‫ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻬﻴﺪ‬

‫ﺍﳌﻘﺪﻣﺔ‬
‫ﺍﳊﻤﺪ ﷲ ﺭﺏ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﲔ ﻭﺍﻟﺼﻼﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻼﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺷﺮﻑ ﺍﻷﻧﺒﻴﺎﺀ ﻭﺍﳌﺮﺳﻠﲔ ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﺁﻟﻪ ﻭﺻـﺤﺒﻪ‬
‫ﻭﻣﻦ ﺗﺒﻌﻪ ﺑﺈﺣﺴﺎﻥ ﺇﱃ ﻳﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ‪ .‬ﻭﺑﻌﺪ‪،‬‬
‫ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺀﺓ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻢ ﻭﻫﻲ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺇﺩﺭﺍﻙ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻠﻴﺔ ﺗﺴﺘﻨﺪ‬
‫ﺇﱃ ﻋﻤﻞ ﺍﳊﻮﺍﺱ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﳛﺪﺙ ﺍﻹﺩﺭﺍﻙ ﺇﻻ ﰲ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺍﳌﻌﲎ ﺍﳋﺎﺹ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﻠﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻘﺮﻭﺀﺓ‪ .‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻄﻠﺐ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻬﺎﺭﺓ ﻓﺮﻋﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻣﺜﻞ ﺭﺅﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻑ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﻭﺍﻟﻮﻋﻲ ﲟﻌﺎﻧﻴﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺭﺑﻂ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺎﺕ ﺑﺎﻟﺴﻴﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺘﻀﻤﻨﻬﺎ‪ ١.‬ﻭﰲ ﳎﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻷﺟﻨﺒﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﳚﻌﻞ ﻣﻌﻈﻢ ﺩﺍﺭﺳﻲ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺟﻨﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺀﺓ ﻫﺪﻓﺎ ﺭﺋﻴﺴﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻢ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﻢ ﻳﺮﻏﺒﻮﻥ ﰲ ﺍﻣﺘﻼﻙ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗـﺮﺍﺀﺓ‬
‫ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺑﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﺟﻴﺪﺓ ﻭﺳﻠﻴﻤﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻢ‪ .‬ﻭﻟﺬﺍ ﺗﺆﺩﻱ ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﻣﻌﺎﱐ ﺍﳌﻔـﺮﺩﺍﺕ ﺩﻭﺭﺍ‬
‫ﻣﻬﻤﺎ ﻭﺑﺎﺭﺯﺍ ﰲ ﺍﺳﺘﻴﻌﺎ‪‬ﻢ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺋﻲ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﺷﺎﺭﺕ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻗﺎﻡ ‪‬ﺎ ﺷﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻮﻓﲑ‪ ،‬ﻭﺣﲑﺵ ﻭﻧﺎﺷـﻮﻥ‪ ،‬ﺇﱃ‬

‫ﺃﻥ ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﻋﺪﺩ ﻛﺒﲑ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺍﺕ ﺗﺆﺛﺮ ﰲ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻴﻌﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺋﻲ ﻟﺪﻯ ﺩﺍﺭﺳـﻲ ﺍﻟﻠﻐـﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﰲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ ﻟﻘﺪ ﺗﺆﺩﻱ ﺇﱃ ﺗﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺮﻭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﻮﻳﺔ‪ ٢.‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺗﻮﺻﻠﺖ ﺩﺭﺍﺳـﺎ‪‬ﻢ ﺇﱃ ﻧﺘﻴﺠـﺔ‬
‫ﻣﻔﺎﺩﻫﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺩﺍﺭﺳﻲ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻷﺟﻨﺒﻴﺔ ﻻ ﺑﺪ ﺃﻥ ﳝﺘﻠﻜﻮﺍ ‪ ٩٥%‬ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺍﺕ ﻟﺘﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻴﻌﺎﺏ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺋﻲ ﻛﻲ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺀﺓ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻓﻌﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪ ،٣‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻮﻝ ﺇﱃ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﳌﺘﻤﻴﺰ ﻳﺘﻄﻠﺐ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﲔ ﻛﺜﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺀﺓ ﺍﳌﻮﺳﻌﺔ ﺣﱴ ﻳﺘﺤﻘﻖ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﳍﺪﻑ ﺍﳌﻨﺸﻮﺩ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﺬﻟﻚ ﺗﻌـﺪ ﺍﳌﻔـﺮﺩﺍﺕ‬
‫ﺻﻠﺐ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﻓﻬﻲ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺃﳘﻴﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻐﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﻲ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ‪ .‬ﻟﺬﺍ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻗﺘﺮﺍﺡ ﺗﺪﺭﻳﺲ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺍﺕ ﻻ‬

‫‪١‬‬

‫ﺍﻧﻈﺮ‪ :‬ﺭﺍﺗﺐ ﻗﺎﺳﻢ ﻋﺎﺷﻮﺭ‪ ،‬ﻭﳏﻤﺪ ﻓﺆﺍﺩ ﺍﳊﻮﺍﻣﺪﺓ‪ ،‬ﻓﻨﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﻭﺃﺳﺎﻟﻴﺐ ﺗﺪﺭﻳﺴﻬﺎ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﻄﺒﻴﻖ‬

‫)ﻋﻤﺎﻥ‪ :‬ﻋﺎﱂ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺐ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ‪٢٠٠٩ ،‬ﻡ( ﺹ ‪.٧٤‬‬

‫‪٢‬‬

‫‪Quoted in Nation, I.S.P, Learning Vocabulary in Another Language (Cambridge: Cambridge‬‬
‫‪University Press, ٢٠٠١), ١٤٤-١٤٧.‬‬
‫‪٣‬‬
‫‪See: Ibid., ١٤٧.‬‬

‫‪١‬‬

‫ﻳﻨﺒﻐﻲ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻘﺘﺼﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﺪﺭﻳﺲ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺎﺕ ﻓﺤﺴﺐ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﳚﺐ ﺃﻥ ‪‬ﺪﻑ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴـﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺗﺰﻭﻳـﺪ‬
‫‪٤‬‬

‫ﺍﳌﺘﻌﻠﻤﲔ ﺑﺎﻻﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻼﺯﻣﺔ ﻟﺘﻮﺳﻴﻊ ﻣﻌﺎﺭﻓﻬﻢ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﳌﻜﺘﺴﺒﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﺍﻗﺘﺮﺡ ﺭﺷﺪﻱ ﺃﲪﺪ ﻃﻌﻴﻤﺔ ﺑﻮﺟﻮﺏ ﺗﺪﺭﻳﺐ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻮﻇﻴـﻒ ﺍﻟﻘـﺮﺍﺋﻦ‬
‫ﺍﳌﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺭﺩﺓ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﻕ ﰲ ﺍﺳﺘﻴﻌﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻨﺺ ﺍﳌﻘﺮﻭﺀ ﳑﺎ ﻓﻴﻪ ﳏﺎﻭﻟﺔ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﳌﻌﲎ ﻟﻠﻤﻔﺮﺩﺍﺕ‬
‫ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺭﺩﺓ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﻕ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺋﻦ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻹﺷﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﳌﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﺺ ﻟﻠﻮﺻﻮﻝ ﺇﱃ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﻬﻢ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ‪ ٥.‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﰒ ﺗ‪‬ﻌﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﻕ ﺇﺣﺪﻯ ﺍﳌﻬﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﳌﻬﻤﺔ ﻟﻠﻘﺮﺍﺀﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﺷﺎﺭﺕ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺃﺟﺮﺍﻫـﺎ ﻓﺮﺳـﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﺮﻳﺒـﻚ ﻭﻭﻳﺴـﻪ‪ ،‬ﺇﱃ ﺃﻥ‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﻕ ﻫﻲ ﺇﺣﺪﻯ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﺍﺋﻖ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺋﻌﺔ ﺍﳌﻔﻀﻠﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﻋﻨﺪ‬
‫‪٦‬‬
‫ﺩﺍﺭﺳﻲ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻷﺟﻨﺒﻴﺔ ﰲ ﻛﺸﻒ ﻣﻌﺎﱐ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻌﺘﺮﺿﻬﻢ ﺃﺛﻨـﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻘـﺮﺍﺀﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺗﻌﺪﺩﺕ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺃﺟﺮﺍﻫﺎ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺜﻮﻥ ﺍﻷﺟﺎﻧﺐ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺍﺳـﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﺳـﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﻣـﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﻕ‪ ،‬ﻓﻜﺎﻥ ﺃﻭﻝ ﻭﺃﺩﻕ ﺗﺼﻨﻴﻒ ﻻﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺍﻗﺘﺮﺣﻪ ﻫﺎﺳﺘﺮﺏ ﺣﻴﺚ‬
‫ﺗﻀﻤﻦ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺛﻼﺛﺔ ﺗﻘﺴﻴﻤﺎﺕ ﻟﻠﻤﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﺔ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﺔ ﰲ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﱐ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﻗﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ‪ ٧.‬ﻭﺗﺼﻨﻴﻒ ﺁﺧﺮ ﻗﺪﻣﻪ ﻧﺴﺎﺟﻲ ﻳﺸـﻤﻞ‬
‫ﲬﺴﺔ ﻣﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﻣﻌﺮﻓﻴﺔ ﻭﺳﺘﺔ ﺃﳕﺎﻁ ﻻﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺎﺕ ﰲ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ‪ ٨.‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺃﺷـﻬﺮ‬
‫ﺗﺼﻨﻴﻒ ﻣﻦ ﺑﻨﺠﻠﻴﻞ ﻭﺑﺮﻳﺒﻚ‪ .‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﳛﺘﻮﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺼﺪﺭﻳﻦ ﻣﻌﺮﻓﻴﲔ ﳘﺎ‪ :‬ﺍﳌﺼـﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﻮﻳـﺔ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﳌﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﻏﲑ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﻮﻳﺔ‪ ٩.‬ﻭﺗﻜﻮﻧﺖ ﺍﳌﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﻮﻳﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻠﻐـﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻷﻭﱃ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻷﻡ‪ .‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳌﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﻏﲑ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﻮﻳﺔ ﻓﺈ‪‬ﺎ ﺗﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﺑﺎﳌﻌﺮﻓـﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﻴـﺔ ﺃﻱ‬
‫ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﳌﻮﺿﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﻨﺺ ﻭﺍﳌﺼﻄﻠﺤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻴﺔ‪.‬‬

‫‪٤‬‬

‫”‪Lotfi Ghazal, “Learning Vocabulary in EFL Contexts Through Vocabulary Learning Strategies,‬‬
‫‪Novitas-Royal Research on Youth and Language, Vol. ١, Issue ٢ (October ٢٠٠٧): ٨٤-٩١.‬‬

‫‪ ٥‬ﺭﺷﺪﻱ ﺃﲪﺪ ﻃﻌﻴﻤﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﳌﻬﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﻮﻳﺔ‪ :‬ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻳﺎ‪‬ﺎ‪ ،‬ﺗﺪﺭﻳﺴﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﺻﻌﻮﺑﺎ‪‬ﺎ )ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻫﺮﺓ‪ :‬ﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻜﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﰊ‪٢٠٠٦ ،‬ﻡ( ﺹ‬
‫‪.١٨٩ -١٨٨‬‬

‫‪٦‬‬

‫‪Hossein Nassaji, “L٢ Vocabulary Learning From Context: Strategies, Knowledge Sources, and Their‬‬
‫‪Relationship With Success in L٢ Lexical Inferencing,” Tesol Quarterly, Vol. ٣٧, No.٤ (Winter ٢٠٠٣):‬‬
‫‪٦٤٧.‬‬
‫‪٧‬‬
‫‪Kirsten Hasstrup, “Using Thinking Aloud and Retrospection to Uncover Learners Lexical Inferencing‬‬
‫‪Procedures,” in Introspection in Second Language Research, edited by Claus Faerch and Gabriele‬‬
‫‪Kasper, (England: Multilingual Matters Ltd, ١٩٨٧), ١٩٩.‬‬
‫‪٨‬‬
‫‪Nassaji, ٦٤٧.‬‬
‫‪٩‬‬
‫‪Nazmia F. Bengeleil and T. Sima. Paribakht, “L٢ Reading Proficiency and Lexical Inferencing by‬‬
‫‪University EFL Learners,” The Canadian Modern Language Review, Vol. ٦١, No. ٢ (December ٢٠٠٤):‬‬
‫‪٢٣١.‬‬

‫‪٢‬‬

‫ﺗﻌﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﻕ ﺻﺎﳊﺔ ﻟﺘﻄﺒﻴﻘﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﲔ ﺍﳌﺘﻘﺪﻣﲔ‪ ،‬ﻷﻥ‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪﻫﻢ ﲢﺼﻴﻼ ﻛﺎﻓﻴﺎ ﻟﻠﻤﻔﺮﺩﺍﺕ ﻳﺴﻬﻢ ﰲ ﺇﳒﺎﺡ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﻣﻌﺎﱐ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺍﺕ ﻣﻘﺎﺭﻧﺔ ﻣﻊ‬
‫ﺍﳌﺒﺘﺪﺋﲔ‪ ١٠.‬ﺇﻻ ﺃﻥ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﲝﺜﺎ ﻋﺎﺭﺽ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺿﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺇﺫ ﻭﺟﺪ ﺃﻥ ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﻣـﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﻕ ﺗﺴﺎﻋﺪ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﲔ ﺍﳌﺒﺘﺪﺋﲔ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻛﺘﺸﺎﻑ ﻣﻌﺎﱐ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪﺓ‪ .‬ﻭﺑﻨﺎﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﻣﺎ ﺳﺒﻖ‪ ،‬ﲢﺎﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺜﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﻛﺪ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺪﻯ ﻓﻌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﺳـﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﻣـﻦ ﺍﻟﺴـﻴﺎﻕ ﰲ‬
‫ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﲔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻮﻳﲔ ﺍﳌﺨﺘﻠﻔﲔ )ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﳌﺒﺘـﺪﺋﲔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺴـﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﳌﺘﻘـﺪﻣﲔ(‬
‫ﻭﳒﺎﺣﻬﻢ ﰲ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﳌﻌﲎ‪.‬‬
‫ﺇﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻤﲔ ﺗﻌﻠﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﲔ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﺳـﺒﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻌﺎﻟـﺔ ﰲ ﻣﻮﺍﺟﻬـﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺎﺕ ﻏﲑ ﺍﳌﺄﻟﻮﻓﺔ ﻻﺳﺘﻴﻌﺎﺏ ﻣﻌﺎﻧﻴﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﳓﻮ ﺃﻓﻀﻞ‪ .‬ﻭﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨـﻮﻉ ﺃﻱ ﰲ‬
‫ﳎﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﻠﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﺳﻴﻤﺎ ﺗﻌﻠﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﲟﺎﻟﻴﺰﻳﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻮﺿﻮﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺑﺪﺃ ﺍﻻﻫﺘﻤـﺎﻡ‬
‫‪‬ﺎ ﻳﺘﺰﺍﻳﺪ ﺑﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻣﻠﺤﻮﻇﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻵﻭﻧﺔ ﺍﻷﺧﲑﺓ‪ ،‬ﺇﻻ ﺃﻥ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳـﺎﺕ ﻻ ﺗﺘﻨـﺎﻭﻝ ﳎـﺎﻝ‬
‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﻕ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺩﺍﺭﺳﻲ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﰲ ﻣﺎﻟﻴﺰﻳﺎ‪.‬‬
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‫ﻣﺸﻜﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ‬
‫ﺇﻥ ﺇﺣﺪﻯ ﺍﳌﺸﻜﻼﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﺼﺎﺩﻓﻬﺎ ﺩﺍﺭﺳﻮ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﰲ ﻗﺴﻢ ﺍﻟﻠﻐـﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴـﺔ‬
‫ﻭﺁﺩﺍ‪‬ﺎ ﰲ ﳏﺎﻭﻟﺘﻬﻢ ﺗﻌﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﻫﻲ ﻣﺸﻜﻠﺔ ﻗﺮﺍﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻑ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤـﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﻏﲑ ﺍﳌﺄﻟﻮﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻌﺘﺮﺿﻬﻢ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺀﺓ ﳑﺎ ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﺇﱃ ﺻﻌﻮﺑﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺸﻒ ﻋﻦ ﻣﻌﺎﻧﻴﻬـﺎ‬
‫ﺍﳌﻘﺼﻮﺩﺓ ﻭﺍﺳﺘﻴﻌﺎﺏ ﺍﻷﻓﻜﺎﺭ ﺍﳌﻘﺮﻭﺀﺓ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﺟﻴﺪ‪ .‬ﻭﺍﻟﺴﺒﺐ ﰲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻗﻠﺔ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺍﺕ ﻟﺪﻳﻬﻢ ﳑﺎ‬
‫ﻳﺴﺒﺐ ﺿﻌﻒ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻴﻌﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺋﻲ‪ .‬ﻭﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﳝﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﻮﻥ ﺇﱃ ﻃﺮﺡ ﺍﻷﺳـﺌﻠﺔ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻤﲔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺻﺪﻗﺎﺋﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻣﻮﺱ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﳌﻌﲎ ﺑﻐﻴﺔ ﺍﳊﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻌـﲎ‬
‫ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺓ ﺍﳌﻘﺼﻮﺩﺓ‪ .‬ﻭﻳﺘﻀﺢ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺤﻮﺙ ﺍﻷﺟﻨﺒﻴـﺔ ﺍﻟﺴـﺎﺑﻘﺔ ﺃﻥ ﺍﺳـﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ‬
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‫‪١٠‬‬

‫‪David Dycus, “Guessing Word Meaning from Context: Should We Encourage It?” Article Literacy‬‬
‫‪Across Cultures, (September ١٩٩٧).‬‬
‫‪١١‬‬
‫‪G. Muge Kanatlar, “Guessing-Words-In-Context Strategies Used by Beginning and Upper‬‬‫‪Intermediate Level EFL Students,” The International Journal of Learning, Vol. ٤, Issue ٥, (٢٠٠٩): ٤٣٥‬‬‫‪٤٤٤.‬‬
‫‪١٢‬‬
‫‪Ronald Carter and Michael McCarthy, Vocabulary and Language Teaching, (United States:‬‬
‫‪Longman, ١٩٨٨), ١٥٠.‬‬

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‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﻕ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻣﺎ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺩﺍﺭﺳﻲ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻷﺟﻨﺒﻴـﺔ ﻣﻘﺎﺭﻧـﺔ ﻣـﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﻣﻮﺍﺟﻬﺘﻬﻢ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﻕ‪ . Knowledge Sources.” ٦٤٧.٣‬ﻣﺎ ﻣﻮﺍﻃﻦ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﺑﲔ ﺍﳌﺒﺘﺪﺋﲔ ﻭﺍﳌﺘﻘﺪﻣﲔ ﰲ ﺗﻮﻇﻴﻒ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﻕ؟‬ ‫ﺃﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ‬ ‫‪‬ﺪﻑ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺇﱃ ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﻷﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺍﻵﺗﻴﺔ‪:‬‬ ‫‪ .‬‬ ‫‪١٣‬‬ ‫‪See: Nassaji.‬‬ ‫‪٤‬‬ .‬ﻭﺍﳍﺪﻑ ﻣـﻦ ﻭﺭﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺑﲔ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻮﻳﲔ ﺑﻐﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻤﻖ ﰲ ﺑﻴﺎﻥ ﻭﺭﺻﺪ ﺗﻨﻮﻉ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻣﻬﻢ ﻟﻼﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ‪ .‬ﻭﻟﻌﻞ ﲨﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﻳﱪﻫﻦ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺿﺮﻭﺭﺓ ﺣﺚ ﺩﺍﺭﺳﻲ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻄﺒﻴـﻖ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻢ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻘﻞ ﻭﺗﺸﺠﻴﻊ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻤﲔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﺎﻟﺔ ﰲ ﺗﺪﺭﻳﺲ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻧـﻪ‬ ‫ﻳﺴﺎﻋﺪ ﺍﳌﺘﺨﺼﺼﲔ ﰲ ﺍ‪‬ﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺑﻮﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﺼﻤﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺐ ﻭﺍﻷﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻘﺒﻞ‪.١‬ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻑ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﻌﺘﻤﺪ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﻮﻥ ﰲ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺍﺟﻬﺘﻬﻢ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺍﺕ ﻏﲑ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻭﻓﺔ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺀﺓ‪.‬ﻭﻻ ﺗﻮﺟﺪ ﺣﱴ ﺍﻵﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﻳﺔ ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻛﺘﺸﺎﻑ ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﻗﻲ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺩﺍﺭﺳﻲ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﻟﺬﻟﻚ ﺗﺮﻏﺐ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺜﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻛﺘﺸﺎﻑ ﺃﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﻕ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﺔ ﻟﺪﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﲔ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺰﻳﲔ ﰲ ﺗﻌﻠﻤﻬﻢ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺑﻮﺻﻔﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴـﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻛﺘﺸـﺎﻑ ﻣـﻮﺍﻃﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﺑﲔ ﺍﳌﺒﺘﺪﺋﲔ ﻭﺍﳌﺘﻘﺪﻣﲔ ﰲ ﺃﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﺔ ﻋﻨﺪﻫﻢ ﰲ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﻣﻌﺎﱐ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺍﺕ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺀﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺪﻯ ﳒﺎﺣﻬﻢ ﰲ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺟﻬﺎ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺟﺎ ﺻﺤﻴﺤﺎ‪ .٢‬ﻣﺎ ﻣﺪﻯ ﳒﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﲔ ﺍﳌﺒﺘﺪﺋﲔ ﻭﺍﳌﺘﻘﺪﻣﲔ ﰲ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﻣﻌﺎﱐ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺎﺕ؟‬ ‫‪ . “L٢ Vocabulary Learning From Context: Strategies.‬‬ ‫‪١٣‬‬ ‫ﺃﺳﺌﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ‬ ‫ﺗﺴﻌﻰ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻹﺟﺎﺑﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻷﺳﺌﻠﺔ ﺍﻵﺗﻴﺔ‪-:‬‬ ‫‪ . and Their‬‬ ‫‪Relationship With Success in L٢ Lexical Inferencing.١‬ﻣﺎ ﺃﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﻌﺘﻤﺪ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﻮﻥ ﰲ ﻣﻮﺍﺟﻬﺘﻬﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺍﺕ ﻏﲑ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻭﻓﺔ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺀﺓ؟‬ ‫‪ .

‫‪ .‬‬ ‫‪ .‬‬ ‫‪ .‬‬ ‫ﺃﳘﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ‬ ‫ﺗﺘﺠﻠﻰ ﺃﳘﻴﺔ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻷﻣﻮﺭ ﺍﻵﺗﻴﺔ‪:‬‬ ‫‪ .١‬ﺍﻹﺳﻬﺎﻡ ﰲ ﺍﻛﺘﺸﺎﻑ ﺃﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﻕ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺩﺍﺭﺳﻲ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ‪.٣‬ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﳌﺘﺨﺼﺼﲔ ﰲ ﺍ‪‬ﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺑﻮﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﺼﻤﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺐ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﺑﺎﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﳌﻼﺋﻤﺔ ﳌﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﲔ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪ‪‬ﻢ ﰲ ﺗﻮﻇﻴﻒ ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﻕ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺣﺪﻭﺩ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ‬ ‫ﲡﺮﻱ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﰲ ﻧﻄﺎﻕ ﺣﺪﻭﺩ ﻣﻌﻴﻨﺔ‪ ،‬ﻳﺘﻀﻤﻨﻬﺎ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﺍﻵﰐ‪:‬‬ ‫‪ .‬‬ ‫‪٥‬‬ .‬‬ ‫‪ .٤‬ﺍﻗﺘﺮﺍﺡ ﻟﻠﻤﻌﻠﻤﲔ ﺑﺘﺪﺭﻳﺐ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﲔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﳌﻌﲎ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﻗﺮﺍﺀﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺺ ﻛﻲ ﻳﺴﺘﻔﻴﺪ ﻫﺆﻻﺀ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﻮﻥ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺘﻬﻢ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﻮﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﺪﺭﻭﺳﺔ ﰲ ﳏﺎﻭﻟﺘﻬﻢ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﻠﻢ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪﺓ‪.١‬ﻳﻘﺘﺼﺮ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﳌﻌﲎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﻕ ﻓﻘﻂ ﺩﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺎﺕ ﺗﻌﻠﻢ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ﰲ ﺍﳊﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﻌﲎ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﻟﻠﻜﻠﻤﺔ‪.٢‬ﻳﻘﺘﺼﺮ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﲔ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺰﻳﲔ ﺍﳌﺘﺨﺼﺼﲔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﻭﺁﺩﺍ‪‬ﺎ‬ ‫ﻷ‪‬ﻢ ﳝﺜﻠﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺩﺍﺭﺳﻲ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺑﺎﳉﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﲟﺎﻟﻴﺰﻳﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ .٢‬ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﻣﺪﻯ ﻓﻌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﻕ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﺔ ﻟﺪﻯ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﲔ ﺍﳌﺒﺘﺪﺋﲔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﳌﺘﻘﺪﻣﲔ ﰲ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﻣﻌﺎﱐ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺟﺎ ﺻﺤﻴﺤﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ .٢‬ﺗﺸﺠﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﲔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻢ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻘﻞ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺍﳊﺎﺟﺔ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻤﺮﺓ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻢ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺃﺟﻞ ﺭﻓﻊ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻴﻌﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺋﻲ‪.٣‬ﺑﻴﺎﻥ ﻣﻮﺍﻃﻦ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﺑﲔ ﺍﳌﺒﺘﺪﺋﲔ ﻭﺍﳌﺘﻘﺪﻣﲔ ﰲ ﺗﻮﻇﻴﻒ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﻕ‪.

‫‪ .‬ﻭ‪‬ﺪﻑ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﻜﲑ ﺑﺼﻮﺕ ﻋﺎﻝ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻛﺘﺸﺎﻑ ﺃﳕﺎﻁ ﺍﻻﺳـﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﻕ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﳌﺸﺎﺭﻛﲔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﻣﻌﺘﻤﺪﺓ ﰲ ﻣﻌﻈﻢ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﻮﺙ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺃﺟﺮﻳﺖ‬ ‫ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍ‪‬ﺎﻝ‪ ١٥،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﻳﻌﱪ ﺍﻟﻄﻠﺒﺔ ﺷﻔﻮﻳﺎ ﻋﻤﺎ ﳚﺮﻱ ﰲ ﺃﺫﻫﺎ‪‬ﻢ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﻣﻮﺍﺟﻬﺘﻬﻢ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤـﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺀﺓ‪ .‬ﻭﻫﺆﻻﺀ ﻣﺘﺨﺼﺼﻮﻥ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﻭﺁﺩﺍ‪‬ﺎ ﺑﺎﳉﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﻴﺔ ﲟﺎﻟﻴﺰﻳﺎ‪.” Relc Journal. No. “Research: State of the ArtVerbal-Report data and Introspective Methods in‬‬ ‫‪Second Language.٤‬ﻳﺮﺗﻜﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﻣﻌﺎﱐ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺍﺕ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺜﺔ ﻓﻘﻂ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ‬ ‫ﻳﻌﺎﰿ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻻ ﻳﺘﺴﻊ ﺍ‪‬ﺎﻝ ﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺽ ﻣﻌﺎﻧﻴﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻡ‪.‬‬ ‫‪١٥‬‬ ‫‪Kazuko Matsumoto. Vol.‬‬ ‫‪ ١٤‬ﻣﺼﻄﻠﺢ ﺇﺟﺮﺍﺋﻲ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺜﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﲨﻊ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺳﺘﻌﺘﻤﺪ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺜﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻠﻔﻈﻲ ﰲ ﲨﻊ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻃﺮﻳﻘـﺔ ﺍﻟـﺘﻔﻜﲑ‬ ‫ﺑﺼﻮﺕ ﻋﺎﻝ ﻭﺍﳌﻘﺎﺑﻠﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﺃﻣﺎ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻘﺎﺑﻠﺔ ﻓﻬﻲ ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺓ ﻋﻦ ﳏﺎﻭﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺜﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﻌﻤﻖ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧـﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻔﺎﺩﺓ ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﻜﲑ ﺑﺼﻮﺕ ﻋﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﺴﺠﻞ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺁﻟـﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺴـﺠﻴﻞ ﰒ‬ ‫ﲢﻮﳍﺎ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺮﻣﻮﺯ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺑﻴﺔ ﺑﻐﺮﺽ ﲢﻠﻴﻠﻬﺎ ﲢﻠﻴﻼ ﻛﻴﻔﻴﺎ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﺑﻌﺪ‪.٣‬ﻳﺮﺗﻜﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﺍﳌﻜﻮﻧﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻋﺸﺮﺓ ﻃﻼﺏ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﻴﺔ ﲟﺎﻟﻴﺰﻳﺎ‪ .‬‬ ‫‪٦‬‬ .‬‬ ‫ﻣﻨﻬﺞ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺘﻤﺪ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﻨﻬﺞ ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻔﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻠﻴﻠﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﲢﺘﻮﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺍﻵﺗﻴﺔ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻋﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ‬ ‫ﺗﺘﻜﻮﻥ ﻋﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻋﺸﺮﺓ ﻃﻼﺏ‪ ،‬ﲬﺴﺔ ﻃﻼﺏ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻻﺑﺘﺪﺍﺋﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻢ ﻃﻼﺏ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ‪ ،‬ﻭﲬﺴﺔ ﻃﻼﺏ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﳌﺘﻘﺪﻡ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺑﻌﺔ‪ ١٤.١. (June ١٩٩٣): ٣٢-٦٠. ٢٤.‬ﲬﺴﺔ ﻣﻨﻬﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﲔ ﺍﳌﺒﺘﺪﺋﲔ ﻭﲬﺴﺔ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺘﻘﺪﻣﲔ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ .

F. D.‬‬ ‫‪(١٩٨٠): ٢١١-٢٢٠. Vol. ١٧.‬‬ ‫ﺭﺍﺑﻌﺎ‪ :‬ﺍﺣﺘﻮﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻨﺺ ﺍﳌﻘﺮﻭﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ ٩٥%‬ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻭﻓﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﲔ ﺣﱴ‬ ‫‪١٧‬‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻤﻜﻨﻮﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﱐ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺎ‪ :‬ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﻔﺮﺩﺍﺕ ﳍﺎ ﺗﺮﺩﺩ ﻣﻨﺨﻔﺾ‪. ١٤٧.” ٧٥ Arizona Working Papers in SLA & Teaching. “Guessing The Meanings of Words From Context: Strategy And‬‬ ‫‪Techniques. and Nation. “The Effect Of Guessing Vocabulary In Reading Authentic Texts Among Pre‬‬‫‪University Students.‬ﻭﺫﺍﺕ ﺻﻠﺔ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ ﲟﻮﺿـﻮﻉ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺍﳊﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪ . Bangkok.‬‬ ‫‪١٨‬‬ ‫‪Clarke. Learning Vocabulary in Another Language.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﻧﺼﺎﻥ ﳐﺘﻠﻔﺎﻥ ﻳﺘﻨﺎﺳﺒﺎﻥ ﻣﻊ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﻄﻼﺏ )ﺍﳌﺒﺘﺪﺋﲔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﳌﺘﻘﺪﻣﲔ( ﻭﳘﺎ ﳐﺘﺎﺭﺍﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺇﺣﺪﻯ ﺍ‪‬ﻼﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺇﺟﺮﺍﺀ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺪﻳﻼﺕ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺘﺄﻛﺪ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻮﺍﻓﻘﺘﻬﻤﺎ ﳌﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﻄﻠﺒﺔ‪. Vol.‫ﺃﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺑﻨﺎﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﻳﲑ ﺍﳌﻬﻤﺔ ﺣﱴ ﺗﺘﺤﻘﻖ ﺃﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺍﳌﺮﺟﻮﺓ‪،‬‬ ‫‪١٦‬‬ ‫ﻭﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﻳﲑ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺃﻭﻻ‪ :‬ﺗﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻬﺪﻓﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺺ ﺍﳌﻘﺮﻭﺀ ﻣﻊ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻤﻲ ﻟﻠﺪﺍﺭﺳﲔ‪.S.٨٩. (٢٠١٠): ٧٥. ٨.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺎﺕ ﻋﻠﻤﻴﺔ ﻭﺃﲝﺎﺙ ﺃﻛﺎﺩﳝﻴﺔ ﻭﻣﺮﺍﺟﻊ ﻛﺜﲑﺓ ﰲ ﳎﺎﻝ ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺎﺕ ﺗﻌﻠـﻢ ﺍﻟﻠﻐـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺟﻨﺒﻴﺔ ﻭﻻ ﺳﻴﻤﺎ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻹﳒﻠﻴﺰﻳﺔ ﻭﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ‪ . and English Language Institute Victoria University.‬‬ ‫‪١٧‬‬ ‫‪See: Nation.‬‬ ‫ﺛﺎﻟﺜﺎ‪ :‬ﻛﻮﻥ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻬﺪﻑ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺟﻬﺎ ﻏﲑ ﻣﺄﻟﻮﻓﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﲔ‪.‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﳝﻜﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﺓ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ‪:‬‬ ‫‪ (١‬ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﻣﻌﺎﱐ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺎﺕ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﻕ‪ :‬ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﻭ ﺗﻘﻨﻴﺎﺕ‪.‬‬ ‫‪٧‬‬ .P.‬‬ ‫‪١٨‬‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺪ ﺍﳌﻘﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺃﻋﺪﻫﺎ ﻛﻼﺭﻙ ﻭﻧﺸﻮﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻫﻢ ﺍﳌﺮﺍﺟﻊ ﰲ ﻣﻴـﺪﺍﻥ ﺍﺳـﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺎﺕ ﺗﻌﻠـﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺍﺕ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﺭﻛﹼﺰﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﻕ‪ .” Language Institute.‬ﻭﺳﺘﺴﺘﻔﻴﺪ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﺟﻨﺒﻴﺔ ﻟﻌـﺪﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﻣﺮﺍﺟﻊ ﲣﺺ ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺣﻴﺔ‪ . I.‬ﻓﻘﺪ ﻭﺻﻒ ﺍﳌﺆﻟﻔﺎﻥ ﺗﻠﻚ‬ ‫‪١٦‬‬ ‫‪Hossein Shokouhi.

‬ﻭﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻣﻬﻤﺔ ﻟﻠﺒﺎﺣﺜﺔ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﺔ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮﻱ‪ .‬ﻭﺳﺘﺮﻛﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺜﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﺪﺧﻞ ﺍﻻﺗﺼﺎﱄ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻬﺘﻢ ﲟﺴﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻹﺩﺭﺍﻙ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺘﻌﻤﻖ ﳌﺎ ﻭﺭﺩ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺺ ﺍﳌﻘﺮﻭﺀ‪ ،‬ﻓﻤﻦ ﻣﻘﺘﺮﺣﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺆﻟﻒ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻻﺑﺪ‪ ‬ﻣﻦ ﺗﺪﺭﻳﺐ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺱ ﻋﻠـﻰ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﻇﻴﻒ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺋﻦ ﺍﳌﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺭﺩﺓ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﻕ ﰲ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﺳﺘﻴﻌﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻨﺺ ﺍﳌﻘﺮﻭﺀ ﻋﻠـﻰ ﺳـﺒﻴﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺜﺎﻝ ﳏﺎﻭﻟﺔ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﳌﻌﲎ ﻟﻠﻤﻔﺮﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺭﺩﺓ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﻕ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻘـﺮﺍﺋﻦ ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺷﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﳌﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﺺ ﻟﻠﻮﺻﻮﻝ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻔﻬﻢ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ‪ .‬ﻭﺭﻛﺰ ﺍﳌﺆﻟﻒ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻢ ﺍﳌﺴـﺘﻘﻞ‬ ‫ﰲ ﺍﻛﺘﺴﺎﺏ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﰲ ﺿﻮﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﺭﻳﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﻣﻌﺎﱐ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺍﺕ ﻏﲑ ﺍﳌﺄﻟﻮﻓﺔ ﺍﻟـﱵ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺘﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺱ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺀﺓ‪ .‬ﻭﺳﺘﺴﺘﻔﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺜﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻘـﺔ ﺗـﺪﺭﻳﺲ‬ ‫ﻣﻬﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺀﺓ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺇﻥ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﻣﺒﻨﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺪﺧﻠﲔ ﳘﺎ ﺍﳌﺪﺧﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻤـﻲ ﻭﺍﳌـﺪﺧﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺗﺼﺎﱄ‪ .‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﻧﻘﺼﺎ ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﻘﺎﻟﺔ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﱂ ﻳﺬﻛﺮ ﺍﳌﺆﻟﻔﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﺍﳌﺆﺛﺮﺓ ﰲ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ‪ .‬ﻭﺗﻨـﺎﻭﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ ﻃﺮﺍﺋﻖ ﺗﺪﺭﻳﺲ ﺍﳌﻬﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﻮﻳﺔ ﺍﻷﺭﺑﻊ‪ .‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﲞﻄﻮﺍ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﻷﺭﺑﻊ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﺗﻔﺼﻴﻠﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺗﻴﺎ ﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﲞﻄﻮﺍﺕ ﻣﻘﺘﺮﺣـﺔ ﻟﺘـﺪﺭﻳﺐ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﲔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻨﻔﻴﺬ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﺮﺿﺎ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﳕﺎﺫﺝ ﻟﺒﺤﻮﺙ ﺳﺎﺑﻘﺔ ﰲ ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺍﺕ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﻕ ﻟﻠﺘﺄﻛﻴﺪ ﻣﻦ ﳒﺎﺣﻬﺎ ﰲ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﻣﻌﺎﱐ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺎﺕ ﻏﲑ ﺍﳌﺄﻟﻮﻓـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﺼﺎﺩﻓﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﻮﻥ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﻗﺮﺍﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ‪ .١٨٩ -١٨٨‬‬ ‫‪٨‬‬ .‬‬ ‫‪ (٢‬ﺍﳌﻬﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﻮﻳﺔ‪ :‬ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻳﺎ‪‬ﺎ‪ ،‬ﺗﺪﺭﻳﺴﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﺻﻌﻮﺑﺎ‪‬ﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫‪١٩‬‬ ‫ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺃﻟﻔﻪ ﺭﺷﺪﻱ ﺃﲪﺪ ﻃﻌﻴﻤﺔ ﻗﺪ ﲢﺪﺙ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳌﻬﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﻮﻳﺔ ﻣﺮﻛﺰﺍ ﻋﻠـﻰ‬ ‫ﺛﻼﺛﺔ ﺟﻮﺍﻧﺐ ﺭﺋﻴﺴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺣﻴﺚ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻳﺎ‪‬ﺎ ﻭﻃﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﺗﺪﺭﻳﺴﻬﺎ ﻭﺻﻌﻮﺑﺎﺕ ﺇﺟﺎﺩ‪‬ـﺎ‪ .‬ﻭﻻﺣﻈﺖ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺜﺔ ﺃﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ ﻻ ﻳﺸﺘﻤﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﺎﺏ ﺧﺎﺹ‬ ‫‪١٩‬‬ ‫ﺭﺷﺪﻱ ﺃﲪﺪ ﻃﻌﻴﻤﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﳌﻬﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﻮﻳﺔ‪ :‬ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻳﺎ‪‬ﺎ‪ ،‬ﺗﺪﺭﻳﺴﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﺻﻌﻮﺑﺎ‪‬ﺎ )ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻫﺮﺓ‪ :‬ﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻜﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﰊ‪٢٠٠٦ ،‬ﻡ(‬ ‫ﺹ ‪.‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺍﺗﻀﺢ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﻣﺪﻯ ﻓﻌﺎﻟﻴـﺔ ﺍﺳـﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﻕ ﰲ ﺍﻛﺘﺴﺎﺏ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﻟﺪﻯ ﺩﺍﺭﺳﻲ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻷﺟﻨﺒﻴـﺔ ﺑﺸـﻜﻞ‬ ‫ﺃﻓﻀﻞ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺍﳊﺎﺟﺔ ﺇﱃ ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﻣﺴﺘﻤﺮﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻢ ﻟﺘﻌﺰﻳﺰ ﻋﻤﻠﻴـﺔ ﺍﻛﺘﺴـﺎﺏ ﺍﳌﻔـﺮﺩﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪﺓ‪ .‬ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺜﺔ ﻣـﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﻄﺮﺍﺋﻖ ﺍﳌﻘﺘﺮﺣﺔ ﻹﺟﺮﺍﺀ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﺑﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﺳﻠﻴﻤﺔ ﺣﱴ ﺗﺘﺤﻘﻖ ﺍﻷﻫﺪﺍﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺮﺟﻮﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﺔ‪.

‬ﺗﻜﻮﻧـﺖ ﻋﻴﻨـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻄﻼﺏ ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻌﻴﲔ ﺍﳌﺘﺨﺼﺼﲔ ﰲ ﳎﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻄﺐ ﰲ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻳﲔ ﳐﺘﻠﻔﲔ )ﻣﺘﻮﺳـﻂ‬ ‫ﻭﻣﺘﻘﺪﻡ(‪ .‬ﻭﲨﻌﺖ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﻜﲑ ﺑﺼﻮﺕ ﻋﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳌﻘﺎﺑﻠﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻤـﺎﺩ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺒﺎﻧﺔ ﻟﻠﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺑﺴﻠﻮﻙ ﺍﻟﻄﻼﺏ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺀﺓ‪ . ٢ (December ٢٠٠٤):‬‬ ‫‪٢٢٥-٢٤٩. Sima.‬ﻭﺃﺷﺎﺭﺕ ﻧﺘﺎﺋﺞ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻥ ﻛﻠﺘﺎ ﺍ‪‬ﻤﻮﻋﺘﲔ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻣﺘﺎ ﺍﳌﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻷﺩﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﻗﻴﺔ ﻧﻔﺴـﻬﺎ ﻋﻨـﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﱐ ﻟﻠﻜﻠﻤﺎﺕ ﻏﲑ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻭﻓﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻥ ﻣﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﺍﺳـﺘﺨﺪﺍﻣﺎ ﻣﻘﺎﺭﻧـﺔ‬ ‫ﲟﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﺗﻮﻇﻴﻒ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ ﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﳌﻌﲎ‪ . Paribakht.%٣٥. Bengeleil and T.‬‬ ‫‪٩‬‬ .%٤٦.‬ﻭﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻋﺎﻡ‪ ،‬ﳝﻜﻦ ﻟﻠﺒﺎﺣﺜﺔ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﺓ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺘﺔ‪. No.‬‬ ‫‪ (٣‬ﻓﺎﻋﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺀﺓ ﻭﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺍﺕ ﻟﺪﻯ ﻣﺘﻌﻠﻤﻲ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻹﳒﻠﻴﺰﻳﺔ ﺑﻮﺻﻔﻬﺎ ﻟﻐﺔ ﺃﺟﻨﺒﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﰲ ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻌﺔ‪.‬ﻭﺗﻔﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺜﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﰲ ﻣﻌﺮﻓـﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﺼﻨﻴﻒ ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﻗﻲ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﺘﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﺍﳌﺼﺪﺭﺍﻥ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﻴﺎﻥ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻠﻐﻮﻱ ﻭﻏﲑ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻠﻐﻮﻱ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺍﲣﺎﺫﻫﺎ ﺃﺳﺎﺳﺎ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻤﺎﺩ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ‪ . “L٢ Reading Proficiency and Lexical Inferencing by‬‬ ‫‪University EFL Learners.‬ﺗﻜﻮﻧﺖ ﺍﳌﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﻮﻳﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻷﺟﻨﺒﻴـﺔ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻷﻡ‪ .٥‬‬ ‫ﻭﺑﻨﺎﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﻗﺴﻢ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺜﺎﻥ ﺍﳌﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﺴﻤﲔ ﳘـﺎ‪ :‬ﺍﳌﺼـﺎﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻠﻐﻮﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳌﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﻏﲑ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﻮﻳﺔ‪ .‬‬ ‫‪٢٠‬‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻲ ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺃﺟﺮﺍﻫﺎ ﺑﻨﺠﻠﻴﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﺮﻳﺒﻜﺖ ‪‬ﺪﻑ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻛﺘﺸﺎﻑ ﺁﺛﺎﺭ ﺇﺟﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺀﺓ ﰲ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺍﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻛﺘﺸﺎﻑ ﺃﳕﺎﻁ ﺍﳌﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻷﺩﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﻗﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﺔ ﰲ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﱐ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﻣﻌﺪﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﺠﺎﺡ ﰲ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﱐ ﻟﻠﻜﻠﻤﺎﺕ ﻏﲑ ﺍﳌﺄﻟﻮﻓـﺔ‪ .‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳌﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﻏﲑ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﻮﻳﺔ ﻓﺄ‪‬ﺎ ﺗﺘﻌﻠـﻖ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﻴﺔ ﺃﻱ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﳌﻮﺿﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﻨﺺ‪ .٦‬ﺣﺼﻞ ﺍﳌﺘﻮﺳﻄﻮﻥ ﻋﻠـﻰ ‪.‫ﻋﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﱐ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﺍﳌﺆﺛﺮﺓ ﰲ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﻗﻲ ﳑـﺎ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻣﻬﻤﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻔﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺇﱃ ﻣﻌﺪﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺠﺎﺡ ﺣﺼﻞ ﺍﳌﺘﻘﺪﻣﻮﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﻣﺌﻮﻳﺔ ﺃﻋﻠﻰ ﰲ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﻣﻌﺎﱐ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺍﺕ ﻣﻘﺎﺭﻧـﺔ ﻣـﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺘﻮﺳﻄﲔ؛ ﺇﺫ ﺣﺼﻞ ﺍﳌﺘﻘﺪﻣﻮﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ‪ . ٦١.‬ﻭﺗﻔﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺜﺔ ﻣـﻦ‬ ‫‪٢٠‬‬ ‫‪Nazmia F.” The Canadian Modern Language Review. Vol.

‫ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﰲ ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺗﺼﻨﻴﻒ ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﻗﻲ ﻣﻜﻮﻧﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺼﺪﺭﻳﻦ ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺘﲔ‬ ‫ﳝﻜﻦ ﺍﲣﺎﺫﳘﺎ ﺃﺳﺎﺳﺎ ﺗﻌﺘﻤﺪ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ‪. Vol.‬ﻭﰎ ﲨﻊ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻃﺮﻳﻘـﺔ ﺍﻟـﺘﻔﻜﲑ‬ ‫ﺑﺼﻮﺕ ﻋﺎﻝ‪ . “Guessing-Words-In-Context Strategies Used by Beginning and Upper‬‬‫‪Intermediate Level EFL Students.‬ﻭﺗﻔﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺜﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﰲ ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﻣﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﻭﺃﳕﺎﻁ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺋﻌﺔ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﺔ ﻟـﺪﻯ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﺭﺳﻲ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻷﺟﻨﺒﻴﺔ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﻣﻌﺎﱐ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺍﺕ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﻕ‪.‬ﻓﻜﺎﻧﺖ ﻣﺼـﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﺔ ﺗﺘﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺤﻮﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﺮﻓﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﻐـﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﳋﻄﺎﺏ‪ .” Tesol Quarterly. ٣٧.‬‬ ‫‪٢٢‬‬ ‫ﺃﺟﺮﻯ ﺟﻲ ﻣﻮﺟﻲ ﻛﻨﺘﻠﺮ ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﻻﻛﺘﺸﺎﻑ ﻣﺪﻯ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﳌﻔـﺮﺩﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﻕ ﻟﺪﻯ ﺍﳌﺒﺘﺪﺋﲔ ﻭﺍﳌﺘﻮﺳﻄﲔ ﰲ ﺗﻌﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻹﳒﻠﻴﺰﻳﺔ ﺑﻮﺻﻔﻬﺎ ﻟﻐﺔ ﺃﺟﻨﺒﻴﺔ ﰲ ﻛﻠﻴـﺔ‬ ‫‪٢١‬‬ ‫‪Hossein Nassaji.‬‬ ‫‪ (٤‬ﺗﻌﻠﻢ ﻣﻔﺮﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﻕ‪ :‬ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﻼﻗﺘﻬﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺠﺎﺡ ﰲ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺍﺕ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ‪. (٢٠٠٩): ٤٣٥‬‬‫‪٤٤٤. “L٢ Vocabulary Learning From Context: Strategies.‬ﻭﺃﺷﺎﺭﺕ ﻧﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﻴﺔ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻣﺎ ﻟﺪﻯ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﲔ ﻣﻘﺎﺭﻧﺔ ﲟﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓـﺔ ﺍﻷﺧـﺮﻯ‪ ،‬ﺃﻣـﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴـﺒﺔ ﺇﱃ ﻧﻮﻋﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺎﺕ ﻓﺎﻟﺘﻜﺮﺍﺭ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻻ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﻣﻌﺎﱐ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺍﺕ‪ .” The International Journal of Learning.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﺷﺎﺭﻙ ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺮﺑﺔ ﺍﺛﻨﺎ ﻋﺸﺮ ﻃﺎﻟﺒﺎ‪ . Knowledge Sources. Vol.‬‬ ‫‪٢٢‬‬ ‫‪G.‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﰎ ﲢﺪﻳﺪ ﺇﺣﺪﻯ ﻋﺸﺮﺓ ﻓﺌﺔ ﻟﻨﻮﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﺳـﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺎﺕ ﻭﻣﺼـﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﺔ ﻟﺪﻯ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﲔ ﰲ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﻣﻌﺎﱐ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪﺓ‪ . and Their‬‬ ‫‪Relationship With Success in L٢ Lexical Inferencing. Issue ٥. No. Muge Kanatlar.‬‬ ‫‪١٠‬‬ .‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﺃﳕﺎﻁ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻌﻤﻠﺔ ﻓﺘﺤﺘـﻮﻱ ﻋﻠـﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻜـﺮﺍﺭ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺤﻘﻖ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺤﻠﻴﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳌﺮﺍﻗﺒﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺱ‪ .٤ (Winter ٢٠٠٣):‬‬ ‫‪٦٤٥-٦٦٦.‬‬ ‫‪٢١‬‬ ‫‪‬ﺪﻑ ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺣﺴﲔ ﻧﺴﺎﺟﻲﻫﺬﻩ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻛﺘﺸﺎﻑ ﻧﻮﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﺳـﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﻭﻣﺼـﺎﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﺔ ﻟﺪﻯ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﲔ ﻭﺍﻟﻄﻼﺏ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﺩﺭﺳﻮﺍ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻹﳒﻠﻴﺰﻳﺔ ﺑﻮﺻﻔﻬﺎ ﻟﻐﺔ ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ (٥‬ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺎﺕ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﻕ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺩﺍﺭﺳﻲ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻹﳒﻠﻴﺰﻳـﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﻮﺻﻔﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻷﺟﻨﺒﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﳌﺒﺘﺪﺉ ﻭﺍﳌﺘﻮﺳﻂ‪. ٤.

‬ﻭﺃﺷﺎﺭﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﲔ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻣﻮﺍ ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﻕ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻗﺪﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻛﺘﺴﺎﺏ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﻭﺍﺳﺘﻴﻌﺎﺏ ﻣﻌﺎﻧﻴﻬﺎ ﻣﻘﺎﺭﻧﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﲔ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﺪﻳﺔ ﺃﻱ ﻏﲑ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﻕ‪ .‬‬ ‫‪٢٣‬‬ ‫ﻭﰲ ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺃﺟﺮﺍﻫﺎ ﺣﺴﲔ ﺷﺨﻮﻫﻲ ﲤﺖ ﻣﻘﺎﺭﻧﺔ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﻕ ﰲ ﺍﻛﺘﺴﺎﺏ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﻭﲢﺴﲔ ﻓﻬﻢ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺀﺓ ﻟﺪﻯ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﲔ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺩﺧﻮﻝ ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻌﺔ‪ .‬ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻣﺖ ﺍ‪‬ﻤﻮﻋـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻭﱃ ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﻕ ﺃﻣﺎ ﺍ‪‬ﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻓﻠـﻢ ﺗﺴـﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﺳـﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﻕ‪ .‬‬ ‫‪ (٦‬ﺗﺄﺛﲑ ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺍﺕ ﰲ ﻗﺮﺍﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﺍﻷﺻﻴﻠﺔ ﻟﺪﻯ ﻃﻼﺏ ﻣﺮﺣﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺎ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺩﺧﻮﻝ ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻌﺔ‪.‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﺃﺳﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺷﻜﻞ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴـﺎﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺘﻌﺪﺩﺓ ﻛﻮ‪‬ﺎ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻼﺋﻤﺔ ﻷﻥ ﻋﺪﺩ ﻋﻴﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﻛﺒﲑ ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻄﻼﺏ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﺃﻟﻔﺔ ﻣﻊ ﳕﻂ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﺪﺩﺓ ﻣﻘﺎﺭﻧﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺃﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ﻷﻥ ﻃﺮﻳﻘـﺔ ﺍﳋﻴـﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﳌﺘﻌـﺪﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻛﺜﲑﺍ ﻓﻴﻜﺘﺐ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻹﳒﻠﻴﺰﻳﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺪﺍﺭﺱ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻮﻳﺔ ﻭﻣﺮﺣﻠﺔ ﻣﺎ ﻗﺒﻼﳉﺎﻣﻌﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﺃﺷـﺎﺭﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺘـﺎﺋﺞ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺍﺕ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﻕ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻣﺎ ﻟﺪﻯ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﲔ ﺍﳌﺒﺘﺪﺋﲔ ﻣﻘﺎﺭﻧـﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﳌﺘﻮﺳﻄﲔ ﰲ ﺗﻌﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻹﳒﻠﻴﺰﻳﺔ‪ .‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﺗﻜﻮﻧـﺖ‬ ‫ﻋﻴﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺎﺋﺔ ﻃﺎﻟﺐ‪ ،‬ﻭﰎ ﺗﻘﺴﻴﻤﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﳎﻤﻮﻋﺘﲔ ﲡﺮﻳﺒﻴﺘﲔ‪ .٨٩.‬ﻭﻟﺬﺍ ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﺍﺳـﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻌﲎ ﺻﺎﳊﺔ ﺗﺪﺭﻳﺴﻬﺎ ﻭﺗﻄﺒﻴﻘﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﺒﺘﺪﺋﲔ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﺇﱃ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﻛﻔـﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳـﲔ‪.‬ﻭﻗـﺪ ﺍﻗﺘﺮﺣـﺖ ﺍﻟﻨﺘـﺎﺋﺞ ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺗﺴﺎﻋﺪ ﺍﳌﺒﺘﺪﺋﲔ ﰲ ﻛﺸﻒ ﻣﻌﺎﱐ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺍﺕ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﺎﻧﺔ ﺑﺎﻷﺩﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﻗﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﺺ ﻣﻘﺎﺭﻧﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﺇﱃ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﻜﻔﺎﺀﺓ‪ . “The Effect Of Guessing Vocabulary In Reading Authentic Texts Among Pre‬‬‫‪University Students.‬‬ ‫‪١١‬‬ . ١٧.‫ﺍﳍﻨﺪﺳﺔ ﻭﺍﳍﻨﺪﺳﺔ ﺍﳌﻌﻤﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﰲ ﺟﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﺍﺳﻜﻴﺸـﻬﺮ ﻭﺗﺮﻛـﻰ‪ .‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ‪ ،‬ﺑﻴـﺎﻥ ﻓﻌﺎﻟﻴـﺔ‬ ‫‪٢٣‬‬ ‫‪Hossein Shokouhi.‬ﻭﺍﺗﻀﺢ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺑﺄ‪‬ﻢ ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﻮﻥ ﺃﺩﻟﺔ ﺻـﺮﻓﻴﺔ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﺃﺩﻟﺔ ﺻﻮﺗﻴﺔ ﻭﺃﺩﻟﺔ ﺳﻴﺎﻗﻴﺔ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﺺ ﺍﳌﻘﺮﻭﺀ‪ .‬ﻭﻳﺘﻜﻮﻥ ﻛﻞ ﺍﺧﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﻣﻦ ﺛﻼﺛﲔ ﺑﻨﺪﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺍﺕ ﻭﻋﺸﺮ ﺃﺳﺌﻠﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻓﻬﻢ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺀﺓ ﻭﻛﻠﻬﺎ ﰲ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻣﺘﻌﺪﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻞ‪ . Vol. (٢٠١٠): ٧٥.” ٧٥ Arizona Working Papers in SLA & Teaching.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺗﻔﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺜﺔ ﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﻣﺪﻯ ﺻﻼﺣﻴﺔ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻻﺳـﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﻣـﻦ ﻗﺒـﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﲔ ﺍﳌﺒﺘﺪﺋﲔ ﳓﻮ ﺗﺴﻬﻴﻞ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻛﺘﺴﺎﺏ ﻣﻔﺮﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻷﺟﻨﺒﻴﺔ‪.

‬‬ ‫‪(Master.‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﲔ ﳓﻮ ﺗﻌﺰﻳﺰ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻛﺘﺴﺎﺏ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪﺓ‬ ‫ﻭﻓﻬﻢ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺀﺓ ﳓﻮ ﺍﻷﻓﻀﻞ‪.‬‬ ‫‪٢٥‬‬ ‫”‪Gladys Bonilla Mangual. Inter-American University of Puerto Rico.‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﻥ ﻛﻔﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﲔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻷﺟﻨﺒﻴﺔ ﺗﺆﺛﺮ ﰲ ﳒﺎﺡ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﺳـﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﻕ‪ .‬‬ ‫‪ (٧‬ﺍﻷﺩﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﻗﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﻗﻲ‪.‬‬ ‫‪٢٥‬‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻲ ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺃﺟﺮﺍﻫﺎ ﺑﻮﻧﻴﻼ ﻏﻼﺩﻳﺲ ‪‬ﺪﻑ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻛﺘﺸﺎﻑ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﺔ ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﺳـﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻛﺘﺴﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻹﳒﻠﻴﺰﻳﺔ ﻟﺪﻯ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﲔ ﻟﻠﻨﻈﺮ ﰲ ﺃﻭﺟﻪ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳـﲔ ﺍﻟـﺬﻳﻦ‬ ‫‪٢٤‬‬ ‫‪Yang Na. “Guessing as a second language learning strategy among college students. “Context clues and contextual guessing.com/pqdweb?index=٠&did=٧٤٢٠٢٨٣٩١&SrchMode=١&sid=١&Fmt=٦&VInst=P‬‬ ‫‪ROD&VType=PQD&RQT=٣٠٩&VName=PQD&TS=١٣٠٩٣٢٤٩٣٣&clientId=٣٩٦٨٥> (accessed ٢٤‬‬ ‫‪August.‬‬ ‫‪ (٨‬ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺑﻮﺻﻔﻬﺎ ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﻟﺘﻌﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻟﺪﻯ ﻃﻼﺏ ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻌﺔ‪. ١٥٤. Vol. No.‬‬ ‫‪<http://proquest. ٢٠١١).‬ﻓﻘﺪ ﻗﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺚ ﺑﺈﺟﺮﺍﺀ ﺍﺧﺘﺒﺎﺭﻱ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ‬ ‫ﺳﺒﻘﻬﻤﺎ ﺍﺧﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﺳﺎﺑﻖ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻏﺮﺿﻪ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﻮﻑ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﻄﻼﺏ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺧﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ‬ ‫ﻳﺸﺘﻤﻞ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﻨﺺ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺩﻟﺔ ﺳﻴﺎﻗﻴﺔ ﻗﻠﻴﻠﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﺧﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ ﻓﻴﺤﺘﻮﻯ ﻋﻠـﻰ ﺃﺩﻟـﺔ‬ ‫ﺳﻴﺎﻗﻴﺔ ﻛﺜﲑﺓ‪ .‬ﻟﻌﻞ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺗﻌﲔ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺜﺔ ﰲ ﺑﻴﺎﻥ ﻓﻌﺎﻟﻴـﺔ ﺍﺳـﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﻕ ﻭﺩﻭﺭ ﺍﻷﺩﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﻗﻴﺔ ﳓﻮ ﲢﺴﲔ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻴﻌﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺋﻲ ﻟﺪﻯ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﺭﺳﻲ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻷﺟﻨﺒﻴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫‪٢٤‬‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻲ ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺃﺟﺮﺍﻫﺎ ﻳﻨﻎ ﻧﺎ ‪‬ﺪﻑ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻑ ﺇﱃ ﻣﺪﻯ ﻓﻌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﺩﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺴـﻴﺎﻗﻴﺔ ﰲ ﻋﻤﻠﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﻕ ﻟﺪﻯ ﺳﺘﲔ ﻃﺎﻟﺒﺎ ﺟﺎﻣﻌﻴﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ ﰲ ﺟﺎﻣﻌـﺔ‬ ‫ﻧﻮﺭﺙ ﻭﻳﺴﺖ‪ . ٦.‬‬ ‫‪١٢‬‬ .‬ﻭﰲ ﻛﻞ ﺍﺧﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﻃﻠﺐ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺸﺎﺭﻛﲔ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﺔ ﻣﻌﺎﱐ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻬﺪﻓﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻠﻐـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﻴﻨﻴﺔ‪ . Thesis. ١٩٩٤).” Sino-US English Teaching.‬ﻭﺃﺷﺎﺭﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺺ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺸﺘﻤﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺩﻟﺔ ﺳﻴﺎﻗﻴﺔ ﻛﺜﲑﺓ ﺗﻘﻞ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻧﺴﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳋﻄﺄ ﰲ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﻕ ﻭﺍﳊﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻌﺎﻧﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺤﺔ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﻲ‪ .umi.‬ﻗﺪ ﻗﺴﻢ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﺴﻤﲔ ﺗﺒﻌﺎ ﳌﺴﺘﻮﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻄﻼﺏ ﻭﻛﻔﺎﺀ‪‬ﻢ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻠﻐـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳍﺪﻑ ﳘﺎ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﳌﺘﻘﺪﻡ ﻭﺍﳌﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﻀﻌﻴﻒ‪ . ٥ (May‬‬ ‫‪٢٠٠٩).

‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺷـﺎﺭﻙ ﰲ ﻫـﺬﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ‪ ،‬ﺳﺘﺔ ﻭﺛﻼﺛﻮﻥ ﻃﺎﻟﺒﺎ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺮﺣﻠﺔ ﺍﳌﺘﻮﺳﻄﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻢ ﻣﺘﺨﺼﺼﻮﻥ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻠﻐـﺔ ﺍﻹﳒﻠﻴﺰﻳـﺔ‬ ‫ﺣﻴﺚ ﰎ ﺗﻘﺴﻴﻤﻬﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺛﻼﺙ ﳎﻤﻮﻋﺎﺕ‪ .” Relc Journal.‬‬ ‫‪٢٦‬‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺟﻮﺩﻱ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺮﺯ ﻫﺬﻩ ‪‬ﺪﻑ ﺇﱃ ﻣﻘﺎﺭﻧﺔ ﻣﺪﻯ ﻓﻌﺎﻟﻴـﺔ ﻃﺮﺍﺋـﻖ ﺍﻟﺘـﺪﺭﻳﺲ ﺍﻟـﺜﻼﺙ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﺔ ﰲ ﺗﺪﺭﻳﺐ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﲔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﱐ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﻕ‪ .‬ﻭﻫـﺬﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺗﻔﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺜﺔ ﰲ ﺑﻴﺎﻥ ﻓﻌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﳓﻮ ﺗﻌﺰﻳﺰ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻛﺘﺴـﺎﺏ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﻭﺑﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻢ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻘﻞ ﻟﺪﻯ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﲔ‪. Vol.‬‬ ‫‪٢ (٢٠٠٦): ١٧٦-١٩٠. No.‬ﻭﺃﺷﺎﺭﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻥ ﺍ‪‬ﻤﻮﻋﺘﲔ ﺣﺼﻠﺘﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺩﺭﺟـﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﱐ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﻕ‪ ،‬ﻓﻜﺎﻧﺖ ﻧﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﳎﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﺍﻷﺩﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﻗﻴﺔ ‪ ١١.‬ﻭﻫﺆﻻﺀ ﺍﻟﻄﻼﺏ ﻣﺘﺨﺼﺼﻮﻥ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻹﳒﻠﻴﺰﻳﺔ ﺑﻮﺻﻔﻬﺎ ﻟﻐـﺔ ﺛﺎﻧﻴـﺔ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺟﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﻭﻻﻳﺔ ﺳﺎﻧﺪﻳﻴﻐﻮ ﻛﺎﻟﻴﻔﻮﺭﻧﻴﺎ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﰎ ﲨﻊ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﻜﲑ ﺑﺼﻮﺕ ﻋﺎﻝ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻛﺘﺸﺎﻑ ﻧﻮﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﺔ ﻟﺪﻯ ﺍﻟﻄﻼﺏ‪ .‬ﻭﺃﺷﺎﺭﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺸﺎﺭﻛﲔ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﺩﺭﺑﻮﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﻕ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻓﻌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﻣﻌﺎﱐ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺍﺕ ﻣﻘﺎﺭﻧﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺍ‪‬ﻤﻮﻋﺘﲔ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻳﲔ‪ . “Methods of Teaching Inferring Meaning from Context.‬‬ ‫‪ (٩‬ﻃﺮﺍﺋﻖ ﺗﺪﺭﻳﺲ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﻣﻌﲎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﻕ‪.‬ﻭﺗﻜﻮﻧﺖ ﻋﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳـﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﺃﺭﺑﻌﺔ ﻭﺃﺭﺑﻌﲔ ﻃﺎﻟﺒﺎ ﻭﻃﺎﻟﺒﺔ ﺣﻴﺚ ﰎ ﺗﻘﺴﻴﻤﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺛﻼﺙ ﳎﻤﻮﻋﺎﺕ ﺗﺒﻌﺎ ﻟﻨﻮﻋﻴﺔ ﻃﺮﺍﺋﻖ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺪﺭﻳﺲ ﺍﶈﺪﺩﺓ‪ .‬‬ ‫‪١٣‬‬ .‬ﻭﺃﺷﺎﺭﺕ ﻧﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳـﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻻﺳـﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﲔ ﳘﺎ ﺗﻮﻇﻴﻒ ﺍﻷﺩﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﻮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺘﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﻐـﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴـﺔ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﺗﻮﻇﻴﻒ ﺍﻷﺩﻟﺔ ﻏﲑ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﻮﻳﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻳﺴـﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺍﳌﺸـﺎﺭﻛﻮﻥ ﻫـﺬﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺗﻮﻇﻴﻒ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﻣﻴﺲ ﰲ ﺍﻛﺘﺸﺎﻑ ﻣﻌﺎﱐ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺍﺕ ﻣـﻦ ﺍﻟﺴـﻴﺎﻕ‪ .‫ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﻮﻥ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﲔ ﻫﺆﻻﺀ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﱂ ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﻮﻫﺎ‪ .٠٠‬ﻭﻧﺘﺎﺋﺞ‬ ‫‪٢٦‬‬ ‫‪JoDee Walters.‬ﻓﺎ‪‬ﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ ﺗ‪‬ـﺪﺭﺏ ﻋﻠـﻰ ﺍﺳـﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍ‪‬ﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺗ‪‬ﺪﺭﺏ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺧﺎﺭﺝ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﻕ ﻭﺍ‪‬ﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺜﺔ ﺑـﺪﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺗﺪﺭﻳﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻳﺔ ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ‪ . ٣٧.‬ﻭﻃﺮﺍﺋﻖ ﺍﻟﺘـﺪﺭﻳﺲ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻘﺼﻮﺩﺓ ﻫﻲ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﻋﺎﻣﺔ ﺑﻨﺎﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﳌﻘﺘﺮﺣـﺔ ﻋﻨـﺪ‬ ‫ﻛﻼﺭﻙ ﻭﻧﺎﺷﻮﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺃﺩﻟﺔ ﺳﻴﺎﻗﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﺒﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻣﻦ ﻧﻮﻉ ﻣﻞﺀ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺍﻏـﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻣﻊ ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺤﻬﺎ ﻭﺗﻘﺪﱘ ﺍﳊﻠﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺤﺔ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ‪ .

٣٦-٣٨.‬‬ ‫‪٢٧‬‬ ‫ﺃﺷﺎﺭﺕ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺃﺟﺮﺍﻫﺎ ﺇﻟﻜﺴﻦ ﺑﻴﻮﻛﺪﺭﻣﻮﺱ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻛﺘﺸﺎﻑ ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺎﺕ ﻣﺴـﺘﺨﺪﻣﺔ‬ ‫ﰲ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﻕ ﰲ ﻗﺮﺍﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﺺ ﻟﺪﻯ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﲔ ﺍﳌﺘﻮﺳﻄﲔ ﰲ ﺟﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﺣﺴـﻴﺘﱯ ﰲ‬ ‫ﻗﺴﻢ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻹﳒﻠﻴﺰﻳﺔ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ‪ . “Guessing Vocabulary from Context in Reading Texts.‬‬ ‫‪١٤‬‬ .٠٠‬ﻭﻟﻌﻞ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺗﻌﲔ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺜـﺔ ﰲ ﺑﻴـﺎﻥ ﻓﻌﺎﻟﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﻕ ﻭﺩﻭﺭ ﺍﻷﺩﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﻗﻴﺔ ﰲ ﲢﺴـﲔ ﺍﻻﺳـﺘﻴﻌﺎﺏ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺋﻲ ﻟﺪﻯ ﺩﺍﺭﺳﻲ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻷﺟﻨﺒﻴﺔ‪.‫ﳎﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ‪ .‬ﻭﺃﺷﺎﺭﺕ ﻧﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻥ ﻧﻮﻋﲔ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﳘﺎ ﺗﻮﻇﻴﻒ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﲨﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻷﺩﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﻗﻴﺔ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻣﺎ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﲔ‬ ‫ﰲ ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪ‪‬ﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﳌﻌﲎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﻕ ﻣﻘﺎﺭﻧﺔ ﺑﺄﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻗﺪ‬ ‫ﺗﺴﺎﻋﺪﻫﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﳌﻌﲎ‪ .‬ﻭ‪‬ﺪﻑ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳌﻘﺎﺭﻧـﺔ ﺑـﲔ ﺍﻻﺳـﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﺔ ﻟﺪﻯ ﻣﺎﻓﺘﺮﺿﲔ ﻧﺎﺟﺤﲔ ﻭ ﻣﺎﻓﺘﺮﺿﲔ ﻣﺘﺨﻠﻔﲔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻜﺸﻒ ﻋﻦ ﻣﻌﺎﱐ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻏﲑ ﺍﳌﺄﻟﻮﻓﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﻕ‪ .‬ﻭﻃﻠﺐ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻋﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﻗﺮﺍﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﺺ ﺍﻷﺻﻠﻲ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﺔ ﻣﻌﲎ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻬﺪﻓﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻞ ﺍﻛﺘﺸﺎﻑ‬ ‫ﻧﻮﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﳌﻌﲎ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﺔ ﻋﻨﺪﻫﻢ‪ . ٢٠٠٦).‬ﻗﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺚ ﺑﺘﻄﻮﻳﺮ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻨﻴﻔﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻓﺤﺪﺩ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺎﺕ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺑﺴﺘﺔ ﻋﺸﺮ ﻧﻮﻋﺎ‪ .” (Master‬‬ ‫‪thesis.‬‬ ‫‪ (١٠‬ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺍﺕ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﻕ ﰲ ﻗﺮﺍﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ‪.‬ﻭﻳﺴﺘﻔﺎﺩ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ‪ ،‬ﺑﻴﺎﻥ ﻓﻌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻻﺳـﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﻣـﻦ ﻗﺒـﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﲔ ﳓﻮ ﺗﻌﺰﻳﺰ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻛﺘﺴﺎﺏ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﻭﻓﻬﻢ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺀﺓ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﺃﻓﻀﻞ‪.‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺗﻜﻮﻧﺖ ﻋﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﺛﻨﲔ ﻭﺛﻼﺛﲔ ﻃﺎﻟﺒﺎ‪ . University Ankara.٩.‬‬ ‫‪٢٧‬‬ ‫‪Ilkesen Buyukdurmus Selcuk.‬ﻭﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻋﺎﻡ ﺗﻮﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺚ ﰲ ﺩﺭﺍﺳـﺘﻪ ﺃﻥ ﺃﻧـﻮﺍﻉ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﻗﻲ ﺗﺴﺎﻋﺪﻫﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻛﺸﻒ ﻣﻌـﺎﱐ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤـﺎﺕ ﺍﳉﺪﻳـﺪﺓ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﻕ‪ .

‬ﻭﻛـﺬﻟﻚ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﻇﻴﻒ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﺫﻫﻨﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻣﺮﺗﺒﻄﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻷﻡ ﰲ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﻣﻌﺎﱐ ﺍﳊﻜﻢ ﻭﺍﻷﻣﺜﺎﻝ‪ .‬‬ ‫‪٢٨‬‬ ‫‪Al-Hassan.‫‪ (١١‬ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﻣﻌﲎ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﺑﲑ ﻟﺪﻯ ﺍﻟﻄﻼﺏ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺏ ﰲ ﺗﻌﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻹﳒﻠﻴﺰﻳﺔ ﺑﻮﺻﻔﻬﺎ ﻟﻐﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﺟﻨﺒﻴﺔ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋﻠﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻘﻨﻴﺎﺕ‪.‬‬ ‫‪١٥‬‬ .‬ﻭﺑﺬﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﺗﻌﺪ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺃﻭﻝ ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺗﺮﻛﺰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻛﺘﺸﺎﻑ ﻣـﺪﻯ‬ ‫ﻓﻌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﻕ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺩﺍﺭﺳﻲ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺑﲔ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻮﻳﲔ ﺍﳌﺨﺘﻠﻔـﻴﲔ‬ ‫)ﺍﳌﺒﺘﺪﺋﲔ ﻭﺍﳌﺘﻘﺪﻣﲔ( ﰲ ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﻴﺔ ﲟﺎﻟﻴﺰﻳﺎ ﰲ ﺗﻌﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺑﻮﺻﻔﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺃﺷﺎﺭﺕ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺤﻮﺙ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺗﱪﺯ ﻓﻌﺎﻟﻴﺘـﻪ ﰲ ﲢﺴـﲔ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻴﻌﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺋﻲ ﻭﺗﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺮﻭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﻮﻳﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺩﺍﺭﺳﻲ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻷﺟﻨﺒﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻹﳒﻠﻴﺰﻳﺔ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻹﺳﺒﺎﻧﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺼﻴﻨﻴﺔ‪ .‬‬ ‫‪٢٠٠٧).‬ﻭﻗﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺚ ﺑﺘﻘﺪﱘ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻨﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﶈﺪﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺴﺎﻋﺪ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﲔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﺟـﺮﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﻣﻌﺎﱐ ﺍﳊﻜﻢ ﻭﺍﻷﻣﺜﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺭﺩﺓ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﻕ‪ .‬ﻭﺃﺷﺎﺭﺕ ﻧﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﲔ ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﻮﻥ ﺃﻧﻮﺍﻋﺎ ﳐﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﻣـﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﰲ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﻣﻌﺎﱐ ﺍﳊﻜﻢ ﻭﺍﻷﻣﺜﺎﻝ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﻕ‪ .‬ﻭﻗـﺪ ﻭﺟـﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺚ ﺑﺄﻥ ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺗﺆﺩﻱ ﺩﻭﺭﺍ ﻣﻬﻤﺎ ﰲ ﻛﺸﻒ ﻣﻌﺎﱐ ﺍﳊﻜـﻢ ﻭﺍﻷﻣﺜـﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﺳﺘﻴﻌﺎ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﺳﺘﻴﻌﺎﺑﺎ ﺟﻴﺪﺍ ﳓﻮ ﺃﻓﻀﻞ‪ .‬‬ ‫‪٢٨‬‬ ‫ﻭﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻗﺪﻣﻬﺎ ﺣﻴﺪﺭ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﻮﻫﺎﺏ ﻫﻲ ﺭﺳﺎﻟﺔ ﻣﺎﺟﺴﺘﲑ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﳍﺪﻑ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺪﻯ ﻓﺎﻋﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﻕ ﰲ ﻛﺸﻒ ﻣﻌﲎ ﺍﳊﻜﻢ ﻭﺍﻷﻣﺜﺎﻝ ﺃﺛﻨـﺎﺀ ﻗـﺮﺍﺀﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﺍﻷﺻﻴﻠﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻳﺴﺘﻔﺎﺩ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ‪ ،‬ﺑﻴﺎﻥ ﻓﻌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻫـﺬﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﲔ ﳓﻮ ﺗﻌﺰﻳﺰ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻴﻌﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺋﻲ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﺃﻓﻀﻞ‪.umi.‬ﻭﺗﻜﻮﻧﺖ ﻋﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳـﺔ ﻣـﻦ‬ ‫ﺗﺴﻌﺔ ﻭﻋﺸﺮﻳﻦ ﻃﺎﻟﺒﺎ ﻭﻃﺎﻟﺒﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺜﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺑﻌﺔ ﺑﻘﺴﻢ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻹﳒﻠﻴﺰﻳﺔ ﻭﺁﺩﺍ‪‬ﺎ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺟﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺮﻳﻦ‪ .“Arab EFL learners in guessing the meaning of idioms: Efficiency‬‬ ‫‪and‬‬ ‫”‪techniques.com/pqdweb?index=٣&sid=١&srchmode=١&vinst=PROD&fmt=٦&startpage=١‬‬ ‫‪clientid=٣٩٦٨٥&vname=PQD&RQT=٣٠٩&did=١٥٢١١٩٤١٧١&scaling=FULL&ts=١٣٠٩٢٧٣٤٨٩&vtyp‬‬ ‫‪e=PQD&rqt=٣٠٩&TS=١٣٠٩٢٧٣٥٣٩&clientId=٣٩٦٨٥>.‬‬ ‫‪(Masterthesis.‬‬ ‫&‪<http://proquest.‬‬ ‫‪١٤٠. Haider AbdulWahab. ٢٠١١).‬‬ ‫‪UniversityofBahrain. (accessed ٢٤ August.‬ﻭﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻣﻌﻈـﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﲔ ﺗﻘﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺮﺍﺭ‪ ،‬ﻭﲢﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﳊﻜﻢ ﻭﺍﻷﻣﺜﺎﻝ ﻟﻠﻮﺻﻮﻝ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳌﻌﲎ ﺍﻟﺼـﺤﻴﺢ‪ .

No. “L٢Reading Proficiency and Lexical Inferencing by University EFL Learners. “Using Thinking Aloud and Retrospection to Uncover Learners Lexical Inferencing Procedures.‫ﻓﻘﻂ ﺑﺎﻟﺴﻴﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﻮﻱ‬ Knowledge Sources ٣٠‫ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫ ﺍﳌﺼﺎﺩﺭ‬-٢ ‫ﺍﳌﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﻴﺔ ﺗﺸﲑ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳌﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﻌﺘﻤﺪ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺱ ﰲ ﻋﻤﻠﻴـﺔ ﺍﺳـﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﻣﻌـﺎﱐ‬ . N. ١٩٩. ٣٢ Bengleil and Paribakht. Vol. ٢ (December ٢٠٠٤): ٢٣١.‫ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻷﺻﺪﻗﺎﺀ‬،‫ ﻭﺍﺳﺘﻔﺴﺎﺭ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻤﲔ‬،‫ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﻣﻴﺲ‬ Non-Linguistic Sources ٣٢‫ﺍﻟﻠﻐﻮﻳﺔ‬ ‫ ﺍﳌﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﻏﲑ‬-٤ ‫ﺍﳌﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﻏﲑ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﻮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺱ ﰲ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﻣﻌﺎﱐ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺍﺕ ﻏﲑ ﺍﳌﺄﻟﻮﻓـﺔ‬ ‫ ﻭﻣﻌﺮﻓـﺔ‬،‫ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﻣﻜﻮﻧﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﻴـﺔ ﺑﺎﳌﻮﺿـﻮﻉ‬. ٣١ Marjorie Bingham Wesche and T.‫ﺍﳌﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﻮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺭﺩﺓ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﻮﻱ ﺍﳌﻌﲔ‬ . ٢٠١٠). ١٨. and Paribakht. edited by Claus Faerch and Gabriele Kasper. (England: Multilingual Matters Ltd.‫ﺍﳌﺼﻄﻠﺤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﻌﻴﻨﺔ‬ ٢٩ Bengleil.S.” in Introspection in Second Language Research. ١٩٨٧). ٣٠ Kirsten Hasstrup. T. Sima Paribakht.‫ ﻭﺍﳌﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﻏﲑ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﻮﻳﺔ‬،‫ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﺣﻴﺚ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﳌﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﻮﻳﺔ‬ Linguistic Sources ٣١‫ﺍﻟﻠﻐﻮﻳﺔ‬ ‫ ﺍﳌﺼﺎﺩﺭ‬-٣ ‫ ﻭﻫﻲ ﻏﲑ ﻣﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺣﺴﻴﺔ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺗﻮﻇﻴﻒ‬.‫ﻣﺼﻄﻠﺤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ‬ Guessing from context ٢٩‫ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﻕ‬ ‫ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﳌﻌﲎ ﻣﻦ‬-١ ‫ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺫﻫﻨﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﻣﻌﺎﱐ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺎﺕ ﻏﲑ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻭﻓﺔ ﻭﺍﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻬﺎ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﻕ ﻣﺴـﺘﻌﻴﻨﺎ‬ . “L٢Reading Proficiency and Lexical Inferencing by University EFL Learners.‫ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺭﺩﺓ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﻕ ﺍﳌﻌﲔ‬ . ١٦ . ٦١.” The Canadian Modern Language Review. (British: Multilingual Matters. Lexical Inferencing in a First and Second Language.F.” ٢٣١.

٩٠.‬‬ ‫‪١٩٩٧).” in Second Language Vocabulary‬‬ ‫‪Acquisition. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.‬ﻟﺬﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻬﻢ ﺃﻻ ﻳﻘﺘﺼﺮ‬ ‫‪١‬ﺭﺍﺗﺐ ﻗﺎﺳﻢ ﻋﺎﺷﻮﺭ ﻭﳏﻤﺪ ﻓﺆﺍﺩ ﺍﳊﻮﺍﻣﺪﺓ‪ ،‬ﻓﻨﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺳﺎﻟﻴﺐ ﺗﺪﺭﻳﺴﻬﺎ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻄﺒﻴﻖ )ﺇﺭﺑﺪ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻋﺎﱂ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺐ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ‪٢٠٠٩ ،‬ﻡ( ﺹ ‪.‬ﻟﻘﺪ ﺫﻫﺒﺖ ﺃﻛﺴﻔﻮﺭﺩ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻥ ﺩﺍﺭﺳﻲ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﻏـﲑ ﻣﻄـﺎﻟﺒﲔ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﺳﺘﻴﻌﺎﺏ ﻛﻞ ﻣﻔﺮﺩﺓ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺀﺓ ﻷﻧﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺤﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻑ ﺇﱃ ﲨﻴﻊ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺍﺕ ﰲ ﺍﻟـﻨﺺ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻘﺮﻭﺀ‪ ٣. ٢٢.‬‬ ‫ﻓﺎﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺟﺢ ﺇﺣﺪﻯ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻕ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﺎﻟﺔ ﰲ ﳑﺎﺭﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻢ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻘﻞ‪ .‬ﻭﰲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﻛﻠﻤﺎﺕ ﻏﲑ ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻣﺔ ﳝﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺀ ﺇﱃ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﻣﻌﺎﻧﻴﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﻕ‪. edited by James Coady and Thomas Huckin.٧٠‬‬ ‫‪٢‬‬ ‫‪Batia Laufer. ١٩٩٠). (United State:‬‬ ‫‪Newbury House Publisher. “The Lexical Plight in Second Language Reading.‬‬ ‫‪٣‬‬ ‫‪Rebecca Oxford.‬‬ ‫‪١٧‬‬ .‫ﺍﻟﻔﺼﻞ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﻕ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺒﺤﺚ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ‪ :‬ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﻕ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺀﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺒﺤﺚ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ‪ :‬ﺗﺼﻨﻴﻔﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﻕ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺒﺤﺚ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﺍﳌﺆﺛﺮﺓ ﰲ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﲨﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﻕ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺒﺤﺚ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺑﻊ‪ :‬ﺧﻄﻮﺍﺕ ﺇﺟﺮﺍﺀ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﻕ‬ ‫ﺇﻥ ﺍﳍﺪﻑ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺲ ﻣﻦ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺭﺉ ﺍﳉﻴﺪ ﰲ ﺗﻌﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻷﺟﻨﺒﻴﺔ ﻫﻮ ﲤﻜﻴﻨﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﺳـﺘﻴﻌﺎﺏ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺺ ﺍﳌﻘﺮﻭﺀ ﺍﺳﺘﻴﻌﺎﺑﺎ ﺻﺤﻴﺤﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﺬﺍ ﻻ ﺑﺪ ﻟﻠﻘﺎﺭﺉ ﺍﳉﻴﺪ "ﺃﻥ ﳝﺘﻠﻚ ﺍﳌﻬﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻠﻴﺔ ﻟﺘﻘﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺀﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺛﺮﻭﺓ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺍﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﺩﺭﺍﻙ ﺍﳌﻌﲎ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﻳﺐ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻌﻴﺪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻜﺸﻒ ﻋـﻦ ﻫـﺪﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﺗﺐ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻐﺰﺍﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺪﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﻘﺪ ﺍﳌﻘﺮﻭﺀ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﺑﺪ ﻟﻪ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻌﺮﻑ ﻣﻌﲎ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺧﲑﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺺ ﻛﺎﻣﻼ"‪١. Language Learning Strategies: What Every Teacher Should Know.‬ﻭﻟﻠﻮﺻﻮﻝ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻴﻌﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻣﻞ ﻟﻠﻨﺺ ﺍﳌﻘﺮﻭﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺭﺉ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻌﺮﻑ ﻋﺪﺩﺍ‬ ‫ﻛﺒﲑﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺍﺕ ﻓﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﺇﺫ ﺇﻥ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺗﺆﺛﺮ ﰲ ﻗﺪﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﲔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻮﻇﻴﻒ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﻕ ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺩﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﻗﻴﺔ ﺍﶈﻴﻄﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺺ‪ ٢.

٩٠-٩٢. and Their‬‬ ‫‪Relationship With Success in L٢ Lexical Inferencing.‬‬ ‫‪٤‬‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺒﺤﺚ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ‪ :‬ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﻕ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺀﺓ‬ ‫ﻓﻘﺪ ﻋﺮﻑ ﻛﺮﺗﻦ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺑﺄﻧﻪ "ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﻧﻔﺴﻴﺔ ﺗﻨﻄﻮﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻷﺩﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﻮﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﻕ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻭﻑ ﺍﶈﻴﻂ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺺ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻑ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻏﲑ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻭﻓﺔ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺍﻟﻨﺺ"‪ . Lexical Inferencing Procedures or Talking About Words: Receptive Procedures in Foreign‬‬ ‫‪Language Learning with special Reference to English.‬‬ ‫‪٥‬‬ ‫‪Aaron S. T. “Toward a Model of Text Comprehension and Production.‬‬ ‫‪١٨‬‬ .‬‬ ‫‪٦‬‬ ‫‪Rebecca Oxford.‬‬ ‫‪Psychological Review. ٣٧.‫ﺗﺪﺭﻳﺲ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺍﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﺪﺭﻳﺲ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺎﺕ ﻓﺤﺴﺐ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﳚﺐ ﺃﻥ ‪‬ﺪﻑ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺗﺰﻭﻳـﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺘﻌﻠﻤﲔ ﺑﺎﻻﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻼﺯﻣﺔ ﻟﺘﻮﺳﻴﻊ ﻣﻌﺎﺭﻓﻬﻢ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﳌﻜﺘﺴﺒﺔ‪.‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﰒ‪ ،‬ﻃﻮﺭ ﻫﺎﺳﺘﺮﺏ ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﺃﻭﺳـﻊ‬ ‫ﺣﻴﺚ ﺇﻧﻪ ﻳﺘﺼﻒ ﺑﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺗﻨﻄﻮﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻓﺘﺮﺍﺽ ﺍﳌﻌﲎ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﲨﻴﻊ ﺍﻷﺩﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﻮﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻊ ﺍﻧﺪﻣﺎﺟﻬﺎ ﲟﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﻋﺎﳌﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﲔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻭﻋﻴﻬﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺴـﻴﺎﻕ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺳـﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓـﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﻮﻳـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺤﺔ‪٨. Vol. Vol.‬‬ ‫‪٧‬‬ ‫”‪Walter Kintsch and Van Dijk.‬ﺗﻌـﺪ ﻫـﺬﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺿﺮﻭﺭﻳﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻛﺘﺴﺎﺏ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﰲ ﺳﻴﺎﻗﻬﺎ "ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﻲ"‪ ٥،‬ﻭﺃﻣـﺎ ﺃﻛﺴـﻔﻮﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﻋﺮﻓﺘﻪ ﺇﺣﺪﻯ ﺇﺟﺮﺍﺀﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻷﺩﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﻮﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﺘﻨﻮﻋﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻏﲑ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﻮﻳﺔ ﺑﻐﻴﺔ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﺎﱐ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺍﺕ‪٦. “Inferencing: A Process in Using and Learning Language. ٨٥ (١٩٧٨): ٣٦٣-٣٩٤.‬ﻭﺍﺗﻀﺢ ﳑﺎ ﺳﺒﻖ ﺃﻥ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﻣﻌﺎﱐ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺍﺕ ﻳﺸﺘﻤﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺛﻼﺛﺔ ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺭﺋﻴﺴـﺔ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺩﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﻮﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻷﺩﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﻗﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﲔ‪ . ١٩٩٠).‬‬ ‫‪Novitas-Royal Research on Youth and Language. Knowledge Sources. (United State:‬‬ ‫‪Newbury House Publisher.”Tesol Quarterly. Carton. Issue ٢ (October ٢٠٠٧): ٨٤. “L٢ Vocabulary Learning From Context: Strategies.‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺃﻃﻠﻖ ﻧﺴﺎﺟﻲ ﻋﻠـﻰ‬ ‫‪٩‬‬ ‫ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺑﺎﳌﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﻴﺔ‪.٤ (Winter ٢٠٠٣):‬‬ ‫‪٦٥٦-٦٥٧.” in The Psychology of‬‬ ‫‪Second Language Learning. Language Learning Strategies: What Every Teacher Should Know. “Learning Vocabulary in EFL Contexts Through Vocabulary Learning Strategies.‬‬ ‫‪٨‬‬ ‫‪Hasstrup. Vol. (Tubingen: Gunter Narr. ١. ١٩٩١). ٤٠. No.‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺭﺃﻯ ﻛﻴﻨﺘﺞ ﻭﺑﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﳛﺪﺙ ﰲ ﲨﻴﻊ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻮﻳﺎﺕ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻴﻌﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺋﻲ ﻣﺎ ﺩﺍﻡ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺗﻮﺣﻴﺪ ﻟﻠﻨﺺ ﺑﺎﳋﻠﻔﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺭﺑﻂ ﺑﲔ ﺃﺟﺰﺍﺋﻪ ﺍﳌﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﺭﺑﻂ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻭﻓﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﻏﲑ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻭﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺭﺩﺓ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﺺ ﺑﻐﻴﺔ ﺍﳊﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻤﺎﺳﻜﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﺺ‪ ٧. ١٩٦٩): ٤٥.‬‬ ‫‪٩‬‬ ‫‪Nassaji. edited by Paul Pimsleur and Terence Quinn (Cambridge: Cambridge‬‬ ‫‪University Press.‬‬ ‫ﺃﻣﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺇﱃ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﻣﻌﺎﱐ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺍﺕ ﰲ ﺃﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟـﺘﻌﻠﻢ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘـﺪ‬ ‫ﺫﻫﺐ ﻫﺎﺳﺘﺮﺏ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻧﻮﻉ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﻴﺔ ﺍﻟـﱵ ﺗﺘﻌﻠـﻖ ﺑـﺎﳋﻄﻮﺍﺕ ﺃﻭ‬ ‫‪٤‬‬ ‫”‪Lotfi Ghazal.

‬ﻭﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﻻ ﺗﺆﺩﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴـﺎ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟـﺘﻌﻠﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜـﻦ‬ ‫ﺑﺈﻣﻜﺎ‪‬ﺎ ﺗﻴﺴﲑ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻗﻊ ﰲ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻢ‪١٠. ٨ No.” Journal of‬‬ ‫‪Language and Linguistic Studies.‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﺔ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻢ ﺃﻭ ﺣﻞ ﺍﳌﺸﻜﻼﺕ ﳑﺎ ﺗﺘﻄﻠﺐ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﳌﺒﺎﺷـﺮ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺤﻮﻳﻞ ﺃﻭ ﲡﻤﻴﻊ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ‪ . “Reading through Context: How Real and PercievedStrategy Use Affects L٢‬‬ ‫‪Comprehension.‬ﻭﺃﻣﺎ ﰲ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﳋﻄﺎﺏ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺪ ﻗﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﻮﻥ ﺑﻘﺮﺍﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﺺ ﺑﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻛﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺑﺎﻧﺘﺒﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﺇﱃ ﺃﺟﺰﺍﺀ ﻛﺒﲑﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﺺ‪ . ١٩٨٣).‬‬ ‫‪١١‬‬ ‫‪Israel Chikalanga.‬ﻭﻭﺍﻓﻖ ﺟﻴﻜﻠـﻨﺞ ﻫﺎﺳـﺘﺮﺏ ﺣﻴـﺚ ﻳـﺮﻯ ﺃﻥ‬ ‫"ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺑﻮﺻﻔﻪ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﺴﻌﻰ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺭﺉ ﻟﻠﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠـﻰ ﻣﻔﻬـﻮﻡ‬ ‫ﺿﻤﲏ ﻟﻠﻨﺺ ﺍﳌﻘﺮﻭﺀ ﺑﻨﺎﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﺼﺪﺭﻳﻦ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﻴﲔ ﳘﺎ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺭﺉ"‪١١. ٣٥. (Englewood Cliffs.‬‬ ‫‪(Rowley. Inferencing: Testing the ‘Hypothesis-testing’ Hypothesis.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺛﺎﻧﻴﺎ‪ ،‬ﺍﻛﺘﺸﺎﻑ ﻣﻌﺎﻧﻴﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﺇﱃ ﺷﻜﻞ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺍﺕ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺣﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﺮﻓﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺎﺣﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺤﻮﻳﺔ‪ . and Long. ١٠٤-١٢٣. Michael H.” in Classroom Oriented‬‬ ‫‪Research in Second Language Acquisition edited by Seliger Herbert W. ١٩٨٩). Vol.‬‬ ‫‪١٢‬‬ ‫‪Ellen Bialystok.” The Modern Language Journal.‬ﻓﻔﻲ ﻣﺴـﺘﻮﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺓ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻳﻘﺘﲔ‪ :‬ﺃﻭﻻ‪ ،‬ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﻕ ﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﻣﻌﺎﱐ ﺍﳌﻔـﺮﺩﺍﺕ‪. ٤٧.‬‬ ‫‪١٤‬‬ ‫‪Barnett.‬‬ ‫‪١٣‬‬ ‫‪Marva A. Vol.Oxford. ٥.‬ﻭﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﳝﻨﺢ ﻟﻠﺪﺍﺭﺳﲔ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﺗﺒﻌﺎ ﻷﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﻣﻌﻴﻨﺔ‪ ،‬ﺳﻮﺍﺀ‬ ‫‪١٢‬‬ ‫ﺃﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻟﻼﺳﺘﻴﻌﺎﺏ ﺃﻡ ﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺮﻏﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻣﺘﻼﻛﻬﻢ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﶈﺪﻭﺩﺓ‪.” Reading in a Foreign‬‬ ‫‪Language.‬‬ ‫‪١٩‬‬ .J: Prentice Hall Regents. MA: Newbury House. Barnett. ٧٢ (١٩٨٨): ١٥٠. ٢ (١٩٩٢): ٦٩٧.“Lexical Inferencing Strategies of Turkish EFL Learners.‬ﻭﻳﺘﻢ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳋﻠﻔﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ‬ ‫‪١٤‬‬ ‫ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﻨﺺ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﺭ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻞ ﺍﳊﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻔﻬﻢ‪.‬ﻭﺃﻣﺎ ﺑﻴﺎﻟﻴﺴﺘﻮﻙ ﻭﺃﻛﺴﻔﻮﺭﺩ ﻓﺈ‪‬ﻤﺎ ﻳﺮﺍﻥ ﺑﺄﻥ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺃﺣﺪ ﻧـﻮﻉ ﺍﺳـﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﻮﻳﻀﻴﺔ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺻﻠﺔ ﻣﻬﻤﺔ ﳓﻮﻯ ﺗﻌﺰﻳﺰ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻴﻌﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺋﻲ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ ﻭﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻣﻌﺎ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻮ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻓﺘﺮﺍﺽ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻨﻄﻮﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻔﺎﻋﻞ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺺ ﺑﺎﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺭﺉ‪ .‬‬ ‫‪١٠‬‬ ‫‪Quoted in Ilknur Istifci.‬‬ ‫ﻗﺪ ﺍﺗﻀﺢ ﺇﻥ ﻟﻼﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﻋﻼﻗﺔ ﻭﺛﻴﻘﺔ ﻭﻣﺘﺮﺍﺑﻄﺔ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺀﺓ‪ ،‬ﺇﺫ ﻳﺮﻯ ﺑﻠـﻮﻙ‬ ‫ﻭﺑﺮﻧﺖ ﺃﻥ ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺀﺓ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺫﻫﻨﻴﺔ ﺗﻔﺼ‪‬ﻞ ﻃﺮﻕ ﲪﻞ ﺍﳌﻬﺎﻡ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻘـﺮﺍﺀ‪ ،‬ﻭﻧﻮﻋﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺩﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﻗﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﳝﻴﻠﻮﻥ ﺇﱃ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻣﻬﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﺺ‪ ،‬ﻭﻃﺮﻕ ﺇﺛﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﱐ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻘﺮﻭﺀ‪ ،‬ﻭﻧﻮﻋﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳋﻄﻮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﺘﺨﺬﻭ‪‬ﺎ ﰲ ﻣﻮﺍﺟﻬﺔ ﻣﺸﻜﻼﺕ ﺍﺳﺘﻴﻌﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻨﺺ ﺍﳌﻘﺮﻭﺀ‪ ١٣. A Suggested Taxomony of Inferences for Reading Teacher. Vol. ١ (April ٢٠٠٩): ٩٩. More Than Meets the Eye: Foreign Language Learner Reading: Theory and‬‬ ‫‪Practice.‬ﻗﺪ ﺗﻨﺎﻭﻟﺖ ﻣﻬﺎﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻮﻳﲔ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﲔ ﳘﺎ‪ :‬ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﳋﻄﺎﺏ‪ . N. No.

Eskey (Cambridge: Cambridge University‬‬ ‫‪Press.” IRAL.‬ﻭﺃﻣﺎ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﻓﻮﻕ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﻴﺔ ﻓﻘﺪ ﺫﻫﺐ ﺃﻟﻼﻥ ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﺃ‪‬ﺎ ﲡﻌﻞ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﲔ ﻳﻔﻜﺮﻭﻥ ﻋﻦ ﺗﻔﻜﲑﻫﻢ ﺣﻴﺚ ﻗﺎﻡ ﺑﺘﺤﻘﻖ ﻧﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻢ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﳏﺎﻭﻟﺘـﻬﻢ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺣﻞ ﺍﳌﺸﻜﻼﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺮﺍﻗﺒﺔ ﻣﺪﻯ ﻓﻌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﳋﻄﻮﺍﺕ ﺍﳌﺄﺧﻮﺫﺓ ﰲ ﺃﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﳌﻬﺎﻡ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳌﺮﺍﺟﻌﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻘـﻮﱘ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﺔ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻢ‪١٨.‬‬ ‫‪edited by Carrell.‬ﰲ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﻠﺤﻈﺔ‪ ،‬ﺗﺘﻢ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﻓﻚ ﺍﻟﺮﻣﻮﺯ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺑﻴﺔ ﺣﻴﺚ ﻣـﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺘﻮﻗﻊ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺭﺉ ﻗﺎﻡ ﺑﺘﻌﺮﻑ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳊﺮﻭﻑ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺭﺍﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳉﻤﻞ ﺑﻐﻴﺔ ﺍﳊﺼﻮﻝ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﻌﲎ‪ . “A Study on the Use of Cognitive Reading Strategies by ELT‬‬ ‫‪Students.‬ﺇﻻ ﺃﻧﻪ ﰲ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻷﺣﻴﺎﻥ ﻻ ﻳﺴﺘﻄﻴﻊ ﻓﻬﻢ ﺍﳌﻘﺮﻭﺀ‪ .‬‬ ‫‪١٧‬‬ ‫‪Yesim Ozek and Muharrem Civelek.‬‬ ‫‪٢٠‬‬ .‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻣﻮﺱ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﻫﻞ ﻓﺈ‪‬ـﺎ‬ ‫‪١٥‬‬ ‫‪Kenneth S. and Tuba Gürses.‫ﻭﲢﺪﺙ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺘﺎﻥ ﺍﳌﻬﻤﺘﺎﻥ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ‪ ،‬ﳘﺎ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﻣﻌﺮﻓﻴﺔ ﻭﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﻓـﻮﻕ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﳚﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺭﺉ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ ﻳﻔﺘﺮﺽ ﻭﻳﺘﻨﺒﺄ ﲟﻀﻤﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺺ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺭﺑﻂ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﺑﺎﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﻴﺔ ﻛﺬﻟﻚ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻷﺩﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﻮﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﺺ‪ ١٧.‬‬ ‫ﻟﻘﺪ ﺗﻌﺪﺩﺕ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ ﰲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﳌﻌﲎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﻕ ﺇﺣﺪﻯ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﺍﺋﻖ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺋﻌﺔ ﺍﳌﻔﻀﻠﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺩﺍﺭﺳﻲ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻷﺟﻨﺒﻴﺔ ﻣﻘﺎﺭﻧﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻄﺮﺍﺋﻖ ﺍﻷﺧـﺮﻯ ﺃﺛﻨـﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺀﺓ‪ . No.‬ﺗﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﻴﺔ ﲟﻌﺎﳉﺔ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻢ ﺣﻴﺚ ﲢﺪﺙ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺘﺎ ﺍﻷﺳﻔﻞ‬ ‫ﺇﱃ ﺍﻷﻋﻠﻰ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻷﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻷﺳﻔﻞ‪ . (August ٢٠٠٦): ٣.‬‬ ‫‪(٢٠٠٣): ٣٢٩.‬ﻓﻘﺪ ﻭﺟﺪ ﻓﺮﺳﺮ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺮﺍﺭﻳﺔ ﰲ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﲤﺜﻞ ﻧﺼﻒ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺀﺓ‪ .‬ﺇﺫﻥ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺃﺳﻔﻞ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻋﻠـﻰ‬ ‫ﻟﻴﺴﺖ ﻛﺎﻓﻴﺔ ﰲ ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﺎﻟﺔ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﺭﺑﻄﻪ ﺑﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺃﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﱃ ﺃﺳﻔﻞ ﻓﻬﻲ ﺗﺮﻛﺰ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻏﺔ ﻟﻠﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﻌﲎ ﺑﺪﻻ ﻣﻦ ﻓﻚ ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻞ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﻮﻱ‪ ١٦.‬ﻓﻬﺎﺗﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺘﺎﻥ ﺗﺴﻬﻤﺎﻥ ﻛﺜﲑﺍ ﰲ ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﺳـﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻌﲎ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺟﺢ ﰲ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻴﻌﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺋﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﻓﻚ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺍﺕ ﻭﺣﺪﻩ ﻟـﻴﺲ ﻛﺎﻓﻴـﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻻﺳـﺘﻴﻌﺎﺏ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺋﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺀﺓ ﺳﺘﻜﻮﻥ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻓﻌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺱ ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﻓـﻮﻕ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺆﺩﻱ ﺇﱃ ﻣﺮﺍﻗﺒﺔ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻴﻌﺎﺏ‪. Patricia L.‬ﻭﺫﻫﺐ ﻏﻮﺩﻣﺎﻥ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻥ ﳕﻮﺫﺝ ﺃﺳﻔﻞ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﻮﺻـﻔﻪ‬ ‫"ﻓﻜﺮﺓ ﺍﳊﺲ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻴﻢ"‪ ١٥.‬‬ ‫‪١٨‬‬ ‫‪Susan Allen. “Reading Strategies Employed by ELT‬‬ ‫‪Leaners at the Advanced Level.” The Reading Matrix. ٤١. “The reading process” in Interactive approaches to second language reading. ٥. Arif Sarıçoban. Vol. Goodman. vol. ١ (April ٢٠٠٥): ١٢٥.‬‬ ‫‪١٦‬‬ ‫‪Kemalettin Yiğiter. ١٩٩٨): ١١. “An analytic comparison of three models of reading strategy instruction. Joanne Devine &David E.” The Asian EFL Journal.

‬ﻭﰲ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺒﲑﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﳌﻌﺎﱐ ﺍ‪‬ﺎﺯﻳﺔ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺀﺓ ﺃﺷـﺎﺭﻛﻮﺑﺮ‬ ‫ﺇﱃ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺣﺼﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﻣﺌﻮﻳﺔ ﲤﺜﻞ ﺭﺑﻊ ﻣﻘﺎﺭﻧﺔ ﺑﺎﻻﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ‪. and Nation. Vol. “Guessing The Meanings of Words From Context: Strategy And Techniques. Bangkok.‬ﰲ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻷﺣﻴﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﺗﻌﻄﻲ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﳌﻌﲎ ﻓـﺮﺹ ﳑﺎﺭﺳـﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺪﺍﺭﺱ ﰲ ﺍﲣﺎﺫ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺭ ﰲ ﻣﻔﺮﺩﺍﺕ ﱂ ﻳﺴﺘﻄﻴﻌﻮﺍ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺟﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﻨﺪﺋﺬ ﻟﻪ ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﻥ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺮﺟـﻮﻉ‬ ‫ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﻣﻴﺲ‪ ،‬ﻭﲡﺎﻫﻠﻬﺎ‪ ٢١. ٢١. Cooper.‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﺼـﺮﻓﻴﺔ‪،‬‬ ‫‪١٩‬‬ ‫”‪Carol A. Vol.‫ﺗﺸﲑ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺜﹸﻠﺚ ﻓﻘﻂ‪ .‬‬ ‫‪٢ (Summer ١٩٩٩): ٢٤٦.‬‬ ‫‪Studies in Second Language Acquisition. “Processing Idioms by L٢ Learners of English.‬ﻭﻗﺪ‬ ‫ﻭﺟﺪ ﺑﺮﻳﺒﻚ ﻭﻭﻳﺴﻪ ﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﺴـﺘﺨﺪﻣﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳـﻮﻥ ﰲ ﻣﻌﺎﳉـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﻫﻲ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺍﺕ ﺣﻴـﺚ ﺣﺼـﻞ ﻋﻠـﻰ ﻧﺴـﺒﺔ ﻋﺎﻟﻴـﺔ ﻣﻘﺎﺭﻧـﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻻﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ‪٢٠.” TESOL Quarterly.‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺣﺎﺯ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﺒﺎﻩ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﳌﻨﺨﻔﻀﺔ ﺟﺪﺍ‪ ١٩. ٣٣. Vol.‬‬ ‫‪٢٢‬‬ ‫ﺑﻨﺎﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺎ ﺳﺒﻖ‪ ،‬ﻇﻬﺮ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﳌﻌﲎ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﺳـﺘﺨﺪﺍﻣﺎ ﰲ ﺗﻌﻠـﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺍﺕ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺩﺍﺭﺳﻲ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻷﺟﻨﺒﻴﺔ‪ .‬‬ ‫‪(١٩٨٠): ٢١٧.‬ﺃﻭﺟﺪ ﺑﺮﻳﺒﻚ ﻭﻭﻳﺴﻪ ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺤﻮﻳﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺩﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﻗﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺋﻌﺔ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻣﺎ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﲔ‪ . System. “Reading and “Incidental” L٢ Vocabulary Acquisition: An Introspective Study‬‬ ‫‪of Lexical Inferencing. ٢٠٦.‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﻮﻓﺮ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﳌﻌﲎ ﺣﻔﻈﺎ ﻟﻠﻮﻗﺖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻘـﺎﺭﺉ ﺑـﺪﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﻣﻴﺲ ﻭﻳﺘﻴﺢ ﻟﻪ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺀﺓ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺇﻋﺎﻗﺔ‪ .‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺴﺎﺭ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻏﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻜﺮﺍﺭ‪ ،‬ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﳋﻠﻔﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ﻓﺤﺼﻠﺖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻗـﻞ ﺍﻟﻨﺴـﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺌﻮﻳﺔ‪.‬ﻭﻟﺬﺍ‪ ،‬ﻳ‪‬ﺸﺠﻊ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﻮﻥ ﻋﻠـﻰ ﺍﺳـﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﻣﻌـﺎﱐ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺍﺕ ﻏﲑ ﺍﳌﺄﻟﻮﻓﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﻮﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﻏﲑ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﻮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺴﺎﻋﺪﻫﻢ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻑ ﺍﻷﺩﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﻮﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﻕ‪ .‬‬ ‫‪٢١‬‬ ‫‪Clarke. Fraser.‬‬ ‫‪Language Institute.‬‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﳌﺜﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺣﺼﻞ ﲢﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺒﲑﺍﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻮﻇﻴﻒ ﺍﳌﻌﲎ ﺍﳊﺮﰲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺫﺍ‪‬ﺎ ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺒـﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﳋﻤﺲ‪ .‬ﻭﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﻳﻨﻤﻲ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳـﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﻛﻔﺎﺀ‪‬ﻢ ﰲ ﻣﻬﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺀﺓ‪ . (١٩٩٩): ٢٢٩. No. and English Language Institute Victoria University.‬‬ ‫‪٢٠‬‬ ‫‪Paribakht and Weshe.‬‬ ‫‪٢٢‬‬ ‫‪Thomas C.‬‬ ‫‪٢١‬‬ . ٨.‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﰒ‪ ،‬ﺃﺷﺎﺭﺕ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻗـﺎﻡ ‪‬ـﺎ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﻳﺒﻚ ﻭﻭﻳﺴﻪ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻥ ﻣﻌﻈﻢ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﲔ ﻳﺘﻨﻮﻋﻮﻥ ﰲ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ ﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﺍﻷﺩﻟـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﻗﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ﰲ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﻣﻌﲎ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺓ ﻏﲑ ﺍﳌﺄﻟﻮﻓﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﻕ‪ . Issue ٢. “Lexical Processing Strategy Use and Vocabulary Learning Through Reading.”.

٦‬ﻭﺣﺼـﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺘﻮﺳﻄﻮﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ ٢٤.‬‬ ‫‪Bengeleil and Paribakht.‬‬ ‫‪٢٥‬‬ ‫‪Kanatlar. “Reading and “Incidental” L٢ Vocabulary Acquisition.٥‬ﻭﺑﺎﻟﻌﻜﺲ ﻭﺟﺪ ﻛﻨﺘﻠﺮ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﲔ ﺍﳌﺒﺘـﺪﺋﲔ ﻳﺴـﺘﺨﺪﻣﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻘﺎﺭﻧﺔ ﺑﺎﳌﺘﻮﺳﻄﲔ ﰲ ﺗﻌﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻹﳒﻠﻴﺰﻳﺔ ﺭﻏﻢ ﺃﻥ ﻋﻨﺎﺻـﺮ ﺍﻻﺳـﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﻻ‬ ‫‪٢٥‬‬ ‫ﲣﺘﻠﻒ ﻛﺜﲑﺍ ﺑﲔ ﺍ‪‬ﻤﻮﻋﺘﲔ‪.‬ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﺎﻝ ﳌﻌﺎﱐ ﺍﳌﻔـﺮﺩﺍﺕ ﺳﺘﺴـﺎﻋﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﲔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﺮﺍﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﺺ ﺑﻄﻼﻗﺔ‪ ،‬ﺗﺴﻬﻞ ﳍﻢ ﺍﻟﻔﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﰲ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ‪ ،‬ﲡﻌﻠﻬﻢ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺗﻌﻠﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﺗﺸﻮﻳﻘﺎ‪ .‬‬ ‫‪٢٤‬‬ ‫‪٢٢‬‬ .‬‬ ‫‪٢٣‬‬ ‫‪Paribakht and Wesche.‬‬ ‫ﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﺍﻛﺘﺸﻔﺖ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ ﻋﻦ ﻣﺪﻯ ﳒﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳـﲔ ﺍﳌﺒﺘـﺪﺋﲔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﳌﺘﻘﺪﻣﲔ ﰲ ﳏﺎﻭﻟﺘﻬﻢ ﰲ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﻣﻌﺎﱐ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺍﺕ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﺺ‪ .‫ﻭﻋﻼﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻗﻴﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳـﻮﻥ‬ ‫‪٢٣‬‬ ‫ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﳌﻌﲎ‪. Sima Paribakht. “L٢ Reading Proficiency and Lexical Inferencing by University EFL‬‬ ‫‪Learners.‬ﻟﺬﺍ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺗﺪﺭﻳﺲ ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﺳـﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺿـﺮﻭﺭﺓ ﻟﻠﺪﺍﺭﺳـﲔ ﺑﻐﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﺸﺠﻴﻌﻬﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻢ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻘﻞ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺍﻋﺘﻤﺎﺩ ﻛﺒﲑ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻣﻮﺱ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻃﻠﺐ ﺍﻹﺟﺎﺑﺔ ﻣـﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺣﺜﻬﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻮﻇﻴﻒ ﺍﻷﺩﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﻗﻴﺔ ﺍﶈﻴﻄﺔ ﺑﺎﳌﻔﺮﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻬﺪﻓﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻼﺣﻈﺔ ﺃﳕﺎﻁ ﺍﳋﻄﺎﺏ ﳓﻮ ﺑﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﺎﺕ ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﻜﻠﻤﺎﺕ ﻏﲑ ﺍﳌﺄﻟﻮﻓـﺔ‬ ‫ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﻕ‪ .‬ﻭﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺃﺟﺮﺍﻫﺎ ﺑﻨﺠﻠﻴﻞ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﺑﺮﻳﺒﻜﺖ ﳑﺎ ﺃﺷﺎﺭﺕ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳌﺘﻘﺪﻣﲔ ﺣﺼﻠﻮﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﻣﺌﻮﻳﺔ ﺃﻋﻠﻰ ﰲ ﺍﺳـﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﻣﻌـﺎﱐ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺍﺕ ﻣﻘﺎﺭﻧﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺍﳌﺘﻮﺳﻄﲔ‪ ،‬ﺇﺫ ﺣﺼﻞ ﺍﳌﺘﻘـﺪﻣﻮﻥ ﻋﻠـﻰ ﻧﺴـﺒﺔ ‪ %٤٦. ٥.” ٤٣٥-٤٤٤.%٣٥. ٢٠١٠). Lexical Inferencing in First and Second Language‬‬ ‫‪(Multilingual Matters: British. “Guessing-Words-In-Context Strategies Used by Beginning and Upper-Intermediate Level‬‬ ‫‪EFL Students.‬‬ ‫‪٢٦‬‬ ‫‪Marjorie Bingham Wesche and T. ٢٤٣.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻻ ﺷﻚ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺍﺕ ﺑﻮﺻﻔﻬﺎ ﺃﺩﺍﺓ ﻣﻬﻤﺔ ﳌﻦ ﻳـﺪﺭﺱ ﺍﻟﻠﻐـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻧﺎﲨﺔ ﻋﻦ ﻣﺼﺎﺩﻓﺔ ﻋﺪﺩ ﻛﺒﲑ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺍﺕ ﻏﲑ ﺍﳌﺄﻟﻮﻓﺔ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺀﺓ ﻣﻘﺎﺭﻧـﺔ ﺑﻘـﺮﺍﺀﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﰲ ﻟﻐﺘﻬﻢ ﺍﻷﻡ‪ .‬ﻓﺒﺎﻹﻣﻜﺎﻥ ﺗﻮﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﲔ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺴـﺎﻋﺪﻫﻢ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﻣﻬﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻛﺘﺴﺎﺏ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪﺓ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﳍﺪﻑ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺲ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻘـﺎﺭﺉ‬ ‫ﻫﻮ ﳏﺎﻭﻟﺔ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﻣﻌﲎ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺓ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻬﺪﻓﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈ‪‬ﺎ ﺳﺘﻌﻴﻨﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻓﻬﻢ ﺍﻟﻨﺺ ﻛﻠﻴﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﺴﺎﻋﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫‪٢٦‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻑ ﺇﱃ ﻣﻌﲎ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺓ ﻏﲑ ﺍﳌﺄﻟﻮﻓﺔ ﻭﻗﺪ ﺗﺴﻬﻢ ﰲ ﺗﺬﻛﺮ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺓ‪.” ٢١٠-٢١١.

‬ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺱ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ‬ ‫ﳝﺘﻠﻚ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ ﻭﺧﱪﺍﺕ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﺃﻗﺪﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﳌﻌﲎ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﺭﻏﻢ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ‬ ‫‪٢٧‬‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ‪.‬ﻭﺃﻣﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ ﻓﻬﻲ ﺗﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﺑﺘﻄﺒﻴﻖ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ ﰲ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﻣﻌﲎ ﻣﻔﺮﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻬﺪﻓﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻳﻘﺼﺪ ﻛﺮﺗﻦ ﺑﺎﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻬﺪﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﳌﻌﲎ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﻟﺪﺍﺭﺱ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﻬﺎ ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺓ ﻋﻤﻦ ﳝﺘﻠﻚ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻬﺪﻓﺔ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﺐ ﺃﻥ ﻣﻌﻈﻢ ﺩﺍﺭﺳﻲ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﻳﻌﺘﻤﺪﻭﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﻋﺪ ﺍﻟﺼﺮﻓﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻷﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻨﺤﻮﻳﺔ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻛﺘﺸﺎﻑ ﺍﳌﻌﲎ ﺍﳌﻘﺼﻮﺩ‪ .‬‬ ‫‪٢٣‬‬ .‬‬ ‫ﰒ ﺟﺎﺀ ﺗﺼﻨﻴﻒ ﺁﺧﺮ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﺩﻗﺔ ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﺎ ﺻﻤﻤﻪ ﻫﺎﺳﺘﺮﺏ ﺳﻨﺔ ﺣﻴﺚ ﻳﺒﲏ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻨﻴﻒ‬ ‫ﳓﻮ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﳕﺮﻛﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻛﺘﺸﻒ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺃﳕﺎﻁ ﺍﳌﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﺔ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﻣﻌﲎ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺓ ﺗﺒﻌﺎ ﳌﺴﺘﻮﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﻔﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﻮﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻨﻴﻒ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﺤﻮ ﺍﻵﰐ‪:‬‬ ‫‪٢٧‬‬ ‫‪See: Carton. ٥٠-٥٥.‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﳌﺜﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﺇﱃ ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﺸﺎ‪‬ﺔ ﺑﲔ ﻣﻔﺮﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺘﲔ )ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ ﻭﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻬﺪﻓﺔ( ﻣﻦ ﻧﺎﺣﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻞ ﻭﺍﻟﺼﻮﺕ‪.” in The Psychology of Second‬‬ ‫‪Language Learning.‬‬ ‫ﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﳌﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﻏﲑ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﻮﻳﺔ ﻓﻬﻲ ﺗﺸﺘﻤﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﺩﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﻗﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﻴﺔ‪ . “Inferencing: A Process in Using and Learning Language.‫ﺍﳌﺒﺤﺚ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ‪ :‬ﺗﺼﻨﻴﻔﺎﺕ ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﻕ‬ ‫ﻇﻬﺮﺕ ﺃﻭﻝ ﳏﺎﻭﻟﺔ ﻋﻠﻤﻴﺔ ﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﻕ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺒﻞ ﻛﺮﺗﻦ ﺣﻴﺚ‬ ‫ﺍﻗﺘﺮﺡ ﺃﻭﻝ ﺗﺼﻨﻴﻒ ﻻﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﻕ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﻮﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﺩﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﻗﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺴﺎﻋﺪ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﲔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻛﺘﺴﺎﺏ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﻮﻳﺔ ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺸﻤﻞ ﺗﺼﻨﻴﻔﻪ ﺛﻼﺛﺔ ﻣﺼﺎﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺭﺋﻴﺴﺔ‪ :‬ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻭﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻬﺪﻓﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ ﻭﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﳌﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﻏﲑ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﻮﻳﺔ‪ .

” in Introspection in Second Language Research.٣‬ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺍﺕ‬ ‫‪ . edited by Claus Faerch and Gabriele‬‬ ‫‪Kasper.٥‬ﺍﻟﺪﻻﻟﺔ‬ ‫‪ .٢‬ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﻕ ﺍﳌﺒﺎﺷﺮ‬ ‫‪ ..٤‬ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ‪ . Knowledge Sources.‬‬ ‫‪٢٤‬‬ . (England: Multilingual Matters Ltd.‫ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﻗﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ‬ ‫‪‬ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﳕﺮﻳﻜﻴﺔ‬ ‫‪‬ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺓ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻬﺪﻓﺔ‬ ‫‪‬ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﻗﻴﺔ‬ ‫‪ .٤‬ﺍﳌﺼﺎﺣﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﻔﻈﻴﺔ‬ ‫‪ . and Their‬‬ ‫‪Relationship With Success in L٢ Lexical Inferencing.‬‬ ‫ﰒ ﺗﻄﻮﺭ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻨﻴﻒ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻳﺪ ﻧﺴﺎﺟﻲ ﻋﺎﻡ ﺣﻴﺚ ﻳﺸﺘﻤﻞ ﺗﺼﻨﻴﻔﻪ ﻋﻠـﻰ ﺍﳌﺼـﺎﺩﺭ‬ ‫‪٢٩‬‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻻﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺎﺕ ﻣﻌ‪‬ﺎ ﺑﺎﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭﳘﺎ ﻋﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﺃﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﻣﻌـﺎﱐ ﺍﳌﻔـﺮﺩﺍﺕ‪..٣‬ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺍﺕ‬ ‫ ﺍﻻﺷﺘﻘﺎﻕ‬‫‪ . ١٩٩.“Using Thinking Aloud and Retrospection to Uncover Learners Lexical Inferencing‬‬ ‫‪Procedures.٢‬ﺍﻟﺼﺮﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫‪ .‬‬ ‫‪٢٩‬‬ ‫‪Nassaji.” ٦٥٦-٦٥٧.١‬ﺍﻧﻌﻜﺎﺱ ﻋﺎﻣﺔ‬ ‫‪ .٤‬ﺍﻟﺪﻻﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻞ ‪ :١‬ﺗﺼﻨﻴﻒ ﻫﺎﺳﺘﺮﺏ ﻟﻠﻤﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫‪٢٨‬‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻼﺣﻆ‪ ،‬ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻫﺎﺳﺘﺮﺏ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻨﻴﻒ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺻﻤﻤﻪ ﻛﺮﺗﻦ ﺑﻮﺻﻔﻪ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻨﻈـﺮﻱ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺘﻪ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﻓﻴﻪ‪.٤‬ﻧﻮﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻬﺪﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻧﺴﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﳌﺎﻧﻴﺔ‪(.٥‬ﺍﳌﺼﺎﺣﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﻔﻈﻴﺔ‬ ‫‪ .١‬ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺭﺩﺓ ﰲ‬ ‫‪ .٢‬ﺍﳌﻮﺭﻓﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﻕ‬ ‫‪ .١‬ﺍﻟﻔﻮﻧﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺎ )ﺍﻷﺻﻮﺍﺕ( ‪ .٦‬ﺍﻟﺪﻻﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﻕ‬ ‫ ﺃﺻﻞ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺓ‬‫‪‬ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺓ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ‬ ‫‪‬ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﻨﺤﻮﻳﺔ‬ ‫ ﲡﺮﻳﺐ ﺗﻠﻔﻆ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺓ‬‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻬﺪﻓﺔ‬ ‫‪ .‬‬ ‫‪ .٢‬ﺍﳌﻮﺭﻓﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺎ‬ ‫‪ . ١٩٨٧).١‬ﺍﻟﻔﻮﻧﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺎ )ﺍﻷﺻﻮﺍﺕ(‬ ‫‪ .‬‬ ‫‪٢٨‬‬ ‫‪Hasstrup.٣‬ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺟﺰﺀ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ ‪ -‬ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺍﺋﺪ‬ ‫‪ . “L٢ Vocabulary Learning From Context: Strategies.٣‬ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺸﺘﻤﻞ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺓ‬ ‫‪‬ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ )ﺍﻹﺳﺒﺎﻧﻴﺔ‪،‬‬ ‫‪ .

