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AMALI 1-2

AMALI 1-2

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IPG Kampus Temenggong Ibrahim Johor Bahru , Johor.

PROGRAM PENSISWAZAHAN GURU (PPG) MOD PENDIDIKAN JARAK JAUH

IJAZAH SARJANA MUDA PERGURUAN DENGAN KEPUJIAN

JABATAN SAINS
AMALI 1 : EKOSISTEM TANAH – BIOTA TANAH DAN SIRATAN MAKANAN
NAMA PELAJAR NO. KAD PENGENALAN 701224-01-5634 731220-01-5132 750313-01-6752 760209-01-6292 : : : : : NO. MATRIK

1. 2. 3. 4.

NORIZAT BT JALIL NOR HIDAYAH BT ESA NOR KHAIRIAH BT JOHARI NORSILA BT MOHAMAD KUMPULAN/UNIT AMBILAN NAMA MATAPELAJARAN KOD NAMA PENSYARAH TARIKH HANTAR

ICSN1106050 ICSN1106043 ICSN1106044 ICSN1106052

PPG-SAINS (KUMP 3) JUN 2011 EKOSISTEM DAN BIODIVERSITI SCE 3107 PN PREMA NAMBIAR A/P KRISHNAN : 16 FEBRUARI 2013

.11.fao.com/dev/page. (1997).net.wikipedia. Xiaoyun Chen et.. Tanah dan Manusia.org/docrep/fao/010/i0112007.pdf Soil. Lee Soon Ching & Liew Shee Leong. Safian Sulaiman.soilnet.cfm?pageid=secondary_intro. SPM Biologi Moden.org/wiki/food-web Mesofauna (biology) – Britannica Online Encyclopedia Diakses daripada http://www..britannica..al..wordpress. the free encyclopedia Diakses daripada http://www.ftp://ftp.Com – Microfauna and microflora Diakses daripada http://www.. (2009).com/EBchecked/topic/380375/microfauna Peran makrofauna dan mikrofauna dalam sifat fisik…-Firti05’s Blog (2011) Diakses daripada http://www. Save and grow: 3.org>.libra. Shah Alam./peran-makrofauna-dan-..fao. Biologi STPM Jilid II. . Mah Chee Wai. (1987).en.firti05.Thechallenge>2. Pustaka Delta. Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka. RUJUKAN : Chong Ngok Mang.Farmingsystem Soil Biota and biodiversity – FTP FAO Diakses daripada http://www.cn>Publications Food web – Wikipedia.britannica. Soil Health Diakses daripada http://www.msra.com/EBchecked/topic/376735/mesofauna Mikrofauna (biology) – Britannica Online Encyclopedia Diakses daripada http://www... Kuala Lumpur. Penerbit Fajar Bakti.com/..c. Contribution of soil micro-fauna(protozoa and…-Academic Diakses daripada http://www.>1. Petaling Jaya.

. LAMPIRAN-LAMPIRAN : LAMPIRAN 1 : Rajah 1 : Penyediaan set corong Tulgren 1 Rajah 2 : Penyediaan set corong Tulgren 2 .12.

.Rajah 3 : Sampel tanah dari Lokasi 1 dan Lokasi 2. Rajah 4 : Sampel tanah dimasukkan ke dalam plastik dan dilabel A dan B Rajah 5 : Gambarajah hasil setelah 48 jam dijalankan.

siput dan lipan.Cacing tanah.Rajah 6 : Hasil dapatan. .

