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Treinamento de Manuteno Familiarizao em Sistemas de Combustvel, APU e Motor Boeing 737-600/700/800/900

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Training Manual
NOTICE
THIS MANUAL HAS BEEN PREPARED FOR AIRPLANES SYSTEM TRAINING. IT WILL NOT BE REVISED AND DOES NOT AMEND OR SUPERSEDE INFORMATION CONTAINED IN APPLICABLE

GOVERNMENTAL REGULATIONS AND BOEINGS APPLICABLE SERVICE BULLETINS, MAINTENANCE MANUALS, OVERHAUL MANUALS AND WRITTEN INSTRUCTIONS.

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Fuel System TABLE OF CONTENTS


SUBJECT CHAPTER SECTION SUBJECT PAGE

FUEL SYSTEM INTRODUCTION ....................................................................................................................................................................... 28-00-00.............. 02 FUEL SYSTEM GENERAL DESCRIPTION........................................................................................................................................................ 28-00-00.............. 04 FUEL STORAGE GENERAL DESCRIPTION ..................................................................................................................................................... 28-10-00.............. 08 FUEL STORAGE FUEL VENT SYSTEM ............................................................................................................................................................ 28-10-00.............. 10 PRESSURE FUELING SYSTEM GENERAL DESCRIPTION ............................................................................................................................ 28-21-00.............. 14 PRESSURE FUELING SYSTEM P15 FUELING PANEL ................................................................................................................................... 28-21-00.............. 16 PRESSURE FUELING SYSTEM FUELING MANINFOLD ................................................................................................................................. 28-21-00.............. 18 PRESSURE FUELING SYSTEM FUNCTIONAL DESCRIPTION POWER AND CONTROL ......................................................................... 28-21-00.............. 20 PRESSURE FUELING SYSTEM OPERATION .................................................................................................................................................. 28-21-00.............. 22 DEFUEL OPERATION ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 28-26-00.............. 24 ENGINE FUEL FEED GENERAL DESCRIPTION .............................................................................................................................................. 28-22-00.............. 26 ENGINE FUEL FEED COMPONENT LOCATION .............................................................................................................................................. 28-22-00.............. 30 ENGINE FUEL FEED FUNCTIONAL DESCRIPTION CENTER TANK BOOST PUMP ................................................................................. 28-22-00.............. 32 ENGINE FUEL FEED FUNCTIONAL DESCRIPTION FORWARD AND AFT BOOST PUMP........................................................................ 28-22-00.............. 34 APU FUEL FEED GENERAL DESCRIPTION..................................................................................................................................................... 28-25-00.............. 36 APU FUEL FEED COMPONENT LOCATION..................................................................................................................................................... 28-25-00.............. 38 FUEL INDICATING GENERAL DESCRIPTION.................................................................................................................................................. 28-41-00.............. 40 FUEL INDICATING FUEL QUANTITY INDICATIONS........................................................................................................................................ 28-41-00.............. 42 FUEL INDICATING TRAINING INFORMATION POINTS FQIS BITE TEST MAIN MENU PAGES................................................................ 28-41-00.............. 44

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FUEL SYSTEM INTRODUCTION Purpose The fuel system has these primary purposes: Stores fuel for use by engines and APU Supplies fuel to engines Supplies fuel to APU.

General The fuel system has these subsystems: Fuel storage Pressure fueling Engine fuel feed APU fuel feed Defuel Fuel quantity indicating system Fuel temperature indication.

Abbreviations and Acronyms APU - auxiliary power unit CDS - common display system FQPU - fuel quantity processor unit FQIS - fuel quantity indicating system kgs - kilograms Lbs - pounds
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FUEL SYSTEM GENERAL DESCRIPTION


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FUEL SYSTEM GENERAL DESCRIPTION General The fuel tanks store fuel for use by the engines and the APU. The pressure fueling system lets you add fuel to each tank. The fueling station is on the right wing. You also do defueling and fuel transfer at the fueling station. Each main tank has two boost pumps (fuel pumps). The center tank also has two boost pumps. The center tank boost pumps supply fuel at a higher pressure than the pumps in the main tanks. Because of this, the fuel in the center tank is used before the fuel in the main tanks. Control of the engine and APU fuel feed system is on the P5 panel. Fuel quantity of each tank shows in the flight compartment and at the fueling station. BITE is available to maintenance personnel through the control display unit (CDU). Fuel Storage These tanks store fuel: Defuel System Man tank 1 Main tank 2 Center tank. The defuel system permits the removal of fuel from each tank. It also permits the transfer of fuel between tanks on the ground. The main tanks are in the wings. Main tank 1 is in the Left wing. Main tank 2 is in the right wing. The center tank is in the fuselage and the inboard section of each wing. Pressure Fueling System The pressure refueling system fuels each fuel tank. The P15 fueling panel, on the right wing, controls fueling operations. There is no over wing fueling capability. Engine Fuel Feed System The engine fuel feed system supplies fuel from the fuel tanks to the engines. The fuel control panel controls engine fuel feed. The engines use fuel from the center tank before the main tanks. APU Fuel Feed The APU fuel feed system supplies fuel to the APU. The APU usually receives fuel from main tank 1. However, with use of the fuel boost pump switches, any fuel tank can supply fuel to the APU.

The surge tanks collect fuel overflow only.


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FUEL SYSTEM GENERAL DESCRIPTION Fuel Quantity Indicating System The fuel quantity indicating system (FQIS) shows fuel weight of the main tanks and the center tank on the common display system (CDS) and the P15 refuel panel. Total fuel weight shows in the flight management computer system (FMCS) data on the CDU. Fuel Temperature Indicating System Main tank 1 fuel temperature shows oh the fuel control panel.

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FUEL STORAGE GENERAL DESCRIPTION Fuel Tank Arrangement These are the fuel tanks: Main tank 1 Main tank 2 Center tank.

Surge tanks collect fuel overflow only. The fuel overflow in the left wing surge tank drains to main tank 1. The fuel overflow in the right wing surge tank drains to main tank 2. If the fuel level is high enough in the surge tank fuel drains out the vent scoop. Component Location Main tank 1 is in the wing box of the left wing. Main tank 2 is in the wing box of the right wing. The center tank is in the fuselage and the left and right wing root. Capacity The capacity of main tank 1 is 8,630 lbs (3,915 kgs). The capacity of main tank 2 is 8,630 lbs (3,915 kgs). The capacity of the center tank is 28,830 lbs (13,066 kgs). Fuel tank capacity does not include surge tanks. The capacity of each surge tank is 235 lbs (107 kgs).

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FUEL STORAGE FUEL VENT SYSTEM


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FUEL STORAGE FUEL VENT SYSTEM General The fuel vent system keeps the pressure of the fuel tanks near the ambient pressure. Too large a pressure difference can cause damage to the wing structure. Drains let fuel in the vent system return to the tanks. Flame arrestors make sure excessive heat does not enter the fuel vent system. A clogged flame arrestor causes the pressure relief valve in the surge tank to open. When open, the pressure relief valve becomes another vent for the fuel vent system. Component Locations Stringers and the upper wing skin make the vent channels. The vent channels have drain float valves in the center tank. Vent tubes attach to vent channels. Each vent tube has a drain float valve. A fuel vent float valve is on the outboard fuel tank end rib in main tank 1 and main tank 2. A surge tank drain check valve is on the outboard fuel tank end rib in main tank 1 and main tank 2. The vent scoop and pressure relief valve are on an access door in each surge tank.

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FUEL STORAGE FUEL VENT SYSTEM Functional Description Vent channels and vent tubes equalize the pressure between each tank and the surge tanks when the airplane is in a climb attitude. The surge tanks are open to the atmosphere through the vent scoop. The fuel vent float valves equalize the pressure between main tank 1, main tank 2, and the surge tanks when the airplane is in a cruise or descent attitude. The drain float valves in the vent tubes and the vent channels permit fuel in the vent system to drain into the tank when the fuel level is lower than the valve. The surge tank drain check valve permits fuel in the surge tank to flow to either main tank 1 or main tank 2. The surge tank drain check valve also prevents fuel flow from main tank 1 and main tank 2 to the surge tank. The pressure relief valve prevents damage to the wing structure when there is too much positive or negative pressure in the fuel tanks. The pressure relief valve is usually closed. When closed, it is even with the bottom surface of the wing. When there is too much positive or negative pressure, the pressure relief valve opens. When it is open, part of the pressure relief valve is in the fuel tank. After it opens, the pressure relief valve stays in the open position. In the open position, the pressure relief valve supplies an additional vent in the surge tank. Pull the reset handle to move the pressure relief valve to the closed position. For normal operations, make sure the pressure relief valve is closed. An open pressure relief valve is a symptom of a problem in the fuel vent system.

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PRESSURE FUELING SYSTEM GENERAL DESCRIPTION General All tanks fill from the fueling station at the right wing. The fueling station has these components: Fueling panel Fueling manifold Fueling receptacle Fueling shutoff valves (3). External power on electrical system buses External power connected to the airplane, but not on electrical system buses APU generator Battery power (battery switch must be on).

Control The fueling station permits automatic and manual control of the fueling shutoff valves. The fueling station receives 28v dc hot battery bus power through the refueling power control relay. The relay energizes when you open the door of the fueling station. Power from the relay comes from one of these sources: Battery bus DC bus 1 Bus power control unit (BPCU) internal transformer rectifier.

The solenoid for a fueling shutoff valve energizes when you put the control switch to the OPEN position. The valve opens if fuel pressure is available. A float switch removes power to the fueling shutoff valve when the tank is full. You also remove power when you put the control switch to the CLOSE position. Without electrical power, the valve closes. There is also a manual override plunger on each fueling shutoff valve. The plunger and fuel pressure let you open the valve if the solenoid fails. Indication Three valve position lights show that there is power to the fueling shutoff valves. The light does not show that the valve is open. These lights are press-to-test. Three fueling indicators show fuel quantity in each tank.

You use the fueling indication test switch to supply an alternative ground for the refueling power control relay. You can refuel the airplane with any one of these electrical power sources:

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PRESSURE FUELING SYSTEM P15 FUELING PANEL Training Information Point If the fueling station door is open and the fueling station does not have power, move the fueling indication test switch to the FUEL DOOR SWITCH BYPASS position. This supplies hot battery bus power to the fueling station.

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PRESSURE FUELING SYSTEM FUELING MANIFOLD General These components are in the fueling manifold assembly: Fueling receptacle Fueling manifold body Fueling valves Fueling check valves Defuel port. Defuel Port The defuel port Lets you to bring fuel from each tank to the fueling manifold for fuel transfer or defueling operation.

Fuelinq Receptacle The fueling receptacle supplies a connection for the fueling hose. Fueling Manifold Body The fueling manifold body supplies fuel from the fueling receptacle to the fueling shutoff valves. Fueling Valves The fueling valves control fuel flow to the fuel tanks. A solenoid controls the valve while fuel pressure operates the valve. A manual override plunger on each valve permits manual operation. Fueling Check Valve The fueling check valves permit fueling receptacle manifold replacement without the removal of fuel from each tank.
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PRESSURE FUELING SYSTEM FUNCTIONAL DESCRIPTION POWER AND CONTROL General Power for the pressure fueling system comes from the 28v dc hot battery bus. When the fueling station receives power, the outboard fueling panel flood light and the outboard fueling nozzle flood light come on. The fueling indicators also receive power. Hot Battery Bus When the fueling panel door opens, the refueling power control relay energizes. This sends hot battery bus power to the fueling panel. Fueling Valve Open Control Fuel Indication Test Switch The fueling valves open when all of these conditions are true: There is power to the fueling panel Fueling valve control switch is in the OPEN position Fueling float switch is in the not full position The fueling valve solenoid energizes Fuel pressure is at the fueling valve. When the switch is in the FUEL DOOR SW BYPASS position, the fueling panel receives 28v dc hot battery bus power. Put the switch in the TEST GAUGES position to do a test of the fueling indicators. Fueling Valve Closed Control The fueling valves close when any of these conditions are true: Fueling panel does not have power Fueling valve control switch is in the CLOSED position Fueling float switch is in the full position No fuel pressure is at the fueling valve.

Fueling Valve Open Light - Off The fueling valve open Light goes off when there is no power to the fueling valve solenoid.

Fueling Valve Open Light - On The fueling valve open light comes on when there is power to the fueling valve solenoid. The light does not show that the fueling valve is open. The solenoid must have power and the valve must have fuel pressure to open.
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PRESSURE FUELING SYSTEM OPERATION General Fueling placards, with instructions for fueling, are on the fueling station door. Use these placards when fueling the aircraft. The fueling station receives power when the fueling station door opens. Training Information Point CAUTION: DO NOT USE WIDE CUT FUEL WHEN IT IS NOT PERMITTED. A FLAMEOUT CAN OCCUR AND ENGINE POWER CAN DECREASE SUDDENLY. Wide cut fuel is not certified for use on the Boeing 737600/700/800/900/BBJ model of the airplane. Wide cut fuel is fuel which satisfies ASTM D1655, Jet B or MIL-T-5624, JP-4. Wide cut fuel contains both kerosene and naphtha (gasoline) fractions.

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DEFUEL OPERATION General There are two ways to defuel the fuel tanks, pressure defuel and suction defuel. You can pressure defuel any tank. You can only suction defuel main tank 1 and main tank 2. You can transfer fuel between any tank. Suction defuel of main tank 1 will occur only if main tank 2 is suction defueled at the same time. When main tank 2 empties, air will be drawn into the manifold and fuel flow will stop. Pressure Defuel Fuel Transfer This is a summary of the pressure defuel procedure: Connect the refuel nozzles Move the handle on the defuel valve to the open position Turn on the boost pumps to the tank that you need to defuel Open the crossfeed valve if necessary Turn the boost pumps off when the tank is empty Move the handle on the defuel valve to the closed position Disconnect the fueling nozzles. To transfer fuel between tanks you use the defuel system, fueling system, and the engine fuel feed system. This is a summary of the fuel transfer procedure: Move the defuel valve to the open position Turn on the boost pumps in the tank you want to defuel Open the crossfeed valve Move the refuel valve switch to the open position in the tank you want to put fuel into After fuel transfer, turn the boost pumps off Close the crossfeed valve Move the defuel valve to the closed position. Suction Defuel This is a summary of the suction defuel procedure: Connect the fueling nozzles Move the handle on the defuel valve to the open position Open the crossfeed valve if necessary Start to suction fuel with the ground source When the fuel tank is empty, move the handle on the defuel valve to the closed position Disconnect the fueling nozzles.

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ENGINE FUEL FEED GENERAL DESCRIPTION


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ENGINE FUEL FEED GENERAL DESCRIPTION General The engine fuel feed system controls and supplies fuel to the engines. It uses these inputs: Fuel system panel (P5-2) Engine start switches Engine fire switches. Center Tank Boost Pump Indication A LOW PRESSURE light comes on when the center tank boost pump pressure is low and the center tank boost pump switch is in the ON position. Fuel Boost Pump A switch on the fuel system panel (P5-2) controls each forward and aft boost pump for main tank No.1 and main tank No.2. The switches control power to the pumps. Fuel Boost Pump Indication A LOW PRESSURE light comes on when the fuel boost pump pressure is low or when the boost pump switch is in the OFF position. Bypass Valve Center Tank Boost Pump Control A switch on the fuel system panel (P5-2) controls each center tank boost pump. The switches control electrical power to the pumps. A bypass valve supplies a secondary fuel flow path to the engines. The bypass valves operate automatically. Engine Fuel Spar Valve The engine fuel spar valves control fuel flow to the engines. The engine start Levers and the engine fire switches control the engine fuel spar valves.

The engine fuel feed system uses these components to supply fuel to the engines: Center tank boost pumps Forward boost pumps Aft boost pumps Bypass valve Crossfeed valve Engine fuel spar valve.

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ENGINE FUEL FEED GENERAL DESCRIPTION Fuel Spar Valve Battery The engine fuel spar valve battery makes sure that the engine fuel feed system always has power to close the engine fuel spar valve. Engine Fuel Spar Valve Indication A blue FUEL VALVE CLOSED light shows valve position. Crossfeed Valve The crossfeed valve permits a single fuel tank to supply fuel to both engines. A switch on the fuel system panel (P5-2) controls the crossfeed valve. Crossfeed Valve Indication A blue VALVE OPEN light shows valve position. Water Scavenge Ejector Pumps The water scavenge jet pumps remove water from the low points of each tank to prevent corrosion. The center tank, main tank No.1, and main tank No.2 boost pumps control the operation of the water scavenge ejector pumps.

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ENGINE FUEL FEED COMPONENT LOCATION General The engine fuel feed system has these components: Center tank boost pump (2) Forward and aft boost pump (4) Crossfeed valve Engine fuel spar valve (2) Bypass valve (2) Water scavenge ejector pump (4). Crossfeed Valve The crossfeed valve is on the right side of the center tank on the rear spar. Access to the crossfeed valve is through the right wheel well. Engine Fuel Spar Valves There is one engine fuel spar valve for each engine. The engine fuel spar valves are on the front spar outboard of each strut. Bypass Valves There is one bypass valve in main tank No.1 and No.2. The bypass valve connects to the fuel feed manifold. Water Scavenge Ejector Pumps Forward And Aft Boost Pumps There are forward and aft boost pumps in main tank No. 1 and No.2. The forward boost pumps are on the front spar. The aft boost pumps are on the rear spar. Access to the forward boost pumps is through extended krueger flaps. Access to the aft boost pumps is through the wheel wells. There is one water scavenge ejector pump in main tank No.1 and No.2. There are two water scavenge ejector pumps in the center tank. All of the water scavenge ejector pumps are on the rear spar. Fuel Shutoff Valve Battery The fuel shutoff valve battery is in the P6 panel.

Center Tank Boost Pumps There are two center tank boost pumps in the center tank. They are on the rear spar. Access to the center tank boost pumps is through the wheel wells.

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ENGINE FUEL FEED FUNCTIONAL DESCRIPTION CENTER TANK BOOST PUMP General This page shows control of the left center tank boost pump. Control of the right center tank boost pump is almost the same. Left Center Tank Boost Pump Control The center tank left boost pump switch controls the the center tank left boost pump relay. The center tank left boost pump relay controls electrical power to the left center tank boost pump. With the switch in the on position, 115v ac power goes to the relay. With the relay energized, power goes from the 115v ac transfer bus to the left center tank boost pump. With the switch in the off position, the relay no longer receives 115v ac power. With the relay not energized, the center tank boost pump no longer receives power. Pressure Indication A LOW PRESSURE light comes on when the center tank left boost pump switch is in the on position and the left center tank boost pump pressure is 22 psig or less.

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ENGINE FUEL FEED FUNCTIONAL DESCRIPTION FORWARD AND AFT BOOST PUMP General This page shows control of the left forward boost pump. Control of the left aft, right forward, and right aft boost pump is almost the same. Left Forward Boost Pump Control The tank 1 forward boost pump switch controls the tank 1 forward boost pump relay. The tank 1 forward boost pump relay controls power to the left forward boost pump. With the switch in the ON position, 115v ac power goes to the relay. With the relay energized, power goes from the 115v ac transfer bus to the left forward boost pump. With the switch in the OFF position, the relay no longer receives 115v ac power. With the relay not energized, the left forward boost pump no longer receives power. Pressure Indication A LOW PRESSURE light comes on when the tank No.1 forward boost pump pressure is 6 psig or less.

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APU FUEL FEED GENERAL DESCRIPTION General The APU fuel feed system supplies fuel from any tank to the APU. APU Fuel Feed The center tank boost pumps or the boost pumps in main tank No.1 and main tank No.2 supply fuel to the APU. If the boost pumps are off, the APU suctions fuel from main tank No.1. Control The electronic control unit (ECU) controls fuel flow to the APU. The ECU receives inputs from these items: APU master switch Fire protection system APU sensors. Fuel Supply Line and Shroud The APU fuel feed Line sends fuel from the APU fuel shutoff valve to the APU fuel control unit. A shroud collects fuel leaks from the APU fuel feed line. The shroud sends the fuel overboard through a drain mast.

The ECU uses these inputs to control the APU fuel shutoff valve. The fuel shutoff valve battery makes sure that the fuel system always has power to close the APU fuel shutoff valve.

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APU FUEL FEED COMPONENT LOCATION General The APU fuel feed system has these components: APU fuel feed line APU fuel feed Line shroud APU fuel shutoff valve.

APU Fuel Feed Line The APU fuel feed line starts in main tank 1, goes through the center tank, then aft to the APU. APU Fuel Feed Line Shroud The APU fuel feed line shroud is around the APU fuel feed line. The shroud has a drain line that connects to a drain mast on the bottom of the left wing to body fairing. APU Fuel Shutoff Valve The APU shutoff valve is on the center section rear spar.

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FUEL INDICATING GENERAL DESCRIPTION General The fuel quantity indicating system (FQIS) calculates the fuel weight in each fuel tank. The fuel quantity of each tank shows on the common display system (CDS). fuel quantity processor unit (FQPU) calculates total fuel weight and supplies this to the FMCS. Operation The fuel quantity processor unit sends excitation to and receives signals from the tank units and the compensators. The fuel quantity processor unit uses these signals to calculate fuel quantity in each tank. Each refueling indicator has an overfill indication. The quantity blinks on, then off, at a one second rate when the fuel in the tank is more than maximum rated capacity.

