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3, June 2011
Performance of Indian Public Sector Banks and Private Sector Banks: A Comparative Study
Kajal Chaudhary and Monika Sharma
Hyderabad, Mysore, Travancore, became subsidiaries of SBI. In 1969 and 1980, Government of India nationalized 14 and 6 major banks respectively. After the merger of New Bank of India with Punjab National Bank during the era of Financial Sector Reforms, the number of PSBs became 27, which are under present study. This is reflected in their market valuation. While the onus for this change lies mainly with bank managements, an enabling policy and regulatory framework will also be critical to their success. Comparisons of bank performance based on financial ratios suffer from the problem that financial ratios might overstate performance because of inaccurate reporting of nonperforming assets (NPAs) or because NPAs tend to be lower in the initial years in the case of newly established banks. Stock prices may, however, capture performance more accurately because markets, including ours, are reasonably efficient in incorporating information that may escape financial statements. The means of both unadjusted and adjusted returns for each of the three categories of banks were compared with returns to the Sensex – this gave the relative returns for each category. Two important findings emerged. The comparisons of stock price performance suggest that, in the perception of the market, PSBs as a category can withstand competition from today’s private banks. This finding has important implications for policy. It undermines the proposition that disinvestment, the mere dilution of government equity in PSBs, cannot possibly contribute to any improvement in performance and that government control must cease altogether. Consequent to disinvestment, PSBs have performed as well as the Sensex and private sector banks. This suggests that listing on the exchanges, a profit orientation, and a measure of autonomy can together produce improvement in performance and that a transfer of ownership is not a pre-condition for such improvement all these were aimed at generating income or employment to large number of rural masses comprising weaker sections of society, artisans, and agriculturists and self-employed persons including educated unemployed youth. In India, till the eighties, the banks operated in a protected environment characterized by administered interest rates, high levels of pre-emption in the form of reserve requirements and directed credit. In the process, strategies of certain banks, especially Public Sector Banks, are aiming to divide customers into different segments on the basis of the type of service they would like to render and also trying to segregate their servicing counters in their respective branches to enable customer to have easy access to a particular transaction. "Electronic Clearing", "Tele-Banking", etc. This paper explores an empirical approach to the analysis of NonPerforming Assets (NPAs) of public and privates banks in India. The NPAs are considered as an important parameter
Abstract—The economic reforms in India started in early nineties, but their outcome is visible now. Major changes took place in the functioning of Banks in India only after liberalization, globalisation and privatisation. It has become very mandatory to study and to make a comparative analysis of services of Public sector Banks and Private Sector banks. Increased competition, new information technologies and thereby declining processing costs, the erosion of product and geographic boundaries, and less restrictive governmental regulations have all played a major role for Public Sector Banks in India to forcefully compete with Private and Foreign Banks. this paper an attempt to analyze how efficiently Public and Private sector banks have been managing NPA. We have used statistical tools for projection of trend. Index Terms—NPA, Profitability, private Sector banks. Public Sector banks,
I. INTRODUCTION The last decade has seen many positive developments in the Indian banking sector. The policy makers, which comprise the Reserve Bank of India (RBI), Ministry of Finance and related government and financial sector regulatory entities, have made several notable efforts to improve regulation in the sector. The sector now compares favourably with banking sectors in the region on metrics like growth, profitability and non-performing assets (NPAs). A few banks have established an outstanding track record of innovation, growth and value creation. Banking in India was defined under Section 5(A) as "any company which transacts banking, business" and the purpose of banking business defined under Section 5(B),"accepting deposits of money from public for the purpose of lending or investing, repayable on demand through cheque/draft or otherwise". In the process of doing the above-mentioned primary functions, they are also permitted to do other types of business referred to as Utility Services for their customers (Banking Regulation Act, 1949). During Bruisers' time, three Presidencies’ Banks were opened in Bengal (1809), Bombay (1840) and Madras (1843) with powers to issue Notes. In the year 1921, due to banking crisis during First World War, the three Presidency Banks merged to form Imperial Bank of India. In the year 1955, after Independence, Imperial Bank of India was nationalized and renamed as State Bank of India (SBI) with a primary mandate to go to rural areas by opening at least 400 branches immediately. In the year 1957, the seven banks that were earlier catering to the rulers of different areas or States viz., Patiala, Bikaner, Jaipur, Indore, Saurashtra,
