateza activă sau pasivă) I want to see Hugh. [N-am vrut să fi spus acest lucru. (Verbal Noun) 1. (Perfect Infinitive. (Verbal Adjective) The children were impressed by the dancing of the bear. a ierta e divin. [M-am bucurat că am terminat mai devreme.] b.] 280 . (Perfect Infinitive.III. Negative: not to write. THE INFINITIVE I.6.1. – perfect infinitive). Simple Aspect – present reference) I was glad to have finished it soon. b. Verbal features • it may have aspect. – infinitive. number. trecut sau viitor) în propoziţii subordonate I was glad to have finished it soon. USES a. infinitiv To err is human.1. [A greşi e uman. [Se crede că John a cauzat tot acest necaz. to bring I would like to write a letter to her to apologize for everything I did.] John is believed to have brought on all the trouble. [Vreau să-l văd pe Hugh. (Direct Object) III. Ways of translating the Infinitive into Romanian a.

USES AND FUNCTIONS OF THE PAST PARTICIPLE a.THE PAST PARTICIPLE (I have danced). USES AND FUNCTIONS OF THE PRESENT PARTICIPLE a. THE PARTICIPLE I.not + the – en form of a verb (the Past Participle) Not knowing what to say. • the verbal adjectives can be used predicatively or attributively: The news is interesting.1. Adjective features The Present Participle may also have the function of an adjective. c. III. Negative: . [Perfect Participle. the Past Participle has a passive one.6. Passive Voice] 281 . I found the barn burning. She will not answer. Affirmative: . if not asked. . I heard the interesting news. The Present Participle used as a noun modifier bears the name verbal adjective. [Past Tense. to form with the auxiliary to be the passive voice and with the auxiliary to have the Perfect Tenses A book was read.(I was) working/ loving . to form with the auxiliary to be the progressive aspect I am reading a book.(I have) worked/ loved b. I kept my mouth shut. The Past Participle is the consequence of the event expressed by a Present Participle.not + the –ing form of a verb (the Present Participle) . There are two participles in English: . FORM OF THE PRESENT/ PAST PARTICIPLE a.the –ing form of a verb (the Present Participle) . he was taken to prison. perfective aspect) Being found guilty.) II. The difference between the two participles lies in the meaning they have: whereas a Present Participle generally expresses an active meaning.THE PRESENT PARTICIPLE (I’m dancing) . IV.the – en form of a verb (the Past Participle) . Verbal features: • it may have aspect. (the house was burned – passive. ([the fire was burning – active) I found the barn burned. voice or take a direct object: Having finished his work.2. [Present Perfect Progressive] b. [Present Tense Progressive] I have been reading a book for five hours. [passive voice] The girl is playing tennis. Peter went out for a walk. • it may have an indirect object: Grandma is telling me a very funny story.

(L-am văzut pe John deschizând poarta.3 THE GERUND An –ing form can cover another nonfinite form of the verb. a direct. V. Adjectiv The news seemed very interesting. (simple aspect) Your having gone there was a little bit surprising.) b. Participiu: They were defeated by a more powerful army. îl vom accepta.) d. indirect or prepositional object: Your going there is a little bit surprising. namely a Gerund. we will accept him. He had too many shattered dreams. Gerunziu/ Propoziţie subordonată ( + un mod predicativ: prezent. voice. Even if the Gerund resembles the Present Participle in form. [have told = Perfect Infinitive] I can’t stand having been deceived. Negative: not + -ing form (Gerund).) All things considered. Verbal features • The Gerund may have aspect. FORM OF THE GERUND a.) 1. (Perfect Gerund) She resents being asked personal question. 3. USES AND FUNCTIONS OF THE GERUND a. Conjunctiv prezent I’ll have her typing two letters. Adjective features The Past Participle can be used attributively or predicatively. Ways of translating The Present/ Past Participle into Romanian: a. Laughing loudly is not nice when you have an official meeting.You could have told us everything.6. (passive voice) I enjoy talking about my new job. (Ştirile păreau foarte interesante. His dreams are shattered. Verbal features It may take direct objects or prepositional objects: We have asked several questions. (Ei au fost învinşi de o armată mai puternică. Substantiv: a never-ending story (poveste fără sfârşit) f. it is totally different in syntax. [Perfect Gerund.) c. (the subject) I. Adjectiv/ participiu: my beloved child (copilul meu drag/ iubit) e. (Am să o pun să bată la maşină două scrisori. 282 . not + having + Past Participle of the verb Do you mind me not coming with you? (Te deranjează dacă nu vin cu tine?) II. trecut sau viitor): I saw John opening the gate. Affirmative: -ing form Do you mind my smoking in here? b. Passive Voice] 2. (Luând în considerare toate aspectele.

the Gerund can precede a noun. They felt the house shaking. 6.) 2.b. modul indicativ (prezent.. (Verbal Noun) Rebuilding the city took more than we thought.. the Gerund does not become an adjective. (rebuilding – Gerund) . trecut sau viitor) Do you mind me smoking in here? (Te deranjează dacă fumez aici ?) Do you mind me having smoked in here? (Te deranjează dacă am fumat aici?) B. The boy noticed the dog running. They can’t allow him to be laughed at. 2. He seemed to be annoyed by the noise. but whereas the Present Participle can become a Verbal Adjective. I swear not to do this again. Choose the correct form: 1. The house was announced to have been broken into. (Îi place să asculte muzică. (Verbal Noun) . We named John to be our President. 10. gerunziu: Fancy Tom dancing. Ways of translating the Gerund into Romanian 1. infinitiv: He had the chance of telling the truth. 9. EXERCISES I. Identify the Infinitival and Participial constructions and specify the verbs that trigger them: 1. . They are supposed to be coming round tonight. Compare the following – ing forms: a dancing bear (dancing = Verbal Adjective – ‘a bear which is dancing’) a dancing-teacher (dancing = Gerund – ‘a teacher of dancing’) III. 7..) 3. awful! I think it has gone bad. Pseudo-adjective features Like the Present Participle... Nominal features There are some morphological and syntactical features that show that the Gerund has nominal morphological features which make it change into a Verbal Noun. This meat . (Imagineazăţi-l pe Tom dansând/ că dansează. I want him to listen to me.plural number: We are exhausted with his comings and goings. 8. (A avut şansa de a spune adevărul.definite/ indefinite article: The rebuilding of the city took more than we thought. 4.. 3.genitive (the prepositional genitive): The beautiful singing of the children was the climax of the party. He is unlikely to come at the meeting. c.) 4. conjunctiv: He is fond of listening to music. a) is tasting b) tastes 283 . 5. II.

.. a) to lock b) locking 7....! 6.? 7. I invited her (come) out with me..... 11.... Use the Gerund or the Infinitive of the verbs in brackets: 1........ the door when I left the house. It was very kind of you to help me with the housework.. 5..their motorcars dangerously. the chairman went on (discuss) about the unemployment problem. I appreciate ... a) being b) having 5... I led the dog out of the room... I’m sure you’ll find a solution.. Why don’t you stop .. I hate (think) sometimes that he might find excuses for everything he does. I saw that he closed the safe....... He was always .... (talk) about the first item on the agenda... 3. The car is broken down and I can’t make it (go)... in the sun. We regret ......? 5. The answer to the employment problems seems to lie in .. if you don’t like ...... the swimmer finished the race a) in spite of b) despite III....... so I still have it. typed the letters.. 9. I remember .. the secretary put them into envelopes... I tried (go) to bed immediately after lunch but I couldn’t sleep... He was so happy he succeeded in . mistakes in his translations. Can you remember what you were doing ... 284 .. furiously. (Judge) from recent events.... Who is responsible for . .... He said he was looking forward to . 8. people will stop (complain) about loss of jobs... 8. 3.... 2.. . Finish the sentences using Gerund or Perfect Gerund: 1... I didn’t remember (post) the letter....... I would never think of .... 4.. They were . He said he wasn’t used to .. a) raising b) racing 3. It’s no good....... a) to tell b) telling 6..... Finish the sentences so that the meaning stays the same: 1. V.... 9.... 2....being very tired... a) lying b) laying 4.. 4.. .. He sees no harm in my .. 6.. 2.. 3. a) to make b) making 9..... a) as it barked b) barking 8.. IV. I’ll have the mechanic (check) the battery while he’s here.. in public 10...2.. It was nice to see the kids .? a) usually at that time of the day b) that time of the day 10...... I’ll never forget (walk) on the beach with her and (enjoy) the morning sunshine. He doesn’t seem to me to be fond of ..... that we cannot accept your apologies. 7.. You should (try) settle the dispute between them.. I could notice how much he enjoyed .

............. He apologised ...... That’s the way .. 6.. don’t wait for her. I saw him .. 7. Fratele meu preferă să joace tenis decât să mă însoţească în parc..... HAVING 9. USE 4...... Translate into English: 1. 15.. De ce nu încerci să eviţi călătoria pe timpul nopţii? 4. 9....... I promise! UP 5. Foarte greu m-am obişnuit cu ideea de a-l pierde. Acoperisul necesită reparaţii urgente.... 13. WORTH 6.........4... REGRET 2. 14. I wasn’t pleased with it. You may go home.... YOUR 10.... E foarte greu să-i împiedici pe oameni să parcheze în acel loc...... M-am obişnuit să merg pe jos 3 km pe zi.... 5.............. PARKING 7........ The pipe needs .. I am looking forward . After ..... 9...... Să încercăm să pornim aparatul prin apasarea pe butonul roşu... 12. I suggest .... 6.... I finished my homework and then I went out for a walk. Nu-mi amintesc să fi plouat marţi toata ziua 7..... I suggest that they should paint the doors white. 10... I will talk with someone to paint my house... Ce-ai zice să mergem şi să-l vizităm diseară? 2.. The idea was to stay there and wait.. I won’t smoke anymore. The idea of . There is a risk that she will miss the train if she doesn’t take a taxi... It is strange that you should call on us at this hour. she won’t come. 17.. Working late is pointless....... Dar cum îl poţi face să înceteze de a copia la lucrări? 8. 8......... he left the room without a word.. 19. RISKS 3. 10... 11.. I know how to solve this Maths problem.... 285 .. because you won’t finish the composition till tomorrow. You are not permitted to park here... 5. He is sorry he didn’t answer her letter.... He felt sorry he had been late for the concert. look here! 16..... The pipe is old and it leaks badly...... 20..... 3. Rewrite each sentence using the words in capitals: 1.... VI............... Is it all right if I go with you as well? MIND VIII.. I will have .... He finished his work.... I am so anxious to hear about you.. I really don’t know if I turned off the gas when I left REMEMBER 8. 18.

Abstract Nouns An abstract noun is a noun which names anything which can not be perceived through the five physical senses. The real estate agent urged the couple to buy the second house because it had new shingles. II. Last year. places. the concrete noun. place. months. The bus inspector looked at all the passengers' passes. Common Nouns A common noun is a noun referring to a person. or abstract idea. animal. hearing. II.III. the nearest town is 60 miles away. Classification of nouns Grammarians have developed a whole series of noun types. organisations. THEORETICAL CONSIDERATIONS I. II. the abstract noun. THE NOUN A. thing. their holy texts and their adherents are proper nouns. Definition A noun is a word used to name a person. and the collective noun. II. According to the sign.2. The names of days of the week. Late last year our neighbours bought a villa. Concrete Nouns A concrete noun is a noun which names anything (or anyone) that can be perceived through the physical senses: touch. The judge handed the files to the clerk. or thing in a general sense. sight. abstract or concrete. You should note that a noun will belong to more than one type: it will be proper or common. and countable or non-countable or collective. Many people dread Monday mornings.4. the common noun. 286 . II.2. place. or smell. Mary is amused by people who are nostalgic about childhood.3. religions.1. All the gardens in the neighbourhood were invaded by beetles this summer. the countable noun (also called the count noun). historical documents. taste. I had a Baptist and a Buddhist as roommates. Justice often seems to slip out of our grasp. institutions. the non-countable noun (also called the mass noun). or things and they are always written with capital letters. including the proper noun. Proper Nouns Proper nouns are names of specific persons.

as one unit.6. Some nouns that end in -f/-fe change to -ves in the plural: -f. Non-Countable Nouns A non-countable noun (or mass noun) is a noun which does not have a plural form. A non-countable noun always takes a singular verb in a sentence. You could count the individual members of the group. -x. -ss. We painted the table red and the chairs blue. and are the opposite of countable nouns. -s -es boy / boys patch / patches. A collective noun is similar to a non-countable noun. Compare: -y / -ies -y / -ys spy / spies play / plays baby / babies bay / bays city / cities osprey / ospreys sky / skies boy / boys III. Countable Nouns A countable noun (or count noun) is a noun with both a singular and a plural form.5. if the singular ends with -y and the -y is not preceded by a vowel (or is not a proper name).2. II. and it names anything (or anyone) that can be counted. bed / beds box / boxes.7. However. Number English has two numbers: singular and plural. and which refers to something that you could (or would) not usually count. -fe / -ves 287 . Gravel is more expensive than I thought. Oxygen is essential to human life. In modern English -s or -es has come to be the "standard" ending of the plural forms of nouns. -sh. and is roughly the opposite of a countable noun. You need to be able to recognise collective nouns in order to maintain subject-verb agreement. The singular number denotes that one thing is spoken of. Collective Nouns A collective noun is a noun naming a group of things. Non-countable nouns are similar to collective nouns. The majority of English count nouns are regular and predictable in the spelling of the plural form. Add -s to the end of the singular form or -es to those singulars that end in a sibilant sound (-s.1. Miriam found six silver dollars in the toe of a sock. the plural denotes that more than one thing is spoken of. II. III. but you usually think of the group as a whole. animals. -zz). or persons. -ch. III.3. book / books bus / buses pen / pens lunch / lunches day / days class / classes III.II. The steering committee meets every Wednesday afternoon. The class was startled by the bursting light bulb. the -y changes to -i and the plural is then -es.

wharf – wharfs / wharves. child / children ox / oxen III. / pl cod* / cod* deer / deer fish* / fish* 288 .6.4. Motto – mottos / mottoes Buffalo – buffalos / buffaloes Tornado – tornados / tornadoes Zero – zeros / zeroes Cargo / cargos / cargoes III. Nouns ending in -o may take -s or –es in the plural.5. / pl. Some nouns change the vowel sound in becoming plural: sg.g. scarf – scarfs / scarves. Man / men Woman / women Foot / feet Goose / geese Tooth / teeth Louse / lice Mouse / mice III.pl.7. / pl. there are some nouns ending in –f. Some Old English plurals are still in use: sg. Some nouns do not change at all: sg. some nouns ending in -o may take both -s and -es: sg.calf / calves half / halves leaf / leaves life / lives wife / wives shelf/shelves self/selves knife / knives However. III. . -fe that can have two plural forms (both -fs and -ves): e. Compare: -o / -os -o / -oes auto / autos echo / echoes photo / photos hero / heroes piano / pianos potato / potatoes kilo / kilos tomato / tomatoes video / videos veto / vetoes However.

