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July 2008

1SDC007107G0201

Power factor correction and harmonic filtering in electrical plants

Technical Application Papers

**Power factor correction and harmonic filtering in electrical plants
**

Index

Introduction................................................ 2 1 Generalities on power factor correction........................... 3 2 Technical advantages of power factor correction........ 4 2.1 Better utilization of electrical machines..... 5 2.2 Better utilization of electrical lines............. 5 2.3 Reduction of losses................................... 6 2.4 Reduction of voltage drop......................... 6 3 Economic advantages of power factor correction......... 7 4 Production means of reactive power 4.1 Synchronous alternators............................ 8 4.2 Synchronous compensators...................... 8 4.3 Static var compensators............................ 8 4.4 Banks of static capacitors......................... 9 5 Types of power factor (PF) correction 5.1 Distributed PF correction......................... 10 5.2 Group PF correction................................ 11 5.3 Centralized PF correction........................ 11 5.4 Combined PF correction.......................... 11 5.5 Automatic PF correction.......................... 11 6 Calculation of the power factor....................................................... 12 7 Calculation of the necessary reactive power................. 13 7.1 PF correction of three-phase motors....... 14 7.2 PF correction of three-phase

transformers. ............................................ 17

**8 Harmonics in electrical plants 8.1 Harmonics. ............................................... 20 8.2 The prescriptions of the Standards ........ 21 8.3 Harmonic effects. ..................................... 21
**

8.3.1 Overloads................................................................. 21 8.3.2 Resonance............................................................... 22

**8.4 Harmonic filters . ..................................... 23 9 Switching and protection of capacitor banks 9.1 Switching electrical phenomena.............. 25 9.2 Switching and protection......................... 26
**

9.2.1 Choice of the protective device............................... 26 9.2.2 Choice of the switching device (contactor).............. 26 9.2.3 Choice of the capacitor............................................ 27 9.2.4 Discharge of capacitors........................................... 28

**10 ABB offer 10.1 Circuit-breakers....................................... 30
**

10.1.1 Moulded-case circuit-breakers.............................. 30 10.1.2 Air circuit-breakers................................................. 32

10.2.1 Contactors UA…RA............................................... 33 10.2.2 Contactors UA........................................................ 34 10.2.3 Contactors A and AF.............................................. 34

10.2 Contactors............................................... 33 10.3 Automatic compensators......................... 35 10.4 PQF filters................................................ 37

Annex A: Selection tables for circuit-breakers and contactors....................................................... 42 Annex B: Reactive power at voltage variations..................... 45 Annex C: Filtering and power factor correction in distorted steady-state .......................................................... 46 Annex D: Voltages and currents upon switching and discharging of capacitors....................................... 51 Annex E: Power factor correction in photovoltaic plants...... 53 Annex F: Harmonics in three-phase systems with neutral.... 54 Glossary ............................................................... 56

1

Technical Application Papers

Introduction

In electrical plants the loads draw from the network electric power (active) as power supply source (e.g. personal computers, printers, diagnostic equipment, etc.) or convert it into another form of energy (e.g. electrical lamps or stoves) or into mechanical output (e.g. electrical motors). To get this, it is often necessary that the load exchanges with the network (with net null consumption) the reactive energy, mainly of inductive type. This energy, even if not immediately converted into other forms, contributes to increase the total power flowing through in the electrical network, from the generators, all along the conductors, to the users. To smooth such negative effect, the power factor correction of the electrical plants is carried out. The power factor correction obtained by using capacitor banks to generate locally the reactive energy necessary for the transfer of electrical useful power, allows a better and more rational technical-economical management of the plants. Moreover, the present spreading of direct current users, such as electronic circuits and electric drives, involve the generation of current harmonics which are injected into the network, with the consequent pollution and distortion of the waveforms on other connected loads. Therefore, the use of harmonic filters, both of passive as well as of active type, contributes to improve the overall powerquality of the network, carrying out also power factor correction at the network frequency, when such filters are properly sized. This technical paper has the purpose of analyzing these problems without going into technical details, but, starting from the definition of power factor correction, from an analysis of the technical-economical advantages and describing the forms and modalities to achieve power factor correction, it wishes to guide to the convenient choice of the devices for the switching of the capacitor banks and the filtering of the harmonics. In fact, after a first descriptive part, the ABB offer is illustrated in terms of power factor correction devices, intended not only as suitable capacitors, but also as those devices able to carry out switching and protection of the capacitor banks. Besides, some solutions are given for both the passive and active filtering of the current harmonics generated by distorting nonlinear loads. To integrate this technical paper there are also six annexes providing: • tables for the quick choice and coordination of circuitbreakers and contactors for switching and protection of capacitor banks of a determined power; • indications on how the reactive power generated at the variations of supply voltages changes and necessary considerations to prevent reactive power from being injected into the network; • considerations on power factor correction and filtering under distorted steady-state conditions to point out how canonical power factor correction implies a reduction of the value of the harmonics present in the network; • descriptions of the voltage and current characteristics during the switching on and discharging of capacitor banks; • considerations on power factor correction in photovoltaic plants; • remarks about the contribution of harmonics to the evaluation of the current in the neutral conductor of three-phase systems.

Introduction

2 Power factor correction and harmonic filtering in electrical plants

According to the tariff system applied.4÷0. the current absorbed by a load can be represented by two components: • the active component IR. in phase with the supply voltage. Table 1. is used to generate the flow necessary for the conversion of powers through the electric or magnetic field and it is index of the transfer of energy between supply and load.9 cosϕ power factor 0.6 0.97 1 0.75 0. for example.Resistance welding: -Arc melting furnace Fluorescent lamps -compensated -uncompensated AC DC converters DC drives AC drives Resistive load 0. Without this.85 1 Generalities on power factor correction cosϕ = = IR ϕ IQ I V S ϕ P Q Improving the power factor means taking the necessary steps to increase the power factor in a defined section of the installation by locally delivering the necessary reactive power so that the value of the current and consequently of the power flowing through the upstream network can be reduced. Power factor correction and harmonic filtering in electrical plants 3 . the total current I lags with respect to the active component IR. it results: IR I P S Table 1. ϕ is the phase angle between the voltage and the current.75÷0. at the same required output power.8 0.95 0. in addition to the active power P.1 Generalities on power factor correction In alternating current circuits. which is essential for the conversion of the electrical energy but is not available to the load because exchanged with the network. • the reactive component IQ. the lines. In the most common case.15 0. in fact. for this reason there aren’t standards prescribing the precise value of power factor that an electrical installation should have. light energy. the consumer can determine the amount of his own additional charge and therefore can evaluate the savings on the penalties to be paid in comparison with the cost of an installation for power factor correction. For a given phase voltage V.1÷0. there could be no net transfer of power. a suitably sized installation can operate properly also in case of a low power factor.9 must be paid according to defined amounts depending on the voltage level of the supply (low. In this way.9 0. as better explained in the following chapter.6÷0. The legislative measures in force in the different countries allow the national power supply authorities to create a more or less detailed tariff system. The complex of the power generated and transmitted constitutes the apparent power S. medium or high) and on the power factor. who consequently applies a tariff structure which penalizes the withdrawal of energy with low power factors.Arc welding . it is necessary to generate and transmit. a certain reactive power Q. Therefore.7÷0. However.4÷0. in quadrature to the voltage.35÷0. in the presence of ohmicinductive type loads. without going deeply into details. such system is structured so that the absorbed reactive energy exceeding that corresponding to a cosϕ equal to 0. thanks to the magnetic coupling in the core of a transformer or in the air gap of a motor. managing an installation with a low cosϕ implies an increase of costs for the power supply authority.4÷0.6 0. improving the power factor is a solution which allows technical and economic advantages.95÷0. is directly related to the output (and therefore to the part of electric energy converted into energy of different types: mechanical energy. Power factor cosϕ is defined as the ratio between the active component IR and the total value of the current I. in an electrical installation.1 shows the typical power factors of some electrical equipment.6 0.7÷0.1 Load Transformers (no load condition) Motor Metal working apparatuses: . thermal energy…). the generators and the transformers can be sized for a lower apparent power.Arc welding compensated . From a strictly technical point of view.

the absorbed current decreases from 540 A to: Qc P Q1 S1 I2 = P 3 · Un · cosϕ2 = 300 · 103 3 · 400 · 0. where: • P is the active power.0.8 By applying the formula previously described. by correcting the power factor of an installation supplying locally the necessary reactive power.93 the power factor in a three-phase plant (Un=400 V) absorbing an average power of 300 kW. The absorbed current shall be: I1 = P = 300 · 103 = 540 A 2 Technical advantages of power factor correction 3 · Un · cosϕ1 3 · 400 · 0. ϕ1 are the reactive power and the phase displacement angle before power factor correction.1] Example Suppose we wish to increase from 0. • Q2.tgϕ2) = 300 · (0. the reactive power to be locally generated by Qc can be obtained: Qc = P · (tgϕ1 .93 = 465 A (about 15% reduction) For what said above. • Qc is the reactive power for power factor correction. at the same level of required output power.75 .Technical Application Papers 2 Technical advantages of power factor correction As previously mentioned. • better utilization of electrical lines. this implies numerous advantages. • reduction of voltage drops. among which a better utilization of electrical machines (generators and transformers) and of electrical lines (transmission and distribution lines). the main advantages of power factor correction can be summarized as follows: IQ2 ϕ1 IQ1 IR ϕ2 I2 I1 V S1 ϕ1 S2 ϕ2 P Q1 Qc Q2 • better utilization of electrical machines. it is possible to reduce the current value and consequently the total power absorbed on the load side. • reduction of losses.tgϕ2) [2.8 to 0.Q2 = P · (tgϕ1 . • Q1. 4 Power factor correction and harmonic filtering in electrical plants . ϕ2 are the reactive power and the phase displacement angle after power factor correction.39) = 108 kvar P Q2 S2 Due to the effect of power factor correction. In the case of sinusoidal waveforms. the reactive power necessary to pass from one power factor cosϕ1 to a power factor cosϕ2 is given by the relation (valid for both three-phase as well as single-phase systems): Qc = Q1 .

6 A 3 · Un · cosϕ2 3 · 400 · 0. at the same output power. installed flat on a perforated tray. the required current shall be: I0. take into consideration a load requiring a power Pn equal to 170 kW with cosϕ = 0.2: Current carrying capacity I0 of copper single-core cables on perforated tray From the above table it results that to supply 170 kW total power with cosϕ=0. By locally correcting the power factor so as to obtain a cosϕ value of 0.7 44 70 88 112 140 175 221 280 441 560 700 875 0. under standard conditions. If the loads absorbed the same power with cosϕ=0.1 shows the variation of the transmissible power for MV/LV three-phase transformers as a function of the cosϕ of the load. a 250 kVA transformer must be used.9 With this value of current. the absorbed current I0. at a voltage Un= 400 V. it would be sufficient to use a 200 kVA transformer.7 is: I0.7. Thus. Table 2.2 Better utilization of electrical lines Power factor correction allows to obtain advantages also for cable sizing.5 32 50 63 80 100 125 158 200 315 400 500 625 0.9.1 Better utilization of electrical machines Generators and transformers are sized according to the apparent power S.6 38 60 75 96 120 150 189 240 378 480 600 750 0. but still deliver the same active power.1 Power of the transformer [kVA] 63 100 125 160 200 250 315 400 630 800 1000 1250 Power of the transformer [kW] cosϕ 0.5 A When choosing a copper single-core cable with EPR insulation.7 = Pn 2 Technical advantages of power factor correction 3 · Un · cosϕ1 = 170 3 · 400 · 0. these machines can be sized for a lower apparent power. by improving the power factor of the installation.2). The same is valid also for generators.9.9 = Pn = 170 = 272. the smaller the apparent power. In fact. o Cu XLPE/EPR S [mm2] 25 35 50 70 95 120 150 185 240 300 400 500 630 141 176 216 279 342 400 464 533 634 736 868 998 1151 I0 [A] 114 143 174 225 275 321 372 427 507 587 689 789 905 PVC Power factor correction and harmonic filtering in electrical plants 5 . as previously said.2. instead of 0.8 50 80 100 128 160 200 252 320 504 640 800 1000 0. As an example. the cable can have a cross sectional area of 70 mm2. Table 2. a cross sectional area of 120 mm2 shall be necessary (see Table 2. To make it clear through a practical example.7. Table 2.7 = 350. This reduction in current can be such as to allow the choice of conductors with lower cross sectional area. At the same active power P.7 to a series of loads. by increasing the power factor the current diminishes. the smaller the reactive power Q to be delivered.9 57 90 113 144 180 225 284 360 567 720 900 1125 1 63 100 125 160 200 250 315 400 630 800 1000 1250 2.

Table 2. • I is the current.Technical Application Papers 2. • P is the transmitted active power. the voltage drop shall be the smaller. Table 2. with the same value of transmitted active power.5 69.2 0. • cosϕ1 is the power factor before power factor correction.3 Reduction of losses The power losses of an electric conductor depend on the resistance of the conductor itself and on the square of the current flowing through it. the voltage drop is the difference between the moduli of the incoming and outgoing voltage. the higher the cosϕ.95 - ϕ Ir Figure 2.8 20. moreover. As it can be noticed in the following figures showing the diagrams of the phase voltage drop ΔV.5% saving on losses is obtained. the losses in the conductor on the supply side of the point where the power factor correction has been carried out will decrease. • S is the apparent power required by the load.4 Δp% from cosϕ1 to 0.1 72. it follows that when the power factor rises. 2 At the same level of transmitted active power. 3 · Un = 3 · Un 3 · I2 = [2. about 39.3 shows the saving on losses obtained by increasing the power factor from an initial cosϕ1 to the final value of 0.9. • Q is the reactive power required by the load. a reduction of power losses is obtained in all the parts of the installation upstream the point where the power factor has been improved. therefore it can be neglected. From this formula [2.1 0. 1 In very high voltage lines.1: phasor diagram without power factor correction displaying the voltage drop on the line The reduction in the losses Δp after power factor correction is given by1: [2. since.9 and 0.4 Reduction of voltage drop The drop of the line-to-line voltage in a three-phase line can be expressed as follows: DU = 2 Technical advantages of power factor correction 3 · I · (R cosϕ + X sinϕ) = P Un · (R + X tgϕ) [2. • R is the resistance of the conductor.4] it results that. by increasing the power factor from 0.2] since: I= S (P2 + Q2) (P2 + Q2) 2. • cosϕ2 is the power factor after power factor correction. By definition and as can be noted in the diagrams.2 from cosϕ1 to 0.9 80. Figure 2.3] where: • I is the current flowing through the conductor.7 0. which are designed so that the power transmitted by them is equal to the characteristic power.4] Im ΔV Vs Ia V I jXI RI Re where: • p1 are the losses before power factor correction. • P is the active power required by the load.5 45. In a three-phase system the losses are expressed as follows: (P2 + Q2) p = 3 · R · I2 = R · [2.3 0.95 82. • Un is the rated voltage. the lower the current. the higher the power factor2.3 0.6 55.2: phasor diagram with total power factor correction displaying the voltage drop on the line in case of a purely ohmic load Im ΔV1 Vs V RIa 2 jXIa Re By improving the power factor. the voltage variation is already limited in itself (null if the line is considered without losses) and moreover the consumption of inductive reactive power due to the flowing of the current in the series inductance is perfectly equal to the capacitive reactive power generated by the derived capacitances. this variation is minimum if there is no reactive power absorption (current in phase)3. cos cos cos cos cos cos 3 6 Power factor correction and harmonic filtering in electrical plants .6 60.95. In the calculation of ΔV by the formula [2. for example.9 29.7 39.5] an additional term equal to about 1/200 of the voltage value is not given.9 10. the smaller the phase displacement angle ϕ between voltage and current (with the same active component of the load current and therefore with the same active power) the smaller the voltage variation.3 cosϕ1 0.1 0.5] where: • R and X are respectively the resistance and the reactance of the line.7 to 0. • Un is the rated supply voltage.

