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What is Black Nationalism? Pan-Africanism? Compare the similarities and differences

Nationalism and Pan-Africanism Toward a Paradigm of Unity in Afro-American Studies
Source of text: http://www.eblackstudies.org/intro/chapter15.htm

Intro Afro-American Studies - eBlack Studies 2011 What is Black Nationalism? Pan-Africanism? Compare the similarities and differences

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Ladies and gentlemen, I want you to realize that the Universal Negro Improvement Association and African Communities league, the organization which I have the honor to represent, is a worldwide movement that is endeavoring to unite the sentiment of our people. Our objective is to declare Africa a vast Negro empire. We can see no right in Belgium's retention of the Congo. We are going to wait until peace is completely restored, and then will we work Belgium out. And when we ask Belgium, "What are you doing there?" America will have nothing to do with it. Under the League of Nations when Africa revolts America will have to call upon Negroes to fight Negroes, therefore the League of Nations must be defeated by every Negro in America, or it will mean that Africa will have to fight the combined nations of the world. Marcus Garvey, Objects of the U.N.I.A.

Afro-American nationalism and Pan-Africanism have been historically legitimate responses by Black people to racist oppression. Nationalism seeks a solution to the problems faced by Black people as its first priority. It focuses primarily on Black people in the United States. Some Black nationalists view all white people as the enemies of Black people. They argue that only complete separation of Blacks from whites will solve the problems that Black people face. Other nationalists seek unity with nationalists of other oppressed people of color (Native American Indians, Chicanos, Puerto Ricans, etc.) In general, nationalists make distinctions between the problems facing Blacks and whites and the solutions for each. In fact, many nationalists argue that a separate Black solution is needed even for a problem that Blacks share with whites. Pan-Africanism is similar to nationalism. It holds that all Black people share common historical links to Africa, that the liberation of Black people is closely tied to the liberation of Africa, and that Black people should support the freedom struggle of African people. More recently, some Pan-Africanists have claimed that freedom for Black people in the United States cannot be won (and should not be our major goal) until the liberation of Africa has been completed. The extreme of this view states that all Black people in the United States should go to Africa.

THE HISTORICAL BASIS FOR BLACK NATIONALISM
The basis for Black nationalism is rooted in the historical experience of Black people. In the United States, two aspects of the Black experience molded Black people into a distinct nationality: Their shared material (economic and social) conditions, and the racism they faced. The foundations for a distinct nationality were laid in the rural Black Belt South during the slave period. In this sense, the Black Belt South is the national homeland of Afro- American people. It is in the Black Belt South that Black people have national rights that can be exercised if the masses of Black people make such demands in order to resolve the problems they face in the United States.

Intro Afro-American Studies - eBlack Studies 2011 What is Black Nationalism? Pan-Africanism? Compare the similarities and differences

The social life of the Black community was centered mainly around the church and fraternal Organizations that took the form of mutual aid societies. The main defense. which have been the common. The tenancy system. including the development of a distinct dialect (speech pattern). Black people formed cooperative social relationships.Page 3 of 26 During the rural period. In addition. includes racism. It should be pointed out that Afro-American nationalism is fundamentally different from white nationalism. everyday experiences of Black people in the United States.based on exploitation and their mutual cooperation to combat it . have led to the view that there can be no major change in the United States. though it has taken many different forms. White nationalism is chauvinistic.eBlack Studies 2011 What is Black Nationalism? Pan-Africanism? Compare the similarities and differences . burial societies. Tenant farmers worked the land and often set their own work schedules. but white nationalism is always reactionary. Thus. The reasons for PanAfricanism are three-fold. This unity frequently has been a call for Black nationalism (meaning that Black people should unite as Black people to fight against their own oppression) and not a call for Black people to unite with people of other nationalities who are also committed to fighting against the oppression facing Black people. like slavery. A common culture.Africanism has become particularly acute when there has been a downturn in the economy and a rise in Intro Afro-American Studies . has been Black unity. THE HISTORICAL BASIS FOR PAN-AFRICANISM The historical basis for Pan-Africanism among Afro-Americans is found in the United States but is conditioned by events in Africa. meant the economic exploitation of Black people. but did not control the products of their work. The turn to Pan. semi-slave experience in which Blacks had control over the work process itself. a common economic life . that the hope for a better life lies with Africa. Black people have always experienced brutal and vicious racism. the common Black experience was tenancy.served as the material basis for their national existence. but they had to give up the fruits of their labor because they did not own the land. In order to survive these material conditions. Black nationalism is the nationalism of an oppressed nationality and expresses the desire of Black people to be free. etc. racism and repression. The appeal of nationalism is facilitated by racism as it forces Black people to turn inward toward the strengths of their own community. First. also flowed out of this shared socioeconomic experience (see Chapter 9 for a discussion of the creolization process and Afro-American culture). and is never a progressive force. Black nationalism can be positive or negative. a semifree.

S. but we must ask of any ideology how it sees the main problem that is faced by Black people. and advertisements in the Black nationalistoriented magazine Black Collegian (distributed "free" throughout the United Intro Afro-American Studies . Many AfroAmericans went to Ghana to help in the development of this newly independent nation. are three different types of nationalism and each calls for a different response from Black people engaged in the struggle for freedom: reactionary nationalism. The third basis for Pan-Africanism among Afro-American people is that Africa offers opportunity for enterprising Blacks from the U. Nkrumah will always be an important symbol of pan-Africanism the middle of the 20th century. He guided Ghana to independence (the first Black African country to gain its independence from a colonial power). The main problems facing Black people are racism and economic exploitation caused by capitalism and imperialism. Politically. deep involvement in various Black capitalist schemes. Blacks from the United States who go there with these skills can also seek to satisfy their own individual selfinterests (and the U. B.national corporations they frequently represent) at the expense of Africans.Page 4 of 26 political repression). reformist nationalism.A. E. This cuts two ways: while the African countries can use these technical skills. Nkrumah was trained by Afro-Americans. There. this has led some nationalists to openly support U.S. Examples of this include support for Ronald Reagan.President Kwame Nkrumah and Ghana. and revolutionary nationalism. The most important person and country in this respect are the late . THE IDEOLOGICAL AND POLITICAL CHARACTER OF NATIONALISM How can we assess the impact and potential of nationalism as an ideology and strategy in the struggle for Black liberation and social change? This ideology and political line has changed as the historical experiences of Black people have changed. Black people in the United States have acquired technical training and skills which can be of critical importance in the development of Africa. and he led independent Africa in founding the Organization of African Unity (OAU) in 1963. pro-capitalist view. imperialism against the interests of Black people. DuBois and Horace Mann Bond. Reactionary nationalism . England in 1945). Second. W.This is Black nationalism based on a very conservative.eBlack Studies 2011 What is Black Nationalism? Pan-Africanism? Compare the similarities and differences . African countries and personalities have been shining examples of Black achievement in a world dominated by white racism and imperialism. multi.S. and received his political orientation from the decisive 5th Pan-African Congress (held in Manchester.