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FUEL INDICATING FUEL QUANTITY INDICATIONS General Individual fuel tank quantity shows on the CDS and the refuel panel. Fuel quantity shows in kilograms. Fuel Configuration Messages Fuel configuration messages show on the CDS. These messages show a problem with the configuration of the fuel system. The LOW message shows that either main tank 1 or main tank 2 has less than 2,000 lb (907 kg) of fuel. This message goes away when there is more than 2,500 lb (1133 kg) of fuel in that tank. The low fuel condition must exist for 30 seconds before the LOW message shows. The IMBAL message shows when there is a difference of 1,000 lb (453 kg) between main tank 1 and main tank 2. The message goes away when the difference between tanks is 200 lb (90 kg) or less. The IMBAL message only shows when the airplane is in the air. The IMBAL message does not show when the LOW message shows. The imbalance condition must exist for 60 seconds before the IMBAL message shows. The CONFIG message shows when these conditions exist: 1,600 lb (725 kg) or more of fuel in the center tank Both center tank boost pumps off Either engine is in operation.

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FUEL INDICATING TRAINING INFORMATION POINTS FQIS BITE TEST MAIN MENU PAGES General You use the control display units (CDU) to do troubleshooting on the fuel indicating system. The CDU shows real time and recorded system fault data. The fuel quantity processor monitors and stores the data that shows on the CDU. You can only use the CDU to see the FQIS BITE test pages when the airplane is in on the ground. Main Menu Pages The FQIS BITE test main menu pages allow you to select other FQIS BITE test pages. These are the FQIS BITE test pages: Current status Inflight faults Ground test Ident/config Input monitoring Erase fault history. Infliqht Faults Pages The inflight faults pages show recorded fuel indication system faults from previous flight legs. Ground Test Pages The ground test pages allow you test the FQIS processor. Ident/Config Pages The ident/config pages show data from the configuration of the fuel quantity processor unit. Input Monitoring Pages The input monitoring pages show real time fuel quantity data for each fuel tank. Erase Fault History Pages The erase fault history pages allow you to erase recorded fault data from the fuel quantity processor memory.

Current Status Page The current status page shows fuel indication system faults that currently exist on the airplane.

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Auxiliary Power Unit TABLE OF CONTENTS


SUBJECT CHAPTER SECTION SUBJECT PAGE

AIRBORNE AUXILIARY POWER INTRODUCTION........................................................................................................................................... 49-00-00.............. 02 AIRBORNE AUXILIARY POWER COMPONENT LOCATION ........................................................................................................................... 49-00-00.............. 06 AIRBORNE AUXILIARY POWER OPERATION START ................................................................................................................................. 49-00-00.............. 08 AIRBORNE AUXILIARY POWER OPERATION SHUTDOWN........................................................................................................................ 49-00-00.............. 10 AIRBORNE AUXILIARY POWER PROTECTIVE SHUTDOWN ......................................................................................................................... 49-00-00.............. 12 AIRBORNE AUXILIARY POWER INDICATIONS ............................................................................................................................................... 49-00-00.............. 14 AIRBORNE AUXILIARY POWER APU ACCESS AND SERVICING ................................................................................................................. 49-00-00.............. 16 AIRBORNE AUXILIARY POWER APU COOLING ............................................................................................................................................. 49-00-00.............. 18 APU POWER PLANT INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................................................................................. 49-10-00.............. 20 APU ENGINE INTRODUCTION.......................................................................................................................................................................... 49-20-00.............. 22 APU ENGINE TRAINING INFORMATION POINT APU BOROSCOPE .......................................................................................................... 49-20-00.............. 24 APU FUEL SYSTEM GENERAL DESCRIPTION ............................................................................................................................................... 49-30-00.............. 26 APU FUEL SYSTEM FUEL CONTROL UNIT FUNCTIONAL DESCRIPTION ................................................................................................ 49-30-00.............. 28 APU IGNITION AND START SYSTEM SPU AND SCU GENERAL DESCRIPTION ......................................................................................... 49-40-00.............. 32 APU IGNITION AND START SYSTEM FUNCTIONAL DESCRIPTION ............................................................................................................. 49-40-00.............. 34 APU BLEED AIR SYSTEM FUNCTIONAL DESCRIPTION................................................................................................................................ 49-50-00.............. 38 APU EXHAUST SYSTEM EXHAUST DUCT ...................................................................................................................................................... 49-80-00.............. 40 APU LUBRIFICATION SYSTEM FUNCTIONAL DESCRIPTION ....................................................................................................................... 49-90-00.............. 42 APU CONTROLS ELECTRONIC CONTROL UNIT TRAINING INFORMATION POINTS MAIN MENU ..................................................... 49-60-00.............. 44

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AIRBORNE AUXILIARY POWER INTRODUCTION


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AIRBORNE AUXILIARY POWER INTRODUCTION Purpose The AlliedSignal 131-9(B) auxiliary power unit (APU) supplies electrical and pneumatic power to other airplane systems. This permits these airplane systems to operate without the use of ground power sources or the engines. The APU can also supply electrical and pneumatic power in the air. Altitude Operational Limits The APU generator can supply 90 KVA electrical power up to 32,000 feet (9,754 meters) and 66 KVA to 41,000 feet (12,500 meters). Electrical and pneumatic power is available at the same time up to 10,000 feet (3,048 meters). Pneumatic power alone is available up to 17,000 feet (5,183 meters). The APU can be started at 41,000 feet or below. Abbreviations and Acronyms APB APU ACS BAT BAV BPCU CDU DP DMM DEU
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- auxiliary power breaker - auxiliary power unit - air conditioning system - battery - bleed air valve - bus power control unit - control display unit - differential pressure - data memory module - display electronic unit

DFDAU DU ECU EGT FCU FMV AGCU HOT IGV KVA LOP LVDT LRU MES OLS P2 PPH PPM PSI PSIA PSID PSIG PT PWR RPM RTL RVDT

- digital flight data acquisition unit - display unit - electronic control unit - exhaust gas temperature - fuel control unit - fuel metering valve - APU generator control unit - high oil temperature - inlet guide vane - kilovolt-ampere - low oil pressure - linear variable differential transformer - line replaceable unit - main engine start - oil level sensor - inlet pressure - pounds per hour - pounds per minute - pounds per square inch - pounds per square inch absolute - pounds per square inch differential - pounds per square inch gage - total pressure - power - revolutions per minute - ready to load - rotary variable differential transformer

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AIRBORNE AUXILIARY POWER INTRODUCTION SCU SCV SHP SPU SPA T2 T/M - starter converter unit - surge control valve - shaft horsepower - start power unit - station - inlet temperature - torque motor

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AIRBORNE AUXILIARY POWER COMPONENT LOCATION General The APU is in the aft fuselage of the airplane. A firewall isolates the APU compartment from the airplane fuselage and horizontal stabilizer assembly. Air Inlet These APU components are in the flight compartment: The APU air inlet is on the right side of the aft fuselage. It is forward and below the horizontal stabilizer. Doors The APU access door at the bottom of the APU compartment is for servicing and maintenance. Electronic Control Unit (ECU) The APU electronic control unit (ECU) is in the aft cargo compartment. It is on the right side of the compartment, aft of the cargo door. Electronic Equipment Compartment These APU components are in the EE compartment: APU generator control unit (AGCU) Start power unit (SPU) Start converter unit (SCU). APU switch (APU/engine start panel P5) APU bleed air switch -(air conditioning panel P5) APU generator switches -(AC system generator/APU control panel P5) APU EGT indicator and APU indication lights -(AC system generator/APU control panel P5) APU light (system annunciator lights P7) APU fire warning switch (Engine and APU fire protection panel) (P8). Right Wheel Well The APU ground control panel (P28) and fire alarm horn are in the right main wheel well, on the aft bulkhead. Flight Compartment

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AIRBORNE AUXILIARY POWER OPERATION START General You can start the APU up to an altitude of 41,000 feet (12,500 meters). The APU electronic control unit (ECU) controls these components during start: APU inlet door APU fuel shutoff valve APU fuel Ignition system APU start system. APU Start Sequence The ECU controls the APU start sequence. This is the start sequence: At 0 percent speed and before the start system is energized, the ECU energizes the ignition unit At 0 percent speed for start or 7 percent speed for restart, the ECU energizes the starter-generator At 7 percent speed the fuel solenoid valve opens At approximately 30 percent speed, the low oil pressure light (P5) goes out At 60 percent speed the ignition unites deenergizes At 70 percent speed, the starter-generator deenergizes At 95 percent speed, the APU can supply electrical power up to 41,000 feet (12,500 metes) the APU can also supply air up to 17,000 feet.(5183 meters) The APU accelerates to 100 percent s
NOTE: The inlet guide vanes (IGV) close to 15 degrees when the APU bleed air valve is closed this will keep the load compressor cool when it does not have a load.

Pre-start The battery switch must be ON before you can start and operate the APU. If AC power is available, turn the aft number 1 fuel boost pump on. This gives pressurized fuel to the APU. Pressurized fuel makes the APU start better. Starting the APU When you move the APU switch to the START position and release it, the switch moves back to the ON position. This sends a signal to the electronic control unit (ECU). The ECU then opens the APU fuel shut-off valve and the APU air inlet door. The ECU also causes the low oil pressure light to come on. When the air inlet door is fully open, the door switch closes. The door switch sends a door fully open signal to the ECU.
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Training Information Point The BAT DISCHARGE light on the electrical meters battery, and galley power module comes on when the APU start uses DC power. The BAT DISCHARGE light does not come on when the APU uses AC power to start.

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AIRBORNE AUXILIARY POWER OPERATION SHUTDOWN General The ECU controls the APU shutdown. The APU has two types of shutdowns, normal shutdown and protective shutdown. APU Switch to OFF When you put the APU switch to OFF, it removes the 28v dc ON signal to the ECU and gives a 28v dc OFF signal to the ECU. APU Cool Down An APU shutdown causes a cool down cycle. The cool down cycle time is 60 seconds. The time starts when the APU switch is put to the OFF position. The ECU does these steps for a cool down: Removes the ready-to-Load signal Closes the bleed air valve Closes the inlet guide vanes (15 degrees) Opens the surge control valve Deenergizes the starter-generator Starts the 60 second timer. At 30 percent speed, the APU air inlet door starts to close (closes immediately for APU fire). At less than 7 percent speed, an APU restart can be initiated.

Training Information Point The APU fuel shutoff valve and air inlet door will close for a normal or protective shutdown 40 seconds after the EGT goes below 300 C for the inlet door and fuel shutoff valve to close before you move the battery switch to the OFF position. Do not use the battery switch or fire switches to begin a normal APU shutdown. The 60 second cool down is required to prevent coke in the turbine bearing and fuel nozzles. If the fuel shutoff valve does not close required time, the APU FAULT Light will come on and stay on until the APU is started again or the battery switch is put in the off position. See the APU engine controls section for more information on APU faults.(AMM PART I 49 60)

Completion of the Shutdown During shutdown of the APU, these steps occur:

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AIRBORNE AUXILIARY POWER PROTECTIVE SHUTDOWN General A protective shutdown prevents damage to the APU or the airplane. The ECU controls an automatic protective shutdown of the APU. If the ECU finds a fault, it does a protective shutdown. There are three different protective shutdown indications in the flight deck. These are the flight compartment protective shutdown indications: Fault light Overspeed light Low oil pressure light. No speed signal No acceleration No APU rotation No flame Generator filter clogged High oil temperature Overtemperature Reverse flow (load compressor) Oil temperature or inlet air temperature sensor failure Underspeed.

These are the conditions that cause a protective shutdown and an overspeed light: Fuel control unit solenoid failure Loss of overspeed protection Overspeed.

The cause for the shutdown shows on the control display unit (CDU) on the P9 panel. Protective Shutdown These are the conditions that cause a protective shutdown and a fault light: Fuel shutoff valve not in commanded position Loss of dc power ECU failure APU fire Inlet door not in command position APU inlet overheat Loss of both EGT signals

Low oil pressure for 20 seconds causes a protective shutdown and a Low oil pressure light. When a protective shutdown occurs, the ECU removes electrical power from these components: Fuel solenoid Ignitor SCU Start signal Bleed air valve (BAV) Fuel control unit (FCU) signal Surge control valve (SCV) signal.

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AIRBORNE AUXILIARY POWER INDICATIONS General The APU has four indication lights and an EGT indicator on the APU indicator panel. These are the four lights: MAINTENANCE - no automatic shutdown (blue) LOW OIL PRESSURE - automatic shutdown (amber) FAULT - automatic shutdown (amber) OVERSPEED - automatic shutdown (amber).

The control display unit (CDU) shows this APU system data: Current status Fault history Maintenance history Ident/config Input monitoring (real time data) Oil quantity.

Training Information Point You must have 115v ac power from the transfer bus to operate the CDU. The APU indication lights operate on 28v dc power.

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AIRBORNE AUXILIARY POWER APU ACCESS AND SERVICING APU Access Open the APU cowl door on the bottom of the aft fuselage to get access to the APU compartment. Release three latches on the left side to open the APU cowl door. The APU access door opens to the right on two hinges. Connect the hold open rods to keep the door open safely. APU Oil Servicing Add oil to the APU fill port on the left side of the accessory gear case. There are two FULL and ADD marks on the oil sight gage. The left side of the oil sight gage shows the oil level during APU operation. The right side of the oil sight gage shows the oil level for no APU operation (APU shutdown). The CDU shows the APU oil quantity with a FULL, ADD, or LOW indication. Training Information Point Servicing of the APU should only be done with the APU shutdown.

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AIRBORNE AUXILIARY POWER APU COOLING General The APU cooling air system cools the APU compartment and the APU engine oil. Compartment Cooling APU compartment cooling uses an eductor to pull outside air through the APU compartment. The high speed flow of the APU exhaust forms a low pressure area. This low pressure pulls outside air through the eductor inlet duct to the APU compartment. The cooling air then goes through the oil cooler and out the APU exhaust duct. See the APU oil section for more information on the oil cooler.(AMM PART I 149-90)

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APU POWER PLANT AUXILIARY POWER UNIT INTRODUCTION General These are the major components for the auxiliary power unit: Fuel manifolds Fuel nozzles Oil cooler Starter-generator Bleed air valve (BAV) Inlet guide vane actuator (IGVA) Pressure sensors Ignition unit Surge control valve (SCV) Data memory module (DMM) Lube module Fuel control unit (FCU) APU engine.

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APU ENGINE INTRODUCTION Purpose The APU engine supplies power to operate the load compressor and the APU starter-generator. General Description The APU engine has these main sections: Accessory gear box Single stage load compressor Single stage engine compressor Combustor chamber Two stage axial flow turbine.

All the components in the engine that turn are on a common shaft. The shaft turns the accessory gearbox and the load compressor. The accessory gear box turns the APU generator and other components. The engine operates at a constant speed to provide 400 Hz generator output. The APU engine also supplies air for airplane systems. An inlet screen prevents foreign object damage (FOD) to the APU compressors.

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APU ENGINE TRAINING INFORMATION POINT APU BORESCOPE Boroscope Inspection Ports These components have boroscope inspection access: Load compressor Engine compressor Combustor chamber Turbine section.

Engine Manual Rotation To boroscope the compressor and turbine, you turn the APU engine main shaft. To do this, remove the access plug in the airoil separator housing on the front of the gearbox and insert a 1/4inch hex drive with a 6-inch extension.

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APU FUEL SYSTEM GENERAL DESCRIPTION General Description The airplane fuel system AC boost pumps supply fuel for APU operation. The fuel goes through the APU fuel shutoff valve on the left wing aft spar. The ac boost pumps can supply fuel from any tank. If the AC boost pumps do not supply fuel, the APU suction feeds from the left main tank. See the APU fuel fed system for more information. (AMM PART 128-25) The ECU calculates the correct fuel flow for APU start and run. The ECU uses these values to calculate the correct fuel flow: APU speed APU exhaust gas temperature (EGT) Inlet temperature (T2) Inlet pressure (P2) Fuel temperature. divider solenoid send the metered fuel from the FCU to the primary and secondary fuel manifolds. The fuel manifolds give primary and secondary fuel to ten dual tipped fuel nozzles. The nozzles give the metered fuel to the APU combustor. Component Location Most fuel system components are part of the fuel control unit. The fuel control unit attaches to the lube module. These are the APU fuel system components not in the fuel control unit: Flow divider Flow divider solenoid Primary fuel manifold Secondary fuel manifold Fuel nozzles.

The ECU sends the fuel flow command signal to the fuel control unit (FCU) on the APU. The FCU sends the correct fuel flow to the flow divider and flow divider solenoid. The flow divider solenoid gets a signal from the ECU to inhibit fuel flow to the secondary fuel manifold. The flow divider and flow

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APU FUEL SYSTEM FUEL CONTROL UNIT FUNCTIONAL DESCRIPTION


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APU FUEL SYSTEM FUEL CONTROL UNIT FUNCTIONAL DESCRIPTION General Fuel for the APU fuel control unit (FCU) comes from the airplane fuel system. The APU FCU supplies fuel for combustion and servo fuel to operate the inlet guide vane actuator (IGVA) and the surge control valve (SCV). The FCU includes these components: Inlet filter High pressure fuel pump Pump relief valve High pressure filter Differential pressure regulator Torque motor metering valve Pressurizing valve and flow meter Actuator pressure regulator Fuel solenoid valve Fuel temperature sensor. High Pressure Filter The high pressure filter removes contamination caused by the gear pump. Actuator Pressure Regulator The actuator pressure regulator keeps actuator fuel pressure at 250 psid. The FCU uses actuator fuel pressure to operate the inlet guide vane actuator and surge control valve. Differential Pressure Regulator The differential pressure regulator holds a constant differential pressure of 50 psid across the metering valve. Fuel Metering Valve The torque motor metering valve is an electrohydraulic servo valve. It controls the amount of fuel to the combustion chamber. Flow Meter Pressurizing Valve And Flow Meter The flow meter pressurizing valve keeps a 50 psi decrease in fuel pressure from the fuel metering valve to the fuel shutoff solenoid. A resolver attaches to the valve to measure valve position. The ECU uses this signal to find the fuel flow to the APU combustor.

Inlet Filter The inlet filter removes contamination before the fuel goes into the high pressure gear pump. High Pressure Fuel Pump and Pump Relief Valve A shaft from the lube module turns the high pressure fuel pump. The pump gives high pressure fuel for use in the FCU. The pump relief valve keeps fuel pressure below 950 psi.
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APU FUEL SYSTEM FUEL CONTROL UNIT FUNCTIONAL DESCRIPTION Fuel Solenoid Valve The fuel solenoid valve controls the fuel flow from the fuel control unit. The fuel solenoid valve is spring loaded closed. During APU start, the ECU energizes the solenoid at 7 percent speed. This opens the fuel solenoid valve. During shutdown, the ECU deenergizes the solenoid. The fuel solenoid valve closes. This shutdown sequence is the same for normal or protective shutdown. Fuel Temperature Sensor The fuel temperature sensor is a resistive temperature device (RTD). The fuel temperature sensor gives a fuel temperature signal to the ECU.

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APU IGNITION AND START SYSTEM SPU AND SCU GENERAL DESCRIPTION Start Power Unit The start power unit changes 115v ac or 28v dc electrical power to 270v dc power. Transfer bus 1 or the battery supplies power to the start power unit (SPU). The SPU gives fault data to the ECU through the SCU for display on the CDU. The (SPU) is in the EE compartment on the E2-2 shelf. Start Converter Unit The start converter unit (SCU)converts the 270v dc power to AC and sends it to the starter-generator. The SCU gives fault data to the ECU for display on the CDU. The SCU is in the EE compartment on the E2-2 shelf. See the electrical chapter for more information about the APU starter-generator generate function.(AMM PART I 24) Start Control The electronic control unit sends a signal to the start converter unit when the air inlet door is fully open. The start converter unit tells the start power unit to supply the 270v dc .The start converter unit changes the 270v dc to ac power for the operation
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of the starter-generator. At 70 percent speed, the electronic control unit removes the start signal from the start converter unit. With the start signal off, the SCU and the SPU removes power from the starter-generator. Training Information Point The maximum duty cycle for the SPU and SCU is three starts, one after the other, followed by a 15 minute cool down period. If you do too many starts one after the other the SCU and SPU will get too hot and stop the APU start. More starts are possible after the SCU and SPU cool. You access the SCU terminal block for the AC power feeder wires from the back of the SCU. You remove the panel behind the E2 rack from the forward cargo compartment to access the back of the SCU.