0.78 0.5 29.83 Mar 5306 0. in kvar.74 0. Generally speaking.0421 = 1370 € • CEQ is the cost of the reactive energy per year in €. • c is the unit cost of the reactive energy in €/kvarh.3 15. the savings obtained by correcting the power factor allow the payback of the installation cost of the capacitor bank within the first If an automatically-controlled capacitor bank for power factor correction with Qc=30 kvar.0.2] By assuming a unit cost of the reactive energy equal to 0.CQc = 1370 .4 12.2 shows the reactive power necessary to increase the power factor up to 0.78 Nov 9700 0.9.2 0. The contracts applied are different from country to country and can vary also according to the typology of costumer: as a consequence. 3 Economic advantages of power factor correction Example A company absorbs active and reactive energy according to table 3. the following remarks are to be considered as a mere didactic and indicative information aimed at showing the economic saving which can be obtained thanks to the power factor correction. It is to be noted that having a monthly average power factor higher than or equal to 0.5 · Ep) · c .9.78 June 9896 0. the power supply contractual clauses require the payment of the absorbed reactive energy when the power factor is included in the range from 0.0 33.1 42.76 - Therefore no penalties are applied if the requirements for reactive energy do not exceed 50% of the active one.74 July 10800 0.3 47.72 0.0421 €/kvarh.73 Aug 9170 0.9.750 = 620 € Power factor correction and harmonic filtering in electrical plants 7 . • Qc is the power of the capacitor bank necessary to have a cosϕ of 0. the cost of the capacitor bank and of the relevant installation will be: where: CQc = CQ · cc [3.CQc = (EQ . The cost that the consumer bears on a yearly base when drawing a reactive energy exceeding that corresponding to a power factor equal to 0.5 · Ep) · c [3.79 0.6 26.9. The saving for the consumer shall be: CEQ .8 57.0 14.9 means requesting from the network a reactive energy lower than or equal to 50% of the active energy: tgϕ = Q P ≤ 0. against a total installation cost per year cc of 25 €/kvar. Table 3.2 8. an accurate analysis of an investment implies the use of some economic parameters that go beyond the purposes of this Technical Application Paper.72 Sep 5339 0.9 not to pay the consumption of reactive energy.484 is the tangent corresponding to a cosϕ equal to 0.3] Table 3.76 Oct 7560 0.1 52. the total cost per year is: CEQ = (EQ . If the power factor is corrected at 0.7 31. without keeping into account the payback and the financial charges.4 16.4 60.9. • cc is the yearly installation cost of the capacitor bank in €/kvar.74 Dec 6778 0. whereas nothing is due if it is higher than 0. • EQ is the reactive energy consumed per year in kvarh.78 0. The saving for the consumer.5 61. For cosϕ < 0.1 67.76 Feb 8664 0.3 Economic advantages of power factor correction Power supply authorities apply a tariff system which imposes penalties on the drawing of energy with a monthly average power factor lower than 0.81 0.9.1: Table 3.5 · 93746) · 0.79 May 5000 0.1] years of use.5 · Ep is the amount of reactive energy to be paid.73 0.9 It is necessary to note that the capacitor bank represents an “installation cost” to be divided suitably for the years of life of the installation itself applying one or more economic coefficients.4] • CQc is the yearly cost in € to get a power factor equal active power P Qc=P⋅(tanϕ-0.5 · Ep) · c = (79405 .0.9 33.5 cosϕ ≥ 0.81 Apr 8312 0.3 9.76 0.76 1 operating hours 160 160 160 160 160 160 160 160 160 160 160 160 to 0.3 27.4841) [kW] 45. in the practice. • EP is the active energy consumed per year in kWh.0.2 10. As a matter of fact.9 can be expressed by the following relation: where: CEQ = (EQ .Qc · cc [3.1 Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May June July Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Total active energy [kWh] 7221 8664 5306 8312 5000 9896 10800 9170 5339 7560 9700 6778 93746 reactive energy [kvarh] 6119 5802 3858 6375 3948 8966 10001 8910 4558 6119 8870 5879 79405 monthly average pf 0.74 0.4 54. shall be: CEQ .76 0.7 power supply authorities can oblige consumers to carry out power factor correction.1 16. • EQ .83 0.7 and 0. a total cost of 750 € is obtained.2 active monthly Month energy average [kWh] pf Jan 7221 0.0.89 [3.9 26.

the switching of the various capacitors is not carried out through the opening and closing of suitable contactors. however. these devices are used above all in high and very high voltage networks.3 Basic diagram of a TCR Basic diagram of a TSC 4 Generation means of reactive power • synchronous alternators. whereas with TCR a continuous control of the reactive power drawn by the inductors is possible. They are intended to supply electrical power to the final loads through transmission and distribution systems.1 Synchronous alternators Synchronous alternators are the main machines used for the generation of electrical energy.2 Synchronous compensators They are synchronous motors running no-load in synchronism with the network and having the only function to absorb the reactive power in excess (underexcited operation) or to supply the missing one (overexcited operation). it is possible to vary the value of the generated voltage and consequently to regulate the injections of reactive power into the network. without going into technical details. Figure 4. 4. • synchronous compensators (SC). • banks of static capacitors. Figure 4. • static var compensators (SVC). but through the control carried out by couples of antiparallel tyristors.1: under-excited synchronous compensator E Xs I V TSC allow a step-by-step control of the reactive power delivered by groups of capacitors.f. The use of synchronous compensators in power distribution networks is not favourable from an economic point of view because of their high installation and maintenance costs. Q Q 4. These are an electronic version of the reactive power compensation systems based on electromechanical components in which. 8 Power factor correction and harmonic filtering in electrical plants . E V I Figure 4.3 Static var compensators The considerable development of power electronics is encouraging the replacement of synchronous compensators with static systems for the control of the reactive power such as for example TSC (thyristor switched capacitors) and TCR (thyristor controlled reactors).2: over-excited synchronous compensator Xs I V E E V I E : e. Besides.Technical Application Papers 4 Generation means of reactive power The main means for the generation of reactive power are: 4. so that the voltage profiles of the system can be improved and the losses due to joule effect along the lines can be reduced. induced in the stator phases V : phase voltage imposed by the network to the alternator terminals I : stator current Xs : stator reactance These devices are used mainly in definite nodes of the power transmission and sub-transmission network for the regulation of voltages and of reactive power flows. From the point of view of applications.m. by acting on the excitation of alternators. By coupling a TSC with a TCR it is possible to obtain a continuous modulated regulation of the delivered/drawn reactive power.

value of the alternating voltage for which the capacitor has been designed. Because of their capability of storing and delivering energy. the capacitors draw a minimum value of active power owing to the non-null conductivity of the interposed dielectric material and to the dielectric hysteresis losses Plane capacitors Cylindrical capacitors Spherical capacitors + + + + + + + - + + + + + + + + + + + + + - + + + + + - - - - - - - - - - - - - + + + + + + + + - Power factor correction and harmonic filtering in electrical plants 9 . According to the geometry of the metal plates. When an alternating voltage is applied across the plates.s. isolated from one another by a dielectric material. capacitors are used as basic element for the realization of power factor correction banks (for all voltage levels) and of static devices for the regulation of reactive power1.m. it is possible to have: • plane capacitors. the part of the polypropylene film affected by the discharge evaporates due to the thermal effect caused by the discharge itself.4. Ec = 1 2 · C · U2 where: • C is the capacitance. 1 Figure 4. when such situations occur.5 As a matter of fact. in fact. In these capacitors.4 Banks of static capacitors A capacitor is a passive dipole consisting of two conducting surfaces called plates. Using dry-type capacitors there is no risk of pollution because of the incidental leak of the impregnating substance. 4 Generation means of reactive power Such energy is given by the following relation: dielectric The system thus obtained is impregnated to prevent the penetration of humidity or of gas pockets which could cause electrical discharges.4 electric field plate plate The main parameters which characterize a capacitor are: • the rated capacitance Cn: the value obtained from the rated values of power. the power factor correction capacitors used for low voltage applications are constituted by singlephase components of metalized polypropylene film and can be of the self-healing type. • U is the voltage applied to the terminals of the capacitor. during which it stores reactive energy (capacitor charge) and injects such energy into the circuit to which it is connected (capacitor discharge). the capacitor is subjected to charge and discharge cycles. the dielectric part damaged by a discharge is capable of self-restoring. The last generation capacitors are dry-type and undergo a specific treatment which improve their electrical characteristics. • the rated frequency fn: the frequency for which the capacitor has been designed. • the rated voltage Un: the r. • spherical capacitors. In particular. voltage and frequency of the capacitor. • the rated power Qn: the reactive power for which the capacitor has been designed. • cylindrical capacitors. thus restoring the damaged part. Figure 4.

in theory. on the other hand. and may turn into an asynchronous generator. capacitors can be installed at any point. • combined power factor correction. When using diagram 3. 5. • automatic power factor correction. the compensation bank is connected only after the motor has been started and disconnected in advance with respect to the switching off of the motor supply. capacitor and load can use the same protective devices against overcurrents and are connected and disconnected siFigure 5.Technical Application Papers 5 Types of power factor correction In the previous chapters the technical and economic advantages of power factor correction have been discussed. the main methods of power factor correction are: multaneously. the motor will continue to rotate (residual kinetic energy) and self-excite with the reactive energy drawn from the capacitor bank. In this case. with the risk of dangerous overvoltages (up to twice the rated voltage value). this solution results economically onerous. 5 Types of power factor correction • distributed power factor correction. Now it is important to understand where the capacitors are to be installed for a better exploitation of such advantages.1 Diagram 1 Diagram 2 Diagram 3 Starter Starter Starter M C M C M C 10 Power factor correction and harmonic filtering in electrical plants . According to the location modalities of the capacitors.1 shows the common connection diagrams for the power factor correction of motors. • centralized power factor correction. Figure 5. There are no general rules applicable to every type of installation and. • group power factor correction. In case of direct connection (diagrams 1 and 2). the voltage on the load side of the switching and control device is maintained. With this type of power factor correction the network on the supply side of the load works with a high power factor. This type of power factor correction is advisable in the case of large electrical equipment with constant load and power and long connection times and it is generally used for motors and fluorescent lamps. the following risk may be run: after the disconnection from the supply. but it is necessary to evaluate the relevant practical and economical feasibility. The installation is simple and inexpensive.1 Distributed power factor correction Distributed power factor correction is achieved by connecting a capacitor bank properly sized directly to the terminals of the load which demands reactive power.

4 Combined power factor correction This solution derives from a compromise between the two solutions of distributed and centralized power factor correction and it exploits the advantages they offer. Figure 5. the distributed compensation is used for high power electrical equipment and the centralized modality for the remaining part. • some capacitor banks.2 manently connected bank is possible only if the absorption of reactive energy is quite constant all day long. in such circumstances their power factor is corrected individually. the connection of the capacitors is implemented step by step with a control accuracy which will be the greater the more steps are foreseen and the smaller the difference is between them.5 Automatic power factor correction In most installations there is not a constant absorption of reactive power for example due to working cycles for which machines with different electrical characteristics are used. allow the automatic switching of different capacitor banks. This is the method reaching a compromise between the inexpensive solution and the proper management of the installation since the benefits deriving from power factor correction shall be felt only by the line upstream the point where the capacitor bank is located. Figure 5. but presents the disadvantage that the distribution lines on the load side of the power factor correction device shall be sized keeping into account the full reactive power absorbed by the loads. thanks to a monitoring varmetric device and a power factor regulator. where not all the loads function simultaneously and/or some loads are connected for just a few hours a day.5.2 Group power factor correction It consists in improving locally the power factor of groups of loads having similar functioning characteristics by installing a dedicated capacitor bank. thus following the variations of the absorbed reactive power and keeping constant the power factor of the installation constant. • an intelligent unit which compares the measured power factor with the desired one and operates the connection and disconnection of the capacitor banks with the necessary reactive power (power factor regulator). To supply a power as near as possible to the demanded one.3 5. 5 Types of power factor correction 5. Group of loads to be power factor corrected 5. it is evident that the solution of distributed power factor correction becomes too onerous since many of the installed capacitors stay idle for a long time.3 Centralized power factor correction The profile of loads connected during the day has a primary importance for the choice of the most convenient type of power factor correction. installed directly in the main distribution boards. Therefore the use of one compensation system only located at the origin of the installation allows a remarkable reduction of the total power of the installed capacitors. For installations with many loads. The centralized solution allows an optimization of the costs of the capacitor bank. whereas the power factor of small equipment is corrected by the centralized modality. In such installations there are systems for automatic power factor correction which. • an electric power board comprising switching and protection devices. Combined power factor correction is prevailingly used in installations where large equipment only are frequently used. In such way. the use of a per- Power factor correction and harmonic filtering in electrical plants 11 . C LV feeders In centralized power factor correction automatic assemblies are normally used (see below automatic power factor correction) with banks divided into steps. An automatic compensation system is formed by: • some sensors detecting current and voltage signals.

The reading of the instrument shall be carried out in different moments of the load cycle.EQi EPf . this can be carried out as follows: • directly. it is necessary to calculate the cosϕ of the single load or of the group of loads (factory areas). • EPf and EQf are the values of active and reactive energy read at the end of the work cycle. • indirectly. The power-factor meter is a measuring instrument able to display the power factor cosϕ according to which the load is absorbing energy.EPi where: • EPi and EQi are the values of active and reactive energy read at the beginning of the work cycle. which is a condition normally forbidden by power supply authorities. To carry out distributed or group power factor correction. To carry out a centralized power factor correction. it is necessary to calculate correctly the power factor according to the consumption or to the load cycle of the plant. the average monthly power factor can be obtained as previously illustrated or directly from the bills of the power supply authority. this in order to avoid the intake of excess reactive energy. If the readings of the active and reactive energy absorbed by the load or by the whole of the loads constituting the factory areas during a work cycle are available. through the reading of the active and reactive energy meters. so that an average power factor value can be obtained.Technical Application Papers 6 Calculation of the power factor For the dimensioning of the capacitor bank to be installed in order to improve the power factor of a plant. through direct measuring by means of a powerfactor meter. the average power factor can be calculated as follows: 6 Calculation of the power factor cosϕ = cos tg-1 EQf . 12 Power factor correction and harmonic filtering in electrical plants .

888 0.837 0.177 0.500 0.82 0.328 0.98 1.750 0.713 0.432 0.028 0.369 0.514 0.484 0.7 Calculation of the necessary reactive power Once the power factor (cosϕ1) of the installation and the power factor to be obtained (cosϕ2) are known.84 0.62 0.654 0.715 0.938 0.816 0.739 0.302 0.65 0.492 0.460 0.344 0.335 0.421 0.169 1.538 0.672 0.184 0.397 0.685 0.055 0. .69 0.741 0.488 0.343 0.590 0.316 0.843 0.541 0.2] 7 Calculation of the necessary reactive power Indicating by: • P the installed active power • ϕ1 the phase displacement angle before power factor correction • ϕ2 the phase displacement angle to be obtained with the power factor correction the power of the capacitor bank Qc is: Qc = (tgϕ1 .225 0.566 0.328 0.141 0.503 0. In a three-phase system.85 0.421 0.214 0.88 0.815 0.936 0.777 0.714 0.057 0.601 0.72 0.289 0.030 0.480 0.515 0.798 0.262 0.870 0.855 0.275 0.451 0.089 0.724 0.007 0.829 0. .810 0.104 0.429 0.105 0.580 0.005 0.686 0.877 0.537 0.162 0.262 0. since it allows a smaller sizing of the capacitances of each phase.626 0.683 0.75 0.573 0.802 0.294 0.456 0.713 0.878 0.299 0.599 0.789 0.512 0.242 0. it has a value equal to 1/3 of the value it will have in case of star-connection: QcY = Qc∆ CY = 3 · C∆ [7. .89 0.849 0.907 0.079 0.581 0.372 0. the capacitor bank constituted by three capacitors having the same capacitance.904 0.81 0.361 0.563 0.679 0.519 0.268 0.233 1.369 0.583 0.337 0.919 0.60 0.291 0.713 0.839 0.624 0.613 0.594 0.090 1.084 0. it is possible to calculate the reactive power of the capacitor bank necessary to improve the power factor.775 0.683 0.138 1.042 1. it is necessary to keep into account that with delta connection.204 0.536 0.90 0.298 0.508 0.652 0.209 0.608 0.403 0. can be delta.970 0.270 0.549 0.770 0.309 0.682 0.265 1.950 0.878 0. .565 0.634 0.481 0.658 0.474 0.79 0.108 1.847 0.400 0.623 0.909 0.882 0.525 0.578 0.052 0.395 0.974 0.597 0.283 0.277 0.510 0.289 0.132 0.320 0.905 0.66 0.1] In the low voltage field.71 0.706 0.657 0.909 0.546 0.872 0.903 0.623 0.766 0.058 1.761 0.907 0.355 0. each capacitance is subject to the supply line-to-line voltage.193 0.996 0.186 0.329 0.686 0.183 0.121 0.109 0.484 initial cosϕ 0.729 0.381 0.029 0.74 0.552 0.679 0.805 0.743 0.145 0.or star-connected.453 0.058 0.605 0.775 0.292 0.459 0.469 0.111 0.130 1.082 0. but.998 0.324 0.358 0. .376 0.299 1.80 0.840 0.807 0.594 0.020 0.941 0.447 0.781 0. .553 0.373 0.388 0.048 1.519 0.390 0.95 1.499 0.265 0.540 0.214 0.733 0.495 0.191 1. where insulation problems are less important.97 1.547 0.400 0.235 0.875 0.380 0.645 0.966 0.714 0.779 0.745 0.123 1.870 0.964 0.096 1.992 0.194 0.01 5 0.83 0.982 0.419 0.86 0.617 0.712 0.508 0.686 0.77 0.846 0.936 0.629 0.698 0.251 0.234 0.935 0. Table 7.91 0.700 0.774 0.567 0.439 0.646 0.90 Power factor correction and harmonic filtering in electrical plants 13 .849 0. at the same level of generated reactive power.477 0.654 0.201 1.904 0.806 0.565 0.407 0.608 0.083 1.230 0.569 0.549 0.114 0.211 0.188 0.364 0.395 0.92 0.76 0.466 0.458 0.970 0.838 0.94 0.443 0.303 0.743 0.68 0.257 0. Factor K ( kvar/kW ) final cosϕ 0.425 0.447 0.086 0.317 0.426 0.78 0.240 0. Qc S1 S2 Q1 Q2 P Once the initial cosϕ is known.354 0.937 0.672 0.078 1.429 0.857 0.80 0.757 0.1 [7.620 0.526 0.625 0.63 0.424 0. .049 1.157 1. the delta connection is usually preferred for the capacitor bank.062 1.96 1.521 0.745 0.159 0.172 0.318 0.720 0.220 0.64 0.483 0.026 0.130 0.810 0.85 0.936 0.138 0.652 0.117 0.966 0.473 0.149 0.581 0.272 0.828 0.536 0.87 0. When selecting the connection modality.406 0.266 0.398 0.73 0.593 0.652 0.873 0.238 0. 1 .487 0.817 0.433 0.078 0.190 0.198 0.343 0.164 0.370 0.135 0.027 0.93 0. .156 0.281 0.556 0.167 0.371 0.342 1 1.333 1.716 0.242 0.316 0.631 0.347 0.452 0.794 0.248 0.61 0.417 0.350 0.750 0.748 0.70 0.052 0.99 1.309 0.787 0.511 0.026 0.483 0.530 0.344 0.413 0.tgϕ2) · P = K · P Table 7.1 allows to calculate (in kvar per kW installed) the power of the capacitor bank necessary to obtain a defined power factor.387 0.660 0.663 0.635 0.221 0.776 0.156 0.67 0.246 0.646 0.573 0.692 0.593 0.216 0.451 0.821 0.

