Scope of Strength Training

Strength Training?

Professor Tudor Bompa, Ph.D

Scope of Strength Training
1. Performed in addition to T/TA training - monitor fatigue from all elements used in training 2. Must play a physiological role: - there is no Str. Tr. For strength’s sake - Str. Tr. Must consider the sport’s physiological profile / ergogenesis

Strength Training for Sports is Polluted by:
• HIT • Bodybuilding • Olympic Weight Lifting • Power Lifting • Power Training Throughout the Year

Contractile Elements of the Muscle Velocity of Movement Twitch Response – tetanus training Percentage of ST/FT .

Individualization 3. Develop ligaments and tendons 3. contraction : as in T skill .power training • F T recruitment = MxS • Sequence of m. Develop joint flexibility 2. 2000. Develop core strength 4. Train movements and not individual muscles Principle of Progressive Increase Of Load in Training . etc.multi-joint exercises Five basic laws of strength training: Before you develop strength: 1. Variety 2.Strength Training Principles: 1.) • Exercises must increase activation of prime movers • Training methods must increase the discharge rate of motor neurons . Develop stabilizers 5. Specificity Needs for specific adaptation: • Methods must be specific to the speed of contraction • Exercises must increase contraction force in the intended direction of athletic skills • Power/speed sports rely on neural adaptation – nervous system training (Enoka.

Program Design Duration of training hours Training Volume Number of sets and repetitions per exercise or training session Training Volume Plan and Achieve Number of kilograms. or tones lifted per training session Number of exercises per training session “ In training. nothing happens by accident…but rather by design!” . pounds.

and variation of rest intervals between repetitions 4 Medium 50-80 Concentric 5 Low 30-50 Concentric Number and Order of Exercises Number and Type of exercises should be selected according to the following factors: Number of Repetitions & Speed of Lifting Higher Load Fewer Repetitions Slower Performance Age and performance level Needs of the sport Phase of training 100 90 Exercises should alternate between limbs and muscle groups to ensure better recovery: Recommended order: legs.. muscle tone MxS. back.Intensity (Load) of Training Intensity Intensity (Load) of Training Intensity Values and Load Used in Strength Training Expressed as a percentage of load of one repetition maximum (1 RM) Intensity value Load Percent of 1RM Type of contraction Determined by muscular effort and CNS energy expended 1 Supermaximum 105 + Eccentric/isometric 2 A function of the strength of the nervous stimuli employed in training 3 Maximum 90-100 Concentric Heavy 80-90 Concentric Stimulus strength depends on the load. and the energy source used in training Well-conditioned athletes recover faster. muscle tone Muscle hypertrophy Power M-E Athlete’s abilities 50-80 30-50 Athlete’s training potential # of sets depends on Training phase Consequences of an inadequate RI between sets: Increased reliance on the Lactic Acid system for energy Rest intervals between strength training sessions: Number of muscle groups to be trained Depends on the conditioning level and recovery ability of individual.. especially when reaching highest physical potential approaching competitive phase . 80 70 60 Load percent 50 of IRM 40 30 Curve of load vs.” Number of repetitions Number of Sets Set: Number of repetitions per exercise followed by a rest interval Depends on the number of exercises and the strength combination Number of sets decreases as the number of exercises increases Rest Interval Suggested Guidelines for R. Between Sets for Various Loads and Their Applicable Circumstances Load % 105+ (eccentric) 80-100 60-80 Speed of performance Slow Slow to medium Slow to medium Fast Slow to medium RI (minutes) 4-5 3-5 2 4-5 1-2 Applicability MxS.I. arms. etc. arms. speed of movement. legs. number of repetitions % of IRM 100 95 90 85 80 75 70 65 60 50 40 30 # of reps 1 2-3 4 6 8-10 10-12 15 20-25 25 40-50 80-100 100-150 FATIGUE Too Many Exercises OVERLOAD 20 10 1 5 10 20 30 40 50 60 100 150 200 “ The key to an effective program is adequate exercise selection. abdomen. training phase.

Select the Type of Strength The sport specific combination of strength is selected based on the concept of Periodization and is phase specific Training Program Design (cont’d) 4. and the phase of training 15 X 4 60 3 8 3. # Sets 80 6 75 8 60 10 80 8 4 4 3 4 RI (min. shoulderWidth stance) Percent iEMG 88 86 78 76 60 .Training Program Design 5 steps to follow when designing a strength training program 1. shoulder-width stance Leg presses ( 110-degree angle) Smith machine squats (90-degree angle.# sets -ex. Curls Dead Lift Load. No. 1 2 3 4 5 Exercise Leg Press Bench Press Leg Curls Half Squats Abd.) 3 3 2 3 2 2 -elem. the athletes’ needs. # Reps. and number of sets is expressed as follows: 80% 10 4 Load # Reps Sets Chart used to design strength training program: Ex. number of reps. Test Maximum Strength Maximum strength is the highest load an athlete can lift in one attempt and is used by coaches to calculate their athlete’s 1RM 6 5. : function of to pha 2. shoulder-width stance) Seated leg extensions (toes straight) Half squats (90-degree angle. Develop the Actual Training Program The notation of load. Select the Exercises Select training exercises according to the specifics of the sport.Load . of program . Test to Recalculate 1RM This test is required before beginning a new macrocycle to ensure that progress in MxS is achieved and the new load is related to the gains made in strength Loading Patterns • Pyramid • Double-pyramid • Skewed pyramid • Flat pyramid Flat Pyramid 90% 80% Warmup 60% 90% 90% 90% 90% 80% Exercise Prescription • Analyse how the skill is performed • Determine prime movers • Select exercises that stimulate prime movers “ The flat pyramid represents the best loading pattern for the MxS” Suggested Exercises Maximum Muscle Efficiency in Relation to Limb Position iEMG Maximum Motor Unit Activation Exercise Rectus Femoris (Quadriceps) Safety squats (90-degree angle.