Intro Afro-American Studies .Page 5 of 26 States) touting "the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) as an equal opportunity employer. astrology. Revolutionary nationalism is a positive position for Black people that emphasizes struggle and relies on the masses of people (as opposed to "great leaders. Though it has successfully focused on destroying existing relations of domination and control over Blacks.S. Thus. Defeating U.). an end to discrimination in hiring and college admissions. Reformist nationalism . The major problem with revolutionary nationalism is that it has not developed a model for rebuilding all of U. believing self-cultivation is the solution. Revolutionary nationalists view the interests of the ruling class as diametrically opposed to the interests of Black people. while revolutionaries do fight for reforms that serve the immediate needs of the masses of Black people (e. Other nationalists. imperialism at home is viewed as the most significant contribution that Black people in the United States can make to the African liberation struggle. and even mass emigration back to Africa. and those advocating it must be defeated in their attempts to destroy the struggle against imperialism or to lead the struggle astray..This is based on the view that freedom for Black people is possible by leaving the basic economic and political system as it is (by either staying within it or leaving it). while it provides revolutionary fervor and direction in a short-term sense.This type of Black nationalism maintains that the solution to the oppression of Black people will come only through their struggle to defeat monopoly capitalism in the United States. or prayer. Those who hold this view should be won over to support the struggle for Black liberation and to get involved in it. This type of nationalism is a withdrawal from struggle and confrontation with imperialism. Black political and economic control of cities and Black communities. community control of schools. daycare centers. society.eBlack Studies 2011 What is Black Nationalism? Pan-Africanism? Compare the similarities and differences . Revolutionary nationalism .S.") for decisive action. etc. they recognize that these struggles must be qualitatively transformed to a struggle to defeat imperialism if Black people are to gain their freedom. These nationalists wrongly assume that the U." This type of nationalism must be exposed. have retreated into health foods. i has fallen short of providing the necessary framework for a new socialist society. Thus.S.g. large and influential businesses which serve the interests of the masses of Black people. What makes this revolutionary is that it aims at the source which causes exploitation and oppression of everyone in the society. ruling class would grant these proposals or would allow them to develop without being dominated. Proposals from nationalists of this type include the following: a separate Black state in the South.

the ACS for many Blacks came perilously close to being a deportation scheme which they vigorously opposed. the main criticism of these efforts initiated by Black people is that they left the institution of slavery intact. But the real intent was stated by the reactionary Henry Clay of Kentucky: "to rid our country of a useless and Intro Afro-American Studies . was even more pointedly critical of the ACS's efforts to repatriate Black people: This was rationalized as a process to bring 'civilization and Christianity to the backward primitive condition of blacks in Africa. Black nationalism and pan-Africanism must be combined with class struggle-in the USA as well as internationally." John Henry. some black people advocated leaving the United States and going to Africa. in 1792 some 1. As Edwin Redkey put it in his study of nationalist and back. various emigration schemes were also pushed by the ruling class. most notably those led by the American Colonization Society (ACS). Given the totally oppressive conditions of the slave system and the fact that many slaves were born in Africa. and in 1815 more joined them under the leadership of a Black petty-bourgeois capitalist named Paul Cuffee. While Cuffee had emphasized emigration as a self-help program. If the liberation of Black people is to occur. and 2) militant resistance or the position that Black people should stay here and fight.100 Black people went to Sierra Leone (where the British had resettled 400 Africans five years earlier).Page 6 of 26 it fails to lay the groundwork for a long-term revolutionary struggle for Black liberation.eBlack Studies 2011 What is Black Nationalism? Pan-Africanism? Compare the similarities and differences . pan-Africanism and nationalism manifested themselves in tow main trends: 1) emigration.to-Africa movements. It is necessary to have a general understanding of these two positions so that their continued recurrence can be understood within their specific historical context. The ACS was founded in 1817 ostensibly so that Black people could develop themselves and Africa. Though sometimes using ACS resources. "Colonization was essentially a white man's solution to the race problem and emigration was a black nationalist answer. The Slave Period During slavery. this action was a legitimate and progressive response. in a 1977 article. During the slave period. but only a few succeeded. The historical development of these ideological and political stands can be traced best in the context of the three fundamental stages of historical development of the Black experience. For instance. They thus served the interests of only a few Blacks. mostly middle-class free Blacks who could make the trip. Black people carefully distinguished between emigration and deportation. This sums up the ideological and political character of nationalism and panAfricanism.

capitalist interests. Conditions. It was the revolutionary way out of slavery and the main trend during the period. chose to offer militant resistance by remaining in the United States and fighting to overthrow slavery. and certainly not in the interests of the people of Liberia. Most. the efforts by the U. and publications. by the 1850s there was a great deal of interest in emigration (whether to Africa.with the historical identity of being an African accepted as a possible alternative to being a slave in America.S. were reactionary because they often forced people to choose between slavery and emigration. plotted slave revolts. and to establish a beachhead in Africa for U. particularly in churches.S." Colonization efforts were intended to eliminate slavery as a backward fetter on industrial capitalism emerging in the North. through state governments and the American Colonization Society. to drain away a source of weakness for the slavocracy of the South (e. This position was held by such people as Henry Highland Garnet and Frederick Douglass (see Chapter 4 on "The Slave Experience").. the ACS founded Liberia Oust adjacent to Sierra Leone) and helped former slaves go there.. the West Indies. and later joined the Union army in armed struggle to defeat the slave system all testified to the revolutionary aspirations of the masses of Black slaves. ruling class. It should also be remembered that during the period of slavery some Black people were living in the urban environment. the main thing was race consciousness . escaped to the North. Nevertheless. Intro Afro-American Studies . or became part of a Liberian aristocracy ("Americo-Liberians") who. free Blacks in the North were forced to concentrate on developing separate Black social institutions.Black versus white .. On the other hand. fraternal societies.S.. or South America). forced the indigenous population into virtual slavery. particularly with the passage of the fugitive slave law in 1850. businesses. This created a race consciousness based on organized Black unity. During the slave period. if not dangerous portion of its population. It is important to point out the difference here between race consciousness and nationalism.when there was a material and subjective basis for "national" identity --was race consciousness fully transformed into nationalism.. Canada. in turn..Page 7 of 26 pernicious. In 1822.g. offers this criticism of the Liberian resettlement scheme and the colonization effort: in general: Most people who went there either died. the slave rebellions). The many slaves who sabotaged production. Their efforts were not in the interest of Blacks or the working class in the U.eBlack Studies 2011 What is Black Nationalism? Pan-Africanism? Compare the similarities and differences . however. for Blacks were rapidly deteriorating. Henry. Only after several generations . Facing rejection by the white society.

