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Dwarf Planets

Dwarf Planets

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Published by Freya2000
General information and pictures of the 5 main Dwarf planets. General statistics and information regarding the Dwarf planets in our solar system.
General information and pictures of the 5 main Dwarf planets. General statistics and information regarding the Dwarf planets in our solar system.

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Published by: Freya2000 on Jun 08, 2009
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11/30/2010

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BY FREYA OSTERBERG 2009

Table of Contents
Table of Contents...................................................................................................................2 Introduction...........................................................................................................................4 Extra information:............................................................................................................5 The discovery of Ceres...............................................................................................7 The diameter of Ceres ...............................................................................................7 Distance between Ceres, the Sun and the Earth..........................................................7 Orbitational period and rotational period of Ceres.....................................................7 Moons of Ceres:..........................................................................................................7 Gods/goddesses ..........................................................................................................7 Surface Atmosphere/ environment and volcanoes: ....................................................8 Extraordinary facts about Ceres:.................................................................................8 The Discovery of Pluto:............................................................................................10 The diameter of Pluto................................................................................................10 Distance between Pluto, the Sun and the Earth .......................................................10 Orbitational period and rotation period of Pluto.......................................................10 Moons of Pluto .........................................................................................................11 Gods/ Goddesses:......................................................................................................11 Surface, Atmosphere/ environment and Volcanoes...................................................11 The Discovery of Makemake:...................................................................................13 The diameter of Makemake .....................................................................................13 Distance between Makemake, the Sun and the Earth...............................................13 Orbitational period and rotation period of Makemake.............................................13 Moons of Makemake ...............................................................................................14 Gods/Goddesses........................................................................................................14 Surface, Atmosphere and volcanoes.........................................................................14 Extraordinary facts about Makemake.......................................................................14 The discovery of Eris................................................................................................15 The Diameter of Eris................................................................................................15 Distance between Eris, the sun and the Earth...........................................................15 Orbitational period and Rotation period of Eris.......................................................15 Moons of Eris ...........................................................................................................16 Gods/Goddesses........................................................................................................16 Surface, Atmosphere/ environment and volcanoes...................................................16 Extraordinary facts about Eris..................................................................................17 The discovery of Haumea .......................................................................................19 The diameter of Haumea .........................................................................................19 Distance between Haumea, the Sun and the Earth...................................................19 Orbitational and rotational period of Haumea..........................................................19 Moons of Haumea.....................................................................................................20 ..................................................................................................................................20 Gods/Goddesses .......................................................................................................20 Surface/atmosphere and volcanoes ..........................................................................20 Page 2 of 21

Extraordinary facts about Haumea............................................................................20 Pictures of the 5 major dwarf planets.................................................................................21

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Introduction
THE SOLAR SYSTEM: Did you know: The word Sol in Latin means Sun. So in Latin, the solar system is the sun System.

When you think of the word "space" you think of The Earth and the Other Planets, the Sun, the galaxy, the Milky Way, Stars- constellations, Moons, Comets, asteroids, meteors, no gravity, astronauts, space crafts and organizations like NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) and the IAU (International Astronomical Union). As well as all these celestial bodies (anything in space) there are also Dwarf planets that are not fully classified to be planets.

Here is a picture of the eight planets. In order from left to right –Mercury, Venus Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune. Amongst these eight official Planets there are Five Dwarf planets. In order from largest to smallest: Eris, Pluto, Haumea, Make make and Ceres. Some scientists believe there are probably lots of other Dwarf planets in the Kupier belt but they are the main Five. Here are two pictures of the complete solar system including several dwarf planets.

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In 2006 the IAU made four specific rules so that a celestial body (anything in space) can become a planet. These are the rules: a. Is in orbit around the Sun. b. Has sufficient mass for its self-gravity to overcome rigid body forces so that it assumes a hydrostatic equilibrium (nearly round) shape. c. Has cleared the neighborhood around its orbit. d. Is not a satellite.(moon) Extra information: • • • • No spacecraft has ever visited any of the dwarf planets. Not all Dwarf planets have moons. There are no volcanoes on any of the dwarf planets. Not all Dwarf planets are named after gods. Page 5 of 21

• •

Planets are not perfect spheres because when each planet spins on their axis it expands in the middle and squishes in the top so it is not a perfect sphere. The planets between the asteroid belt and the Sun are called Inner planets (Mars Mercury Venus and Earth) and the planets on the opposite side of the asteroid belt are called either gas giants or Outer planets (Jupiter Saturn Neptune and Uranus). Dwarf planets are separate group of celestial bodies. Pluto used to be known as an Outer planet but now that Pluto is a dwarf planet it is not an outer planet any longer. Some scientists measure distances in space with a type of measurement called AU (astronomical unit) One astronomical unit is 149,600,000 KM, which is the distance between the sun and the Earth. Because planets orbit the sun the distance from the sun sometimes changes. This green arrow shows Earth’s moon

Here are the sizes of all five-dwarf planets compared to the size of Earth. From this picture you can see that Ceres and Makemake don’t have moons. You can also see that Haumea is more like an oval or egg shape than a sphere because Haumea spins so quickly.

