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Susan Larsen

Thursday, September 08, 2011

Contents
Chapter 2: Vectors, One Forms, and the metric................................................................................................ 4
P.36: The signature of a metric. ................................................................................................................ 4
P. 46, Quiz 2-5: Spherical coordinates and vector transformation ........................................................... 4
Chapter 4: Tensor Calculus ................................................................................................................................ 5
P. 74, Example 4-4: Find the Christoffel symbols of the 2-sphere with radius  ...................................... 5

P. 75, Example 4-5, quiz 4-7: Find the Christoffel symbols of the Kahn-Penrose metric .......................... 5

P. 78, Example 4-7: Alternative solution: Show that    ............................................................ 6


P.80: One-forms: why    .................................................................................................................. 6

P. 83, Example 4-9: Find the geodesic equations for cylindrical coordinates ........................................... 6

P. 84, Example 4-10: Use the geodesic equations to find the Christoffel symbols for the Rindler metric.
................................................................................................................................................................... 7
New - P. 86: The Riemann tensor eq. (4.42), (4.43) and (4.44) ................................................................. 8
NEW - Chapter 4 - page 87: Independent elements in the Riemann, Ricci and Weyl tensor ................. 10
P.87, Example 4-11: Compute the components of the Riemann tensor for the unit 2-sphere .............. 11
P.89, Example 4-12: Show that the Ricci scalar
 for the unit 2-sphere ......................................... 11

P.91 Quiz 4-2, Quiz 4-3: Calculate the Christoffel symbols for the spherical metric............................... 12
P.91 Quiz 4-4: The Riemann tensor of the spherical metric.................................................................... 12
P.91 Quiz 4-6: A Lie derivative in the spherical metric ............................................................................ 13
P.92, Quiz 4-8: The Ricci scalar of the Penrose Kahn metric ................................................................... 14
P.92, Quiz 4-9: The Christoffel symbols of a metric example.................................................................. 14
P.92, Quiz 4-10: The Ricci scalar of a metric example ............................................................................. 15

Chapter 5: Cartans Structure Equations ......................................................................................................... 15


P. 106, Example 5-1: Ricci rotation coefficients for the Tolman-Bondi- de Sitter metric ....................... 15
P.113: The curvature two forms and the Riemann tensor ...................................................................... 18
P.113, Example 5-2: Find the Ricci scalar using Cartans structure equations of the 2-sphere .............. 19
P.116, Example 5-3: Find the components of the Riemann tensor of the Robertson-Walker metric using
Cartans structure equations ................................................................................................................... 19
P. 120, Quiz 5-1, and 5-2: Ricci rotation coefficients of the spherical polar metric ................................ 22

P. 120, Quiz 5-3: Transformation of the Ricci rotation coefficients  into the Christoffel symbols
 of the spherical polar metric ...................................................................................................... 23

P. 120, Quiz 5-4: Ricci rotation coefficients of the Rindler metric .......................................................... 23

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Lots of calculations: Relativity Demystified (David McMahon, McGraw-Hill, 2006)


Susan Larsen

Thursday, September 08, 2011

P. 121, Quiz 5-7: The Einstein tensor for the Tolman-Bondi- de Sitter metric ........................................ 24
Chapter 6: The Einstein Field Equations .......................................................................................................... 28
P.138: The vacuum Einstein equations.................................................................................................... 28
P.138: The vacuum Einstein equations with a cosmological constant .................................................... 28
P.139, example 6-2: Find the components of the curvature tensor for the metric in 2+1 dimensions
using Cartans structure equations.......................................................................................................... 29
P.139, Example 6-2: Find the components of the curvature tensor for the metric in 2+1 dimensions
using Cartans structure equations alternative solution ...................................................................... 31
P.147, Example 6-3: Find the components of the Einstein tensor in the coordinate basis for the metric
in 2+1 dimensions. ................................................................................................................................... 32
P.150, Example 6-4: The Einstein equations of the metric in 2+1 dimensions. ...................................... 34
P. 152, Quiz 6-1: Using the contracted Bianchi identities, prove that:    .............................. 35

P.153-54, Quiz 6-5, Quiz 6-6, Quiz 6-7 and Quiz 6-8: Ricci rotation coefficients, Ricci scalar and Einstein
equations for a general 4-dimensional metric. ....................................................................................... 35
Chapter 7: The Energy-Momentum Tensor..................................................................................................... 40
P.160: Perfect Fluids Alternative derivation ......................................................................................... 40

P.161, Example 7-2: The Einstein tensor and Friedmann-equations for the Robertson Walker metric . 41
P.161, Example 7-2: The Einstein tensor for the Robertson Walker metric Alternative version. ........ 43
P. 165, Quiz 7-3: Manipulating the Friedmann equations. ..................................................................... 44
Chapter 8: Killing Vectors ................................................................................................................................ 44
P.168, Example 8-1: Show that if the Lie derivative of the metric tensor with respect to vector X
vanishes (  ), the vector X satisfies the Killing equation. - Alternative version .................... 44

P.177, equation (8.7): Prove that  


 ........................................................................... 45

P.178: Constructing a Conserved Current with Killing Vectors Alternative version: ............................ 45
P.179, Quiz 8-3: Given a Killing vector  the Ricci scalar satisfies
 :...................................... 45

Chapter 9: Null Tetrads and the Petrov Classification..................................................................................... 45


P.186, Example 9-3, and 9-4: Construct a null tetrad for the flat space Minkowski metric ................... 45
P.195, Example 9-5: The Brinkmann metric ............................................................................................ 47
Chapter 10: The Schwarzschild Solution ......................................................................................................... 57
P.204: The Riemann and Ricci tensor of the general Schwarzschild metric............................................ 57
P.215: The Riemann tensor of the Schwarzschild metric ........................................................................ 60

P.216: Calculation of the scalar



 in the Schwarzschild metric......................................... 60
P.216: Geodesics in the Schwarzschild Spacetime .................................................................................. 61

P.218: The meaning of the integration constant: The choice of  ...................................................... 62

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P.229: Time Delay .................................................................................................................................... 63


P. 230, Quiz 10-1: Use the geodesic equations to find the Christoffel symbols for the general
Schwarzschild metric. .............................................................................................................................. 64
P.231, Quiz 10-2: The Ricci tensor for the general time dependent Schwarzschild metric. ................... 66
P.231-32, Quiz 10-3, and 10-4: The Ricci rotation coefficients and Ricci tensor for the Schwarzschild
metric with nonzero cosmological constant. .......................................................................................... 70
P.232, Quiz 10-5: The Petrov type of the Schwarzschild spacetime ....................................................... 72
Chapter 11: Black Holes ................................................................................................................................... 77
NEW - P.238: The Path of a Radially Infalling Particle ............................................................................. 77
P. 242: The Schwarzschild metric in Kruskal Coordinates. ...................................................................... 79
P.246: The inverse metric of the Kerr Spinning Black Hole ..................................................................... 81
Chapter 12: Cosmology ................................................................................................................................... 83
P. 262: Spaces of Positive, Negative, and Zero Curvature ....................................................................... 83
P.277, Quiz 12-1: The general Schwarzschild metric in vacuum with a cosmological constant: The Ricci
scalar ........................................................................................................................................................ 84
P.277, Quiz 12-2, Quiz 12-3: The general Schwarzschild metric in vacuum with a cosmological constant:
Integration constants .............................................................................................................................. 85
P.277, Quiz 12-4: The general Schwarzschild metric in vacuum with a cosmological constant: The
spatial part of the line element. .............................................................................................................. 86
P.278, Quiz 12-6: Parameters in an flat universe with positive cosmological constant: Starting with
     use a change of variables    .................................................................. 86

Chapter 13: Gravitational Waves .................................................................................................................... 87

P.286: Gauge transformation - The Einstein Gauge ................................................................................ 87


P.288 l.13: The Riemann tensor of a plane wave .................................................................................... 89
Page 290 l.12: The line element of a plane wave in the Einstein gauge ................................................. 93
P. 291: The line element of a plane wave ............................................................................................... 94
P.298: The Rosen line element ................................................................................................................ 94
P.304: Colliding gravity waves - coordinate transformation ................................................................... 98

P.304: The delta  and heavy-side  functions: prove that    ................................... 99

P.305: Example 13-1: Impulsive gravitational wave Region III .............................................................. 100
P.313: Example 13-2: Two interacting waves ........................................................................................ 105
P.318, Example 13-3: The Nariai spacetime .......................................................................................... 110
New - P.322: Quiz 13-1: Collision of a gravitational wave with an electromagnetic wave The non-zero
spin coefficients ..................................................................................................................................... 122

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Thursday, September 08, 2011

New - P.322,Quiz 13-2: The Aichelburg-Sexl Solution The passing of a black hole ............................ 128
Final Exam...................................................................................................................................................... 128
P.323 FE-1: ...................................................................................................................................... 128

P.324 FE-4:   ........................................................................................................................... 129

P.324 FE-6:  and  in a diagonal metric ................................................................................ 129


P.324 FE-7: Calculate the Christoffel symbols for a metric example .................................................... 129
P.325 FE-8: Calculate the Riemann tensor of metric example .............................................................. 130
New - P.325 FE-8: Calculate the Riemann tensor of metric example Alternative version ................. 130
New - P.325 FE-9: Calculate the Christoffel symbols for a metric example .......................................... 131
New - P.325 FE-10: Calculate the Ricci rotation coefficients for a metric example .............................. 132
NEW - P.325, FE-12: The non-zero Weyl scalars of the Reissner-Nordstrm spacetime ...................... 133
Bibliografi....................................................................................................................................................... 141

Chapter 2: Vectors, One Forms, and the metric


P.36: The signature of a metric.
Here we are going to investigate what happens to various quantities when a metric, !" ,changes signature.
1 !' ) '" ) '$ ) "$
No change
! "$ 
Christoffel symbols
( $ 
+
,
2
)*
)* "
)* '
No change
- !"$'  )$ !"' + )' !"$  ."' !.$ + ."$ !.'
Riemann tensor
$
No change
Ricci tensor
-!"  - !$"
Changes sign
Ricci scalar
-  !" -!"
1
No change
Einstein tensor
/!"  -!" +
2 !"
No change
Energy tensor
81/2!"  /!"
1
Changes sign
/!"  -!" +
Cosmological constant
-  !"
2 !"
P. 46, Quiz 2-5: Spherical coordinates and vector transformation
45 6  47 6  7 6 48 6  7 6 sin6 8 4< 6
The line element
1
The metric tensor:

=
>
76
!"
6
6
7 sin 8

?!
?E

Given



!
!" ?
E
EE ?

?!

 (7,

 1 7

1
1
,
, calculate ?! .
rsin 8 cos6 8
7

(2.17)

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Lots of calculations: Relativity Demystified (David McMahon, McGraw-Hill, 2006)


Susan Larsen
?F

?G

FF ?

1
 7 6  (
,
rsin 8

Thursday, September 08, 2011

7
sin 8

1
 7 6 sin6 8 ( 6 ,  7 6 tan6 8
cos 8
Which means the answer to the quiz 2-5 is (c)

GG ?

Chapter 4: Tensor Calculus

P. 74, Example 4-4: Find the Christoffel symbols of the 2-sphere with radius 
The line element:
45 6  J6 48 6  J6 sin6 8 4< 6

The metric tensor and its inverse:

We have:

FGG

GFG  GGF

!"$

!"$

1
 )$ !"  )"
2
 !' '"$

!"

!$

 KJ

+ )!

J6 sin6 8

"$ 

!"

1
6
 MJ

1
6
J sin6 8

(4.15)
(4.16)

1
FGG 
 + )F J6 sin6 8  +J6 sin 8 cos 8 O
2
1
G
G
 )F J6 sin6 8  J6 sin 8 cos 8 O FG  GF 
2

FF

FGG  + sin 8 cos 8

GG

GFG  cot 8

P. 75, Example 4-5, quiz 4-7: Find the Christoffel symbols of the Kahn-Penrose metric
The line element:
45 6  24P4Q + 1 + P6 4* 6 + 1  P6 4R 6
1
1
The metric tensor:
N
!"  M
+1 + P6
+1  P6
1
V1
Y
T
T
+1
!"

and its inverse:
1 + P6
U
X
+1 T
T
S
1  P6 W
1
 )$ !"  )" !$ + )! "$ 
2
1
Z[[
 + )Z +1 + P6   +1 + P
2
1
 1 + P
[Z[  [[Z  )Z +1 + P6 
2
1
Z]]
 + )Z +1  P6   1  P
2
1
]Z]  ]]Z  )Z +1  P6 
 +1  P
2
Which means the answer to quiz 4-7 is (b)
!"$

(4.15)

!"$

\Z

Z[[

\]]

\Z

Z]]

 [[Z

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'"$

[Z[
]
Z]

!'

\[[

O
O

]
]Z




[[
]]

[Z[

]Z]

(4.16)

 +1 + P
+1
1+P
 1  P




1
1P

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Susan Larsen

Thursday, September 08, 2011

P. 78, Example 4-7: Alternative solution: Show that    


p.69: ^$ !"  )$ !" + '" '!$ + !' '$"
If '"  "' :
 )$ !" + "' ' !$ + !' '$"
 )$ !" + "!$ + !$"
since !$"  !"$ 4.14:
 )$ !" + "!$  !"$ 
and "!$  !"$  )$ !" p. 73:
 )$ !" + )$ !"
0
Q.E.D.
P.80: One-forms: why   
For general forms, let d be a e-form and f be a g-form, we have
d h f  +1ij f h d
For one-forms this means
d h f  +f h d
O
d h d  +d h d  0

This also holds for 4k  l[ n 4* ! because 4k is a one-form as well.


lm

P. 83, Example 4-9: Find the geodesic equations for cylindrical coordinates
The line element:
45 6  47 6  7 6 4< 6  4o 6

!"$
GEG

The metric tensor and its inverse:


1
 )$
2
EGG

 GGE

!"

 )"

!$

+ )!

* !  <:
O
O

(4.15) !"$

1
 + )E 7 6   +7 O
2
1
G
7
O EG
 )E 7 6 
2

The geodesics equation:

* !  7:

"$ 

!"

=


!'

EGG

G
GE

46 * !
4* " 4* $
!
 "$
45 6
45 45

46 7
4* " 4* $
E
 "$
45 6
45 45
46 7
4< 6
+7( ,
45 6
45
6
"
4 <
4*
4* $
G


"$
45 6
45 45
6
4 <
47 4<
4< 47
G
G
 EG
 GE
6
45
45 45
45 45
46 < 2 47 4<

45 6 7 45 45

76

'"$



>

!"

M

1
76

(4.16)
EE

EGG

GG

GEG

 0 (4.33)

 +7


1
7

0
0
0
0
0

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* !  o:
O

46 o
4* " 4* $
p
0
 "$
45 6
45 45
46 o
0
45 6

The Christoffel symbols from the geodesic equations

We have

Now we need

* !  7:

* !  <:

0
0

1
1 6 1 6
1 6
! "
r 6
!" *r *r  7r   7 s< t  or 
2
2
2
2
4 )q
)q

(
,
45 )*r !
)* !
4 )q
)q

( ,
45 )7r
)7
4
7<r 6 
7r   7v
45
0
 7v + 7<r 6
)q
4 )q

x y
)<
45 )<r
4 6
0

s7 <rt  277r <r  7 6 <v
45
1
1
0
 <v  7r <r  <r7r
7
7
4 )q
)q

( ,
45 )or
)o
4
0 
or   ov
45
q

w
w

* !  o:

Thursday, September 08, 2011

(4.35)
(4.36)

Collecting the results


 7v + 7<r 6
1
1
 <v  7r <r  <r7r
7
7
 ov
We can now find the Christoffel symbols from the geodesic equation :
E GG  +7
1
1
G
G
EG 
GE 
7
7

P. 84, Example 4-10: Use the geodesic equations to find the Christoffel symbols for the Rindler
metric.
The line element:
45 6  z 6 4{ 6 + 4z 6
z6
The metric tensor:
L
!"  K
+1

We have

1
2

!" *r

1
1
*r  z 6 {r 6 + zr 6
2
2

! "

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(4.35)

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Susan Larsen

Thursday, September 08, 2011


)q
)* !
)q
* !  z:
)z

Now we need

*  {:
!

w
0
0

z{r 6
0
)q
){
0
0

4 )q
(
,
45 )*r !
4 )q

x y
45 )zr
4

s+zr t  +zv
45
 zv  z{r 6
4 )q

( ,
45 ){r
4 6
z {r   2zzr {r  z 6 {v

45
1
1
 {v  zr {r  {r zr
z
z


(4.36)

Collecting the results


 zv  z{r 6
 2zzr {r  z 6 {v

We can now find the Christoffel symbols from the geodesic equation:
}
||  z
1
1
|}| 
||} 
z
z

New - P. 86: The Riemann tensor eq. (4.42), (4.43) and (4.44)
Prove (4.42)
First we need
^$ !"  )$ !" + '!$ '" + '$" !'  )$ !" + "!$ + !"$  0
-!"$'

 !. - ."$'
 !. s)$ ."' + )' ."$  m "' . m$ + m "$ . m' t
 !. )$ ."' + !. )' ."$  !. m "' . m$ + !. m "$ . m'
 )$  !. ."'  + )$ !.  ."' + )'  !. ."$   )' !.  ."$  m "' !. . m$
+ m "$ !. . m'
 )$ !"' + .!$  !.$  ."' + )' !"$  .!'  !.'  ."$  m "' !m$
+ m "$ !m'
 )$ !"' + )' !"$ + .!$  !.$  ."'  .!'  !.'  ."$  . "' !.$
+ ~ "$ !.'
 )$ !"' + )' !"$ + .!$ ."'  .!' ."$

(4.18)

(4.41)

(4.42)

Prove (4.43)
(4.42)
-!"$'  )$ !"' + )' !"$ + .!$ ."'  .!' ."$
1
) !" ) !' ) "'
1
) !" ) !$ ) "$
 )$ ( ' 
+
, + )' ( $ 
+
, + .!$ ."'  .!' ."$
2
)*
)* "
)* !
2
)*
)* "
)* !
1 ) !"
) !'
) "'
1 ) !"
) !$
) "$
 ( $ '  $ " + $ ! , + ( ' $  ' " + ' ! , + .!$ ."'  .!' ."$
2 )* )*
)* )*
)* )*
2 )* )*
)* )*
)* )*
1 ) !'
) "$
) !$
) "'
(4.43)
 ( $ "  ' ! + ' " + $ ! , + .!$ ."'  .!' ."$
)* )*
)* )*
)* )*
2 )* )*
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Thursday, September 08, 2011

Prove (4.44):-!"$'  -$'!"  +-!"'$  +-"!$' and -!"$'  -!$'"  -!'"$  0


1 )
)
)
)
(4.43)
-!"$'  ( $ !' "  ' "$ ! + ' !$ " + $ "' ! , + .!$ ."'  .!' ."$
)* )*
)* )*
)* )*
2 )* )*
1 )
)
)
)
-$'!"  ( ! $" '  " '! $ + " $! ' + ! '" $ , + .$! .'"  .$" .'!
2 )* )*
)* )*
)* )*
)* )*
1 ) $"
) '!
) $!
) '"
m
 ( ! '  " $ + " ' + ! $ , + .$! .'"  .m $" .m m'!
2 )* )*
)* )*
)* )*
)* )*
1 ) $"
) '!
) $!
) '"
m
 ( ! '  " $ + " ' + ! $ , + .$! .'"  s .m .m t $" m'!
)* )*
)* )*
)* )*
2 )* )*
1 ) $"
) '!
) $!
) '"
m
 1 ( ! '  " $ + " ' + ! $ , + .$! .'"  $" m'!
2 )* )*
)* )*
)* )*
)* )*
1 ) $"
) '!
) $!
) '"
 ( ! '  " $ + " ' + ! $ , + .$! .'"  . $" .'!  -!"$'
2 )* )*
)* )*
)* )*
)* )*
1 ) !$
) "'
) !'
)
-!"'$  ( ' "  $ ! + $ " + ' "$ ! , + .!' ."$  .!$ ."'  +-!"$'
2 )* )*
)* )*
)* )*
)* )*
1 ) "'
) !$
) "$
)
-"!$'  ( $ !  ' " + ' ! + $ !' " , + ."$ .!'  ."' .!$
)* )*
)* )*
)* )*
2 )* )*
1 ) "'
) !$
) "$
) !'
m
m
 ( $ !  ' " + ' ! + $ " , + .m "$ .m m!'  .m "' .m m!$
2 )* )*
)* )*
)* )*
)* )*
1 ) "'
) !$
) "$
) !'
m
m
 ( $ !  ' " + ' ! + $ " , + .m .m "$ m!'  .m .m "' m!$
2 )* )*
)* )*
)* )*
)* )*
1 ) "'
) !$
) "$
) !'
m
m
 ( $ !  ' " + ' ! + $ " , + "$ m!'  "' m!$
2 )* )*
)* )*
)* )*
)* )*
1 ) "'
) !$
) "$
) !'
 ( $ !  ' " + ' ! + $ " , + . "$ .!'  . "' .!$  +-!"$'
2 )* )*
)* )*
)* )*
)* )*
1 ) !"
) $'
) !'
)
-!$'"  ( ' $  " ! + " $ + ' $" ! , + .!' .$"  .!" .$'
2 )* )*
)* )*
)* )*
)* )*
1 ) !$
) '"
) !"
)
-!'"$  ( " '  $ ! + $ ' + " '$ ! , + .!" .'$  .!$ .'"
2 )* )*
)* )*
)* )*
)* )*
1 ) !"
) $'
) !'
) $"
-!$'"
 ( ' $  " ! + " $ + ' ! , + .!' .$"  .!" .$'
 -!'"$
2 )* )*
)* )*
)* )*
)* )*
1 ) !$
) '"
) !"
) '$
 ( " '  $ ! + $ ' + " ! , + .!" .'$  .!$ .'"
2 )* )*
)* )*
)* )*
)* )*
1 ) !$
) '"
) !'
) $"
 ( " '  $ ! + " $ + ' ! , + .!' .$"  .!$ .'"  +-!"$'
2 )* )*
)* )*
)* )*
)* )*
Also notice
- !!!!  )$ !"' + )' !"$ + .!$ ."'  .!' ."$
 )! !!! + )! !!! + .!! .!!  .!! .!!
0
"
- !!!  )! "!! + )! "!! + ."! .!!  ."! .!!
0
1 )
)
)
)
- !!"!  ( $ !' "  ' "$ ! + ' !$ " + $ "' ! , + .!$ ."'  .!' ."$
2 )* )*
)* )*
)* )*
)* )*
1 ) !!
) !"
) !"
) !!
 ( " !  ! ! + ! ! + " ! , + .!" .!!  .!! .!"
2 )* )*
)* )*
)* )*
)* )*
m
 + m. m !" m. m!!  m!! !"
1

!"

"$

 !$ if the metric is symmetric

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- !!""
- !!"$
- !"$$

Thursday, September 08, 2011

 + m. m. m !" m!!  m!! !"


0
1 ) !"
) !"
) !"
) !"
 ( " !  " ! + " ! + " ! , + .!" .!"  .!" .!"
)* )*
)* )*
)* )*
2 )* )*
0
1 ) !$
) !"
) !"
) !$
 ( " !  $ ! + $ ! + " ! , + .!" .!$  .!$ .!"
)* )*
)* )*
)* )*
2 )* )*
0
1 ) !$
) "$
) !$
) "$
 ( $ "  $ ! + $ " + $ ! , + .!$ ."$  .!$ ."$
2 )* )*
)* )*
)* )*
)* )*
0
m

NEW - Chapter 4 - page 87: Independent elements in the Riemann, Ricci and Weyl tensor
In dimensions, there are .!  6 6 + 1/12 independent elements in the Riemann tensor. In
the Ricci tensor there are $$    1/2 independent elements, and in the Weyl tensor there are
.]  10 independent elements if  4, if 4 there are none. Summarized:
  1
6 6 + 1
.]
$$ 
.! 
2
12
1
3
0
2
-66
-
-6
-66
6
6
0
3
-66
-
-6
-66
-66
-6
-
-
-6
-6
-66
-
20
10
10
4
2
-  -$

!"$'

-66
-6
-6
-66
-66
-6
-
-
-6
-6
-
-
-6 3
-6
-
-66
-66

!"

-
-66
-6
-6
-
-
-
-6
-
-

!$"

!"$'

66
66
6
6
6

6 4
6

6
6

The Weyl tensor possesses the same symmetries as the Riemann tensor: !"$'  +!"'$  +"!$'  $'!" and
!"$'  !'"$  !$'"  0. It possesses an additional symmetry: $ !$"  0. It follows that the Weyl tensor is tracefree, in other words, it vanishes for any pair of contracted indices. One can think of the Weyl tensor as that part of the
curvature tensor for which all contractions vanish (d'Inverno, 1992, p. 88)
2

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Thursday, September 08, 2011


-6
-66
-6
-

P.87, Example 4-11: Compute the components of the Riemann tensor for the unit 2-sphere
The number of independent elements in the Riemann tensor in a metric of dimension  2 is


s t
6

 1 so we can choose to calculate - FGFG

- !"$'  )$ !"' + )' !"$  ."' !.$ + ."$ !.'


The Riemann tensor
We choose J   8, and  4  <

- FGFG

(4.41)

 )F FGG + )G FGF  .GG F.F + .GF F.G


 )F FGG  .GG F.F + .GF F.G

Sum over :  )F FGG  FGG FFF + FGF FFG  G FGF + G FGG


GG
GF
 )F FGG + GF FGG
 )F + sin 8 cos 8 + cot 8 + sin 8 cos 8
 + cos6 8  sin6 8  cos 6 8
 sin6 8
G

P.89, Example 4-12: Show that the Ricci scalar


 for the unit 2-sphere
The line element:
45 6  48 6  sin6 8 4< 6

The metric tensor and its inverse:

The Ricci scalar:

Sum over a: Sum over b:

Sum over c

3
4










!"

!"

-!"

-F"  G" -G"


FF
-FF  FG -FG 
FF
-FF  GG -GG
FF $
- F$F  GG - $G$G
F"

 1

=

1 >
sin6 8

(4.47)

GF

-GF 

GG

G
- FFFF  FF - FGF  GG - FGFG
FF G
- FGF  GG - FGFG
FF GG
-GFGF  GG FF -FGFG
FF GG
2
-FGFG
FF

sin6 8

!"

-GG

GG G
- GGG

FG

GF

0

G
- GGG

0

-!"  - $ !$"

(4.46)

-GFGF  -FGFG

(4.44)

- FFFF

Because: -!"$'  -!$'"  -!'"$  0


Because: !"$'  !$'"  !'"$  0

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2

GG F
- GFG

1
 2 6 sin6 8
sin 8
2

Remark that

2

2

- FGFG  sin6 8

GG F
- GFG
66
- 66

ex 4-11

is a general solution for a 2-dimensional diagonal metric if


we write:
(S1)

P.91 Quiz 4-2, Quiz 4-3: Calculate the Christoffel symbols for the spherical metric
The line element:
45 6  47 6  7 6 48 6  7 6 sin6 8 4< 6
1
V
1
1
T
!" 
6

=
The metric tensor and its inverse:
>
7
76
!"
U
6
6
7 sin 8
T
S
!"$

1
 )$
2

!"

 )"

!$

+ )!

"$ 

(4.15)

!"$

1
 +7
 + )E 7 6 
2
1
FEF  FFE  )E 7 6 
7
2
1
EGG
 + )E 7 6 sin6 8  +7 sin6 8
2
1
GEG  GGE  )E 7 6 sin6 8
 7 sin6 8
2
1
FGG  + )F 7 6 sin6 8  +7 6 sin 8 cos 8
2
1
GFG  GGF  )F 7 6 sin6 8
 7 6 sin 8 cos 8
2
So the answer to quiz 4-2 is (a) +7 6 sin 8 cos 8
And the answer to quiz 4-3 is (c) cot 8
EFF

!'

'"$

EFF

EE

EFF

 +7

EGG

EE

EGG

 +7 sin6 8

 FFE

G
EG

G
GE

G
FG

G
GF

X
1
T
7 6 sin6 8 W

(4.16)

O FEF
O

Y
T

FGG






FF

FEF

1
7

1
7
 + sin 8 cos 8

GG

GEG 

GG

GFG  cot 8

FF

FGG

P.91 Quiz 4-4: The Riemann tensor of the spherical metric


The number of independent elements in the Riemann tensor in a metric of dimension  3 is


s t
6

 6 and we have to calculate: - EFEF ; - EGEG ; - FGFG ; - EFEG ; - FEFG ; -

The Riemann tensor

J,  7, , 4  8:
 7, 8, <:

J,  7, , 4  <:

- EFEF

- EGEG

- !"$'

 )$ !"' + )' !"$  ."' !.$ + ."$ !.'

G
EGF

(4.41)

 )E E FF + )F EFE  .FF E.E + .FE E.F


1
 )E E FF + FFE EFF  +1 + ( , +7  0
7
 )E E GG + )G EGE  .GG E.E + .GE E.G

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Thursday, September 08, 2011

 7, 8, <:

- FGFG

J,  8, , 4  <:
 7, 8, <:

1
G
E
6
6
GE GG  + sin 8 + (7 , +7 sin 8
)G FGF  .GG F.F + .GF F.G
G
EGG FEF + GF FGG

 )E E GG +
 )F F GG +
 )F F GG 

0

1
 + cos6 8  sin6 8  +7 sin6 8 ( , + cot 8+ sin 8 cos 8  0
7
J,  7,  8, 4  <: - EFEG  )E EFG + )G EFE  .FG E.E + .FE E.G
 7, 8, <:
0
F
J,  8,  7, 4  <: - EFG  )F FEG + )G FEF  .EG F.F + .EF F.G
 7, 8, <:
0
G
G
G
G
G
J,  <,  7, 4  8: - EGF  )G EF + )F EG  .EF .G + .EG .F
1
1
 7, 8, <:
 ( , cot 8 + ( , cot 8  0
7
7
-EFFG  +-FEFG  + FF -FEFG  0
We see that all the elements of the Riemann tensor equals 0, and the answer to quiz 4-4 is (d)
P.91 Quiz 4-6: A Lie derivative in the spherical metric
Let
!  7, sin 8 , sin 8 cos <
Calculate the Lie derivative
P  \  Q " ^" + " ^" Q
)!
!
The covariant derivative:
^"  "  ! "$ $
)*
P

J  7:

 7, 8, <:
J  8:

 7, 8, <:

PE

PF

 7, 8, <:

J  <:

 7, 8, <:

PG

and
Q !  7, 7 6 cos 8 , sin <
(4.27)
(4.6)

) !
)Q !
!
$
"


y
x "  ! "$ Q $ y
"$
)* "
)*
!
!
)
)Q
 Q " "  Q " ! "$ $ + " " + " ! "$ Q $
)*
)*
) !
)Q !
"
"
" !
Q
+
 Q "$ $ + " ! "$ Q $
)* "E
)*E"
)
)Q
 Q " " + " "  Q " E "$ $ + " E "$ Q $
)*
)*
 Q F E FF F + F E FF Q F  Q G E GG G + G E GG Q G  0
) F
)Q F
 Q " " + " "  Q " F "$ $ + " F"$ Q $
)*
)*
F
F
)
)Q
)Q F
 QF
+ E
+ F
 Q E FE$ $ + E F E$ Q $  Q F FF$ $
)8
)7
)8
+ F FF$ Q $  Q G F G$ $ + G F G$ Q $
) F
)Q F
)Q F
 QF
+ E
+ F
 Q E FEF F + E F EF Q F  Q F FFE E
)8
)7
)8
+ F FFE Q E  Q G FGG G + G FG Q G
) F
)Q F
)Q F
F
E
F
Q
+
+
)8
)7
)8
6
 7 cos 8cos 8 + 727 cos 8 + sin 8+7 6 sin 8  7 6 1 + 2 cos 8
) G
)Q G
G
G
"
 Q"
+

 Q " "$ $ + " "$ Q $


"
"
)*
)*
) G
) G
)Q G
G
G
G
F
G
G
Q

Q
+

 Q E E$ $ + E E$ Q $  Q F F$ $
)* G
)* G
)* F
G
G
G
+ F F$ Q $  Q G G$ $ + G G$ Q $
 Q " ^" ! + " ^" Q !  Q " x

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) G
) G
)Q G
G
G
G
G
G

Q
+

 Q E EG G + E EG Q G  Q F FG G
G
G
F
)*
)*
)*
G
G
G
G
G
+ F FG Q G  Q G GE E + G GE Q E  Q G GF F + G GF Q F
) G
) G
)Q G
G
G
 QF

Q
+

)* G
)* G
)* F
6
 7 cos 8cos 8 cos <  sin < + sin 8 sin < + sin 8 cos < cos <
 7 6 cos6 8 cos < + sin 8
So we can conclude:
0
PE
7 6 1 + 2 cos 8

P  PF 
6
6
G
7 cos 8 cos < + sin 8
P
And the answer to quiz 4-6 is (a)

 7, 8, <:

Thursday, September 08, 2011


 QF

P.92, Quiz 4-8: The Ricci scalar of the Penrose Kahn metric
(4.47)
The Ricci scalar:
-  !" -!"
$
(4.46)
The Ricci tensor
-!"  - !$"

Sum over J  P, Q, *, R:
Sum over  P, Q, *, R:
Sum over  P, Q, *, R:
Z\

\Z

-Z"  \" -\"  [" -["  ]" -]"


-Z\  \Z -\Z  [[ -[[  ]] -]]
Z\ $
- Z$\  \Z -$ \$Z  [[ -$ [$[  ]] - $ ]$]
Z"
Z\

- [Z[\ 
[[ ]
- [][ 
Z\

[[

]]

- Z]\ 
]] Z
- ]Z] 
Z\

-[Z[\ 
Z\
-\[Z[ 
\Z
-Z]\] 

Z\ [[

4

Z\ [[

- [\[Z 
]] \
- ]\] 

\Z

-]Z]\ 
\Z
-Z[\[ 
[[
-[][]

Z\ ]]

[[

]]

-[Z[\  4

Z\ ]]

- \]Z 
]] [
- ][]

\Z

[[

-]Z]\  2

-Z[Z[ 

-[\[Z 
]]
-][][ 

\Z [[

[[ ]]

-][][

-\ [\[

-]\]Z
-\]Z]

\Z ]]

]] Z\

[[

U
X
S
W
6
6
- 6  2 -
(S2)
We write
-  4 - 6  4
]
]
Now we need to calculate the three elements in the Riemann tensor: - [Z[\ ; - Z]\ ; - [][
- [Z[\  )[ [Z\ + )\ [Z[  .Z\ [.[ + .Z[ [.\  0
]
]
]
]
]
- Z]\  )] Z\ + )\ Z]  .Z\ .] + .Z] .\  0
]
]
]
]
]
- [][  )] [[ + )[ []  .[[ .] + .[] .[  0
So we can conclude
-0
Which means the answer to quiz 4-8 is (b)

P.92, Quiz 4-9: The Christoffel symbols of a metric example


The line element:
45 6  R 6 sin * 4* 6  * 6 tan R 4R 6

[[

 4 Z\ - [Z[\  4 Z\ - Z]\  2 [[ - [][


Remark we can rewrite this into to a general expression for a non-diagonal metric of the type:
!"








-!"$'  -$'!"
 +-"!$'  +-!"'$ :





The metric tensor and its inverse:

!"

R sin *
K
6

http://physicssusan.mono.net/9035/General%20Relativity

* 6 tan R

!"

