VII. Neil Bohr planetary model of the atom ‐‐ 1913.
1. Atom must be stable.
2. Explain chemical periodicity.
3. Included the “quantum” idea.
4. Explain atomic spectroscopy.
B. Postulates of the model;
1. The electron can exist in only certain circular orbits & while in these
orbits, the electron does not lose energy.
2. The energy of the electron in an orbit is quantized (discrete).
3. The electron can jump from one orbit to another & in so doing will
either gain or lose energy.
C. A general picture of the Bohr planetary model;
D. Shells, orbits, levels are Synonymous.
E. How many electrons can each orbit holds?
F. How did the Bohr model explain chemical periodicity?
‐Chemical periodicity‐repeating pattern of properties against the elements.
To explain this; Bohr's model picture;
• Bohr model picture for elements Z=1 to Z=20
Outer shell= valence electrons‐number of pounds of electron determines the
most physical and chemical properties.
G. How did the Bohr model stabilize the atom?
Second part of postulates one.
H. How did the Bohr model include the “quanta” idea?
* electron volt (tiny unit of energy)
For hydrogen atom: E =
How did the Bohr model explain atomic spectroscopy?
Atomic spectroscopy postulate 2 &3.
. Energy level diagram.
*energy needed by the electron
*excited state‐ one or more electrons are not in the lowest possible energy level. Electricity
1.2ev * then the electron absorbs it and it passes through
the atom unabsorbed.J.6m=E₁
* levels begin to come together called continuous
*Ground state for the hydrogen atom
All electrons in the lowest possible energy levels
Electron transition 1→ 2
=E₂ ‐E₁ =+10.2ev *then the electron absorbs it & jumps 1→2
*the must on exact match.
Electron must gain this absorbed energy to jump 1→2. Light
*electron absorbs what it needs least to rest. does not equal 10.
= ‐3. What does it mean to have negative energy?
Attractive force acting on the electron
= ‐13.40 ev
= ‐1. moving up the energy level diagram requires energy
*Bohr calculates wavelength. Light meaning UV.2ev
*electron must release the amount of energy to jump 2→1
↑*exacted state‐ are unstable. were almost exact. Moving down the energy level diagram releases energy
E₂= e’ E₂=
E₁= 2→1 E₁= e’
(Emission spectrum bright line)→ 4 lines. The Bohr model works mathematically only for hydrogen atoms. Chemical periodicity.
Last for ~ 1ns
*the form of energy is always a proton of light. IR.
the main problem could not be overcome.
• Big successes→
4→3 4→3 4→2
3→1 3→2 4→2
2→1 4→1 2→1
• All should occur
Other minor problems were overcome over the next few years (1913‐1917). visible.
* Other atom are not equal.
Big failure→ Bohr’s model works mathematically only for hydrogen. Anatomic spectrum of hydrogen.
O. Fluorescence. absorption of high energy light (UV) followed by the
immediate release of lower energy light blue.
P. Phosphorescence‐ (glow‐in‐the‐dark) absorption of high energy light (UV)
followed by delayed release of lower energy light bluish (region of the
Atom could not be pictured.Q.
1. Treat the electron as a wave inside the
a) Dirac‐quantum algebra. Creating mathematical model
that described electrons as waves.
b) Heisenberg‐ matrix‐mechanics. Not well accepted.
Discovered that electron beams showed diffraction (wave property). “Wave particle
• Wave‐length of a matter wave. then
maybe matter can sometimes behave as a wave. Germer and G. Davisson. Not
well accepted. Thomson ‐1927
‐‐Experimentally discovered the wave nature of the electrons. Atom could not be pictured. λ =
h= planks constant (≈ 10 ⁻ )
• Ordinary size matter has such large mass compared to hydrogen that its λ
should be large enough to detect and affect behavior.
• Three independently working scientist. The wave nature of matter.
(Bases for electron microscope). The modern theory of the atom ‐‐ quantum model ‐‐ 1925
¾ Quantum theory or quantum mechanics.
• Subatomic size matter (electrons) has announced almost as small as
hydrogen bonded it λ should be large enough to detect and affect
behavior. DeBroglie – 1924‐ if light can sometimes behave as a particle. Difficult mathematics. concerned only with
measurable qualities (matrix‐mechanics).
c) 1926‐Erwin Schroedinger‐ wave‐mechanics. Most general using very difficult mathematics
• This treatment of atoms led to a branch of physics called wave mechanics
or quantum mechanics.nucleus of an atom (wave mechanics). 3….W.
Bohr model‐electron exists in levels (n= 1.
*Everything in nature allows us to know
almost the electron in the quantum atom
Exactly only for hydrogen
It can be solved almost the exactly
d) How are the electrons organized within the quantum atom?
Bohr model vs.). Atom could be pictured. Quantum model
Quantum numbers. (S. 2.
↓ For hydrogen
Any atom → Setup →Schroedinger wave eqn‐ or molecule. Mathematics of waves was well
3. Quantum model
• Levels break down into sub‐levels ( = 0.…o…+
Quantum model = (q n)
Bohr model vs.
Orientation (direction) the electron
Energy of electron. 2.2.Quantum model – 4 q. 3…. n‐1)
(Energy) & shape of the electron
(+ . and most
probable distance from the
) Spin ‐orbitals
“Spin “of the electron.
• Sub‐levels breaks down into orbital’s (
• Orbital’s breaks down into spin‐orbitals (
l …0+ l )
=+ . Orbital
electrons exists in levels (n=1. More than one electron.
