WHITE PAPER

OTN INTerfaces fOr IP Over DWDM
IP-Optical Integration for Managing Wavelengths in Routers

Copyright © 2009, Juniper Networks, Inc.

WHITe PaPer - OTN Interfaces for IP over DWDM

Table of Contents
executive summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 evolving to a simplified architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 realizing IP Over DWDM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Introduction to OTN, G .709, and IP over DWDM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 OTN: Digital Wrappers and G .709 frames . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Integrated Management and service velocity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Juniper’s OTN vision . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 appendix: ITU specifications for OTN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 about Juniper Networks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8

Table of Figures
figure 1: IP over aTM over sONeT/sDH over DWDM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 figure 2: IP over sONeT over DWDM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 figure 3: regeneration becomes less costly with improvements in optical technology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 figure 4: standards-based transponder on a router . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 figure 5: IPoDWDM: Before and after . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 figure 6: segments in the optical transport network: OTU, ODU, and OPU . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 figure 7: structure of a G .709 frame . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 figure 8: Integrated IP-optical management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6

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Copyright © 2009, Juniper Networks, Inc.

WHITe PaPer - OTN Interfaces for IP over DWDM

Executive Summary
Traffic growth across core networks has proven to be a major driver for IP-optical integration. As time-division multiplexing (TDM)-based framing at Layer 2 has been discarded in favor of simpler architectures, there has been an increasing need for a technology to replace the performance monitoring and fault-handling characteristics of SONET. Thus, the Optical Transport Network (OTN) with G.709 framing has emerged as a way to add management capabilities to wavelengths. Juniper Networks® has incorporated this technology into 10-Gigabit Ethernet interfaces to provide IP over Dense Wavelength-Division Multiplexing DWDM (IPoDWDM). Integrating OTN technology into routers enables the evolutionary next step in a carrier’s infrastucture while providing optimal utilization of transport capacity. Layer 3 intelligence ensures prompt responses to topology changes and extends optical capabilities to a router without requiring fixed DWDM termination equipment, allowing providers to offer on-demand services to their customers. Integrated IPoDWDM networks reduce the number of components in the network for providing end-to-end IP connectivity and routing. Converged IP and DWDM networks provide significant benefits to service providers, as router-integrated transponders eliminate transponder shelves, thus providing both CAPEX and OPEX savings. In addition, standardized management interfaces provide end-to-end network monitoring and performance management, and control plane integration facilitates faster introduction of new services. Juniper offers a variety of optical transport (Ethernet & SONET) options including 10 and 40 Gbps short, intermediate, and long reach interfaces; tunable optics at 10 Gbps; and an inverse-muxed 4xOC-192 interface that can be used to put either 10 or 40 Gbps wavelengths on the transport network (uniquely providing carriers a choice about whether to use standard management in their transport network or support alien wavelengths).1 Juniper also provides a G.709-compliant interface at OTU2 (10 Gbps). The key architectural shift in G.709 is to integrate standard-based (OTN), long-reach transponders into the router. This achieves a clear partition between optical and electrical network layers. The advantages of OTN are discussed in this paper.

Introduction
It is widely accepted that service providers cannot add bandwidth to their networks fast enough to keep up with the exponential growth of data traffic—IP traffic is growing on the order of 80 to 100 percent per year. The principle driver for this growth is high-definition television (HDTV) and high-speed broadband penetration. Consumer IP traffic is predicted to grow twice as fast as business IP traffic, and the traffic generated for transporting video content will grow even faster. Another deviation from the past is the amount of traffic growth in metro areas compared to core networks. This implies that faster service velocity will be needed—and this service velocity will require provisioning in both the IP and optical domains.

Evolving to a Simplified Architecture
To deal with the challenges of exponential traffic growth and faster service velocity, adequate transport bandwidth must be available. Fortunately, fiber optics innovations have substantially increased the bandwidth-carrying capacity of fiber. The evolution of carrier networks shows how this capacity has been used in the past, and will be used in the future. As shown in the following figure, networks were built in layers: a service layer (voice and IP) required a data adaptation layer such as ATM or Frame Relay, and all traffic was transported using SONET/SDH. When wavelengthdivision multiplexing (WDM) became prevalent, it resulted in another layer.