Nouns ending in -um with plural -a: singular foreign plural addendum addenda bacterium bacteria curriculum curricula datum data medium media memorandum memoranda English plural in use cactuses funguses English plural in use curriculums mediums memorandums 289 . pike. Many (but not all) fish have irregular plural forms. These include nouns that are traditionally plural.8. Nouns ending in -us with plural -a (only in technical use): sg.8. / pl barracks / barracks crossroads / crossroads headquarters / headquarters means / means series / series species / species III. Nouns ending in -us with plural -i: singular foreign plural bacillus bacilli cactus cacti fungus fungi nucleus nuclei octopus octopi stimulus stimuli III.b. Nouns ending in –a with plural –ae: singular foreign plural English plural in use alga algae amoeba amoebae amoebas antenna antennae antennas formula formulae formulas larva larvae vertebra vertebrae III. Salmon.c. but are also used for singular forms: sg.a.d. Other nouns retain foreign plurals.8. Note that some of these have adapted a regular English plural form as well. but one shark becomes two sharks.8.8.offspring / offspring sheep / sheep trout* / trout* *Notice that these are names of fish. / pl corpus / corpora genus / genera III. halibut and tuna are further examples. III.

e. commander in chief. These make the plural in the last part. German. Thus gender is the mode of distinguishing sex by words. and neuter nouns. -ix becoming plural -ices: singular foreign plural English plural in use appendix appendices appendixes cervix cervices cervixes index indices indexes matrix matrices matrixes vortex vortices III.f. then. as man singer. / pl criterion / criteria phenomenon / phenomena III. or names of things without life. Ottoman. maidservant.8.8. such as talisman. 290 . the name of it is masculine. if of the female sex. Brahman. followed by a word or phrase making a modifier. • Some groups pluralize both parts of the group. NOTE:Some words ending in -man are not compounds of the English word man. in English the gender follows the meaning of the word. woman servant. Noun . Frenchman. Mussulman. Nouns ending in -is becoming -es in plural: sg. woman singer. Norman.h. manservant. handful. • Those groups in which the first part is the principal one. forget-me-not. attorney at law.8. court-martial. / pl analysis / analyses axis / axes basis / bases crisis / crises diagnosis / diagnoses oasis / oases III. in English. must be divided into two principal classes . Nouns ending in -on becoming -a: sg. The plural of compound nouns Compound nouns may be divided into two classes: • Those whose parts are so closely joined as to constitute one word. IV.8. father-in-law. English can have but two genders – masculine and feminine. fisherman. The chief member adds -s in the plural. that is. fellow-servant. gender depends on sex: if a thing spoken of is of the male sex. Englishman.. All nouns. Nouns ending in -ex. knight-errant. and consequently without sex. or additions to words.Gender Whereas in other languages gender follows the form.gender nouns. those which do not distinguish sex. courtyard. but add -s. firman. stepson.g. those distinguishing the sex of the object.III. the name of it is feminine.

1. • -ity: capability. There are three ways to distinguish the genders: • By prefixing a gender word to another word. bachelor/maid boy/girl brother/sister drake/duck earl/countess father/mother gander/goose husband/wife king/queen M. master / mistress. / F. Gender shown by suffixes. • -dom: wisdom. murderer / murderess. • -ment: contentment. the masculine ending may be dropped before the feminine -ess is added: e. the feminine and the masculine are entirely different words M. / F. flexibility.2. • By adding a suffix. By far the largest number of gender words are those marked by suffixes. abbot – abbess. IV. • -sion. -tion: celebration. appointment. cock sparrow / hen sparrow.Gender nouns include names of persons and some names of animals.g. kingdom. baron / baroness count / countess lion / lioness host / hostess priest / priestess However. • By using a different word for each gender. IV.g. expression. generally to a masculine word. Noun Suffixes These are common endings for nouns. then you know it must be a noun. 291 . lord/lady wizard/witch nephew/niece ram/ewe sir/madam son/daughter uncle/aunt bull/cow boar/sow V. Gender shown by prefixes. kindness. • -ness: toughness.3. / F. Usually the gender words he and she are prefixed to neuter words: he-goat / shegoat. IV. If you see these endings on a word. The ending -ess is added to many words without changing the ending of the masculine: M. actor / actress. neuter nouns include some animals and all inanimate objects. Sometimes. negro / negress . he-bear / she-bear. Gender shown by different words. The feminine may also discard a vowel which appears in the masculine: e.

pianist. Boxes 2. Why are all school bus painted yellow? 5. Our soccer team has had four wins and three loss. Cheryl doesn’t enjoy washing dish. 1. 6. The underlined noun in each sentence is spelled in its singular form. -er. existence. B. There are two or more singular nouns in each sentence. We saw some bright flash of light coming from the woods. 7. You should place the knives and spoons to the left of the plates. 1. 1. The first sentence has been done for you. Underline the irregular plural noun in each sentence and write the singular form. books 292 . How many picture did you take on your trip? 3. Only one of them is an irregular plural noun. EXERCISES I. Why must I pay four different tax on the same income? IV. 6. Write the correct plural form after the sentence. III. Underline that noun and write the correct form after the sentence. The first one is done for you. 11. -ist: violinist. We took pictures of the oxen as they pulled the wagons. actor. I read seven story to my son. Seven protester were arrested after the riot. The children told their parents about the matches. Sandy knew that many mice were living in the walls of the old houses. We put ten of our best crystal glass on the table. All the student in that school wear uniforms. 7. Woman 2. Do turtles have teeth? 5. One of those nouns should be changed to its plural form to be correct. Please keep your hands and feet inside the car. 4. The old dog no longer fought over their food. 3. 10. -ence: assistance. Vincent helped the women choose their costumes. stories 3. In each sentence there is one singular noun that should be plural. 1. 3. dogs 2. The hunters never noticed the two deer by the apple trees. The first one is done for you. All the king’s horses and all the king’s men ate scrambled eggs. -or: fighter. Our watch don’t show the same time. II. Underline the incorrect noun and write its proper form after the sentence. 9. 4. 8. Glasses 2. There are two or more plural nouns in each sentence. There are too many box in our attic. The children stood on boxes to see the parade. There are three church in our little community. The first three have been done for you. Harold lost five of his new book.• • • -ance. 5. Are the geese chasing the other farm animals? 4.

wry. Each sentence below is missing a noun. rival. nimble. 17. I don’t believe that John was chased by a bunch of mummy. to obtain. forlorn. My calf were sore after the race. 7. traitor. ______________ joke did not amuse the minister. Most ______________ colors will change during the fall. partner. blue. to manage. 8. 20. to draw. coward. mother. The teacher collected the children's papers. The last four ______________ won the best prizes. 16. to see. You girls are not behaving like ______________! lady 7. uncle 3. social. Olivia falls asleep by counting sheep in her mind. Mrs. watch 18. 293 . None of the switch were turned off on that panel. My uncle's pranks are annoying. V. My ______________ car is falling apart. to keep. delicate. to catch. box 10. All the witch flew over our Halloween party. The singular form of the noun is printed after the sentence. hard. I sent three reply to your e-mail address. to despise. That ______________ belongs to my grandfather. merry. The painter left their ladder in the middle of the driveway. mild. to deny. The members' votes were counted by hand. 6. pauper (two forms). boy VI. cow 13. We never noticed the frog that were sitting on the salad. absent. There were many flash of light in the sky. 18. I will grant you three ______________. 10. wish 8. 9. The ______________ are stacked against the door. 1. brother. . keen. Apple were the favorite food at the school party. fluorescent. We saw many scary mask on the last night of October. None of the ______________ showed the correct time. Dale insisted that her property tax were too high. to pursue. The ______________ plan would surely get them into trouble. 2. Write the correct form of the noun on the line. 19. member 4. to seize. All of this ______________ characters had faults. leaf 15. gay. puppy 11. did you remove some shelf from this bookcase? 11. Please take both your ______________ out of my pudding! foot 12. Does this mouse belong to you? mouse 6. to destroy. to strike. to crucify. child 5. to dally. 12. likely thief. blue. broad. The ______________ names are Big and Pig. perverse. life. 14. busy. 5. 3. lofty. 13. patron. Mary 16. customer 17. father 9.4. moist. Alice. The first five have been done for you. Give abstract nouns from these words: 1. to bear. The governor brought all his child to the ceremony. maladjusted. How many presents are under the tree? present 2. Annabella was outraged when the nurse said she had eleven louse in her hair. to hide. All my dream came true when you became my wife. Penny put many penny in Patty’s purple pantry. 15. proud. story 14.

fox. bride. Translate them into Romanian: by-street. virtuoso. fiddle. The (snow/snows) and (frost/frosts) of the Antarctic made him sway between (hope/hopes) and (fear/fears). wisdom tooth. brushoff. do-nothing. pain. nettle. scarf. X. caroing-knife. Unfortunately. attorney-general. 9. bullock. Rondo. or say where both are correct: 1. researchers have discovered (frescos/frescoes) made by the primitive men. 8. fiancé. bull’s eye. After a ten-day journey through the desert. hippopotamus. lieutenant-colonel. moth. calf. stag. tick. bitch-atter. protégé. ambassador. lad. they found a small (oasis/oases). bough. He planted three (score/scores) of bulbs. chamois. poet laureate. milktooth. 294 . oil-can. porch. knowlittle. flora. The vast (sand/sands) of the desert made him shiver with fear. wrinkle. verb and determinative(s) and explain your choice. index. jaw. brace. parish. beau ideal. executor. wizard. pebble. grouse. onlooker. 2. goose. fauna. titmouse. sphinx. wit. hansom. housewife. ground. cactus. glasseye. wage-freeze. hyacinth. cherub. peacock. hank. The annals of Tacitus (is/are) among the best historical sources for the history of the Roman times. 10. b. colliery. In a lot of (grottos/grottoes) all over the world. axe. bee. good-for-nothing. bandit. commander-inchief. tuft. 3. duck. necklace. cock (rooster). daybreak. cameo. casino. court-martial. test-tube. mare. catchfly. mars quake. cow. 7. fiasco. Give the plural of the following words. custom. minute. scoop. 4. Paul’s little brother is not good at (figure/figures). Mumps (is/are) very catching. bachelor. widow. swan. sun-bath. sow. friar. dog-rose. but finds a great pleasure in hunting (grouse/grouses) as well. clog. witch. elf. picklock. parsley. parsnip. buckhedgehog. sheath. compass. He is a well-known hunter of (bison/bisons). The committee (was/were) of the opinion that it/they should take further steps. VIII. miasma. touch. elk. Give the feminine of the following words: marquis. Statistics (is/are) used on a large scale in a country’s industry. eyelash. ram. fir-tree. boyscout. coltsfoot. 5. breakdown. 11. billy-goat. genius. she-sparrow. hoof. Choose the correct form of the noun. necropolis. 6. pickpocket. mongoose. science-fiction diary. snail. reef. marquis. eggshell. ram. coop. eyeglass. wind-screen.VII. ecstasy. zero. Give the plural of the following nouns: a. boar. lawn-mower. solo. garden-flower. alley. species. persona. calf. larynx. count. stepson. lion. belief. goldfish. IX. die.

time): 12 a kilo. 1 think it's the man from the garage.3. including someone's job.) The use of these articles depends mainly on whether you are referring to any member of a group.-plate /ju:/ /ju:/ /em/ /el/ If the noun is modified by an adjective. or to a specific member of a group: I. quantity. • when we refer to something for the first time. THE ARTICLE A. But: It's the nicest day we've had all week.III. the corresponding indefinite quantity word some is used for plural general nouns. it cannot be used before uncountable nouns: I bought an armchair. USES The indefinite article can be used before singular countable nouns.1. Brian is an Irishman. the choice between a and an depends on the initial sound of the adjective that immediately follows the article: • a broken window • an unusual meeting • a European commision I. These indefinite articles are used with singular nouns when the noun is general.) We use the indefinite article: • when we are referring to one thing. (but NOT: I bought a furniture. But: She's the headteacher of Park School. Julian is a practicing Buddhist. we use the: There's a man at the door. referring to any member of a group. With the second reference. • with a unit of measurement (weight. an. He's got a lovely smile. Indefinite Articles: a and an A and an signal that the noun modified is indefinite. • after to be and have got when we are describing someone or something. once a week • In exclamations: What a lovely day! 295 . The rule is: • a + singular noun beginning with a consonant: a boy • an + singular noun beginning with a vowel: an elephant • some + plural noun: some girls But note: a uniform a European an MP an L. It's a nice day. nation or religion: She's a headteacher. but it is not one in particular: I'd like a peach. three times a day. THEORETICAL CONSIDERATIONS English has two types of articles: definite (the) and indefinite (a.

the weather. the public. the Southern Hemisphere. I think your keys are in the kitchen. chains of mountains. the Bahamas.. islands called ‘The Isle of . Books are very important to me. • before names of musical instruments when we talk about playing them: Can you play the piano? But: I've just bought a piano. including names of nationalities and political parties or groups: the British.’. the USA. I'll wear the dress I bought last week. the Philippines. deserts. the River Nile. the American Civil War • before some collective nouns referring to a whole group of people. the Isle of Wight III. the government. the Sudan. We use it when we want to refer to a specific thing or things. that it refers to a particular member of a group. the Conservatives. The zero article (no article) Articles are not used before plural nouns and singular uncountable nouns which are used in a general sense. The definite article: the The definite article the signals that the noun is definite. • before names of seas. Did you put the water in the fridge? 296 . newspapers and magazines and some names of musical groups: The Daily Mirror. • when we refer to a particular place. the disabled • before parts of the day: in the morning • before names of ships. groups of islands. • when there is only one: the world. The girl is at university now.1. II. the Ivory Coast. the north. the Netherlands. Have you read the books I brought you last month? Water is the best thing to drink when you're thirsty. the Sahara. rivers. person. This includes: • when the content of the sentence specifies which particular one(s) we are talking about: The people next door have invited as round for a drink. The Berlin Philharmonic Orchestra • before superlatives and ordinals: It's the best film I've seen.II. USES The definite article can be used before singular and plural countable nouns and before uncountable nouns. the army • before some adjectives (used without a noun) to refer to the group in general: the rich. That's the second time she's failed the exam. the sun. regions and a few names of countries: the Atlantic Ocean. • when something is referred to for a second time and therefore becomes specific: They've got a boy and a girl. animal or thing and the speaker and listener know which one(s) is/are being referred to: The window cleaner's here. the unemployed. the Himalayas..

...... I went to .. 7.. Is Maxwell really . London Symphony Orchestra. .... church. eel in the bathtub! 15. one ounce apple...... hour. home... 16.. 6. better basketball.. How far can . accidental meeting.. • with meals: Have you had breakfast yet? But: That was a lovely breakfast... OTHER USES OF THE ZERO ARTICLE: • with proper nouns: James has gone to London........ horrible student? 5... 20... oriole perched on the branch. the or no article... Write a or an in the blank... 4. 'How much are the leeks?' 'They're 80 pence a pound. They built a real igloo in the park. She taught . 1... bed.... Would .III. wonderful concert by . I believe it was . Erin is .1.. Someone put .. But: There isn't a hospital in the town. The speech lasted for .. 2. 1. class. I just picked . exciting lesson. honest reply would be appreciated. 19. I'm leaving on Saturday. last night. next time B. ancient city lie beneath the water? 10.. honor student.. humorous hippo hugged Helen.... work.. gallon of gas go? 11..... .. . • with school. prison.. • with by + item of transport: Did you go by train? • with next/last + week. Complete the sentences with a or an. I saw an owl on your roof. university. 17........ EXERCISES I. Barbara bought . We arrived after .. 8...' 2. hospital.. 3.. I think I saw .. 297 ..... She's been in hospital for three weeks. bald eagle flew above the hill. Does ... town when we talk about going to these places or being in them for their normal use: Peter’s gone to bed.... 12.. long afternoon in the automobile. 9.. II. ugly camel answered our eager call. Did I make .. etc: next Wednesday....... 18.. college...... .. old-fashioned man wear a diamond earring? 13. days of the week. mistake by serving the chocolate covered worms? 14..