1. Each sub level consists of orbitals.
n= state.e) Quantum numbers can be thought of as the addresses of the electrons. l = city.
= male or female.
= street. Each level consists of sublevels.
n= state. which must have opposite spins.
The first principle energy level contains one type of orbital (1s) that holds a
maximum of two electrons.
3. The Pauli exclusion principle. = female
maximum electrons number of orbitals
G ….2. = street. An atomic orbital can hold a maximum of
two electrons. (follows the
. l = city.. How many electrons can each sub‐level and level hold?
Quantum number as an address.
Energy sub level diagram.
= male or
female). l = city.
• “Housing units”
= street. Notation
5. With that address (n= state. The sublevels can be ordered by energy. Orbital‐ region around the nucleus with a 90% probability of finding the
a.7. Each type of orbital has a different shape.
s orbitals‐ (l = 0 ) all have a spherical shape. p orbitals‐ (l = 1) all have a dumbbell shape or figure 8.
. orbital shape is determined
← Quantum atom is “fuzzy”. the less accurately
the speed can be measured.
• Due because. at the quantum level. This means‐over very very
short time ( 10 s) the uncertainty and energy is so large that matter
(energy) can be created out of nothingness & disappear back into
nothingness very very quickly.
• Bohr’s model calculation for hydrogen gives exact values. Probability plays a major role in the quantum theory. the position of an electron is measured.
‐the more accurately.
‐violation of the law of concentration of matter energy.
• Built into nature‐ can not be overcome with technology.8. Heisenberg uncertainty principle.
• Quantum model calculations give only probabilities. and vice versa.
Wave function the probability value
9. observing a system necessarily disturbs
( Virtual particles)
empty space‐quantum foam.
• Energy and time are also related in this way.
Aufbau principle ‐ sublevels fill from lowest to highest energy (left to
(‐ ‐ ‐)
(‐ ‐ ‐) ‐
(‐ ‐ ‐ ‐ ‐) ( ‐ ‐ ‐)
choice produces a
and these electrons must have opposite spins. Example.Building the elements in the quantum model. which has electron configuration of 1s² 2s²
= “spin”= + . oxygen.
+ ↑ “up” ↓ “down”
• Pauli exclusion principle‐ each orbit can hold a maximum of two electrons.Valence electrons‐ electrons in the outermost (highest) energy level of
Hund’s rule ‐when placing electron into the degenerated orbital.
14.Energy orbital diagram
_ _ _
_ _ _ _ _
_ _ _
_ _ _
remain “unpaired “as long as possible. Octet‐having eight valance electrons.
. Isoelectronic ‐having the same electron configuration.
Mendeleev ‐father of the periodic table
• Periods‐horizontal rows. The periodic Law‐there is a repeating pattern of physical and chemical
properties. Certain groups have special names.
A‐group elements‐ main group or representative elements
B‐ group elements‐transition elements.
IX.16. Modern periodic table ‐‐ based on the divisions created by Mendeleev &
• Groups‐vertical columns
Main system: ↓
American system: A A
European system: A A
Unified system: 1 18
A. – periodic law & chemical periodicity.
• Group‐A: number of valance electrons = group number.
1. Certain periods have special names.
1) Have lustrous.
• Group‐B: number of valance electrons is usually 2 but can be 1. Metallic nature‐
• Can be determined from the portion of an element in the periodic table.
1 A ‐ alkali metals
2A‐ alkaline earth metals
8A‐ Noble gases
. Number of valance electrons. periodic properties.
2) Our malleable
3) Our ductile.
2) Have some non‐metal properties. & b.p.4)
Have high m.
d) Which is more metallic?
Going down↓ a group: metallic nature increases.
All but one are solid at room temperature (Mercury).
Convertible as solids.
Poor conductors of heat and electricity.
Tend to lose electrons during chemical changes
3) Have some new properties.p.
All but one are gases or solid. Mg Na ?vs.
Good conductors of heat and electricity.
1) Have some metal properties. & b.
Going processes a period: metallic nature decreases. Al
K vs.? Ca
Na vs. K Mg vs.
Tend to gain electrons during chemical changes.
Have lower m.p.
b) Going down a group: atomic size increases because of the added level
c) going across a Period: atomic size slightly decreases.
a) The Quantum atom is “fuzzy”
• ½ ductus between the nuclei. Atomic size: Atoms to not have a sharp boundary (fuzzy).
Na vs. K Mg vs.
d) Any two elements can be compared as to atomic size. Ionization energy (I. Al
K vs.3.? Ca
4. Mg Na ?vs.
a) 1st ionization energy = energy required to remove the first outermost
electron from gaseous atom.) ‐ energy required to remove the outermost electron
from gaseous atom or ion.
< 3rd I.
c) Across a period: 1st ionization energy increases slightly. 1st Electron Affinity: (1st E.E.A.
• Energy is required when an atom does not want the extra
5. (It does
1st I. > 0 (metals). < 2nd I.
d) Higher ionization energy beyond the 1st
e) The higher the ionization level the larger energies required.
• Energy is required when an atom does not want an extra
electron.b) Going down a group: 1st ionization energy decreases since the electron
being removed is held less tightly as the atom gets bigger. when a
neutral gaseous atom gains in electron.E.
Add‐in. 1st E. < 0 (non‐metals). 1st E.E……<….) energy required or released.A.
1s 2s 2p
# of valence Dot
1s 2s 2p
1s 2s 2p