‬ﻳﺘﻀﻤﻦ ﺃﻭﻻ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺮﺍﺭ ﺣﻴﺚ ﰎ ﺑﺘﻜﺮﺍﺭ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺓ ﺃﻭ ﺃﺟﺰﺍﺀ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳉﻤﻠـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﱵ ﲢﺘﻮﻱ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺓ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻬﺪﻓﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﺫﻫﺐ ﻧﺴﺎﺟﻲ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺤﻮﻳﺔ ﺗﺸـﲑ ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺃﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﻧﻈﻢ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺎﺕ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﻨﺤﻮﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺒﻴﺔ ﺑﲔ ﻣﻜﻮﻧـﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﳉﻤﻞ ﻭﻏﲑﻫﺎ‪ .‬‬ ‫‪See: Ibid. ٦٥٥.‬‬ ‫‪٢٥‬‬ ‫‪٣٠‬‬ .‬‬ ‫ﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺎﺕ ﻓﻬﻲ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﻣﻌﺮﻓﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻋﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﳎﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻧﺸﻄﺔ ﻓﻮﻕ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﻮﻥ ﻟﻜﺴﺐ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﻄﺮﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﺺ ﺍﳌﻘﺮﻭﺀ ﺃﻭ ﻻﺳﺘﻴﻌﺎﺏ ﺍﳌﺸﻜﻼﺕ ﺍﻟـﱵ‬ ‫ﻳﺼﺎﺩﻓﻬﺎ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺀﺓ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺗﻮﻇﻴﻒ ﺍﳌﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﻴﺔ‪ .‬‬ ‫ﺧﺎﻣﺴﺎ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻠﻴﻞ‪ ..‬ﺛﺎﻟﺜﺎ‪ ،‬ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻔﺴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﰐ‪ .‬ﺣﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﺭﺃﻯ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﲔ ﻳﻜﺘﺸﻔﻮﻥ ﻣﻌﺎﱐ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺍﺕ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺗﺮﲨﺔ ﺍﳉﻤﻞ ﺍﻟـﱵ‬ ‫ﺗﺸﺘﻤﻞ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺓ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻬﺪﻓﺔ ﻓﻮﺭﻳﺎ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻷﻡ‪.‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﰒ‪ ،‬ﺃﺿﺎﻑ ﻧﺴﺎﺟﻲ ﰲ ﻗﺴﻢ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ ﻋﻨﺼﺮ‪‬ﺍ ﺟﺪﻳﺪ‪‬ﺍ ﻭﻫﻮ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﲨﺔ‪ .‬ﺭﺍﺑﻌﺎ‪ ،‬ﺍﳌﺮﺍﻗﺒﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﲜﺎﻧﺐ ﺫﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﲢﻴﻞ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﻴﺔ ﺇﱃ ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺳﺎﺑﻘﺔ ﻋـﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﻨﺺ‪ .‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺑﺎﻻﺳﺘﻔﺴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟـﺬﺍﰐ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ ﻣﺪﻯ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺟﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻔﺘﺮﺿﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﻕ‪ .‬ﻓﺎﳌﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﻴﺔ ﻫـﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻭﻇﻔﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﻮﻥ ﻟﻠﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﻟﻸﻓﻜﺎﺭ ﺍﳌﻘـﺮﻭﺀﺓ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﺗﺄﰐ ﺍﳌﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﲬﺴﺔ ﺃﻧﻮﺍﻉ‪ :‬ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺤﻮﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﺮﻓﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﻴﺔ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﳋﻄﺎﺏ‪ .‬ﲝﻴﺚ ﰎ ﺑﺘﺤﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺓ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻬﺪﻓﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺃﺟﺰﺍﺋﻬﺎ ﺣﱴ ﻳﻌﺮﻑ ﻣﻌﻨﺎﻫﺎ ﺍﻷﺻﻞ‪.‬ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺎ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻘﻖ‪ .‬ﻭﻳﻘﺼﺪ ﺑﺎﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﺮﻓﻴﺔ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﲟﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺑﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺗﺄﻟﻴﻒ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﻭﺗﺼﺮﻳﻔﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻐﻴﲑﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﺮﻓﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻳﻘﺼﺪ ‪‬ـﺎ ﺇﻇﻬـﺎﺭ‬ ‫‪٣٠‬‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺣﺴﺎﺱ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻌﻮﺑﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺴﻬﻮﻟﺔ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺗﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﲔ ﺑﺎﻷﺩﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﻗﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﰲ ﺍﻟـﻨﺺ‪.‬ﻭﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﺭﺃﻯ ﺃ‪‬ﺎ ﲤﺜﻞ ﺍﻹﺟـﺮﺍﺀﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﻘﻴﻘﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﺘﺨﺬﻫﺎ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﻮﻥ ﰲ ﺍﺳﺘﻴﻌﺎﺏ ﺍﳌﺸﻜﻼﺕ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺗﻌﺎﻣﻠﻬﻢ ﺑـﺎﻟﻨﺺ‪ ،‬ﻭﺻـﻴﺎﻏﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺟﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺧﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﻣﻌﺎﻧﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﳌﻔﺘﺮﺿﺔ‪ .‫ﻭﺍﳊﻘﻴﻘﺔ ﺃﻥ ﻧﺴﺎﺟﻲ ﻗﺪ ﺗﺄﺛﺮ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﻤﻮﺫﺝ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﰲ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻃﻮﺭﻩ ﻫﺴﻜﻦ ﻭﺑﻠﻮﻙ ﰲ ﺿـﻮﺀ ﺗﻌﻠـﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺍﺕ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﻕ‪ ،‬ﻓﻔﺮﻕ ﺑﲔ ﺍﳌﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻻﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺎﺕ‪ .‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﳋﻄﺎﺏ ﻓﺘﺸﲑ ﺇﱃ ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﻋﻼﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺍﺑﻂ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﺺ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻻﻧﺴـﺠﺎﻡ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻨﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻳﻌﲏ ﺑﻪ ﲢﻘﻖ ﻣﺪﻯ ﺗﻨﺎﺳـﺐ ﻣﻌـﲎ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺓ ﺍﳌﻔﺘﺮﺽ ﰲ ﻧﻄﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﻕ ﺍﻷﻭﺳﻊ‪ .‬ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺎﺕ ﱂ ﺗﻜﻦ ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﰲ ﺗﺼﻨﻴﻒ‬ ‫ﻫﺎﺳﺘﺮﺏ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻖ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﻗﺴﻢ ﺟﺪﻳﺪ ﰲ ﳎﺎﻝ ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺑﻮﺻﻔﻬﺎ ﻋﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﻣﻬﻤـﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ‪ .

.‫ﺃﺧﲑﺍ‪ ،‬ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍ‪‬ﺎﻧﺴﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﻔﻈﻴﺔ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﻣﻌﲎ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺓ ﺑﻨﺎﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺎﺑﻪ ﺑﲔ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻬﺪﻓﺔ ﺑﺎﳌﻔﺮﺩﺓ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ﻣﻦ ﻧﺎﺣﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺕ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻞ‪٣١. Knowledge Sources.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻳﺒﺤﺚ ﻧﺴﺎﺟﻲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﰲ ﻣﺪﻯ ﳒﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﲔ ﰲ ﺍﳊﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻌﺎﱐ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤـﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺤﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻮﺻﻠﺖ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻥ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﺗﺴﻬﻢ ﰲ ﲢﻘﻴـﻖ ﺍﻻﺳـﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺟﺢ ﺑﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﳐﺘﻠﻔﺔ‪ . ٦٦٠. “L٢ Vocabulary Learning From Context: Strategies.‬ﻭﺗﻮﺍﻓﻖ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺜﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳌﺼﺎﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﻴﺔ ﲣﺘﻠﻒ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺎﺕ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺇﻥ ﺍﳌﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﻴﺔ ﻫﻲ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﻮﻳﺔ ﻭﻏـﲑ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻠﻐﻮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﳝﺘﻠﻜﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﻮﻥ ﰲ ﺍﺳﺘﻴﻌﺎﺏ ﺍﳌﺸﻜﻼﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﻮﺍﺟﻬﻮﻫﺎ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻘـﺮﺍﺀﺓ‪ .‬‬ ‫‪٣٢‬‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫‪ -١‬ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺤﻮﻳﺔ‬ ‫‪ -٢‬ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﺮﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫‪ -٣‬ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﻴﺔ‬ ‫‪ -٤‬ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ‬ ‫‪ -٥‬ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﳋﻄﺎﺏ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫‪ -١‬ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺮﺍﺭ‬ ‫‪‬ﺗﻜﺮﺍﺭ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺓ‬ ‫‪‬ﺗﻜﺮﺍﺭ ﺃﺟﺰﺍﺀ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ‬ ‫‪ -٢‬ﺍ‪‬ﺎﻧﺴﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﻔﻈﻴﺔ‬ ‫‪٣١‬‬ ‫‪Nassaji. and Their‬‬ ‫‪Relationship With Success in L٢ Lexical Inferencing.” ٦٥٧.‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﰒ‪ ،‬ﺃﻛﺪ ﻧﺴﺎﺟﻲ ﺃﻥ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﻋﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﻣﺆﺛﺮﺓ ﰲ ﺍﺳـﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﳌﻌـﲎ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﺍﻋﺘﻤﺎﺩﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻛﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﻣﻘﺎﺭﻧﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﺇﱃ ﻣـﺪﻯ ﺗﻜـﺮﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﻇﻴﻔﻬﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫‪٣٢‬‬ ‫‪See: Ibid.‬ﺃﻣـﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺎﺕ ﻓﻬﻲ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﻟﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﺘﺨﺬﻫﺎ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﻮﻥ ﰲ ﻓﻬﻢ ﻣﻀﻤﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺺ ﺍﳌﻘﺮﻭﺀ‬ ‫ﳓﻮ ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﻷﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺍﳌﺮﺟﻮﺓ‪.‬‬ ‫‪٢٦‬‬ .

‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﻣﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ ﻓﺘﺘﻔـﺮﻉ ﺇﱃ ﻣﻌﺮﻓـﺔ ﺍﳌﻔـﺮﺩﺓ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﳌﺼﺎﺣﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﻔﻈﻴﺔ‪ .” ٢٣٠. and Their‬‬ ‫‪Relationship With Success in L٢ Lexical Inferencing. Knowledge Sources.” ٦٥٥.‬‬ ‫‪٣٣‬‬ ‫‪Nassaji.” ٢٣١‬‬ ‫‪٣٥‬‬ ‫‪Bengeleil and Paribakht.‬ﺃﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﻧﺴﺎﺟﻲ ﻓﺄﺩﺧﻞ ﺍ‪‬ﺎﻧﺴﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﻔﻈﻴﺔ ﰲ ﻗﺴﻢ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﳝﺘﻠﻜﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﻮﻥ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ‪ .‬‬ ‫‪٢٧‬‬ . “L٢ Reading Proficiency and Lexical Inferencing by University EFL‬‬ ‫‪Learners.‬ﻓﺼﺎﺭ ﻳﺸﻤﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺼﺪﺭﻳﻦ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﻴﲔ‪ :‬ﺍﳌﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﻮﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳌﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﻏﲑ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﻮﻳﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻳﺘﻀﻤﻦ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ ﻣﻌﲎ ﺍﳉﻤﻠـﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺳـﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗـﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺒﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻻﺳﺘﺒﺪﺍﻟﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺤﻮﻳﺔ‪ .‬ﻓﻔﻲ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺓ ﺭﻛﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺜﺎﻥ ﻋﻠـﻰ ﺗﻮﻇﻴـﻒ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﺮﻓﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍ‪‬ﺎﻧﺴﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﻔﻈﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺭﺑﻂ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺓ ﺑﺎﳌﻔﺮﺩﺓ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻭﻓﺔ ﺍﻷﺧـﺮﻯ‪ . “L٢ Vocabulary Learning From Context: Strategies.‫‪-٣‬ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻘﻖ‬ ‫‪-٤‬ﺍﳌﺮﺍﻗﺒﺔ‬ ‫‪-٥‬ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻔﺴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﰐ‬ ‫‪-٦‬ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻠﻴﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻞ ‪ :٢‬ﳕﻮﺫﺝ ﺍﳌﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻻﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺎﺕ ﻟﻠﻨﺴﺎﺟﻲ‬ ‫‪٣٣‬‬ ‫ﰒ ﻗﺎﻡ ﺑﻨﺠﻠﻴﻞ ﻭﺑﺮﻳﺒﻚ ﺑﺘﻄﻮﻳﺮ ﺗﺼﻨﻴﻒ ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﻗﻲ‪ .‬ﺑﺎﻹﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺩﻗﹼﻖ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺜﺎﻥ ﰲ‬ ‫‪٣٤‬‬ ‫ﻗﺴﻢ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺣﻴﺚ ﻗﺴﻤﺎﻩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺛﻼﺛﺔ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻳﺎﺕ ﺭﺋﻴﺴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻲ‪ :‬ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺓ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﳋﻄﺎﺏ‪ .‬‬ ‫‪٣٤‬‬ ‫‪Bengeleil and Paribakht.‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﳌﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﻏﲑ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﻮﻳﺔ ﻓﺘﺸﲑ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﻨﺺ ﻭﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﳌﺼﻄﻠﺤﺎﺕ ﺍﳋﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺺ‪ . “L٢ Reading Proficiency and Lexical Inferencing by University EFL‬‬ ‫‪Learners.‬ﻓﺎﳌﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﻮﻳـﺔ ﺗﺸـﲑ ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ‪ .‬ﻗﺪ ﺍﻛﺘﺸﻒ ﺑﻨﺠﻠﻴﻞ ﻭﺑﺮﻳﺒﻚ ﺃﻥ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﲔ ﺍﳌﺘﻮﺳـﻄﲔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﳌﺘﻘﺪﻣﲔ ﻟﻸﺩﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﻗﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﳌﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﻴﺔ ﻣﺘﺴﺎﻭﹴ ﰲ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﻣﻌﺎﱐ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺍﺕ ﺇﻻ ﰲ ﺣﺎﻟـﺔ‬ ‫‪٣٥‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ ﻓﻘﻂ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺍﻋﺘﻤﺪ ﺍﳌﺘﻮﺳﻄﻮﻥ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺭﺑﻂ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺓ ﻣﻘﺎﺭﻧﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﲔ ﺍﳌﺘﻘﺪﻣﲔ‪.‬ﻭﳛﺘﻮﻱ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﳋﻄﺎﺏ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻌﲎ ﺍﳋﻄﺎﺏ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳌﺨﻄـﻂ ﺍﳋﻄـﺎﰊ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﻣﻌﲎ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﻕ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺃﺿﺎﻑ ﺑﻨﺠﻠﻴﻞ ﻭﺑﺮﻳﺒﻚ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻋﻨﺼـﺮ‪‬ﺍ ﺟﺪﻳـﺪ‪‬ﺍ ﻭﻫـﻮ‬ ‫ﻋﻼﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻗﻴﻢ‪ .‬ﻭﻻﺣﻈـﺖ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺜﺔ ﺃ‪‬ﻤﺎ ﻗﺎﻣﺎ ﺑﺒﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺪﻳﻼﺕ ﺣﻴﺚ ﻭﺿﻌﺎ ﺍ‪‬ﺎﻧﺴﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﻔﻈﻴﺔ ﺿﻤﻦ ﺍﳌﺼﺪﺭ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﰲ‪ .

‫‪‬ﺍﳌﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﻮﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺃ‪ -‬ﻣﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ‬ ‫‪ -١‬ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺓ‬ ‫‪‬ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﺮﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫‪‬ﺍ‪‬ﺎﻧﺴﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﻔﻈﻴﺔ‬ ‫‪‬ﺭﺑﻂ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺓ‬ ‫‪ -٢‬ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ‬ ‫‪‬ﻣﻌﲎ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ‬ ‫‪‬ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺒﻴﺔ‬ ‫‪‬ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺒﺪﺍﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫‪ ‬ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺤﻮﻳﺔ‬ ‫‪‬ﻋﻼﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻗﻴﻢ‬ ‫‪ -٣‬ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﳋﻄﺎﺏ‬ ‫‪‬ﻣﻌﲎ ﺍﳋﻄﺎﺏ‬ ‫‪‬ﺍﳌﺨﻄﻂ ﺍﳋﻄﺎﰊ‬ ‫ﺏ‪ -‬ﻣﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ ‪ /‬ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻷﻡ‬ ‫‪-١‬ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺓ‬ ‫‪ -٢‬ﺍﳌﺼﺎﺣﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﻔﻈﻴﺔ‬ ‫‪‬ﺍﳌﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﻏﲑ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﻮﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺃ‪ -‬ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﻴﺔ ﻋﻦ ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﻨﺺ‬ ‫ﺏ‪ -‬ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﳌﺼﻄﻠﺤﺎﺕ ﺍﳋﺎﺻﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻞ ‪ :٣‬ﳕﻮﺫﺝ ﺗﺼﻨﻴﻒ ﺍﳌﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﻴﺔ ﻟﺒﻨﺠﻠﻴﻞ ﻭﺑﺮﻳﺒﻚ‬ ‫‪٢٨‬‬ .

‫ﺑﻨﺎﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺎ ﺳﺒﻖ‪ ،‬ﻻﺣﻈﺖ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺜﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻨﻴﻔﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺛﺔ ﺍﻟﺴـﺎﺑﻘﺔ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺼـﻨﻴﻒ‬ ‫ﻧﺴﺎﺟﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﺼﻨﻴﻒ ﺑﻨﺠﻠﻴﻞ ﻭﺑﺮﻳﺒﻚ ﺃﺩﻕ ﻭﺃﻧﺴﺐ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻣﻬﻤﺎ ﺑﻮﺻـﻔﻬﻤﺎ ﺍﻹﻃـﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ ﳍﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﺭﺃﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺜﺔ ﺃﻧﻜﻼ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻨﻴﻔﲔ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﲔ ﻳﻐﻄﻲ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺳﻔﻞ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻷﻋﻠﻰ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻷﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻷﺳﻔﻞ ﰲ ﳏﺎﻭﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﲔ ﻻﺳﺘﻴﻌﺎﺏ ﺍﻟـﻨﺺ ﺍﳌﻘـﺮﻭﺀ‪.‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﺮﲨﺔ ﺗﻀﻌﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺜﺔ ﰲ ﻗﺴﻢ ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ ﺍﻋﺘﻤﺎﺩﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺎ ﻗﺎﻡ ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﻧﺴﺎﺟﻲ‪ .‬‬ ‫ﻭﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﺗﻮﻇﻴﻒ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺎﺕ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﻟﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﻮﻥ ﻻﺳﺘﻴﻌﺎﺏ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺸﻜﻼﺕ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺀﺓ‪.‬ﻭﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﺗﻘﺘﻨﻊ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺜﺔ ﺑﺎﻧﻀﻤﺎﻡ ﺍ‪‬ﺎﻧﺴﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﻔﻈﻴﺔ ﰲ ﻗﺴﻢ ﺍﳌﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﻮﻳﺔ ﺑﺪﻻ ﻣـﻦ‬ ‫ﻗﺴﻢ ﺍﻻﺳﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺎﺕ ﻛﻤﺎ ﰲ ﺗﺼﻨﻴﻒ ﻧﺴﺎﺟﻲ‪.‬ﻭﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﻟﻘﺴﻢ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ ﻓﻬﻮ ﺧﺎﺹ ﻟﻼﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﺘﺔ‪ .‬‬ ‫ﻭﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ ﻋﺮﺽ ﻛﺎﻣﻞ ﻟﻺﻃﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮﻱ ﳍﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﻪ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺜـﺔ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻛﺘﺸﺎﻑ ﺍﳌﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻻﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺩﺍﺭﺳﻲ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﺎﱐ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺃ‪ -‬ﺍﳌﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﻮﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺓ‬ ‫ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﺮﻓﻴﺔ‬‫ ﺍ‪‬ﺎﻧﺴﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﻔﻈﻴﺔ‬‫ ﺭﺑﻂ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺓ‬‫ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﲎ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ‬‫‪٢٩‬‬ .‬‬ ‫ﻭﻟﺬﺍ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻣﺖ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺜﺔ ﺑﺘﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻨﻴﻔﲔ ﻣﻦ ﻧﺴﺎﺟﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﻨﺠﻠﻴﻞ ﻭﺑﺮﻳﺒﻚ ﺇﺫ ﺳﺘﻌﺘﻤﺪ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻘﺎﻡ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﺼﻨﻴﻒ ﺑﻨﺠﻠﻴﻞ ﻭﺑﺮﻳﺒﻚ ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﻣﻊ ﺇﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻘﺘﺮﺣﺔ ﻋﻨـﺪ‬ ‫ﻧﺴﺎﺟﻲ‪ .‬ﻭﺳﻮﻑ ﳛﺘﻮﻱ ﺍﻟﻘﺴﻢ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺘﻀـﻤﻦ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ‪ .

See also.” ٦٥٦-٦٥٧. “L٢ Vocabulary Learning From Context: Strategies. Knowledge‬‬ ‫‪Sources.” ٢٣١-٢٣٥. “L٢ Reading Proficiency and Lexical Inferencing by University EFL‬‬ ‫‪Learners. and Their Relationship With Success in L٢ Lexical Inferencing. Nassaji.‬‬ ‫‪٣٠‬‬ .‫ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺒﻴﺔ‬‫ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺒﺪﺍﻟﻴﺔ‬‫ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺤﻮﻳﺔ‬‫ ﻋﻼﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻗﻴﻢ‬‫ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﳋﻄﺎﺏ‬ ‫ ﻣﻌﲎ ﺍﳋﻄﺎﺏ‬‫ ﺍﳌﺨﻄﻂ ﺍﳋﻄﺎﰊ‬‫ﻣﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ‬ ‫ ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺓ‬‫ ﺍﳌﺼﺎﺣﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﻔﻈﻴﺔ‬‫ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﲨﺔ‬‫ﺏ‪ -‬ﺍﳌﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﻏﲑ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﻮﻳﺔ‬ ‫ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﻴﺔ‬‫‪ -‬ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﳌﺼﻄﻠﺤﺎﺕ ﺍﳋﺎﺻﺔ‬ ‫ﺝ‪ -‬ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺮﺍﺭ‬‫ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻘﻖ‬‫ ﺍﳌﺮﺍﻗﺒﺔ‬‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻔﺴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﰐ‬‫‪ -‬ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻠﻴﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻞ ‪ :٤‬ﺗﺼﻨﻴﻒ ﺍﳌﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻻﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺎﺕ ﳍﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ ﺗﻔﺎﺻﻴﻞ ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﻛﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻻﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ‪:‬‬ ‫‪٣٦‬‬ ‫‪٣٦‬‬ ‫‪Bengeleil and Paribakht.

‬‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺤﻮﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺃﺟﺰﺍﺀ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺤﻮﻳـﺔ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺓ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻬﺪﻓﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍ‪‬ﺎﻧﺴﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﻔﻈﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﳑﺎﺛﻠﺔ ﻟﻔﻈﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺗﺸﺎﺑﻪ ﺍﻟﺮﻣﻮﺯ ﺍﻹﻣﻼﺋﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﲔ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺓ ﺍﳌﺴـﺘﻬﺪﻓﺔ ﻭﺍﳌﻔـﺮﺩﺓ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻭﻓـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺼﺎﺣﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﻔﻈﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻼﺣﻈﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺃﺳﺎﻟﻴﺐ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻠﻐـﺔ‬ ‫‪٣١‬‬ .‬‬ ‫ﻣﻌﲎ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻣﻌﲎ ﻋﺎﻡ ﻟﻠﺠﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﳌﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺸﺘﻤﻞ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺓ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻬﺪﻓﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻋﻼﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻗﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﻋﻼﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻗﻴﻢ ﰲ ﺍﺳـﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻌﲎ ﻣﺜﻞ‪.‫ﺍﳌﻔﻬﻮﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﺮﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺃﺻﻞ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻻﺷﺘﻘﺎﻕ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺒﺪﺍﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺓ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻭﻓﺔ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ﺍﻟﱵ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﲢﻞ ﳏﻞ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺓ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻬﺪﻓﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﻕ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺭﺑﻂ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺭﺑﻂ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺓ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻬﺪﻓﺔ ﺑﺎﳌﻔﺮﺩﺓ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﻣﻔﺮﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻷﻡ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺸـﻤﻞ‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺾ ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﻣﺴﺘﻌﺎﺭﺓ ﻣـﻦ ﻧﺎﺣﻴـﺔ ﺷـﻜﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺩﻻﻟﻴﺔ ﺑﺎﳌﻔﺮﺩﺓ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﳍﺪﻑ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺒﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺓ ﺃﻭ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺗﲔ ﺍﶈﻴﻄﺔ ﺑﻪ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻬﺪﻓﺔ ﳑﺎ ﳍﺎ ﻋﻼﻗﺔ ‪‬ﺎ‪." " ،/ / ، :‬‬ ‫ﻣﻌﲎ ﺍﳋﻄﺎﺏ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﻋﺎﻡ ﻟﻠﺠﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﳌﻌﻴﻨﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﺮﺓ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻨﺺ ﻛﻠﻪ ﰲ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺓ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻬﺪﻓﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺨﻄﻂ ﺍﳋﻄﺎﰊ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺗﺮﺍﻛﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﻨﺺ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻧﻮﺍﻋـﻪ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳـﻒ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﳌﻘﺎﺭﻧﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺒﺒﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺄﺛﲑﻳﺔ‪.

‬‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻌﺮﻓـﺔ ﺳـﺎﺑﻘﺔ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﻋﻦ ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﻨﺺ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﲨﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﺮﲨﺔ ﺃﺟﺰﺍﺀ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺓ ﰲ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﳌﻼﻳﻮﻳـﺔ ﻟﻔﻬـﻢ ﺍﻟـﻨﺺ ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺓ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻬﺪﻓﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻠﻴﻞ‬ ‫ﳏﺎﻭﻟﺔ ﺍﻛﺘﺸﺎﻑ ﻣﻌﲎ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﲢﻠﻴﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺓ ﺇﱃ ﺃﺟﺰﺍﺀﻫﺎ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺮﻛﺒﺎ‪‬ﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻘﻖ‬ ‫ﲢﻘﻖ ﻣﺪﻯ ﻣﻼﺀﻣﺔ ﺍﳌﻌﲎ ﺍﳌﺎﻓﺘﺮﺽ ﻣﻦ ﺧـﻼﻝ‬ ‫ﻣﺮﺍﻗﺒﺘﻪ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﻕ ﺍﻷﻭﺳﻊ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺮﺍﻗﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﻋﻲ ﺑﺄﺑﻌﺎﺩ ﺍﳌﺸﻜﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﺼﺎﺩﻓﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺱ ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﻋﻲ ﺑﺼﻌﻮﺑﺔ ﺍﳌﻬﻤﺔ‪..‬‬ ‫‪٣٢‬‬ .‬‬ ‫ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﳌﺼﻄﻠﺤﺎﺕ ﺍﳋﺎﺻﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﳌﺼﻄﻠﺤﺎﺕ ﺍﳋﺎﺻـﺔ ﰲ ﺍﺳـﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻌﲎ‪.” ٢٣١-٢٣٥.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻔﺴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﰐ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺒﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺲ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻷﺳﺌﻠﺔ ﺗﺘﻌﻠـﻖ ﺑـﺎﻟﻨﺺ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺓ ﺃﻭ ﺍﳌﻌﲎ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﰎ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺟﻪ‪..‬‬ ‫ـﺎ ﺃﻭ ﺭﺋﻴﺴـ‬ ‫ـﺆﺩﻱ ﺩﻭﺭﺍ ﻣﻬﻤـ‬ ‫ـﻞ‪":‬ﺗـ‬ ‫ﻣﺜـ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺸﻜﻼﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﲡﺔ ﻋﻦ‪".‬‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺮﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﺮﺍﺭ ﺟﺰﺀ ﺍﻟﻨﺺ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺗﻜﺮﺍﺭ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺓ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﲢﺘﻮﻱ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺓ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻬﺪﻓﺔ‪.‫ﺍﳍﺪﻑ ﳍﺎ ﻣﺘﺸﺎ‪‬ﺔ ﺑﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻣﻬﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻡ‪ :‬ﻻﺯﻡ ﲨﻊ ﺑـﲔ ﺍﳌﻔـﺮﺩﺗﲔ ﰲ ﺍﳉﻤﻠـﺔ‬ ‫ـﺎ‪،..‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻞ ‪ :٥‬ﻣﻔﺎﻫﻴﻢ ﻟﻠﻤﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻻﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺎﺕ ﰲ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ‬ ‫‪٣٧‬‬ ‫‪٣٧‬‬ ‫‪Bengeleil and Paribakht. “L٢ Reading Proficiency and Lexical Inferencing by University EFL‬‬ ‫‪Learners..

“Context clues and contextual guessing.‬‬ ‫‪٣٩‬‬ ‫‪Carton.‬‬ ‫‪٣٣‬‬ . Vol.‬ﻭﺍﶈﺼﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﺃﻥ ﺣﺴﻦ ﺗﻮﻇﻴﻒ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﺩﻟـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﻗﻴﺔ ﻳﺴﻬﻢ ﰲ ﳒﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﲔ ﰲ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﻣﻌﺎﱏ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺍﺕ‪. No.‬‬ ‫‪٤٠‬‬ ‫‪Yang Na.” Sino-US English Teaching. edited by Thomas Huckin. ٥ (May‬‬ ‫‪٢٠٠٩): ٤٩.‬ﻭﻓﻀﻼ ﻋﻦ‪ ،‬ﺗﺸﻤﻞ ﺍﻷﺩﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﻗﻴﺔ ﺗﻜﺮﺍﺭ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﻕ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻘﺪﱘ ﺍﳌﺘﺮﺍﺩﻓﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﳌﺘﻀﺎﺩﺍﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻹﺗﻴﺎﻥ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﻒ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻔﺎﺻـﻴﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻷﻣﺜﻠـﺔ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﺷﻜﻞ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺓ ﺫﺍ‪‬ﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍ‪‬ﺎﻧﺴﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﻔﻈﻴﺔ‪ ٤٠.‬ﻭﻳﺮﻯ ﻛﺮﺗﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳌﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﻴﺔ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻷﺩﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﻗﻴﺔ ﻧﻔﺴـﻬﺎ ﺍﻟـﱵ ﻳﺴـﺘﺨﺪﻣﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﻮﻥ ﰲ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﳌﻌﲎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﻕ‪ ٣٩.‬‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻐﲑﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺺ‪:‬‬ ‫‪ -١‬ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺍﻷﺩﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﻗﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺇﻥ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﻳﺮﺍﻋﻲ ﻗﺪﺭﺓ ﺩﺍﺭﺳﻲ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﺳﺘﻴﻌﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻨﺺ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﻣﻌﺎﱐ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺍﺕ ﻏـﲑ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺄﻟﻮﻓﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﺬﺍ ﻻﺑﺪ ﻟﻠﻨﺺ ﺃﻥ ﳛﺘﻮﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﺩﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﻗﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻓﻴﺔ ﳌﺴﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳـﲔ ﻋﻠـﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﳌﻌﲎ‪ ،‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﳓﻮ ﻳﺮﺍﻩ ﺩﻭﺑﻦ ﻭﺃﻭﺷﻦ ﰲ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻘﺪﱘ ﺍﻷﺩﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﻮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻓﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟـﻨﺺ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺪﻻﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺿﺤﺔ ﺷﺮﻃﺎﻥ ﺃﺳﺎﺳﻴﺎﻥ ﰲ ﺍﻓﺘﺮﺍﺽ ﻣﻌﲎ ﺍﳌﻔـﺮﺩﺓ ﻣـﻦ ﺍﻟﺴـﻴﺎﻕ ﺍﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿـﺎ‬ ‫ﺳﻠﻴﻤﺎ‪ ٣٨.” in The Psychology of Second‬‬ ‫‪Language Learning.” in Second Language Reading and Vocabulary Learning.‬‬ ‫‪ -٢‬ﺧﺼﺎﺋﺺ ﺍﻟﻨﺺ‬ ‫ﻻﺷﻚ ﺃﻥ ﺧﺼﺎﺋﺺ ﺍﻟﻨﺺ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻋﻪ ﻭﻣﻀﻤﻮﻧﻪ ﻗﺪ ﺗﺆﺛﺮ ﰲ ﺩﻭﺍﻓﻊ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﲔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻘـﺮﺍﺀﺓ‬ ‫ﻭﳒﺎﺣﻬﻢ ﰲ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﱐ‪ ،‬ﻟﻘﺪ ﺃﻛﺪ ﺑﺮﻳﺒﻚ ﻭﻭﻳﺴﻪ ﺃﻥ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﻨﺺ ﺍﻟﺴﻬﻞ ﻳـﺆﺩﻱ ﺇﱃ‬ ‫‪٣٨‬‬ ‫‪Fraida Dubin and Elite Olshtain.‬‬ ‫‪Margot Haynes and James Coady.١٩٩٣). ١٨٢-١٨٣. (Norwood: New Jersey.‫ﺍﳌﺒﺤﺚ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﺍﳌﺆﺛﺮﺓ ﰲ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﻕ‬ ‫ﺇﻥ ﳒﺎﺡ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺀﺓ ﻳﻌﺘﻤﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﻨﺼﺮﻳﻦ ﺃﺳﺎﺳﲔ‪ ،‬ﻭﳘﺎ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻨﺺ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺎﺭﺉ‪ . “Inferencing: A Process in Using and Learning Language. “Predicting Word Meanings From Contextual Clues: Evidence‬‬ ‫‪From L١ Readers.‬ﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﺍﳊﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﰲ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﻣﻌﺎﱐ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺍﺕ ﻏﲑ ﺍﳌﺄﻟﻮﻓﺔ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﺇﻥ ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺍﻟـﻨﺺ ﻣـﻦ ﺍﳌﻔـﺮﺩﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﻕ ﺗﺆﺛﺮ ﰲ ﻣﺪﻯ ﺍﺳﺘﻴﻌﺎﺏ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﱐ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻥ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﻛﻔﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺭﺉ ﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﻟﻪ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺃﺛﺮ ﰲ‬ ‫ﳒﺎﺡ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺣﱴ ﻳﺼﻞ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺭﺉ ‪‬ﺎﺋﻴ‪‬ﺎ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻔﻬﻢ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﻟﻠﻨﺺ‪. ٦. ٥٠.

(September ١٩٩٩): ٣٥٠-٣٦٦.‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﻭﺟﺪ ﺃﻥ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﻕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻣﻀﺔ ﻏﲑ ﻛﺎﻓﻴﺔ ﻟﺘﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﻌﲎ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺮﺩ ﰲ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ‪ . “Linguistic simplification of SL Reading material: Effective Instructional‬‬ ‫‪Practise?. Vol.‬‬ ‫‪ -٣‬ﺧﺼﺎﺋﺺ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺗﺸﲑ ﺧﺼﺎﺋﺺ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺓ ﺇﱃ ﺃﺟﺰﺍﺀ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻧﻮﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺍﺳﻢ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﺕ ﺃﻭ ﺍﳌﻌﲎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﺸـﺎﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺓ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻬﺪﻓﺔ ﺑﺎﳌﻔﺮﺩﺓ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻭﻓﺔ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺣﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻠﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺗﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﺸﺎﺑﻪ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻬﺪﻓﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻷﻡ‪ ٤٦.‬‬ ‫‪٣٤‬‬ .‬‬ ‫‪(١٩٩١): ٢٤٩-٢٦٧.” The Modern Language Journal. Issue ٣.” Applied Linguistic. Vol. Charles Alderson.‬‬ ‫‪٤١‬‬ ‫ﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﺺ ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺎ ﻻ ﻳﺘﻨﺎﺳـﺐ ﻣـﻊ ﻣﺴـﺘﻮﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﲔ‪ ،‬ﻓﻼ ﺩﻭﺭ ﻟﻸﺩﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﻗﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﺺ ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳊﺎﻟﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺼـﻌﺐ ﻋﻠـﻴﻬﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻧﺘﺒﺎﻩ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﱐ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺤﺔ‪ ٤٢،‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺑﺎﻹﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺗﺮﺍﻛﻴﺐ ﺍﳉﻤﻞ ﺍﳌﻌﻘﺪﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﺣﻀﻮﺭ ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺜﻘﺎﻓﺔ ﻏﲑ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻭﻓﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﲔ‪ ٤٣. Assessing Reading. Issue ٣. ٩.‬ﻭﻛﺬﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ﻣﺜـﻞ ﺍﺣﺘـﻮﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺺ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳉﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﻄﻮﻳﻠﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳉﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺮﻳﺪﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﺼﺼـﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳌﻔـﺮﺩﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺗﺮﺩﺩﻫﺎ ﻣﻨﺨﻔﺾ ﻭﻏﲑﻩ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺍﳌﺘﻮﻓﺮﺓ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﺺ ﺍﳌﻌﻘﺪ‪ ٤٤. (٢٠٠٣): ١٦٩.‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻴﻌﺎﺏ ﺍﳌﺒﺎﺷﺮ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺍﳊﺎﺟﺔ ﺇﱃ ﻛﺸﻒ ﻛﻞ ﻣﻌﺎﱐ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺍﺕ ﻓﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻜﺲ ﺻـﺤﻴﺢ‪. ٣٥٣. ٨٧. ٨٣. ١٢.‬‬ ‫‪٤٣‬‬ ‫‪Dolly N.‬‬ ‫‪٤٦‬‬ ‫‪Jan Arjen Mondria and Marijke Wit-de Boer. Young.‬ﻭﻓﻀﻼ ﻋﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﳝﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺜﲏ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﲔ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳌﻌﲎ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﳑﺎ ﻗﺪ ﻋﺮﻓﻮﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺴﺘﺪﺭﺟﻬﻢ ﺇﱃ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﳌﻌﲎ ﺍﳋﻄﺄ‪.‬‬ ‫‪٤٢‬‬ ‫‪Diana Frantzen. Vol.‬‬ ‫‪٤٤‬‬ ‫‪See: Ibid. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press..‬ﻟﻘﺪ ﻭﺟﺪ ﻟﻴﻮ ﻭﻧﺸﻮﻥ ﺃﻥ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﻷﻓﻌﺎﻝ ﺃﺳﻬﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﲰﺎﺀ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻣﺎ‬ ‫‪٤١‬‬ ‫‪Paribakht and Wesche. ٢٠٠٠).‬ﻟﺬﺍ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺧﺼﺎﺋﺺ ﺍﻟﻨﺺ ﺍﳉﻴـﺪ ﺗـﺆﺛﺮ ﰲ ﲢﻘﻴـﻖ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺟﺢ ﻭﺍﻻﺳﺘﻴﻌﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺋﻲ ﺍﺳﺘﻴﻌﺎﺑﺎ ﻓﻌﺎﻻ‪. Factors Affecting How Second Langauge Spanish Students Derive Meaning from‬‬ ‫‪Context.” The Modern Langauge Journal. Issue ٢.‬‬ ‫‪٤٥‬‬ ‫‪J. ٢١٠.‬‬ ‫ﻫﺬﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺮﻏﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﻣﻌﲎ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺓ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺃﺳﻬﻞ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻭﺿﻌﺖ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺓ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴـﻴﺎﻕ‬ ‫ﻭﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻷﺩﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﻗﻴﺔ ﺃﻗﺮﺏ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ‪ ٤٥. “The effects of Contextual Richness on the‬‬ ‫‪Guessability and the Retention of Words in a Foreign Language. “Reading and “Incidental” L٢ Vocabulary Acquisition: An Introspective‬‬ ‫‪Study of Lexical Inferencing.

٢٥٤.” The Canadian Modern Language Review.‫ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻈﺮﻑ ﻭﺍﳊﺮﻭﻑ ﻓﺈ‪‬ﺎ ﺃﺻﻌﺐ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺟﺎ‪ ٤٧.‬‬ ‫‪(٢٠٠٦): ٣٩٦. ٣٧. Vol.‬‬ ‫ﻭﳝﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﺑﺄﻥ ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﶈﺪﻭﺩﺓ ﺗﻌﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺪﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻜـﺒﲑﺓ ﰲ ﳒـﺎﺡ ﻋﻤﻠﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ‪.‬ﻭﻋﻼﻭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺫﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﺭﺃﻯ ﻓﺮﻧﺰﻧـﺖ ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻈﻬﺮ ﺍﳋﺎﺭﺟﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﻔﺮﺩﺓ ﺃﻗﻮﻯ ﺗﺄﺛﲑﺍ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻑ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﻣﻘﺎﺭﻧﺔ ﺑﺎﻷﺩﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﻗﻴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫‪Frantzen.‬ﻭﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻴﻘﺔ ﺗﺴﻬﻢ ﰲ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺟﺢ‪ ،‬ﻷﻥ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺱ ﻳﺴﺘﻄﻴﻊ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺍﻷﺩﻟـﺔ ﺍﻟﺴـﻴﺎﻗﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺃﻭﺳﻊ ﻭﺃﻓﻀﻞ ﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﳌﻌﲎ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﺳﺐ‪ ٥٠،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﻧﺸﻮﻥ ﻳﻘﺘﺮﺡ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻌﺮﻑ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳـﻮﻥ‬ ‫‪٥١‬‬ ‫ﺣﻮﺍﱄ ‪ %٩٥‬ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺭﺩﺓ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﺺ ﺣﱴ ﻳﺘﻤﻜﻨﻮﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺑﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﻓﻌﺎﻟـﺔ‪.” ١٧٧. “The Relationship between Depth of Vocabulary Knowledge and L٢ Learner’s Lexical‬‬ ‫‪Inferencing Strategy Use and Success.‬‬ ‫‪ -٢‬ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺭﺉ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻋﺎﻣﻼ ﺃﺳﺎﺳﻴﺎ ﰲ ﻋﻤﻠﻴـﺔ ﺍﻻﺳـﺘﻴﻌﺎﺏ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺋﻲ ﺑﺎﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ‪ ..‬‬ ‫‪٥٠‬‬ ‫‪See: Ibid. I. Learning Vocabulary in Another Language.‬ﻭﺑﺎﻟﻌﻜﺲ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺱ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﳝﺘﻠﻚ ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﶈﺪﻭﺩﺓ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻳﺼﻌﺐ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻷﺩﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﻗﻴﺔ ﺍﶈﻴﻄﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺺ ﻷﻥ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺍﺕ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻷﺩﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﻗﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﱵ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺱ ﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﳌﻌﲎ ﻏﲑ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻭﻑ‪ . Issue ٣.‬‬ ‫‪٤٨‬‬ ‫‪٣٥‬‬ .S. ٩٠.‬‬ ‫‪٤٨‬‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻐﲑﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺭﺉ‪:‬‬ ‫‪ -١‬ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺪ ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺍﺕ ﻋﺎﻣﻼ ﻣﻬﻤﺎ ﻳﺴﻬﻢ ﰲ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺱ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﳝﻠـﻚ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻌﺒﺔ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻣﻬﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺑﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻣﺘﻜﺮﺭﺓ ﻣﻘﺎﺭﻧﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺪﺍﺭﺱ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ‬ ‫ﳝﻠﻚ ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﶈﺪﻭﺩﺓ‪ ٤٩.P.‬ﻭﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﻮﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﺪﺭﻭﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ ﻣﺜﻞ‪ :‬ﺷﻜﻞ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺤﻮﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓـﺔ‬ ‫‪٤٧‬‬ ‫‪Liu and Nation. “Factors Affecting How Second Langauge Spanish Students Derive Meaning from‬‬ ‫‪Context.‬ﻭﻳﺮﻯ ﻧﺸﻮﻥ‪ ،‬ﺃﻥ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﻧﻮﻋﲔ ﻟﻠﻤﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ‪ :‬ﺃﻭﻻ‪ ،‬ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﺣﻴﺚ ﺗﺘﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻦ ﻧﻮﻋﲔ ﳘﺎ‪ :‬ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﻋﻦ ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﻨﺺ ﺫﺍﺗﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺟﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﻄﻘﻴﺎ‪ .‬‬ ‫‪٤٩‬‬ ‫‪Nassaji.‬‬ ‫‪٥١‬‬ ‫‪Nation. ٣٩٧.

‬ﻭﺍﻟـﺪﺍﺭﺱ ﻋﻨـﺪﻩ‬ ‫ﻛﻔﺎﺀﺓ ﻟﻐﻮﻳﺔ ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻗﺎﺩﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻮﻳﻊ ﰲ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺑﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺃﻓﻀﻞ ﻣﻘﺎﺭﻧﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺪﺍﺭﺱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﳝﺘﻠﻚ ﻛﻔﺎﺀﺓ ﻟﻐﻮﻳﺔ ﳏﺪﻭﺩﺓ‪ .‬‬ ‫‪Mohammad Davoudi. ٥٤. Margot Haynes and James Coady. ٥٤.‬ﺑﻌﻜﺲ ﺍﳌﺘﻘﺪﻣﲔ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﻢ ﻳﺮﻏﺒـﻮﻥ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻷ‪‬ﻢ ﻳﻌﺮﻓﻮﻥ ﻋﺪﺩﺍ ﻛﺎﻓﻴﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺍﺕ ﲤﻨﺤﻬﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺟﺢ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺗﺞ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺿﺢ‪ .‫ﻋﻦ ﺃﺳﻠﻮﺏ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻣﻔﺮﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻗﺪ ﻳﺘﺸﺎﺑﻪ ﺑﺄﺳـﻠﻮﺏ ﺍﺳـﺘﺨﺪﺍﻣﻬﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻠﻐـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻭﱃ‪ ٥٢.‬ﻭﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﺗﺪﻋﻢ ﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﻗﺮﺍﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﺺ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺴﻬﻞ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻘﺎﺭﺉ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻷﻓﻜﺎﺭ ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﺺ ﻭﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ ﺑﻐﻴﺔ ﺑﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻻﺳـﺘﻨﺘﺎﺟﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻨﺎﺳﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﺍﳌﻘﺮﻭﺀﺓ‪ ٥٣.‬‬ ‫‪Vol.‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻼﺣﻆ‪ ،‬ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺱ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﳝﺘﻠﻚ ﻛﻔـﺎﺀﺓ ﻟﻐﻮﻳـﺔ‬ ‫ﺿﻌﻴﻔﺔ ﻳﻮﺍﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺼﻌﻮﺑﺔ ﰲ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﳌﻌﲎ ﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﳛﺎﻭﻝ ﺍﺳﺘﻴﻌﺎﺏ ﲨﻠـﺔ ﻃﻮﻳﻠـﺔ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺺ‪ ٥٥. ٢٥٤.‬‬ ‫‪٥٣‬‬ ‫‪٣٦‬‬ . No.‬ﺇﻥ ﻛﻔﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﻗﺪ ﺗﺸﲑ ﺇﱃ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺗﻌﻠﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﲔ ﳑﺎ ﻳﺮﻯ ﺑﺮﻧﻴﺖ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﲔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺒﺘﺪﺋﲔ ﻭﺍﳌﺘﻘﺪﻣﲔ ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﻮﻥ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﳌﻌﲎ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺀﺓ ﺑﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺃﻛﱪ ﻣﻘﺎﺭﻧﺔ ﺑﺎﳌﺘﻮﺳﻄﲔ‪.‬ﺑﺎﻹﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺫﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﺍﻣﺘﻼﻙ ﻛﻔﺎﺀﺓ ﻟﻐﻮﻳﺔ ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻫﻢ ﻗﺎﺩﺭﻭﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﻕ ﺑﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺃﻓﻀﻞ ﻣﻘﺎﺭﻧﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﲔ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﺍﻣﺘﻼﻙ ﻛﻔـﺎﺀﺓ‬ ‫‪٥٢‬‬ ‫‪Nation. “Inference Generation Skill and Text Comprehension.‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﺇﻥ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﻴﺔ ﻻﺑﺪ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻮﺿﻊ ﰲ ﺍﳊﺴـﺒﺎﻥ ﻟﻠﻮﺻـﻮﻝ ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﺎﻟﺔ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﳌﻔﺘﺮﺿﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﺳﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﻨﺺ ﺍﳌﻘﺮﻭﺀ‪.‬‬ ‫‪٥٥‬‬ ‫‪Margot Haynes.‬ﻭﻳﺘﻀﺢ ﳑﺎ ﺳﺒﻖ‪ ،‬ﺃﻥ ﻣﻦ ﳝﻠﻚ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﻴﺔ ﺍﳉﻴـﺪﺓ ﻋـﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﻨﺺ ﻳﺴﺘﻄﻴﻊ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﻣﻌﺎﱐ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺟﺎ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﻴﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺮﻏﻢ ﻣـﻦ ﺍﻣـﺘﻼﻙ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﻮﻳﺔ ﺍﶈﺪﻭﺩﺓ‪ ٥٤. ٥.‬‬ ‫‪(Norwood: New Jersey.‬‬ ‫‪٥٤‬‬ ‫‪Carton.‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﰒ‪ ،‬ﺗﻌﺪ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﻴﺔ ﺇﺣﺪﻯ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﻘﺎﻓﻴـﺔ ﺍﻟـﱵ ﳝﺘﻠﻜﻬـﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ‪ .‬‬ ‫ﻭﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﻴﺔ ﻗﺪ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺳﺒﺒﻬﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳌﺒﺘﺪﺋﲔ ﱂ ﻳﻌﺮﻓﻮﺍ ﻋﺪﺩﺍ ﻛﺒﲑﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺍﺕ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﺺ ﳑـﺎ‬ ‫ﳚﻌﻠﻬﻢ ﳝﻴﻠﻮﻥ ﺇﱃ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺑﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺃﻭﺳﻊ‪ . ١. edited by Thomas Huckin.” The Readimg Matrix.” in Second Language‬‬ ‫‪Reading and vocabulary Learning.١٩٩٣).” in The Psychology of Second‬‬ ‫‪Language Learning.‬‬ ‫‪ -٣‬ﻛﻔﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ‬ ‫ﻛﻔﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻋﺎﻣﻞ ﺭﺋﻴﺴﻲ ﻳﺴﻬﻢ ﰲ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﺎﻝ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺀﺓ‪ . Learning Vocabulary in Another Language. “Inferencing: A Process in Using and Learning Language. (April ٢٠٠٥): ١١٢. “Patterns and Perils of Guessing in Second Language Reading.

‬ﻓﻘﺪ ﺭﺃﻯ ﻓﺮﻧﺰﻧﺖ‪ ،‬ﺃﻥ ﺩﻗﺔ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﺒﺎﻩ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺼﻴﻠﻴﺔ ﺗﺴﺎﻋﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﻣﻌﲎ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺤﺔ‪ . Fraser. “The Role of Linguistic Knowledge in Word‬‬‫‪Meaning Inferencing.” Studies in‬‬ ‫‪Second Language Acquisition.” ٢٣٨. “L٢ Reading Proficiency and Lexical Inferencing by University EFL‬‬ ‫‪Learners. ٣٦.‬‬ ‫‪ -٤‬ﺍﻻﻧﺘﺒﺎﻩ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺎﺻﻴﻞ‬ ‫ﻻﺷﻚ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺎﺻﻴﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺩﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﻗﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﻬﺎ ﰲ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﳌﻌـﲎ ﻏـﲑ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺄﻟﻮﻑ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﻗﺮﺍﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﺺ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﳛﺪﺙ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﺒﺎﻩ ﻟﻠﺘﻔﺎﺻﻴﻞ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟـﻨﺺ‬ ‫ﺻﻌﺒ‪‬ﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﺪﺍﺭﺱ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻜﺲ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ‪ ٥٨‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﺇﻥ ﺩﻗﺔ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﺒـﺎﻩ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺎﺻـﻴﻞ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻘـﺮﺍﺀﺓ‬ ‫ﺿﺮﻭﺭﻳﺔ ﻟﺘﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻴﻌﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺋﻲ ﻭﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺟﺢ‪.‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﺎ ﺗﻮﺻﻞ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﻤﺎ ﺑﻨﺠﻠﻴﻞ ﻭﺑﺮﻳﺒﻚ ﰲ ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺘﻬﻤﺎ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺗﺸـﲑ ﻧﺘﻴﺠـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﲔ ﺍﳌﺘﻘﺪﻣﲔ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﺗﻮﻓﻴﻘﺎ ﰲ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﻣﻌﺎﱐ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻬﺪﻓﺔ ﻣﻘﺎﺭﻧﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﳌﺘﻮﺳﻄﲔ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﻗﺮﺍﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﺺ‪ ٥٧.‬ﻭﻳﺘﻢ ﺫﻟﻚ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺪﺍﺭﺱ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻮﺍﺟﻪ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﺺ‪ ،‬ﺣﲔ ﻳﻘﻮﻡ ﺑﺎﻻﻧﺘﺒـﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻴـﻖ ﺇﱃ ﺗﻠـﻚ‬ ‫‪٥٦‬‬ ‫‪Shiva Kaivanpanah and Sayyed Mohammad Alavi.‬‬ ‫‪٣٧‬‬ .‬‬ ‫‪٥٨‬‬ ‫‪Frantzen.‬‬ ‫‪ -٥‬ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﳉﻬﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﻫﻨﻴﺔ ﻋﻨﺼﺮﺍﻥ ﻣﻬﻤﺎﻥ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺀﺓ ﻹﺳﻬﺎﻣﻬﻤﺎ ﰲ ﺗﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﻣﻬﺎﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ‪ .‬ﻟﺬﺍ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﲔ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﳝﺘﻠﻜﻮﻥ ﻛﻔﺎﺀﺓ ﻟﻐﻮﻳـﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻗﺎﺩﺭﻭﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻣﺎ ﻓﻌﺎﻻ ﳓﻮ ﺍﺳـﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﳌﻌـﲎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ‪.‬ﻭﻻ ﺷﻚ ﺃﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺧﺼﺎﺋﺺ ﺍﳌﺎﻓﺘﺮﺽ ﺍﳉﻴﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﺳﻔﻞ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻷﻋﻠﻰ ﻭ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻷﺳﻔﻞ ﺑﻐﻴﺔ ﺑﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺟﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﺳﺒﺔ‪ .‬ﺇﻥ ﺃﻛﺪﺕ ﻓﺮﺳﺮ ﺑﺄﻥ ﻛﺜﺮﺓ ﺇﻋﻄﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﺍﳉﻬﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻠﻲ ﳌﻌﺎﳉﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺺ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺃﺛﺮ ﺇﳚﺎﰊ ﰲ ﺍﳊﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﺎﻝ‪ ٥٩.” System.‬‬ ‫‪٥٩‬‬ ‫‪See: “Lexical Processing Strategy Use and Vocabulary Learning Through Reading. “Factors Affecting How Second Langauge Spanish Students Derive Meaning from‬‬ ‫‪Context. (٢٠٠٨): ١٧٨. Vol.‫ﻟﻐﻮﻳﺔ ﺿﻌﻴﻔﺔ‪ ٥٦.‬‬ ‫‪٥٧‬‬ ‫‪Bengeleil and Paribakht.” ١٨٤. ٢٢٦.‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﰲ ﺃﻏﻠﺐ ﺍﻷﺣﻴﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﻻ ﻳﻨﺘﺒـﻪ ﻣﻌﻈـﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﲔ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺎﺻﻴﻞ ﺍﶈﻴﻄﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺴﻴﺎﻕ ﻣﻊ ﺃ‪‬ﺎ ﻗﺪ ﺗﺰﻭﺩﻫﻢ ﺑﺎﻷﺩﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻴﺔ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺗﺴﺎﻋﺪﻫﻢ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﳌﻌﲎ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ‪ .

“Reading and “Incidental” L٢ Vocabulary Acquisition: An Introspective‬‬ ‫‪Study of Lexical Inferencing.‬ﻋﻼﻭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺫﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﺭﺃﻯ ﻧﺴﺎﺟﻲ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺱ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﳝﺘﻠﻚ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺤﻮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻓﻴﺔ ﻗﺎﺩﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﳌﻌﲎ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﻣﻘﺎﺭﻧﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺪﺍﺭﺱ ﳑﺎ ﻋﻨﺪﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺤﻮﻳﺔ ﺍﶈﺪﻭﺩﺓ‪ .‬ﺇﻥ‬ ‫ﺭﺑﻂ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺓ ﺑﺎﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺤﻮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺤﺔ ﻳﺴﺎﻋﺪ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﻣﻌﲎ ﺍﳌﻔـﺮﺩﺓ ﻏـﲑ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺄﻟﻮﻓﺔ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺟﺎ ﺳﻠﻴﻤ‪‬ﺎ‪ ٦١.‫ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺍﺕ ﺑﻐﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻑ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻻﺳﺘﺠﺎﺑﺔ ﳌﻌﺎﱐ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺍﺕ ﲟﻼﺣﻈﺔ ﺍﻷﺩﻟـﺔ ﺍﻟﺴـﻴﺎﻗﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻞ ﺑﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻴﻤﺔ ﺣﺴﺐ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﻕ‪. “The Role of Linguistic Knowledge in Word-Meaning Inferencing. ٤٠.‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﳌﺜﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺱ ﻋﻨﺪﻩ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺤﻮﻳـﺔ ﺟﻴـﺪﺓ ﲤﻜـﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻑ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﻗﻊ ﺍﻟﻨﺤﻮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺤﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﻔﺮﺩﺍﺕ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﻕ‪ .‬‬ ‫‪٦٢‬‬ ‫‪Haastrup. (٢٠٠٤): ١٤٩.‬‬ ‫‪٦٠‬‬ ‫‪Paribakht and Wesche. ٣٥.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺧﻼﺻﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ‪ ،‬ﻻﺣﻈﺖ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺜﺔ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﻨﺺ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺎﺭﺉ ﻋﻼﻗـﺔ ﻣﺘﺪﺍﺧﻠـﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻭﺛﻴﻘﺔ ﺗﺆﺛﺮ ﰲ ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﻣﻌﲎ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺟﺎ ﻓﻌﺎﻻ ﻭﺻﺤﻴﺤﺎ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺀﺓ‪ . Sima Paribakht.‬‬ ‫‪٦٣‬‬ ‫‪T. “The Role of Grammar in Second Langauge Lexical Processing.” Reading‬‬ ‫‪Language Centre Journal.‬‬ ‫‪٦٠‬‬ ‫‪ -٦‬ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺤﻮﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﻻﺷﻚ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺤﻮﻳﺔ ﺍﳉﻴﺪﺓ ﳍﺎ ﺃﺛﺮ ﺇﳚﺎﰊ ﰲ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﳌﻌﲎ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻘـﺮﺍﺀﺓ‪ .‬‬ ‫‪٣٨‬‬ . No.‬‬ ‫‪٦١‬‬ ‫”‪See: Kaivanpanah and Alavi. Lexical Inferencing Procedures or Talking About Words: Receptive Procedures in Foreign‬‬ ‫‪Language Learning with special Reference to English. Vol. ٢.‬ﻭﳝﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ‪ ،‬ﺇﻥ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺤﻮﻳﺔ ﺗﺆﺩﻱ ﺩﻭﺭﺍ ﻣﻬﻤﺎ ﰲ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺗﻘﺪﻡ ﻟﻠﺪﺍﺭﺱ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺹ ﰲ ﺑﻨﺎﺀ ﻋﻤﻠﻴـﺔ‬ ‫‪٦٣‬‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻘﺮﺍﺀ ﻭﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺒﺎﻁ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺗﻮﻇﻴﻒ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﳍﺪﻑ ﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﺗﻌﺰﻳﺰ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻛﺘﺴﺎ‪‬ﺎ‪. ١٩٩-٢٠٠.‬ﻭﻣـﻦ ﰒ‪ ،‬ﻟﻠﺤﺼـﻮﻝ ﻋﻠـﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﻓﻌﺎﻝ ﳌﻌﺎﱐ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺍﺕ ﻻﺑﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﲨﻴﻊ ﺍﻷﺩﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﻮﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﺺ ﻣـﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻧﺪﻣﺎﺟﻬﺎ ﺑﺎﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﺍﻟﻮﻋﻰ ﺑﺎﻟﺴﻴﺎﻕ ﺍﶈﻴﻂ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺺ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻼﺣﻈﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺤﻮﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺘﺼﻒ ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺍﺕ ﺑﻐﻴﺔ ﲢﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﻮﺍﻗﻌﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻨﺤﻮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺤﺔ‪٦٢.‬ﳝﻜـﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ‪ ،‬ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺳﻴﻌﺰﺯ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻴﻌﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺋﻲ ﻭﺑﺎﻟﻌﻜﺲ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﳋـﺎﻃﺊ‬ ‫ﺳﻴﺆﺩﻱ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻴﻌﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻀﻌﻴﻒ ﻟﻠﻨﺺ ﺍﳌﻘﺮﻭﺀ‪.‬‬ ‫‪١٨٢.

‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﻓﻀﻼ ﻋﻦ‪ ،‬ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﻕ ﺑﺎﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﻌﻘﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺘﻄﻠﺐ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳌﻬﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﺪﺩﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻷﳕﺎﻁ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ‪ ٦٤.‬‬ ‫‪‬ﺍﳋﻄﻮﺓ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺜﺔ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺳﻊ ﻟﻠﻤﻔﺮﺩﺓ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﺒﺎﻩ ﺇﱃ ﺃﺟﺰﺍﺀ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﳌﻌﻴﻨﺔ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻷﺩﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﻗﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﺺ ﻻﻛﺘﺸﺎﻑ ﻣﻌﲎ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺓ ﺍﳌﻘﺼﻮﺩﺓ‪.‫ﺍﳌﺒﺤﺚ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺑﻊ‪ :‬ﺧﻄﻮﺍﺕ ﺇﺟﺮﺍﺀ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﻕ‬ ‫ﺍﻗﺘﺮﺡ ﻧﺸﻮﻥ ﺗﺪﺭﻳﺲ ﺩﺍﺭﺳﻲ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺇﺟﺮﺍﺀﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﻕ ﻟﺘﻌﺰﻳﺰ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻴﻌﺎﺏ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺋﻲ ﻭﺗﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺍﺕ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺀﺓ‪ .‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳌﺪﺧﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻘﺮﺍﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺻﻤﻤﻪ ﻛﻼﺭﻙ ﻭﻧﺸﻮﻥ ﻓﻴﻬﺪﻑ ﺇﱃ ﺑﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻮﻋﻰ ﺑﻌﺪﺩ ﺍﻷﺩﻟﺔ ﺍﳌﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺺ ﻭﺗﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﻬﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻋﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺇﺟﺮﺍﺀ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺑﻐﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺩﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﻗﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺭﺩﺓ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﺺ‪ . Nation. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.‬ﻭﻳﺘﻀﺢ ﳑﺎ ﺳﺒﻖ‪ ،‬ﺃﻥ ﲨﻴﻊ ﺍﳋﻄﻮﺍﺕ ﰲ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ‪‬ﺪﻑ ﺇﱃ ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﲔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﺎﻝ ﻟﻴﻜﻮﻧﻮﺍ ﻣﺎﻫﺮﻳﻦ ﰲ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﻕ ﻭﺣﱴ ﻻ ﻳﻌﻴﻖ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺗﺪﻓﻖ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺀﺓ‪ .‬ﻭﺃﺿﺎﻑ ﻧﺸﻮﻥ ﺃﻥ ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﻕ ﳍﺎ ﺧﻄﻮﺍﺕ ﻣﺘﻨﻮﻋﺔ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻘﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻌﻈﻢ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳋﻄﻮﺍﺕ ﺍﳌﻘﺘﺮﺣﺔ ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻷﺩﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﻗﻴﺔ ﻧﻔﺴﻬﺎ‪ .‬‬ ‫‪٣٩‬‬ . “Guessing The Meanings of Words From Context: Strategy And‬‬ ‫‪Techniques.” ٢١٦. Learning Vocabulary in Another Language.‬ﻭﺭﺃﻯ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳌﺪﺧﻞ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺟﻲ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﻼﺋﻤﺔ ﻟﻠﺪﺍﺭﺳﲔ ﺍﳌﺒﺘﺪﺋﲔ ﺣﻴﺚ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺑﻪ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﲢﻠﻴﻠﻴﺔ ﻗﻠﻴﻠﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﺍﳌﺘﻘﺪﻣﻮﻥ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﺍﻷﺩﻟﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺭﻏﺒﺘﻬﻢ ﺃﻛﱪ ﰲ ﺗﻄﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﺎﻝ‪ .‬ﻟﺬﺍ‪ ،‬ﺍﺧﺘﺎﺭﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺜﺔ ﺍﳋﻄﻮﺍﺕ ﺍﳋﻤﺴﺔ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻘﺮﺍﺋﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺍﻗﺘﺮﺣﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻛﻼﺭﻙ ﻭﻧﺸﻮﻥ ﺑﻮﺻﻔﻬﺎ ﺍﻹﺭﺷﺎﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﳌﻬﻤﺔ ﰲ ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻖ ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﳌﻌﲎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﻕ‬ ‫‪٦٥‬‬ ‫ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ‪-:‬‬ ‫‪‬ﺍﳋﻄﻮﺓ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ‪ :‬ﲢﺪﻳﺪ ﺟﺰﺀ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﳌﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺸﺘﻤﻞ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺓ ﻏﲑ ﺍﳌﺄﻟﻮﻓﺔ‪. and.‬‬ ‫‪٢٠٠١).‬‬ ‫‪٦٤‬‬ ‫‪Nation.‬ﻭ‪‬ﺪﻑ‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺾ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻹﺟﺮﺍﺀﺍﺕ ﺇﱃ ﺑﻨﺎﺀ ﻣﻬﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺪﺧﻞ ﺍﺳﺘﻘﺮﺍﺋﻲ ﰲ ﺣﲔ ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺟﺮﺍﺀﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ﻣﺒﻨﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺪﺧﻞ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺟﻲ‪ .‬‬ ‫‪‬ﺍﳋﻄﻮﺓ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﻕ ﺍﶈﻴﻂ ﺑﺎﳌﻔﺮﺩﺓ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻴﺴﲑ ﺍﳉﺎﻧﺐ ﺍﻟﻨﺤﻮﻱ ﺇﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻥ ﺿﺮﻭﺭﻳ‪‬ﺎ‪. ٢٣٣-٢٣٤.‬‬ ‫‪٦٥‬‬ ‫‪See: Clarke.‬‬ ‫‪‬ﺍﳋﻄﻮﺓ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺑﻌﺔ‪ :‬ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ‪.