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APU IGNITION AND START SYSTEM FUNCTIONAL DESCRIPTION


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APU IGNITION AND START SYSTEM FUNCTIONAL DESCRIPTION General To start the APU, put the APU switch to the START position and release the switch to the ON position. This signals the ECU to begin the start cycle. Electrical Power These are the electrical power sources for the ignition and start system function: 24/28v dc battery 24/28v dc switched hot battery bus 115v ac standby bus 115v ac transfer bus 1. If the air inlet door is open and the APU speed is less than 7 percent, the ECU sends a start signal to the SCU. If the APU speed is more than 7 percent, the ECU waits until the speed is less than 7 percent. If 115v ac is available on transfer bus 1, the SCU sends a start signal to the ac to dc converter in the SPU. The ac to dc converter gives 270v dc power to the SCU. If 115v ac is not available on transfer bus 1, the SCU sends a start signal to the dc to dc converter in the SPU. The dc to dc converter gives 270v dc to the SCU. The SCU also has a control function to prevent the DC to DC converter from depleting the battery below limits (18v dc on ground, 20v dc in air) during a DC start attempt. The proximity switch electronics unit (PSEU) provides the air/ground input. The dc to ac converter in the SCU changes the 270v dc power from the SPU into three-phase start power. This power goes to the starter-generator. The starter-generator turns the APU turbine shaft. The SCU receives startergenerator rotor position from the starter-generator resolver. The SCU uses this signal to synchronize the three-phase start power to the starter-generator rotor position. At 7 percent speed, the ECU energizes the fuel solenoid which supplies fuel for combustion. At approximately 30 percent speed, oil pressure goes above 30-40 psi. The oil pressure switch removes the low oil pressure signal. The ECU turns off the low oil pressure light.

Ignition/Starting Function Sequence This is the APU start sequence: The start sequence starts when the APU switch is put to the START position and released to the ON position. The ECU turns on the oil pressure light on the P5 panel when the ECU receives the start signal. The low oil pressure light goes out at 30-40 psi oil pressure. The ECU opens the APU fuel shutoff valve and air inlet door. The inlet door switch sends a door open signal to the ECU when the air inlet door is open. At 0 percent speed and before the start system is energized, the ECU energizes the ignition unit.

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APU IGNITION AND START SYSTEM FUNCTIONAL DESCRIPTION At 60 percent speed, the ECU deenergizes the ignition unit. At 70 percent speed, the ECU removes the start signal from the SCU. The SCU removes the start signal from the SPU ac to dc and dc to dc converters. This deenergizes the starter-generator. At 95 percent speed, plus two seconds, the ECU gives the ready to load (RTL) signal to other airplane systems. This signals the airplane systems that the APU is ready to accept pneumatic and electrical loads.

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APU BLEED AIR SYSTEM FUNCTIONAL DESCRIPTION Purpose The APU bleed air system supplies air to the airplane pneumatic system. The APU uses surge bleed to prevent load compressor surges. APU Bleed Air System APU Surge Bleed The ECU controls the APU bleed air system. These are the components of the bleed air system: Load compressor Inlet guide vanes Inlet guide vane actuator Bleed air valve Pressure sensors Surge control valve. Load compressor surge protection is on during all APU operations. The surge control valve gives this protection. The ECU controls the surge control valve by a torque motor. The ECU calculates the correct position of the surge control valve with APU and airplane operating parameters. The ECU sends a open signal to the APU bleed air valve, when the APU is at 95 percent speed and the APU bleed switch is in the ON position. Electric power controls the bleed air valve and air pressure operates it.

The load compressor supplies airflow to the airplane pneumatic system. The inlet guide vanes control the amount of air to the load compressor. The inlet guide vane actuator operates the inlet guide vanes. The inlet guide vane actuator receives commands from the ECU and uses fuel pressure for operation.

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APU EXHAUST SYSTEM EXHAUST DUCT Purpose The APU exhaust system sends the APU exhaust overboard through the exhaust duct. The exhaust system prevents APU compartment damage from high exhaust gas temperatures and decreases exhaust noise levels. Components The APU exhaust duct attaches to the APU turbine section with a V-band clamp. These are the major components of the exhaust duct: Drain fitting V-band clamp flange Bellows assembly Fluid drip ring Baffle Acoustic liner Outer skin Insulation blanket Aft support leaf spring.

Training Information Point You remove the exhaust duct from the tail section to do maintenance on the duct.

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APU LUBRICATION SYSTEM FUNCTIONAL DESCRIPTION General The APU lubrication system supplies pressurized oil to cool, clean, and lubricate APU components and the APU generator. A scavenge system returns the oil to the reservoir in the gearbox. Supply Oil pumps in the lube module, pump oil from the reservoir in the gearbox. Pressurized oil from the lube module goes to the oil cooler and then returns to the lube module. The lube module cleans the oil and controls the oil pressure. These components supply data to the ECU: Oil pressure switch Oil level sensor Oil temperature sensor Generator filter pressure switch. starter-generator through the scavenge filter and back to the gearbox reservoir. Vent An air-oil separator separates the air that mixes with the oil in the scavenge system. The air-oil separator is on the right side of the lube module on the gearbox. Air that goes by the bearing cavities and mixes with the scavenge oil goes through the air-oil separator. Through centrifugal action, the air-oil separator returns the oil to the sump in the gearbox and the air vents overboard. The air vents overboard through the APU exhaust duct. Training Information Point The air-oil separator is not a line replaceable component.

The oil goes to these areas: APU starter-generator Gearbox bearings and gears Turbine bearing compartment.

Scavenge pumps in the lube module send the oil from the turbine bearing compartment back to the gear box reservoir. Other scavenge pump elements send the scavenge oil from the APU
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APU CONTROLS ELECTRONIC CONTROL UNIT TRAINING INFORMATION POINTS MAIN MENU General The APU built in test equipment (BITE) data shows on the control display unit (CDU). To see the APU BITE TEST page you select the line select key next to APU on the MAINT BITE INDEX. To return to the MAINT BITE INDEX, you select the line select key next to INDEX. You also can select the INIT/REF key from any screen in APU CDU BITE to return to the MAINT BITE INDEX. It can take up to 10 seconds for the first APU screen to show on the CDU. This delay occurs because the ECU does a power-up test each time it is energized. APU Display on the CDU APU data shows on one of these six pages: Current status Fault history Maintenance history Ident / config Input monitoring Oil quantity. You see the FAULT HISTORY page in place of the MAIN MENU if the last APU shutdown was a protective shutdown. FAULT HISTORY page gives the cause for the protective shutdown. You see the CURRENT STATUS page in place of the MAIN MENU if the APU MAINT light is on and the last APU shutdown was normal. The CURRENT STATUS page gives the cause of the MAINT light.

You see the MAIN MENU when you select APU from the MAINT BITE INDEX if the last APU shutdown was normal and the APU MAINT light is off.
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Engine Systems TABLE OF CONTENTS


CHAPTER SECTION SUBJECT

SUBJECT

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POWER PLANT INTRODUCTION.................................................................................................................................................................... 71-00-00.............. 04 SPECIFICATIONS ................................................................................................................................................................. 71-00-00.............. 06 ENGINE HAZARDS ............................................................................................................................................................... 71-00-00.............. 08 ENGINE MOUNTS................................................................................................................................................................. 71-00-00.............. 10 ELECTRICAL HARNESSES.................................................................................................................................................. 71-00-00.............. 12 ENGINE DRAINS................................................................................................................................................................... 71-00-00.............. 14 ENGINE COWLING ............................................................................................................................................................... 71-11-00.............. 16 FAN COWL ............................................................................................................................................................................ 71-11-00.............. 18 ENGINE GENERAL DESCRIPTION ................................................................................................................................................................. 72-00-00.............. 20 MAIN ENGINE BEARINGS................................................................................................................................................................. 72-00-00.............. 24 ACCESSORY DRIVE COMPONENT LOCATIONS ........................................................................................................................ 72-00-00.............. 26 ENGINE INDICATING INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................................................................................ 77-00-00.............. 28 GENERAL DESCRIPTION............................................................................................................................................. 77-00-00.............. 30 ENGINE TACHOMETER SYSTEM GENERAL DESCRIPTION................................................................................. 77-11-00.............. 32 ENGINE TACHOMETER SYSTEM FUNCTIONAL DESCRIPTION........................................................................... 77-11-00.............. 34 EXHAUST GAS TEMPERATURE (EGT) INDICATING SYSTEM GENERAL DESCRIPTION .................................. 77-21-00.............. 38 EXHAUST GAS TEMPERATURE (EGT) INDICATING SYSTEM FUNCTIONAL DESCRIPTION ............................ 77-21-00.............. 40 TRAINING INFORMATION POINTS ENGINE EXCEEDANCES ............................................................................... 77-00-00.............. 44 AIRBORNE VIBRATION MONITORING (AVM) SYSTEM GENERAL DESCRIPTION.............................................. 77-31-00.............. 46 AVM SYSTEM COMPONENT LOCATION ................................................................................................................. 77-31-00.............. 48 AVM SYSTEM AVM SIGNAL CONDITIONER BITE SELF TEST TRAINING INFORMATION POINT ............... 77-31-00.............. 50 ENGINE CONTROLS INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................................................................................. 76-00-00.............. 52 GENERAL DESCRIPTION.............................................................................................................................................. 76-00-00.............. 54 START LEVER FUNCTIONAL DESCRIPTION ........................................................................................................... 76-00-00.............. 56 REVERSE THRUST INTERLOCK SOLENOIDS ............................................................................................................ 76-00-00.............. 58

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ENGINE FUEL AND CONTROL INTRODUCTION............................................................................................................................................. 73-00-00.............. 60 GENERAL DESCRIPTION ............................................................................................................................. 73-00-00.............. 64 DISTRIBUTION COMPONENT LOCATION ................................................................................................ 73-11-00.............. 68 DISTRIBUTION FUNCTIONAL DESCRIPTION .......................................................................................... 73-11-00.............. 70 ENGINE CONTROL GENERAL DESCRIPTION......................................................................................... 73-21-00.............. 72 ENGINE CONTROL COMPONENT LOCATION LEFT SIDE................................................................... 73-21-00.............. 74 ENGINE CONTROL COMPONENT LOCATION RIGHT SIDE ................................................................ 73-21-00.............. 76 ENGINE CONTROL ELECTRONIC ENGINE CONTROL ........................................................................... 73-21-00.............. 78 ENGINE CONTROL EEC ELECTRICAL POWER SUPPLY FUNCIONAL DESCRIPTION .................... 73-21-00.............. 84 ENGINE CONTROL HMU FUNCTIONAL DESCRIPTION....................................................................... 73-21-00.............. 88 ENGINE CONTROL ENGINE CONTROL LIGHT AND EEC SWITCHES .................................................. 73-21-00.............. 92 ENGINE CONTROL TRAINING INFORMATION POINT EEC BITE INDICATIONS ............................ 73-21-00.............. 94 ENGINE CONTROL TRAINING INFORMATION POINT EEC BITE MAIN MENU............................... 73-21-00.............. 98 FUEL INDICATING GENERAL DESCRIPTION .......................................................................................... 73-30-00.............. 100 ENGINE AIR INTRODUCTION ........................................................................................................................................................................... 75-00-00.............. 104 GENERAL DESCRIPTION........................................................................................................................................................... 75-00-00.............. 106 FUNCTIONAL DESCRIPTION ..................................................................................................................................................... 75-00-00.............. 110 HIGH PRESSURE TURBINE ACTIVE CLEARANCE CONTROL (HPTACC) COMPONENT LOCATION.............................. 75-21-00.............. 112 LOW PRESSURE TURBINE ACTIVE CLEARANCE CONTROL (LPTACC) COMPONENT LOCATION ............................... 75-22-00.............. 114 VARIABLE STATOR VANE (VSV) COMPONENT LOCATION................................................................................................ 75-31-00.............. 116 VARIABLE BLEED VALVE (VBV) COMPONENT LOCATION................................................................................................. 75-32-00.............. 118 TRANSIENT BLEED VALVE (TBV) COMPONENT LOCATION .............................................................................................. 75-23-00.............. 120 ENGINE OIL INTRODUCTION .......................................................................................................................................................................... 79-00-00.............. 122 GENERAL DESCRIPTION........................................................................................................................................................... 79-00-00.............. 124 STORAGE OIL TANK................................................................................................................................................................ 79-10-00.............. 126 STORAGE TRAINING INFORMATION POINTS SERVICING .............................................................................................. 79-10-00.............. 128 DISTRIBUTION COMPONENT LOCATIONS........................................................................................................................... 79-20-00.............. 130 INDICATING GENERAL DESCRIPTION.................................................................................................................................. 79-30-00.............. 132 EFFECTIVITY YB202
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ENGINE IGNITION INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................................................................ 74-00-00.............. 134 GENERAL DESCRIPTION ................................................................................................................................................. 74-00-00.............. 136 ENGINE COMPONENT LOCATION .................................................................................................................................. 74-00-00.............. 138 FLIGHT COMPARTMENT COMPONENT LOCATIONS ................................................................................................... 74-00-00.............. 140 OPERATION....................................................................................................................................................................... 74-00-00.............. 142 TRAINING INFORMATION POINT .................................................................................................................................... 74-00-00.............. 146 ENGINE STARTING INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................................................................................. 80-00-00.............. 148 GENERAL DESCRIPTION.............................................................................................................................................. 80-00-00.............. 150 COMPONENT LOCATIONS ENGINE ......................................................................................................................... 80-00-00.............. 152 COMPONENT LOCATIONS FLIGHT COMPARTMENT AND EE COMPARTMENT ................................................. 80-00-00.............. 154 FUNCTIONAL DESCRIPTION ........................................................................................................................................ 80-00-00.............. 156 OPERATION.................................................................................................................................................................... 80-00-00.............. 160 ENGINE EXHAUST SYSTEM INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................................................ 78-00-00.............. 162 GENERAL DESCRIPTION................................................................................................................................. 78-00-00.............. 164 TURBINE EXHAUST SYSTEM INTRODUCTION .......................................................................................... 78-11-00.............. 166 THRUST REVERSER THRUST REVERSER OPENING ACTUATOR .......................................................... 78-31-00.............. 168 THRUST REVERSER TENSION LATCHES .................................................................................................. 78-31-00.............. 172 THRUST REVERSER DEACTIVATION FOR FLIGHT DISPATCH TRAINING INFORMATION POINTS . 78-31-00.............. 174 THRUST REVERSER CONTROL SYSTEM GENERAL DESCRIPTION ...................................................... 78-34-00.............. 176 THRUST REVERSER CONTROL SYSTEM COMPONENT LOCATIONS .................................................... 78-34-00.............. 180 THRUST REVERSER CONTROL SYSTEM FUNCTIONAL DESCR. DEPLOY/STOW HYD FLOW ......... 78-34-00.............. 182 THRUST REVERSER CONTROL SYSTEM EAU TRAINING INFORMATION POINT .............................. 78-34-00.............. 186 THRUST REVERSER INDICATING SYSTEM GENERAL DESCRIPTION ................................................... 78-36-00.............. 188 THRUST REVERSER INDICATING SYSTEM TRAINING INFORMATION POINT....................................... 78-36-00.............. 192

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POWER PLANT INTRODUCTION General Two CFM56 7B engines supply thrust for the airplane. The engines also supply power for these systems: Electric Hydraulic Pneumatic Acronyms and Abbreviations C Celsius cm centimeters ft feet HMU hydromechanical unit HPTACC high pressure turbine active clearance control LPTACC low pressure turbine active clearance control IDG integrated drive generator in inches kg kilograms lbs pounds m meters RPM revolutions per minute TBV transient bleed valve VBV variable bleed valve VSV variable stator vanes

The CFM56 7B is a high bypass ratio, dual rotor, turbo fan engine. Power Plant The power plant has these parts: Engine mounts Engine cowling Wire harnesses Engine vents and drains.

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POWER PLANT SPECIFICATIONS General General engine data for the CFM56 7B engine is shown. These items show on the engine nameplate: Regulatory agency data Engine manufacture data Engine performance data. Six additional rows are available to show changes to the engine. This permits six different thrust rating changes before you must replace the nameplate. The nameplate also shows the thrust rating history of the engine. The engine nameplate is on the right fan case aft of the oil tank. Engine Thrust Ratings and Aircraft Model Application A limited number of the six engine thrust rating configurations are applicable to a 737 model. The different engine thrust ratings are based upon airplane weight and elevator/rudder control limits. The longer-body 737-800 and 737-900 models can operate at the maximum thrust capability of the CFM56-7B engine. Also, the lowest thrust rating is not sufficient for the 737-700, 737-800, 737-900. The table below shows the relationship of the engine thrust ratings to the aircraft model. Aircraft Models The normal models are 737-600, -700, -800, and -900. Some other variations can be 737-700 IGW (increased gross weight), and 737-700 BBJ (Boeing business jet).

The regulatory agency data blocks used depend upon where the engine was assembled. For engines assembled by G.E. the two upper right blocks will be used. For engines assembled by SNECMA, the two upper left blocks will be used. The serial number will be filled every time. The first line of seven blocks will be filled at the assemble plant. The version of the engine will be in the CONFIG space. The second and third blocks show takeoff and Max continuous thrust in Metric (daN) thrust ratings. The fourth and fifth blocks show takeoff thrust and the Max continuous thrust in pounds (Lb). Block six shows the N1 trim applied to that engine. The last block is for service bulletins applied to this engine. The lower three blocks show the manufacturer data. The second block shows the manufacturer of the engine. For engines assemble by General Electric, the block shows G.E. CO. Engines assembled by SNECMA, the block shows SNECMA.

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POWER PLANT ENGINE HAZARDS General Exhaust Velocity It is dangerous to work around engines. Use the entry/exit corridor when the engine is in operation. Also, stay out of the inlet and exhaust areas when the engine is in operation. CAUTION: PERFORM F.O.D. WALK IN FRONT OF AND AROUND ENGINE INGESTION AREA PRIOR TO ENGINE START. These are the hazards around an engine in operation: Inlet suction Exhaust heat Exhaust velocity Engine noise. Exhaust velocity is very high for long distances behind the engine. This can cause damage to personnel and equipment. Engine Noise Engine noise can cause temporary and permanent loss of your ability to hear. You must wear ear protection when near an engine in operation. Engine Entry/Exit Corridor Engine entry corridors are between the inlet hazard areas and the exhaust hazard areas. You should go near an engine in operation only when: The engine is at idle You can speak with people in the flight compartment.

Inlet Suction Engine inlet suction, can pull people and large objects into the engine. At idle power, the inlet hazard area is a 13 ft (4.0 m) radius around the inlet. WARNING:IF THE WIND IS OVER 25 KNOTS, INCREASE THE INLET HAZARD AREA BY 20%. Exhaust Heat The engine exhaust is very hot for long distances behind the engine. This can cause damage to personnel and equipment.
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For additional safety, wear a safety harness when the engine is in operation. Training Information Point Usually, when the engine is in operation, the anti-collision lights are on.

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POWER PLANT ENGINE MOUNTS General There is a forward and aft engine mount. Each engine mount attaches the engine to the strut. The forward engine mount attaches to the fan frame. The aft engine mount attaches to the turbine frame.

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POWER PLANT ELECTRICAL HARNESSES General The engine electrical harnesses connect at the fan cowl support beam. The electrical harnesses that connect on the right side of the fan cowl support beam come from these components: Electronic engine control N1 speed sensor Oil tank (oil quantity transmitter) Inlet cowl thermal anti-ice valve Ignition exciters Fan frame compressor case vibration (FFCCV) sensor Bleed air regulator Ground wing thermal anti ice solenoid valve Overheat/fire detector loop A and B.

The electrical harnesses that connect on the left side of the fan cowl support beam come from these components: Start valve N2 speed sensor Integrated drive generator (IDG) Hydraulic system engine driven pump Hydromechanical unit (HMU).

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POWER PLANT ENGINE DRAINS General Engine drains prevent fluid contact with hot engine areas. You use engine drains to detect component failures. Engine drains direct these items overboard: Oil Fuel Hydraulic fluid Water Vapor. Fluids drain through a hole in the left fan cowl panel from these components: Fuel pump Integrated drive generator (IDG) Hydraulic pump.

The oil tank drains fluid through a hole in the right fan cowl panel. See the AMM for more information about allowable leakage limits (AMM PART II 71 71).

These components drain fluids through the starter air discharge duct in the right fan cowl: Strut Main oil/fuel heat exchanger Hydromechanical unit (HMU) High pressure turbine active clearance control (HPTACC) valve Low pressure turbine active clearance control (LPTACC) valve Left and right variable stator vane (VSV) actuators Left and right variable bleed valve (VBV) actuators Transient bleed valve (TBV).

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POWER PLANT ENGINE COWLING General The engine cowling gives an aerodynamically smooth surface into and over the engine. It also gives a protective area for engine components and accessories. These are the parts of the engine cowling: Inlet cowl Fan cowl Thrust reverser. IDG access door Chip detector/pressure relief door Vortex control device Oil tank access door.

IDG Access Door The IDG access door permits access to the IDG for servicing. It is on the left fan cowl panel. Chip Detector/Pressure Relief Door The chip detector access door permits access to the chip detectors. It also is a pressure relief door. It is on the left fan cowl. Vortex Control Device The vortex control device smooths airflow around the wing. It is on the inboard fan cowl. Oil Tank Access Door The oil tank access door permits access to the oil tank for servicing. It is on the right fan cowl. T12 Access/Pressure Relief Door The T12 access/pressure relief door permits access to the T12 sensor. It is also a pressure relief door. It is on the right fan cowl.