Training Session Plan Number of strength training sessions per micro-cycle: • Athletes classification • Importance of strength training in the chosen sport • Phase of training The Training Session Plan T + SP + MxS/P “In sports SPLIT ROUTINE is not acceptable” .

Microcycle Plan Variations of Load increments Dynamics of increasing load Low-intensity microcycle Medium-intensity microcycle .

High-intensity microcycle The Micro-cycle Plan Suggested Options: .

The Yearly Training Plan: Peaking Periodization of Biomotor Abilities Preparatory General preparatory Anatomical adaptation Specific preparatory Maximum strength Pre -comp Conversion -Power -Muscular endurance -Both Competitive Main competition Transition Transition Variations of Periodization of Strength Strength Maintenance C Compensation Endurance Aerobic endurance -Aerobic endurance -Specific endurance (ergogenesis) -Specific speed * Alactic * Lactic * Speed enduranace Specific endurance (ergogenesis) Aerobic endurance Speed Aerobic & anaerobic endurance -Alactic speed -Anaerobic endurance (ergogenesis) -Specific speed -Agility -Reaction time -Speed endurance Periodization of main biomotor abilities .

acceleration power. acceleration power. starting power. reactive power • Training objectives: MxS. P-E • Training objectives: MxS. • Longer periods of recovery • Playing time: • Dominant energy system: anaerobic alactic • Limiting factors: throwing power. • Dominant energy system: anaerobic alactic and lactic. P-E Football (elite and college) Linemen Linemen must be able to react explosively when the ball is put into play and withstand the opponent’s strength. ractive power . Endurance is not as important a consideration as acceleration since the sprinter needs to move quickly over a short distance. starting power. P-E Baseball/Softball • High bursts of energy for: 1-12 sec. • Dominant energy systems: anaerobic alactic and lactic • Limiting factors: reactive power. • Limiting factors: starting power. A hypertrophy phase is included to build bulk. takeoff power acceleration power. throwing power. powerful strides. acceleration power. P-E • Training objectives: MxS. acceleration power Basketball (elite and college) • 6 – 7 Km run during an entire game • 40 various jumps • 28 direction changes • HR = X = 167 b/min 25% of time is >180 • Dominant energy systems: anaerobic lactic and aerobic • Limiting factors: takeoff power.Peridization Models for Sports Athletics (Track and field) A sprinter requires explosive speed and long. hypertrophy. acceleration power • Training objectives: MxS. reactive power. starting power.

Dec. wide receivers. block or dive. starting power • Training objectives: acceleration power. The model below assumes two competitive Phases. but proper training Will give the swimmer an edurance edge. reactive power. Defensive Backs. reactive power. M-E • Training objectives: starting power. M-E Model for Wide Receivers. MxS Periodization of Loading Pattern Per Training Phase . M-E. reactive power. Jan. defensive backs. P-E. MxS Martial Arts Both aerobic and anaerobic energy systems must be developed over the long preparatory phase.Wide Receivers. Sept. • Dominant energy system: anaerobic alactic and lactic • Limiting factors: acceleration power. Tailbacks Unlike linemen. 4 AA May June July Aug. aerobic • Limiting factors: starting power. P-E. Feb. to P Swimming Long distance swimmers must train for Muscle enduraance. • Dominant energy system: aerobic • Limiting factor: M-E long • Training objectives: M-E long. and Tailbacks in Elite Football Apr. P-E. Oct. • Dominant energy systems: anaerobic alactic and lactic. Preparatory 2 3 2 3 3 4 2 2 MxS P MxS P MxS Conv. one beginning in January and the Other beginning in the late spring. Maximum strenght. Defensive Backs. Reactive strength and agility are necessary to respond to a opponent’s strategy. and specific endurance are needed to carry a player through the long competitive phase with power and confidence. and tailbacks require speed and agility rather than muscular bulk. • Dominant energy systems: anaerobic alactic and lactic. reactive power. P-E Volleyball A volleyball player must be able to react quickly and explosively off the ground to spike. Competitive Maintenance: P Transition 6 Compen. M-E medium • Trainng objectives: P. A long race taxes the Aerobic energy system. aerobic • Limiting factors: reactive power. Mar. Nov. power. starting power.

