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Thermodynamics is a funny subject The first time you go through it, you don’t understand it at all The second time you go through it, you think you understand it, except for one or two small points The third time you go through it, you know you don’t understand, but by that time you’re so used to it, it doesn’t bother you any more
By Arnold Sommerfield
DESIGNED AND PREPARED BY : MOHD KAMAL ARIFFIN/2003
BAB 1 : DEFINISI DAN KONSEP ASAS
The Word `THERMODYNAMICS’ comes from the combination of two Greek words
• the branch of physics concerned with the conversion of different forms of energy or • the study of the conversion of energy into work and heat and its relation to macroscopic variables such as temperature and pressure
DESIGNED AND PREPARED BY : MOHD KAMAL ARIFFIN/2003
(Heriot-Watt.my Telefax: 07-5566159 Telex : MA 60205 Cable : UTEKMA DESIGNED AND PREPARED BY : MOHD KAMAL ARIFFIN/2003 COURSE INFO COURSE : THERMODYNAMICS 1 COURSE CODE : SME 1413 NO.MY BUSSINESS CARD MOHD KAMAL ARIFFIN B. SME 4912.Eng. UTM. SME 4924 PASSING MARK : 50/100 MINIMUM ATTENDANCE : 34 hrs (80%) Student with an attendance less than 80% (36 hrs) (without specific reason) will be banned from taking final exam DESIGNED AND PREPARED BY : MOHD KAMAL ARIFFIN/2003 2 . OF CREDITS : 3 NO OF MEETING HOURS : 42 hrs PRE-REQUISITE : NONE PRE-REQUISITE TO : SME 2423. UK) LECTURER/AUTOCAD INSTRUCTOR Office: C25-325 Faculty of Mechanical Engineering Universiti Teknologi Malaysia 81310 Skudai Johor. Malaysia Tel: 07-5534738 (office) H/P : 019-7255525 Email : email@example.com. (Mech). MSc Building Services Engineering.
state postulate. state equations and charts analyze closed systems involving heat and work interactions for pure substances and ideal gases using the 1st law of Thermodynamics analyze common steady flow devices and uniform flow processes using the principles of mass conservation and the 1st law of thermodynamics analyze performance of reversible and actual heat engines. Heat Transfer for Closed System DESIGNED AND PREPARED BY : MOHD KAMAL ARIFFIN/2003 3 . Boundary work. Shaft Work. Cycle. Property Diagram for Ideal Gases. Systems. Other Equations of State. Pressure. Equilibrium. Ideal Gas Equation of State. Electrical Work. Principle of Corresponding States. Heat and Work (3 hrs) Kinetic. equilibrium. refrigerator and heat pump cycles based on the first law and Carnot principles analyze the entropy changes during thermodynamic processes determine isentropic efficiencies of various steady-flow devices DESIGNED AND PREPARED BY : MOHD KAMAL ARIFFIN/2003 COURSE CONTENTS • Intoduction & Basic Concepts (3 hrs) Units. Surroundings. State Postulate • Properties of Pure Substance (9 hrs) Phase change Processes of Pure Substance. state. Pressure-VolumeTemperature Relationships. Properties.COURSE LEARNING OUTCOME At the end of the course. Temperature. Property Tables. Enthalpy. Spring Work. Property Diagram. • Energy. Boundary. process and cycle explain the concept of energy and forms of energy transfer such as work and heat describe the state and phase change process of pure substances on property diagrams based on the property tables. students should be able to:: explain the basic concepts of thermodynamics such as system. Specific Heats of Ideal Gases • First Law of Thermodynamics for Closed System (3 hrs) Conservation of Energy for Closed System. Heat Transfer. Compressibility factor. Potential & Internal Energy.
Unsteady (Transient) Flow Process. Applications of Steady State Equations : Turbines. Heat Exchanger. Entropy change of Pure Substances. Reversed Heat Engines. Irish physicist and chemist Robert Boyle with English scientist Robert Hooke had built an air pump. Entropy Generation of Closed System. Entropy Generation of Open. Conservation of Mass and Energy for Open Systems. General Conservation Energy Equations. Steady State Energy Equations. DESIGNED AND PREPARED BY : MOHD KAMAL ARIFFIN/2003 CHAPTER 1 : DEFINITION AND BASIC CONCEPT BIRTH OF THERMODYNAMICS AS A MODERN SCIENCE At its origins. Carnot and Reversed Carnot Cycles • Entropy (9 hrs) Clausius Inequality. Pumps. TdS Relations. Coefficient of Performance. Kelvin-Planck Statement. Clausius Statement. Carnot Principles. Increase of Entropy Principle. power. Reversible and Irreversible Processes. Isentropic Processes. the “father of thermodynamics”. This marks the start of thermodynamics as a modern science NEXT DESIGNED AND PREPARED BY : MOHD KAMAL ARIFFIN/2003 4 . a discourse on heat. Diffusers. an engineer Thomas Savery built the world first engine. and engine efficiency. Efficiency. they attracted the attention of the leading scientists of the time Scientist. Max Performance of Heat Engine & Reversed Heat Engines. thermodynamics known as the study of engines In 1650 Otto Von Guericke built and designed the world's first vacuum pump and created the world's first ever vacuum known as the Magdeburg Hemispheres Shortly thereafter. They noticed the pressure-volume correlation: PV=constant In 1697. Nozzle. Although these early engines were crude and inefficient. Sadi Carnot. Definition of Entropy.COURSE CONTENTS • First Law of Thermodynamics for Open System (9 hrs) Flow Work. Mixing Chambers. • Second Law of Thermodynamics (6 hrs) Heat Reservoirs. Throttling Valve. Kelvin Temperature Scale. Isentropic Efficiency. Heat Engines. in 1824 published “Reflections on the Motive Power of Fire”.