Manuscript received May 17, 2011; revised June1, 2011. Dr. Kajal Chaudhary, Assistant Professor Gurgaon College of Engineering Deptt. Of Management VPO-Patreri, Bilaspur-Tauru Road, Gurgaon-122413 (Haryana)
Mauluri. The level of NPAs is one of the drivers of financial stability and growth of the banking sector. And. which can associated with lower intermediation costs and improve the performance. This paper evaluates the profitability of the Indian banks. This paper tries to model and Liberalization states that new empirical evidence on the evaluate the efficiency of 50 Indian banks. RBI 2) To find out trends in NPA Level. These can be further classified efficiency for all ownership groups indicate an affirmative into: gesture about the effect of the reform process on the 1) State Bank of India performance of the Indian banking sector.ease the 5) Petya Koeva (July 2003). For measuring efficiency of banks we have adopted development envelopment analysis and found that II. quality and financial management for all banks includes public sector. bringing up the number to for corporate control and efficiency of private enterprise twenty. the performance trends of the Indian and 8 State Bank of India associates. Second. Our dominate 75% of deposits and 71% of advances in the broad empirical findings are indicative in many ways. During Financial economic level of a country. profitability. The economic banks of India. in his study on The Performance of Indian Banks. 1) 2) 3) 4) i. Anandeep Singh (2007). 14 banks with a deposit base of Rs. Nationalized Banks and State Bank of India and its Brijesh K. the 2) Nationalized banks higher cost efficiency accrual of private banks over 3) Regional Rural Banks nationalized banks indicate that nationalized banks. The intermediation costs and profitability during the analysis is supposed to verify or reject the hypothesis liberalization period. OBJECTIVES OF STUDY wrote Private sector banks play an important role in development of Indian economy. Again in 1980. Among them. performance of Banking Sectors in India. NATIONALIZED BANKS arising from government ownership. This finding also In July 1969. this paper associates. Nagarjuna (2006). Corporation Bank (14) Vijaya Bank (15) Dena Bank (16) Vradi. The Indian banking industry was dominated by public sector banks. assets. After liberalization the 1) To compare the performance of public and private banking industry underwent major changes. The empirical results suggest that whether the banking sector fulfils its intermediation ownership type has a significant effect on some function sufficiently to compete with the global players. reforms totally have changed the banking sector.2004-05. though old. (1) Bank of Baroda (2) Punjab National Bank (3) Bank of concerning the scale elasticity behavior. They are divided into two groups i. A stable and efficient banking sector is an essential precondition to incr.International Journal of Innovation. productivity.in order to see the efficiency of Indian banks we have see the fore indicators 250 . Vijay. in his article on an evaluation of the financial performance of Indian private sector banks III. Management and Technology. do not reflect their learning experience in their cost minimizing behavior due to X-inefficiency factors V. often used interchangeably in the Bank of India (12) Oriental Bank of Commerce (13) literature. there are 19 nationalized banks attempts to examine. The analysis focuses on evaluated unit. banking industry. Public Sector Banks dominate First. But now the situations have changed new IV. six more the capital market indicating a strong link between market private banks were nationalized. the technology India (4) Canara Bank (5) Central Bank of India (6) and market-based results differ significantly supporting Indian Bank (7) Indian Overseas Bank (8) Syndicate the empirical distinction between returns to scale and Bank (9) UCO Bank (10) Allahabad Bank (11) United economies of scale. 3. PUBLIC SECTOR BANKS generation banks with used of technology and professional Public sector banks are the ones in which the government management has gained a reasonable position in the has a major holding. the increasing average annual trends in technical commercial banking India. Saho. B. finally. These Banks were: assumed by property right hypothesis. June 2011 to judge the performance and financial health of banks. banking industry.e. 2. The impact of financial liberalization on the performance of Inefficiency can be analyzed and quantified for every Indian commercial banks. Vol. REVIEW OF LITERATURE public sectors banks are more efficient then other banks in India Roma Mitra. important to stable the economy . No. per the recommendation of Narashiman committee. The aim of this paper is to estimate and examining the behavior and determinants of bank compare efficiency of the banking sector in India.Satish Kumar (2008). Shankar Ravi (2008). in his study on´ Bank of Maharashtra (17) Andhra Bank (18) Punjab & Measurement of efficiency of bank in India concluded that Sind Bank (19 New Bank of India (20) Corporation in modern world performance of banking is more Bank.50 highlights the possible stronger disciplining role played by crores or more were nationalized. performance indicators and that the observed increase in The results are insightful to the financial policy planner as competition during financial liberalization has been it identifies priority areas for different banks.e. private sector banks in India for the period 2000 and 1999 to 2002-2003. Public Sector Banks commercial banks for the period: 1997-98 . permitted new banks to be started in the private sector as 3) To suggest various measures for NPA management.