See the exhaust chapter for more information on the thrust reverser(AMM PART I 78). Inlet Cowl The inlet cowl sends air into the engine. The inlet cowl attaches to the engine. The T12 access/pressure relief door is on the inlet cowl. The T12 access/pressure relief door permits access to the T12 sensor. It is also a pressure relief door. Fan Cowls The fan cowls give an aerodynamically smooth surface over the fan case. The fan cowls attach to the fan cowl support beam. The fan cowls open for maintenance. These items are on the fan cowls:
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POWER PLANT FAN COWL General There are two fan cowls for each engine. Each fan cowl attaches to the strut with three hinges. The fan cowls are made of aluminum. The left fan cowl weighs 80 lbs (36 kg). The right fan cowl weighs 96 lbs (44 kgs). Each fan cowl has two fan cowl hold open rods. Fan Cowl Latches Three fan cowl latches secure the left and right fan cowls together. All latches are along the bottom of the fan cowls. Fan Cowl Hold Open Rods One end of each hold open rod attaches to the fan cowl. When the cowl is closed, the other end attaches to a receiver on the fan cowl. When the cowl is open, the other end attaches to a receiver on the engine. Each hold open rod is telescopic. Each hold open rod has a collar that locks the hold open rod in place. A yellow lock indication shows when the hold open rod is in the locked position. Fan Cowl Hinges Each fan cowl hinge has these components: Fan cowl clevis Quick release pin Strug lug.

Each fan cowl clevis is on the fan cowl. All strut lugs are on the strut. The quick release pins make it easy to remove a fan cowl.

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ENGINE GENERAL DESCRIPTION


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ENGINE GENERAL DESCRIPTION General The CFM56 7 is a high bypass, dual rotor, axial flow turbofan engine. The engine fan diameter is 61 inches (1.55 meters). The bare engine weight is 5257 pounds (2385 kilograms). The engine has these sections: High Pressure Compressor (HPC) Fan and booster High pressure compressor (HPC) Combustor High pressure turbine (HPT) Low pressure turbine (LPT) Accessory drive. The HPC is a nine-stage compressor. It increases the pressure of the air from the LPC and sends it to the combustor. The HPC also supplies bleed air for the aircraft pneumatic system and the engine air system. Combustor The fan and booster rotor and the LPT rotor are on the same low pressure shaft (N1). The HPC rotor and the HPT rotor are on the same high pressure shaft (N2). Fan and Booster The fan and booster is a four-stage compressor. The fan increases the speed of the air. A splitter fairing divides the air into these two air flows: Primary Secondary. The combustor mixes air from the compressors and fuel from the fuel nozzles. This mixture of air and fuel burns in the combustion chamber to make hot gases. The hot gases go to the HPT. See the engine fuel and control chapter for more information on the fuel nozzles. (AMM PART I 73) High Pressure Turbine (HPT) The HPT is a single stage turbine. It changes the energy of the hot gases into a mechanical energy. The HPT uses this mechanical energy to turn the HPC rotor and the accessory drive. The primary air flow goes into the core of the engine. The booster increases the pressure of this air and sends it to the HPC. The secondary air flow goes in the fan duct. It supplies approximately 80 percent of the thrust during take-off.

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ENGINE GENERAL DESCRIPTION Low Pressure Turbine (LPT) The LPT is a four-stage turbine. It changes the energy of the hot gases into a mechanical energy. The LPT uses this mechanical energy to turn the fan and booster rotor. Accessory Drive The accessory drive has these components: Inlet gear box (1GB) Radial drive shaft (RDS) Transfer gear box (TGB) Horizontal drive shaft (HDS) Accessory gear box (AGB).

The N2 shaft turns the AGB through these shafts and gearboxes: IGB RDS TGB HDS.

The AGB holds and operates the airplane accessories and the engine accessories.

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ENGINE MAIN ENGINE BEARINGS General Five main engine bearings hold the N1 shaft and the N2 shaft. Numbers from 1 to 5 identify the engine bearings. Ball bearings absorb the axial and the radial loads from the shafts. Roller bearings absorb only radial loads. The main engine bearings are in two sump cavities. The sump cavities are the forward sump and the rear sump. Main Engine Bearings The number 1 and the number 2 bearings hold the front of the N1 shaft. One ball bearing and one roller bearing are the number 3 bearing assembly. Both number 3 bearings hold the front of the N2 shaft. The number 4 bearing holds the rear of the N2 shaft. The number 5 bearing holds the rear of the N1 shaft. The number 1, 2, and 3 bearings are in the forward sump. The number 4 and 5 bearings are in the rear sump. .

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ENGINE ACCESSORY DRIVE COMPONENT LOCATIONS General The accessory gearbox (AGB) is on the left side of the engine, on the fan inlet case. The AGB sends torque from the N2 rotor through spur gears to turn the engine and airplane accessories. They are line replaceable units. You get access to the AGB and the accessories when you open the left fan cowl. Accessories Locations These engine and airplane accessories are on the front face of the AGB: EEC alternator N2 sensor Hand cranking pad Engine air starter Integrated drive generator (IDG) Hydraulic pump. Training Information Point You use the hand cranking pad to turn the N2 rotor during boroscope inspection.

These engine accessories are on the rear face of the AGB: Fuel pump package (fuel pumps, HMU, and main oil/fuel heat exchanger) Lubrication unit Scavenge oil filter.

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ENGINE INDICATING INTRODUCTION Purpose The engine indicating system continuously supplies engine data to the common display system (CDS). The engine indicating system has these subsystems: Low pressure rotor tachometer (N1) High pressure rotor tachometer (N2) Exhaust gas temperature (EGT) Airborne vibration monitoring (AVM). DEU - display electronics unit DU - display unit EEC - electronic engine control EGT - exhaust gas temperature FDAU - flight data acquisition unit FDR - flight data recorder FFCCV - fan frame compressor case vertical (sensor) FMCS - flight management computer system FMV - fuel metering valve HPC - high pressure compressor HPT - high pressure turbine HPTACC - high pressure turbine active clearance control LPC - low pressure compressor LPT - low pressure turbine LPTACC - low pressure turbine active clearance control REV - thrust reverser sleeve position tach - tachometer TBV - transient bleed valve TRA - thrust resolver angle TRF - turbine rear frame UTC - universal time coordinate VBV - variable bleed valve VSV - variable stator vane vib - vibration

The CDS usually shows engine data on the center display unit (DU). Engine data can also show on the lower center and inboard display units. Abbreviations and Acronyms altn - alternate AVM - airborne vibration monitoring BITE - built-in test equipment CAS - calibrated air speed CDS - common display system CDU - control display unit chap - chapter

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ENGINE INDICATING GENERAL DESCRIPTION General The engine indicating system shows these parameters for each engine: Low pressure rotor speed (N1) High pressure rotor speed (N2) Exhaust gas temperature (EGT) Engine vibration. The AVM signal conditioner receives analog input from these engine sensors: N1 speed sensor N2 speed sensor Number 1 bearing vibration sensor Fan frame compressor case vertical vibration (FFCCV) sensor.

Electronic Engine Control The electronic engine control (EEC) receives an analog input from these engine sensors: N1 speed sensor N2 speed sensor EGT probes (T49.5).

The DEUs and the flight data acquisition unit (FDAU) receive AVM information through an ARINC 429 data bus. DEUs The DEUs use digital input from the EEC to show these engine parameters on the common display system (CDS): N1 N2 EGT.

The EEC changes the analog signals to digital signals. The EEC sends the digital signals on an ARINC 429 data bus to the display electronics units (DEU)s. Airborne Vibration Monitoring Signal Conditioner The airborne vibration monitoring (AVM) signal conditioner calculates and monitors vibration levels of each engine.

The DEUs use their analog N1 and N2 signals as alternate inputs when the EEC does not have electrical power. EGT shows only when the EEC has electrical power. See the ENGINE FUEL AND CONTROL for more information about the EEC power sources. (AMM PART I 73-21)

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ENGINE TACHOMETER SYSTEM GENERAL DESCRIPTION Purpose The engine tachometer system supplies the engine low pressure rotor (N1) and the engine high pressure rotor (N2) speed signals to these components: Electronic engine control (EEC) Display electronics units (DEUs) Engine airborne vibration monitoring (AVM) signal conditioner.

General Description The EEC receives two analog signals from each speed sensor and changes these analog signals to digital signals. The EEC uses the two signals for channel A and channel B operation. Each channel sends data to each DEU on an ARINC 429 data bus. Usually, the DEUs use input from the EEC to show N1 and N2 on the common display system (CDS). The DEUs can also use input directly from the speed sensors to show N1 and N2. The AVM signal conditioner receives an analog input from the speed sensors to help calculate vibration levels. See the AVM system section for more information.(AMM PART I 77-31)

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ENGINE TACHOMETER SYSTEM FUNCTIONAL DESCRIPTION General The speed of the engine low pressure rotor shows in percent N1. The speed of the engine high pressure rotor shows in percent N2. Usually, the display electronics units (DEUs) use inputs from the electronic engine control (EEC) to show N1 and N2. The DEUs use the signals directly from the speed sensors if the EEC does not have electrical power. N1 Digital Readout and Pointer The N1 digital readout shows the engine low pressure rotor speed. The DEUs use input from the EEC or the N1 speed sensor to show this value. The digital readout and the box around the readout are white when N1 is below the N1 redline. A pointer on a round dial also shows N1 speed. A shaded area follows this pointer. The pointer is usually white. The shaded area is usually gray. These indications change to red when N1 is above the N1 redline: N1 digital readout Box around N1 digital readout N1 pointer Shaded area.

When N1 goes below redline, the indication goes back to normal color. At engine shutdown, the box around the digital display changes to red if there was an N1 exceedance during engine operation. N1 Redline The N1 redline shows the maximum certified engine low pressure rotor speed for the CFM56-7 engine. The redline shows in red. The EEC supplies the redline value. N1 command Sector The command sector shows the momentary difference between N1 and the N1 command. The thrust lever position sets the N1 command. The N1 command shows at the top edge or the lower edge of the command sector. The N1 command shows at the top edge of the command sector if the engine speed must increase. It shows at the lower edge of the command sector if the engine speed must decrease. The command sector and N1 command are white.

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ENGINE TACHOMETER SYSTEM FUNCTIONAL DESCRIPTION N1 Reference Bug The N1 reference bug shows the N1 thrust target manually set by the pilot. The bug can be set by the flight management computer system (FMCS). The N1 reference bug is green. The N1 reference digital display shows the manually set N1 target. The display is white. This display does not show for an FMCS set target. See the FMCS section for more information about the N1 target.(AMM PART I 34-61) N2 Digital Readout and Pointer The N2 digital display shows the engine high pressure rotor speed. The DEUs use input from the EEC or the N2 speed sensor to show this value. The digital display and box are white with N2 below the N2 redline. A pointer on a round dial also shows N2 speed. A shaded area follows this pointer. The pointer is usually white. The shaded area is usually gray. These indications change to red when N2 is above the N2 redline: N2 digital readout Box around N2 digital readout N2 pointer Shaded area.

When N2 goes below redline, the indication goes back to normal color. At engine shutdown, the box around the digital display changes to red if there was an N2 exceedance during engine operation. N2 Redline The N2 redline shows the maximum certified engine high pressure rotor speed for the CFM56-7 engine. The EEC supplies this value. The redline shows in red. N1 and N2 Exceedances The display electronic units (DEUs) hold N1 and N2 exceedance information. You use the control display units (CDUs) to see this information. See the engine indicating chapter for more information on engine exceedances.(AMM PART I 77) Defective Speed Sensors You can use the CDU to see speed sensor failures the EEC finds. See the engine indicating chapter for more information on the EEC.(AMM PART I 77)

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ENGINE TACHOMETER SYSTEM FUNCTIONAL DESCRIPTION Engine Failure Annunciation The ENG FAIL message supplies an early warning of an engine malfunction. The message shows on the EGT display if these conditions occur in this order: Both engines speeds are at idle or above idle Both start levers are at the idle position, then The N2 speed decreases below idle.

The ENG FAIL message shows in amber.

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EXHAUST GAS TEMPERATURE (EGT) INDICATING SYSTEM GENERAL DESCRIPTION Purpose The exhaust gas temperature (EGT) indication system monitors the exhaust gas temperature at the second stage low pressure turbine nozzles. General Description The EGT system has eight thermocouples and four T49,5 thermocouple harness assemblies. Each wire harness assembly has two thermocouples and supplies input to the electronic engine control (EEC). The EEC uses EGT signals for these functions: Show EGT on the common display system (CDS) Engine hot start and wet start (no ignition) logic Low pressure turbine (LPT) cooling logic. The DEUs are part of the CDS. The DEUs usually show EG on the upper center display unit. EGT can also show on the lower center and inboard display units.

See the engine starting section for more information about engine hot and wet start logic. (AMM PART I 80-00) See the air cooling section for more information about LPT cooling logic. (AMM PART I 75-20) The EEC sends the EGT data to the display electronics units (DEUs) on an ARINC 429 bus.

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EXHAUST GAS TEMPERATURE (EGT) INDICATING SYSTEM FUNCTIONAL DESCRIPTION


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EXHAUST GAS TEMPERATURE (EGT) INDICATING SYSTEM FUNCTIONAL DESCRIPTION General The engine electronic control (EEC) supplies the EGT signals to the DEUs to show on the common display system (CDS). The temperature that shows is an average from the eight thermocouples on the engine. EGT Digital Readout and Pointer The EGT digital readout shows EGT in degrees Celsius. The digital readout and the box around are usually white. A pointer on a round dial also shows EGT. The dial does not have a scale. A shaded area follows the pointer. The pointer is usually white. The shaded area is usually gray. These indications change to amber when the EGT is more than the EGT maximum continuous limit, but less than the EGT redline: EGT digital readout Box around the digital readout Pointer Shaded area. When the exhaust gas temperature goes back to the normal range, the indication color goes to white. When the EEC deenergizes after engine shutdown, the box around the digital readout changes to red if EGT was more than redline during the engine operation. The EEC deenergizes after an engine run, when N2 speed goes less than about 10 percent. When the EEC deenergizes, the digital readout, pointer, and shaded area go blank. See the engine tachometer system section for more information the exceedance data display.(AMM PART I 77-11) The EGT digital readout and box flash during an engine ground start if the EEC sees a possible hot start. This function does not work in flight. See the engine starting chapter for more information. (AMM PART I 80) These indications change to red when the EGT is more than the EGT redline: EGT digital readout Box around the digital readout Pointer Shaded area.

During take-off, the amber band color change is inhibited for five minutes or until completion of take-off, whichever comes first.

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EXHAUST GAS TEMPERATURE (EGT) INDICATING SYSTEM FUNCTIONAL DESCRIPTION EGT Maximum Continuous Limit and Amber Band The EGT maximum continuous limit is the start of the EGT caution range. Continuous operation of an engine with EGT more than this value could cause damage to the engine. The EEC supplies the EGT maximum continuous limit value. The limit shows in amber. The amber band is the EGT caution range. Continuous operation of an engine with EGT in this range could cause damage to the engine. The amber range shows as an arc between the maximum continuous limit and the EGT redline. EGT Start Redline The EGT start redline is the maximum limit for the EGT during an engine start on the ground. The redline shows only during the ground start. The EGT start redline goes away when the engine goes to idle. This redline does not show in flight. These indications change to red when the EGT is more than the EGT start redline during a ground start: EGT digital display Box around the digital display Pointer Shaded area. The EEC stops fuel flow and ignition if EGT is more than the start redline during an engine start on the ground. See the engine starting chapter for more information. (AMM PART I 80)

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ENGINE INDICATING TRAINING INFORMATION POINTS ENGINE EXCEEDANCES General The engine indicating system lets you see exceedance data for these engine parameters: N1 N2 EGT RED LIMIT EGT HOT START. The engine indicating system shows engine 2 data the same as engine 1. The engine indicating system starts a new leg for exceedances when the airplane speed is more than 80 knots. ENGINE/EXCEED BITE Page The ENGINE/EXCEED BITE page lets you pick engine BITE or EXCEEDANCES. EXCEEDANCE MENU The EXCEEDANCE MENU page lets you see exceedance data for ENGINE 1 or ENGINE 2. Training Information Point The DEUs keep exceedance data in non-volatile memory. These circuit breakers must be closed when you get exceedance data to make sure the data stored in each DEU is the same: DISPLAY, DEU 1 HOLDUP (P6 panel) DISPLAY, DEU 2 HOLDUP (P6 panel) DISPLAY, DEU 2 PRI (P6 Panel) DISPLAY, DEU 1 PRl (P18 panel).

The exceedance data is important for maintenance practices. You find these actions in part II of the airplane maintenance manual (AMM). You need this information for selection of the correct maintenance action: Highest value (peak) of the parameter during the exceedance Time above redline limit.

If there is an exceedance stored in memory for the current flight leg, the box around the digital readout shows red when these conditions occur: Both start levers in the CUTOFF position Both engine start switches in the OFF position EEC BITE not in use N2 for both engines less than 10%.

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AIRBORNE VIBRATION MONITORING (AVM) SYSTEM GENERAL DESCRIPTION Purpose The airborne vibration monitoring (AVM) system continuously supplies engine vibration levels to the CDS. General Description The AVM system has these components: AVM signal conditioner A vibration sensor (accelerometer) near the forward end of the engine A vibration sensor (accelerometer) on the engine fan frame. The signal conditioner uses the signals from these sensors to calculate the engine vibration levels: No. 1 bearing vibration sensor Fan frame compressor case vertical (FFCCV) vibration sensor N1 speed sensor N2 speed sensor The signal conditioner supplies the vibration data to the display electronic units (DEUs) and the flight data acquisition unit (FDAU). The engine vibration normally shows on the center upper display unit (P2).
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The signal conditioner has built-in test equipment (BITE) to help you do these tasks: Troubleshooting system faults See and erase vibration data in AVM signal conditioner non-volatile memory Calculate a balance solution for engine vibration.

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AVM SYSTEM COMPONENT LOCATION General The AVM system has two vibration sensors (accelerometers) on the engine and one signal conditioner in the EE compartment. Vibration Sensors The number 1 bearing vibration sensor is inside the engine. You cannot see this sensor with the engine on the airplane. You get access to this sensor during engine overhaul. An electrical connector attaches to this sensor wiring at the fan case. This connection is aft of the engine oil tank, just above the engine nameplate. The fan frame compressor case vertical (FFCCV) vibration sensor is on the rear fan frame at the 3:00 position. You open the right fan cowl and the right thrust reverser cowl to get access to this sensor. AVM Signal Conditioner The AVM signal conditioner is on the E3-2 shelf.

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AVM SYSTEM AVM SIGNAL CONDITIONER BITE SELF TEST TRAINING INFORMATION POINT General To start the test, push the YES switch at the SELF TEST menu. The first display during the test shows this information: AVM part number Hardware version Software version Engine type.

The Oss shows the software version. The HHh shows the hardware version. The XXXXXXXX shows the engine type. It shows as CFM56-7B. If the AVM detects an incompatible airplane or engine type, a CONFIG FAULT message shows. The next display shows a message that the test is in progress. The test takes about 10 seconds. The TEST OK message shows if the signal conditioner passes the test. The FAULTS DISPLAY? message shows if the AVM finds failures. The xx gives the number of faults found during the test. To show the faults found, push the YES switch. Push the NO switch to return to the next choice FAULT HISTORY.

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ENGINE CONTROLS INTRODUCTION Purpose The engine control system supplies most of the signals to control the engine thrust. It also supplies signals to other airplane systems that use engine control status. The engine control system has these components: Thrust lever assemblies Thrust lever resolvers Engine start levers and switches Thrust lever interlock solenoids.