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Ceres’ symbol

The discovery of Ceres
Monk Giuseppe Piazzi discovered Ceres on January 1st 1801.

The diameter of Ceres
The diameter is approximately 957 km.

Did you know: Monk Giuseppe Piazzi also discovered the first asteroid in the asteroid belt?

Distance between Ceres, the Sun and the Earth
Ceres is about 270,400,000 km from the Earth. Ceres is about 446,000,000 km from the Sun.

Orbitational period and rotational period of Ceres
A day on Ceres is only 9 hours long! [How long it takes to spin on its axis- rotational period]. A year on Ceres is 4.6 earth years long. [How long it takes to orbit the sun- orbitational period].

Moons of Ceres:

Ceres and Makemake are the only Dwarf planets Ceres has no moons that scientists have discovered. that don’t have

Gods/goddesses
Ceres is the roman goddess of corn, grain, Agriculture, harvest and motherly love. Page 7 of 21

This coin shows Ceres the roman Goddess.

Surface Atmosphere/ environment and volcanoes:
The surface on Ceres is similar to the surface of Earth’s moon – rock ice/water. The environment On Ceres is very rocky. There are no volcanoes on Ceres.

Extraordinary facts about Ceres:
Ceres is located in the Asteroid belt, which is a belt of Asteroids separating the inner planets from the outer planets/gas giants (between Mars and Jupiter). Ceres is an asteroid; asteroids are small bodies that scientists believe were left over from the start of the solar system, which was over 4,600 million years ago! Even though Ceres is the biggest asteroid in the asteroid belt Ceres is the smallest of all the dwarf planets! Sometimes Ceres’ symbol can be flipped around to change from looking

like this:

to looking like this:

Ceres’ symbol is sometimes mistaken with Venus’ symbol because they are so alike. Ceres is the closest dwarf planet to the sun.

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Did you know: Pluto and Eris are the only dwarf planets with more than 1 astronomical symbol, Pluto’s symbols are:

The Discovery of Pluto:
Clyde Tombaugh was the man who discovered Pluto in 1930. Why did he discover Pluto: Many people believed that Pluto was a satellite of Neptune and when it escaped Neptune’s gravity pull scientists began looking for Pluto in the sky.

The diameter of Pluto
The diameter is approximately 2274 km.

Distance between Pluto, the Sun and the Earth
Pluto is approximately 3,660,000,000 miles away from the sun. Pluto is about 3.4 billion miles away from the Earth.

Orbitational period and rotation period of Pluto
A day on Pluto (how long it takes to spin on its axis – rotational period) is six Earth days long. It takes 248 Earth years to Orbit the sun. (Length of a year- orbitational period).

Page 10 of 21

Moons of Pluto
Pluto has 3 moons. The first is Charon, it was discovered by James Christy in 1978. The diameter is about 1172 km, which is about half the size of Pluto. The orbit period of Charon around Pluto is 6.387 days. Did you know: Pluto and Ceres were the first two dwarf planets to be named dwarf planets in 2006.

Scientists hadn’t named Pluto’s other two moons so the scientists called them s/2005p1 and s/2005 p2 now they are called Hydra and Nix. Alan Stern and Harold Weaver discovered them in 2005. Their sizes are the same at 44.130 km in diameter. Their orbit periods around Pluto are 24.856 and 38.206 days respectively. The yellow arrows show Hydra and Nix and the purple arrow shows Charon.

Gods/ Goddesses:
Pluto is named after the roman god of the under world – not after Mickey Mouse’s dog! Pluto is also the Greek god Haydes. Pluto’s symbol doesn’t always have to have a star in the middle so Pluto’s symbol can also look like this:

Surface, Atmosphere/ environment and Volcanoes
There are no volcanoes on any of the dwarf planets. Page 11 of 21

The surface on Pluto is split up into three sections – Ice, non-ice and rock. The weather on Pluto is divided into two seasons a windy season and a cold season.

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The same symbol for Makemake is the symbol for Eris’s moon dysnomia:

The Discovery of Makemake:
Michael brown discovered Makemake On March 31st 2005 in the California Polmar Observatory.

The diameter of Makemake
The Size/Diameter of Makemake is about- 13001900 km.

Distance between Makemake, the Sun and the Earth
Makemake is between 38.509- 53.074AU {5.761 billion km -7.940 billion km} from the sun. Makemake is approximately 37.5 AU [5.61 billion km] from the Earth.

Orbitational period and rotation period of Makemake
Astronauts are not sure how long a day on Makemake is. [Rotation period= how long it takes to spin on its axis). A year on Makemake is 309.88 earth years. [Orbitational period how long it takes to orbit the sun]. Makemake and Ceres are the only dwarf Page 13 of 21 planets that have no moons!

Moons of Makemake
Makemake has 0 moons that have been discovered by scientists.

Gods/Goddesses
There are no Gods/ goddesses called Makemake. Makemake is the only dwarf planet that is not named after a God!