0 18.9 11.5 24.9 Of which.423 1.9 50.1 12.1 43.4 25.442 1.929 15.0 54.471 1.2 17.1 13.129 21.5 16. June 2011 Sr.1 Non-Priority Sector NPAs Amt 13 25.6 61.848 19.214 2.7 56.9 9.8 47. No Name the Bank of Priority Sector NPAs Amt 1 2 Public Sector Banks Nationalised Banks Allahabad Bank Andhra Bank Bank of Baroda Bank of India Bank of Maharashtra Canara Bank Central Bank of India Corporation Bank Dena Bank Indian Bank Indian Overseas Bank Oriental Bank of Commerce Punjab & Sind Bank Punjab National Bank Syndicate Bank UCO Bank Union Bank of India United Bank of India Vijaya Bank IDBI Bank Ltd.3 65.7 25.869 124 20.4 8.007 642 251 .6 20.330 5.8 30.2 11.1 0.6 25.8 65. 3.6 62.6 36.4 33.0 15.499 187 126 279 297 200 568 315 197 222 31 310 250 11 328 677 348 367 407 110 267 5.9 65.8 67.8 20.4 50.1 22.6 20.7 34.8 9.2 18.5 38.831 612 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 22 23 24 25 26 27 290 9.2 41.9 1.4 17.5 15.372 994 2.469 206 3.458 651 642 459 3.1 39.005 1.9 23.7 13.481 1.3 25.8 12.5 1.9 54.4 30.9 58.1 Total NPAs Amt 15=(3+11+13) 15 57.1 55 2322 19 43 119 25 8.3 11.196 4.0 45.4 30.9 13.3 30.283 389 270 667 2317 415 1.3 43.0 32.8 56.741 215 26 636 490 232 462 421 122 83 55 276 276 42 977 176 289 369 204 93 297 2589 7 % to total 6 14.9 1.664 1.2 38.5 61.9 55.2 Of which.7 12.1 31.9 50.3 38.1 23.1 Of which Small Scale Industries % to Amt total 7 8 11.081 792 253 263 210 2248 558 68 739 902 674 1032 478 583 1.9 12.4 13.505 2.192 911 138 2.1 48.1 59.6 134 4.8 56.8 17.1 76.7 1.4 13.665 2.9 646 17836 493 595 1.4 58.6 11.8 29.221 488 2.7 27.9 41.6 5.2 32.2 33.0 12.537 8.908 713 218 1.0 54. 2.6 22.5 46.1 21.470 1. and Technology.6 21.0 40.7 9.210 2.International Journal of Innovation.4 29.9 0.981 5.1 58.940 269 % to total 4 53.8 20.091 976 1.6 19.0 3.7 6.9 19.6 16.0 10.9 20.8 102 2168 57 120 212 87 15.583 134 129 212 152 20.7 34.482 139 % to total 10 19.1 11.9 42.3 0.1 30.9 0.0 17.2 34.668 311 66 530 1.5 12.1 20.2 15.9 14.0 57.2 11.1 18.4 51.3 43.2 36.7 235 3 6 1.0 5. No.147 795 1.7 65.3 0.5 35.6 6.0 41.0 8.4 13.1 10.8 57.8 3.8 3.6 49.7 37.344 10.4 13.6 0.7 63.5 10.6 26.301 35.632 894 394 785 10. Agriculture Amt 5 8.6 Public Sector NPAs Amt 11 524 280 119 85 18 8 2 4 12 15 17 244 % to total 12 0.360 363 394 922 79 74 163 606 385 85 1165 238 339 895 283 190 221 2.4 13. State Bank Group 21 State Bank of Bikaner & Jaipur State Bank of Hyderabad State Bank of India State Bank of Indore State Bank of Mysore State Bank of Patiala State Bank of Travancore 3 30.5 17.658 398 379 249 1.1 21. others Amt 9 10.1 24.4 0. TABLE: 1: Management NPA OF PUBLIC SECTOR BANKS Vol.0 67.646 343 % to total 14 45.073 210 291 543 264 44.0 356 8529 283 301 463 372 55.3 34.1 47.4 44.0 45.8 7.444 2.