V
U
S

1
R 6 sin *

Y
X

* 6 tan RW
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Susan Larsen

!"$

[][

][]

][[

 [[]

[[[

[]]

 ]][

Thursday, September 08, 2011


1
(4.15)
!"$
 )$ !"  )" !$ + )! "$ 
2
1
]
[[
 s+)] [[ t  +R sin * O
2
1
O [][  [[]
 R sin *
2
1
O
[[[
 R 6 cos *
2
[]]
 +* tan R
O
 * tan R

1
O
 * 6 1  tan6 R
2
Which means that the answer to quiz 4-9 is (c)
]]]

]
[]

]
][

]
]]

!'

]]

[[

'"$

][[

[[

[][

[[

[]]

]]

]]]

]]

[[[

][]

+

1
R
1
 cot *
2
* tan R
+ 6
R sin *
1

*
1  tan6 R

2 tan R


P.92, Quiz 4-10: The Ricci scalar of a metric example


From example 4-12 we know that for a 2-dimensional diagonal metric: -  2
means we only have to calculate - [][]
- [][]
 *, R:

R sin *
* 6 tan R

(4.16)

66
- 66

which

 )[ []] + )] [][  .]] [.[ + .][ [.]


]
]
 )[ []] + )] [][  []] [[[ + [][ [[]  ]] [][ + ][ []]
 )[ (+

* tan R
1
* tan R 1
1 6
1  tan6 R 1
1
* tan R
,
+
)
(
,

(+
,
(
cot
*,
+
(
,

x
y ( , + ( , (+ 6
,
]
6
6
R sin *
R
R sin * 2
R
2 tan R
R
*
R sin *

tan R 1
* cos *
1 6
1 * tan R cos *
1 6
1  tan6 R
tan R
(
+
,

(
,
+
(
,
+
(
,

,
x
y( 6
6
6
6
6
R
sin * sin *
R
2R
sin *
R
2R tan R
R sin *
*tan R cos *
1 * tan R cos *
1  tan6 R
( 6 6 ,+( 6
,

x
y
R sin *
2R
sin6 *
2R tan R
* cos * tan6 R  R sin6 *  R sin6 * tan6 R
x
y
2R 6 sin6 * tan R
1
* cos * tan6 R  R sin6 *  R sin6 * tan6 R
O
 2 ]] - [][]  2 ( 6
,x
y
* tan R
2R 6 sin6 * tan R
* cos * tan6 R  R sin6 *  R sin6 * tan6 R
x
y
* 6 R 6 sin6 * tan6 R
And the answer to quiz 4-10 is (b)
+

Chapter 5: Cartans Structure Equations


P. 106, Example 5-1: Ricci rotation coefficients for the Tolman-Bondi- de Sitter metric
The line element:
45 6  4 6 + 6,E 47 6 + - 6 , 748 6 + - 6 , 7 sin6 8 4< 6

The Basis one forms

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Thursday, September 08, 2011

 4
 ,E 47

 -, 748

 -, 7 sin 8 4<

4!
4
4E

4F

4 G

47

48

4<

 ,E E
1


F
-, 7
1


G
-, 7 sin 8

M

+1

+1

+1

Cartans First Structure equation and the calculation of the Ricci rotation coefficients !"$ :

 + ! " h "

(5.9) !
"

 !"$ $

(5.10)

0
 4s ,E 47t  +r ,E 4 h 47  +r h E
-r
-

 4-, 748  -r 4 h 48  - 47 h 48  h F  ,E E h F


 4-, 7 sin 8 4<  -r sin 8 4 h 4<  - sin 8 47 h 4<  -, 7 cos 8 48 h 4<
-r
-
cot 8 F

 h G  ,E E h G 
h G
-

Summarizing the curvature one forms in a matrix:


-r F
-r G
V 0
Y
+rE

T
T
T
- ,E F - ,E G T
E
T+r
0

T
! " 
-
cot 8 G X
U -r F

+ ,E F
0

TT
T r
T

cot
8
T
T

G
,E G
G

0
SW
Where J refers to column and to row.

E E

Now we can read off the Ricci rotation coefficients


-r

E E  +r
 +r
F F 
- ,E
-
-r

E
F
FF  +
E F  ,E

cot 8
- ,E

-r
E
F
GG  +
GG  +

Which means the answer to quiz 5-6 is (b)

E G

-r
-
 ,E
cot 8



Transformation of the Ricci rotation coefficients !"$ into the Christoffel symbols !

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Susan Larsen

E E

Thursday, September 08, 2011

We have the transformation !

 E' '. m .

m
E
m

'

.
  ' . m E E

 EE

  !' '. m . "

 +r 1

m
$

(5.14)

 1s+rts
t
r

m
F F   F' '. m . F  FF
 1
-r
6
m

'
.

FF    ' . m F F    FF F  1 - 6
- ,E ,E

m
F '
F
F

.
E
EF    ' . m E F  E F E


6
-

E FF   E' '. m .F mF   EE EFF FF  ,E x+ ,E y - 6


r

G
G
G   G' '. m . mG  G
 1
-r
6

'
G
.

GG    ' . m G G     1 - 6 sin6 8
G
GG

- ,E ,E
G
G
G '
m
E

.
EG    ' . m E G  E G E


6
-

E GG   E' '. m .G mG   EE E G  ,E x+ ,E y - 6 sin6 8


G
GG

cot
8

FG   G' '. m .F mG  GFG FF



1
cot 8 6 6

F GG   F' '. m .G mG   F F GG  (+
, - sin 8
F GG
However by this method we do not obtain EEE  +
EE

   E E sE E t

,E 6

To check we calculate the Christoffel symbols directly from the metric

The line element:

The metric tensor

!"

and its inverse:

!"

!"$

1
 )$
2

EEE

!"

 )"

!$

45 6

+ )!

"$ 

 +r

 +r 6,E
-r

 --r


-
-

 +-- 6,E


-r
-

 --r sin6 8


-
-

 +-- 6,E sin6 8


 cot 8

 + cos 8 sin 8

 4 6 + 6,E 47 6 + - 6 , 748 6 + - 6 , 7 sin6 8 4< 6


1
0
0
0
0 + 6,E
0
0
 M0
N
0
+- 6 , 7
0
0
0
0
+- 6 , 7 sin6 8
1
0
0
0
V0 + 6,E
Y
0
0
T
T
1
0
+ 6
0
 0
- , 7
U
X
1
T0
T
0
0
+ 6
S
- , 7 sin6 8W
(4.15)

1
 )E s+ 6,E t  6,E
2

!"$

!'

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'"$

(4.16)

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Susan Larsen
O
O
O
O
O
O
O

EEE
EE

EE
EE

EE

FF

FF
FF

FF

EFF

EFF
FEF

FEF

GG

O GG
O

GG

G
G

EGG

O EGG
O

GEG

G
EG

FGG

O FGG
O

GFG

G
FG

Thursday, September 08, 2011

EEE  + 6,E 6,E


1
 + ) s+ 6,E t  +r 6,E
2
 EE  1s+r 6,E t
1
 EE  ) s+ 6,E t  r 6,E
2
 EE  EE EE  + 6,E r 6,E
1
 + ) s+-6 , 7t  -r 2
 FF  1 -r 1
 FF  ) s+-6 , 7t  +-r2
1
F
 F  FF FF  + 6 s+-r -t
1
 + )E s+-6 , 7t  - 2
 EE EFF
1
 FFE  )E s+- 6 , 7t  +- 2
1
 FFE  FF FEF  + 6 +- -
1
6
6
 + ) +- , 7 sin 8   -r - sin6 8
2
 GG  1 -r - sin6 8
1
 GG  ) +-6 , 7 sin6 8   +-r - sin6 8
2
1
G
 G  GG GG  (+ 6 6 , s+-r- sin6 8t
- sin 8
1
 + )E +-6 , 7 sin6 8   - - sin6 8
2
 EE EGG
1
 GGE  )E +-6 , 7 sin6 8   +- - sin6 8
2
1
G
 GE  GG GEG  (+ 6 6 , +- - sin6 8
- sin 8
1
6
6
 + )F +- , 7 sin 8   - 6 sin 8 cos 8
2
1
 FF FGG  + 6 - 6 sin 8 cos 8
1
 GGF  )F +- 6 , 7 sin6 8   +- 6 sin 8 cos 8
2
1
G
 GF  GG GFG  + 6 6 +-6 sin 8 cos 8
- sin 8
EE

 +

 +r 6,E
 +r
 -r 

-r
-

-
-

-r
-

-
-

 + 6,E - -

 -r - sin6 8

 + 6,E - - sin6 8

 + sin 8 cos 8
 cot 8

P.113: The curvature two forms and the Riemann tensor


To find the Riemann tensor from the curvature two forms, it can sometimes be more convenient to use the
following expression
1
(5.28)
! "  - !"$' $ h '
2

 - !"$' $ h ' no summations

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Thursday, September 08, 2011

P.113, Example 5-2: Find the Ricci scalar using Cartans structure equations of the 2-sphere
The line element:
45 6  48 6  sin6 8 4< 6

The Basis one forms


 48

 sin 8 4<

4!

4F

4 G

! "

48

4<

 F
1


G
sin 8

G
:
F

 1

Cartans First Structure equation and the calculation of the curvature one forms:
 + ! " h "
0

(5.9)

 4sin 8 4<  cos 8 48 h 4<  cot 8 F h G

 cot 8 G

Curvature two forms:


 4 ! "  ! $ h $ "

G
$

h $ F

G
F

 - !"$' $ h '
2

(5.27), (5.28)

 4cot 8 G   4cos 8 4<   + sin 8 48 h 4<  +F h G




h FF 

 +F h G

0

From which we can identify the single independent element of the Riemann tensor

And the Ricci scalar

- FGFG

1

 2 GG - FGFG  2

(S1)

P.116, Example 5-3: Find the components of the Riemann tensor of the Robertson-Walker metric using Cartans structure equations
J6 
The metric: 45 6  +4 6 
47 6  J6 7 6 48 6  J6 7 6 sin6 8 4< 6
1 + 7 6

The Basis one forms


 4

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Susan Larsen


J

1 + 7 6

 J748

Thursday, September 08, 2011


47

 J7 sin 8 4<

4!
4
4E

4F

4 G

! "

47

48

4<

1 + 7 6 E

J


F
J7


G
J7 sin 8

+1

M

Cartans First Structure equation and the calculation of the curvature one forms:

 + ! " h "
0
J
Jr
Jr
 4x
47y 
4 h 47  + E h
J
1 + 7 6
1 + 7 6
Jr
1 + 7 6 E

 4J748  Jr 74 h 48  J47 h 48  h F 
h F
J
J7
 4J7 sin 8 4<  Jr 7 sin 8 4 h 4<  J sin 8 47 h 4<  J7 cos 8 48 h 4<
1
1 + 7 6 E
1
1
1

 Jr 7 sin 8 h
G  J sin 8
h
G  J7 cos 8 F h
G
J7 sin 8
J
J7 sin 8
J7
J7 sin 8
Jr
1 + 7 6 E
cot 8 F

 h G 
h G 
h G
J
J7
J7

The curvature one-forms summerized in a matrix


Jr E
Jr F
Jr G

V 0
Y
J
J
J
T
T
T Jr E
1 + 7 6 F 1 + 7 6 G T
T
0

T
J
J7
J7

1 + 7 6 F
cot 8 G X
U Jr F

TJ
T
J7
J7
T
T
6
1 + 7 G
cot 8 G
TJr G
T
+

0
SJ
W
J7
J7

Where J refers to the column and the row

! "

Curvature two forms:


 4 ! "  ! $ h $ "

 - !"$' $ h '
2

(5.27), (5.28)

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Susan Larsen
E :

Thursday, September 08, 2011

4 E
E $ h $

F :

4 F

F$ h $

G
$

h $

FE :

4 F E

F $ h $ E

FE

E :

G
$

h $ E

G
E

Jr
Jr
J
Jr
Jv
 4 ( E ,  4 (
47,  4 (
47, 
4 h 47
J
J 1 + 7 6
1 + 7 6
1 + 7 6
Jv
1 + 7 6 E Jv

h
 h E
J
J
1 + 7 6

 E h  E E h E  E F h F  E G h  0
Jv
 h E
J
Jr
Jr
 4 ( F ,  4 ( J748,  4Jr 748  Jv 74 h 48  Jr 47 h 48
J
J
1
1 + 7 6 E 1 F Jv
1 + 7 6 E

 Jv 7 h F  Jr
h  h F  Jr
h F
6
J7
J
J7
J
J 7

G
 F h  FE h E  F F h F   FG h  FE h E

Jr 1 + 7 6 F
h E
J6 7
Jv

 h F
J
!r
!r

 4(! G   4 ! J7 sin 8 4<  4Jr 7 sin 8 4<




 Jv 7 sin 8 4 h 4<  Jr sin 8 47 h 4<  Jr 7 cos 8 48 h 4<


Jv
1 + 7 6 E
cot 8

 h G  Jr
h G  Jr 6 F h G
6
J
J 7
J 7

G
G
G
G
G
G
G
 h  E h E  F h F  G h  E h E  F h F
Jr 1 + 7 6 G
Jr cot 8

h E  6 G h F
6
J 7
J 7
Jv

G
 h
J
1 + 7 6 F
1 + 7 6
 4x
y  4x
J748y  4 1 + 7 6 48
J7
J7
+7
+


47 h 48  6 E h F
J
1 + 7 6


 F E h E E  F h E  F F h FE  F G h

G
E

 F h E

Jr 6 F
 ( , h E
J
+Jr 6   E


h F
J6
1 + 7 6 G
 4x
y  4 1 + 7 6 sin 8 4<
J7
+7

sin 8 47 h 4<  1 + 7 6 cos 8 48 h 4<
1 + 7 6
+7
1 + 7 6 cot 8 F

 6 E h G 
h G
J 7
J6 7 6

G
G
G
G
G
G
G

 E h E E  h E  F h FE  G h E  h E  F h FE
Jr 6 E
1 + 7 6 cot 8 F

h G +
h G
6
J
J6 7 6
+Jr 6   E


h G
J6
+

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Susan Larsen

G
:
F

G
$

Thursday, September 08, 2011

h $ F

cot 8 G
cot 8
,  4(
J7 sin 8 4<,  4cos 8 4<  + sin 8 48 h 4<
J7
J7
1

 + 6 6 F h G
J 7

G
G
G
G
G
G
G
 h F  E h E F  F h F F  G h F  h F  E h E F
 4(

Jr 6
1 + 7 6 G

 ( , G h F +
h F
J76
J
Jr 6   G


h F
J6

Summarized in a matrix
Jv
Jv
Jv

h E
h F
h G
V0
Y
J
J
J
T
T
6
T
T
+Jr 6   E
+Jr   E

F
G
!

" 
J6
J6
U
X
6
Jr   G
T
F
T

0
h T
T
J6
S
W

0
Now we can read off the elements in the Riemann tensor in the non-coordinate basis
Jv
Jv

Jv

G
- G  +
- E E  +
- FF  +
J
J
J

Jr 6  
Jr 6  

G
F
- E GE 
- E FE 
J6
J6
6

Jr


G
FGF 
J6

P. 120, Quiz 5-1, and 5-2: Ricci rotation coefficients of the spherical polar metric
The line element:
45 6  47 6  7 6 48 6  7 6 sin6 8 4< 6

The Basis one forms


 47
47
 748

 7 sin 8 4<

48

4<

 E
1
 F
7
1


G
7 sin 8

=

>

Cartans First Structure equation and the calculation of the Ricci rotation coefficients !"$ :

We have:

4E

4F

0

4!
! "

 + ! " h "
 !"$ $

(5.9)
(5.10)

 4748  47 h 48  E h F
7

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Susan Larsen
4 G

Thursday, September 08, 2011

1
cot 8 F

 47 sin 8 4<  sin 8 47 h 4<  7 cos 8 48 h 4<  E h G 


h G
7
7

Summarizing the curvature one forms in a matrix:


1 F
1 G

Y
V 0
7
7
T
T
1 F
cot 8 G
!
"  +
0

7
U 7
X
cot 8 G
T 1 G
T
+

0
S+ 7
W
7
Where J refers to column and to row.

E FF

Now we can read off the Ricci rotation coefficients


1
1

G
E G 
F E F 
+
7
7
7

1
cot 8
cot 8

G
F
GG  +
FG 
+
7
7
7
So the answer to quiz 5-1 is (a) and to 5-2 is (c).

P. 120, Quiz 5-3: Transformation of the Ricci rotation coefficients  into the Christoffel symbols   of the spherical polar metric

F EF

E FF

G
EG

  F' '. m .E

m
F

 FE F E E

G
E
E
E G

G
F
G
F
F

  E' '. m . F

   ' '. m . E
G

m
F

E GG

  E' '. m . G

F GG

  F' '. m . G

G
FG

We have the transformation

   ' '. m . F
G

  !' '. m . "

  EE EFF FF

  EE EGG

G
G

  FF FGG

So the answer to quiz 5-3 is E GG  +7 sin6 8

1
1
7

m
$

(5.14)

1
 1 (+ , 7 6
7
1
 1
7
1
 1 (+ , 7 6 sin6 8
7
cot 8

7
7
1
cot 8 6 6
 (+
, 7 sin 8
7
7

1
7

 +7


1
7

 +7 sin6 8
 cot 8

 + sin 8 cos 8

P. 120, Quiz 5-4: Ricci rotation coefficients of the Rindler metric


The line element:
45 6  P6 4Q 6 + 4P6

The Basis one forms


 4P
4P
 P4Q

4Q

 Z
1
 \
P

 1

+1

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Susan Larsen

Thursday, September 08, 2011

Cartans First Structure equation and the calculation of the Ricci rotation coefficients !"$ :

We have

4!
! "

0

Z \\

 ZZ Z\\

O \ Z\

4Z
4\

We calculate

 + ! " h "
 !"$ $

(5.9)
(5.10)

1
 4P4Q  4P h 4Q  Z h \
P
1

P
 + ZZ \Z\

 + ZZ \\ \ Z\

So the answer to quiz 5-4 is \ Z\  Z \\  Z

O \ Z


1
P

1 \

P. 121, Quiz 5-7: The Einstein tensor for the Tolman-Bondi- de Sitter metric
The curvature two forms:
! "

E :
O

F :

 4 ! "  ! $ h $ "
4 E

E $ h $

4 F

F $ h $

G
$

h $

 - !"$' $ h '
2

(5.27), (5.28)

6
 4s+rE t  4s+r ,E 47t  +v ,E  srt ,E 4 h 47
6
 +v  srt h E

 E h  E E h E  E F h F  E G h

0

 +v  srt h E
-r
 4 x F y  4s-r , 748t  -v 4 h 48  -r 47 h 48

-v
s-r t ,E E

F
 h 

h F

G
 F h  F E h E  F F h F  F G h  F E h E
6

h s+rE t

-v
s-r t  -r ,E E

F
 h 

h F
r

 4( G   4s-r , 7 sin 8 4<t




,E F

 -v sin 8 4 h 4<  s-r t sin 8 47 h 4<  -r cos 8 48 h 4<

-v
-r
s-r t ,E E

G
 h 

h G  6 cot 8 F h G

G
G
G
G
G
G
G
 h  E h E  F h F  G h  E h E  F h F
-
cot 8 G -r F

 ,E G h s+rE t 
h

r
r
-v

-
st

 h G 
,E E h G

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E :

Thursday, September 08, 2011

FE

E :

G
$

G
:
F

G
$

G
E

h $ F

h $ E

- ,E sin 8  - ,E sin 847 h 4<  - ,E cos 8 48 h 4<


 s-r t  -

! "

,E
6,E E

h F  -  -
h F

r
G

 F h E  FE h E E  F F h F E  F G h E  F h E  F h(+rE 
,E
6,E -r r E

 s-r t  - r
h F  -  - 

h F
- ,E G
 4x
y  4s- ,E sin 8 4<t

 s-r t ,E sin 8  - ,E sin 8 4 h 4<

 s-r t  - r

F $ h $ E

- ,E F

y  4s- ,E 48t

 s-r t ,E  - r ,E 4 h 48  - ,E  - ,E 47 h 48


 4x

,E
6,E E
-

h G  -  -
h G  6 ,E cot 8 F h G

Summarized in a matrix:


RE E 

V0
T
T
T

U
T
T
T
S

 h E  E h E E  F h F E  G h E  h E  F h F E
-r
cot 8 G - ,E F
 G h s+rE t 
h

2,7
,E
-r r E


 s-r t  -
h G  -  -

h G
cot 8 G
1

 4(
,  4cos 8 4<  + sin 8 48 h 4<  + 6 F h G

G
G
G
G
G
G
G
 h F  E h E F  F h F F  G h F  h F  E h E F
-r -r -
-

 G h F  ,E G h x+ ,E F y
6
- 6
1 s-r t

 6  6 + 6 6,E G h F
-

6
+v  srt h E

-v
s-r t  -r E

h F 
h F

-r r E

s-r t  - r
h F  -  - 

h F
-

-v
s-r t  -r E

Y
h G 
h G
T
T

-r r E

T
s-r t  - h G  -  - 

h G
X
6
- 6
1 s-r t

T
6  6 + 6 6,E G h F
T
T
W
0

Now we can find the independent elements of the Riemann tensor in the non-coordinate basis:
6
 v + srt

-FF 

- FFE 

- FE FE 

+

-v
-

,E
6,E -r r


 + -  -


 +s-r t  - r

Where A,B,C,D,E will be used later, to make the calculations easier

http://physicssusan.mono.net/9035/General%20Relativity

G

G

G
E 
G

G
E 
E G

G
G
F

F

+

-v
-

,E
6,E -r r


 + -  -


6
- 6
1 s-r t
 6  6 + 6 6,E

 +s-r t  - r

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Susan Larsen

-!"

Thursday, September 08, 2011

The Ricci tensor:


 - $ !$"

G
F
E

 - E  - F
G

G
G
- E G  - FE F  - E G
,E
r
r

 - $ $  -  - E E  - FF  -

-E

 - $ E $  - E  - E E E  - FE F 

 - $ F$

-G

G
G
 0
G

G
- FE FE  - E GE  +RE E
6,E -r r


 - $ G$  - G  - E GE  - FGF  -

-E E

 - $ E $E  - E E  - E E EE 

6
 + v + srt + 2 -  -

-FF

 - $ F$F  - FF  - E FE F  - FFFF 

-GG

G
G

F
F

 - $ G$G  - GG  - E GE G  - FGFG 

 v + srt + 2
6

 - FE FE 

 +  2

G
E
E G

 +- FF  - FE FE 

-v
  2
-

G
G

F
F

G
G
G

 +-

G

G

-

G
E
E G

-

G
G

F
F

6
- 6 6,E
-v
6,E -r r
1 s-r t


 + -  -

 6 6 + 6
 +    -FF
-

Summarized in a matrix:

-v
Vv + srt6 + 2
T
T
T

T
U
T
T
T
T
S

+2 s-rt  - r

6
+ v + srt + 2 -  - 

6 -rr


-

Where J refers to column and to row

G

G

6
- 6
-v
6,E -r r
1 s-r t


 + -  -

 6  6 + 6 6,E  +  
-

-!"

,E
,E

+ s-r t  -
 +2 s- t  - r
 2

G
 - F  - E FE  - FFF  - FG  0

 + s-rt  - r

-F

(4.46)

6
- 6
-v
6 -rr
1 s-rt
 6  6 + 6 6
+ -  - 

-

Y
T
T
T
T

X
0
T
T
6
6

6
r
v
r
r
-  6 T

-
1 s-t

 6  6 + 6 T
+ -  - 

W

The Ricci scalar:

(4.47)
 !" -!"


 -  E E -E E  FF -FF  GG -GG  - + -E E + -FF + -GG
  2 + +  2 + 2+     2  4 + 4 + 2

 2- E E  4- FF + 4- FE FE + 2

6
 2 v + srt + 4

G
G

F
F

6
- 6
-v
6,E -r r
1 s-r t


 4 -  -

+ 2 6  6 + 6 6,E
-

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Thursday, September 08, 2011

The Einstein tensor:

1
(4.48)
 -!" + !" 2
1
1
1

G
 - + -  - + -   2 + 2  4 + 4 + 2  2   2-FE FE  - FGF
2
2
2
6
6,E
r
r
- 6

-
1 s-r t


 +2 -  -

 6  6 + 6 6,E
1
6
 6 1 + 2--r r  s-r t + 2--  2--  - 6  6,E
1
,E

G
 -E + E -  -E  - FE F  - E G  +2 s-r t  - r
2
1
 -F + F -  0
2
1
1
1
 -E E + E E -  -E E  -  +  2  2  4 + 4 + 2  2 +
2
2
2
6
v
r
- 6
1 s- t

G
 2- FF + - FGF  +2 + 6  6 + 6 6,E
1
6
 6 - 6 6,E + 2--v + 1 + s-r t
1
1
1
 -FF + FF -  -FF  -  +    2  4 + 4 + 2   +
2
2
2
-v
6,E -r r
6

F
F
E
 R E  - F + - E FE  v + srt +  -  - 


1
6
 v + srt  -  -  6,E  -r r + -v
1
6
v
 /FF  + srt  -  -  6,E  -r r + -v
-

/!"
/

/E

/F
/E E

/FF

/GG

Summarized in a matrix:
/!"

1
V 1 + 2--r r  s-r t6 + 2--  2--  - 6  6
6
TT
T

U
T
T
T
S

Where J refers to column and to row

/E

1
6
- 6 6 + 2--v + 1 + s-rt
-6
0

6
v + srt 

1
-  -  6  -r r + -v
0

6
v + srt 

1
-  -  6  -r r +
-

The Einstein tensor in the coordinate basis:

The transformation: /!"


/

+2 s-rt  - r

 $ ' /$'

 $E ' /$'

 $! '" /$'

 s t /

 E E /E

(6.34)

1
6
1 + 2--r r  s-r t + 2--  2--  - 6  6
6

s-r t - r
 +2


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Susan Larsen

Thursday, September 08, 2011

1
6
- 6 + 2--v  1  s-r t 6
6
1
6
6

$
'
F
/FF  F F /$'  F /FF  - 6 (v + srt  -  -  6  -r r + -v ,
6
1
6

$
'
G
6
6
/GG  G G /$'  /  - sin 8 (v + srt  -  -  6  -r r + -v ,
GG
G
Which means the answer to quiz 5-7 is (d), almost!
/EE

 $E ' E /$'

 sE E t /E E
6

Summarized in a matrix:
/!"

V 1 1 + 2--r r  s-r t6 + 2--  2--  - 6  6


T- 6
T
T

U
T
T
T
S

+2

s-r t - r


-

1
6
- 6 + 2--v  1  s-r t 6
-6

Where J refers to column and to row


0

6
-6 (v + srt 

1
-  -  6  -r r + -v ,
0

Y
T
T
T

6
- sin 8 (v + sr t 
6

X
T
T
1
T

6
r
r
v
-  -   - + - ,W
0

Chapter 6: The Einstein Field Equations


P.138: The vacuum Einstein equations
Prove that the Einstein field equations /!"  2!" reduces to the vacuum Einstein equations
-!"  0 if we set 2!"  0
1
(4.48)
2 !"
Now setting /!"  2!"  0 and calculating
1
/!"  -!" +
- 0
2 !"
1
w
-!" 
2 !"
!"
Multiplying by
1 !"
!"
O
-!" 
!" 2
using the definition
(4.47)
-  !" -!"
and that in 4 dimensions !" !"  4
1
O
-  4 22
Now this can only be true if -!"  0
Q.E.D.
The Einstein tensor
/!"

 -!" +

P.138: The vacuum Einstein equations with a cosmological constant


Prove that the Einstein field equations /!"  2!" reduces to -!"  !" and -  4 for metrics
with positive signature and -!"  + !" and -  +4 for metrics with negative signature in vacuum with a cosmological constant.
The Einstein equation in vacuum with a cosmological constant and positive signature is
1
0  -!" +
-  !"
2 !"

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(6.6)

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Susan Larsen

Thursday, September 08, 2011

1 !"
!"
-!" +

!" -  !"
2
1
 - + 4-  4
2
Q.E.D.
O
-  4
Next we rewrite the Einstein equation
1
0  -!" +
-  !"
2 !"
1
4  !"
 -!" +
2 !"
 -!" + !"
Q.E.D.
O
-!"  !"
In the non coordinate basis
-!"  !"
In the case of metrics with negative signature the Einstein equation in vacuum with a cosmological constant
1
(6.6)
0  -!" +
- + !"
2 !"
and we can see that
Q.E.D.
-  +4
Q.E.D.
-!"  + !"
In the non coordinate basis
-!"  +!"
O

0 

!"

P.139, example 6-2: Find the components of the curvature tensor for the metric in 2+1 dimensions using Cartans structure equations
The line element:
45 6  +4 6  6",E 47 6  - 6 , 74< 6

The Basis one forms


 4
 ",E 47

47

 -, 74< 4<

4
4E

4 G

 ",E E
1


G
-, 7

+1
=

>

Cartans First Structure equation and the calculation of the curvature two-forms
4!

 + ! " h "

(5.9)

! "

 !"$ $

(5.10)

0
 4s ",E 47t  r ",E 4 h 47  r h E
-r
-

 4-, 74<  -r 4 h 4<  - 47 h 4<  h G  ",E E h G


Summarizing the curvature one forms in a matrix:

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Susan Larsen

Thursday, September 08, 2011

-r G
V 0
Y
rE

T
T
T
T
- ",E G
!
E
 r
"
0

U
X

r
T
T
- ",E G
T- G
T

0
SW
Where J refers to column and to row.

! "

The curvature two forms:


 4 ! "  ! $ h $ "

E :
O

4 E

E $ h $

G
$

! "

G
$

h $

E :

h $ E

G
E

 - !"$' $ h '
2

6
 4srE t  4sr ",E 47t  v ",E  srt ",E 4 h 47
6
 + v  srt E h

 E h  E E h E  E G h

U
T
S

0

 + v  srt E h
-r

 4 x G y  4s-r , 74<t  -v 4 h 4<  s-r t 47 h 4<

-v G
s-r t ",E G

+ h +

h E
-

G
G
G
G
G
 h  E h E  G h  E h E  ",E G h rE

-v G
s-r t - r ",E G

+ h +
+

h E
-

 4 x ",E G y  4s- ",E 4<t

r
 s- t ",E + - r ",E 4 h 4<  - ",E  - ",E 47 h 4<
6

",E G
6",E G
h + -  -
h E
-r r G

G
G
G
G
G

 h E  E h E E  G h E  h E 
h E
",E G
6",E -r r

 + s-rt + - r
h + x-  -
+ y G h E
 + s-rt + - r

Summarized in a matrix:
V0
T

(5.27), (5.28)

+ v  srt h E
6

+s-r t + - r

-v G
s-r t - r ",E G
h +
+

h E
-

Y
T

",E G
6",E -r r

h + x-  -
+ y G h E X
T
W
0

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Susan Larsen

Thursday, September 08, 2011

Now we can find the independent elements of the Riemann tensor in the non-coordinate basis:

RE E   + v  srt E h

G

G

+

-v
-

",E
6",E

-r r

G
- E GE (D)  + x-  -
+ y
Where A, B, C and D will be used later to make the calculations easier
-

G
E (C)
G

 + s-rt  - r

P.139, Example 6-2: Find the components of the curvature tensor for the metric in 2+1 dimensions using Cartans structure equations alternative solution
The line element:
45 6  +4 6  6",E 47 6  - 6 , 74< 6
Now we can compare with the Tolman-Bondi de Sitter line element, where the primes should not be mistaken for the derivative 4/47.

45 6  46 + 6 ,E  476 + - 6 , 7486 + - 6 , 7 sin6 8 4<6
And chose:
4  4
 ,E 

47  ",E 47
48
- , 7
0


- , 7 sin 8 4<  -, 74<

Comparing the two metrics we see: 4<  4<, 8  6 , - , 7   -, 7, 4  4


Next we can use the former calculations of the Tolman-Bondi de Sitter metric to find the Riemann and
Einstein tensor for the 2+1 metric.
But first we need to find
4 , 7 
4
47 4
47
4, 7
s ,E t
s ,E t
",E
",E


 +r, 7
s
t
x
y+
r 

4
4
47 4
47
4
46  , 7  4
v 
 s+rt  +v, 7
4
4 6
4 , 7 
4
47 4
47
s ,E t
s ,E t
s ,E t
",E



s
t
x
y
47
47
47 47
47

 + s ,E t ",E , 7
4- , 7  4-, 7
-r 

 -r , 7
4
4
46 - , 7  46 -, 7
-v 

 -v , 7
4 6
4 6
4- , 7  47 4-, 7

- 

 s ,E t ",E - , 7
47
47
47
46 - , 7 
4 4- , 7 
47 4


x
y  -r , 7  s ,E t ",E -r , 7
-r 

4 47
47
4
47 47

The Riemann tensor

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Susan Larsen

Thursday, September 08, 2011

Tolman Bondi de Sitter


6
RE  v + srt
E

- FF

+

-v
-

6
RE E   + v  srt

2+1

,E
6,E

-r r

- FE FE  + -  - 

-v
-v
G
G
- G  +
O - G   +
,E

",E
G
G
- GE  + s-rt  - r
O - GE   + s-rt + - r
6,E
6",E
r
r

-r r

G
G
- E GE  + -  - 

O - E GE   + - + - 
+
6

6
- 
1 s-r t

G
- FGF  6  6 + 6 6,E
Where A, B, C and D will be used later to make the calculations easier
 + s-rt  - r

- FFE

P.147, Example 6-3: Find the components of the Einstein tensor in the coordinate basis for the
metric in 2+1 dimensions.
The Ricci tensor:
-!"

 - $ !$"

-E

 - $ E $  - E  - E E E  -

-G
-E E

-GG

 - $ $  -  - E E  


G

G

 - E E  -

G

G

(4.46)

6
 + v  srt +

G
G
r
r
 - E G
 + s- t + -
E G

G
- $ G$  - G  - E GE  - FGF  - GG  0

G
G
- $ E $E  - E E  - E E EE  - E GE  +RE E  - E GE
6",E -r r


v
r 6

  st + - + -

 - $ G$G  - GG  - E GE G   + 

G
G
G

 + 

 +-

G

G

-

G
E
E G

",E

-v



-v
6",E -r r
+ - + - 
+
-

Summarized in a matrix:

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Susan Larsen

-!"

Thursday, September 08, 2011

-v
6
V+ v  srt +
T
T
U
T
T

"
6" -r r
6
v  srt + - + - 
+
+ s-r t + - r

0
S
Where J refers to column and to row

Y
T
T

X
6"
r r T
-v

+ - + - 
+ T
- W

The Ricci scalar:

(4.47)
 !" -!"
G


E E
G
 -  -E E  -GG  +-  -E E  -GG  +    +    +  

 +2 + 2  2  +2- E E + 2- G  2- E GE
-v
6",E -r r
6
 2 v  srt  2 + 2 - + - 
+

/!"
/

/E

/F
/E E

/GG

The Einstein tensor:


1
(4.48)
 -!" + !" 2
1
1
1

G
 - + -  -  -    +2 + 2  2   - E GE
2
2
2
6"
r r

 + - + - 
+
1
"

G
 -E + E -  -E  - E G  + s-r t + - r
2
1
 -F + F -  0
2
1
1
1
-v

G
 -E E + E E -  -E E + -  +  + +2 + 2  2   - G  +
2
2
2
1
1
1
6
E
 -GG + GG -  -GG + -  +  + +2 + 2  2   R E  + v  srt
2
2
2

6" -r r
"

V+ - + - 
+ + s-rt + - r
T
v
/!" 