Chief Alfred C. Generally speaking. from 840 to 43. Around the turn of the century.eBlack Studies 2011 What is Black Nationalism? Pan-Africanism? Compare the similarities and differences . This was a major attempt to escape repression in the South. there is an upsurge of Blacknationalisrn. Bishop Henry Turner of the A. Edwin P. the . they saw collective unity as a protection from racist oppression.000.Black population of Kansas increased. Emigration schemes reached a peak in the mid-1890s when the cotton economy failed and Black people were disfranchised and subjected to unprecedent violence. a consistent pattern of emigrations developed as a response to oppression and hard times. Intro Afro-American Studies . When times have been relatively good. who were eager to go anyplace that offered a sanctuary from the oppression they were experiencing. He had visions of making Oklahoma an allBlack state and becoming its governor or senator. During the rural period. More. inadequate financial backing.M. when time are particularly bad the conditions are ripe for some form of Pan-Africanism. Sam from Ghana faced similar problems when he later went to Oklahoma and tried to organize an emigration plan for Black people who had become disillusioned by the racism and economic subjugation they experienced in the Southwest. Racism and an inhospitable economic environment soon dashed those dreams and led many to later embrace Chief Sam's emigration scheme. THE RURAL PERIOD Pan-Africanist and Black nationalist thoughts and actions began as direct responses to racist oppression.over. Over twenty-five Black towns were founded there. it did mark the beginning of emigrationist efforts initiated in the South. and a lack of interest on the part of the Black middle class and the educated Black elite. there was an emigration movement led by Blacks from South Carolina who tried to organize an exodus to Liberia.Page 8 of 26 The modal forms of nationalism developed most fully in the rural period. But his efforts were doomed by transportation problems.E. Though their scheme failed. Church in Georgia was one of the main advocates of emigrationism and inspired much enthusiasm among Black people of the South. The idea of going to Africa was particularly popular among Black peasants. reports of a harsh life in Africa. including Langston (the first) and Boley. so too was the-Black town movement.Black town as the basis for economic and political power. This movement was led by enterprising and ambitious people who wanted to use the all. Just as emigration "back to Africa" was a resettlement scheme. A movement to Kansas (by "exodusters" as they were called) was led by Pap Singleton. McCabe organized a movement of Black people to Oklahoma. With the collapse of Reconstruction in the late 1870s. Between 1860 and 1880.

eBlack Studies 2011 What is Black Nationalism? Pan-Africanism? Compare the similarities and differences . This was the development and consolidation of national institutions. and (2) the legal-violent methods of social control to keep Black people powerless and unable to collectively deal with problems.Page 9 of 26 During fairly good times. held in 1945. Black people were learning the valuable lesson that Black liberation meant fighting against imperialist oppression. new conditions allowed for a more developed collective social life. was most important because for the first Intro Afro-American Studies . and the enrichment of the many rather than a few. there was a clearly defined limit to Black social life. there is a tendency for bourgeois aspirations to dominate. freedom of religion and social customs. the return of land and resources to Black people. protection against the greed of capitalist investors. The Fifth Congress. The Pan-African Conference. The church and fraternal organizations were the two main social institutions to develop during this period. The Pan-African Congresses focused on demands for self-government. based on (1) the objective limitations of life requiring long hours of forced labor. While these efforts engaged a small group of leaders. During slavery. Whereas in 1876 only 10% of. The first major political manifestation of Pan-Africanism during the 20th century was based on the historical links of Black people to Africa and was a reaction to the rising imperialist plunder of Africa. The social life that did develop was significant but quite restricted. education. In this context Black people discovered that there was strength in unity: both the negative reason to protect oneself from enemies. Africa was increasingly under attack by imperialist colonialism. and the Pan-African Congresses that subsequently emerged provided essential support in the struggle for African liberation. Africa was under the control of the imperialists by 1900 this had increased to about 90%. Washington and those who organized the National Negro Business League in 1900. it was clear that the imperialists intended to continue and expand their presence in Africa. however. Simultaneous with the intensifying oppression of Black people in the United States after 1877. As World War I drew to a close. The struggle for Black liberation had to take place not only in the United States but also in Africa. Simply emigrating to Africa would not solve Black people's problems since imperialism had to be faced there. and the positive reason to unite with people whose cultural tastes and behavioral preferences were the same as one's own. another form of nationalist action emerged during the rural period that involved the masses of Black people. just as oppression had to be faced in the United States. initiated by DuBois and other middle-class intellectuals in 1900. The bourgeois nationalist perspective was reflected in Booker T. The link between what was happening to Black people in the United States and what was happening to Africans was becoming obvious to increasing numbers of Black intellectuals. After the Civil War.

and the like .. Marcus Garvey found6d the Universal Negro Improvement Association (UNIA) in Jamaica in 1914 and transplanted it to New York in 1916. The UNIA was a movement built by the Black middle class of the cities struggling shopkeepers. did not speak realistically to the problems facing the masses of Black people in the United States. African students. preachers. and that the black race should do likewise. It sparked a greater interest and appreciation for the history and culture of Black people. where the greatest latitude would be given to work out this racial ideal.Page 10 of 26 time it was composed of a majority of African delegates and took a militant antiimperialist stand. He branded political struggle for full equality as impossible and dangerous..the Garvey movement.and southern sharecroppers who had recently moved to the city.. There were two sides to the Garvey movement. World War I. and undoubtedly inspired many Black people to set their aims higher to equal the past achievements of Black people. policy toward Africa... racial attacks. and trade union leaders returned to Africa and helped to intensify the anti-colonial struggle. Garveyism helped to crystallize the national consciousness of Black people. intellectuals. These were very much a part of the UNIA doctrines. Domestically. The Universal Negro Improvement Association seeks . On one hand. The general crisis of adjusting to an urban/industrial pace. Garvey's emigrationist back-to-Africa plans. Intro Afro-American Studies . the creation of an African nation for Negroes. Garvey outlined the objectives of the movement: The Universal Negro Improvement Association .... Their Afro-American comrades took up the struggle to force changes in U... which became the main aspect of his program. and he asked the ruling class to reject the "aggressive" program of DuBois and to accept his "reasonable" program of taking Black people back to Africa.eBlack Studies 2011 What is Black Nationalism? Pan-Africanism? Compare the similarities and differences . THE URBAN PERIOD The urban period of the Afro-American experience resulted from the migration of Black people to the cities of the North and South and their concentration into factory jobs. Washington's policies of accommodationism. This laid the basis for the African independence struggle in the 1950s and 1960s and for the African liberation movements today. After the Fifth Congress. believes in and teaches the pride and purity of race.S. We believe that the white race should uphold its racial pride and perpetuate itself. lawyers. On the other hand. Garvey argued for Booker T. and the political fermentation of the post-war crisis all laid the basis for the biggest mass-based nationalist movement among Black people . It rapidly grew to several hundred chapters and had a following estimated by some at several million..