Surface, Atmosphere and volcanoes

The surface of Makemake is mainly covered in frozen methane / gas. There isn’t an atmosphere on Makemake. There are no volcanoes on any of the dwarf planets.

Extraordinary facts about Makemake
Makemake is an object in the Kupier belt [KBO]. See Eris explanation.

This blue arrow shows where the Kupier belt is.

Page 14 of 21

Eris is the planet that spins 2nd fastest on it’s axis and is slowest planet to orbit the sun

The discovery of Eris
Eris The dwarf planet was discovered in January 2005. Professional astronomers discovered Eris in the California Polmar observatory while looking at photos taken 2 years Earlier. (First photographed in October 2003 by NASA).
Eris is the slowest planet to The diameter of Eris is approximately 2400 km, which is just bigger than the orbit sun. It Pluto’s diameter of 2274 km. takes Eris about 557 years to orbit the sun slower than Eris is 14, 162 million KM from the Earth. Neptune’s Eris is 14311 billion km from the sun. orbit period of 164.79 years.

The Diameter of Eris

Distance between Eris, the sun and the Earth

Orbitational period and Rotation period of Eris

It takes 557 Earth years {Almost} for Eris to orbit the sun! (Orbitational period = length of a year). Page 15 of 21

A day on Eris is only 9 earth hours long! Which is slightly faster than Jupiter’s rotation period of 9 hrs and 55 mins. (Rotational period -how long It takes to spin on its axis).

Moons of Eris
Eris has only one moon called Dysnomia that has been discovered by scientists. Mike Brown discovered Dysnomia on September 15th 2005. Dysnomia is about 100 km- 250 km in diameter. Its orbit period is around Eris is 14 days.

This orange arrow shows Eris’s moon, Dysnomia.

Gods/Goddesses
Eris is the Greek goddess of chaos, discord and strife. The symbol for Eris’ moon is the same as Make make’s

Eris is the biggest dwarf planet and Eris is the furthest planet from the sun.

symbol:

Surface, Atmosphere/ environment and volcanoes
The surface of Eris is mainly ice and rock. 100 years ago Eris had an atmosphere however Eris is so far away from the sun; over time the atmosphere has become frozen solid so now there is no longer an atmosphere on Eris. Some-times Eris is 38 Au from the sun but at the moment it is 97 au from the sun.

Page 16 of 21

Extraordinary facts about Eris
Eris is the dwarf planet with the most astronomical symbols these are

the symbols: golden apple:

, one of the more common symbols of Eris is the

And

Eris has a different symbol in Poland too. The

symbol for Eris in Poland is: Here is another symbol however; most of the IAU says this symbol is a

fake. Nobody is quite sure yet if this symbol is a fake or not: This symbol is called the Paratheo-Anametamystikhood Of Eris Esoteric (POEE) also known, as the sacred Chao. Here is a picture of the sacred chao:

Page 17 of 21

Like Makemake; Eris is an object in the Kupier belt (KBO). The Kupier belt; is a belt of asteroids that surrounds the outermost part of the Solar system. The red arrow shows where the Kupier belt is.

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The discovery of Haumea

Haumea was first named Santa because it was named on 28/12/04 and is now called Haumea

Mike Brown discovered Haumea on Christmas 2004 in the California institute of technology.

The diameter of Haumea
The diameter of Haumea is approximately 1218 times 943 times 619 miles.

Distance between Haumea, the Sun and the Earth
Haumea is roughly between 5260 km and 7708 km away from the sun. Haumea is roughly 5.108 billion km away from the sun.

Orbitational and rotational period of Haumea
A year on Haumea is 285.4 earth years long. (Orbit period = how long it takes for Haumea to travel around the sun). Haumea is the planet that spins fastest on its axis Haumea is even faster than Jupiter that takes approximately 9 hrs and 55 mins. Haumea

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only takes 3 hrs and 55 mins to spin on its axis and that’s FAST! (Rotation period = how long it takes to spin on its axis).

Moons of Haumea

This picture shows Haumea and Haumea’s moons Hi’iaka (pink arrow above) and Namaka. (White arrow above). Haumea’s first moon Namaka was discovered On June 30, 2005 by scientists at W.M Keck observatory and was originally first named Rudolph or Haumea 11. Namaka is 310 km in diameter. Namaka’s orbit period around Haumea is 34.7 days. Hi’iaka Haumea’s bigger moon was discovered on January 26 in 2005 by the same observatory and was first called Blitzen or Haumea 1. Hi’iaka is 170 km in diameter. Hi’iaka’s orbit period around Haumea is 49.12 days.

Gods/Goddesses
Haumea is named after the Hawaiian goddess of childbirth.

Surface/atmosphere and volcanoes
The surface of Haumea is frozen and covered with ice. There are no volcanoes on Haumea. Haumea does not have an atmosphere.

Extraordinary facts about Haumea
Haumea was the planet last planet to be named a dwarf planet; it was named a dwarf planet in September 2008. Page 20 of 21

Haumea is the planet that spins fastest on its axis.

Pictures of the 5 major dwarf planets

Eris

Makemake

Ceres

Pluto

Haumea

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