RBI in turn includes only those banks in this schedule which satisfy the criteria laid down .4 Of which. banks had no incentive to make profits and improve the financial he Main difference is only that Public follow the RBI Interest rules strictly but Private banks could have some changes but only after the approval from the RBI! Private sector banks are the banks which are controlled by the private lenders with the 252 approval from the RBI their interest rates are slightly costly as compared to Public sector banks.6 5.6 35.0 211 115 13772 1295 319 1807 9267 255 767 60 VI.4 46.1 29.8 59. Name No.8 38. 3 4792 1613 61 62 41 35 440 65 286 324 68 58 17 18 2 5 2023 269 7 7 16 4 65 36 32 51 7 10 8 2 - 9 1630 869 12 23 16 26 356 6 199 102 8 33 7 6 2 13 12592 1999 232 87 52 42 381 159 176 225 167 267 6 10 1 88 46 3179 528 68 400 1946 84 152 - 41. Vol. New Private Sector Banks Axis Bank Ltd.6 7. Agriculture Amt % to total 6 11. Yes Bank Ltd.6 3. As the public sector banks were merely in the hands of the government.3 6. Indusland Bank Ltd.1 14.3 33.9 0.2 14. Catholic Syrian bank Ltd.2 41.7 7. Ratnakar Bank Ltd.1 5.6 TotalN PAs Amt 15= (3+11+ 13) 15 17384 3612 294 149 94 78 821 224 462 550 235 325 23 28 3 % to Amt total 10 9. Management and Technology.0 16.2 22.9 8.6 4.2 45.9 10. Bank of the Priority Sector NPAs Amt % to total 4 27.6 53.3 11. 3. HDFC Bank Ltd.3 2.4 2.6 Of others Amt which.3 0.9 59.4 70.1 40.3 59. City Union Bank Ltd.0 33.1 21. Tamilnad Mercantile Bank Ltd. DIFFERENCE BETWEEN PUBLIC SECTOR BANKS & SCHEDULE BANKS Scheduled Banks in India constitute those banks which have been included in the Second Schedule of Reserve Bank of India (RBI) Act.9 41. Development Credit Bank Ltd.4 65.8 0.7 17.8 73.0 - 49 24 760 141 3 14 593 8 2 - 23.1 34.0 43.0 6.0 80.7 20.6 Of which Small Scale Industries Amt % to total 7 1139 475 42 32 9 6 18 23 54 172 53 15 2 10 8 6.4 24. Public Sector NPAs % to total 12 Non-Priority Sector NPAs Amt % to total 14 72.3 79.3 - - 123 69 10594 767 251 1407 7321 171 616 60 58.0 62.7 9.8 62. Nainital Bank Ltd.8 10. Dhana-Lakshmi Bank Ltd.4 10.4 21.0 12.6 17.8 6. PRIVATE SECTOR BANKS Private sector banks came into existence to supplement the performance of Public sector banks and serve the needs of the economy better. J&K Bank Ltd.8 76.2 22.8 43.0 - 12 10 1754 248 14 110 1303 31 49 - 5. Karnataka Bank Ltd.0 9.5 18.1 4.7 31.1 13.0 20.7 19.7 40.5 4.0 37.8 77.8 16.5 10. Lakshmi Vilas Bank Ltd. South Indian Bank Ltd.4 2.0 71.4 9.2 26.2 100.8 54.5 9.4 3.2 35.International Journal of Innovation.4 11 - 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 2 Private Sector Banks Old Private Sector Banks Bank of Rajasthan Ltd. Kotak Mahindra Bank Ltd. June 2011 TABLE: 2: NPA OF PRIVATE SECTOR BANKS Sr.2 61.3 8.2 23.5 - 27 12 664 140 52 276 50 46 100 - 12. Federal Bank Ltd.1 58.0 17. 1934.0 67.2 10.0 29. No. SBI Commercial and International Bank Ltd. ICICI Bank Ltd.1 12.9 79. 2.9 3.2 78. ING Vysya Bank Ltd.2 18.0 0.8 21.6 44.2 15.1 15. Karur Vysya Bank Ltd.0 82.6 29.6 13.3 55. VII.4 55.7 44.4 20.2 2.7 4.1 7.1 4.
061 7.03 1.745 4.27 97. The entire asset should be written off.592 8. 1999.2 SBI Group 2.166 411 580 934 1.327 1.909 1. C.46. Standard (Assets) These are loans which do not have any problem are less risk. It may be either written off or fully provided by the bank.27.556 26.093 6.1 Old private sector banks 188.8.131.525 2. Loss assets Amt 9 4.10 97. It is supposed to make Non.842 1. (b) residential housing loans beyond Rs. NPA is nothing but NON PERFORMANCE ASSETS. Loss (Assets) Where loss has been identified by the bank or internal or external auditors or the RBI inspection but the amount has not been written off wholly. 