tracing a line segment from the value of the initial cosϕ to the value to be obtained.85 0.85 Qc= K .80 0.88 0.82 0.95 0. gives the value of K which.77 0.7 0.86 0.75 0.88 0.5 1.75 0.2 Rated power kW HP 1.70 0.86.88 8 0.5 11 1.88 0.81 0.9 0.88 cosϕn 0.75 with the column “final cosϕ” 0.0 1.88 0.70 If this motor runs at 40% of the rated power.80 0.90 0.75 0.85 0.89 0.77 2 As shown in the figure.79 0. multiplied by the active power P of the load.85 0.89 0.89 No.9.0 0. at the intersection between the row “initial cosϕ” 0.9 1.85 0.86 0.75 1 2.4 kvar The factor K can be determined also using the following nomograph2.1 0 cos 1. the power factor obtained under normal conditions results to be cosϕn = 0.80 0.90.75. a value of 0. P 0.52 η = ηn · 0.67 = 0.3 0.76 0.5 10 15 20 25 30 40 60 75 100 125 2 0.80 0. defines the necessary reactive power Qc. Table 7.85 0.7 1.75 0. In fact.88 0.86 0.8 0.76 0.76 0.2 0.4 1.86 0.398 · 300 = 119.82 0.75 0.55 0.75 0. Therefore a capacitor bank is necessary with power Qc equal to: Qc = K · P = 0.85 0.3 1. whereas the rated efficiency is ηn ≅ 0.50 Efficiency as a function of power 0.00 0.2 1.5 22 30 45 55 75 90 3 4 5. assuming to have a 11 kW motor with 6 poles.1.82 0.83 0.65 0.88 0. it can be obtained that: cosϕ = cosϕn · 0.6 0.5 2 2. Figure 7.86 0.76 0.Technical Application Papers Example In a plant with active power equal to 300 kW at 400 V and cosϕ = 0. from the table and the diagram below.5 0.5 7.85 0. of poles 4 6 0.9 = 0.79 0. 14 Power factor correction and harmonic filtering in electrical plants .80 Efficiency η 7 Calculation of the necessary reactive power cos 1 0.77.88 0.87 0.1 2.1 1.45 2.76 0.5 1.84 0.80 0.79 0.89 0.88 0.85 0.5 5 Rated power of the motor 2 poles 4-6 poles 8 poles 0.40 K 0.86 0. we want to increase the power factor up to 0.5 7.1 1.3 2.85 0.70 10 25 50 0.8 1.80 0.75 0.2 3 4 5.4 0.398 for the coefficient K is obtained.1: nomograph for the calculation of the correction power 7.76 0.6 1. the intersection of the line with the middle graduated scale.60 0. from the following diagram of coefficient reduction.75 0.75 0.2 2.84 0.1 Power factor correction of three-phase motors The power factor correction of asynchronous motors cannot be assessed with great precision because the power factor is highly influenced by the load conditions.85 0.85 0.83 0.5 18. In the table 7.87 0.87 0.88 0.90 0.99 2 0.75 0.85 0.

92 After PFC In [A] 13. it is possible to reduce the disconnection overvoltage of the motor from the network.88 0.98 0.3 122.95 0.4 · Pn = 0.5 15 15 15 20 30 30 30 40 50 Before PFC cosϕr 0. the motor may operate as a self-excited generator and may generate voltages considerably higher than the network ones [IEC 60831-1].Motor load (% of the rated power) Pn% 20 1 0. a compensation reactive power Qc not higher than 90% of the reactive power Q0 absorbed by the motor with no load at the rated voltage Un.60 0.9 0.90 Reduction coefficient 0.98 0. as a function of the rated power and of the number of poles.55 0.68 = 6.77 = 5.94 0.5 11 15 18.5 53 64 79 95 131 152 194 228 269 334 410 510 cosϕ2 0. for a motor with power Pn.2 87.9 with K=1.95 0.88 0.88 0. thanks to this measure.9 · 3 · Un · I0 1000 [kvar] 7 Calculation of the necessary reactive power Therefore the active power absorbed Pa by the network is given by: Pa = Pn = 0.0 486.7 18.15 · 5.65 0.97 0.97 0.92 0.95 0.95 0.92 0.88 0.96 0. Table 7.95 0.89 0.2 317.80 0.0 210.5 32 38.98 0.3: reactive power for the compensation of ABB motors Pn [kW] 7.50 of the rated cosϕ of the rated efficiency 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 whereas the reactive power Qc necessary to correct the power factor and get cosϕ= 0.86 0.9 181.9 20 26. η η Table 7.5 22 30 37 45 55 75 90 110 132 160 200 250 315 Qc [kvar] 2.9 58.68 kW The current I0 is usually given in the documentation of the motor manufacturer. Considering that without load the absorbed current I0 [A] is purely reactive (senϕ = 1).3 400 V / 50 Hz / 2 poles / 3000 r/min Power factor correction and harmonic filtering in electrical plants 15 .96 0.5 5 5 5 10 10 12.89 0.5 2.9 0. Besides.75 0.8 72.6 24.53 kvar A general rule to release the power factor correction from the utilization conditions of the motor is using.70 0.96 I2 [A] 12.9 252.88 0.89 0.2 29.15 derived from the nomograph above is: Qc = K · P = 1. when still running.8 47.89 0.2 143.3 shows the reactive power values to correct the power factor of some types of ABB motors. in fact.96 0.5 391.9 · Q0 = 0.7 35.9 0.4 · 11 0.97 0. so that an anticipated power factor can be avoided.85 0.91 0.89 0.95 0. the compensation reactive power shall be: Qc = 0.

77 0.9 400 V / 50 Hz / 4 poles / 1500 r/min 400 V / 50 Hz / 6 poles / 1000 r/min 7.86 0. 16 Power factor correction and harmonic filtering in electrical plants .4 90.7 0.6 146.83 0.8 210.87 0.82 0.87 0.5 37.8 209.97 0.4 320.81 0.5 15 20 20 30 30 35 50 0.98 0.0 404.97 0.5 35.84 0.9 18.5 49.95 0.96 0.83 0.84 15.2 399.84 0.92 0.86 0.94 0.9 36.96 0.96 0.93 0.50 Hz .95 0.93 0.82 0.83 0.78 0.5 10 12.95 0.8 249.4 24.5 7.83 0.5 11 15 18.93 13.5 28.5 11 15 18.97 0.85 0.5 22 30 37 45 55 75 90 110 132 160 200 250 315 5 5 7.96 0.8 214.81 0.93 I2 [A] 12.85 0.5 5 5 7.1 47.6 318.95 0.86 0.95 0.79 0.9 144.84 0.3 25.87 0.96 0.5 10 10 12.1 23.5 7. the suggested value of power factor correction is 30 kvar.79 0.94 0.2 514.86 0.8 145.4 400 V / 50 Hz / 8 poles / 750 r/min 7.4 507.5 15 20 25 30 35 45 50 60 70 75 0.98 0.6 257.5 7.82 0.2 25.93 0.5 10 15 15 20 20 20 20 30 40 40 50 50 60 Before PFC cosϕr 0.95 0.81 0.84 0. 110 kW (400 V .82 0.4 19.1 71.8 18.97 0.4 poles).83 0.97 0.76 0.2 120.78 0.5 50.93 0.Technical Application Papers Pn [kW] 7.94 0.5 11 15 18.83 0.87 0.2 178.94 0.79 0.92 0.97 0.8 75.5 59.8 72.78 0.4 60.94 0.9 174.5 31.7 123.95 0.81 0.91 0.86 0.5 29 37 45 59 74 90 104 140 167 202 250 0.9 122.6 178.84 0.96 0.95 0.83 0.94 0.94 0.92 12.6 Example For a three-phase asynchronous motor.84 0.5 22 30 37 45 55 75 90 110 132 5 7.87 After PFC In [A] 14.94 0.96 0.94 0.83 0.94 0.84 0.7 18.3 30.1 86.78 0.6 88.4 23 31 36 43 56 69 82 101 141 163 202 240 280 355 450 565 0.94 0.7 30.93 0.2 21.93 0.5 35 41 56 68 83 98 135 158 192 232 282 351 430 545 7 Calculation of the necessary reactive power cosϕ2 0.0 62.5 22 30 37 45 55 75 90 110 132 160 200 250 315 Qc [kvar] 2.93 0.

8 100 kvar 2 while. From the nameplate characteristics of the transformer: i0% = 1.8.6 · 2 Qc = I0 % 2 2 · Sr .6 · 100 2 uk % 2 · Sr .7.9 on the MV side is guaranteed. Deriving from the nameplate characteristics of the transformer the percentage no-load current i0%. it results: Qc = 1.8% · 630 .Pfe + KL · 100 2 2 1. Power factor correction and harmonic filtering in electrical plants 17 . In particular. the iron losses Pfe and the copper losses Pcu [kW].2 Power factor correction of three-phase transformers Transformers are electrical machines of primary importance.2 + 0. Generally speaking.8% uk% = 4% Pcu = 8.9 = 19.9 kW Pfe = 1. using the simplified formula.4 kvar 100 where KL is the load factor.Pcu = 100 4% · 630 . defined as the ratio between the minimum reference load and the rated power of the transformer. due to installation reasons they often are in constant service.Pcu 100 2 I0 % u% · Sr + KL · k · Sr [kvar] 100 100 4% · 630 = 20.1. the compensation power Qc in a transformer having a rated Sr [kVA]. the required compensation power results to be about: 2 2 Example Assume that the power factor of a 630 kVA oil distribution transformer which supplies a load equal to 60% of its rated power is to be corrected.2 kW the compensation power of the capacitor bank connected to the transformer shall be: 2 2 7 Calculation of the necessary reactive power Qc = I0 % 2 2 · Sr .Pfe + KL · 100 uk % 2 · Sr .8% I0 % u% 2 · 630 + · Sr + KL · k · Sr = 100 100 100 0. the percentage short-circuit voltage uk%. shall not exceed the reactive power absorbed under minimum reference load conditions. in the electrical plants constituted by different transformation and supply substations it is advisable that power factor correction is carried out by keeping into account the transformer reactive power so that an average power factor equal to 0.

50 0.7 11 14 15 17 18 2.6 8.20 9.8 3.5 1.48 0.5 8.75 1 Oil Distribution Transformer MV-LV 50 100 160 200 250 315 400 500 630 800 1000 1250 1600 2000 2500 3150 4000 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 6 6 6 6 6 6 7 7 2.90 10.3 10 13 16 20 25 40 49 61 77 90 111 157 212 2.35 2.9 1.3 6. In particular.9 0.6 4.85 1.7 10 12 13 15 20 23 26 34 3.6 1.7 4 4.1 1.95 1.7 4.4 0.45 1.72 0.00 21.5 2.80 3.9 6.00 1.8 0.30 4.70 2.25 3.4 5.00 14.1 3.50 24.00 2.9 5.3 2.1 7.3 2 1.2 1.3 5 6.20 3.50 15.00 1.35 0.2 3.40 6.4: reactive power for the compensation of ABB transformers load level.70 4.6 9.20 3.05 1.00 18.20 1.7 1.94 2.50 17.5 3.1 2 1.00 16.8 8 8.00 1.80 4.4 10 13 16 19 23 29 35 43 52 67 82 101 159 8 12 15 19 24 29 36 45 56 69 85 109 134 166 269 18 Power factor correction and harmonic filtering in electrical plants .7 1. the reactive compensation power shall vary following a quadratic law with respect to the load coefficient of the transformer.45 1.8 1.25 0.00 33.3 6.4 1.80 7.50 19.3 8.9 12 14 17 20 25 29 38 45 54 81 5.9 1.7 4.00 4.1 1 0.75 2.8 5.50 5.6 1.7 9.20 6.60 5.90 3.1 11 14 17 25 31 38 47 53 64 89 125 2.2 6.80 1.30 3.1 1.20 4.3 5.65 0.6 0.4 7.00 8.6 9.8 8.80 13.3 4.6 3.4 9.25 Qc [kvar] load factor KL 0.85 0.7 0.5 0.3 7.2 11 14 18 22 28 35 60 74 93 118 142 175 252 333 Cast Resin Distribution Transformer MV-LV 100 160 200 250 315 400 500 630 800 1000 1250 1600 2000 2500 3150 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 8 2.5 1.40 8.9 1.4 2.7 5.30 4.80 5.00 38.60 13.50 7.8 1.4 5.10 2.2 2.40 2.61 0.55 0.20 1.4 shows the reactive power of the capacitor bank Qc [kvar] to be connected to the secondary winding of an ABB transformer according to the different foreseen Table 7.9 0.9 2.5 11 13 16 20 24 30 31 37 48 73 1.4 5.60 1. 7 Calculation of the necessary reactive power Transformer Sr [kVA] uk% [%] i0% [%] Pfe [kW] Pcu [kW] 0 0.1 9.00 4.Technical Application Papers Table 7.8 7 8.5 2.4 11 14 16 20 24 24 27 34 56 1.5 6.3 1.

87°) 252 = cos tg 0. the controller shall be set at a value exceeding 0. Actually. the apparent power supplied is: S = 0. As a consequence.925 Power factor correction and harmonic filtering in electrical plants 19 . the active power P absorbed by the motor shall be: P = S · cosϕ = 315 · 0.9 also for medium voltage.48 ) = 68 kvar Taking into account also the reactive power necessary to the transformer.5 · 630 = 315 kVA If.5 · Sr = 0.5.34 = 0.Example For an ABB 630 kVA oil distribution transformer with load factor equal to 0.tg (cos-1(0.8) -1 -1 7 Calculation of the necessary reactive power Qc P = -1 85 -1 cos tg tg (36. to obtain a power factor equal to 0. the necessary reactive power results: Qr = P · (tg (cos-1(0. the load works with a power factor equal to 0.8 = 252 kW To correct the power factor and get the value of 0. the necessary compensation power is 17 kvar. by assumption.0.8.9))) = 252 · (0.0. The cosϕ controller in low voltage applications shall be set keeping into account also this power in addition to the reactive power required by the load.8)) . the total power to be delivered by the power factor correction unit becomes: Qc = Qr + Qt = 68 + 17 = 85 kvar As a consequence the power factor controller shall be set at: cosϕI = cos tg tg (cos (0.9. assuming that the transformer operates with a load factor of 50%.75 .75 .9.

generally continuous and limited if it takes the same value after a period T (ƒ(x+T ) = ƒ (x)) and if it has a finite number of no-essential discontinuities (that is. Based on the Fourier theorem. due to their operating principle.1 u t Fundamental (50 Hz) Third harmonic (150 Hz) 100% Fourth harmonic (250 Hz) Resulting waveform Distortion of the single harmonics Total distortion (THD) = 25.Technical Application Papers 8 Harmonics in electrical plants 8. it has an upper and a lower limit). Figure 8. The harmonics are the components of a distorted waveform and their use allows to analyze any non-sinusoidal periodic waveform by decomposing it into several sinusoidal components. 8 Harmonics in electrical plants 1 A function is defined periodic.1 Harmonics Technological development in the industrial and household field has lead to the spread of electronic equipment which. Such current causes on the supply side of the network a voltage drop of non sinusoidal type with the consequence that also the linear loads are supplied by a distorted voltage. According to the Fourier theorem. The harmonic with the frequency corresponding to the period of the original waveform is called fundamental harmonic and the harmonic with frequency equal to “n” times the fundamental one is called harmonic of order “n”.5% 23% 11% THD% = 100 ∑ h=2 H Un U1 2 = 100 23 100 2 + 11 100 2 = 25. Therefore the presence of harmonics in an electrical system is an indicator of the distortion of the voltage or current waveform and this implies such a distribution of the electric power that malfunctioning of the equipment may be caused. any periodic function with period T generally continuous and limited may be represented by a series of infinite sinusoidal terms with a frequency equal to integer multiples of the frequency of the original function.5% 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 550 600 650 700 750 800 850 900 950 1000 20 Power factor correction and harmonic filtering in electrical plants . a perfectly sinusoidal waveform does not present harmonics of different order from the fundamental one. absorb a non sinusoidal current (non linear load).