Abbreviations and Acronyms AGB - accessory gearbox AMM - aircraft maintenance manual ASM - autothrottle servomotor CDS/DEU - common display system/display electronics unit EEC - electronic engine control FDAU - flight data acquisition unit IDG - integrated drive generator HPSOV - high pressure shutoff valve RLA - reverse thrust lever angle TLA - thrust lever angle TO/GA - takeoff/go-around TRA - thrust lever resolver angle T/R - thrust reverser

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ENGINE CONTROLS GENERAL DESCRIPTION The engine control system supplies manual control inputs to operate the engine. The control system has these components: Thrust levers (forward and reverse) Thrust lever resolvers Engine start levers and switches Thrust lever interlock solenoids. thrust lever positions to analog thrust lever resolver angle (TRA) signals. These signals go to the EEC. The EEC uses these signals to control the engine. See the Engine Fuel and Control section for more information on EEC engine control.(AMM PART I 73-21) Start Levers There are two start levers, one for each engine. You use the engine start lever during an engine start. You also use it to shutdown the engine. The start levers operate switches which supply signals to different aircraft and engine systems and components. Reverse Thrust Interlock Solenoids There are two reverse thrust interlock solenoids, one for each engine. Each reverse thrust interlock solenoid limits the range of motion of a reverse thrust lever. You can make the thrust reverser deploy, but you can not increase the reverse thrust until the thrust reverser sleeves are near the full deployed position. The EEC operates the solenoids. The thrust lever interlock solenoids are in the autothrottle assembly. You must lower the autothrottle assembly to access the thrust lever interlock solenoids. See the thrust reverser section for more information (AMM PART I 78-31). See the autoflight chapter for more information on the autothrottle system. (AMM PART I 22)

Thrust Levers You use the thrust levers to supply the manual inputs to the engine control system. There are two thrust lever assemblies, one for each engine. For each engine, there is a forward thrust lever and a reverser lever. The reverse thrust lever is on the forward thrust lever. For each engine, the thrust levers supply a command signal to the electronic engine control (EEC) through the thrust lever resolver. Each thrust lever assembly connects mechanically to the resolver an adjustable rod. An interlock latch prevents the operation of the forward thrust lever and the reverse thrust lever the same time. Thrust Lever Resolver There are two thrust lever resolver assemblies, one for each engine. Each thrust lever resolver assembly has two resolvers, one for EEC channel A and one for EEC channel B. The thrust lever resolvers change the mechanical forward and reverse
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ENGINE CONTROLS START LEVER FUNCTIONAL DESCRIPTION Functional Description Each engine start lever operates six switches. These switches are in the engine start lever brake assembly. The switches send signals to other systems. These actions happen when you move the start lever to the IDLE detent position, and the switches move to the idle position: Fuel control panel receives an input of start lever position for indication logic Electrical power opens the engine fuel spar valve Ignition power (115v ac) goes to the EEC Two engine start lever relays move to the idle position Integrated drive generator (IDG) manual disconnect circuit arms Flight data acquisition unit (FDAU) sees the start lever in the idle (engine run) position Two CDS/DEUs see the start lever in the idle (engine run) position. These actions happen when you move the start lever to the cutoff position and the switches move to the cutoff position: Fuel control panel receives an input of start lever position Electrical power closes the engine fuel spar valve Ignition power is removed from the EEC Two engine start lever relays move to the cutoff position Electrical power closes the high pressure shutoff valve (HPSOV) in the hydromechanical unit (HMU) EEC channels A and B reset. See the engine fuel and control, engine control section for more information on the HPSOV.(AMM PART I 73-21) See the engine ignition chapter for more information on the ignition system.(AMM PART I 74) The EEC reset feature lets the EEC operate correctly after a software error occurs in the EEC. See the engine fuel and control chapter for more functional description information on the EEC.(AMM PART I 73) See the fuel chapter for more information on the fuel system.(AMM PART I 28) See the common display system section for more information on the CDS/DEU.(AMM PART I 31-62) See the flight controls chapter for more information on the flight data acquisition unit.(AMM PART I 27)

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ENGINE CONTROLS REVERSE THRUST INTERLOCK SOLENOIDS General The reverse thrust interlock solenoids energize to permit further movement of the reverse thrust levers during a T/R deploy operation. If the reverse thrust interlock solenoid does not energize, you can not move the reverse thrust lever and increase reverse thrust. The solenoids energize when the T/R sleeves are 60% of travel to the full deploy position. Each EEC controls one of the solenoids. See the thrust reverser control section for more information. (AMM PART I 78-34) Reverse Thrust Interlock Solenoids There are two reverse thrust interlock solenoids, one for each thrust lever assembly. They are a rotary solenoid type. Each reverse thrust interlock solenoid uses a rod to operate a latch. When you move a reverse thrust lever to the DEPLOY position, a contour on the brake mechanism catches the latch. This stops the rotation of the brake mechanism and limits the motion of the reverse thrust lever and the reverse thrust lever moves enough to operate switches to command the thrust reverser deployment. When the EEC energizes the reverse thrust interlock solenoid, the latch disengages. This permits the motion of the reverse thrust lever towards the full reverse thrust position. Functional Description Each solenoid connects to both channels of the EEC. The EEC receives the T/R translating sleeves position data from the LVDT
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of each sleeve. When both sleeves are at more than 60% of deploy, the EEC energizes the solenoid. The solenoid retracts the interlock latch. The reverse thrust lever can now move past the deploy position so reverse thrust can increase.

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ENGINE FUEL AND CONTROL INTRODUCTION


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ENGINE FUEL AND CONTROL INTRODUCTION General The engine fuel and control system calculates the quantity of fuel necessary to make the commanded thrust. The engine fuel and control system then meters the fuel and injects it into the combustor. The engine fuel and control system also sends the necessary fuel to the engine air system so the engine operation is efficient and stable. See the engine air system chapter for more information.(AMM PART I 75) The engine fuel and control system has three subsystems: Fuel distribution Fuel control Fuel indication. Abbreviations And Acronyms ACS - air conditioning system ADIRU - air data inertial reference unit AGB - accessory gearbox ASM - autothrottle servo-motor A/T - autothrottle BITE - built-in test equipment CDS - common display system CDU - control display unit CCDL - cross channel data link DEU - display electronics unit
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FIM - fault isolation manual FF - fuel flow EEC - electronic engine control EHSV - electro-hydraulic servo valve FWD - forward HPSOV - high pressure shutoff valve HPT - high pressure turbine HPTACC - high pressure turbine active clearance control HMU - hydro-mechanical unit IDG - integrated drive generator J - junction LPT - low pressure turbine LPTACC - low pressure turbine active clearance control LRU - line replaceable unit LVDT - linear variable differential transformer N1 - low pressure compressor rotor speed N2 - high pressure compressor rotor speed P - pressure PDL - portable data loader PT - total pressure RVDT - rotary variable differential transducer SAC - single annular combustor

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ENGINE FUEL AND CONTROL INTRODUCTION T - temperature TAT - total air temperature TBV - transient bleed valve TGB - transfer gearbox T/L - thrust lever TLA - thrust lever angle TLR - thrust lever angle resolver T/R - thrust reverser TRA - thrust resolver angle VBV - variable bleed valve VSV - variable stator vane

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ENGINE FUEL AND CONTROL GENERAL DESCRIPTION


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ENGINE FUEL AND CONTROL GENERAL DESCRIPTION General All engine fuel and control components are on the engine. The airplane fuel system supplies fuel to he engine fuel and control system. The airplane also gives and receives digital and analog control data to and from the engine fuel and control system. The engine fuel and control system uses this data to control the engine and give engine status to other airplane systems. Electronic Engine Control (EEC) The EEC controls the engine fuel and control system. Two channels in the EEC use input data to calculate the engine fuel and control outputs to operate the engine. Airplane Fuel System The airplane fuel system supplies pressurized fuel from the center or main tank. The fuel goes from the tank through a boost pump and a spar valve before the fuel goes to the engine. See the fuel system chapter for more information on the airplane fuel system.(AMM PART I 28) Engine Strut The engine strut has grounds that supply e airplane model data to the EEC. The EEC uses this find the maximum certified thrust for the airplane. This is different from the rated thrust. The maximum certified thrust is the thrust the engines will produce if
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the thrust levers are put against the forward stops. The rated thrust is the maximum thrust the autothrottle will command. The strut grounds also give the EEC the engine position. Thrust Reverser System The EEC gets thrust reverser translating sleeve position from a linear variable differential transformer (LVDT). The EEC uses this data to limit engine thrust while the thrust reverser translating sleeves move. The EEC also commands the engine to idle if it senses a thrust reverser sleeve is deployed part way in flight. The EEC sends thrust reverser position to the DEUs for thrust reverser indication on the display units (DUs). See the thrust reverser section for more information.(AMM PART 178-30) Aisle Control Stand The EEC uses the thrust lever resolvers (TLRs) on the aisle stand to get thrust resolver angle (TRA). The EEC uses this data to find the commanded engine thrust. The EEC also sends TRA to the autothrottle computer. The start levers and fire handle send signals directly to the HPSOV in the HMU. This lets the flight crew shut down the engine in normal or emergency situations. The EEC does not close the HPSOV. See the engine controls chapter for more information on the engine controls in the aisle stand.(AMM PART I 76)

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ENGINE FUEL AND CONTROL GENERAL DESCRIPTION In the IDLE position, the start levers send a start signal to the EEC through the DEUs. The start levers also send ignition power to the EEC. The EEC operates the engine ignition system. See the ignition chapter for more information.(AMM PART I 74) ENG VALVE CLOSED Light The ENG VALVE CLOSED light shows the position of the HPSOV. The ENG VALVE CLOSED light comes on bright when the HPSOV is in transit or is not in the commanded position. This light is on dim when the HPSOV is closed and is commanded closed. The ENG VALVE CLOSED light is off when the HPSOV is open and commanded open. Display Electronics Units (DEUs) The EEC gets and receives data from these airplane systems and components through the two DEUs: Engine and fuel indication Start lever IDLE or CUTOFF command Air data inertial reference unit (ADIRU) 1 and 2 Flight management computer (FMC) and control display units (CDUs) Flight data acquisition unit (FDAU). (DUs). These become engine data that shows on the primary and secondary engine displays. See the engine indicating chapter for more information.(AMM PART I 77) The ADIRU sends total and static air pressure and total air temperature data to the EEC through the DEUs. The EEC uses this data to control engine thrust. The FMC supplies a connection between the CDU and the DEUs. The FMC also supplies target thrust to the EEC. The CDU shows EEC maintenance data, and sends commands to the EEC to do system BITE tests. The FDAU collects engine parameter data. It sends this data to the flight data recorder (FDR). Engine Control Light and EEC Switches The EEC sends a signal to the engine control light on the P5 aft overhead panel through the DEUs for some faults detected by the EEC. If this light is on, the airplane cannot be dispatched. The EEC sends a signal to the EEC ALTN light on the P5 aft overhead panel if the EEC is in soft or hard alternate modes. When the EEC switch is in the off position, the EEC goes to the hard alternate mode. If the ENGINE CONTROL or ALTN light is on, the MASTER CAUTION lights also come on.

The EEC sends input data from many of the engine sensors to the DEUs. The DEUs sends some of this data to the display units
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ENGINE FUEL AND CONTROL DISTRIBUTION COMPONENT LOCATION General These are the engine fuel distribution system components: Fuel nozzle filter Fuel pump assembly Fuel filter IDG oil cooler Servo fuel heater Fuel manifolds Fuel nozzles. The BSV is in the core section of the engine. It is at the 6:00 position on the high pressure compressor case. The fuel manifold goes from the fuel nozzle filter, down the left side of the fan case to the fan support strut at the 6:00 position. The manifold then goes along the high pressure compressor case at the 6:00 position. The manifold attaches to the BSV. The manifold that supplies the fuel nozzles around the combustion chamber case, also attach to the BSV. There are 20 fuel nozzles in the combustion case assembly. See the engine oil chapter for more information about the main oil/fuel heat exchanger. (AMM PART I 79-20)

Component Locations The fuel nozzle filter is near the top of the engine fan case at the 10:00 position. The fuel pump assembly attaches to the aft face of the accessory gearbox (AGB) on the left side of the engine fan case. The fuel filter is a part of the fuel pump assembly. The IDG oil cooler attaches at the rear of the fan frame at the 7:00 position. The servo fuel heater attaches to the main oil/fuel heat exchanger, which attaches to the top of the fuel pump assembly.

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ENGINE FUEL AND CONTROL DISTRIBUTION FUNCTIONAL DESCRIPTION General The fuel pump assembly receives fuel from the airplane fuel system. The fuel pump assembly supplies fuel to the hydromechanical unit (HMU). Fuel manifolds supply metered fuel to the fuel nozzles. Fuel System The fuel pump assembly has two pumps. There is a low pressure pump (LP) that has a centrifugal impeller. There is a high pressure pump (HP) that uses two constant displacement gears. Fuel first goes to the LP pump. From the LP pump, fuel goes to the IDG oil cooler and then to the engine oil/fuel heat exchanger. The fuel then goes to the fuel filter in the pump assembly. The fuel filter cleans the fuel. A bypass valve opens if contamination clogs the fuel filter. After the fuel filter, fuel goes to the high pressure pump. The HP pump increases fuel pressure for servo system operation and for combustion. From the high pressure pump, fuel goes through a servo wash filter before it goes to the servo fuel heater. The servo wash filter is in the pump assembly. The wash filter cleans fuel that goes to the HMU servo section. A bypass valve opens if the servo wash filter clogs. This filter does not clean fuel that goes to the combustion chamber. The fuel that goes to the combustion chamber goes into the HMU through a different port than the servo fuel. The servo fuel goes through the servo fuel heater. The servo fuel heater uses engine oil to heat the servo fuel. Servo fuel is heated to make sure any water in the fuel will not freeze in the servo system. The servo fuel then goes to the servo section of the HMU. With EEC control, the HMU supplies fuel to operate the servo systems, and supplies metered fuel to the manifolds. The high pressure shutoff valve (HPSOV) stops the metered fuel flow when it closes. The control signal to operate the HPSOV usually comes from the start lever. The fire handle switch can override the start lever to close the HPSOV. The metered fuel goes from the HMU through the fuel flow transmitter and fuel nozzle filter. The metered fuel then goes through the fuel manifold to the fuel nozzles. Training Information Point The EEC uses the fuel flow transmitter signal for engine control when the FMV position signal is not valid.

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ENGINE FUEL AND CONTROL ENGINE CONTROL GENERAL DESCRIPTION Electronic Engine Control The electronic engine control (EEC) is the main component of the engine fuel and control system. Control Display System / Display Electronic Unit 1 or 2 The EEC receives data from many airplane systems through the common display system display electronic units (DEUs). The EEC sends engine system data to the airplane. All of this data goes through DEU 1 or DEU 2. Autothrottle Computer The autothrottle computer receives thrust resolver angle (TRA) and engine maximum thrust rating data from the EEC. The autothrottle computer uses this data to calculate thrust lever angles (TLA). The autothrottle computer can operate the thrust levers. See the autothrottle section for more information on autothrottle computer control of the thrust levers. (AMM PART I 22-31) Flight Compartment Some controls in the flight compartment supply control data directly to some components on the engine.

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ENGINE FUEL AND CONTROL ENGINE CONTROL COMPONENT LOCATION LEFT SIDE Engine Left Side These components of engine fuel and control system are on the left side of the engine: T3 sensor PS3 pressure port EEC alternator PT25 sensor Hydromechanical unit (HMU).

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ENGINE FUEL AND CONTROL ENGINE CONTROL COMPONENT LOCATION RIGHT SIDE Engine Right Side These components of the engine fuel and control system are on the right side of the engine: EGT wiring harness TCC sensor Identification (ID) plug Engine electronic control (EEC) T12 sensor.

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ENGINE FUEL AND CONTROL ENGINE CONTROL ELECTRONIC ENGINE CONTROL General The electronic engine control (EEC) is the primary control for the engine. The EEC uses digital and analog signals from the engine and other airplane systems to control and monitor the engine. The EEC sends engine data to other airplane systems. EEC Electrical Connections There are electrical connectors on the EEC. The EEC uses these connectors to receive and send data to the airplane, and engine. The connectors are J1 to J10. The engine identification plug connects to P11. The identification plug supplies the EEC with engine configuration data. EEC Air Connections The EEC also has air connections. These air connections get air pressures from different places on the engine. The sensors that change air pressure to a digital signal are part of the EEC. These are the air pressure signals: P0 (outside air static pressure) PS13 (fan exit static pressure) P25 (high pressure compressor inlet pressure) PS3 (HPC discharge). The EEC gets P0 from the ADIRUs and from the P0 pressure transducers in the EEC. Each EEC channel has a P0 transducer. The EEC senses P0 through an open port on the bottom of the EEC. Because the P0 sense port for the EEC is inside the fan cowl, the EEC needs to correct P0 to get ambient pressure. When the EEC is in normal mode, P0 is used to calculate airplane speed for engine thrust management. When the EEC is in an alternate mode, the EEC uses P0 to estimate PT or to find an assumed PT. Each EEC channel has a PS3 transducer. The EEC uses PS3 to prevent high pressure compressor stall or surge and to make sure the bleed pressure is above the minimum allowed value. If bleed pressure is below the minimum, the EEC increases the minimum idle speed. If the compressor is close to stall or surge, the EEC controls the VSV, VBV, and TBV to protect the compressor. Hard tubes and flexible hoses get PS3 air pressure to the PS3 air connection on the bottom of the EEC. EEC Cooling A ram air inlet supplies air to keep the EEC cool. The ram air inlet is on the outside of the inlet cowl, at the 1:00 position.

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ENGINE FUEL AND CONTROL ENGINE CONTROL ELECTRONIC ENGINE CONTROL EEC Installation The EEC attaches to the engine fan case at the 2:00 position. The EEC attaches to the fan case with four shock mounts. The EEC is grounded to the engine with metallic straps Functional Description Each EEC has two computers. Each computer can control the engine. One computer is in active control while the other computer is in standby. The computers are called channels. One computer is called channel A and the other computer is called channel B. The two channels communicate through a cross channel data link (CCDL). Each EEC channel has driver circuits. A driver circuit changes digital command signals to analog signals that go to the engine and airplane actuators and solenoids. One EEC channel cannot control the other channels drivers. Each EEC has sense circuits. A sense circuit reads signals from various sensors on the engine and airplane. The active channel can read input data from either channel A or channel B with the cross channel data link. The active channel chooses the best signal or averages the signals to calculate the value it uses to control the engine. If the active channel is not valid, the standby channel becomes the active channel. If one EEC channel is not valid, the EEC
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stays in the dual channel mode. Dual channel mode lets the active channel use the sense circuits from both channels for engine control. If one channel is not valid, a fault is stored in the BITE memory. Many of these EEC faults cause the ENGINE CONTROL and MASTER CAUTION lights in the flight deck to come on. If the ENGINE CONTROL light comes on, you can not dispatch the airplane until you correct the condition that caused the light. You can see the BITE information on the control display unit (CDU) in the flight deck. The EEC is usually in the dual channel mode. The EEC goes to single channel mode when the EEC alternator supplies power to only one channel. The EEC channel with EEC alternator power becomes the active channel and the other channel goes to standby. The standby channel gets power from the airplane transfer bus. The EEC also goes to single channel operation when the EEC channels can not communicate with each other. When the EEC is in single channel operation, the active channel of the EEC uses only its own sense circuits to control the engine. When both channels operate normally, channels A and B alternate between active channel and standby channel each time the engine is started. This change of control occurs if N1 was more than 76 percent during the previous engine run and the new active channel has no faults or fewer faults than the new standby channel.

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ENGINE FUEL AND CONTROL ENGINE CONTROL ELECTRONIC ENGINE CONTROL These are the major functions of the EEC: Input signal validation and processing Starting, shutdown, and ignition control Engine power management Reverse thrust control Engine core control High pressure turbine active clearance control (HPTACC) and low pressure turbine active clearance control (LPTACC) BITE Flight compartment indication. Input Signal Validation and Processing The EEC gets digital and analog signals from the engine and other airplane systems. Some of these signals have more than one source for the same data. This improves engine reliability because if one data source is inoperative the EEC can use the other data sources. If the EEC finds that all data sources are valid, it uses the best data to control the engine. An example of this is T495 (low pressure turbine nozzle temperature). This signal is also called exhaust gas temperature (EGT). Each EEC channel gets two EGT signals. If all four signals are valid, the EEC uses the average temperature as the selected EGT. If one of the signals is out of range, the average of the other three EGTs is used to control the engine. If all sources of a given parameter are not valid, the EEC will use a default value to operate the engine safely. If the EEC finds that one signal is not valid, it will store a message in BITE memory. Starting, Shutdown, and Ignition Control The EEC does enhanced manual starts. An enhanced manual start uses the same basic start procedures as for other 737 models but adds wet start and hot start protection. See the engine starting section for more information. (AMM PART I 80) The EEC controls the normal engine shutdown when the pilot puts the start lever in the cutoff position. The EEC controls which ignition system is energized during the start and deenergizes the ignition system for a hot start and wet starts. The EEC can also energize the ignition system automatically if the engine slows incorrectly. See the ignition section for more information.(AMM PART I 74)

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ENGINE FUEL AND CONTROL ENGINE CONTROL ELECTRONIC ENGINE CONTROL Engine Power Management The EEC calculates the engine thrust with N1 speed and ambient pressure and temperature conditions. The EEC uses N1 speed to control engine thrust. The flight crew moves the thrust levers to command more or less engine thrust. The EEC gets thrust lever angle (TLA) from the thrust lever resolvers. The resolvers send thrust lever resolver angle (TRA) to the EEC. See the engine controls section for more information.(AMM PART I 76) You can see TRA angles in engine BITE input monitoring pages on the flight deck CDU. Reverser Thrust Control The EEC uses thrust reverser translating sleeve position to limit reverse thrust until the thrust reversers are deployed. The EEC energizes the reverse thrust interlock solenoid to keep the reverse thrust levers in the deploy position until the thrust reversers are deployed. This gives the flight crew an indication of when thrust reversers are deployed. See the engine controls section for more information. (AMM PART I 76) Engine Core Control The EEC has hardware and software limits to keep engine operation safe and satisfactory. The EEC keeps these engine parameters in limits:
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N2 speed PS3 (HPC static pressure) Fuel flow. The EECs control these engine systems and components to keep engine parameters in limits: Engine fuel flow BSV Variable stator vanes (VSV) Variable bleed valve (VBV) Transient bleed valve (TBV).

See the engine air system section for more information on VSV, VBV and TBV.(AMM PART I 75) HPTACC and LPTACC Control The EEC heats or cools the turbine case to control the high pressure and low pressure turbine tip clearances. See the engine air system section for more information on VSV, VBV and TBV.(AMM PART I 75)

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ENGINE FUEL AND CONTROL ENGINE CONTROL ELECTRONIC ENGINE CONTROL BITE The EEC supplies fault data for engine troubleshooting and maintenance support. You use the control display unit (CDU) in the flight compartment to do troubleshooting and to do ground tests on engine systems. You can also use the CDU to monitor EEC inputs and outputs. BITE data is available through the CDU on the ground only. Engine Indication The EEC supplies data to display electronic units (DEU) 1 and 2 of the common display system (CDS). The CDS display units (DU) show engine primary and secondary indications. See the engine indicating chapter for more information on engine indications.(AMM PART I 77) Training Information Point An operator can update the EEC software program with the use of a portable data loader (PDL). Refer to the engine manufacturer manuals for more information on the use of the PDL.