‬‬ ‫‪٤٠‬‬ ‫‪٦٦‬‬ . Learning Vocabulary in Another Language.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺧﻼﺻﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ‪ ،‬ﺇﻥ ﺗﻮﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﲔ ﲟﻬﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﻭﻛﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﺇﺟﺮﺍﺋﻬﺎ ﻣﻬﻤﺔ ﺟﺪﺍ‬ ‫ﰲ ﺗﺸﺠﻴﻌﻬﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﻣﻬﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻛﺘﺴﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻬﺪﻓﺔ ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴـﻴﺎﻕ ﺍﻛﺘﺴـﺎﺑﺎ‬ ‫ﻓﻌﺎﻻ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻤﺎﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺮﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ‪.‬ﻭﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺑﻌﺾ‬ ‫ﺧﻄﻮﺍﺕ ﺍﻗﺘﺮﺣﻬﺎ ﻛﻼﺭﻙ ﻭﻧﺸﻮﻥ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻘﻖ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺟﺎﺕ‪ . ٢٥٦-٢٥٩.‬ﻭﻫﻲ‪ :‬ﺃﻭﻻ‪ ،‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺑـﺎﻟﺘﺤﻘﻖ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﺟﺰﺀ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺸﺘﻤﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺓ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻬﺪﻓﺔ‪ .‬ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺎ‪ ،‬ﳝﻜﻦ ﰲ ﲢﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺓ‪ .‬‬ ‫‪See: Nation.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻓﻀﻼ ﻋﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﺍﻗﺘﺮﺡ ﻛﻼﺭﻙ ﻭﻧﺸﻮﻥ ﺃﺭﺑﻊ ﻃﺮﻕ ﻟﻠﺘﺤﻘﻖ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺑﺎﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﺿﺮﻭﺭﻳﺔ ﰲ ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﻣﺪﻯ ﺻﺤﺔ ﺍﳌﻌﲎ ﺍﳌﻔﺘﺮﺽ ﺣﺴﺐ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﻕ‪ .‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﻫـﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳـﺔ ﱂ‬ ‫ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﺍﻷﺧﲑﺓ ﻭﻫﻲ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻣﻮﺱ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻌـﺮﻑ ﺇﱃ ﻣـﺪﻯ ﻗـﺪﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﲔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﳌﻌﲎ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺟﺎ ﺻﺤﻴﺤﺎ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻤﺎﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻣﻮﺱ‪ .‬ﺛﺎﻟﺜﺎ‪ ،‬ﻳﺘﻢ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺒﺪﺍﻝ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺓ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻬﺪﻓﺔ ﺑﺎﳌﻔﺮﺩﺓ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻭﻓﺔ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ﻟﻠﺘﺤﻘﻖ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺪﻯ ﺗﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﻣﻌﻨﺎﻫـﺎ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﻕ‪ .‬ﺃﺧﲑﺍ‪ ،‬ﻛﺸﻒ ﻣﻌﲎ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺓ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻣﻮﺱ ﺑﺎﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭﻫﺎ ﺃﺳﻬﻞ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﰲ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﻌـﲎ‬ ‫‪٦٦‬‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺓ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﺳﺒﺔ‪.‫‪‬ﺍﳋﻄﻮﺓ ﺍﳋﺎﻣﺴﺔ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻘﻖ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ‪.

‬ﻭﻳﺘﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﳌﺸﺎﺭﻛﻮﻥ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻻﺑﺘﺪﺍﺋﻲ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻃﺎﻟﺒﲔ ﻭﺛﻼﺙ ﻃﺎﻟﺒﺎﺕ ﻭﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﺍﳌﺸﺎﺭﻛﻮﻥ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﳌﺘﻘﺪﻡ‪ .‬ﻟﺬﺍ‪ ،‬ﺗﺮﻏﺐ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺜﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻛﺘﺸﺎﻑ ﺃﳕﺎﻁ ﺍﳌﺼـﺎﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻻﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﺔ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﻣﻌﺎﱐ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺍﺕ‪.‬ﻭﻃﻼﺏ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻻﺑﺘﺪﺍﺋﻲ ﻫﻢ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻣـﺎ‬ ‫ﻃﻼﺏ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﳌﺘﻘﺪﻡ ﻓﻬﻢ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺑﻌﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺇﱃ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻋﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ‪ ،‬ﻗﺪ ﰎ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﳌﺸﺎﺭﻛﲔ ﺑﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﻫﺪﻓﻴﺔ‪ .‬‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺒﺤﺚ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ‪ :‬ﻋﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ‬ ‫ﺗﺘﻜﻮﻥ ﻋﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﻣﻦ ﻋﺸﺮﺓ ﻃﻼﺏ‪ .‬ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻼﺣﻆ‪ ،‬ﺃﻥ ﺍﳌﺸﺎﺭﻛﲔ ﳝﺘﻠﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﻔـﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﻮﻳـﺔ ﺍﳌﺨﺘﻠﻔـﺔ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﻠﻤﻬﻢ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺑﻮﺻﻔﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﲬﺴﺔ ﻃﻼﺏ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻻﺑﺘـﺪﺍﺋﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﲬﺴـﺔ‬ ‫ﻃﻼﺏ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﳌﺘﻘﺪﻡ‪ .‬ﻗﺪ ﺗﻮﺿـﻊ ﰲ ﺍﳊﺴـﺒﺎﻥ ﺑﻌـﺾ‬ ‫ﺍﳋﺼﺎﺋﺺ ﺍﳌﻬﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻻﺑﺪ ﺃﻥ ﳝﺘﻠﻜﻬﺎ ﺍﳌﺸﺎﺭﻛﻮﻥ ﻟﻠﻘﻴﺎﻡ ﺑﺎﳌﻬﻤﺔ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺍﻣﺘﻼﻙ ﻣﻬﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻌـﺒﲑ‬ ‫‪٤١‬‬ .‬ﻭﻫﺆﻻ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﻮﻥ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻴﺰﻳﻮﻥ ﺍﳌﺘﺨﺼﺼﻮﻥ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﻭﺁﺩﺍ‪‬ﺎ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﳉﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﻴﺔ ﲟﺎﻟﻴﺰﻳﺎ‪ .‬ﻭﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻔﺼﻞ ﻗﺎﻣﺖ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺜﺔ ﲜﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧـﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﻠﻘـﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﲡﺮﻱ ﰲ ﺃﺫﻫﺎﻥ ﺍﳌﺸﺎﺭﻛﲔ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﳏﺎﻭﻟﺘﻬﻢ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﻣﻌـﺎﱐ ﺍﳌﻔـﺮﺩﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻬﺪﻓﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﺺ‪ .‫ﺍﻟﻔﺼﻞ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻨﻬﺞ ﻭﺍﻹﺟﺮﺍﺀﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺒﺤﺚ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ‪ :‬ﻋﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺒﺤﺚ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ‪ :‬ﺃﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺒﺤﺚ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ‪ :‬ﻣﺮﺍﺣﻞ ﲨﻊ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻻ ﺷﻚ ﺃﻥ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺍﺕ ﻫﻮ ﻧﻮﻉ ﻣﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﻣﻌﺮﻓﻴﺔ ﺣﻴﺚ ﻳﻌﺘﻤﺪ ﺍﻟﻘـﺎﺭﺉ ﻋﻠـﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺩﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﻗﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﺺ ﻭﺗﻮﻇﻴﻒ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ ﻭﲨﻌﻬﺎ ﻟﻠﻮﺻـﻮﻝ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳌﻌـﺎﱐ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﺳـﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﻔﺮﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﳌﻔﺘﺮﺿﺔ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺀﺓ‪ .

‬ﰎ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺛﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺇﺣﺪﻯ‬ ‫ﺍ‪‬ﻼﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﻭﻫﻲ ﳎﻠﺔ ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻤﲔ ﰲ ﺃﳓﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﱂ‪ .‬‬ ‫ﺭﺍﺑﻌﺎ‪ :‬ﻳﻨﺒﻐﻲ ﺃﻥ ﳛﺘﻮﻱ ﺍﻟﻨﺺ ﺍﳌﻘﺮﻭﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ ٩٥%‬ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻭﻓﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳـﲔ‬ ‫ﺣﱴ ﻳﺘﻤﻜﻨﻮﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﱐ‪ .‬‬ ‫‪(Cambridge.‬ﻗﺪ ﰎ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺑﻨﺎﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﺎﻳﲑ ﳏﺪﺩﺓ ﺣﱴ ﺗﺘﺤﻘﻖ ﺃﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺍﳌﺮﺟﻮﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﻳﲑ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ‪:‬‬ ‫‪٢‬‬ ‫ﺃﻭﻻ‪ :‬ﳚﺐ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺘﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻬﺪﻓﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺺ ﺍﳌﻘﺮﻭﺀ ﻣﻊ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻤﻲ ﻟﻠﺪﺍﺭﺳﲔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﰒ‪ ،‬ﺍﺧﺘﺎﺭﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺜﺔ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺍﺕ ﻏﲑ ﺍﳌﺄﻟﻮﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺪﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻜﺮﺭﻫﺎ ﻋﺎﻝ ﺑﻮﺻـﻔﻬﺎ ﺍﳌﻔـﺮﺩﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻬﺪﻓﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﺺ‪.” ٧٥.‬‬ ‫‪٢‬‬ ‫‪Shokouhi.١٤٧.‬‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﻌﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﲔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﶈﺎﺿﺮﻳﻦ ﻟﺘﺤﻘﻖ ﻣﺪﻯ ﻣﻼﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﲔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺨﺘﺎﺭﻳﻦ ﲟﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﲔ )ﺍﻻﺑﺘﺪﺍﺋﻲ ﻭﺍﳌﺘﻘﺪﻡ(‪.‫ﺍﳉﻴﺪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺛﻘﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﻔﺲ ﳑﺎ ﺍﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳋﺼﺎﺋﺺ ﺿﺮﻭﺭﻳﺔ ﰲ ﺗﻌﺒﲑ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻷﻓﻜﺎﺭ ﺃﺛﻨـﺎﺀ ﻋﻤﻠﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ‪.‬‬ ‫‪١‬‬ ‫‪Karl Anders Ericsson and Herbert Alexander Simon. Protocal Analysis: Verbal Reports as Data. ١٩٨٤). MA: MIT Press.‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﻌﻴﺎﺭ ﲟﻼﺣﻈﺔ ﺧﺼﺎﺋﺺ ﺍﻟـﻨﺺ‬ ‫ﺫﺍﺗﻪ ﺣﻴﺚ ﲢﻘﻘﺖ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺜﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﺮﺩﺩ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺍﺕ ﰲ ﻛﻠﻲ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﲔ ﺗﺮﺩﺩﺍ ﻣﻨﺨﻔﻀﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺛﺎﻟﺜﺎ‪ :‬ﻳﻨﺒﻐﻲ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻬﺪﻓﺔ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺟﻬﺎ ﻏﲑ ﻣﺄﻟﻮﻓﺔ ﻟﺪﻯ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﲔ‪ .‬‬ ‫ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺎ‪ :‬ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﻔﺮﺩﺍﺕ ﳍﺎ ﺗﺮﺩﺩ ﻣﻨﺨﻔﺾ‪ .٨٩. Learning Vocabulary in Another Language.‬‬ ‫‪١‬‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺒﺤﺚ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ‪ :‬ﺃﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ‬ ‫ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺛﻼﺛﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﺍﳌﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‪ .‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﲢﻘﻴﻖ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﻌﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺇﺟﺮﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻄﻼﻋﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﲔ ﻟﻜﻠﻲ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻮﻳﲔ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺃﺟﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻑ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻱ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻮﺭﺩ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﺺ ﺃ‪‬ﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺍﺕ ﻏﲑ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻭﻓﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺒﻠﻬﻢ‪. ١٥. “The Effect Of Guessing Vocabulary in Reading Authentic Texts Among Pre-University‬‬ ‫‪Students.‬‬ ‫‪٤٢‬‬ .‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﻌﻴﺎﺭ ﺑﻘﻴﺎﻡ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺪﻳﻼﺕ ﰲ ﺍﻟـﻨﺺ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺣﻴﺚ ﺑﺪﻟﺖ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺜﺔ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺍﺕ ﻏﲑ ﺍﳌﺄﻟﻮﻓﺔ ﲟﻔﺮﺩﺍﺕ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻣﻌﺮﻭﻓﺔ ﻋﻨـﺪﻫﻢ‪.‬‬ ‫‪‬ﺪﻑ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳋﻄﻮﺓ ﺇﱃ ﺗﻜﻮﻳﻦ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻭﻓﺔ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺍﺕ ﻏـﲑ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻭﻓـﺔ‬ ‫‪٣‬‬ ‫ﻟﻀﻤﺎﻥ ﻗﺪﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﲔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻖ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ‪.‬‬ ‫‪٣‬‬ ‫‪Nation.

‬ﻛـﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻬﺪﻓﺔ ﰲ ﲨﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﺍﳌﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﻗﺪ ﲤﺖ ﺗﺴﻮﻳﺪﻫﺎ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺜﺔ ﺑﻮﺻﻔﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻬﺪﻓﺔ ﻭﺍﳌﺮﺍﺩ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺸﺎﺭﻛﲔ‪ .‬ﻭﰎ ﲢﺪﻳﺪ ﺳﺖ ﻣﻔﺮﺩﺍﺕ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﻫﻲ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻬﺪﻓﺔ‪ . Paribakht and Wesche. ١٩.” ١٩٥-٢١٨.‫ﻗﺪ ﰎ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻨﺺ ﻟﻠﻤﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻻﺑﺘﺪﺍﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺘﺤﺪﺙ ﻋﻦ ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻉ "ﻛﻴﻒ ﺗﻌـﺘﲏ‬ ‫ﺑﻌﻴﻨﻚ؟؟" )ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺩ ‪ ١٢ – ١٥٨٣‬ﻳﻮﻟﻴﻮ ‪٢٠١٠‬ﻡ(‪ . ٤٢.‬ﻳﺸﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﻨﺺ ‪ ١٩٧‬ﻛﻠﻤﺔ ﻭﰎ ﲢﺪﻳـﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﻋﺸﺮ ﻣﻔﺮﺩﺍﺕ ﻓﻘﻂ ﺍﳌﺮﺍﺩ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺟﻬﺎ‪ .٢ (Spring ٢٠٠١): ٧٧-١١٠. See also. “Reading and “Incidental” L٢ Vocabulary‬‬ ‫‪Acquisition: An Introspective Study of Lexical Inferencing. No.“Using Thinking Aloud and Retrospection to Uncover Learners Lexical Inferencing‬‬ ‫‪Procedures.‬‬ ‫‪٥‬‬ ‫‪Hasstrup.‬ﻳﺘﻨﺎﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﺺ ‪ ٢٢٢‬ﻛﻠﻤﺔ‪ . “A Study‬‬ ‫‪Of Ilokano Learners’ Lexical Inferencing Procedures Through Think-Aloud. See also. ١٩٩٨). Verbal Protocol Analysis in Language Testing Research.‬‬ ‫‪٤٣‬‬ .‬ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﻣﻌﻨﺎﻫﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﻕ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻳﺸﻤﻞ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﺺ ﺳﺖ ﻣﻔﺮﺩﺍﺕ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻣﻘﺎﺭﻧﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺼﲔ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﲔ ﻷﻧﻪ ﻳﺴﺘﻬﺪﻑ ﺇﱃ ﺗﺪﺭﻳﺐ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺸﺎﺭﻛﲔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻛﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﻭﺗﻘﻨﻴﺎﺕ ﻗﻴﺎﻡ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﻜﲑ ﺑﺼﻮﺕ ﻋﺎﻝ ﺃﺛﻨـﺎﺀ ﺍﺳـﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﻣﻌـﺎﱐ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺍﺕ‪ .‬ﺃﺟﺮﻳﺖ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺛﻼﺙ ﻣﺮﺍﺣﻞ ﺃﺳﺎﺳـﻴﺔ ﰲ‬ ‫‪٤‬‬ ‫‪Alison Green. (Cambridge: Cambridge‬‬ ‫‪University Press.‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻨﺺ ﻟﻠﻤﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﳌﺘﻘـﺪﻡ ﻓـﺘﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﳌﻮﺿﻮﻉ ﻋﻦ "ﺍﻟﺘﻐﻴﲑﺍﺕ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﺧﻴﺔ ﺃﺷﺪ ﺗﺄﺛﲑﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺀ")ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺩ ‪ ٢٤ – ١٩١٢‬ﻳﻮﻟﻴﻮ‬ ‫‪٢٠١٠‬ﻡ(‪ .‬‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺒﺤﺚ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ‪ :‬ﻣﺮﺍﺣﻞ ﲨﻊ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻋﺘﻤﺪﺕ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺘﲔ ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻕ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻠﻔﻈﻲ ﰲ ﲨﻊ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭﳘﺎ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻔﻜﲑ ﺑﺼﻮﺕ ﻋﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳌﻘﺎﺑﻠﺔ ﺑﻐﻴﺔ ﺗﻌﺮﻑ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳌﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﻴـﺔ ﻭﺃﳕـﺎﻁ ﺍﻻﺳـﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﳌﺸﺎﺭﻛﲔ‪ .‬ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺍﻟﻨﺺ ﺍﻵﺧﺮ ﻳﺪﻭﺭ ﻋﻦ ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻉ "ﻣﺘﻄﻠﺒﺎﺕ ﻏﺬﺍﺋﻴﺔ ﺿﺮﻭﺭﻳﺔ ﻟﻸﻃﻔﺎﻝ"‬ ‫)‪ -‬ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺩ ‪ ٣١ – ١٥٨٣‬ﻳﻨﺎﻳﺮ ‪٢٠٠٤‬ﻡ( ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﰎ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻣﻪ ﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﺭﻳﺒﻴـﺔ‪.‬ﻭﳘﺎ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺘﺎﻥ ﻣﻌﺘﻤﺪﺗﺎﻥ ﰲ ﻣﻌﻈﻢ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﻮﺙ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺃﺟﺮﻳﺖ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ‬ ‫ﺍ‪‬ﺎﻝ ﻫﺎﺳﺘﺮﺏ‪ ،‬ﺑﺮﻳﺒﻚ ﻭﻭﻳﺴﻪ‪ ،‬ﺳﻮﺭﻳﺎ‪ ٥.‬ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﺺ ﳛﺘﻮﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ ٢١٦‬ﻛﻠﻤﺔ ﺣﻴﺚ ﰎ ﲢﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﻨـﻬﺎ ﻋﺸـﺮ ﻣﻔـﺮﺩﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺘﻬﺪﻓﺔ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ‪ .” Second Language‬‬ ‫‪Studies. Vol.‬‬ ‫ﻳﻘﺼﺪ ﺑﺎﻟﻔﺘﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﺭﻳﺒﻴﺔ ﻫﻨﺎ ﺗﺪﺭﻳﺐ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﲔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﺟﺮﺍﺀ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﻜﲑ ﺑﺼـﻮﺕ ﻋـﺎﻝ‪.‬ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﺭﻳﺐ ﻣﻬﻢ ﳌﺴﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﳌﺸﺎﺭﻛﲔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻖ ﺍﳌﻬﺎﻡ ﺑﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺻﺤﻴﺤﺔ ﻭﺍﺗﺒﺎﻉ‬ ‫ﺗﻘﻨﻴﺎﺕ ﻣﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﺣﱴ ﺗﺘﺤﻘﻖ ﺍﻷﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺍﳌﺮﺟﻮﺓ ﺑﺪﻻ ﻣﻦ ﺑﻴﺎﻥ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﺎ ﻋـﻦ ﻛﻴﻔﻴﺎ‪‬ـﺎ‬ ‫ﻓﺤﺴﺐ‪ ٤.” ١٩٧-٢٢١. Julius Soria.

‬ﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﻨﺺ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﺭﻳﺒﻴﺔ ﻳﺘﻨﺎﻭﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﺖ ﻛﻠﻤﺎﺕ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ‪ :‬ﻣﻘﺎﻭﻡ‪-‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ‪ -‬ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺍﺧﻲ‪ -‬ﺃﺷﻌﺔ‪ -‬ﺍﻟﻄﻠﻖ‪ -‬ﻣﻨﺎﻋﺔ‪ .‫ﲨﻊ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﻭﻫﻲ ﺍﳌﺮﺣﻠﺔ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻄﻼﻋﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺮﺣﻠﺔ ﲨﻊ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﻣﺮﺣﻠﺔ ﲢﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ‪.‬ﺗﻌﺪ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺍﺕ ﲨﻴﻌﻬﺎ ﺑﻮﺻﻔﻬﺎ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺍﺕ ﻏﲑ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺄﻟﻮﻓﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﲔ‪ .‬ﻃﻠﺐ ﻣﻨﻬﻢ ﺑﻘﺮﺍﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﺺ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺧﻄﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺍﺕ ﻏﲑ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻭﻓﺔ‪ .‬ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻧﺘﻬﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﲔ ﻣﻦ ﺇﺟﺮﺍﺀ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﻜﲑ ﺑﺼﻮﺕ ﻋﺎﻝ ﻭﺟﺪﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺜﺔ ﺃ‪‬ـﻢ‬ ‫‪٤٤‬‬ .١‬ﺍﳌﺮﺣﻠﺔ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻄﻼﻋﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻳﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﻨﺺ ﺃﺩﺍﺓ ﺭﺋﻴﺴﺔ ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻞ ﺍﻛﺘﺸـﺎﻑ ﺍﳌﺼـﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﻴـﺔ ﻭﻧﻮﻋﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﻬﻤﺎ ﺍﳌﺸﺎﺭﻛﻮﻥ ﰲ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﻣﻌﺎﱐ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺍﺕ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺀﺓ‪ .‬ﻟﺬﺍ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻣﺖ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺜﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻄﻼﻋﻴﺔ ﻋﻠـﻰ ﺛﻼﺛـﺔ ﻃـﻼﺏ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻻﺑﺘﺪﺍﺋﻲ ﻭﺛﻼﺛﺔ ﻃﻼﺏ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﳌﺘﻘﺪﻡ ﺑﻐﻴﺔ ﺗﻌﺮﻑ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺍﺕ ﻏﲑ ﺍﳌﺄﻟﻮﻓـﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﻗﺒﻠﻬﻢ‪ .‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻬﺪﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﰎ ﲢﺪﻳﺪﻫﺎ ﻟﻠﻤﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﳌﺘﻘﺪﻡ ﻓﺘﺸﻤﻞ ﻋﺸﺮ ﻛﻠﻤﺎﺕ ﺃﻳﻀـﺎ ﻣﻨـﻬﺎ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺇﻋﺼﺎﺭ‪ -‬ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺤﺮ‪ -‬ﺍﳌﻨﻜﻮﺑﺔ‪ -‬ﻛﻮﺍﺭﺙ‪ -‬ﺍﳓﺴﺎﺭ‪ -‬ﺍﻟﻌﻨﻒ‪ -‬ﺍﻏﺘﺼﺎﺏ‪ -‬ﺍﻟﻨﺎﲨﺔ‪ -‬ﺍﻧﺒﻌﺎﺛﺎﺕ‪-‬‬ ‫ﺗﻠﻮﻳﺚ‪ .‬ﺑﻌﺪ ﲢﺪﻳﺪ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻬﺪﻓﺔ ﻟﻜﻼ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﲔ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻣـﺖ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺜـﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻄﻼﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺑﻐﻴﺔ ﺗﻌﺮﻑ ﺇﱃ ﻣﺪﻯ ﻗﺪﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﲔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﻴﺎﻡ ﺑﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﻜﲑ‬ ‫ﺑﺼﻮﺕ ﻋﺎﻝ‪ .‬‬ ‫ﻭﺗﻔﺎﺻﻴﻞ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﺤﻮ ﺍﻵﰐ‪-:‬‬ ‫‪ ١.‬ﰲ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳍﺪﻑ ﻻﺑﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳـﲔ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ ‪ %٩٥‬ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺭﺩﺓ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﺺ ﺣﱴ ﻳﺘﻤﻜﻨﻮﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﻣﻌـﺎﱐ ﺍﳌﻔـﺮﺩﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻬﺪﻓﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﺺ‪ .‬ﻭﰎ ﺍﺧﺘﻴـﺎﺭ ﺍﳌﻔـﺮﺩﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻬﺪﻓﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻻﺑﺘﺪﺍﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺘﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻦ ﻋﺸﺮ ﻣﻔﺮﺩﺍﺕ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ‪ :‬ﺃﺭﻕ‪ -‬ﻧﻌﺎﱐ‪ -‬ﺃﻏﻤﺾ‪-‬‬ ‫ﻋﻘﺎﺭﺏ‪ -‬ﺳﻼﺳﺔ‪ -‬ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺮﺧﺎﺀ‪ -‬ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻋﻤﺔ‪ -‬ﺍﻻﻧﺘﻔﺎﺥ‪ -‬ﻓﺎﺻﻞ ﺷﺎﻱ‪ -‬ﺃﻛﻴﺎﺱ‪ .‬ﻛﺎﻧـﺖ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﺠﺎﺑﺘﻬﻢ ﺑﻮﺻﻔﻬﺎ ﻣﺼﺪﺭﺍ ﻣﻬﻤﺎ ﻹﺭﺷﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺜﺔ ﰲ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻬﺪﻓﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﲔ‬ ‫ﻣﻊ ﺇﺟﺮﺍﺀ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺪﻳﻼﺕ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻤﺎ ﻟﻴﺘﻨﺎﺳﺒﺎ ﻣﻊ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﻄﻼﺏ‪ .‬ﻟـﺬﺍ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺃﺟﺮﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺜﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻄﻼﻋﻴﺔ ﺑﻐﻴﺔ ﲢﻘـﻖ ﻣـﺪﻯ ﺗﻨﺎﺳـﺐ ﺍﻟﻨﺼـﲔ ﺍﳌﺨﺘـﺎﺭﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻻﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻣﻬﻤﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺍﳊﻘﻴﻘﻴﺔ ﺣﻴﺚ ﻻﺣﻈﺖ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺜﺔ ﺃﻥ ﺇﺣﺪﻯ ﺃﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺮﺍﻋﺎﺓ ﻗﺪﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﲔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﳌﻌﲎ‪ .‬ﺍﺧﺘﺎﺭﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺜﺔ ﻃﺎﻟﺒﺘﲔ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻻﺑﺘﺪﺍﺋﻲ ﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﻃﺎﻟﺒﺘﲔ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺴـﺘﻮﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺘﻘﺪﻡ‪ .

‬ﻻﺣﻈﺖ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺜﺔ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳌﺸﺎﺭﻛﲔ ﻓﻬﻤﻮﺍ ﺑﺴﻬﻮﻟﺔ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﺃﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﻜﲑ ﺑﺼﻮﺕ ﻋﺎﻝ‪.‬‬ ‫ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ‪ ،‬ﰎ ﲨﻊ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺸﺎﺭﻛﲔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻔﺼﻞ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﻲ‬ ‫‪٢٠١١‬ﻡ‪٢٠١٢/‬ﻡ‪ ،‬ﻭﲨﻌﺖ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺜﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﰲ ﺍﳉﻠﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺩﻳﺔ ﺣﻴﺚ ﻗﺎﺑﻠﺖ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺜﺔ ﻛﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺸﺎﺭﻙ ﰲ ﻏﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﻗﺸﺔ ﰲ ﻣﻜﺘﺒﺔ ﺑﺎﳉﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﻴﺔ ﲟﺎﻟﻴﺰﻳﺎ‪ . ٢٤.‬ﻻﺷﻚ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺪﺭﻳﺐ ﺍﳌﺸﺎﺭﻛﲔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﻜﲑ ﺑﺼﻮﺕ ﻋﺎﻝ ﻣﻨﻔﺮﺩﺍ ﺑﺎﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭﻩ ﺃﻣـﺮﺍ‬ ‫ﻣﻬﻤﺎ ﻟﻠﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺤﺔ ﻭﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﻷﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺍﳌﺮﺟﻮﺓ‪ .‬‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻣﺖ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﻜﲑ ﺑﺼﻮﺕ ﻋﺎﻝ ﺑﻮﺻﻔﻬﺎ ﺃﺩﺍﺓ ﺭﺋﻴﺴﺔ ﳉﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧـﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺣﻴﺚ ﺗﺘﻄﻠﺐ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺸﺎﺭﻛﲔ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺒﲑ ﻭﺍﻹﺑﻼﻍ ﻋﻦ ﻣﻀﻤﻮﻥ ﺃﻓﻜﺎﺭﻫﻢ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﳏﺎﻭﻟﺘﻬﻢ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻌﲎ‪ . Vol.١. (June ١٩٩٣): ٣٦. Stimulated Recall Methodology in Second Language Research.‬‬ ‫ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﻜﲑ ﺑﺼﻮﺕ ﻋﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﺇﻥ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﻜﲑ ﺑﺼﻮﺕ ﻋﺎﻝ ﺇﺣﺪﻯ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻕ ﺷﺎﺋﻌﺔ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﰲ ﳎﺎﻝ ﺍﻛﺘﺸﺎﻑ ﻋﻤﻠﻴـﺔ‬ ‫‪٦‬‬ ‫ﻣﻌﺮﻓﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺎﺕ ﰲ ﺃﺭﺑﻌﺔ ﻣﻴﺎﺩﻳﻦ ﺭﺋﻴﺴﺔ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﲨﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺀﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺑﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻻﺧﺘﺒﺎﺭ‪.‬‬ ‫‪(USA: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.” Relc Journal.٢‬ﻣﺮﺣﻠﺔ ﲨﻊ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ )ﺍﻟﺘﻔﻜﲑ ﺑﺼﻮﺕ ﻋﺎﻝ ﻭﺍﳌﻘﺎﺑﻠﺔ(‪. ٤٤. “Research: State of the ArtVerbal-Report data and Introspective Methods in‬‬ ‫‪Second Language.‬‬ ‫‪٧‬‬ ‫‪Susan M.‫ﻗﺎﺩﺭﻭﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﳌﻬﻤﺔ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﺟﻴﺪ ﻭﻟﻮ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﻬﻤﺔ ﺑﻮﺻﻔﻬﺎ ﻣﺮﺓ ﺃﻭﱃ ﺍﻟﱵ ﱂ ﳚﺮ‪‬ﺎ‬ ‫ﻫﺆﻻﺀ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺒﻞ‪. ٢٠٠٠).‬ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺗﺪﺭﻳﺐ ﺍﳌﺸـﺎﺭﻛﲔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﻜﲑ ﺑﺼﻮﺕ ﻋﺎﻝ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﳌﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﺭﻳﺒﻴﺔ ﺣﻮﺍﱄ ﻋﺸﺮ ﺩﻗﺎﺋﻖ ﺇﱃ ﲬﺲ ﻋﺸـﺮﺓ‬ ‫ﺩﻗﻴﻘﺔ ﻓﻘﻂ‪ .‬ﻭﰲ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ‪ ،‬ﳝﻨﺢ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺚ ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ‬ ‫‪٨‬‬ ‫ﺃﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﳌﺸﺎﺭﻛﲔ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﳛﺎﻭﻟﻮﻥ ﺗﻔﺴﲑ ﺃﻓﻜﺎﺭﻫﻢ ﺑﺪﻻ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺒﲑ ﻋﻤﺎ ﳚﺮﻱ ﰲ ﺃﺫﻫﺎ‪‬ﻢ‪. Gass and Alison Mackey.‬‬ ‫‪ ١.‬‬ ‫‪٤٥‬‬ .‬ﺃﻛﺪ ﺟﺲ ﻭﻣﻴﻜـﻲ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻗﺒﻞ ﺇﺟﺮﺍﺀ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﻜﲑ ﺑﺼﻮﺕ ﻋﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﻻﺑﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺗﺪﺭﻳﺐ ﺍﳌﺸﺎﺭﻛﲔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻛﻴﻔﻴﺎﺕ ﺇﺟﺮﺍﺋﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺣﱴ ﻳﺘﻤﻜﻨﻮﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺒﲑ ﻋﻤﺎ ﰲ ﺃﺫﻫﺎ‪‬ﻢ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺃﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﳌﻬﺎﻡ‪ .‬‬ ‫ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﺑﻴﻨﺖ ﳍﻢ ﺃﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﻭﺑﻴﺎﻥ ﻣﻨﻬﺞ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﻜﲑ ﺑﺼﻮﺕ ﻋﺎﻝ ﺑﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬ ‫‪٦‬‬ ‫‪Matsumoto Kazuko.‬ﻭﺍﺳـﺘﻐﺮﻗﺖ ﻣـﺪﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺟﺮﺍﺀﺍﺕ ﳉﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺣﻮﺍﱄ ﺳﺎﻋﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺳﺎﻋﺔ ﻭﻧﺼﻒ‪ . No.‬ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺮﻳﻦ ﻳﺴﺎﻋﺪ ﺍﳌﺸـﺎﺭﻛﲔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺒﲑ ﻋﻦ ﺃﻓﻜﺎﺭﻫﻢ ﺑﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺟﻴﺪﺓ ﻭﻃﻼﻗﺔ‪ ٧.‬‬ ‫‪٨‬‬ ‫‪See: Matsumato. ٣٧.

٤٤.‬‬ ‫ﻋﻼﻭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺫﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﺍﻫﺘﻤﺖ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺜﺔ ﺑﺒﻌﺾ ﺍﳋﻄﻮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﺴﻴﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺍﻗﺘﺮﺣﺘﻬﺎ ﻣﺘﺴـﻤﺘﻮ‬ ‫ﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﰲ ﺇﺟﺮﺍﺀ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﻜﲑ ﺑﺼﻮﺕ ﻋﺎﻝ‪ .‬ﺑﺎﻹﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺫﻟﻚ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻗﺪ ﺍﻗﺘﺮﺡ ﺑﻦ ﺳﻮﻣﲑﻥ ﻭﺁﺧﺮﻭﻥ‪ ،‬ﺃﻻ ﻳﺒﺪﺃ ﺇﺟﺮﺍﺀ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﻜﲑ ﺑﺼﻮﺕ ﻋـﺎﻝ ﺇﻻ ﻳﺘﺄﻛـﺪ‬ ‫‪١٠‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺚ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺪﺭﺓ ﺍﳌﺸﺎﺭﻛﲔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻌﺒﲑ ﻋﻦ ﺃﻓﻜﺎﺭﻫﻢ ﺑﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺳﻠﻴﻤﺔ ﻭﻳﺘﻤﻜﻦ ﰲ ﺗﻌﺒﲑﻫﺎ‪. van Someren. Knowledge Sources.‬ﻭﰲ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ‪ ،‬ﺍﺳﺘﻤﻊ ﻛﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺸﺎﺭﻙ ﺇﱃ ﺟﺰﺀ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻮﺫﺝ ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﻜﲑ ﺑﺼﻮﺕ ﻋﺎﻝ ﰲ ﻟﻐﺘﻬﻢ ﺍﻷﻡ )ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﳌﻼﻳﻮﻳـﺔ(‬ ‫ﻟﻜﻲ ﻳﻌﺮﻓﻮﺍ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﺇﺟﺮﺍﺀﻫﺎ ﺑﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺃﻭﺿﺢ‪ .‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺮﺓ ﺍﻵﺗﻴﺔ ﻃﻠﺒﺖ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺸﺎﺭﻙ ﲟﻤﺎﺭﺳﺔ ﺗﻌﺒﲑ ﺷـﻔﻮﻳﺎ ﻛﻤـﺎ‬ ‫ﻧﻄﻘﺖ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺜﺔ ﺳﺎﺑﻘﺎ‪ . No. “L٢ Vocabulary Learning From Context: Strategies.‬‬ ‫‪١١‬‬ ‫‪Nassaji. “L٢ Reading Proficiency and Lexical Inferencing by University EFL‬‬ ‫‪Learners.‬ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺍﳌﺸﺎﺭﻛﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﳌﻼﻳﻮﻳﺔ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺗﻌﺒﲑ ﻋـﻦ‬ ‫ﺃﻓﻜﺎﺭﻫﻢ‪ .‬‬ ‫ﻟﺬﺍ‪ ،‬ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﻛﺪ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺪﺭﺓ ﺍﳌﺸﺎﺭﻛﲔ ﰲ ﺇﳒﺎﺯ ﺍﳌﻬﺎﻡ )ﺍﻟﺘﻔﻜﲑ ﺑﺼـﻮﺕ ﻋـﺎﻝ(‪ ،‬ﰒ‬ ‫ﺑﺪﺃﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺜﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺍﳊﻘﻴﻘﻴﺔ ﺣﻴﺚ ﻗﺪﻡ ﳍﻢ ﺍﻟﻨﺺ‪ . ٣٧.‬ﻗﺒﻞ ﻗﺮﺍﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﺺ‪ ،‬ﺫﻛﺮﺕ ﳍﻢ ﻟﻠﺘﻌـﺒﲑ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ ﺃﻓﻜﺎﺭﻫﻢ ﺷﻔﻮﻳﺎ ﻋﻤﺎ ﳚﺮﻱ ﰲ ﺃﺫﻫﺎ‪‬ﻢ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﳌﻌﲎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺮﻏﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻷﺟﻮﺑﺔ‬ ‫ﻏﲑ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﺳﺒﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﳍﻢ‪ .” ٢٣١‬‬ ‫‪١٠‬‬ ‫‪Maarten W.‬ﻗﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﻐﺮﻕ ﻛﻞ ﺍﳌﺸـﺎﺭﻙ ﰲ ﺃﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﳌﻬـﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺣﻮﺍﱄ ﻧﺼﻒ ﺳﺎﻋﺔ ﺇﱃ ﲬﺴﲔ ﺩﻗﻴﻘﺔ‪ . ١٩٩٤). (London: Academic Press.‬ﻻﺑﺪ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻐﺮﻓﺔ ﻣﺮﳛﺔ ﻭﻫﺎﺩﺋـﺔ ﺣـﱴ‬ ‫‪٩‬‬ ‫‪Bengeleil and Paribakht.٤ (Winter ٢٠٠٣):‬‬ ‫‪٦٥١.‬‬ ‫‪٤٦‬‬ . Barnard. and Their‬‬ ‫‪Relationship With Success in L٢ Lexical Inferencing. Sandberg.‬ﺃﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻳﻬﺪﻑ ﺇﱃ ﺗﻌﺮﻑ ﻧﻮﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺴـﺘﺨﺪﻣﺔ ﺃﺛﻨـﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﳏﺎﻭﻟﺘﻬﻢ ﺍﻓﺘﺮﺍﺽ ﻣﻌﲎ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺓ‪ . Jacobijn A.‬ﻭﰲ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ‪ ،‬ﲤﻨﺢ ﳍﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻮﻉ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻬﺪﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺮﺓ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﺇﺫﺍﱂ ﻳﻨﺠﺤﻮﺍ ﰲ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺟﻬﺎ ﺑﻌﺪ‪ ١١. Vol.” Tesol Quarterly.‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺍﻗﺘﺮﺣﺖ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﻮﺙ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ‪ ،‬ﺗﺘﺎﺡ ﻟﻠﻤﺸﺎﺭﻛﲔ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻠﻐـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻡ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﳍﺪﻑ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺗﻌﺒﲑ ﻋﻦ ﺃﻓﻜﺎﺭﻫﻢ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﻜﲑ ﺑﺼﻮﺕ ﻋﺎﻝ‪ ٩. The Think Aloud Method: A‬‬ ‫‪Practical guide to modeling cognitive processes. Yvonne F.‬ﻗﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻣﺖ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺜﺔ ﻧﺼـﺎ ﻣﻮﺣـﺪﺍ ﻟﻜـﻼ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻮﻳﲔ ﻭﻫﻮ "ﻣﺘﻄﻠﺒﺎﺕ ﻏﺬﺍﺋﻴﺔ ﺿﺮﻭﺭﻳﺔ ﻟﻸﻃﻔﺎﻝ"‪ .‬ﰲ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﺑﺪﺃﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺜﺔ ﺑﻘـﺮﺍﺀﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺺ ﺃﻣﺎﻡ ﺍﳌﺸﺎﺭﻙ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﺗﻌﺒﲑ ﻋﻤﺎ ﳚﺮﻱ ﰲ ﺫﻫﻨﻬﺎ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﳏﺎﻭﻟﺔ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﻣﻌـﺎﱐ ﺍﳌﻔـﺮﺩﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻬﺪﻓﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﺺ‪ .‫ﻋﺎﻣﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺷﺮﺡ ﻛﻴﻔﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺒﲑ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻷﻓﻜﺎﺭ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺃﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﳌﻬﺎﻡ‪ .‬ﻭﺳﺠﻠﺖ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﺭﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻠﻔﻈﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺁﻟـﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺴـﺠﻴﻞ‪ ،‬ﰒ‬ ‫ﲢﻮﻳﻠﻬﺎ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺮﻣﻮﺯ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺑﻴﺔ ﻟﻐﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻠﻴﻞ ﻟﻔﺘﺮﺓ ﺗﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪.C.

” ٣٤. ٤١.‫ﻳﺴﺘﻌﺪ ﺍﳌﺸﺎﺭﻛﻮﻥ ﻹﳒﺎﺯ ﺍﳌﻬﺎﻡ‪ .‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺫﻛﺮ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻨﻴﺎﺕ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺗﻨﻔﻴﺬ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﺍﻟـﺘﻔﻜﲑ ﺑﺼـﻮﺕ ﻋـﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺚ ﻻ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﺍﺧﻞ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﻗﻴﺎﻡ ﺍﳌﺸﺎﺭﻛﲔ ﺑﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺇﻻ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﻮﺍ ﻳﺘﻮﻗﻔﻮﻥ ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺒﲑ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﻼﻡ ﳌﺪﺓ ﻃﻮﻳﻠﺔ ﺗﻌﲏ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ ﲬﺴﺔ ﻋﺸﺮ ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ‪ . ٣٩.‬‬ ‫‪١٤‬‬ ‫‪See: Ibid.‬‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻘﺎﺑﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺇﻥ ﺍﳌﻘﺎﺑﻠﺔ ﻫﻲ ﺍﳌﺮﺣﻠﺔ ﺍﻷﺧﲑﺓ ﰲ ﲨﻊ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﳑﺎ ﰎ ﺇﺟﺮﺍﺅﻫﺎ ﻓﻮﺭﺍ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻧﺘﻬﺎﺀ ﺍﳌﺸـﺎﺭﻛﲔ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﺃﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﻜﲑ ﺑﺼﻮﺕ ﻋﺎﻝ‪ . Barnard and Sandberg.‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺮﻏﻢ ﻣﻦ‪ ،‬ﺍﻷﻓﻀﻞ ﺃﻥ ﳚﻬﺰ ﳍﻢ ﻛﻮﺑﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺎﺀ ﻭﺍﳌﻘﻌﺪ‬ ‫ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﺮﳛﺎ‪ ١٢. Stimulated Recall Methodology in Second Language Research.‬‬ ‫‪(USA: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.‬‬ ‫‪٤٧‬‬ .‬ﻟﺬﺍ‪ ،‬ﺗﺴﺘﻜﻤﻞ ﻫﺬﻩ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻔﻜﲑ ﺑﺼﻮﺕ ﻋﺎﻝ ﺑﺈﺟﺮﺍﺀ ﺍﳌﻘﺎﺑﻠﺔ ﳑﺎ ‪‬ﺪﻑ ﺇﱃ ﺗﻔﺼﻴﻞ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﻏﲑ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺿﺤﺔ ﻭﻏﲑ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﰎ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻠﻬﺎ ﰲ ﺁﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺃﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﳌﺸﺎﺭﻛﲔ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﻜﲑ ﺑﺼـﻮﺕ ﻋـﺎﻝ‪ .‬ﻋﻼﻭﺓ ﻋﻠـﻰ‬ ‫ﺫﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﺃﻥ ﺍﳍﺪﻑ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺲ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﻘﺎﺑﻠﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻛﺘﺸﺎﻑ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﺿـﺎﻓﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣـﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺗﻔﻜﲑ ﺍﳌﺸﺎﺭﻛﲔ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻋﻨﺪﻫﻢ ﻣﻼﺣﻈﺎﺕ ﺇﺿـﺎﻓﻴﺔ ﻋـﻦ ﻣﻌـﺎﱐ‬ ‫‪١٦‬‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﰎ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺟﻬﺎ‪. Stimulated Recall Methodology in Second Language Research.‬ﺭﺃﻯ‬ ‫ﺟﺲ ﻭﻣﻴﻜﻲ‪ ،‬ﺃﻥ ﺍﳌﻘﺎﺑﻠﺔ ﺃﺣﺴﻦ ﺗﻨﻔﻴﺬﻫﺎ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻧﺘﻬﺎﺀ ﺍﳌﺸﺎﺭﻛﲔ ﻣـﻦ ﺃﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﻟـﺘﻔﻜﲑ‬ ‫ﺑﺼﻮﺕ ﻋﺎﻝ‪ .‬ﰲ ﺍﳌﻘﺎﺑﻠﺔ‪ ،‬ﺗﺘﻄﻠﺐ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺸﺎﺭﻛﲔ ﺗﺬﻛﺮ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳌﻬﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻗﺎﻣﻮﺍ ﺑﻪ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺗﻨﻔﻴـﺬ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻔﻜﲑ ﺑﺼﻮﺕ ﻋﺎﻝ ﻷﻥ ﺍﳌﻬﺎﻡ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺗﺒﺪﺃ ﻣﺘﺒﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﻭﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ‪ ١٥. ٢٠٠٠).‬‬ ‫‪١٣‬‬ ‫‪Matsumato.‬ﺗﺘﻤﻴﺰ ﺍﳌﻘﺎﺑﻠﺔ ﺑﻌﺪﺓ ﺃﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﺍﻛﺘﺸﺎﻑ ﺳﻠﻮﻛﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻢ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﻋﻦ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﻣﻌﺮﻓﻴﺔ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺀﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺑﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻻﺳﺘﻤﺎﻉ‪ ١٤. “Research: State of the ArtVerbal-Report data and Introspective Methods in Second‬‬ ‫‪Language.‬‬ ‫‪١٥‬‬ ‫‪Susan M.‬‬ ‫‪١٢‬‬ ‫‪Someren.‬ﺃﺛﺒﺘﺖ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺑﺄﻧﻪ ﱂ ﻳﻮﺟﺪ ﺃﺣﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺸﺎﺭﻛﲔ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻳﻮﺍﺟﻬﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﻌﻮﺑﺔ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﻜﲑ ﺑﺼﻮﺕ ﻋﺎﻝ‪. ٣٧.‬ﺑﻨـﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺎ ﺳﺒﻖ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺪ ﳒﺤﺖ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺜﺔ ﰲ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﻜﲑ ﺑﺼـﻮﺕ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﻝ ﻟﻜﻼ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻮﻳﲔ‪ . The Think Aloud Method: A Practical guide to modeling cognitive‬‬ ‫‪processes. Gass and Alison Mackey. ٣٧.‬ﰲ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﳊﺎﻟﺔ‪ ،‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣـﺚ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ ﻳﺬﻛﺮﻫﻢ ﺃﻭ ﳛﺜﻬﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻜﻼﻡ ﺣﱴ ﻳﻌﱪﻭﺍ ﻋﻤﺎ ﳚﺮﻱ ﰲ ﺃﺫﻫﺎ‪‬ﻢ‪ ١٣.‬‬ ‫‪١٦‬‬ ‫‪See: Gass and Mackey.

‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﺇﻥ ﺍﳌﻘﺎﺑﻠﺔ ﺗﺴـﺎﻋﺪ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺜـﺔ ﻋﻠـﻰ ﺣﺼـﻮﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺮﺟﻮﺓ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻳﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﺑﻜﻴﻔﻴﺎ‪‬ﻢ ﰲ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﻣﻌﲎ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺍﺕ ﺣﻴـﺚ ﻳـﺒﲔ ﺍﻷﺩﻟـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﻗﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﻌﺘﻤﺪ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﳌﺸﺎﺭﻛﻮﻥ‪.‬ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﳌﻘﺎﺑﻠﺔ‪ ،‬ﻃﺮﺣﺖ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺜﺔ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻷﺳﺌﻠﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﺸﺎﺭﻛﲔ ﺑﻐﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻑ‬ ‫ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﻭﺻﻮﳍﻢ ﰲ ﲢﺪﻳﺪ ﺗﻠﻚ ﻣﻌﺎﱐ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻬﺪﻓﺔ‪ .‬ﺇﺫ ﱂ ﻳﺘﻴﺢ ﻟﻠﺒﺎﺣﺜﺔ ﺍﻟﺘـﺪﺧ‪‬ﻞ‬ ‫ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﻗﻴﺎﻡ ﺍﳌﺸﺎﺭﻛﲔ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻔﻜﲑ ﺑﺼﻮﺕ ﻋﺎﻝ ﳑﺎ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺎﻁ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻏﲑ ﻭﺍﺿﺤﺔ ﻓﻴـﻪ‪.‬‬ ‫‪٤٨‬‬ .‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﰒ‪ ،‬ﺗﺴﺠﻞ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﻘﺎﺑﻠﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺁﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﻟﻐﺮﺽ ﲢﻠﻴـﻞ ﺗﻠـﻚ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﺑﻌﺪ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺃﺟﺎﺏ ﺍﳌﺸﺎﺭﻛﻮﻥ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻷﺳﺌﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ‬ ‫ﻋﺮﺿﺖ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ ﺣﻴﺚ ﻭﺿﺤﻮﺍ ﺍﻷﺩﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﻗﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﺺ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺴﺎﻋﺪﻫﻢ ﰲ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ‬ ‫ﺗﻠﻚ ﻣﻌﺎﱐ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺍﺕ‪.‬ﻭﰲ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻗﺪ ﺃﺧـﱪ ﺍﳌﺸـﺎﺭﻛﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺒﺎﺣﺜﺔ ﺑﺄﻥ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺗﻔﻴﺪﻫﻢ ﻛﺜﲑﺍ ﻭﺃﻭﻝ ﻣﺸﺎﺭﻛﺘﻬﻢ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳـﺔ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﻠﻘـﺔ ﲟﺠـﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﻕ‪ .‬‬ ‫ﻻﺣﻈﺖ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺜﺔ ﻃﻮﻝ ﻓﺘﺮﺓ ﲨﻊ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻣﻌﻈﻢ ﺍﳌﺸﺎﺭﻛﲔ ﻳﺮﻏﺒﻮﻥ ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﻹﺟﺎﺑﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺤﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﻔﺮﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻬﺪﻓﺔ ﰲ ‪‬ﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﻘﺎﺑﻠﺔ‪ .‬ﻛﺬﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭﻝ ﲡﺮﺑﺘﻬﻢ ﰲ ﺃﺩﺍﺀ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﻜﲑ ﺑﺼﻮﺕ ﻋﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﻗﺮﺍﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﺺ‪.‫ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﺳﺘﻐﺮﻗﺖ ﺍﳌﻘﺎﺑﻠﺔ ﻣﺪﺓ ﻗﺼﲑﺓ ﺣﻮﺍﱄ ﻋﺸﺮ ﺩﻗﺎﺋﻖ ﺇﱃ ﲬﺴﺔ ﻋﺸـﺮ‬ ‫ﺩﻗﻴﻘﺔ ﻟﻜﻞ ﺍﳌﺸﺎﺭﻙ‪ .‬‬ ‫ﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﻟﻮﺣﻆ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﳌﺸﺎﺭﻛﲔ ﻗﺪ ﻳﺄﺗﻮﻥ ﺑﺎﳌﺮﺍﺩﻑ ﻟﻠﻤﻔﺮﺩﺓ ﺍﳌﺴـﺘﻬﺪﻓﺔ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺗﻌـﺒﲑ ﻋـﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﻀﻤﻮﻥ ﺃﻓﻜﺎﺭﻫﻢ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﻛﺸﻒ ﻣﻌﻨﺎﻫﺎ‪ .‬‬ ‫ﺍﳊﻘﻴﻘﺔ ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﺪﻣﺞ ﺑﲔ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﻜﲑ ﺑﺼﻮﺕ ﻋﺎﻝ ﻭﺍﳌﻘﺎﺑﻠﺔ ﻳﺴﺎﻋﺪ ﻋﻠـﻰ ﺇﻛﻤـﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺄﻛﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺻﺤﺘﻬﺎ ﻛﻤﺎ ﺗﺴﻬﻢ ﰲ ﺇﺛﺮﺍﺀ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‪ .‬ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﻴﻔﻲ ﻟﻠﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﰲ ﻛﻠﺘﺎ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻳﻘﺘﲔ ﻳﺸﻤﻞ ﲢﻮﻳﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﺭﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻠﻔﻈﻴﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺮﻣﻮﺯ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺑﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺮﻣ‪‬ﻴﺰ‪ ،‬ﻭﲢﺪﻳﺪ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﻬﺎ ﺍﳌﺸﺎﺭﻛﻮﻥ ﻭﻓﻘﺎ ﻟﻠﺘﺼﻨﻴﻒ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻘﺘﺮﺡ ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ‪.‬ﻭﻋﺮﺿﺖ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺜﺔ ﺍﻷﺳﺌﻠﺔ ﻋﻠـﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺸﺎﺭﻛﲔ ﺣﺴﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﺟﺎﺑﺘﻬﻢ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﻗﻴﺎﻡ ﺑﺎﳌﻘﺎﺑﻠﺔ‪ .‬‬ ‫ﻣﺮﺣﻠﺔ ﲢﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﰎ ﲢﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﲨﻌﺖ ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﻜﲑ ﺑﺼﻮﺕ ﻋﺎﻝ ﻭﺍﳌﻘﺎﺑﻠﺔ ﲢﻠﻴﻼ ﻛﻴﻔﻴ‪‬ﺎ‪ .

‬ﻭﻗﹸﻮ‪‬ﻣﺖ ﺃﺟﺎﺑﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﲔ ﳌﻌﺎﱐ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻬﺪﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﰎ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺟﻬﺎ ﺗﺒﻌﺎ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻵﺗﻴﺔ‪-:‬‬ ‫‪ #‬ﺇﺟﺎﺑﺔ ﺻﺤﻴﺤﺔ ﻛﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺘﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﺑﺎﻟﺴﻴﺎﻕ )ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﻛﻠﻲ = ‪(٢‬‬ ‫‪ #‬ﺇﺟﺎﺑﺔ ﺻﺤﻴﺤﺔ ﺟﺰﺋﻴﺔ ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﺍﳌﻌﲎ ﻻ ﺗﺘﻨﺎﺳﺒﺐ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﻕ )ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﺟﺰﺋﻲ= ‪(١‬‬ ‫‪ #‬ﺇﺟﺎﺑﺔ ﺧﺎﻃﺌﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻻ ﺗﻔﻴﺪ ﺍﳌﻌﲎ )ﺧﻄﺄ = ‪(٠‬‬ ‫ﻭﰲ ﺍﳌﺒﺤﺚ ﺍﻵﰐ ﻋﺮﺽ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﰲ ﺃﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﳌﺒﺘﺪﺋﲔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﳌﺘﻘﺪﻣﲔ ﻭﺍﻛﺘﺸﺎﻑ ﻣﺪﻯ ﳒﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﲔ ﰲ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﻣﻌﺎﱐ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺍﺕ ﻭﺃﺧﲑﺍ ﺑﻴﺎﻥ ﻣﻮﺍﻃﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﺑﲔ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻮﻳﲔ ﰲ ﺗﻮﻇﻴﻒ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﻕ‪.‬ﺑﻌﺪ ﺫﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﻧﻘﻞ‬ ‫ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺇﱃ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ‪ NVivo version ٩‬ﻟﺘﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﲢﺪﻳﺪﺍ ﺩﻗﻴﻘﺎ‪ .‬‬ ‫‪٤٩‬‬ .‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺇﺣﺪﻯ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺟﺪﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﻪ ﰲ ﺗﻴﺴﲑ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﲢﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﲢﻠﻴﻼ ﻛﻴﻔﻴﺎ ﺑﻐﻴﺔ ﺣﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺩﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﻭﺻﺪﻗﻬﺎ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻠﻴﻞ‪ .‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﻤﻲ‬ ‫ﻓﺘﻢ ﲝﺴﺎﺏ ﺗﺮﺩﺩﺍﺕ ﺃﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﳌﻌﲎ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﻬﺎ ﺍﳌﺸﺎﺭﻛﻮﻥ ﰲ ﻛﻠﺘﺎ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻳﻘﺘﲔ‪ ،‬ﰒ‬ ‫ﺣﺴﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﳌﺌﻮﻳﺔ ﻟﻼﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳉﺰﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳋﻄﺄ‪ .‬ﺪﻑ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳋﻄﻮﺓ ﺇﱃ ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﻣﺪﻯ‬ ‫ﺻﺪﻕ ﰲ ﲢﺪﻳﺪ ﺃﳕﺎﻁ ﺍﳌﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻻﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺎﺕ ﲢﺪﻳﺪﺍ ﺻﺤﻴﺤﺎ‪ .‫ﻭﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻠﻴﻞ ﺑﺪﺃﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺜﺔ ﺑﺘﺤﻮﻳﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺴﺠﻠﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺁﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺮﻣﻮﺯ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺑﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﲤﺖ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻠﻬﺎ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺃﺩﺍﺀ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﻜﲑ ﺑﺼﻮﺕ ﻋﺎﻝ ﻭﺍﳌﻘﺎﺑﻠﺔ‪ .‬ﻋﺮﺿﺖ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺜﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺴﺠﻠﺔ ﰲ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ‬ ‫‪ Nvivo‬ﺃﻣﺎﻡ ﺍﳋﺒﲑ ﻟﻠﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻻﺗﻔﺎﻕ ﺑﲔ ﺟﻬﺘﲔ‪ .

‫ﺍﻟﻔﺼﻞ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ‬ ‫ﲢﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﻭﻣﻨﺎﻗﺸﺘﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺒﺤﺚ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ‪ :‬ﲢﻠﻴﻞ ﺃﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﻕ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺒﺤﺚ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ‪ :‬ﲢﻠﻴﻞ ﻣﺪﻯ ﳒﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﲔ ﰲ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﻣﻌﺎﱐ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺒﺤﺚ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ‪ :‬ﲢﻠﻴﻞ ﻣﻮﺍﻃﻦ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﺑﲔ ﺍﳌﺒﺘﺪﺋﲔ ﻭﺍﳌﺘﻘﺪﻣﲔ ﰲ ﺗﻮﻇﻴﻒ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﻕ‬ ‫ﻳﻬﺪﻑ ﲢﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﺇﱃ ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺃﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﺍﳌﺼـﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﻴـﺔ ﻭﺍﻻﺳـﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﳌﺒﺘﺪﺋﲔ ﻭﺍﳌﺘﻘﺪﻣﲔ ﰲ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﻣﻌﺎﱐ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻬﺪﻓﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺪﻯ ﳒـﺎﺣﻬﻢ‬ ‫ﰲ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﻣﻌﺎﻧﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺤﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﺑﻴﺎﻥ ﻣﻮﺍﻃﻦ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﺑﲔ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻄﻠﺒﺔ ﻣـﻦ‬ ‫ﻛﻼ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻮﻳﲔ ﻷﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﺍﳌﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻻﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻨﻴﻒ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻞ ﺍﻵﰐ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺃ‪-‬ﺍﳌﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﻮﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺑﺎﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺓ‬ ‫ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﺮﻓﻴﺔ‬‫ ﺍ‪‬ﺎﻧﺴﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﻔﻈﻴﺔ‬‫‪ -‬ﺭﺑﻂ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﲎ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ‬‫ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺒﻴﺔ‬‫ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺒﺪﺍﻟﻴﺔ‬‫‪٥٠‬‬ .‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﰎ ﲢﻠﻴـﻞ ﺍﳌﺼـﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻻﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﻮﻥ ﺑﻨﺎﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻨﻴﻒ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻋﺪﻟﺘﻪ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺜـﺔ ﻣـﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻨﻴﻔﲔ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻴﲔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﻧﺴﺎﺟﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﻨﺠﻠﻴﻞ ﻭﺑﺮﻳﺒﻚ‪ .

‬‬ ‫‪٥١‬‬ .‫ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺤﻮﻳﺔ‬‫ ﻋﻼﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻗﻴﻢ‬‫ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﳋﻄﺎﺏ‬ ‫ ﻣﻌﲎ ﺍﳋﻄﺎﺏ‬‫‪ -‬ﺍﳌﺨﻄﻂ ﺍﳋﻄﺎﰊ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺑﺎﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ ‪ /‬ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻷﻡ‬ ‫ ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺓ‬‫ ﺍﳌﺼﺎﺣﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﻔﻈﻴﺔ‬‫ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﲨﺔ‬‫ﺏ‪-‬ﺍﳌﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﻏﲑ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﻮﻳﺔ‬ ‫ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﻴﺔ‬‫‪ -‬ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﳌﺼﻄﻠﺤﺎﺕ ﺍﳋﺎﺻﺔ‬ ‫ﺝ‪ -‬ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺮﺍﺭ‬‫ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻘﻖ‬‫ ﺍﳌﺮﺍﻗﺒﺔ‬‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻔﺴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﰐ‬‫‪ -‬ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻠﻴﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻞ ‪ :٦‬ﺗﺼﻨﻴﻒ ﺍﳌﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻻﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﺔ ﰲ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﳌﻌﲎ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﻕ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺒﺤﺚ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ‪ :‬ﲢﻠﻴﻞ ﺃﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﻕ‬ ‫ﻭﺟﺪﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺜﺔ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﲔ ﺗﻨﻮﻋﻮﺍ ﰲ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻛﻠﺘﺎ ﺍﳌﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻻﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺎﺕ ﰲ‬ ‫ﳏﺎﻭﻟﺘﻬﻢ ﻟﻠﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻌﺎﱐ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﺳﺒﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ ﻋﺮﺽ ﻟﻜﻞ ﺍﳌﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻻﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻣﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﻮﻥ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺃﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ‪.

