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R&T 2009 - VFDs for Compressors - Cosner

R&T 2009 - VFDs for Compressors - Cosner

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VFDs for Screw Compressors
VFDs for Screw Compressors

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Published by: jack_clift on Aug 21, 2013
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08/25/2014

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Improving Rotary Screw Compressor Performance using Variable Speed Drives

John Cosner, JCI/Frick

A Global Energy Situation….

Efficiency In The Engine Room

Optimum
Constant Speed @ 100% Cap. Constant Speed @ 100% Cap. VFD @ 30% Cap. S.V. Loaded

Better
Constant Speed @ 100% Cap. Constant Speed @ 100% Cap. Constant Speed @ 30% Cap.

Inefficient
Constant Speed @ 100% Cap. Constant Speed @ 70% Cap. Constant Speed @ 60% Cap.

• At least one compressor will go to a part load condition.Compressor Facts • Often the most concentrated and largest consumers • Most new installations use rotary screw compressors. .

Constant Torque / Variable Horsepower Screw Compressors Torque and Power 100% 80% 460V / 60Hz = 7.67V : 1Hz 60% 40% 20% 0% 0% 20% 40% 60% Horsepower Torque 80% 100% Constant Torque Horsepower = % Speed Speed .

Full Load Power = 500HP / 375KW FLA = 580 Running @ 35% Capacity (by speed) Voltage = 161Vpwm HP = 175 Amps = 580 VSD 35% Out 21 Hertz 1260 RPM Voltage = 460vac HP = 175 Amps = 203 580 Amps 132 KW Motor .

Variable Torque / Variable Horsepower Pumps & Fans 100% Torque and Power 80% 60% 40% 20% 0% 0% Torque = % Speed² Horsepower = % Speed³ Horsepower Torque 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Speed .

00 0.00 100.Part Load Efficiencies @ Approximately 6:1 CR Throttling.00 50.00 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% % Capacity % Full Load Power Throttling Poppet Slide Valve VFD Ideal Eff. Step Loading (Poppet).00 10.00 90. VFD w/Var.00 80. .00 60.00 30. Vi and Ideal 110.00 20. Vi.00 70. Slide Valve w/Var.00 40.

Improved Part Load Efficiency Solution Capacity 20% -100% (720 RPM 3600 RPM ) 100% Slide Valve Base Loaded. Capacity 100% 3600 RPM 100% Slide Valve The improvement in part load efficiency will vary based on… Compression Ratio Minimum Speed Volume Control .

8psiaD / 19.8psiaD / 48.48psiaS 10:1 CR Example: Improvement at 40% capacity by speed over 40% capacity by slide valve 4:1 CR = 19% Improvement 10:1 CR = 33% Improvement .Compression Ratio (CR) 194.7psiaS 4:1 CR 194.

Minimum Speed • Minimum speed established by the limitations of the: •compressor •motor •oil type •refrigerant. NH³ .

• Rolling element bearings ≥ 720 rpm • Viscosity required at 1800rpm is ≥ 11cSt. . • Viscosity required at 720rpm is ≥ 18cSt. Speeds below design limits may cause a mixed film or boundary lubrication condition.Compressor Minimum Speed •Sleeve bearings ≥ 1800 rpm.

5˚C)SST 1500 RPM Minimum .Oil & Refrigerant R-717@ 20˚F (-6.5˚C)SST 720 RPM Minimum R-22 @ 10˚F (-12˚C)SST 1250 RPM Minimum R-22 @ 20˚F (-6.

• Motor stator temperature protection is now required (NEC 2005). . • Check with manufacturer for minimum speed. • Air-flows at speeds below 50% speed may not be adequate.Motor Minimum Speed Fractional HP Squirrel Cage Fan/s Ensure Adequate Air Flow At All Speeds • An issue of bearings and heat rejection.

0 4.Variable Volume Control 5.0 1.0 Vi 3.0 2.0 With VSD at part load Vi stays ideal Vi at part load by slide valve 5.2 0 15 20 40 60 80 100 % Capacity .0 2.

% Capacity to % Slide Valve Position .

.Energy Savings @ Part Load Slide Valve w/Variable Vi VFD w/Variable Vi HP to $$$ .200 annually (.10HP may cost over $5.08 KWH).