Like earthworms. thereby increasing soil drainage.LAMPIRAN 2 : Themes: The soil ecosystem | Macrofauna and Mesofauna | Microfauna and Microflora | Quiz Macrofauna are defined as being larger than 2mm in size. They also help to release nutrients and make them available to growing plants. earthworms.1 to 2mm in size. some are herbivores and a few are predators on other soil organisms.000 arthropods have been recorded in just a square metre of old grassland soils. rabbits and gophers. which all spend most of their life in the soil. together with microorganisms associated with this material. ants. For example. They include arthropods. woodlice. collembola and enchytraeids. They help to produce a good soil structure through their burrowing and casting. There are several thousand species of earthworms worldwide. fungi and algae. as well as moles. They eat plant remains and injest soil organic matter in various stages of decomposition. This group includes larger animals such as badgers. Mesofauna are 0. snails. termites. others scavenge on degraded organic matter. Some feed on dead organic remains. Burrowing animals such as earthworms. which all spend a part of their life in the soil. In some soils these are very abundant. such as mites. over 200. ants tend to aerate and mix the soil. slugs. They all contribute to the breakdown of organic matter. They also ingest mineral particles from the soil and the material they excrete after it has been digested in their bodies is often well aggregrated and nutrient rich. Creatures such as mites and collembola live in the existing air spaces in the soil. stimulation of microorganisms and deposition of faeces which increase soil fertility. ants and millipedes create their own living space by burrowing into the soil. There are also several thousand species of ants that inhabit the soil. Earthworms are very helpful creatures to have in the soil. Themes: The soil ecosystem | Macrofauna and Mesofauna | Microfauna and Microflora | Quiz . millipedes. Some mesofauna feed on bacteria.

They are major consumers of bacteria. rather little is known about them. Protozoa are small and variable in shape. Bacteria are tiny organisms composed of single cells and without a distinct nucleus. Nematodes occur widely in soils. and so need a microscope to be seen. They are well suited to life in soil because they slide over surfaces relatively easily. The two most important soil creatures are the nematodes and the protozoa. The fact that many are extremely small and are out of sight below ground means that the full importance of many of these creatures may yet remain undiscovered for some time. Themes: The soil ecosystem | Macrofauna and Mesofauna | Microfauna and Microflora | Quiz . and many aspects of nutrient cycling. mycorrhizal fungi play a major part in securing nutrients for plant production and many plants are dependent on such relationships. feeding on soil particles. perhaps because of their small size. We know relatively little about the viruses in soil and also about many of the other tiny organisms. Some species are parasites and can be a problem for agricultural crops such as potatoes. they live off other flora and fauna. i. fungi and viruses. Bacteria take part in some of the most important transformations in soils including weathering of rocks and minerals. the surface of soil aggregates and structural units and the rooting system of the plants. globules and filaments. Viruses are the smallest and simplest multiplying entities in the soil but.LAMPIRAN 3 : Themes: The soil ecosystem | Macrofauna and Mesofauna | Microfauna and Microflora | Quiz Microfauna are the smallest of the soil fauna and are less than 0. They depend on a thin film of water around particles for their movement. The conditions in soils that most influence the numbers of viruses are moisture. They are important in the decomposition of organic matter and also play an important part in stabilising soil aggregates.e.1 mm in size. All are parasites. They depend on living and dead matter in the soil for their carbon and energy. A range of plant. Fungi are also very common in soils. They are extremely numerous in soils with billions in just one gram of soil and many thousands of species also within a single gram. Very importantly. There are three main forms of microflora in soils: bacteria. particularly in sandy soils. roots and thin water films in the soil. taking the form of spores. insect and human viruses can be found in soils. breakdown of organic matter.