‫ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺩ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﳌﺌﻮﻳﺔ‬

‫ﺃﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﲨﺔ‬

‫‪١٣٣‬‬

‫‪%٢٧‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺮﺍﺭ‬

‫‪١٠١‬‬

‫‪%٢٠،٣‬‬

‫ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﻴﺔ‬

‫‪٤٢‬‬

‫‪%٨,٦‬‬

‫ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﺮﻓﻴﺔ‬

‫‪٣٩‬‬

‫‪%٧,٩‬‬

‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻔﺴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﰐ‬

‫‪٣٢‬‬

‫‪%٦,٥‬‬

‫ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺤﻮﻳﺔ‬

‫‪٢٦‬‬

‫‪%٥,٣‬‬

‫ﻣﻌﲎ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ‬

‫‪٢٥‬‬

‫‪%٥,١‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺒﻴﺔ‬

‫‪٢٣‬‬

‫‪%٤,٧‬‬

‫ﻣﻌﲎ ﺍﳋﻄﺎﺏ‬

‫‪٢١‬‬

‫‪%٤,٣‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻘﻖ‬

‫‪١٣‬‬

‫‪%٢,٦‬‬

‫ﺍ‪‬ﺎﻧﺴﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﻔﻈﻴﺔ‬

‫‪١١‬‬

‫‪%٢,٢‬‬

‫ﺍﳌﺨﻄﻂ ﺍﳋﻄﺎﰊ‬

‫‪٨‬‬

‫‪%١,٦‬‬

‫ﺭﺑﻂ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺓ‬

‫‪٧‬‬

‫‪%١,٤‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻠﻴﻞ‬

‫‪٤‬‬

‫‪%٠,٨‬‬

‫ﺍﳌﺮﺍﻗﺒﺔ‬

‫‪٣‬‬

‫‪%٠,٦‬‬

‫ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺓ‬

‫‪٢‬‬

‫‪%٠,٤‬‬

‫ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﳌﺼﻄﻠﺤﺎﺕ ﺍﳋﺎﺻﺔ‬

‫‪١‬‬

‫‪%٠,٢‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺒﺪﺍﻟﻴﺔ‬

‫‪٠‬‬

‫‪%.‬‬

‫ﻋﻼﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻗﻴﻢ‬

‫‪٠‬‬

‫‪%.‬‬

‫ﺍﳌﺼﺎﺣﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﻔﻈﻴﺔ‬

‫‪٠‬‬

‫‪%٠‬‬

‫ﺍ‪‬ﻤﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻲ‬

‫‪٤٩١‬‬

‫‪%١٠٠‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻞ ‪ :٧‬ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﳌﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻻﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﺔ ﻭﻧﺴﺒﻬﺎ ﺍﳌﺌﻮﻳﺔ‬

‫‪٥٢‬‬

‫ﺍﺗﻀﺢ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻞ ‪ ٧‬ﺃﻥ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻣﺎ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﲔ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﲨﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ‬
‫ﲤﺜﻞ ﺣﻮﺍﱄ ﺭﺑﻊ ﺍ‪‬ﻤﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻲ‪ .‬ﰒ ﻳﺄﰐ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺮﺍﺭ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻮﻇﻴﻒ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﻴﺔ ﻋـﻦ ﻣﻮﺿـﻮﻉ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﺺ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﺮﻓﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﺃﻗﻞ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻣﺎ ﻫﻲ ﺗﻮﻇﻴﻒ ﺍﳌﺼـﻄﻠﺤﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﳋﺎﺻﺔ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ‪ .‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺒﺪﺍﻟﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﻼﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻗﻴﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳌﺼﺎﺣﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﻔﻈﻴﺔ ﻓﻼ‬
‫ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﻮﻥ ﺇﻃﻼﻗﺎ ﰲ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ ﺗﻘﺴﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﳌﺌﻮﻳﺔ ﻟﻜﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﻮﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳌﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﻏـﲑ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﻮﻳـﺔ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﻻﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺎﺕ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻞ ‪ :٨‬ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﳌﺌﻮﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﻮﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳌﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﻏﲑ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﻮﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻻﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﲔ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻞ ‪ ،٨‬ﺃﺛﺒﺘﺖ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺃﻥ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﳌﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﻮﻳﺔ ﻳﻔﻮﻕ ﺍﳌﺼـﺎﺩﺭ‬
‫ﻏﲑ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﻮﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﻻﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺎﺕ ﲝﻮﺍﱄ ﻧﺼﻒ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺩ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﺗﺘﻔـﻖ ﺑﻨﺘﻴﺠـﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳـﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺃﺟﺮﺍﻫﺎ ﺑﻨﺠﻠﻴﻞ ﻭﺑﺮﻳﺒﻚ‪ ١.‬ﻭﺑﺬﻟﻚ ﺍﺗﻀﺢ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳌﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﻮﻳـﺔ ﻫـﻲ ﺍﳌﺼـﺎﺩﺭ‬
‫ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﻌﺘﻤﺪ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﻮﻥ ﰲ ﲨﻴﻊ ﺍﻷﺣﻮﺍﻝ ﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﻣﻌﺎﱐ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺍﺕ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﻕ‪ ،‬ﻭﳝﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﻮﻥ ﺇﱃ ﻣﻼﺣﻈﺔ ﺩﻗﻴﻘﺔ ﰲ ﺃﺻﻞ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺓ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻬﺪﻓﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻮﺍﻗﻊ ﳓﻮﻳﺔ ﺗﺴﺘﻨﺪ‬
‫‪١‬‬

‫‪Bengeleil and Paribakht, “L٢ Reading Proficiency and Lexical Inferencing by University EFL‬‬
‫‪Learners,” ٢٣٨.‬‬

‫‪٥٣‬‬

‫ﺇﱃ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺓ‪ ،‬ﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﺍﳌﻼﺣﻈﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﶈﻴﻄﺔ ﺑﺎﳌﻔﺮﺩﺓ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻬﺪﻓﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻓﻬـﻢ ﻣﻌـﲎ‬
‫ﺍﳋﻄﺎﺏ‪ ،‬ﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﺒﺎﻩ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳌﺨﻄﻂ ﺍﳋﻄﺎﰊ ﺑﻐﻴﺔ ﺑﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺟﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﺳﺒﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﳌﺼﺎﺩﺭ‬
‫ﻏﲑ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﻮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺸﻤﻞ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﻴﺔ ﻭﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﳌﺼﻄﻠﺤﺎﺕ ﺍﳋﺎﺻﺔ ﻓﻬﻲ ﺗﺪﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﳌﺌﻮﻳﺔ ﻣﻨﺨﻔﻀﺔ ﺟﺪﺍ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﺃﻗﻞ ﻣﻦ ‪ .%١٠‬ﻭﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺎﺕ ﻓﻬﻲ ﺗﻘﻊ ﻣﺎ ﺑـﲔ‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﳌﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﻮﻳﺔ ﻭﻏﲑ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﻮﻳﺔ ﲝﻮﺍﱄ ‪%٣٠‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﺸﻜﻞ ﺍﻵﰐ ﻳﺸﲑ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﳌﺆﻳﺔ ﳉﻤﻴﻊ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻮﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺛﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺼﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻞ ‪ :٩‬ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﳌﺌﻮﻳﺔ ﳌﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﳋﻄﺎﺏ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﲔ‬
‫ﺍﺗﻀﺢ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻞ ‪ ٩‬ﺃﻥ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺗﻘﻊ ﰲ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﳉﻤﻠـﺔ ﻣﻘﺎﺭﻧـﺔ‬
‫ﲟﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺓ ﻭﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﳋﻄﺎﺏ‪ .‬ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﺗﻨﺴﺠﻢ ﻣﻊ ﻧﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺎﺕ ﻫﻜﲔ ﻭﺑﻠﻮﺝ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﻭﻳﺴﻪ ﻭﺑﺮﻳﺒﻚ‪ ٢.‬ﰒ ﻳﺄﰐ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺓ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﳋﻄﺎﺏ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﰲ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺓ ﲡﺪ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺜﺔ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﲔ ﺃﻛﺜﺮﻭﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﺼـﺮﻓﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻣﻘﺎﺭﻧﺔ ﺑﺎ‪‬ﺎﻧﺴﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﻔﻈﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺭﺑﻂ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺓ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﻮﺿﺤﻪ ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻞ ‪ ١٠‬ﺍﻵﰐ‪-:‬‬
‫‪٢‬‬

‫‪Bengeleil and Paribakht, “L٢ Reading Proficiency and Lexical Inferencing by University EFL‬‬
‫‪Learners: ٢٣٧.‬‬
‫‪See also, Thomas Huckin and Joel Bloch, Strategies for Inferring Word-Meanings in Context: A‬‬
‫‪Cognitive Model,” in Second Language Reading and Vocabulary Learning, edited by James Coady and‬‬
‫‪Thomas Huckin, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, ١٩٩٧), ١٦٠.‬‬

‫‪٥٤‬‬

‬ﻭﻗـﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺱ )‪:(٤‬‬ ‫‪٥٥‬‬ .‫ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻞ ‪ :١٠‬ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﳌﺌﻮﻳﺔ ﳌﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺓ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﲔ‬ ‫ﻓﻤﺜﻼ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﺮﻓﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺱ )‪ (١‬ﰲ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﻛﻠﻤﺔ )ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻋﻤﺔ( ﰲ ﺍﳉﻤﻠـﺔ‬ ‫"ﺍﻏﺴﻞ ﻋﻴﻨﻴﻚ ﺑﺎﳌﺎﺀ‪ :‬ﻓﻬﺬﺍ ﻳﺮﳛﻬﺎ ﻭﻳﺴﺎﻋﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﺯﺍﻟﺔ ﺍﻷﺗﺮﺑﺔ ﻭﺍﳌﻮﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻼﺻـﻘﺔ‬ ‫‪‬ﺎ"‪:‬‬ ‫"‪halus.‬‬ ‫ﻧﻌﻴﻢ‪"dari‬ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻋﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻱ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻗﺪ ﺍﻓﺘﺮﺽ ﺑﺄﻥ ﻣﻌﻨﺎﻩ ﺷﻲﺀ ﻟﻄﻴﻒ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻏﺮﺍﻣﺔ‪ ،‬ﻗﺪ ﻓﻚ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺓ ﺇﱃ ﺟﺰﺀﻫﺎ ﰲ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ‬ ‫ﻛﻠﻤﺔ "ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻋﻤﺔ"ﺣﻴﺚ ﻳﺮﻯ ﺃﻥ ﺃﺻﻠﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ "ﻧﻌﻴﻢ"‪..‬‬ ‫ﺃﻣﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺍ‪‬ﺎﻧﺴﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﻔﻈﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺭﺟﻊ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻧﺘﺒﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﲔ ﺇﱃ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﺔ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺓ ﺫﺍ‪‬ﺎ‬ ‫ﳑﺎ ﻭﺟﺪﻭﺍ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺑﻌﺾ ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺗﺸﺎﺑﻪ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺓ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻬﺪﻓﺔ ﺑﺎﳌﻔﺮﺩﺓ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻭﻓﺔ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺣﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻠﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺼﻮﺗﻴﺔ‪ . .‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﳌﺜﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﺍﻛﺘﺸﻒ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺱ )‪ (٧‬ﻛﻠﻤﺔ )ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺤﺮ( ﰲ ﺍﳉﻤﻠـﺔ‬ ‫"ﻭﺣﲔ ﻳﻌﻢ ﺍﳉﻔﺎﻑ ﻭﻳﺰﺩﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺤﺮ‪"،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻥ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤـﺔ ﻣﺘﺸـﺎ‪‬ﺔ ﺑﻜﻠﻤـﺔ‬ ‫)ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺮﺍﺀ(‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺱ )‪:(٧‬‬ ‫”‪ kering ataupun kering kontang‬ﺻﺤﺮاء ‪“Perkataan tu lebih kurang macam‬‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﻣﺸﺎﺭﻙ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﺭﺑﻂ ﺑﲔ ﻛﻠﻤﺔ )ﺍﻓﺘﺢ( ﺑﻜﻠﻤﺔ )ﺃﻏﻤﺾ( ﰲ ﳏﺎﻭﻟﺘﻪ ﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﲎ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ )ﺃﻏﻤﺾ( ﰲ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ‪" :‬ﺍﻓﺘﺢ ﻋﻴﻨﻴﻚ ﻭﺃﻏﻤﻀﻬﻤﺎ ﺑﺴﺮﻋﺔ ﻭﰲ ﺗﺘـﺎﺑﻊ‪".

‫‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻞ ‪ :١١‬ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﳌﺌﻮﻳﺔ ﳌﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﲔ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺇﱃ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ‪ ،‬ﺗﺪﻝ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺤﻮﻳﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﳌﺌﻮﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﻳﻠﻴﻬـﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﲎ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺒﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺱ )‪:(٥‬‬ ‫‪٥٦‬‬ .‬ﻭﻻ ﺃﺣﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﲔ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻣﻮﺍ ﻋﻼﻣـﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘـﺮﻗﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺒﺪﺍﻟﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ‪.‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﳌﺜﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﺍﻛﺘﺸﻒ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺱ‬ ‫)‪ (٥‬ﻛﻠﻤﺔ )ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺮﺧﺎﺀ( ﰲ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ "ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳊﺮﻛﺔ ﺗﺮﻳﺢ ﺍﻟﻌﲔ ﻭﺗﺴﺎﻋﺪﻫﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺮﺧﺎﺀ"‪. lepas tu‬ﻋﯿﻨﯿﻚ ‪ kan buka‬اﻓﺘﺢ ‪ maksudnya tutup Sebab ayat mula-mula tu‬أﻏﻤﺾ"‬ ‫"‪ mesti tutup‬أﻏﻤﻀﮭﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻮ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﺮﺑﻂ )ﺃﻏﻤﺾ( ﺑﻜﻠﻤﺔ )ﺍﻓﺘﺢ(‪.‬‬ ‫ﺃﻇﻬﺮﺕ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺤﻮﻳﺔ ﺷﺎﺋﻌﺔ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻣﻬﺎ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﲔ ﰲ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﳌﻌـﲎ ﻣـﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﻕ‪ .‬ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺗﺴﺒﻘﻪ ﻭﺍﻭ ﺍﻟﻌﻄﻒ ﺗـﺪﻝ ﻋﻠـﻰ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﲎ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ ﰲ ﲨﻠﺔ ﺳﺎﺑﻘﺔ‪ .‬ﻣﻌﻈﻤﻬﺎ ﻻﺣﻈﻮﺍ ﺃﻥ ﻭﻇﻴﻔﺔ ﺣﺮﻑ ﺍﻟﻌﻄﻒ )ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻭ( ﳑﺎ ﺗـﺒﲔ ﺣﺎﻟـﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﺎﺑﻌﺔ ﻟﻠﺠﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ ﺃﻱ ﻣﻌﻄﻮﻑ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ ﻣﺎﻗﺒﻠﻬﺎ‪ .‬ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳊﺎﻟﺔ ﺗﺪﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﲔ ﻳﺮﻏﺒﻮﻥ ﰲ ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻨﺤﻮﻱ ﺑﻐﻴﺔ ﲢﻘﻖ ﺍﳌﻌـﲎ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻔﺘﺮﺽ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﻕ‪ .‬‬ ‫ﺍﻓﺘﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺱ ﻛﻠﻤﺔ )ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺮﺧﺎﺀ( ﻣﻌﻨﺎﻩ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺮﺍﺣﺔ ﺣﻴﺚ ﻻﺣﻆ ﺍﳊﺮﻑ )ﻭ(ﰲ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ ﳑﺎ‬ ‫ﻳﻌﻄﻲ ﻣﻌﲎ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺮﺍﺣﺔ ﺗﺴﺎﻭﻱ ﺑﺎﻻﺳﺘﺮﺧﺎﺀ‪ .‬‬ ‫ﻭﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ ﻳﺸﲑ ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻞ ‪ ١١‬ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﳌﺌﻮﻳﺔ ﳌﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ‪.

.‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﺗﺮﻯ )ﺇﺟﻬﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﻌـﲔ( ﺫﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻋﻼﻗﺔ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺒﻴﺔ ﲟﻔﺮﺩﺓ ﻣﺴﺘﻬﺪﻓﺔ )ﻧﻌﺎﱐ( ﲟﻌﲎ ﺃﺻﻴﺐ ﺷﻌﻮﺭ ﺷﺪﻳﺪ‪ ... Kalau kita tengok makna pada ayat‬اﻟﺴﻼﺳﺔ ‪“Saya rasa‬‬ ‫اﺻﻨﻊ‬ ‫داﺋﺮة ﺑﺮاﺣﺔ ﯾﺪك ﺣﻮل ﻋﯿﻨﻚ ﺣﺘﻰ ﺗﺮى أﻣﺎﻣﻚ ﺑﺴﻼﺳﺔ‬ ‫‪Sehingga kamu nampak depan kamu.‫‪ mungkin maksudnya‬ﻭ‪“saya rasa maknanya habuk…Sebab saya kembali balik pada‬‬ ‫”‪sama dengan ayat sebelum dia‬‬ ‫ﻭﰲ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻣﻌﲎ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺟﺪﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺜﺔ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺱ )‪ (٥‬ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻣﻪ ﰲ ﺍﺳـﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﲎ )ﺍﻟﺴﻼﺳﺔ( ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺮﺩ ﰲ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ"ﺍﺻﻨﻊ ﺩﺍﺋﺮﺓ ﺑﺮﺍﺣﺔ ﻳﺪﻙ ﺣﻮﻝ ﻋﻴﻨﻚ ﺣﱴ ﺗﺮﻯ ﺃﻣﺎﻣﻚ‬ ‫ﺑﺴﻼﺳﺔ"‪ .macam sesuatu keadaan yang semakin jelas‬‬ ‫”‪kot‬‬ ‫ﻭﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺒﻴﺔ ﻭﺟﺪﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺜﺔ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﲔ ﻻﺣﻈﻮﺍ ﰲ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﳌﻔـﺮﺩﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﶈﻴﻄﺔ ﺑﺎﳌﻔﺮﺩﺓ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻬﺪﻓﺔ ﺫﺍﺕ ﻋﻼﻗﺔ ﻣﻌﻨﻮﻳﺔ ﺑﺎﳌﻔﺮﺩﺓ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻬﺪﻓﺔ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺗﺴـﺎﻋﺪﻫﻢ ﻋﻠـﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﻣﻌﻨﺎﻫﺎ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﻕ‪ .‬ﻗﺪ ﺣﺎﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺱ )‪ (٥‬ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﺎﺏ ﻣﻌﲎ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺸـﺘﻤﻞ ﻋﻠﻴﻬـﺎ ﺍﳌﻔـﺮﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻬﺪﻓﺔ ﻭﻫﻲ )ﺳﻼﺳﺔ( ﺍﺳﺘﻴﻌﺎﺑﺎ ﻛﺎﻣﻼ ﺑﻐﻴﺔ ﺣﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻌﻨﺎﻫﺎ ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺒﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﻕ‪ . Jadi mungkin kami‬إﺟﮭﺎد اﻟﻌﯿﻦ ‪saya tengok pada ayat‬‬ ‫"‪merasakan. Tapi saya agak macam kami merasakan.‬ﻗﺎﻟﺖ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﹺﺳﺔ )‪:(٣‬‬ ‫‪ ni saya confius sikit maksudnya.‬ﻗﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺱ )‪:(٥‬‬ ‫‪ ni mungkin maksudnya jelas.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻳﺸﲑ ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻞ ‪ ١٢‬ﺍﻵﰐ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﳌﺌﻮﻳﺔ ﳌﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﳋﻄﺎﺏ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﲔ‬ ‫ﰲ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﱐ‪. Sebab‬ﻧﻌﺎﻧﻲ"‬ ‫‪ macam suatu perasaan.‬‬ ‫‪٥٧‬‬ .‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺍﻓﺘﺮﺿﺖ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﺔ )‪ (٣‬ﻣﻌﲎ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ )ﻧﻌـﺎﱐ( ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ "ﳑﺎ ﳚﻌﻠﻨﺎ ﻧﻌﺎﱐ ﻣﻌﺎﻧﺎﺓ ﺷﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺇﺟﻬﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﻌﲔ"‪ .

.‬ﻗﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺱ )‪:(٦‬‬ ‫‪“Mula-mula teka bencana sebab banjir ni kita kaitkan dengan bala bencana. Jadi‬‬ ‫”‪taufan lah. sebab‬‬ ‫‪lepas tu‬‬ ‫‪ yang ni‬ﺿﺮب إﻋﺼﺎر أوﻧﺪي ﻣﻨ ﺎﻃﻖ ﻓﯿﺘﻨ ﺎم ‪saya baca balik sampai yang point yang ke dua‬‬ ‫‪ tu ribut‬إﻋﺼ ﺎر ‪ribut taufan sebab Vietnam tahun sudah ada ribut taufan Onadi.".‬ﻭﺟﺪﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺜﺔ ﺃ‪‬ﻢ ﳝﻴﻠﻮﻥ ﺇﱃ ﺍﺳﺘﻴﻌﺎﺏ ﺍﳌﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ ﻟﻠﺠﻤﻠـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻘﻊ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺸﺘﻤﻞ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺓ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻬﺪﻓﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺳﺘﻴﻌﺎﺏ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ ﻣـﺎ ﺑﻌـﺪﻫﺎ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﺍﺳﺘﻴﻌﺎﺏ ﺍﳌﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ ﻟﻠﻔﻘﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ ﺑﻐﻴﺔ ﺣﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺗﻔﺎﺳﲑ ﳌﺴﺎﻋﺪ‪‬ﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﻣﻌﲎ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺓ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻬﺪﻓﺔ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺟﺎ ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺒﺎ‪ .‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﳌﺜـﺎﻝ ﻫﻨـﺎﻙ ﺍﻟـﺪﺍﺭﺱ )‪(٦‬‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻣﻌﲎ ﺍﳋﻄﺎﺏ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺍﻓﺘﺮﺽ ﻣﻌﲎ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ )ﺇﻋﺼﺎﺭ( ﺃﻧﻪ ﺍﺳﻢ ﻋﺎﺻﻔﺔ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﻴﻌﺎﺏ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﻟﻠﻔﻘﺮﺓ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﻠﻖ ‪‬ﺎ‪ .‬ﰒ ﻭﺭﺩﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﺮﺓ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ‪" ،‬ﻭﺩﻟﻠﺖ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﻋﻠـﻰ ﺫﻟـﻚ‬ ‫ﺑﻘﻮﳍﺎ‪ :‬ﰲ ﺷﻬﺮ ﺳﺒﺘﻤﱪ ﺍﳌﺎﺿﻲ ﺿﺮﺏ ﺇﻋﺼﺎﺭ ﺃﻭﻧﺪﻱ ﻣﻨﺎﻃﻖ ﺷﺎﺳﻌﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻓﻴﺘﻨﺎﻡ‪ ..‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﻭﺭﺩ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ "ﺃﻛﺪﺕ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺣﺪﻳﺜﺔ ﺃﻧـﻪ ﺣـﲔ‬ ‫ﳛﺪﺙ ﻓﻴﻀﺎﻥ ﺃﻭ ﺇﻋﺼﺎﺭ‪ ".‫ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻞ ‪ :١٢‬ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﳌﺌﻮﻳﺔ ﳌﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﳋﻄﺎﺏ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﲔ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻞ ‪ ،١٢‬ﻭﺿﺢ ﻟﻨﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﲔ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻣﻮﺍ ﻣﻌﲎ ﺍﳋﻄﺎﺏ ﺑﺼـﻮﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺨﻄﻂ ﺍﳋﻄﺎﰊ‪ .‬‬ ‫‪٥٨‬‬ ...

‬ﻻﺣﻈﺖ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﺔ )‪ (٨‬ﺑﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﺩﻻﻟﻴـﺔ )ﻛﻤـﺎ ﺃﻥ( ﰲ ﺍﳉﻤﻠـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻬﺪﻓﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺍﺳﺘﻴﻌﺎﺏ ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﻋﺎﻡ ﻟﻠﺠﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ‪ .‬‬ ‫ﻭﻳﻘﻞ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﳌﺨﻄﻂ ﻟﺪﻯ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﲔ‪ .‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻞ ‪ :١٣‬ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﳌﺌﻮﻳﺔ ﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﺔ ﻟﺪﻯ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﲔ‬ ‫‪٥٩‬‬ .‬‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﳌﺜﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﺔ )‪ (٨‬ﺍﻛﺘﺸﻔﺖ ﻣﻌﲎ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ )ﺍﳓﺴﺎﺭ( ﰲ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ " ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻣﺸﻜﻼﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺀ ﺗﺒﺪﺃ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﳓﺴﺎﺭ ﻣﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻀﺎﻧﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﺇﺫ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺰﻭﳚﻬﻦ ﻛﺮﻫـﺎ‬ ‫ﻷ‪‬ﻦ ﻓﻘﺪﻥ ﺫﻭﻳﻬﻦ‪ .‬‬ ‫ﻭﻳﺸﲑ ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻞ ‪ ١٣‬ﺍﻵﰐ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﳌﺌﻮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﳌﺌﻮﻳـﺔ ﳌﻌﺮﻓـﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻠﻐـﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﺔ ﻟﺪﻯ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﲔ ﰲ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﱐ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻟﺖ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﺔ )‪:(٨‬‬ ‫‪ maksudnya surut Sebab sebelum tu atas tu dia cerita pasal Tsunami kan…aaa‬اﻧﺤﺴﺎر"‬ ‫‪.‬ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳊﺎﻟﺔ ﺗﺪﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﻠﺔ ﺍﻋﺘﻨﺎﺋﻬﻢ ﺑﺎﳌﺨﻄﻂ‬ ‫ﺍﳋﻄﺎﰊ ﺍﳌﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﰲ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﻒ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺪﻻﻟﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺒﺒﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺄﺛﲑﻳـﺔ‪.".‬ﺃ‪‬ﺎ ﺗﺮﻯ )ﺍﳓﺴﺎﺭ( ﻣﻌﻨﺎﻫـﺎ ﺗﺮﺍﺟـﻊ‪.. begitu juga… keadaan‬ﻛﻤﺎ أن ‪maksudnya keadaan banjir masa tu. lepas tu dia tulis‬‬ ‫"‪masalah selepas surutnya banjir…saya agak macam tu la.‫ﻭﺟﺪﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺜﺔ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺱ )‪ (٦‬ﻻ ﻳﻌﺘﻤﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻌﲎ ﺍﳋﻄﺎﺏ ﻓﻘﻂ ﺑﻞ ﻗﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺘﻪ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﻴﺔ ﻋﻦ ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﻨﺺ ﰲ ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﻟﻠﻤﻔﺮﺩﺓ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻬﺪﻓﺔ‪..

‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺱ )‪:(١‬‬ ‫ﺣﺘﻰ ﺗﺮى أﻣﺎﻣﻚ ﺑﺴﻼﺳﺔ ‪“Saya agak maksudnya jelas…sebab dia kata buat bulat kat mata‬‬ ‫”…‪sehingga kamu nampak depan kamu dengan jelas kot…saya rasa jelas la‬‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﺇﱃ ﺗﺮﲨﺔ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺓ ﰲ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻬﺪﻓﺔ‪ ،‬ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺩﺍﺭﺳﺔ )‪ (٢‬ﻗﺪ ﺍﻛﺘﺸﻒ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﲎ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ )ﺃﻛﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻱ( ﰲ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ "ﺳﺎﺑﻌﺎ‪ ،‬ﺧﺬ »ﻓﺎﺻﻞ ﺷﺎﻱ«‪ :‬ﻻ ﺗﺮﻡ ﺃﻛﻴـﺎﺱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻱ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻣﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﺿﻌﻬﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺟﺔ ﻟﻌﺪﺓ ﺳﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﰒ ﺿﻌﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﻴﻨﻴـﻚ ﻓﻬـﻲ‬ ‫ﺗﺴﺎﻋﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪‬ﺪﺋﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﲔ ﻭﺗﻘﻠﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺇﺟﻬﺎﺩﻫﺎ ﻭﺍﻧﺘﻔﺎﺧﻬﺎ"‪ .‬ﺍﻓﺘﺮﺿﺖ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﺔ )‪ (٢‬ﺃﻥ ﺃﻛﻴـﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﺸـﺎﻱ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﻨﺎﻫﺎ ﻧﻔﺎﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺮﻏﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻄﺌﻬﺎ‪ .‫ﻟﻮﺣﻆ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻞ ‪ ،١٣‬ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﳌﺌﻮﻳﺔ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﲨﺔ ﻭﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺓ ﻳﻮﺟﺪ ﻓـﺮﻕ‬ ‫ﻛﺒﲑ ﺟﺪﺍ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﺃﺣﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﲔ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺍﳌﺼﺎﺣﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﻔﻈﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﳌﻌﲎ‪.‬ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﳌﺜﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺱ )‪ (١‬ﺍﻓﺘﺮﺽ ﻣﻌﲎ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ )ﺳﻼﺳﺔ( ﰲ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ "ﺍﺻﻨﻊ ﺩﺍﺋﺮﺓ ﺑﺮﺍﺣـﺔ‬ ‫ﻳﺪﻙ ﺣﻮﻝ ﻋﻴﻨﻚ ﺣﱴ ﺗﺮﻯ ﺃﻣﺎﻣﻚ ﺑﺴﻼﺳﺔ"‪ .. Saya tengok kat‬أﻛﯿ ﺎس"‬ ‫"‪buang hampas teh tu la selepas guna.".‬ﻗﺎﻟﺖ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﺔ )‪:(٢‬‬ ‫‪ …Jangan‬ﻻ ﺗ ﺮم أﻛﯿ ﺎس اﻟﺸ ﺎي ﺑﻌ ﺪ اﺳ ﺘﺨﺪاﻣﮭﺎ ‪ ni mungkin hampas.‬ﺭﺃﻯ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺱ )‪ (١‬ﺃﻥ ﻛﻠﻤـﺔ )ﺳﻼﺳـﺔ(‬ ‫ﻣﻌﻨﺎﻫﺎ ﻭﺍﺿﺤ‪‬ﺎ ﺣﻴﺚ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺑﺘﺮﲨﺔ ﲨﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺎﺕ ﰲ ﺍﳉﻤﻠـﺔ ﺍﳌﺴـﺘﻬﺪﻓﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻠﻐـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻼﻳﻮﻳﺔ‪ .‬ﻗﺪ ﺗﺮﺟﻢ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺱ )‪" (١‬ﺍﺻﻨﻊ ﺩﺍﺋﺮﺓ ﺑﺮﺍﺣﺔ ﻳﺪﻙ ﺣﻮﻝ ﻋﻴﻨﻚ ﺣـﱴ ﺗـﺮﻯ‬ ‫ﺃﻣﺎﻣﻚ‪ ".. mungkin hempas la kot..‬‬ ‫ﺃﻣﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺇﱃ ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺓ ﻓﻮﺟﺪﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺜﺔ ﻋﺪﺩﺍ ﻗﻠﻴﻼﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﲔ ﻓﻘﻂ ﺣﺎﻭﻟﻮﺍ‬ ‫ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻘﻬﺎ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺣﻴﺚ "ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻑ ﺇﱃ ﻣﻄﺎﺑﻘﺔ ﻋﻨﺎﺻـﺮ ﺷـﻜﻠﻴﺔ ﻭﺩﻻﻟﻴـﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﻔـﺮﺩﺓ‬ ‫‪٦٠‬‬ ..‬‬ ‫ﻭﺟﺪﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺜﺔ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﲔ ﺗﺮﲨﻮﺍ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﶈﻴﻄﺔ ﺑـﺎﳌﻔﺮﺩﺓ ﺍﳌﺴـﺘﻬﺪﻓﺔ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﺗﺮﲨﻮﺍ ﲨﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺎﺕ ﰲ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻬﺪﻓﺔ ﻟﻠﻮﺻﻮﻝ ﺇﱃ ﻣﻌﲎ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺓ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﺳﺐ‪ ...‬ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻞ ﺍﺳﺘﻴﻌﺎﺏ ﻣﻌﻨﺎﻫﺎ ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺒﺎ ﺣﱴ ﻳﺘﻤﻜﻦ ﻣﻦ ﺍﺳـﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﻣﻌـﲎ ﺍﳌﻔـﺮﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻬﺪﻓﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻫﻲ‬ ‫"ﻻ ﺗﺮﻡ ﺃﻛﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻱ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻣﻬﺎ‪ ".‬ﺃﻥ ﺩﺍﺭﺳﺔ )‪ (٢‬ﺗﺮﲨﺖ ﺑﻌـﺾ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﶈﻴﻄﺔ ﺑﺎﳌﻔﺮﺩﺓ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻬﺪﻓﺔ ﻓﻘﻂ ﰲ ﳏﺎﻭﻟﺘﻬﺎ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﻣﻌﲎ )ﺃﻛﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻱ(‪ .

(rak buku‬ﺃﻧﻪ ﺭﺃﻯ ﺃﺭﻕ ﻣﺘﺸﺎ‪‬ﺔ ﺑﻜﻠﻤﺔ ﻣﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﰲ ﻟﻐﺘـﻪ ﺍﻷﻡ ﻭﻫـﻲ‬ ‫)‪ ،(rak buku‬ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺮﻏﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺃﺧﻄﺄ ﻓﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺱ )‪:(١‬‬ ‫"أرق ‪".” in Second Language Reading‬‬ ‫‪and Vocabulary Learning.“Patterns and Perils of Guessing in Second Language Reading.‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻬﺪﻓﺔ ﲟﻔﺮﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻷﻡ"‪ ٣. ٥٦.‬ﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﰲ ﻣﻌﻈﻢ ﺍﻷﺣﻴﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﲔ ﺍﻧﺘﻤـﻮﺍ ﺇﱃ ﺗﻮﻇﻴـﻒ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺼﺪﺭ‪‬ﻳﻦ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﲔ ﺃﻭ ﺛﻼﺛﺔ ﻣﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﰲ ﻛﺸﻒ ﻣﻌﲎ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺓ ﳓﻮ ﲢﻘﻴـﻖ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﻕ‪.". Margot Haynes and James Coady. ١٩٩٣).” in Second Language Reading and Vocabulary Learning.‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺑﺘﻄـﺎﺑﻖ‬ ‫ﻛﻠﻤﺔ )ﺃﺭﻕ( ﺑﻜﻠﻤﺔ )‪ .‬ﺗﻌﺪ ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﱵ ﳝﺘﻠﻜﻬﺎ ﺩﺍﺭﺱ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻷﺟﻨﺒﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺇﺣﺪﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ "ﻃﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ" ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﻬﺎ ﺩﺍﺭﺱ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺑﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﻋﻔﻮﻳﺔ ﰲ ﻛﺸﻒ ﻋﻨﺼـﺮ ﺷـﺒﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺓ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﺺ‪ ٤. ٩٢.‬ﺃﻥ ﺗﺄﺛﺮ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻟﺐ ﺑﺎﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻷﻡ ﻣﻦ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻢ ﻟﺪﻯ ﺩﺍﺭﺳﻲ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻷﺟﻨﺒﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﰲ ﳏﺎﻭﻟﺘﻪ ﺍﻛﺘﺴﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﳍﺪﻑ ﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺀﺓ‪ .‬ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﺗﺪﻝ ﻋﻠـﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳـﲔ‬ ‫ﻳﺸﻌﺮﻭﻥ ﺑﺎﻟﺜﻘﺔ ﻭﺍﻻﺭﺗﻴﺎﺡ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﲨﺔ ﰲ ﺗﻌﻠﻢ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﻕ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ ﺍﺳﺘﻴﻌﺎﺏ ﻣﻌﺎﻧﻴﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺮﻏﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺗﺮﲨﺘﻬﻢ ﻗﺪ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺻﺤﻴﺤﺔ ﻭﻗﺪ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺧﺎﻃﺌـﺔ ﺑﻐﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﺇﻳﺼﺎﻝ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳌﻌﲎ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﺳﺐ‪ .‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﳌﺜﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺱ )‪ (١‬ﺍﻛﺘﺸﻒ ﻣﻌﲎ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ )ﺃﺭﻕ( ﰲ ﺍﳉﻤﻠـﺔ"‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﲔ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺭﻕ ﺃﺟﺰﺍﺀ ﺍﳉﺴﻢ‪ ،‬ﻟﺬﺍ ﳚﺐ ﺃﻥ ﻧﻮﺟﻪ ﳍﺎ ﻋﻨﺎﻳﺔ ﺧﺎﺻﺔ‪ .‬‬ ‫‪٤‬‬ ‫‪John Holmes and Rosinda Guerra Ramos. (Norwood: New Jersey.. edited by Thomas‬‬ ‫‪Huckin.‬‬ ‫‪٣‬‬ ‫‪Haynes.rak buku‬‬ ‫ﺑﻨﺎﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﺳﺘﺨﻠﺼﺖ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺜﺔ ﺑﺄﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﲨﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻷﻡ ﺑﻮﺻـﻔﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺃﺩﺍﺓ ﺃﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﻮﻥ ﰲ ﺑﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺟﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﺳﺒﺔ ﻭﲢﻘﻴـﻖ ﺍﻻﺳـﺘﻴﻌﺎﺏ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺋﻲ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺀﺓ‪ . “False Friends and Reckless Guessers: Observing Cognate‬‬ ‫‪Recognition Strategies.‬‬ ‫‪٦١‬‬ .

Gas karbon kan‬ﺗﻠﻮﯾ ﺚ"‬ ‫"‪tak elok untuk persekitaran kan…jadi saya rasa mencemarkan lah.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ ﻳﺸﲑ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻞ ‪ ١٥‬ﺃﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﲔ ﰲ‬ ‫ﳏﺎﻭﻟﺘﻬﻢ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﻣﻌﺎﱐ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻬﺪﻓﺔ‪.‬ﻭﺟﺪﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺜﺔ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟـﺪﺍﺭﺱ )‪ (٧‬ﺍﺳـﺘﺨﺪﻡ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺘﻪ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ ﰲ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﻣﻌﲎ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ )ﺗﻠﻮﻳﺚ( ﰲ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ "ﺇﺫﺍ ﺩﻓﻌﺖ ﺃﻛﺜـﺮ ﳝﻜﻨـﻚ‬ ‫ﺗﻠﻮﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ"‪ .‫ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻞ ‪ :١٤‬ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﳌﺌﻮﻳﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﻏﲑ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﻮﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﲔ‬ ‫ﻭﻟﻮﺣﻆ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻞ ‪ ،١٤‬ﺃﻥ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﻴﺔ ﺃﻛﺜـﺮ ﺍﺳـﺘﺨﺪﺍﻣﺎ ﻣﻘﺎﺭﻧـﺔ ﲟﻌﺮﻓـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺼﻄﻠﺤﺎﺕ ﺍﳋﺎﺻﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﻏﲑ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﻮﻳﺔ‪ .‬‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺱ )‪:(٧‬‬ ‫”‪“saya sudah tahu sebelum ni maksudnya ialah pencemaran‬‬ ‫ﺃﻣﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﳌﺼﻄﻠﺤﺎﺕ ﺍﳋﺎﺻﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﻨـﺎﻙ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳـﺔ )‪ (٨‬ﻗـﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﻓﺘﺮﺿﺖ )ﺗﻠﻮﻳﺚ( ﰲ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ "ﻛﻤﺎ ﺍﻧﺘﻘﺪﺕ »ﲡﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﺑﻮﻥ« ﻷ‪‬ﺎ ﺗﻌﲏ ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻻﻧﺒﻌﺎﺛﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﳌﻦ ﳝﻠﻚ ﺍﻷﻣﻮﺍﻝ ﻭﻳﻘﺪﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺪﻓﻊ‪ ،‬ﺃﻱ »ﺇﺫﺍ ﺩﻓﻌﺖ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﳝﻜﻨﻚ ﺗﻠﻮﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ«"‪.‬ﻗﺎﻟﺖ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﺔ )‪:(٨‬‬ ‫‪ ni saya agak mencemarkan.‬‬ ‫‪٦٢‬‬ .‬ﻗﺪ ﺍﻓﺘﺮﺽ )ﺗﻠﻮﻳﺚ( ﺃﻥ ﻣﻌﻨﺎﻩ )ﺗﺪﻧﻴﺲ( ﳑﺎ ﻋﺮﻓﻪ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺒﻞ‪. Sebab saya refer dekat karbon.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻓﺘﺮﺿﺖ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﺔ ﻣﻌﲎ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ )ﺗﻠﻮﻳﺚ( ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺟﺎ ﺻﺤﻴﺤﺎ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴـﺚ ﺍﻓﺘﺮﺿـﺖ ﻣﻌﻨﺎﻫـﺎ‬ ‫)ﺗﺪﻧﻴﺲ(‪ ،‬ﺇﺫ ﺃ‪‬ﺎ ﺃﺩﺭﻛﺖ )ﻛﺮﺑﻮﻥ( ﺃﻧﻪ ﺷﻲﺀ ﺧﻄﲑ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ‪ .

‫ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻞ ‪ :١٥‬ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﳌﺌﻮﻳﺔ ﻟﻼﺳﺘﻼﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﲔ‬ ‫ﺃﺷﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻞ ‪ ١٥‬ﺇﱃ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﲔ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻣﻮﺍ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﳋﻤﺴﺔ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻌﺎﱐ ﻭﻫﻲ ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺮﺍﺭ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺤﻘﻖ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻻﺳﺘﻔﺴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﰐ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺤﻠﻴﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳌﺮﺍﻗﺒﺔ‪.‬ﻭﻛﺮﺭ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺱ )‪ (٧‬ﺃﺟﺰﺍﺀ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﻛﻠﻤﺔ )ﺍﻟﻌﻨﻒ( ﰲ ﺍﳉﻤﻠـﺔ "ﺇﺫ‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺰﻭﳚﻬﻦ ﻛﺮﻫﺎ ﻷ‪‬ﻦ ﻓﻘﺪﻥ ﺫﻭﻳﻬﻦ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﰎ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﻣﻠﺤﻮﻇﺔ ﰲ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺣﻮﺍﺩﺙ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻨﻒ ﺿﺪﻫﻦ ﺑﻌﺪ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻜﻮﺍﺭﺙ‪ .‬‬ ‫ﻛﻤﺎ ﻭﺭﺩ ﰲ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ "ﻭﺣﲔ ﻳﻌﻢ ﺍﳉﻔﺎﻑ ﻭﻳﺰﺩﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺤﺮ"‪ ..‬ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺀﺓ‪ ،‬ﻛﺮﺭ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﻮﻥ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻬﺪﻓﺔ ﻟﻌﺪﺓ ﻣﺮﺍﺕ ﺑﻐﻴﺔ ﺣﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﺼﻮﺭ ﻋﺎﻡ ﻟﻠﻤﻔﺮﺩﺓ ﻣﻦ ﻧﺎﺣﻴﺔ ﺷﻜﻠﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺻـﻮﺗﻴﺔ‪.‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺱ )‪:(٧‬‬ ‫"ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺤﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺤﺮ ﺻﺤﺮﺍﺀ ﺻﺤﺮﺍﺀ‪".‬‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺱ )‪:(٧‬‬ ‫"زﯾﺎدة ﻣﻠﺤﻮﻇﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺪد ﺣﻮادث اﻟﻌﻨﻒ ‪ .‬زﯾﺎدة ﻣﻠﺤﻮﻇﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺪد ﺣﻮادث اﻟﻌﻨﻒ‪،‬‬ ‫‪mereka dikhawinkan secara paksaan kerana kehilangan pasangan mereka.‬ﺃﻧﻪ ﺍﻓﺘﺮﺿﺖ ﻣﻌﲎ )ﺍﻟﻌﻨﻒ( ﺃﻧـﻪ )ﻣﺼـﻴﺒﺔ( ﺃﻱ‬ ‫)ﺳﻮﺀ ﺍﳊﻆ( ﺑﻌﺪ ﰎ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻬﺪﻓﺔ ﻣﺮﺍﺭﺍ ﻣﻊ ﺗﺮﲨﺔ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ ﻧﻔﺴﻬﺎ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻠﻐـﺔ ﺍﻷﻡ‪.."..‬‬ ‫"‪ ni mungkin maksudnya peristiwa yang malang‬ﺣﻮادث اﻟﻌﻨﻒ ‪Jadi‬‬ ‫‪٦٣‬‬ ..‬‬ ‫ﻭﺟﺪﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺖ ﺃﻥ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﻧﻮﻋﲔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺮﺍﺭ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﰲ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ‪ ،‬ﳘﺎ‪ :‬ﺗﻜـﺮﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﺃﺟﺰﺍﺀ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﻷﻛﺜﺮ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻣﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻜﺮﺍﺭ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺓ‪ .‬‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻋﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺀﺓ ﻷﺟﺰﺍﺀ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺸـﺘﻤﻞ ﻋﻠﻴﻬـﺎ ﺍﳌﻔـﺮﺩﺓ ﺍﳌﺴـﺘﻬﺪﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻬﺪﻓﺔ‪ .

.‬ﻗﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺴـﺮﺕ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳـﺔ )‪ (٩‬ﺍﳌﻌـﲎ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻔﺘﺮﺽ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﻕ ﺃﻥ ﻛﻠﻤﺔ )ﺍﳓﺴﺎﺭ( ﻣﻌﻨﺎﻫﺎ )ﺍﳔﻔﺎﺽ(‪ ."،". ya mungkin‬اﻧﺤﺴﺎر"‬ ‫"‪berkurang.‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﳌﺜﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﺍﻓﺘﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺱ )‪ (٦‬ﻛﻠﻤﺔ )ﺇﻋﺼﺎﺭ( ﰲ ﺍﳉﻤﻠـﺔ‬ ‫"ﺃﻛﺪﺕ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺣﺪﻳﺜﺔ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺣﲔ ﳛﺪﺙ ﻓﻴﻀﺎﻥ ﺃﻭ ﺇﻋﺼﺎﺭ‪.‬ﺿﺮﺏ ﺇﻋﺼﺎﺭ ﺃﻭﻧﺪﻱ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺎﻃﻖ ﺷﺎﺳﻌﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻓﻴﺘﻨﺎﻡ"‪ .‬‬ ‫ﺃﻣﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻔﺴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﰐ ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﻳﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﲟﺪﻯ ﺗﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﱐ ﺍﳌﻔﺘﺮﺿﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺴـﻴﺎﻕ‬ ‫ﻭﰲ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ‪ ،‬ﺗﺄﻛﺪﻭﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻬﻢ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﻴﺔ ﻭﻭﺟﻬﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻈـﺮ ﺍﳌﻨﻄﻘـﻲ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﺤﻘﻖ ﺍﳌﻌﲎ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﺳﺐ‪ .‬ﻗـﺪ‬ ‫‪٦٤‬‬ .‬ﻗﺎﻟﺖ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﺔ )‪:(٩‬‬ ‫‪ ni bukan ke berkurang? berkurang air.‬ﺍﻓﺘﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺱ )‪ (٦‬ﻣﻌﲎ )ﺇﻋﺼﺎﺭ( ﻫﻮ )ﻋﺎﺻﻔﺔ( ﺑﻌﺪ ﻣﻼﺣﻈﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺠﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﳌﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﺮﺓ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺸﺘﻤﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺎﺻﻴﻞ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ‪‬ﺎ ﺣﱴ ﻳﺘﺤﻘﻖ ﻋﻠـﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ‪. berkurang banjir..‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻻﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺛﺔ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ﺗﺪﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻗﻞ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻻ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﲔ ﻭﻫﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻘﻖ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳌﺮﺍﻗﺒﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺤﻠﻴﻞ‪.‬ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﺔ )‪ (٩‬ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺴﺮﺕ ﻧﻔﺴﻬﺎ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﳌﻌﲎ )ﺍﳓﺴﺎﺭ(‬ ‫ﰲ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ"ﺗﺒﺪﺃ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﳓﺴﺎﺭ ﻣﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻀﺎﻧﺎﺕ‪ . sebab dekat Vietnam banjir dan taufan…betul lah sebab‬إﻋﺼ ﺎر‪“Ooo‬‬ ‫”‪Onadi ni nama ribut taufan‬‬ ‫ﺃﻣﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺮﺍﻗﺒﺔ ﻓﻘﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻣﻬﺎ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳـﲔ ﺃﺛﻨـﺎﺀ ﻋﻤﻠﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﳌﻌﲎ‪ ..‫ﻭﺟﺪﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺜﺔ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺱ )‪ (٧‬ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺮﺍﺭ ﻣﻊ ﻣﺼﺪﺭ ﻣﻌﺮﰲ ﻭﺍﺣـﺪ ﻫـﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﲨﺔ ﰲ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﻣﻌﲎ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺓ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻬﺪﻓﺔ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺟﺎ ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺒﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﻕ‪.‬ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﺔ )‪ (٩‬ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺼﺎﺩﻑ ﺍﳌﺸﻜﻠﺔ ﰲ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﻛﻠﻤﺔ )ﺍﻏﺘﺼـﺎﺏ( ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ"ﻭﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﺣﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻏﺘﺼﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﺍﰐ ﰎ ﳒﺎ‪‬ﻦ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺼﻴﺒﺔ"‪.‬‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻘﻖ‪ ،‬ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺩﺍﺭﺱ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﲢﻘﻖ ﻣـﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤـﺔ ﺍﻟـﱵ ﰎ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺟﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﻕ‪ ..."..‬ﻭﺟﺪﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺜـﺔﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﺔ )‪ (٩‬ﻇﻬﺮﺕ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺼﻌﻮﺑﺔ ﰲ ﳏﺎﻭﻟﺘﻬﺎ ﻛﺸﻒ ﻣﻌﲎ )ﺍﻏﺘﺼﺎﺏ( ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﻕ‪ .‬‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺱ )‪:(٦‬‬ ‫‪ ni ribut taufan.

‬ﻭﺟـﺪﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺜـﺔ ﺃﻥ ﳒـﺎﺡ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﻗﺪ ﻻ ﻳﻌﺘﻤﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺪﻯ ﺗﻜﺮﺭ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﳌﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺎﺕ ﺃﺛﻨـﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﺇﱃ ﻛﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻣﻬﻤﺎ ﻟﻠﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ‪ .‬ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺱ )‪ (١‬ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺍﻓﺘﺮﺽ ﻛﻠﻤﺔ )ﻓﺎﺻﻞ ﺷﺎﻱ( ﰲ ﺍﳉﻤﻠـﺔ‬ ‫"ﺳﺎﺑﻌﺎ‪ ،‬ﺧﺬ »ﻓﺎﺻﻞ ﺷﺎﻱ«‪ :‬ﻻ ﺗﺮﻡ ﺃﻛﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻱ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻣﻬﺎ‪ .‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﺇﻥ‪) ،‬ﻓﺎﺻﻞ ﺷﺎﻱ( ﻫﻮ )ﻣﺴﺤﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻱ(‪...‬‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺒﺤﺚ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ‪ :‬ﲢﻠﻴﻞ ﻣﺪﻯ ﳒﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﲔ ﰲ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﻣﻌﺎﱐ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﰲ ﺍﳌﺒﺤﺚ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ﺳﺎﺑﻘﺎ‪ ،‬ﻗﺪ ﺍﻛﺸﻔﺖ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺜﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺃﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﺍﳌﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻻﺳـﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﲔ ﰲ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﻣﻌﺎﱐ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺍﺕ ﻣﻊ ﰎ ﲢﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﺪﻯ ﺗﻜﺮﺭ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻣﻬﻤﺎ‬ ‫)ﺍﳌﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻻﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺎﺕ( ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﳌﻌﲎ‪ .‬‬ ‫ﺭﺃﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺜﺔ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺎﺕ ﻫﻲ ﺗﻘﻨﻴﺔ ﺿﺮﻭﺭﻳﺔ ﰲ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺀﺓ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺗﻨﻄـﻮﻱ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﻣﻌﺮﻓﻴﺔ ﻭﻓﻮﻕ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﻴﺔ ﳓﻮ ﺍﺳﺘﻴﻌﺎﺏ ﺍﳌﺸﻜﻼﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺼـﺎﺩﻓﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳـﻮﻥ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻓﺘﺮﺍﺽ ﻣﻌﺎﱐ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﻕ‪ .‬‬ ‫‪ ni bahagian...".‬ﻭﰲ ﺍﳌﺒﺤﺚ ﺍﻵﰐ ﺳﻨﻜﺸﻒ ﻋﻦ ﲢﻠﻴﻞ ﻣـﺪﻯ‬ ‫ﳒﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﲔ ﰲ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﻣﻌﺎﱐ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺍﺕ‪.‬ﺭﺃﻯ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺱ )‪ (١‬ﺃﻥ )ﻓﺎﺻـﻞ(‬ ‫ﲟﻌﲎ )ﻣﺴﺤﻮﻕ(‪ .‬اﻏﺘﺼﺎب ‪la‬‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﺇﱃ ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻠﻴﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﺟﺪﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺜﺔ ﺃﻥ ﻋﺪﺩﺍ ﻗﻠﻴﻼﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﲔ ﻳﻌﺘﻤﺪﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺮﻏﻢ ﻣﻦ‪ ،‬ﻗﺪ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺟﻬﻢ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺟﺎ ﺻﺤﻴﺤﺎ ﻛﻠﻴﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺳـﺘﻨﺘﺎﺟﺎ ﺻـﺤﻴﺤﺎ ﺟﺰﺋﻴـﺎ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺟﺎ ﺧﺎﻃﺌﺎ‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻟﺖ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﺔ )‪:(٩‬‬ ‫‪ yang terselamat daripada bencana…tak dapat‬ﻏﺼ ﺐ ?‪…apa dia‬وزﯾ ﺎدة ﺣ ﺎﻻت اﻏﺘﺼ ﺎب"‬ ‫"‪ni…tak boleh nak teka.‬ﻭﺟﺪﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺜﺔ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻣﻌﻈﻢ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﲔ ﺑﺬﻟﻮﺍ ﺟﻬﺪﻫﻢ ﰲ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﱐ ﺟﻬﺪﺍ ﻋﻤﻴﻘﺎ‪ . jadi kalau‬ﻓﺼ ﻞ ‪…saya fikir‬ﻓﺎﺻ ﻞ‪ +‬ﺷ ﺎي ‪“Satu lagi kaedah yang saya guna‬‬ ‫”‪dengan teh ni…mesti baki teh.‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﺇﻥ‪ ،‬ﺗﺸﲑ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻵﺗﻴﺔ ﺇﱃ ﻣﺪﻯ ﳒﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﲔ ﰲ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﻣﻌـﺎﱐ‬ ‫‪٦٥‬‬ .‫ﺭﺍﻗﺒﺖ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﺔ )‪ (٩‬ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻬﺪﻓﺔ ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﻻ ﺗﺴﺘﻄﻴﻊ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺟﻬﺎ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺟﺎ ﺻﺤﻴﺤﺎ‪ .‬ﺃﻧـﻪ ﺣﻠـﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺟﺰﺀﻫﺎ ﰲ ﳏﺎﻭﻟﺘﻪ ﻛﺸﻒ ﻣﻌﲎ )ﻓﺎﺻﻞ ﺷﺎﻱ(‪ .

‫ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺍﺕ ﺑﻨﺎﺀﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻻﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﻬﻤﺎ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﻮﻥ ﻟﺘﻔﺎﻋـﻞ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻷﺩﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﻗﻴﺔ ﻟﺬﺍ‪ ،‬ﻋﺮﺿﺖ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺜﺔ ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﻣﺌﻮﻳﺔ ﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﻜﻠـﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺳـﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﳉﺰﺋﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﳋﺎﻃﺊ‪ .‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ﻣﻘﺘﺮﺣﺔ ﳊﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻔﺎﺻﻴﻞ ﰲ ﻗﻴـﺎﺱ‬
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‫ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﰲ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ ﺍﳉﺪﻭﻝ ‪ ١٦‬ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻮﺿﺢ ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﳒﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳـﲔ ﰲ ﺍﺳـﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﻣﻌـﺎﱐ‬
‫ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺍﺕ ﻣﻦ ﻧﺎﺣﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﳉﺰﺋﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳋﺎﻃﺊ‪ .‬ﰎ ﲢﺪﻳﺪ ﻋـﺪﺩ ﳒـﺎﺡ‬
‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﺣﺘﺴﺎﺏ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺃﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳـﻮﻥ ﰲ ﻛﻠﺘـﺎ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻳﻘﺘﲔ ﻣﻌﺎ )ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﻜﲑ ﺑﺼﻮﺕ ﻋﺎﻝ ﻭﺍﳌﻘﺎﺑﻠﺔ( ﺑﻐﺾ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﺇﱃ ﺗﻜﺮﺍﺭ ﺃﻧﻮﺍﻋﻪ ﻓﻴﻬﻤﺎ‪.‬‬

‫‪ ٥‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺹ ‪ ٤٩‬ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻔﺼﻞ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ ﳌﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﳉﺰﺋﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﳋﺎﻃﺊ‪.‬‬
‫‪٦٦‬‬

‫ﺍﳌﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺃﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ‬
‫ﺍﳌﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﻴﺔ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻲ‬
‫ﻋﺪﺩ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﳉﺰﺋﻲ‬
‫ﻋﺪﺩ‬

‫‪%‬‬

‫ﺍﳋﺎﻃﺊ‬

‫ﻋﺪﺩ‬

‫‪%‬‬

‫ﳎﻤﻮﻉ‬

‫ﻋﺪﺩ‬

‫‪%‬‬

‫‪%‬‬

‫ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﺮﻓﻴﺔ‬

‫‪٤‬‬

‫‪١٤‬‬

‫‪٥‬‬

‫‪١٧‬‬

‫‪٢٠‬‬

‫‪٦٩‬‬

‫‪٢٩‬‬

‫‪١٠٠‬‬

‫ﺍ‪‬ﺎﻧﺴﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﻔﻈﻴﺔ‬

‫‪٤‬‬

‫‪٦٧‬‬

‫‪٠‬‬

‫‪٠‬‬

‫‪٢‬‬

‫‪٣٣‬‬

‫‪٦‬‬

‫‪١٠٠‬‬

‫ﺭﺑﻂ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺓ‬

‫‪٢‬‬

‫‪٢٩‬‬

‫‪١‬‬

‫‪١٤‬‬

‫‪٤‬‬

‫‪٥٧‬‬

‫‪٧‬‬

‫‪١٠٠‬‬

‫ﻣﻌﲎ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ‬

‫‪١١‬‬

‫‪٥٢‬‬

‫‪٣‬‬

‫‪١٤‬‬

‫‪٧‬‬

‫‪٣٣‬‬

‫‪٢١‬‬

‫‪١٠٠‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺒﻴﺔ‬

‫‪١٥‬‬

‫‪٦٣‬‬

‫‪٥‬‬

‫‪٢١‬‬

‫‪٤‬‬

‫‪١٧‬‬

‫‪٢٤‬‬

‫‪١٠٠‬‬

‫ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺤﻮﻳﺔ‬

‫‪٥‬‬

‫‪٢٦‬‬

‫‪٣‬‬

‫‪١٦‬‬

‫‪١١‬‬

‫‪٥٨‬‬

‫‪١٩‬‬

‫‪١٠٠‬‬

‫ﻣﻌﲎ ﺍﳋﻄﺎﺏ‬

‫‪٦‬‬

‫‪٣٥‬‬

‫‪٥‬‬

‫‪٢٩‬‬

‫‪٦‬‬

‫‪٣٥‬‬

‫‪١٧‬‬

‫‪١٠٠‬‬

‫ﺍﳌﺨﻄﻂ ﺍﳋﻄﺎﰊ‬

‫‪٧‬‬

‫‪٨٨‬‬

‫‪١‬‬

‫‪١٣‬‬

‫‪١‬‬

‫‪١٣‬‬

‫‪٨‬‬

‫‪١٠٠‬‬

‫ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺓ‬

‫‪٠‬‬

‫‪٠‬‬

‫‪٠‬‬

‫‪٠‬‬

‫‪٢‬‬

‫‪١٠٠‬‬

‫‪٢‬‬

‫‪١٠٠‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﲨﺔ‬

‫‪٢٣‬‬

‫‪٣٢‬‬

‫‪١١‬‬

‫‪١٥‬‬

‫‪٣٨‬‬

‫‪٥٣‬‬

‫‪٧٢‬‬

‫‪١٠٠‬‬

‫ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﻴﺔ‬

‫‪١٣‬‬

‫‪٤١‬‬

‫‪١٠‬‬

‫‪٣١‬‬

‫‪٩‬‬

‫‪٢٨‬‬

‫‪٣٢‬‬

‫‪١٠٠‬‬

‫‪١٠٠‬‬

‫‪٠‬‬

‫‪٠‬‬

‫‪٠‬‬

‫‪٠‬‬

‫‪١‬‬

‫‪١٠٠‬‬

‫‪٣٨‬‬

‫‪٤٤‬‬

‫‪١٨‬‬

‫‪١٠٤‬‬

‫‪٢٣٩‬‬

‫‪١٠٠‬‬

‫ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﳌﺼـﻄﻠﺤﺎﺕ ‪١‬‬
‫ﺍﳋﺎﺻﺔ‬
‫ﺍ‪‬ﻤﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻲ‬

‫‪٩١‬‬

‫‪٤٤‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻞ ‪ :١٦‬ﻣﺪﻯ ﳒﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﲔ ﰲ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﻣﻌﺎﱐ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺍﺕ ﺣﺴﺐ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﳌﺌﻮﻳﺔ‬

‫‪٦٧‬‬

‫ﻭﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻋﺎﻡ ﺩﻝ ﺍﳉﺪﻭﻝ ‪ ١٦‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻄﻠﺒﺔ ﳒﺤﻮﺍ ﰲ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺟﻬﻢ ﺃﻛﺜـﺮ ﻋﻨـﺪﻣﺎ‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻣﻮﺍ ﺍ‪‬ﺎﻧﺴﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﻔﻈﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻌﲎ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺒﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳌﺨﻄﻂ ﺍﳋﻄﺎﰊ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻣﻮﺍ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﺮﻓﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺭﺑﻂ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺤﻮﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺮﲨﺔ ﻓﺈﻥ‬
‫ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﳋﻄﺄ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺠﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻲ‪ .‬ﻭﺃﻣﺎ ﰲ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻣﻌﲎ ﺍﳋﻄﺎﺏ ﻓﻼ ﻓـﺮﻕ ﺑـﲔ‬
‫ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺠﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻲ ﻭﺑﲔ ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﳋﻄﺄ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﺷﺎﺭﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺗﺪﱐ ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﰲ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﺮﻓﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺮﻏﻢ ﻣﻦ ﻛﺜﺮﺓ ﺗﻮﻇﻴﻔﻬﺎ‪ .‬ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺱ )‪ (١‬ﳒﺢ ﰲ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﻛﻠﻤﺔ )ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻋﻤﺔ( ﰲ ﺍﳉﻤﻠـﺔ‬
‫"ﺧﺎﻣﺴﺎ‪ ،‬ﺍﻏﺴﻞ ﻋﻴﻨﻴﻚ ﺑﺎﳌﺎﺀ‪ :‬ﻓﻬﺬﺍ ﻳﺮﳛﻬﺎ ﻭﻳﺴﺎﻋﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﺯﺍﻟﺔ ﺍﻷﺗﺮﺑﺔ ﻭﺍﳌﻮﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻋﻤـﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻼﺻﻘﺔ ‪‬ﺎ‪ .".‬ﺭﺃﻯ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺱ )‪ (١‬ﺇﱃ ﺃﺻﻠﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ )ﻧﻌﻴﻢ( ﻭﻗﺪ ﺍﻓﺘﺮﺽ ﺑـﺄﻥ ﻣﻌﻨـﺎﻩ ﺷـﻲﺀ‬
‫ﻟﻄﻴﻒ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻏﺮﺍﻣﺔ‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺱ )‪:(١‬‬
‫‪ ni‬ﻧﻌﯿﻢ ‪ ni saya yakin maksudnya halus. Sebab ada kawan-kawan ana nama‬اﻟﻨﺎﻋﻤﺔ“‬
‫‪ ni yang melekat jadi takkan benda yang‬اﻟﻼﺻﻘﺔ…‪maksudnya yang lembut, halus‬‬
‫”…‪kasaq kot melekat kan‬‬

‫ﺃﻣﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﳋﺎﻃﺊ‪ ،‬ﻓﻌﺪﺩﻩ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺟﺢ‪ .‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻳـﺪﻝ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﺮﻓﻴﺔ ﻻ ﺗﻔﻴﺪﻫﻢ ﻛﺜﲑﺍ ﰲ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻴﻢ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺃﻥ ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺘﻬﻢ ﺍﻟﺼـﺮﻓﻴﺔ‬
‫ﳏﺪﻭﺩﺓ‪ .‬ﻗﺪ ﺍﻓﺘﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺱ )‪ (١‬ﻛﻠﻤﺔ )ﻋﻘﺎﺭﺏ( ﰲ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ " ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺎ‪ ،‬ﺃﻏﻤﺾ ﻋﻴﻨﻴﻚ ﻭﺣﺮﻙ‬
‫ﻣﻘﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﲔ ﰲ ﺍﲡﺎﻩ ﻋﻘﺎﺭﺏ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻋﺔ ﻭﻋﻜﺴﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﲤﺮﻳﻦ ﻟﻠﻌﺼﺐ ﺍﻟﺒﺼﺮﻱ ﳑﺎ ﻳﻘـﻮﻱ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﲔ‪ ".‬ﺍﻓﺘﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺱ )‪(١‬ﻛﻠﻤﺔ )ﻋﻘﺎﺭﺏ( ﻣﻌﻨﺎﻫﺎ )ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺒﺎ( ﻷﻧﻪ ﺭﺃﻯ )ﻋﻘﺎﺭﺏ( ﻣﻦ ﻛﻠﻤﺔ‬

‫)ﻗﺮﻳﺐ(‪ ،‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﺇﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ )ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺒﺎ( ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺘﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﺑﺎﻟﺴﺎﻋﺔ‪ .‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺮﻏﻢ ﻣـﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺍﺳـﺘﻨﺘﺎﺟﻪ ﻻ‬

‫ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﺇﱃ ﺻﺤﺔ ﺍﳌﻌﲎ‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺱ )‪:(١‬‬
‫اﻗﺘﺮب ‪ ni maksudnya lebih kurang. Sebab asal perkataan‬ﻋﻘﺎرب ‪“Saya rasa‬‬
‫‪ …Nampak maksudnya lebih‬اﻟﺴﺎﻋﺔ ‪…selain tu berkaitan dengan masa sebab ada‬ﻗﺮﯾﺐ‬
‫”‪kurang sejam‬‬

‫ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍ‪‬ﺎﻧﺴﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﻔﻈﻴﺔ ﺃﻥ ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺗﺪﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ‬
‫ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺟﺪﺍ‪ .‬ﻭﺟﺪﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺜﺔ ﺃﻥ ﻣﻌﻈﻢ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﲔ ﳒﺤﻮﺍ ﰲ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﳌﻌﲎ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ‬
‫ﺍ‪‬ﺎﻧﺴﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﻔﻈﻴﺔ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺍﻛﺘﺸﻔﻮﺍ ﻋﻼﻣﺔ ﺗﺸﺎﺑﻪ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺓ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻬﺪﻓﺔ ﺑﺎﳌﻔﺮﺩﺓ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻭﻓﺔ ﺍﻷﺧـﺮﻯ‬
‫‪٦٨‬‬

Kering ataupun‬اﻟﺼ ﺤﺮاء ‪dan bertambah panas.".‬ﻭﺟﺪ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺱ )‪ (٧‬ﻛﻠﻤﺔ )ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺤﺮ( ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺎﺑﻪ ﺑﻜﻠﻤﺔ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻭﻫﻲ‬ ‫)ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺮﺍﺀ( ﳑﺎ ﺭﺃﻯ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺱ )‪ (٧‬ﺃﻥ ﻣﻌﻨﺎﻫﺎ ﺷﺪﺓ ﺍﳊﺮﺍﺭﺓ‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺱ )‪:(٦‬‬ ‫‪…bangun sahur. sahur di awal.‬ﺭﺑﻄﺖ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﺔ )‪ (٤‬ﻛﻠﻤﺔ )ﺃﻏﻤـﺾ( ﺑﻜﻠﻤـﺔ‬ ‫)ﺍﻓﺘﺢ( ﰲ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻬﺪﻓﺔ ﺣﱴ ﺗﺘﺤﻘﻖ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻌﻨﺎﻫﺎ ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺒﺔ ﻭﻫﻲ )ﺃﻏﻠﻖ(‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻟﺖ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳـﺔ‬ ‫) ‪:(٤‬‬ ‫‪ mesti‬أﻏﻤﻀ ﮭﻤﺎ ‪. sebab ayat sebelumnya‬‬ ‫‪. nak bangun sahur susah…yang‬اﻟﺘﺼﺤﺮاﻟﺘﺼ ﺤﺮ"‬ ‫"‪menambah kesusahan kot.. Lepas tu‬ﻋﯿﻨﯿ ﻚ ‪ kan buka‬اﻓ ﺘﺢ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺃﺷﺎﺭﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺭﺑﻂ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺓ ﺇﱃ ﺃ‪‬ﺎ ﺩﻟﺖ ﻋﻠـﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﺴـﺒﺔ ﺍﳌﻨﺨﻔﻀـﺔ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ‪ .‬‬ ‫‪٦٩‬‬ .‬ﺣ ﯿﻦ ﯾﻌ ﻢ اﻟﺠﻔ ﺎف ‪“Aaa.‬ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺱ )‪ (٦‬ﻳﺎﻓﺘﺮﺽ ﻛﻠﻤـﺔ )ﺍﻟﺘﺼـﺤﺮ(‬ ‫ﻣﻌﻨﺎﻫﺎ )ﺻﻌﻮﺑﺔ( ﺣﻴﺚ ﺭﺃﻯ ﻛﻠﻤﺔ )ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺤﺮ( ﳍﺎ ﻣﺘﺸﺎ‪‬ﺔ ﺻﻮﺗﻴﺔ ﺑﻜﻠﻤﺔ )ﺍﻟﺴﺤﺮ( ﺣﻴـﺚ‬ ‫ﻳﺪﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻌﲎ ﺍﺳﺘﻴﻘﺎﻅ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻡ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻞ ﺍﻟﺴﺤﺮ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺼﻌﻮﺑﺔ‪ .".‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺱ )‪:(٧‬‬ ‫‪ tu kering.‬ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺱ )‪ (٧‬ﺍﻓﺘﺮﺽ ﻛﻠﻤﺔ )ﺍﻟﺘﺼـﺤﺮ(‬ ‫ﰲ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ " ﺃﻛﺪﺕ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔﺣﺪﻳﺜﺔ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺣﲔ ﳛﺪﺙ ﻓﻴﻀﺎﻥ ﺃﻭ ﺇﻋﺼﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﻭﺣﲔ ﻳﻌﻢ ﺍﳉﻔﺎﻑ‬ ‫ﻭﻳﺰﺩﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺤﺮ‪ .‬‬ ‫ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﻣﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻣﻬﺎ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻣﺎ ﺧﺎﻃﺌﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﻤﺜﻼ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺱ )‪ (٦‬ﱂ ﻳﻨﺠﺢ ﰲ ﲝﺚ‬ ‫ﻋﻼﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺎﺑﻪ ﺑﻜﻠﻤﺔ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﲝﺜﺎ ﺻﺤﻴﺤﺎ‪ . pastu‬اﻟﺠﻔ ﺎف‪.‬ﻭﺟﺪﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺜﺔ ﻣﻌﻈﻢ ﺍﳌﺸﺎﺭﻛﲔ ﱂ ﻳﻨﺠﺤﻮﺍ ﰲ ﺭﺑـﻂ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺓ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻬﺪﻓﺔ ﺑﺎﳌﻔﺮﺩﺓ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻭﻓﺔ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ﺭﺑﻄﺎ ﺻﺤﻴﺤﺎ ﺇﻻ ﻋﺪﺩ ﻗﻠﻴﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺸﺎﺭﻛﲔ ﻓﻘﻂ‪. Jadi mesti buka dan tutup".‫ﺍﻛﺘﺸﺎﻓﹰﺎ ﺻﺤﻴﺤﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻧﺎﺣﻴﺔ ﺷﻜﻠﻴﺔ ﻭﺻﻮﺗﻴﺔ‪ .‬‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﳌﺜﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﻗﺪ ﳒﺤﺖ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﺔ )‪ (٤‬ﰲ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﻛﻠﻤﺔ )ﺃﻏﻤﺾ( ﰲ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ "ﺍﻓـﺘﺢ‬ ‫ﻋﻴﻨﻴﻚ ﻭﺃﻏﻤﻀﻬﻤﺎ ﺑﺴﺮﻋﺔ ﻭﰲ ﺗﺘﺎﺑﻊ‪ . Sebab ayat mula-mula tu‬أﻏﻤ ﺾ"‬ ‫‪ saya faham takkan kita nak buka mata ja‬ﺑﺴ ﺮﻋﺔ وﻓ ﻲ ﺗﺘ ﺎﺑﻊ ‪tutup.. Sebab bila tengok ayat‬‬ ‫‪sebab ada turutan kat situ.‬اﻓ ﺘﺢ ‪ tutup. Perkataan tu lebih kurang macam‬‬ ‫”‪kering kontang.Saya rasa panas.