3. This move. Public sector banks 1.708 4.38 Bank group TABLE: 3: ASSETS CLASSIFICATION OF PUBLIC SECTOR AND PRIVATE SECTOR BANKS Year Standard assets Sub-standard Doubtful assets assets Amt %age Amt %age Amt %age 2 2009 2010 2009 2010 2009 2010 2009 2010 2009 2010 3 22.472 1. Call it a white elephant if you wish.89 2.28.05 0.52.21 0. it does not bring substantial income to its owner or is just dormant.32 0.258 7. Management and Technology.798 18.87 0.33 0.93 0.International Journal of Innovation.16 0. Commercial Real Estate loans etc.517 10. Thus all PSB's are scheduled (almost) but all scheduled banks are not PSB's VIII.81 1. (c) advances to specific sectors.08.953 8 0.04 1.758 8.05 0.02 1. June 2011 vide section 42 (6) (a) of the Act. there were 300 scheduled banks in India having a total network of 64.Doubtful (Assets) Substandard assets Doubtful assets Loss assets (a) direct advances to agricultural & SME sectors at 0.25 98.92 0.26.750 2.13 5 20.586 %age 10 0. Whereas Public sector Bank simply means a banking entity which owned by Govt. It is called such as while it is an "Asset"..02 1. ICICI Bank and HDFC Bank.53 7 21.37 0. D.035 6. private sector banks (32).30 97. the more the company retains on each dollar of sales to service its other costs and obligations. B . foreign banks (45).81 98. along with the rapid growth in the .271 10. (b) and (c) above.94 97.473 5.21 0. expressed as a percentage.15 0.2 New private sector banks 2009 2010 X.02 0. No. 20 lakh at 1 per cent.50% of the secured portion depending on the age of NPA. divided by the total sales revenue.68.37 1. These came to be known as New 253 Generation tech-savvy banks.034 7.27 1.25 0.637 3. Axis Bank (earlier as UTI Bank). it is having something that SHOULD work but does not. The gross margin represents the percent of total sales revenue that the company retains after incurring the direct costs associated with producing the goods and services sold by a company.603 28.727 4 97. As on 30th June. A debt obligation where the borrower has not paid any previously agreed upon interest and principal repayments to the designated lender for an extended period of time. 20% .280 1.447 6 0.383 13.40 percent 10 per cent of the total out standings for substandard assets.19 0.590 1. at 0.02 1 1.019 25. Basically. NPA AND BANKS IX. at 2 per cent (d) all other advances not included in (a).306 15.05 97.841 1.534 15.18 1. Private sector banks 2. personal loans (including credit card receivables).412 2. loans and advances qualifying as Capital Market exposures.25 per cent.813 4.713 10.23 0.884 2.086 18.334 1.64 97.99 97. The scheduled commercial banks in India comprise of State bank of India and its associates (8). Loans and advances given by banks to its customers is a asset to the bank.72 0. licensing a small number of private banks. The RBI has issued guidelines to banks for classification of assets into four categories. LIBERALISATION In the early 1990s.349 5.296 5. Simply it’s a Bad Debt to Bank.1 Nationalized banks 1. such asset is classified as NPA in the financial reports of banks.Performing Assets work.40.73.69 96. nationalized banks (19). the then Narsimha Rao government embarked on a policy of Liberalization.82 1.918 branches.e. and 100% of the unsecured portion. co-operative banks and regional rural banks. 2.34 0.81 1.44 97. The higher the percentage. i.37.19 0. The classification of assets of scheduled commercial bank.395 9. when repayment of interest and Principal is overdue. which later amalgamated with Oriental Bank of Commerce.99 1.Substandard (Assets) These are assets which come under the category of NPA for a period of less than 12 months. A. These are NPA exceeding 12 months. But. Vol.791 11. of India any of state govt’s. Asset Classification Standard assets PROVISIONAL NORMS Provision requirements Non-Performing Asset or NPA. A company's total sales revenue minus its cost of goods sold.520 9. The non performing asset is therefore not yielding any income to the lender in the form of principal and interest payments. and included Global Trust Bank (the first of such new generation banks to be set up).86 1.90 1.
