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TABLE OF CONTENTS

• Introduction ……………………………………………… ….3

• Planning as a function on Management …………………..5

• Organizing as a function of Management ……………… .14

• Staffing as a function of management ……………………18

• Controlling as a function of Management………………...20

• Directing as a function of Management ………………….25

• Conclusion …………………………………………………..26

• References ………………………………………………….28

• Group Members……………………………………………..29
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Introduction
• Economic system is a complex of activities that
must form the background of management.
• Goods and services that consumers need must
be supplied and the means by which they can
purchase these goods and services must be
provided.
• Management’s role must therefore be to provide
this in the most efficient manner by combining
factors of production and distribution and
directing the efforts of the people concerned to
the given purpose
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Introduction-Cont.

• Enterprises need plans, direction and control


and all these will function only with effective
organization.
• These elements, planning, directing, controlling,
staffing, and organizing are called ‘managerial
functions’.

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PLANNING
• A plan is a predetermined course of action
which provides purpose and direction of an
organization.
• Planning is foreseeing future circumstances and
requirements, then, setting objectives, making
long and short term plans and determining the
policies to be followed with standards to be set.

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• It involves making a systematic process for achieving
the organization’s goals.
• In planning, managers receive and store information,
monitor and disseminate the information.
• A manager makes decisions on strategy and allocation
of resources and initiate planned changes
• Strategic planning is the process of developing and
analyzing the organizations mission, overall goals,
general strategies and allocating resources.

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• A strategy –­­­­is a course of action
created to achieve a long – term goal.
• Goals –are the things that the
organization strives to achieve.
• Strategic planning requires a lot of
information gathering, exploring
alternatives and emphasizing future
implications of its current decisions.
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Steps in planning
• 1. Define the organization‘s mission and vision.
A mission is the purpose of the organization.It
explains why the organization exists .

Vision is the future goal or achievement of an


organization. It guides the mission of the
organization by defining measurable strategic
and financial objectives

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• 2. SWOT ANALYSIS
• Analyze the strength, weaknesses and identify
opportunities and threats of the organization i.e.
SWOT Analysis baseline. SWOT analysis is
used as the basis for future improvements.

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3. Setting goals and objectives.
Goals and objectives are developed to bridge the
gap between current capability and the mission
Objectives – are statements describing results
and the way in which they will be achieved. They
are more specific and narrower than goals.

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4. Develop a strategy.
Information collected from the environmental
scan is used to:
Match strengths with opportunities and address
weaknesses while trying to minimize threats to
its existence.
Make superior profits by getting a competitive
advantage over competitors.

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5. Implementation of strategy.
Strategy is implemented by developing
programs, budgets and procedures.

It involves organizing the firm’s resources and


motivating staff to achieve the firm’s objectives.

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6. Evaluating /monitoring and control
Evaluation and control consists of:
• Defining parameters to be measured.
• Defining the target values of those parameters.
• Performing measurement.
• Comparing measured results to predefined
standards.
• Making necessary changes.

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ORGANIZING
• This is the identification and classification of the
required activities, the grouping of activities
necessary to attain objectives, the assignment of
each grouping to a manager with authority and
the provision of coordination.
• In organizing, structures are created,
relationships established and resources are
allocated for the accomplishment of activities

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• In organizing, plans are reviewed, tasks to be
performed are listed, tasks are grouped into jobs
that can be done by an individual, departments
are created, work is assigned to individuals and
authority is delegated.

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• Organizational Structure
Each organization has an organizational
structure.
• Ideally, in developing an organizational structure
and distributing authority, managers' decisions
reflect the mission, objectives, goals and tactics
that grew out of the planning function.

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• Specifically, they include:
1. Division of labor
2. Delegation of authority
3. Departmentation
4. Span of control
5. Coordination

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STAFFING

• Staffing involves manning the organizational


structure through proper and effective appraisal
,selection and development of people to fill the
roles designed into the structure.
• Staffing is also known as Human Resource
Management. In other words, it is the
management function devoted to acquiring,
training, appraising, and compensating
employees.

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• Staffing process involves:
1)­Development of organizational structure.
2) ­Assessment of manpower required and
available.
3) ­Assessment of their quality, qualification
and skills for the job.
4)­ Appraisal –Strength and shortcomings
5) ­Conduct development programs.

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CONTROLLING.

• This is the measurement and correction of


performance in order to ensure that
enterprise objectives and plans devised to
attain them are accomplished.
• Controlling is a function of every manager
both at lower and upper level since all have
responsibility for the execution of plans.
• In controlling we must:

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• Establish standards-
These are criteria for performance used by
managers to measure performance since
managers cannot usually watch everything being
done within an organization.

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• Measure performance-
This should be on a forward looking basis so that
deviations may be detected in advance of their
occurrence and avoided by appropriate actions.
This is through detection of probable departures
from standards.

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• Correct deviations-
­ Standards should reflect the various
positions in an organization structure.
Managers may correct deviations by
redrawing their plans or by modifying their
goals.
­ They may also correct by exercising their
organizing function through reassignment
or clarification of duties.
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­ They may correct also by additional staffing,
better selection and training of subordinate or by
firing staff.
­ Standards set may be physical like labor hours
per unit produced, may be cost standards like
cost per unit produced or revenue standards like
sales per customer.
­ For control to be effective there must be real
time feedback.

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DIRECTING.

• Directing involves the initiation of action and it


entails three elements that are action oriented in
nature.
• These are motivation, communication and
leadership.
• Leading is the process of influencing people so
that they will contribute to organization and group
goals.

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Conclusion
• Management has been identified as a
systematic body of knowledge based on
general principles, concepts, theories and
techniques which are variable in terms of
business practice.
• These are embodied in the managerial
functions of planning, organizing, staffing,
directing and controlling which form the job
of a manager.

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• In planning we establish objectives, and
plans.
• In Organizing, activities are grouped.
• In staffing we recruit, select and train
personnel required by the organization.
• In directing the manager leads, motivates
and appraise personnel.
• Controlling is concerned with how well the
organization is faring.
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References
1. Kibera,F.N(1996). Introduction to business: A
Kenya perspective, Nairobi: Kenya literature
Bureau PP 104­114
2. Koontz,H and Weihrich,H. (1988).
Management, Ninth edition. New York:
McGraw­Hill book company
• http://www.cliffsnotes.com/WileyCDA/CliffsReviewT
• http://www.xanga.com/lalitkhungar/667247144/
learn­8211managerial­function­of­staffing.html

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