+
U
T
0
0
S

Where J refers to column and to row


Summarized in a matrix:

http://physicssusan.mono.net/9035/General%20Relativity

0
0

Y
T

X
6 T
+ v  srt W

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Susan Larsen

Thursday, September 08, 2011

The Einstein tensor in the coordinate basis:

The transformation: /!"

 $! '" /$'

 $ ' /$'

 s t /

/EE

'
E E /$'

 s E t /E E

/E

/GG

$
$

'
E /$'

 $G ' G /$'

 E /E
E

/GG
G

(6.34)

 + - + - 
+

s-rt + - r

-v 6"
+
6
 +- 6 v  srt

6" -r r
+
-

s-rt + - r
6" -r r
V
Y


+ - + -
+ +
0
T
T
T
T
/!" 
-v
U
X

+ 6"
0
T
T
T
T
6 v
r t6
0
0
+

s
S
W
Where J refers to column and to row

Summarized in a matrix:

P.150, Example 6-4: The Einstein equations of the metric in 2+1 dimensions.
Given the Einstein equation ( if  /  1: /!"  !"  2!"
(6.40)
with  +6 you get
/!" + 6 !"  2!"
0 0
and the stress-energy tensor:
2!"  =0 0 0>
0 0 0
You can find the Einstein equations
6" -r r
"

V+ - + - 
+ + s-rt + - r
T
-v

+
U
T
0
0
S
/ :

/E :

/E E :

6" -r r
+  6
"

+ s-r t + - r

r
s- t + - r
-v
+ + 6
-

+ - + - 

0
0

Y
T

X
T
+ v  srt W
6

+1

=0
1
0

0
0
0

0
0>
0

 p.152
0
0
0

p.152

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Susan Larsen
/GG :

Thursday, September 08, 2011


-v  6 6
+ v  srt + 6

0
0

(6.41)
(6.42)

P. 152, Quiz 6-1: Using the contracted Bianchi identities, prove that:    
Expressions needed:
Bianchi identity:
0  ^ -'."$  ^" -'.$!  ^$ -'.!"
Proved page 78:
0  ^$ !"
0  ^$ !" w '! ." ^$ !"  0 w ^$ '! ." !"  0
w
0  ^$ '.
Riemann tensor:
-!"$'  +-!"'$
Ricci tensor:
- $ !$"  -!"
Ricci scalar:
-  !" -!"  - ! !
!. "
- .$!  !. -. "!$  - !"!$  - "$
1
The Einstein tensor:
/!"  -!" +
2 !"
!
!"
!
Kronecker delta
$ 
"$  $
1 !
1
!
!
^! / !$  ^! (- ! $ +
$ -,  ^! - $ + ^!
$2
2
1 !
1 !
!
use (2.15)
 ^! - ! $ +
$ ^! -  ^! - $ + $ ^! 2
2
1
!
 ^! - $ + ^$ 2
The proof:
'" ^
0
Multiply (4.45) by '" :
-'."$  ^" -'.$!  ^$ -'.!" 
'"
w (use (S3))
0  ^
-'."$  ^" '" -'.$!  ^$ '" -'.!"
"
w
0  ^ - ."$  ^" -" .$!  ^$ - " .!"
(use (4.44) and (4.46))
0  ^! -.$  ^" - " .$! + ^$ - " ."!
(use (4.46))
0  ^! -.$  ^" - " .$! + ^$ -.!
!.
!.
Multiply by
0
(^! -.$  ^" -" .$! + ^$ -.! )

0  ^! !. -.$  ^" !. -" .$! + ^$ !. -.!

0  ^! -! $  ^" !. - " .$! + ^$ -! !


(use (4.47))
0  ^! -! $  ^" !. - " .$! + ^$ (use (S4))
0  ^! -! $  ^" -"$ + ^$ 1

0  2 ^! - ! $ + ^$ -
2
(use (S5))
0  ^! / ! $
"$
Multiply by "$
0
^! / ! $  ^! "$ / ! $  ^! / !"
Which means the answer to quiz 6-1 is (c)

(4.45)
(S3)
(4.44)
(4.46)
(4.47)
(S4)
(4.48)
(2.15)

(S5)

P.153-54, Quiz 6-5, Quiz 6-6, Quiz 6-7 and Quiz 6-8: Ricci rotation coefficients, Ricci scalar and
Einstein equations for a general 4-dimensional metric.
The line element:
45 6  +4 6  6 (, 7)47 6  6 (, 7)4< 6  6 (, 7)4o 6

The Basis one forms


 4

 (, 7)47

47

1
E
(, 7)

+1

M

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 (, 7)4<

 (, 7)4o

4E

4 G

4 p

Thursday, September 08, 2011


4<
4o

G
(, 7)
1

p
(, 7)


Cartans First Structure equation and the calculation of the Ricci rotation coefficients !"$ :

4!

0

 + ! " h "

! "

(5.9)

 !"$ $

(5.10)

r
 4((, 7)47)  r4 h 47  h E

r
E

h G 
h G

p
r
 4((, 7)4o)  4 h 4o  47 h 4o  h 
h p

 4((, 7)4<)  r4 h 4<  47 h 4< 

Summarizing the curvature one forms in a matrix:


r E
r G
r p
V 0

T
T
T r
G p T
E
T
0


! "
G
Ur G
X

0
0 T
T

T r
T
p
T p
T
0
0 W
S +
Where J refers to column and to row

E E

G
p p

! "

Now we can read off the Ricci rotation coefficients

r
r
r
r
G
G 
E E 
p p 


r
G
E
p


+



GG
E p
E G

r
E p p
+


Which means the answer to quiz 6-5 is (a) and quiz 6-6 is (c)
The curvature two forms:
 4 ! "  ! $ h $ "

 - !"$' $ h '
2

(5.27), (5.28)

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E :
O

:
O
p :

Thursday, September 08, 2011

4 E

E $ h $

G
$

h $

4 p

p $ h $
p

E :

O
p E :

O
p G :
O

G
$

h $ E

G
E

4 p E
p $ h $ E
p E

4 p G
p G

r
v
 4 x E y  4 r(, 7) 47  v4 h 47  r47 h 47  h E

 E h  E E h E  E G h  E p h p  0
v
 + E h

r
v
r E

 4 x G y  4sr(, 7)4<t  v4 h 4<  r47 h 4<  h G 


h G

G r E

G
G
G
G
G
G
 h  E h E  G h   p h p  E h E 
h

r
r
v

 h G 
E h G 
G h E

v G
r r

 + h  x 6 + y G h E

r
v
r E
 4 x p y  4sr(, 7)4ot  v4 h 4o  r47 h 4o  h p 
h p

p r E

G
 p h  p E h E  p G h  p p h p  p E h E 
h

v
r E
p r E
p
p
 h 
h 
h

r
r
v p

 + h  x 6 +
y p h E

r + r
+
 4 ( G ,  4 ( 4<, 
4
h
4<

47 h 4<

6
6

r + r G
+ G


h E
6

rr G

G
G
G
G
G
G

 E h E E  h E  G h E  p h p E  h E 
h E

r + r G
+ G
rr G

E



h E
6

r + r G
+ rr


 y G h E
x
6

r + r
+
 4(
,  4 ( 4o, 
4 h 4o 
47 h 4o
6

6
r + r p
+ p

h 
h E
6

rr p

 p E h E E  p h E  p G h E  p p h p E  p h E 
h E

r + r p
+ p
rr p

E



h E
6

r + r p
+ rr

h  x

y p h E
6

0

 p $ h $ G  p h G  p E h E G  p G h G  p p h p G
r p r G p
G

p
E
p
 h G  E h G  h 
h x+
y

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Thursday, September 08, 2011


x

! "

v
V0 + E h

T
T
0

U
T

T
S

rr

+ 6
y p h G

v
r r

+ G h  x 6 + y G h E

r r
+ r r

 y G h E
x 6 + y G h  x

v p
r r
Y
h  x 6 +
y p h E

T
T
r
r
+ r r
p

p
E

x 6+
y h  x
y h

X
r r

T
p
G
+

x
y
T
6
W
0

Summarized in a matrix:

Now we can find the independent elements of the Riemann tensor in the non-coordinate basis:

r
r
p
- p E () 
+
6
+ rr
- p E pE (/) 


rr

p
- Gp G () 
+
6
Where A,B,C,D,E,F,G,H will be used later, to make the calculations easier
RE E ()  +

-!"
-

-E

-G
-p

-E E

-GG
-p p

r r
G
- GE () 
+
6

+ rr
G
- E GE () 


G
()
G

+

- p p ()

+

The Ricci tensor:


 - $ !$"
-

G
- G

(4.46)

 -  - E E 
 - p p  - E E  - G  - p p
v v v
+ + + 

G
G
$
 - E $  - E  - E E E  - E G  - p E p  - E G  - p E p
r r r
r
 6+

+
 
6

G
 - $ G$  - G  - E GE  - GG  - p Gp  0
$

G
p
 - p p  0
p G

G
- E GE  - p E pE  +RE E

 - $ p $  - p  - E p E 

 - $ E $E  - E E  - E E EE 
 - E GE  - p E pE
v + rr + rr
 



 +   /

G
G
G
 - $ G$G  - GG  - E GE G  - GGG  - p Gp G  +- G  - E GE  - p Gp G
v + rr rr

 


+
 +  

G
 - $ p $p  - p p  - E p Ep  - p Gp  - p p pp  +- p p  - p E pE  - p Gp G
v + rr rr

 


+
 +  / 

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Susan Larsen

-!"

v v v
V+ + +
T
T
T

Thursday, September 08, 2011

r r r r
+

+
6 6
v + rr + r r





Summarized in a matrix:


U
T
T
T
S

v + rr rr




+

6
0

Where J refers to column and to row

Y
T
T
T

X
T
T
v + r r rr
T



+ 6

W
0

The Ricci scalar:

(4.47)
 !" -!"
F


E E
F
G
 -  -E E  -FF  -GG  +-  -E E  -GG  -p p
 +(   ) +   / +   +  /   +2 + 2 + 2  2  2/  2

 +2RE E + 2- G + 2- p p  2- E GE  2- p E pE  2- p Gp G
v v v + rr + rr rr

 2x   




+
y

6
And the answer to quiz 6-8 is (a)

/!"
/

/E

/G
/p

/E E
/GE
/p E

/GG

The Einstein tensor:


1
(4.48)
 -!" + !" 2
1
1
1
 - + -  -  -     (+2 + 2 + 2  2  2/  2)   / 
2
2
2
+ rr + rr rr

G
p
p
 - E GE  - E pE  - Gp G 




+

1
r r
r r
 -E + E -  -E  6 +

+
2

6
1
 -G + G -  0
2
1
 -p + p -  0
2
1
1
1
 -E E + E E -  -E E + -  +   / + (+2 + 2 + 2  2  2/  2)   
2
2
2
v v rr

G
p
p
 - G  - p  - Gp G  + + 
+ 6

1
 -GE + GE -  0
2
1
 -p E + p E -  0
2
1
1
1
 -GG + GG -  -GG + -  +   + (+2 + 2 + 2  2  2/  2)
2
2
2

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Susan Larsen

Thursday, September 08, 2011

v v + rr
   /  RE E  - p p  - p E pE  + +


1
/p G  -p G + p G -  0
2
1
1
1
/p p  -p p + p p -  -p p + -  +  /  + (+2 + 2 + 2  2  2/  2)   
2
2
2
v v + rr

G
G
E
 R E  - G  - E GE  + + 


And the answer to quiz 6-7 is (a)


+ rr + r r rr

V




+ 6

T
T
T

Summarized in a matrix:
/!"

U
T
T
T
S

Where J refers to column and to row

r r r r
+

+
6 6
v v rr

+ + 
+
6
0

0
0

v v + r r
+ +


Y
T
T
T

X
T
T
v v + rrT
+ + 
 W

Chapter 7: The Energy-Momentum Tensor


P.160: Perfect Fluids Alternative derivation
The most general form of the stress energy tensor is
(7.8)
2 !"  P! P"  !"
In the local frame we know that
0 0 0
0 0 0

(7.6)
N
2 !"  M
0 0 0
0 0 0
and
P!  (1,0,0,0)
Then we choose the metric with negative signature
1 0
0
0
0 +1 0
0

N
!"  M
0 0 +1 0
0 0
0 +1
This we can use to find the constants and
2  P P    
k 

2  P P   + 
k
0
O  + and  +  
Which leaves us with the most general form of the stress energy tensor for a perfect fluid for a metric with
negative signature
(7.11)
2 !"  (  )P! P" + !"
If we instead choose the metric with positive signature
+1 0 0 0
0 1 0 0

N
!"  M
0 0 1 0
0 0 0 1

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Thursday, September 08, 2011

 P P   + 
k 

2  P P   
k
0
O  and    
Which leaves us with the most general form of the stress energy tensor for a perfect fluid for a metric with
negative signature
(7.12)
2 !"  (  )P! P"  !"
P.161, Example 7-2: The Einstein tensor and Friedmann-equations for the Robertson Walker
metric
The Ricci scalar:
-

 !" -!"  +-  -E E  -FF  -GG  +- $ $  - $ E $E  - $ F$F  - $ G$G

 +- E E + - FF + - FGFG

G

G

 +2-E E + 2- FF + 2

 - E E  - FE FE 

G

G

 2- FE FE  2

G
E
E G

G
E
E G

 - FF  - E FE F  -

 2-

G
G

F
F

G
G

F
F

 - GG  - E GE G

(Jr 6  )
(Jr 6  )
(Jr 6  )
Jv
Jv
Jv
av Jr 6  k
2 2 2 2

2

2


x
y
J
J
J
J6
J6
J6
a
a6

/!"
/

/E

/F
/E E

/FF

The Einstein tensor:


1
 -!" + !" 2
1
 - + 2

(4.48)
1

G
G
G
 +2-E E + 2- FF + 2- G  2- FE FE  2- E GE  2- FGF
2
Jr 6  k

G
 - FGF  3 x
y
a6

 - E E  - FF 

 - FE FE 

G
E
E G

G

G

1
 -E + E -  - $ E $  0
2
 /G  /E  /FE  /GE  /F  /E F  /GF  /G  /E G  /FG  0
1
 -E E + E E 2
1

G
G
G
G
 - E E  - FE FE  - E GE + +2-E E + 2-FF + 2- G  2- FE FE  2- E GE  2- FGF
2

G
G
G
G
 - E E  - FE FE  - E GE  - E E  - FF  - G + - FE FE + - E GE + - FGF
 - FF 

G

G

1
 -FF + FF 2

+-

G
G

F
F

G
G
G
F
F
E
+ 2- G
E  2- E G
G
+ +2- E + 2- F
F
 2- E F
E
F
2

G
G
G
G
F
F
E
- FGF  - E  - F  - G + - E FE + - E GE + - FGF

 - FF  - E FE F 

 - FF  - E FE F 

Jv Jv Jr 6 
2Jv Jr 6 
+ + +

+

x
y
J J
J6
J
J6

http://physicssusan.mono.net/9035/General%20Relativity

 2-

G
G

F
F

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-

Thursday, September 08, 2011




G
- G

1
 -GG + GG 2

/GG

G
- E GE

Jv Jv Jr 6 
2Jv Jr 6 
+ + +
 +x 
y
J J
J6
J
J6

G
G
G
 - GG  - E GE G  - FGFG + +2-E E + 2- FF + 2- G  2- FE FE  2- E GE  2- FGF
2

G
G
G
 - GG  - E GE G  - FGFG  - E E  - FF  - G + - FE FE + - E GE + - FGF
Jv Jv Jr 6 
2Jv Jr 6 

 - E E  - FF + - FE FE  + + +

+

x
y
J J
J6
J
J6

Summarized in a matrix:
(Jr 6  k)
V3 x
y
a6
T
T
2Jv
0
+x
T
J
/!"  U
0
T
T
T
0
S

Jr 6 
y
J6

+x

2Jv Jr 6 

y
J6
J
0

Where J refers to column and to row

2!"

and the stress-energy tensor:

Jr 6  k
V3 x
y
0
a6
T
T
2Jv Jr 6 
y
0
+x 
T
J
J6

You can find the Friedmann- equations

X
T
T
2Jv
Jr 6  T
+x 
y
J
J6
W
0

The Friedmann equations:

Given the Einstein equation ( if  /  1: /!" + !"

U
T
T
T
S

Y
T
T
T

2Jv Jr 6 
y
+x 
J
J6
0

Y
T
T
T

X
T
T
2Jv
Jr 6  T
y
+x 
6
J
J
W
0

+1

+ M

 812!"

0
 81 M
0
0

0
0

0
0

0
0
N (7.16)
0

0
 81 M
0
0

(7.14)

0
0

0
0

0
0
N
0

3
(7.17)
  Jr 6    81
J6
Jv
1
2  6   Jr 6    +81 (8.18)
J J

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Thursday, September 08, 2011

P.161, Example 7-2: The Einstein tensor for the Robertson Walker metric Alternative version.
J6 ()
The line element:
45 6  +4 6 
47 6  J6 ()7 6 48 6  J6 ()7 6 sin6 8 4< 6
1 + 7 6
Now we can compare with the Tolman-Bondi de Sitter line element, where the primes should not be mistaken for the derivative 4/47.

45 6  46 + 6 ,E  476 + - 6 , 7486 + - 6 , 7 sin6 8 4<6
And chose:
4  4
J

47
s ,E t 47 
1 + 7 6
- , 7 48  J748

- , 7 sin 8 4<  J7 sin 8 4<
Comparing the two metrics we see: 4<  4<, 48  48, 8  8, - , 7   J7, 4  4
Next we can use the former calculations of the Tolman-Bondi de Sitter metric to find the Einstein tensor
for the Robertson-Walker metric.
But first we need to find
4 , 7 
4
J 47 4 1 + 7 6 47
Jr 
s ,E t
s ,E t
r 



s
t
x
y+

6
4
4
J 47
J
1 + 7 47 4
6
4
Jr 
4
Jr 
Jr 
Jv 
sJv J + Jr Jr t
v  x+
x
y  x+
y+
y +
6
4
J
4
J
J
J
J


6
4 , 7
4
1 + 7 47


47 4

 s ,E t s s ,E t t  s ,E t x
y

47
47
47 47
J 47
7

+
s ,E t
J1 + 7 6

4-
,7
4J7
-r 

 Jr 7

4
4
4Jr 7 4Jr 7
-v 

 Jv 7
4
4
4- , 7  47 4
1 + 7 6 s ,E t

- 
J7



J  1 + 7 6 s ,E t

47
47 47
J
4
47
4
J 47

-  1 + 7 6 s ,E t  x1 + 7 6
y0
47
47 47
1 + 7 6 47
4
47 4
Jr 1 + 7 6 s ,E t
-r  Jr 7  Jr 7 

47
47 47
J

The Einstein tensor:

Tolman Bondi de Sitter


1
6
 6 1 + 2--r r  s-r t
/
+ 2--  2--  - 6  6,E

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Robertson-Walker
O

3

Jr 6 
J6

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/E

/E E

/FF

/GG

 +2 s-r t  - r

Thursday, September 08, 2011


(,E)
-

1
6
 6 (- )6 6(,E) + 2--v + 1 + s-r t
1
6
 v + srt  (-  - ) 6(,E)  -r r + -v
1
6
 v + srt  (-  - ) 6(,E)  -r r + -v
-

P. 165, Quiz 7-3: Manipulating the Friedmann equations.


Show that the two Friedman equations
3
(7.17)
(  Jr 6 )   81
J6
Jv
1
(8.18)
2  6 (  Jr 6 )   +81
J J
can be manipulated into:
4
4
(J )  (J )  0
4
4

O
O

O
O

/E

/E E

/FF

O /GG

0

Jv () Jr ()6 

y
J()
J()6
Jv () Jr ()6 
 + x2

y
J()
J()6
Jv () Jr ()6 
 + x2

y
J()
J()6
 + x2

3
(  Jr 6 ) 
J6
81J  3J(  Jr 6 )  a
4
4
81 J   3J  Jr 6   a   3Jr   Jr 6   6JJr Jv  3J6 Jr
4
4
Rewriting (7.18):
Jv
1
+81  2  6   Jr 6  
J J
4
Jv
1
4
Jv
1
+81 J   (2  6   Jr 6   , J   (2  6   Jr 6   , 3J6 Jr
4
J J
4
J J
 6JJr Jv  3Jr   Jr 6   3J6 Jr
4
81 J   +6JJr Jv  3Jr   Jr 6   3J6 Jr 
4
Now adding
4
4
81 J   81 J   3Jr   Jr 6   6JJr Jv  3J6 Jr + 6JJr Jv  3Jr   Jr 6   3J6 Jr 
4
4
 0 Q.E.D.

Rewriting (7.17):

81 

Chapter 8: Killing Vectors


P.168, Example 8-1: Show that if the Lie derivative of the metric tensor with respect to vector X
vanishes (   ), the vector X satisfies the Killing equation. - Alternative version
Expressions needed:
Killings equation:
(8.1)
^ ?!  ^! ?"  0
The Lie derivative of a (0,2) tensor:
2!"  $ ^$ 2!"  2$" ^! $  2!$ ^" $ (4.28)
(4.18)
^$ !"  0
Now we can Calculate the Lie-derivative of !" (4.28) and using (4.18)
!"  ? $ ^$ !"  $" ^! ? $  !$ ^" ? $
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If

!"

Thursday, September 08, 2011

 ^! ( $" ? $ )  ^" ( !$ ? $ )
 ^! ?"  ^" ?!
 0 this implies that ^! ?"  ^" ?!  0, which is the Killing equation.

P.177, equation (8.7): Prove that    


 
We have
(8.6)
^$ ^ ? !  - !"$' ? '
$
Contracting with ! :
O !$ (^$ ^ ? ! )  !$ s- !"$' ? ' t
O
^ ^ ? !  - !"!' ? '
(8.7)
O
^ ^ ? !  -"' ? '

P.178: Constructing a Conserved Current with Killing Vectors Alternative version:


We write  ^! !  2 !" (^! ?" )
and
 ^ "  2 "! (^ ?! )
1
1
Now
 ^! !  ^ "
2
2

 6(2 !" (^! ?" )  2 "! (^ ?! )) 2 !" is symmetric so 2 !"  2 "!


p.155
1
(^! ?" )  (^ ?! )  0 (8.1)
Killings equation
 2 !" s(^! ?" )  (^ ?! )t
2
0
P.179, Quiz 8-3: Given a Killing vector  the Ricci scalar satisfies 
 :
We calculate the Lie derivative:
(4.28)
-!"  ? $ ^$ -!"  -$" ^! ? $  -!$ ^" ? $
!"
Multiplikation by
:
!" (
!" (? $
)

^$ -!" )  !" (-$" ^! ? $ )  !" (-!$ ^" ? $ )
!"
Using ^$ !"  0, and !"  0:

!" -!"  ? $ ^$ s !" -!" t  !" -$" ^! ? $  !" -!$ ^" ? $

-  ? $ ^$ -  !" -$" ^! ? $  !" -!$ ^" ? $


 ? $ ^$ -  -$ ! ^! ? $  - "$ ^" ? $
 ? $ ^$ -  "$ -"! ^! ? $  !$ -"! ^" ? $
 ? $ ^$ -  - "! ^! ( "$ ? $ )  - "! ^" ( !$ ? $ )
 ? $ ^$ -  - "! ^! ?"  - "! ^" ?!
 ? $ ^$ -  - "! (^! ?"  ^" ?! )
 ? $ ^$ Now the Lie derivative of a scalar is zero -  0, so
? $ ^$ -  0
And the answer to Quiz 8-3 is (a)

Chapter 9: Null Tetrads and the Petrov Classification


P.186, Example 9-3, and 9-4: Construct a null tetrad for the flat space Minkowski metric
The line element:
45 6  4 6 + 47 6 + 7 6 48 6 + 7 6 sin6 8 4< 6
1
+1
The metric tensor:
N
!"  M
+7 6
+7 6 sin6 8

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and its inverse:

The basis one forms

Thursday, September 08, 2011

!"

V
T
U
T
S

+1

1
76

Y
T

X
1
T
+ 6 6 W
7 sin 8

 4
 47
 748
 7 sin 8 4<

The null tetrad

Now we can use the basis one-forms to construct a null tetrad


4  47

1 1 0 0

E
1 1 +1 0 0
1
4 + 47

(9.10)

F 
748  7 sin 8 4<


2 0 0 1
2
748 + 7 sin 8 4<
0 0 1 + G

Written in terms of the coordinate basis


1
1
1, 1, 0, 0
1, +1, 0, 0
! 
! 
2
2
1
1
0, 0, 7, 7 sin 8
0, 0, 7, +7 sin 8
! 
! 
2
2
Next we use the metric to rise the indices
1
1

 ! !   1
2 2
1
1
E  !E  EE  +1
+

!
E
2
2
F  G  0
1
1

 ! !   1
2 2
1
1
E  !E  EE  +1 (+
,

!
E
2
2
F  G  0
 E  0
1
7
1
+
F  !F !  FF F  (+ 6 ,
7
72
2
1
7
sin 8
1
 +
G  !G !  GG G  (+ 6 6 ,
7 sin 8
7 sin 8 2
2
Collecting the results

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!

! 

2
1
2
1
2
1
2

Thursday, September 08, 2011

(1, 1,

0, 0)

(0, 0,

7,

(1, +1, 0, 0)
0, 0,

7,

7 sin 8

+7 sin 8
! 

2
1
2
1
2
1
2

(1, +1, 0, 0)
(1, 1,
(0,
(0,

0, 0)

,
0, + , +
7
7 sin 8
1

,
0, + ,
7 7 sin 8

P.195, Example 9-5: The Brinkmann metric


The line element:
45 6  P, *, R4P6  24P4Q + 4* 6 + 4R 6
1
1
The metric tensor:
N
!"  M
+1
+1
1
!" 
and its inverse:
M 1 +
N
+1
+1

The basis one forms

Finding the basis one forms is not so obvious, we write:


6
6
6
6
45 6  P, *, R4P6  24P4Q + 4* 6 + 4R 6  sZ t + s\ t + s [ t + s ] t
O
O

4PP, *, R4P  24Q + 4* 6 + 4R 6


Z  \
Z + \
[
]

1
   14P  4Q
2
1
 1 + 4P + 4Q
2
 4*
 4R

4P

4Q

4*
4R

 Z  \

 sZ  \ tsZ + \ t + s [ t + s ] t
 4P
 4P  24Q
 4*
 4R

1
1
 1 + Z + 1  \
2
2
 [
 ]

M

+1

+1

+1

The orthonormal null tetrad

Now we can use the basis one-forms to construct a orthonormal null tetrad
4P
1 1 0 0

Z  \
Z

\
1 1 +1 0 0
1 Z + \
1 4P  24Q

[ 

(9.10)


2 0 0 1
2 [  ]
2 4*  4R
4* + 4R
0 0 1 +

]
[ + ]
Written in terms of the coordinate basis

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!

2
1

Thursday, September 08, 2011

(1, 0,

0, 0)

(0, 0, 1, )
2
Next we use the metric to rise the indices
Z  !Z !  \Z \  1 0  0
!
[

Z
\

[
Z
[

!\

! 

 ]  0

Z\

Z 

\\

ZZZ

!Z

!"$

ZZ]

 Z]Z

2
1
2

(, 2, 0,
(0, 0,

0)

1, +)

! 

\Z






2
1
2
1
2
1
2

(0, 1,

0, 0)

(0, 0,

+1, +)

(2, +,
(0, 0,

0, 0)

+1, )

The non-zero Christoffel symbols

 Z[Z

]ZZ

! 

2
\  1 ( ,  2
2
1
2
1
!\
Z\
\\

! 
Z 
\  1 ( ,  (+) ( ,  +

2
2
2
 ]  0
 \  0
1
1
 ![ !  [[ [  (+1)
+
2
2
1
1
 !] !  ]] ]  (+1)
 +
2
2


ZZ[

[ZZ

1
1
\  1 ( ,  (+) 0 
2
2

Collecting the results


1
(1, 0, 0, 0)
! 
!
2
1
(, 2, 0, 0)
! 
!
2
1
(0, 0, 1, )
! 
!
2
1
(0, 0, 1, +)
! 

!
2

1
 ()$ !"  )"
2
1 )

2 )P
1 )

2 )*
1 )
+
2 )*
1 )

2 )R
1 )
+
2 )R

!$

+ )!

"$ )

(4.15)

O \ZZ
O

!"$

\Z[

 \[Z

O \Z]

 \]Z

O [ZZ
O ]ZZ

!'

'"$

\Z

ZZZ

[[

[ZZ





\Z
\Z

]]

ZZ[

ZZ]

]ZZ

1 )
2 )P
1 )

2 )*
1 )

2 )*
1 )

2 )R
1 )

2 )R
(4.16)

The spin coefficients calculated from the null tetrad

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Thursday, September 08, 2011

 +^" !
! "

 +^" !
!
"

 ^" ! !
"

 +^" !
! "

 +^" !
! "

 ^" ! ! "

{  ^" ! ! "

 ^" ! ! "

1
 s^" ! ! " + ^" !
! " t
2
1
 s^" ! ! " + ^" !
! " t
2
(9.15)
1
! "
! "
 s^" !
+ ^" !

t
2
1
 s^" ! ! " + ^" !
! " t
2

Calculating the spin-coefficients


! "  +^\ !
! \  +^\ [
[ \ + ^\ ]
] \
1  +^" !
 +()\ [ + $[\ $ )
[ \ + s)\ ] + $]\ $ t
] \  0
 +^" !
! "  +^Z !
! Z + ^\ !
! \
[ Z
] Z
[ \
 +^Z [
+ ^Z ]
+ ^\ [
+ ^\ ]
] \
 +()Z [ + $[Z $ )
[ Z + s)Z ] + $]Z $ t
] Z + ()\ [ + $[\ $ )
[ \ + s)\ ] + $]\ $ t
] \
\
[ Z
\
] Z
 [Z \
 ]Z \

1 ) +1
1 ) 1
1
)
)
 s \[Z
[  \]Z
] t\ Z  (
( ,
, 2 2 
(+

,
2 )* 2
2 )R 2
)*
)R
2
!
"  +^[ !
!
[ + ^] !
!
]
 +^" !
[ [
] [
[ ]
 +^[ [

+ ^[ ]

+ ^] [

+ ^] ]
]
]
 +()[ [ + $[[ $ )
[
[ + s)[ ] + $[] $ t
]
[ + s)] [ + $][ $ t
[
] + s)] ] + $]] $ t
]
]
0
 +^" !
! "  0
! "
 ^" !  ^\ ! ! \  ^\ [ [ \  ^\ ] ] \  (\ [ + $\[ $ ) [ \  s\ ] + $\] $ t] \
0
{  ^" ! ! "  ^Z ! ! Z  ^\ ! ! \  ^Z [ [ Z  ^\ [ [ \  ^Z ] ] Z  ^\ ] ] \
 ()Z [ + $Z[ $ ) [ Z  ()\ [ + $\[ $ ) [ \  s)Z ] + $Z] $ t] Z  s)\ ] + $\] $ t^\ ] ] \
0
"  ^[ ! !
[  ^] ! !
]  ^[ [ [
[  ^] [ [
]  ^[ ] ]
[  ^] ] ]
]
 ^" ! !
 ()[ [ + $[[ $ ) [
[  s)] [ + $][ $ t [
]  s)[ ] + $[] $ t]
[  s)] ] + $]] $ t]
]
0
 ^" ! ! "  0
1
1
 s^" ! ! " + ^" !
! " t  (^\ ! ! \ + ^\ !
! \ )
2
2
1
1
 (^\ Z Z \ + ^\ [
[ \ )  s^\ \ \ \ + ^\ ]
] \ t
2
2
1
1
 s()\ Z + $\Z $ )Z \ + ()\ [ + $\[ $ )
[ \ t  ()\ \ + $\\ $ )\ \ + s)\ ] + $\] $ t
] \
2
2
0
1
1
1
 s^" ! ! " + ^" !
! " t  (^Z ! ! Z + ^Z !
! Z )  (^\ ! ! \ + ^\ !
! \ )
2
2
2
1
1
1
 (^Z Z Z Z + ^Z [
[ Z )  (^\ Z Z \ + ^\ [
[ \ )  s^Z \ \ Z + ^Z ]
] Z t
2
2
2
1
 s^\ \ \ \ + ^\ ]
] \ t
2
1
 s()Z Z + $ZZ $ )Z Z + ()Z [ + $Z[ $ )
[ Z t
2

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Thursday, September 08, 2011

1
 s()\ Z + $\Z $ )Z \ + ()\ [ + $\[ $ )
[ \ t
2
1
 ()Z \ + $Z\ $ )\ Z + s)Z ] + $Z] $ t
] Z
2
1
 ()\ \ + $\\ $ )\ \ + s)\ ] + $\] $ t
] \
2
0
1
1
1
 s^" ! !
" + ^" !
!
" t  (^[ ! !
[ + ^[ !
!
[ )  s^] ! !
] + ^] !
!
]t
2
2
2
1
1
1
 (^[ Z Z
[ + ^[ [
[
[ )  s^] Z Z
] + ^] [
[
] t  s^[ \ \
[ + ^[ ]
]
[t
2
2
2
1
 s^] \ \
] + ^] ]
]
]t
2
1
 s()[ Z + $[Z $ )Z
[ + ()[ [ + $[[ $ )
[
[t
2
1
 s)] Z + $]Z $ tZ
] + s)] [ + $][ $ t
[
]
2
1
 ()[ \ + $[\ $ )\
[ + s)[ ] + $[] $ t
]
[
2
1
 s)] \ + $]\ $ t\
] + s)] ] + $]] $ t
]
]
2
0
1
 s^" ! ! " + ^" !
! " t  0
2

Collecting the results


1 0
0
0
1
)
)
(+

,

{ 0
0
)*
)R
2
0
0
d 0
0
0 f 0
And the answer to quiz 9-3 is (a) and to quiz 9-4 is (d)

The Weyl Scalars and Petrov classification

 +  + (  ) + (3 + )  (1 + 1  d  3f)
 f +  + (d  1) + f( + )  (  )  (d + 1)
6  { + + +  {sf + d + {t  (  )  + 2
  +  (  ) + ({  f)  d( + )  sf + {t
  +  (  ) + (3 + )  s3d  f  1 + {t
Where
 ! ^!
 ! ^!
  ! ^!
! ^!
 

(13.22)
(13.23)
(13.24)
(13.25)
(13.26)
(9.13)

We see that   6   0 and


1
)
)
! ^! 
! ! (+

,
  
)*
)R
2

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)
)
)
)

,
] ) (+

,
)*
)R
)*
)R
2
1
1
)6
)6
1
)6
)6
1 )6 )6
)6

(+ , x+ 6 
 6 y  6 + 6 + 2

y  ( , x+
)*
)*)R
)*)R
)R
2 )*
)R
)*)R
2
2
2
0: This is a Petrov type N, which means there is a single principal null direction of multiplicity 4. This
corresponds to transverse gravity waves.