06:1 CR on Ammonia Slide Valve. Control VFD Control 650HP Horse Power 19 HP 52 HP 107 HP 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% % Capacity .00 450.00 200.00 250.V.00 150.00 300.00 550.00 0.RWFII-270 @ 20˚F (-6.7˚C) SST / 95˚F (35˚C) SDT 4.00 0% S.00 400.00 350.00 100. VFD and Ideal Part Load Efficiencies 700.00 50.00 650.00 600.00 500.

00 400.RWFII-270 @ 20˚F (-6.00 300.00 0% S. Control VFD Control 475HP Horse Power 9 HP 31 HP 62 HP 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% % Capacity .00 200.00 150.00 350.9:1 CR on Ammonia Slide Valve.7˚C) SST / 75˚F (24˚C) SDT / 2.00 0.00 100.V.00 450.00 50.00 250. VFD and Ideal Part Load Efficiencies 500.

00 150.V.00 100.00 200.00 300.RWFII-270 @ -40˚F (-40˚C) SST / 95˚F (35˚C) SDT / 18.00 0% S.00 0.00 250.00 50. Control VFD Control 420HP Horse Power 26 HP 82 HP 137 HP 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% % Capacity .75:1 CR on Ammonia Slide Valve.00 400. VFD and Ideal Part Load Efficiencies 450.00 350.

00 100. Control VFD Control 335HP 18 HP 60 HP 102 HP 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% % Capacity .00 0% S.V.00 50.00 200. VFD and Ideal Part Load Efficiencies 350.00 Horse Power 250.RWFII-270 @ -40˚F (-40˚C) SST / 75˚F (24˚C) SDT / 13.45:1 CR on Ammonia Slide Valve.00 0.00 150.00 300.

Typical VSD Operation Slide Valve Unloaded – NH3 Capacity Control Strategy Strategy Capacity Control 100% 100% 90% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% 0% Speed Percent Slide Valve Percent Valve SV Speed Off 0% 0% Run 20% 20% 40% 60% 40% 60% Percent Percent Speed Speed 80% 80% 100% 100% .

Typical VSD Operation Slide Valve Loaded – NH3 Capacity Control Strategy 100% Percent Slide Valve 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Percent Speed SpeedRun SV Off Speed .

Typical VSD Operation with Standby Mode (Vyper™) Capacity Control Strategy 100% Percent Slide Valve 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Percent Speed Stand-by Speed Run at 100%SV Speed Speed Up To 2Up Hrs To 2 Hrs. .

Economizing Econo. Improvement of HP/TR -40F/95F 14 12 10 HP/TR 8 6 4 2 0 0 50 Tons 100 150 Non E SV Econ VSD Non E VSD Econ SV .

Controlling The VSD Manufacturers Controller To Be The Supervisory Control Low Oil Flow High Motor Amps High discharge Pressure Low Mass Flow The PLC Controls The Speed But Is Routed Through The Package Mounted Controller .

VSD Control with Quantum LX Capacity Control Setup .

Motor & Drive Setup .

Skip Frequencies Speed trend line .

Can I Retrofit My Existing Equipment??? VSD? .

• Ensure environment is adequate. • Controller is able to protect the compressor as well as control the drive. • Minimum speed is identified. . • Total cable distance between drive and motor is within spec. • Motor is inverter duty rated.Retrofitting Existing Equipment For Energy Savings • Ensure the VSD is constant torque.

3. Hours of Operation? Compression Ratio? Cost per KWH? Part Load Profile? What is My Part Load Profile? How Do I Accurately Get This Information? Items 1-3 Are Easy .To VSD or Not To VSD? Qualifying Expense Through Savings (ROI) Total Load Profile 1. 4. 2.

Quantum™ LX Load Profile Screen .

8 yrs.The VSD Energy Savings Calculator The Load Profile Data is Entered Payback in 1. .

What About Step Loading Machines? .

Vyper™ Retrofit At JCI-Frick in Waynesboro. PA .

. When Properly Applied. VSDs On Rotary Screw Compressors Can: Lower Energy Usage & Cost Enhance Economizer Boost Remove Setpoint Over-Shoot Provide Quicker Response To Load Fluctuation Keep Capacity Slides Fully Loaded Reduce Maintenance Costs Reduce Noise Levels Properly Applied Is The Key! Thank You! .In Conclusion……….

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