The most recent explosion of the nationalist and Pan-Africanist movement came on the heels of the Civil Rights Movement of the 1960s. B. E. significantly altered the Black experience. The only logical solution therefore. Africa affords a wonderful opportunity at the present time for colonization by the Negroes of the Western world. Mayors of cities. "social equality" organization. hence the demand of the DuBois group of colored leaders will only lead.. The UNIA was able to appeal to that consciousness and attract a following of like-mind nationalists. and there point him to the fullness of his ambition. The Black Belt had provided the foundation for a Black social and political life that many carried with them to the cities. DuBois is leader. This nationalism was based on two converging trends: (1) the rising Black middle class. but reason dictates that the masses of the white race will never stand by the ascendancy of an opposite minority group to the favored positions in a government. then the nation will have to hearken to the demand of the aggressive. Africa.. as everybody knows. DuBois is ably supported by the "Chicago Defender. lynching and mob rule.S.Page 11 of 26 The time is opportune to regulate the relationship between both races. Let the Negro have a country of his own. Garvey capitulated to U. Its objective reality continued to be a part of Black people's lives and consciousness. This paper advocates Negroes in the Cabinet and Senate. capitalism. His position was made clear when he urged Black people to believe that "white capitalists are Black people's best' friend" and to stay out of trade unions. of which W. Most Black political movements thus have been based in the city. ultimately. which reaped the rewards of the civil rights protests. members of the Cabinet. and there give him the opportunity to climb from the lowest to the highest positions in a state of his own. Help him to return to his original home. residential districts. In this agitation.eBlack Studies 2011 What is Black Nationalism? Pan-Africanism? Compare the similarities and differences . The UNIA's objective was a nation-state. All these. and (2) the dispossessed Blacks.: Negroes and whites in the same hotels. a Negro as president. the objective reality of the Black Belt South ceased playing such an important role. society and industry that exist by the will of the majority. homes. This plan when property undertake and prosecuted will solve the race problem in America in fifty years.. and leaders of society in the United States. which declares vehemently for social and political equality. Governors of States. Eventually. known as the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People. are the Negroes' constitutional rights. including the latest stage of the nationalist-pan-African movement that arose in the 1960s. and which was further encouraged by the Nixon-backed program of Black capitalism. is to supply the Negro with opportunities and environments of his own. The migrations that subsequently took place. If not. to further disturbances in riots." a colored newspaper published in Chicago. As the urban experience came to dominate Black people's lives. public and private places. especially during and following World War II. who saw their faith in the benevolent role of the Intro Afro-American Studies . viz. The nationalist movement came first and was followed by a Pan-Africanist movement.

the politics of his community. but he was Algerian. he stated his reason for rethinking his views: I used to define black nationalism as the idea that the black man should control the economy of his community. Mauritania? So he showed me where I was alienating people who were true revolutionaries. The masses of poor Black people. He proposed armed self-defense as the alternative. He was an African. From a hustling pimp and drug dealer. he was transformed in prison by the teachings of the Nation of Islam (though he later broke with the stand-on-the-sidelines policies of Elijah Muhammad). Iraq. when I was in Africa in May. But. dedicated to overturning the system of exploitation that exists on this earth by any means necessary. The middle class saw in nationalism a way to further its own interests. So. saw in nationalism collective protection from a hostile racist environment. He was attempting to organize a non-sectarian Organization of Afro-American Unity (OAU) when he was assassinated in 1965.. well. Until the last year of his life. and so forth. at the same time. Jr.Page 12 of 26 federal government betrayed and their dreams shattered with the assassination of Martin Luther King. he asked me very frankly. in Ghana. passive resistance philosophy of Martin Luther King. he was an articulate spokesman for the view that all white people were the enemies of Black people. And he said if I define my objective of the victory of black nationalism. Egypt. There are six major issues that should be discussed in summing up the major trends of nationalism and pan-Africanism since the 1960s. Malcolm provided insistent opposition to the nonviolent. social and economic philosophy was black nationalism. It needed the masses of Black people to make money and gain more power. Malcolm went through important personal and political changes that paralleled the growth and development of the Black liberation struggle. I had to do a lot of thinking and reappraising of my definition of black nationalism. When I told him that my political. Can we sum up the solution to the problems confronting our people as black nationalism? Intro Afro-American Studies . where did that leave him? Because he was white. The Role of Malcolm X The most important ideologue of nationalism during this period was Malcolm X. I was speaking with the Algerian ambassador who is extremely militant and is a revolutionary in the true sense of the word (and has his credentials as such for having carried on a successful revolution against oppression in his country). and to all appearances he was a white man.eBlack Studies 2011 What is Black Nationalism? Pan-Africanism? Compare the similarities and differences . In a 1965 interview. where does that leave him? Where does that leave revolutionaries in Morocco.

We were just dogmatic.Page 13 of 26 When questioned at an OAU meeting in Harlem. he elaborated: I haven't changed. It didn't bring us anything. you give him no out. Politics "Black Power" was the most significant slogan to emerge in the nationalist movement of the 1960s.S. He can't stop being white. This reformism was further elaborated in Carmichael. the first conference was chaired by an Episcopalian priest and invitations were mailed out on "Miss Clairol" stationery (obviously borrowed from the company where his brother was employed). and Charles Hamilton's Black Power in 1967: This book presents a political framework and ideology which represents the last reasonable opportunity for this society to work out its racial problems short of prolonged destructive guerilla warfare.eBlack Studies 2011 What is Black Nationalism? Pan-Africanism? Compare the similarities and differences . We've got to be more flexible. and he set the pace for the development of revolutionary nationalism among young Black people. He probably won't take it. More importantly. it was essentially reformist in content. I'm not going to be in anybody's straitjacket. the snake. My mind is wide open to anybody who will help get the ape off our backs. Why. Now I know it's smarter to say you're going to shoot a man for what he is doing to you than because he is white. The main aim of all of these efforts was to get for Black people a bigger piece of the existing American capitalist pie. We've got to give the man a chance. While it sounded revolutionary. His complete identification with and commitment to serving the needs and aspirations of Black people provided a positive model that many Black people sought to emulate. they went ahead and called in some German technicians. the Black Power Conferences of 1967 (Newark) and 1968 (Philadelphia) proposed no fundamental changes in the U. If you attack him because he is white. political and economic system. We nationalists used to think we were militant. when some of our friends in Africa didn't know how to do things. I don't care what a person looks like or where they come from. And they had blue eyes. In fact. I just see things on a broader scale. Intro Afro-American Studies . Malcolm was opposed to capitalism and imperialism. But we've got to give him a chance. The phrase was first popularized by Stokely Carmichael of SNCC during a march to urge Black voter registration in Mississippi.