The main apparatus generating harmonics are: - personal computers; - fluorescent and gas discharge lamps; - static converters; - continuity groups; - variable speed drives; - welding machines; - arc and induction furnaces. In general, waveform distortion is due to the presence, inside of these apparatus, of non linear or time-variable2 impedances or of bridge rectifiers, whose semiconductor devices carry the current only for a fraction of the whole period, thus originating discontinuous curves with the consequent introduction of several harmonics. As illustrated in the following paragraphs, the presence of harmonics in the electrical network may cause the damage of a capacitor bank.

8.3 Harmonic effects

8 Harmonics in electrical plants

8.3.1 Overloads

The presence of harmonics in the electrical network may be the cause of malfunctioning of the equipment, such as in the case of overloading of the neutral conductor, of increase of losses in the transformers, of disturbances in the torque of motors, etc. In particular, harmonics are the phenomenon which most heavily affect power factor correction capacitors. In fact, as it is known, capacitive reactance is inversely proportional to frequency, therefore the impedance offered to the voltage harmonics decreases as the harmonic order increases. This means that, if supplied by a distorted voltage, the capacitors can draw a current of such intensity that it could seriously damage them.

Figure 8.2

XC =

1 w⋅ C

=

1 2⋅ π ⋅ f ⋅ C

XL = w ⋅ L = 2 ⋅ π ⋅ f ⋅ L

8.2

The prescriptions of the Standards

capacitive reactance

inductive reactance

The technical Standards give precise prescriptions aimed at reducing the effects of harmonics on the capacitors. The Standard IEC 61642 “Industrial a.c. networks affected by harmonics – Application of filters and shunt capacitors” identifies the problems and gives advices for the general applications of capacitors and harmonic filters in a.c networks affected by the presence of harmonic voltages and currents. In particular, this Standard illustrates the problem of resonance in series and in parallel and gives some explanatory examples.

In a capacitor bank, assumed to be delta connected, it is possible to calculate the line current corresponding to the nth harmonic according to the following relation: In = 3 · n · w · C · Un

[8.1]

where: • In is the current corresponding to the nth harmonic; • n is the order of the harmonics; • ω is the pulsation of the fundamental harmonic; • C is the capacitance; • Un is the line-to-line voltage corresponding to the nth harmonic. The total line current drawn by the capacitor banks shall be3:

IC = 3⋅ w⋅ C⋅ U 1 + ∑ n ⋅ Un

2 n= 2 ∞ 2

[8.2]

From this relation it is evident that the current absorbed in the presence of voltage harmonics is higher than the current to be considered in case of their absence. For this reason, the Standards IEC 60831-1 and IEC 60931-1 prescribe that capacitors shall be suitable for permanent operation with a current value higher than the rated current of the capacitor bank (as it is better explained in the following chapter).

2

Time-variable loads such as for example the devices for the control through wave or phase trains, introduce non only harmonics which are multiple of the fundamental harmonic, but also interharmonics.

3

Algebraic sum valid also with the r.m.s. values, since the current harmonic components are all in phase with one another and with the fundamental one.

Power factor correction and harmonic filtering in electrical plants

21

Technical Application Papers

8.3.2 Resonance

Figure 8.3: example of series resonant circuit

impedance

8 Harmonics in electrical plants

A still more important problem occurs when the linear distortion reaches high values and the danger of resonances between the power factor correction system (equivalent capacitance of the capacitors) and the equivalent inductance of the network becomes clear. The resonance occurs when the inductive and the capacitive reactances are equal. As a consequence, we shall talk of series resonant circuit when the inductance and the capacitance are connected in series or of parallel resonant circuit when the inductance and the capacitance are connected in parallel. A series resonance and a parallel resonance can be present in the same network. Resonance occurs at a precise frequency, which is called resonance frequency fr:4

X L = XC fr = 1 2⋅π ⋅ L ⋅C

[8.3]

U

Network

Xu Ru

Transformer

Xt Rt Xc

Capacitor bank

**If there is series resonance, the total impedance is theoretically neutralized5:
**

Z tot = j ( X L - X C ) = 0

[8.4]

The following diagram shows the curves relevant to capacitive reactance (decreasing with the harmonic order), inductive reactance (increasing with the harmonic order) and total reactance of a network; the total series reactance takes its minimum value in correspondence with the resonance frequency (in the graph example three times the fundamental frequency).

Figure 8.4

**Analogously, in the presence of parallel resonance, the total impedance tends to zero:
**

Z tot = X L ⋅ XC j ( X L - XC ) ∞

[8.5]

fr

XL Xtot XC

If a series resonant circuit is supplied by an alternating voltage with a frequency value close to the resonance frequency, an amplification of the drawn current may occur causing disturbances, overcurrents and also damaging of the network components. On the contrary, if a parallel resonant circuit is supplied by harmonics of non linear load current, an overvoltage may occur in correspondence with the resonance harmonic.

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

harmonic order

**The resonance frequency fr can be obtained from the following formula:
**

X C1 X L1

fr = f1 .

[8.6]

where:

4

X L = XC

wr⋅ L = ( 2 ⋅ π ⋅ fr ) =

2

1 wr ⋅ C 1 L⋅C

wr ⋅ L ⋅ C = 1 fr = 1 2⋅π ⋅ L ⋅C

2

5

Actually, the impedance decreases remarkably and corresponds only to the resistive component of the connection cables.

• f1 is the fundamental frequency; • XC1 is the capacitive reactance of the capacitor at the fundamental frequency; • XL1 is the inductive reactance (at the fundamental frequency) of the network on the supply side of the installation point of the capacitor.

22 Power factor correction and harmonic filtering in electrical plants

In case of absence of harmonics and assuming that the resonance frequency is sufficiently different from the fundamental frequency of the power supply system, there are no overcurrents on the lines. If harmonics were present, an amplification of the current in correspondence with the harmonic of order close to the resonance frequency might occur. For a further analysis see the Std. IEC 61642 which gives also a numerical example of a series resonant circuit from which it results that if the frequency is close to the series resonance frequency, a relatively low voltage on the supply-busbars can cause a high current. To avoid the resonance phenomenon, and consequently to avoid a shortening of life for the capacitor, it is necessary that the network has a resonance frequency as different as possible from that of the present harmonics. The most common solution, as illustrated in the Std. IEC 61642, consists in connecting in series an inductive reactance with the capacitor (detuning reactance); the inductor shall be sized so that a resonance frequency which is below the lowest frequency of the harmonic voltage in the network is achieved.

8.4 Harmonic filters

Capacitor banks can be used combined with inductors in order to limit the effects of the harmonics on a network. Actually, the combination capacitor-inductor constitutes a filter for harmonics. Previously it has been illustrated how, to avoid the negative effects of resonance, it is necessary to insert an inductor in series with a capacitor. By applying an analogous reasoning, it is possible to think of placing in a point of the network a combination of an inductor and a capacitor properly dimensioned in order to get the same resonance frequency of the order of the current harmonic to be eliminated. In this way, the assembly inductor-capacitor presents a very low reactance in correspondence with the harmonic to be eliminated which shall circulate in the assembly without affecting the whole network.

8 Harmonics in electrical plants

Figure 8.5

U

Network

Example

Assuming that in the series resonant circuit of Figure 8.3 the lowest harmonic with a remarkable amplitude is the fifth, from the previous relation it results:

f1 ·

X C1 X L1

< f5

X C1 X L1

<

f5 f1

[8.7]

=5

X L1 > 4% X C1

Ihrm

where: • XC1 is the capacitive reactance of the capacitor at the fundamental frequency; • XL1 is the reactance in series with the capacitor at the fundamental frequency.

If the lowest harmonic with a remarkable amplitude were the third, it would result:

X L1 > 11.1% X C1

[8.7]

Harmonic generator

Filter

Dimensioning in this way the inductance, the interaction of the network inductance with the impedance (inductive) of the connection inductor-capacitor cannot create any more resonance conditions, at the frequencies of the voltage and current harmonics present in the network.

Therefore this filter, called passive filter, consists in a capacitor connected in series with an inductor so that the resonance frequency is altogether equal to the frequency of the harmonic to be eliminated. Passive filters, which are defined on a case by case basis, according to a particular harmonic to be filtered, are cost-effective and easy to be connected and put into function.

Power factor correction and harmonic filtering in electrical plants

23

Figure 8.7 U Network Load current Ihrm + Iact Active filter Active filter current = Harmonic generator Hybrid filter Clean feeder current 24 Power factor correction and harmonic filtering in electrical plants . Exploiting power electronic technology.6 The active filter has the advantage of filtering simultaneously dozens of harmonics and does not involve design costs for dimensioning. they can inject a system of harmonics able to neutralize those present in the network.Technical Application Papers Active filters instead can automatically eliminate the current harmonics present in a network in a wide range of frequencies. 8 Harmonics in electrical plants Figure 8.

the resistance of the winding is negligible in comparison with the leakage reactance.7] ΔU Un = X ⋅ Q cc Un 2 ≈ Z ⋅Q cc Un 2 = U % cc 100 ⋅ U 2 n Sn ⋅ Q Un 2 = U % cc 100 ⋅ Q Sn When L1 = L2 = … = L and C1 = C2 = … = Cn = than: from which. by replacing Q with the reactive power of the capacitor bank Qc during switching on. since: • connection when n banks are already connected: Zcc Z ⋅ 100 = Zcc Un 2 Ucc % ≈ Z cc% = ⋅ 100 L’ = Sn the voltage variation can be expressed as: 1 1 + 1 + …+ 1 L1 L2 Ln [9. the overvoltage can be evaluated according to the relation2: ΔU Un = Qc Scc [9. the overvoltage caused by the bank itself can be obtained by [9. since the capacitor current is compensated by the inductive component of the current absorbed by the motor. if the peak value exceeds such maximum value or it has to be reduced to guarantee the proper operation of the switching devices. in the installations.1 Switching electrical phenomena The connection of a capacitor bank causes an electric transient due to the phenomena of electric charging of the bank. the use of limitation inductances in series with the capacitor bank shall be necessary3. In this case. it results: 9 Switching and protection of capacitor banks i p = Un ⋅ 2 C 2 C 2 ⋅ Scc ⋅ ≈ Un ⋅ ⋅ ≈ I cn ⋅ Qc 3 L0 + L 3 L0 [9.9 Switching and protection of capacitor banks 9. according to the relation: Un L0 = [9. 100 or 150 μH. 3 it results: ΔU Un ≈ = U 2 n S cc ⋅ Q Un 2 = Q S cc On the contrary. Power factor correction and harmonic filtering in electrical plants 25 . since: S = cc U 2 n X X⋅ Q Un 2 The limitation inductances used are generally in air without magnetic core and the values more often used are: 50. it is necessary to provide in series with each of them some limitation inductances because now the peak current value is much higher due to the sudden transfer of power from the bank/s already in service to the bank being connected. two important situations may occur: • installation immediately on the load side of a transformer with apparent power Sr (supplied by a network with infinitive power) and having a percentage shortcircuit voltage Ucc%. In particular.2] The overcurrents which can be found at the moment of switching in depend greatly both from the inductance of the upstream network as well as from the number of connected capacitor banks. The relations given by the above mentioned Standards for the calculation of the peak values are respectively: • connection when one bank is already connected i p = Un ⋅ 1 2 C1 ⋅ C ⋅ ⋅ 3 C1+ C L 1+ L C 6⋅L [9. there is an overcurrent at high frequency (in its first instants equivalent to a short-time short-circuit) whose amplitude is a function of the parameters of the upstream network and of the characteristics of the bank. In case of connection of a bank when one or more banks are already energized.5] The voltage variation is given by: ΔU Un = R ⋅ P+ X ⋅ Q Un 2 When L1 = L and C1 = C than: In a transformer. the peak of the connection current depends strongly from the short-circuit current Icc of the upstream network.8] Valid as long as the upstream network is prevailingly inductive. In this case. In fact.1] In the case of an individual bank. In this case there is an overvoltage whose value can be calculated as follows1: U % Qc ΔU = cc ⋅ Un 100 Sr [9. 1 since the connection inductance of the capacitor banks is much lower than the inductance of the upstream network L<<L0.4] • installation at a point in the network with short-circuit power S cc. Generally. the switching implies an overvoltage whose disturbance wave propagates through the network. The entity of the overvoltage depends on the reactive power Qc supplied by the capacitor bank and on the installation point of the bank itself. there are no problems when a capacitor for power factor correction is switched on together with the load it has to compensate. influenced by the typical inductance L0 of the network. 2 i p = Un ⋅ 2 C n ⋅ ⋅ n+1 3 L [9. the peak value of the current does not exceed the maximum value established for capacitor banks (100 times the rated current of the bank). Moreover.6] X cc ≅ Z cc Besides. which means: i p = Un ⋅ [9. such as for example a motor. Actually.3] 3 ⋅ w ⋅ I cc The Standards IEC 62271-100 and IEC 60831-1 give the formulas for the calculation of the inrush current peak.1].

The second condition is usually respected: • for thermal magnetic trip units. • the setting of the instantaneous protection against short-circuit shall not cause unwanted tripping. In particular. to guarantee a correct protection against overload: • the rated current of the circuit-breaker shall be higher than the above mentioned values. Therefore.2 Switching and protection A system for power factor correction is constituted essentially by: • a protective device. The connection of a capacitor bank. • resistors for capacitor discharge.2. • it can sustain without damages the inrush current of the capacitors.1 ⋅ Qc 3 ⋅ Un Qc 3 ⋅ Un = 1. by setting in OFF the instantaneous protection against short-circuit (I3 = OFF).365 ⋅ Icn where: • Qc is the reactive power.05 ⋅ = 1. • a switching device (contactor). the instantaneous protections of the thermal magnetic and electronic trip units shall not trip due to inrush currents. more precisely.Icmax I3 ≥ 10 · Icmax [9.s. Furthermore the contactor must be protected against short-circuit by the protection device.3 ⋅ 1.m.3 ⋅ 1. For the protection of the capacitor bank: • the circuit-breaker shall have an adequate making capacity.Icn). comparable to a making operation under short-circuit condition. • Un is the rated line-to-line voltage. The Standards IEC 60831-1 and IEC 60931-1 prescribe that: • capacitors shall be able to operate under steady-state conditions with an r.Technical Application Papers 9. of short duration (1 to 3 ms).2. • one or more capacitors suitably connected. current value up to 30% higher than their rated current Icn (this is due to the possible presence of voltage harmonics in the network). sustain the transient currents which occurs when connecting and disconnecting the capacitor banks. 2. with high peak (25 to 200.2 Choice of the switching device (contactor) Capacitors or capacitors banks are usually switched by a contactor which shall be chosen so that it can operate properly.10] 9 Switching and protection of capacitor banks 9. Furthermore. a capacitor bank can absorb a maximum current Icmax of: Qc ≤ 100 kvar Icmax = 1. is associated with transient currents.1 Choice of the protective device The devices used for the protection of capacitor banks shall satisfy the following requirements and therefore shall: 1. depending on the rated reactive power of the capacitor bank. the making and breaking capacity of the circuit-breaker shall be suitable to the short-circuit level of the installation.9] • for electronic trip units. at high frequency (1 to 15 kHz). 26 Power factor correction and harmonic filtering in electrical plants . the contactor shall be sized so that: • it can sustain a current equal to the Icmax of the capacitor bank. 3. sustain the periodic or permanent overcurrents due to the voltage harmonics and to the tolerance on the rated capacitance value. Qc > 100 kvar Icmax = 1. be coordinated with any external switching device (contactors). In case of an automatic compensation system. • a tolerance of +10% on the capacitance for banks up to 100 kvar and of 5% for banks exceeding 100 kvar is admitted (Amendment 1 of the above mentioned standards). also a control station unit to command switching in/off of the capacitors. 9. • the setting of the overload protection shall be equal to the given values. To summarize. by setting the magnetic protection I3 at values not lower than 10. • Icn is the rated current.43 ⋅ Icn [9.

w .2 Rated current (line) Current in the capacitor banks Power Un Un 3 C Icn = w . Table 9. It is necessary to note that the reactive power at the service voltage is different from the rated power given on the nameplate and referred to the rated voltage. U2n Un C Icn = 3 . the capacitors can be star. C . C . The characteristics of a capacitor. the following formula allows to calculate the effective power of a capacitor or of a capacitor bank: Qsupplied = Qc ⋅ Ue Un 2 From the data on the nameplate it is possible to obtain the characteristic parameters of the capacitor: 9 Switching and protection of capacitor banks Single-phase circuit Table 9. U2n Power factor correction and harmonic filtering in electrical plants 27 . Un 3 Ic = Icn Qc = 3 . Un = 3 . the following table shows the values of power and rated current according to the connection modality.11] where: • Qc is the reactive power at the rated voltage Un. • Qsupplied is the effective power at the service voltage Ue. are: • rated voltage Un. Un Ic = w . reported on its nameplate. Vn2 w Xc [9.Un Qc = 3 . C . a capacitor with 100 kvar rated reactive power at 500 V shall deliver 64 kvar power at 400 V. 2 π . Un = w .1 Rated current Icn = Qc Vn 1 w. C . w . .or delta-connected. For example. expressed in kvar (reactive power of the capacitor bank). Three-phase circuit In a three-phase circuit.2. f . Icn . Icn . • reactive power Qc.3 Choice of the capacitor The capacitor supplies the reactive power necessary to increase the power factor up to the desired value.C Reactance Xc = Capacitance C= 1 Qc = .9. • rated frequency f. C .

at it terminals. A discharge device may sometimes be specified. IEC 60831-1 clause 22 ‘Each capacitor unit and/or bank shall be provided with a means for discharging each unit in 3 min to 75 V or less.2. In compliance with the Std. it shall reduce the voltage at the capacitor terminals from the peak value of the rated voltage to a value of 50 V or less in the time of 1 min from the moment the capacitor is switched off.’ Attention is drawn to the fact that in some countries smaller discharge times and voltages are required. Resistors have the purpose of nullifying.12] 9 Switching and protection of capacitor banks 28 Power factor correction and harmonic filtering in electrical plants . not for safety reasons. IEC 60364-5-55. the residual charge on the plates of the capacitor once it has been disconnected from the network. of a voltage dangerous for people and things can be avoided. but to prevent electrical overstress on the capacitor: this may occur when a disconnected capacitor still charged is reconnected across another capacitor of different polarity. within a shorttime. When a discharge device is provided. The Std. The discharge resistance in a single-phase unit or in a phase of a polyphase unit is given by: R≤ t k ⋅ C ⋅ In 2 ⋅ Un Ur [9. clause 559. It is a good rule to provide discharge resistances for all the capacitors with power exceeding 0.5 kvar.5 μF (75/25 kvar with star/delta connection at 400 V).4 Discharge of capacitors When installing a capacitor it is necessary to verify that at the moment when it is switched off it can discharge so that the presence. from an initial peak voltage of 2 times rated voltage Un. IEC 60252-2 for the power factor correction of motors discharge devices are not often required. In compliance with the Std. in particular when the capacitors are permanently connected to the terminals of the motor windings functioning as discharge resistances. for whatever supply voltage.Technical Application Papers 9.8) prescribes the use of discharge resistors for compensation capacitors having a total capacitance exceeding 0.

see Table 9. To comply with the prescriptions of the Std. • C is the capacitance of the capacitor bank [F]. Table 9. • t is the discharge time from • Un is the rated voltage in [V]. • Ur is the admitted residual voltage4 in [V].3.where: • R is the discharge resistance in [Ω]. IEC 60831-1.3 9 Switching and protection of capacitor banks 2 Un to Ur. the residual voltage must not exceed 10% of the rated voltage C R 3 R C k=1 1 R C 3 C R 1 Power factor correction and harmonic filtering in electrical plants 29 . Connection k R C 1 C R 1 3 C R 1 4 At the moment of energizing. in [s]. t = 180 s and Ur = 75 V shall be put in the above formula. • k is a coefficient depending on the connection modality of resistors to capacitor units.