Athens? 17.. What.. perfume. cup of .. butter on their bread.. and that wind famed … Great Fire of London.... police have had a lot of support from ..... where necessary: …Tarcău is a small river that cuts across… lane near… my home...... . Suddenly one of … children kicked … ball very hard and it went towards… passing boat…... 19... III. oven? 6. people don't like him because of his selfish attitude. explain the use of the articles: That night was … third of September.. some.. …showers of hot ashes rose into … air and fell on … distant places.. People on … bank called out to … man in … boat… but he did not hear them. fox this morning. oil. A lot of people give ....... British usually have .. I saw ... . general public over this issue. 5. perfume for her birthday but I don't think she liked . tea when I wake up in ... apple? 16. next election.. V. IV. book and .. 11... I turned to look at … children.... 12. He's ...... electrician.. Put in a(n) or some in front of the following words: picture. in day-time there was … immense cloud of… smoke and in … night-time there was … great tower of … fire mounting up into… sky... I like to have ... Opposition is in danger of losing her seat at .... information.... … children were playing games on … bank and there were … people rowing on the river.... the....... but there weren’t … in sight. for… three days.... 9.. shirts on ..... … church steeples feel down with … tremendous crashes. cloud. 4... Have you ever seen . axe.. rice........ Fill in the spaces – where necessary. … houses crumbled into … cinders by hundred and … thousand. art teacher and she's .... moth............. 298 . 8. … flying sparks carried … conflagration to … great distances....... ....... water... It broke out at … baker’s shop near … London Bridge. It was warm last Sunday so I went and sat on … river bank as usual.. Can I have .. meat in ...... local school is soon to be closed.. money to .... and burned... I think it must have been .... heiress. 18. milk. which lighted … whole country landscape for… ten miles round..with the definite or indefinite article. … streets were very narrow.... unemployed these days.. Is this . Put in a(n). ... Acropolis in ....... I usually go to .. 20.. . Is .. it spread and spread.... ewe... life is very difficult for . train. … ball struck him so hard that he nearly fell into .. … nights were lighter than the days. money. one thousand six hundred and sixty-six. … summer had been intensively hot and dry. . water. or any.. first time you've been to . 13. work by . ... I bought my sister ..... I like sitting by… Tarcau on fine afternoons... beautiful face that child's got! 10. morning..... bottle of ... 14.. same one that I saw last week. charity at this time of year..... on … spot on which … Monument … now stands as … remembrance of those raging flames. soap-suds....... washing-line should be nearly dry now...3....... Leader of .. Isle of Man? 7.. 15.. newspaper....

I decide to cross . but not catching … meaning of his words … sense of his own beauty came on him like … revelation... within . (28) Westminster and consists of . beat … bread smooth.. On my second day I wander about .. I walk around ... He had never felt it before. ... quarter of pound … powdered sugar.. (25) Houses of Parliament and listen to . (23).... half… pound of … final shred suet. … look of joy came into his eyes. (34) end.. .. (8) underground to central London.. 4.... (9) Piccadilly Circus or . three quarters of … pound of … currants. (1) countries of . (29) House of Lords and . as if he had recognized himself for … first time. on … bed of … creased paper strewn with … springs of … parsley. not far from . adding as you beat half … pound of … coffee raisins..... (35) English Channel by .. Pour one pint of … boiling milk over … pound of … bread cut in … slices. (4) United States and . lay … great ham. Later. British Museum and the old houses in . I find accommodation at . and powdered ginger. and beside this was … round of … spiced beef. see . stripped of its outer skin. You’ll get … very nice wine from … Sicily. and … glass of … wine or … brandy … grated nutmeg. (17) Tate Gallery and there are so many beautiful things to see in . You really must stay to … supper... then ..... (37) rail. 5.. When my English vacation draws to .. (6) tourist attraction too.. 2.. I sometimes dream that.. I travel by .... is in ..... (12) Thames... … fat brown goose lay at one end of … table and at … other end. VII. (30) House of Commons.. Fill in the spaces with the definite article or indefinite article where necessary: 1.and houses mostly built of wood and … plaster.. although I am certain that in . . as soon as … milk is absorbed and cool.. (11) inexpensive hotel.. (36) ferry-boat and from there to travel home across the Continent by . (31) visitors can see . (5) Canada one can find many . far better than you’ll ever find here... (21) Senate House. (26) Big Ben strike the hour... ‘For exactly the same reason’ cries excited Phil. (18) two museums that I have no time left for anything else.. 299 .. (33) week. … quarter of … teaspoonful each of … salt. having landed at . (15) first day I visit .. … Basil Hallaward’s compliments had seemed to him to be merely … charming exaggerations of … friendship. He stood there motionless and in wonder. it is .. (22) University of London has most of its offices. as everybody knows. (7) Heathrow airport. (14) Buckingham Palace. (13) walking distance of . (27) Parliament.. (20) intellectual centre of Britain's capital city........ (24) Russell Square. nor did it stop until … whole way from …Tower to … Temple Bar was … desert.. (16) National Gallery and ..... Supply articles where necessary: Of all . 3. When he saw it he drew back and his … cheeks flushed for … moment with … pleasure. (10) Marble Arch. VI.. (32) latter at work on some days of .. hammering on… table with …both… hands. (19) Bloomsbury.. (2) former British Empire. . (3) United Kingdom that I would like to visit most.. dimly conscious that … Hallaward was speaking to him.. where .. to . Nothing could stop … tremendous fire but … want of more houses to burn.

studentul inteligent. sună telefonul. un şomer. o înmormântare onorabilă. metoda eficientă. omul cu un singur ochi. vâsla. pe telefon. un om fals. o cursă de şoareci. Dar ce incurcătură! Aluat pe degete. stilul oficial. olandezii. încât ar fi trezit şi morţii. plămădeala lipicioasă îmi acoperi mâinile. Translate into English: După micul dejun. afacerea unilaterală. ora. un nufăr. eu am mers la piaţă. m-am hotărât să fac nişte tarte pentru ceai. o regulă universală. curând. o parvenită. o curte. 300 . furnica. regiunea aridă. o regină fără pereche. moştenitorul. o călimară. Translate into English: Plugarul. Abia am ajuns în bucătărie că soneria ţârâi atât de tare. o temperatură uniforma. timpul tulbure.VIII. X. acul de siguranţă. coaja oului. Nimic n-ar fi putut fi mai enervant. recordul neîntrecut. În scurt timp. Tocmai atunci. De data aceasta era poştaşul care dorea să semnez pentru o recomandată. o clanţă galbenă. un englez. cuptorul. o creangă de tuia. ghiocelul alb. În cele din urmă am pus receptorul în furcă. Pentru că m-am întors acasă mai devreme şi soţul era încă la serviciu. o limbă de ceas. un preşedinte onorific. un vânt destul de puternic. Mi-au trebuit 10 minute s-o conving să mă sune mai târziu. un an. o moară de vânt. caisa. eram ocupată cu amestecatul untului şi al făinii. Translate into English: mică cutie chinezească. un sfat. un fermoar. Am ridicat receptorul cu două degete lipicioase şi am rămas surprinsă auzind vocea d-nei Brown. copii au mers la şcoală şi cam după un sfert de oră. galbenuşul. IX. o viespe. familia unită. pe clanţa uşii.

identify or quantify it. a long-legged bird. dirty. may be divided into simple and compound adjectives when form is the criterion taken into consideration. THEORETICAL CONSIDERATIONS If we wish to speak of or to describe objects and people. pleasurable. amazing. terrible. Some adjectives can be identified by their endings. poetic -ic childish. useful -ful attractive. happy. flexible.III. we need to use adjectives. but they can also be used after certain verbs: Peter was furious. the heavy bag an innocent child the yellow rose a famous writer a chilly morning a beautiful woman a flexible puppet a merciless dictator I. in order to add to the meaning of nouns or to limit their application. manual -al beautiful. portable. ice-cold water. careful. etc. We need another category of words in order to describe the characteristics (size. the people present. grateful. *Pay attention to exceptions such as: knight errant. In other words. whitish -ish 301 . THE ADJECTIVE A. internal. we cannot use only nouns. logical. etc. Suffixes Adjectives can be identified using a number of formal criteria. harmful. selective -ive anarchic. homemade bread. deep. to describe. the next-door neighbour. readable. • Compound adjectives are adjectives made of two or more identifiable words: a life-giving energy. secretary general. court martial. cubic. persuasive. beautiful. economic. heroic. Typical adjective endings include: capable. • Simple adjectives cannot be decomposed into smaller or simpler parts: safe.) of an object or the physical or moral qualities of a person. colour. dwarfish. long.4. a good-looking man. foolish. intensive. bluish. IV. Position Adjectives usually precede the nouns which they modify*. a short-sleeved coat. Descriptive adjectives. etc. III. correct. the largest class of adjectives. a blue-eyed woman. functional. smell. Definition An adjective is a word joined to a noun or other substantive word or expression. II. position. Simple and Compound Adjectives Adjectives may be divided into a series of classes and subclasses according to the various criteria taken into consideration. It was no doubt a gorgeous landscape Two beautiful young French students entered the room. remarkable -able/-ible financial. extensive.

The degrees of comparison are the comparative. kindly. dirty. expressing the greatest degree of quality. Negative prefixes Adjectives may also be formed by means of a number of negative prefixes including the following: • dis-: disagreeable dishonest • un-: uninteresting. sunny amazing. These are properly the only degrees. impolite • in-: inconvenient. fabulous. an idea may be better than another one. unnecessary • il. moving. paved. confused. etc. manly. stony. expressing a greater degree of quality. disastrous. This characteristic of adjectives is called gradability. latticed *-ing and -ed may be added to verbs in order to make up participial adjectives. insignificant • ir-: irresponsible. but there are some adjectives which are non-gradable as they already denote the highest position on a scale: favourite. 1. restless. we notice some differences between them as to size. weight.-less -ly -ous -y -ing* -ed* breathless. supreme. irrelevant VI. neighbouring. a lioness may be larger than a lion. etc. virtuous chilly. However. The Comparative The Comparative in English is represented by: • the Comparative of Superiority • the Comparative of Inferiority • the Comparative of Equality 302 . useless friendly. main. Thus. speechless. uninflected form is usually called the positive degree. immemorial. sufficient. a woman’s eyes may be bluer than the sky. universal. a large number of very common adjectives cannot be identified in this way as they do not have typical adjectival form: bad dark honest red bright deep hot silent clever difficult main simple cold distant old strange common good quiet wide complete great real young V. When we place two objects side by side.: illegal. a purse may be heavier than a suitcase. and the superlative. though the simple. color. sandy. etc. careless. surprising broken. dangerous. experienced. organic. Most adjectives in English are gradable. VI. merciless. perpetual. monthly courageous. final. illogical • im-: impossible. sole. infinite. Degrees of Comparison Comparison is an inflection not possessed by nouns and pronouns: it belongs to adjectives and adverbs. cunning.

.2. blue – bluer. blue – the bluest.. very careful Other adverbs such as quite. happy –the happiest. less interesting than. fat – fatter. the relative superlative is formed by adding the . easy – the easiest. VI.2. as happy as. as hungry as a wolf. thin – the thinnest Most two-syllable adjectives and the adjectives which have three or more syllables have the relative superlative with the most. quite happy.....1.b. as clear as crystal.c. The Relative Superlative In the case of monosyllabic and easily pronounced adjectives of two syllables. as gold. The Comparative of Superiority In the case of monosyllabic and easily pronounced adjectives of two syllables.1. very thin.VI. extremely dangerous. as or less .. as.. than.. extremely.. careful – more careful. easy – easier. Some Comparatives of Equality have a superlative meaning: as black as coal. awfully tired The Positive Degree thin famous The Comparative of Superiority thinner more famous The Comparative of Inferiority not as thin as less famous than The Comparative of Equality as thin as as famous as The Relative Superlative the thinnest the most famous The Absolute Superlative very thin very famous Notes: 1. awfully may also be added to form the comparative. The Comparative of Inferiority All adjectives form the Comparative of Inferiority by adding either not so/as .2... Some two-syllable adjectives have comparatives and superlatives with either the endings –er and –est or more and most: 303 . famous – more famous VI. careful – the most careful.-est. The Comparative of Equality All adjectives form the Comparative of Equality by adding as .. famous – the most famous VI..a. The Superlative The Superlative in English is represented by: • The Relative Superlative • The Absolute Superlative VI. fat – the fattest.. thin – thinner Most two-syllable adjectives and the adjectives which have three or more syllables have the comparative with more. as poor as a church mouse VI.. not as happy as. happy – happier.b.. as good. The Absolute Superlative All adjectives form the absolute superlative by adding the adverb very. as interesting as.1.a. as blind as a bat.. the comparative is formed by adding the suffix –er.

I could easily have fallen asleep in them. Three-syllable adjectives derived from other adjectives by adding the prefix –un may also have comparatives and superlatives with either the endings –er and –est or more and most: e......... good/well better the best evil/bad/ill worse the worst little less/lesser the least much/many more the most old older/elder the oldest / the eldest far farther/further the farthest / the furthest late later/the latter the latest / the last near nearer the nearest / the next B.. grace........ describe.. care... narrow. rely. she gives you a very good feel for the places and characters in her stories.. polite... the weather can be completely different from one day to the next...e... Irregular Comparison Some adjectives and adverbs in English have irregular comparatives and superlatives... it was thoroughly enjoyable... shallow......... His problem is that he always does exactly what people tell him to do: he's just so .......... 5. as it waited to pounce on the bird. EXERCISES I.. 4...... We had a lovely weekend. It's a very . she's completely ...... The situation out there is .. 15.. The seats in first class were really . dread. 13.. I love to watch good ballet dancers: they're so ..... 8.... after you retire. then I sure he will... 14.. gentle. 10. He never remembers my birthday... 12.. in the past. 7.. writer.. 2.... you're always dropping things... 9. change... II. 304 .. we're completely ............... 6............ Fill each of the blanks with a suitable adjective from the list...... 2.. stupid... truth 1........... handsome........ 3......g... More and more people are dying every day............ comfort.. remote..... He's very .. forget. climate.... You're so ...... She's a very ................ obscure... The problem is that there's nothing we can do about it.......... enjoy. common – commoner/more common – the commonest/the most common simple – simpler/more simple – the simplest/the most simple Here are some more: cruel.... I don't know why he's so ..... power.... It's important to keep .... submit. Don't worry.. motion. unhappy – unhappier/more unhappy – the happiest/the most happy unlucky – unluckier/more unlucky – the unluckiest/the most unlucky VII.. I believe what he says because he's always been ........ subtle...... Complete the following sentences with an adjective formed from one of the verbs or nouns below: act. She never seems to run out of energy. The cat stayed ....... tire... Here is a list that includes the majority of them. If he's said he'll be there. 11..g.

possible. 8. technology..devoid. flexible. c or d..I'm .. rational. moral.. 6. regular.. agreeable. question.. enjoy. illustrate.. influence.. IV. that can fill each gap. child... a. filled.. honest. of any sign of human habitation. inclined. 1. length.. elect 1. to use the phone if you need to.. relevant. convenient. b. province. to think that it would be better to finish this later. grace. strength. replaceable. significant. mountain.... with the political implications of the new policy are very worried. mortal. part... oppress. nation... to collapse in a strong earthquake.. One. destructible. A speedy solution is . interesting.. liable.. He was taken . responsible. concerned. a..The outgoing President was accompanied by the President . free... 4.. therapy... race... use.Those . love. science.. fascinate. about their travels through India. envy. Copy the table into your notebook and write the adjectives in the correct columns.. reward for twenty years of loyal service.The ex-prisoner is . attract.. soluble. with remorse for what he has done.. beauty. three or all of them may be possible. eat... by the ferocity of the criticism. 305 . III.This is . economy. 3. separable un- it- imimpatient in- ir- dis- V. 7. The . train is almost never on time.. literate. I'd left it on the table.Please feel .. 5...... attention... obsess. cloud... last b) late c) early d) stopping 6..I was absolutely . legible.. sand........ The .. art. dirt. They had stories .. aback b) unawares c) surprised d) unaccustomed 5. control.. depth. patient. contempt. logical. unlikely b) galore c) a-plenty d) countless 3.... repeat... a.. Put them into pairs of adjectives with similar meanings. polite. sick b) afraid c) frightened d) ill 2. logic... child was comforted by his aunt... shame. trouble.. a... justified. attractive. understand... two. describe. a.. main b) principal c) chief d) crucial 4. mature. legal.. perfect. Circle the adjectives listed a. mercy.The landscape was completely .. rely. 2. certain. youth. vary. Give the adjectives corresponding to the following words: interest. reversible.. relevance.. tasteful. explicable.These buildings are . friendly. noise. a) due b) scant c) meagre d) proper IV. Copy the table into your notebook and put the adjectives in the box into the correct columns..

