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on receipt of price by the Publishers.00.BY THE SAME AUTHOR. Of One the 07-iental Depa7-ttnent vol. of the British Museum. $4. maps.^ post-paid. plans. 743 & ARMSTRONG 745 Broadway. SCRIBNER.. By GJ-EORG-E SjMITH. . with numerous illustrations.. Svo.CO. ASSYRIAN EXPLORATIONS AND DISCOVERIES. etc.. Sent. cloth. New York. d. photographs.



|0ME explanation ducing my necessary in intro- is present work. to collect the various fragments of the legends. amidst other work. Little time has elapsed since I discovered the most important of these inscriptions. The present condition of the legends and recent discovery alike forbid me their to call this anything more than a provisional work. copy. as my desire was first to obtain the recognition of the evidence without prejudice. and translate. have avoided some of the most important com- parisons and conclusions with respect to Genesis. Even now I have gone to press with one of the fragments of the last tablet of the Izdubar series omitted. compare. . altering to time. hoping my readers will take them with the same reserve with which I I have given them.INTRODUCTION. but there was so general a desire to see the translations that I have published them. and in the intervening period I have had. as my new fragments turned matter from time up.

1875. I have added translations of some parts of the legends which I avoided in them as remain however some desiring here to satisfy the wish to perfect as possible . see passages which I have omitted.INTBODUGTION.ical notes in the points. and I have aimed to do this rather than any system of chronology. viii The weak chronolo2. October 26. there still my last work. but many blanks in at present there are so the evidence that positive conclusions on several points are impossible. . and I have introduced only so in con- as a popular much expla- nation as seems necessary for the proper understand- ing of the subject. clusion that I may add my present work is intended account. but I may book are one of its safely say that I have placed the various dates as low as I fairly could. believe that time will show the Babylonian to establish I tradi- tions of Genesis to be invaluable for the light they will throw on the Pentateuch. considering the evidence. but these are of small extent and obscure.

— Second journey —Tower " Telegraph. —New Assyria. — library. additions to library. libraries . — Lecture Texts. bilingual tablets. Difficulties as • . or to Description of contents. —Babylonian — and — War Gods. page 1 Babylonian and Assyrian LiTERArtmE. empire. fall. — Mythological tablets. —Izdubar —Assyrian — and — Babylonian — Assyrian —Mutilated — Library — Sargon — Library Nineveh. —Assurbanipal Sennacherib. Cosmogony of Bevosus. — — Discovery Cunei— Babylonian of Historical origin of Assyrian literature. — to Chapter II. of Syllabaries to date. — Arrangement — Kouyunjik of tablets. City of Assur. List of texts legends. —Discovery of Deluge condition of tablets. of of Assyria. of creation records.19 source of literature. of astrology. —Fragmentary — Dates. —His — •—Later Babylonian . . Literary period. Subjects. Legends. — of in Interest of collection. con- — Babylonian — Babylonian Chronology. . legends.— — — CONTENTS. — Expedition — Fragments Creation Myth. JIAPTER The Discovery of the Genesis I. at Calah. Akkad. . form Inscriptions. Babylonian dition." Babel. Creation copies. to offer. king Ur. library. Fall. — —Sumir. « . condition. —Removal Saidanapalus. of Solar literature. — L^ddi. fragments. . — Izdubar. texts. Assyria. tablets. — Hammurabi. — Clay —Account " Daily Telegraph" — Creation — The graph" tablets. his on Deluge — —" Daily Tele- Mutilated exploits.

— Tiamat. gods. colonies. — Succoth Benoth. Sibyl. — Return — Larancha. Dispersion from —Babylonian —The — Titan and Prometheus. — Cannes. — — Ten — —Deluge. — Dragon Discussion. —Merodach. — traditions. — —Dragon Description Fifth or chaos. Parallel of —Age 61 Other Babylonian Accounts op the Creation. — teaching. Creation of animals. — Translation. Mutilated condition of tablets. Tower Babel. — — Mythology — Congreat — great — Three Twelve — — Equivalent Angels. Babylonian Mythology. — Variations of 101 Sin of Zu. and Nicolaus — Damaseenus. — Anunit. wicked — Seven —-War spirits. .. . Belus. Creation. — — — Ac— Composite — Variations. —Kissare and Assorus. Sisithrus. gods. Chapter V. — —Damascius. Colonies. — — Chaldean — Xisuthrus. . — Abydenus. — Babylon. ^Man. originally Tablet from Cutha. —Abyss — Crea- son with Genesis. Babylonian Legp:nd of the Creation. — Anatu. to Jupiter. of subjects. Biblical account. Berosus and his copyists. chaos. X Chaptee Chaldean III. in The Sin of the God Zu. Spirits. — — Sin moon —Ninip. Eagle-headed men. — Cory's translation. brothers. Legends through transmitted Berostjs and other Ancient Authors. his histor. gods. —The Ark. Chapter IV... Translation. the of tablet. Chapter VI. animals. banit. — —Three great — — —Moon. — Table . — CompariDoubtful fragments..———— — CONTENTS.-. heaven. of Hestiaeus. moon.- Poetical account of Creation Chapter VII.. Elu.. to Pantibiblon. — . — — His for disobedience. duties. kings. — Sun. — Shagods mas. — — Sacred —War with Tiamat. documents. — Tiamat. —Vul. quests. —Damascius. or Ilea. —Weapons. — Bel Venus. Stars. . . — — — Cannes. — Nergal. Triad. Obscurity of legend. Titan. —Armenia. local in origin. — Tauthe.. — Seven — story. List of gods. tion of Zirat- god.. — Cronos —To\vei. —Deluge. Ishtar. — — Anu. — Generation of sea. — Fall.-Mutilation — Curse —Destruction men. — Destruction of — .. of Antiquity. first Icing. Planets. — Merodach. — . Alorus. God Zu. — Alexander Poly- —Babylonia. tree or serpent. kings.51 Greek accounts. — Apollodorus. —Bel 37 Moymis. of Cuneiform of story accounts count of Berosus.^f Babel.