‬ﻫﻨـﺎﻙ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳـﺔ )‪ (١٠‬ﱂ ﺗـﻨﺠﺢ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﻛﻠﻤﺔ )ﺍﳓﺴﺎﺭ( ﰲ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ "ﻓﻌﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﺍﰐ ﻗﺘﻠﻦ ﰲ ﺗﺴـﻮﻧﺎﻣﻲ ‪٢٠٠٤‬ﻡ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺇﻧﺪﻭﻧﻴﺴﻴﺎ ﺑﻠﻎ ﺛﻼﺛﺔ ﺃﺿﻌﺎﻑ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﺎﻝ ﻷﻥ ﻋﺪﺩﺍ ﻗﻠﻴﻼﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺀ ﳚـﺪﻥ ﺍﻟﺴـﺒﺎﺣﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺎﺭﻧﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺮﺟﺎﻝ‪ .‬‬ ‫‪٧‬‬ ‫‪Alderson.‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﻥ ﻣﺸﻜﻼﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺀ ﺗﺒﺪﺃ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﳓﺴﺎﺭ ﻣﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻀﺎﻧﺎﺕ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺇﺫ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺰﻭﳚﻬﻦ ﻛﺮﻫﺎ ﻷ‪‬ﻦ ﻓﻘﺪﻥ ﺫﻭﻳﻬﻦ‪ ".‬‬ ‫‪٦‬‬ ‫‪Tine Greidanus and Lydius Nienhuis.". Sebab sebelum tu dia ada cakap pasal Tsunami‬‬ ‫‪ ni‬اﻟﺴ ﺒﺎﺣﺔ ‪kan. “Testing the Quality of Word Knowledge in a Second Language‬‬ ‫‪by Means of Word Associations: Types of Distractors and Types of Associations.(Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. saya‬‬ ‫‪ tu maksud dia mengikut jadi saya rasa seperti mengikut arah‬اﺗﺠ ﺎه ‪tengok perkataan‬‬ ‫"‪lah.‬ﳑـﺎ‬ ‫ﳝﻜﻦ ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪ‪‬ﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﻣﻌﻨﺎﻫﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﻕ‪ .. jadinya‬اﻧﺤﺴ ﺎر ‪meningkat la‬‬ ‫‪kebanyakan mushkilahnya ni datang. Saya rasa macam‬‬ ‫‪ tu kan. Pastu cakap pasal‬‬ ‫‪…berenang kan.‬ﻗﺎﻟﺖ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﺔ )‪:(١٠‬‬ ‫‪“Saya rasa macam kenaikan air banjir.‬ﻫﺬﺍ ﺩﻟﻴﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﻣﻌـﲎ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺓ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺃﺳﻬﻞ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻮﺿﻊ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺓ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﻕ ﻭﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻷﺩﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﻗﻴﺔ ﺃﻗﺮﺏ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ‪ ٧.. No. Mula-mula saya tengok pada perkataan‬ﻋﻘ ﺎرب"‬ ‫‪berlawan…daripada situ saya boleh faham maksudnya mungkin arah. ٨٥. Selain itu. (Winter ٢٠٠١): ٥٦٩. ٢٠٠٠).١٢.‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﺑﲔ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺓ ﻣﺮﺍﺩ ﺭﺑﻄﻬﺎ ﱂ ﺗﻜﻦ ﻭﺍﺿﺤﺔ ﻟﺪﻯ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﲔ‪ . Vol.‬ﻗﺎﻟﺖ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﺔ )‪:(٤‬‬ ‫‪ maksud dia‬ﻋﻜﺴ ﮭﺎ ‪ saya agak arah.‫ﻭﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﳋﺎﻃﺊ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺗﺆﻳﺪ ﻣﺎ ﺫﻫﺐ ﺇﻟﻴـﻪ ﺟﺮﺩﻧـﻮﺱ‬ ‫ﻭﻧﻨﻬﻴﺲ‪ ٦. ayat-ayat sebelum tu cakap pasal Tsunami. Assessing Reading. Saya rasa macam air tu makin naik la kan.‬‬ ‫‪٧٠‬‬ .‬ﻭﻟﻜـﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺟﻬﺎ ﻻ ﻳﺘﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﺑﺎﻟﺴﻴﺎﻕ‪ .” The Modern‬‬ ‫‪Language Journal.‬ﻛﺸـﻔﺖ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳـﺔ )‪ (٤‬ﻋـﻦ ﻣﻌـﲎ‬ ‫)ﻋﻘﺎﺭﺏ( ﺑﺄﻧﻪ )ﺍﺗﺒﺎﻉ( ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﻣﻼﺣﻈﺘﻬﺎ ﰲ ﻛﻠﻤﺘﲔ )ﺍﲡﺎﻩ(‪ ،‬ﻭ)ﻭﻋﻜﺴـﻬﺎ( ﺣﻴـﺚ‬ ‫ﺃﻋﻄﺘﺎﻫﺎ ﻣﻌﲎ )ﺍﺗﺒﺎﻉ(‪ .‬ﺍﻓﺘﺮﺿﺖ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﺔ )‪ (١٠‬ﻛﻠﻤﺔ )ﺍﳓﺴـﺎﺭ(‬ ‫ﻣﻌﻨﺎﻫﺎ )ﺍﺯﺩﻳﺎﺩ( ﺣﻴﺚ ﺭﺃﺕ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳌﺸﻜﻼﺕ ﺃﺗﺖ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﺯﺩﻳﺎﺩ ﻣﻴـﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻀـﺎﻧﺎﺕ‪ . Mangsanya adalah perempuan selepas naiknya‬‬ ‫”‪air banjir.٤. Jadi dia kaitkan dengan air banjir tu meningkat.‬‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻹﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺫﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﺭﺃﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺜﺔ ﺃﻥ ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﰲ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺒﻴﺔ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺩﻟﺖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺟﺪﺍ‪ .‬ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﳌﺜﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﺍﻓﺘﺮﺿﺖ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﺔ )‪ (٤‬ﻛﻠﻤﺔ )ﻋﻘﺎﺭﺏ( ﰲ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ " ﺃﻏﻤﺾ ﻋﻴﻨﻴﻚ ﻭﺣـﺮﻙ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﲔ ﰲ ﺍﲡﺎﻩ ﻋﻘﺎﺭﺏ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻋﺔ ﻭﻋﻜﺴﻬﺎ‪ .

‬أﻋﻀﺎء اﻟﺠﺴﻢ ‪saya tengok pada‬اﻟﺠﺴﻢ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺪ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺤﻮﻳﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺷﺎﺋﻌﺔ ﺍﳌﺼﺪﺭ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﰲ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﻌﺘﻤﺪﻫﺎ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﻮﻥ ﰲ ﺍﺳـﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻌﲎ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﻣﻼﺣﻈﺘﻬﻢ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺤﻮﻳﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻣﻮﻗﻊ ﳓﻮﻱ ﻟﻠﻤﻔﺮﺩﺓ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻬﺪﻓﺔ‪.‫ﻭﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﻣﺜﺎﻝ ﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﳉﺰﺋﻲ ﳑﺎ ﺍﻓﺘﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺱ )‪ (١‬ﻛﻠﻤﺔ )ﺃﻏﻤﺾ( ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ "ﺃﻭﻻ‪ ،‬ﺍﻓﺘﺢ ﻋﻴﻨﻴﻚ ﻭﺃﻏﻤﻀﻬﻤﺎ ﺑﺴﺮﻋﺔ ﻭﰲ ﺗﺘـﺎﺑﻊ‪ ،‬ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﻈـﺮﺓ ﺃﻣـﺎﻡ ﺷﺎﺷـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﻤﺒﻴﻮﺗﺮ ﲡﻌﻠﻨﺎ ﻧﻨﺴﻰ ﺃﻥ ﻧﻐﻤﺾ ﺃﻋﻴﻨﻨﺎ ﻭﻧﻔﺘﺤﻬﺎ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﳑﺎ ﻳﺴﺒﺐ ﺇﺟﻬـﺎﺩﺍ ﻟﻠﻌـﲔ‪. Sebab mata tu daripada deria-deria yang ada dekat‬‬ ‫”‪ mungkin boleh kata deria la.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻓﺘﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺱ )‪ (١‬ﻛﻠﻤﺔ )ﺃﻏﻤﺾ( ﻣﻌﻨﺎﻫﺎ )ﺗﻄﺮﻑ ﺍﻟﻌﲔ(‪ .‬ﺍﻓﺘﺮﺿﺖ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﺔ )‪ (٢‬ﻛﻠﻤﺔ )ﺃﺭﻕ( ﺑﺄ‪‬ﺎ )ﺣﺴﻲ( ﺣﻴﺚ ﻻﺣﻈﺖ ﰲ ﻛﻠﻤﺔ‬ ‫)ﺃﺟﺰﺍﺀ ﺍﳉﺴﻢ( ﻛﺄ‪‬ﺎ ﺗﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﲝﺴﻲ‪ . mesti pejam celik…dia suruh buka lepas tu‬‬ ‫‪cepat pula…mata dia ada tiga kerja…satu kelip-kelip.".‬ﻫﻨـﺎﻙ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺱ )‪ (١‬ﺣﺼﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﰲ ﳏﺎﻭﻟﺘﻪ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﻣﻌﲎ ﻛﻠﻤﺔ )ﺍﻻﺳـﺘﺮﺧﺎﺀ(‬ ‫ﰲ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ "ﺍﺻﻨﻊ ﺩﺍﺋﺮﺓ ﺑﺮﺍﺣﺔ ﻳﺪﻙ ﺣﻮﻝ ﻋﻴﻨﻚ ﺣﱴ ﺗﺮﻯ ﺃﻣﺎﻣﻚ ﺑﺴﻼﺳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳊﺮﻛﺔ‬ ‫‪٧١‬‬ .‬‬ ‫ﺃﺷﺎﺭﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺃﻧﻌﺪﺩ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺟﺢ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻖ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺤﻮﻳﺔ ﺃﺛﻨـﺎﺀ ﺍﺳـﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻌﲎ ﺃﻗﻞ ﻣﻘﺎﺭﻧﺔ ﺑﻌﺪﺩ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﳋﺎﻃﺊ‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻟﺖ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﺔ )‪:(٢‬‬ ‫أﻋﻀﺎء ‪“Saya rasa maksudnya deria.‬ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﲔ ﻻﺣﻈﻮﺍ ﺇﱃ ﻭﻇﻴﻔﺔ ﺣﺮﻑ ﺍﻟﻌﻄﻒ‬ ‫"ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻭ" ﳑﺎ ﺗﺒﲔ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻣﺘﺎﺑﻌﺔ ﻟﻠﺠﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ ﺃﻱ ﻣﻌﻄﻮﻑ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ ﻣـﺎ ﻗﺒﻠـﻬﺎ‪ .‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﳋﺎﻃﺊ‪ ،‬ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﺔ )‪ (٢‬ﱂ ﺗﻨﺠﺢ‬ ‫ﰲ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﻛﻠﻤﺔ )ﺃﺭﻕ( ﰲ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ "ﺍﻟﻌﲔ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺭﻕ ﺃﺟﺰﺍﺀ ﺍﳉﺴﻢ‪ ،‬ﻟﺬﺍﳚﺐ ﺃﻥ ﻧﻮﺟﻪ ﳍـﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺎﻳﺔ ﺧﺎﺻﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﰲ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺑﺄﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﲔ ﺃﺩﺕ ﺛﻼﺛـﺔ ﺃﺩﻭﺍﺭ ﻫـﻲ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻔـﺘﺢ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻐﻠﻖ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻄﺮﻑ ﺍﻟﻌﲔ‪ . Buka mata dan‬أﻏﻤ ﺾ"‬ ‫‪ dengan‬أﻏﻤﻀ ﮭﻤﺎ ﺑﺴ ﺮﻋﺔ ‪lain maksudnya. satu buka dan satu tutup…dia‬‬ ‫" …‪kata dengan cepat.".‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺱ )‪:(١‬‬ ‫?‪ takkan tutup mata‬أﻏﻤ ﺾ ‪ ni saya pasti maksudnya kelip-kelip. yang tu lah kelip-kelip‬‬ ‫ﺃﻇﻬﺮﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﲔ ﻻ ﻳﻌﺘﻤﺪﻭﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﺼﺪﺭ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﰲ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺣﺪ ﻓﻘـﻂ ﺑـﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻔﺴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﰐ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﻴﺔ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﰲ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﻣﻌﲎ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺓ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻬﺪﻓﺔ ﺣـﱴ‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻤﻜﻦ ﻣﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﳌﻌﲎ‪ .‬ﺭﺃﻯ ﺍﻟـﺪﺍﺭﺱ )‪ (١‬ﻛﻠﻤـﺔ‬ ‫)ﺍﻓﺘﺢ( ﰒ ﻳﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﻛﻠﻤﺘﲔ )ﺃﻏﻤﺾ ﺑﺴﺮﻋﺔ( ﺣﻴﺚ ﻭﺟﺪ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺱ )‪ (١‬ﺃﻥ )ﺃﻏﻤﺾ( ﻫﻨﺎ ﲟﻌﲎ‬ ‫)ﺗﻄﺮﻑ ﺍﻟﻌﲔ(‪ .

‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺱ )‪:(١‬‬ ‫‪. Sebab tengok kepada ayat‬اﺳ ﺘﺮاﺣﺔ ‪“ Saya rasa maksudnya‬‬ ‫‪ tudia lebih kurang sama.” ١٨٢.‬ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺱ )‪ (٥‬ﺣﺼﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﺼـﺤﻴﺢ ﺣﻴـﺚ‬ ‫‪Kaivanpanah and Alavi.‬و ‪ dia ma’tuuf jadi ayat-ayat selepas‬و ‪… ada‬ﻋﻠ ﻰ اﻻﺳ ﺘﺮﺧﺎء‬ ‫”‪ ..‬اﺳﺘﺮاﺣﺔ ‪Maksudnya merehatkan‬‬ ‫ﺃﻣﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﳋﺎﻃﺊ‪ ،‬ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺱ )‪ (٧‬ﺍﻓﺘﺮﺽ ﻛﻠﻤﺔ )ﺇﻋﺼـﺎﺭ( ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ "ﺃﻛﺪﺕ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺣﺪﻳﺜﺔ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺣﲔ ﳛﺪﺙ ﻓﻴﻀـﺎﻥ ﺃﻭ ﺇﻋﺼـﺎﺭ‪ .‬ﻭﺑﺎﻟﻌﻜﺲ ﺃﻧﻪ )ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻭ( ﻻ ﻳﺸﲑ ﺇﱃ ﻣﺘﺎﺑﻌﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﻌﲎ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻖ‪ ."."..‬أو‬ ‫ﻛﺬﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﻧﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﻮﻥ ﺇﱃ ﻋﻼﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺔ ﻭﺍﳌﻮﺻﻮﻑ ﰲ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ‪ .‬‬ ‫‪٧٢‬‬ ‫‪٨‬‬ .‬ﻗﺎﻟﺖ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﺔ )‪:(٨‬‬ ‫‪.‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺱ )‪:(١‬‬ ‫ھ ﺬه اﻟﺤﺮﻛ ﺔ ﺗ ﺮﯾﺢ اﻟﻌ ﯿﻦ وﺗﺴ ﺎﻋﺪھﺎ ‪.".Sebab‬اﻟﻤﻨ ﺎﻃﻖ ‪ sifat kepada‬اﻟﻤﻨﻜﻮﺑ ﺔ ‪ saya rasa maksudnya ialah terlibat sebab‬اﻟﻤﻨﻜﻮﺑ ﺔ"‬ ‫‪ di‬ﻓ ﻲ اﻟﻤﻨ ﺎﻃﻖ ‪ penduduk‬اﻟﻤ ﻮاﻃﻨﯿﻦ ‪tadi dia cakap bencana-bencana yang menimpa‬‬ ‫"‪kawasan yang terlibat dengan bencana itu lah. Samaada banjir atau‬أو ‪“Sebab sebelum tu dia ada kata faidhaan tu aaa…Ada tulis‬‬ ‫‪pun bencana.‬‬ ‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﺇﻥ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺗﺆﻳﺪ ﻣﺎ ﺫﻫﺐ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﻛﺒﻨﺒﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻟﱯ )‪ (٢٠٠٨‬ﺑﺄﻥ ﺍﻣﺘﻼﻙ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺤﻮﻳﺔ ﺍﳉﻴﺪﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺤﻮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺴﻴﻄﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﺺ ﺗﺆﺛﺮ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﲔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﲢﻘﻴـﻖ ﺍﻻﺳـﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ‬ ‫‪٨‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺟﺢ‪.‬ﺭﺃﺕ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﺔ )‪ (٨‬ﻛﻠﻤﺔ )ﺍﳌﻨﻜﻮﺑﺔ( ﺑﺄ‪‬ﺎ ﺻـﻔﺔ ﻟﻜﻠﻤـﺔ‬ ‫)ﺍﳌﻨﺎﻃﻖ(‪ . huruf a’taf memberi maksud muraadif.‬ﺍﻓﺘﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺱ )‪(١‬ﻛﻠﻤﺔ )ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺮﺧﺎﺀ( ﺑﺄ‪‬ـﺎ‬ ‫)ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺮﺍﺣﺔ( ﻷﻧﻪ ﻳﺸﲑ ﺇﱃ ﺩﻭﺭ ﻭﺍﻭ ﺍﻟﻌﻄﻒ ﰲ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ‪ .‫ﺗﺮﻳﺢ ﺍﻟﻌﲔ ﻭﺗﺴﺎﻋﺪﻫﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺮﺧﺎﺀ‪ . Tu pun boleh jadi maksud banjir sebab dia makna sama ja sebab ada‬‬ ‫”‪.‬‬ ‫ﺃﻣﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﳌﺨﻄﻂ ﺍﳋﻄﺎﰊ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ‪ ،‬ﻓﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ‬ ‫ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﳋﺎﻃﺊ‪ .‬ﻣﺜﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﺔ )‪(٨‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺣﺼﻠﺖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺟﺢ ﰲ ﳏﺎﻭﻟﺘﻪ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﻣﻌﲎ )ﺍﳌﻨﻜﻮﺑﺔ( ﰲ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ "ﻓـﺈﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻀﺮﺭ ﻳﺼﻴﺐ ﲨﻴﻊ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﻃﻨﲔ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﻃﻖ ﺍﳌﻨﻜﻮﺑﺔ‪ :‬ﻟﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺀ ﻳﻌﺎﻧﲔ ﻣـﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻐـﻴﲑﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻨﺎﺧﻴﺔ ﺃﻛﺜﺮﳑﺎ ﻳﻌﺎﱐ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﺎﻝ‪ . “The Role of Linguistic Knowledge in Word-Meaning Inferencing.‬ﺭﺃﻯ ﺍﻟـﺪﺍﺭﺱ‬ ‫)‪(١‬ﻛﻠﻤﺔ )ﺇﻋﺼﺎﺭ( ﻣﻌﻨﺎﻫﺎ )ﻓﻴﻀﺎﻥ( ﺣﻴﺚ ﻓﻬﻢ ﺩﻻﻟﺔ )ﺃﻭ( ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﻌـﲎ ﻧﻔﺴـﻪ ﻟﻠﻜﻠﻤـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ‪ .

‬ﻣﻦ اﻟﺘﻐﯿﯿﺮات اﻟﻤﻨﺎﺧﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﺧﲑﺍ‪ ،‬ﺃﺷﺎﺭ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﲨﺔ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻥ ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺟﺢ ﺣﺼﻞ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﳌﻨﺨﻔﻀﺔ ﻣﻘﺎﺭﻧﺔ ﺑﺎﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﳋﺎﻃﺊ‪ .‬ﺍﻓﺘﺮﺽ ﺍﻟـﺪﺍﺭﺱ‬ ‫)‪ (٥‬ﺃﻥ )ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺮﺧﺎﺀ( ﻣﻌﻨﺎﻫﺎ )ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺮﺍﺣﺔ(‪ . kiranya macam…Kiranya tempat tu macam ada kena mengena dengan‬‬ ‫‪”.".‬ﻭﺟﺪﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺜﺔ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳـﲔ ﺗﺮﲨـﻮﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺸﺘﻤﻞ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺓ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻬﺪﻓﺔ‪ .‬ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺍﳌﺜﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺣﺪ ﺩﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺟﺢ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﲨﺔ‪ .‬ﻫﻨـﺎﻙ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﺔ )‪ (١٠‬ﱂ ﺗﻨﺠﺢ ﰲ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﳌﺨﻄﻂ ﺍﳋﻄﺎﰊ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻣﺎ ﺳﻠﻴﻤﺎ‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻟﺖ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﺔ )‪:(١٠‬‬ ‫‪“Saya agak maksudnya tempat mengalami perubahan cuaca… Sebab selepas tu dia‬‬ ‫ﻟﻜﻦ ‪.".‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟـﺪﺍﺭﺱ‬ ‫)‪:(٥‬‬ ‫‪. Mungkin kesan daripada jelas tadi mungkin‬اﺳ ﺘﺮاﺣﺔ ‪ ini rehat atau‬اﻻﺳ ﺘﺮﺧﺎء ‪“Saya rasa‬‬ ‫‪ kemudian kesan‬اﺻ ﻨﻊ داﺋ ﺮة ‪dapat membantu mata ini rehat lah.‬ﺍﻓﺘﺮﺿﺖ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﺔ )‪ (٣‬ﻛﻠﻤﺔ )ﺃﻛﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻱ( ﰲ ﺍﳉﻤﻠـﺔ "ﻻ‬ ‫ﺗﺮﻡ ﺃﻛﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻱ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻣﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﺿﻌﻬﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺟﺔ ﻟﻌﺪﺓ ﺳﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﰒ ﺿـﻌﻬﺎ ﻋﻠـﻰ‬ ‫ﻋﻴﻨﻴﻚ‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻟﺖ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﺔ )‪:(٣‬‬ ‫‪٧٣‬‬ .‬ﻻﺣﻆ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺱ )‪ (٥‬ﻋﻼﻗﺔ ﺳﺒﺒﻴﺔ ﻭﺗﺄﺛﲑﻳـﺔ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻬﺪﻓﺔ‪ .‫ﺍﻓﺘﺮﺽ ﻛﻠﻤﺔ )ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺮﺧﺎﺀ( ﰲ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ"ﺍﺻﻨﻊ ﺩﺍﺋﺮﺓ ﺑﺮﺍﺣﺔ ﻳﺪﻙ ﺣﻮﻝ ﻋﻴﻨﻚ ﺣـﱴ ﺗـﺮﻯ‬ ‫ﺃﻣﺎﻣﻚ ﺑﺴﻼﺳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳊﺮﻛﺔ ﺗﺮﻳﺢ ﺍﻟﻌﲔ ﻭﺗﺴﺎﻋﺪﻫﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺮﺧﺎﺀ"‪ .‬ﺗﺮﯾﺢ اﻟﻌﯿﻦ وﺗﺴﺎﻋﺪھﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ اﻻﺳﺘﺮﺧﺎء‪dia‬‬ ‫ﺃﻣﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﳋﺎﻃﺊ‪ ،‬ﻓﻨﺴﺒﺘﻪ ﺃﻗﻞ ﻣﻘﺎﺭﻧﺔ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ‪ .‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﻭﺟﺪ ﺃﻥ )ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺮﺧﺎﺀ( ﺃﺛﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﳊﺮﻛﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﲔ‪ . Jadinya saya agak kenapa tiba tiba ada‬ﻟﻜﻦ اﻟﻨﺴﺎء ﯾﻌﺎﻧﯿﻦ ﻣﻦ اﻟﺘﻐﯿﯿﺮات اﻟﻤﻨﺎﺧﯿﺔ ‪ada cakap‬‬ ‫‪kat sini kan.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻓﺘﺮﺿﺖ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﺔ )‪ (١٠‬ﻛﻠﻤﺔ )ﺍﳌﻨﻜﻮﺑﺔ( ﻣﻌﻨﺎﻫﺎ )ﺗﻐﲑ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﺥ( ﻷ‪‬ﺎ ﻻﺣﻈﺖ ﻛﻠﻤﺔ‬ ‫)ﻟﻜﻦ( ﺍﻟﱵ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻋﻼﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺍﺑﻂ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻐﻴﲑﺍﺕ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﺧﻴﺔ‪ . Saya nampak faktor‬‬ ‫”‪ …Mungkin maksudnya istiraahah la.‬ﺍﻓﺘﺮﺿﺖ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﺔ‬ ‫)‪ (١٠‬ﻛﻠﻤﺔ )ﺍﳌﻨﻜﻮﺑﺔ( ﰲ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ "ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻟﻀﺮﺭ ﻳﺼﻴﺐ ﲨﻴﻊ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﻃﻨﲔ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﻃﻖ ﺍﳌﻨﻜﻮﺑﺔ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻟﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺀﻳﻌﺎﻧﲔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻐﻴﲑﺍﺕ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﺧﻴﺔ ﺃﻛﺜﺮﳑﺎ ﻳﻌﺎﱐ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﺎﻝ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺗﺮﲨﺖ ﲨﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺎﺕ ﰲ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻬﺪﻓﺔ ﺗﺮﲨﺔ ﺻﺤﻴﺤﺔ‪ .‬ﺍﻓﺘﺮﺿﺖ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﺔ )‪ (٣‬ﻛﻠﻤﺔ )ﺃﻛﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻱ( ﺑﺄﻥ ﻣﻌﻨﺎﻫﺎ )ﺣﻘﺎﺋﺐ ﺍﻟﺸـﺎﻱ(‪.

".‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺱ )‪:(٧‬‬ ‫‪ maksudnya menyelesaikan masalah yang‬ﻟﺤ ﻞ اﻟﻤﺸ ﻜﻼت اﻟﻨﺎﺟﻤ ﺔ ﻋ ﻦ اﻟﺘﻐﯿﺮاﻟﻤﻨ ﺎﺧﻲ ﻓ ﻲ اﻟﻌ ﺎﻟﻢ"‬ ‫"‪berpunca daripada perubahan cuaca. lepas tu letakkan dalam peti ais.‬‬ ‫”‪ tu uncang lah. kemudian letak atas mata.‬‬ ‫ﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﻭﺟﺪﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺜﺔ ﺗﺮﲨﺘﻬﻢ ﻟﺒﻌﺾ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﶈﻴﻄﺔ ﺑﺎﳌﻔﺮﺩﺓ ﺍﳌﺴـﺘﻬﺪﻓﺔﻛﺎﻧﺖ‬ ‫ﺗﺮﲨﺘﻬﺎ ﺧﺎﻃﺌﺔ ﳑﺎ ﺗﺴﻬﻢ ﰲ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﳋﺎﻃﺊ‪ .".‬ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺱ )‪ (٧‬ﺗﺮﺟﻢ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺍﺕ ﰲ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ ﳘﺎ )ﳊﻞ ﺍﳌﺸﻜﻼﺕ(‪ .‬‬ ‫ﺍﻓﺘﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺱ )‪ (٦‬ﻛﻠﻤﺔ )ﺍﻻﻧﺒﻌﺎﺛﺎﺕ( ﻣﻌﻨﺎﻫﺎ )ﻧﻀﻮﺏ( ﻷﻧﻪ ﺗﺮﺟﻢ )ﺍﻟﻐﺎﺯﺍﺕ( ﻣﻌﻨﺎﻫـﺎ‬ ‫‪٧٤‬‬ .٥‬ﻣﻨﺬ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻗﻴﻊ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﺗﻔﺎﻗﻴﺔ »ﻛﻴﻮﺗﻮ« ﻟﻠﺤﺪ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻻﻧﺒﻌﺎﺛﺎﺕ‪.‬ﻫﻨـﺎﻙ ﺍﻟـﺪﺍﺭﺱ )‪ (٦‬ﺍﻓﺘـﺮﺽ ﻛﻠﻤـﺔ‬ ‫)ﺍﻻﻧﺒﻌﺎﺛﺎﺕ( ﰲ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ "ﻭﺃﺷﺎﺭﺕ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻧﺒﻌﺎﺛﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﺯﺕ ﺍﳌﺴﺒﺒﺔ ﻟﻼﺭﺗﻔـﺎﻉ ﺍﳊـﺮﺍﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﺯﺍﺩﺕ ﺑﻨﺴﺒﺔ ‪ %١٤.‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺱ )‪:(٥‬‬ ‫‪.‬ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﲨـﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻋﻄﺘﻪ ﺗﺼﻮﺭﺍ ﻋﺎﻡ ﻟﻠﻤﻔﺮﺩﺓ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻬﺪﻓﺔ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺍﻓﺘﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺱ )‪) (٧‬ﺍﻟﻨﺎﲨﺔ( ﺑـﺄﻥ ﻣﻌﻨﺎﻫـﺎ‬ ‫)ﺍﻟﻨﺎﲡﺔ( ﺃﻱ )ﺍﳌﺴﺒﺒﺔ(‪ . buka mata kamu‬اﻓ ﺘﺢ ﻋﯿﻨﯿ ﻚ و‪ maksudnya urut kot.‬ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﳕﻮﺫﺝ ﻟﻼﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﳋﺎﻃﺊ‪ .‬أﻛﯿﺎس اﻟﺸﺎي‪Logiknya‬‬ ‫ﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﻗﺪ ﺗﺮﺟﻢ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﻮﻥ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺍﺕ ﻓﻘﻂ ﰲ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻬﺪﻓﺔ ﺗﺮﲨﺔ ﺣﺮﻓﻴﺔ‪.‫‪.‬ﺍﻓﺘﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺱ )‪ (٥‬ﻛﻠﻤﺔ )ﺃﻏﻤﻀﻬﻤﺎ( ﰲ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ‬ ‫"ﺍﻓﺘﺢ ﻋﻴﻨﻴﻚ ﻭﺃﻏﻤﻀﻬﻤﺎ ﺑﺴﺮﻋﺔ ﻭﰲ ﺗﺘﺎﺑﻊ‪ . Jangan buang selepas‬ﻻ ﺗﺮم أﻛﯿ ﺎس اﻟﺸ ﺎي ﺑﻌ ﺪ اﺳ ﺘﺨﺪاﻣﮭﺎ‪ ،‬ﺿ ﻌﮭﺎ ﻓ ﻲ اﻟﺜﻼﺟ ﺔ ‪“Saya tengok ayat‬‬ ‫‪penggunaan. punca lah. Ya.". Sebab ayat ini dia cakap‬أﻏﻤ ﺾ“‬ ‫‪ dengan cepat-cepat ikut turutan..‬ﻫﺬﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻀﻴﺔ ﻗﺪ ﺗﺪﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﻗﻠﺔ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ ﻋﻦ ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﻨﺺ ﺃﻭ ﻓﻬﻢ ﺍﳌﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ ﻓﻬﻤـﺎ‬ ‫ﺧﺎﻃﺌﺎ‪ .‬‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺮﻏﻢ ﻣﻦ‪ ،‬ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﲨﺔ ﳉﻤﻴﻊ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺍﺕ ﰲ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻬﺪﻓﺔ ﺗﺮﲨﺔ ﺻﺤﻴﺤﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﻣﻌﻈﻢ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﲔ ﱂ ﻳﻨﺠﺤﻮﺍ ﰲ ﺍﳊﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﳌﻌﲎ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺟﺎ ﺻﺤﻴﺤﺎ‪ .‬ﻭﻟﻜـﻦ ﺍﺳـﺘﻨﺘﺎﺟﻪ‬ ‫ﺧﺎﻃﺊ‪ .. Jadi saya faham kat sini‬ﺑﺴ ﺮﻋﺔ وﻓ ﻲ ﺗﺘ ﺎﺑﻊ…‪dan‬‬ ‫”‪mungkin urut la kot.‬ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟـﺪﺍﺭﺱ )‪ (٥‬ﻳـﺎﻓﺘﺮﺽ ﻛﻠﻤـﺔ‬ ‫)ﺃﻏﻤﻀﻬﻤﺎ( ﻣﻌﻨﺎﻫﺎ )ﺗﺪﻟﻴﻚ( ﺑﻌﺪ ﰎ ﺗﺮﲨﺔ ﲨﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺎﺕ ﰲ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ‪ .‬‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﳌﺜﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﺍﻓﺘﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺱ )‪ (٧‬ﻛﻠﻤﺔ )ﺍﻟﻨﺎﲨﺔ( ﰲ ﺍﳉﻤﻠـﺔ"ﻭﺍﻧﺘﻘـﺪﺕ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﻨﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺎ ﳊﻞ ﺍﳌﺸﻜﻼﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﲨﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟـﺘﻐﲑ ﺍﳌﻨـﺎﺧﻲ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌـﺎﱂ‪ .

‬ﻛﺬﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﻗﺪ ﺗﻨﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﻮﻥ ﺍﳌﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﻴـﺔ ﰲ ﳏﺎﻭﻟﺘـﻬﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﻣﻌﺎﱐ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﻕ‪.‬ﺑﺬﻟﻚ ﲢﻘﻖ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺱ )‪ (٦‬ﺃﻥ ﻛﺜﺮﺓ ﺍﻷﻭﺯﻭﻥ ﺗﺆﺩﻱ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻨﻀﻮﺏ‪ .‬ﻛﯿﻮﺗﻮ«… ﻣﻨﺬ ‪ayat tu cakap‬‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻹﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺫﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﺭﺃﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺜﺔ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﲨﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺷﺎﺋﻌﺔ ﻭﺳﻴﻠﺔ ﻟﻜﺸـﻒ ﻣﻌـﺎﱐ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺍﺕ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺩﺍﺭﺳﻲ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻷﺟﻨﺒﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺮﻏﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺗﺮﲨﺘﻬﻢ ﻏﲑ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ‪.‬‬ ‫‪٧٥‬‬ . Sebabnya ada perkataan‬اﻧﺒﻌﺎﺛ ﺎت“‬ ‫‪ maksudnya menyebabkan kenaikan suhu…abis tu cam‬اﻟﻤﺴ ﺒﺒﺔ ﻟﻼرﺗﻔ ﺎع اﻟﺤ ﺮاري ‪baca‬‬ ‫‪belajar yang melibatkan kenaikan suhu ni ozon makin tipis…pastu baca kat depan‬‬ ‫”‪» …karbon…karbon pun ada punca.‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺱ‬ ‫)‪:(٦‬‬ ‫‪ …ozon.‫)ﺍﻷﻭﺯﻭﻥ(‪ . pastu bila‬اﻟﻐ ﺎزت ‪ ni…saya agak penipisan.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ ﺍﺗﻀﺢ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺟﺢ ﻻ ﻳﻌﺘﻤﺪ ﻋﻠـﻰ ﻣـﺪﻯ ﺗﻜـﺮﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﳌﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﻮﻳﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻏﲑ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﻮﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜﻨﻪ ﻳﻌﻮﺩ ﺇﱃ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﺗﻮﻇﻴﻔﻬﺎ ﻟﻠﺘﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻷﺩﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﻗﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﺺ‪ .

‬‬ ‫ﺃﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﳉﺰﺋﻲ‬ ‫‪%‬‬ ‫‪%‬‬ ‫ﻋﺪﺩ‬ ‫ﻋﺪﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﳋﺎﻃﺊ‬ ‫ﻋﺪﺩ‬ ‫‪٤٩‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺮﺍﺭ‬ ‫‪١٤‬‬ ‫‪٥ ٢١‬‬ ‫‪٧‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻘﻖ‬ ‫‪٩‬‬ ‫‪٢ ٦٩‬‬ ‫‪٢ ١٥‬‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻔﺴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﰐ‬ ‫‪٦‬‬ ‫‪٣ ٢٦‬‬ ‫‪١٤ ١٣‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻠﻴﻞ‬ ‫‪٠‬‬ ‫‪٠‬‬ ‫‪٠‬‬ ‫‪٠‬‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺮﺍﻗﺒﺔ‬ ‫‪٠‬‬ ‫‪٠‬‬ ‫‪٠‬‬ ‫‪٠‬‬ ‫‪٢‬‬ ‫ﺍ‪‬ﻤﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻲ‬ ‫‪٢٩‬‬ ‫‪١٠ ٢٧‬‬ ‫‪٩‬‬ ‫‪٧٠‬‬ ‫ﳎﻤﻮﻉ‬ ‫‪%‬‬ ‫‪٧٢‬‬ ‫ﻋﺪﺩ‬ ‫‪%‬‬ ‫‪٦٨‬‬ ‫‪١٠٠‬‬ ‫‪١٣ ١٥‬‬ ‫‪١٠٠‬‬ ‫‪٦١‬‬ ‫‪٢٣‬‬ ‫‪١٠٠‬‬ ‫‪٣‬‬ ‫‪١٠٠‬‬ ‫‪٣‬‬ ‫‪١٠٠‬‬ ‫‪١٠٠‬‬ ‫‪٢‬‬ ‫‪١٠٠‬‬ ‫‪٦٤‬‬ ‫‪١٠٩‬‬ ‫‪١٠٠‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻞ ‪ :١٧‬ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺎﺕ ﻭﻋﻼﻗﺘﻬﺎ ﺑﺎﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺟﺢ‬ ‫ﺃﺷﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻞ ‪ ١٧‬ﺍﳌﻘﺪﻡ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺮﺍﺭ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺤﻘﻖ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻻﺳﺘﻔﺴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﰐ ﺗﺪﻝ ﻋﻠـﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻟﻼﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺟﺢ ﻣﻘﺎﺭﻧﺔ ﺑﺎﻻﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ‪ .‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺗﺪﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻵﺗﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳـﻮﻥ ﰲ ﺍﺳـﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﻣﻌـﺎﱐ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺍﺕ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﻕ‪.‬ﺍﻓﺘـﺮﺽ‬ ‫‪٩‬‬ ‫‪Nassaji.‬ﻫﺬﺍ ﺩﻟﻴﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻮﻇﻴﻒ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺮﺍﺭ ﰲ ﲨﻴﻊ ﺃﺣﻮﺍﻝ ﻻ ﺗﺴﻬﻢ ﻛﺜﲑﺍ ﰲ ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﺼـﺤﻴﺢ‪ .‬‬ ‫ﺃﺷﺎﺭ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺮﺍﺭ ﺍﺣﺘﻮﺍﺋﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻜﺮﺍﺭ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺓ ﻭﺃﺟﺰﺍﺀ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﳌﺌﻮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻲ ﺣﺼﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﳌﻨﺨﻔﻀﺔ ﺟﺪﺍ‪ . Knowledge Sources.‬ﻫﻨـﺎﻙ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺱ )‪ (١‬ﻗﺪ ﳒﺢ ﰲ ﺍﳊﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻲ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺗﻜﺮﺍﺭ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺓ‪ . “L٢ Vocabulary Learning From Context: Strategies.‬ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﺗﺆﻳـﺪ ﻣـﺎ‬ ‫‪٩‬‬ ‫ﺫﻫﺐ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﻧﺴﺎﺟﻲ‪. and Their‬‬ ‫‪Relationship With Success in L٢ Lexical Inferencing.‬‬ ‫‪٧٦‬‬ .” : ٦٥٩.

‫ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺱ )‪ (١‬ﻛﻠﻤﺔ )ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻋﻤﺔ( ﰲ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ "ﺧﺎﻣﺴﺎ‪ ،‬ﺍﻏﺴﻞ ﻋﻴﻨﻴﻚ ﺑﺎﳌـﺎﺀ‪ :‬ﻓﻬـﺬﺍ ﻳﺮﳛﻬـﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﻳﺴﺎﻋﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﺯﺍﻟﺔ ﺍﻷﺗﺮﺑﺔ ﻭﺍﳌﻮﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻼﺻﻘﺔ ‪‬ﺎ‪ .‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﲢﻮﻟﺖ ﻫـﺬﻩ ﺍﻻﺳـﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻏﲑ ﻓﻌﺎﻟﺔ ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﻷﻥ ﻣﻌﻈﻢ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻬﺪﻓﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﺺ ﺗﻜﺮﺭﻫﺎ ﻣﻨﺨﻔﺾ‬ ‫ﻭﻏﲑ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻭﻓﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﲔ‪ .‬ﺍﻓﺘﺮﺿـﺖ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﺔ )‪ (٨‬ﻛﻠﻤﺔ )ﺗﻠﻮﻳﺚ( ﺑﺄﻥ ﻣﻌﻨﺎﻫﺎ )ﺗﺪﻧﻴﺲ(‪ .‬ﰎ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺑﺘﻜﺮﺍﺭ ﺃﺟﺰﺍﺀ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﶈﻴﻄـﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﳌﻔﺮﺩﺓ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻬﺪﻓﺔ ﺗﻜﺮﺍﺭﺍ ﻛﺜﲑﺍ ﰲ ﳏﺎﻭﻟﺘﻬﺎ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻴﻌﺎﺏ ﺍﳌﻌﲎ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﻕ‪ . ١٩ (١٩٩٧): ٣٢٦. T.‬ﺍﻓﺘﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺱ )‪ (١‬ﻣﻌﻨﺎﻫـﺎ‬ ‫)ﺷﻲﺀ ﻟﻄﻴﻒ( ﺃﻭ )ﺷﻲﺀ ﺻﻐﲑ( ﺑﻌﺪﰎ ﺗﻜﺮﺍﺭﻩ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺓ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻬﺪﻓﺔ ﺗﻜﺮﺍﺭﺍ ﻛﺜﲑﺍ ﺣﱴ ﲢﻘـﻖ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﻣﻌﲎ ﻟﻄﻴﻒ ﳑﺎ ﺭﺃﻯ ﺃ‪‬ﺎ ﺗﺸﺘﻖ ﻣﻦ )ﻧﻌﻴﻢ(‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺱ )‪:(١‬‬ ‫" ‪ " halus. Toward A Lexical Processing Model For The‬‬ ‫‪Study of Second Language Vocabulary Acquisition.‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺓ ﻏﲑ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻭﻓﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﻮﻥ ﱂ ﻳﻘﺪﺭﻭﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫‪١٠‬‬ ‫‪Kees de Bot.". and Marjorie Wesche. Vol.‬‬ ‫‪٧٧‬‬ .‬‬ ‫ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﺔ )‪ (٨‬ﺣﺼﻠﺖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﻜﻠـﻲ ﰲ ﺍﺳـﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﻛﻠﻤـﺔ )ﺗﻠﻮﻳـﺚ( ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ"ﻛﻤﺎ ﺍﻧﺘﻘﺪﺕ »ﲡﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﺑﻮﻥ« ﻷ‪‬ﺎ ﺗﻌﲏ ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻻﻧﺒﻌﺎﺛﺎﺕ ﳌﻦ ﳝﻠـﻚ ﺍﻷﻣـﻮﺍﻝ‬ ‫ﻭﻳﻘﺪﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺪﻓﻊ‪ ،‬ﺃﻱ »ﺇﺫﺍ ﺩﻓﻌﺖ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﳝﻜﻨﻚ ﺗﻠﻮﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌـﺔ ﺃﻛﺜـﺮ«‪ . yang halus‬ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻋﻤﺔ ﻧﻌﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﺗﻜﺮﺍﺭ ﺃﺟﺰﺍﺀ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ ﻗﺪ ﻳﺴﻬﻢ ﰲ ﺍﳊﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﻜﻠـﻲ‪. Sima Paribakht.".‬ﻗﺎﻟـﺖ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﺔ )‪:(٨‬‬ ‫"ﻛﻤﺎ ﺍﻧﺘﻘﺪﺕ »ﲡﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﺑﻮﻥ« ﻷ‪‬ﺎ ﺗﻌﲏ ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻻﻧﺒﻌﺎﺛﺎﺕ ﳌﻦ ﳝﻠـﻚ ﺍﻷﻣـﻮﺍﻝ‬ ‫ﻭﻳﻘﺪﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺪﻓﻊ‪ ،‬ﺃﻱ»ﺇﺫﺍ ﺩﻓﻌﺖ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﳝﻜﻨﻚ ﺗﻠﻮﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ« ﻛﻤﺎ ﺍﻧﺘﻘﺪﺕ »ﲡﺎﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺮﺑﻮﻥ« ﻷ‪‬ﺎ ﺗﻌﲏ ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻻﻧﺒﻌﺎﺛﺎﺕ ﳌﻦ ﳝﻠﻚ ﺍﻷﻣﻮﺍﻝ ﻭﻳﻘﺪﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟـﺪﻓﻊ‪ ،‬ﺃﻱ »ﺇﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﺩﻓﻌﺖ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﳝﻜﻨﻚ ﺗﻠﻮﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ« ﺗﻠﻮﯾﺚ ‪"mencemarkan kot ،mencemarkan alam‬‬ ‫ﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺗﻜﺮﺍﺭ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺓ ﺑﻮﺻﻔﻪ ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﻣﻔﻴﺪﺓ ﻟﻠﺪﺍﺭﺳـﲔ ﺧﺎﺻـﺔ ﻋﻨـﺪﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﺗﺴﺎﻋﺪ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﲔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﻳﺼﺎﻝ ﻣﻌﲎ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺇﺛﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺜﻴـﻞ ﺍﻟﺼـﻮﰐ ﺃﻭ ﺷـﻜﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﻔﺮﺩﺓ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻬﺪﻓﺔ ﺑﺎﳌﻔﺮﺩﺓ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻭﻓﺔ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ‪ ١٠.” SSLA.

".‬ﻫﻨﺎﻙ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﺔ )‪ (٩‬ﳒﺤﺖ ﰲ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﻛﻠﻤﺔ )ﺍﻧﺒﻌﺎﺛﺎﺕ( ﰲ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ "ﻭﺃﺷﺎﺭﺕ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻧﺒﻌﺎﺛـﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻐﺎﺯﺕ ﺍﳌﺴﺒﺒﺔ ﻟﻼﺭﺗﻔﺎﻉ ﺍﳊﺮﺍﺭﻱ ﺯﺍﺩﺕ ﺑﻨﺴﺒﺔ ‪ %١٤. punca‬‬ ‫”‪lah.‬ﰎ ﺫﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﻧﻈﺮﺕ ﺇﱃ ﺃﺻﻞ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺓ ﻭﻫﻲ ﻳﻨﺒﻌﺚ ﺃﻱ ﻳﻨﺘﺸـﺮ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺴـﺮﺕ‬ ‫ﻧﻔﺴﻬﺎ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳌﻌﲎ ﺍﳌﻔﺘﺮﺽ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺀﺓ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺴﺮﺕ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻧﺒﻌﺎﺛﺎﺕ ﻣﻌﻨﺎﻫـﺎ ﺗﻠﻮﻳـﺚ ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺗﻠﻮﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﺯﺍﺕ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﻧﺘﺸﺎﺭﺕ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﺯﺍﺕ؟ ﺃﺧﲑﺍ ﺣﺪﺩﺕ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﺔ ﺑﺄﻥ ﻣﻌﻨﺎﻫﺎ ﺍﻧﺘﺸﺎﺭﺍﺕ‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺱ )‪:(٧‬‬ ‫‪.‬ﻗﺪ ﳒﺢ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺱ‬ ‫)‪ (٧‬ﰲ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﻛﻠﻤﺔ )ﺍﻟﻨﺎﲨﺔ( ﰲ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ "ﻭﺍﻧﺘﻘﺪﺕ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﻨﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴـﺎ‬ ‫ﳊﻞ ﺍﳌﺸﻜﻼﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﲨﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻐﲑ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﺧﻲ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﱂ‪ .‬اﻟﻨﺎﺟﻤ ﺔ ﻋ ﻦ “‬ ‫‪ maksudnya‬ﻟﺤ ﻞ اﻟﻤﺸ ﻜﻼت اﻟﻨﺎﺟﻤ ﺔ ﻋ ﻦ اﻟﺘﻐﯿ ﺮ اﻟﻤﻨ ﺎﺧﻲ ‪.. Kalau lihat‬ﻟﺤ ﻞ اﻟﻤﺸ ﻜﻼت اﻟﻨﺎﺟﻤ ﺔ ﻋ ﻦ اﻟﺘﻐﯿ ﺮ ‪ maksudnya yang berpunca. Ya. Sifah mausuuf.‬ﺍﻓﺘﺮﺿﺖ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳـﺔ )‪) (٩‬ﺍﻧﺒﻌﺎﺛـﺎﺕ( ﻣﻌﻨﺎﻫـﺎ‬ ‫)ﺍﻧﺘﺸﺎﺭﺍﺕ(‪ .".‬ﲢﻘﻖ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺱ )‪ (٧‬ﻛﻠﻤﺔ )ﺍﻟﻨﺎﲨـﺔ(‬ ‫ﻣﻌﻨﺎﻫﺎ )ﺍﻟﻨﺎﲡﺔ( ﲢﻘﻘﺎ ﺩﻗﻴﻘﺎ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺤﻮﻳﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺗﺮﲨﺔ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺍﺕ ﻟﻠﻮﺻﻮﻝ‬ ‫ﺇﱃ ﺍﳌﻌﲎ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﺳﺐ‪ .٥‬ﻣﻨﺬ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻗﻴﻊ ﻋﻠـﻰ ﺍﺗﻔﺎﻗﻴـﺔ‬ ‫»ﻛﻴﻮﺗﻮ« ﻟﻠﺤﺪ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻻﻧﺒﻌﺎﺛﺎﺕ‪ . kemunculan…inbia’asaat ni…lebih kurang terbit muncul? sebab dia‬اﻧﺒﻌﺎﺛ ﺎت“‬ ‫‪yunbiu’s munba’as yang terbit…inbia’asaat alghaazat al musabbabah maksudnya gas‬‬ ‫‪yang dilepaskan (ketawa) gas yang terhasil yang disebabkan oleh peningkatan suhu‬‬ ‫‪udara bertambah binnisbati ١٤٫٥٪ munzu al tauqii’ ala ittifaaqiyah kyioto lilhaddi min‬‬ ‫‪٧٨‬‬ .‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﰒ‪ ،‬ﻭﺟﺪﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺜـﺔ ﺑﻌـﺪ‬ ‫ﺣﺼﻮﳍﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﻌﲎ ﺍﳌﺎﻓﺘﺮﺽ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﻮﻥ ﺑﺘﻘﻮﳝﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺀﺓ ﻷﺟﺰﺍﺀ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺸﺘﻤﻞ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺓ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻬﺪﻓﺔ ﺑﻐﻴﺔ ﲢﻘﻖ ﻣﻌﻨﺎﻫﺎ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﻕ‪ .‬اﻟﻤﺸ ﻜﻼت اﻟﻨﺎﺟﻤ ﺔ‪sini‬‬ ‫‪menyelesaikan masalah yang berpunca daripada perubahan cuaca..‬‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻘﻖ‪ ،‬ﺃﻥ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﲔ ﲢﻘﻘﻮﺍ ﺍﳌﻌﲎ ﺍﳌﻔﺘـﺮﺽ ﲢﻘﻘـﺎ‬ ‫ﺩﻗﻴﻘﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﻣﺮﺍﻗﺒﺔ ﺍﳌﻌﲎ ﺍﳌﻔﺘﺮﺽ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﻕ ﺍﻷﻭﺳﻊ‪ .‬‬ ‫ﺃﺷﺎﺭﺕ ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻔﺴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﰐ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻥ ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﻣﺆﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻲ ﺣﺼـﻠﺖ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﻣﻨﺨﻔﻀﺔ ﻣﻘﺎﺭﻧﺔ ﺑﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﳋﺎﻃﺊ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺩﻟﺖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺟﺪﺍ‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻟﺖ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﺔ )‪:(٩‬‬ ‫‪ ni.‫ﺍﻓﺘﺮﺍﺽ ﻣﻌﻨﺎﻫﺎ ﺍﻟﺮﻏﻢ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻜﺮﺍﺭﻫﺎ ﻣﺮﺍﺭﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﲨﺔ ﻋﻦ ﻗﻠﺔ ﺍﳌﺨﺰﻥ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﻮﻱ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺗﻨﺎﺳـﺒﻪ‬ ‫ﺑﺘﻠﻚ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺓ‪.

(Summer ١٩٨٥): ٢٣٢.‫‪pencemaran‬‬ ‫?‪ke‬‬ ‫‪hazihil‬‬ ‫‪inbia’asaat…inbia’aasat‬‬ ‫‪ni‬‬ ‫‪pencemaran‬‬ ‫”‪gas…pembebasan gas? emm pembebasan kot‬‬ ‫ﻻﺷﻚ‪ ،‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮﺍﻉ ﺍﻟﻮﻋﻰ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺀﺓ ﻋﱪ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻔﺴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﰐ ﻗﺪ ﺃﺳـﻬﻢ ﰲ ﺍﺳـﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﲔ ﻟﻠﻤﻌﲎ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﻣﻊ ﺗﻨﺸﻴﻂ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ ﳓﻮ ﲢﻘﻖ ﻣﺪﻯ ﻳﺘﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﺍﳌﻌﲎ‪ .” Review of Educational‬‬ ‫‪Research.‬ﻋﺪﺩ ﻗﻠﻴﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﲔ ﺍﻋﺘﻤـﺎﺩ ﻋﻠـﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻠﻴـﻞ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﳌﺮﺍﻗﺒﺔ ﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﻣﻌﺎﱐ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺍﺕ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﻕ‪ .‬‬ ‫‪٧٩‬‬ . ٥٥.‬ﻗﺪ ﺭﺍﻗﺒﺖ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﺔ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻬﺪﻓﺔ ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﻻ ﺗﺴﺘﻄﻴﻊ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺟﻬﺎ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺟﺎ ﺻﺤﻴﺤﺎ‪ .‬‬ ‫ﺃﻣﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺮﺍﻗﺒﺔ ﻓﻬﻨﺎﻙ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﺔ )‪ (٩‬ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺼـﺎﺩﻑ ﺍﳌﺸـﻜﻠﺔ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﻛﻠﻤﺔ )ﺍﻏﺘﺼﺎﺏ( ﰲ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ "ﻭﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﺣﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻏﺘﺼﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﺍﰐ ﰎ ﳒـﺎ‪‬ﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺼﻴﺒﺔ"‪ . L.‬ﻗﺎﻟﺖ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﺔ )‪:(٩‬‬ ‫‪ yang terselamat daripada bencana…tak dapat la‬ﻏﺼ ﺐ ?‪…apa dia‬وزﯾ ﺎدة ﺣ ﺎﻻت اﻏﺘﺼ ﺎب"‬ ‫"‪ ni…tak boleh nak teka. ٢. “Self Questioning Instructional Research: A Review...‬ﻗـﺎﻝ ﺍﻟـﺪﺍﺭﺱ‬ ‫)‪:(١‬‬ ‫‪ ni bahagian.‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺮﻏﻢ ﻣﻦ‪ ،‬ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺟﺎ‪‬ﻢ ﺧﺎﻃﺌـﺔ‬ ‫ﲨﻴﻌﻬﺎ‪ .‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﳌﺜﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺱ )‪ (١‬ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺍﻓﺘﺮﺽ ﻛﻠﻤﺔ )ﻓﺎﺻﻞ ﺷﺎﻱ( ﰲ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ‬ ‫"ﺳﺎﺑﻌﺎ‪ ،‬ﺧﺬ »ﻓﺎﺻﻞ ﺷﺎﻱ«‪ :‬ﻻ ﺗﺮﻡ ﺃﻛﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻱ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻣﻬﺎ‪ .‬ﺃﻧـﻪ ﺭﺃﻯ‬ ‫)ﻓﺎﺻﻞ( ﻫﻮ )ﻣﺴﺤﻮﻕ(‪ . jadi kalau‬ﻓﺼ ﻞ‪…saya fikir‬ﻓﺎﺻ ﻞ‪ +‬ﺷ ﺎي ‪“Satu lagi kaedah yang saya guna‬‬ ‫”‪dengan teh ni…mesti baki teh.‬ﻫـﺬﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﺗﺆﻳﺪ ﻣﺎ ﺫﻫﺐ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﻭﻧﺞ ﺑﺄﻥ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻔﺴﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﺣﺎﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺭﺉ ﺭﺑـﻂ ﲟﻌﺮﻓـﺔ‬ ‫‪١١‬‬ ‫ﺳﺎﺑﻘﺔ ﺃﻭﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﻟﻐﻮﻳﺔ ﺑﻐﻴﺔ ﺑﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﺳﺒﺔ‪.‬ﺃﻧـﻪ ﺍﻓﺘـﺮﺽ‬ ‫)ﻓﺎﺻﻞ( ﲟﻌﲎ )ﻣﺴﺤﻮﻕ( ﺣﻴﺚ ﺣﻠﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺟﺰﺀﻫﺎ )ﻓﺎﺻﻞ ‪ +‬ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻱ(‪ .‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﺇﻥ‪) ،‬ﻓﺎﺻﻞ ﺷﺎﻱ( ﻫﻮ )ﻣﺴﺤﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻱ(‪ .‬اﻏﺘﺼﺎب‬ ‫‪١١‬‬ ‫‪Bernice Y.‬ﻭﺟﺪﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺜﺔﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﺔ )‪ (٩‬ﻇﻬﺮﺕ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺼﻌﻮﺑﺔ ﰲ ﳏﺎﻭﻟﺘﻬﺎ ﻛﺸـﻒ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﲎ )ﺍﻏﺘﺼﺎﺏ( ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﻕ‪ . Wong.‬‬ ‫ﺃﻣﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻠﻴﻞ ﻭﺍﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺮﺍﻗﺒﺔ ﻓﻼ ﺃﺣﺪ ﻣـﻦ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳـﲔ‬ ‫ﳒﺤﻮﺍ ﰲ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻣﻬﻤﺎ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ‪ .. No.". Vol..