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ENGINE FUEL AND CONTROL ENGINE CONTROL EEC ELECTRICAL POWER SUPPLY FUNCTIONAL DESCRIPTION
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ENGINE FUEL AND CONTROL ENGINE CONTROL EEC ELECTRICAL POWER SUPPLY FUNCTIONAL DESCRIPTION Purpose The EEC alternators are the primary ac power supply for EEC operation. The airplane ac transfer buses can also supply power to the EEC. Functional Description The two transfer relays in the EEC let the transfer bus supply ac power to the EEC. One relay supplies power to channel A, the other relay supplies power to channel B. The engine 1 alternate power relay is in junction box J22. This relay is controlled by the DEUs. There are two contacts on this relay, one for channel A, the other for channel B. When energized, the alternate power relay supplies airplane transfer bus power to the EEC through the internal EEC transfer relays. Any of these conditions cause the DEUs to energize the alternate power relay:
NOTE:

Operation At engine start, the EEC receives transfer bus power. The EEC alternator speed logic sensor monitors the speed of the EEC alternator. When the N2 speed is more than 15 percent and alternator power quality is in limits, the EEC energizes the transfer relays. The transfer relays disconnect the transfer bus power supply. The EEC now gets power from the EEC alternator. If one set of alternator windings fail, the transfer relay closes for that channel. This provides alternate power from the airplane transfer bus. The other EEC channel continues to receive power from the alternator if the alternator power is in limits. If both sets of alternator windings fail, both EEC channels receive power from the airplane transfer bus through both EEC transfer relays. Training Information Point If both EEC channels are normal and power from one EEC alternator channel stops, engine control changes to the channel with EEC alternator power and a short term dispatch fault is stored in EEC memory. This fault shows on the CDU engine maintenance pages. The EEC channel without EEC alternator power gets power from the airplane transfer bus.

Engine start lever set to idle Engine start switch set to ground (GRD) Engine start switch set to continuous (CONT) Control display unit (CDU) set to engine) maintenance pages.
The engine 2 alternate power relay is in junction box J24. The engine 2 alternate power relay operates almost the same as the engine 1 alternate power relay.

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ENGINE FUEL AND CONTROL ENGINE CONTROL EEC ELECTRICAL POWER SUPPLY FUNCTIONAL DESCRIPTION If the EEC is in single channel operation (the other channel is inoperative) and EEC alternator power stops for the active channel, the active channel gets power from the transfer bus and a no dispatch fault is stored in EEC memory. This fault shows on the CDU engine maintenance pages. This also causes the ENGINE CONTROL light on the P5 overhead panel and the MASTER CAUTION light to come on when the airplane is on the ground. You must correct this fault before airplane dispatch is permitted.

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ENGINE FUEL AND CONTROL ENGINE CONTROL HMU FUNCTIONAL DESCRIPTION General The electronic engine control (EEC) sends control signals to servo system in the hydromechanical unit (HMU). The electrohydraulic servo valves (EHSVs) in the HMU change these signals to hydraulic fuel pressure for these components: Fuel metering valve (FMV) Transient bleed valve (TBV) High pressure turbine active clearance control (HPTACC) valve Low pressure turbine active clearance control (LPTACC) valve Variable bleed valves (VBV) Variable stator vanes (VSV). The high pressure shutoff valve (HPSOV) and mechanical overspeed governor are also in the HMU. The start lever and the fire handle control the HPSOV independent of the EEC. When closed this valve stops fuel flow to the combustor. The mechanical overspeed governor makes sure the N2 rotor does not turn too fast. Fuel Metering Valve (FMV) The EEC controls the FMV with servo fuel pressure from the FMV EHSV. The FMV resolver sends the position of the FMV back to the EEC. Fuel flow through the open FMV causes the high pressure shutoff valve (HPSOV) to open.
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The EEC can fully close the FMV on the ground during engine start for these conditions: Exhaust gas temperature is more than the limits for engine start Engine goes to idle speed during start, but speed then decreases below 50% N2 speed and EGT goes above the start limit EEC senses fuel flow but no EGT for 15 seconds after the start lever is put to idle with TAT more than 2C or 20 seconds after the start lever is put to idle if TAT is less than 2C, (wet start or hung start). The EEC sends a no dispatch signal to the DEUs for these FMV failures: FMV is not in the correct position FMV position signal is out of range on both EEC channels FMV position signal is out of range and EEC in single channel operation Control current to the FMV EHSV is out of range and EEC in single channel operation.

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ENGINE FUEL AND CONTROL ENGINE CONTROL HMU FUNCTIONAL DESCRIPTION The DEUs energize the ENGINE CONTROL light on the P5 aft overhead panel and the MASTER CAUTION lights when these conditions occur: Airplane is on the ground more than 30 seconds after landing or increasing ground speed is less than 80 knots EEC is energized (engine starting, running, or EEC energized for maintenance) A no dispatch engine fault occurs. Transient Bleed Valve (TBV) The TBV EHSV controls the flow of servo fuel pressure to the TBV. A switch supplies TBV position feedback to the EEC. The EEC sends a no dispatch signal to the DEUs for these failures: TBV is not in the correct position TBV position signal is out of range on both EEC channels TBV position signal is out of range and EEC in single channel operation Control current to the TBV EHSV is out of range and EEC in single channel operation. See the transient bleed section for more information.(AMM PART I 75-23) HPTACC and LPTACC The HPTACC and LPTACC EHSVs control the servo fuel pressure for the HPTACC and LPTACC valve operation. LVDTs on these valves send valve position to the EEC. The EEC sends a no dispatch signal to the DEUs for these failures: HPTACC is not in the correct position HPTACC position signal is out of range on both EEC channels HPTACC position signal is out of range and EEC in single channel operation Control current to the HPTACC EHSV is out of range and EEC in single channel operation.
NOTE: LPTACC failures do not cause the ENGINE CONTROL and MASTER CAUTION lights to come on.

See the HPTACC section for more information.(AMM PART I 7521)

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ENGINE FUEL AND CONTROL ENGINE CONTROL HMU FUNCTIONAL DESCRIPTION VBV and VSV Actuators The VBV and VSV EHSVs control the servo fuel pressure for the VBV and VSV actuator operation. LVDTs on these actuators send valve position to the EEC. The EEC sends a no dispatch signal to the DEUs for these failures: VBV or VSV is not in the correct position VBV or VSV position signal is out of range on both EEC channels VBV or VSV position signal is out of range and EEC in single channel operation Control current to the VBV or VSV EHSV is out of range and EEC in single channel operation. See the variable stator vane actuation system section for more information.(AMM PART 175-31) See the variable bleed valve doors section for more information.(AMM PART I 75-32) High Pressure Fuel Shutoff Valve (HPSOV) The high pressure shutoff valve (HPSOV) lets fuel flow from the FMV to the fuel nozzles. The start lever sends an open signal to the DEUs when it is in the idle position. The DEU sends the open signal to the EEC.
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The EEC causes the FMV to open. Fuel pressure from the open FMV causes the HPSOV to open. The start lever in the CUTOFF position energizes the HPSOV solenoid. When HPSOV solenoid is energized, servo fuel closes the HPSOV. Fuel pressure from the FMV can not open the HPSOV when the HPSOV solenoid is energized. The fire handle switch can also energize the HPSOV solenoid. When the HPSOV closes, fuel flow to the fuel nozzles stop. The blue ENGINE VALVE CLOSED light, on the fuel control panel, comes on dim when the HPSOV is closed. The light is off when the valve is open. The light is on bright during valve transition. Mechanical Overspeed Governor A mechanical overspeed governor can prevent an N2 overspeed condition. When the overspeed governor senses an N2 overspeed condition, it causes the bypass valve to open more. When the bypass valve opens more, less fuel goes to the FMV and the fuel nozzles. This causes the N2 speed to decrease. This is an alternate N2 overspeed protection from the EEC. The EEC monitors the operation of the overspeed governor during each engine start.

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ENGINE FUEL AND CONTROL ENGINE CONTROL ENGINE CONTROL LIGHT AND EEC SWITCHES Purpose These engine indications on the engine panel show this engine control status: EEC switch position indication EEC switch ALTN light ENGINE CONTROL light. The white ON switch position indicator and amber ALTN light are in the EEC switches. These indications show if the EEC is in the normal mode or an alternate mode. When the EEC is in an alternate mode, it sends a signal to the ALTN light and the light comes on. There are two alternate modes, the soft alternate and hard alternate modes. These modes are also called soft and hard reversionary modes. The soft or hard alternate modes are used when the EEC does not receive valid total air pressure data from both air data inertial reference units (ADIRUs) or the flight crew selects the EEC switch to the OFF position. See the POWER MANAGEMENT page in this section for information on EEC alternate modes. The ground or flight crew can put the EEC in the hard alternate mode by selection of the EEC switch for that engine. The white ON does not show in the EEC switch when the hard alternate
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mode is selected. The white ON in the EEC switch shows when the switch is not selected. The amber ENGINE CONTROL light shows when the EEC detects an engine failure that does not allow airplane dispatch. The EEC sends a signal to the DEUs to energize the ENGINE CONTROL light. The ENGINE CONTROL light does not come on in flight. The ENGINE CONTROL light comes on when all of these conditions occur: Airplane is on the ground and the ground speed is less than 30 knots for more than 30 seconds or increasing ground speed is less than 80 knots N2 speed is more than 50 percent A no dispatch engine fault occurs.
NOTE: The airplane cannot dispatch with this light on.

Training Information Point When the ENGINE CONTROL light comes on, use the CDU, fault isolation manual (FIM) and the airplane maintenance manual (AMM) to find and correct the cause. See the TRAINING INFORMATION POINT PAGES of this section for more information on CDU BITE operation.

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ENGINE FUEL AND CONTROL - ENGINE CONTROL - TRAINING INFORMATION POINT - EEC BITE - INDICATIONS Fault Information When EEC BITE finds faults, they are stored in BITE memory. The faults have these 5 dispatch levels: ENGINE CONTROL LIGHT ALTERNATE MODE LIGHT SHORT TIME LONG TIME ECONOMIC. channel. The EEC also changes to single channel operation if the EEC channels can not communicate with each other. ENGINE CONTROL Light Faults ENGINE CONTROL LIGHT faults occur when the EEC finds a fault that is a no dispatch condition. When one of these faults occur and the airplane is on the ground, the DEU energizes the ENGINE CONTROL light on the engine panel and the MASTER CAUTION lights. The DEU energizes the ENGINE CONTROL light when all of these conditions occur: Airplane is on the ground and the ground speed is less than 30 knots for more than 30 seconds or the ground speed is increasing and is less than 80 knots N2 speed is more than 50 percent EEC BITE found a no dispatch fault. Because the EEC is a dual channel engine control, there are five groups of ENGINE CONTROL light faults. These are the ENGINE CONTROL light fault groups: Faults that cause an ENGINE CONTROL light if they occur in either channel A or channel B Faults that cause an ENGINE CONTROL light only if a fault from this group occurs in both channels or if one fault occurs in the active channel while the EEC is in single channel operation

The EEC stores faults in memory by dispatch level. The EEC stores up to 10 of each dispatch level for 10 flight legs. The faults are erased when they are 11 flight legs old. If there are 10 faults stored in one dispatch level and a new fault in that dispatch level occurs, the EEC erases the oldest fault and records the new fault. Faults that occur on the ground are stored in flight leg 0. When the airplane takes off, the faults from the last ground run go into flight leg 1. Dual/Single Channel Operation The EEC operates in either dual channel mode or single channel mode. During normal conditions, the EEC operates in dual channel mode. If the EEC alternator can not give power to one EEC channel, the EEC changes to single channel operation. The channel that receives power from the EEC alternator is the active
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ENGINE FUEL AND CONTROL - ENGINE CONTROL - TRAINING INFORMATION POINT - EEC BITE - INDICATIONS Faults that cause an ENGINE CONTROL light only if the same fault occurs on both channels or if one of the faults occur while the EEC is in single channel operation EGT indication faults that cause an ENGINE CONTROL light if more than two EGT faults occur in both channels or if one of the faults occur while the EEC is in single channel operation (there are four EGT signals) While in single channel operation both thrust reverser half position signals are out of range. The EEC finds a no dispatch fault when the engine control system is in the applicable condition and an ENGINE CONTROL fault for that condition occurs. For example, if one EGT signal fault for channel A occurs while the engine is in dual channel operation, the EEC does not find a no dispatch fault and the fault is stored as a LONG TIME fault. However, if one EGT signal fault occurs on channel A and the EEC is in single channel operation with channel A active, the EEC finds a no dispatch fault. Alternate (ALTN) Light Faults Alternate (ALTN) faults occur and the ALTN light and MASTER CAUTION lights come on when one of these conditions occur: EEC is in soft alternate mode for 15 seconds EEC in hard alternate mode EEC switch on the P5-68 panel is put to OFF (this puts the EEC to hard alternate mode).
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There are 11 possible ALTN light faults. See the Minimum Equipment List for requirements to dispatch with the ALTN light on. SHORT TIME Faults SHORT TIME faults occur when the EEC finds a fault condition that you must correct in a short time. A SHORT TIME fault can be deferred for 150 flight hours from the time the EEC BITE was last monitored. For example, if you monitor the FMC CDU for engine faults every 70 hours, and find a new SHORT TIME fault, you may defer the new fault for 80 hours. Or, if you monitor the FMC CDU every 150 flight hours and find a SHORT TIME fault, you must correct the fault before the airplane can fly. These faults do not cause an indication in the flight compartment. There are three groups of these faults. These are the SHORT TIME fault groups: Faults that are SHORT TIME faults if any fault from this group occurs in one channel while in dual channel operation or if one fault occurs in the standby channel while in single channel operation Thrust reverser position signals out of range for a left and a right thrust reverser while in dual channel operation or both thrust reverser signals out of range on the standby channel while in single channel operation

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ENGINE FUEL AND CONTROL - ENGINE CONTROL - TRAINING INFORMATION POINT - EEC BITE - INDICATIONS Faults that are SHORT TIME faults if any fault from this group occurs while in dual channel operation or single channel operation. LONG TIME Faults You can defer a LONG TIME fault for approximately 500 flight hours from the time the EEC BITE was last monitored. These faults do not cause an indication in the flight compartment. For example, the remaining flight hours (T) = 500 flight hours S/2, where S/2 is one half the scheduled maintenance interval your airline uses to check the EEC BITE. If your airline looks for EEC faults every 70 flight hours, S/2 = 35. If you airline looks for EEC faults every 150 flight hours, S/2 = 75. ECONOMIC Faults ECONOMIC faults occur when the EEC finds a fault condition that does not have a set deferral time but should be corrected at operator convenience. These faults detect conditions that may make the engine operation less efficient. These faults do not cause an indication in the flight compartment. Training Information Point You use the fault isolation manual (FIM) to interpret engine faults that show on the CDU.

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ENGINE FUEL AND CONTROL ENGINE CONTROL TRAINING INFORMATION POINT EEC BITE MAIN MENU General The EEC BITE shows on the control display unit (CDU). To see the EEC BITE data or do engine ground tests, select ENGINES on the MAINT BITE INDEX page. ENGINE/EXCEED BITE INDEX Paae The ENGINE/EXCEED BITE INDEX page lets you select the ENGINE 1 or 2, or EXCEEDANCES. If you want to do engine BITE for engine 1, select ENGINE 1. If channel A can not get data from channel B and channel B can not get data from channel A, the CDU uses channel B only to do EEC BITE. To do engine BITE for engine 1 with EEC channel A, select ENGINE 1 CH A ONLY. You do engine 2 BITE the same as engine 1. MAIN MENU These are the 5 EEC BITE functions you can do from the MAIN MENU page: RECENT FAULTS FAULT HISTORY IDENT/CONFIG GROUND TESTS INPUT MONITORING.

You can use the above EEC functions when the airplane is on the ground. You cannot do EEC BITE in flight. To use the GROUND TEST function, N2 must be less than 5 percent and the start lever must be in the CUTOFF position. To use the RECENT FAULTS or FAULT HISTORY functions, N2 must be less than 5 percent.

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ENGINE FUEL AND CONTROL FUEL INDICATING GENERAL DESCRIPTION


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ENGINE FUEL AND CONTROL FUEL INDICATING GENERAL DESCRIPTION Purpose The fuel indicating system supplies data for these indications: Fuel flow rate Fuel used High pressure shutoff valve (HPSOV) position Fuel filter bypass. switch is usually in the center or RATE position. A spring sets the switch back to RATE from the other two positions. These are the three positions of the fuel flow indication control switch: RESET RATE USED.

Fuel Indicating System Comoonents These are some of the fuel indicating system components: Fuel flow transmitter Fuel flow indication control switch Fuel filter differential switch High pressure shutoff valve (HPSOV).

The RATE position is the usual switch position and shows the fuel flow indication. The USED position changes from the usual fuel flow indication to the quantity of fuel used since the counter was set to zero. The fuel used only shows on the digital display. The analog indication does not show in used. The used indication goes back to the digital and analog rate indication 10 seconds after the indication control switch goes back to RATE. The RESET position sets the fuel used display digital counter to zero.
NOTE: The counter also sets to zero when you remove electrical power from, then again connect power to the DEUs.

The fuel flow transmitter supplies fuel flow data through the EEC to the DEUs. The EECs calculate the fuel flow rate and the DEUs calculate fuel used. The fuel flow data shows on the engine display. The engine display usually shows on the upper center display unit (DU). The fuel flow indication control switch is on the engine display control panel in the flight compartment. This switch controls the operation of the fuel flow rate and fuel used indications in the engine display on the display unit. The engine display control panel is on the P2-2 center main panel. The fuel flow indication

The EEC monitors a fuel filter differential pressure switch on the engine. The switch measures the difference between the filter inlet pressure and outlet pressure. If the pressure difference becomes too large, a bypass signal goes through the EEC to the CDS/DEUs.

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ENGINE FUEL AND CONTROL FUEL INDICATING GENERAL DESCRIPTION The DEUs cause the amber FILTER BYPASS light to come on. The blue ENGINE VALVE CLOSED light shows the position of the HPSOV. With the valve closed, the light is on dim. With the valve open, the light is off. The light is on bright when the actual and commanded positions of the valve do not agree.

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ENGINE AIR INTRODUCTION Purpose The engine air system has these control functions: Turbine clearance Compressor airflow. EGT - exhaust gas temperature MU - hydromechanical unit HPC - high pressure compressor HPT - high pressure turbine HPTACC - high pressure turbine active clearance control LPC - low pressure compressor LPT - low pressure turbine LPTACC - low pressure turbine active clearance control LVDT - linear variable differential transformer PO - aircraft static air pressure PT - aircraft total air pressure RVDT - rotary variable differential transformer TAT - aircraft total air temperature TBV - transient bleed valve TRA - thrust lever resolver angle T3 - compressor discharge air temperature T25 - HPC inlet air temperature VBV - variable bleed valve VSV - variable stator vanes TCC - turbine case support temperature

Turbine Clearance Control The engine air system adjusts the clearances between the high pressure turbine (HPT) blades and shroud and the low pressure turbine (LPT) blades and shroud. Usually, the engine air system decreases the clearance between the rotors and the turbine case. This helps the engine use less fuel. The engine air system also increases the clearance between the high pressure turbine blades and shroud during some power conditions. This makes sure the HPT blades tips do not rub against the case. Compressor Airflow Control The engine air system adjusts the low pressure compressor (LPC) and the high pressure compressor (HPC) air flows for all power conditions. These adjustments prevent an engine stall. Abbreviations and Acronyms ADIRU - air data inertial reference unit DEU - display electronic unit EEC - electronic engine control
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ENGINE AIR GENERAL DESCRIPTION


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ENGINE AIR GENERAL DESCRIPTION General The electronic engine control (EEC) receives airplane system data from the display electronic units (DEUs). The EEC uses this data to control the engine air system. The EEC changes the bleed airflows to change the turbine blade tips clearances. The EEC also controls compressor airflows to prevent stall. The EEC operates the air valves and the actuators through the hydromechanical unit (HMU). HMU servo fuel pressure moves the valves and the actuators. The engine air system has these subsystems: Turbine clearance control Compressor airflow control. Low pressure turbine active clearance control (LPTACC) Transient bleed valve (TBV).

The HPTACC system sends HPC 4th-stage and 9th-stage air to the high pressure turbine (HPT) shroud support. The air flows through an HPTACC valve. The LPTACC system sends fan discharge air to the low pressure turbine (LPT) case. The air flows through the LPTACC valve. The TBV sends HPC 9th stage air to the low pressure turbine stage 1 nozzles for these two conditions: Engine start Engine acceleration.

See the engine and fuel control chapter for more information on the EEC.(AMM PART I 73) Turbine Clearance Control The engine air system controls turbine tip clearance when it controls the amount of cooling air that goes onto the turbine case. Turbine blade tip clearances decrease when the turbine case is cooled. These are the turbine clearance control sub-systems: High pressure turbine active clearance control (HPTACC)

The TBV prevents HPC stall during start and acceleration.

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ENGINE AIR GENERAL DESCRIPTION Compressor Airflow Control These are the compressor airflow control subsystems: Variable stator vanes (VSVs) Variable bleed valve (VBV).