the famed mathematical physicist Rudolf Clausius originated and defined the term enthalpy H to be the total heat content of the system. Glasgow University NEXT DESIGNED AND PREPARED BY : MOHD KAMAL ARIFFIN/2003 5 . stemming from the Greek word enthalpein meaning to warm. In 1850. stemming from the Greek word entrepein meaning to turn.the world's first engine built by Thomas Severy based on the designs of Denis Papin BACK DESIGNED AND PREPARED BY : MOHD KAMAL ARIFFIN/2003 CHAPTER 1 : DEFINITION AND BASIC CONCEPT BIRTH OF THERMODYNAMICS AS A MODERN SCIENCE In the years to follow.CHAPTER 1 : DEFINITION AND BASIC CONCEPT BIRTH OF THERMODYNAMICS AS A MODERN SCIENCE The 1698 Savery Engine . more variations of steam engines were built. First Thermodynamics book was published in 1859 by Prof.Rankine. and later the Watt Engine In 1849. and defined the term entropy S to be the heat lost or turned into waste. W. such as the Newcomen. the British mathematician and physicist William Thomson (Lord Kelvin) coined the term thermodynamics in a paper on the efficiency of steam engines.
that propelled the Industrial Revolution in Britain and the world BACK DESIGNED AND PREPARED BY : MOHD KAMAL ARIFFIN/2003 CHAPTER 1 : DEFINITION AND BASIC CONCEPT APPLICATIONS OF THERMODYNAMICS PRINCIPLE Refrigerator Car Engine Jet Engine Power Plant DESIGNED AND PREPARED BY : MOHD KAMAL ARIFFIN/2003 6 .CHAPTER 1 : DEFINITION AND BASIC CONCEPT BIRTH OF THERMODYNAMICS AS A MODERN SCIENCE A Watt steam engine.
CHAPTER 1 : DEFINITION AND BASIC CONCEPT THERMODYNAMICS SYSTEM Definition : A quantity of matter or a region in space chosen for study Closed System Boundary Energy Energy System Fixed mass (mass cannot cross the boundary) Example Gas in cylinder Air in a balloon System Open System Mass enters System Energy Mass exits Mass can cross the boundary Example House hold water tank Water pump Air Compressor Car Engine Surrounding DESIGNED AND PREPARED BY : MOHD KAMAL ARIFFIN/2003 CHAPTER 1 : DEFINITION AND BASIC CONCEPT THERMODYNAMICS SYSTEM DESIGNED AND PREPARED BY : MOHD KAMAL ARIFFIN/2003 7 .
properties maybe change or constant A series of states through which a system passes during a process is called PATH CONSTANT PROPERTIES PROCESS p p2 Final State 2 Direction Process Path Initial State p1 v2 A name given to any process according to any properties that is constant during a process Isothermal (T-Constant) Isobar (p-Constant) Isometric (V-Constant) Isentropic (S-Constant) Isenthalpic (H-Constant) QUASI-STATIC PROCESS A sufficiently slow process that allows the system to adjust itself internally so that properties do not change any faster than those other parts of system 1 v1 v DESIGNED AND PREPARED BY : MOHD KAMAL ARIFFIN/2003 8 . intensive properties Independent of system size and cannot be mixed T. U 1 kg + 2 kg = 3 kg Define using mathematical equation based on measurable properties The State Postulate The state of simple system is completely specified by two independent. T. H. p. V. V.CHAPTER 1 : DEFINITION AND BASIC CONCEPT THERMODYNAMICS PROPERTIES ion Definit 1 Type 1 Characteristic of System Not depending on system history Type 111 PROPERTIES Specific Properties ry go te a C Ca te g or y Ty pe 11 11 Measurable m. S. p Extensive Properties Extensive properties perunit mass υ = V/m m3/kg Intensive Properties Immeasurable U. ρ 50 oC + 70 oC ≠ 120 oC DESIGNED AND PREPARED BY : MOHD KAMAL ARIFFIN/2003 CHAPTER 1 : DEFINITION AND BASIC CONCEPT THERMODYNAMICS PROCESS DEFINITION Any change that a system undergoes from one equilibrium state to another state is called PROCESS During a process. m. ρ Depend on system size and can be mixed.