Complete the sentences with adjectives derived from the words in capital letters at the end: 1.. as mad as a . amazing. (10). The way he behaved to his poor ex-wife is both . TO FORGET) 10. (15).... (4). as strong as an . Give the degrees of comparison of the following adjectives and use them in sentences of your own: beautiful. (TO DEFINE. (TO SEPARATE.. Even those who lived through the Holocaust found it . TO IMITATE. (6). (3). The liberators were met with . My job was to try and understand something that was not . The cheese was repulsively.. (5).. 306 .. and the . relevance of the book's theme. VII. vital. (ODOUR) VIII. as drunk as a . were free and slave societies.. good. old. He told me an . Sometimes I would watch war films and think it was all too histrionic and too .. tasty. furious... (1). lucky. angry.. small. Your cousin is a consummate liar.. dar eu cred că cea mai mică e şi cea mai drăguţă. common. hungry.. important.... as fit as a .. Ultimele ştiri sunt încurajatoare. as old as the . (2).. as dark as . little... thin. The fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989 and the events in former Yugoslavia convinced film director Francisco Rosi of the . bad. Translate into English: 1.. hideous. IX. upset. Sfaturile pe care mi le dai sunt întotdeauna utile. as stubborn as a .. (9).. (12). parched. 3.... as clear as . thirsty... terrible. 2. as keen as .. (8). (THEATRE) 6.. Bărbatul cu umerii laţi îsi puse pe el haina neagră cu mâneci lungi şi plecă în grabă. (TO COMPREHEND) 2... (14).. enormous.. perfect. (13).. EFFORT) 8. in a way that Charlie Parker's seemingly . (MEANING) 4. as deaf as a . (17).. unhappy. starving.. as poor as a . little. ugly..(11). TO RECONCILE) 11. then this musician's art fails on the latter account. 4....surprising..... (TO UNDERSTAND) 3. . (TO FORGIVE. (16)... as dead as a . difficult gradable non-gradable surprising amazing VI.. terrified. frightened. minute. as cool as a . as busy as a . If art consists of the . as light as a . Mie mi-au plăcut ambele fete. and . wonderful.. (TO ENDURE) 5. Complete the following idiomatic comparisons: as blind as a . (TO BELIEVE) 9... story about how he had helped rob a bank in the City of London.. (TO INFECT) 7. good......... as bright as a . The characters of the novel are people struggling to resume lives that war had rendered . dirty. impossible.. (7).. delicious.. filthy. tired. nice. Uncle Tom's Cabin showed how . It is too easily imitated.. cruelty was from the institution of slavery and how fundamentally . exhausted. enthusiasm.. big.. interesting.. devastated. melodism never was.

6. turcii să vorbească turca. cu atăt mai speriată era: nu voia să fie văzută de nimeni. Avem amintiri atât de frumoase despre locul acesta încât ne-am gândit că o să-l revizităm. 10. Cu căt se întuneca mai tare. Am mâncat puţin astăzi aşa că mi-e o foame de lup. Este firesc ca polonezii să vorbească poloneza. 9. 307 . Călătoriile în spaţiul cosmic devin tot mai frecvente. 7. iar finlandezii să vorbească finlandeza.5. Se uită pe furiş la femeia îmbrăcată în negru. 8.

Form: sg. dates and distances: Where is my book? It is on the shelf. temperature. • You and one are used impersonally meaning everyone. Definition Pronouns are used to refer to people and things without naming them. we you they . no one or anyone.III. me you him/ her/ it pl. time. How far is it to Chicago? It’s ten miles. I you he/ she/ it pl.as a subject: sg. • They is used impersonally denoting a collective agent telling something: They say he is dishonest. Classification There are several types of pronouns: • personal • possessive • reflexive • demonstrative • indefinite • reciprocal • relative • interrogative II.1. Who is at the door? It is Olivia.as a complement: sg. 2. 5. THE PRONOUN A. • It is used for people or things with an unknown gender. with a noun to refer to persons and in expressions about the weather. II. They replace nouns or noun phrases. THEORETICAL CONSIDERATIONS I. Uses: • The pronoun I is always written with a capital letter. us you them b. II. mine pl. • All the verbs in English (excepting Imperatives) must have a pronominal subject: They dislike inefficiency. Form: . ours 308 . You/ one should always tell the truth. Personal pronouns a. What time is it? It’s nine o’clock. It’s cold outside. Possessive pronouns a. making texts less repetitive.

Everybody is at home. that ending in –thing refers to things. that. not hers. We’re using his. a few. enough. • The former – the latter have the meaning of the first and. to hurt oneself. much. Use: . These (discs) are mine. The noun missing was mentioned before: This is my book. Sue and Joe met last year. everyone. Indefinite pronouns a. myself pl. few. Uses: • The pronouns are in number agreement with the noun they replace: This (umbrella) is mine. 4. • To show an action performed for or on oneself: She looked at herself in the mirror. Those are his. Reflexive pronouns a. 3. 5. nobody. a little. to comb. the latter is a pupil. Form: . most. those (plural referent) b. both. another. This book is mine. little. these refer to objects that are near the speaker. That is his. nothing. everybody. any. Demonstrative pronouns a. that is there. Uses: • With reflexive verbs like to enjoy oneself.yours yours his/ hers theirs b. no one/ none. to amuse oneself. that (singular referent). II. anybody/ thing/ one.all. one. the others. somebody/ thing/ one. Form: sg. to meet. Everything is possible here. 309 . We’re using his car. II. b. others. to help oneself. the second of two. either. neither. those refer to objects in the distance. these. But some verbs which are reflexive in other languages are not reflexive in English: to dress. Why are you so angry with yourself? • To emphasize the doer of an action: The president himself attended the meeting. not her car. several. ourselves yourself yourselves himself/ herself/ itself themselves b. Uses: • The series ending in –body refers to people. Form: this. many. each. everything. to cut oneself. not near the speaker: This is here. • This. to shave. the other. to wash oneself: Please help yourself with some cake! He hurt himself during the game.possessive pronouns replace possessive adjectives. respectively. they have the same form for singular and plural: Andy and Janet are cousins: the former is a student. more. II. some.

few underlines the smallness of a number. Is there any soup left? Yes. a little means ‘at least some’: Little is known about him. A few of us managed to arrive in time. II. II. which. The woman whose car is parked there is my cousin. a little.• • • • • • The pronouns beginning with some. or in interrogative sentences when we are not sure about the answer: I have something to tell you. 7. Show me whatever you have. one another indicating that two people do the same thing. those beginning with any. Little means ‘not much’ and is used for uncountable nouns. things and is used with plural verb: The boys are both sleeping. Shall I give you something to read? I didn’t see anybody. Reciprocal pronouns a. • Whoever. that. Form: each other. whichever. 6. a reciprocal pronoun may occur: When they met. what b. they embraced and then they kissed (one another). either means ‘one or the other’. if the speaker wants to emphasize the relationship. however.are used in affirmative sentences and in interrogative sentences when an affirmative answer is expected. neither means ‘not one and not the other’: Which book do you prefer? Neither/ either. Either and neither refer to two people or things. b. Uses: • The two constructions are normally interchangeable: We sent each other/ one another gifts. Many of us have seen this film. whoever. many means a great number of: Much of his information was vital for us. whom. Relative pronouns a. whatever refer to something or someone that is unknown: I’ll help whoever needs me. Is anybody at home? Both refers to only two people. Few and a few refer to countable nouns. Form: who. feel the same way or have the same relationship. whose (shows possession).are used in negative sentences when they follow a negative verb or a negative word. whom. • There are some verbs which indicate reciprocity and do not use a reciprocal pronoun. 310 . Much means a great amount or quantity of. whose. whoever refer to persons: This is the boy who/ whom I told you about. whichever. Uses: • Who. a few means ‘at least some’: We expected many guests but only few came. • Which refers to animals or things: That’s the film which he likes best.

We were surprised when we saw…in that large mirror. something. (neither) 4. so we have to amuse… 2. We only have a week left. III. We only want a weaker dollar. but…answered. (both) 6. (all) 2. Jones is one of my colleagues. whose. Fill in with some. Do you have…to add? 3. This idea won’t work. anything. (every) 3. 8. Dr. what. It was Mary who asked that stupid question. Two theories proposed by him proved correct. The light in the stairway switches…off after two minutes. 5. If you have no money. anyone. The soldier didn’t know that the gun was loaded so he shot… 10. she had to force…to eat. My sister is going to France soon. whom. The boy locked…in the bathroom. or the object of preposition: Who has broken the vase? What is she doing now? • In idiomatic expressions: What about…? = what do you think about…? I can’t tell which is which/ who is who. (yours) 9. Interrogative pronouns a. any. EXERCISES I.II. I can’t see my wallet. 311 . 2. someone. 5. …must have taken it. He must be…important. nothing: 1. which b. (his) 8. This is your electric drill. There isn’t much to do on weekends. somebody. so she is teaching…French. Form: who. (herself) II. Fill in with the suitable reflexive pronouns: 1. B. There is nothing to read at home. As she was not hungry. Jerry has fallen off the ladder this morning and has injured… 3. (mine) 7. (all) 5. 7. He has used a what-do-you-call it…= I don’t know its name. I rang the bell two or three time. The two proposals are interesting. 6. 8. 4. and the other one also won’t work. The students were happy because they could watch…on the video. I can lend you … 4. Uses: • Used as the subject or object of a clause. anybody. nobody. Rewrite the second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to the first one and contains the word(s) in brackets: 1. (anything) 10. All the participants will be sent an agenda. none. 9. You can let…into the house with the small key.

VII. 2. We are going to buy a new central heating. The problems…we did yesterday were difficult for us. for…I have great respect. 8. 7. The coffee…you have made is very strong. 1. The child to…you gave that toy was very happy. This is the school in…Einstein learnt. That project belongs to me. Were you expecting…? 9. Professor Jones. The teacher is explaining a new theory. This is the man…son won the competition. We saw a lot of strikers in the street. 8. Make up questions to which the following sentences are the answers. 5. London is the capital of Great Britain. IV. …of us has ever heard such an interesting story. I asked them for a cup of tea. There is…in my bag. You can find practically…you want in this shop. V. 6. I think there’s…at the door. 7. 9. 3. 2. 10. Would you like…? 10. Refer to the words in italics by using interrogative pronouns: 1. 3. 5. 10. I’ll choose the red one. Pollution is a problem…must be solved as soon as possible. 11. 2. 3. This time I can’t do…for you. 12. 4. 9. it’s empty. 8. Most people don’t enjoy going to a dance alone. The chair…you are sitting on is an antique. Fill in the blanks with the corresponding relative pronouns: 1. I’m going to the supermarket since I want to buy… 14. She asked him about that scholarship. That car over there is John’s. 6. I don’t live alone: I have two roommates. I have some very good wine.6. 7. Transform these sentences replacing alone with by + a reflexive pronoun according to the model: My daughter prefers to do her homework alone. has taught us many interesting things. The woman…is crossing the street now is one of my teachers. Did you really do it alone? 4. She begged the child to keep quiet. He plans to go the there alone. …is more important than good health. 13. 5. VI. The gentleman…I have just greeted is a famous scientist. My daughter prefers to do her homework by herself. You and I love … 312 . 4. Fill in the blanks with the right reciprocal pronouns: 1. She wanted to drink some coffee but there was…left. We won’t be able to build this machine alone.

9. We hadn’t seen … for more than two years. 19. Cu excepţia câtorva polonezi şi a noastră. We had a lot to say to … Our former classmates are very happy to meet … The two boys looked at … Although Angela and Sarah say that they are friends. I know that. nu-i aşa? 3. Nu este nici o fărâmă de adevăr în ceea ce spune ea. 5. they hate … 10. Colegii noştri nu au găsit pe nimeni acolo iar laboratorul era zăvorât. The four children took their schoolbags and said goodbye to … VIII. 12. Pe cine ai mai întâlnit acolo? 6. 8. Our children and theirs took an instant dislike to … Alec and I stayed up late last night. 4. Translate the following sentences into English using pronouns wherever possible: 1. i-am găsit pe amândoi în parc. I hope jack and Julie get on with … My nephew called on me yesterday. The three girls haven’t spoken to … for a long time. Cum de mi-ai găsit adresa? Cine ţi-a dat-o? 15. Care este haina ei? Sunt trei aici şi nici una nu este a mea. 10. in fact. 13. Primele exerciţii sunt corecte. celelalte sunt greşite. Ce altceva aş fi putut face? 17. Casa al cărei acoperiş este roşu a fost vândută unui american. 313 . ar nici una nu a venit încă. nu-i adevărat că ea personal s-a dus acolo. în cele din urmă. I-am căutat pe Frank şi Patrick mai bine de o oră şi. Este timpul să plecăm. toată lumea a plecat în excursie. Care dintre băieţi ţi-a spart geamul? 20. 5. 18. Cine altcineva te-a mai văzut intrând aici? 11. 9. A cui este maşina de lângă poarta noastră? 16. 6. 3. 4. cei doi au izbucnit în râs. 7. 2. După ce s-au uitat unul la altul cu insistenţă. 7. 8. Prietena mea are doi băieţi: unul este medic iar celălalt este cercetător în domeniul tehnic. Şi Maria şi Lucy au promis că vor fi aici la ora cinci. Cartea pe care am cumpărat-o luni este foarte interesantă. George a fost cel care a intrat primul în atelier.2. Cui i-ai dat raportul scris? 14.

in sport scores: nil [nil] (in team games). USES: Notes: . the number(s) that occur after the full stop indicate a fraction: 7.When the numbers are over 999 and are written in figures. powers: 35 = 241 (three to the power five is two hundred and fortyone) f. they get a comma or a blank: 1. Common fractions: ½ one half numerator/ denominator 314 .The figure 0 can be read in the following ways: . THE NUMERAL A.There is no‘s’ after hundred. THEORETICAL CONSIDERATIONS I. 987 or 1 987 2. division: 40 : 5 = 8 (forty divided by five is/ equals 8) e..for temperature: zero .6.III.000.000 one thousand 1. radio. except when followed by ‘of’: hundreds of people (meaning lots of). FORM: 1 one 11 eleven 21 twenty-one 2 two 12 twelve 30 thirty 3 three 13 thirteen 40 forty 4 four 14 fourteen 50 fifty 5 five 15 fifteen 60 sixty 6 six 16 sixteen 70 seventy 7 seven17 seventeen 80 eighty 8 eight 18 eighteen 90 ninety 9 nine 19 nineteen 100 one hundred 10 ten 20 twenty 106 a (one) hundred and six 621 six hundred and twenty-one 806 eight hundred and six 1. etc. 513. subtraction: 9–3=6 (nine minus three is/ are six) c. root: √25 = 5 (the square root of twenty-five is five) 3 √27 = 3 (the cube root of twenty-seven is three) • Fractions a. addiction: 2+3=5 (two plus three is/are five) b.in mathematics: nought [no:t] .000 a (one) million 1.000 a (one) billion 2. 608 or 2 513 608 • Common ways of calculating a. long numbers: oh [əu] . TV .000.25 (seven point twenty-five) . -When the cardinal number contains a full stop. The Cardinal numeral 1.for telephone numbers. love [lΛv] .000. million. thousand. multiplication: 6 x 5 = 30 (six multiplied by five is/ equals thirty) d.