Thursday, September 08, 2011

[ (+

The Ricci tensor


(9.24)
  + + 6 + + (  )  1 + ({ + 3f + d)    ! ^!
1
)
)
1
)
)
1
)
)
 ! )! (+

,  [ )[ (+

,  ] )] (+

,
)*
)R
)*
)R
)*
)R
2
2
2
1
1
)6
)6
1
1
)6
)6
1 )6 )6
 (+ , ( , x+ 6 
 6y  6  6
y  (+ , ( , x+
)*
)*)R
)*)R
)R
2 )*
)R
2 2
2 2
1
1
1
(9.22)
 + -!" ! "  + -Z" Z " + -\" \ "
2
2
2
1
1
1
1
 + -ZZ Z Z + -\Z \ Z + -Z\ Z \ + -\\ \ \
2
2
2
2
1
1
1
1
1
 + -ZZ 2 2 + -Z\ 2 (+
, + -\\ (+
, (+
,
2
2
2
2
2
6
1 )6 )6
 +-ZZ  -Z\ +
-\\  6  6
4
2 )*
)R
6
6
1 ) )
-5ZZ  + 6  6
2 )*
)R
-Z\  -\\  0

66

66

O
O

The Weyl tensor calculated from the null tetrad found in example 9-5. This calculation show that
the spin coefficients and the Weyl scalars depend on the chosen null tetrad, and the Ricci tensor
does not (of course).

The null tetrad (9.26), (9.27), (9.28)


!  1, 0, 0, 0
!
1
!  ( , 1, 0, 0,
!
2
1
0, 0, 1, + !
! 
2
1
0, 0, 1, 
! 

!
2

 0, 1, 0,
1
 (1, + ,
2
1
0, 0,

2
1
0, 0,

2

0

0, 0,

+1, 

+1, +

 +^" !
! "  +^Z !
! Z + ^\ !
! \
[ Z
] Z
[ \
 +^Z [
+ ^Z ]
+ ^\ [
+ ^\ ]
] \

According to the Cartan calculation further below the sign is wrong

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Thursday, September 08, 2011

 +)Z [ + $[Z $ 
[ Z + s)Z ] + $]Z $ t
] Z + )\ [ + $[\ $ 
[ \
$
] \
+ s)\ ] + ]\ $ t

\
[ Z
\
] Z
 [Z \
 ]Z \
 s \[Z
[  \]Z
] t\ Z
1 ) +1
1 )
1
1 )
)

( ,
(+ , 1 1  +
(

,
)R
2 )* 2
2 )R
22 )*
2
)
)
(

,
)R
22 )*
1
)
)
)
)
 (+
,
[ (

,
] ) (

,
)*
)R
)*
)R
22
1
1
)6
)6
1
)6
)6
 (+
, (+ , x 6 
 6 y
y  (+ , x
)*)R
)R
22
2 )*
2 )*)R
6
6
6
1 ) )
)
 6 + 6  2

4 )*
)R
)*)R
1 )
)
   ! ^!  ! )! +
(

,
)*
)R
22
  
! ^! 
! ! +

66

O -6ZZ
-Z\

(9.31)
(9.24)

1
1
 + -!" ! " (9.22) !  (1, + , 0, 0,
2
2
1
1
1
1
 + -ZZ Z Z + -\Z \ Z + -Z\ Z \ + -\\ \ \
2
2
2
2
1
1
1
1 6
 + -ZZ 1 1 + -\Z 1 (+ , + -\\ (+ ,
2
2
2
2
1

6
1 )6 )6
 + -ZZ  -\Z +
- 


2
2
8 \\ 4 )* 6 )R 6
1 )6 )6
 + 6  6
2 )*
)R
 -\\  0

Finding the Ricci tensor of the Brinkmann metric using Cartans structure equation

Cartans First Structure equation and the calculation of the curvature one-forms
4!

)
)
1 )
)
(

,  ] )] +
(

,
)R
)R
22 )*
22 )*
1
+1 ) 6
)6
1
)6
)6
1 )6 )6
 (+
, ( , x 6 
 6 y  6  6 (9.32)
y  ( , x
4 )*
)*)R
)R
)R
22
2 )*
2 )*)R
 [ )[ +

66

(9.30)

 + ! " h "

(5.9)

! "

 !"$ $

(5.10)

According to the Cartan calculation further below the sign is wrong

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Susan Larsen
4Z
4\
4 [
4 ]

1
1 )
)
 4 ( P, *, R  14P  4Q,  ( 4* h 4P 
4R h 4P,
2
2 )*
)R
1 )
) ]
 [ h sZ  \ t 
h sZ  \ t
2 )*
)R
1
1 )
)
 4 ( 1 + 4P + 4Q,  + ( 4* h 4P 
4R h 4P,
)R
2
2 )*
1 )
) ]
 + [ h sZ  \ t 
h sZ  \ t
2 )*
)R
0
0

The curvature one-forms summarized in a matrix:

! "

Thursday, September 08, 2011

V
T
T
T

1 ) Z
s  \ t
2 )*
1 ) Z
s  \ t
2 )*

1 ) Z
U1 ) Z
s  \ t +
s  \ t+
T2 )*
2 )*
T1 )
1 ) Z
T
sZ  \ t +
s  \ t+
2 )R
S2 )R
Where J refers to column and to row
and A and B will be used later, to make the calculations easier

! "

1 ) Z
s  \ tY
2 )R
T
T
1 ) Z
\
s  tT
2 )R
X
0
T
T
T
0
W

The curvature two forms:


 4 ! "  ! $ h $ "

 - !"$' $ h '
2

(5.27), (5.28)

1 ) Z
1 ) Z
s  \ t h
s  \ t
2 )*
2 )*
1 ) 6 Z
(
, s h Z  Z h \  \ h Z  \ h \ t
2 )*
1 ) 6 Z
1 ) 6 Z
(
, s h \  \ h Z t  (
, s h \ + Z h \ t  0
2 )*
2 )*
1 ) Z
1 ) Z
s  \ t h
s  \ t  0
h 
2 )R
2 )R
1 ) Z
1 )P, *, R
4P,
s  \ t  4 (
4  4
2 )*
2
)*
1 ) 6 P, *, R
1 ) 6 P, *, R

4*
h
4P

4R h 4P
2
)* 6
2
)*)R
1 ) 6 P, *, R [
1 ) 6 P, *, R ]

Z
\


h



h sZ  \ t
s
t
)* 6
)*)R
2
2

First we will calculate

h 

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Susan Larsen

Thursday, September 08, 2011

1 ) Z
1 )P, *, R
1 )6
1 )6
4P, 
4* h 4P 
4R h 4P
s  \ t  4 (
)R
2 )R
2
2 )*)R
2 )R 6
1 ) 6 [
1 ) 6 ]

h sZ  \ t 
h sZ  \ t
2 )*)R
2 )R 6
Now we are ready to calculate the curvature two-forms
ZZ :
4 ZZ  0
]
]
Z$ h $ Z  ZZ h ZZ  Z\ h \ Z  Z[ h [ Z  Z] h Z  Z[ h [ Z  Z] h Z
hh 0
ZZ  4 ZZ  Z$ h $ Z  0
\ Z :
4 \ Z  0
]
]
\ $ h $ Z  \ Z h ZZ  \ \ h \ Z  \ [ h [ Z  \ ] h Z  \ [ h [ Z  \ ] h Z
 + h   + h   0
\
O
Z  0
1 ) 6 [
1 ) 6 ]

Z
\
[ Z :
4 [ Z  4 

h



h sZ  \ t
s
t
2 )* 6
2 )*)R
]
[ $ h $ Z  [ Z h ZZ  [ \ h \ Z  [ [ h [ Z  [ ] h Z  0
1 ) 6 [
1 ) 6 ]
[

Z
\
O
Z 
h s  t 
h sZ  \ t
2 )* 6
2 )*)R
1 ) 6 [
1 ) 6 ]
]
]
Z :
4 Z  4 
h sZ  \ t 
h sZ  \ t
2 )*)R
2 )R 6
]
]
]
]
]
]
$ h $ Z  Z h ZZ  \ h \ Z  [ h [ Z  ] h Z  0
1 ) 6 [
1 ) 6 ]
]
O
Z 
h sZ  \ t 
h sZ  \ t
2 )*)R
2 )R 6
\ \
4 \ \  0
]
]
\ $ h $ \  \ Z h Z\  \ \ h \ \  \ [ h [ \  \ ] h \  \ [ h [ \  \ ] h \
 + h  +  h   0
O
\ \  0
1 ) 6 [
1 ) 6 ]

Z
\
[ \ :
4 [ \  4 

h



h sZ  \ t
s
t
2 )* 6
2 )*)R
]
[ $ h $ \  [ Z h Z\  [ \ h \ \  [ [ h [ \  [ ] h \  0
1 ) 6 [
1 ) 6 ]

Z
\
O
[ \ 

h



h sZ  \ t
s
t
2 )* 6
2 )*)R
1 ) 6 [
1 ) 6 ]
]
]

Z
\
\ :
4 \  4 
h s  t 
h sZ  \ t
2 )*)R
2 )R 6
]
]
]
]
]
]
$ h $ \  Z h Z\  \ h \ \  [ h [ \  ] h \  0
1 ) 6 [
1 ) 6 ]
]
O
\ 
h sZ  \ t 
h sZ  \ t
2 )*)R
2 )R 6
[ [ :
4 [ [  0
]
[ $ h $ [  [ Z h Z[  [ \ h \ [  [ [ h [ [  [ ] h [   h  +  h   0
O
[ [  0
]
]
[ :
4 [  0
4

h $ [

 4

0

h Z[ 

h \ [ 

h [ [ 

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  h  +  h   0

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Susan Larsen

! "

Thursday, September 08, 2011


]

0

1 ) 6 [
1 ) 6 ]
h sZ  \ t 
h sZ  \ t
6
2 )*
2 )*)R
1 ) 6 [
1 ) 6 ]
h sZ  \ t 
h sZ  \ t
6
2 )*
2 )*)R
0
0

Summarized in a matrix:
V0
T
T

 0
U
T
T
S

1 ) 6 [
1 ) 6 ]
h sZ  \ t 
h sZ  \ tY
2 )*)R
2 )R 6
T
T
1 ) 6 [
1 ) 6 ]

Z
\
Z
\
h s  t 

h
s


t
X
2 )*)R
2 )R 6
T
T
0
W
0

Now we can write down the independent elements of the Riemann tensor in the noncoordinate basis:
1 )6
1 )6
]
R Z]Z  
R[ Z[Z  
2 )R 6
2 )* 6
6
1 )6
1)
]
R Z]\  
R[ Z[\  
2 )R 6
2 )* 6
6
1)
1 )6
]
R[ Z]Z  
R \]\  
2 )*)R
2 )R 6
6
1)
R[ Z]\  
2 )*)R
1 )6
[
R \[\  
2 )* 6
1 )6
R[ \]Z  
2 )*)R
1 )6
R[ \]\  
2 )*)R
Where C,D and E will be used later, to make the calculations easier

The Ricci tensor:

-!"

 - $ !$"

-\Z

 - $ \$Z  - Z\ZZ  - \\\Z  - [\[Z  -

-ZZ
-[Z
-]Z
-\\

-[\
-]\
-[[

-][

-]]

 - $ Z$Z  - ZZZZ  - \Z\Z  - [Z[Z  0


0

 - $ \$\  - Z\Z\  - \\\\  - [\[\  -

1 )6 1 )6

2 )* 6 2 )R 6
1 )6 1 )6
 

2 )* 6 2 )R 6

(4.46)

]
]Z

\]Z

]
\]\

 

 

1 )6 1 )6

2 )* 6 2 )R 6

0
0
]
 - $ [$[  - Z[Z[  - \[\[  - [[[[  - [][  +   0
 - $ ]$[  - Z]Z[  - \]\[  - [][[  -

]$]

- Z]Z]

-

]\]

- [][]

]
]][  + 
]
- ]]]  + 

http://physicssusan.mono.net/9035/General%20Relativity

0

0

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Thursday, September 08, 2011

Summarized in a matrix:
1 )6 1 )6 1 )6 1 )6
V


2 )* 6 2 )R 6 2 )* 6 2 )R 6
T
T 6
6
6
6
-!"  1 )  1 ) 1 )  1 )
U2 )* 6 2 )R 6 2 )* 6 2 )R 6
T
T
0
0
S
0
0
Where J refers to column and to row

0
0
0
0

0Y
T
T
0X

T
0T
0W

The Ricci tensor in the coordinate basis:

The transformation: -!"


-ZZ

 $! '" -$'

 $Z 'Z -$'

 ZZ 'Z -Z'  \Z 'Z -\'


 ZZ ZZ -ZZ  ZZ \Z -Z\  \Z ZZ -\Z  \Z \Z -\\

1
1
1
1
1
1
 x   1y       1 1 +     1 +    1    x 1 + y   
2
2
2
2
2
2
6

   
1 )6 1 )6


2 )* 6 2 )R 6
-Z\  $Z '\ -$'

 ZZ '\ -Z'  \Z '\ -\'


 ZZ Z\ -ZZ  ZZ \\ -Z\  \Z Z\ -\Z  \Z \\ -\\
1
1
1
1
   1 1      1+1    1 +  1    1 + +1  
2
2
2
2
0
-\\  $\ '\ -$'

 Z\ '\ -Z'  \\ '\ -\'


 Z\ Z\ -ZZ  Z\ \\ -Z\  \\ Z\ -\Z  \\ \\ -\\
 1 1    1+1    +11    +1+1  
0
-[[  -]]  -[]  0
O
-  !" -!"  0 -ZZ  0
Summarized in a matrix:
1 )6 1 )6
V

0 0 0Y
T2 )* 6 2 )R 6
T
-!" 
0
0 0 0
U
X
0
0 0 0T
T
S
0
0 0 0W
Where J refers to column and to row
1 )6 1 )6
O /ZZ 

2 )* 6 2 )R 6

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Thursday, September 08, 2011

Chapter 10: The Schwarzschild Solution


P.204: The Riemann and Ricci tensor of the general Schwarzschild metric
The line element:
45 6  6E 4 6 + 6E 47 6 + 7 6 48 6 + 7 6 sin6 8 4< 6

 E 4
 E 47

The Basis one forms

 748

 7 sin 8 4<

4
4E

4F

4 G

4
47

48

4<

 E
 E E
1
 F
7
1


G
7 sin 8

M

+1

+1

+1

Cartans First Structure equation and the calculation of the Ricci rotation coefficients !"$ :

4!

 + ! " h "

(5.9)

 4s E 4t  E 47 h 4  E E h


 4s E 47t  0
1

 4748  47 h 48  E E h F
7

! "

 !"$ $

(5.10)

1
cot 8 F

 47 sin 8 4<  sin 8 47 h 4<  7 cos 8 48 h 4<  E E h G 


h G
7
7

Summarizing the curvature one forms in a matrix:


0
E
0
0
V
Y
1
1

E
E F
E G
T
T

T
T
7
7
!
1
cot 8 G
" 

0
+ E F
0
X
U
7
7
T
T
1 E G
cot 8 G
T
T
0
+

0
S
W
7
7
Where J refers to column and to row.

Now we can read off the Ricci rotation coefficients


1

E  E
 E
F E F  E
7
1 E
cot 8

F
E
GG  +
FF  +
7
7
1 E
E
GG  +
7

http://physicssusan.mono.net/9035/General%20Relativity

E G

1
 E
7
cot 8

7

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! "

E :
O

:
O

FE :

The curvature two forms:


 4 ! "  ! $ h $ "
4 E

E $ h $

G
$

G
:
F

4 F E

F $ h $ E

E :

Thursday, September 08, 2011

FE

G
$

h $ E

G
E

G
$

h $ F

 - !"$' $ h '
2

(5.27), (5.28)

 4s E t  4s EE 4t     +  EE 47 h 4


 s   + t 6E E h
 E h  E E h E  E F h F  E G h

0

 F h  F E h E  F F h F  F G h
1

 E F h E  6E F h


7
7

 6E F h
7
0

 F E h E

 s 
0

t 6E

 h  E h E  F h F  G h  E h E

 6E G h
7
6E G

h
7
1

 4 ( E F ,  4s E 48t  + E 47 h 48  6E F h E


7
7

 F h E  FE h E E  F F h F E  F G h E  0

 6E F h E
7
1

 4 ( E G ,  4s E sin 8 4<t


7
 + E sin 8 47 h 4<  E cos 8 48 h 4<

1
 + 6E 7 h <  6 E cot 8 8 h <
7
7

G
G
G
G
G
G

E
 h E  E h E  F h F E  G h E  F h F E
cot 8 G 1 E F

h

7
7

 6E < h 7
7
cot 8 G
1

 4(
,  4cos 8 4<  + sin 8 48 h 4<  + 6 F h G
7
7

G
G
G
G
G
G
 h F  E h E F  F h F F  G h F  E h E F
1

 + 6 6E G h F
7
s1 + 6E t G


h F
76

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! "

Thursday, September 08, 2011

V0 s   + t 6E E h
T
T
0

U
T

T
S

6E G

h Y
7
T
T
6E <
7

h
7
X
s1 + 6E t G
T
F
h T
76
W
0

Now we can find the independent elements of the Riemann tensor in the non-coordinate basis:

G
 s   + t 6E
- G
- FF  6E
 6E
7
7

6E
6E

G
F
- E GE 
- E FE 
7
7

s1 + 6E t
G
- FGF 
76

The Ricci tensor:

-!"

 - $ !$"

-E E

 - $ E $E  - E E  - E E EE  - FE FE  -

 - $ $  -  - E E 

 x   +   2

-FF

-GG

- FF

G
- G

6E
y
7

 + x   +  + 2 y 6E
7

 - E E  - FF  -

G
E
E G

(4.46)

G

G

 +RE E  - FE FE  -

G
G

F
F
6E

 - $ F$F  - FF  - E FE F  - FFFF  -

G
E
E G

 +- FF  - FE FE 

G
G

F
F

6E 6E s1 +
t



6
7
7
7

G
G
G
G
$

F
E
 - G$G  - GG  - GE G  - GFG  - GGG  +- G  - E GE  - FGF
+
+

-!"

6E F

h
7
6E F

h E
7

Summarized in a matrix:

6E 6E s1 + 6E t



7
7
76

V(   +   2 , 6
7
T
T
T
0

Summarized in a matrix:


U
T
T
T
S

+ (   +  + 2 , 6
7

Where J refers to column and to row

0
0

1 + 6 

+ 6  6 
7
7
76

http://physicssusan.mono.net/9035/General%20Relativity

Y
T
T
T

X
T
T
1 + 6 T

+ 6  6 
6
W
7
7
7
0

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Thursday, September 08, 2011

P.215: The Riemann tensor of the Schwarzschild metric


Solving the vacuum equations we find  + and 6  1 +

The line element:

45 6

 (1 +

6
,
E

6  1 +

2
2 6
, 4 6 + (1 +
, 47 + 7 6 48 6 + 7 6 sin6 8 4< 6
7
7

Now we can find the independent elements of the Riemann tensor in the non-coordinate basis:
First we calculate
1
4
1
4
2
1
2

 6  6   6 (1 +
,  6 ( 6 ,  6
2
47
2
47
7
2
7
7 + 72
6
4
1
4
4
1
4
6  6   + 6  6   6 6  6 

47 2
47
47
2
47
1
4 2
2
 +2  6 ( 6 ,  +2 + 6
2
47 7
7
2
E

6E

R E  s   + t
   2  6E  (+2 + 6  2 , 6E
7
2
+
7
6E 6E 1 1 6 2 6E

F
- F 



( 6 ,

7
7
72
7
7

6E

F
- E FE 
+
7
7

6E
G
- G 

7
7

6E

G
- E GE 
+
7
7
2

x1 + 1 + 7 y
G
- FGF
2
s1 + 6E t s1 + 6E t




6
6
6
7
7
7
7

RE E

Collecting the results

 + - FF 
7
7

F
- E FE  +
7

+
7
2

7


G

G

G
E
E G

G
- FGF

P.216: Calculation of the scalar



 in the Schwarzschild metric
-!"$' -!"$'  -E E -E E  -E E -E E  -E E -E E  -E E -E E


-FF -FF  -FF -FF  -FF -FF  -FF -FF




-FE FE - FE FE  -FE EF - FE EF  -E FE F - E FE F  -E FFE - E FFE




-GG -GG  -GG -GG  -GG -GG  -GG -GG


-GE GE - GE GE  -GE EG - GE EG  -E GE G - E GE G  -E GGE - E GGE

-GFGF - GFGF  -GFFG -GFFG  -FGFG - FGFG  -FGGF -FGGF

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2 2
2
2
2 2
2
2
 ( , ( ,  (+ , (+ ,  ( , ( ,  (+ , (+ ,
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7

 + +    + +
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7

  + +   + +
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7


 + +   + + 
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7

  + +   + +
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
2
2
2 2
2
2
2 2
 (+ , (+ ,  ( , ( ,  (+ , (+ ,  ( , ( ,
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
486
(10.35)

7

P.216: Geodesics in the Schwarzschild Spacetime


To find the geodesic we use the Euler-Lagrange equation
4 )
)
0 
( !, + !
45 )*r
)*
where
2 6
2 6
 (1 +
r
, + (1 +
, 7r + 7 6 8r 6 + 7 6 sin6 8 <r 6
7
7
* !  :
)
0
)
2
)
 2 (1 +
, r
7
)r
4
2
4 )
, v
( ,  6 7r r  2 (1 +
r
7
7
45 )
4
2
O
0  6 7r r  2 (1 +
, v
7
7
2
7r r
w
0  v 
77 + 2
* !  7:
2
2
)
 6 r 6 
7r 6 + 278r 6 + 27 sin6 8 <r 6
6
7
7
+
2
)7
)
2
 +2 (1 +
, 7r
)7r
7
4 )
2
2 6 2 6
( ,  +2 (1 +
, 7v  2 (1 +
,
7r
45 )7r
7
7
76

2
4
 +2 (1 +
, 7v 
7r 6
7 + 26
7
2
2
2
O
0  +2 (1 +
, 7v 
7r 6 + 6 r 6  278r 6  27 sin6 8 <r 6
6
7 + 2
7
7

7
+
2
w
0  7v +
7r 6 
r 6 + 7 + 28r 6 + 7 + 2 sin6 8 <r 6
77 + 2
7
* !  8:
)
 +27 6 cos 8 sin 8 <r 6
)8
)
 +27 6 8r
)8r

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(10.36)

(10.37)

(10.38)

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*!

Thursday, September 08, 2011

4 )
( ,  +477r 8r + 27 6 8v
45 )8r
0  +477r 8r + 27 6 8v  27 6 cos 8 sin 8 <r 6
2
0  8v  7r 8r + cos 8 sin 8 <r 6
7
 <:
)
0
)<
)
 +27 6 sin6 8 <r
)<r
4 )
x y  +47 sin6 8 7r <r + 47 6 cos 8 sin 8 8r <r + 27 6 sin6 8 <v
45 )<r
0  +47 sin6 8 7r <r + 47 6 cos 8 sin 8 8r <r + 27 6 sin6 8 <v
2
0  <v  7r <r  2 cot 8 8r <r
7

(10.39)

(10.40)

P.218: The meaning of the integration constant: The choice of 


We can use the geodesic equations to justify the choice of 2 by investigating the geodesic equations in
'
'E
the classical limit i.e. 7  2, '|  1 and Q  '| , where Q is the velocity and { is the proper time. We
want to investigate the case of a radially infalling particle i.e. 48  0 and 4<  0. We also want to work in

'
'

'E
'E
\
SI-units so we have to substitute by $ . Also remember that r  '  $'|  $ , 7r  '  $'|  $ and
7v  '  $ '|  $ , where J is the particle acceleration. We use equation (10.38):

7 + 2 6
0  7v +
7r 6 
r + 7 + 28r 6 + 7 + 2 sin6 8 <r 6
77 + 2
7
Now before we carry on with the physics we also have to be sure that each term in this equation has the
same dimension. It turns out that they dont and therefore the third term has to be multiplied by 6 , in

which case each term gets the dimension7 . .


' E

' E

7 + 2 6 6
7r 6 
r + 7 + 28r 6 + 7 + 2 sin6 8 <r 6
77 + 2
7

7 + 2 6 6
48  0, 4<  0
O
0  7v +
7r 6 
r
77 + 2
7

O
0  7v + 6 7r 6  6 6 r 6
7  2
7
7
6
6
J Q

\
!
r  $ , 7r  $ , 7v  $
O
0  6 + 6 6  6  6 xJ + 6 Q 6  6 y

7
7

7
7
/
/ Q 6 /
O
0 J+ 6  6
 6

7
7
/
O
J + 6
Q
7
Multiplying with on both sides we get precisely the Newtonian gravitational law
/
O
 J  + 6
7
O

0  7v +

dimension of each term, the first term has to be multiplied by 6 : 45 6  1 +

6 4 6 + 1 +

47 6 +

This actually originates from the line element of the Schwarzschild metric itself, because in order to get the same

7 6 48 6 + 7 6 sin6 8 4< 6

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6
E

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Thursday, September 08, 2011

P.229: Time Delay


To describe the time delay of a light ray outside a massive body, like the Sun we can use the Schwarzschild

metric. We can choose to work in the plane with 8  6 , and together with 45 6  0 (light rays are placed
on the cone) we can rewrite the Schwarzschild line element:
2
2 6
6
0  (1 +
, 4 + (1 +
, 47 + 7 6 4< 6
7
7
Now we would like to describe the time delay of the light ray as a function of the distance, 7 from the massive body, and therefore we have to get rid of the <s. Its not that difficult. If we use polar coordinates the
least distance, 7 , the light ray passes the massive body is:
7  7 sin <
7
O
<  sin
7
4<
4
7
7
1

sin  8 + 6
6
O
47
47
7
7
1 + 7
7
76
1
4< 6
( , 

7 6
7
47
1 + 7
Now we can begin rewriting the Schwarzschild line element and solve the differential equation
2
2 6
0  (1 +
, 4 6 + (1 +
, 47 + 7 6 4< 6
7
7
2 4< 6
2 76
1
6
2 6 4 6  1  7 6 (1 +
,
(
,

1

7
(1
+
,
O
(1 +
, ( ,
7 6
7
47
7 7
7
47
1 + 7
6
2 7 6
7 6
2 7 6 (1 + 27 ,
1 + 7 7
1 + 7  1 + 7 7
7
1


6
6
7
7
7 6
1 + 7
1 + 7
1 + 7
27 6
(1 + ,
6
7
4

( , 
6
7
2 6
47
(1 + , 1 +

7
7
27 6
27 6
471 +
471 +
7
7 (1  2,
9

4 
6
7
2
7 6
1 + 7
1 + 7 1 + 7
7
47
2
76
 10
(1 
, x1 + y
6
7
7
7

1 +
7
47
2 76

+ y
x1 
6
7
7
7

1 +
7
To get the total time delay between points 7 , 76  we have to integrate from 7 to 7 and from 7 to 76
8 '

sin P 

'[
9

10

'Z

Z '[

(13.20) (Spiegel, 1990)

 1   k7   0 (20.8) (Spiegel, 1990)




1 +   1 + 6 k7   0 (20.12) (Spiegel, 1990)

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Thursday, September 08, 2011


E (1 

 4  

6 +

2 76
7 + 7 , 47

E (1 

2 76
7 + 7 , 47


6
6
7
E

1 +
1 + 7
7
7
E
E
E
1
2
76

47  
47 + 
47
6
6
6
7
7
7
E
E
E

1 +
7 1 + 7
7 1 + 7
7
E
E
E
1
2
76

47  
47 + 
47
6
6
6
7
7
7
E
E
E

1 +
7 1 +
7 1 +
7
7
7
E
E
E
7
1
1

47  2 
47 + 76 
47
6
6
6
6
6
E 7 + 7
E 7 + 7
E 7 6 7 6 + 7
E
E
E
7
1
1

47  2 
47 + 76 
47
6
6
6
E 7 6 + 7
E 7 6 + 7
E 7 6 7 6 + 7
E

 117 6 + 76 + 7 6 + 76

122 ln 7  7 6 + 7 6 + ln 7  7 6 + 7 6
+1376

7 6 + 7 6 7 6 + 7 6
+
 76 6 + 76 + 7 6 + 76
7 6 7
7 6 7

2 ln 76  76 6 + 7 6 + ln 7  7 6 + 7 6
+76

76 6 + 7 6 7 6 + 7 6
+

7 6 76
7 6 7

 7 6 + 76  76 6 + 76

s7  7 6 + 7 6 ts76  76 6 + 7 6 t
7 6 + 7 6 76 6 + 7 6

+
+

7
76
76
We can use this formula to calculate the time delay from e.g. Venus to Earth. The first term is the ordinary
flat space distance, and the delay is characterized by the remaining terms. We have 76  7. , 7  7\ . Re 2 ln

member to get the right unit we must multiply by $ .


'.!]

/
s7\  7\ 6 + 7 6 ts7.  7. 6 + 7 6 t
7\ 6 + 7 6 7. 6 + 7 6
ln

+
+
2

7\
7.
7

P. 230, Quiz 10-1: Use the geodesic equations to find the Christoffel symbols for the general
Schwarzschild metric.
To find the geodesic we use
4 )q
)q
(4.36)
0 
( !, + !
45 )*r
)*
where
1
1 6E 6 1 6E 6 1 6 6 1 6 6
! "
(4.35)
q 
r +
7r + 7 8r + 7 sin 8 <r 6
!" *r *r 
2
2
2
2
2


11
12

13

['[

[ !
'[




[ !
'[

 * 6 + J6 (14.210) (Spiegel, 1990)

 lns*  * 6 + J6 t (14.210) (Spiegel, 1990)

[ [ !

[ !
! [

(14.214) (Spiegel, 1990)

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* !  :

)q
)
)q
)r
4 )q
( ,
45 )r

* !  7:

)q
)<
)q
)<r
4 )q
x y
45 )<r
0

* !  <:

 6E r

 2 6E

 6E

4 6
4
r + 6E 7r 6 + 78r 6 + 7 sin6 8 <r 6
47
47

 + 6E 7r

4 6
7r + 6E 7v
47
4
4
0  + 6E 7r 6 + 6E 7v + 6E r 6  78r 6  7 sin6 8 <r 6
47
47
4 6
4 6
6sEEt
0  7v  7r 
r + 7 6E 8r 6 + 7 sin6 8 6E <r 6
47
47

)q
)8
)q
)8r
4 )q
( ,
45 )8r
0

0

4
7r r  6E v
47
4
0  2 6E 7r r  6E v
47
4
0  v  2 7r r
47

)q
)7
)q
)7r
4 )q
( ,
45 )7r

* !  8:

Thursday, September 08, 2011

 +2 6E

 +7 6 cos 8 sin 8 <r 6


 +7 6 8r

 +277r 8r + 7 6 8v

 +277r 8r + 7 6 8v  7 6 cos 8 sin 8 <r 6


2
0  8v  7r 8r + cos 8 sin 8 <r 6
7
0

 +7 6 sin6 8 <r

 +27 sin6 8 7r <r + 27 6 cos 8 sin 8 8r <r + 27 6 sin6 8 <v

 +27 sin6 8 7r <r + 27 6 cos 8 sin 8 8r <r + 7 6 sin6 8 <v


2
0  <v  7r <r  2 cot 8 8r <r
7

Collecting the results


4
0  v  2 7r r
47
4 6
4
0  7v  7r  6sEEt r 6 + 7 6E 8r 6 + 7 sin6 8 6E <r 6
47
47
2
0  8v  7r 8r + cos 8 sin 8 <r 6
7

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Thursday, September 08, 2011

2
0  <v  7r <r  2 cot 8 8r <r
7
Now we can find the Christoffel symbols from the equation
46 * !
4* " 4* $
!
(4.33)
0
 "$
45 6
45 45

 E 

4
47

EEE

4
47

 6sEEt

4
47

E FF  +7 6E
E GG  +7 sin6 8 6E
Which means the answer to quiz 10-1 is (a)

FEF

F GG

 FFE 

1
7

 + cos 8 sin 8

G
EG

G
FG




G
GE

G
GF

1
7

 cot 8

P.231, Quiz 10-2: The Ricci tensor for the general time dependent Schwarzschild metric.
The line element:
45 6  6,E 4 6 + 6,E 47 6 + 7 6 48 6 + 7 6 sin6 8 4< 6

The Basis one forms


 ,E 4
 ,E 47

 748

 7 sin 8 4<

4
47

48

4<

 ,E
 ,E E
1
 F
7
1


G
7 sin 8

M

+1

+1

+1

Cartans First Structure equation and the calculation of the Cartan structure coefficients !" :

4!

4
4E

4F

 + ! " h "

(5.9)

! "

 4s ,E 4t  ,E 47 h 4  ,E E h


 4s ,E 47t  r ,E 4 h 47  r ,E h E
1

 4748  47 h 48  E, E h F
7

 !"$ $

(5.10)

1
cot 8 F

 47 sin 8 4<  sin 8 47 h 4<  7 cos 8 48 h 4<  E, E h G 


h G
7
7
In this case we have to be particular careful in reading off the curvature one forms. The curvature one
forms are antisymmetric in the sense that: !"  +"! (5.11). This means that E  E  + E 

+ E E E  E . But in the former calculation we found that E  ,E and E  r ,E E ,

which means that we in order to fulfill the antisymmetric properties need to require that E  E 

r ,E E  ,E , because E  ,E  something that makes E antisymmetric), and


4 G

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Thursday, September 08, 2011

E  r ,E E  (something that makes E antisymmetric).

Summarizing the curvature one forms in a matrix:


0
r ,E E  ,E
V
Tr ,E E  ,E
0
T

! "

0
U
T
T
0
S
Where J refers to column and to row.

! "

E :
O

F :

:
O

cot 8 G

0
Y
1 ,E G

T
T
7
cot 8 G
X
7
T
T
0
W

The curvature two forms:


 4 ! "  ! $ h $ "
4 E

E $ h $

G
$

4 F

h $

FE :

4 F E

+ ,E F
7
1

+ ,E G
7

0
1 ,E F

F $ h $ E

FE

 - !"$' $ h '
2

(5.27), (5.28)

 4sr ,E E  ,E t  4sr ,E,E 47  ,E,E 4t


 v  rsr + r t ,E,E 4 h 47     +  ,E,E 47 h 4
 + v  rsr + r t 6,E  s   + t 6,E E h
 E h  E E h E  E F h F  E G h

G
0

t 6,E

 + v  rsr + r t 6,E  s   +
0

 F h  F E h E  F F h F  F G h
1

 ,E F h sr ,E E  ,E t


7
r

 ,E,E F h E  6,E F h
7
7
0

E h

 F E h E

 h  E h E  F h F  G h  E h E
1

 ,E G h sr ,E E  ,E t


7
r

 ,E,E G h E  6,E G h
7
7
1

 4 ( ,E F ,  4s ,E 48t  +r ,E 4 h 48 + ,E 47 h 48


7
r

 ,E,E F h  6,E F h E
7
7

 F h E  FE h E E  F F h F E  F G h E  0
r

 ,E,E F h  6,E F h E
7
7

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E :

G
:
F

G
$

! "

RE E

h $ E

G
E

G
$

Thursday, September 08, 2011

h $ F

 4 ( ,E G ,  4s ,E sin 8 4<t


7
 +r ,E sin 8 4 h 4< + ,E sin 8 47 h 4<  ,E cos 8 48 h 4<
r

1
 ,E,E < h  6,E < h 7  6 ,E cot 8 8 h <
7
7
7

G
G
G
G
G
G

E
F
 h E  E h E  F h E  G h E  F h F E
cot 8 G 1 E F

h

7
7
r

 ,E,E < h  6,E < h 7


7
7
cot 8 G
1

 4(
,  4cos 8 4<  + sin 8 48 h 4<  + 6 F h G
7
7

G
G
G
G
G
G

F
E
 h F  E h F  F h F  G h F  E h E F
1

 + 6 6,E G h F
7
s1 + 6,E t G


h F
76

Summarized in a matrix:

V0
T
T

U
T
T
S

+ v  rsr + r t 6,E  s   + t 6,E E h


0

r ,E,E F

h E  6,E F h
7
7

r ,E,E F

h  6,E F h E
7
7
0

 + v  rsr + r t 6,E  s   + t 6,E

- FF

- FFE

-!"
-

-E

-E E

6,E

7
r
 ,E,E
7
6,E

7
s1 + 6,E t

76

Now we can find the independent elements of the Riemann tensor in the coordinate basis:

- FE FE

6,E

7
r
 ,E,E
7
6,E

7

r ,E,E G

h E  6,E G h Y
7
7
T

T
r ,E,E G

h  6,E G h E
7
7
X
s1 + 6,E t G

T
h F
T
6
7
W
0

G

G

G
E
E G

G
E
G

G
G
F

The Ricci tensor:


 - $ !$"

 - $ $  -

 - E E 

- FF

G
- G

 - E E  - FF  (4.46)

G

G

6,E
y
7
r

G
G
 - $ E $  - E  - E E E  - FE F  - E G  - FE F  - E G  2 ,E,E
7

G
G
 - $ E $E  - E E  - E E EE  - FE FE  - E GE  +RE E  - FE FE  - E GE
 + v  rsr + r t 6,E  x   +   2

 v  rsr + r t 6,E + x   +  + 2 y 6,E


7

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Thursday, September 08, 2011

-FF

 - $ F$F  - FF  - E FE F  - FFFF  -

-GG

 - $ G$G  - GG  - E GE G  - FGFG  -

-!"

 x+
 x+

G
G

F
F
6,E


s1 +
 y 6,E 
7
7
76

 +- FF  - FE FE 

G
G
G


s1 + 6,E t
 y 6,E 
7
7
76

Summarized in a matrix:

V+ v  rsr + r t 6  (   +   2 , 6
7
T
T
r
T
2 
7

U
0
T
T
T
0
S

v  rsr + r t 6

-E

-EE

-FF
-GG

-

G
E
E G

+ (   +  + 2 , 6
7
0

G
G

F
F

-

G
G

F
F

1 + 6 

(+  , 6 
7
7
76

0
0

Y
T
T
T

(+

6
 ,
7
7

X
T
T
1 + 6 T

W
76

The Ricci tensor in the coordinate basis:

The transformation: -!"