at present it has gone up to 74% with some restrictions. The new wave ushered in a modern outlook and tech-savvy methods of working for traditional banks. CLASSIFICATION OF BANKS banking in rural area generally owned by big nationalized bank like Corp Gramin Bank 5) MNC Banks having offices outside India like CITI Bank XII. This is the first time an investor has been allowed to hold more than 5% in a private sector bank since the RBI announced norms in 2005 that any stake exceeding 5% in the private sector banks would need to be vetted by them. Currently (2007). 1) Banks should obey the RBI norms and provide facilities as per the norms. The Reserve Bank of India is an autonomous body. vehicle and personal loans. product range and reach-even though reach in rural India still remains a challenge for the private sector and foreign banks. home at 4) of functioning. and asset sales. The stated policy of the Bank on the Indian Rupee is to manage volatility but without any fixed exchange rate-and this has mostly been true. Vol. 2. strong and transparent balance sheets relative to other banks in comparable economies in its region. There are press reports that the banks' loan recovery efforts have driven defaulting borrowers to suicide. One may also expect M&As. where all Foreign Investors in banks may be given voting rights which could exceed the present cap of 10%. 3) Cooperative sector Banks are generally owned by trust kind of setup like national cooperative bank. Management and Technology. friendly and must be capable of understanding the problems of customers 5) Internet banking facility must be made available in all the banks.V. takeovers. there are some of the suggestions given by the customers of how the modern banking should be. namely. 8) Real time gross settlement can play a very important . 2) Private sector Banks major stake is with share holder like ICICI. mortgages and investment services are expected to be strong. the Reserve Bank of India allowed Warburg Pincus to increase its stake in Kotak Mahindra Bank (a private sector bank) to 10%. Indian banks are considered to have clean. While the customer must be given prompt services and the bank officer should not have any fear on mind to provide the facilities as per RBI norms to the units going sick. were used to the 4-6-4 method (Borrow at 4%. revitalized the banking sector in India. which has seen rapid growth with strong contribution from all the three sectors of banks. TABLE: 4: PROMOTIONAL STRATEGIES BY PUBLIC AND PRIVATE SECTOR BANKS Public Sector Bank Promotional Tool Advertising on T. In March 2006. In recent years critics have charged that the non-government owned banks are too aggressive in their loan recovery efforts in connection with housing. government banks. 2) Banks should increase the rate of saving account 3) Banks should provide loan at the lower interest rate and education loans should be given with ease without much documentation. No. June 2011 economy of India. 3. with minimal pressure from the government. banking in India is generally fairly mature in terms of supply. In terms of quality of assets and capital adequacy. Advertising in Newspaper Personal Selling/Personal Contact In Journals and Magazines Tele Calling by Sales Persons Outdoor Advertising Hoardings etc Schemes/Gifts/Prizes for Customers Public Relations/ Events/Programmes Online Marketing/ E-Mail Pamphlets/Propaganda Letter/Mail/ with Relevant Material Publishing News in Newspapers Yes Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes Yes But Few No No Yes But Few Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Private Sector Bank The new policy shook the Banking sector in India completely. The next stage for the Indian banking has been set up with the proposed relaxation in the norms for Foreign Direct Investment. Bankers. 4) Fair dealing with the customers. People not just demanded more from their banks but also received more With the growth in the Indian economy expected to be strong for quite some time-especially in its services sectorthe demand for banking services. XI. All this led to the retail boom in India. 