The VSV system controls the high pressure compressor (HPC) airflow. The VSV system makes sure the correct quantity of air flows through to the HPC which prevents HPC stall. The VSV system controls the HPC inlet guide vanes and the variable stator vanes of the HPC. The first three stages of the HPC have variable stator vanes. The VBV system controls the low pressure compressor (LPC) discharge airflow. There are 12 variable bleed valves that let some LPC discharge air bypass the engine and mix with the fan discharge air. This airflow prevents LPC stall during fast deceleration. The VBVs also keep water out of the HPC and prevent foreign object damage (FOD) during low speed operation and during reverse thrust operation.

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ENGINE AIR FUNCTIONAL DESCRIPTION High Pressure Turbine Active Clearance Control (HPTACC) The EEC calculates commanded high pressure turbine clearance as a function of engine and P0 (altitude) data. P0 is the ambient pressure. P0 data usually comes from the ADIRUs through the display electronic units (DEUs). The HPTACC valve controls the amount of HPC 9th stage and 4th stage air that goes to the HPT shroud support. The EEC sends a command signal to the HMU. The HMU sends servo fuel pressure to move the actuator in the HPTACC valve. Two linear variable differential transducers (LVDTs) send the actuator position data to the EEC for closedloop control. See the engine fuel and control section for more information on how the EEC gets P0 pressure. (AMM PART I 73-21) Low Pressure Turbine Active Clearance Control (LPTACC) The EEC calculates the commanded low pressure turbine blade tip clearance as a function of engine and airplane data. The airplane data usually comes from the ADIRUs through the DEUs. The LPTACC valve controls the amount of fan discharge air that goes to the LPT case. The EEC sends a command signal to the HMU. The HMU sends servo fuel pressure to move the actuator in the LPTACC valve. Two rotary variable differential transducers (RVDTs) send the valve position data to the EEC for closed-loop control. Variable Stator Vanes (VSVs) The EEC calculates the commanded VSV position as a function of the engine and airplane data. The airplane data usually comes from the ADIRUs through the DEUs. The EEC controls the two VSV actuators to modulate the amount of air that goes through the HPC. The EEC sends a command signal to the HMU. The HMU sends servo fuel pressure to move the two actuators. The actuators mechanically connect with the stator vanes. Two LVDTs send the position data of the actuators to the EEC for closed-loop control. Variable Bleed Valve (VBV) The EEC calculates the commanded VBV position as a function of engine speed and airplane data. The airplane data usually comes from the ADIRUs through the DEUs. The VBVs control the amount of LPC discharge air that goes into the fan discharge airflow. The EEC sends a command signal to the HMU. The HMU sends servo fuel pressure to move the two actuators. The actuators mechanically connect with the bleed valves. Two LVDTs send the position of the actuators to the EEC for closedloop control. Transient Bleed Valve (TBV) The EEC calculates the commanded TBV position as a function of N2 and if the engine is in start or acceleration. The TBV discharges HPC 9th stage air to the LPT stage 1 nozzles. The EEC sends a command signal to the HMU. The HMU sends servo fuel pressure to move the actuator. Two LVDTs send the valve position data to the EEC for closed-loop control.

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ENGINE AIR HPTACC COMPONENT LOCATION Component Location The HPTACC system components are on the right side of the engine HPT case. These are the HPTACC system components: HPTACC valve (3:00 position) 9th stage bleed air duct (2:00 position) HPTACC manifold.

The HPTACC manifold starts aft of the HPTACC valve, and goes around the HPT case. The HPTACC manifold connects to the HPT shroud support through ports at the 6:00 position and the 12:00 position. You open the right fan cowl and thrust reverser to get access to the HPTACC system components.

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ENGINE AIR LPTACC COMPONENT LOCATION Component Location These components of the LPTACC system are on the right side of the engine high pressure compressor (HPC) case: LPTACC valve (4:00 position) LPTACC air duct (4:00 position).

Air enters the LPTACC intake port in the fan duct. The intake port is at the 4:00 position on the inner wall of the fan duct aft of the fan. The LPTACC valve connects to the intake port. The LPTACC valve connects to the intake port. The LPTACC air duct connects the LPTACC valve to the LPTACC manifolds. /the LPTACC manifolds surround the low pressure turbine (LPT) case. You open the right fan cowl and thrust reverser to get access to the LPTACC system components.

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ENGINE AIR VSV COMPONENT LOCATION Component Location These components of the variable stator vane (VSV) system are on the right side of the engine on the high pressure compressor (HPC) case at the 2:00 position: VSV actuator Bellcranck assembly

These components of the VSV system are on the left side of the engine on the HPC case at the 8:00 position: VSV actuator Bellcranck assembly

These components of the VSV system are around and inside the HPC case: Actuation rings (4) HPC inlet guide vanes (not shown) HPC stator vanes stage 1 (not shown) HPC stator vanes stage 2 (not shown) HPC stator vanes stage 3 (not shown)

You open the fan cowls and thrust reversers to get access to the VSV system components.

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ENGINE AIR VBV COMPONENT LOCATION Component Location The right variable bleed valve (VBV) actuator is on the rear face of the fan frame at the 4:00 position. The left VBV actuator is on the rear face of the fan frame at the 10:00 position. These components are in the fan frame: VBV door (12) Actuation ring (not shown) Bellcranck (12).

You open the two fan cowls and thrust reverser cowls to get access to the VBV system components.

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ENGINE AIR TRANSIENT BLEED VALVE (TBV) COMPONENT LOCATION Component Location These transient bleed valve (TBV) system components are on the high pressure turbine (HPT) case: Transient bleed valve (6:00 position) TBV manifold (5:00 position)

You open the two fan duct cowls and thrust reverser cowls to get access to the TBV system components.

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ENGINE OIL INTRODUCTION Purpose The engine oil system supplies oil to lubricate, cool, and clean the engine bearings and gears. The engine oil system has these subsystems: Storage Distribution Indicating.

Abbreviations and Acronyms AGB - accessory gear box AMM - airplane maintenance manual CDS/DEU - common display system/ display electronic units EEC - electronic engine control psid - pound-per-square-inch differential TGB - transfer gear box T/P sensor - temperature/pressure sensor

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ENGINE OIL GENERAL DESCRIPTION General The engine oil system has these subsystems: Storage Distribution Indicating. The scavenge circuit takes the oil from the engine. Oil first flows through the lubrication unit. The lubrication unit also scavenges the oil. The oil goes to the scavenge oil filter and then to the servo fuel heater. The oil goes from the servo fuel heater to the main oil/fuel heat exchanger and then back to the servo fuel heater. Then the oil flows back to the oil tank. The vent circuit balances the internal air pressures in the oil system. Externally, a vent line connects the engine to the oil tank. Unwanted air pressure goes out of the oil tank through the vent line. Indication The oil quantity indicating system sends this data to the display electronic units (DEUs): Scavenge oil filter bypass indication Low oil pressure indication Oil pressure Oil temperature Oil quantity.

Storaae The oil storage system keeps sufficient oil for a continuous supply to the oil distribution circuit. The oil storage system lets you do an oil level check and to fill the oil system. The oil storage system holds oil in the oil tank. Distribution The oil distribution system has these circuits: Supply Scavenge Vent.

The supply circuit sends oil to lubricate the engine bearings and gears. Oil from the tank goes to the lubrication unit through an anti-leakage valve. The lubrication unit pressurizes and filters the oil. The oil then goes to the engine.

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ENGINE OIL STORAGE OIL TANK General These are the functions of the engine oil tank: Contains the engine oil Removes the air from the scavenge oil Lets you do an oil level check and fill the oil system. A drain plug at the bottom of the oil tank lets you drain it. The engine oil tank holds approximately 21 US quarts (20.2 liters). The oil tank for engine 2 can hold more oil than engine 1. This is because of the dihedral of the wings. Training Information Point You remove the oil quantity transmitter separately from the oil tank. See the oil indicating section for more information on the oil quantity transmitter.(AMM PART 179-30)

Component Location The engine oil tank is on the fan case, at the 3:00 position. You do the oil level check and you fill the oil tank through the oil tank access door. The oil tank access door is on the side of the right fan cowl. You can also open the right fan cowl to get access to the oil tank. Physical Description The oil tank has a oil level sight gage, a gravity fill port, and pressure servicing fill ports. You use the oil level sight gage on the oil tank to make a visual check of the engine oil quantity. The oil level sight gage is on the front of the oil tank. You use the oil tank gravity fill port to fill the oil tank. The gravity fill port is on the right of the oil tank. The oil filler cap has a locking handle. The oil that falls during servicing collects into the oil scupper. The oil scupper connects to a drain line.
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ENGINE OIL STORAGE TRAINING INFORMATION POINTS SERVICING General You must do an oil level check and fill the engine oil tank for any of these conditions: Normal servicing After replacement of an oil system component Engine oil change. SHUTDOWN. IF THE CHECK VALVE IS DEFECTIVE, HOT OIL CAN SPRAY FROM THE OIL TANK AND CAUSE INJURY TO PERSONS. THE OIL IN THE TANK IS HOT AND PRESSURIZED DURING ENGINE OPERATION. WARNING:YOU MUST FULLY CLEAN YOUR SKIN IF YOU TOUCH THE OIL. REMOVE OIL SOAKED CLOTHES IMMEDIATELY. IF THE OIL TOUCHES YOUR SKIN FOR A LONG TIME, IT COULD CAUSE DERMATITIS. CAUTION: DO NOT SERVICE THE OIL TANK WITH OIL BRANDS THAT ARE NOT APPROVED. FLUSH AND REPLACE THE OIL IMMEDIATELY WITH THE CORRECT ENGINE OIL IF BRANDS OF OIL THAT ARE NOT APPROVED ARE USED. CAUTION: IMMEDIATELY CLEAN THE PAINTED SURFACES ON WHICH THE OIL FALLS. THE OIL WILL PUT STAINS ON CLOTHES AND CAN MAKE PAINT SOFT. Add the engine oil into the gravity fill port until the oil level gets to the full indication on the sight glass. When the oil level is at the full indication on the sight glass, the oil tank is full. Refer to part II of the AMM for more information on the approved types or brands of oil.

Engine Oil Level CAUTION: DO THE ENGINE REPLENISH PROCEDURE BEFORE THE OIL TANK BECOMES COOL (30 MINUTES FROM THE ENGINE SHUTDOWN). IF TANK IS COOL, YOU CAN FILL IT TOO MUCH AND CAUSE AN INCORRECT INDICATION OF THE OIL CONSUMPTION RATE. Open the oil tank access door to get access to the sight glass. You can also monitor the engine oil level from the flight compartment. To do that, read the oil quantity indication on the center upper display unit (P2). See the oil indicating section for more information on the oil quantity indicating system.(AMM PART I 79-30) WARNING:DO NOT REMOVE THE FILLER CAP OF THE OIL TANK FOR FIVE MINUTES AFTER AN ENGINE
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ENGINE OIL DISTRIBUTION COMPONENT LOCATIONS Component Locations These components of the engine oil distribution system are on the left side, and at the bottom of the fan case: Lubrification unit (7:00 position) Main oil / fuel heat exchanger (9:00 position) Oil scavenge filter assembly (8:00 position) Anti-leakage valve (6:00 position)

The oil supply filter and the three chip detectors are in the lubrification unit. You open the left fan cowl to get access to the components of the engine oil distribution system.

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ENGINE OIL INDICATING GENERAL DESCRIPTION General The engine oil indicating system supplies oil system data to the display electronic units (DEUs). The engine display on the P2 center instrument panel shows this data: Oil quantity Oil pressure Oil temperature Oil scavenge filter condition.

These components monitor the oil system: Oil quantity transmitter Oil pressure transmitter Oil temperature sensor Scavenge oil filter clogging transmitter.

The oil quantity transmitter sends the oil quantity data directly to the CDS/DEUs. The three other components send data to the DEU through the EEC. The temperature/pressure (T/P) sensor assembly contains the oil pressure transmitter and the oil temperature sensor.

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IGNITION INTRODUCTION General The ignition systems supply electrical sparks in the combustion chamber for combustion. Each engine has two ignition systems that operate independently. The ignition system usually operates manually. However, the ignition systems operate automatically when the electronic engine control (EEC) sees a possible engine flameout condition. You use ignition during these times: Ground start Takeoff and landings In-flight (during heavy turbulence or bad weather) In-flight start.

Abbreviations and Acronyms CDS - common di sp lay system CDU - control display unit CONT - continuous DEU - display electronics unit EEC - electronic ,engine control FLT - flight FMC - flight management computer GRD - ground IGN - ignition L - Left R right
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IGNITION GENERAL DESCRIPTION General These components control ignition: Start levers Start switches Ignition selector switch Electronic engine control (EEC). systems receive 115v ac from ac transfer bus 1 and the ac standby bus.

The start lever controls ignition system power to the EEC. The start switch and the ignition selector switch supply inputs to the EEC. The EEC uses these inputs to supply power to the ignition exciters. The ignition exciters supply power to the spark igniters. The engine starting system also uses the switch positions for control. See the engine starting chapter for more information.(AMM PART 180) Electrical Power The EEC has internal switches that control the 115v ac to the ignition exciters. The ignition exciters change the 115v ac input to a dc voltage of approximately 15,000 to 20,000v for the spark igniters. The spark igniters give a spark for combustion. The ignition systems of engine 2 receive ac power from ac transfer bus 2 and the ac standby bus. The engine 1 ignition
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IGNITION ENGINE COMPONENT LOCATION General Each engine has a right and a left ignition system. These are the components of each ignition system: Ignition exciter Ignition lead Air manifold Spark igniter.

Component Locations The ignition exciters are on the right side, lower portion, of the fan case. The ignition leads go from the ignition exciters to the spark igniters on the right and left sides of the engine. The air manifold goes around the ignition leads. The air manifold starts in the 6:00 strut and goes to the igniters. The spark igniters are just forward of the fuel manifold, at the 4:00 position and the 8:00 position.

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IGNITION FLIGHT COMPARTMENT COMPONENT LOCATIONS General These components which control the ignition system are in the flight compartment: Engine start switches Ignition selector switch Start levers.

Component Locations The ignition selector switch and engine start switches are on the forward overhead panel (P5). The start levers are on the control stand.

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IGNITION OPERATION
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IGNITION OPERATION General Engine Start Switch These are the flight compartment controls you use to operate the engine ignition: Start lever Ignition selector switch Engine start switch. There are four engine start switch selection positions: GRD (ground start) OFF CONT (continuous ignition) FLT (flight).

Start Lever Enqine Start Switch Position (GRD) The start lever controls ignition electrical power to the EEC. The EEC receives 115v ac power for ignition when the start lever is in the idle position. Ignition Selector Switch There are three ignition selector switch positions: IGN L (Left spark igniter) IGN R (right spark igniter) BOTH (both spark igniters). The engine starter engages and turns the engine when you put the engine start switch to the GRD position. You supply ignition and fuel to the engine combustor when you move the start lever to the idle position. You use the GRD position to start the engine on the ground. See the engine starting chapter for more informatlon. (AMM PART I 80)

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IGNITION OPERATION Enqine Start Switch Position (OFF) Usually the igniters do not operate when the start switch is in the OFF position. However, the EEC turns on the ignition system automatically if the EEC sees a possible engine flameout condition. See the functional description page in this section for more information about this function. Enqine Start Switch Position (CONT) The flight crew may turn the engine start switch to the CONT position at these times: Takeoff Approach Landing Bad Weather.

The spark igniters, as selected by the ignition selector switch, turn on and operate continuously when the switch is in this position. Enqine Start Switch Position (FLT) Both spark igniters operate continuously when you turn the engine start switch to FLT position. The EEC does not use the ignition selector switch position information.

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IGNITION TRAINING INFORMATION POINT General The control display unit (CDU) helps you do troubleshooting of the ignition system. You can also use the CDU to do a ground test of the ignition system. See the engine indicating chapter for more information.(AMM PART I 77)

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ENGINE STARTING INTRODUCTION General The engine starting system uses pneumatic power to turn the engine's N2 rotor during a start or motor procedure. Pneumatic power comes from one of these sources: APU Pneumatic ground equipment Opposite engine.

These components control the engine start system: Flight compartment switches Display electronics unit (DEU) Electronic engine control (EEC).

The engine starting system operates on the ground and in flight. Abbreviations & Acronyms AGB - engine accessory gearbox ALF - aft looking forward AMM - airplane maintenance manual CDS - common display system CDU - control display unit DEU - display electronics unit EEC - electronic engine control FMCS - flight management computer system

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ENGINE STARTING GENERAL DESCRIPTION General The engine starting system uses these airplane and engine systems or components: Pneumatic power Electrical power Flight compartment switches Engine fuel control system Engine control system. Common display system (CDS). The CONT position supplies continuous ignition. See the engine ignition chapter for more information on the ignition system.(AMM PART I 74) Start Valve and Starter The start valve opens to supply power to the starter. Usually, this valve opens when you put the engine start switch to the GRD position. The start valve position shows on the engine display. You can manually open the valve. The starter turns the engine N2 rotor through the engine accessory gearbox (AGB). The EEC protects the engine during start. The EEC shuts off fuel supply to the engine when it finds the engine parameters are out of limits during a start. Display Electronics Units (DEUs) The DEUs are components of the common display system (CDS). The DEUs monitor N2 and let the engine start switch go back to the OFF position at starter cutout.

Engine Start Switch You put the engine start switch to the GRD position to turn the engine with the starter. The switch automatically moves to the OFF position at starter cutout. When electrical and pneumatic power is available, this happens when you put the switch to the GRD position: Electronic engine control (EEC) receives a start signal APU receives an engine start signal Start valve opens and the pneumatic starter turns the engine.

The crew uses the FLT position to start the engine in flight when the starter is not necessary.

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ENGINE STARTING COMPONENT LOCATIONS ENGINE General The engine starting system has these components on the left side of the engine: Pneumatic starter ducts Start valve Starter. Start Valve The start valve is above the starter on the fan case. Starter The starter is on the forward face of the engine accessory gearbox (AGB) at the 8:00 position.

You open the left fan cowl to get access to these components. The electronic engine control (EEC) is on the right side of the engine fan case at the 2:00 position, aft looking forward (ALF). You open the right fan cowl to get access to the EEC. Pneumatic Starter Ducts There are two pneumatic starter duct assemblies. The upper assembly has two tubes and two flexible joints. One end connects to a pneumatic duct at the strut. The other end attaches to the start valve. The assembly attaches to the fan case. The lower assembly has one tube. The assembly connects to the start valve and to the starter. The assembly attaches to the fan case.

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ENGINE STARTING COMPONENT LOCATIONS FLIGHT COMPARTMENT AND EE COMPARTMENT Flight Compartment The engine start switches and the ignition selector switch are on the P5 forward overhead panel. The upper center display unit is on the P2 main panel center. The engine parameters usually show on this display. The parameters can also show on the lower center display unit. The engine start levers are on the control stand, aft of the thrust levers. Electrical Equipment Compartment The display electronics units (DEU)s are on the E3 rack.

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ENGINE STARTING FUNCTIONAL DESCRIPTION Starting Control Electrical power for engine starting control comes from the battery bus. The engine start switch and the DEUs control the starting system. Indication The DEUs use input data to show engine parameters and start valve position on the common display system (CDS). Start Switch These occur when you put the engine start switch to the GRD position when electrical and pneumatic power are available: The EEC receives an engine start signal The APU electronic control unit receives a signal to open the APU inlet guide vanes The start valve solenoid energizes and the valve opens The starter clutch engages and the engine N2 rotor turns A solenoid in the P5 panel energizes to hold the switch in the GRD position. Fuel and Ignition You move the engine start lever to the idle position to add fuel and ignition during the start. See the engine fuel and control chapter for more information. (AMM PART I 73) See the ignition chapter for more information. (AMM PART I 74) Starter Cutout At approximately 55 percent N2, this occurs: The DEUs remove the electrical ground for the start switch solenoid The engine start switch goes to the OFF position The start valve solenoid deenergizes and the valve closes. Engine Wet Start The EEC stops the engine start if the EGT does not increase in 15 seconds after you move the engine start lever to the idle position. The EEC stops fuel flow and turns off ignition. You can find a fault message on the control display unit (CDU). See the TRAINING INFORMATION POINT page in this section for more information. Engine Hot Start The EGT digital display flashes when the EEC sees a possible hot start. If the EGT starting limit is exceeded, the EEC immediately stops fuel flow and ignition. The EGT digital display continues to flash until you move the engine start lever to the cutoff position. This system operates on the ground only.

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ENGINE STARTING TRAINING INFORMATION POINT General You can use the control display units (CDUs) to troubleshoot problems when the engine does not start. The EEC keeps maintenance messages in its non-volatile memory. The EEC keeps a message during an engine start if the EGT does not increase in 15 seconds after you move the start lever to the idle position. You use the CDU to see this message. See the engine indicating chapter for more information about engine troubleshooting with the CDU.(AMM PART I 77)

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ENGINE STARTING OPERATION General These are the flight compartment controls you use to start the engine: Engine start switches Ignition select switch Engine start levers. You must monitor these engine parameters during engine starting: N2 Oil pressure N1 Fuel flow EGT. Look for start valve open indication Monitor N2 Make sure oil pressure increases Speak with ground personnel to make sure N1 begins to turn counterclockwise Move the engine start lever to the idle position (forward) at a minimum of 25 percent N2 Make sure fuel flow is in limits Make sure EGT increases Monitor EGT and N2 increase until starter cutout at 55 percent N2 Make sure engine start switch goes back to the OFF position at 55 percent N2 Monitor all engine parameters as engine speed increases to idle.