-

G

G

r
2 
7

Where J refers to column and to row

 +-

 $! '" -$'

 $ ' -$'  s t -

 6,E x+ v  rsr + r t 6,E  x   +   2

6,E6,E
y
7
r
r
 ,E ,E 2 ,E,E  2
7
7

 + v  rsr + r t  x   +   2
 $E ' -$'  E E -E

 $E 'E -$'  sE E t -E E
6

6,E
y
y
7

 6,E v  rsr + r t 6,E + x   +  + 2 y 6,E


7

 v  rsr + r t 6,E6,E + x   +  + 2 y
7
6

 $F 'F -$'  FF -FF  7 6 x+

 s+  7 + 1t 6,E  1


s1 + 6,E t
 y 6,E 

7
7
76

 $G 'G -$'  G -GG  7 6 sin6 8 x+

 s+  7 + 1t 6,E  1 sin6 8


s1 + 6,E t
 y 6,E 

7
7
76

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Susan Larsen

-!"

Thursday, September 08, 2011

Summarized in a matrix:

V+ v  rsr + r t  (   +   2 , 66
7
T
T
r
2

r
U
0
T
T
0
S

v  rsr + r t

Where J refers to column and to row

66

r
r

+ ( 
0
0

+ +2 ,
7


s+  7 + 1t 6  1
0

Which means the answer to quiz 10-2 is: -E  E '


6 '

Y
T
T

X
T
T
s+  7 + 1t 6  1 sin6 8W
0

P.231-32, Quiz 10-3, and 10-4: The Ricci rotation coefficients and Ricci tensor for the Schwarzschild metric with nonzero cosmological constant.

The line element:

Where

45 6

 +k74 6  mE 47 6  7 6 48 6  7 6 sin6 8 4< 6

k7  1 +

6
E

+ 7 6

Now we can compare with the line element of the Schwarzschild metric with zero cosmological constant,
where the primes should not be mistaken for the derivative 4/47.

45 6  6sE t 4 6 + 6sE t 47 6 + 7 6 48 6 + 7 6 sin6 8 4< 6


And choose:

sE t 4  k74

47
sE t 47 
mE

748  748
7 sin 8 4<  7 sin 8 4<

Comparing the two metrics we see: <  <, 8  8, 7  7, sE t  k7,  +, 


Next we can use the former calculations of the Schwarzschild metric with zero cosmological constant to
find the Ricci rotation coefficients and the Ricci tensor for the Schwarzschild metric with non-zero cosmological constant.
But first we need to calculate
4
4
4
4
47 
sE t
sE t
sE t
sE t


(k7
,


k7
s
t

47
47
4
47
47
1
1 4k7
4k7
 sE t

47 2k7 2k7 47
46 7 
47 6
4k7
47
46 k7
47 6

4
1 4k7
4
1 4k7
+1
4k7
1 46 k7



x
y
47 2k7 47
47 2k7 47
2k 6 7 47
2k7 47 6
4
2 1 6
2 2
1

(1 +
+ 7 ,  6 + 7  + k7  7 6 + 1
47
7
3
7
3
7
4 2 2
4 2
2 4k7

(
+ 7,  + +  + (
 7,
47 7 6 3
7
3
7 47


The Ricci rotation coefficients

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Thursday, September 08, 2011


47  sE t
1 4k7
1 4k7
k7 





47
2k7 47
2k7 47

E FF

 E GG  + F E F  + G E G  +

1
+ 7
3 + 7
3


97 + 18 + 37
7 + 2 + 1 7
3

2 2
+ r
76 3
2 1
21 + 7 + 3 7 6

1 sE t
1
1
2 1 6

 + k7  + 1 +
+ 7

3
7
7
7
7

cot 8
cot 8
+

7
7
Which means the answer to quiz 10-3 is (b)
F GG

 + G FG  +

The Ricci tensor


-

46

4 6
4 4
2 4

 6  ( , + ( , ( ,  6sE t
47
47 47
7 47
47
46
4 6 2 4 6sE t
 6  2 ( , 
47
7 47
47
6
6
+1
4k7
1 4 6 k7
1 4k7
2 1 4k7
 6
x
y 

2
x
y

k7
6
2k 7 47
2k7 47
2k7 47
7 2k7 47
1 46 k7 2 1 4k7


k7
2k7 47 6
7 2k7 47
1
2 4k7
2 1 4k7

+ x
 7y 
k7  +
2k7
7 47
7 2k7 47

(10.24)

46
4 6
4
4
2 4

(10.25)
 + 6  ( , + ( , ( , + 6sE t  +- 
47
47
47
7
47
47

1 4
1 4 6sE t 1 + 6sE t
2 4 6sE t 1 + 6sE t
-FF  -GG  +
(10.26)




+

7 47 7 47
76
7 47
76
2 1 4k7
1 + k7
1 4k7 1 + k7
+
k7 
+

6
7 2k7 47
7
7 47
76
1
1
1 + k7 1
1 + k7
 + x+ k7  7 6 + 1y 
 6 sk7  7 6 + 1t 
6
7
7
7
7
76

Which means the answer to quiz 10-4 is (a)
-E E

Alternatively we could use the formula calculated earlier on page 138: -!"  !" valid in vacuum systems
with a cosmological constant and positive signature, from which we immediately can see that +- 
-E E  -FF  -GG 

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Thursday, September 08, 2011

P.232, Quiz 10-5: The Petrov type of the Schwarzschild spacetime


2
V1 +
Y
7
T
T
T
T
1
+

The metric tensor:
2
!"
1 + 7
U
X
T
T
6
T
T
+7
6
6
S
+7 sin 8 W
1
V
Y
2
T1 + 7
T
T
T
2
T
T
+ (1 +
,
!"

and its inverse:
7
U
X
1
+ 6
T
T
7
T
T
1
T
T
+ 6 6 W
S
7 sin 8

The basis one forms


2
 1 +
4
7
1

47
1 + 2
7

 748

 7 sin 8 4<

47

48

4<

1 + 2
7

2 E
 1 +

7
1
 F
7
1


G
7 sin 8

M

+1

+1

+1

The orthonormal null tetrad

Now we can use the basis one-forms to construct a orthonormal null tetrad (9.10)

2
1
47
1 + 7 4 
2
1 +


7
 E

1 1 0 0



1 1 +1 0 0
1 + E
1
E







2
1

 


F
4 +
47
2 0 0 1
2 F  G
2 1 +
7

0 0 1 + G

F
G

1 + 2 
+
7


748  7 sin 8 4<
748 + 7 sin 8 4<

Written in terms of the coordinate basis

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2
1 + 7 ,
2
1

EE

EE

Thursday, September 08, 2011

0, 0,

1 + 2
7

7,

7 sin 8

, 0, 0

2
Next we use the metric to rise the indices

E  + (1 +

2 1
,
7 2

E  + (1 +

1 + 2
7

+

1 +

0, 0

1
2
, +1 +
,

7
2 1 + 2
7

0, 0

0, 0,

7,

1 + 2
7

+7 sin 8

2
7

1 1
1 1
,
7+
6
7 2
2 7
1
1
1
1
 GG G  + 6 6
7 sin 8  +
7 sin 8 2
2 7 sin 8




! 

2
1 + 7 , +
2
1

2 1
1
1
2
+

1 +
,
7 2
7
2
1 + 2

FF

F  (+

Collecting the results

! 

1
1
2
1
1
1 +

2 2
7
2
1 + 7
1 + 2
7

 G  0
 E  0

1
1
2
1
1
1 +

2 2
7
2
1 +

1 + 2
7
7

 G  0

2
1 + 7 ,
2
1

1 + 2
7

2
1 + 7 , +
2
1
1

2
1
2

0, 0,
0, 0,

7,
7,

, 0, 0

1 + 2
7

7 sin 8

0, 0

+7 sin 8

1
2
, 1 +
, 0, 0

7
2 1 + 2
7
1
1
1

(0, 0, + , +
,
7
7 sin 8
2
1
1
1

(0, 0, + ,
,
7
7 sin 8
2
1

The spin coefficients calculated from the null tetrad

 +^" !
! "

 ^" ! ! "

1
 s^" ! ! " + ^" !
! " t
2

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Thursday, September 08, 2011

 +^" !
! "

 +^" !
! "

 +^" !
!
"

{  ^" ! ! "

 ^" ! !
"

 ^" ! ! "

1
 s^" ! ! " + ^" !
! " t
2
1
 s^" ! !
" + ^" !
!
"t
2
1
 s^" ! ! " + ^" !
! " t
2

Calculating the spin-coefficients


! "  +^ !
! + ^E !
! E  +^ F
F + ^E F
F E + ^ G
G + ^E G
G E
1  +^" !
$
$
$
$
 +) F + F $ 
F + )E F + EF $ 
F E + s) G + G $ t
G + s)E G + EG $ t
G E
0
 +^" !
! "  0
!
"  +^F !
!
F + ^G !
!
G
 +^" !
 +^F F
F
F + ^G F
F
G + ^F G
G
F + ^G G
G
G
 +)F F + $FF $ 
F
F + s)G F + $GF $ t
F
G + s)F G + $FG $ t
G
F
+s)G G + $GG $ t
G
G
 EFF E
F
F  EGG E
G
G

1
1
1
 +7 + 2E (+ , + 7 + 2 sin6 8 E (
,  0
7
2
2 7 sin 8

 +^" !
! "  0
! "
 ^" !  ^ ! !  ^E ! ! E  ^ F F  ^E F F E  ^ G G  ^E G G E
 ) F + $F $ F  )E F + $EF $ F E  s) G + $G $ tG  s)E G + $EG $ tG E  0
 ^" ! ! "  0
 ^" ! !
"  ^F ! !
F  ^G ! !
G  ^F F F
F  ^G F F
G  ^F G G
F  ^G G G
G
 )F F + $FF $ F
F  s)G F + $GF $ tF
G  s)F G + $FG $ tG
F
s)G G + $GG $ tG
G
 + EFF E F
F + EGG E G
G
2 1
 7 (1 +
,
7 2

(1 +

1
(+ ,
7
2
1 + 2
7
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
7 (1 +
, sin6 8
(+
, (
,
7
7 sin 8
2
2
2 7 sin 8
2
1 +
7


2 1
,
7 7

2
 ^" ! ! "  + EFF E F F + EGG E G G  0
1
1
1
 s^" ! ! " + ^" !
! " t  ^ ! ! + ^ !
!   ^E ! ! E + ^E !
! E 
2
2
2
1
1
1
 s^ + ^ F
F t  s^E E + ^E F
F E t  s^ E E + ^ G
G t
2
2
2
1
 s^E E E E + ^E G
G E t
2
1
1
 ) + $ $  + ) F + $F 
F  )E + $E $  E + )E F + $EF 
F E
2
2

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Thursday, September 08, 2011

1
1
 ) E + $E $ E + s) G + $G t
G  )E E + $EE $ E E + s)E G + $EG t
G E
2
2
1
1
1
 s+ E E  t  )E + E  E + s)E F + FEF F t
F E  s+ E E t
2
2
2
1
G
E
E
E
G
E
 ()E E + EE E  + )E G + EG G
,
2
1
1
1
2 1
1
 + E E 
 s+ E t
 +)E + E  + s)E F + FEF F t 1 +
2
4
4
7 7
4
1+ 7
1
2
2
G
 +)E E + EEE E  (1 +
,  )E G + EG G 1 +

4
7
7 7 sin 8





 + )E
26

1 +

1
2
1 +

2
7
7

 + 7 6
1+
26


26

+ )E


26

76

1
2
1
2 1
1 +
+ 6
+ ()E 7 + 7, 1 +

7
7 1 + 2
7
7
7 7
7

2

1+ 7

1 + 2
7

1
1
2
1
2
(1 +

,  ()E 7 sin 8 + 7 sin 8, 1 +


6
2
7 1+
7
7
7 7 sin 8
2
7 1 + 7

1
1

 +

+ 6

 + 7 6

6
7
7
2
2
2
6
6
2
2
1 +
1 +
1 +

7
7
7

1
1

1
2

+
+

(1
+
,




6
6


7
7
7
2 6
2 6
26
1 + 7
1 + 7

1
1
+ 6
7
26 1 + 2
7
1
1
1
! "
 s^" ! + ^" !
! " t  ^ ! ! + ^ !
!   ^E ! ! E + ^E !
! E 
2
2
2
1
1
1
1
 ^   ^E E   ^ E E   ^E E E E 
2
2
2
2
1
1
1
1
$
$

E
 ) + $   )E + E $   ) E + $E $ E  )E E + $EE $ E E
2
2
2
2
1
1
1
1

E
E

 + E   )E + E   + E   )E E + EEE E E E


2
2
2
2
1 E
1
1
1 E

E
E
6
 + E    )E + E  )E E   + EE E E 6
2
2
2
2


2
1
1

  + 7 6 (1 + 7 ,
2
26
1 + 2 1 + 7

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1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

 
+
+ 
 
6
6
6
6
7
7
7
7
76
26 1 + 2
26 1 + 2
26 1 + 2
26 1 + 2
1 + 2
7
7
7
7
7
1
1

+
76
26 1 + 2
7
1
1
1
 s^" ! !
" + ^" !
!
" t  s^F ! !
F + ^F !
!
F t  s^G ! !
G + ^G !
!
Gt
2
2
2
1
1
1
 s^F
F + ^F F
F
F t  s^G
G + ^G F
F
G t  s^F E E
F + ^F G
G
Ft
2
2
2
1
 s^G E E
G + ^G G
G
Gt
2
1
 )F + $F $ 
F + )F F + $ FF $ 
F
F
2
1
 s)G + $G $ t
G + s)G F + $ GF $ t
F
G
2
1
 )F E + $FE $ E
F + s)F G + $ FG $ t
G
F
2
1
 s)G E + $GE $ tE
G + s)G G + $ GG $ t
G
G
2
1 G
1
1
G
 GF G
F
G  + )F G + FG G
G
F  F GG F
G
G
2
2
2
11
1
1
1 1
11
  cot 8  s+s)F 7 sin 8 + cot 8 7 sin 8t
G
F t   cos 8 sin 8
 cot 8
6
7
2
7 sin 8
7
26
26
26
1
 s^" ! ! " + ^" !
! " t
2
1 G
1
1
G
 GF G
F G  + )F G + FG G
G F  F GG F
G G
2
2
2
11
1
1 1
11
 +  cot 8  s+s)F 7 sin 8 + cot 8 7 sin 8t
G F t +  cot 8  + cot 8
2
7
7
7
26
26
26
+


26

6
0

2 7
1+ 7
1
1

+
{ 0

76
26 1 + 2
7
1
1
1
2 1

d
(1 +
7 cot 8
,
7
7
2
26
11
0
f  + 7 cot 8
26

Collecting the results


1

0
0

0

0

Thursday, September 08, 2011

26 

The Weyl Scalars and Petrov classification


 +  +    + 3 +   1 + 1  d  3f

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Thursday, September 08, 2011

 f +  + d  1 + f +       d + 1
6  { + + +  {sf + d + {t      + 2
  +     + {  f  d +   sf + {t
  +     + 3 +   s3d  f  1 + {t
Where
 ! ^!
 ! ^!
  ! ^!
! ^!
 

(13.23)
(13.24)
(13.25)
(13.26)
(9.13)

0
 f +  + f  ! ^! f + ! ^! + f  ! )! f + ! )! + f
 +

1 +

2
1 1
11
1
2 1
)E + cot 8 + + cot 8 (1 +
,
7
7
7
7 7
2
6
6
2
2

1
2
1
1
 1 +
cot 8 )E ( ,  6  0
4
7
7
7

 +  2  +! ^!  2  +! )!  2
 +

1 +

2
1
2 1
1
2 1
1
1

)E (1 +
,  2 (1 +
, +
6
7
7 7
7 7
7
2
2
2
2 6 1 +

1
2

1
2 1
1
1
2
 + 1 +

+ (1 +
, 6 +  6 +
2
7
7
7 7
27
27
7
1 + 2

7
  + 
! )! + ! )!  +

1 +

2
11
1
2 1
)E cot 8  14 cot 8 1 +
4
7
7
7 76
26

 0
6 0: This is a Petrov type D, which means there are two principal null directions. The Petrov type D is
associated with the gravitational field of a star or a black hole. The two principal null directions correspond
to ingoing and outgoing congruence of light rays.

Chapter 11: Black Holes


NEW - P.238: The Path of a Radially Infalling Particle
Particle orbits in the Schwarzschild space time are described by
1  (1 +

2 4 6
2 47 6
48 6
4< 6
, ( , + (1 +
, ( , + 7 6 ( , + 7 6 sin6 8 ( ,
7
4{
7
4{
4{
4{

(10.44)

where { is the local particle time (proper time) and t can be described as a distant observers (our) time. For
paths along radial lines we can set 48  4<  0, and rearrange the Schwarzschild line element:
2 4 6
2 47 6
1  (1 +
, ( , + (1 +
, ( ,
7
4{
7
4{
2
2 6 4 6
47 6
w
1+
 (1 +
, ( , +( ,
7
7
4{
4{
14

This should be 0

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Thursday, September 08, 2011

On page 220 we investigated the Killing vector z  1,0,0,0 and found that 1 +

quantity and, since 1 +

6 '

E '|

 1 k7 7  , 1 +
must have the overall value 1:
2 4
2 6 4 6
1  (1 +
O
1  (1 +
,( ,
, ( ,
7
4{
7
4{
and from the Schwarzschild line element above we can conclude
2
47 6
( ,
7
4{

Notice that for  :

'
'|

6 '

E '|

6 '

E '|

47
4{

is a conserved

2
 
7

 1, and the particle proper time, {, and the time of the distant observer, , are

equal. Notice also that for 7  :

'E
'|

 0, which means the velocity of the particle is zero in this limit. Also

notice that
has to be negative because 47decreases as the particle moves inwards. Next we rearrange
the two equations into a differential equation:
7
4  + 1
2 1 + 2
47
7
We can solve this by integration from 7 (far out) to 7 (in the vicinity of 2), and find the 7 which describes the particles path from our distant point of view, or more popular: what happens to the poor astronaut as he approaches the black holes event horizon from viewed from our distant position.
E
1
7


47
O
+
2 E 1 + 2
7
E
1
7 /6


47
2 E 7 + 2
E *
1
 2/6
*  7 + 2


4*
*
2 E
E
E *
1
2*  2/6 
 2
15


 2 
4*
3
*
2
E
E
'E
'|


E
2*  2/6
4*

 22*  2  26 

3
*
*

2
2

E
E

E

2*  2/6
46 *  2 + 2
 16

 4*  2 
ln

3
2
2 *  2  2 E
1

E

27 /6
7 + 2
7  *  2


 47  2/6 ln

2 3
7  2 E
E
2
E
7 + 2
/6

 67E  2 ln

7
32
7  2 E
2
7 + 2 7  2

s7 /6 + 7 /6  67 + 67t  2 ln
32
7  2 7 + 2
E
E
k 7  7  2: We set  1 + 6  0,  1 + 6  0

15
16

![" /
[
'[

4* 

6![" /

![""



![" !/
[

4* (14.102) (Spiegel, 1990)

 [!["  " ln !["" k " 0 (14.87) (Spiegel, 1990)

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+

2 + 7

Thursday, September 08, 2011




32

 2 ln

(7 6 + 7 6  67 + 67,  2 ln

7 + 2 7  2

 2 ln

7  2 7 + 2
7
7
 +1 
2
2  1

7
7
 1 2 + 1
2
1
1
1 + 2 + 1 1 + 2  1
1 + + 1 1 +  1
 2 ln
 2 ln
1
1
1 +  1 1 + + 1
1 +  1 1 + + 1
2
2
7
1
1
1+
+ 2 + 2

2  2 ln 2 + 7
 2 ln 2
 2 ln
 2 ln
7
1
1

2 + 7
1 + 2
2 + +
2
2
1
 + y
 172 + 7  exp x+
2
7  2 7 + 2

P. 242: The Schwarzschild metric in Kruskal Coordinates.


The Kruskal coordinates $ " 2
E
7

P  
+ 1 cosh
2
4
E
7

Q  
+ 1 sinh
2
4
where
E
7
+ 1
P6 + Q 6  6
2
We calculate
)P
1 E
7

Q


+ 1 sinh

)
4
2
4 4
)Q
1 E
7

P


+ 1 cosh

)
4
2
4 4
)P
)7
)Q
)7




E 1
1 E
7


+ 1 cosh

4
2
4
2
E 1
1 E
7


+ 1 sinh

4
2
4
2

Now we can use the chain rule


)P
)P
4P 
4 
47
)
)7
)Q
)Q
4Q 
4 
47
)
)7
Written as a matrix
)P )P
4P
4
 M ) )7 N
)Q )Q 47
4Q
) )7
With the inverse
17

7 + 2 7  2

(11.5)

(11.8)

7
22 + 1
1

7
22 + 1

cosh
sinh

P
1


4 4 1 + 2
7

Q
1


4 4 1 + 2
7

(d'Inverno, 1992, p. 219)

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Thursday, September 08, 2011


)P
4
 18 M )
47
)Q
)

4 6

47 6

47

)P
)Q
)P
+
1
4P
)7 N 
)7 N 4P
M )7
)Q
)Q
)P
)P
)Q
)P
)Q
4Q
4Q
+
) )7 )7 ) + )
)7
)
1
P
1
V Q
Y

T
1
2
2 T 4P
4
4
1+ 7
1+ 7


4Q
U
X
6
6
P
Q
Q
1
P
1
T
T
4
+
2 + 4
2 S
W
4
4
1+
1+
7
7
Q
+P
4
2
2 4P
 6

Q + P6 +P (1 + 7 , Q (1 + 7 , 4Q
4
 6
Q4P + P4Q
Q + P6
6
16
Q 6 4P6  P6 4Q 6 + 2PQ4P4Q
 6
Q + P6 6
4
2
 6
(1 +
, +P4P  Q4Q
6
Q +P
7
166
2 6 6 6
 6
(1
+
, P 4P  Q 6 4Q 6 + 2PQ4P4Q
Q + P6 6
7

Next we find
2
2
166
(1 +
, 4 6  (1 +
O
Q 6 4P6  P6 4Q 6 + 2PQ4P4Q 
, 6
7
7 Q + P6 6
2
166
2 6
O (1 +
P6 4P6  Q 6 4Q 6 + 2PQ4P4Q

(1
+
,
, 47
7 Q 6 + P6 6
7
Inserting into the Schwarzschild metric
2
2 6
45 6  (1 +
, 4 6 + (1 +
, 47 + 7 6 48  sin6 8 4<
7
7
2
166
 (1 +
, 6
sQ 6 4P6  P6 4Q 6 + P6 4P6  Q 6 4Q 6 t
7 Q + P6 6
+7 6 48  sin6 8 4<
2
166
4Q 6 + 47 6  + 7 6 48  sin6 8 4<
 (1 +
, 6
7 P + Q 6 

2 E
7
 166 (1 +
, 6
+ 1 4P6 + 4Q 6  + 7 6 48  sin6 8 4<
7
2
32 E
(11.7)

6 4Q 6 + 4P6  + 7 6 48  sin6 8 4<
7
The Kruskal coordinates $ 2
P

where

18


4


!'"$ +
4

sinh
2
4
E
7

 1 +
cosh
2
4
E

 1 +

(11.6)

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We calculate

P6 + Q 6

)P
)
)Q
)
)P
)7

As before we find

)Q
)7

Thursday, September 08, 2011

E
7
 6
+ 1
2

1 E
7

Q
1 +
cosh

4
2
4 4
1 E
7

P

1 +
sinh

4
2
4 4

(11.8)





E 1
1 E
7

1 +
sinh
+
4
2
4
2

E 1
1 E
7

1 +
cosh
+
4
2
4
2

21 +

)P
4
 M )
47
)Q
)

4 6

47 6

47

7
2

7
21 + 2

sinh

P
1


4 4 2 + 1
7

cosh

Q
1


2
4 4
+
1
7

)P
)Q
)P
+
1
)7 N 4P 
)7 N 4P
M )7
)Q
)Q )P
)P )Q )P )Q
4Q
4Q
+
+
)
)7
)7
)
)7
)
)
1
P
1
V Q
Y

T
T
1
2
2
4P
4
4

7 +1
7 + 1 X 4Q
U
P
Q
Q 6
1
P 6
1
T
4 2
+ 4 2
T
+
S
W
4
4
7 +1
7 +1
Q
+P
4
4P
2
2
 6


Q + P6 +P ( 7 + 1, Q ( 7 + 1, 4Q
4
 6
Q4P + P4Q
Q + P6
166
Q 6 4P6  P6 4Q 6 + 2PQ4P4Q
 6
Q + P6 6
4
2
 6
(
+ 1, +P4P  Q4Q
6
Q +P
7
6
166
2
P6 4P6  Q 6 4Q 6 + 2PQ4P4Q
 6
(
+
1,
Q + P6 6 7

Next we find
2
2
166
(1 +
, 4 6  (1 +

Q 6 4P6  P6 4Q 6 + 2PQ4P4Q 
, 6
7
7 Q + P6 6
2
166
2 6
O (1 +
P6 4P6  Q 6 4Q 6 + 2PQ4P4Q
, 6
, 47  (1 +
7 Q + P6 6
7
Inserting into the Schwarzschild metric we find as before
2
2 6
6
45 6  (1 +
, 4 + (1 +
, 47 + 7 6 48  sin6 8 4<
7
7
32 E

6 4Q 6 + 4P6  + 7 6 48  sin6 8 4<
7

(11.7)

P.246: The inverse metric of the Kerr Spinning Black Hole


The Kerr metric of a spinning black hole
45 6

 (1 +

27
4J7 sin6 8

2J 6 7 sin6 8
, 4 6 
44< + 47 6 + 48 6 + x7 6  J 6 
y sin6 8 4< 6

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 7 6 + 27  J6
 7 6  J6 cos6 8  7 6  J6 + J6 sin6 8   27 + J6 sin6 8
the metric tensor
27
2J7 sin6 8
V (1 +
Y
,

T
T

T
T
+


!"
U
X
+
6
6
T2J7 sin6 8
T
2J 7 sin 8
T
+ x7 6  J6 
y sin6 8 T

S
W
with the inverse
where

!"

V
T
T
U
T
T
S

GG

Y
T
T

X
T
T
GG
W

1
V 7 6  J6 6 + J6 sin6 8

T
T
U
T
T
S

2J7

2J7

Y
T
T

X
T
 + J6 sin6 8T
+
sin6 8 W

from the inverse19


+ G
1
GG
!" 
K
L
6 + G

GG + s G t
First we calculate the common factor
6
1
6
6
6
27
2J
7
sin
8
2J7
sin
8
6  + (1 +
, x7 6  J6 
y sin6 8 + x
y

GG + s G t
where we can calculate

27
2J6 7 sin6 8
2J7 6 6
6
6
 x+ (1 +
, x7  J 
, sin 8y
y+(

 x+ x7 6  J6 

2J6 7 sin6 8
27 6
2J6 7 sin6 8
2J7 6 6
y
x7  J6 
y+(
, sin 8y

2J6 7 sin6 8
27 6
7  J6 
 + x7  J 
y

1
sin6 8

1
sin6 8

1
sin6 8

27 6 6
27 6
1
7  J6 y
 x+ (7  J 
J sin 8, 

sin6 8

27 6 6
27 6
1
6
6
6
6
6
6
7  J cos 8  J sin 8y
 x+ (7  J 
J sin 8, 

sin6 8

27 6
1
27 1
6
6
7  J6 cos6 8y
 x+7 6  J6  

(+7

J

,

sin6 8

sin6 8
1
1
 +7 6  J6   27 6  +
sin 8
sin6
Now we can calculate the inverse metric
2J6 7 sin6 8
6
6
+
(7

J

, sin6 8

GG
GG

6  + sin6 8  +
sin6 8
+s
t
6

19


4


!'"$ +
4

GG

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Thursday, September 08, 2011


1 6
2J6 7 sin6 8
1
6
7 6  J6   2J6 7 sin6 8
 x7  J 
y

1

s7 6  J6 cos6 87 6  J6   7 6  J6 + J6 sin6 8t

1

s7 6  J6 cos6 87 6  J6   7 6  J6 J6 1 + cos6 8 + J6 sin6 8t

1
(11.13)
7 6  J6 6 + J6 sin6 8


6
1
2J7 sin 8 2J7
G
G
+

(11.13)
6  sin6 8  sin6 8

+
s
t
GG
G
1
27
1

 + 27

6  + sin6 8  + sin6 8 (1 + ,  + sin6 8
+s
t

GG

GG

 + J6 sin6 8
1
6
6

+

27
+
J
sin
8
+
27

+
sin6 8
sin6 8

(11.13)

Chapter 12: Cosmology


P. 262: Spaces of Positive, Negative, and Zero Curvature
According to (12.5) the spatial part of a homogenous, isotropic metric is
47 6
(12.5)
4 6 
 7 6 48 6  7 6 sin6 8 4<
1 + 7 6
rewriting it in a more general form
(12.6)
4 6  4' 6  7 6 '48 6  7 6 ' sin6 8 4< 6
we see that
47 6
4' 6 
1 + 7 6
47
O
4'  
1 + 7 6
and in order to identify the metric for the different -values we solve the latter differential equation.
 0:
 4'   47
O
'  7
O
7  '
O 7 6 '  ' 6
and the metric
4 6  4' 6  ' 6 48 6  ' 6 sin6 8 4< 6
" 0:
47
 4'  
1 + 7 6
47
1
4*
1


 20 
sin *
O
'  
*  7
6
6
1 + 7
1 + *

1

sin 7

1
1
sins't  
sins't
O
7 

20

'[

! [

 sin

(14.237) (Spiegel, 1990)

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O

7 6 ' 

1 6
sin s't

Thursday, September 08, 2011

if  1 we get
7 6 '  sin6'
and the metric
4 6  4' 6  sin6' 48 6  sin6 ' sin6 8 4< 6
0:
47
O
q  +
 4'  
1  q7 6
47
1
4*
1
 


 21 
ln *  * 6  1
O
'
*  q7  +7
6
q 1  * 6
q
1  sq7t
1
1
 22 
sinh *  
sinhs+7t
q
+
1
1
sinhs+'t  
sinhs+'t
O
7 
+
+
1
O 7 6 ' 
sinh6s+'t
+
if  +1 we get
O 7 6 '  sinh6'
and the metric
4 6  4' 6  sinh6 ' 48 6  sinh6 ' sin6 8 4< 6
Note: We have omitted the constants of integration because of symmetry reasons. The metrics have to
fulfill the requirement of homogeneity and isotropy
P.277, Quiz 12-1: The general Schwarzschild metric in vacuum with a cosmological constant:
The Ricci scalar
The metric
45 6  6E 4 6 + 6E 47 6 + 7 6 48 6  sin6 8 4< 6 

In this case we can write the Einstein equation in the local frame (non-coordinate basis) we name the
cosmological constant 23:
1
(6.6)
0  -!" + !" -  !"
2
1
O
0  !" -!" + !" !" -  !" !"
2
1
 - + 4-  4
2
w
-  4
And the answer to quiz 12-1 is (c)

21

'[

[ !

 lns*  * 6 + J6 t (14.210) (Spiegel, 1990)

sinh *  lns*  * 6  1t (8.55) (Spiegel, 1990)


If you compare this to quiz 10-3 and 10-4 page 231-32 you can conclude that  +. The reason is that the metric
in the two cases changes signature, which implies that in the first case -  4, and in the second -  4  +4. You
might also check the proofs on page 138.
22
23

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Thursday, September 08, 2011

P.277, Quiz 12-2, Quiz 12-3: The general Schwarzschild metric in vacuum with a cosmological
constant: Integration constants
We know that
7  ln + 7
O
7  + 7
1
and
6E  6 6E

We also need to find

6E
 27 7 6E
s7 6E t 

1
s7 6E t
w


+
27
27 6E
As in quiz 12-1 we use the Einstein equation in the non-coordinate basis, but this time for the coordinate 8
1
1
1
(6.6)
0  -FF + FF -  FF  -FF  - +  -FF  4 +
2
2
2
 -FF 
-FF  +
w
Earlier (p.211) we calculated the Ricci tensor:

s1 + 6E t
O
+  + 6E  6E 
7
7
76

6E

1
 +2 6 6E  6 + 6 6
7
7
7

1 6E 1 6E
s7 6E t
 +2
+ 6  6+ 6 6
27 7
7
7
27 6E
Renaming
7  7 6E
7
7
1 7 1
+ y 6 6 6+ 6
O
+  + x
7 7 7
7
7
7
6
6
6
w
 7 
We guess the solution (polynomials with exponents higher than 3 cannot contribute):
7  7 6E   7  7 6  7
7
O
  27  37 6
6
6
6
O
 7   27  37 6
Now comparing the coefficients we find
 6
0
1
 6
3
and we can conclude that
1
7 6E   6 7  6 7
3

1 6 6
6E
6
O

   7
7
3
and the line element
45 6  6E 4 6 + 6E 47 6 + 7 6 48 6 + 7 6 sin6 8 4< 6
becomes

1 6 6

1 6 6 6
6
6
6
6
6
6  (   7 , 4 + (   7 , 47 + 7 48
45
7
3
7
3
+ 7 6 sin6 8 4< 6
If 6  1 and  0 this should be identical to the ordinary Schwarzschild vacuum metric, which means
7

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Thursday, September 08, 2011

that has to be equal to:  +2

The answers to quiz 12-2 is: 7 6E   7  6 7 and quiz 12-3 is  6.