.6kA (630A) .7. T5.1 Circuit-breakers ABB offers the following types of moulded-case and air circuit-breakers for protection against overloads and disconnection of the capacitor banks. M adjustable (5. • Tmax T2. Characteristics of moulded-case circuit-breakers Tmax for the protection of capacitor banks T1 Rated uninterrupted current Iu Rated service voltage Ue Rated impulse withstand voltage Uimp Rated insulation voltage Ui Test voltage at industrial frequency for 1min.7.1xIn) and magnetic threshold (I3=5.15kA (type V) 30 Power factor correction and harmonic filtering in electrical plants . T6 circuit-breakers equipped with electronic relays type PR221DS.H. T4 circuit-breakers equipped with thermomagnetic releases type TMD with adjustable thermal threshold (I1=0.10kA (800A) . IEC 60947-2. T5.(3) For T7 800/1000/1250A only . PR222DS/PD and PR223DS. T3.Technical Application Papers 10 ABB offer 10. T5. • Tmax T4.1. PR331/P and PR332/P. • Tmax T4...(4) Icw = 20kA (type S. M fixed T adjustable. with application range from 1.L) .6 A to 1600 A and breaking capacities from 10 kA to 200 kA @ 400 V. T2. PR232/P. T6 circuit-breakers equipped with thermomagnetic releases type TMA with adjustable thermal (I1=0. T4.1xIn) and fixed magnetic threshold (I3=10xIn). equipped with thermomagnetic or electronic trip units. 10 ABB offer 10.. T6 circuit-breakers equipped with electronic relays type PR222DS/P. Rated ultimate short-circuit breaking capacity Icu 220-230V 50-60Hz 380-400-415V 50-60Hz 440V 50-60Hz 500V 50-60Hz 690V 50-60Hz Utilization category (IEC 60947-2) Isolation behaviour Releases: thermomagnetic T adjustable.10xIn).(2) Icw = 7. • Tmax T7 circuit-breakers equipped with electronic relays type PR231/P.1 Moulded-case circuit-breakers Three-phase moulded-case circuit-breakers Tmax series complying with the Std. The available moulded-case circuit-breakers are: • Tmax T1.10 x In) electronic PR221DS PR222DS PR223DS PR231/P PR232/P PR331/P PR332/P Interchangeability Versions [A] [V] [kV] [V] [V] [kA] [kA] [kA] [kA] [kA] B 25 16 10 8 3 160 690 8 800 3000 C 40 25 15 10 4 A n n F T2 160 690 8 800 3000 N 50 36 22 15 6 B 25 16 10 8 3 C 40 25 15 10 4 N 65 36 30 25 6 A n n n F-P S 85 50 45 30 7 H 100 70 55 36 8 L 120 85 75 50 10 N 50 36 25 20 5 T3 250 690 8 800 3000 S 85 50 40 30 8 A n n F-P TMD TMA (1) Icw = 5kA .

3 8 10 12.6 2 2.A (1000A) n n (up to 800A) n n n n F-W T7 800/1000/1250/1600 690 8 1000 3500 H L 100 200 70 120 65 100 50 85 42 50 B(4) n n n n n n F-W N 70 36 30 25 20 S 85 50 40 30 25 L 200 120 100 85 70 V 200 200 180 150 80 N 70 36 30 25 20 V 200 200 180 150 80 S 85 50 50 50 30 V(3) 200 150 130 100 60 n (up to 50A) n (up to 250A) n n n n F-P-W Power factor correction and harmonic filtering in electrical plants 31 .5 16 20 25 32 40 50 63 80 100 125 160 200 250 320 400 500 630 800 n n n n n n n n n n n TMD T2 160 TMD n n n n n n n n n n n n n n n n n n n n n T3 250 TMD TMD T4 250-320 TMA T5 400-630 TMA T6 630-800 TMA n n n n n n n n n n n n n n n n n n n n n Thermomagnetic release TMD with adjustable thermal and fixed magnetic threshold Thermomagnetic release TMA with adjustable thermal and magnetic thresholds T4 250/320 690 8 1000 3500 H 100 70 65 50 40 A n T5 400/630 690 8 1000 3500 S H L 85 100 200 50 70 120 40 65 100 30 50 85 25 40 70 B (400A)(1) .Rated currents available for the circuit-breakers with two typologies of thermomagnetic releases 10 ABB offer T1 160 In [A] 1.A (630A) n n (up to 500A) n n n n F-P-W T6 630/800/1000 690 8 1000 3500 N S H L 70 85 100 200 36 50 70 100 30 45 50 80 25 35 50 65 20 22 25 30 B (630A-800A)(2) .2 4 5 6.5 3.

Technical Application Papers 10. with application range from 400 A to 6300 A.. Characteristics of air circuit-breakers Emax for the protection of capacitor banks E1 Rated service voltage Ue Rated impulse withstand voltage Uimp Rated insulation voltage Ui Rated uninterrupted current Iu [V] [kV] [V] [A] [A] [A] [A] [A] [A] [A] Rated ultimate short-circuit breaking capacity Icu 220-230-380-400-415V 50-60Hz [kA] 440V 50-60Hz [kA] 500V 50-60Hz [kA] 690V 50-60Hz [kA] Rated short-time withstand current (1s) Icw [kA] Utilization category (IEC 60947-2) Insulation behaviour Versions E2 E3 E4 E6 X1 690 690 690 690 690 690 12 12 12 12 12 12 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 B N B N S N S H V S H V H V B N 800 800 1600 1000 800 2500 1000 800 800 4000 3200 3200 4000 3200 630 630 1000 1000 2000 1250 1000 3200 1250 1000 1250 4000 4000 5000 4000 800 800 1250 1250 1600 1250 1600 1250 1600 6300 5000 1000 1000 1600 1600 2000 1600 2000 1600 2000 6300 1250 1250 2000 2500 2000 2500 1600 1600 3200 2500 3200 3200 42 42 42 42 42 B n F-W 50 50 50 50 50 B 42 42 42 42 42 B 65 65 65 65 55 B n F-W 85 85 65 65 65 B 65 65 65 65 65 B 75 75 75 75 75 B n F-W 100 100 100 85 75 B 130 130 100 100 85 B 75 75 75 75 75 B 100 100 100 85 100 B n F-W 150 150 130 100 100 B 100 100 100 100 100 B n F-W 150 150 130 100 100 B 42 42 42 42 42 B n F-W 65 65 55 55 42 B Rated currents available for the circuit-breakers with the various typologies of electronic releases In [A] T2 T4 T5 T6 T4 T5 T6 T7 10 n 25 n 63 n 100 n n 160 n n 250 n 320 n n n n 400 630 800 1000 1250 1600 PR221DS PR222DS/P PR222DS/PD PR223DS PR231/P PR232/P PR331/P PR332/P n n n n n n n n n n n n n n n n n n n PR121/P PR122/P PR123/P PR331/P PR332/P PR333/P In [A] E1 E2 E3 E4 E6 X1 400 n n n 630 n n n n n n n n n 800 n n n n n n n n 1000 n n n n n n n n 1250 n n n n n n n n 1600 n n n n n n n n 2000 n n n n 2500 3200 4000 5000 6300 n n n n n n n n n n n 32 Power factor correction and harmonic filtering in electrical plants . breaking capacities from 42 kA to 65 kA @ 400 V and equipped with electronic relays type PR331/P. PR332/P and PR333/P.2 Air circuit-breakers 10 ABB offer Air circuit-breakers Emax E1. PR122/P and PR123/P. IEC 60947-2..E6 series complying with the Std. with an application range from 400 A to 1600 A. Emax X1 circuit-breakers. breaking capacities from 42 kA to 150 kA @ 400 V and equipped with electronic relays type PR121/P.1.

1 10 ABB offer R A1 PP PA A2 R C 10.s. the opening of the auxiliary poles is automatically carried out by switching off the resistors as shown in the following diagram.10.1 UA. the early making auxiliary contacts PA connect the capacitor to the network via the set of resistors. poles PA Main poles PP Total making time UA. The capacitors must be discharged (maximum residual voltage at terminals ≤ 50 V) before being re-energized when the contactors are making.m. • A and AF standard 3-pole contactors for single capacitor bank switching with peak current lower than or equal to 30 times the r. Power factor correction and harmonic filtering in electrical plants 33 .. value of the rated current. Figure 10.RA 3-pole contactors with unlimited peak current.RA contactors UA. As shown in the following scheme. Coil voltage Uc Aux.s.000 operations for Ue < 500V and 100. limit also the second current peak upon making of the main poles. • UA 3-pole contactors with peak current lower than or equal to 100 times the r... when the coil is energized. They are delivered complete with their damping resistors and therefore they are used without additional inductances.RA contactors are used in installations in which the peak currents far exceed 100 times the r.2.RA contactors are equipped with a special front mounted block which ensures the serial insertion of three damping resistors into the circuit to limit the first current peak on energization of the capacitor bank and which.m.RA contactors for capacitor switching (UA16RA…UA110RA) The connection of the absorption resistances protects the contactor and the capacitor against the highest inrush currents. When the main poles PP are closed. value of the rated current. by ensuring capacitor precharging. UA..2 Contactors ABB offers three different versions of contactors according to the peak current value at switching on and to the power of the capacitor bank: • UA. Their electrical life is 250.s value of the rated current.000 operations for 500V ≤ Ue ≤ 690 V.m..

. UA contactors for capacitor switching (UA16…UA110) Permissible maximum peak current Î ≤ 100 times the rms value of the capacitor rated current. The capacitors must be discharged and in this case their electrical life corresponds to 100.3 A and AF contactors A and AF contactors are suited for capacitor bank switching with peak currents lower than 30 times the rated current.000 operations. 10 ABB offer UA contactors are used for the switching of capacitor banks whose inrush current peaks do not exceed 100 times the rated current.2 UA contactors 10.. 34 Power factor correction and harmonic filtering in electrical plants .. The capacitors must be discharged before being re-energized when the contactors are making and.2. A300 and AF50 .000 operations. their electrical life corresponds to 100. AF750) Permissible maximum peak current Î < 30 times the rms value of the capacitor rated current. Standard contactors A and AF (A12 . in this case.2.Technical Application Papers 10..

with the power factor set from 0.3 Automatic compensators The ABB range of products for automatic power factor correction includes: • the APC series. This operation may require various seconds. dynaswitches and electronic control systems. therefore the response to the requirements for reactive power from the network can be too slow. as it can be noticed from the following two graphs. Dynacomp Time APC Fans Contactors Fuses Connection busbars RVC controller Dynaswitches CLMD33S capacitors RVT-D controller Reactors Capacitors (CLMD type) Power factor correction and harmonic filtering in electrical plants 35 . available with or without detuning reactors are the ideal solution for the power factor correction of slow varying loads. The Dynacomp are designed to meet any possible requirement of a fast varying load. • the Dynacomp series. These products. Besides. These components are mounted in a cubicle together with auxiliary apparatus to form a factory assembled and tested system. reactors.7 capacitive and with a rated voltage up to 690 V. static compensators consisting of capacitors and inductors connected to the network by means of static power switches. They can produce reactive power up to 400 kvar per unit. On the contrary. in particular in the presence of loads whose absorption of reactive power changes frequently. static compensators equipped with contactors to switch the capacitor banks. They can produce reactive power from 25 to 800 kvar. control through tyristors and control of their closing operations limits a lot in the Dynacomp the response time to the demand for reactive power. the control is such that no unwanted harmonics are generated in the network.7 inductive to 0. Conventional capacitor banks are equipped with discharge resistors to limit the residual voltage on switching off. load demand output of contactor switched bank 10 ABB offer reactive power Time reactive power load demand output of Dynacomp As shown in the figure. with a rated voltage up to 690 V. In the Dynacomp the thyristors in antiparallel are switched in such instants so that no high current transients are generated.10. the Dynacomp consists of capacitors.

The CLMD capacitors consist of a number of wound elements and made of a dielectric of metalized polypropylene film. These elements. 10 ABB offer Heavy duty enclosure Wire connection Thermal equalizer Capacitor element: . these elements are placed in a sheet steel box filled with inert and fire-proof material and connected so that the required power (single-phase or three-phase) is delivered at the established voltage/frequency values. flexible power range. The metalized polypropylene film guarantees high voltage withstand capability and excellent peak current handling capacity. encapsulated in a hermetic plastic case are vacuum-treated to improve their electrical characteristics and each of them is provided with a protective system guaranteeing safe and selective disconnection from the circuit at the end of life. They are equipped with discharge resistors (< 50 V in 1 minute) and can be used without the need for further additional discharge resistors. They offer the following advantages: dry type design. exceptional self-healing properties. are some of the features which make the Dynacomp the ideal solution for all applications needing a fast and smooth switching of reactive power.very low losses Vermiculite Metal end spray In-house metalised polypropylene film (unique profile) Secondary foil winding Biaxially oriented polypropylene dielectric Thermo-setting encapsulation Plastic case Fuse link 36 Power factor correction and harmonic filtering in electrical plants .Technical Application Papers Wide network voltage range. Finally.dry dielectric .self-healing . modular design. so that there are no risks of leakage and pollution for the environment. choice of detuning reactors etc. low losses and high capacitance stability.

thus reducing the neutral current.3 Clean feeder current Load current Active filter current = Harmonic order + Power factor correction and harmonic filtering in electrical plants 37 . 10 ABB offer Fundamental only CT Load Feeder PQF Harmonics only Figure 10. • generation of reactive power and control of power factor. • auto-adaptation to network impedance changes.4 PQF filters ABB filters (Power Quality Filters) perform the triple function of harmonic filtering. • filtering without generation of reactive power. The PQF filters. reactive power compensation and load balancing. • harmonic attenuation factor higher than 97%. The main technical advantages of the PQF filters are: • filtering up to 20 harmonics simultaneously. monitor the line current in real time and convert the measured harmonics into digital signals. Figure 10. The reactive power compensation mode allows to compensate precisely up to target power factor values for both inductive as well as for capacitive loads. The PQF also offer communication facilities: in fact. different solutions are available ranging from digital I/O contacts to a Modbus RTU communication interface. The closed loop control system offers the additional advantage of accurate and reliable operation. depending on the existing customer communication network.10. The operating principle is shown in the two following figures. • operation with closed loop control for better accuracy. insensitive to large network impedance changes. • balancing of the load across the phases and phases and neutral.2 The load balancing function allows load current to be distributed evenly over the three phases. • filtering up to the 50th harmonic. these are processed by a digital controller generating PWM (Pulse Width Modulation) control signals that drive IGBT power modules which through dc capacitors inject harmonic currents in the network with exactly the opposite phase to the components that are to be filtered. without any need of special measuring devices.