6) Prompt dealing with permanent customers and speedy transaction without harassing the customers 7) Each section of every bank should be computerized even in rural areas also. private banks and foreign banks. These are the comment given by them about the improvement of the banking sector in India.International Journal of Innovation. Go. More contribution from the employee of the bank. The staff should be cooperative. All the banks must provide loans against shares. SUGGESTIONS 1) Nationalized Banks major stake is with GOI like SBI. 4) RRB regional rural bank for the development of 254 Based on the study conducted. especially retail banking. which are not being followed by the banks. till this time. Lend at 6%.
One problem that can be accorded is the pricing of such loans. so they should also be reduced. carry forward the losses to set off the same with other income of the Qualified Institutional Borrowers (QIBs) should be granted so as to ensure their active participation by way of investing sizeable amount in distressed assets of banks and financial institutions. RECOMMENDATIONS FOR REDUCING NPAS 6) 7) 8) 9) well functioning Asset reconstruction/Recovery mechanism wherein the bad assets are sold to an Asset Reconstruction Company (ARC) at an agreed upon price. Proper and efficient relationship staffs having knowledge for one stop banking. Public banks must pay attention on their functioning to compete private banks. Banking sector is improving by leaps but still it needs to be improved. Aruna Kumari (2002). However. 11) The bank should bring out new schemes at time-totime so that more people can be attracted. 2) Combining traditional wisdom with modern statistical tools like Value-at-risk analysis and Markov Chain Analysis should be employed to assess the borrowers. “Economic Reforms and Banking Scenario: An Analysis”. proper analysis of the cash flow statement of last five years is to be done carefully. Taiwan have a 255 XIV. A good hierarchy set up can ensure better results within the bank. The Economic & Political Weekly. Therefore. C.V. it is necessary to bring more transparency in such deals so that any flaw could be removed. it is not enough to make lending to this sector mandatory. there is a need to develop a common prescription for pricing of distressed assets so that they can be easily and quickly disposed. Commercial Banks should be allowed to come up with their own measures to address the problem of NPAs. and better rate of interest are need of the hour. Trivedi (2002). 15) The need of the customer should properly be understood so that customer feels satisfied.International Journal of Innovation. under such schemes the banks keep the actual amount recovered secret. it must be made profitable by sharply reducing the transaction costs. Many instances have been reported about forceful recovery by the banks. The relationship value should be maintained. However. especially corporate borrowers.K. the concept of privatization has overall improved the services in all the banks. Trade and Commerce. Even some gifts and prizes may be offered to the customers for their retention.19-21. XIII. 9) More ATM coverage should be provided for the convenience of the customers. Indian Economic Panorama. there is an absence of such mechanism and whatever exists. This entails faster embracing of technology and minimizing documentation. 16) The branch should promote cooperation and coordination among employees which help them in efficient working. “Economic Reforms and Performance of Indian Banking: A Cross Structural Analysis”. This may include waiving and reducing the principal and interest on such loans. 17) Maintenance of proper hierarchy should be done. or settling the loan accounts. 