P.277, Quiz 12-4: The general Schwarzschild metric in vacuum with a cosmological constant:
The spatial part of the line element.
The line element
45 6  6E 4 6 + 6E 47 6 + 7 6 48 6 + 7 6 sin6 8 4< 6
can in Gaussian normal coordinates be written as
45 6  4 6 + J6 4 6
In this case we want to find the spatial part of the line element
4 6  4* 4*
and to do that we will use the method outlined on page 260, where the metric is found from the Riccitensor:
-  2q
1
w

2q
1
1
1
6E
6
6
O
-EE 

sE E t -E E 
s E t +  +
EE 
2q
2q
2q
2q
In the former quiz we found that
1
1 1
1
2 1
6E  6 6E  6 (+2  6 7  6 7 ,  1 + 6  7 6

7
3
7 3

1
+
O
EE
2q 1 + 2  1 7 6
67 3
6
1
1
1
6

76 +  +
-FF 
F F -FF 
7
FF 
2q
2q
2q
2q
6
1
1
1
6 6

G
7 sin 86 +  +
-GG 
G -GG 
7 sin 8
GG 
2q
2q
2q
2q
6

47
6 6
6 6

+
+
7
48
+
7 sin 8 4< 6
6
O
4
2q 1 + 2  1 7 6 2q
2q
67 3

where we can omit the common factor  + 6( and finally get if we choose  1
47 6
6 
 7 6 48 6  7 6 sin6 8 4< 6
4
2 1 6
1 + 7  3 7
which is the answer to quiz 12-4
with r      use a change of variables    


P.278, Quiz 12-6: Parameters in an flat universe with positive cosmological constant: Starting
We have

Jr 6

J

Pr

and

6
 J
J 3

 
J
3

Jr 6

2
J
3
2 6
P

Jr J  3 Jr

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Pr
Jr
3
P
J
Rearranging we get
2
1 Pr 6
( ,  3P  3
3P

Thursday, September 08, 2011

 3 P  P6  3PP  2
3
3
4P
O
 4  
3PP  2
1
1
1
6
2 lnsP  2  Pt 
lnsP  2  Pt 
lns2P  2  2PP  2t
O +  24
3
3
3
1
1

ln 2P  2  2P6  2P 
ln 2P  2  2P  16 + 1
3
3
1
1
6

ln 2 P  1  P  1 + 1 
ln 2  ln P  1  P  16 + 1
3
3
1
ln 2  cosh P  1
 25
3
O
P  coshs3 +  + ln 2t + 1
3C
O
J 
coshs3 +  + ln 2t + 1
2
Leaving out the constants of integration +3 + ln 2 we get
3C
J 
coshs3t + 1
2
and the answer to quiz 12-6 is (a)
O

Pr

Chapter 13: Gravitational Waves


P.286: Gauge transformation - The Einstein Gauge
Requiring that - !"$' , -!" and - are unchanged under a gauge-transformation of first order in , show that
this is fulfilled by the coordinate transformations

(13.11)
* !  * !  * !  < !

*!"  *!"  *!" + <!," + <",!


!
!",!  ",!  !",! + +<"

where < ! is a function of position and ,< !," , 1. We have


) 6 *'m
) 6 *$m
1
) 6 *"'
) 6 *"$
(13.4)
- !"$'  !. x+ $ m  $ "  ' m + ' " y
2
)* )*
)* )*
)* )*
)* )*
1
) 6 *$ !
) 6 *$ "
)6*
(13.5)
-!"  x " $  ! $ + -*!" + ! " y
2 )* )*
)* )*
)* )*
) 6 *$'
(13.6)
-  x $ ' + -*y
)* )*
1
(13.8)
!"  *!" + !" *
2
The Einstein gauge transformation is a coordinate transformation that leaves - !"$' , -!" and - unchanged.
24
25

'[

!["i[j

cosh

!i

lnsJe*  g  eJ*  t (14.280) (Spiegel, 1990)

*  lns*  * 6 + 1t (8.56) (Spiegel, 1990)

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Thursday, September 08, 2011

The coordinate transformation that will do this is


* !  * !  * !  < !
(13.11)
In order to show this you only have to convince yourself that the line element is unchanged. Checking
45 6  !" 4* ! 4* "
 !"  *!" 4* ! 4* "
6
45  !" 4* ! 4* "
!"  !"
 !"  *!" 4* ! 4* "
 !"  *!" 4* !  < ! 4s* "  < " t
)* !
)< !
)* "
)< "
 !"  *!"  x $ 4* $  $ 4* $ y x ' 4* '  ' 4* ' y
)*
)*
)*
)*
"
"
!
$
!
$
'

s
 !"  *!" $ 4*  < ,$ 4* ts' 4*  < ,' 4* ' t
 !"  *!" s$! '" 4* $ 4* '  < !,$ '" 4* $ 4* '  < ",' $! 4* $ 4* ' t  6
 !"  *!" s4* ! 4* "  < !,$ 4* $ 4* "  < ",' 4* ! 4* ' t
 !"  *!" s4* ! 4* "  !. <.,$ 4* $ 4* "  "m <m,' 4* ! 4* ' t
 !"  *!" 4* ! 4* "  !" s !. <.,$ 4* $ 4* "  "m <m,' 4* ! 4* ' t  6
m
 !"  *!" 4* ! 4* "  s". <.,$ 4* $ 4* "  ! <m,' 4* ! 4* ' t
 !"  *!" 4* ! 4* "  s<",$ 4* $ 4* "  <!,' 4* ! 4* ' t
Renaming the dummy variables
 !"  *!" 4* ! 4* "  s<",! 4* ! 4* "  <!," 4* ! 4* " t
 s!"  *!"  <",!  <!," t4* ! 4* "
 !"  *!" 4* ! 4* "
if
Q.E.D
*!"  *!" + <",! + <!,"
!
Next we are going to investigate the transformation of the derivative of the trace reverse !",!  ",! 
!",! + +<"
!

",!  !$ $",!
1

 !$ (* $",! + $" *,!


,
2
1
 !$ (* $",! + $" *'',! ,
2
1
!$

 (* $",! + $" .' *.',! ,


2
1
!$
 s*$",! + <",$! + <$,"! t + !$ $" .' s*.',! + <',.! + <.,'! t
2
1
1
 !$ (*$",! + $" .' *.',! , + !$ x<",$!  <$,"! + $" .' s<',.!  <.,'! ty
2
2
1
1
 !$ (*$",! + $" *'',! , + !$ <",$! + !$ x<$,"! + $" .' s<',.!  <.,'! ty
2
2
1
1
 !$ (*$",! + $" *,! , + +<" + x !$ <$,"! + !$ $" .' s<',.!  <.,'! ty
2
2
1
 !$ $",! + +<" + x !$ <$,"! + "! .' s<',.!  <.,'! ty
2
1
 !",! + +<" + x< !,"! + "! s< .,.!  < ','! ty
2
1
 !",! + +<" + x< !,"! + s< . ,."  < ','" ty
2
Renaming the dummy variables

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Thursday, September 08, 2011

1
 !",! + +<" + x< !,"! + s< !,!"  < !,!" ty
2
!
 ",! + +<"

",!
!
P.288: The choice of ",!  0 leads to26
!
",!  !$ $",!
1
 !$ (* $",! + $" * ,! ,
2
1 !
!$
 * $",! + " * ,!
2
1
!
 * ",! + * ,"  0
2
!

Q.E.D.

P.288 l.13: The Riemann tensor of a plane wave


Here we want to show that the Riemann tensor only depends on *[[ , *[] , *][ and *]] . For symmetry reasons it is only necessary to show that the Riemann tensor does not depend on * and *[ . The Riemann
tensor
) 6 *'m
) 6 *$m
1
) 6 *"'
) 6 *"$
(13.4)
- !"$'  !m x $ " + $ m  ' m + ' " y
2
)* )*
)* )*
)* )*
)* )*
For plane waves we have
*!"  *!"  + o
)*!"
)*!"

0
O
)*
)R
We also need
)*!"
) + o )*!"
)*!"

+
)o
)o ) + o
) + o
)*!"
) + o )*!"
)*!"


)
) ) + o ) + o
)*!"
)*!"
O
+
)o
)
) 6 *!"
) 6 *!"

)o 6
) 6
and
*!"
The Minkowski

!"

*
*[

*]
*
p

*[
*[[
*][
*p[

+1

*]
*[]
*]]
*p]

+1

*
*p

*[p
*[



*]p
*]

1
*pp

+ 2 *  *pp 

*[

*[[
*[]

+*[

*]

*[]
+*[[
+*]

1
+ *  *pp 
2

+*[


+*]

*pp

(13.16)

+1
The dependence on *
4  k  O J  :
1
) 6 *
) 6 *" ) 6 *"$ ) 6 *$
- "$  x $ " + $  6 +
y
2
)* )*
)* )
)
))* "
 :
26

However I dont know how to show that the Riemann-tensor keeps the same form if we make this choice

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-

 *:

- [$

 :

- [

 *:

- [[

 R:

- []

 o:

- [p

 R:

- ]$

 :

- ]

 *:

- ][

 R:

- ]]

 o:

- ]p

 o:

- p$

 :

- p

 *:

- p[

 R:

- p]

 o:

Thursday, September 08, 2011


1
) 6 * ) 6 * ) 6 *$ ) 6 *$
 x $ + $  6 + 6 y  0
)
)
2 )* ) )* )

1
) 6 *
) 6 *[ ) 6 *[$ ) 6 *$
1
) 6 *[ ) 6 *[$
 x $ + $  6 +
y  x+ $  6 y
)
))*
)* )
)
2 )* )* )* )
2
1
) 6 *[ ) 6 *[
 x+ 6  6 y  0
2
)
)

1
) 6 *[ ) 6 *[[
1 ) 6 *[[
 x+
 6 y 6
2
)*)
)
2 )

1
) 6 *[ ) 6 *[]
1 ) 6 *[]
 x+
 6 y 6
2
)R)
)
2 )

1
) 6 *[ ) 6 *[p
1 ) 6 *[ ) 6 *[
 x+
 6 y  x 6 + 6 y  0
2
)o)
)
2
)
)

) 6 *] ) 6 *]$ ) 6 *$
) 6 *] ) 6 *]$
1
) 6 *
1
 x $ + $  6 +
y  x+ $  6 y
2 )* )R )* )
)
))R
2
)* )
)
) 6 *] ) 6 *]
1
 x+ 6  6 y  0
2
)
)

) 6 *] ) 6 *][
1
1 ) 6 *][
 x+
 6 y 6
2
2 )
)*)
)

) 6 *] ) 6 *]]
1
1 ) 6 *]]
 x+
 6 y 6
2
2 )
)R)
)

) 6 *] ) 6 *]p
1
1 ) 6 *] ) 6 *]
 x+
 6 y  x 6 + 6 y  0
2
)o)
)
2
)
)
1
) 6 * ) 6 *p ) 6 *p$ ) 6 *$
 x $ + $  6 +
y
2 )* )o )* )
)
))o

1 ) 6 * ) 6 *p ) 6 *p ) 6 *
 x
+ 6  6 +
y0
2
))o
)
)
))o

1 ) 6 * ) 6 *p ) 6 *p[ ) 6 *[
1
) 6 *[ ) 6 *[
 x
+
 6 +
y  x+ 6  6 y  0
2 )*)o )*)
)
))o
2
)
)

) 6 *] ) 6 *]
1 ) 6 * ) 6 *p ) 6 *p] ) 6 *]
1
 x
+
 6 +
y  x+ 6  6 y  0
2 )R)o )R)
)
))o
2
)
)

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-

 4  :

pp

Thursday, September 08, 2011


1 ) 6 * ) 6 *p ) 6 *pp ) 6 *p
 x 6 +
 6 +
y
) o
)o)
)
))o
2
1
1
) 6 x+ 2 *  *oo y
) 6 x+ 2 *  *oo y
6
6
1 ) *
) *pp

  6 
 6 
0
6
6
2
)
)
)
)

) 6 *m
1
) 6 *
) 6 *$ ) 6 *$m
 !m x $ + $ m 
+ 6 y
)* ) )* )*
))* m
)
2
J  *O k  *:
1
) 6 *[
) 6 * ) 6 *$ ) 6 *$[
1 ) 6 *[ ) 6 *$[
- [$  [[ x $ + $ 
+ 6 y  + x $ + 6 y
2
)* ) )* )* ))*
)
2 )* )
)
 *:
1 ) 6 *[ ) 6 *[[
1 ) 6 *[[
- [[  + x
+ 6 y 6
2
)*)
)
2 )
 R:
1 ) 6 *[ ) 6 *][
1 ) 6 *][
- []  + x
+ 6 y 6
2
)R)
)
2 )
 o:
1 ) 6 *[ ) 6 *p[
1
) 6 *[ ) 6 *[
- [p  + x
+ 6 y  + x+ 6  6 y  0
2
)o)
)
2
)
)
J  RO k  R:
) 6 *]
1
) 6 * ) 6 *$ ) 6 *$]
1 ) 6 *] ) 6 *$]
]
- $  ]] x $ + $ 
+ 6 y  + x $ + 6 y
2
2 )* )
)* ) )* )R ))R
)
)
 *:
1 ) 6 *] ) 6 *[]
1 ) 6 *[]
]
- [  + x
+ 6 y 6
2
)*)
)
2 )
 R:
1 ) 6 *] ) 6 *]]
1 ) 6 *]]
]
- ]  + x
+ 6 y 6
2
2 )
)R)
)
 o:
) 6 *] ) 6 *]
1 ) 6 *] ) 6 *p]
1
]
- p  + x
+ 6 y  + x+ 6  6 y  0
2
2
)o)
)
)
)
J  oO k  o:
1
) 6 *p ) 6 * ) 6 *$ ) 6 *$p
1 ) 6 *p
) 6 * ) 6 *$ ) 6 *$p
+ 6 y  + x $ + $ 
+ 6 y
- p$  pp x $ + $ 
2
)* ) )* )o ))o
)
2 )* ) )* )o ))o
)
 *:
1 ) 6 *p ) 6 * ) 6 *[ ) 6 *[p
- p[  + x
+

+ 6 y0
2
)*) )*)o ))o
)
 R:
1 ) 6 *p ) 6 * ) 6 *] ) 6 *]p
- p]  + x
+

+ 6 y0
2
)R) )R)o ))o
)
 o:
1 ) 6 *p ) 6 * ) 6 *p ) 6 *pp
- pp
 + x
+ 6 
+ 6 y0
2
)o)
) o
))o
)
The dependence on *[
- !$

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Thursday, September 08, 2011

4  , k  * O J  *:
1
) 6 *[
) 6 *" ) 6 *"$ ) 6 *$[
1
) 6 *[
) 6 *$[
- ["$  [[ x $ " + $ 
+

+

+
y
x
y
)* )*
)* )* ))* ))* "
2
2 )* $ )* " ))* "
 *:
- [[$  0
 R:
- []$
0
 o:
1
) 6 *[ ) 6 *$[
- [p$  + x $ +
y
2 )* )o ))o
 , 4  *:
) 6 *[m
1
) 6 *[
) 6 *$ ) 6 *$m
1 !m ) 6 *[m
) 6 *[
- !$[  !m x $ + $ m 
+


+
y
x
y
)* ) )* )*
)*)* m )*)
)* $ ) )* $ )* m
2
2
J  O k  :
1
) 6 *[ ) 6 *[
- $[  x $ + $ y  0
2
)* ) )* )
J  *O k  *:
1
) 6 *[[ ) 6 *[
1 ) 6 *[[
- [$[  [[ x $ + $ y  + $
2
2 )* )
)* ) )* )*
J  RO k  R:
) 6 *[] ) 6 *[
1
1 ) 6 *[]
]
- $[
 ]] x $ + $ y  + $
2
)* ) )* )R
2 )* )
J  oO k  o:
1
) 6 *[p ) 6 *[
1
) 6 *[ ) 6 *[
- p$[
 pp x $ + $ y  pp x+ $  $ y  0
2
2
)* ) )* )o
)* ) )* )
 ,  *:
) 6 *[m
) 6 *[m
1 !m ) 6 *'m ) 6 *'
) 6 *[
1 !m ) 6 *[
!
- ['  x
+

+
y  x ' m + ' y
2
)*) )*)* m )* ' )* m )* ' )
2
)* )*
)* )
J  O k  :
1
) 6 *[ ) 6 *[
- ['  x ' + ' y  0
2
)* ) )* )
J  *O k  *:
1
) 6 *[ ) 6 *[[
1 ) 6 *[[
- [['  [[ x ' + ' y  '
2
2 )* )
)* )* )* )
J  RO k  R:
1
) 6 *[ ) 6 *[]
1 ) 6 *[]
]
- ['  ]] x ' + ' y  '
2
)* )R )* )
2 )* )
J  oO k  o:
1
) 6 *[ ) 6 *[p
1
) 6 *[ ) 6 *[
- p['  pp x ' + ' y  + x+ '  ' y  0
2
)* )o )* )
2
)* ) )* )
 , k  *O J  *:
1
) 6 *'[ ) 6 *"' ) 6 *"
) 6 *[
1 ) 6 *'[
) 6 *[
- ["'  [[ x
+

+

+

+
y
x
y
2
))* " ))* )* ' )* )* ' )* "
2 ))* " )* ' )* "

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- [[

- []
- ][

- ]]

Thursday, September 08, 2011

The nonzero calculated elements of the Riemann tensor, from which we can conclude that the
Riemann tensor only depends on *[[ , *[] , *][ and *]] .
1 ) 6 *[[
 6
2 )
1 ) 6 *[]
 6
2 )
1 ) 6 *][
 6
2 )
1 ) 6 *]]
 6
2 )

- [[

- [[p

- []

- [p[

- [p[

- [p]

1 ) 6 *[[
 6
2 )
1 ) 6 *[[
+ 6
2 )
1 ) 6 *][
 6
2 )
1 ) 6 *[[
 6
2 )
1 ) 6 *[[
+ 6
2 )
1 ) 6 *][
+ 6
2 )

]
[

]
[p

]
p[

]
]

1 ) 6 *[]
 6
2 )
1 ) 6 *[]
+ 6
2 )
1 ) 6 *]]
 6
2 )
1 ) 6 *[]
 6
2 )

Page 290 l.12: The line element of a plane wave in the Einstein gauge
The perturbation
*!"





*[

*[
*]

1
+ 2 *  *pp 

0
0

0
0

0
* [[
* []
0

0
* []
+* [[
0

the perturbation in the Einstein gauge


*!"

*[[
*[]

+*[
0
0

0
0

*]

*[]
+*[[
+*]

1
+ *  *pp 
2

+*[


+*]

*pp

(13.16)

(13.17)

with the transformation


*!"  *!" + <",! + <!,"
where we can assume that <!  <!  + o
How to prove (13.17)27:
1) *[[ and *[] are unchanged by the transformation
)<
*[[  *[[ + <[,[ + <[,[  *[[ + 2 [  *[[
)*
)<] )<[
*[]  *[] + <],[ + <[,]  *[] +
+
 *[]
)*
)R

2) Choosing the remaining elements *!"


 0 leaves *[[ and *[] unchanged
)<
*  * + <, + <,  * + 2  0
)
)<
w
*  2
)
)<
)<
)<
*[  *[ + <[, + <,[  *[ + [ +  *[ + [  0
)
)*
)
)<[
w
*[ 
)
)<
)<
)<
*]  *] + <], + <,]  *] + ] + ]  *] + ]  0
)
)*
)
27

(d'Inverno, 1992, pp. 277-278)

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w

Thursday, September 08, 2011


)<]
)

*]

*p

 *p + <,p + <p,

*p

*p  *p

*pp

*pp

)<p )<
+
0
)
)o
)< )<p
 *p +
+
0
)o
)

 *p + <p, + <,p  *p +


)<p )<

)
)o

 *pp + <p,p + <p,p  *pp + 2


2

)<p
)o

)<p
0
)o

P. 291: The line element of a plane wave


With
0 0
0
0
0 *[[ *[] 0

*!" 
0 *[] +*[[ 0
0 0
0
0
we find the line element
45 6  !" 4* ! 4* "
 !"  *!" 4* ! 4* "
   * 4 6  [  *[ 44*  s]  *] t44R  p  *p 44o
 [  *[ 4*4  [[  *[[ 4* 6  s[]  *[] t4*4R
 [p  *[p 4*4o  s]  *] t4R4  s][  *][ t4R4*
 s]]  *]] t4R 6  s]p  *]p t4R4o  p  *p 4o4
 p[  *p[ 4o4*  sp]  *p] t4o4R  pp  *pp 4R 6
 4 6 + 1 + *[[ 4* 6  *[] 4*4R  *][ 4R4* + 1  *[[ 4R 6 + 4o 6
 4 6 + 1 + *[[ 4* 6 + 1  *[[ 4R 6 + 4o 6  2*[] 4*4R
/01  :
45 6  4 6 + 1 + *[[ 4* 6 + 1  *[[ 4R 6 + 4o 6
/00  :
45 6  4 6 + 4* 6 + 4R 6 + 4o 6  2*[] 4*4R
Considering the following transformation
4* + 4R
4*  4R
4* 
4R 
2
2
1
+1
4*  4R 
4* + 4R 
O
4* 
4R 
2
2
1
1
1
1
O
4* 6  4* 6  4R 6  4*4R
4R 6  4* 6  4R 6 + 4*4R
2
2
2
2
1
O 4*4R  + 4* 6 + 4R 6 
4* 6  4R 6
 4* 6  4R 6
2
we can rewrite the line element
45 6  4 6 + 4* 6 + 4R 6 + 4o 6  2*[] 4*4R
 4 6 + 4* 6 + 4R 6 + 4o 6 + *[] 4* 6 + 4R 6 
 4 6 + s1  *[] t4* 6 + s1 + *[] t4R 6 + 4o 6
P.298: The Rosen line element
The line element:
45 6

(13.17)

(13.18)
(13.19)

(13.20)

 424 + J6 24* 6 + 6 24R 6

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!"

The metric tensor:

The basis one forms

Thursday, September 08, 2011

1
2

V
T

1
U2
T
S

Y
T

X
T
+ 6 2W

+J6 2

Finding the basis one forms is not so obvious, we write:


45 6  424 + J6 24* 6 + 6 24R 6
42
4

4!
4

46
4

 s t + s t + s6 t + s t
6

 s  ts + t + s6 t + s t
 
 +

1
 42  4 42
2
1
 42 + 4 4
2
 J24*

 24R

4*

4R

 
 +
1

6
J2
1


2

M

+1

+1

+1

Cartans First Structure equation and the calculation of the curvature one-forms

(5.9)
 + ! " h "
1
 4 x 42  4y  0
2
1
 4 x 42 + 4y  0
2
4J
4J
1
1 4J 6
 4J24* 
42 h 4* 
6  +
h s  t
s  t h
42
42
J2
J 42
4
4
1
1 4
 424R 
42 h 4R 
 +
h s  t
s  t h
42
42
2
42

The curvature one-forms summarized in a matrix:

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! "

Thursday, September 08, 2011


0

V
T
T

1 4J 6

J 42
1 4J 6

J 42

1 4
Y
42
T
1 4
T
42
X
0
T
T
0
W

U1 4J 6  + 1 4J 6 +
0
TJ 42
J 42
1 4
T1 4
 +

+
0
S 42
42
Where J refers to column and to row
and A and B will be used later, to make the calculations easier

! "

The curvature two forms:


 4 ! "  ! $ h $ "

 - !"$' $ h '
2

(5.27), (5.28)

First we will calculate


1 4J 6
4J
46 J
46 J
1
4  4 (
,  4 ( 4*, 
42
h
4*

s  t h 6
6
6
J 42
42
42
42
J
1 46 J

s h 6  h 6 t
J 42 6
1 4
4
46
46
1

4  4 (
,  4 ( 4R, 
42
h
4R



s
t
42
42
42 6
42 6

6
1 4

s h  h t
42 6
Now we are ready to calculate the curvature two-forms

 4  $ h $  h  h  6 h 6  h  0

 4  $ h $  h  h  6 h 6  h  0
6

6 6

 4 6  6 $ h $  4 6  6 h  6 h  6 6 h 6  6 h
1 46 J

s h 6  h 6 t
6
J 42

 4  $ h $  4  h  h  6 h 6  h
1 46

s h  h t
42 6

 4  $ h $  h  h  6 h 6  h  0

 4 6  6 $ h $  4 6  6 h  6 h  6 6 h 6  6 h
1 46 J

s h 6  h 6 t
J 42 6

 4  $ h $  4  h  h  6 h 6  h
1 46

s h  h t
42 6

 4 6 6  6 $ h $ 6  6 h 6  6 h 6  6 6 h 6 6  6 h 6  0

 4 6  $ h $ 6  h 6  h 6  6 h 6 6  h 6
1 4 1 4J 6 1 4
1 4J 6

h

h (+
,0
42
J 42
42
J 42

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Thursday, September 08, 2011

 4  $ h $  h  h  6 h 6  h  0

Summarized in a matrix:
1 46 J
V0 0
h 6  h 6 t
6 s
J
42
T
6
!
"  0 0 1 4 J s h 6  h 6 t
U
J 42 6
T
0
S
0
Where J refers to column and to row

-
-6
-

-6
-6

-66
-6
-
-

1 46
s h  h tY
42 6
T
1 46

s h  h tX
42 6
T
0
W
0

The Ricci tensor:

 - $ $  -  -  - 66  -

Now we can write down the independent elements of the Riemann tensor in the noncoordinate basis:
1 46 J
1 46

R
R6 6  +

+

J 42 6
42 6
6
14 J
1 46

R
R6 6  +

+

J 42 6
42 6
6
1
4
J
1 46

R6 6  +
R

+

J 42 6
42 6

 - $ !$"

-6

-!"
-

 - $ $  -  -  - 66  -

 - $ 6$  - 6  -6  - 666  - 6

(4.46)
1 46 J 1 46
 +x

y
J 42 6 42 6
1 46 J 1 46
 +x

y
J 42 6 42 6
0

 - $ $  -  -  - 66  -  0

1 46 J 1 46

y
J 42 6 42 6
1 46 J 1 46
 +x

y
J 42 6 42 6
0

 - $ $  -  -  - 66  -  + x

 - $ $  -  -  - 66  -

 - $ $6  - 6  -6  - 666  - 6

 - $ $  -  -  - 66  -  0

 - $ $6  - 6  -6  - 666  - 6  0

 - $ $6  - 6  -6  - 666  - 6  0
1 46 J 1 46 J

 - $ 6$6  - 66  -66  - 6666  - 66 


+
0
J 42 6 J 42 6
 - $ $6  0

 - $ $  -  -  - 66  -  0

 - $ $  -  -  - 66  -  0

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-

Thursday, September 08, 2011

 - $ $  -  -  - 66  - 

1 46 1 46
+
0
42 6 42 6

Summarized in a matrix:
1 46 J 1 46
1 46 J 1 46
V+ x

+

y
x
y
J 42 6 42 6
J 42 6 42 6
T
T
6
6
6
6
-!"  + x1 4 J  1 4 y + x1 4 J  1 4 y
U J 42 6 42 6
J 42 6 42 6
T
T
0
0
S
0
0
Where J refers to column and to row

0 0Y
T
T
0 0X
T
0 0T
0 0W

P.304: Colliding gravity waves - coordinate transformation


The metric of a plane gravitational wave
(13.42)
45 6  P? 6 + 3 6 4P6  24P47 + 4? 6 + 43 6
can be written in terms of the null coordinates P and by using the following coordinate transformation28
P P
1
1
7  + P1 + P* 6  P1  PR 6
2
2
?  s1 + PPt*
3  s1  PPtR
4P  4P
)7
)7
)7
)7
4 
4P  4* 
4R
47 
)
)P
)*
)R
1
1
 4 + ( s P1 + P + Pt* 6 + s P1  P  PtR 6 , 4P + P1 + P*4*
2
2
 P1  PR4R
1
1
 294 + ( sP + Pt* 6 + sP  PtR 6 , 4P + P1 + P*4*
2
2
 P1  PR4R
1
 4 + sP* 6 + R 6  + P* 6  R 6 t4P + P1 + P*4*  P1  PR4R
2
4?  s+P + P Pt*4P  s1 + PPt4*
 +P*4P  s1 + PPt4*
43  sP  P PtR4P  s1  PPt4R
 PR4P  s1  PPt4R
6
6
6
6
? +3
 s1 + PPt * 6 + s1  PPt R 6
 s1  P6 6 Pt* 6 + R 6  + 2PP* 6  R 6 
P? 6  Ps1  P6 6 Pt* 6 + R 6  + P2PP* 6  R 6 
+ 36
 P* 6 + R 6 
6
4? 6  s+P*4P  s1 + PPt4*t
43 6

28
29

 6 P* 6 4P6  s1 + PPt 4* 6 + 2Ps1 + PPt*4P4*


6

 sPR4P  s1  PPt4Rt

http://www-staff.lboro.ac.uk/~majbg/jbg/book/chap3.pdf
P P  PP  0

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4?  43
6

45 6

Thursday, September 08, 2011

 6 PR 6 4P6 +s1  PPt 4R 6  2Ps1  PPtR4P4R


6

 6 P* 6 4P6  s1 + PPt 4* 6 + 2Ps1 + PPt*4P4*  6 PR 6 4P6


6

 s1  PPt 4R 6  2Ps1  PPtR4P4R


6

 6 P* 6  R 6 4P6  s1 + PPt 4* 6 + 2Ps1 + PPt*4P4*


6

 s1  PPt 4R 6  2Ps1  PPtR4P4R


6
6 4P 6
 P? + 3
 24P47 + 4? 6 + 43 6
 P* 6 + R 6 4P6
1
 24P (4 + sP* 6 + R 6  + P* 6  R 6 t4P + P1 + P*4*
2
 P1  PR4R,
6

+ 6 P* 6  R 6 4P6  s1 + PPt 4* 6 + 2Ps1 + PPt*4P4*


6

 s1  PPt 4R 6  2Ps1  PPtR4P4Rt


6

 24P4  24P+P1 + P*4*  P1  PR4R


6
6
+ s1 + PPt 4* 6 + 2Ps1 + PPt*4P4*  s1  PPt 4R 6
 2Ps1  PPtR4P4Rt

 3024P4 + s1 + PPt 4* 6 + s1  PPt 4R 6


6

P.304: The delta  and heavy-side  functions: prove that   
Definitions
6
 k P  05

P4P  1
P  K
;
0 k P 0
6
0 k P 7 0
4P  31 P 
P  K1 k P " 05;
P
P;
4P
We calculate
 kPP4P
6

  kP P4P
6

 k +  k
 kPP4P
6

  P4P
6

 kPP6
6 +  k PP4P
6

if kP  P we find

(13.43)

P4P

 k + sk + k0t


 k0
  PP4P  0
6

Next we assume that PP  0. Multiplying both sides with a test function kP and integrating we get
 kPPP4P
6

  kP 04P
6

0 k0  0
w
which is consistent with our initial assumption and we can therefore conclude that
PP  0
Next we calculate
30
31

6 P  P
(13.44)

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Thursday, September 08, 2011

 kPP6
6 +  k PP4P

 kP P4P
6

kPP6
6

6
6

+  k P P4P
6

 kPP6
6 + xk PP6 +  k PP4P y

 0 + xk +  k P4Py
6

 + k  + sk  + k 0t
 32 + k 0

if kP  P we find

 kP P4P

  PP4P  +1

Next we assume that +P  PP. Multiplying both sides with a test function kP and integrating we
get
 +kPP4P   kPP P4P
6

+k0  +kPP P  0  +sk P P  kPtP  0  +k0


w
which is consistent with our initial assumption and we can therefore conclude that
+P  PP
P.305: Example 13-1: Impulsive gravitational wave Region III
The line element:
45 6  24P4 + 1 + 6 4* 6 + 1  6 4R 6

The Christoffel symbols

To find the Christoffel symbols we calculate the geodesic from the Euler-Lagrange equation
4 )
)
(10.36)
0 
( !, + !
45 )*r
)*
where
 2Pr r + 1 + 6 *r 6 + 1  6 Rr 6
!
*  P:
)
0
)P
)
 2r
)Pr
4 )
( ,  2v
45 )Pr
O
0  v
* !  :
)
 21 + *r 6 + 21  Rr 6
)
)
 2Pr
)r
32

The general formula is 6 kP  P4P  +1 k  0


6

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4 )
( ,
45 )r
O
0
* !  *:
)
)*
)
)*r
4 )
( ,
45 )*r
O

* !  R:

Thursday, September 08, 2011


 2Pv

 Pv + 1 + *r 6  1  Rr 6


0

 +21 + 6 *r

4
y 21 + *r + 21 + 6 *v
4
 334s  t1 + *r r + 21 + 6 *v
0  341 + 6 *v + 21 + *r r
2
0  *v +
*r r
1 + 
 +2 x+r  + r

)
0
)R
)
 +21  6 Rr
)Rr
4 )
4
( ,  +2 xr   r
y 21  Rr + 21  6 Rv
45 )Rr
4
 +4s  t1  Rr r + 21  6 Rv
0  1  6 Rv  21  Rr r
2
0  Rv 
Rr r
1  

Collecting the results


0  v
0  Pv + 1 + *r 6  1  Rr 6
2
0  *v +
*r r
1 + 
2
0  Rv 
Rr r
1  

Z[[

Z]]

The Petrov type

The line element

 
  0

33 '8
34

We can now find the Christoffel symbols:



]
]
 +1 +  [[  +
1 + 
 1  

'

45 6


1  

 24P4 + 1 + 6 4* 6 + 1  6 4R 6

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Thursday, September 08, 2011

The metric tensor:

and its inverse:

The basis one forms

!"

M

!"

V1
T
U
T
S

+1 + 6
+

1
1 + 6

+1  6

Y
T

X
1
T
+
1  6 W

Finding the basis one forms is not so obvious, we write:


45 6  24P4 + 1 + 6 4* 6 + 1  6 4R 6
O 24P
24
O

 sZ t + s t + s [ t + s ] t
6

4P  4

 s1 + t4*

 sZ   tsZ +  t + s [ t + s ] t
 sZ   t
 sZ +  t

Z


2
1
2

4P + 4

 s1  t4R

4P
4




2
1
2

sZ   t
sZ +  t

1
[
4* 
1 + 
1
4R 
]
1  

M

+1

+1

+1

The orthonormal null tetrad

24P
0
Z  
Z


Z

1
1

24
0
[ 
[ + ] 



2 
2 s1 + t4*  s1  t4R
+
]
[ + ]
s1 + t4* + s1  t4R
Written in terms of the coordinate basis
!  1, 0, 0, 0
!  0, 1, 0, 0
1
1
s0, 0, s1 + t, s1  tt
s0, 0, s1 + t, +s1  tt
! 
! 
2
2
Next we use the metric to rise the indices
Z  !Z !  Z   1 0  0
  ! !  Z Z  1 1  1
[  ]  0
Now we can use the basis one-forms to construct a orthonormal null tetrad (9.10)

1 1 0
1 +1 0


2 0 0 1
0 0 1
1

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Z

[


 !Z ! 
 ! ! 
 ]  0
 Z  0

Thursday, September 08, 2011


Z

Z

  1 1  1
Z  1 0  0

1
1
1
1

s1 + t  +
6
1 +  2
2 s1 + t
1
1
1
1
 ]] ]  +
s1  t  +
6
1   2
2 s1  t


[[

[  +

Collecting the results


!  1, 0, 0, 0
!
!  0, 1, 0, 0
!
1
s0, 0, s1 + t, s1  tt
! 
!
2
1
s0, 0, s1 + t, +s1  tt
! 