eBlack Studies 2011 What is Black Nationalism? Pan-Africanism? Compare the similarities and differences . Our slogan is "Unite or perish. to develop and keep before the movement. The Black Revolutionary Party must be distinguished clearly not only from the traditional civil rights organizations which have been organized to integrate Blacks into and thereby save the system. According to spokespersons: "The League of Revolutionary Black Workers is dedicated to waging a relentless struggle against racism. Our movement is a movement of black people who are coordinating their efforts to create a "new world" free from exploitation and oppression of man to man. oppressed peoples) are all enslaved by the same forces.. James Boggs put forward ideas that reflected the perspectives and activities of several local and regional organizations: The role of the Black Revolutionary Party is. first.. black nationalism or just plain blackism. second. It is that black people of the world (darker races." The League of Revolutionary Black Workers.. capitalism. but also from the ad hoc organizations which have sprung up in the course of struggle. RAM feels that with the rise of fascism. Max Stanford: RAM philosophy may be described as revolutionary nationalism. brown. and imperialism. red.) In the manifesto of the Black Revolutionary Party.. third. attempted to organize Black workers as the leading revolutionary vanguard. arousing the masses Intro Afro-American Studies . The Revolutionary Action Movement (RAM). national liberation and black power. officially organized in 1963. however. black.Page 14 of 26 There were. of the US as well as to play a major revolutionary role in the liberation of all oppressed people in the world:' (See Chapter 7 for a further discussion of the League. the nation and the world the real meaning and objectives of the life and death struggle in which the Black community is now engaged. revolutionary aspirations among the nationalists of this period. RAM's philosophy is one of the world black revolution or world revolution of oppressed peoples rising up against their former slave masters. We are struggling for the liberation of Black people in the confines. centered on Detroit's auto industry. to devise and project. to bring together in a disciplined national organization the revolutionary individuals who are being constantly thrown up by spontaneous eruption and the experience of struggle. in constant interaction with the masses in struggle. RAM feels that the road to freedom is selfgovernment.. Our black nation is still in captivity. a long-range strategy for achieving Black Revolutionary Power in the United States. sought "to free Black people from colonial and imperialist bondage everywhere and to take whatever steps necessary to achieve that goal!' Its philosophy was further elaborated by a Black revolutionary activist.. yellow. the black man must not only think of armed self-defense but must also think aggressively.

.. the Black Revolutionary Party must be O-Black in its membership.. Its essential core must be cold. On the other hand. and are convinced that their own future and that of Black people can be assured only through Black Revolutionary Power. The Black Revolutionary Party will pay special attention to the development of the political consciousness and revolutionary dedication of Black street youth. the Black Revolutionary Party must be a cadre. By contrast. Welfare. recognize the vital importance of disciplined organization and strong leadership to the revolutionary struggle... Land and Police are such powerful steps on the road to Black Revolutionary Power... sober revolutionaries who are bound together by a body of ideas.. These youth have no place in the existing society except as mercenaries. the Black Revolutionary Party must at times keep before the movement the need to support the national liberation struggles in Asia. and the need for international support for the revolution inside the United States.. No revolution was ever successful without international support. under the leadership of the Black Revolutionary Party and imbued with the consciousness of the new society which Black Revolutionary Power will create.. create a form of liberated area out of what are at present occupied areas. Struggle therefore must be on issues and terrains which enable the Black community to.. Housing. Health. The most difficult and challenging task is the organizing of struggles around the concrete grievances of the masses which will not only improve the welfare of the Black community but also educate the masses out of their democratic illusions and increase their consciousness that every administrative and lawenforcing agency in this country is a white power. they are the best guarantee of the success of the Black revolution. totally committed to the struggle for Black Revolutionary Power and the building of the Black Revolutionary Party as the only solution to the problems of Black people. Finally. Because of the nationalist character of the Black revolutionary struggle. Latin America and Africa.type organization of politically-conscious individuals. A revolutionary party cannot be made up of just enthusiastic and emotionallyaroused individuals. The Black Revolutionary Party will repudiate any tendency to Black male chauvinism or the tendency to relegate Black women to an inferior position in the struggle in order to compensate for the emasculation which Black men have suffered in white America. The extraordinary fortitude which Black women have brought to the struggle for survival of Black people in America is one of the greatest sources of strength for the Black Revolutionary Party. is even more relevant today because of the basic unity which the Black Revolution in the United States has with the world Black Intro Afro-American Studies .. This truth .Page 15 of 26 emotionally around a particular issue and relying primarily on the enthusiasm and good-will of their members and supporters for their continuing activity. It is for this reason that struggles for Community Control of such urban institutions as Schools.eBlack Studies 2011 What is Black Nationalism? Pan-Africanism? Compare the similarities and differences . The Black Revolutionary Party must devise strategies which give the masses of Black people a sense of their growing power to improve their conditions of life through struggle and which enable them to create dual or parallel power structures out of struggle.. preying on people of color in the far-flung imperialist armies of the United States or on their own people in the streets of the ghetto.

hair conditioners. Intro Afro-American Studies . Thus.eBlack Studies 2011 What is Black Nationalism? Pan-Africanism? Compare the similarities and differences . "Buy Black!" became their rallying cry. is not only to free the oppressed people or nation from the physical presence of their oppressors but to destroy the institutions of total dehumanization and to create in their place totally new relations between people. they were now seen as potential activists of insurrection. therefore. "Black is Beautiful" was a convenient cover for small-time (and some big-time) entrepreneurs in the Black community.a history of common oppression (of which racism was an essential component) and collective resistance and struggle. It was.Page 16 of 26 revolution. and because of the world character of -the American counter-revolution. but a shared historical experience . like imperialism. The revolution against racism and/or imperialism. Afro-combs. and other products and artifacts that were in demand as the impact of the nationalist and Pan-Africanist movement spread. This has been an essential aspect of Black nationalism. a key slogan that emerged during the 1960s was "Black is Beautiful. Revolutionary groups used this document as a programmatic statement. The Black Arts Movement also developed during the Black Power period and it served to instill and deepen a collective consciousness among Black people (see Chapter 9)." This slogan was part of the process which raised the political consciousness of Black people.. They tried to cash in on the newly developing national market for 'African dashikis. The rebellion after the assassination of Martin Luther King in 1968 revealed the depth of this collective or national consciousness among Black people. and totally new institutions.. Racism. On the other hand. particularly on the role of "Black street youth. The Black Revolution in the United States is an integral part of the world revolution against American imperialism. is a totalitarian system for the dehumanization of one people by another." Whereas street youth traditionally had been viewed as undisciplined and totally lacking revolutionary potential. a cry that conveniently fit in with the maintenance of the economic and political system. because of the minority position of Blacks inside the United States. totally new relations between people and their institutions. Culture and Art An important characteristic of a nation and of nationalism is a common cultural orientation which manifests itself in common values and behavioral preferences. Revolutionary groups thus began to focus on developing this revolutionary potential. not color alone that was being spoken of.