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WHITe PaPer - OTN Interfaces for IP over DWDM

T Series

T Series

T Series

IP
T Series OC3/0C48

ATM

SONET/SDH

DWDM
DWDM

figure 1: IP over aTM over sONeT/sDH over DWDM

In this model, each layer acts as the “requirement specification” for the layer below. The DWDM layer is built first, SONET/SDH is provisioned on the optical layers, and ATM is then provisioned on these transport systems. Finally, a service layer is provisioned. Traditional plain old telephone service (POTS) traffic is managed by a cross-connect layer and mapped onto the SONET/SDH layer. As this evolution continues, legacy Frame Relay/ATM traffic has been phasing out in favor of IP networks, slowly dissolving the ATM/Frame Relay layer. Integrated Layer 2 and Layer 3 traffic is directly mapped onto the SONET/SDH system layers, as depicted in the following diagram.
T Series T Series T Series

IP
T Series

SONET/SDH

DWDM
DWDM

figure 2: IP over sONeT over DWDM

During the aforementioned stage, though SONET/SDH is tightly integrated, it still acts as a separate layer from capacity planning and provisioning perspectives. In traditional architectures, the transport cost was dominated by the cost of regeneration of the optical signals, by converting to electrical and then back to optical signals. Improved technologies such as dispersion compensation modules, forward error correction (FEC) techniques, enhanced modulation techniques, tunable lasers, and multidegree reconfigurable optical add-drop multiplexers (ROADMs) have shifted the economic focus from the transport links to switching nodes.

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WHITe PaPer - OTN Interfaces for IP over DWDM

X-ponder Shelf

TRANSPORT LAYER

X-ponder Shelf

Regen
Optical Mux Multiplexer Optical Mux Multiplexer Optical Technology Evolution

X-ponder Shelf

TRANSPORT LAYER OPTICAL NETWORK
Optical Mux Multiplexer Optical Mux Multiplexer

X-ponder Shelf

figure 3: regeneration becomes less costly with improvements in optical technology

Realizing IP Over DWDM
Though IP-DWDM convergence has been underway for some time, a comprehensive transport solution based on an IP routing platform is the next logical step. A key architectural shift to complete the convergence is to integrate standards-based, long-reach transponders into the router itself, thus realizing true IPoDWDM.

X-ponder Shelf

TRANSPORT LAYER OPTICAL NETWORK
Optical Mux Multiplexer Optical Mux Multiplexer OTN Interface on the router

X-ponder Shelf

OPTICAL NETWORK
Optical Mux Multiplexer Optical Mux Multiplexer

figure 4: standards-based transponder on a router

A clear partition between the optical and electrical layer is complete. The optical layer contains all passive optical elements (fiber, DWDM, amplifiers, ROADMs). The IP layer has integrated all of the electrical functions—starting from packet processing, switching, cross connecting, and multiplexing—and producing a long-haul optical signal that is directly provisioned on the optical layer. This is made possible by the OTN and G.709 frames.

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WHITe PaPer - OTN Interfaces for IP over DWDM

Introduction to OTN, G.709, and IP over DWDM
Early generations of optical networks were based on TDM-based SONET/SDH to provide performance monitoring and protection from fiber or equipment failure. The reliability and management capabilities of SONET/SDH contributed to the success of optical networks. But carriers face new challenges as networks that traditionally were optimized to carry voice traffic are now increasingly being used for high-bandwidth data and video services. Many of these challenges, of course, were addressed with the advent of DWDM. By itself, DWDM lacks the protection and management schemes of SONET/SDH. Furthermore, it requires additional network elements—such as optical amplifiers, multiplexers, and demultiplexers—and dispersion compensation units. These devices require continuous monitoring to ensure reliability. The International Telecommunication Union Telecommunication Standardization (ITU-T) specification of the G.709 Optical Transport Network, or OTN, applies much of the management functionality of SONET/SDH networks to today’s DWDM optical networks. Using OTN, overhead information is appended to the front of the signal as a header, and a FEC trailer is appended to the rear. Thus, an optical channel can be much more easily provisioned, monitored, maintained, and corrected. The G.709 standard helps to manage multi-wavelength networks. A feature of G.709 called FEC extends optical span distances by increasing reliability through reduced bit error rates (BERs). OTN has recently found its way into IP router interfaces. Converged IP and DWDM networks provide significant benefits to service providers, as routerintegrated transponders eliminate transponder shelves, thus providing both CAPEX and OPEX savings.

BEFORE

After

Router

Transponder

Mux/ROADM

Router

Mux/ROADM

Optical Mux Multiplexer figure 5: IPoDWDM – Before and after

Optical Mux Multiplexer

The immediate benefits are lower CAPEX and OPEX—with the latter due to fewer shelves—which means a savings in space, cooling, power and management, and of course fewer interconnects. In addition, standardized management interfaces provide end-to-end network monitoring and performance management. Control plane integration facilitates the faster introduction of new services, while integrated management simplifies network operations, improving network availability and utilization.

OTN: Digital Wrappers and G.709 Frames
The G.709 framing structure (also known as the “digital wrapper”) adds management information to a wavelength. It also adds FEC, which increases reliability through reduced BERs, and thus extends optical span distances.