!
2

 +^" !
! "

 +^" !
!
"

 ^" ! !
"

0,
0,

0
0

0, +

, +

y
s1  t
1
0, +
,
y
s1 + t
s1  t
s1 + t
1

The spin coefficients calculated from the orthonormal tetrad

 0, 1,
 1, 0,
1

x0,
2
1

x0,
2

 +^" !
! "

 +^" !
! "

 ^" ! ! "

{  ^" ! ! "

 ^" ! ! "

1
 s^" ! ! " + ^" !
! " t
2
1
 s^" ! ! " + ^" !
! " t
2
(9.15)
1
 s^" ! !
" + ^" !
!
"t
2
1
 s^" ! ! " + ^" !
! " t
2

Calculating the spin-coefficients


! "  +^9 !
!   +^ [
[  + ^ ]
]   0
1  +^" !
! "  +^Z !
! Z  +^Z [
[ Z + ^Z ]
] Z  0
 +^" !
! "
! [
! ]

 +^[ !

+ ^] !

 +^" !
[ [
[ ]
] [
 +^[ [

+ ^] [

+ ^[ ]

+ ^] ]
]
]
 +)[ [ + $[[ $ 
[
[ + s)] [ + $][ $ t
[
] + s)[ ] + $[] $ t
]
[
$
] ]
+ s)] ] + ]] $ t

Z
[ [
Z
] ]
 [[ Z

 ]] Z

0
! "
Z
[ [
 [[ Z
 Z]] Z
] ]  0
 +^" !
!
"
!

[

 ^" !  ^ !  ^ [  ^ ] ]   0
{  ^" ! ! "  ^Z ! ! Z  ^Z [ [ Z  ^Z ] Z   0
"  ^[ ! !
[  ^] ! !
]  ^[ [ [
[  ^] [ [
]  ^[ ] ]
[  ^] ] ]
]
 ^" ! !
 )[ [ + $[[ $  [
[  s)] [ + $][ $ t [
]  s)[ ] + $[] $ t]
[  s)] ] + $]] $ t]
]
Z
[ [
Z
] ]
 +s [[ Z
 ]] Z
t

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 + +1 + 

1
1
1
x+
y x+
y
2
s1 + t
s1 + t

1
1
1
 1   x+
y x
y
2
s1  t
s1  t


1
1

+
x
y  35
2 s1 + t s1  t
s1  ts1 + t

1
1

 ^" ! ! " 

x
y
2 s1 + t s1  t
s1  ts1 + t
1
1
 s^" ! ! " + ^" !
! " t  ^ ! !  + ^ !
!  
2
2
1
 s^ Z Z  + ^ [
[  + ^ ]
]  t
2
1
 + ) [ + $[ $ 
[  s) ] + $] $ t
]
2
1
]
 + (s) s1 + t + [[ [ t
[   ) s1  t + ] ]
]  ,
2


1

 + + +  + x+
[ 
y s1 + t
1 + 
2

d
f

    +


s1  t
] 
1  

0
1
1
 s^" ! ! " + ^" !
! " t  ^: ! ! Z + ^Z !
! Z 
2
2
1
 s^: Z Z Z + ^Z [
[ Z + ^Z ]
] Z t  0
2
1
1
1
 s^" ! !
" + ^" !
!
" t  ^[ ! !
[ + ^[ !
!
[   s^] ! !
] + ^] !
!
]t
2
2
2
1
 s^[ Z Z
[ + ^[ [
[
[ + ^[ ]
]
[  ^] Z Z
] + ^] [
[
] + ^] ]
]
]t  0
2
1
 s^" ! ! " + ^" !
! " t  0
2

Collecting the results


0 0

0 { 0


0 
d
s1  ts1 + t

0 
f
s1  ts1 + t

35

0
0
0
0

The Weyl Scalars and Petrov classification

6   

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Thursday, September 08, 2011

 +  +    + 3 +   1 + 1  d  3f
 f +  + d  1 + f +       d + 1
6  { + + +  {sf + d + {t      + 2
  +     + {  f  d +   sf + {t
  +     + 3 +   s3d  f  1 + {t
Where
 ! ^!
 ! ^!
  ! ^!
! ^!
 

(13.22)
(13.23)
(13.24)
(13.25)
(13.26)
(9.13)

 +  +    + 3 +   1 + 1  d  3f  + 2



 ! ^! x
y+ 2x
y
s1  ts1 + t
s1  ts1 + t s1  ts1 + t




  9 x
 9 x
y+2
y+2
6
6
6
1 + 
s1 + ts1  t
s1 + 6 t
s1 + 6 t


s1 + 6 t + s+2 + 6 t


s1 + 6 t

+2



s1 + 6 t

 

 0
6  { + + +  {sf + d + {t      + 2  +  +! ^!  +Z ^Z  0
 0
 0
36 0: This is a Petrov type N, which means there is a single principal null direction of multiplicity 4. This

corresponds to transverse gravity waves in region III.


P.313: Example 13-2: Two interacting waves
The line element:
45 6  24P4 + cos 6 J 4* 6 + cosh6 J 4R 6

The Christoffel symbols

To find the Christoffel symbols we calculate the geodesic from the Euler-Lagrange equation
4 )
)
(10.36)
0 
( !, + !
45 )*r
)*
where
 2Pr r + cos 6 J *r 6 + cosh6 J Rr 6
* !  :
)
 2J cos J sin J *r 6 + 2J cosh J sinh J Rr 6
)
)
 2Pr
)r
4 )
( ,  2Pv
45 )r
O
0  Pv + J cos J sin J *r 6  J cosh J sinh J Rr 6
!
*  P:
36

http://www-staff.lboro.ac.uk/~majbg/jbg/book/chap3.pdf

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O
* !  *:

O
w
* !  R:

O
w
0
0
0
0

)
)P
)
)Pr
4 )
( ,
45 )Pr
0
)
)*
)
)*r
4 )
( ,
45 )*r
0
0
)
)R
)
)Rr
4 )
( ,
45 )Rr
0
0

Thursday, September 08, 2011


0

 2r
 2v
 v

0

 +2 cos 6 J *r

 4J cos J sin J r *r + 2 cos6 J *v


 2J cos J sin J r *r + cos6 J *v
 *v + 2J tan J r *r
0

 +2 cosh6 J Rr

 +4J cosh J sinh J r Rr + 2 cos6 J Rv


 +2J cosh J sinh J r Rr + cosh6 J Rv
 Rv  2J tanh J r Rr

Collecting the results


 v
 Pv + J cos J sin J *r 6  J cosh J sinh J Rr 6
 *v + 2J tan J r *r
 Rv  2J tanh J r Rr

We can now find the Christoffel symbols:


 +J cos J sin J Z]]  J cosh J sinh J
 +J tan J
[[  +J tan J
]
]  J tanh J
 J tanh J

The Petrov type

The line element

The metric tensor:

Z[[
[[
]
]

45 6
!"

 24P4 + cos 6 J 4* 6 + cosh6 J 4R 6


1
 M1
N
+ cos6 J
+ cosh6 J

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Thursday, September 08, 2011

and its inverse:

The basis one forms

!"

V1
T
U
T
S

1
cos 6 J

Finding the basis one forms is not so obvious, we write:


45 6  24P4 + cos6 J 4* 6 + cosh6 J 4R 6
6
6
6
6
 sZ t + s t + s [ t + s ] t
O 24P
24
[
]
O

4P  4 4P

 cos J 4*

X
1
T
+
6
cosh J W

 sZ   tsZ +  t + s [ t + s ] t
 sZ   t
 sZ +  t
 cos J 4*
 cosh J 4R

Z


Y
T

2
1
2

4P + 4

 cosh J 4R




2
1

sZ   t
sZ +  t

2
1
4* 
[
cos J
1
4R 
]
cosh J

M

+1

+1

+1

The orthonormal null tetrad

Now we can use the basis one-forms to construct a orthonormal null tetrad (9.10)
24P
1 1 0 0

Z  
Z


Z

1
1
1
1 +1 0 0

24

[ 
[

]
0
0
1

cos
J
4*
 cosh J 4R

2
2 
2
0 0 1 +

cos J 4* + cosh J 4R
]
[ + ]
Written in terms of the coordinate basis
!  1, 0, 0, 0
!  0, 1, 0, 0
1
1
0, 0, cos J , cosh J
0, 0, cos J , + cosh J

! 
!

2
2
Next we use the metric to rise the indices
Z  !Z !  Z   1 0  0
  ! !  Z Z  1 1  1
[  ]  0
Z  !Z !  Z   1 1  1
  ! !  Z Z  1 0  0
[  ]  0
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 Z  0

1
1
1
1

cos J  +
6
cos J 2
2 cos J
1
1
1
1
 ]] ]  +
cosh J  +
6
cosh J 2
2 cosh J


[[

[  +

Collecting the results


!  1, 0, 0,
!  0, 1, 0,
1
0, 0,
! 
2
1
0, 0,
! 

Thursday, September 08, 2011

0
0

cos J ,
cos J ,

cosh J

+ cosh J

 +^" !
! "

 +^" !
!
"

 ^" ! !
"

 0, 1,
 1, 0,
1

(0,
2
1

(0,
2

0,
0,

0
0

1
,
cos J
1
0, +
,
cos J
0, +

1
,
cosh J
1
,

cosh J
+

The spin coefficients calculated from the orthonormal tetrad

!
!

 +^" !
! "

 +^" !
! "

 ^" ! ! "

{  ^" ! ! "

 ^" ! ! "

1
 s^" ! ! " + ^" !
! " t
2
1
 s^" ! ! " + ^" !
! " t
2
(9.15)
1
! "
! "
 s^" !
+ ^" !

t
2
1
 s^" ! ! " + ^" !
! " t
2

Calculating the spin-coefficients


! "  +^ !
!   +^ [
[  + ^9 ]
]   0
1  +^" !
! "  +^Z !
! Z  +^Z [
[ Z + ^Z ]
] Z  0
 +^" !
! "
! [
! ]

 +^[ !

+ ^] !

 +^" !
[ [
[ ]
] [
 +^[ [

+ ^] [

+ ^[ ]

+ ^] ]
]
]  0
 +^" !
! "  0
!
 ^" ! "  ^9 ! ! 9  ^9 [ [ 9  ^9 ] ] 9  0
{  ^" ! ! "  ^Z ! ! Z  ^Z [ [ Z  ^Z ] ] Z  0
"  ^[ ! !
[  ^] ! !
]  ^[ [ [
[  ^] [ [
]  ^[ ] ]
[  ^] ] ]
]
 ^" ! !
 )[ [ + $[[ $  [
[  s)] [ + $][ $ t [
]  s)[ ] + $[] $ t]
[  s)] ] + $]] $ t]
]
 +s Z[[ Z [
[  Z]] Z ]
]t
 + +J cos J sin J (+

2 cos J

,  J cosh J sinh J (+

2 cosh J

J
tan J + tanh J
2
J
 ^" ! ! "  +s Z[[ Z [ [  Z]] Z ] ] t  tan J  tanh J
2
1
1
! "
! "
!
9
 s^" ! + ^" !
t  ^9 ! + ^9 !
! 9
2
2


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, (

2 cosh J

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Thursday, September 08, 2011

1
 s^9 Z Z 9 + ^9 [
[ 9 + ^9 ]
] 9t
2
1
 + ) [ + $[ $ 
[ 9  s) ] + $] $ t
] 9
2
1
1
1
]
 + ()
cos J + [[ [ ,
[ 9  ()
cosh J + ] ] ,
] 9
2
2
2

1
1
1
1
1
 + (+J
sin J J tan J,
cos J
[  (J
sinh J + J tanh J
cosh J,
]
2
2
2
2
2
0
1
1
 s^" ! ! " + ^" !
! " t  ^Z ! ! Z + ^Z !
! Z 
2
2
1
 s^Z Z Z Z + ^Z [
[ Z + ^Z ]
] Z t  0
2
1
1
1
 s^" ! !
" + ^" !
!
" t  ^[ ! !
[ + ^[ !
!
[   s^] ! !
] + ^] !
!
]t
2
2
2
0
1
 s^" ! ! " + ^" !
! " t  0
2

Collecting the results


0 0

0 { 0

J
 0  tan J + tanh J d
2
J
 0  tan J  tanh J f
2

0
0
0
0

The Weyl Scalars and Petrov classification

 +  +    + 3 +   1 + 1  d  3f
 f +  + d  1 + f +       d + 1
6  { + + +  {sf + d + {t      + 2
  +     + {  f  d +   sf + {t
  +     + 3 +   s3d  f  1 + {t
Where
 ! ^!
 ! ^!
  ! ^!
! ^!
 

(13.22)
(13.23)
(13.24)
(13.25)
(13.26)
(9.13)

 +     + 2  ! ^! + 2   ) + 2
J
J
J
  ) x tan J  tanh Jy + 2 x tan J  tanh Jy x tan J + tanh Jy
2
2
2
6
6
J
J
 1  tan6 J  1 + tanh6 J + tan6 J + tanh6 J  J6
2
2
0
 +  +! ^!  +Z Z  0
0
0

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0: This is a Petrov type N, which means there is a single principal null direction (!  of multiplicity 4.
1
 + 6 4P6  24P4Q + 6 4* 6  4R 6 

6
6
 1  *  R 
2
+ 6 1
V
Y
T 1
T
1
!" 
M1
+ 6
!" 

U
X
1T
T
+ 6W
S

P.318, Example 13-3: The Nariai spacetime

The line element:

The metric tensor and


its inverse:

The Christoffel symbols

!"$

ZZ

ZZ

1
 )$ !"  )" !$ + )!
2
1
 )  ZZ   +
2
1
 + ) ( ZZ ) 
2

45 6

"$ 

(4.15)
O

!"$

!'

ZZ



Z

ZZZ

Z

ZZ

ZZ

+6

+6

(4.16)
 +

 6

ZZ 
1
*
*
[[[  )[ ( [[ ) 

[[[  [[ [[[  +
2

1
R
R
[
[[
[[]  )] ( [[ ) 
[] 
[[]  +

1
R
R
]
]]
][[  + )] ( [[ )  +
][[ 

[[ 
2

1
R
R
]
]]
]]]  )] s ]] t 
]]]  +
]] 

1
*
*
]
]]
]][  )[ s ]] t 
]][  +
][ 

1
*
*
[
[[
[]]  + )[ s ]] t  +
]] 
[]] 

Collecting the results we find the non-zero Christoffel symbols


Z  + ZZZ  +
ZZ  6
*
[[[  ]][  + []]  +

R
[
]
]
[]  + [[  ]]  +

Z

'"$

1
6

The basis one forms

Finding the basis one forms is not so obvious, we write:

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O
O

1
4* 6  4R 6 
6
1
1
4P+ 6 4P  24Q + 6 4* 6 + 6 4R 6

Z  \
Z + \

45 6  + 6 4P6  24P4Q +

Z
\

1
 + 6  14P  4Q
2
1
  6  14P + 4Q
2
1
 4*

1
 4R

1
+1
M
N
+1
+1

4P

Thursday, September 08, 2011


 sZ t + s\ t + s [ t + s ] t
6

 sZ  \ tsZ + \ t + s [ t + s ] t
 4P
 + 6 4P  24Q
1
 4*

1
 4R

 Z  \

1
1
4Q  1  6 Z + 1 + 6 \
2
2

[
4* 

4R  ]

The orthonormal null tetrad

4P
+ 6 4P  24Q
0 0
Z  \
Z

\
1 Z + \
1 1
1
0 0


4*


4R
 (9.10)
[ 
[

1


2  ]
2 
[
]
1
1
1 +
]
+
4* + 4R
Written in terms of the coordinate basis
1
1
1, 0, 0, 0
+ 6 , 2, 0, 0
! 
! 
2
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
(0, 0,
(0, 0,
! 
! 

, ,
, + ,

2
2
Next we use the metric to rise the indices
Z  !Z !  \Z \  1 0  0
1
1
\  !\ !  Z\ Z  \\ \  1 ( ,  6 0 
2
2
[  ]  0
2
Z  !Z !  \Z \  1 ( ,  2
2
1
2
1
6
\  !\ !  Z\ Z  \\ \  1 + 6   6 ( , 
2
2
2
[  ]  0
Now we can use the basis one-forms to construct a orthonormal null tetrad
1

1
1

2 0
0

1
+1
0
0

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Z
[

 \  0

Thursday, September 08, 2011

1 1

+
2
2
1 1

!]
]]
6

! 
]  + 
 +
2
2


![

! 

[[

[  +6 

Collecting the results


1
1, 0, 0, 0
! 
!
2
1
+ 6 , 2, 0, 0 !
! 
2
1
1
1
(0, 0,
! 
!
, ,

2
1
1
1
(0, 0,

! 
!
, + ,

 +^" !
! "

 +^" !
!
"

 ^" ! !
"





2
1
2
1
2
1
2

0, 1,

0, 0

0, 0,

+, +

2, 6 , 0, 0
0, 0,

+, 

The spin coefficients calculated from the orthonormal tetrad

 +^" !
! "

 +^" !
! "

 ^" ! ! "

{  ^" ! ! "

 ^" ! ! "

1
 s^" ! ! " + ^" !
! " t
2
1
 s^" ! ! " + ^" !
! " t
2
(9.15)
1
! "
! "
 s^" !
+ ^" !

t
2
1
 s^" ! ! " + ^" !
! " t
2

Calculating the spin-coefficients


! "  +^ !
!   +^ [
[  + ^9 ]
] 
1  +^" !
 +) [ + [ $ 
[  + s) ] + ] $ t
]   0
! "  +^Z !
! Z  +^Z [
[ Z + ^Z ]
] Z  0
 +^" !
! "
! [
! ]

 +^[ !

+ ^] !

 +^" !
 +^[ [
[
[ + ^] [
[
] + ^[ ]
]
[ + ^] ]
]
]  0
 +^" !
! "  0
!
 ^" ! "  ^9 ! ! 9  ^9 [ [ 9  ^9 ] ] 9  0
{  ^" ! ! "  ^Z ! ! Z  ^Z [ [ Z  ^Z ] ] Z  0
"  ^[ ! !
[  ^] ! !
]  ^[ [ [
[  ^] [ [
]  ^[ ] ]
[  ^] ] ]
]
 ^" ! !
 )[ [ + $[[ $  [
[  s)] [ + $][ $ t [
]  s)[ ] + $[] $ t]
[  s)] ] + $]] $ t]
]
0
 ^" ! ! "  0
1
1
 s^" ! ! " + ^" !
! " t  ^9 ! ! 9 + ^9 !
! 9
2
2
1
 s^9 Z Z 9 + ^9 [
[ 9 + ^9 ]
] 9t  0
2
1
1
 s^" ! ! " + ^" !
! " t  ^Z ! ! Z + ^Z !
! Z 
2
2
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1
1
 s^Z Z Z Z + ^Z [
[ Z + ^Z ]
] Z t  )Z Z + $ ZZ $ Z Z
2
2
6
1 Z
1
1
2
1
 + ZZ Z Z Z  +
( , +

2
2 2 2
2
1
1
1
 s^" ! !
" + ^" !
!
" t  ^[ ! !
[ + ^[ !
!
[   s^] ! !
] + ^] !
!
]t
2
2
2
1
 + s^[ [
[
[  ^] [
[
]  ^[ ]
]
[  ^] ]
]
]t
2
1
 + s)[ [ + $ [[ $
[
[  )] [ + $ ][ $
[
]  )[ ] + $ [] $
]
[
2
 )] ] + $ ]] $
]
]t
1
1
1
]
]
 + ()[ (
, + [ [[ [ + [[ ]
[
[  )] (
, + [ ][ [ + ][ ]
[
]
2
2
2

]
 )[ (
, + [ [] [ + [] ]
]
[
2

]
 )] (
, + [ ]] [ + ]] ]
]
],
2
1
*
*
1
R
1
 + ((+
, + (+ , (
, + ( , (
,
[
[
6
2

2
2
2
R
R
1
*
1
 (+
, + (+ , (
, + (+ , (
,
[
]
6

2
2
2
*
R
1
*
1
 (+
, + (+ , (
, + (+ , (
,
]
[
6
2

2
2
R
*
1
R
1
 (+
, + ( ,(
, + (+ , (
,
]
],
6
2

2
2
1
R
1
*
1
R
1
 + (+ ( , (
,
[
[  + (+ , (
,
[
]  + (+ , (
,
]
[
2

2
2
2
*
1
 + ( , (
,
]
],
2
1
R
6
*

 + (+
, (+ ,  (
, (+ , ( ,  (
, ( , (+ ,
2
26
2
26
2
2
26
2
2
 (+

26

, (

1
R
*
R
*

+*  R
 + (+
,(
, + (
,(
, 
2
22
22
22
226
22
1
 s^" ! ! " + ^" !
! " t
2
1
R

R
1
*
1
 + (+ , (
,
[ [  ( , (
,
[ ]  ( , (
,
] [ + ( , (
,
] ]
2
2
2
2
2
1
R

6
*

R
1

 + (+ , (
, (+ ,  ( , (
, (+ , (+ ,  ( , (
, ( , (+ ,
2
2
2
2 2
2
2
2
2
*
1

+ ( ,(
, ( , (+ ,
2 2
2

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1
R
*
R
*

*  R
 + (+
+
+
+
,
2
22 22 22 22
22

Collecting the results


0 0 0

0

0

0

{ 0

0 d

0 f

+

Thursday, September 08, 2011

* + R
22

*  R

22
+

Newman-Penrose identities

(13.58)
+  d{  1  f{  1 +     {1 +  6 + => 

(13.59)
d +  f  +  dd  ff + 2df   +    +  + 6  => 
(13.60)
+ {  + +  {sf + d + {t      + 6 + 2 =>
Where
(9.13)
 ! ^!
 ! ^!
  ! ^!
! ^!
 
Reduces to
 6 + => 
d + f  dd  ff + 2df + 6  => 
0  +6 + 2 =>
These we can solve
1
1
1
1
1
,   ) (+
, 
(+
,  +
6 + =>    ! ^! (+
2
2
2
2
2
6 + => +  dd  ff + 2df + d  f

* + R +
*  R 
*  R
* + R
 +
22
22
22
22

* + R
*  R + ! ^! +
* + R
+ 2 +
22
22
22

*  R

! ^!
22


6 6
6
6

*  R 6   * 6  R 6   2 * 6  R 6  + [ )[ +
* + R
8
8
8
22

* + R 
[ )[

*  R
22
22

*  R

] )]
22
6

 * 6  R 6  
(+
,
(
,  (+ , (
,  ( , (
,
2
22
22
2
2 22
2 22
2
6
6 6
 * 6  R 6  +
+
+
+
 *  R 6  +
2
4
4
4
4
2
+ ] )] +

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Thursday, September 08, 2011


6 6

 *  R 6  + x1  * 6  R 6 y  +
2
2

Collecting the results


1
+  6 + => 
2
+  6 + => +
0  +6 + 2 =>
1
O
6  +
2
1
=> 
4
1

4

Checking and -!"  +

(13.65)
(13.64)
(13.65)
!"

1
(9.22)
 + -!" s ! "  !
"t
4
1
1
! "
! "
-!"  + !"

t  s !" ! "  !" !
"t
!" s 
4
4
1
 s ZZ Z Z  Z Z   Z  Z  [[ [
[  ]] ]
]t
4
1
1
1
 s Z  Z  [[ [
[  ]] ]
] t  x  Z + 6  [
[  ]
] y
4
4

6
1
1 2
1
1
1
1
1

+ 6 x(+
,  (+
,
y  1 + 1  0
4
4
2 2
2
2
2

And we can conclude that -!" +

!"

Instead we will look at a generalized Nariai spacetime


The line element: 45 6

 + 6 4P6  4P4Q +

  * 6  R 6 

4* 6  4R 6 
6

Finding the basis one forms is not so obvious, we write:

6
6
6
6
45 6  + 6 4P6  4P4Q + 6 4* 6  4R 6   sZ t + s\ t + s [ t + s ] t

6
6
O
4P+ 6 4P  4Q + 6 4* 6 + 6 4R 6  sZ  \ tsZ + \ t + s [ t + s ] t

O
Z  \  4P
Z + \  + 6 4P  4Q

[ 
4*

] 
4R

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The basis one-forms


1
1
Z  + 6  14P  4Q
2
2
1
1
\
6
 A  14P + 4Q
2
2


4*

] 
4R

1
+1
N
 M
+1
+1

4Z
4\
4 [

4 ]

4P

 Z  \

1
1
1  6 Z + 1 + 6 \

4* 

4R 

4Q 

Cartans First Structure equation and the calculation of the curvature one-forms
4!

 + ! " h "

(5.9)

1
1
 4 ( + 6  14P  4Q,  +4 h 4P
2
2
1
1
2

6
Z
 + ( 1   + 1 + 6 \ , h sZ  \ t  +
Z h \

1
1
 4 ( A 6  14P + 4Q,  4 h 4P
2
2
1
1
2
 ( 1  6 Z + 1 + 6 \ , h sZ  \ t  +
 h Z

+2R
2R [

 4 x 4*y  4 x
4*y 
4R h 4* 
h ]
6
6
6

 *  R 

+2*
2* ]

 4 x 4Ry  4 x
4Ry 
4* h 4R 
h [
6
6
6

 *  R 

The curvature one-forms summarized in a matrix:


2
0
sZ   t
0
0
V
Y

T
T
T2
T
0
0
0
T sZ   t
T

!
" 
2
U
0
0
0
+
s* ] + R [ tX

T
T
T
T
2
T
T
0
0
0
s* ] + R [ t
S
W

Where J refers to column and to row

The curvature two forms:

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! "

 4 ! "  ! $ h $ "

Thursday, September 08, 2011


1

 - !"$' $ h '
2

(5.27), (5.28)

First we see that ! $ h $ "  0 for all combinations


2
2
2
@4 h 4P
Z  4 Z  4 x sZ   ty  4 ( 4P, 

2
1
1
4

@ ( 1  6 Z + 1 + 6 \ , h sZ  \ t  6 @Z h \


Z
Z  4 Z  4   + 6 @ h Z

2
2
*4R + R4*y
[ ]  4 [ ]  4
s* ] + R [ t  4 x

2 46 6 6
2 46 6 6
x
+
*
4*
h
4R


R y 4R h 4*
y
x+

6
2 46 6 6
2 46 6 6
x
+
* y [ h ]  x+

R y ] h [

4 46 6 6
4
*  R 6  [ h ] 

+
s + * 6  R 6 t [ h ]

4
4 [

h ]
s  * 6  R 6  + * 6  R 6 t [ h ] 

4 ]
]
[  4 ][  +4 [ ] 
h [

! "

Summarized in a matrix:
4
0
+ 6 @ h Z
V

T4
T @Z h \
0
6

U
0
0
T
T
0
0
S

4 [
h ]

Y
T
T

4 ]
h [ X

T
T
0
W

Now we can write down the independent elements of the Riemann tensor in the noncoordinate basis:
4
4
R[ ][] 
R Z Z  + 6

4
4
]

Z
R [][ 
R Z\  6

The Ricci tensor:

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Thursday, September 08, 2011

-!"

 - $ !$"

-\\

 - $ \$\  - Z\Z\  - \\\\  - [\[\  -

-ZZ

(4.46)

 - $ Z$Z  - ZZZZ  - \Z\Z  - [Z[Z   - $ \$Z  - Z\ZZ  - \\\Z  - [\[Z 


0
0

-\Z
-[Z
-]Z
-[\
-]\

0
0

-[[

]
\
\Z

]Z
- Z
Z
]
- \]Z  0
]
\]\

 - $ [$[  - Z[Z[  - \[\[  - [[[[  -

-][

 - $ ]$[  - Z]Z[  - \]\[  - [][[ 

-]]

Summarized in a matrix:
A
0
V+ B

 - Z\Z\ 

]
]
[][  - [][
]
- ]][  0

 - $ ]$]  - Z]Z]  - \]\]  - [][]  -

+

]
]]]

 - [][] 

0 Y
0 T

+ 0 0 0
0 0 0
-!" 
M
N  +!"
CDE
0 0 0
U 0
X
0
0
F
0 0 0
T
CDE T
0
0
0
S
F W
Where J refers to column and to row
Compared with37 -!"  +!" we can see the that we can choose the coefficients are  1;  2; 

1,  1 and  , which corresponds to a Nariai line element consistent with -!"  + !"
1
45 6  + 6 4P6  24P4Q + 6 4* 6  4R 6 

6
6
 1  *  R 
4
So lets copy the Christoffel, spin coefficient and Newman-Penrose identity calculations with this new
C
 1  * 6  R 6 . The null tetrad is unchanged.
T

!"$

ZZ

ZZ
[[[

37

The Christoffel symbols


1
 )$ !"  )" !$ + )!
2
1
 )  ZZ   +
2
1
 + )  ZZ  
2
1
 )[ 
2

*
[[  
2

"$ 

4.15
O
O
O
O

!"$

!'

ZZ



Z

ZZZ
[[[





Z

Z
[[

'"$

ZZ

ZZ

ZZ

[[[

(4.16)

 +

 6


*
+
2

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Thursday, September 08, 2011

1
R
R
[[]  [[ [[]  +
O
 )]  [[  

2
2
2
1
R
R
]
]]
][[  + )]  [[   +
][[ 
O
[[ 
2
2
2
1
R
R
]
]]
]]]  )] s ]] t 
]]]  +
]] 
O

2
2
2
1
*
*
]
]]
]][  )[ s ]] t 
]][  +
][ 
O
2
2
2
1
*
*
[]]  + )[ s ]] t  +
[]]  [[ []] 
O

2
2
2
Collecting the results we find the non-zero Christoffel symbols
Z  + ZZZ  +
ZZ  6
*
[[[  ]][  + []]  +
2
R
[
]
]
[]  + [[  ]]  +
2
[[]

The spin coefficients calculated from the orthonormal tetrad

 +^" !
! "

 +^" !
!
"

 ^" ! !
"

 +^" !
! "

 +^" !
! "

 ^" ! ! "

{  ^" ! ! "

 ^" ! ! "

1
 s^" ! ! " + ^" !
! " t
2
1
 s^" ! ! " + ^" !
! " t
2
(9.15)
1
 s^" ! !
" + ^" !
!
"t
2
1
 s^" ! ! " + ^" !
! " t
2

Calculating the spin-coefficients


! "  +^ !
!   +^ [
[  + ^9 ]
] 
1  +^" !
 +) [ + [ $ 
[  + s) ] + ] $ t
]   0
! "
! Z
[ Z
 +^Z !
 +^Z [
+ ^Z ]
] Z  0
 +^" !
!
"  +^[ !
!
[ + ^] !
!
]
 +^" !
 +^[ [
[
[ + ^] [
[
] + ^[ ]
]
[ + ^] ]
]
]  0
!
"
 +^" !
0
!
 ^" ! "  ^9 ! ! 9  ^9 [ [ 9  ^9 ] ] 9  0
{  ^" ! ! "  ^Z ! ! Z  ^Z [ [ Z  ^Z ] ] Z  0
"  ^[ ! !
[  ^] ! !
]  ^[ [ [
[  ^] [ [
]  ^[ ] ]
[  ^] ] ]
]
 ^" ! !
 )[ [ + $[[ $  [
[  s)] [ + $][ $ t [
]  s)[ ] + $[] $ t]
[  s)] ] + $]] $ t]
]
0
 ^" ! ! "  0
1
1
 s^" ! ! " + ^" !
! " t  ^9 ! ! 9 + ^9 !
! 9
2
2
1
 s^9 Z Z 9 + ^9 [
[ 9 + ^9 ]
] 9t  0
2
1
1
 s^" ! ! " + ^" !
! " t  ^Z ! ! Z + ^Z !
! Z 
2
2
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Susan Larsen

Thursday, September 08, 2011

1
1
 s^Z Z Z Z + ^Z [
[ Z + ^Z ]
] Z t  )Z Z + $ ZZ $ Z Z
2
2
6
1 Z
1
1
2
1
 + ZZ Z Z Z  +
( , +

2
2 2 2
2
1
1
1
 s^" ! !
" + ^" !
!
" t  ^[ ! !
[ + ^[ !
!
[   s^] ! !
] + ^] !
!
]t
2
2
2
1
 + s^[ [
[
[  ^] [
[
]  ^[ ]
]
[  ^] ]
]
]t
2
1
 + )[ [ + $ [[ $ 
[
[  s)] [ + $ ][ $ t
[
]  s)[ ] + $ [] $ t
]
[
2
 s)] ] + $ ]] $ t
]
]
1
1
1
]
]
 + ()[ (
, + [ [[ [ + [[ ] ,
[
[  ()] (
, + [ ][ [ + ][ ] ,
[
]
2
2
2

]
 ()[ (
, + [ [] [ + [] ] ,
]
[
2

]
 ()] (
, + [ ]] [ + ]] ] ,
]
]
2
1
*
*
1
R
1
 + ((+
, ( ,(
, + ( , (
,
[
[
6
2
2 2
2
22
2
R
R
1
*
1
 (+
,  ( ,(
, + ( , (
,
[
]
6
2 2
2
22
2
*
R
1
*
1
 (+
,  ( ,(
,  ( , (
,
]
[
6
2 2
2
22
2
R
*
1
R
1
 (+
, + ( ,(
,  ( , (
,
]
],
6
2
2
22
2
2
1
R
1
*
1
R
1
[ [
[ ]
 + ((+ , (
,

 ( , (
,

 ( , (
,
]
[
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
*
1
] ]
 + ( , (
,

,
2 2
1
R
6
*

 + (+
, (+ ,  (
, (+ , ( ,  (
, ( , (+ ,
6
6
6
2
22
22
22
2
2
2
2
2
*

+(
, ( ,
226
2

1
R
*
R
*

* + R
 + + (
,(
, + (
,(
,  +
2
42
42
42
426
42
1
 s^" ! ! " + ^" !
! " t
2
1
R
1
*
1
R
1
 + ((+ , (
,
[ [  ( , (
,
[ ]  ( , (
,
] [
2
2
2
2 2
2
2
*
1
 + ( , (
,
] ] ,
2 2

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Thursday, September 08, 2011

1
R

6
*

R
1

 + (+ , (
, (+ ,  ( , (
, (+ , (+ ,  ( , (
, ( , (+ ,
2
2 2
2 2
2 2 2
2
2
2
2
*
1

+ ( ,(
, ( , (+ ,
2 2 2
2

1
R
*
R
*

*  R
 + (+
+
+
+
,
2
42 42 42 42
42
1

Collecting the results


0 0 0

0

0

0

{ 0

0 d

0 f

+

* + R
42

*  R

42
+

Newman-Penrose identities

(13.58)
+  d{  1  f{  1 +     {1 +  6 + => 

(13.59)
d +  f  +  dd  ff + 2df   +    +  + 6  => 
(13.60)
+ {  + +  {sf + d + {t      + 6 + 2 =>
Where
(9.13)
 ! ^!
 ! ^!
  ! ^!
! ^!
 
