Appendix III

The Intonations of the Eight Modes1

ROM earliest times, composers of Byzantine chant have identified each musical mode by a characteristic intonation formula (ajphvchma), a phrase normally sung in its entirety by the protopsaltis (the lead chanter of the right choir) alone, without the ison. Its function is to help the chanters recall the ethos of a given mode before beginning the chant. Moreover, it also provides the choir with the pitch required for the first note of the piece. In Byzantine music, there are eight modes and three modal genres: the diatonic, the enharmonic, and the chromatic.2 Furthermore, each of the eight modes is broken down into three species, characterized by the number of notes typically attached to a syllable. A melody with one or two notes above a syllable is called “heirmologikon”; one carrying approximately three or four is called “sticherarikon”; and that having a dozen or more notes is called “papadikon.” In the first and third modes, the musical patterns are identical for each of these three species. For the others, however, the musical gestures differ significantly; hence the need for more than one intonation formula for each mode. The following pages contain the typical intonation formulas of all eight modes. Since the vocal rendition of a given intonation varies greatly from chanter to chanter, those offered here are primarily based on the investigations of the musicologist, George Constantinou.3 Some4 believe that the syllables of the intonations derive from the following penitential prayer (though in a slightly altered form): “a[nax, a[fe", nai; a[fe", a[nax a{gie”: “O King, forgive, yea forgive, O holy King.” According to current practice on the Holy Mountain, intonations, when used, are chanted during the Divine Liturgy only before “papadika” melodies (such as the cherubic hymn and the communion hymn). In some Athonite monasteries, however, intonations are never heard, while in others they appear almost every time a modal alteration takes place.

F

While most Orthodox liturgical books in English translate the word “h\co"” as “tone,” it is more accurate to use the term “mode.” (Vid. Harvard Dictionary of Music, Revised Edition, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1970, pp. 535, 856.) 2 Note that the term “chromatic scale” in Western music denotes the scale embracing twelve successive half tones to the octave, whereas in Byzantine music, it is a modal genre with a tonic on D, flats on E and B, and sharps on F and C. The term “enharmonic” in Byzantine music is synonymous with B Flat Major, whereas “diatonic” in Byzantine music is approximately the scale of C Major. 3 Kwnstantivnou, Gewvrgio" N., Qewriva kai; Pravxh th'" !Ekklsiastikh'" Mousikh'", !Aqhvna, gV e[kdosi", 2001. 4 Panagiwtopouvlou, Dhmhtrivou G., Qewriva kai; Pra'xi" th'" Buzantinh'" !Ekklhsiastikh'" Mousikh'". #Ekdosi" !Adelfovthto" Qeolovgwn ããO SWTHRÃÃ, !Aqh'nai, dV e[kdosi", sel. 45.
1

~e" nah . Soft Chromatic Scale 4 & œ ~e Neh a ah œ - œ G ~e" nes ˙ \ .~e" nah . A \ > .nes j œ ˙ œ œ œ ˙. > œ œ œœœ œ œ œœœ œ œ œœœ œ \ œœ œ œ ˙ U Papadikon from KE "tetraphonic" (Elaborate version) 3 > & b œ œ œ œ œ œœ œ . b & œ œ ˙. Sticherarikon. œ A Ah - +a .The Intonations of the Eight Modes First Mode Heirmologikon. œ œ \ Heirmologikon. A Ah - +a .nes j œ ˙ D \ Papadikon from KE "tetraphonic" 2 & b œ. D † A Ah +a nah - ˙ > œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œœ ˙ Second Mode ~e" nes j œ œ œ. and Papadikon 1 &b .