CHAPTER 1 : DEFINITION AND BASIC CONCEPT QUASI-STATIC PROCESS DESIGNED AND PREPARED BY : MOHD KAMAL ARIFFIN/2003 CHAPTER 1 : DEFINITION AND BASIC CONCEPT THERMODYNAMICS CYCLE A system is said to have undergone a cycle if it returns to its initial state at the end of the process after going through a series of processes. The initial and final states are identical. P R o p I 3 4 2 1 Prop II The total of property change = 0 Example Total pressure change = (p1-p2) + (p3-p2) + (p4-p3) + (p1-p4) =0 DESIGNED AND PREPARED BY : MOHD KAMAL ARIFFIN/2003 9 .
F Fluid Area.CHAPTER 1 : DEFINITION AND BASIC CONCEPT DIMENSIONS AND UNITS UNITS Prefix Standard Prefix Syimbol T G M k H da d c m µ n p Multiple 1012 109 106 103 102 101 10-1 10-2 10-3 10-6 10-9 10-12 Example 1 TW =102 TW 1 Gpa = 109 pa 1 MW = 106 W 1 kN = 103 N 1 HI = 102 I 1 daA = 101 A 1 dl = 10-1 l 1 cm = 10-2 m 1 mm = 10-3 m 1 µm = 10-6 m 1 nm = 10-9 m 1 pF = 10-12 F Primary Dimensions & Units SI kg m sec K Imperial Ibm ft sec R Force F = mass x acceleration = ma 1 N = 1 kgm/s2 1 Ibf = 32. A Rod UNIT N/m2 Pa kPa Bar MPa 1 kPa = 103 N/m2 1 Bar = 105 N/m2 1 MPa = 106 N/m2 DESIGNED AND PREPARED BY : MOHD KAMAL ARIFFIN/2003 10 .ka/s2 Tera Giga Mega Kilo Hekto Deka Deci Centi Mili Mikro Nano Pico WEIGHT (Gravity Force) w = mg (N) WORK W = Force x Distance = F x l (Nm) 1 Nm = 1 Joule DESIGNED AND PREPARED BY : MOHD KAMAL ARIFFIN/2003 CHAPTER 1 : DEFINITION AND BASIC CONCEPT PRESSURE DEFINITION Pressure.174 Ibm. p = Normal Force Area = F normal A Force acting to a rod Force exerted by Fluid Force. A Force. F Area.
CHAPTER 1 : DEFINITION AND BASIC CONCEPT TYPES OF PRESSURE PRESSURE Gage Pressure psistem > patm pabs = pgage + patm Absolute. Gage and Vacuum Pressure Relations Pressure above Atmospheric Pressure Vacuum Pressure psystem < patm pabs = patm .pvac pgage Atmospheric Pressure pvac Pressure Measurement Using Manometer Manometric Liquid pabs patm pabs Pressure below Atmospheric Pressure Absolute Vacuum Gas at Pressure p h P =ρgh + patm DESIGNED AND PREPARED BY : MOHD KAMAL ARIFFIN/2003 CHAPTER 1 : DEFINITION AND BASIC CONCEPT PRESSURE MEASURMENT Bourdon Gage To measure pressure in closed container Atmospheric Pressure Measurement h Mercury Simple Barometer p = ρgh Analog Barometer Digital Barometer DESIGNED AND PREPARED BY : MOHD KAMAL ARIFFIN/2003 11 .
02 419. DESIGNED AND PREPARED BY : MOHD KAMAL ARIFFIN/2003 12 . indicate any energy and mass interactions with the surroundings.460 • T(oF) = 1.16 32.67 0 Abbsolute Zero TEMP SCALE CELCIUS FAHRENHEIT KELVIN RANKINE Inventor Freezing A.Fahrenheit 32 oF Lord Kelvin 273 K WJM Rankine 420 R Boiling 100 oC 212 oF 373 K 672 R • T(oC) = T(K) .00 212.67 100.H.8T(oC) + 32 DESIGNED AND PREPARED BY : MOHD KAMAL ARIFFIN/2003 CHAPTER 1 : DEFINITION AND BASIC CONCEPT PROBLEM SOLVING TECHNIQUE State the problem.273 • T(R) = 1.8T(K) • T(oF) = T(R) . Fowler (1931) -273. State any appropriate assumptions and approximations made to simplify the problem to make it possible to obtain a solution Apply all the relevant basic physical law and principles and reduce them to their simplest form by utilizing the assumptions made Determine the unknown properties at known states necessary to solve the problem from property relations or tables Substitute the known quantities into the simplified relations and perform the calculations to determine the unknowns. Listing the given information and check for properties that remain constant during a process indicate them on the sketch.15 oF R 671.CHAPTER 1 : DEFINITION AND BASIC CONCEPT TEMPERATURE Comparison of Various Temp Scales Definition oC K 373. the key information given and the quantities to be found Sketch the physical system involved and list the relevant information on the sketch.Celcius 0 oC G.15 0 -459.69 Thermal Equilibrium Heat Heat Zeroth Law of Thermodinamics Formulated by R.00 Water Boiling Point Water Three phase point A physical properties used to indicate the thermal equilibrium of a system 50oC 65 65 80oC 90oC 70oC 70oC 70oC 0. Pay particular attention to the units and round the results to an appropriate number of significant digits.01 273. Check to make sure the results obtained are reasonable and intuitive.
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