Active filters for three-phase networks with or without neutral for filtering of non zero-sequence harmonics and reactive power compensation including load balancing. with its main components and the relevant main technical features.6 capacitive.6 inductive to 0. 25 20 15 10 5 0 THD H05 H10 H15 Harmonic order H20 H25 - Filterable harmonics: 20 harmonics selectable from 2nd to 50th order. - Reactive power: target displacement power factor programmable from 0. These filters have the following main technical characteristics: - Rated current: 208 V ≤ U ≤ 480 V 250 A 450 A 480 V ≤ U ≤ 690 V 180 A* 320 A* Typical result of an application with PQFI Harmonic current without PQFI 35 30 25 Fund % 20 15 10 5 0 THD H05 H10 H15 Harmonic order H20 H25 Fund % 10 ABB offer Harmonic current with PQFI 35 30 * If the system voltage is higher than 600 V the current rating of PQFI units may be derated automatically depending on the load conditions for ambient temperatures higher than 30°C. Power electronics • PWM converter with dry film DC capacitors • IGBT technology PQF-Manager • Versatile user interface Digital control (DSP) • Programmable filtering characteristics • Perfect multi-tuning to selected harmonics • Not overloadable • Programmable power factor correction • Load balancing feature • Zero reactive power filtering capability • Programmable task priorities Forced air cooling Breaker and auxiliaries 38 Power factor correction and harmonic filtering in electrical plants . The figure shows the cubicle constituting the PQFI.Technical Application Papers PQF filters can be divided into: • PQFI filters – Active filters for heavy industrial loads.

Fund % - Filterable harmonics: 20 harmonics selectable from 2nd to 50th order. - Reactive power: target displacement power factor programmable from 0.6 capacitive. Active filters for three-phase networks with or without neutral for filtering of non zero-sequence harmonics and for reactive power compensation including load balancing. 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 31 Harmonic order Contactor and fuses PQF-Manager • Versatile user interface Digital control (DSP) • Programmable filtering characteristics • Perfect multi-tuning to selected harmonics • Not overloadable • Programmable power factor correction • Load balancing feature • Zero reactive power filtering capability • Programmable task priorities Power electronics • PWM converter with dry film DC capacitors • IGBT technology Forced air cooling Top or bottom cable entry Power factor correction and harmonic filtering in electrical plants 39 .6 inductive to 0. These filters have the following main technical characteristics: - Rated current: 208 V ≤ U ≤ 480 V 70 A 100 A 130 A 150 A 480 V ≤ U ≤ 690 V 100 A* - Typical result of an application with PQFM 10 ABB offer Harmonic current without PQFM 100 80 60 40 20 0 Fund % 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 31 Harmonic order Harmonic current with PQFM 100 80 60 40 20 0 * If the system voltage is higher than 600 V the current rating of PQFM units may be derated automatically depending on the load conditions for ambient temperatures higher than 30°C.• PQFM filters – Active filters for industrial loads of lower capacity.

Active filters for three-phase networks with neutral wire for filtering of harmonics. - Reactive power: target displacement power factor programmable from 0.6 inductive to 0. These filters have the following main technical characteristics: - Rated current: 208 V ≤ U ≤ 415 V 70 A 100 A Typical result of an application with PQFK 100 80 60 Harmonic current without PQFK Fund % Fund % 10 ABB offer 40 20 0 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 31 Harmonic order Harmonic current with PQFK 100 80 60 - Filterable harmonics: 15 harmonics selectable from 2nd to 50th order. including zero-sequence harmonics.Phase to phase - Phase to neutral Power electronics • PWM converter with DC capacitors • IGBT technology Forced air cooling Top or bottom cable entry 40 Power factor correction and harmonic filtering in electrical plants .Technical Application Papers • PQFK filters – Active filters for commercial loads including zero-sequence harmonics in the neutral. for reactive power compensation and load balancing both between phases as well as between phases and neutral. 40 20 0 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 31 Harmonic order Contactor and fuses PQF-Manager • Versatile user interface Digital control (DSP) • Programmable filtering characteristics • Perfect multi-tuning to selected harmonics (including zero-sequence) • Not overloadable • Programmable power factor correction • Zero reactive power filtering capability • Programmable task priorities • Load balancing feature .6 capacitive.

- 4-wire connection: 15 harmonics selectable from 2nd to 50th order. - Reactive power: target displacement power factor programmable from 0. including zero-sequence harmonics. Active filters for three-phase networks with or without neutral wire for filtering of harmonics. for reactive power compensation and load balancing between phases as well as between phases and neutral.These filters have the following main technical characteristics: - Rated current: 208 V ≤ U ≤ 240 V 30 A 45 A 60 A 70 A 80 A 90 A 100 A 380 V ≤ U ≤ 415 V 30 A 45 A 60 A 70 A 80 A 90 A 100 A Fund % • PQFS filters – Active filters for commercial. residential and light industrial loads for installations with or without neutral. Typical result of an application with PQFS 10 ABB offer 100 80 60 40 20 0 Harmonic current without PQFS IL1 = 34 A IL2 = 17 A IL3 = 19 A IN = 44 A 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 31 Harmonic order Harmonic current with PQFS IL1 = 20 A IL2 = 20 A IL3 = 20 A IN = 4 A 100 80 Fund % 60 40 20 0 - Filterable harmonics: - 3-wire connection: 20 harmonics selectable from 2nd to 50th order.Phase to phase - Phase to neutral • Zero reactive power filtering capability • Programmable task priorities Power electronics • PWM converter with DC capacitors • IGBT technology Bottom cable entry Power factor correction and harmonic filtering in electrical plants 41 .6 inductive to 0. 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 31 Harmonic order Compact wall mounted design 3 and 4 wire functionality PQF-Manager • Versatile user interface Digital control (DSP) • Programmable filtering characteristics • Perfect multi-tuning to selected harmonics (including zero-sequence) • Not overloadable • Programmable power factor correction • Load balancing feature .6 capacitive.

the welding of the contactor contacts is allowed provided that they can be easily separated (e. 50 kA Qc [kvar] 10 15 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 110 130 150 180 200 250 280 300 350 400 Icn [A] 13 20 26 39 52 66 79 92 105 118 144 171 197 236 262 328 367 394 459 525 Icmax [A] 19 28 38 56 75 94 113 131 150 169 197 233 269 322 358 448 502 537 627 716 MCCB Tmax T2H160 TMD 25 T2H160 TMD 32 T2H160 TMD 40 T2H160 TMD 63 T2H160 TMD 100 T2H160 TMD 125 T2H160 TMD 125 T2H160 TMD 160 T2H160 TMD 160* T4H250 PR221LI In=250 T4H250 PR221LI In=250 T4H250 PR221LI In=250 T4H320 PR221LI In=320 T5H400 PR221LI In=400 T5H400 PR221LI In=400 T6H630 PR221LI In=630 T6H630 PR221LI In=630 T6H630 PR221LI In=630 T6H800 PR221LI In=800 T6H800 PR221LI In=800 In [A] 25 32 40 63 100 125 125 160 160 250 250 250 320 400 400 630 630 630 800 800 Contactor A/AF50 A/AF50 A/AF50 A/AF50 A/AF95 A/AF95 A/AF95 A/AF110 A/AF145 A/AF145 A/AF185 A/AF210 A/AF260 A/AF300 AF400 AF460 AF580 AF580 AF750 AF750 * For plug-in version reduce the power of the capacitor bank by 10% 42 Power factor correction and harmonic filtering in electrical plants .Technical Application Papers Annex A Selection tables for circuit-breakers and contactors Annex A The following tables show the coordination between Tmax moulded-case circuit-breakers and ABB contactors for the switching and protection of capacitor banks up to 400 kvar power. with a screwdriver) without any significant deformation.2 Coordination type 2 circuit breaker-contactor for the switching of capacitor banks at 440 V. in compliance with the prescriptions of the Std.g. It is necessary to install limiting inductances in order to reduce the inrush current. The rated currents of the circuit-breaker and of the contactor are selected according to the maximum current which can be absorbed by the capacitor bank (I cmax).1 Coordination type 2 circuit breaker-contactor for the switching of capacitor banks at 400 V. 1 Please be reminded that in coordination type 2. 50 kA Qc [kvar] 10 15 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 110 130 150 180 200 250 280 300 350 400 Icn [A] 14 22 29 43 58 72 87 101 115 130 159 188 217 260 289 361 404 433 505 577 Icmax [A] 21 31 41 62 83 103 124 144 165 186 217 256 296 355 394 493 552 591 690 788 MCCB Tmax T2S160 TMD 25 T2S160 TMD 40 T2S160 TMD 50 T2S160 TMD 80 T2S160 TMD 100 T2S160 TMD 125 T2S160 TMD 160 T2S160 TMD 160* T3S250 TMD 200 T3S250 TMD 200 T3S250 TMD 250 T4S320 PR221LI In=320 T4S320 PR221LI In=320 T5S400 PR221LI In=400 T5S400 PR221LI In=400 T6S630 PR221LI In=630 T6S630 PR221LI In=630 T6S630 PR221LI In=630 T6S800 PR221LI In=800 T6S800 PR221LI In=800 In [A] 25 40 50 80 100 125 160 160 200 200 250 320 320 400 400 630 630 630 800 800 Contactor A30 A/AF50 A/AF50 A/AF63 A/AF63 A/AF95 A/AF95 A/AF110 A/AF145 A/AF145 A/AF185 A/AF210 A/AF260 AF400 AF400 AF580 AF580 AF750 AF750 AF750 * For plug-in version reduce the power of the capacitor bank by 10% Table A. IEC 60831-1 A1. Table A. A prospective short-circuit current of 50 kA for voltages up to 500 V and of 10 kA for a voltage of 690 V and a coordination type 2 are considered.

4 Coordination type 2 circuit breaker-contactor for the switching of capacitor banks at 690 V.3 Coordination type 2 circuit breaker-contactor for the switching of capacitor banks at 500 V. 50 kA Annex A Qc [kvar] 10 15 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 110 130 150 180 200 250 280 300 350 400 Icn [A] 12 17 23 35 46 58 69 81 92 104 127 150 173 208 231 289 323 346 404 462 Icmax [A] 17 25 33 50 66 83 99 116 132 149 173 205 236 284 315 394 441 473 552 630 MCCB Tmax T2L160 TMD 20 T2L160 TMD 32 T2L160 TMD 40 T2L160 TMD 63 T2L160 TMD 80 T2L160 TMD 100 T2L160 TMD 125 T2L160 TMD 125 T2L160 TMD 160 T2L160 TMD 160* T4H250 PR221LI In=250 T4H250 PR221LI In=250 T4H250 PR221LI In=250 T4H320 PR221LI In=320 T5H400 PR221LI In=400 T5H400 PR221LI In=400 T6H630 PR221LI In=630 T6H630 PR221LI In=630 T6H630 PR221LI In=630 T6H800 PR221LI In=800 In [A] 20 32 40 63 80 100 125 125 160 160 250 250 250 320 400 400 630 630 630 800 Contactor A/AF50 A/AF50 A/AF50 A/AF63 A/AF75 A/AF95 A/AF95 A/AF95 A/AF110 A/AF145 A/AF145 A/AF185 A/AF210 A/AF260 A/AF300 AF400 AF460 AF460 AF580 AF750 * For plug-in version reduce the power of the capacitor bank by 10% Table A. 10 kA Qc [kvar] 10 15 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 110 130 150 180 200 250 280 300 350 400 Icn [A] 8 13 17 25 33 42 50 59 67 75 92 109 126 151 167 209 234 251 293 335 Icmax [A] 12 18 24 36 48 60 72 84 96 108 126 148 171 206 228 286 320 343 400 457 MCCB Tmax T2L160 TMD 16 T2L160 TMD 20 T2L160 TMD 25 T2L160 TMD 40 T2L160 TMD 50 T2L160 TMD 63 T2L160 TMD 80 T2L160 TMD 100 T2L160 TMD 100 T2L160 TMD 125 T2L160 TMD 160 T2L160 TMD 160* T4N250 PR221LI In=250 T4N250 PR221LI In=250 T4N250 PR221LI In=250 T4N320 PR221LI In=320 T5N400 PR221LI In=400 T5N400 PR221LI In=400 T6N630 PR221LI In=630 T6N630 PR221LI In=630 In [A] 16 20 25 40 50 63 80 100 100 125 160 160 250 250 250 320 400 400 630 630 Contactor A/AF50 A/AF50 A/AF50 A/AF50 A/AF63 A/AF63 A/AF75 A/AF95 A/AF95 A/AF110 A/AF145 A/AF185 A/AF210 A/AF260 A/AF260 AF400 AF400 AF400 AF460 AF580 * For plug-in version reduce the power of the capacitor bank by 10% Power factor correction and harmonic filtering in electrical plants 43 .Table A.

Moreover. switching through contactor is not taken into consideration. shall be limited and therefore they shall be carried out by the air circuit-breaker itself. on the contrary. Annex A In this case. In this case too. direct switching by means of circuitbreaker is considered because the number of operations Table A. for each value of rated power of the bank. if the inrush current is excessive. the following symbols are used: • Nmech number of mechanical operations. due to the big size of the capacitor bank.Technical Application Papers In the following table regarding the switching and protection of capacitors by means of air circuit-breakers. a precise value for the prospective short-circuit current is not established and consequently. • fmech frequency of mechanical operations [op/h]. the installation of limiting inductances shall be necessary.5 ICBn Circuit-breaker X1 B-N X1 B-N X1 B-N X1 B-N X1 B-N E1 B-N E1 B-N E1 B-N E1 B-N E2 B-N-S E2 B-N-S E2 B-N-S E2 B-N-S E2 B-N-S E3 N-S-H-V E3 N-S-H-V E3 N-S-H-V E3 N-S-H-V E3 N-S-H-V E3 N-S-H-V E3 N-S-H-V E4 S-H-V E6 H-V [A] 630 800 1000 1250 1600 800 1000 1250 1600 800 1000 1250 1600 2000 800 1000 1250 1600 2000 2500 3200 3200 3200 Icn [A] 421 533 666 834 1067 533 666 834 1067 533 666 834 1067 1334 533 666 834 1067 1334 1667 2134 2134 2134 400 V 291 369 461 578 739 369 461 578 739 369 461 578 739 924 369 461 578 739 924 1155 1478 1478 1478 QC [kvar] 440 V 320 406 507 636 813 406 507 636 813 406 507 636 813 1017 406 507 636 813 1017 1270 1626 1626 1626 500 V 364 461 576 722 924 461 576 722 924 461 576 722 924 1155 461 576 722 924 1155 1444 1848 1848 1848 690 V 502 637 795 997 1275 637 795 997 1275 637 795 997 1275 1594 637 795 997 1275 1594 1992 2550 2550 2550 Nmech 12500 12500 12500 12500 12500 25000 25000 25000 25000 25000 25000 25000 25000 25000 20000 20000 20000 20000 20000 20000 20000 15000 12000 fmech [op/h] 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 Nel 6000 6000 4000 4000 3000 10000 10000 10000 10000 15000 15000 15000 12000 10000 12000 12000 12000 10000 9000 8000 6000 7000 5000 fel [op/h] 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 10 10 44 Power factor correction and harmonic filtering in electrical plants . • Nel • fel number of electrical operations with reference to a voltage of 440 V. frequency of electrical operations [op/h]. the different breaking capacities of each circuit-breaker are considered.

finally. in case of a delta connection.24 ⋅ 1.9 even at the minimum voltage value.Qc 0.11] Q c1 = 3 2 U n1 Xc Q c2 = 3 2 U n2 Xc making the invariant capacitive reactance explicit and equalling the two equations.21⋅ QC [B.5 ⋅ Q c ) > 0 Therefore. at 100% of the rated voltage instead of 90% the relation [B.1. not to inject reactive power into the network.24 to obtain the effective value if reactive compensation is wanted at the minimum value of voltage variation.1.or star-connected capacitors is given respectively by: 2 2 U U [B.1 ⋅ Vn)2 = 1. 2 3 cosϕ = 0. the reactive power results to be equal to: Qc _ 110% = 3 ⋅ w ⋅ 1.Annex B Reactive power at voltage variations The reactive power delivered by a three-phase bank of delta.9] becomes: 0.5 ⋅ Q c ) Q .8] [B.Q c _ 110% = P ⋅ tgϕ . to keep constant the generated reactive power when the voltage varies. the power factor is fixed at 0.66 ⋅ Q 0.1] Q cΔ = 3 ⋅ n QcY = n Xc Xc To vary the generated reactive power once the voltage is fixed.21 ⋅ Qc) > 0 1 Qc < 0. the generated reactive power2 shall not exceed the power required by the load. [B.10] 1 C2 = C1 ⋅ 0. the value of Qc shall be calculated to carry out power factor correction at the rated voltage. then the relevant capacitance C1 is determined and multiplied by 1.1.7] which is valid independently of the type of connection of the capacitor bank.9 tgϕ = 0.5 ⋅ Qc 2 2 In order not to inject reactive power into the network.Qc _ 110 % P >0 [B. [B.Qc _ 90 % = P ⋅ tgϕ P= Q . On the contrary. if the power factor has to be equal to 0.83 ⋅ Q [B. from the previous formula: Un1 C2 = C1 ⋅ 0.Qc _ 90 % 0.6].6] 1. as it is usual. it is necessary to verify that in case of an increase of 10% of the supply voltage. [B. the ratio shall be positive if the numerator is positive.49 Qc _90% = 3 · w · 1.49 ⋅ (Q . the reactive power varies according to the square of the voltage. is expressed as a function of the load reactive power Q and of the compensation reactive power Qc3: Q .4] C2 = 1.9 when the voltage is 90% of the rated voltage and the active power P drawn by the load.5] and introducing [B.24 · C1 · (0.9] Q c < 0.49 ⋅ (Q . at a value Un2 the reactive power changes complying with the following relation1: Qc2 = Qc1 ⋅ Un2 Un1 2 To this purpose.Qc >0 [B.49 [B. In case of reactive compensation. with this capacitance value. once the capacitance of the capacitor bank has been fixed. at first.1 ⋅ 3 ⋅ w ⋅ C1⋅ V1 = 1.24 ⋅ C1⋅ (1. which remains constant.9 ⋅ Un1 2 Since the denominator is positive due to dimensioning.2] tgϕ = . Q . and consequently.3] Assuming a supply voltage variation within a range of ±10% of the nominal value. no reactive power is injected into the network. the following is obtained: tgϕ = . In fact.5] Annex B When the voltage exceeds by 10% the nominal value and with the capacitance increased by 24%. through the inequality [B. that is: [B. the following condition has to be satisfied: Q .9 · Vn)2 = Qc Power factor correction and harmonic filtering in electrical plants 45 .81 [B. it is necessary to vary the values of capacitive reactance Xc and therefore of the capacitances of the inserted capacitors. it is necessary to verify that if the voltage is increased by 10% with respect to the nominal value.24 ⋅ C1 Nevertheless.9]. it is necessary to size the capacitor bank (at the same reactive power required by the load) with a capacitance equal to about 124% of that considered at the rated voltage.6] becomes: Qc _ 110% = 3 ⋅ w ⋅ C1⋅ (1.2] is obtained. Instead.1 ⋅ Vn)2 = [B. In fact. carrying out the dimensioning in order to get a preestablished reactive power Qc1 at a voltage value Un1. 0. it would be necessary to change the capacitance of the capacitors according to the following relation: C2 = C1 ⋅ Un1 Un2 2 Replacing P with the expression [B.49 = Q .49 ⋅ (Q .

