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Latitude or Angle of latitude(): The latitude angle is the angle between a line drawn from a point on the earths surface to the center of the earth and the earths equatorial plane. Declination angle (): If a line is drawn between the center of the earth and the sun, the angle between this line and the earth's equatorial plane is called the declination angle (). = 23.45 x sin[(360/365)(284+n)] degrees

Observers meridian at P

Hour angle (): is the angular distance between the meridian of the observer and the meridian whose plane contains the sun. (or) The hour angle at any moment is the angle through which the earth must turn to bring the meridian of the observer directly in line with the sun rays. =[Ts-12:00] x 15, where =Hour Angle(Degrees) , Ts = Solar time +ve in afternoon and ve in fore noon since at solar noon the hour angle is zero

Solar altitude angle (): is defined as the angle between the central ray from the sun, and its projection on horizontal plane containing the observer. Solar zenith angle (z): Angle between the sun ray and the normal to the horizontal plane. Solar azimuth angle (s): measured clockwise on the horizontal plane, angle between due south and the projection of the suns central ray.

Slope or Tilt Angle(): It is the angle between the inclined plane surface of collector and the horizontal. +ve when sloping is towards south

Surface azimuth angle(): It is the angle in the horizontal plane , between the line due south and the horizontal projection of the normal to the inclined plane surface. +ve when measured from south towards west.

Angle of incidence (i): is the angle between the suns ray incident on the earth plane surface and the normal to that surface. Expression for i can be given as, cos i= (cos cos + sin sin cos ) cos cos + cos sin sin sin + sin (sin cos - cos sin cos ) Special Cases: i) For surface facing due south, =0

ii) For a horizontal surface, = 0, i = Z cos z= cos cos cos + sin sin iii) For a vertical surface facing due south cos i= - sin cos +cos cos sin

At sunrise the rays are parallel to the horizontal surface. Then Angle of incidence, i = Z =900 , the corresponding hour angle, s from above eq. is cos i=0 = cos coss cos + sin sin s =cos-1 (-tan tan) The angle between sunrise and sunset,

The daylight hours(td) is given by , td= (2/15) cos-1 (-tan tan)

Monthly And Daily Average Global Radiation: The correlation for estimating monthly avg. daily total (global) radiation on a horizontal surface is given by

Because of the difficulties in defining a clear day , J. K. Page suggested that Hc is replaced by Ho, eq. becomes,

is the mean avg. of Ho for each day of the month, it is calculated by integrating Ho over the day length as follows:

Solar Radiation on Tilted Surface Measuring instruments give the value of solar radiation falling on a horizontal surface. But most of the solar equipment has titled surfaces for absorbing solar radiation, with some tilt angle with horizontal. So we have to calculate the flux on such surface. The flux is the sum of beam and diffused radiation falling directly on the surface and the radiation reflected on to the surface from the surroundings. Beam Radiation:

TILT FACTOR(rb): The ratio of beam radiation flux falling on the tilted surface to that of horizontal surface is called the TILT FACTOR for beam radiation. For case of tilted surface facing due south =0

Diffuse Radiation: TILT FACTOR (rd): The ratio of diffuse radiation flux falling on the tilted surface to that

of horizontal surface is called the TILT FACTOR for diffuse radiation. Its value depends on the distribution of diffuse radiation over the sky and the portion of the sky dome seen by the tilted surface. Assuming that the sky is an isotropic source of diffuse radiation, for a tilted surface with slope , we have

(1+ cos)/2 is the shape factor for a tilted surface w.r.t. sky

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