and no crops. to recognize and accept our claims to Independence and land. the United States.. Give us a territory. leader of the Nation of Islam.. running through the Five States that the Republic claims as the National Territory of the Black Nation (Louisiana. incidentally." They continued in their efforts "to array enough power . What the Republic of New Africa says. we have well earned them. give us a place in America.e. In this chapter. 1971. we have worked and developed the land.. In the Black Belt.against night riders and day courts. Baltimore (though our precise locations in these cities have shifted through the years).. Elijah Muhammad. A separate and independent nation with the right of self determination (or selfrule) has been a key demand in the program of some nationalists. On March 28. We have well earned whatever they give us. four or more states. against cultural genocide and economical privation. We have come to the point we must have a home on this earth that we can call our own. to abide by international law. which treats the relationship between national oppression (like the Afro-American nation) and class exploitation (i. Alabama. national territory (that does not mean that all Africans have to move from them) in exchange for the five states of the Deep South. however.. Both the Nation of Islam (Black Muslims) and the Republic of New Africa made common territory in the United States a criteria. against bad crops. Georgia."What Time Is It? It's Nation Time!" But there have been different views concerning the concrete existence of this nation. The Republic of New Africa later specifically argued for five states in the Black Belt South on the following grounds: We have lived for over 300 years in the so-called Black Belt.eBlack Studies 2011 What is Black Nationalism? Pan-Africanism? Compare the similarities and differences ." Stokely Carmichael's All-African Peoples Revolutionary Party (AAPRP) Intro Afro-American Studies . This was the meaning of the slogan put forward in the late 1960s and early 1970s .. met these tests too in cities of the North like Boston. declared in 1959: If they don't want us to mix with them in their equality. Mississippi. is that we give up our claim to these cities as. Give us three. the focus is on the particular problems of Black people as an oppressed nationality and the solutions proposed by Black nationalists. Demand some earth. against terror and ignorance and the urgings of relatives to come North. New York. and we have fought to stay there . Philadelphia. and South Carolina). we have met all the criteria for land possession required of us by international practice... international law. if they give us twenty-five states. We have.Page 17 of 26 The Black Nation The national question will be explored more fully in the next chapter. the Republic of New Africa consecrated land in Mississippi as the "first African capital of the northern Western Hemisphere. to force the greatest power. the entire working class of all nationalities). Set it aside.

It grows out of the fundamental African communal concept that the social wealth belongs to the masses of people who created it and that no one should have such an unequal amount of wealth that it gives him/her the capacity to impose unequal.. KUJICHAGULIA (Self-Determination) .a commitment to active and informed togetherness on matters of common interest.a commitment to the principle and practice of defining. we are trying to secure a political ideology as we seek a state. We will then have to demonstrate our willingness to fight for our people wherever they are oppressed. Carmichael declared: In the final analysis. UJAMAA (Cooperative Economics) . the seven principles of i Black value system that had been formulated by Maulana Karenga: UMOJA (Unity) . exploitative and oppressive Intro Afro-American Studies .... I believe that people basically defend their own kind. institutions that house our aspirations. The "cultural nation" it proposed was to be based on Nguzo Saba. most important. That is a possibility. a separate land case was not the basis for the Black nation. It can be done and. all revolutions are based on land. community. i. progress is impossible and liberation unthinkable. a prolonged struggle. it seems to me. It demands that we build our own lives in our own image and interests and construct.. building and maintaining unity in the family. but I do not see it clearly in my mind at this time.eBlack Studies 2011 What is Black Nationalism? Pan-Africanism? Compare the similarities and differences . In the Middle East they [Americans] did it even in 1967 with Israel.. UJIMA (Collective Work and Responsibility).. nation and race: This is the first and foundational principle because without unity our possibilities as a people are few and fragile. We need land and we need land immediately. and we must go to the quickest place for it. To seize any of the countries in Africa today that are dominated by white people who have physically oppressed us is to confront an armed struggle. For the Congress of African People (CAP). thru our own efforts. But once we have seized a base we will be on our way. It is also recognition and respect of the fact that without collective work and struggle.Page 18 of 26 argued for the acquisition of land in Africa as a Territorial base for Black liberation. if existent at all.the commitment to the principle and practice of togetherness and collective action on crucial levels. defended and developed by others. a Pan-Africanist Organization led by Imamu Baraka which emerged in 1972 to replace the nationalist Black Power Conferences. The best place. People who didn't have any rights in that country were flying in from all over the world to fight. and the quickest place that we can obtain land is Africa. CAP conceived the 31ack nation as more of a cultural entity to which all Black people would belong regardless of location. There's nothing wrong with our doing the selfsame thing.e. I am not denying that we might seek land in the United States.a commitment to the principle and practice of shared wealth and resources. defending and developing ourselves instead of being defined.

more beautiful and more effective in its capacity to define. i. Black nationalism and capitalism stand side by side. Despite this lack of clarity over the concrete basis of the Black nation. Outside of academia.a commitment to ourselves as persons and a people and the righteousness and victory of our struggle.centered faith in the tradition of the best of African philosophies and values.the colors of the Black nation's flag that had been resurrected from the Garvey movement. one group of nationalists even started a business called Nationtime. IMANI (Faith) . personal purpose that translates itself into a vocation and commitment which involves and benefits the masses of Black people. in the final analysis. social purpose. earth-based. This orientation was reflected. This "cultural nation" thus -was something less than the demand for the full political self-determination that was included in the call for a separate national territory.. of positive proactive construction rather than negative reactive destruction.e. Inc.. black. and green . These movements were primarily intended to open up new jobs and programs for the middle class. and to protect the ones that had been won by the struggle of the masses. Inherent in the principle of Imani is the call for a humanistic faith. an earth-oriented.eBlack Studies 2011 What is Black Nationalism? Pan-Africanism? Compare the similarities and differences . it is belief in and commitment to our brothers and sisters. to their defense and development.Page 19 of 26 relations on others. for instance. white professional associations (e. people.S. Moreover. Most Black Studies programs and Black caucuses have not provided a revolutionary analysis of the Black experience or a direction for the Black liberation struggle. KUUMBA (Creativity) . flag. Inherent in this principle is the commitment to leave our national community stronger. or whether it even existed. defend and develop its interests than when we inherited it.a commitment to the collective vocation of building. the slogan "It's Nation Time!" provided a programmatic orientation for nationalists. in the attempts of Black academics to organize the Black Studies movement and the Black caucus movement within predominantly.a commitment to the principle and practice of building rather than destroying. In this case. and to the fullness of our collective future. Owners of several large Black businesses in Chicago fly this flag next to the U.. which manufactured products adorned with red.g. the American Sociological Association and the African Studies Asi3ociation). At the core of this principle is the assumption and contention that the highest form of personal purpose is. defending and developing our national community in order to regain our historical initiative and greatness as a people. Intro Afro-American Studies . NIA (Purpose) .