the simultaneous aptitude of such filters for the power factor correction at the fundamental frequency may be exploited: if properly dimensioned.1 Introduction The present plant engineering applications frequently imply the presence of non linear loads generating current harmonics and therefore it may be necessary to carry out power factor correction in non-sinusoidal steady state. values are defined as the square root of the sum of the square of the r. that is: ∑V k=2 ∞ 2 k V1 THD for voltage [C. the harmonic ratio is considered low and such that no measures shall be taken. When the presence of harmonics reaches a level no more acceptable and consequently the adoption of filters L-C is to be provided to compensate one or more of them.ϑk. values of the single harmonics: V= ∑V k=1 ∞ 2 k I= ∑I k=1 ∞ 2 k [C.1] THDv = where the first term of the right-hand member represents the average value of the function in the period T. the use of one or more filters for the harmonics of wider amplitude shall be provided for.7] [C.6] C. in the opposite case. can be expressed in the harmonic series with frequencies which are multiple of the fundamental in compliance with the following relations1: [C. these.4] 1 The angle jk represents the displacement of the k-th current harmonic with respect to the k-th voltage harmonic. Hereunder such operating conditions and the relevant sizing of the filters are analyzed and developed. to this purpose.3] The development in Fourier series may be also expressed in terms of cosines only as follows (in the time domain): f (t) = a0 + ∑ A k ⋅ cos( k w t. in distorted steady-state.s. the Total Harmonic Distortion THD is defined: THDi = ∑I k=2 ∞ 2 k f (x) = a0 + ∑ ( a n⋅ cos nx + bn⋅ sin nx) 2 n=1 ∞ I1 THD for current [C.m. generally continuous and limited quantity can be developed in a Fourier series according to the following relation: To get information about the harmonic content of voltage and current waveforms and to take measures if such values are high.s. while. whereas the coefficients an and bn of the series are calculated by: 2 an = T ∫ f (x) ⋅ cos nx ⋅ dx 0 T 2 bn = T ∫ f (x) ⋅ cos nx ⋅ dx 0 T [C. Passing from general quantities to alternating electrical a quantities (average value zero 0 = 0 ) such as voltage 2 and current.2 Analysis of quantities in distorted steadystate A periodic.5] Annex C v = ∑ 2 ⋅ Vk ⋅ cos( k wt. 46 Power factor correction and harmonic filtering in electrical plants .Technical Application Papers Annex C Filtering and power factor correction in distorted steady-state C. they can deliver all the reactive power required.ϑ k ) 2 k=1 ∞ [C.m. so that the values of the harmonic distortion ratios can be brought back to acceptable limits. a preliminary introduction is given concerning some formulas and definitions of quantities useful for the analysis under consideration.8] a0 1 = 2 T T ∫ 0 f (x ) ⋅ dx [C. also through an application example.ϕk ) k=1 ∞ whose phase r. thus avoiding the installation of dedicated banks of capacitors.2] If THDi < 10% and THDv < 5%.ϑk ) k=1 ∞ i =∑ 2 ⋅ I k⋅ cos( k wt.

The apparent powers S and A are different since. Q and D represent the vertices of a parallelepiped whose main diagonal is S. the expressions for the active power P and reactive power Q become2: S Q P = 3 ⋅ ∑Vk ⋅ I k ⋅ cos ϕ k k=1 ∞ Q = 3 ⋅ ∑Vk ⋅ I k ⋅ sin ϕ k k=1 ∞ [C. they differ and the following relation is valid: cosf = cosϕ ⋅ cosy [C.17] in which the distortion factor cos y takes into account the presence of the distortion power and is defined as: 2 According to Budeanu’s approach.14] If there were no distortion of the voltage and current waveforms.10] from which the apparent power A with the usual definition: D N A= P 2+ Q 2 [C. with the same value of active power drawn by the load. as a consequence. 3 cos € y= A S [C.12] in which the term D (defined as distortion power) takes into account the distortion of the voltage and current3 waveforms.11] This power differs from the total apparent power defined in [C.1. reference is made to such displacement factor by fixing as target value 0. the total apparent power (and consequently the flowing current) seen by the network decreases. values of different harmonics. in particular. the current defined in [C. an extension of the definition of powers in sinusoidal steady-state is possible. by definition. the following relation is valid: S 2= P 2 + Q 2 + D 2 [C. the active and reactive power drawn by a load in the presence of harmonic distortion are the sum of the powers at the kth-harmonic and only the products of the voltage and current of the same harmonic are present. the total apparent power S.1 Annex C P A Given the presence of voltage and current harmonics added to the fundamental harmonic.9. is defined as follows: S = 3⋅ V ⋅ I = 3 ⋅ ∑V ⋅ ∑ I 2 k k=1 k=1 ∞ ∞ 2 k [C.P 2 [C. index of the thermal stress of an electrical component in a three-phase system. in the presence of harmonics. thus.C. the total phase displacement factor cosf between the active power P and the total apparent power S seen from the network is by definition: P [C. not “combined” products of different harmonics. the first takes into account also the “combined” products of the voltage and current r. Figure C.9]. the factors appearing in the two equations above would coincide. P.9] To explain this concept it is possible to give the graphic interpretation of Figure C.s.15] cosf = S In power factor correction. As it can be noticed. also in this case.18] Power factor correction and harmonic filtering in electrical plants 47 . results: cosϕ = P A [C. on the contrary. The total displacement factor represents an extension to the distorted steady-state of the usual power factor cosf of the sinusoidal steady-state. which is a three-dimensional extension of the two-dimensional triangle of the power in sinusoidal steady state.6] flows with a voltage defined in the same formula. and N is the diagonal of the face whose edges are Q and D.m. which.3 Powers in distorted steady-state Under distorted steady-state conditions.13] Along the supply line of a load which operates with an active power P in distorted steady state. A is the diagonal of the face having its edges in P and Q. In fact. The sum of the squares of the reactive power Q and of the distortion power D gives the square of the non active power N: N2= Q 2 + D 2 [C.16] which is defined “non active” because it is given by the difference between the squares of the total apparent power S and the active power P: N2 = S 2 .

in this way it is possible to change the value of the rectified voltage Vd and the power values P according to the following relations: Vd = Vdo · cosa P = Pdo · cosa where Vdo and Pdo are respectively the average value of the rectified voltage and the power on the d. In particular. Analogously. in common plant engineering applications. the relation a = j is valid. X XI Xc one decreases as the harmonic order rises and besides. total control). whose theoretical amplitude is inversely proportional to the harmonic of order k7. decreases as the frequency rises.4 Filters L-C functioning as capacitors Take into consideration a branch of a passive series filter L-C resonant at an established frequency and represent graphically. hexa-phase. when dimensioning filters L-C it is possible to choose simultaneously such inductance and capacitance values. The development in Fourier series of such waveform gives only harmonics6 of order k = 6n ± 1 (n = 0. but the amplitude of the harmonics present in the distorted current waveform.) and on the type of control (non-control. side is causing a phase displacement ϕ between voltage and current. As. 48 Power factor correction and harmonic filtering in electrical plants LOAD Annex C Application example Assume that a totally controlled three-phase Graetz static rectifier has to be supplied by a network at 50 Hz with a short-circuit power sufficiently high to make it possible to disregard the distortion of the set of three voltages caused by the distorted current injected into the network by the rectifier. the compensation bank presents itself to the network on the whole as an inductance. if the inductance and the capacitance are in parallel.c. etc. thus eliminating the possibility of parallel resonance with the network inductance. the voltage waveform is not subject to distortion. as shown below. the silicon valves are all tyristors. non-instantaneous switching and a phase control angle different from 0° reduce the amplitude of the harmonics with respect to the theoretical value. for higher frequencies.20] Ik = 1 k where I1 is the amplitude of the fundamental harmonic (in the case under examination equal to 50 Hz). as shown in the figure. that is: L2 L3 IL3 Vd Q = Q L .c. the total impedance shall tend to zero and consequently a short-circuit shall occur for the current harmonic having the same frequency as the resonance frequency. side with no phase control (a = 0). power factor correction at lower frequencies is obtained and this effect shall be taken into consideration for the dimensioning of the capacitor banks of the filters themselves. by initial hypothesis. The resonance frequency is that defined frequency value for which the inductive and capacitive reactances coincide (see Chapter 8).2 fr Id f L1 IL1 IL2 . side) has a rectangular waveform with the fundamental harmonic frequency equal to that of the sinusoidal voltage. As shown in the graph.QC = w ⋅ L ⋅ I 2 − 1 ⋅ I2 < 0 w⋅C [C. that is: I [C. the total impedance shall theoretically tend to infinity with a consequent overvoltage at the ends. semi-control or hybrid.9.1. it is possible to observe that below 1 the capacitive the resonance frequency4 f r = 2⋅ π ⋅ L ⋅ C reactance prevails and consequently also the generated reactive power prevails over the drawn one. the inductive effect prevails. In a formula: XL = Xc 2⋅ π ⋅ f ⋅ L = 1 2⋅ π ⋅ f⋅ C 4 ⋅ π 2⋅ f 2 ⋅ L ⋅ C =1 f = 1 2⋅ π ⋅ L⋅C 6 If the inductance and the capacitance are in series. In other words. the reactive power drawn by the filter at a frequency value higher than the resonance 4 The current in each phase of the line (assuming a high inductance value on the d.Technical Application Papers C. The effect of the phase control angle α on the a.c. Figura C. which implies absorption of reactive power Q. so that the sum of the reactive power generated at the fundamental harmonic by all the filters installed corresponds to the reactive power required to make the total displacement factor seen from the upstream network reach the value of 0. which can be operated with a delay (phase control angle α). 7 In fact.19] Therefore. three-phase.2…). At frequencies higher than the resonance one. This depends on the typology of the bridge rectifier (single-phase. by using passive filters for harmonic filtering at resonance frequencies. the capacitive and inductive reactance as a function of the frequency. consequently. its development in series is reduced to the fundamental harmonic only and consequently the active 5 This means that.

in the upstream network.22] k 1 5 7 11 13 17 19 23 25 Ik [A] 202 40 29 18 15 12 11 9 8 Ik/I1 % 100 20 14 9 8 6 5 4 4 where: Vdo is the voltage value on the d. seen from the upstream network. values of the harmonics given in the previous Table: Assuming that the bridge rectifier has a rated power Pdo.1 Annex C Q = 3⋅∑Vk ⋅ I k ⋅ sinϕ k = 3 ⋅V1 ⋅ I1 ⋅ sin ϕ1 = 3 ⋅ V1 ⋅ I1 ⋅ sinα = Q1 k=1 ∞ [C. value equal to the square root of the sum of the squares of the r.77.21] By developing in Fourier series the distorted waveform of the current on the a.c.c.20]. all the addends in the sum are equal to zero for k>1. in case of absence of harmonic filters.8 = 112 kW from which a first harmonic current: and a total harmonic distortion equal to: I1 = P 112 ⋅ 10 3 = = 202 A 3 ⋅ U n ⋅ cosϕ 3 ⋅ 400 ⋅ 0.6 = 84 kvar A = P 2 + Q2 = 140 kVA 8 Since there are no harmonics of higher order in the voltage. side. The apparent power which corresponds to these powers is: 2 2 A= P 1 + Q1 = A 1 [C.23] Since the total apparent power seen from the supply network is: 2 S = 3⋅ V ⋅ I = 3 ⋅ V1 ⋅ ∑ I k 2 k=1 ∞ [C. side.c.8 j = 36.m.s. there would be a distortion factor A cos y = = 0. as the displacement angle ϕ and the phase control angle α (in the instant when the tyristors are required to operate) coincide. it can be noticed how the absorption of reactive power from the rectifier rises by increasing the phase control angle.96 and.c.m.s.96 = 0.10].9° sinj = 0.9 and to this purpose it is assumed to size and insert in parallel some filters L-C for the 5th-7th€ cosj = 0. delivered on the d.8 · 0. according to [C. Id is the current value on the d.8. equal to 140 kW.c.6 Power factor correction and harmonic filtering in electrical plants 49 . side. a current would flow with a total r. side.25] Therefore. when it is supplied by a network with non-distorted rated voltage and assuming that the switching is instantaneous and the phase control angle α is such that cosj = cosa = 0.and reactive powers absorbed by the rectifier (assumed without losses). The target is obtaining a total phase displacement factor equal to cosf'= 0. the following values for the powers on the a. are equal to8: P = 3⋅∑Vk ⋅ I k ⋅ cosϕ k = 3 ⋅V1 ⋅ I1 ⋅ cos ϕ1 =P 1 = Vdo⋅ I d ⋅ cosα = P d k=1 ∞ [C. calculated in compliance with [C.24] a distortion power due to the distorted current waveform is present: D = S 2 . S a phase displacement factor cosf = cosj · cosy = = 0. side are obtained: I= ∑I k=1 25 2 k = 210 A with a total apparent power: S = 3 ⋅ U n ⋅ I = 3 ⋅ 400 ⋅ 210 = 146 kVA P = Pd = Pdo⋅ cos α = 140 ⋅ 0. the following values for the harmonic amplitudes are obtained (the harmonics up to the 25th have been considered): Table C. 8 THD = ∑I k= 5 25 2 k and consequently a reactive and apparent power9: I1 = 29% Q = 3 ⋅ U n ⋅ I1 ⋅ sinϕ = 3 ⋅ 400 ⋅ 202 ⋅ 0. Moreover.A 12 [C. 9 As a consequence.