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WHITe PaPer - OTN Interfaces for IP over DWDM

The rates for a G.709 frame are based on SONET/SDH speeds. In effect, the mapping is a hierarchical payload packager that starts at 2.5 Gbps (OC-48/STM-16) and reaches up to 40 Gbps (OC-768/STM-256): • OTU1: 2.5 Gbps • OTU2: 10 Gbps • OTU3: 40 Gbps In essence, there are three main parts to the G.709 frame: the overhead, the payload, and the FEC data. These three parts exist whether the frame is an OTU1, OTU2, or OTU3. The G.709 frame is further divided into three sections, each corresponding to one of three different sections of the optical network. The overhead sections are: • Optical Channel Payload Unit (OPU) • Optical Channel Transport Unit (OTU) • Optical Channel Data Unit (ODU) Figure 6 shows the locations in the transmission network referred to by these sections.
OPU - Client ODU OTU Sonet Client 3R 3R Optical Transport Network 3R OTU Sonet Client

figure 6: segments in the optical transport network: OTU, ODU, and OPU

The OTU structure, which includes the FEC, provides supervisory functions and conditions the signal for transport between optical channel termination points where 3R functionality (retiming, reshaping, and regeneration) takes place. The ODU provides end-to-end path supervision and supports tandem connection monitoring. Figure 7 shows the various parts of the G.709 frame—including the overhead for each of the ODU, OPU, and OTU sections—the framing section, the FEC, and the payload. Although the speeds are based on SONET/SDH, the payload of a G.709 frame is completely protocol agnostic. For example, ATM or generic framing procedure (GFP) protocols can be mapped directly into the payload of a G.709 frame. It is this feature that makes OTN a good choice for a transport network as it can carry multiple types of traffic—data, voice, or video—with a common framing structure, while still allowing for service-level guarantees, management, monitoring, and error correction.
4080 Columns 1 Framing 4 Rows OTU OH OPU OH ODU OH Payload OTU FEC 15 17 3825 4080

OAM Overhead

figure 7: structure of a G .709 frame

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WHITe PaPer - OTN Interfaces for IP over DWDM

There are several benefits to this flexible frame structure. The first is that it allows future DWDM networks to have each wavelength managed as a single entity. The second is that since Operation, Administration, and Maintenance (OAM) is carried end-to-end in the frame, it allows management to be carried across a multi-vendor network. The third is that the FEC embedded in the OTU segment of the frame allows for longer spans in the network, reducing the amount of equipment necessary for long-haul transmission networks. As carriers migrate to higher speed networks, FEC becomes critical. FEC is a signal decoding and encoding scheme that allows for the detection and correction of errors that are introduced into an optical signal during its transmission. These errors can come from weakened signals, optical crosstalk, dispersion, or other anomalies that occur. In addition to just allowing for error correction, the use of FEC also provides a mechanism for early warning of degradation of signal. This early warning allows for a controlled protection before a complete failure occurs. Another benefit of OTN is that the OTN frame supports client-mapping capabilities and backwards support for SONET/SDH protocols without changing the format, bit rate, or timing. This means that the client signals effectively get carried through the OTN transparently, yet they gain the added benefits of FEC that OTN provides. Finally, OTN can adapt to growing data needs because it allows the transmission of different packet types using GFP mapping. GFP mapping reduces the layers between the fiber and the IP layer and makes more efficient use of bandwidth. This mapping capability of OTN allows it to be a protocol-agnostic carrier for service transparency for SONET/SDH, Ethernet, ATM, IP, MPLS, or whatever other protocols a carrier may want to deploy. For more information, see the Appendix on ITU Specifications for OTN.

Integrated Management and Service Velocity
With integrated optics, the complete health of the optical network is visible to the router management system. A high-level depiction follows.

OSS

MGMT. PLANE

Transmission Management

Router Management

E.g., SNMP

CONTROL PLANE

JUNIPER GMPLS

Control

WDM GMPLS

CLI NETCONF JUNOScript
End to end service view provided by transmission MGMT or other common OSS

DWDM

DATA PLANE

OTN

Integrated Control Plane based provisioning

figure 8: Integrated IP-optical management

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WHITe PaPer - OTN Interfaces for IP over DWDM

Juniper’s open management approach leads to more choices for customers. This provides greater flexibility in designing network resiliency due to transparency between DWDM and IP/MPLS resiliency features, thus achieving better utilization of network bandwidth. The potential for unified management is implicit in this approach. Integrated management simplifies network operations while improving network availability and utilization. Both the transmission and the router management systems can have visibility into all of the equipment via GMPLS or OTN signaling between any IP and optical device. This approach allows easy integration with existing transport OSS systems—while OSS and Element Management Systems (EMS) may do the computation offline and push a configuration to devices, the generalized MPLS signaling (GMPLS) is between the IP and optical devices. The benefits of this approach are service flexibility, faster provisioning, and lower OPEX.