see the primary Intro Afro-American Studies . Thus. pan-Africanism could be used to unite Africa in its struggle against imperialism and superpower intervention. On the one hand. there are pan-Africanists who have embraced imperialism in order to serve their own selfish interests. There are two sides to pan-Africanism in Africa. they would know the "total liberation and the unification of Africa under an All-African socialist government must be the primary objective of all Black Revolutionaries throughout the world. put it. There is a special danger that the imperialists will use Black people from the United States who may be well-received because they are Black. Identification with African liberation struggles became particularly important as the Black liberation movement in the United States faced increasing repression at the hands of the state. imperialism.Africanism on the continent of Africa. . . Some. They attribute these notions to the late Kwame Nkrumah. PanAfricanism is undergoing careful analysis in Africa. Today.." emerged as the key slogan of the panAfricanist movement in the 1970s." . and sell-out Africans. however.eBlack Studies 2011 What is Black Nationalism? Pan-Africanism? Compare the similarities and differences ." On the other hand. The main progressive form of pan-African unity is emerging in contexts like southern Africa where the liberation fighters have united in the conduct of armed struggle against white minority rule. "The line that AfroAmericans are 'really' Africans enables lackeys of the imperialists to operate openly in Africa and make U.Page 20 of 26 Two Lines on Pan-Africanism in Africa Pan-Africanism historically has had its greatest impact on the African continent..Africanists. however. . when achieved. a critic of pan-Africanism. will bring about the fulfillment of the aspirations of Africans and people of African descent everywhere. imperialism more palatable. freedom fighters in Africa have recognized that Pan-Africanism can serve as a tool of imperialism rather than as a tool for African liberation. like Stokely Carmichael and the AAPRP. Carmichael has stated: Nkrumahism is reality grounded in our African experience. It was a unifying ideology that galvanized Africa in the fight against colonial domination during the days of Kwame Nkrumah. These heretics [critics) of Nkrumahism .. .S. Two Lines on Pan-Africanism in the United States "We are an African People. As John Henry. It is in this context of anti-imperialist struggle that revolutionary patriots will decide the future of pan. This is very different from the very early days when pan-Africanism took the form of mainly paper declarations. It is an objective which. Were they [critics of Nkrumahism] grounded in the reality of Nkrumahism. There are two types of pan. argue that the hope for Black liberation lies in Africa. within Africa.

It does not base itself on the analysis of different class forces within Africa. and that Africa is the focus of the struggle of black people all over the world and it has always been. Imperialism is seen as an international system headquartered in the United States that exploits Black people "at home and abroad:' These pan-Africanists and nationalists argue that defeating U. during the calculated period of the disruption of our society. an obvious conclusion if one has an a-historical analysis.eBlack Studies 2011 What is Black Nationalism? Pan-Africanism? Compare the similarities and differences . particularly southern Africa. Pan Africanism negates historical change in two major ways: it maintains that they are Africans as they have always been.Page 21 of 26 objective of Black Revolutionaries in America as the transformation of the American society. into countries facing some common problems but also different conditions. camp while also defeating the "wizard of Oz" social. Clearly Pan Africanism cannot lead the struggle for liberation in Africa. Pan Africanism as an ideology won't provide the answers to these complex problems because it fails to correctly and concretely analyze the forces at work. The second type of pan-Africanism argues that there should be a fight against the oppression of Black people in the United States and in Africa.S.. Intro Afro-American Studies . as John Henry points out:In regard to Afro-Americans. because the goal has been to transform this country into a just society for all people and not primarily to transform Africa. It is especially complicated because in many cases there is the task of overthrowing reactionaries in the U." This view suggests that Blacks in the United States should work primarily for African liberation rather than for their own liberation. The theoretical underpinnings of this sort of pan. who is neither pan-Africanist nor a nationalist. This view relegates the historical struggles of Afro-American people to being misguided and misinformed. . and becoming more complicated. must consider all the component parts while maintaining "the core of the Black Revolution in Africa. We know that any ideology concerning African people. . as well as Black people in the "diaspora" (a Yiddish term which means "to scatter" and refers to Black people dispersed throughout the world by the slave trade). imperialism at home is the basis for the liberation of Black people in the United States and a contribution to the liberation of Africa.Africanism are faulty. Pan Africanism can be a positive force if it contributes to the united front. who can bribe opportunist elements or mislead honest forces into vacillating on opposing their superpower hegemonic plans. or on the fact that Africa is not an undifferentiated whole but a continent divided. THE PROSPECTS FOR PAN-AFRICANISM AND NATIONALISM John Henry. who have been maliciously scattered all over the world. It also has no clear analysis of the nature of different countries. makes these observations concerning pan-Africanism in Africa: On the international scale..imperialists.S. including the Soviet Union. But the struggle is sharpening up in Africa. ..