~e" . Sticherarikon.Appendix III . ~e" nes D \ Sticherarikon and Papadikon.yeh .ge .tos œ E ˙ \ . and Papadikon 8 & œ +a Nah œ - F - +a nah ˙ \ Fourth Mode Heirmologikon from VOU 9 > &b œ Le . "Mesos" (with endings at VOU) 5 > & œ œ œ bœ ~e Neh W a ah - œ œ - . E \ Heirmologikon. Hard Chromatic Scale 6 & bb #œ œ œ ~e Neh a ah œ - œ - - œ œ ˙.nes œ œ ˙.to" Leh .The Intonations of the Eight Modes Second Mode (cont.) Heirmologikon. Soft Chromatic Scale 7 & ˙ ~e Neh a ah - œ œ œ - - bœ j bœ ~e" nes œ ˙. G \ Third Mode Heirmologikon.

j j œ. œ œ œ - D .) Heirmologikon from DEE 10 > & œ œ œ bœ Le Leh - W - . Plagal First Mode Papadikon 12 . œ œ œ œ. \ .yee .nes ˙. E \ Sticherarikon & b œ.ge . A Ah 11 - gi . j b & œ.~e" .ah j œ ˙.Appendix III . œ œ. œ œ.gi .The Intonations of the Eight Modes Fourth Mode (cont. D \ > G .neh - a ah - > œ.to" tos œ œ ˙.yeh - œ œ - .ah \ Heirmologikon 13 & œ > œ ~e neh - œ a ah - A A Ah - ~e" nes ˙ \ Sticherarikon and Papadikon 14 & b ‰ œj ˙ A .a yee .~e Ah .a Ah . œ œœœœ œ œ #œ œ œ œ œ ˙. œ œ œ œ ˙ A .

The Intonations of the Eight Modes Plagal First Mode (cont.+w nah .~e Ah . this heirmologikon version of the hard chromatic scale belongs to fourth mode. œ œ. Soft Chromatic Scale 17 & œ b b & bb ~e Neh ce heh - > œ bœbœ œ W - . .a .ah œ œ - ~e" nes œ œ œ ˙. ~e neh a ah +a nah ~e" nes \ Sticherarikon "tetraphonic" (with endings on KE) 16 & b ‰ œj ˙ A .no \ * According to some musicologists.) Sticherarikon and Papadikon (elaborate version) 15 &b D A Ah > .Appendix III .neh - a ah œ œ ˙ - ~e" nes œ œ œ ˙. Hard Chromatic Scale* 19 & ~e Neh ˙ œ #œ œ ˙ G - +a . E \ A U Elaborate version 18 œ ~e Neh œ #œ œ œ ce heh - a ah - œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ #œ ˙ ~e" nes \ Heirmologikon. œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ ˙. D \ Plagal Second Mode Hiermologikon.

# A Ah - œ œ - œ F - ~e" nes ˙. A Ah - œ œ - œ - ~e" nes ˙.) Sticherarikon and Papadikon (Hard Chromatic Scale) 20 & bb œ ~e Neh œ #œ œ œ ce heh - - a ah œ œ œ œ œ ˙ - U D ~e" nes \ Grave Mode Heirmologikon and Sticherarikon (from GA) 21 > b & œ.The Intonations of the Eight Modes Plagal Second Mode (cont.gi . ~e Neh n œ œj œ œ œ œ œ œ Bb B œ œj œ œ # œ ˙ . \ ‰ j œ œ Papadikon (Diatonic from ZO) 22 & j œ œ.Appendix III . \ Papadikon (Enharmonic from ZO) 23 > b & œ. \ Plagal Fourth Mode Heirmologikon (from NEE) 24 & œ ~e Neh a ah - > œ œ - C .yee œ - e eh ˙ \ .

) Heirmologikon (from GA) 25 &b œ & œ ~e Neh œ a ah œ. œ œ - gi yee œ œ - F e eh ˙ \ j œ œ œ œ C U e eh Sticherarikon and Papadikon 26 ~e Neh a ah œ - œ > œ - - œ œ - .The Intonations of the Eight Modes Plagal Fourth Mode (cont.Appendix III .yee - > œ. ˙ \ .gi .

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