Reduces to
 6 + => 
d + f  dd  ff + 2df + 6  => 
0  +6 + 2 =>
These we can solve
1
1
1
1
1
,   ) (+
, 
(+
,  +
6 + =>    ! ^! (+
2
2
2
2
2
6 + => +  dd  ff + 2df + d  f

* + R +
*  R 
*  R
* + R
 +
42
42
42
42

* + R
*  R
+ 2 +
42
42

* + R 
*  R
+ ! ^! +
! ^!
42
42

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Thursday, September 08, 2011




6 6
6
6
*  R 6   * 6  R 6   2 * 6  R 6 
32
32
32

* + R + ] )] +
* + R
+ [ )[ +
42
42

*  R 
] )]

*  R
42
42
6

 * 6  R 6  
(+
,
(
,  (+ , (
,
8
42
2
2 42
2 42

 ( , (
,
42
2
6
6 6

 * 6  R 6  +
+
+
+
 *  R 6  +
8
8
8
8
8
8
2
6 6

1
 *  R 6  + x1  * 6  R 6 y  +
8
4
2
2

[ )[

Collecting the results


1
+  6 + => 
2
1
+  6 + => +
2
0  +6 + 2 =>
1
O
6  +
3
1
=> 
6
 0
Which is consistent with the former calculation of  0, Jnd we can conclude that if -!"  +
C
should rightfully be  1  * 6  R 6 

(13.65)
(13.64)
(13.65)
!" so

New - P.322: Quiz 13-1: Collision of a gravitational wave with an electromagnetic wave The
non-zero spin coefficients
The line element in region H 0: 45 6
 24P4 + cos6 J 4* 6  4R 6 
The metric tensor:

and its inverse:

!"

 M1

!"

V1
T

U
T
S

+ cos6 J
+

1
cos 6 J

+ cos6 J

Y
T

X
1 T
+
cos6 J W

The Christoffel symbols

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Thursday, September 08, 2011

To find the Christoffel symbols we calculate the geodesic from the Euler-Lagrange equation
0 
where
* !  P:

)
)P
)
)Pr

* !  :

* !  *:

* !  R:

 2Pr r + cos 6 J *r 6  Rr 6 


0

 2r

0  2v

)
)

 2J cos J sin J *r 6  Rr 6 


 2Pr

4 )
( ,  2Pv
45 )r

0  Pv + J cos J sin J *r 6  Rr 6 

)
)*
)
)*r

(10.36)

4 )
( ,  2v
45 )Pr

)
)r

4 )
)
( !, + !
45 )*r
)*

0

 +2 cos 6 J *r

4 )
( ,  4J cos J sin J r *r + 2 cos6 J *v
45 )*r
0  2J cos J sin J r *r + cos6 J *v
0  *v + 2J tan J r *r

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Thursday, September 08, 2011


)
)R

0

)
)Rr

 +2 cos 6 J Rr

4 )
( ,  4J cos J sin J r Rr + 2 cos6 J Rv
45 )Rr

0  2J cos J sin J r Rr + cos6 J Rv

0  Rv + 2J tan J r Rr

0  v

Collecting the results

0  Pv + J cos J sin J *r 6  Rr 6 


0  *v + 2J tan J r *r

0  Rv + 2J tan J r Rr

We can now find the Christoffel symbols:

Z[[

 +J cos J sin J

Z]]

 +J cos J sin J

 +J tan J

 +J tan J

[[

]
]

 +J tan J

[[

]
]

 +J tan J

The basis one forms


45 6

O 24P
24

 24P4 + cos6 J 4* 6  4R 6 

 sZ t + s t + s [ t + s ] t
6

 sZ   tsZ +  t + s [ t + s ] t
 sZ   t

 sZ +  t

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 cos J 4*

 cos J 4R

]
O

2
1

4P  4 4P
4P + 4

 cos J 4*

 cos J 4R

Thursday, September 08, 2011

4*




2
1

sZ   t
sZ +  t

1

[
cos J

4R 

M

+1

1
]
cos J

+1

+1

The orthonormal null tetrad

Now we can use the basis one-forms to construct a orthonormal null tetrad (9.10)

1
1 1

2 0

24P
0 0
Z  
Z


Z

1
1
0 0
24

[ 
+ 
1

2 [  ]
2 cos J 4*  cos J 4R
1 +
cos J 4* + cos J 4R
]
[ + ]

1
+1
0
0

Written in terms of the coordinate basis


!

 1, 0, 0,


0, 0,

0

cos J ,

cos J

Next we use the metric to rise the indices


Z

 ]  0

Z






!Z

! 

!

! 

!Z

! 

!

! 

 ]  0

Z

Z

 0, 1, 0,


0,

0

0, cos J ,

+ cos J

  1 0  0

Z  1 1  1

Z

Z

  1 1  1

Z  1 0  0

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Thursday, September 08, 2011

 Z  0

[[

]]

[  +

]  +

Collecting the results


 1, 0, 0,

 0, 1, 0,

! 

2
1

0, 0,
0, 0,

 +^" !
! "

 +^" !

1
1
1
1
cos J  +
6
cos J 2
2 cos J

0

0

cos J ,
cos J ,

cos J

+ cos J

 0, 1, 0,
 1, 0, 0,



2
1

(0,
(0,

0
0

0, +
0, +

1
,
cos J
1
,
cos J

1
,
cos J

1
,
cos J

The spin coefficients calculated from the orthonormal tetrad

1
1
1
1

cos J  +
6
cos J 2
2 cos J

 +^" !
! "
!

"

 +^" !
! "

 ^" ! ! "

{  ^" ! ! "

 ^" !

"

 ^" ! ! "

1
 s^" ! ! " + ^" !
! " t
2

1
 s^" ! !
" + ^" !
!
"t
2

1
 s^" ! ! " + ^" !
! " t
2

(9.15)

1
 s^" ! ! " + ^" !
! " t
2

Calculating the spin-coefficients


1

 +^" !
! "  +^ !
!   +^ [
[  + ^9 ]
]   0

 +^" !
!
"  +^[ !
!
[ + ^] !
!
]

 +^" !
! "  +^Z !
! Z  +^Z [
[ Z + ^Z ]
] Z  0
 +^[ [
[
[ + ^] [
[
] + ^[ ]
]
[ + ^] ]
]
]  0

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Thursday, September 08, 2011

 +^" !
! "  0

 ^" ! ! "  ^Z ! ! Z  ^Z [ [ Z  ^Z ] ] Z  0

 ^" ! ! "  ^9 ! ! 9  ^9 [ [ 9  ^9 ] ] 9  0

 ^" ! !
"  ^[ ! !
[  ^] ! !
]  ^[ [ [
[  ^] [ [
]  ^[ ] ]
[  ^] ] ]
]

 )[ [ + $[[ $  [
[  s)] [ + $][ $ t [
]  s)[ ] + $[] $ t]
[  s)] ] + $]] $ t]
]
 +s Z[[ Z [
[  Z]] Z ]
]t
 + +J cos J sin J (+

 J tan J

2 cos J

, + J cos J sin J (+

 ^" ! ! "  +s Z[[ Z [ [  Z]] Z ] ] t


 + x+J cos J sin J (+

2 cos J

, + J cos J sin J (+

1
1
 s^" ! ! " + ^" !
! " t  ^9 ! ! 9 + ^9 !
! 9
2
2

2 cos J

2 cos J

, (

2 cos J

, y0

1
 s^9 Z Z 9 + ^9 [
[ 9 + ^9 ]
] 9t
2

1
 + ) [ + $[ $ 
[ 9  s) ] + $] $ t
] 9
2

1
1
1
]
 + ()
cos J + [[ [ ,
[ 9  ()
cosh J + ] ] ,
] 9
2
2
2

1
1
1
1
1
 + (+J
sin J + +J tan J
cos J,
[  (+J
sin J  J tan J
cos J,
]
2
2
2
2
2

0

1
1
 s^" ! ! " + ^" !
! " t  ^Z ! ! Z + ^Z !
! Z 
2
2
1
 s^Z Z Z Z + ^Z [
[ Z + ^Z ]
] Z t  0
2

1
1
1
 s^" ! !
" + ^" !
!
" t  ^[ ! !
[ + ^[ !
!
[   s^] ! !
] + ^] !
!
]t
2
2
2

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Thursday, September 08, 2011

0

1
 s^" ! ! " + ^" !
! " t  0
2

Collecting the results

0
0

0

0

0

{ 0

0

0

 J tan J

0

0
0

This means that - 0 and there is expansion (or pure focusing=divergence) and the answer to quiz
13-1 is (a)
New - P.322,Quiz 13-2: The Aichelburg-Sexl Solution The passing of a black hole
The line element
45 6  4 log* 6  R 6  4P6  24P47 + dx 6 + 4R 6
Comparing with the Brinkmann metric

45 6

 P, *, R4P6  24P4Q + 4* 6 + 4R 6

We see that we can copy the results from the Brinkmann calculations p.195 if P, *, R  4 log* 6  R 6 

The only non-zero spin-coefficient is:


1 )
)
(

,
+
)R
22 )*

)4 log* 6  R 6 
)4 log*2  R2 
+
x

y
)*
)R
22
4
2*
2R
+
( 6
 6
,
6
*  R6
22 *  R
*
R
 +22 ( 6
 6
,
6
* R
*  R6
1

(9.30)

and the answer to quiz 13-2 is (b)

Final Exam

P.323 FE-1:
56  6 + *6 + R6 + o6
(1.11)
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
 +1 + 4 + 3 + 0 + s2 + +1t + 4 + 1  5 + 3 + 3 + 3  +2
And the answer to FE-1 is (c)

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Thursday, September 08, 2011

P.324 FE-4:   

The four velocity P! 

'[ n
' '[ '] 'p
 , , , , the four impulse e!  P! , the
'|
'| '| '| '|
'Zn

. Because P! q !  P! q! we can calculate


'|
1
1
4P!
4P!
1
4P! P! 
 P!
P! q !  P! q !  P! q!   x P!
y 

P! P is an invariant
!

'Z Zn 
and n
6
'|

4{

4{

!"

J

4{

P.324 FE-7: Calculate the Christoffel symbols for a metric example


The line element: 45 6  P6  6 4P6  P6  6 4 6  P6 6 48 6
The metric tensor
and its inverse:

'in
'|

 P! q  0 and the answer to FE-4 is (a)


!

P.324 FE-6:  and  in a diagonal metric


1 )
) !$ ) "$
(4.15)
!"$   !"

+

)* "
)* !
2 )* $
1 )
) !! ) "!
1 ) !!
!"!  ( !"

+
, ( ",
!
"
!
)*
)*
2 )*
2 )*
1 ) !! ) !" ) !"
1 ) !!
!!"  ( " 
+
, ( ",
!
!
)*
)*
2 )*
2 )*
And the answer to FE-6 is (d)

P6

four force q ! 


0
0

6

0
0
P6  6 
0 K
6 6
0
P

!"

1
V 6
P  6 
T
T
U
T
T
S

1
(4.16)
 )$ !"  )" !$ + )! "$  (4.15) !"$  !' '"$
2
P
1
ZZZ  )Z  ZZ   P
O ZZZ  ZZ ZZZ  6
P  6 
2

1
ZZ  + )  ZZ   +
O ZZ   ZZ  + 6
P  6 
2

1
ZZ  )  ZZ  
O ZZ  ZZ ZZ  6
P  6 
2
P
1
Z  + )Z     +P
O Z  ZZ Z  + 6
P  6 
2
P
1
Z  )Z     P
O Z   Z  6
P  6 
2

1
  )    
O      6
P
 6
2
P 6
1
ZFF  + )Z  FF   +P 6
O ZFF  ZZ ZFF  + 6
P  6 
2
1
1
FZF  )Z  FF   P 6
O FZF  FF FZF 
2
P
1
P6
FF  + )  FF   +P6
O FF   FF  + 6
P  6 
2
1
1
FF  )  FF   P6
O FF  FF FF 
2

Collecting the results we find the non-zero Christoffel symbols


!"$

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P6

1
 6

Y
T
T

X
1 T
T
P6 6 W

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P
P6  6 

 6
P  6 

ZZZ

 + Z  Z 

ZFF

+



FF

FZF

FF

 + ZZ  ZZ
P 6
P6  6 
P6
+ 6
P  6 
1

P
1


Thursday, September 08, 2011

P.325 FE-8: Calculate the Riemann tensor of metric example


In 3 dimensions the Riemann tensor has six independent elements: -66 ; -6 ; -66 ; - ; -6 ; -66
The Riemann tensor
(4.42)
-!"$'  )$ !"' + )' !"$ + .!$ ."'  .!' ."$
-ZZ  )Z Z + ) ZZ + .ZZ .  .Z .Z
 )Z +P + )  + ZZZ Z  ZZ ZZ + ZZ   Z Z
P6
6
6
P6
 +2  6



0
P  6  P6  6  P6  6  P6  6 
-ZZF  )Z ZF + )F ZF + .ZZ .F  .ZF .Z  0
-ZF  ) ZF + )F Z + .Z .F  .ZF .  0
-ZFZF  )Z ZFF + )F ZFZ + .ZZ .FF  .ZF .FZ  )Z +P 6  + ZZZ ZFF + ZZ FF  FZF FFZ
P6 6
P6 6
 + 6  6

 6  0
P  6  P6  6 
-ZFF  ) ZFF + )F ZF + .Z .FF  .ZF .F
 ) +P 6  + ZZ ZFF + Z  FF  FZF FF
P
P
6
P6
 +2P  6


P

P

+ 1y  0
x
P  6  P6  6 
P6  6  P6  6 
-FF  ) FF + )F F + . . FF  .F . F
 ) +P6  + Z ZFF +   FF  FF F F
P6 6
P6 6
 +P6 + 6

 P6  0
P  6  P6  6 
All the independent elements of the Riemann tensor is zero and the answer to FE-8 is (d)
New - P.325 FE-8: Calculate the Riemann tensor of metric example Alternative version38
The answer to Exercise 8 in the Final Exam is given by -!"$'  0 for the following reason: Consider the
global Minkowski spacetime 46  4P6  4Q 6  48 6, in some coordinates P , Q , 8  [the corresponding
Riemannian curvature tensor identically vanishing, of course], and consider the following coordinate transformation:
P  PQ cos 8
Q  PQ sin 8
1
8  P6 + Q 6 
2
The differentials are related as
4P  P4Q  Q4P cos 8 + PQ sin 8 48
4Q  P4Q  Q4P sin 8  PQ cos 8 48
38

Kindly provided by Mr. John Fredsted: http://johnfredsted.dk/science/publications.php

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Thursday, September 08, 2011

48  P4P + Q4Q
from which it readily follows that
4P6  4Q 6  48 6  P4Q  Q4P6  PQ6 48 6  P4P + Q4Q6
 P6  Q 6 4P6  4Q 6   P6 Q 6 48 6
Thus the line element 45 6  P6  Q 6 4P6  4Q 6   P6 Q 6 48 6 must correspond to an identically vanishing Riemannian curvature tensor.
New - P.325 FE-9: Calculate the Christoffel symbols for a metric example
The line element: 45 6  4 6  sinh6 48 6  sinh6 sin6 8 4< 6
To find the Christoffel symbols we calculate the geodesic from the Euler-Lagrange equation
4 )
)
(10.36)
0 
( !, + !
45 )*r
)*
where
 6r  sinh6 8r 6  sinh6 sin6 8 <r 6
!
*  :
)
 2 cosh sinh 8r 6  2 cosh sinh sin6 8 <r 6
)
)
 2r
)r
4 )
x y  2v
45 )r
O
0  2v + 2 cosh sinh 8r 6 + 2 cosh sinh sin6 8 <r 6
w
0  v + cosh sinh 8r 6 + cosh sinh sin6 8 <r 6
* !  8:
)
 +2 cos 8 sin 8 sinh6 <r 6
)8
)
 2 sinh6 8r
)8r
4 )
( ,  4 cosh sinh r8r  2 sinh6 8v
45 )8r
O
0  2 sinh6 8v  4 cosh sinh r8r  2 cos 8 sin 8 sinh6 <r 6
w
0  8v  2 cosh sinh r8r  cos 8 sin 8 <r 6
!
*  <:
)
0
)<
)
 2 sinh6 sin6 8 <r
)<r
4 )
x y  4 cosh sinh r<r + 4 cos 8 sin 8 8r <r  2 sinh6 sin6 8 <v
45 )<r
O
0  4 cosh sinh r<r + 4 cos 8 sin 8 8r <r  2 sinh6 sin6 8 <v
coth
cot 8
r<r + 2
8r <r
w
0  <v  2
6
sin 8
sinh6
Collecting the results
0  v + cosh sinh 8r 6 + cosh sinh sin6 8 <r 6
0  8v  2 cosh sinh r8r  cos 8 sin 8 <r 6

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0  <v  2

FF

GG

Thursday, September 08, 2011

coth
cot 8
r<r + 2
8r <r
6
sin 8
sinh6
FGF

We can now find the non-zero Christoffel symbols:


 + cosh sinh

 + cosh sinh sin6 8

And the answer to FE-9 is (a)

FGG

 cosh sinh

G
G

 cos 8 sin 8

G
FG

coth
sin6 8
cot 8
+
8r <r
sinh6


New - P.325 FE-10: Calculate the Ricci rotation coefficients for a metric example
The line element: 45 6  4 6  sinh6 48 6  sinh6 sin6 8 4< 6

The Basis one forms


 4
4
 sinh 48

 sinh sin 8 4<

48

4<


1


F
sinh
1


G
sinh sin 8

=

>

Cartans First Structure equation and the calculation of the Ricci rotation coefficients !"$ :

We have:

4F

4 G

0

4!
! "

 + ! " h "
 !"$ $

(5.9)
(5.10)

F  coth h F
sinh
 4sinh sin 8 4<  cosh 4 h 4<  cos 8 48 h 4<
1
1
1

 cosh h
G  cos 8
F h
G
sinh sin 8
sinh
sinh sin 8
coth
cot 8 F


h G 
h G
sin 8
sinh6
 4sinh 48  cosh 4 h 48  cosh h

Summarizing the curvature one forms in a matrix:


coth G

V
0
coth F
Y
sin 8
T
T
T
T
cot 8

F
G
!
0

"  + coth
sinh6
U
X
coth

cot
8
T
T

T+
T
G +
G
0
6
S sin 8
W
sinh
Where J refers to column and to row.

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FF

Thursday, September 08, 2011

Now we can find the non-zero Ricci rotation coefficients

coth

G
 + coth
F F  coth
G 
sin 8
cot
8
cot 8

coth

G
F GG  +
FG 
+
6
sinh
sinh6
sin 8

2 6
2 6
 x1 +
 6 y 4 6 + x1 +
 6 y 47 6 + 7 6 48 6 + 7 6 sin6 8 4< 6
7
7
7
7
2 6
Vx1 +
Y
 6y
7
7
T
T
T
T
6
2


+ x1 +
 6y
U
X
7
7
T
T
T
T
+7 6
6
6
S
+7 sin 8 W
6
2

Vx1 +
Y
 6y
7
7
T
T
T
T
6
2

T
T
+ x1 +
 6y
7
7

U
X
1
+ 6
T
T
7
T
T
1
T
T
+ 6 6 W
S
7 sin 8

NEW - P.325, FE-12: The non-zero Weyl scalars of the Reissner-Nordstrm spacetime
The metric:

45

The metric tensor:

!"

and its inverse:

!"

The Christoffel symbols

To find the geodesic we use the Euler-Lagrange equation


4 )
)
0 
( !, + !
45 )*r
)*
where

2 6 6
2 6
 x1 +
 6 y r + x1 +
 6 y 7r 6 + 7 6 8r 6 + 7 6 sin6 8 <r 6
7
7
7
7
!
*  :
)
0
)
2 6
)
 2 x1 +
 6 y r
7
7
)r
6
7 +
2 6
4 )
r
7r


2
+
 6 y v
y
x1
( ,  4x
7
7
7
45 )r
7 + 6
2 6
O
0  4x
 6 y v
y 7r r  2 x1 +
7
7
7
6
2
7 + 6
w
0  v  2 x1 +
 6y x
y 7r r
7
7
7
* !  7:

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(10.36)

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)
)7
)
)7r
4 )
( ,
45 )7r
O

* !  8:

)
)8
)
)8r
4 )
( ,
45 )8r
0

)
)<
)
)<r
4 )
x y
45 )<r
0

* !  <:

2 2 6
2 6
 x 6 + y r 6  x1 +
 6y
7
7
7
7
 2x

7 + 6 6
2 6
r


2
+
 6y
y
x1
7
7
7

 +2 x1 +

2 6
 6y
7
7

2 6
 +2 x1 +
 6y
7
7

2 2 6 6
+ y 7r + 278r 6 + 27 sin6 8 <r 6
76
7

7r

7 + 6 6
y 7r + 278r 6 + 27 sin6 8 <r 6
7

2 6
7v  2 x1 +
 6y
7
7

2 2 6 6
x 6 + y 7r
7
7

2 6
2 6
7 + 6 6
 +2 x1 +
 6 y 7v  4 x1 +
 6y x
y 7r
7
7
7
7
7

6
2 6
2 6
7 + 6 6
7 + 6 6
 +2 x1 +
 6 y 7v  4 x1 +
 6y x
7r
+
2
y
x
y r
7
7
7
7
7
7

2 6
+ 2 x1 +
 6y
7
7

7 + 6 6
y 7r  278r 6  27 sin6 8 <r 6
7

2 6
2 6
7 + 6 6
7 + 6 6
 +2 x1 +
 6 y 7v  2 x1 +
 6y x
7r
+
2
y
x
y r  278r 6
7
7
7
7
7
7
 27 sin6 8 <r 6

2 6
7 + 6 6
2 6 7 + 6 6
 7v + x1 +
 6y x
 6y x
y 7r  x1 +
y r
7
7
7
7
7
7
0
2 6 6
2 6
+ 7 x1 +
 6 y 8r + 7 x1 +
 6 y sin6 8 <r 6
7
7
7
7

Thursday, September 08, 2011

 +27 6 cos 8 sin 8 <r 6


 +27 6 8r

 +477r 8r + 27 6 8v

 +477r 8r + 27 6 8v  27 6 cos 8 sin 8 <r 6


2
0  8v  7r 8r + cos 8 sin 8 <r 6
7
0

 +27 6 sin6 8 <r

 +47 sin6 8 7r <r + 47 6 cos 8 sin 8 8r <r + 27 6 sin6 8 <v

 +47 sin6 8 7r <r + 47 6 cos 8 sin 8 8r <r + 27 6 sin6 8 <v


2
0  <v  7r <r  2 cot 8 8r <r
7

(10.39)

(10.40)

Collecting the results

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Thursday, September 08, 2011

2 6
0  v  2 x1 +
 6y
7
7
2 6
 7v + x1 +
 6y
7
7

7 + 6
y 7r r
7

7 + 6 6
2 6 7 + 6 6
2 6 6
r
7r

+


+
7
+
 6 y 8r
y
x1
y
x
y
x1
7
7
76
7
7
7
6
2
+ 7 x1 +
 6 y sin6 8 <r 6
7
7

2
0  8v  7r 8r + cos 8 sin 8 <r 6
7
2
v
0  <  7r <r  2 cot 8 8r <r
7

EEE

E FF

E GG
FEF

F GG

G
EG

G
FG

We can now find the Christoffel symbols:

2 6
7 + 6
 x1 +
 6y x
y
7
7
7

2 6
7 + 6
 + x1 +
 6y x
y
7
7
7
2 6 7 + 6
 x1 +
 6y x
y
7
7
7
2 6
 +7 x1 +
 6y
7
7
2 6
 +7 x1 +
 6 y sin6 8
7
7
1

7
 + cos 8 sin 8
1

7
 cot 8

The basis one forms

2 6 6
 x1 +
 6 y 4
7
7
2 6
 x1 +
 6y
7
7

 748

 7 sin 8 4<

47

6
4  x1 + 2  y
7
76

6 6
47  x1 + 2  y E
7
76
1
48  F
7
1

4< 
G
7 sin 8

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M

+1

+1

+1

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The orthonormal null tetrad

Now we can use the basis one-forms to construct a orthonormal null tetrad (9.10)

1 1 0
1 1 +1 0

2 0 0 1
0 0 1

Written in terms of the coordinate basis


!

6 6
6

x1 + 2  y , x1 + 2  y
2
7
76
7
76

2 6
  x1 +
 6y
7
7

6 6
6
x1 + 2  y , + x1 + 2  y
! 
2
7
76
7
76
1
0, 0, 7, 7 sin 8
! 
2
1
0, 0, 7, +7 sin 8
! 

2
Next we use the metric to rise the indices

2 6
  x1 +
 6y
7
7

, 0, 0

2 6 6
1
2 6
 6y 
 6y
x1 +
x1 +
7
7
7
7
2
2

2 6 6
+
 6y
x1 +
7
7
2

2 6 6
1
2 6
 6y 
 6y
x1 +
x1 +
7
7
7
7
2
2

2 6 1
2 6 6
1
2 6 6
EE

E  + x1 +
 6y
+ x1 +
 6y 
 6y
x1 +
7
7 2
7
7
7
7
2

 G  0
 E  0

1 1
1 1
,
7+
6
7 2
2 7
1
1
1
1
 GG G  + 6 6
7 sin 8  +
7 sin 8 2
2 7 sin 8


FF

F  (+

6 6

x1 + 2  y ,
2
7
76

, 0,

2 6 1
2 6
EE

E  + x1 +
 6y
 6y
x1 +
7
7 2
7
7
G
 0

Collecting the results


!

2 6 6
2 6 6
x1
+

y
4

x1
+
 6 y 47

7
76
7
7
 E

0


E
1
1 
0 E

6 6
6 6






2

F
 6 y 4 + x1 +
 6 y 47
2 F  G
2 x1 +
7
7
7
7
+ G


F + G
748  7 sin 8 4<

748 + 7 sin 8 4<

6 6

x1 + 2  y ,
2
7
76

2 6
x1 +
 6y
7
7

2 6
+ x1 +
 6y
7
7

, 0, 0

0, 0

6

x1 + 2  y
2
7
76

6 6

x1 + 2  y
2
7
76

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2 6 6
, + x1 +
 6y ,
7
7

0, 0

2 6 6
, x1 +
 6 y , 0, 0
7
7

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! 

2
1
2

0, 0,

7,

0, 0,

7 sin 8

7,

+7 sin 8

 +^" !
! "

 +^" !
!
"

 ^" ! !
"

! 

(0,

2
1

(0,

1
1
,
0, + , +
7
7 sin 8
1
1
,
0, + ,
7
7 sin 8

The spin coefficients calculated from the null tetrad

! 

Thursday, September 08, 2011

 +^" !
! "

 +^" !
! "

{  ^" ! ! "

1
 s^" ! ! " + ^" !
! " t
2
1
 s^" ! ! " + ^" !
! " t
2
(9.15)
1
! "
! "
 s^" !
+ ^" !

t
2
1
 s^" ! ! " + ^" !
! " t
2

 ^" ! ! "

 ^" ! ! "

Calculating the spin-coefficients


! "  +^ !
! + ^E !
! E  +^ F
F + ^E F
F E + ^ G
G + ^E G
G E
1  +^" !
 +) F + $F $ 
F + )E F + $EF $ 
F E + s) G + $G $ t
G + s)E G + $EG $ t
G E
0
 +^" !
! "  0
!
"  +^F !
!
F + ^G !
!
G
 +^" !
F F
F G
G F
 +^F F

+ ^G F

+ ^F G

+ ^G G
G
G
 +)F F + $FF $ 
F
F + s)G F + $GF $ t
F
G + s)F G + $FG $ t
G
F
+ s)G G + $GG $ t
G
G
 EFF E
F
F  EGG E
G
G

2 6
1
1
2 6
1
1
 +7 x1 +
 6 y E (+ , + 7 x1 +
 6 y sin6 8 E (
,  0
7
7
7
7
7
2
2 7 sin 8

 +^" !
! "  0
 ^" ! ! "  ^ ! !  ^E ! ! E  ^ F F  ^E F F E  ^ G G  ^E G G E
 ) F + $F $ F  )E F + $EF $ F E  s) G + $G $ tG  s)E G + $EG $ tG E  0
 ^" ! ! "  0
 ^" ! !
"  ^F ! !
F  ^G ! !
G  ^F F F
F  ^G F F
G  ^F G G
F  ^G G G
G
$
$
$
F
F
F
G
G
F
 )F F + FF $ 
 s)G F + GF $ t
 s)F G + FG $ t

 s)G G + $GG $ tG
G
 + EFF E F
F + EGG E G
G
2 6 1
2 6
 7 x1 +
 6y
 6y
x1 +
7
7 2
7
7


x1 +

1
(+ ,
7
2

2 6
1
2 6
 7 x1 +
 6 y sin6 8
 6y
x1 +
7
7
7
7
2

6 6 1

2
 6y
7
7
7

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(+

1
1
1
, (
,
7 sin 8
2 7 sin 8

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 ^" ! ! "  + EFF E F F + EGG E G G  0


1
1
1
 s^" ! ! " + ^" !
! " t  ^ ! ! + ^ !
!   ^E ! ! E + ^E !
! E 
2
2
2
1
1
1
 s^ + ^ F
F t  s^E E + ^E F
F E t  s^ E E + ^ G
G t
2
2
2
1
 s^E E E E + ^E G
G E t
2
1
1
 ) + $ $  + ) F + $F 
F  )E + $E $  E + )E F + $EF 
F E
2
2
1
 ) E + $E $ E + s) G + $G t
G
2
1
 )E E + $EE $ E E + s)E G + $EG t
G E
2
1
1
1
 s+ E E  t  )E + E  E + s)E F + FEF F t
F E  s+ E E t
2
2
2
1
G
E
E
E
G
E
 ()E E + EE E  + )E G + EG G
,
2

1
1
1
2 6 6
1
 s+ E E  t  )E x1 +
 6 y + E E + ( )E 7 + FEF F ,
F E
2
2
7
7
2
2
1
 s+ E E t
2

1
1
2 6
 )E x1 +
 6y
2
7
7
2

1
 s+ E E  t
2

1
G
+ EEE E E E + ( )E 7 sin 8 + EG G ,
G E
2

1
1 2 2 6 1
2 6
 x 6 + y x1 +
 6y
2
7
2
7
7
2 7

1
 s+ E E t
2

1
+ E E + ( + FEF F ,
F E
2

2 6
1
1 2 2 6
1
 6y
 x 6 + y (+ , x1 +
2
7
2
7
7
2 7
1
G
+ (  sin 8 + EG G ,
G E
2

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+ EEE E E E

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1
 s+ E E  t
2

1
1 7 + 6
2 6
 x
+
 6y
y
x1
2
7
7
7
2
2 6
+ x1 +
 6y
7
7

1
 s+ E E t
2

7 + 6 1
2 6 6 E
1
1 1
+


+
(
+
7,
F E
x
y
x1
y
7
7
76
2
2 7 2

1
1 7 + 6
2 6
 +
+
 6y
x
y
x1
7
7
2
7
2
2 6
 x1 +
 6y
7
7

7 + 6 1
2 6 6 E E
 6y
+

x
y
x1
7
7
7
2

1
1 1
+ (  sin 8 +
7 sin 8,
G E
7 2
2

1
1
1
 s+ E E  t  s+ E E t  +  E E  E E 
2
2
2
1
2 6 7 + 6 1
2 6
 + x1 +
 6y x
 6y
y
x1 +
2
7
7
7
7
7
2
2 6
 x1 +
 6y
7
7

2 6
 6y
x1 +
7
7
2

7 + 6 1
2 6 6 1
2 6 6
+

+
 6y
x
y
x1
y
x1
7
7
7 6 2
7
7
2

1 7 + 6 1
2 6
+ x
+
 6y
y
x1
2
7
7
7
2

1 7 + 6
2 6
 + x
+
 6y
y
x1
7
7
7
26

1
1
1 7 + 6
2 6 6
 s^" ! ! " + ^" !
! " t  +  E E  E E   + x
+
 6y
y
x1
2
2
7
7
7
26
1
1
1
 s^" ! !
" + ^" !
!
" t  s^F ! !
F + ^F !
!
F t  s^G ! !
G + ^G !
!
Gt
2
2
2
1
1
1
 s^F
F + ^F F
F
F t  s^G
G + ^G F
F
G t  s^F E E
F + ^F G
G
Ft
2
2
2
1
 s^G E E
G + ^G G
G
Gt
2
1
 )F + $F $ 
F + )F F + $ FF $ 
F
F
2
1
 s)G + $G $ t
G + s)G F + $ GF $ t
F
G
2
1
 )F E + $FE $ E
F + s)F G + $ FG $ t
G
F
2
1
 s)G E + $GE $ tE
G + s)G G + $ GG $ t
G
G
2

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Thursday, September 08, 2011

1 G
G
 GF G
F
G + )F G + FG G
G
F  FGG F
G
G
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
 (cot 8
7 sin 8
(+ , + ( )F 7 sin 8 + cot 8
7 sin 8,
F
2
7
2
2
2
2
1 1
1
G
+ cos 8 sin 8
7

,
2 2 7 sin 8
1
1
1
1
11
 + cos 8
G  + cos 8

 cot 8
2
2
2 7 sin 8 26 7
1
1
1
1
1
1 1
 s^" ! ! " + ^" !
! " t  + cos 8 G  + cos 8
(+
,  + cot 8
2
2
2
7 sin 8
7
2
26

Collecting the results


1

0
0

0

{ 0

2 6 6 1 d

 6y
x1 +
7
7
7
2

0

0

0

1 7 + 6
2 6
 + x
+
 6y
y
x1
7
7
7
6
2

1 7 + 6
2 6
 + x
+
 6y
y
x1
7
7
7
6
2
11
 cot 8
7
26
11
 + cot 8
7
26

The Weyl Scalars and Petrov classification

 +  +    + 3 +   1 + 1  d  3f
 f +  + d  1 + f +       d + 1
6  { + + +  {sf + d + {t      + 2
  +     + {  f  d +   sf + {t
  +     + 3 +   s3d  f  1 + {t
Where
 ! ^!
 ! ^!
  ! ^!
! ^!
 

(13.22)
(13.23)
(13.24)
(13.25)
(13.26)
(9.13)

0
 f +  + f +   d  ! ^! f + ! ^! + f  f  d
 ) f  E )E f + F )F + G )G + f  E )E f + f
1

2 6 6
11
1 1
1
2 6 6 1
+
 6 y )E + cot 8 + + cot 8
 6y
x1 +
x1 +
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
2
2
6
6
2
2
1

2 6 6
11
1 1
+
 6 y )E + cot 8 + + cot 8  0
x1 +
7
7
7
7
2
26
26

E
 +      + + E  2  +E E  2

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1

2 6 6 1
 +E E x1 +
 6y
7
7
7
2
1

2 6 6 1
1 7 + 6
2 6 6
 2 x1 +
 6 y + x
+
 6y
y
x1
7
7
7
7
7
7
2
6
2

2 6 6 1
2 6 6
1
2 2 6 1
2 6
+
 6y
x1 +
 6 y (+ 6 ,  x 6 + y x1 +
 6y
x1 +
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
2
7
7
2
2
1 1 7 + 6
+ x
y
2 7
7

61

1
2 6
1
2 2 6 1 1
1 1 7 + 6
 + x1 +
 6 y (+ 6 ,  x 6 + y + x
y
2
27
2 7
7
7
7
7
7
7

11
1 2 6
6
7 + 6
1
2 3 6 7 6 + 47  3 6
x+  6 + y  x 6 + y  x

+


y
27
7 7
7
7
7
7
27 6 7 27
27
  +  d  f 
! )! + ! )! 
F )F 
G )G + ) + E )E
+

2 6 6
11
1
1
2 6 6
 + x1 +
 6 y )E cot 8  cot 8 6 x1 +
 6y
7
7
7
4
7
7
7
2
6
2
 0
If 6  0 the results from Quiz 10-5 are reproduced

Bibliografi
d'Inverno, R. (1992). Introducing Einstein's Relativity. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
McMahon, D. (2006). Relativity Demystified. McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Spiegel, M. R. (1990). SCHAUM'S OUTLINE SERIES: Mathematical Handbook of FORMULAS and TABLES.
McGraw-Hill Publishing Company.

http://physicssusan.mono.net/9035/General%20Relativity

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