” The Modern Language Journal.‬‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺒﺤﺚ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ‪ :‬ﲢﻠﻴﻞ ﻣﻮﺍﻃﻦ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﺑﲔ ﺍﳌﺒﺘﺪﺋﲔ ﻭﺍﳌﺘﻘﺪﻣﲔ ﰲ ﺗﻮﻇﻴﻒ ﺍﻻﺳـﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﻕ‬ ‫ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﺒﺤﺚ ﺍﻷﺧﲑ‪ ،‬ﺗﻘﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺜﺔ ﺑﺎﻛﺘﺸﺎﻑ ﻣﻮﺍﻃﻦ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻻﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﻬﻤﺎ ﺍﳌﺒﺘﺪﺅﻥ ﻭﺍﳌﺘﻘﺪﻣﻮﻥ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﳏﺎﻭﻟﺘﻬﻢ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﻣﻌﺎﱐ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻬﺪﻓﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﺺ‪ . (٢٠٠٦): ٣٨٨. “The Relationship Between Depth of Vocabulary Knowledge and L٢ Learners’ Lexical‬‬ ‫‪Inferencing Strategy Use and Success.‬‬ ‫‪١٣‬‬ ‫‪٨٠‬‬ .‬‬ ‫‪١٢‬‬ ‫‪Nassaji.‬ﺃﺷـﺎﺭﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧـﺎﺕ ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻘﻖ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻜﺮﺍﺭ ﺃﺟﺰﺍﺀ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻻﺳﺘﻔﺴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﰐ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﺍﺳـﺘﺨﺪﺍﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﰲ ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﻣﻘﺎﺭﻧﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺤﻠﻴﻞ ﻭﺍﳌﺮﺍﻗﺒﺔ‪ .‬ﻻ ﺷﻚ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺰﺍﻳﺎ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺛﺔ ﳌﺴﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﲔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﲡﺮﻳـﺐ‬ ‫ﻣﺪﻯ ﺩﻗﺔ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺟﺎ‪‬ﻢ ﻭﻣﺮﺍﺟﻌﺘﻬﺎ ﻭﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺗﻘﻮﳝﻬﺎ ﻣﻘﺎﺑﻞ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣـﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻘﺪﻣـﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴـﻴﺎﻕ‬ ‫‪١٣‬‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻭﺳﻊ‪.‬‬ ‫‪Nassaji.‬ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﺗﺆﻳﺪ ﻣﺎ ﺫﻫﺐ ﺇﻟﻴـﻪ‬ ‫ﻧﺴﺎﺟﻲ‪ ١٢.” ٦٦٢.‬ﻭﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻞ ‪ ١٨‬ﳑﺎ ﲢﻴﻞ ﺇﱃ ﻣﻮﺍﻃﻦ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﰲ ﻧﻮﻋﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻻﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﺔ ﺑﲔ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻮﻳﲔ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﳏﺎﻭﻟﺘﻬﻢ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﻣﻌﺎﱐ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻬﺪﻓﺔ‪. Vol ٩٠. “L٢ Reading Proficiency and Lexical Inferencing by University EFL Learners.‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﻠﺼﺖ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺜﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺴـﺎﺑﻘﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳـﲔ ﻻ ﻳﻌﺘﻤـﺪﻭﻥ ﻋﻠـﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺎﺕ ﻓﻘﻂ ﰲ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﻣﻌﺎﱐ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺍﺕ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﻕ ﺑﻞ ﻗﺪ ﺩﳎﻮﺍ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺎﺕ ﻣﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﻴﺔ ﳓﻮ ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﺳـﺐ ﻣـﻦ ﺍﻟﺴـﻴﺎﻕ‪ .

‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﳌﺘﻘﺪﻡ‬ ‫‪%‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻻﺑﺘﺪﺍﺋﻲ‬ ‫‪%‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺩ‬ ‫ﺍ‪‬ﻤﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻲ‬ ‫‪%‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺩ‬ ‫‪‬ﺍﳌﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﻮﻳﺔ‬ ‫‪٢٣‬‬ ‫‪%٥٩‬‬ ‫‪٣٩‬‬ ‫‪%١٠٠‬‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﺮﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫‪١٦‬‬ ‫‪١١‬‬ ‫‪%١٠٠‬‬ ‫‪١١‬‬ ‫‪%١٠٠‬‬ ‫ﺭﺑﻂ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺓ‬ ‫‪٥‬‬ ‫‪%٧١‬‬ ‫‪٢‬‬ ‫‪%٢٩‬‬ ‫‪٧‬‬ ‫‪%١٠٠‬‬ ‫ﻣﻌﲎ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ‬ ‫‪٢٠‬‬ ‫‪%٨٠‬‬ ‫‪٥‬‬ ‫‪%٢٠‬‬ ‫‪٢٥‬‬ ‫‪%١٠٠‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺒﻴﺔ‬ ‫‪١٦‬‬ ‫‪%٧٠‬‬ ‫‪٧‬‬ ‫‪% ٣٠‬‬ ‫‪٢٣‬‬ ‫‪%١٠٠‬‬ ‫ﺍ‪‬ﺎﻧﺴﺔﺍﻟﻠﻔﻈﻴﺔ‬ ‫‪-‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺒﺪﺍﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺤﻮﻳﺔ‬ ‫‪%٤١‬‬ ‫‬‫‪١٣‬‬ ‫ﻋﻼﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻗﻴﻢ‬ ‫‬‫‪%٥٠‬‬ ‫‪١٣‬‬ ‫‪-‬‬ ‫‬‫‪%٥٠‬‬ ‫‪٢٦‬‬ ‫‪-‬‬ ‫‪%١٠٠‬‬ ‫‪-‬‬ ‫ﻣﻌﲎ ﺍﳋﻄﺎﺏ‬ ‫‪٨‬‬ ‫‪%٣٨‬‬ ‫‪١٣‬‬ ‫‪%٦٢‬‬ ‫‪٢١‬‬ ‫‪%١٠٠‬‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺨﻄﻂ ﺍﳋﻄﺎﰊ‬ ‫‪٢‬‬ ‫‪%٢٥‬‬ ‫‪٦‬‬ ‫‪%٧٥‬‬ ‫‪٨‬‬ ‫‪%١٠٠‬‬ ‫ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺓ‬ ‫‪١‬‬ ‫‪%٥٠‬‬ ‫‪١‬‬ ‫‪%٥٠‬‬ ‫‪٢‬‬ ‫‪%١٠٠‬‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺼﺎﺣﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﻔﻈﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﲨﺔ‬ ‫‬‫‪٧١‬‬ ‫‬‫‪%٥٣‬‬ ‫‪٦٢‬‬ ‫‬‫‪%٤٧‬‬ ‫‪%١٠٠ ١٣٧‬‬ ‫‪‬ﺍﳌﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﻏﲑ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﻮﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﻴﺔ‬ ‫‪١٩‬‬ ‫ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﳌﺼﻄﻠﺤﺎﺕ ﺍﳋﺎﺻﺔ‬ ‫‪%٤٥‬‬ ‫‪-‬‬ ‫‪٢٣‬‬ ‫‪%٥٥‬‬ ‫‪٤٢‬‬ ‫‪%١٠٠‬‬ ‫‪١‬‬ ‫‪%١٠٠‬‬ ‫‪١‬‬ ‫‪%١٠٠‬‬ ‫‪‬ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺮﺍﺭ‬ ‫‪٥٨‬‬ ‫‪%٥٧،٥‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻘﻖ‬ ‫‪٤‬‬ ‫‪%٣١‬‬ ‫‪٩‬‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻔﺴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﰐ‬ ‫‪١١‬‬ ‫‪%٣٤‬‬ ‫‪٢١‬‬ ‫‪٨١‬‬ ‫‪٤٣‬‬ ‫‪%٤٢،٥‬‬ ‫‪%١٠٠ ١٠١‬‬ ‫‪%٦٩‬‬ ‫‪١٣‬‬ ‫‪%١٠٠‬‬ ‫‪%٦٦‬‬ ‫‪٣٢‬‬ ‫‪%١٠٠‬‬ .

‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﳌﺘﻘﺪﻣﻮﻥ ﻫﻢ ﻳﻜﺜﺮﻭﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍ‪‬ﺎﻧﺴـﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﻔﻈﻴـﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻌـﲎ‬ ‫ﺍﳋﻄﺎﺏ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳌﺨﻄﻂ ﺍﳋﻄﺎﰊ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﳌﺼﻄﻠﺤﺎﺕ ﺍﳋﺎﺻﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺤﻘﻖ‪ ،‬ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻔﺴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟـﺬﺍﰐ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﳌﺮﺍﻗﺒﺔ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ‪ . ٤٣.‬‬ ‫ﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﺃﺷﺎﺭﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﰲ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﳋﻄﺎﺏ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳌﺘﻘﺪﻣﲔ ﻳﻜﺜﺮﻭﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﲎ ﺍﳋﻄﺎﺏ ﻭﳐﻄﻄﻪ ﻣﻘﺎﺭﻧﺔ ﺑﺎﳌﺒﺘﺪﺋﲔ‪ .‬ﻫـﺬﻩ‬ ‫‪١٤‬‬ ‫‪Hasstrup.‬ﻭﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﳌﺒﺘﺪﺋﲔ ﻓﻼ ﻳﻨﺘﺒﻬﻮﻧﻜﺜﲑﺍ ﺇﱃ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﳌﻔﻬﻮﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ ﻟﻠﺠﻤﻞ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﺮﺍﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﻳﻬﺘﻤﻮﻥ ﺑﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﻨﺺ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻧﻮﺍﻋﻪ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺒﺒﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺄﺛﲑﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﳑﺎ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺴﲑﺍﺕ ﳝﻜﻦ ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪ‪‬ﻢ ﰲ ﻓﻬﻢ ﻣﻌﲎ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺓ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻬﺪﻓﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺤﻮﻳﺔ ﻭﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺓ ﺑﺎﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻷﻡ ﻓﺘﺘﺴـﺎﻭﻯ ﻛﻠﺘـﺎ‬ ‫ﺍ‪‬ﻤﻮﻋﺘﲔ ﰲ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻣﻬﻤﺎ‪.‫‪٤‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻠﻴﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺮﺍﻗﺒﺔ‬ ‫‪-‬‬ ‫‪%١٠٠‬‬ ‫‪-‬‬ ‫ﳎﻤــﻮﻉ ﺍﻻﺳــﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﺔ‬ ‫‪٣‬‬ ‫‪٢٤٨‬‬ ‫‪%١٠٠‬‬ ‫‪٢٤٣‬‬ ‫‪٤‬‬ ‫‪%١٠٠‬‬ ‫‪٣‬‬ ‫‪%١٠٠‬‬ ‫‪%١٠٠ ٤٩١‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻞ ‪ :١٨‬ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺮﺭﻳﺔ ﻟﻼﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﺔ ﺑﲔ ﺍﳌﺒﺘﺪﺋﲔ ﻭﺍﳌﺘﻘﺪﻣﲔ‬ ‫ﻧﺮﻯ ﺑﻮﺿﻮﺡ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳉﺪﻭﻝ ‪١٨‬ﺃﻥ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﻓﺮﻗﺎ ﻛﺒﲑﺍ ﺑـﲔ ﺍﳌﺒﺘـﺪﺋﲔ ﻭﺍﳌﺘﻘـﺪﻣﲔ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺃﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﰲ ﳏﺎﻭﻟﺘﻬﻢ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﻣﻌﺎﱐ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻬﺪﻓﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﻕ ﺣﻴﺚ‬ ‫ﺇﻥ ﺍﳌﺒﺘﺪﺋﲔ ﺑﺮﺯﻭﺍ ﰲ ﺍﻹﻛﺜﺎﺭ ﻣﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺭﺑﻂ ﺍﳌﻔـﺮﺩﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻌـﲎ ﺍﳉﻤﻠـﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗـﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺒﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺤﻠﻴﻞ‪ . Lexical Inferencing Procedures or Talking About Words: Receptive Procedures in Foreign‬‬ ‫‪Language Learning with special Reference to English.‬ﻭﺃﻣﺎﺍﳌﺒﺘﺪﺋﻮﻥ ﻻﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﻮ‪‬ﺎ ﻋﻠـﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻃﻼﻕ‪ .‬‬ ‫‪٨٢‬‬ .‬‬ ‫ﻧﺮﻯ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳌﺘﻘﺪﻣﲔ ﻳﻜﺜﺮﻭﻥ ﰲ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍ‪‬ﺎﻧﺴﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﻔﻈﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﻤـﺜﻼ ﰲ ﺍﺳـﺘﺨﺪﺍﻣﻬﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺎﺑﻪ ﺍﻟﻠﻔﻈﻲ ﺃﻭﺍﻟﺸﻜﻠﻲ ﰲ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﻛﻠﻤﺔ )ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺤﺮ(‪ .‬ﻭﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺗﺘﻤﺎﺷﻰ ﻣﻊ ﻣﺎ ﺫﻫﺐ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﻫﺎﺳﺘﺮﺏ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳌﺘﻘﺪﻣﲔ ﳝﻴﻠﻮﻥ ﺇﱃ ﺭﺑـﻂ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺓ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻬﺪﻓﺔ ﺑﺎﳌﻔﺮﺩﺓ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ﻣﻊ ﻣﺮﺍﻋﺎﺓ ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺗﺸﺎﺑﻪ ﻣﻦ ﻧﺎﺣﻴﱵ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺗﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﻻﻟﻴـﺔ‬ ‫‪١٤‬‬ ‫ﻣﻌﺎ‪.

‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﻗﺪ ﻏﻴ‪‬ﺮﻣﻌﲎ ﻛﻠﻤﺔ )ﺇﻋﺼﺎﺭ( ﺇﱃ ﻣﻌﲎ )ﻋﺎﺻﻔﺔ(‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﻴﻌﺎﺑﻪ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﺮﺓ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺣﻴﺚ ﻳﻼﺣﻆ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺑﺄﻥ ﻋﺎﺻﻔﺔ ﺃﻭﻧﺪﻱ ﻗﺪ ﺣﺪﺛﺖ ﰲ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﺘﻨﺎﻡ‪ .‬‬ ‫ﺑﺎﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳌﺒﺘﺪﺋﲔ‪ ،‬ﻗﺪ ﻭﺟﺪﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺜﺔ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﺔ ﺍﳌﺒﺘﺪﺋﺔ )‪ (٣‬ﺍﺳـﺘﺨﺪﻣﺖ ﻋﻼﻗـﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺒﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻬﺪﻓﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻧﺪﻣﺎﺝ ﲟﻌﲎ ﺍﳋﻄﺎﺏ ﺣﱴ ﲢﺼﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ‪. Jadi‬‬ ‫”‪ribut taufan lah.‬‬ ‫ﺃﻣﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳌﺒﺘﺪﺋﲔ ﻓﻬﻨﺎﻙ ﺩﺍﺭﺳﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﳌﺒﺘﺪﺉ )‪ (٣‬ﻗﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻣﺖ ﻣﻌﲎ‬ ‫ﺍﳋﻄﺎﺏ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﻛﻠﻤﺔ )ﺃﻏﻤﺾ( ﰲ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ " ﺃﻭﻻ‪ ،‬ﺍﻓﺘﺢ ﻋﻴﻨﻴﻚ ﻭﺃﻏﻤﻀـﻬﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺑﺴﺮﻋﺔ ﻭﰲ ﺗﺘﺎﺑﻊ‪ ،‬ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮﺓ ﺃﻣﺎﻡ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﻤﺒﻴﻮﺗﺮ ﲡﻌﻠﻨﺎ ﻧﻨﺴـﻰ ﺃﻥ ﻧﻐﻤـﺾ ﺃﻋﻴﻨﻨـﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﻧﻔﺘﺤﻬﺎ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﳑﺎ ﻳﺴﺒﺐ ﺇﺟﻬﺎﺩﺍ ﻟﻠﻌﲔ"‪ .‬ﻭﺟﺪﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺜﺔ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺱ ﺍﳌﺘﻘﺪﻡ )‪ (٦‬ﺍﻓﺘﺮﺽ ﻛﻠﻤﺔ )ﺇﻋﺼﺎﺭ( ﺃ‪‬ﺎ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﺭﺛﺔ ﰲ ﺃﻭﻝ ﳏﺎﻭﻟﺘﻪ ﰲ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ‪ .‫ﺍﻟﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﺗﺘﻤﺎﺷﻰ ﻣﻊ ﻣﺎ ﺫﻫﺐ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﺑﺮﻭﻥ )‪٢٠٠٦‬ﻡ( ﺑﺄﻥ ﺍﳌﺒﺘﺪﺋﲔ ﻻ ﻳﺘﻤﻜﻨﻮﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺗﻮﻇﻴـﻒ‬ ‫ﺍﳋﻄﺎﺏ ﺑﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻓﻌﺎﻟﺔ ﻣﻘﺎﺭﻧﺔ ﺑﺎﳌﺘﻘﺪﻣﲔ‪.. Vol.‬ﰒ ﻭﺭﺩﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﺮﺓ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ‪،‬‬ ‫"ﻭﺩﻟﻠﺖ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺑﻘﻮﳍﺎ‪ :‬ﰲ ﺷﻬﺮ ﺳﺒﺘﻤﱪ ﺍﳌﺎﺿﻲ ﺿﺮﺏ ﺇﻋﺼﺎﺭ ﺃﻭﻧﺪﻱ ﻣﻨﺎﻃﻖ‬ ‫ﺷﺎﺳﻌﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻓﻴﺘﻨﺎﻡ‪ .. (March ٢٠٠٦): ١٠٩-١٥٣.‬‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﺔ ﺍﳌﺒﺘﺪﺋﺔ )‪ (٣‬ﺗﻨﻈﺮ ﺇﱃ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ"ﺑﺴﺮﻋﺔ ﻭﰲ ﺗﺘﺎﺑﻊ" ﻣﻊ ﺍﺳﺘﻴﻌﺎﺏ ﻣﻌـﲎ‬ ‫ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﺳﺘﻴﻌﺎﺑﺎ ﺩﻗﻴﻘﺎ ﻟﻠﻮﺻﻮﻝ ﺇﱃ ﻣﻌﲎ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺓ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻬﺪﻓﺔ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﺳﺒﺔ‪ ."..‬ﻗـﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺒﺘﺪﺋﺔ )‪:(٣‬‬ ‫‪١٥‬‬ ‫‪Kimi-Kondo-Brown.‬‬ ‫‪٨٣‬‬ . Issue ١.‬ﻭﺟﺪﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺜﺔ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺱ ﺍﳌﺘﻘﺪﻡ )‪ (٦‬ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻣﻌﲎ ﺍﳋﻄﺎﺏ ﰒ ﺗﻮﻇﻴﻒ ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺘـﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﻴﺔ ﻋﻦ ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﻨﺺ ﺣﱴ ﺗﺼﻞ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳌﻌﲎ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻲ‪ .‬‬ ‫‪١٥‬‬ ‫ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺱ ﺍﳌﺘﻘﺪﻡ )‪ (٦‬ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻣﻌﲎ ﺍﳋﻄﺎﺏ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺍﻓﺘـﺮﺽ ﻣﻌـﲎ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤـﺔ‬ ‫)ﺇﻋﺼﺎﺭ( ﺃﻧﻪ ﺍﺳﻢ ﻋﺎﺻﻔﺔ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﻴﻌﺎﺏ ﺍﳌﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﻟﻠﻔﻘﺮﺓ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﻠﻖ ‪‬ﺎ‪ .. ٥٦. “How Doo English L١ Leaners of Advanced Japanese Infer Unknown Kanji‬‬ ‫‪Words in Authentic Text?”Language Learning.‬ﺃ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﻓﺘﺮﺿﺖ ﻛﻠﻤﺔ )ﺃﻏﻤﺾ( ﻣﻌﻨﺎﻫﺎ )ﺍﻗﻔـﻞ(‪.‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﻭﺭﺩ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ‬ ‫"ﺃﻛﺪﺕ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺣﺪﻳﺜﺔ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺣﲔ ﳛﺪﺙ ﻓﻴﻀﺎﻥ ﺃﻭ ﺇﻋﺼﺎﺭ‪ ".‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺱ )‪:(٦‬‬ ‫‪“Mula-mula teka bencana sebab banjir ni kita kaitkan dengan bala bencana. sebab‬‬ ‫ﺿﺮب إﻋﺼﺎر أوﻧﺪي ﻣﻨﺎﻃﻖ ﻓﯿﺘﻨ ﺎم ‪lepas tu saya baca balik sampai yang point yang ke dua‬‬ ‫‪tu‬إﻋﺼ ﺎر ‪yang ni ribut taufan sebab Vietnam tahun sudah ada ribut taufan Onadi.

‬ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺱ ﺍﳌﺘﻘﺪﻡ ﲢﻘﻖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﰎ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺟﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﻕ‪ .‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﰒ‪ ،‬ﺃ‪‬ﺎ ﻻﺣﻈﺖ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﻋﻨﺼـﺮ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺄﺛﺮ )ﺗﺮﻳﺢ ﺍﻟﻌﲔ( ﰲ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻬﺪﻓﺔ ﳑﺎ ‪‬ﺎ ﺗﺄﻛﺪ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﺔ ﺍﳌﺒﺘﺪﺋﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﳌﺴـﺘﻬﺪﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺄﻥ )ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺮﺧﺎﺀ( ﻣﻌﻨﺎﻩ )ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺮﺍﺣﺔ(‪ .‬‬ ‫ﺃﻣﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳌﺒﺘﺪﺋﲔ ﻓﻬﻨﺎﻙ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﺔ ﺍﳌﺒﺘﺪﺋﺔ )‪ (٤‬ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻣﺖ ﺍﳌﺨﻄﻂ ﺍﳋﻄﺎﰊ ﰲ ﳏﺎﻭﻟﺘﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﻛﻠﻤﺔ )ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺮﺧﺎﺀ( ﰲ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ "ﺛﺎﻟﺜﺎ‪ ،‬ﺍﺻﻨﻊ ﺩﺍﺋﺮﺓ ﺑﺮﺍﺣﺔ ﻳﺪﻙ ﺣﻮﻝ ﻋﻴﻨﻚ ﺣـﱴ‬ ‫ﺗﺮﻯ ﺃﻣﺎﻣﻚ ﺑﺴﻼﺳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳊﺮﻛﺔ ﺗﺮﻳﺢ ﺍﻟﻌﲔ ﻭﺗﺴﺎﻋﺪﻫﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻻﺳـﺘﺮﺧﺎﺀ"‪ .‬ﺍﻓﺘﺮﺿﺖ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﺔ ﺍﳌﺘﻘﺪﻣﺔ )‪ (٨‬ﻛﻠﻤﺔ )ﺍﳓﺴﺎﺭ( ﰲ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ "ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﻥ ﻣﺸـﻜﻼﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺀ ﺗﺒﺪﺃ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﳓﺴﺎﺭ ﻣﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻀﺎﻧﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﺇﺫ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺰﻭﳚﻬﻦ ﻛﺮﻫﺎ ﻷ‪‬ﻦ ﻓﻘـﺪﻥ‬ ‫ﺫﻭﻳﻬﻦ‪ .‬ﻛﺎﻧـﺖ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﺔ ﺍﳌﺒﺘﺪﺋﺔ ﺗﺼﻌﺐ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﰲ ﻓﻬﻢ ﻣﻌﲎ )ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺮﺧﺎﺀ(‪ . Lepas tu saya tengok perkataan‬‬ ‫‪dengan cepat. Saya faham ayat‬اﻻﺳ ﺘﺮﺧﺎء ‪“Memang agak lama saya nak faham maksud‬‬ ‫‪ tu urut mata…dari situ saya boleh agak‬اﺻ ﻨﻊ داﺋ ﺮة ‪ itu penggerakan kan dan‬اﻟﺤﺮﻛ ﺔ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺟﻪ ﳛﺼﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ‪ . sebab dia cakap buka mata kamu dan mesti tutup‬‬ ‫‪ dengan cepat…buka dan tutup‬ﺑﺴ ﺮﻋﺔ وﻓ ﻲ ﺗﺘ ﺎﺑﻊ ‪kan. Lepas tu macam ayat pandangan depan komputer membuat kita lupa‬‬ ‫‪biasanya orang duduk depan komputer lupa nak tutup mata sekejap”.‬اﻟﻌ ﯿﻦ‬ ‫‪ ni macam merehatkan‬ﺗ ﺮﯾﺢ اﻟﻌ ﯿﻦ‪.‬‬ ‫‪sebab kesan daripada penggerakan itu lah.‬ﻗﺎﻟﺖ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﺔ ﺍﳌﺘﻘﺪﻣﺔ )‪:(٨‬‬ ‫‪ maksudnya surut sebab sebelum tu atas tu dia cerita pasal Tsunami kan…aaa‬اﻧﺤﺴﺎر"‬ ‫‪. begitu juga… keadaan‬ﻛﻤﺎ أن ‪maksudnya keadaan banjir masa tu.‬ﻧﻐﻤﺾ أﻋﯿﻨﻨﺎ ‪untuk‬‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳌﺨﻄﻂ ﺍﳋﻄﺎﰊ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﺔ ﺍﳌﺘﻘﺪﻣﺔ )‪ (٨‬ﻗﺪ ﻻﺣﻈﺖ ﻋﻼﻗـﺔ ﺩﻻﻟﻴـﺔ‬ ‫)ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﻥ( ﰲ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺸﺘﻤﻞ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺓ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻬﺪﻓﺔ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﻴﻌﺎﺏ ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﻋﺎﻡ ﻟﻠﺠﻤﻠـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ‪ ..‬ﺃ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﻓﺘﺮﺿﺖ ﻣﻌﻨﺎﻫﺎ )ﺗﺮﺍﺟﻊ(‪ .‬ھ ﺬه اﻟﺤﺮﻛ ﺔ ﺗ ﺮﯾﺢ اﻟﻌ ﯿﻦ ‪maksudnya kesegaran.‫‪“Saya rasa maksudnya ialah tutup. Selain itu.‬ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫‪٨٤‬‬ ..‬‬ ‫ﺇﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺫﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﻧﺮﻯ ﻓﺮﻗﺎ ﻛﺒﲑﺍ ﰲ ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻘﻖ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺍﳌﺘﻘﺪﻣﻮﻥ ﻳﻜﺜﺮﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﰲ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻣﻬﺎ‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻟﺖ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﺔ ﺍﳌﺒﺘﺪﺋﺔ )‪:(٤‬‬ ‫ھ ﺬه اﻟﺤﺮﻛ ﺔ ﺗ ﺮﯾﺢ ‪.‬ﻭﺟﺪﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺜﺔ ﺃﻥ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﺔ ﺍﳌﺘﻘﺪﻣﺔ ﺑﺪﺃﺕ‬ ‫ﰲ ﺍﺳﺘﻴﻌﺎﺏ ﻣﻌﲎ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔﺣﱴ ﺗﻼﺣﻆ ﻋﻼﻗﺔ ﺩﻻﻟﻴﺔ )ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﻥ( ﰲ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻬﺪﻓﺔ‪.‬ﰒ‪ ،‬ﺍﺳﺘﻌﺎﺑﺖ ﻣﻌﲎ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﶈﻴﻄﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﳌﻔﺮﺩﺓ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻬﺪﻓﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺗﺮﲨﺔ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺍﺕ )ﺍﺻﻨﻊ ﺩﺍﺋﺮﺓ(‪ ،‬ﻭ)ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳊﺮﻛﺔ( ﺣـﱴ‬ ‫ﺗﺴﺘﻄﻴﻊ ﻋﻠﻰ ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﳌﻌﲎ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﻫﻮ )ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺮﺍﺣﺔ(‪ .". Jadi mungkin mendapatkesegaran lah”. lepas tu dia tulis‬‬ ‫"‪masalah selepas surutnya banjir…saya agak macam tu la.

bukan‬‬ ‫‪uncang tapi hampas teh ni”. sebab dekat Vietnam banjir dan taufan…betul lah sebab‬إﻋﺼ ﺎر‪“Ooo‬‬ ‫”‪Onadi ni nama ribut taufan‬‬ ‫ﺃﻣﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳌﺒﺘﺪﺋﲔ ﻓﻬﻨﺎﻙ ﺇﺣﺪ ﺩﺍﺭﺳﺎﺕ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﳌﺒﺘﺪﺉ )‪ (٣‬ﲢﻘﻖ ﻣـﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺟﻬﺎ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﻣﻌﲎ )ﻓﺎﺻﻞ ﺷﺎﻱ( ﰲ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ "ﺳﺎﺑﻌﺎ‪ ،‬ﺧﺬ »ﻓﺎﺻﻞ ﺷﺎﻱ«‪ :‬ﻻ‬ ‫ﺗﺮﻡ ﺃﻛﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻱ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻣﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﺿﻌﻬﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺟﺔ ﻟﻌﺪﺓ ﺳﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﰒ ﺿـﻌﻬﺎ ﻋﻠـﻰ‬ ‫ﻋﻴﻨﻴﻚ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﻲ ﺗﺴﺎﻋﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪‬ﺪﺋﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﲔ ﻭﺗﻘﻠﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺇﺟﻬﺎﺩﻫﺎ ﻭﺍﻧﺘﻔﺎﺧﻬﺎ‪".‬ﻟﺬﺍ ﲢﻘﻘﺖ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﺔ ﺍﳌﺒﺘﺪﺋـﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ ﻛﻠﻤﺔ )ﻓﺎﺻﻞ ﺷﺎﻱ( ﻣﻌﻨﺎﻫﺎ ﻧﻔﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻱ‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻟﺖ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﺔ ﺍﳌﺒﺘﺪﺋﺔ )‪:(٣‬‬ ‫‪ hampas…emm macam terbalik ni.".‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺟﻬﺎ ﺧـﺎﻃﺊ‪ .‬ﻛﺎﻧـﺖ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺒﺘﺪﺋﺔ )‪ (٣‬ﺗﺮﻯ ﺇﱃ ﻛﻠﻤﺔ"ﺃﻛﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻱ" ﺑﺄﻥ ﻟﻴﺲ ﻣﻌﻨﺎﻫﺎ ﻧﻔﺎﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻱ ﻷﻥ ﻻ ﳝﻜـﻦ‬ ‫ﺃﺣﺪ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻀﻌﻬﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﲔ ﻭﺑﺎﻟﻌﻜﺲ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺣﻘﺎﺋﺐ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻱ‪ .‬ﺍﻓﺘﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺱ ﺍﳌﺘﻘﺪﻡ )‪ (٦‬ﻣﻌﲎ )ﺇﻋﺼﺎﺭ( ﻫﻮ )ﻋﺎﺻﻔﺔ( ﺑﻌﺪ ﻣﻼﺣﻈﺘﻪ ﻟﻠﺠﻤﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﺮﺓ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺸﺘﻤﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺎﺻﻴﻞ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ‪‬ﺎ ﺣﱴ ﻳﺘﺤﻘﻖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ‪...‬ﺿﺮﺏ ﺇﻋﺼﺎﺭ ﺃﻭﻧﺪﻱ ﻣﻨﺎﻃﻖ ﺷﺎﺳـﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﻓﻴﺘﻨﺎﻡ"‪ ."،".. mana ada orang letak hampas teh‬اﻟﺸ ﺎي أﻛﯿ ﺎس“‬ ‫‪atas mata uncang teh ni.‬‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺱ ﺍﳌﺘﻘﺪﻡ )‪:(٦‬‬ ‫‪ ni ribut taufan..‬‬ ‫ﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﺍﳌﺘﻘﺪﻣﻮﻥ ﻳﺘﻔﻮﻗﻮﻥ ﰲ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻔﺴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﰐ ﰲ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ‪ .‫ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﳌﺜﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﺍﻓﺘﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺱ ﺍﳌﺘﻘﺪﻡ )‪ (٦‬ﻛﻠﻤﺔ )ﺇﻋﺼﺎﺭ( ﰲ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ "ﺃﻛـﺪﺕ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳـﺔ‬ ‫ﺣﺪﻳﺜﺔ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺣﲔ ﳛﺪﺙ ﻓﻴﻀﺎﻥ ﺃﻭ ﺇﻋﺼﺎﺭ‪.‬ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺩﺍﺭﺳﺔ ﻣﺘﻘﺪﻣﺔ‬ ‫)‪ (٩‬ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺴﺮﺕ ﻧﻔﺴﻬﺎ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﳌﻌﲎ )ﺍﳓﺴﺎﺭ( ﰲ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ"ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﻥ ﻣﺸﻜﻼﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻳﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺀ ﺗﺒﺪﺃ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﳓﺴﺎﺭ ﻣﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻀﺎﻧﺎﺕ‪ .. jadi faasil al shai tu hampas teh terbalik ni.‬ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﺔ ﺍﳌﺘﻘﺪﻣﺔ ﺗﺮﺟﻢ ﺟـﺰﺀ ﻣـﻦ‬ ‫‪٨٥‬‬ ..‬ﺑـﺬﻟﻚ ﺗـﺮﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺜﺔ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﺔ ﺍﳌﺒﺘﺪﺋﺔ )‪ (٣‬ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻣﺖ ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺘﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﻴﺔ ﻗﺒﻞ ﲢﻘﻖ ﺍﳌﻌﲎ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﻟﻠﻤﻔﺮﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻬﺪﻓﺔ‪ .‬ﻓﺈﻧﻪ‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﲟﺪﻯ ﺗﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﱐ ﺍﳌﻔﺘﺮﺿﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺴﻴﺎﻕ ﻭﰲ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ‪ ،‬ﺗﺄﻛﺪﻭﺍ ﻣـﻦ ﺍﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿـﻬﻢ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﻴﺔ ﻭﻭﺟﻬﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﺍﳌﻨﻄﻘﻲ ﻟﺘﺤﻘﻖ ﺍﳌﻌﲎ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﺳﺐ‪ .

‬ﻗﺎﻟﺖ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺱ ﺍﳌﺒﺘﺪﺉ )‪:(١‬‬ ‫‪ takkan tutup‬أﻏﻤ ﺾ ‪ ni saya pasti maksudnya kelip-kelip.‬ﻭﰲ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺘﻪ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﳌﻌﲎ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﺳـﺐ ﻣـﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﻕ‪ .‬ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﺗﺘﻤﺎﺷﻰ ﻣﻊ ﻣﺎ ﺫﻫﺐ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﻧﺴﺎﺟﻲ )‪٢٠٠٤‬ﻡ(‬ ‫ﺑﺄﻥ ﺍﳌﺘﻘﺪﻣﲔ ﻋﻨﺪﻫﻢ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻋﻰ ﺑﺎﻟﺴﻴﺎﻕ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻘﺎﺭﻧﺔ ﺑﺎﳌﺒﺘﺪﺋﲔ ﳑﺎ ﻳﺸﺠﻌﻬﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﲢﻘﻖ ﺍﳌﻌـﲎ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻔﺘﺮﺽ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﻕ ﺍﻷﻭﺳﻊ‪ ١٦. ٣٩٧.‫ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺸﺘﻤﻞ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺓ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻬﺪﻓﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺗﻜﺮﺍﺭ ﺟﺰﺀ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ﺍﶈﻴﻄﺔ ﺑـﺎﳌﻔﺮﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻬﺪﻓﺔ ﺣﱴ ﺗﺴﺘﻔﺴﺮ ﻧﻔﺴﻬﺎ ﻋﻦ ﻣﻌﲎ )ﺍﳓﺴﺎﺭ( ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﻕ ﺍﻷﻭﺳﻊ‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻟﺖ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﺔ ﺍﳌﺘﻘﺪﻣﺔ )‪:(٩‬‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺪ ‪ sepertimana pelbagai masalah perempuan bermula‬ﻛﻤﺎ أن ﻣﺸﻜﻼت اﻟﻌﺪﯾﺪ ﻣﻦ اﻟﻨﺴﺎء"‬ ‫‪ ni bukan ke berkurang? berkurang air.‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺭﺃﻯ ﻧﺴﺎﺟﻲ )‪٢٠٠٤‬ﻡ( ﺇﻥ ﺍﳌﺘﻘﺪﻣﲔ ﺍﻟـﺬﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﳝﺘﻠﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﳉﻴﺪﺓ ﺍﻣﺘﻼﻛﺎ ﻳﺆﺛﺮ ﰲ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﺳـﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴـﻴﺎﻕ ﺑﺼـﻮﺭﺓ‬ ‫‪١٦‬‬ ‫‪Nassaji. Buka mata dan‬أﻏﻤ ﺾ"‬ ‫أﻏﻤﻀ ﮭﻤﺎ ﺑﺴ ﺮﻋﺔ ‪mata? lain maksudnya. mesti pejam celik…dia suruh buka lepas tu‬‬ ‫‪dengan cepat pula…mata dia ada tiga kerja…satu kelip-kelip.".‬ﺭﺃﻯ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺱ )‪ (١‬ﻛﻠﻤﺔ )ﺍﻓـﺘﺢ( ﰒ‬ ‫)ﺃﻏﻤﺾ( ﺣﻴﺚ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺴﺮ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺱ )‪ (١‬ﻧﻔﺴﻪ ﺃﻥ )ﺃﻏﻤﺾ( ﻫﻨﺎ ﻟﻴﺲ ﲟﻌﲎ )ﺍﻗﻔـﻞ ﺍﻟﻌـﲔ(‬ ‫ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﻳﻘﺼﺪ ﺑﺘﻄﺮﻑ ﺍﻟﻌﲔ ﺣﻴﺚ ﻳﺮﻯ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ "ﺃﻏﻤﻀﻬﻤﺎ ﺑﺴﺮﻋﺔ" ﺃ‪‬ﺎ ﺗﺪﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ )ﺗﻄـﺮﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﲔ(‪ .‬اﻧﺤﺴﺎر ﺑﻌﺪ اﻧﺤﺴﺎر ﻣﯿﺎه اﻟﻔﯿﻀﺎﻧﺎت اﻟﻔﯿﻀﺎﻧﺎت اﻧﺤﺴﺎر ﻣﯿﺎه‬ ‫"‪berkurang banjir.‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺮﻏﻢ ﻣـﻦ‪ ،‬ﻛـﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺟﻪ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﺟﺰﺋﻲ‪ .‬ﻛـﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺱ ﺍﳌﺒﺘﺪﺉ )‪ (١‬ﺍﻓﺘﺮﺽ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻄﺮﻑ ﺍﻟﻌﲔ ﻫﻮ ﺃﻧﺴﺐ ﺍﳌﻌﲎ‪ .‬ﺍﻓﺘﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺱ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺒﺘﺪﺉ )‪ (١‬ﻛﻠﻤﺔ )ﺃﻏﻤﺾ( ﻣﻌﻨﺎﻫﺎ )ﺗﻄﺮﻑ ﺍﻟﻌﲔ(‪ .‬ﺃ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﻓﺘﺮﺿﺖ ﻛﻠﻤﺔ‬ ‫)ﺍﳓﺴﺎﺭ( ﻣﻌﻨﺎﻫﺎ )ﺍﳔﻔﺎﺽ(‪ . ya mungkin berkurang‬‬ ‫ﻭﺑﺎﻟﻌﻜﺲ ﺍﳌﺒﺘﺪﺋﲔ‪ ،‬ﺃﻥ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺱ ﺍﳌﺒﺘﺪﺉ )‪ (١‬ﺍﻓﺘﺮﺽ ﻛﻠﻤﺔ )ﺃﻏﻤﺾ( ﰲ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ‬ ‫"ﺃﻭﻻ‪ ،‬ﺍﻓﺘﺢ ﻋﻴﻨﻴﻚ ﻭﺃﻏﻤﻀﻬﻤﺎ ﺑﺴﺮﻋﺔ ﻭﰲ ﺗﺘﺎﺑﻊ‪ ،‬ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮﺓ ﺃﻣﺎﻡ ﺷﺎﺷـﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﻤﺒﻴـﻮﺗﺮ‬ ‫ﲡﻌﻠﻨﺎ ﻧﻨﺴﻰ ﺃﻥ ﻧﻐﻤﺾ ﺃﻋﻴﻨﻨﺎ ﻭﻧﻔﺘﺤﻬﺎ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﳑﺎ ﻳﺴﺒﺐ ﺇﺟﻬﺎﺩﺍ ﻟﻠﻌﲔ‪ .‬ﻭﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺟﻬﺎ ﺻﺤﻴﺤﺔ‪ . satu buka dan satu‬‬ ‫" …‪tutup…dia kata dengan cepat.‬‬ ‫‪٨٦‬‬ .‬ﺭﺃﻯ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﲔ ﺃﺩﺕ ﺛﻼﺛﺔ ﺃﺩﻭﺍﺭ ﻫﻲ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻐﻠﻖ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻄـﺮﻑ ﺍﻟﻌـﲔ‪ . yang tu lah kelip-kelip‬‬ ‫ﺃﺷﺎﺭﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻔﺴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﰐ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺋﻌﺔ ﺍﺳـﺘﺨﺪﺍﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﻟﺪﻯ ﺍﳌﺘﻘﺪﻣﲔ ﻣﻘﺎﺭﻧﺔ ﺑﺎﳌﺒﺘﺪﺋﲔ‪ .

‬‬ ‫‪١٧‬‬ ‫‪Ibid. Lepas tu‬ﻋﯿﻨﯿ ﻚ ‪ kan buka‬اﻓ ﺘﺢ‪..‬‬ ‫‪١٧‬‬ ‫ﻭﺑﺎﻟﻌﻜﺲ ﺃﺷﺎﺭﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳌﺒﺘﺪﺋﲔ ﻳﻔﻮﻗﻮﻥ ﰲ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺭﺑﻂ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺓ ﻣﻘﺎﺭﻧـﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﳌﺘﻘﺪﻣﲔ‪ . Sebab ayat mula-mula tu‬أﻏﻤ ﺾ"‬ ‫‪ saya faham takkan kita nak buka‬ﺑﺴ ﺮﻋﺔ وﻓ ﻲ ﺗﺘ ﺎﺑﻊ ‪mesti tutup.‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﻥ ﻣﺸﻜﻼﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺴـﺎﺀ ﺗﺒـﺪﺃ ﺑﻌـﺪ ﺍﳓﺴـﺎﺭ ﻣﻴـﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻀﺎﻧﺎﺕ‪ . ayat-ayat sebelum tu cakap pasal Tsunami. Sebab sebelum tu dia ada cakap pasal Tsunami‬‬ ‫‪kan.‫ﻣﺘﻜﺮﺭﺓ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺗﺸﻤﻞ ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻘﻖ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻻﺳﺘﻔﺴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﰐ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻜﺮﺍﺭ ﺃﺟـﺰﺍﺀ ﺍﳉﻤﻠـﺔ‬ ‫ﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﻗﺎﺩﺭﻭﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻘﻮﱘ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺟﺎ‪‬ﻢ ﺗﻘﻮﳝﺎ ﻓﻌﺎﻻ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺃﻣﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳌﺘﻘﺪﻣﲔ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﺔ ﺍﳌﺘﻘﺪﻣﺔ )‪ (٥‬ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻣﺖ ﺭﺑﻂ ﺍﳌﻔـﺮﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﰲ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﻣﻌﲎ )ﺍﳓﺴﺎﺭ( ﰲ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ "ﻓﻌﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﺍﰐ ﻗﺘﻠﻦ ﰲ ﺗﺴﻮﻧﺎﻣﻲ ‪٢٠٠٤‬ﻡ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺇﻧﺪﻭﻧﻴﺴﻴﺎ ﺑﻠﻎ ﺛﻼﺛﺔ ﺃﺿﻌﺎﻑ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﺎﻝ ﻷﻥ ﻋﺪﺩﺍ ﻗﻠﻴﻼﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺀ ﳚـﺪﻥ ﺍﻟﺴـﺒﺎﺣﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺎﺭﻧﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺮﺟﺎﻝ‪ .‬ﻭﺍﻓﺘﺮﺿﺖ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺘﻘﺪﻣﺔ )‪ (٥‬ﻛﻠﻤﺔ )ﺍﳓﺴﺎﺭ( ﺑﺄﻥ ﻣﻌﻨﺎﻫﺎ )ﺍﺭﺗﻔﺎﻉ(‪ .".". Pastu cakap pasal sibaahah ni‬‬ ‫‪…berenang kan.. Jadi mesti buka dan tutup".‬اﻓ ﺘﺢ ‪ tutup. Jadi dia kaitkan dengan air banjir tu meningkat.‬اﻧﺤﺴ ﺎر ‪macam meningkat la‬‬ ‫‪jadinya kebanyakan mushkilahnya ni datang. Sebab bila tengok ayat‬‬ ‫‪mata ja sebab ada turutan kat situ.‬ﻗﺎﻟﺖ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﺔ ﺍﳌﺒﺘﺪﺋﺔ )‪:(٤‬‬ ‫أﻏﻤﻀ ﮭﻤﺎ ‪.‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﻻ ﲢﺼـﻞ ﻋﻠـﻰ ﺍﻻﺳـﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ‪ .‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﳌﺜﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﻗﺪ ﳒﺤﺖ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﺔ ﺍﳌﺒﺘﺪﺋﺔ )‪ (٤‬ﰲ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﻛﻠﻤﺔ )ﺃﻏﻤـﺾ(‬ ‫ﰲ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ "ﺍﻓﺘﺢ ﻋﻴﻨﻴﻚ ﻭﺃﻏﻤﻀﻬﻤﺎ ﺑﺴﺮﻋﺔ ﻭﰲ ﺗﺘﺎﺑﻊ‪ . ٣٩٧.‬ﺭﺑﻄﺖ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳـﺔ ﺍﳌﺒﺘﺪﺋـﺔ )‪(٤‬‬ ‫ﻛﻠﻤﺔ )ﺃﻏﻤﺾ( ﺑﻜﻠﻤﺔ )ﺍﻓﺘﺢ( ﰲ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻬﺪﻓﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻧﺪﻣﺎﺟﺒﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺒﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ ﺣﱴ‬ ‫ﺗﺘﺤﻘﻖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻌﻨﺎﻫﺎ ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺒﺔ ﻭﻫﻲ )ﺃﻏﻠﻖ(‪ . Mangsanya adalah perempuan selepas‬‬ ‫‪naiknya air banjir”.‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﺔ ﺍﳌﺘﻘﺪﻣﺔ )‪:(٥‬‬ ‫‪“Saya rasa macam kenaikan air banjir. Saya rasa‬‬ ‫‪ tu kan.‬ﻭﺟﺪﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺜﺔ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﺔ ﺍﳌﺘﻘﺪﻣﺔ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﺎﺑﺖ ﻣﻌﲎ ﺍﳉﻤﻠـﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻔﻘـﺮﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ ﰒ ﺭﺑﻂ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺓ ﻫﻲ"ﺍﻟﺴﺒﺎﺣﺔ" ﰲ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ ﺑﺎﳌﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﻟﻠﺠﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﻟـﱵ ﺗﺸـﺘﻤﻞ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺓ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻬﺪﻓﺔ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺭﺑﻂ ﺍﻟﺴﺒﺎﺣﺔ ﺑﺎﺭﺗﻔﺎﻉ ﻣﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻀﺎﻧﺎﺕ‪ . Saya rasa macam air tu makin naik la kan..‬‬ ‫‪٨٧‬‬ .

.‬ﻫﺬﺍ ﺩﻟﻴﻞ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳌﺒﺘﺪﺋﲔ ﺣﺎﻭﻟﻮﺍ ﻓﻬﻢ ﻛﻞ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺓ ﻭﺍﳉﻤﻠـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺸﺘﻤﻞ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺓ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻬﺪﻓﺔ ﺑﻐﻴﺔ ﺍﻓﺘﺮﺍﺽ ﻣﻌﻨﺎﻫﺎ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﺳﺐ‪ .‫ﺃﻣﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺇﱃ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ‪ ،‬ﺗﺒﺪﻭ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳌﺒﺘﺪﺋﲔ ﻳﺘﻔﻮﻗﻮﻥ ﰲ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻣﻌﲎ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺒﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ‪ ..".‬‬ ‫ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺱ ﺍﳌﺒﺘﺪﺉ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻣﻌﲎ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ ﻓﻘﻂ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺍﻓﺘﺮﺿـﺖ ﻛﻠﻤـﺔ‬ ‫)ﺃﻛﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻱ( ﰲ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ "ﻻ ﺗﺮﻡ ﺃﻛﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻱ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻣﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﺿﻌﻬﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺟـﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻌﺪﺓ ﺳﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﰒ ﺿﻌﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﻴﻨﻴﻚ‪ .‬ﺃﻧﻪ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﺎﺏ ﻣﻌﲎ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ ﺑﻌﺪ ﻭﻗﻮﻋـﻪ ﰲ ﺍﳉﻤﻠـﺔ ﺍﻟـﱵ‬ ‫ﺗﺸﺘﻤﻞ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺓ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻬﺪﻓﺔ ﻟﻴﺘﻤﻜﻦ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﳊﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﻌﲎ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﻕ‪ .‬‬ ‫ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳌﺘﻘﺪﻣﲔ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﻨﺎﻙ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﺔ ﺍﳌﺘﻘﺪﻣﺔ )‪ (٥‬ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻣﺖ ﻣﻌﲎ ﺍﳉﻤﻠـﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻊ ﺍﻧﺪﻣﺎﺝ ﺑﺎﻻﺳﺘﻔﺴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﰐ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﻛﻠﻤﺔ )ﺍﻧﺒﻌﺎﺛﺎﺕ( ﰲ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ "ﻭﺃﺷﺎﺭﺕ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻧﺒﻌﺎﺛﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﺯﺕ ﺍﳌﺴﺒﺒﺔ ﻟﻼﺭﺗﻔﺎﻉ ﺍﳊﺮﺍﺭﻱ ﺯﺍﺩﺕ ﺑﻨﺴﺒﺔ ‪ %١٤.‬ﻭﰲ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ‬ ‫ﻧﻔﺴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻫﻢ ﺃﻋﺎﺩﻭﺍ ﻗﺮﺍﺀﺓ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ ﺣﱴ ﻳﺴﺘﻌﻴﺒﻮﺍ ﺍﳌﻌﲎ‪ . kalau letak atas‬‬ ‫‪mata.‬ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﺔ ﺍﳌﺘﻘﺪﻣﺔ )‪ (٥‬ﺗﺴﺘﻌﻴﺐ ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﺟﺰﺀ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻬﺪﻓﺔ ﻫﻲ "ﺍﳌﺴﺒﺒﺔ ﻟﻼﺭﺗﻔﺎﻉ ﺍﳊﺮﺍﺭﻱ" ﳑﺎ ﺗﺴﺒﺒﻬﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺴﺘﻔﺴﺮ ﺍﻟـﻨﻔﺲ‬ ‫ﺳﻮﺍﺀ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻛﻠﻤﺔ )ﺍﻧﺒﻌﺎﺛﺎﺕ( ﻣﻌﻨﺎﻫﺎ ﺍﻧﺘﻘﺎﻝ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺱ ﺍﳌﺒﺘﺪﺉ )‪:(١‬‬ ‫‪ saya yakin maksudnya uncang.‬‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻟﺖ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﺔ ﺍﳌﺘﻘﺪﻣﺔ )‪:(٥‬‬ ‫‪Haynes. Dia kata letak atas mata.” ٥٤...‬ﻫﺬﻩ ﻧﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﺗﺆﻳﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﺎ ﺫﻫﺐ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﻫﻴﻨﺲ ﺑﺄﻥ ﺍﳌﺒﺘﺪﺋﲔ ﻋﻨﺪﻫﻢ ﻗﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺮﻭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﻮﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺤﻮﻳﺔ ﳏﺪﻭﺩﺓ ﺣﻴﺚ‬ ‫ﱂ ﻳﻌﺮﻓﻮﺍ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺍﺕ ﰲ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﻮﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﺺ‪ ١٨. Sebab saya faham ayat tu dia kata letakkan‬أﻛﯿ ﺎس"‬ ‫‪di dalam peti ais selama beberapa jam. Jadi dia amik‬‬ ‫"‪uncang letak atas mata.٥‬ﻣﻨﺬ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻗﻴﻊ ﻋﻠـﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﺗﻔﺎﻗﻴﺔ »ﻛﻴﻮﺗﻮ« ﻟﻠﺤﺪ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻻﻧﺒﻌﺎﺛﺎﺕ‪ .‬ﻟﺬﺍ‪ ،‬ﺩﻝ ﻣﻌﲎ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﳌﺌﻮﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻣﻘﺎﺭﻧﺔ ﺑﺎﳌﺘﻘﺪﻣﲔ‪.“Patterns and Perils of Guessing in Second Language Reading.‬ﺍﻓﺘﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺱ ﺍﳌﺒﺘﺪﺉ )‪) (١‬ﺃﻛﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﺸـﺎﻯ(‬ ‫ﻣﻌﻨﺎﻫﺎ )ﺣﻘﺎﺋﺐ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻯ(‪ .‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﺔ ﺍﳌﺘﻘﺪﻣﺔ ﺗﺴﺘﻌﻴﺒﻤﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ "ﻟﻼﺭﺗﻔﺎﻉ ﺍﳊﺮﺍﺭﻱ ﺯﺍﺩﺕ ﺑﻨﺴﺒﺔ" ﺣﻴﺚ ﺗﺮﻯ ﺃﻥ ﻛﻠﻤﺔ )ﺍﻧﺒﻌﺎﺛﺎﺕ( ﻣﻌﻨﺎﻫﺎ )ﺍﻧﺘﻘﺎﻝ(‪. serbuk teh agak tak relevant la kan sebab letak atas mata.".‬‬ ‫‪٨٨‬‬ ‫‪١٨‬‬ .

‬ﻗﺎﻟﺖ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﺔ ﺍﳌﺒﺘﺪﺋﺔ )‪:(٣‬‬ ‫‪ ni saya confius sikit maksudnya. saya lihat pada ayat‬‬ ‫?‪ ni selalu dengar.‬ﻟﻼرﺗﻔ ﺎع اﻟﺤ ﺮاري زادت ﺑﻨﺴ ﺒﺔ‪Confius jugak kan. Tapi saya agak macam kami merasakan. Jadi mungkin kami‬‬ ‫"‪merasakan. cuma rasa macam antara perpindahan ke perdagangan ke‬اﻧﺒﻌﺎﺛ ﺎت‬ ‫‪.‬ﺍﻓﺘﺮﺿﺖ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﺔ ﺍﳌﺒﺘﺪﺋﺔ )‪(٣‬‬ ‫ﻛﻠﻤﺔ )ﻧﻌﺎﱐ( ﻣﻌﻨﺎﻫﺎ )ﻧﺼﺎﺩﻑ ﺃﻭ ﻧﺼﻴﺐ( ﺣﻴﺚ ﻻﺣﻈﺖ ﰲ ﻛﻠﻤﺔ )ﺇﺟﻬﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﻌﲔ( ﻛﺄ‪‬ـﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺑﻜﻠﻤﺔ )ﻧﻌﺎﱐ(‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺱ ﺍﳌﺘﻘﺪﻡ )‪:(٧‬‬ ‫‪. ayat‬‬ ‫”‪bermula daripada selepas…selepas air surut terjadilah masalah..‬ﲜﺎﻧﺐ ﺫﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟـﺪﺍﺭﺱ ﻧﻈـﺮ ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺨﻄﻂ ﺍﳋﻄﺎﰊ ﰲ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ )ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳌﺸﻜﻼﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻳﺪ( ﻣﻊ ﻗﻴﺎﻡ ﺑﺘﺮﲨـﺔ ﺍﳉﻤﻠـﺔ ﺑـﺄﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺸﻜﻼﺕ ﻟﺪﻯ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺀ ﺗﺒﺪﺃ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳔﻔﺎﺽ ﺍﳌﻴﺎﻩ‪ . Kesan selepas air‬ﺑﻌ ﺪ ‪ air banjir.‬ﻭﻣﻌﻈـﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺟﺎ‪‬ﻢ ﺻﺤﻴﺤﺔ ﻛﺎﻣﻠﺔ‪ .‬اﻟﻤﺴ ﺒﺒﺔ ﻟﻼرﺗﻔ ﺎع اﻟﺤ ﺮاري ‪perpindahan. Kiranya orang tak tahan dengan panas. Iaitu beberapa masalah daripada wanita‬ﻛﻤ ﺎ أن ﻣﺸ ﻜﻼت اﻟﻌﺪﯾ ﺪ ‪surut.‬‬ ‫‪jadi banyak berpindah la”.‫‪“Kat sini saya main agak la maksudnya perpindahan.‬ﻭﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﺔ ﺍﳌﺘﻘﺪﻣﺔ )‪ (٨‬ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻣﺖ ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺘﻪ ﺍﻟﻨﺤﻮﻳﺔ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ‬ ‫‪٨٩‬‬ ..".‬ﻫﺬﺍ ﺩﻟﻴﻞ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻌﻈﻤﻬﻢ ﺭﻏﺒﻮﺍ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻧﺘﺒﺎﻩ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻷﺩﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﻗﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﲢﻴﻂ ﺑﺎﳌﻔﺮﺩﺓ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻬﺪﻓﺔ‪ .‬‬ ‫ﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﻣﻦ ﻧﺎﺣﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺒﻴﺔ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳌﺒﺘﺪﺋﲔ ﻳﻜﺜﺮﻭﻥ ﰲ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻣﻬﺎ‪ .‬‬ ‫ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳌﺘﻘﺪﻣﲔ‪ ،‬ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺱ ﺍﳌﺘﻘﺪﻡ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻋﻼﻗﺔ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺒﻴﺔ ﻣﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻧﺪﻣﺎﺝ ﲟﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﻣﻌﺮﻓﻴﺔ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‪ .".‬ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺱ ﺍﳌﺘﻘﺪﻡ )‪ (٧‬ﻗﺪ ﺍﻓﺘﺮﺽ ﻛﻠﻤﺔ )ﺍﳓﺴﺎﺭ( ﰲ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ‬ ‫"ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﻥ ﻣﺸﻜﻼﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺀ ﺗﺒﺪﺃ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﳓﺴﺎﺭ ﻣﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻀﺎﻧﺎﺕ‪ . Sebab‬ﻧﻌ ﺎﻧﻲ"‬ ‫‪saya tengok pada ayat ijhaad al a’inmacam suatu perasaan.‬ﺭﺃﻯ ﺩﺍﺭﺱ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻘﺪﻡ )‪ (٧‬ﻛﻠﻤﺔ )ﻣﻴﺎﻩ( ﺍﻟﱵ ﲢﻴﻂ ﺑﺎﳌﻔﺮﺩﺓ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻬﺪﻓﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﺇﱃ ﻛﻠﻤﺔ )ﺑﻌﺪ( ﺣﻴﺚ ﺗﺄﻛﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﻛﻠﻤﺘﲔ ﺑﺄﻥ ﻛﻠﻤﺔ )ﺍﳓﺴﺎﺭ( ﻣﻌﻨﺎﻫﺎ )ﺍﳔﻔﺎﺽ(‪ .. sebelumnya ada‬ﻣﯿ ﺎه ‪“Sebab saya tengok perkataan‬‬ ‫‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺃﺷﺎﺭﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻥ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺤﻮﻳﺔ ﺩﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﳌﺘﺴﺎﻭﻳﺔ ﺑﲔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻮﻳﲔ‪ . Sebab saya buat ayat‬‬ ‫‪ disebabkan panas sangat kan. Selain itu.‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﳌﺜﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻣﺖ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﺔ ﺍﳌﺒﺘﺪﺋـﺔ )‪ (٣‬ﻋﻼﻗـﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺒﻴﺔ ﻓﻘﻂ ﰲ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﻛﻠﻤﺔ )ﻧﻌﺎﱐ( ﰲ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ "ﺇﻧﻨﺎ ﳒﻠﺲ ﺃﻣﺎﻡ ﺷﺎﺷـﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﻤﺒﻴـﻮﺗﺮ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﺴﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﳑﺎ ﳚﻌﻠﻨﺎ ﻧﻌﺎﱐ ﻣﻌﺎﻧﺎﺓ ﺷﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺇﺟﻬﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﻌﲔ‪ .