1(0. k This also involves a further reduction in the total current seen from the upstream network becoming equal to I' = 178 A (16% lower than the total initial current I) with a total apparent power S': S' = 3 ⋅ U n ⋅ I'= 3 ⋅ 400 ⋅ 178 = 124 kVA € The distortion factor passes from 0.Technical Application Papers 11th and 13th harmonic as shown in the following figure. value of the fundamental harmonic of the current.s. values in the Tables C.91)))= 33 kvar from which the final reactive power Q' after power factor correction: Q'=Q -Q c = 84 € .1 and C. the r. to which the current values of the non-filtered harmonics correspond: Table C. considering the value of apparent power A' (at the same value of absorbed active power P): A'= P 2 + Q' 2 =123 kVA € the r. otherwise. values of the non-filtered harmonics diminish. by the filter L-C resonant at the 5th harmonic is calculated as follows: Un I1. it is possible to obtain two further effects in addition to harmonic filtering for which the filters are used: • common power factor correction at 50 Hz since at the fundamental frequency the capacitive effect prevails over the inductive effect and consequently the generated reactive power over the absorbed one.tg (cos. through the power factor correction. The sum of the compensation reactive powers at 50 Hz is very close to the predefined one (with the inductance and capacitance values given in Table C.s. the power factor correction at 50 Hz determines a reduction in the r.5 = 1 3 ⋅ 2 π 50⋅ L5 2 π 50⋅ C5 Q1. value of the first harmonic of current. for example. thanks to this example.99 S' 124 k 5 7 11 13 f [Hz] 250 350 550 650 Lk [mH] 1 2 1 1 Ck [μF] 406 84 6 103 and the total displacement factor results: cosf'= cos ϕ'⋅ cos y' = 0.906 Thus the appointed goal has been reached.s.m. which means a reduction in the distortion of the waveform of the current itself.9.9% (lower than the wished 10%).2). To conclude.3. The reactive power at 50 Hz supplied.33 = 51 kvar Proceeding by attempts and setting some inductance € values for the harmonics to be filtered.m.5 = 3⋅ 1 2 . which affects the reduction I' of the non-filtered harmonics (since I k ' = 1 ). the contributions of the other harmonics are calculated.91.m.m. if the inductances and the capacitances of the passive filters are suitably sized.5 2 π 50 ⋅ C5 Analogously. the following capacitance values causing series resonance are obtained: 1 Ck = (2π f ) 2 ⋅ L k Table C. Figura C. consequently also the r. Assuming to set this value at 0.2 As it can be noticed when comparing the absolute values of the r. therefore a further reduction of the total current flowing through the network and of the total THD is obtained.96 to: cos y'= A' 123 = = 0.99 = 0. the set value of cosj should have been increased and the previous procedure should have been repeated.m. The total harmonic distortion ratio decreases to THD’= 9. it has been possible to notice how in distorted steady-state.3 II I13 I11 I7 I I5 Id LOAD which is about 12% lower than the initial value of I1.2 π 50⋅ L5 ⋅ I1. value of the first harmonic current becomes equal to: A' 123 ⋅103 I1 '= = =177 A 3 ⋅ 400 3 ⋅ Un 50 Power factor correction and harmonic filtering in electrical plants .tg ϕ')=112 ⋅ (tg(cos.91⋅ 0. the obtained reactive power compensation is€ equal to: Qc=P⋅ (tg ϕ .1(0.3 Annex C k 17 19 23 25 Ik [A] 10 9 8 7 Ik/I’1 % 6 5 4 4 L13 C13 L11 C11 L7 C7 L5 C5 Therefore the final value of cosf' shall exceed 0. • by reducing.s.8).s.

that is: [D.12] The steady-state component is given by [D.6] i ' = 2 ⋅ I ⋅ sen (w t + y + ϕ ) 1 that is when the insertion angle of the voltage is complementary to the phase displacement angle between voltage and current under steady-state conditions.7] For the voltage vcıı it results2: vc'' =Vc'' ⋅ e [D.ϕ Since in steady-state the current flowing through the circuit is the following1: [D.6].1] vc = 2⋅ I ⋅ cos(y + ϕ ) ⋅ e τ .9] R Vc '' = and therefore: 2⋅ I ⋅ cos( y + ϕ ) w⋅C t [D. for the current too.13] R⋅ C ⋅ dvc + vc = 2 ⋅ V fn ⋅ sen( wt + y ) dt [D.cos( wt + y + ϕ ) w⋅C [D.11] 1 R⋅ i + ⋅ C ∫ t 0 idt = 2 ⋅ V fn ⋅ sen(wt + y ) [D.Annex D Voltages and currents upon switching and discharging of capacitors D.10] with: v = 2 ⋅ V fn ⋅ sen ( wt + y ) the following equation is valid: [D. we have the sum of the steady-state and transient components: i = i ' + i '' With the capacitor voltage Vc as unknown quantity and dv with i = i c = C ⋅ c it results: dt [D.14] 1 ⋅ cos( y + ϕ ) ⋅ e τ + sen( wt + y + ϕ ) w ⋅ R⋅ C t i = 2⋅ I ⋅ - vc = v'c + v'' c from which: [D. 2 It is defined τ the time constant of the system under consideration equal to τ = RC Power factor correction and harmonic filtering in electrical plants 51 .8] i imposing as initial conditions null voltage on the capacitor for t=0: V Vc C vc0 = vc 0 ' +vc0 '' = from which: 2⋅ I ⋅ cos(y + ϕ ) + Vc '' = 0 w⋅C [D.4] The unidirectional component becomes equal to 0 when: dv' R ⋅ C ⋅ c + v'c = 2 ⋅ V fn ⋅ sen ( wt + y ) dt dv'' '' R ⋅ C ⋅ c + vc =0 dt [D.1 Switching of capacitor banks Taking into consideration the series single-phase equivalent circuit of a capacitance and the resistance of the wiring as shown in the following diagram: Figure D.1 from the first equation of those in [D. if: cos( y + ϕ ) = 1 y=-ϕ I= 2 V fn R + 1 wC 2 there shall be the maximum value of the unidirectional component with the maximum peak of current and the highest overvoltage. On the contrary. In this case there are not current peaks and switching overvoltages.2] Analogously. whereas the transient component results by deriving [D.5] cos( y + ϕ ) = 0 y = 90° .3] i '' = C ⋅ - dvc '' 2 ⋅I 1 = C⋅ ⋅ cos(y + ϕ ) ⋅ e τ ⋅ = dt w⋅C R⋅ C 2⋅ I ⋅ cos( y + ϕ ) ⋅ e τ w ⋅ R⋅ C t t The solution of the first order linear differential equation is the sum of two components: the steady-state solution vcı (particular integral) and a unidirectional component with damped exponential function vcıı (general integral). that is: from which: [D.8] with respect to time.5] the capacitor voltage in steady-state is obtained: Annex D vc ' = 1 ⋅ C ∫ t 0 i 'dt = - 2⋅ I ⋅ cos( wt + y + ϕ ) w⋅C − t τ [D.

as a function of the capacitor voltage: dv [D. it results that the maximum peak of the inrush current (assuming y = -j) is about 22 kA. However. Starting from [D.2 Discharge of capacitors Take into consideration a charged capacitor bank having an initial voltage Vc0 and connected to a discharge resistor R as shown in the following diagram: Figure D.17] and replacing the values under consideration it results (with the coefficient k = 1): 3⋅ 60 180 75 ≥ 2 ⋅ 230 ⋅ e R ⋅10 -3 R≤ = 123 kΩ 2 ⋅ 230 -3 10 ⋅ ln 75 By choosing a resistor with the same value as that indicated. because the maximum value of the discharge current is about: Vc0 2 ⋅ 230 = = 2. In plant engineering practice. becomes: [D.12] of Chapter 9.Technical Application Papers Example Let us suppose we want to switch a 50 kvar three-phase bank of star-connected capacitors supplied by a network with infinite power at 400 V @ 50 Hz and by a three-pole PVC cable.005 As it can be noticed.01 0. a 16 mm2 cable installed on a tray and having a total resistance per phase equal to 15 mΩ is chosen. knowing that i = i c = C c .τ [D.3 (in advance) Replacing I (negligible error) in [D.035 0.18] i =⋅e R t ϕ = tg. I= 52 Power factor correction and harmonic filtering in electrical plants .13] with the values of resistance. Inserting in [D.73° w ⋅ R⋅ C 314⋅ 15⋅ 10. 10 m long. the time constant τ of the circuit RC is 15 μs. The capacitance per phase results equal to: D.15] R ⋅ C ⋅ c + vc = 0 dt the solution of which gives: vc = Vc0 ⋅ e - t τ [D.1 1 1 = tg.3 ⋅ 10.025 0.015 0. the maximum developed power results to be: Example Maximum peak of the inrush current of the capacitor bank 25 20 15 10 5 0 -5 [ms] i(t) 2 ⋅ 230 V2 P = c0 = = 0. in spite of the resistance value of the order of hundreds kΩ.16] which. the maximum value of the discharge resistance is determined as indicated in the formula [9.02 0. in compliance with the prescriptions of the Standard IEC 60831-1.005 0.2 [kA] Annex D i Qc = 3 ⋅ w ⋅ C ⋅ Un 3 2 C= Qc 50 ⋅ 10 3 = =1 mF 2 w ⋅ U n 314 ⋅ 400 2 R Vc C The r.17].17] vc = 2 ⋅ Vn ⋅ e τ dv Moreover. the impedance of the upstream network contributes to limit this peak. Let us suppose we want to dimension the discharge resistors for the capacitor bank of the previous example. the maximum power dissipated into heat is lower than 1W. as shown in the following diagram. that is 300 times the rated current of the bank. As a consequence.m. capacitance and In. since in 3 min the resistor dissipates into heat the electrostatic energy stored by each capacitor. should it be too high for the present electrical equipment.s. in the worst case.1 = 89.03 0. it is possible to write. t=180 s and vc=75 V and solving it with respect to R.86 W R 123 ⋅ 103 0 0. the current results dt to be: t Vc0 .04 2 -0.6 mA R 123 ⋅10 3 The consequence is a small cross section of the connection cables and limited thermal phenomena. whereas the phase displacement angle between current and voltage results: In the absence of an applied voltage. value of the rated current absorbed in steadystate is: Qc 5 ⋅ 103 In = = = 72 A 3 ⋅ Un 3 ⋅ 400 With such a rated current. further limiting inductances should be put as suggested in Chapter 9.

5 · P ).0.2] Q C ≥ Q . it results: PPV PN .3] = tg ϕ 2 = 0. the previous formula can be rewritten as: Q .9 as usually prescribed. whereas the active power decreases by the quantity supplied by the photovoltaic generator as shown in the following figure: Figure E. if the generated power is half the power drawn by the loads (PPV = 0.5] that is why the power factor controller is set at 0.5 PN [E.5 ⋅ 1P ⋅ ( tgϕ1 . the reactive power drawn by the network remains the same.5 ⋅ 1- PPV P [E. cos ϕ N ≥ 0.5 ⋅ 1- P =0 P cos ϕ 2 = 1 [E.5 ⋅ 1- 0 = 0.0.97 [E. for example.5 QN ≤ 0.9 tg ϕ N ≤ 0.tgϕ 2 ) where: PPV P [E.9.5 ⋅ ( P .1 If there is not a photovoltaic plant (PPV = 0): Annex E tgϕ 2 = 0.5 ⋅ P = 0.25 P cos ϕ 2 = 0. therefore it is however necessary to draw from the network the reactive power required for the loads of the user plant.4] Power factor correction and harmonic filtering in electrical plants 53 .PPV ) = P ⋅ tgϕ1 . the electrical installation as a whole (photovoltaic generator and user plant) shall have.6] Qc P = PPV + PN Q = Qc + QN In the limit case. when the photovoltaic plant supplies all the active power required by the loads (PPV=P).9 from which it results: and consequently the capacitor bank shall deliver all the reactive power required by the loads.5 P .Qc ≤ 0.9 [E.5 P cosϕ 2 = 0. In fact. an average power factor equal to 0.7] LOADS From the point of view of the network. If a photovoltaic plant is added to an already existing electrical installation.1] Taking into account the indications given in the figure. In the presence of a photovoltaic plant.5 ⋅ 1- 0. active power is generated and the power factor regulator shall be set at a value higher than 0. QN PV NETWORK tgϕ 2 = 0. Q tgϕ 2 = 0. not to incur penalties.PPV from which: [E. the power factor controller shall be set at a value equal to: P.Annex E Power factor correction in photovoltaic plants A photovoltaic plant usually supplies only active power.

m.2 Symmetrical three-phase supply system and three single-phase loads balanced but not linear Figure F.5] IN I N =2.6 ⋅ I1 =1.17 [F. in addition to the fundamental one. with a value given by the Standard IEC 60947-2 Annex F option b): • I3 = 0.98 ⋅ I L ≈ 200%I L 1.3] F. assuming as 3rd harmonic value that given in the Standard IEC 60947-2 Annex F option a): • I3 = 0.1] In the neutral conductor a current flows which is equal to the algebraic sum of the r.882 ) =1.17⋅ I1 [F. Instead.64 ⋅ I1 =2. 54 Power factor correction and harmonic filtering in electrical plants .4] 2 I L1 = I L 2 = I L 3 = I L = I12 + I 3 = I12 ⋅ (1+ 0.s.1 Whereas.88 ⋅ I1 =2.8 ⋅ IL =1.6 · I1 Annex F The r.33 [F.m. value of the phase current as a function of the 1st harmonic results to be: 2 I L1 = I L 2 = I L 3 = I L = I12 + I 3 = I12 ⋅ (1+ 0. The ratio between the current in the neutral and in the phase would increase if also harmonics multiple of the 3rd one were present.54 ⋅ I L ≈ 160%I L 1. it results: I N =1.2] from which.64 ⋅ I1 IL =1. the assumption that other harmonics not multiple of the 3rd one are absent represents a pejorative situation: their presence would reduce the ratio previously given since such harmonics would not flow through the neutral being balanced symmetrical sets.1 Introduction In three-phase systems with neutral it is possible to have installation applications implying in the neutral conductor the circulation of a current with an r. expressing the neutral current as a function of the phase current. value higher than the value of the phase currents. whose ratio with the phase current shall be analyzed under the different conditions of harmonic pollution in the following cases. Hence the necessity to size the neutral with a cross section larger than that of the phases and to have a different setting for the overcurrent protection of the phases and of the neutral in four-pole circuit-breakers.64 ⋅ [F. As a consequence. a current which is even twice the phase current may flow with the consequent repercussion in the size of the cross section of the conductor and in the settings of the overload protections. Take into consideration the presence in the three-phase currents of the 3rd harmonic only.s.m. the use of the harmonic filters and of the power correction techniques previously described contribute also towards a reduction in the amount of the neutral current.6] LOAD LOAD LOAD As it can be noticed.62 ) =1.33 ⋅ I1 E2 E3 I N = 3 ⋅ I 3 = 3⋅ 0.88 · I1 E1 IL1 IL2 IL3 the previous relationships become: [F. values of the three 3rd harmonic components in phase between them: I N = 3 ⋅ I 3 = 3⋅ 0.8 ⋅ I1 [F. in the neutral.s.8 ⋅ I1 =1.Technical Application Papers Annex F Harmonics in three-phase systems with neutral F.

13] with [F.88 2 ) =1.02 ⋅ I L =1.10].88) = 2.07 · I1 Annex F E1 IL1 IL2 IL3 = 0 E2 the ratio between the neutral current and the phase current becomes: E3 I N = I1⋅ 1+ (2 ⋅ 0. the sum gives.88 2 + 0. that is: As it can be noticed comparing the formula [F.55 2 + 0.m.10] Power factor correction and harmonic filtering in electrical plants 55 . Compared with the previous case.07 2 =1. since the latter are equal in module and phase-displaced by 120°.52 ⋅ I L 1. it results: [F.44 [F.88 · I1 (which can be verified in the single-phase rectifiers). take into consideration the presence of the 3rd harmonic only in addition to the fundamental one.7] In this particular case.02⋅ I1 2 1 2 2 [F.2 If also the 5th and the 7th harmonics are present. the same value of the phase fundamental component.s value. also in this case the presence of harmonics not multiple of the 3rd reduces the ratio between the neutral current and the phase current.44 ⋅ I1 IN = 2.12] LOAD LOAD I L1 = I L 2 = I L = I1 ⋅ 1+ 0. the fundamental component of the neutral current is the vectorial sum of the fundamental components of the phase currents. IN = I12 + (2 ⋅ I 3 ) 2 [F. as resulting r.1 ⋅ I L =1.9] 2 I L1 = I L 2 = I L = I12 + I 3 = I12 ⋅ (1+ 0.8] I N = I + (2 ⋅ 0.46 ⋅ I L 1.1 ⋅ I1 IN [F.33 ⋅ I1 IN = 2.3 Symmetrical three-phase supply system and two single-phase loads balanced but not linear Figure F.33 [F.11] [F.F.55 · I1 • I7 = 0.13] At first. now the current flowing in the neutral is the square root of the sum of the square of the fundamental component plus the square of the sum of the two 3rd harmonics.55 2 + 0. with the following values given by the Standard IEC 60947-2 Annex F: • I5 = 0. Assuming by hypothesis I3 = 0.07 2 = 2.88⋅ I1) = I1⋅ 1+ (2 ⋅ 0.88)2 + 0.

value of the line-to-line voltage V r.s. value of the k-th voltage harmonic P active power absorbed by the load Q reactive power absorbed by the load Q1 total reactive power before power factor correction Q2 total reactive power after power factor correction A apparent power absorbed by the load D distortion power N non-active power S total apparent power S1 total apparent power before power factor correction S2 total apparent power after power factor correction Qc reactive power of the capacitor bank Icn rated current of the capacitor Icmax maximum current drawn by the capacitor cosϕ power factor cosψ distortion factor cosφ phase displacement factor cosϕ1 power factor before reactive power compensation cosϕ2 power factor after reactive power THD total harmonic distortion factor fr resonance frequency PPV active power supplied by a photovoltaic generator PN active power supplied by the network QN reactive power supplied by the network Glossary 56 Power factor correction and harmonic filtering in electrical plants .s.s.Technical Application Papers Glossary I r.m.s.m.s.m. value of the first voltage harmonic Vk r. value of the k-th current harmonic U r. value of the total current Ir current component in phase with the voltage Iq current component in quadrature with the voltage I1 r.m.s.m.s. value of the total phase voltage V1 r.m.m. value of the first current harmonic Ik r.

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Technical Application Papers QT4 ABB circuit-breakers inside LV switchboards QT5 ABB circuit-breakers for direct current applications QT1 Low voltage selectivity with ABB circuit-breakers QT6 Arc-proof low voltage switchgear and controlgear assemblies QT2 MV/LV trasformer substations: theory and examples of short-circuit calculation QT7 Three-phase asynchronous motors Generalities and ABB proposals for the coordination of protective devices QT3 Distribution systems and protection against indirect contact and earth fault QT8 Power factor correction and harmonic filtering in electrical plants .

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the characteristics and dimensions specified in this document may only be considered binding after confirmation by ABB SACE. L.CAL .395.abb.A.111 . ABB SACE A division of ABB S. Breakers Via Baioni.Italy Tel.Due to possible developments of standards as well as of materials.306-433 http://www.com 1SDC007107G0201 September ’08 Printed in Italy 6.V.p.000 .: +39 035.395. 35 24123 Bergamo .Telefax: +39 035.

power factor

power factor

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