Differential Amplifiers

Abhishek Singh ECE/10/202

Introduction
• A differential amplifier is an amplifier that amplifies the difference between two voltages and rejects the average or common mode value of the two voltages. • A differential amplifier is a type of electronic amplifier that amplifies the difference between two voltages but does not amplify the particular voltages.

• Differential amplifiers are pervasive in analog electronics
– – – – – – – – – – Low frequency amplifiers High frequency amplifiers Operational amplifiers – the first stage is a differential amplifier Analog modulators Logic gates Large input resistance High gain Differential input Good bias stability Excellent device parameter tracking in IC implementation

• Advantages

• Examples
– Bipolar 741 op-amp (mature, well-practiced, cheap) – CMOS or BiCMOS op-amp designs (more recent, popular)

Differential and common mode voltages
• v1 and v2 are called singleended voltages. They are voltages referenced to ac ground. • The differential-mode input voltage, vID, is the voltage difference between v1 and v2. • The common-mode input voltage, vIC, is the average value of v1 and v2 .

• vID = v1 - v2 and vIC =v1+v2/2 • v1 = vIC + 0.5vID and v2 = vIC - 0.5vID • vOUT = AVDvID ± AVCvIC = AVD(v1 - v2) ± AVC (V1+V2/2) where • AVD = differential-mode voltage gain • AVC = common-mode voltage gain

BJT Differential Amplifiers
• It was initially invented for use with vacuum tubes, the basic differential amp. Configuration was subsequently implemented with discrete BJTs. • The performance of the differential amp. Depends critically on matching between the two sides of the circuits.

• There are two reasons for using differential amp. In preference to single ended amp. 1. The differential amp. Are much less sensitive to noise and interference. 2. the differential amplifiers is that the differential configuration enables us to bias the amplifier And to couple amplifier stages together without the necessity of bypass and coupling capacitors.

V-I Characteristics

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