03 nought point nought three • Measurements a. / It’s one a. followed by a number: She was a girl of twelve. (modern) It’s five past three. or over + number: She was in her teens then. Using to be followed by a number: He is fifteen (years old). 05 9.00 1. if there are two identical numbers occurring together.¾ three fourths ¼ one fourth 2/3 two thirds 6/35 six thirty-fifths b.m. Using the preposition of after a noun. nautical measure 6 feet = 1 fathom 100 fathoms = 1. It’s a quarter past one.15 2. When we refer to the approximate age we can use in + pronoun + teens/ twenties/ fifties etc.m.5 nought point five 0. 55 10.m. It’s a quarter past eleven at night/ p. With the help of a compound adjective: number + a singular noun referring to a period of time + old: A fifteen-year-old boy d. 45 6. • Expressing age a. I think he is over sixty. It’s a quarter to ten/ It’s nine forty five (modern) It’s five minutes to seven. b. 15 b. 00 23.6093 metres 3 miles = 1 league = 4. It’s half past two/ It’s two thirty. now she’s in her mid-fifties.54 cm 12 inches = 1 foot (ft) 3 feet = 1 yard (yd) 1 mile = 1. Decimal fractions: 35. It’s three o’clock in the afternoon/ It’s three sharp.829 metres Telling the time It’s one o’clock a. we say ‘double 2/4/8’ etc. c. Telephone numbers Each digit of a telephone number is spoken separately. It’s twenty minutes to eleven.83 kilometres • 1. 40 15. linear measure: 1 inch = 2.: 142093 (one – for – two – oh – nine – three) 566791 (five – double six – seven – nine – one) • 315 . 30 3.89 thirty-five point eight nine 0.

four times IV. the 52nd. This is the seventh time when I’m calling her! Notes: . the 98th III. the 2nd. The ordinal numeral 1. 1946/ April 1st. the 76th. ten times double/ twofold. thrice fourfold.000th the one thousandth 2.II. FORM 1st the first 2nd the second 3rd the third 4th the fourth 5th the fifth 6th the sixth 7th the seventh 8th the eighth 9th the ninth 10th the tenth 11th the eleventh 40th the fortieth th th 12 the twelfth 50 the fiftieth 13th the thirteenth 60th the sixtieth th 14 the fourteenth 70th the seventieth 15th the fifteenth 80th the eightieth th 20 the twentieth 90th the ninetieth 21st the twenty-first 100th the one hundredth 30th the thirtieth 1.dates may be written in the following ways: April 1. Uses: a. once 10x tenfold. a hundred times triple/ threefold. 1946/ 1st April 1946/ 1st of April 1946 . The Multiplicative numeral 1x 2x 3x 4x It shows the proportion in which a quantity is increased: single. The Distributive numeral It shows the distribution or grouping of objects: one by one two by two/ by twos/ in twos ten by ten/ by tens/ in tens in dozens (in sets of twelve) in score (in sets of about twenty) 316 . twice 100x a hundredfold. When we want to identify something by indicating where it comes in a sequence: January is the first month of the year.ordinal numbers can also be written in an abbreviated form: the 1st.

100. When is your birthday? 12. What will you be doing in ten years’ time? 11. 317 . 10. 6:45. What time do you have dinner? 8. thirty-one.B. 964. Read and solve the following mathematical operations: 1+8 3x6 2/3 10 + 3 7 x 10 8/9 x 2/7 9 + 18 120 x 4 6/7: 3/14 30 – 21 15: 3 23 100 – 75 100: 5 2 2 + 32 1. What time do you go to bed? 10. 1/3. Read the following numbers and fractions: 408.08. 673. love. When is our national holiday? 14. one by one. When is Christmas? 13. hundreds. nought point five. 0. gross.728. What time do you go out with your friends at the weekend? 9.7. 9:00: 1:15. 198/4. 8:35 III. tenfold. Read the following dates and phone numbers: 21 June 1998 118605 2 April 1805 225799 5 August 1789 179300 3 December 1866 126603 30 May 2006 0234557891 23 July 2007 0722006784 IV. 68/12. What time do you get up? 2. What time do you leave home? 4.58 II. 6. What time do you have breakfast? 3. once. 9/10. 25.5 + 0. What’s the date today? 16. Use the following words in sentences of your own: forty.7 10. When is the first day of the year? 15. What’s the date when Einstein was born? V. three times.06 – 4. dozen. 4:50. Answer the following questions: 1. twice as many. 23:35.02 VI. Read the times of the clock: 3:25. What time does your first class start on Mondays? 6. EXERCISES I. What time do you have a break? 7. 5.250 – 500 0. What time do you usually get to university? 5. 18:00. three fourths. over ninety.

5. Am citit sute de pagini în ultimele săptămâni. Biletul tău este rezervat pentru data de 22 iunie. 6. 9. Ea ne sună o dată la două zile doar ca să vadă ce mai este nou. 7. Speculantul dorea să obţină un câştig întreit de pe urma facerii. Sunt sigură că acest castel a fost construit cu mai mult de o sută de ani în urmă. Numai după ce am citit problema de trei ori am reuşit să o înţeleg. 2. 19. 13. Am întâlnit-o o dată sau de două ori dar nu am vorbit cu ea niciodată. Un sfert din locuitorii acestui orăşel lucrează în acel centru comercial. Radical din optezi şi unu fac nouă. 11. 12. Regina Elisabeta II este actualul monarh al Marii Britanii. Noi spălăm maşina de două ori pe lună. Care este răspunsul tău la cea de a douăzeci şi una întrebare? 14. 8. Tocmai am cumpărat două duzini de cutii de chibrituri. Bărbatul în vârstă de cincizeci de ani de care mi-ai povestit mi-a părut mult mai tânăr. Cred că maşina are acum mai mult de 100 km/ oră. 4. 20. Toţi oamenii influenţi sunt întrebaţi despre cum au făcut primul milion de dolari. Translate into English: 1. 15. Nu uita că trebuie să te trezeşti la ora şase fix mâine dimineaţă. A treilea capitol mi s-a părut mai uşor de citit decât cel de-al doilea. Invenţia lui a adus un profit înzecit fabricii la care lucrează. 10. 18. 16. 3. 318 .VII. Copiii au intrat în şcoală doi câte doi. 17.

Here are some examples: Type Example I paid him a visit yesterday. THEORETICAL CONSIDERATIONS I. many adverbs are gradable and they may form comparatives and superlatives in a similar way to adjectives. The Positive Degree fast rapidly The Comparative of Superiority faster more rapidly The Comparative of Inferiority less fast than not so/as rapidly as The Comparative of Equality as fast as as rapidly as The Relative Superlative the fastest the most rapidly The Absolute Superlative very fast very rapidly 319 . place. friendly. Time The party is going to take place here Place Manner She tapped him gently on his shoulder. etc. why. • another adverb: She moved quite slowly among the trees. Adverbs are words that can modify: • A verb: He drove slowly. kindly. basic . adverbs often tell us when. FORM Many adverbs are formed by adding -ly to an adjective: honest gradual silent Adjective bright brightly honestly gradually silently Adverb sudden suddenly Note: When the adjective ends in –ic. lovely motherly. In other words. • a clause: Unfortunately. numerical .basically. where.numerically However. manner or cause of an action. adjective adverb fast fast late late early early hard hard much much enough enough III. this is not a reliable way to find out whether a word is an adverb or not as: • many adjectives may end in –ly: e.III. THE ADVERB A.g. they may describe the time. II. • an adjective: He drove a very fast car. Definition Basically. or under what conditions something happens or happened. Comparison Like adjectives.7. the adverb is formed by adding the suffix –ally: e. lonely.g. he was fired yesterday. elderly. • many adverbs do not end in -ly and some have the same form as the corresponding adjective.

3. here is. then comes C. Some adverbs require a subject-verb inversion. like first and down and sometimes we have an adverb phrase like into the room or after A. Down came the rain and washed the spider out. 4. Underline the appropriate adjective or adverb. 2. EXERCISES I. next comes D. Notice that sometimes we have an adverb. There are at least eighteen types of inversion: 1. etc. In no way could I help you with your Japanese grammar question. comparatives Cheetahs run faster than do antelopes. deep. go. here come Here is some good food for you to try. Inversion is optional. run. 320 . It is used with all verbs. original. certain. This type of inversion usually only occurs with be-verbs. voluntary. These adverbs and adverb phrases usually show location or direction. We'll be there short / shortly. I believe that only rarely will I need your help. 6. 1. various. 5. linking verbs and verbs that show direction or movement. not objects. 3. First comes love.IV. negative adverb Never do I sleep. She has travelled wide / widely. here comes. Make sure you're here at seven o'clock sharp / sharply. It is usually used only with these verbs. Give the adverbs corresponding to the following adjectives: useless. sudden. You speak Chinese better than do I. We normally only have inversion here if we are comparing subjects of the verb. Only at night can I study. and verbs of direction. rapid. violent. Question form is obligatory. Here comes the bus! Inversion is obligatory. It is used with be-verbs. scientific. kind. strong. 2. Not until I got home did I realize that my shoes were untied. She loved him dear / dearly. B. Notice that sometimes the inversion occurs right after the negative intro form and sometimes it occurs in the next subject and verb. 4. It is used with all verbs. After A comes B. graceful. They drove under a low / lowly bridge. idle. formal. heavy. absent. Three-toed sloths live deep / deeply in the Amazon forest. II. easy. local. intro adverbial Into the room ran the lady. here are. then comes marriage. Here are the books that I don’t need anymore. slight. Inversion is optional. like come. linking verbs. anxious.

. attentive. 7. William jumped two meters with ease. Jack knows English grammar (well) of all the students. 10. 8. 2. local.. The wind blew (hard) yesterday than I did on Sunday. She speaks English (fluently) as a native speaker. My father smokes in the office during the day (never).. George spoke. The cupboard was. The boy is very active after meals (often). You are.. to be read by all of you. Were you ready for breakfast by eight o'clock (already) VI. well... 4. However. She certainly hopes to finish her work (fast) than that. Our neighbours couldn't sleep because the music in our room was... Mr. Paraphrase the following sentences using an adverb in place of the words in italics: 1. 1. 6.. He usually gets here much (early) than the others. 3.. early. 3. V. Put the following adverbs in the right position: 1. 6. 12. to be moved by the child. We have seen that statue (never). 11. 10.. to afford such an expensive car. Complete each sentence using too or enough and one of the following adjectives or adverbs: dark. 2. interesting.. 321 . thirsty. Does the foreman eat lunch with the other workers (ever)? 5. They couldn't hear her voice because she was.. Williams explains things (clearly) of all teachers.. light. old... and so we missed the first act. Mr. 9. 7.. I learn many new English words in our English class (usually). 8. I have time to see visitors in the afternoon (rarely). 6. 8. difficult. to be crossed. Brown is. far.. to win the speech prize. deep. This book is. I can swim (well) than your brother. to drink a well dry. complete. Mike plays football (badly) of all the players. rich. Mr. They didn't catch the train because they didn't leave home. 13. 2. III. 9. The food in this restaurant is good (seldom). 3.comparative. late.... Use the adverbs in the brackets in the right degree of comparison: 1. 4. IV. Brown dictated reports to his secretary (often).. 4. 7. 2. 5.. My daughter was sleeping in peace. to understand such things. 5. We got to the theatre. 10. This river is. She didn't do this part (thoroughly) as the first part.. You couldn't take a photograph because it is. Why don't you speak to your neighbour (ever)? 9. 3. loud. heavy. She usually enjoys films (much) than plays.. accurate.. here. We were. We couldn't do that problem because it was. away. The policeman left the room in a hurry.

3. IX.. Although outnumbered. Bob did not study this lesson as.... 5... 6. VII. How could you lend him such a valuable dictionary when you. 9. 9. He always plays.. Jonathan works all the sums in his head. any money. Only by working. immediate. 13.. 9. will you manage to pass such a difficult exam.. Don't hit him too.. bright. Fill in the blanks with hard or hardly : 1.... I don't know what happened to him that evening. 10.. foolish.. merry.. 8.. punctual. 10. Answer the questions using the adverbs in brackets followed by inversion: 1. 7. 5. Now we can look forward to the future with hope.. If you want to pass such a difficult exam.. . She was so tired that she could. As she doesn't want to learn the new words. I am not late. The prisoners were beaten without mercy. happy. They tried. The room was so crowded there was.. 2.... I opened the door. 7. think.. It was a beautiful day: the sun was shining.. 14. 10. As this is an urgent matter. Have you ever eaten such good cakes? (never) 322 . fluent. 7. This time she... we must solve it. 6.. 11.. fast. she speaks French. Does she know much about this? (little) 5. Has she ever stayed in such an expensive hotel? (never before) 3.. polite. Why are you so rude? You should behave. 12. Our manager is a. You must know the answer.. 8. The farmer gazed with pride at his vegetables. It was raining. 2.. speak. today? You may have an accident.. lest mother should hear me. good... but they didn't succeed.. educated man. 3. knew him? 5. when we left the house. VIII.. Was John dismissed as soon as he had been promoted? (no sooner) 2. the birds were singing. Form these adverbs from the following adjectives: bad. 4..4. anywhere where to leave the luggage. as the other ones.... Sammy is a good football player. 6.. ate anything. thorough..... At the end of the trip she had. and the children were playing. Can you pass this difficult exam without working hard? ( only by) 4. careful. our troops fought like heroes... you will have to work. 4. we heard a terrible noise. The tramp looked with hunger at the bread the old lady gave him.. The Chinese vase was broken by accident. Complete each sentence with an adverb... but he behaved.. Why are you driving so.. I have arrived.. My daughter has improved her English lately: she doesn't make grammar mistakes and she speaks. hard. 8.. and she writes it even. 1.

De-abia atunci înţelese vorbele tatălui său. Translate into English: 1. De-abia am ajuns la cabană că a şi început să poluă. Niciodată nu am mai văzut o femeie mai frumoasă. Will he be permitted to leave? (under no circumstances) 10.6. 3. Jimmy joacă fotbal la fel de bine ca şi fratele său acum. Din fericire. 2. 8. Did Sandra go both to the cinema and to the theatre? (not only . 6. folosim această clădire doar temporar.. 323 . Did the telephone ring immediately he had entered the room? (scarcely) X. Nu i-am văzut pe copii de ieri dimineaţă. Nicăieri ân altă parte nu veţi găsi atâta înţelegere. Ceaiul este prea fierbinte ca să-l beau repede. Will you visit these people again? (never again) 9. Shall I find such interesting museums anywhere else? (nowhere else) 8. 7. Unele plante cresc mai repede în locuri mai întunecate. 9. 4. 5.. but also) 7.