Pneumatic power must be available to start the engine on the ground.

Training Information Point Usually, only one igniter is necessary for starting. You should use a different igniter selection for each start.

Engine Start This is a summary of the engine start procedure: Follow safety procedures and airplane and engine limitations Set the ignition select switch to IGN L or IGN R Put the engine start switch to the GRD position

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ENGINE EXHAUST SYSTEM INTRODUCTION Purpose The engine exhaust system controls the direction of the engine exhaust gases. The engine exhaust system has these sub-systems: Turbine exhaust Thrust reverser (T/R). P - panel prox - proximity REF - reference RLY - relay RTO - rejected take off S - seconds seq - sequence SL - sync lock stby - standby SW - switch sync - synchronizing sys - system T/R - thrust reverser

Abbreviations and Acronyms A/T - autothrottle CDS - common display system CDU - control display unit DCV - directional control valve DEU - display electronics unit EAU - engine accessory unit EEC - electronic engine control ELEC - electrical ENG - eng i ne FCC - flight control computer GND - ground HIV - hydraulic isolation valve INBD - inboard ind - indication ISV - isolation valve LVDT - linear variable differential transformer

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ENGINE EXHAUST SYSTEM GENERAL DESCRIPTION General The engine exhaust system controls the direction of the turbine exhaust gases and the fan air exhaust gases. Turbine Exhaust System The turbine exhaust system supplies an exit for the engine exhaust gases. This exit increases the velocity of the exhaust gases. This increases engine thrust. The major components of the turbine exhaust system are the exhaust nozzle and the exhaust plug. Thrust Reverser System The thrust reverser (T/R) system changes the direction of the fan air exhaust to help create reverse thrust. The flight crew uses reverse thrust to slow the airplane after landing or during a rejected takeoff (RTO). The turbine exhaust airflow direction does not change during reverse thrust. The T/R system has a electro-hydraulic control system and an indicating system. The T/R system has two thrust reversers. T/R 1 is the thrust reverser for engine 1 (left). T/R 2 is the thrust reverser for engine 2 (right). Four hinges attach each T/R half to the strut. You must deactivate the thrust reverser before you open a T/R half. Latches are at the bottom of the two halves. The latches keep the two halves together. Each T/R has a left and right half. Each half has a translating sleeve which moves aft (deploy position) for reverse thrust. The two sleeves work independently from each other. Fan air exhaust goes out radially and forward when the translating sleeves are in the deploy position.

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TURBINE EXHAUST SYSTEM GENERAL DESCRIPTION General The turbine exhaust system uses a nozzle and a plug to control the direction of the turbine exhaust gases. Components These are the turbine exhaust system components: Plug Nozzle.

Physical Description The exhaust nozzle controls the outer edge of the turbine exhaust flow. The nozzle attaches to the engine turbine case. The exhaust plug controls the inner edge of the turbine exhaust flow.The plug attaches to the engine turbine case. The plug and the nozzle are made of nickel alloy.

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THRUST REVERSER THRUST REVERSER OPENING ACTUATOR


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THRUST REVERSER THRUST REVERSER OPENING ACTUATOR Purpose You use the T/R opening actuator to open the T/R cowl (half). Each engine has two T/R opening actuators. Each actuator opens its cowl to approximately 45 from the closed position. Location Each T/R opening actuator is on the forward face of its T/R cowl. The upper end of the T/R opening actuator attaches to the T/R cowl. The lower end attaches to the engine fan frame extension ring. You open the fan cowls to get access to the T/R opening actuators. Physical Description The T/R opening actuator has these components: Hydraulic piston housing Rod Lock collar mechanism Inlet fitting Internal snubber assembly. Fluid goes from the opening actuator back to the hand pump when you close the T/R cowl. Operation There are two procedures to open the T/Rs. The pump procedure is the best. You use the manual procedure only if no pump is available. You usually use a hand pump to operate the T/R opening actuator. As the rod extends, the T/R cowl opens and the lock collar moves into the lock position. You can see and hear the lock collar move to the lock position. The red band confirms the lock collar position. Refer to the pump procedure in the airplane maintenance manual (AMM). The AMM also has the manual open and closing procedure. with the manual procedure, you lift and move the cowl up until the actuator lock goes into the lock position. Functional Description Fluid from the hand pump causes the T/R opening actuator rod to extend and open the T/R cowl. As the actuator approaches the full extend position, the lock collar goes into the lock position. A red band on the rod shows when the collar in the lock position.

The rod extends approximately 12 inches (30.5 cm). The inlet fitting permits you to connect a hand pump necessary to operate the actuator.

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THRUST REVERSER THRUST REVERSER OPENING ACTUATOR Training Information Point The leading edge flaps can extend and damage the T/R cowls (halves) when they are in the open (maintenance) position. Follow the AMM procedures to prevent the leading edge flap operation before you open the T/Rs. An actuator safety lock is usually put around the T/R opening actuatorls rod after the T/R cowl is open. The actuator safety lock is a safety device and backs up the lock collar if it fails. Two quick release pins hold the actuator safety lock around the T/R opening actuator rod. You use a hold open fitting (special tool) to keep the T/R halves open during an engine change. This fitting holds the T/R halves at approximately 45 degrees open. The outboard T/R halves can open more than 45 degrees. A hold open rod can keep these T/R halves open at 55 degrees. Refer to the AMM for procedures. WARNING:MAKE SURE YOU DO THE DEACTIVATION PROCEDURE FOR THE THRUST REVERSER. IF THE THRUST REVERSER IS NOT LOCKED, IT CAN ACCIDENTALLY OPERATE AND CAUSE INJURY TO PERSONS AND DAMAGE TO EQUIPMENT. WARNING:DO NOT OPERATE THE OPENING SYSTEM FOR THE THRUST REVERSER IF THE WIND VELOCITY IS MORE THAN 40 KNOTS. THE
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OPENING SYSTEM FOR THE THRUST REVERSER CAN HAVE A FAILURE IN LARGE WINDS WHICH CAN CAUSE INJURY TO PERSONS AND DAMAGE TO EQUIPMENT. WARNING:IF YOU USE THE MANUAL PROCEDURE TO OPEN THE THRUST REVERSER AGAIN AND AGAIN, THE HYDRAULIC FLUID FOR THE POWER OPENING SYSTEM CAN DECREASE. THIS WILL DECREASE THE SNUBBING ACTION.IF THE HYDRAULIC FLUID IN THE POWER OPENING SYSTEM DECREASES, THE REVERSER HALF CAN CLOSE TOO FAST. THIS CAN CAUSE INJURY TO PERSONS AND DAMAGE TO EQUIPMENT. CAUTION: MAKE SURE THE ADFACENT FAN COWL PANEL IS FULLY OPEN BEFORE YOU OPEN THE REVERSER HALF. IF THE ADJACENT FAN COWL PANEL IS NOT FULLY OPEN, YOU CAN DAMAGE IT WHEN YOU OPEN THE REVERSER HALF. CAUTION: DO NOT CAUSE THE THRUST REVERSER SLEEVE TO MOVE TO THE DEPLOYED POSITION WHEN THE THRUST REVERSER IS OPEN. THIS CAN CAUSE DAMAGE TO THE TRANSLATING SLEEVE AND THE LEADING EDGE FLAP.

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THRUST REVERSER TENSION LATCHES Purpose The tension latches hold the T/R halves together. General There are six tension latches for each T/R. Numbers identify each latch. Latch number one is the latch most forward. Latch number six is the latch most aft. All latches are interchangeable. Location All tension latches are at the bottom of the T/R halves. The latch handles and mechanisms are on the left T/R half. The latch keeper pins are on the right T/R half. Training Information Point Always open the latches in order from aft (No.6) to forward (No.1). Always close the latches in order from forward (No.1) to aft (No.6). You use the latch lever tool (special tool) to help bring the T/R halves together. This makes it easy to close the tension latches.

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THRUST REVERSER DEACTIVATION FOR FLIGHT DISPATCH TRAINING INFORMATION POINTS General Each T/R translating sleeve has two deactivation points. You install two pins at these points to deactivate the T/R for airplane dispatch. Each translating sleeve has two holes at the deactivation points. Rubber plugs are usually in these holes. You remove these plugs before you install the pins. The pins are usually in the fly away kit. The pins mechanically connect the translating sleeve structure to the stable cascade support ring. This prevents the movement of the T/R sleeve. Be sure to follow the thrust reverser deactivation for flight dispatch procedure found in the airplane maintenance manual (AMM).

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THRUST REVERSER CONTROL SYSTEM GENERAL DESCRIPTION General The thrust reverser control system controls hydraulic power and electrical power to deploy and stow the thrust reverser (T/R) translating sleeves. The system uses 24/28v dc electrical power and reverse thrust lever position for control. You can deploy the thrust reversers when the airplane is less than 10 feet (3 meters) from the ground. The flight control computers (FCC) and a radio altimeter operated relay supply airplane altitude information. An air sensing relay supplies the air/ground logic. The fire handle must be down for the control system to use the electrical power. Each T/R control valve module controls hydraulic power to deploy or stow their T/R. Each module contains the electrical and hydraulic components necessary to control the hydraulic flow to the T/R hydraulic actuators. There are two T/R control valve modules on the airplane, one for each T/R. Sync shafts on each translating sleeve make sure the sleeve's three actuators operate at the same speed. The actuators can operate only if the shaft is free to turn. A sync lock connects to the bottom hydraulic actuator on each T/R half. The sync lock must unlock for the sync shafts to turn. During normal T/R operation, the sync locks energize to unlock. The sync lock is also a manual drive mechanism. You use the sync lock to manually move the T/R translating sleeves for maintenance operations. The engine accessory unit (EAU) has the electrical circuits necessary for stow operation. The EAU also uses input from sleeve proximity sensors for auto-restow logic. The reverser thrust levers operate switches on the autothrottle switch packs. These switches control signals to these components: EAU Sync locks Control valve module.

Deploy Operation This happens when you raise the reverse thrust lever to deploy a T/R: Switches in the autothrottle switch pack move to energize the sync lock and an arm signal goes through the T/R control valve module The T/R control switch moves and a deploy signal goes through the T/R control valve module The T/R control valve module sends hydraulic fluid to the actuators to move the translating sleeves aft.

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THRUST REVERSER CONTROL SYSTEM GENERAL DESCRIPTION See the engine controls chapter for more information about the thrust lever interlock system.(AMM PART I 76) A flight control computer (FCC) or one of two relays in the nose wheel well area (J22, J24) supply an electrical ground necessary to deploy the T/Rs. Deploy hydraulic power can not go to the T/R if the air/ground or altitude conditions are not met. Stow Operation This happens when you lower the reverse thrust lever back to the stow position: The T/R control switch removes the deploy signal to the T/R control valve module The engine accessory unit (EAU) auto-restow circuits test Switches in the autothrottle switch pack move to send an arm signal and a stow signal through the EAU to the T/R control valve module The T/R control valve module sends hydraulic fluid to the actuators to move the translating sleeves back to the stow position. The sync locks go to the lock position after 18 seconds. The EAU receives input from a proximity sensor on a sleeve that the sleeve is not in the stow or locked position, and The engine's reverse thrust lever for that T/R is in the stow position.

The EAU use proximity sensors for the auto-restbw logic. The auto-restow circuits usually operate for 10 seconds during normal T/R stow operation.

Auto-Restow The EAU uses internal logic (auto-restow) to tell the T/R control valve module to stow the T/R anytime these conditions happen:

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THRUST REVERSER CONTROL SYSTEM COMPONENT LOCATIONS General The thrust reverser (T/R) control components are at these areas of the airplane: Upper and lower control stand EE compartment T/R halves Main gear wheel well.

The graphic shows the general location of the control system components.

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THRUST REVERSER CONTROL SYSTEM FUNCTIONAL DESCRIPTION DEPLOY/STOW HYDRAULIC FLOW General The T/R control valve modules control hydraulic power to the hydraulic actuators for T/R deploy and stow operations. Hydraulic system A supplies hydraulic power for T/R 1. System B supplies hydraulic power for T/R 2. The standby system supplies backup hydraulic power through the shuttle valves if system A or system B fails. See the shuttle valve page in this section for more information. The graphic shows T/R 1 operation. T/R 2 operation is almost the same. Deploy The arm and deploy solenoids energize when you raise the reverse thrust lever. See T/R CONTROL - FUNCTIONAL DESCRIPTION - DEPLOY CONTROL in this section for more information about the electrical circuit. This happens when the arm solenoid energizes and hydraulic power is available to the T/R control valve module: The hydraulic control valve adjacent to the arm solenoid moves against its spring and hydraulic fluid flows through the valve to the hydraulic isolation valve (HIV) The HIV moves to the arm position (up)
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Hydraulic power is made available at the directional control valve (DCV) Hydraulic fluid goes through the open manual shutoff valve to the rod side of the T/R actuators. The deploy solenoid energizes after the sync lock receives a signal to unlock. See the deploy control functional description for more information. This happens when the deploy solenoid energizes and hydraulic power is available to the T/R control valve module: The hydraulic control valve adjacent to the deploy solenoid moves against its spring and hydraulic fluid flows through the valve to the DCV The DCV moves to the deploy position (up) Hydraulic fluid flows through the DCV to the head side and the rod side of the T/R actuator pistons Each locking actuator's mechanism disengages. The hydraulic pressure on both sides of each actuator piston are equal but the surface area of the head side is larger than the rod side. The larger force on the head side causes the actuator pistons to extend. As the actuators extend, the fluid on the rod side of the actuators goes to the manual shutoff valve and mixes with the fluid which goes to the head side.

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THRUST REVERSER CONTROL SYSTEM FUNCTIONAL DESCRIPTION DEPLOY/STOW HYDRAULIC FLOW Stow The arm and stow solenoids temporarily energize when you return the reverse thrust lever to the stow position. The deploy solenoid de-energizes and the hydraulic control valve adjacent to it returns to its normal position. See T/R CONTROL FUNCTIONAL DESCRIPTION - STOW CONTROL for more information about the electrical circuit. These are the effects when the arm solenoid remains energized and hydraulic power is available to the T/R control valve module: The hydraulic control valve adjacent to the arm solenoid stays against its spring Hydraulic fluid keeps the HIV in the arm position Hydraulic power stays available at the directional control valve (DCV) Hydraulic system pressure stays high at the rod side of the T/R actuators. This happens when the stow solenoid energizes: The hydraulic control valve adjacent to the stow solenoid moves against its spring and hydraulic fluid flows through the valve to the DCV The DCV moves from the deploy position to the stow position (down) Hydraulic pressure at the head side goes low as the fluid returns to the airplane hydraulic systems through the manual shutoff valve and the DCV The hydraulic pressure at the rod side cause the actuators to retract and stow the T/R. Manual Shutoff Valve The manual shutoff valve is normally open. You close it whenever you do maintenance on or around the T/Rs. See CONTROL VALVE MODULE, in this section for more information about the T/R control valve module and the manual shutoff valve handle. One Way Flow Restrictors The one-way restrictors restrict the mass flow rate of hydraulic fluid to the T/R hydraulic actuators. They permit free hydraulic flow from the T/R hydraulic actuators. This prevents a possible hydraulic pressure build up across the head of the actuators when the T/Rs are not in operation. Internal Valve Position Sensors The EAU uses the position sensors on the DCV and The HIV for fault detection. See the EAU page in this section for more information.

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THRUST REVERSER CONTROL SYSTEM FUNCTIONAL DESCRIPTION DEPLOY/STOW HYDRAULIC FLOW Training Information Point There is no hydraulic return to the standby system for T/R 1. There is a transfer of hydraulic fluid from the standby system to system A during stow if the standby system deploys the T/R. There is no similar transfer of hydraulic fluid for T/R 2 operation.

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THRUST REVERSER CONTROL SYSTEM EAU TRAINING INFORMATION POINT General The EAU face has a set of lights and switches for each T/R. A placard near the bottom the EAU supplies BITE instructions. T/R Control System Troubleshooting The EAU BITE helps you do trouble-shooting of the T/R control system. The EAU monitors these component inputs from each T/R: Left and right sleeve stow proximity sensors Left and right sleeve lock proximity sensors Hydraulic isolation valve (HIV) position (inside the T/R control valve module) Directional control valve (DCV) position (inside the T/R control valve module) Voltage at both sync locks. You push and hold the T/R DEPLOY FAULTS button (switch) to see deploy faults or Push and hold the T/R STOW FAULTS button (switch) to see stow faults All lights come on for a test Lights which stay on show faults The green NO FAULTS DETECTED light comes on if there are no faults found You release the button (switch) Lights that stayed on to show faults go out. The EAU also has a light for each component input. If a component has a failure, then its light will stay on at the end of the BITE. These lights are red. This is a brief summary of the BITE procedure:

The EAU identifies a fault if an input is incorrect for the thrust reverser command. For example, a sync lock may not receive electrical power after the pilot commands a deploy operation. The T/R DEPLOY FAULTS light comes on if a fault happens during a deploy operation. The T/R STOW FAULTS light comes on if a fault happens during a stow operation or after a stow operation. Both lights are red.

You use the FAULT RESET buttons (switches) to erase the EAU fault memory. Deploy faults are reset onlywhen the T/R is in the deploy position. Refer to the procedures in chapter 78, part two of the airplane maintenance manuaL (AMM) when you use the EAU BITE. The fault memory will erase when the T/R operates 5 times with no faults. The EAU FAULT light comes on if there is an internal EAU failure.

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THRUST REVERSER INDICATING SYSTEM GENERAL DESCRIPTION General The thrust reverser (T/R) indicating system supplies T/R translating sleeve position data to the common display system (CDS). The REV message comes on as an indication of translating sleeve position. The T/R indicating system uses the REVERSER lights to show T/R control system component failure. The T/R indicating system can also bring on the ENGINE CONTROL light to show T/R indicating system component failure. You use the CDU to see T/R indicating system component failure data. REV Messages The REV messages show just above the engine N1 indicators on the CDS. One message shows for each T/R. The message shows in amber when one or both sleeves of a T/R are between 10 to 90 percent of the travel to the deploy position. The message shows in green anytime both sleeves of a T/R are more than 90 percent of the travel to the deploy position. Each T/R translating sleeve has one linear variable differential transformer (LVDT). The LVDT gives sleeve position data to the engine electronic control (EEC). The EEC and the display electronics units (DEUs) contain the logic necessary to operate the REV message. The EEC supplies a signal on an ARINC 429 bus to each display electronics unit (DEU). The DEUs then show the message on the correct display unit. REVERSER Lights Each T/R has an amber REVERSER light on the engine panel. There is one light for each T/R. Master caution comes on after a time delay whenever a REVERSER light comes on. The REVERSER light can come on in flight. The REVERSER lights come on for 10.5 seconds during a normaL T/R stow operation. A REVERSER light stays on if a T/R control system component fails during the stow. The light stays on until the stow failure goes away. The REVERSER light comes on immediately during a deploy if a T/R control system component fails. The light stays on until you fix the deploy problem and reset the engine accessory unit (EAU).

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THRUST REVERSER INDICATING SYSTEM GENERAL DESCRIPTION The REVERSER light comes on when any of these T/R control system component's do not operate correctly for a stow or deploy operation: Proximity sensor (2 each T/R sleeve ) Sync lock Directional control valve (DCV) inside the T/R control vaLve module Hydraulic isolation valve (HIV) inside the T/R control valve module. The left translating sleeve position signal (from the LVDT) is not in range The right translating sleeve position signal (from the LVDT) is not in range The left translating sleeve position signals (from the LVDT) do not agree The right translating sleeve position signals (from the LVDT) do not agree.

Control Display Unit (CDU) You can see LVDT real time data and failure messages on the control display unit (CDU). See the engine indicating chapter for more information about how the CDU helps you do troubleshooting.(AMM PART I 77)

The engine accessory unit (EAU) contains the logic necessary to identify T/R control system component failures. The EAU controls the REVERSER lights. ENGINE CONTROL Light Each engine has an amber ENGINE CONTROL light on the engine panel. This light comes on when a serious failure of an engine or the T/R LVDT happens. You should not dispatch the airplane with an ENGINE CONTROL light on. Master caution also comes on with this light. The T/R indicating system uses input from the LVDTs to control the ENGINE CONTROL light. An ENGINE CONTROL light comes on when any two of these conditions are true for a T/R:

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THRUST REVERSER INDICATING SYSTEM TRAINING INFORMATION POINT General You use the control display units (CDUs) to do trouble- shooting of the linear variable differential transformer (LVDT). The CDU shows real time data or failure codes. See the engine indicating chapter for more information about other engine maintenance messages that the CDU shows.(AMM PART I 77) Failure Data The EEC records a LVDT failure when any of these happen for more than 5 seconds: LVDT input to EEC is out of range EEC channel A and B see that sleeve is 10 percent to the deploy position and forward thrust levers are forward of the idle position. The value of the difference between the T/R sleeve ls position signals on EEC channel A and B is greater than 12 percent. Real Time Data You use the CDU to see this real time data for any LVDT: Sleeve position in percent travel to deploy position (usually average of channel A and channel B) sleeve position in percent travel to the deploy position for the EEC channel you select EEC channel A and B LVDT voltage data.

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