Sebab‬اﻟﻤﻨﺎﻃﻖ ‪ sifat kepada‬اﻟﻤﻨﻜﻮﺑﺔ ‪ saya rasa maksudnya ialah terlibat sebab‬اﻟﻤﻨﻜﻮﺑﺔ"‬ ‫‪ di‬ﻓﻲ اﻟﻤﻨﺎﻃﻖ ‪ penduduk‬اﻟﻤﻮاﻃﻨﯿﻦ ‪tadi dia cakap bencana-bencana yang menimpa‬‬ ‫"‪kawasan yang terlibat dengan bencana itu lah.‫ﻛﻠﻤﺔ )ﺍﳌﻨﻜﻮﺑﺔ( ﰲ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ "ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻟﻀﺮﺭ ﻳﺼﻴﺐ ﲨﻴﻊ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﻃﻨﲔ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﻃﻖ ﺍﳌﻨﻜﻮﺑﺔ‪ :‬ﻟﻜﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺀ ﻳﻌﺎﻧﲔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻐﻴﲑﺍﺕ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﺧﻴﺔ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﳑﺎ ﻳﻌﺎﱐ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﺎﻝ‪ .. Margot Haynes and James‬‬ ‫‪Coady.‬ﻗﺎﻟﺖ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺘﻘﺪﻣﺔ )‪:(٨‬‬ ‫‪.‬ﻗـﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺱ ﺍﳌﺒﺘﺪﺉ )‪:(٥‬‬ ‫‪ mungkin maksudnya‬ﻭ ‪“saya rasa maknanya habuk…Sebab saya kembali balik pada‬‬ ‫”‪sama dengan ayat sebelum dia‬‬ ‫ﺃﻥ ﺗﻮﻇﻴﻒ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ ﻳﱪﺯ ﻓﺮﻗﺎ ﻛﺒﲑﺍ ﺑﲔ ﺍﳌﺒﺘﺪﺋﲔ ﻭﺍﳌﺘﻘﺪﻣﲔ ﺣﻴﺚ ﻳﻔﻀـﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺒﺘﺪﺅﻥ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻷﺩﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﻗﻴﺔ ﺍﶈﻴﻄﺔ ﺑﺎﳉﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﲢﺘﻮﻱ ﻋﻠﻴﻬـﺎ ﺍﳌﻔـﺮﺩﺓ ﺍﳌﺴـﺘﻬﺪﻓﺔ‬ ‫‪١٩‬‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻣﺎ ﻭﺍﺳﻌﺎ ﻣﻘﺎﺭﻧﺔ ﺑﺎﳌﺘﻘﺪﻣﲔ‪ .‬ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺟﻬﺎ ﺻﺤﻴﺤﺔ‪ .‬ﺍﻓﺘﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺱ ﺍﳌﺒﺘﺪﺉ )‪ (٥‬ﻛﻠﻤﺔ )ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺮﺧﺎﺀ(‬ ‫ﻣﻌﻨﺎﻩ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺮﺍﺣﺔ ﺣﻴﺚ ﻻﺣﻆ ﺍﳊﺮﻑ )ﻭ( ﰲ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ ﳑﺎ ﻳﻌﻄﻲ ﻣﻌﲎ ﺍﻻﺳـﺘﺮﺍﺣﺔ ﺗﺴـﺎﻭﻱ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻻﺳﺘﺮﺧﺎﺀ‪ . edited by Thomas Huckin. ١٩٩٣). “Chinese Student’s Word-Solving Strategies in Reading in English.‬ﺭﺃﺕ ﺩﺍﺭﺳﺔ ﻣﺘﻘﺪﻣﺔ )‪(٨‬‬ ‫ﻛﻠﻤﺔ )ﺍﳌﻨﻜﻮﺑﺔ( ﺑﺄ‪‬ﺎ ﺻﻔﺔ ﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ )ﺍﳌﻨﺎﻃﻖ(‪ .‬ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﺗﺆﻳﺪ ﻣﺎ ﺫﻫﺐ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﺟﻴﻮﻟﻦ )‪١٩٩٣‬ﻡ(‪..‬‬ ‫‪٩٠‬‬ .‬ﰲ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻷﺣﻴﺎﻥ ﻫﻢ ﻣﺘﺄﻛﺪﻭﻥ ﺑـﺄﻥ ﺗﺮﲨﺘـﻬﻢ‬ ‫‪١٩‬‬ ‫‪Chiou-Lan Chern.‬ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺗﺴﺒﻘﻪ ﻭﺍﻭ ﺍﻟﻌﻄﻒ ﺗﺪﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﻌﲎ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ ﰲ ﲨﻠﺔ ﺳﺎﺑﻘﺔ‪ .‬‬ ‫ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺗﻮﺿﺢ ﻟﻨﺎ ﺃﻥ ﰲ ﺃﻏﻠﺐ ﺍﻷﺣﻴﺎﻥ ﺍﳌﺒﺘﺪﺅﻥ ﺍﻋﺘﻤﺪﻭﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﲨﺔ ﺍﻋﺘﻤﺎﺩﺍ ﻛـﺜﲑﺍ‬ ‫ﰲ ﳏﺎﻭﻟﺘﻬﻢ ﺗﺮﲨﺔ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺍﺕ ﰲ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺸﺘﻤﻞ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺓ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻬﺪﻓﺔ ﻛـﺬﻟﻚ‬ ‫ﺗﺮﲨﺔ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ ﻛﻠﻴﺎ ﺑﻐﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺻﻞ ﺇﱃ ﻣﻌﻨﺎﻫﺎ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﻕ‪ .‬‬ ‫ﻭﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﺩﻟﺖ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﻟﻠﺘﺮﲨﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﳌﺌﻮﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﺘﺴﺎﻭﻳﺔ ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺒﺎ ﺑﲔ ﺍﳌﺴـﺘﻮﻳﲔ‪. (Norwood: New Jersey.‬‬ ‫ﺃﻣﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺱ ﺍﳌﺒﺘﺪﺉ )‪ (٥‬ﻓﺎﻛﺘﺸﻒ ﻛﻠﻤﺔ )ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺮﺧﺎﺀ( ﰲ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ"ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳊﺮﻛـﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﺮﻳﺢ ﺍﻟﻌﲔ ﻭﺗﺴﺎﻋﺪﻫﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺮﺧﺎﺀ"‪ .‬ﻭﻣﻌﻈﻢ ﺗﺮﲨﺘﻬﻢ ﻛﺎﻧـﺖ‬ ‫ﺻﺤﻴﺤﺔ ﺟﺰﺋﻴﺔ ﻭﺧﺎﻃﺌﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻹﻃﻼﻕ‪ . ٧٧.” in Second‬‬ ‫‪Language Reading and Vocabulary Learning.".

".‬ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﲨﺔ ﺃﻋﻄﺘﻪ ﺗﺼﻮﺭﺍ ﻋﺎﻣﺎ ﻟﻠﻤﻔﺮﺩﺓ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻬﺪﻓﺔ ﺣﻴـﺚ‬ ‫ﺍﻓﺘﺮﺽ )ﺍﻟﻨﺎﲨﺔ( ﺑﺄﻥ ﻣﻌﻨﺎﻫﺎ )ﺍﻟﻨﺎﲡﺔ( ﺃﻱ )ﺍﳌﺴﺒﺒﺔ(‪ .‬ﻭﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳊﺎﻟﺔ ﺗﺴﻬﻢ ﰲ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﳌﻌﲎ ﺍﺳـﺘﻨﺘﺎﺟﺎ‬ ‫ﺧﺎﻃﺌﺎ‪.. Ya.‬‬ ‫”‪ tu uncang lah.‬ﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﻗﺪ ﺗﺮﺟﻢ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺍﺕ ﻓﻘﻂ ﰲ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻬﺪﻓﺔ‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺱ ﺍﳌﺘﻘﺪﻡ )‪:(٧‬‬ ‫‪ maksudnya menyelesaikan masalah yang‬ﻟﺤ ﻞ اﻟﻤﺸ ﻜﻼت اﻟﻨﺎﺟﻤ ﺔ ﻋ ﻦ اﻟﺘﻐﯿ ﺮ اﻟﻤﻨ ﺎﺧﻲ ﻓ ﻲ اﻟﻌ ﺎﻟﻢ"‬ ‫"‪berpunca daripada perubahan cuaca.‬ﻗﺎﻟﺖ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﺔ ﺍﳌﺒﺘﺪﺋﺔ )‪:(٣‬‬ ‫‪.‬ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﺗﺆﻳﺪ ﻣﺎ ﺫﻫﺐ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﺩﺍﺳﻜﻮﺱ ﺑﺄﻥ ﺍﳌﺘﻘﺪﻣﻮﻥ ﻋﻨﺪﻫﻢ ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻓﻴﺔ ﻣﻘﺎﺭﻧﺔ ﺑﺎﳌﺒﺘﺪﺋﲔ ﳑﺎ ﺗـﺆﺛﺮﻫﻢ‬ ‫‪٢٠‬‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻖ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﳌﻌﲎ ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻘﺎ ﻓﻌﺎﻻ‪.‬‬ ‫‪٩١‬‬ . Jangan buang selepas‬ﻻ ﺗ ﺮم أﻛﯿ ﺎس اﻟﺸ ﺎي ﺑﻌ ﺪ اﺳ ﺘﺨﺪاﻣﮭﺎ‪ ،‬ﺿ ﻌﮭﺎ ﻓ ﻲ اﻟﺜﻼﺟ ﺔ ‪“Saya tengok ayat‬‬ ‫‪penggunaan.” Article Literacy‬‬ ‫‪Across Cultures. “Guessing Word Meaning from Context: Should We Encourage It?.‬‬ ‫ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺩﺍﺭﺳﺔ ﻣﺒﺘﺪﺋﺔ )‪ (٣‬ﺍﻓﺘﺮﺿﺖ ﻛﻠﻤﺔ )ﺃﻛﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻱ( ﰲ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ "ﻻ ﺗﺮﻡ ﺃﻛﻴﺎﺱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻱ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻣﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﺿﻌﻬﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺟﺔ ﻟﻌﺪﺓ ﺳﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﰒ ﺿﻌﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﻴﻨﻴﻚ‪ . kemudian letak atas mata. lepas tu letakkan dalam peti ais..".‬ﺃ‪‬ﺎ‬ ‫ﺗﺮﺟﻢ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺸﺘﻤﻞ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺓ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻬﺪﻓﺔ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺍﻓﺘﺮﺿﺖ ﺑﺄﻥ )ﺃﻛﻴﺎﺱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻱ( ﻫﻮ )ﺣﻘﺎﺋﺐ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻱ(‪ .‫ﺻﺤﻴﺤﺔ ﻭﺑﺎﻟﻌﻜﺲ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺗﺮﲨﺘﻬﻢ ﺧﺎﻃﺌﺔ‪ .(September ١٩٩٧). punca lah.‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﳌﺜﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﺍﻓﺘﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺱ ﺍﳌﺘﻘـﺪﻡ )‪(٧‬‬ ‫ﻛﻠﻤﺔ )ﺍﻟﻨﺎﲨﺔ( ﰲ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ "ﻭﺍﻧﺘﻘﺪﺕ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﻨﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺎ ﳊﻞ ﺍﳌﺸـﻜﻼﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺎﲨﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻐﲑ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﺧﻲ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﱂ‪ .‬‬ ‫‪٢٠‬‬ ‫‪David Dycus.‬ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺱ ﺍﳌﺘﻘﺪﻡ )‪ (٧‬ﺗﺮﺟﻢ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺍﺕ ﰲ ﺗﻠﻚ‬ ‫ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ ﳘﺎ )ﳊﻞ ﺍﳌﺸﻜﻼﺕ(‪ .‬اﻟﺸﺎي أﻛﯿﺎس ‪Logiknya‬‬ ‫ﻋﻼﻭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺫﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﻭﺟﺪﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺜﺔ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﲔ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﳌﺘﻘﺪﻡ ﱂ ﻳﺴـﺘﺨﺪﻣﻮﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﲨﺔ ﰲ ﲨﻴﻊ ﺃﺣﻮﺍﻝ ﻭﻟﻜﻨﻬﻢ ﻳﻔﻀﻠﻮﻥ ﻓﻬﻢ ﻣﻌﲎ ﺍﳋﻄﺎﺏ ﳑﺎ ﻳﺴﻬﻞ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ ﰲ ﺍﺳـﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﲎ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺓ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻬﺪﻓﺔ ﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ ﺇﱃ ﺃﺻﻞ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺓ‪ .‬‬ ‫ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﻴﺔ ﺗﺪﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳌﺘﻘﺪﻣﲔ ﳝﻴﻠﻮﻥ ﺇﱃ ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻖ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻻﺳـﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﲎ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺓ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻬﺪﻓﺔ ﺑﺪﻻ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻋﺘﻤﺎﺩﻫﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﲨﺔ ﻓﺤﺴﺐ‪ .

‬ﻭﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﺗﺪﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﻣﺴـﺘﻮﻯ ﻛﻔـﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﻠﻐـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﲔ ﻗﺪ ﱂ ﻳﺆﺛﺮ ﰲ ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﻓﻘﻂ ﺑﻞ ﻗﺪ ﻳﻌﺘﻤﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻜﺮﺍﺭ ﺍﺳـﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻻﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﺑﻐﻴﺔ ﺣﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻌﲎ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺓ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﺳـﺐ‪ .” ٢٣٨.‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﰒ‪ ،‬ﺣﺼﻞ ﺍﳌﺒﺘﺪﺅﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﻣﺌﻮﻳـﺔ ﻋﺎﻟﻴـﺔ ﻻﺳـﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﳉﺰﺋﻲ ﻣﻘﺎﺭﻧﺔ ﺑﺎﳌﺘﻘﺪﻣﲔ‪ .‬‬ ‫‪٩٢‬‬ .‬ﻭﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﺗﺘﻤﺎﺷﻰ ﻣﻊ ﻣﺎ ﺫﻫﺐ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﺑﻨﺠﻠﻴـﻞ‬ ‫ﻭﺑﺮﻳﺒﻚ‪ ٢١.‫ﻳﺸﲑ ﺍﳉﺪﻭﻝ ‪ ١٩‬ﺍﻵﰐ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﳌﺌﻮﻳﺔ ﻟﻠﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺼـﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﳉﺰﺋـﻲ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﳋﺎﻃﺊ ﰲ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﻣﻌﺎﱐ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻬﺪﻓﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﳌﺒﺘﺪﺋﲔ ﻭﺍﳌﺘﻘﺪﻣﲔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻞ ‪ :١٩‬ﳕﻮﺫﺝ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﳉﺰﺋﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﳋﺎﻃﺊ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﻣﻌﺎﱐ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻬﺪﻓﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﺺ‬ ‫ﺃﺷﺎﺭﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻭﺿﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳉﺪﻭﻝ ‪ ١٩‬ﺇﱃ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳌﺘﻘﺪﻣﲔ ﺣﺼﻠﻮﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﺴﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺌﻮﻳﺔ ﻟﻠﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻲ ﻣﻘﺎﺭﻧﺔ ﺑﺎﳌﺒﺘﺪﺋﲔ‪ . “L٢ Reading Proficiency and Lexical Inferencing by University EFL‬‬ ‫‪Learners.‬ﺩﻟﺖ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺑﺄﻥ ﺍﳌﺘﻘﺪﻣﲔ ﻗﺪ ﺍﻣﺘﻠﻜﻮﺍ ﻛﻔﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻣﻘﺎﺭﻧـﺔ ﺑﺎﳌﺒﺘـﺪﺋﲔ‬ ‫ﺣﻴﺚ ﲡﻌﻠﻬﻢ ﻣﺎﻫﺮﻳﻦ ﰲ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﻕ ﺑﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺃﻓﻀﻞ ﺍﻟـﺬﻱ ﻳـﺆﺛﺮﻫﻢ ﻋﻠـﻰ ﺑﻨـﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺟﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺤﺔ‪٢٢.” ١٧٨.‬ﺑﺸـﻜﻞ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﻡ‪ ،‬ﺃﺷﺎﺭﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﲔ ﳒﺤﻮﺍ ﰲ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﻣﻌـﺎﱐ ﺍﳌﻔـﺮﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﳌﺴـﺘﻬﺪﻓﺔ‬ ‫‪٢١‬‬ ‫‪Bengeleil and Paribakht.‬‬ ‫‪٢٢‬‬ ‫‪Kaivanpanah and Alavi. “The Role of Linguistic Knowledge in Word-Meaning Inferencing.

‫ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺟﺎ ﻓﻌﺎﻻﺣﻴﺚ ﺗﺪﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﳌﺌﻮﻳﺔ ﻟﻠﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻲ ﻟﻜﻼ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻮﻳﲔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻋﻠﻰ ﺩﺭﺟـﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺎﺭﻧﺔ ﺑﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻣﺌﻮﻳﺔ ﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﳉﺰﺋﻲ ﻭﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﳋﺎﻃﺊ‪ .‬ﺃﻣـﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻔﺴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﰐ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺤﻘﻖ ﻓﻬﻤﺎ ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺎﺗﺎﻥ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻣﺎ ﻋﻨـﺪ ﺍﳌﺘﻘـﺪﻣﲔ ﻣﻘﺎﺭﻧـﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﳌﺒﺘﺪﺋﲔ‪ .‬ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﻧﻮﻋﺎﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﻴﺔ ﺩﻻ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﳌﺘﺴﺎﻭﻳﺔ ﺑﲔ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻮﻳﲔ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﲨﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻋﻼﻭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺫﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﺃﻥ ﻛﻼ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻮﻳﲔ ﺣﺼﻼ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﻜﻠـﻲ‬ ‫ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻣﻘﺎﺭﻧﺔ ﺑﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﳉﺰﺋﻲ ﻭﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﳋﺎﻃﺊ‪ . “Guessing Word Meaning from Context: Should We Encourage It?.‬ﻫﺬﺍ ﺩﻟﻴﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳌﺘﻘﺪﻣﲔ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﺍﻟﻮﻋﻰ ﰲ ﻗﺮﺍﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﺺ ﳓﻮ ﲢﻘﻴـﻖ ﺍﻻﺳـﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺟﺢ‪ .‬ﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﳋﻄﺎﺏ ﰲ ﳏﺎﻭﻟﺘﻬﻢ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﺎﱐ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻬﺪﻓﺔ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺀﺓ‪ .‬ﻫﺬﺍ ﺩﻟﻴﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃ‪‬ﻤﺎ ﻣﺼﺪﺭﻳﻦ ﻣﻬﻤﲔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻥ ﺍﻋﺘﻤﺪﻭﺍ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻤﺎ ﺍﳌﺴـﺘﻮﻳﲔ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﻴﻌﺎﺏ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﳌﻘﺮﻭﺀﺓ ﳓﻮ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﻣﻌﲎ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺓ ﺍﳌﺴـﺘﻬﺪﻓﺔ ﺍﺳـﺘﻨﺘﺎﺟﺎ ﻣﻨﺎﺳـﺒﺎ‪ .” Article Literacy Across‬‬ ‫‪Cultures.‬ﻫﺬﺍ ﺩﻟﻴﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﲔ ﰲ ﻛﻠﻲ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻮﻳﲔ ﻗﺎﺩﺭﻭﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻖ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﰲ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﻣﻌﺎﱐ ﺍﳌﻔـﺮﺩﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻬﺪﻓﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﰒ‪ ،‬ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺗﺘﻌﺎﺭﺽ ﻣﻊ ﻧﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﻮﺙ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴـﺚ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺇﻥ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﻻ ﻳﺘﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻘﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﳌﺒﺘﺪﺉ ﻷﻧﻪ ﻟﻴﺲ ﻟﺪﻳﻬﻢ ﲢﺼﻴﻼ ﻛﺎﻓﻴـﺎ‬ ‫‪٢٣‬‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﻔﺮﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺴﻬﻢ ﰲ ﺇﳒﺎﺡ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﻣﻌﺎﱐ‪.‬‬ ‫‪٩٣‬‬ .‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﳌﺒﺘﺪﺅﻥ ﻓﻴﻜﺜﺮﻭﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻘﻂ‪ .(September ١٩٩٧).‬ﳝﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ‪ ،‬ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﻮﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﺻﺤﻴﺤﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺗﻮﻇﻴﻒ ﺇﺣﺪﻯ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻋﺎﻣﻠﲔ ﻣﻬﻤﲔ ﻳﺴـﻬﻤﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﰲ ﺑﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﳌﻌﲎ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﻟﻠﻤﻔﺮﺩﺓ ﻏﲑ ﺍﳌﺄﻟﻮﻓﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﻕ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺧﻼﺻﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ‪ ،‬ﳒﺪ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳌﺘﻘﺪﻣﲔ ﻳﺘﻔﻮﻗﻮﻥ ﰲ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺓ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺼﺮﰲ ﻭﺍ‪‬ﺎﻧﺴﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﻔﻈﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﺍﺳﺘﺨﻠﺼﺖ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺜﺔ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺃﻥ ﻣﻌﻈﻢ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﲔ ﳝﺘﻠﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﺳﺘﻴﻌﺎﺑﺎ ﺟﻴﺪﺍ ﻋﻦ ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﻨﺺ ﺣﻴﺚ ﻻﺣﻈﺖ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺜﺔ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﲔ ﻳﺘﻤﻜﻨﻮﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻷﺩﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﻗﻴﺔ ﺍﶈﻴﻄﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺺ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻧﺪﻣﺎﺝ ﲟﻌﺮﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﳌﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺟﺎﺕ ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺒﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﻕ‪ .‬‬ ‫‪٢٣‬‬ ‫‪Dycus.

‬‬ ‫ﻭﺃﺳﻔﺮﺕ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﻋﻦ ﻧﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﻋﺪﻳﺪﺓ‪ ،‬ﳝﻜﻦ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺃﳘﻬﺎ ﺣﺴـﺐ ﺗﺮﺗﻴـﺐ ﺃﺳـﺌﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﻛﺎﻵﰐ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺃﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﻕ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﲔ‬ ‫‪ (١‬ﻳﻌﺘﻤﺪ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﻮﻥ ﻛﺜﲑﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﰲ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ ﺑﺪﻻ ﻣﻦ ﺍﺳـﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﳋﻄﺎﺏ ﰲ ﺍﺳﺘﻴﻌﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ‪ .‬ﻭﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﰲ ﻣﺴـﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﳉﻤﻠـﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺴـﺘﻮﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﳋﻄﺎﺏ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﺇﻥ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻳﺘﻄﻠﺐ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻷﺩﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﻗﻴﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺗﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺱ ﲟﻌﺮﻓﺘﻪ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﳓﻮ ﺑﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﳌﻌﲎ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﻕ‪ .‬ﻭﻓﻀﻼ ﻋﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﻋﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﺗﺆﺛﺮ ﰲ ﲢﻘﻴـﻖ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺟﺢ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﻓﻮﻕ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﺍﳌﺮﺍﻗﺒﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻻﺳﺘﻔﺴـﺎﺭ ﺍﻟـﺬﺍﰐ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻜﺮﺍﺭ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺤﻘﻖ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺤﻠﻴﻞ‪.‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺑﺮﻫﻦ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻴﻌﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺋﻲ ﻳﻨﻄﻮﻱ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻋﻤﻠﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻮﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‪ .(%٢٧‬ﺭﺃﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺜﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﲨﺔ ﺑﻮﺻـﻔﻬﺎ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺓ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳـﻴﺔ ﺍﻟـﱵ‬ ‫ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﻮﻥ ﰲ ﺑﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺟﺎﺕ ﻣﻊ ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻴﻌﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺋﻲ ﺃﺛﻨـﺎﺀ‬ ‫‪٩٤‬‬ .‬ﻭﻫـﻢ ﻳﻔﻀـﻠﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺘﻬﻢ ﺍﻟﻨﺤﻮﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﻗﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻌـﲎ ﺍﳉﻤﻠـﺔ ﰲ ﲨﻴـﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺣﻮﺍﻝ‪.‬ﻭﰲ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺓ ﻳﻠﺠﺄ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﻮﻥ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺎﺑﻪ ﺍﻟﻠﻔﻈـﻲ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻠﻲ ﻭﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺍﺕ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﱐ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﺪﺩﺓ‪ .‬‬ ‫‪ (٢‬ﻇﻬﺮﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﲨﺔ ﺑﻮﺻﻔﻬﺎ ﺇﺣﺪﻯ ﺍﳌﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﻮﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﻔﻀﻠﺔ ﻟﺪﻯ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﲔ ﻣﻘﺎﺭﻧﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﳌﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﻮﻳﺔ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺗﺪﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻋﻠـﻰ ﻧﺴـﺒﺔ ﻣﺌﻮﻳـﺔ ﰲ ﺗﻜـﺮﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻣﻬﺎ )‪ .‫ﺍﳋﺎﲤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ – ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺻﻴﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﳌﻘﺘﺮﺣﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻧﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ‬ ‫ﻳﻌﺪ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻜﺸﻒ ﺑﻮﺻﻔﻪ ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺃﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﰲ ﳎﺎﻝ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﻗﻲ ﻟﻠﺪﺍﺭﺳﲔ ﺍﳌﺘﺨﺼﺼﲔ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﻗﺮﺍﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﺺ‪ .

‬ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﺗﺪﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﲔ ﻳﺸﻌﺮﻭﻥ ﺑﺎﻟﺜﻘﺔ ﻭﺍﻻﺭﺗﻴـﺎﺡ ﻣـﻦ‬ ‫ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﲨﺔ ﰲ ﺗﻌﻠﻢ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴـﻴﺎﻕ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺳـﺘﻴﻌﺎﺏ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﺎﻧﻴﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺮﻏﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺮﲨﺘﻬﻢ ﻗﺪ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺻﺤﻴﺤﺔ ﻭﻗﺪ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺧﺎﻃﺌﺔ ﺑﻐﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺻﻞ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳌﻌﲎ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﺳﺐ‪.‬ﺍﺳﺘﺨﻠﺼﺖ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺜﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺃﻥ ﻣﻌﻈﻢ‬ ‫‪٩٥‬‬ .‬‬ ‫ﻣﺪﻯ ﳒﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﲔ ﰲ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﻣﻌﺎﱐ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻬﺪﻓﺔ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺟﺎ ﺻﺤﻴﺤﺎ‬ ‫‪ (١‬ﺃﺷﺎﺭﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﲔ ﳒﺤﻮﺍ ﰲ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﻣﻌﺎﱐ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻬﺪﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺟﺎ ﻓﻌﺎﻻ ﺣﻴﺚ‪ ،‬ﺗﺪﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﳌﺌﻮﻳﺔ ﻟﻠﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻲ ﺃﻋﻠﻰ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﻣﻘﺎﺭﻧـﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻣﺌﻮﻳﺔ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﳋﺎﻃﺊ‪ .‫ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺀﺓ‪ .‬‬ ‫‪ (٦‬ﻻ ﻳﻌﺘﻤﺪ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﻮﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﻴﺔ ﻓﻘﻂ ﰲ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﻣﻌﺎﱐ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺍﺕ ﻣـﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﻕ ﺑﻞ ﻗﺪ ﺩﳎﻮﻫﺎ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺎﺕ ﳓﻮ ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﺳـﺐ ﻣـﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﻕ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ (٥‬ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﻮﻥ ﲨﻴﻊ ﺃﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﻮﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﳌﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﻏـﲑ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻠﻐﻮﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﻻﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺎﺕ ﻣﺎ ﻋﺪﺍ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺒﺪﺍﻟﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﻼﻣـﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘـﺮﻗﻴﻢ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﳌﺼﺎﺣﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﻔﻈﻴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ (٣‬ﻇﻬﺮﺕ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﻴﺔ ﻋﻦ ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﻨﺺ ﺑﻮﺻﻔﻬﺎ ﺇﺣﺪﻯ ﺍﳌﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﻏﲑ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﻮﻳـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺋﻌﺔ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻻ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﲔ ﰲ ﺍﻓﺘﺮﺍﺽ ﻣﻌﺎﱐ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻬﺪﻓﺔ ﻣﻘﺎﺭﻧـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﳌﺼﻄﻠﺤﺎﺕ ﺍﳋﺎﺻﺔ ﺍﳌﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﺺ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ (٧‬ﻳﺒﺪﻭ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻫﻲ ﺍﳌﺼﺪﺭ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﰲ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺱ ﻭﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﻌﺘﻤـﺪ ﻋﻠﻴﻬـﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﻮﻥ ﰲ ﲨﻴﻊ ﺍﻷﺣﻮﺍﻝ ﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﻣﻌﺎﱐ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﻕ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ (٤‬ﻳﺒﺪﻭ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﲔ ﻳﻜﺜﺮﻭﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﳌﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﻮﻳﺔ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﺳـﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﺎﱐ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺍﺕ ﻣﻘﺎﺭﻧﺔ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﳌﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﻏﲑ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﻮﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﻻﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺎﺕ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ (٨‬ﺃﺷﺎﺭﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻥ ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻘـﻖ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻜـﺮﺍﺭ ﺃﺟـﺰﺍﺀ ﺍﳉﻤﻠـﺔ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻻﺳﺘﻔﺴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﰐ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻣﺎ ﰲ ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﻣﻘﺎﺭﻧﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺤﻠﻴﻞ ﻭﺍﳌﺮﺍﻗﺒﺔ‪.

‫ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﲔ ﳝﺘﻠﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﺳﺘﻴﻌﺎﺑﺎ ﺟﻴﺪﺍ ﻋﻦ ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﻨﺺ ﺣﻴﺚ ﻻﺣﻈﺖ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺜﺔ ﺃﻥ‬ ‫‪(٢‬‬ ‫‪(٣‬‬ ‫‪(٤‬‬ ‫‪(٥‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﲔ ﻳﺘﻤﻜﻨﻮﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻷﺩﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﻗﻴﺔ ﺍﶈﻴﻄﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺺ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻧﺪﻣﺎﺝ ﲟﻌﺮﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﳌﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺟﺎﺕ ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺒﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﻕ‪.‬ﻭﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﺗﺪﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﻛﻔﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﲔ ﻗﺪﱂ ﻳﺆﺛﺮ‬ ‫‪٩٦‬‬ .‬‬ ‫ﻳﺒﺪﻭ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻄﻠﺒﺔ ﳒﺤﻮﺍ ﰲ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺟﻬﻢ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻣﻮﺍ ﺍ‪‬ﺎﻧﺴﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﻔﻈﻴـﺔ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﻣﻌﲎ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺒﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳌﺨﻄﻂ ﺍﳋﻄﺎﰊ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﻴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺃﺷﺎﺭﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻮﻇﻴﻒ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﺮﻓﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺭﺑـﻂ ﺍﳌﻔـﺮﺩﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺤﻮﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺮﲨﺔ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﳌﻌﲎ ﺩﻟﺖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﳋﻄﺄ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻣـﻦ ﻧﺴـﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻲ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺍﻃﻦ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﺑﲔ ﺍﳌﺒﺘﺪﺋﲔ ﻭﺍﳌﺘﻘﺪﻣﲔ ﰲ ﺗﻮﻇﻴﻒ ﺃﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﻕ‬ ‫‪ (١‬ﺣﺼﻞ ﺍﳌﺘﻘﺪﻣﻮﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﻣﺌﻮﻳﺔ ﻟﻼﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﻜﻠـﻲ ﻣﻘﺎﺭﻧـﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﳌﺒﺘﺪﺋﲔ‪ .‬‬ ‫ﺃﺷﺎﺭﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻥ ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺎﺕ ﺗﻜـﺮﺍﺭ ﺃﺟـﺰﺍﺀ ﺍﳉﻤﻠـﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺤﻘـﻖ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻻﺳﺘﻔﺴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﰐ ﺗﺪﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻟﻼﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﻜﻠـﻲ ﻣﻘﺎﺭﻧـﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺎﺕ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ (٢‬ﺣﺼﻞ ﺍﳌﺒﺘﺪﺅﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﳌﺌﻮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻟﻼﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﳉﺰﺋﻲ ﻣﻘﺎﺭﻧـﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﳌﺘﻘﺪﻣﲔ‪ .‬ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳊﺎﻟﺔ ﺗﱪﻫﻦ ﻟﻨﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳌﺘﻘﺪﻣﲔ ﻗﺪ ﺍﻣﺘﻠﻜـﻮﺍ ﻛﻔـﺎﺀﺓ ﻋﺎﻟﻴـﺔ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻣﻘﺎﺭﻧﺔ ﺑﺎﳌﺒﺘﺪﺋﲔ ﺣﻴﺚ ﲡﻌﻠﻬﻢ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻬﺎﺭﺓ ﰲ ﺍﺳـﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺴـﻴﺎﻕ‬ ‫ﺑﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺃﻓﻀﻞ ﳑﺎ ﻳﺆﺛﺮ ﰲ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﺑﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺟﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺤﺔ‪.‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﻭﺟﺪﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺜـﺔ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻜـﺮﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺓ ﺑﻮﺻﻔﻪ ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﻣﻔﻴﺪﺓ ﻟﻠﺪﺍﺭﺳﲔ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺗﺴﺎﻋﺪ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﲔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﻳﺼﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﲎ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺇﺛﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺜﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﰐ ﺃﻭ ﺷﻜﻠﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﻔـﺮﺩﺓ ﺍﳌﺴـﺘﻬﺪﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﳌﻔﺮﺩﺓ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻭﻓﺔ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻇﻬﺮ ﺗﻜﺮﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺭﺓ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺃﺟﺰﺍﺀ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﶈﻴﻄﺔ ﺑـﺎﳌﻔﺮﺩﺓ ﺍﳌﺴـﺘﻬﺪﻓﺔ ﻳﺴـﻬﻢ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺟﺢ ﻣﻘﺎﺭﻧﺔ ﺑﺘﻜﺮﺍﺭ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺓ‪ .

‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﳌﺒﺘﺪﺅﻥ ﻓﻬﻢ ﻳﻜﺜﺮﻭﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻘﻂ‪ .‬ﻭﺑﺎﻟﻌﻜﺲ‪ ،‬ﺍﳌﺒﺘﺪﺅﻥ ﻳﻌﺘﻤﺪﻭﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻓﻬﻢ ﻣﻌـﲎ‬ ‫ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ ﻭﺍﻛﺘﺸﺎﻑ ﻋﻼﻗﺎﺕ ﺳﻴﺎﻗﻴﺔ ﺍﻋﺘﻤﺎﺩﺍ ﻛﺜﲑﺍ ﰲ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﻣﻌـﺎﱐ ﺍﳌﻔـﺮﺩﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺑﺪﻻ ﻣﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﲡﺔ ﻋﻦ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﻣﺘﻼﻙ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ ﺍﳉﻴـﺪﺓ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﻨﺺ ﳑﺎ ﺗﺴﻬﻢ ﰲ ﻗﻠﺔ ﺍﻫﺘﻤﺎﻣﻬﻢ ‪‬ﺎ ﳓـﻮ ﺑﻨـﺎﺀ ﺍﻻﺳـﺘﻨﺘﺎﺟﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻨﺎﺳﺒﺔ‪.‬ﻭﻣﻌﻈﻤﻬﻢ ﳝﻴﻠﻮﻥ ﺇﱃ ﻓﻚ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺓ ﺇﱃ ﺃﺻـﻠﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺄﻛﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﺷﺘﻘﺎﻗﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻛﺘﺸﺎﻑ ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺎﺑﻪ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺓ ﺍﳌﺴـﺘﻬﺪﻓﺔ ﺑـﺎﳌﻔﺮﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ﺷﻜﻠﻴﺎ ﻭﺻﻮﺗﻴﺎ‪ .‬‬ ‫‪٩٧‬‬ .‬ﻗﺮﺭﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺜﺔ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳌﺘﻘﺪﻣﲔ ﻣﺘﻤﻜﻨﻮﻥ ﻣـﻦ ﺗﻮﻇﻴـﻒ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﻕ ﺑﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻓﻌﺎﻟﺔ ﻣﻘﺎﺭﻧﺔ ﺑﺎﳌﺒﺘﺪﺋﲔ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺭﺟـﻮﻉ ﺇﱃ ﻣﻌـﲎ ﺍﻟﻔﻘـﺮﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺎﺻﻴﻞ ﺑﻐﻴﺔ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﻣﻌـﲎ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺓ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻬﺪﻓﺔ‪ .‬‬ ‫‪ (٥‬ﺑﺮﺯ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ‪ ،‬ﺃﻥ ﺍﳌﺘﻘﺪﻣﲔ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻣﻮﺍ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﻴﺔ ﺑﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻭﺍﺳﻌﺔ ﻣﻘﺎﺭﻧـﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﳌﺒﺘﺪﺋﲔ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﲡﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻣﺘﻼﻙ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﻴﺔ ﺍﳉﻴﺪﺓ ﻋﻦ ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﻨﺺ ﳑﺎ ﺗﺆﺛﺮ ﰲ‬ ‫ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻴﻌﺎﺏ ﺍﳉﻴﺪ‪ .‬ﻫـﺬﺍ ﺗـﱪﻫﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳌﺒﺘﺪﺋﲔ ﻣﻌﻈﻤﻬﻢ ﻳﺮﻏﺒﻮﻥ ﰲ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻷﺩﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﻗﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﲢﻴﻂ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﳌﻔﺮﺩﺓ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻬﺪﻓﺔ‪.‬ﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﻫﻢ ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺒﺒﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺄﺛﲑﻳﺔ ﻟﻠﻮﺻﻮﻝ ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻌﲎ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﻟﻠﻤﻔﺮﺩﺓ ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪﺓ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ (٣‬ﺗﻔﻮﻕ ﺍﳌﺘﻘﺪﻣﻮﻥ ﰲ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺓ ﻫﻲ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﺼـﺮﻓﻴﺔ ﻭﺍ‪‬ﺎﻧﺴـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻠﻔﻈﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﳋﻄﺎﺏ ﰲ ﳏﺎﻭﻟﺘﻬﻢ ﺍﺳـﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﻣﻌـﺎﱐ ﺍﳌﻔـﺮﺩﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻬﺪﻓﺔ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺀﺓ‪ .‬‬ ‫‪ (٤‬ﺗﻔﻮﻕ ﺍﳌﺘﻘﺪﻣﻮﻥ ﰲ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺓ ﻭﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﳋﻄـﺎﺏ ﰲ ﺍﺳـﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﺎﱐ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺍﺕ ﻣﻘﺎﺭﻧﺔ ﺑﺎﳌﺒﺘﺪﺋﲔ‪ .‫ﰲ ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﻓﻘﻂ ﺑﻞ ﻗﺪ ﻳﻌﺘﻤﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻜـﺮﺍﺭ ﰲ ﺍﺳـﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻻﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﺑﻐﻴﺔ ﺣﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻌﲎ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺓ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﺳﺐ‪.‬ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﳌﺒﺘﺪﺅﻥ ﻳﻨﻈﺮﻭﻥ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ ﺇﱃ ﻣﻌﲎ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺸﺘﻤﻞ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻬﺪﻓﺔ ﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﻗﻴﺔ ﰲ ﲨﻴﻊ ﺃﺣـﻮﺍﻝ‪ .

‬ﻫـﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﻴﺠـﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﺪﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳌﺘﻘﺪﻣﲔ ﻋﻨﺪﻫﻢ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻋﻰ ﺑﺎﻟﺴﻴﺎﻕ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻘﺎﺭﻧـﺔ ﺑﺎﳌﺒﺘـﺪﺋﲔ ﳑـﺎ‬ ‫ﻳﺸﺠﻌﻬﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﻬﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺛﺔ ﳓﻮ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﻣﻌـﺎﱐ ﺍﳌﻔـﺮﺩﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺤﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﻕ‪.‬ﻭﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳋﻄﻮﺓ ﲤﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﲔ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻧﻮﺍ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﺩﻗـﺔ ﰲ ﺑﻨـﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﺍﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﺎﺕ ﻣﻌﲎ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺓ ﻏﲑ ﺍﳌﺄﻟﻮﻓﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ (٧‬ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺍﳌﺒﺘﺪﺅﻥ ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻠﻴﻞ ﰲ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺇﻻ ﺍﳌﺘﻘﺪﻣﲔ‪ .‬‬ ‫‪ (٢‬ﺗﺪﺭﻳﺐ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﲔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﻓﻮﻕ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﻴـﺔ ﻣﺜـﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻘـﻖ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻻﺳﺘﻔﺴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﰐ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳌﺮﺍﻗﺒﺔ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﳏﺎﻭﻟﺘﻬﻢ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﻣﻌﺎﱐ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﻕ‪ .‬ﻻﺑﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻢ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺴﺎﻋﺪ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﲔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻋﻲ ﺑﺎﳌﺸـﻜﻼﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻴﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺎﺕ ﳓﻮ ﺑﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻴﻌﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺋـﻲ ﺍﳉﻴـﺪ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻨﺺ ﺍﳌﻘﺮﻭﺀ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ (٣‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻤﲔ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺸﺠﻌﻮﺍ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﲔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﻛﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﺳـﺘﻨﺘﺎﺟﺎ‪‬ﻢ ﰲ ﺳـﻴﺎﻗﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻭﺳﻊ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺻﻴﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﳌﻘﺘﺮﺣﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺗﻘﺘﺮﺡ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺜﺔ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﳌﻘﺘﺮﺣﺎﺕ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻣﻬﺎ ﰲ ﲢﺴﲔ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﻣﻌﺎﱐ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﰲ ﳏﻮﺭ ﺗﻌﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺑﻮﺻﻔﻬﺎ ﻟﻐﺔ ﺃﺟﻨﺒﻴﺔ ﲟﺎﻟﻴﺰﻳﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ (١‬ﺗﺪﺭﻳﺐ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﲔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻛﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﳌﻌﲎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﻕ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻘـﺮﺍﺀﺓ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺘﻌﻴﻨﲔ ﺑﺎﳌﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﻮﻳﺔ ﻭﻏﲑ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﻮﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﺇﺫ ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﺭﻳﺐ ﺍﻟﻔﻌـﺎﻝ ﰲ ﺗﻄﺒﻴـﻖ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﻳﺴﻬﻢ ﰲ ﺭﻓﻊ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻴﻌﺎﺏ ﰲ ﲨﻴﻊ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻻﺑﺘـﺪﺍﺋﻲ‬ ‫ﺇﱃ ﺍﳌﺘﻘﺪﻡ‪ .‬‬ ‫‪ (٤‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﺘﺨﺼﺼﲔ ﰲ ﳎﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﻟﻜﻲ ﻳﺼﻤﻤﻮﺍ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﻫﺞ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﻴﺔ ﲟﺮﺍﻋﺎﺓ ﻣﺪﺧﻞ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﻠﻴﻢ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺍﺕ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﻕ ﰲ ﲨﻴﻊ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻮﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻤﻴـﺔ ﺧﺎﺻـﺔ ﰲ‬ ‫‪٩٨‬‬ .‫‪ (٦‬ﺃﺷﺎﺭﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻘﻖ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻻﺳﺘﻔﺴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﰐ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳌﺮﺍﻗﺒﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻓﻮﻕ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺋﻌﺔ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻻ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﳌﺘﻘﺪﻣﲔ ﻣﻘﺎﺭﻧﺔ ﺑﺎﳌﺒﺘﺪﺋﲔ‪ .‬ﻛﺬﻟﻚ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺮﺍﻗﺒﺔ ﱂ ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﻬﺎ ﺍﳌﺒﺘﺪﺅﻥ ﰲ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺇﻻ ﺍﳌﺘﻘﺪﻣﲔ ﻓﻘﻂ‪.

‬‬ ‫‪ (٦‬ﺇﺟﺮﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺑﺪﻭﺭ ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺍﺕ ﰲ ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺟﺢ ﻭﺁﺛﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﺬﻛﺮ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﰲ ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﳋﻼﺻﺔ‪ ،‬ﻳﺴﻬﻢ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﰲ ﻛﺸﻒ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﻫﻨﻴﺔ ﻟﺪﻯ ﺩﺍﺭﺳﻲ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﻗﺮﺍﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﺧﺎﺹ ﻳﻠﻘﻲ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺪﻯ ﺗﻌﺎﻣﻠﻬﻢ ﺑﺎﳌﻔﺮﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﳉﺪﻳـﺪﺓ‬ ‫ﲟﺤﺎﻭﻟﺘﻬﻢ ﰲ ﺑﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺤﺔ ﳌﻌﺎﻧﻴﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﻻ ﺑﺪ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻬﺘﻢ ﺑـﻪ ﺭﺟـﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﳌﻌﻠﻤﲔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﺪ ﺳﻮﺍﺀ ﺇﺫ ﺇﻧﻪ ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﺃﺧﲑﺍ ﺇﱃ ﻏﺮﺱ ﺣﺐ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺀﺓ ﻟﺪﻯ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﲔ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺼﺒﻮ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﺗﻌﻠﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﺟﻨﺒﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺃﳓﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﱂ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺃﺩﱏ ﺷﻚ‪.‬ﲟﺎ ﺃﺷﺎﺭﺕ ﻧﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳌﺒﺘﺪﺋﲔ ﻗﺎﺩﺭﻭﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻄﺒﻴـﻖ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﳌﻌﲎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﻕ ﺑﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺟﻴﺪﺓ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺣﺼﻠﻮﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻋﻠـﻰ‬ ‫ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﻣﺌﻮﻳﺔ ﻟﻼﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﳉﺰﺋﻲ ﻣﻘﺎﺭﻧﺔ ﺑﺎﳌﺘﻘﺪﻣﲔ‪.‬‬ ‫‪٩٩‬‬ .‫ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻻﺑﺘﺪﺍﺋﻲ‪ .‬‬ ‫‪ (٥‬ﻭﺟﺪﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺜﺔ ﺃﻥ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﻜﲑ ﺑﺼﻮﺕ ﻋﺎﻝ ﺑﻮﺻﻔﻬﺎ ﺇﺣﺪﻯ ﻃﺮﻕ ﺍﻟـﺘﻌﻠﻢ‬ ‫ﻣﻔﻴﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺴﺎﻋﺪ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﲔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﻨﺎﺀ ﻣﻬﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﻣﻌـﺎﱐ ﺍﳌﻔـﺮﺩﺕ ﻣـﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﻕ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﻭﺿﺢ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﻮﻥ ﺑﺄ‪‬ﻢ ﺃﺻﺒﺢ ﻭﺍﻋﻮﻭﻥ ﺑﺈﺟﺮﺍﺀﺍﺕ ﺍﺳـﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﻣﻌﲎ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺓ ﻏﲑ ﺍﳌﺄﻟﻮﻓﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﲡﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﻜﲑ‬ ‫ﺑﺼﻮﺕ ﻋﺎﻝ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺀﺓ‪.

‬ﻃﺮﺍﺋﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﺭﻳﺲ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﻟﻐﲑ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻃﻘﲔ ‪‬ﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻫﺮﺓ‪ :‬ﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻜﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﰊ‪.‬ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻢ ﻭﺃﺳﺎﻟﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻢ‪ .‬ﻡ(‪ .‬‬ ‫ﻋﺎﺷﻮﺭ‪ ،‬ﺭﺍﺗﺐ ﻗﺎﺳﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳊﻮﺍﻣﺪﺓ‪ ،‬ﳏﻤﺪ ﻓﺆﺍﺩ‪٢٠٠٩) .‬ﻡ(‪ .‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻗﺔ‪ ،‬ﳏﻤﻮﺩ ﻛﺎﻣﻞ‪٢٠٠٣) .‬‬ ‫ﻃﻌﻴﻤﺔ‪ ،‬ﺭﺷﺪﻱ ﺃﲪﺪ‪٢٠٠٦) .‬ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻫﺮﺓ‪ :‬ﻣﻜﺘﺒﺔ ﺍﻷﳒﻠﻮ ﺍﳌﺼﺮﻳﺔ‪.‬ﻁ ‪ .‬ﻡ(‪ .‬ﻃﺮﻕ ﺗﺪﺭﻳﺲ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ‪ .‫ﺍﳌﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﻭﺍﳌﺮﺍﺟﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺮﺍﺟﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺇﺑﺮﺍﻫﻴﻢ‪ ،‬ﳎﺪﻱ ﻋﺰﻳﺰ‪٢٠٠٤) .‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺰﻳﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻓﺘﺤﻲ ﻣﺼﻄﻔﻰ‪٢٠٠٣) .‬ﻣﺼﺮ‪ :‬ﻣﻜﺘﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﳒﻠﻮ ﺍﳌﺼﺮﻳﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﳊﻤﻴﺪ‪ ،‬ﺟﺎﺑﺮ‪١٩٩٩) .‬ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﺟﻨﺒﻴﺔ‪ :‬ﺗﻌﻠﻴﻤﻬﺎ ﻭﺗﻌﻠﻤﻬﺎ‪ .(١٩٦٩) .‬‬ ‫ﺇﻳﺴﻴﻜﻮ‪ :‬ﻣﻨﺸﻮﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻠﻮﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﺜﻘﺎﻓﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺧﺮﻣﺎ‪ ،‬ﻧﺎﻳﻒ ﻭﺣﺠﺎﺝ‪ ،‬ﻋﻠﻲ‪١٩٨٨) .‬ﺍﻟﻜﻮﻳﺖ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺳﻠﺴﻠﺔ ﻋﺎﱂ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ‪.‬ﻡ(‪ .‬‬ ‫‪١٠٠‬‬ .‬ﻡ(‪ .‬ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻫﺮﺓ‪ :‬ﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺮ ﻟﻠﺠﺎﻣﻌﺎﺕ‪.‬ﻓﻨﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﻭﺃﺳﺎﻟﻴﺐ‬ ‫ﺗﺪﺭﻳﺴﻬﺎ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﻄﺒﻴﻖ‪ .‬ﻡ(‪ .‬ﺍﳌﻬﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﻮﻳﺔ‪ :‬ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻳﺎ‪‬ﺎ‪ ،‬ﺗﺪﺭﻳﺴﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﺻﻌﻮﺑﺎ‪‬ﺎ‪.‬ﻡ(‪ .‬ﻋﻤﺎﻥ‪ :‬ﻋﺎﱂ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺐ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ‪.‬‬ ‫ﳐﻴﻤﺮ‪ ،‬ﺻﻼﺡ‪ .‬ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﺭﻳﺲ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻢ‪ .‬ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻫﺮﺓ‪ :‬ﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻜﺮ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺮﰊ‪.‬ﻡ(‪ .‬ﻣﺪﺧﻞ ﺇﱃ ﺳﻴﻜﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻢ‪ .‬ﺻﻌﻮﺑﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻢ‪ :‬ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﺭﻳﺴﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﳌﺪﺍﺧﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﺟﻴﺔ‪ .‬‬ ‫ﻣﺪﻛﻮﺭ‪ ،‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﲪﺪ‪٢٠١٠) .٢‬ﻋﻤﺎﻥ‪ :‬ﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﳌﻴﺴﺮﺓ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻨﺸﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻮﺯﻳﻊ‪.

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٢٠١١.com/experimental-research. Retrieved May ٢٢.B. J. http://app.org/lingualinks/literacy/implementaliteracyprogram/schematheo ryoflearning. F. A Focus on Vocabulary. Com.org/Ghazal.Resources. ١. H. ٢٤٥-٢٥٤. ٢٠١١.pdf Jelić. (٢٠٠٧). Novitas-Royal Research on Youth and Language. Retrieved February ٦.prel. A.pdf SIL International. Empirical studies in English applied linguistics. http://www. Osborn. ٢٠١٢. Vol.pte. Pacific Resources for Education and Learninge.experiment-resources. E. ٨٤-٩١. Lexical Inferencing Strategy Use by Croatian ForeignLanguage Learners.htm ١٠٥ .S. October). Retrieved May ٢٠.. Experimental Research. Retrieved ٤ February. Schema Theory of Learning.sil. http://www.hu/uprt٢٠٠٧/١٤_Jelic. (٢٠٠٤).pdf Lehr. Department of Education.novitasroyal. (٢٠٠٧. L. Issue. ٢.org/products/re_/ES٠٤١٩bw. U. Retrieved May ٢٠. ٢٠١٢. ٢٠١١.:‫ﺍﳌﻮﺍﻗﻊ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﻧﻴﺔ‬ Experiment. http://www. Learning Vocabulary in EFL Contexts Through Vocabulary Learning Strategies. & Hiebert. http://www..html Ghazal.

‬‬ ‫ﺭﺍﺑﻌﺎ‪ ،‬ﺣﺮﺭ ﻋﻴﻨﻚ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﱂ‪ :‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺑﻌﻴﺪﺍ ﻋﻦ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﻤﺒﻴﻮﺗﺮ ﻭﺭﻛﺰ ﰲ ﺃﺷﻴﺎﺀ ﺑﻌﻴﺪﺓ ﺣﻴﺚ ﻳﺴـﺎﻋﺪﻙ‬ ‫ﺫﻟﻚ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺃﻓﻀﻞ ﻛﻤﺎ ﳝﻨﺢ ﻋﻴﻨﻴﻚ ﺭﺍﺣﺔ ﺑﺼﺮﻳﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺛﺎﻟﺜﺎ‪ ،‬ﺍﺻﻨﻊ ﺩﺍﺋﺮﺓ ﺑﺮﺍﺣﺔ ﻳﺪﻙ ﺣﻮﻝ ﻋﻴﻨﻚ ﺣﱴ ﺗﺮﻯ ﺃﻣﺎﻣﻚ ﺑﺴﻼﺳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳊﺮﻛـﺔ ﺗـﺮﻳﺢ ﺍﻟﻌـﲔ‬ ‫ﻭﺗﺴﺎﻋﺪﻫﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺮﺧﺎﺀ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺎ‪ ،‬ﺃﻏﻤﺾ ﻋﻴﻨﻴﻚ ﻭﺣﺮﻙ ﻣﻘﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﲔ ﰲ ﺍﲡﺎﻩ ﻋﻘﺎﺭﺏ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻋﺔ ﻭﻋﻜﺴﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫـﺬﺍ ﲤـﺮﻳﻦ ﻟﻠﻌﺼـﺐ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺼﺮﻱ ﳑﺎ ﻳﻘﻮﻱ ﺍﻟﻌﲔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺳﺎﺑﻌﺎ‪ ،‬ﺧﺬ »ﻓﺎﺻﻞ ﺷﺎﻱ«‪ :‬ﻻ ﺗﺮﻡ ﺃﻛﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻱ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻣﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﺿﻌﻬﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺟﺔ ﻟﻌﺪﺓ ﺳﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﰒ‬ ‫ﺿﻌﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﻴﻨﻴﻚ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﻲ ﺗﺴﺎﻋﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪‬ﺪﺋﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﲔ ﻭﺗﻘﻠﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺇﺟﻬﺎﺩﻫﺎ ﻭﺍﻧﺘﻔﺎﺧﻬﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺛﺎﻣﻨﺎ‪ ،‬ﻛﻞ ﺟﻴﺪﺍ‪ :‬ﺃﻓﻀﻞ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﺘﺎﻣﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﲢﺎﻓﻆ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﻮﺓ ﺍﻟﺮﺅﻳﺔ ﻫﻲ ‪ ،A‬ﻭ‪ ،C‬ﻭ‪.E‬‬ ‫‪ ١٩٧‬ﻛﻠﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍ‪‬ﺘﻤﻊ ‪-‬ﳎﻠﺔ ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻤﲔ ﰲ ﺃﳓﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﱂ‪ -‬ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺩ ‪ ١٢ – ١٥٨٣‬ﻳﻮﻟﻴﻮ ‪ ٢٠١٠‬ﻡ‬ ‫‪١٠٦‬‬ .‬‬ ‫ﺳﺎﺩﺳﺎ‪ ،‬ﺍﺷﺮﺏ ﺍﻟﻜﺜﲑ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺎﺀ ﺣﱴ ﺗﺰﻳﻞ ﺍﻟﺴﻤﻮﻡ ﻭﺗﻘﻠﻞ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﻔﺎﺥ ﲢﺖ ﺍﻟﻌﲔ ﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﻨﺖ ﺗﻌﻤﻞ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺑﻴﺌﺔ ﻣﻜﻴﻔﺔ‪.‬ﺇﻟﻴﻚ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﳋﻄﻮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﺴﻴﻄﺔ ﻟﻠﺤﻔﺎﻅ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻋﻴﻨﻴﻚ‪.‫ﺍﳌﻼﺣﻖ‬ ‫ﻣﻠﺤﻖ ﺭﻗﻢ )‪ (١‬ﺍﻟﻨﺺ ﺍﳌﻘﺘﺮﺡ ﳌﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻻﺑﺘﺪﺍﺋﻲ‬ ‫ﻛﻴﻒ ﺗﻌﺘﲏ ﺑﻌﻴﻨﻚ؟؟‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﲔ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺭﻕ ﺃﺟﺰﺍﺀ ﺍﳉﺴﻢ‪ ،‬ﻟﺬﺍ ﳚﺐ ﺃﻥ ﻧﻮﺟﻪ ﳍﺎ ﻋﻨﺎﻳﺔ ﺧﺎﺻﺔ‪ .‬‬ ‫ﺧﺎﻣﺴﺎ‪ ،‬ﺍﻏﺴﻞ ﻋﻴﻨﻴﻚ ﺑﺎﳌﺎﺀ‪ :‬ﻓﻬﺬﺍ ﻳﺮﳛﻬﺎ ﻭﻳﺴﺎﻋﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﺯﺍﻟﺔ ﺍﻷﺗﺮﺑﺔ ﻭﺍﳌﻮﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻼﺻﻘﺔ ‪‬ﺎ‪.‬ﺇﻧﻨﺎ ﳒﻠﺲ ﺃﻣﺎﻡ ﺷﺎﺷﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﻤﺒﻴـﻮﺗﺮ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﺴﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﳑﺎ ﳚﻌﻠﻨﺎ ﻧﻌﺎﱐ ﻣﻌﺎﻧﺎﺓ ﺷﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺇﺟﻬﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﻌﲔ‪ .‬‬ ‫ﺃﻭﻻ‪ ،‬ﺍﻓﺘﺢ ﻋﻴﻨﻴﻚ ﻭﺃﻏﻤﻀﻬﻤﺎ ﺑﺴﺮﻋﺔ ﻭﰲ ﺗﺘﺎﺑﻊ‪ ،‬ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮﺓ ﺃﻣﺎﻡ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﻤﺒﻴﻮﺗﺮ ﲡﻌﻠﻨـﺎ ﻧﻨﺴـﻰ ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻧﻐﻤﺾ ﺃﻋﻴﻨﻨﺎ ﻭﻧﻔﺘﺤﻬﺎ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﳑﺎ ﻳﺴﺒﺐ ﺇﺟﻬﺎﺩﺍ ﻟﻠﻌﲔ‪.

‬ﻭﻗﺎﻟﺖ‪ :‬ﺇﻥ ﻧﺴﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﺄﺛﺮ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺀ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻨﺎﺕ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻐﲑ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﺧﻲ ﻭﻣﺎ ﻳﻨﺠﻢ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻣﻦ ﻛﻮﺍﺭﺙ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ ﺗﺰﻳﺪ ﲟﻘﺪﺍﺭ ‪ ١٤‬ﺿﻌﻔﺎ ﻋﻦ ﺗـﺄﺛﺮ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺮﺟﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﻓﻌﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﺍﰐ ﻗﺘﻠﻦ ﰲ ﺗﺴﻮﻧﺎﻣﻲ ‪٢٠٠٤‬ﻡ ﰲ ﺇﻧﺪﻭﻧﻴﺴﻴﺎ ﺑﻠﻎ ﺛﻼﺛﺔ ﺃﺿﻌﺎﻑ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﻷﻥ ﻋﺪﺩﺍ ﻗﻠﻴﻼ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺀ ﻳ‪‬ﺠﺪ‪‬ﻥ ﺍﻟﺴﺒﺎﺣﺔ ﻣﻘﺎﺭﻧﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺮﺟﺎﻝ‪ .‬ﻭﺃﺷﺎﺭﺕ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻧﺒﻌﺎﺛﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﺯﺕ ﺍﳌﺴﺒﺒﺔ ﻟﻼﺭﺗﻔﺎﻉ ﺍﳊﺮﺍﺭﻱ ﺯﺍﺩﺕ ﺑﻨﺴﺒﺔ ‪ %١٤.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺩﻟﻠﺖ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺑﻘﻮﳍﺎ‪ :‬ﰲ ﺷﻬﺮ ﺳﺒﺘﻤﱪ ﺍﳌﺎﺿﻲ ﺿﺮﺏ ﺇﻋﺼﺎﺭ ﺃﻭﻧـﺪﻱ ﻣﻨـﺎﻃﻖ‬ ‫ﺷﺎﺳﻌﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻓﻴﺘﻨﺎﻡ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﺮﺿﺖ ﺻﻮﺭ ﺗﻈﻬﺮ ﻗﺮﻯ ﻭﺃﺣﻴﺎﺀ ﺑﺄﻛﻤﻠﻬﺎ ﺗﻐﻄﻴﻬﺎ ﻣﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻀﺎﻧﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻟﻜﻨﻬﺎ ﺃﺷﺎﺭﺕ‬ ‫ﺇﱃ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﻓﺮﻭﻕ ﰲ ﺃﺛﺮ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻀﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﺮﺍﺀ ﻭﺍﻷﻏﻨﻴﺎﺀ ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﺎﻝ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺀ‪ .‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﻥ ﻣﺸﻜﻼﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺀ ﺗﺒﺪﺃ‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﳓﺴﺎﺭ ﻣﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻀﺎﻧﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﺇﺫ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺰﻭﳚﻬﻦ ﻛﺮﻫﺎ ﻷ‪‬ﻦ ﻓﻘﺪﻥ ﺫﻭﻳﻬﻦ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤـﺎ ﰎ ﺗﺴـﺠﻴﻞ ﺯﻳـﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﻣﻠﺤﻮﻇﺔ ﰲ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺣﻮﺍﺩﺙ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﻒ ﺿﺪﻫﻦ ﺑﻌﺪ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻜﻮﺍﺭﺙ‪ ،‬ﻭﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﺣﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻏﺘﺼﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﺍﰐ‬ ‫ﰎ ﳒﺎ‪‬ﻦ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺼﻴﺒﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻧﺘﻘﺪﺕ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﻨﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺎ ﳊﻞ ﺍﳌﺸﻜﻼﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﲨﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟـﺘﻐﲑ ﺍﳌﻨـﺎﺧﻲ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﱂ‪ .‬‬ ‫‪ ٢١٦‬ﻛﻠﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍ‪‬ﺘﻤﻊ ‪-‬ﳎﻠﺔ ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻤﲔ ﰲ ﺃﳓﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﱂ‪ -‬ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺩ ‪ ٢٤ – ١٩١٢‬ﻳﻮﻟﻴﻮ ‪٢٠١٠‬ﻡ‬ ‫‪١٠٧‬‬ .‫ﻣﻠﺤﻖ ﺭﻗﻢ )‪ (٢‬ﺍﻟﻨﺺ ﺍﳌﻘﺘﺮﺡ ﳌﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﳌﺘﻘﺪﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻐﻴﲑﺍﺕ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﺧﻴﺔ ﺃﺷﺪ ﺗﺄﺛﲑﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﺃﻛﺪﺕ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺣﺪﻳﺜﺔ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺣﲔ ﳛﺪﺙ ﻓﻴﻀﺎﻥ ﺃﻭ ﺇﻋﺼﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﻭﺣﲔ ﻳﻌﻢ ﺍﳉﻔﺎﻑ ﻭﻳﺰﺩﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺤﺮ‪ ،‬ﻓـﺈﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻀﺮﺭ ﻳﺼﻴﺐ ﲨﻴﻊ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﻃﻨﲔ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﻃﻖ ﺍﳌﻨﻜﻮﺑﺔ‪ :‬ﻟﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺀ ﻳﻌﺎﻧﲔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻐﻴﲑﺍﺕ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﺧﻴﺔ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﳑـﺎ‬ ‫ﻳﻌﺎﱐ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﺎﻝ‪.٥‬ﻣﻨﺬ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻗﻴﻊ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﺗﻔﺎﻗﻴﺔ »ﻛﻴﻮﺗﻮ« ﻟﻠﺤﺪ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻻﻧﺒﻌﺎﺛﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺍﻧﺘﻘﺪﺕ »ﲡﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﺑﻮﻥ« ﻷ‪‬ﺎ ﺗﻌـﲏ ﺯﻳـﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻧﺒﻌﺎﺛﺎﺕ ﳌﻦ ﳝﻠﻚ ﺍﻷﻣﻮﺍﻝ ﻭﻳﻘﺪﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺪﻓﻊ‪ ،‬ﺃﻱ »ﺇﺫﺍ ﺩﻓﻌﺖ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﳝﻜﻨﻚ ﺗﻠﻮﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ«‪.

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