On a gradient between ‘pure’ coordinator and ‘pure’ subordinator for and so that (meaning with the result that) occupy an important place. a conjunction is an invariable grammatical particle and it may or may not stand between the items it conjoins. and so which are used in the following ways: * and is used to join or add words together: They ate and drank. THEORETICAL CONSIDERATIONS A conjunction is a word that connects other words or groups of words. on the other hand. Nor represents a clear case of coordination. is the vaguest of connectives. The most common ones are and. either. which introduces some syntactic difference. but logical connectors denoting a contrast have been put under but. or nor are not in themselves coordinators. (clauses) A definition may overlap with that of other parts of speech. Sentences may be contrasted by either but or and. but. so what constitutes a conjunction should be defined for each language. since like nor they can be preceded by a central coordinator (and or or). neither as the first items in a correlative pair with and. THE CONJUNCTION A.result .summation . which make a fairly explicit relation between two clauses: that of reason.).8. because that coordinator is more commonly used with contrasted sentences. There are three types of conjunctions: coordinating. 324 .concession * or – reformulation . The most cohesive signals are connectives like therefore. And. subordinating and correlative a. provided that. The definition can also be extended to idiomatic phrases that behave as a unit with the same function as a single-word conjunction (as well as. or.addition: -reinforcement . * or is used to show choice or possibilities: He will be here on Monday or Tuesday.transition . etc. verbs and clauses: Bob and Dan are friends (nouns) He will drive or fly (verbs) It is early but we can go (clauses) Call the movers when you are ready. It contains a negative feature. It can connect nouns. Yet and so resemble coordination in some respects. Coordinating conjunctions are the ones which connect two equal parts of a sentence.III.replacement Although it has a restrictive use. the conjunction for can be seen as a sentence connector. In general. Both.inference * but – contrast .equation .apposition . These two together with or make three logical connectors which are explicit connectors and refer to the following relationships: * and – listing: -enumeration .

) The most common correlative conjunctions are: both . (Technically correlative conjunctions consist simply of a co-ordinating conjunction linked to an adjective or adverb. (causal clause) Although he had a lot of money. indirect object. A subordinating conjunction introduces a dependent clause and indicates the nature of the relationship among the independent clause(s) and the dependent clause(s). conditional clause or contrast/concessive subordinate clause. Note that you can also use the conjunctions "but" and "for" as prepositions.you use them to link equivalent sentence elements. The explosion destroyed not only the school but also the neighbouring pub.* but is used to show opposite or conflicting ideas: She is small but strong. Note: some words which appear as conjunctions can also appear as prepositions or as adverbs. Alice felt more independent. but also Both Jan and Meg are good swimmers Bring either a Jello salad or a potato scallop. * so is used to show result: I was tired so I went to sleep.(temporal clause) Gerald had to begin his thesis over again when his computer crashed. (temporal clause) If the paperwork arrives on time. 325 . . She told me that her father had died. . Subordinating conjunctions connect two parts of a sentence that are not equal. (concessive clause) c. he never married. causal. nor not only . Correlative conjunctions are pairs of conjunctions that work together. (direct object clause) After she had learned to drive. (conditional clause) Midwifery advocates argue that home births are safer because the mother and baby are exposed to fewer people and fewer germs. . Some of the more common subordinating conjunctions such as: after before unless how whether although if until/till once as since when since because than while that Subordinating conjunctions can introduce a direct object. . Correlative conjunctions always appear in pairs -. Corinne is trying to decide whether to go to medical school or to go to law school. your cheque will be mailed on Tuesday.and either . . . . b. or neither . . temporal.

c. he was hungry. when. I will not help you again. b. e. e. c. c. e. her mother stayed in Boston a. nor. You have disobeyed me. so. d. a. a. However c. what’s more 326 . Nevertheless c. b.or. and. if. since 3. and. if.or. ___________ it is instructive. d. until._____________. Mr. but. a. Choose the conjunction that most appropriately completes the sentence. so.but. because III. Even so c. c. Harrison is kind. b. Which conjunction is used to connect two unequal parts of a sentence? a. a. and. or. so 5. if. Alice moved to New York.so. c. Come ……get it. b. What's more b. a.B. ___________he had an active career. a. I am hungry …… I don't want to eat. Which conjunction is used to connect two equal parts of a sentence? a. Choose the conjunction which fits best in the sentence: 1. He will eat …… he gets home. so 6. as.___________. c. EXERCISES I. than. or d. Choose the best answer for these questions: 1. or 2. moreover b. But 4. a. but. because. so c. since. but. a hamburger? a. either. b. e. before. Therefore d. a.although. he is generous. b. after 2.explain.__________. so. and. so. Which conjunction is used with the correlative neither? a. c. Besides b. d. Therefore d. c. or 4. e. Do you want pizza …. Furthermore b. d. but.and 3. but 2. Adams was an invalid. or. b. a. unless. c. and 5. He ate ……. e. I would tell you…… I knew.. e. or II. while. Therefore d. b. e. when. c. d. Television is entertaining. d. d. 1. so 3. d. d. after. b.

IV. but c. Should he telephone while I'm out. Henry Ford said you could have any colour you wanted. as long as it was black. 8. so d. Had I known you were coming. nevertheless c. even so c. They got in because you didn't lock the door properly... George says he will come. 7. If I had seen him. ...b. 8. 5. therefore IV. 2. 2. He was so tired that he went home at lunchtime . therefore d.. . 4. . c.. e. unless you are a member of staff. Fortunately I didn't hear what she said or I would have been very angry. . .. ________. d. otherwise 6. 7. You are not allowed to park in the school. Unfortunately he didn't pass his exams or he might have gone to university.. 1. b. a. I wrote my French paper. He didn't realize what was happening or he would have run away.. . It's a good job we weren't going any faster or someone could have been killed. 4.. a. so 7. The road was wet and slippery.. a. I prepared my English lesson. 3. You can borrow the money. 6. you are never home. ___________.. Fred will be at school next week. would have invited you to lunch. furthermore b. . consequently d. and 8. 9. 6. I live too far to visit you often. 3. 5. _________ there were many accidents.. otherwise d.. I could have given him your message 1. It's lucky we booked a room or we would have had nowhere to stay. a. however b. Rewrite these sentences as conditionals Model: Unfortunately I didn't see him. would you ask him to call back later? provided he has recovered from his cold. besides b. what’s more c. He'll probably get lost.. . so I couldn't give him your message . . Luckily she didn't find out or she would have been furious. 327 .. It only happened because you didn't follow the instructions. Match the two parts of these conditional sentences. .

1. We enjoyed our holiday. We all thought Mary would win. Model: Although we were desperately hungry. Everyone believed he would run away. (in order to) 3. he still wasn't tired. . or even though. You said they would arrive late.. (in order to10 I wanted to get to Madrid so I had to travel overnight from Barcelona. Though he hadn't stopped working all day. You look very like your grandfather. (in order to) 5. and she did. ………. Model: I knew he would complain about everything. V. 3. although he can be very annoying at times. although 5. even though it was very warm. He complained about everything just as I knew he would. . 7. so long as you promise to pay it back. Rewrite these sentences to include a 'to'-infinitive purpose clause introduced by the words given in brackets. (in order to) Everyone was pushing in order to get to the front of the queue. Most people thought the play would be a success. although 4. 1. she kept her coat on. He wanted to keep his car out of sight so he left it in the road. If you want to have a hundred students. and he did. 2. h. Use one of these phrases to complete them. you will need at least three teachers. (in order to) 6. (in order to) 8.f. we only arrived just in time. That way you will avoid being misunderstood. A lot of people learn English because they want to study in English. 6. 3. I used to when I was younger. I really like John. and he did. 4. g. . Try to write clearly.………. although. even though 2. Although we set off early. (so as to) 2.. even though his English was very good. we had no time for lunch. They had to eat grass and drink melted snow if they wanted to stay alive. you're not as tall as he was. I came to live in the country because I wanted to have trees around me instead of buildings. if I want to be a good doctor? (in order to) 4. and he did. 8. What do I need to know. We hoped he would dowell at school.………. (to) VI. 328 . (so as to) 7. unless someone shows him the way. and they did. 1. Model: Everyone was pushing because they wanted to get to the front of the queue. Rewrite these sentences with Just as. the weather was awful. She turned up early because she wanted to get the room ready.. provided he can stay overnight. The sentences below all have though. 5. and it was. I don't play the piano now. he was difficult to understand. we had no time for lunch. VII.

The food was very good. Ceea ce încearcă ea să ne explice este că la ora aceea nu era nimeni acasă. de exemplu. 5. I had to get off my bike and walk The hill was so steep that I had to get off my bike and walk 1. 2. Translate the following sentences into English: 1. Model:The hill was very steep. 12. familia Johnson. Oricine îl vede rămâne uimit. His favourite shoes were very badly worn. They were falling apart 5. să spunem pe la ora 5 ? 4. E pacat ca nu mergi la cinema cu noi. that. It proved to be a very difficult problem. Haideţi să ne intâlnim din nou lunea viitoare. Împrumuta bani oricui îl ruga. 2. Ce-ar fi sa trecem pe la el după amiază. He had to throw them away 4.. that. Şi. We all ate far too much X.. I could hardly read it. 9. He was a dreadful liar. 3. 5. Ne-am sculat foarte devreme ca să admiră m răsăritul soarelui. Nu se ştie cine a spart vaza aceea. Everyone took him for a student. 11. 2. Ken got very excited. a muncit din greu.. 3. Am probleme cu maşina încă de când am cumpărat-o. Unele fiinţe cum ar fi ursul şi şarpele hibernează în timpul iernii. Convingerea noastră este că a înţeles aceste lucruri ţi că îşi va face datoria. All the streams were frozen 3. 329 . Orice ai spune sau ai face nu mai are nici o importanţă. fratele meu. Now rewrite these sentences with such . 10. He looked very young. I had to get off my bike and walk It was such a steep hill that I had to get off my bike and walk 1. iar acum este inginer în cea mai mare uzină din oraş. care se cunoşteau. 6. Erau o mulţime de oameni la petrecere. Nobody believed anything he said. We had a very good time. "Unde este voinţă este şi putinţă" – spune un poroverb englezesc. Ei au reacţionat ca şi cum n-ar fi ştiut nimic de acel concurs. 8. He kept jumping up and down IX. 15. The winter was bitterly cold. Model: The hill was very steep. familia Smith.. adică pe 12 iulie. Her writing was very small. His clothes were very old. Nobody could solve it. S-au referit apoi la ceea ce citiseră cu o zi în urmă. 13. 14. We didn't want to go home 4. 7. Rewrite these sentences with so . cum ar fi familia Brown.VIII.

The book is beneath the table. The most common prepositions are: about. out. despite. by the desk. It describes a relationship between other words in a sentence. but. or telling when or where or under what conditions something happened. an adjective. If he's clumsy. toward. for. She held the book over the table. The professor can sit on the desk (when he's being informal) or behind the desk. until. during. at. around. before. beneath. The book is beside the table. or an adverb. inside. pronouns and phrases other words in a sentence. A prepositional phrase is made up of the preposition." you invariably use your hands to show how something is situated in relationship to something else. with. underneath. across. and then his feet are under the desk or beneath the desk. Passing his hands over the desk or resting his elbows upon the desk. The book is leaning against the table. Prepositional phrases can be made up of a million different words. For instance. below. and even past the desk while he sits at the desk or leans against the desk. acting as an adjective or an adverb. behind. over. what's in the desk. a preposition locates the noun book in space or in time.9. throughout. in. among. between the desk and you. In each of the preceding sentences. outside. except. onto. down. Prepositions are nearly always combined with other words in structures called prepositional phrase. and if he could live without the desk. THEORETICAL CONSIDERATIONS a. A preposition links nouns. This whole phrase. In itself. Because he thinks of nothing except the desk. its object and any associated adjectives or adverbs. he often looks across the desk and speaks of the desk or concerning the desk as if there were nothing else like the desk. followed by a pronoun or noun (called the object of the preposition). upon. a word like "in" or "after" is rather meaningless and hard to define in mere words. from. spatial or logical relationship of its object to the rest of the sentence as in the following examples: The book is on the table. modifying a noun. after. sometimes you wonder about the desk. and without. into. locating something in time and space. under. what he paid for the desk. or even on the desk (if he's really strange). up. off. along. takes on a modifying role. on. above. beyond. around the desk. till. past. A preposition usually indicates the temporal. between. He can stand beside the desk (meaning next to the desk). near. but they tend to be built the same: a preposition followed by a determiner and an adjective or two. he can bump into the desk or try to walk through the desk (and stuff would fall off the desk).III. You can walk toward the desk. in turn. to. when you do try to define a preposition like "in" or "between" or "on. A prepositional phrase can function as a noun. of. The word or phrase that the preposition introduces is called the object of the preposition. like. She read the book during class. to the desk. Consider the professor's desk and all the prepositional phrases we can use while talking about it. by. You can sit before the desk (or in front of the desk). THE PREPOSITION A. through. within. since. against. beside. 330 . before the desk.

of course. but this is seldom appropriate in formal or academic writing. • We use on to designate days and dates. Prepositions of Location: in. He's going to quit in August. and continents). She likes to jog in the morning. My brother is coming on Monday. of movement. at. Her house is on Boretz Road. a season. And the professor can sit there in a bad mood [another adverbial construction]. And we use in for the names of land-areas (towns.). Everyone in the class except me got the answer. but nearly all of them modify in one way or another. It's too cold in winter to run outside. avenues. Smith lives at 55 Boretz Road in Durham. on. a month. in time: during the class. on. Those words in bold are all prepositions. after the class. • We use in for nonspecific times during a day. The train is due at 12:15 p. Mrs. or a year. She lives in Durham. d. Prepositions of Time: at. Prepositions can be classified into: prepositions of time. She's going to the dentist's office this morning. He started the job in 1971. and in • We use at to designate specific times. states. throughout the class. etc. counties. until the class. and in • We use at for specific addresses. c. Prepositions of Movement: to and No Preposition • We use to in order to express movement toward a place They were driving to work together. We're having a party on the Fourth of July. Durham is in Windham County. It is possible for a preposition phrase to act as a noun (During a church service is not a good time to discuss picnic plans. b. Prepositions of Place: at. 331 .All of this happens. of place. • We use on to designate names of streets. countries. Some prepositions do other things besides locate in space or time (My brother is like my father.In the South Pacific is where I long to be ). and on and No Preposition IN AT ON NO (the) bed* class* the bed* PREPOSITION the bedroom home the ceiling downstairs the car the library* the floor downtown (the) class* the office the horse inside the library* school* the plane outside school* work the train upstairs uptown * You may sometimes use different prepositions for these locations. before the class.m. of time. etc.

The British and Irish have been quarreling for seven centuries. e. Prepositions are sometimes so firmly wedded to other words that they have practically become one word. downtown. inside. NOUNS and PREPOSITIONS approval of awareness of belief in concern for confusion about desire for afraid of angry at aware of capable of careless about familiar with apologize for ask about ask for belong to bring up care for find out fondness for grasp of hatred of hope for interest in love of fond of happy about interested in jealous of made of married to fond of happy about interested in jealous of made of married to need for participation in reason for respect for success in understanding of need for participation in reason for respect for success in understanding of proud of similar to sorry for sure of tired of worried about ADJECTIVES and PREPOSITIONS VERBS and PREPOSITIONS 332 . years). uptown. and Verbs. and verbs. we use no preposition Grandma went upstairs Grandpa went home. such as German. She's been sitting in the waiting room since two-thirty. hours. (In fact. Prepositions with Nouns. He's worked here since 1970. downstairs. upstairs. they would have become one word. days. outside. He held his breath for seven minutes. This is a big step towards the project's completion.• Toward and towards are also helpful prepositions to express movement. They both went outside. minutes. She's lived there for seven years. • With the words home. We're moving toward the light. adjectives. Prepositions of Time: for and since • We use for when we measure time (seconds.) This occurs in three categories: nouns. • We use since with a specific date or time. in other languages. Adjectives. f. These are simply variant spellings of the same word. use whichever sounds better to you. months.