kemudian bahan tersebut akan dikeluarkan dalam bentuk kotoran. Pada umumnya perombakan bahanbahan organik dalam saluran pencernaan dibantu oleh berbagai enzim pencernaan yang dihasilkan oleh mesenteron dan organisme yang secara tetap bersimbiosis dengan pencernaannya. Semut juga dapat berperan sebagai ecosystem engineers yang berperan dalam memperbaiki struktur tanah dan aerasi tanah. bioturbasi. serta nilai baik ekologis. Berbagai spesies biota tanah tersebut bersifat peka terhadap perubahan lingkungan. ekonomis. setiap organisme mempunyai niche ekologis yang spesifik. aliran karbon. banyak diantara jasad hidup tersebut belum teridentifikasi. Proses dekomposisi dalam tanah tidak akan mampu berjalan dengan cepat bila tidak ditunjang oleh kegiatan makrofauna tanah. predator. Diversitas makrofauna dapat digunakan sebagai bioindikator ketersediaan unsur hara dalam tanah. Salah satu organisme penghuni tanah yang berperan sangat besar dalam perbaikan kesuburan tanah adalah fauna tanah. Diversitas makrofauna yang aktif dipermukaan tanah tidak menunjukkan adanya hubungan yang nyata dengan parameter ketersediaan unsur hara. Sementara itu. rayap. Kelimpahan . Makrofauna akan meremah-remah substansi nabati yang mati.LAMPIRAN 4 : PERAN MAKROFAUAN DAN MIKROFAUNA DALAM SIFAT FISIK DAN KIMIA TANAH A. Hal ini karena makrofauna mempunyai peran penting dalam memperbaiki proses-proses dalam tanah. makrofauna) dapat digunakan sebagai petunjuk terjadinya proses degradasi atau rehabilitasi tanah (Papendick et al. 1992). Peran Makrofauna dalam Sifat Fisik dan Kimia Tanah Tanah dengan fungsi sebagai habitat beragam jasad hidup. atau estetika. praktek pengolahan tanah serta pola tanam sehingga kenekaragaman biota tanah (mikrofauma. Makrofauna tanah mempunyai peranan penting dalam dekomposisi bahan organik tanah dalam penyediaan unsur hara. Semut merupakan makrofauna yang mempunyai peran sebagai pendekomposer bahan organik. Semut memakan sisa-sisa organisme yang mati dan membusuk. Sebaliknya terdapat hubungan yang nyata antara diversitas makrofauana dalam tanah dengan beberapa sifat tanah (N total. mesofauna. Keberadaan makrofauna tanah sangat berperan dalam proses yang terjadi dalam tanah diantaranya proses dekomposisi. Tidak adanya hubungan antara diversitas makrofauna yang aktif di permukaan tanah dengan parameter ketersediaan unsur hara tanah diduga karena makrofauna yang aktif merupakan fauna asli (natrics) tetapi makrofauna yang keberadaannya sesaat untuk mencari sumber makanan (fauna exotics) (Maftu’ah dkk. jangkrik dan cacing tanah. 2001). porositas. dan air tersedia). Semut hewan tanah yang berperan penting dalam perombakan bahan organik. dan hama tanaman. siklus unsur hara dan agregasi tanah. Makrofauna yang dapat mempengaruhi sifat fisika tanah diantaranya adalah: semut.

Cacing tanah merupakan makrofauana yang berperan dalam pendekomposer bahan organik. 1998). Aktivitas dari makrofauna dapat mempengaruhi struktur tanah sehingga dapat memperbaiki porositas tanah. Cacing tanah memakan kotoran-kotoran dari mesofauna di permukaan tanah yang hasil akhirnya akan dikeluarkan dalam bentuk feses atau kotoran juga yang berperan paling penting dalam meningkatkan kadar biomass dan kesuburan tanah lapisan atas. pH. Disekitar liang cacing tanah kaya akan N total dan C organik. Kotoran (feses) cacing tanah mengandung banyak bahan organik yang tinggi. Rayap merupakan serangga yang hidupnya berkelompok dengan perkembangan kasta yang telah diketahui dengan baik kasta reproduktif (ratu) mempunyai tugas menghasilkan telur dan makannya dilayani oleh rayap pekerja. Petal (1998) menyatakan bahwa koloni semut dapat menurunkan berat isi tanah sampai 21-30 % dan kelembaban tanah 2-17 %. Lebih lanjut dijelaskan bahwa pada sarang semut mempunyai kandungan bahan organik dengan kandungan N total lebih tinggi dibandingkan tanah disekitarnya. Hal ini dikarenakan semut lebih menyukai tanah dengan bahan organik yang tinggi dibandingkan dengan bahan organik yang rendah. 1994 dalam Lavelle et all. Makrofauana seperti rayap. Kelimpahan rayap juga dapat dipengaruhi oleh kandungan N total tanah dan kelembaban tanah. . penghasil bahan organik dari kotorannya. berupa N total dan nitrat. serta meningkatkan mikroflora dan aktivitas enzim tanah. dan % kejenuhan basa dan kemampuan penukaran basa. semut dan cacing tanah dapat berperan sebagai ecosystem engineers. Karena cacing tanah dalam sifat kimia tanahnya berperan menghasilkan bahan organik. Akumulasi bahan organik dari sisa makanan dan metabolisme akan meningkatkan aktivitas mikroorganisme dan enzim tanah sehingga pergerakannya akan mempengaruhi struktur dan aerasi tanah. Disini membuktikan bahwa cacing tanah berpengaruh baik terhadap produktivitas tanah. kemampuan dalam pertukaran kation. Ca dan Mg yang bertukar. Rayap merupakan makrofauna tanah yang penting peranannya pada pembentukan struktur tanah dan pendekomposisian bahan organik serta ketersediaan unsur hara. Cacing tanah jenis pontoscolex corethrurus mempunyai kemampuan untuk mencerna bahan organik kasar dan mineral tanah halus (Barois dan Ptron.dengan meningkatnya bahan organik maka meningkat pula populasi cacing tanah (Minnich. 1977). Kelimpahan cacing tanah dipengaruhi oleh bahan organik. Makrofauna tersebut dapat menerima makanan dari tanaman dan akan kembali mempengaruhi tanaman melalui perubahan sifat fisik (Lavelle. 1994). 1994. unsur P dan K yang tersedia akan meningkat.semut yang tertinggi biasanya terdapat pada lapisan seresah lebih tinggi. Brusaard. memperbaiki struktur dan aerasi tanah.