Periodization of Strength and its Effects on the Force-Time Curve Variations in loading patterns Variations in loading patterns for sports with weekly competitions .

0% Eccentric Week 2 : -100% Concentric .25% Eccentric Week 3 : -100% Concentric . volleyball. Strategy Avoid M. ice hockey. lacrosse.50% Eccentric Week 4 : -normal ratio Suggested strength training programs: •A A phase (circuit training) CT program example in Gym .etc).Variations of loading Variations of loading – 2 games/week Anatomical Adaptation Strength training program for the AA phase for a team sport (basketball. baseball. Soreness Caused by Eccentric Contraction : Strategh: Week 1 : -100% Concentric .

28 Feb. MLM also increases the Testosterone level. The capacity to recruite fast twitch (FT) muscle fibers. therefore another explanation why it improves MxS.13 80 3 6 80 2 8 60 2 10 60 2 10 70 3 10 80 3 6 Jan 14-20 85 4 5 85 3 5 60 2 10 Jan 21-27 90 5 3 90 3 3 70 2 10 Jan. 2. . 3. An increase in the number and the diameter of the contracting elements of the muscle. 3. The ability to synchronize together all the muscles involved in action (which is a learning component and increases with the practice of lifting heavy loads. 3 80 3 8 80 3 8 60 2 12 Feb 4 -10 90 5 3 90 3 3 70 2 10 Feb 11-17 95 5 2 95 3 2 70 3 10 R1/min 4 2 2 2 60 12 70 3 12 85 3 5 70 3 10 80 3 8 90 4 3 60 2 10 80 3 8 80 3 8 70 3 10 90 4 3 90 4 3 70 3 10 95 4 2 95 4 2 3 Throws (each side) 3 X 12 4 X 15 4 X 20 4 X 20 4 X 25 4 X 30 2-3 L M H L M/H H Maximum Strength MxS A players’s ablility to generate MxS depends to a high degree on: Training Methods for maximum Strength Phase The Maximum Load Method (MLM) One of the most positive outcomes of the MLM for Power is: 1.CT program example in Gym CT program example in field/court Hypertrophy Six – Weeks Maximum Strength Phase # Exercise\Dates Squats 1 Arm Pulls 2 Leg curls 3 Abds curls 4 5 1/2 Deadlifts 6 Reverse Leg Press Bench Press 7 8 Heavy bag side Loading Pattern Jan 7 . representing. The diameter of the muscle. the myosins of the FT Fibers 2. 1. more specifically the diameter of myosin filaments and their cross bridges. The recruitment in greater number of FT Fibers.

and Reaction/Agility Power phase Exercise Conversion to Power Example of the Ballistic Method Combined With Maximum Acceleration Week1 2 x10 2x8 2 x 10 2 x 12 2 x 10 4x 4x Week2 3 x 12 3 x 10 3 x 12 3 x 15 3 x 10 6x 6x Week3 3 x 15 3 x 15 3 x 15 3 x 20 3 x 12 6x 6x Medicine ball chest throws Jump squats and medicine ball chest throws Medicine ball overhead backward throws Medicine ball side throws (for each side) Medicine ball forward overhead throws Two-handed shot throws from chest followed by 15-meter/yard sprint Push-ups followed by 15-meter/yard sprint .Maxex Training The Importance Maximum Strength (MxS) For BASEBALL: MxS P Speed.Pitching/Throwing Power.

Scope: develop power under fatiguing conditions Plyometric training Exercise Conversion to Muscular Endurance .

dumbbell. then instantly jumps upWard in a springlike takeoff. the more important it is to maintain some elements of week 2. Starting Power Reverse leg press followed by a quick acceleration of 20 to 25 meters/yards Throwing Power Acceleration Power Series of five to six reactive box or bench jumps followed by 15 to 20 meters/yards of bounding. lessens its positive role. NOTE: . . • Overlooking that means that a MxS is detrained the level of power will be week 3 and 4 take 3 exercises for the indicated number of repetitons Application of Power Training to the Specifics of Sports Exercises for Landing Power / Exercises for Reactive Power Takeoff Power Landing/Reactive Power One-legged reactive jump stressing the takeoff part of the exercise Drop jump from a lower height using a 10 – 15 Kilogram (20-30 pound) heavy vest. • The longer the conpetitive phase. or a visisble decrease in the contribution of strength to athletic performance. or even a barbell Standard reactive jump in which The athlete lands on the balls of The feet. ending in a 20 meter/yard acceleration Incline bench press followed by a two-arm chest shot throw. • The consequence is detraining. take 2 exercises and perform non. Deceleration Power Drop jump from a high box followed by serveral short jumps. emphasizing the landing (land on balls of feet.Load: 40% 1RM .Muscle Endurance Maintenance Phase • The benefits of strength to a player is felt for as long as the neuro-muscular system maintains the cellular adaptations induced by strength training. and hold). knees bent. • When strength training is ceased the contractile properties of a muscles diminished and as a direct result.stop 100 repetitions .

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