They apologize for being late. It was clear that this player could both contribute to and learn from every game he played. [or use "in"] • Where did they go to? • Put the lamp in back of the couch. The word that is joined to the verb is then called a particle. academic prose. The reporter is blamed for writing bad stories. we must be careful not to omit one of them. with a person • differ from an unlike thing. We use the Gerund after the following phrases: accuse of agree with apologize for believe in blame for complain about concentrate on congratulate sb. She doesn't believe in getting lost in the wood. we fall into some bad habits. The children were interested in and disgusted by the movie. • The book fell off of the desk. • He threw the book out of the window. Please refer to the brief section we have prepared on phrasal verbs for an explanation. on cope with decide against They were accused of breaking into a shop.A combination of verb and preposition is called a phrasal verb. It would be a good idea to eliminate these words altogether. [use "behind" instead] • Where is your college at? Prepositions in Parallel Form When two words or phrases are used in parallel and require the same preposition to be idiomatically correct. with other people Unnecessary Prepositions In everyday speech. You can wear that outfit in summer and in winter. on a price. I agree with playing darts. but we must be especially careful not to use them in formal. • She met up with the new coach in the hallway. for or against a proposition • compare to to show likenesses. 333 . with a person • live at an address. in a house or city. He was fascinated by and enamored of this beguiling woman. He is not sure how to cope with getting older. The female was both attracted by and distracted by the male's dance. Do you concentrate on reading or writing? I wanted to congratulate you on making such a good speech. with a person. However. They decided against stealing the car. with a person. Idiomatic Expressions with Prepositions • agree to a proposal. • She wouldn't let the cat inside of the house. when the idiomatic use of phrases calls for different prepositions. in principle • argue about a matter. using prepositions where they are not necessary. on a street. the preposition does not have to be used twice. with to show differences (sometimes similarities) • correspond to a thing. She complains about bullying.

12. 4. Complete the following sentences with the correct preposition: at. The girls didn't want to spend a long time _____ the carnival. The shepherd boy grazed his flock _____ the grassy hillside. We warned them against using this computer. Kevin and Mack are out practicing _____ the football field. Do you live _____ the city or _____ the country? 7. while Marty works _____ web design. Audrey lives _____ Third Street. 20. or on. 19. rely on sth. B. The patient worries about having the check-up. 1. The girls insisted on going out with Mark. I stopped Andrew from smoking.depend on dream about/of feel like get used to insist on look forward to prevent sb. against worry about Success may depend on becoming more patient. You must get used to working long hours. he'll be out _____ the street. They often talk about travelling to New Zealand. The car stalled and got stuck _____ the street. Passengers are not allowed to use electronic devices _____ airplanes during takeoff and landing. If William doesn't make any money on his book. Wrestling isn't real. I let the cat sit _____ my lap. Heathcliff could see a light _____ the window. 9. 3. 10. I'm looking forward to seeing you soon. but then suddenly it jumped _____ my face! 6. David works _____ the field of network administration. 5. succeed in specialize in stop sb. in. I'll use my cellular phone when I'm _____ the bus. those guys _____ the ring are just pretending. from sth. Trent arrived _____ the school building just in time. from talk about/of think of warn sb. 14. EXERCISES I. From afar. Frank thinks of playing chess. 334 . 16. How then can I succeed in learning chemistry? The firm specialized in designing websites. Jane is _____ her bedroom. The audience threw tomatoes _____ the terrible comedian. Daria's books are lying _____ the floor. 11. The rancher built a fence to keep his cows _____ the pasture. 15. 18. How can I prevent Kate from working in this shop? He doesn't rely on winning in the casino. Will you wait for me _____ the bus stop? 2. They feel like going to bed. Sue dreams of being a pop star. 8. 13. The old house had so much grime _____ the windows that Bradley could hardly see inside. but never while I'm _____ the car. 17.

Do you agree ….. The driver parked the bus…. ……summer I like to travel …. (at/for/after/on) IV. provinces. But my holidays were great. I'm tired…. in Kowloon. because …. e. Find the correct preposition: I'm Peter and I live ….. at home. on Mount Everest. (of/ from/ by/ on) 8. 10. So we were angry …. Andrew apologized ….the small park …. in China 3) Cities.g. on the surface) in (under the surface). at work. so we waited….g.in. (since/ for/at/to) 3.g. in Europe 2) Countries .. 5.Germany.one hour. Don't wait ….at . e. The police car chased the robbers …. then say which question is correct: 1) Continents . We stopped ….in. areas and villages .reading the instructions.g.the restaurant …..living on a small island.Italy.. waiting for you (of/ with/ on/ in) 2. 7. The song was written ….g..groups of islands. at my friend's flat 1. at university. e.II.being late.g. ages.on.. counties. I'm looking …. on Hong Kong Island Islands . 3. in the South China Sea 8) Places that are different for different people. I can't come to the party.. She had problems ….g.Munich to Rome.a small restaurant for a quick meal. 8.in.the restaurant which we didn't know. in the Dao Yu Islands. Check these rules.. You can look the word …. We sat …. I haven't smoked…. Laura dreams ….in a dictionary. V. We are looking forward ….bullying. in the Pacific Ocean.g. 1... Last summer I took a plane …. They are afraid …. Fill in with the appropriate preposition: 1. districts. 4. my key. She doesn't feel …. in the Himalayas 6) Lakes and Rivers. Nobody could find the bus and the driver. She complains…. (among/between/through/on) 4. Edward thinks climbing trees in the afternoon.. e.the airport we went to our hotel …. e. 4) Islands .playing volleyball. on Lantau. e. ….in.staying in a foreign country? 9.campfires and went dancing……the early mornings. (on/up/through/with) 5. 6.. the streets.. Has anyone found it? (for/after/of/to) 7. e.in..losing the match.Madonna. in Beijing. in Asia.the weather and the people there.going out with Kerry.the restaurant. My friend is good…. a boat on the West Lake.on (e. The girls insisted …. on the Peak Mountain ranges .working on the computer. towns.single mountains . (to/by/in/with) 6. 2.. e. Brazil is of South America b. e.on. on Yellow Mountain.g. Choose the correct preposition. in the Spratleys 5) Mountains . Brazil is at South America.. The driver was walking ….g.. a.g. e..in.me. III.him.. 335 .bus. swimming in the West Lake 7) Seas and Oceans.going out at the weekend. at the doctor's.

. He had no idea the answer. If 2 they failed. d.2 pencil and started to write the answer the blank. b. Mount Everest is the tallest mountain at the Himalayas. Mount Everest is the tallest mountain on the Himalayas.. a. What's the answer the last question?" 11 Tiny laughed. He 16 stopped. New York is in the United States. He knew 7 he needed to get this one right to be sure he passed. Everyone knows Old MacDonald had a farm." 1 X 11 2 on 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 336 . "Tiny. 2." 6 Bubba was stumped. c... b. I live at home. c. a. c. a." said Bubba. 6. Some lines are correct. Mount Everest is the tallest mountain in the Himalayas. "I remember now. they would be academic probation and not 3 allowed to play the Sugar Bowl the following week. a. 10 "Pssst. "Bubba. Hong Kong is of the South China Sea. he tapped Tiny the 9 shoulder. Hong Kong is at the South China Sea. The last question read. Identify the missing prepositions in the text and write them in the table below the text. mark them with an X. b. how do you spell farm?" 18 "You are really dumb." He picked up his 15 No. I live at Bucharest. Hong Kong is in the South China Sea. I live on home. Tiny.. a." 14 "Oh yeah. c. He looked around to make sure the professor 12 hadn't noticed then he turned Bubba.. New York is on the United States. Brazil is in South America. I live in Bucharest.c. New York is of the United States. d. The exam 4 was fill-in-the-blank. Two examples are given: The Final Exam 1 Two football players were taking an important final exam. 3. Making 8 sure the professor wasn't watching. That's so easy. Bubba. Mount Everest is the tallest mountain of the Himalayas.. 5 "Old MacDonald had a . Brazil is on South America. 4. Reaching to tap Tiny's shoulder again. b. VI. I live on Bucharest. he 17 whispered. I live of home. 5. New York is at the United States. c. b. you're so 13 stupid. d. Farm is 19 spelled E-I-E-I-O.

under D. close to. of. is that silk? Very nice choice!" A. under VIII. on. near. he around and doesn't see anyone _ him who could've speaking _ him. in. "Those shoes are stylish. in. He glances sly around and then _ his shoes. of. to. along with. by. for 2. to. minding my own business when a beautiful 6 woman rode up on this bike. He grabs a handful _ peanuts _ the bowl _ the counter _ the cash register while he's waiting _ his order. …………. close to. from. at 3. …………. near. beneath B. …………. 2. on. at. A man walks _ a health food restaurant _ a day _ the office. took off all her clothes 8 and said “Take what you want!” 9 The first engineer nodded in approvingly 10 “Good choice. after. for D. in. of. before. 3. along. I was walking along 5 yesterday. out of D. Nu ştiam că te interesează istoria medievală. by. out of. under C. Wondering who would make such a strange comment. 5. ea a insistat să ne oprim şi să cumpără m câteva ziare. Deşi eram foarte grăbiţi. from. by. off. For each numbered line find this preposition and write it down on the right: 1 An engineering student was walking across campus when 2 another engineer rides up in a shiny new motorcycle. asked the first. …………. from. on. and as he starts to chew he hears a voice say. A. …………. by. "That's a beautiful tie. Next he hears a voice. A. on. of. . after. Trebuie să vă conformaţi regulilor jocului. he pops a few more uts _ his mouth. the clothes probably wouldn’t have fit in. Alegeţi trei numere la întâmplare şi înmulţiţi-le cu cinci. for B. which he tucks selfsly _ the stool. into C. of. by.………… IX. dar nu este întotdeauna impresionată de calitatea programelor. _ a shrug. The second engineer replied: “Well. …………. of. at. to.” …………. at. of. on. 7 She threw the bike at the ground. they Italian leather? They look great!" whirls around again but sees no one _ him. into. sits down and orders a nice big dish _ brown rice and stir-fry veggies. after. …………. …………. to. my man. near. without. 4. 4. of. Ei îi place să asculte radioul. 3 “Where did you get such a great bike?”. near. off. next to. In some of the lines of the following text there is one unnecessary preposition. with. Translate into English: 1. It is either incorrect or does not fit in with the sense of the text.VII. in B. at. What is the correct combination of prepositions for each paragraph? 1. at. for C. 337 .

Cu ce mergi la serviciu în fiecare dimineaţă? Cu metroul sau cu autobuzul? Sau poate cu maşina? 9. 10. Produsele companiei noastre sunt mereu in conformitate cu standardele de calitate. 7. Fusese acuzat ca ii furase poşeta acelei doamne îin negru. De ce te uiti aşa la mine? Te-am rugat să ai grijă de pisică. John a fost pedepsit pentru că nu şi-a făcut tema la timp. 8.6. iar tu ai lăsat-o să iasă în stradă? 338 .

" "Ah." "Ah! I've won!" "Alas. that feels good. How are you today?" "Hello! My car's gone!" "Hey! look at that!" "Hey! What a good idea!" "Hi! What's new?" 339 . eh?" "Eh! Really?" "Let's go. People use them when they don't know what to say. joy etc expressing greeting example "Ah. THEORETICAL CONSIDERATIONS An interjection is a word added to a sentence to convey emotion.. it can't be heped.10. eh?" "Lima is the capital of. You should learn to recognize them when you hear them and realize that they have no real meaning. now I understand.. Um or Ah! They have no real grammatical value but we use them quite often. usually more in speaking than in writing. they have no grammatical connection to the sentence..er. It is not grammatically related to any other part of the sentence.Peru. An interjection is sometimes followed by an exclamation mark (!) when written. interjection meaning expressing pleasure ah expressing realization expressing resignation expressing surprise alas dear expressing grief or pity expressing pity expressing surprise asking for repetition eh expressing enquiry expressing surprise inviting agreement er hello. Interjections like er and um are also known as "hesitation devices". Interjections are short exclamations like Oh!. hullo expressing hesitation expressing greeting expressing surprise hey hi calling attention expressing surprise. she's dead now." "Oh dear! Does it hurt?" "Dear me! That's a surprise!" "It's hot today.III.." "Eh?" "I said it's hot today. THE INTERJECTION A. except in direct quotations. When interjections are inserted into a sentence. We usually follow an interjection with an exclamation mark." "Ah well. The table below shows some interjections with examples." "What do you think of that." "Hello John. They are extremely common in English. Interjections are uncommon in formal academic prose. or to indicate that they are thinking about what to say.

o expressing pain expressing pleading ouch uh uh-huh um." "85 divided by 5 is." "Shall we go?" "Uh-huh. 5. Brrr! The theater is as cold as ice! 2. Well. 1.I don't know the answer to that. joy _________________ 5.um. Shhh! 6. doubt or disagreement expressing surprise "Hmm.. I wish that giggling would stop..17. I'm not so sure. Hooray! We won the championship! Help! I can't hold on any longer! 2. sit still! Say.hmm expressing hesitation. EXERCISES I. Ouch! Someone stepped on my toe! 4. please say 'yes'!" "Ouch! That hurts!" "Uh. Underline the interjection in each sentence: 1. Say. are you busy? B.. anger _________________ 340 . I suppose I should have studies more. severe pain _________________ 3. A word of strong emotion ends in exclamation point (separate from rest of sentence) Hey! Leave my friend alone! Wow! I never thought she's go out with him! 3.. astonishment_________________ 2." "Oh." "Oh! You're here!" "Oh! I've got a toothache. relief _________________ 4. a word of mild emotion ends in comma (part of the sentence) Oh." "Well I never!" "Well. Aha! There are some empty seats! 3. confusion _________________ 6.. Use an appropriate interjection of your own for each of the emotions listed. it is an exclamatory word that usually expresses a strong emotion. Followed by an exclamatory mark (!) It may be followed by a related sentence. umm well expressing pain expressing hesitation expressing agreement expressing hesitation expressing surprise introducing a remark Characteristics: 1. A word may stand alone Hooray! Help! 2. who told you about the party? II.. what did he say?" oh.

That wasn't so bad after all (Phew) _____________________________________________________ 4. 6. 341 . I don’t know the answer. I guess I'll have to make a speech (Well) _____________________________________________________ 3. write an appropriate interjection for the feeling shown in parentheses. 8. I wish you’d hurry up. I can’t wait all day. I don’t know which way to go. 4. There isn’t enough snow to go skiing. VI. 1. 2. 5. Rewrite each sentence below. 4. where we are. You must be kidding. (Surprise). goodness joy uh hesitation tsk impatience Model: (Pain)! That really hurts. 3. (Joy). oh. 8. no disappointment ouch pain wow. I didn’t think the paper was due today. (Joy)! What a great present. 10. (Disappointment). 5. Add the correct punctuation after each interjection and at the end of each sentence. That was a close call. Begin with the interjection in parentheses. 7. 7. That’s the biggest balloon I’ve ever seen. (Pain). I just banged my knee. Model: Wow! We had a fabulous trip. The picnic has been rained out again. good heavens surprise aw. 3.III. I’m so happy you’re here for a visit. 1. (Impatience). (Hesitation). (Hesitation). 10. (Pain)! I cut my finger. Fill in each blank with an appropriate interjection. 9. Interjection Emotion oh. that was a terrific movie. In each blank. Ouch 1. They're announcing the winners (Psst) _____________________________________________________ 2. (Surprise)! We won the game. 9. 2. I don't know if I can stand it any longer. I didn’t expect to see you here. darn. I can’t figure out. (Help) _________________________________________________ V. I bumped my head. Use commas or exclamation marks as punctuation. 6. we’re late again.