The channels contain mesofaunal fecal material that can be broken down by smaller organisms. feeding on smaller microorganisms that decompose organic material. and tardigrades (eight-legged arthropods) are the most common components of microfauna.LAMPIRAN 5 : microfauna. living plants. mites. other soil animals. in soil science. intermediate-sized animals (those greater than 40 microns in length. an organ. Lampiran 5 LAMPIRAN 6 : mesofauna. Many inhabit water films or pore spaces in leaf litter and in the soil. especially those inhabiting the soil. and pauropods are typical members of the mesofauna. by removing roots they open drainage and aeration channels in the soil. springtails. which is about three times the thickness of a human hair). These animals may feed upon microorganisms. small nematodes. decaying plant or animal material. Most mesofauna feed on decaying plant material. . often microscopic animals. also called Meiofauna. or fungi. Single-celled protozoans. small. proturans. small unsegmented worms. Nematodes. or other localized habitat.

At one extreme. The impact of mineral fertilizers on the environment is a question of management – for example. in the European Union. it is the efficiency of fertilizer use. to nitrogen (N) deposition that threatens the sustainability of an estimated 70 percent of nature1. The challenge. That was achieved thanks partly to the development and massive use of mineral fertilizers. is to abandon current unsustainable practices and move to land husbandry that can provide a sound foundation for sustainable crop production intensification. return to its roots by rediscovering the importance of healthy soil. They also face the greatest problems of environmental pollution resulting from excessive fertilizer use. and using mineral fertilizer wisely Soil is fundamental to crop production. mineral fertilizers accounted for an estimated 40 percent of the increase in food production8. therefore. which demanded a fundamental change in soil and crop management in order to produce more food. including soil and water acidification. How did the current situation arise? The main driver was the quadrupling of world population over the past 100 years. especially of N and phosphorus (P). which determines if this aspect of soil management is a boon for crops. The remainder is simply lost to the environment. Before the discovery of mineral N fertilizers. the under-use of fertilizer means that soil nutrients exported with crops are not being replenished. At the other extreme. since N availability is the most important determinant of yield in all major crops2-5. along with improved germplasm and irrigation. leading to soil degradation and declining yields. drawing on natural sources of plant nutrition. in most parts of sub-Saharan Africa. The contribution of fertilizers to food production has also carried significant costs to the environment. contamination of surface and groundwater resources. Because it is finite and fragile. especially of nitrogen. The N-uptake efficiency in China is only about 26-28 percent for rice. Asia and Europe have the world’s highest rates of mineral fertilizer use per hectare. overuse of fertilizer has led. or a negative for the environment. literally. World production of mineral fertilizers increased almost 350 percent between 1961 and 2002. Over the past 40 years. or the method and timing of applications. Many of today’s soil and crop management systems are unsustainable. and increased emissions of potent greenhouse gases. wheat and maize and less than 20 percent for vegetable crops9. no food could be produced on a large scale. it took centuries to build up nitrogen stocks in the soil6. soil is a precious resource that requires special care from its users. Without soil. In other words. the explosion in food production in Asia during the Green Revolution was due largely to the intensive use of mineral fertilization. nor would livestock be fed. Today. how much is applied compared to the amount exported with crops. Far-reaching changes in soil management are called for in many countries.LAMPIRAN 7 : Chapter 3 Soil health Agriculture must. . By contrast. from 33 million tonnes to 146 million tonnes7.