This is clearly the case when we examine the impact of Pan Africanism on the militant Black youth.S. This is so because of the escalating racist oppression that Black people will continue to suffer under U. reformist. We have the lessons of history to understand that the political character of Black nationalism can change.S. There is an increasing need to escalate the struggle against the oppression of Blacks. Whether it encourages or retards revolutionary action in the future remains to be seen Nationalism will remain a force in the Black liberation struggle.eBlack Studies 2011 What is Black Nationalism? Pan-Africanism? Compare the similarities and differences . The repression of the Black liberation movement in the early 1970s led to pan-Africanism and again reformism. The spontaneous rebellion of the masses during the 1960s led to the development of revolutionary nationalism (though a few turned toward reactionary politics)." The main question is whether Black nationalism will be reactionary. Pan-Africanism in both Africa and the United States has contributed to revolutionary struggle insofar as it has focused on imperialism and the fight against national oppression.. the development of this movement and the consolidation of forces within it can turn into its opposite and become a force for reaction. However. it has also led away from Black liberation because it has failed to base itself in an analysis of class forces within the context of national struggles. or revolutionary. The future will reveal whether Black nationalism will return to the forefront of the revolutionary struggle for Black liberation and social change or be swept aside as incapable of contributing to the total liberation of Black people. and political crisis. provided increased awareness of U. as militant foot soldiers who can "shake up the establishment. KEY CONCEPTS Black-is-Beautiful Black Power Black town movement Emigration/Back-to-Africa movements Nation/Nationalism Nguzo Saba Race consciousness Red-Black-Green Pan-Africanism Self-determination Intro Afro-American Studies . But . Nationalism started out as reformist. Thus. pan-Africanism has served reactionary as well as revolutionary forces. imperialism in Africa and promoted the will to fight it.. and some Black workers. as voters. In addition. in both Africa and the United States. Black people today face a deepening social and economic. nationalism will continue to be the ideological prop of the aspiring Black middle class which needs the masses of Black people as allies in its quest for individual advancement . capitalism. Pan Africanism has led to the mobilization of people in support of African liberation.Page 22 of 26 Nor does he see pan-Africanism leading to Black liberation in the United States: There are aspects of the Pan Africanist movement that are positive and have contributed to struggle.as customers.

man. Is Black nationalism in the U. Compare the theories of Marcus Garvey. Black and Green. Black Exodus: Black Nationalism and Back-to. E. Stokely Carmichael. Edwin Redkey. 2. ad. 1969. The Pan African Connection. Cambridge: Cam. 1962. 3. likely to survive into the 21st century? How about pan-Africanism? SUPPLEMENTARY READINGS 1. Maulana Karenga. 3. Red. James Boggs. 1890-1910.. The Ideological Origins of Black Nationalism.bridge University Press. 1972. reformist.Africa Movements. Boston: Beacon Press. Sterling Stuckey. Boston: Schenk.eBlack Studies 2011 What is Black Nationalism? Pan-Africanism? Compare the similarities and differences . What is nationalism? Pan-Africanism? Compare the similarities and differences between the two.S. U. 2.Page 23 of 26 STUDY QUESTIONS 1. What are the differences between reactionary. Malcolm X. 4. Essien-Udom. A Search for an Identity in America. 1983. Black Nationalism. Intro Afro-American Studies . and revolutionary nationalism? 4.A. Tony Martin. New Haven: Yale University Press. 1976. 5. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Alphonso Pinkney. and John Henry.

Page 24 of 26 Editor’s Summary and Commentary We accept all aspects of our history from the beginning of civilization on the Afrikan continent. other people of color in the Third World. our present condition and struggle is based on our past experiences in a continuing development of an Afrikan history. and the European races. we view the material basis in which history evolved to its present and ongoing developing modes of history. to the present stages of technological development of Afrikan nation-states. This understanding and materialist outlook of history. political and historical realities encompassing the criteria by which New Afrikan struggle for independence must be developed. With this conception of history. and the continued struggle of Afrikan people throughout the world against tyranny and imperialist oppression. rather. We call ourselves New Afrikan because of the degree of force breeding and miscegenation we as a people have suffered. notes that dialectically. as well the cultural imperialism and the psychological plunder and rape Intro Afro-American Studies .eBlack Studies 2011 What is Black Nationalism? Pan-Africanism? Compare the similarities and differences . as Afrikan people relate and interrelate with one another. The New Afrikan experience in America is not separate from the Afrikan experience on the continent. they are linked in a chain of events which imposes socioeconomic.

British. Many of our ancestors had been enslaved by Afrikans due to internecine struggles. American chattel slavery of Afrikans is a direct outgrowth of Afrikans enslaving Afrikans on the Afrikan continent. Dutch.eBlack Studies 2011 What is Black Nationalism? Pan-Africanism? Compare the similarities and differences . and often sold or traded. they not only raided villages and kidnapped Afrikans. Spanish.. were placed in bondage. This conception of history in a dialectical materialist perspective provides the means to formulate a program and strategy to conquer racist oppression and national subjugation. which in our efforts to combat have created a national heritage rich in resistance based on two ideals of integration and/or separation. it is essential to know what our relationship had been in history -providing a substantial foundation to develop principled relations today. When the Europeans (Portuguese. outlook. for the most part.Page 25 of 26 of our affinity to Afrika . Intro Afro-American Studies .. it is important to know that slavery did not begin as an American phenomenon. creating the New Afrikan Independence Movement. These experiences which left us stripped of our Afrikanist perspective despite miscegenation and cultural imperialism. and the commonality of our fight against mutual enemy -. The prisoner of wars. but more often and productively (numerically) brought already enslaved Afrikans from Afrikan chieftains and traders. Thus. we must place responsibility of our condition in context to the actual historical development leading to our present situation. border wars of territorial imperativeamongst tribes and wars of aggression between Afrikan nation-states. but rather.stripping away our Afrikan language. and/or because of denture. Hence. art and world. our existence in the Western hemisphere is as much a consequence of Afrikan history as it is of European history. and national oppression. encompassing those experiences into an Afrikan national heritage in Diaspora. For instance. For New Afrikans. utilizing.) made contact with Northern and Western coastal areas of Afrika. we don't expect assistance from our Afrikan brothers nations simply because we are of one people -only separated by distance -. as we conceive ourselves in history. the truth of our entire history as a guide to enlighten our practice.imperialism.but because history demand recompense for a people (New Afrikans) whose existence and suffering is based on our unfortunate relation in the history of slavery mutual to us all. in terms of a (foreign) policy of Afrikan intercommunalism with our people on the Afrikan continent. In this regards. etc.

War of 1812. such as the Dutch. British. New Afrikans must have a determined sense of history in regard to the New Afrikan Nation relationship to the world. colonization. As we struggle against continued U. etc. fighting for freedom in the War of Independence. democracy (hypocrisy) can also be considered part of the national determination to be free.S. revolts and rebellions for hundreds of years on slave plantations. From: FROLINAN-Historical Conception and Overview For more like this see: RBG FROLINAN STUDIES COLLECTION Intro Afro-American Studies . and Civil War.S. without historical continuity which serves to give practical guidance on the road to independence. Spanish. and fighting in the U. we have a rich history of resistance to bondage.Page 26 of 26 This same conception and relation to history is binding on any relationship established with other past enslaver. our practice will continue to be confused and chaotic. based on history. Army in the name of U. Portuguese.eBlack Studies 2011 What is Black Nationalism? Pan-Africanism? Compare the similarities and differences . Without this common national consciousness and perception of our existence. As an oppressed nation.S. revolts on slave ships during the middle passage.

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