= 1. 2. = a (se) legăna. 2.a răsuna (de). 2.a apune. 3.a înţepa.a săpa. 2. a spânzura. shrunken and sunken are used attributively. cling dig fling hang sling slink spin stick sting strike [ʌ] clung dug flung hung/hanged slung slunk spun stuck stung struck [ʌ] clung dug flung hung/hanged slung slunk spun/span stuck stung struck/stricken* = a se ţine de. a (se) balansa. 2. = 1.a fila. a ţiui. = 1. 2. a lipi. a toarce.a răsuci. = 1. a bate (ceasul).a se micşora.III. 2. mină).a intra la apă. a se lipi de. a asfinţi. = 1. a împlînta.a suna. a stoarce. 2. = a arunca. a izvorî (d. = a înota. 4.a declanşa(un arc. 5. * stricken is used attributively. a agăţa. = 1. = a câştiga. = 1. a vîrî.a strânge (tare). a azvîrli.11. = 1. a se înapoi. a rămîne ataşat.a trage cu praştia. = a se furişa.a mirosi urît. = a bea. a ţâşni.a se scufunda. a izbi. a se învîrti/roti. = 1. 2. = 1. = 1. a agăţa.a ustura. a se sustrage. 3. 2. a înfige. 3.a suna. a înfige.a stîrni (vînatul). = 1. = a cînta. = a alerga. swing swung swung win won won wring wrung wrung 342 . a atîrna. run shrunk/shrunken* sung sunk/sunken* sprung stunk swum * drunken.a sări.a lovi.a se lăsa în jos. LIST OF IRREGULAR VERBS INFINITIVE PAST TENSE [æ] begin drink ring run shrink da sing sink spring stink swim began drank rang ran shrank sang sank sprang stank swam PAST PARTICIPLE [ʌ] begun drunk/drunken* rung = a începe. 2.3. apă). 2.2. a avea originea.a simţi (un miros urît). a atârna. = 1. a face să sune. a răsuci.

(a lucra la război). a părăsi. 2. a ponosi. 3. = a alege. 2. a îndura. = 1. a scăpa cu fuga (de.a purta (părul. a purta. a se furişa.a îndruma.a păstra. a se exprima. 3. a paşte.a urzi (un complot).a (se) ţese. = 1.a face să sară. = a intenţiona. a menţine. = 1. = 1. barba). 2.a jura. = a citi. = a se trezi.a dibui. break broke broken choose chose chosen freeze froze frozen steal stole stolen speak spoke spoken wake woke woke/woken weave wove/weaved woven/weaved [o:] bear swear tear wear bore swore tore wore [o:] borne/born sworn torn worn = 1. = a vorbi. a suporta. a nu restitui. a merge repede.a accelera. = 1. [e] bereave bleed breed creep dream feed feel flee keep kneel lead leap leave mean meet read sleep smell speed spell bereaved/bereft bled bred crept [e] bereaved/bereft bled bred crept = 1. = a fura. 2. 3.a se tîrî.a călăuzi. = 1. a se strecura. a trece peste. a se jura. a tatona. a transporta. a conduce. 2.a scrie literă cu literă. a căra. = 1. = 1. = 1. a se grăbi.a întîlni. a pune deoparte. a se deştepta.a ţese. din faţa). = a creşte. 2.a priva. a sfîşia. a alimenta. 2. a conduce.a hrăni. = 1.a (se) purta (o haină).a fura. 2.a uza. = a mirosi.a smulge. = a lăsa. 2.a sări peste. = 1.a pipăi. a rupe. 3. a educa. 2. 2.a întîmpina. = a îngheţa. a rupe. = 1. a frânge. a depune jurământ. = a îngenunchia. = a sîngera.a simţi. a fi îmbrăcat. 3.a păstra. a (se) naşte. a iuţi (pasul).a ţine. 2. 2. a se înfiora. 3. 2. a duce.a răpi. 3. = 1. = a fugi. 2. a opri.a înjura.[ou] [ou] = a sparge.a pronunţa dreamed/dreamt dreamed/dreamt fed fed felt felt fled fled kept kept knelt led leapt left meant met read slept smelt/smelled sped/speeded spelled/spelt knelt led leapt left meant met read slept smelt/smelled sped/speeded spelled/spelt 343 . = a visa.a se deplasa cu repeziciune. = a dormi.

= 1. 3. = a plînge. 2. a exagera. a socoti. a se ivi. 2. a retrage. = a mătura. = 1. a azvîrli. 2. a face paşi mari. = 1.a bate (d. = a şti. a cultiva. = 1. a trage (înapoi). a fîlfîi.a călări.lună). 344 shrive(old use) shrove smite smote stride strode . 3. a concepe. a face progrese. a gîfîi.a crede. = a arunca.a vrăji. 3. a desena. beseech bring buy catch fight seek teach think besought brought bought caught fought sought taught thought = a implora. = a aduce. = 1. 4. 2. a se gîndi. blow fly grow know throw blew flew grew knew threw [o:] = 1.a se ridica (d. a cugeta. a trage concluzii. a flutura. 3. a cunoaşte. 5. a mîna. a răsări (d. = a învăţa (pe cineva). 3.a încăleca. a medita. 2. a deveni. = a se mărturisi (la preot). a fugi.a goni. = 1. a-şi închipui.a crede. a călări (un cal).a afecta.a lovi. 4. a-şi imagina. = a lupta. 2. = 1. 3. = 1. a zbura.2. a preda. 3.a urmări un scop.a păşi. 2. a apărea. 2.a călători (cu un mijloc de transport public).a se ridica. a o lua la goană. = a prinde. 3. 2. a chibzui. a izbi. a sări.a conduce (un vehicul). [ou] drive ride rise arise drove rode rose arose [ i] driven ridden risen arisen shriven smitten stridden = 1. = 1. a (se) retrage. 4. a curăţi. 2.a răsări.a creşte. = 1.vînt). 2.a se scula. = a cumpăra. a trage. draw overdraw withdraw drew overdrew withdrew [u:] = 1.sweep weep swept wept [ u:] swept wept [o:] drawn overdrawn withdrawn [ou] blown flown grown known thrown [o:] besought brought bought caught fought sought taught thought literă cu literă. 2. a depăşi (contul la bancă). 2. a sufla greu. a sufla. a deduce. = 1. a gîndi. a întinde (arcul). soare).a căuta.a lua.

4. 3.a rupe. (no change) bet burst broadcast cast cost cut hit hurt let put rid set shed shut slit split spread thrust bet/betted burst broadcast(ed) cast cost cut hit hurt let put rid set shed shut slit split spread thrust [t] bend lend rend send spend bent lent rent sent spent [au] bind find grind wind bound found ground wound bet burst broadcast(ed) cast cost cut hit hurt let put rid set shed shut slit split spread thrust [t] bent lent rent sent spent au bound found ground wound = a lega. 2.a coti.a pune. = a pune/face un pariu. = a trimite. 5.a întinde. = a da cu împrumut. = 1. = a arunca. 3. a îmbrînci. = a bate. = a pune. 3. sînge). = a lovi. = a tăia. = 1. a irosi.a asfinţi.strive thrive write strove throve/thrived wrote striven thriven written = 1. a (se) îndoi. = a găsi. a îngădui. 3. = a (se) despica. = a sfărîma. a petrece (timpul). a se răsuci/încolăci. a lovi. = a răni. a desfăşura. a lăsa. = a costa. = 1. = a izbucni. a se strădui. 2. = a permite. = a scrie. a pisa. a scăpa. 2. a apune. 345 .a dezbina. 2. a propăşi. a se lupta. 3. = 1. a se scoroji. păreri). = a radiodifuza. = a elibera. a izbi. a izbi. a se schimba (d. 4. = a prospera. a aşeza. 2. a răspîndi în jur. = 1. = 1. a măcina. 2. a potrivi. = 1. a şerpui.a lepăda (frunze).a vărsa (lacrimi.a regla. = a închide. a exploda.a scinda. a (se) crăpa. 2. a despica. 2. 2. a cheltui. a sfîşia. a risipi.a răspîndi.a desface.a tăia. = 1.a revărsa. a (ră)suci (ceasul).a despica. 5.

bade/bid forbade forgave gave [æ] sat spat = 1. = 1. = 1. 3.a zgudui. a tremura. a cosi. 2. [d] hew mow saw sew show sow strew hewed mowed sawed sewed showed sowed sown strewed [n] hewn mown sawn sewn shown strewn = a tăia.a povesti. = 1.a acoperi/presăra (cu).ou sell tell foretell sold told foretold [i] bite chide hide bit chid/chided hid [u] forsake mistake partake shake forsook mistook partook shook ou sold told foretold [i] bitten chid/chided hidden [ei] forsaken mistaken partaken shaken = a părăsi.a spune. a ura. 3.a tăia cu ferăstrăul. 4. = a ierta. a pofti 3.a ferăstrui. a pufni (d. a zice. a manifesta 3. a relata. = a prevesti. = 1. a presăra. 2. = a înţelege greşit vorbele cuiva. 2. = a vinde. = a (se) ascunde. a zdruncina. = a da.a dori. = a arăta.a oferi un preţ. 2. = a semăna. a prezice. 346 . a despica. = a (se) coase. 4. a invita. a mustra.a porunci. take took [ei] taken [i] bidden/bid forbidden forgiven given [æ] sat spat bid forbid forgive give sit spit dispreţ. a intimida. = a certa. a scuipa.a secera. a speria.pisici). a participa la. = a împărtăşi. = 1. = a interzice.a tunde (iarba). a dojeni. = 1. = a lua. a abandona.a scutura. a clătina.a răspîndi. 2. = a sta jos. 2. 2. a împrăştia. = a muşca.

a deţine. a se apleca.a face. 3. lay laid laid = a pune jos. fall fell fallen = a cădea. hear heard heard = a auzi.a locui. melt melted melted/molten* = a se topi. a primi. 2. a întrece. a obţine. a avea. a pune stăpânire (d. outdo outdid outdone = a întrece.a auzi din întîmplare.).a încărca. forget forgot forgotten = a uita. a refuza.a subjuga.a păţi. 2.a ţine. 2. beat beat beaten = a bate. 2. 2. 3. a fabrica. 3. a copleşi (d. a reţine.a acoperi. foresee foresaw foreseen = a prevedea. lie lay lain = 1. a împiedica. a fi întins. make made made = 1. learn learned/learnt learned*/learnt = a învăţa. a imobiliza.a suferi. 347 abode Miscellaneous abode . a îndeplini. a întrezări. 4.2. withhold withheld withheld = 1. do did done = 1. 2. go went gone = a merge. a sta. 2. a surprinde (o conversaţie etc. 5. be was/were been = a fi. a conţine.a locui. come came come = a veni.abide = 1.a avea de-a face cu cineva. eat ate eaten = a mînca. lose lost lost = a pierde. hold held held = 1.a fi culcat. a prepara. learned. 2. a opri. a opri. durere). clothe clothed/clad clothed/clad = 1.a rămîne. a se supune.a trece prin. load loaded loaded/laden* = 1. 2. a vedea. pay paid paid = a plăti. 2. burn burned/burnt burned/burnt = a arde. light lighted/lit lighted/lit = a aprinde. a poseda.face.a repartiza. overhear overheard overheard = 1.a îmbrăca. a proceda. blend blended/blent blended/blent = a amesteca.a insista asupra. 4. overcome overcame overcome = 1. lean leant/leaned leant/leaned = a se înclina. mislay mislaid mislaid = a pierde. emoţii). behold beheld beheld/beholden = a zări. build built built = a construi. a tricota. have had had = a avea. 2. * laden. a răbda. a săvîrşi. 2. 3. a copleşi. bless blessed/blest blessed/blest = a binecuvînta. a distribui. become became become = a deveni. a aşeza. a acţiona.a învinge. a culca.a reţine. molten (iron) are used attributively. knit knitted/knit knitted/knit = a împleti. deal dealt dealt = 1. undergo underwent undergone = 1. 3. dwell dwelt dwelt = 1. a zăpăci. a zăcea. get got got/gotten = a căpăta.

3. a fermenta. 7. = a tunde. a se ofili. 2. 2.a (se) bărbieri. a prelucra. a trece pe nesimţite. 5. (d. 6. = 1. a da buzna. 2. a se da pe gheaţă. a recita (versuri). = 1. a se prăpădi. = a vedea. a merge.a da pe dinafară. = a străluci. a se atinge de. see shave shear shine shoe shoot slide spill spoil stand understand withstand swell tread work saw seen shaved shaved/shaven sheared shone shod shot slid sheared/shorn shone shod shot slid spilled/spilt spilled/spilt spoiled spoiled/spoilt stood stood understood understood withstood swelled trod worked withstood swollen/swelled trodden/trod worked/wrought* * wrought (iron) = (fier) forjat.a răsfăţa. = 1. a executa. = 1. 8. = a păşi. 4.a încălţa.a potcovi. a se caria.E. a trage cu arma. 3. a munci.a înţelege. a zice. 4.a-şi exprima părerea. 3. 2. a afla. a afirma. say said = 1. a putrezi. a înfăptui. = a sta în picioare.a tăia (subţire). plante). = 1. a se pronunţa. 3.a vărsa. a spune. 2. 2. a răsturna. 5.a strica. (adapted by Doina Cmeciu and Elena Bonta from Eckersley. a vîna. a aluneca. a ţine piept. 2.: A Comprehensive English Grammar) 348 . = 1. 3. 2. a avea succes. 2. = a (se) umfla. a pune la treabă. a pricepe. 2.a exprima în cuvinte. a se freca de.a se strica. a călca. 3.a se năpusti. = 1. a lucra.rot rotted rotted/rotten* said * rotten is used attributively. maşini) a funcţiona. 4. = 1. a încolţi (d. a lua cunoştinţă despre. C. = 1. = a rezista. a face. a produce.

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Internet URL: http://lori.ru.html. Internet URL: http://www. IV.org/books. 352 .org/wiki/Management.htm. NEWSPAPERS AND MAGAZINES • National Geographic (vols.wikipedia.co.encyclopedia.com. Internet URL: http://www.III. Internet URL: http://en.prospects.C.olah.londononline. Internet URL: http://schools.wikipedia.academicdirect. INTERNET SOURCES: • • • • • • • • • • • • Internet URL: http://www. Internet URL: http://www. JOURNALS. Reader’s Digest.unibuc.wikipedia. Bristol.com.uk Internet URL: http://en. Internet URL: http://en.com/doc/1E1-indust-man.org/wiki/Environmental_engineering. Internet Url: http://www. (from 1992 to 1997).ac.com. D.ro/eBooks/StiinteADM/management/2. Washington.britannica. from 1992 to 1996).designboom.org/wiki/Quality_management.uk/Shopping/. Internet URL: http://www.keldysh. Internet URL: http://www.

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