Juniper’s OTN Vision
Juniper’s key vision for the core network is to integrate the OTN functionality alongside the rich routing capabilities that already exist in Juniper Networks JUNOS® Software-driven platforms. Juniper offers the following functionality on T Series Core Routers: • A 10-Gigabit Ethernet OTN PIC • GMPLS interoperability that allows for signaling to carry not just MPLS label information, but also optical information such as a wavelength. This enables a transition between a traditional routed network and a WDM network. The 10-Gigabit Ethernet OTN PIC uses a single tunable laser to access one of 89 possible International Telecommunication Union (ITU) grid wavelengths across the C band with 50 GHz spacing. Combined with FEC, transmission distances in excess of 2,000 km may be achieved. Wavelengths are configured and reconfigured remotely through the JUNOS Software command-line interface (CLI) in response to network dynamics. Operators can dynamically streamline traffic patterns and reallocate wavelengths as bandwidth patterns change. Juniper’s router-integrated OTN products support the new requirements of next-generation long-haul and metro networks such as the increased flexibility of network design—through the coupling of longer transmission distances with robust OAM—and single-fiber channel density. Additional benefits are realized by a reduction in CAPEX and OPEX, made possible by eliminating third-party optical transponder equipment, including regenerators. The tunable 10-Gigabit Ethernet DWDM OTN PIC is a Type 3 PIC supported on the Juniper Networks M120 and M320 Multiservice Edge Routers, and T320, T640, T1600, TX Matrix, and TX Matrix Plus Core Routers. It enables 1024 VLANs and many other Ethernet features. The ITU-T (OTU2) G.709-compliant PIC provides Generic Forward Error Correction (GFEC) and Enhanced Forward Error Correction (EFEC), selectable through the CLI. FEC supports longer transmission distances in Optical Signal to Noise Ratio (OSNR)-limited applications by reducing the effects of optical noise caused by amplifiers, allowing more amplifiers to be used within a single optical link.

Conclusion
The key architectural shift in G.709 is to integrate standard-based (OTN) long-reach transponders into the router. This achieves a clear partition between the optical and electrical layers. The optical layer contains optical elements such as fiber, DWDM, amplifiers, and ROADM. The IP layer integrates all of the electrical functions—starting from packet processing, switching, cross connecting, and multiplexing—and producing long-haul optical signals directly provisioned on the optical layer. This convergence also provides the ability to meet strict service-level agreements (SLAs) as transport OAM and packet protection (G.709) give the ability to provide protection across layers in a wellcoordinated manner. Converged IP and DWDM networks provide significant benefits to service providers. Router integrated transponders eliminate transponder shelves, thus providing both CAPEX and OPEX savings. Control plane integration facilitates faster introduction of new services, and the integrated management simplifies network operations while improving network availability and utilization. Additional information about this topic can be found at www .juniper .net.

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WHITe PaPer - OTN Interfaces for IP over DWDM

Appendix: ITU Specifications for OTN
The various characteristics of Optical Transport Networks are specified in a variety of ITU-T documents including: • ITU-T G.872: Architecture of Optical Transport Networks and Recommendation • ITU-T G.873: Optical Transport Networks Requirements • ITU-T SG15: Transport Networks Systems • ITU-T G.664: General automatic power shutdown procedures for optical transport systems • ITU-T G.692: Optical interfaces for multichannel systems with optical amplifiers • ITU-T G.709: Network Node Interface for the Optical Transport Network • ITU-T G.798: Characteristics of optical transport network equipment functional blocks • ITU-T G.871: Framework of optical transport network recommendations • ITU-T G.874: Management aspects of the optical transport network element • ITU-T G.875: OTN management information model for the network element view • ITU-T G.959.1: Optical Transport Network physical layer interfaces

About Juniper Networks
Juniper Networks, Inc. is the leader in high-performance networking. Juniper offers a high-performance network infrastructure that creates a responsive and trusted environment for accelerating the deployment of services and applications over a single network. This fuels high-performance businesses. Additional information can be found at www .juniper .net.

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Copyright 2009 Juniper Networks, Inc. All rights reserved. Juniper Networks, the Juniper Networks logo, JUNOS, NetScreen, and ScreenOS are registered trademarks of Juniper Networks, Inc. in the United States and other countries. “Engineered for the network ahead” and JUNOSe are trademarks of Juniper Networks, Inc. All other trademarks, service marks, registered marks, or registered service marks are the property of their respective owners. Juniper Networks assumes no responsibility for any inaccuracies in this document. Juniper Networks reserves the right to change, modify, transfer, or otherwise revise this publication without notice. Printed on recycled paper.

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