12) 24 hours banking should be induced so as to facilitate the customers who may not have a free time in the daytime.6-8 Chandrasekhar. The ARCs should have clear ‘financial acquisition policy’ and guidelines relating to proper diligence and valuation of NPA portfolio.P. 13) The charges for saving account opening are high. May. Banks should be well versed in proper selection of borrower/project and in analyzing the financial statement REFERENCES  A. 2. Trade and Commerce. No. 4) Assisting the borrowers in developing his entrepreneurial skills will not only establish a good relation between the borrowers but also help the bankers to keep a track of their funds. CONCLUSION It is right time to take suitable and stringent measures to get rid of NPA problem. 8   . This is to be supplemented by information sharing among the bankers about the credit history of the borrower. A Quarterly Journal of Agriculture. Management and Technology. Another way to manage the NPAs by the banks is Compromise Settlement Schemes or One Time Settlement Schemes. which is against corporate ethics. In India. it is still in nascent stage. In case of new borrowers. A. It will help in facing the competition more effectively. Indian Economic Panorama. How sound is Indian banking. pp. 5) Countries such as Korea. Vol. Special Banking Issue. customer friendly atmosphere. June 2011 role. Some tax incentives like capital gain tax exemption. They should be fully authorized and they should be able to apply all the preferential policies granted to the asset management companies. Thus the bank should properly disclose the features of the product and services to the customers. China. 10) No limit on cash withdrawals on ATM cards. Home banking will be order of the day. pp. 2009. So far the Public Sector Banks have done well as far as lending to the priority sector is concerned. 14) Customers generally complain that full knowledge is not granted to them. pp. Japan. An efficient management information system should be developed. A Quarterly Journal of Agriculture. This process can be undertaken every quarter so that any account converting to NPA can be properly accounted for. or extending the loans. 1) Effective and regular follow-up of the end use of the funds sanctioned is required to ascertain any embezzlement or diversion of funds. 3) A healthy Banker-Borrower relationship should be developed. Under these circumstances. Industry. Special Banking Issue. The bank staff involved in sanctioning the advances should be trained about the proper documentation and charge of securities and motivated to take measures in preventing advances turning into NPA. Industry. Moreover door to door services can also be introduced by bank. Debt recovery will be much easier in a congenial environment. 3.
master circular on prudential norms on income recognition.  WELLS Fargo & Co. New Delhi. Vol.  Rime. “The Performance of Universal Banks: Evidence from Switzerland”.  Subramanium. (2003).  Sagar R. June 2011 Dr. 1997. pp. 27. 2. (2003). “Big Banks Report Strong Gains. Vol. Dave. Vol. Bank One”. 256 .D1-D3  Reserve Bank of India.Eastern Edition.International Journal of Innovation. (2003). 242.08. K. Vibha Jain: Non-Performing Assets in commercial Banks: Regal Publication. pp. Vol. Parliamentary sessions. Management and Technology.1st Edition 2007p p78-79  Hallinan. Better Deals?”. Kajal Chaudhary. Bertrand and Stiroh. No. p. Issue 80. Journal of Banking & Finance. Joseph T. performance evaluation in Indian banking.Eastern Edition. New Delhi. Written Answers to Questions. photograph and biography not available at the time ofpublishing. Led by Wells Fargo.C5  Question 366. 09. Banking Reformsinindia. Wall Street Journal . TMH Publishing Co. “Bigger Banks. Asset classification and provisioning. photograph and biography not available at the timeofpublishing. Kevin J.91.2121-51. Ltd.  Monika Sharma. Issue 11. 242. 3.. Issue 84. Wall Street Journal .
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