an ecosystem perspective can be added: A healthy soil does not pollute the environment. depending on how it is managed. Functional interactions of soil biota with organic and inorganic components. salinity. bedrock or other impenetrable layers. and focus on the management of soil health. intimately linked via a complex food web. agroecosystems there are under particular threat of soil degradation. recycle essential plant nutrients. For example. The nutrients need to be transported to plant roots through free-flowing water. improve soil structure with positive repercussions for soil water and nutrient holding capacity. If the organic matter is increased or maintained at a satisfactory level for productive crop growth. air and water determine a soil’s potential to store and release nutrients and water to plants. and to promote and sustain plant growth. it can be reasonably assumed that a soil is healthy. insect and weed pests. Farming systems). is far less of a problem in healthy soils22. Soil contains one of the Earth’s most diverse assemblages of living organisms. As plants take up most of their nutrients in a water soluble form. The diversity of soil biota is greater in the tropics than in temperate zones24. Healthy soil is resilient to outbreaks of soil-borne pests. Any losses of biodiversity and. Even the damage caused by pests not found in the soil. ecosystem functioning. nutrient transformation and cycling – through processes that may be biological. Two crucial characteristics of a healthy soil are the rich diversity of its biota and the high content of non-living soil organic matter. such as a high water table. is reduced in fertile soils23. the parasitic weed. Soil structure is. chemical or physical in nature – are essential. it contributes to mitigating climate change by maintaining or increasing its carbon content. form beneficial symbiotic associations with plant roots. Healthy soils maintain a diverse community of soil organisms that help to control plant disease. It can be either sick or healthy. in themselves. To that definition. To achieve the higher productivity needed to meet current and future food demand.The new approaches advocated here build on work undertaken by both FAO10-12 and many other institutions13-20. Principles of soil health management Soil health has been defined as: “the capacity of soil to function as a living system. Because they have deep roots. ultimately. another key component of a healthy soil because it determines a soil’s water-holding capacity and rooting depth. Because the rate of agricultural intensification in the future will generally be greater in the tropics. therefore. as well as by chemical problems such as soil acidity. if required. trees and some . sodality or toxic substances. no guarantee of high soil fertility or high crop production. Nitrogen can also be added to soil by integrating N-fixing legumes and trees into cropping systems (see also Chapter 2. it is imperative to ensure their availability in soils and to apply a balanced amount of nutrients from organic sources and from mineral fertilizers. The rooting depth may be restricted by physical constraints. rather. such as maize stem borers. and ultimately improve crop production”21. will affect subsistence farmers in the tropics more than in other regions. Large reserves of stored nutrients are. A shortage of any one of the 15 nutrients required for plant growth can limit crop yield. Striga. The timely provision of micronutrients in “fortified” fertilizers is a potential source of enhanced crop nutrition where deficiencies occur. because they rely to a larger extent on these processes and their services.

intensive production will depend on the judicious and efficient application of mineral fertilizers. Crop nutrition can be enhanced by other biological associations – for example. .soil-improving legumes have the capacity to pump up from the subsoil nutrients that would otherwise never reach crops. which help cassava to capture phosphorus in depleted soils. between crop roots and soil mycorrhizae. A combination of ecosystem processes and wise use of mineral fertilizers forms the basis of a sustainable soil health management system that has the capacity to produce higher yields while using fewer external inputs. Where these ecosystem processes fail to supply sufficient nutrients for high yields.

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