in the East. CONTENTS. Sarturda. —The —Eats —Anger — — Seven —Third — Speech — — His —Judgment Shamas. air. — Answer —Bird xi — — — to Yul. Ilea. Lubara. Cuapter XI. legend. Calls his sons. struction of drought. —Internal — — IsLtar. Vul's answer. Etana. God of Pestilence. — His show —His punishment.. Building. gods. Offers to recount story. Dispersion. — — Surippak. fortune.. — of the world. of Nebo. noticed frac- of Babel.. rud. Locality of representations Babil. quarrel. Plague . of City. and Lubara... tablet. Incantation. — — —Assyiian 153 Atarpi.. . — —Dream. tablets . Story of the fox. cunning. — Nature and presence —Divining by — Gods. —Common — — —Power — Shamas. — The Itak goes — god great Syria.. — —Notices Account of Deluge. — NimTower. lord of 113 Chapter VIII. — Riddle man. — Changes . destruction of Erech. of — Shamas. bird. of the horse trast with the horse. to —The Amarda Anu Speeches of Nebo. of Izdubar. of speech Serpent. of eagle. of the eagle. — Ark Izdubar. Zu Sarturda of prey. Sinuri. —Punishment —Famine. — — Seven — Anu. wars. of eagle of of of fox. — Age Legends. 123 Babylonian Fables... birds. —Further liorse. to arrest the Chapter IX. — Tue Exploits of Lubaha. of the of Ishtar. Anger a to — of the gods. 137 Fragments of Miscellaneous Texts. Description. . of universal ture of reed. in animals. Berosus. — Story ox. The — Destruction of — Speech of Elu. — Sin — Mother and daughter —Zamu.. serpent. to and —Power Blessings on his worship. tablet. and Sin Duran.— Sin and warrior gods. consort together. — — — Orders — Nusku. — Speech — Fable and —They —Speech —His good — Con—Hunting — Speech Fables. Plague. . sorrow.———— —— . — Song —God Ner. of world. wise of Birs The Izdubar Legends. destruction of Babylonians. of the ox. Babylonian cylinders. — Cutha. . —Nimrod.. Itak. Anu Speech of bird. —Goddess Karrak. —Prayer glory of of Lubara. — people. the ox. —Tower — — Obscurity of —Fragmentary —Not by —De— Babylon. — Story the caught. Chapter X.

descent to . — Tammuz. — — Its contents. bani. — Speech — or tiger. of and wanderings Illness Meeting of Heabani and Izdubar. Triumph . Kizir. Chapter XVI. —The Heabani and the trees. —Humbaba. —Heabani. Ishtar's love.— —— CONTENTS. Festival at Erech. struction of people. Traditions. Chapter XII. Sambat. build the ark. • — Translation. to forest. petition. The —Tempt of Heabani. — His wisdom.. — Hea- —The —Urhamsi.167 . Illness of Izdubar. dream.. . —Lament Chapter XV. refusal. Izdubar. Conversation. — to forest. — — of First Tablet. of Izdubar. —Amours —Ascends Heaven.. • 193 —Meeting — Humbaba. Izdubar king —His by — and —The midannu — Friendship with Heabani Petition to Shamas. Hasisadra 241 The Story of the Flood and Conclusion. Siduri and Sabitu. Description of Izdubar. — — — Izdubar. — building. Her . for triumph. feast. promises. conversation. — Ilumbaba. Eleventh . Sphinx. — Might His journey —Dream to — Zaidu. — Extent of Legends. of Izdubar. to —The Flood. — — Forest —Dwelling — Journey The Adventures Chapter XIV. with Izdubar's answer. Chapter XIII. — tablets. curses. — —Death of Scorpion men. Izdubar's curse.. Ishtar's bull. The gods. Desert of paradise. Elamite dominion. — De—End of Deluge. Tammuz Release 217 Illness and Wanderings of Izdubar. conclusion. Slain of Ishtar. —The — Water — Ragmu. Ishtar's despair. Ishtar's anger. —Her offer of marriage.. of deatli. to Description. seven gates. —His Erech. — — —Introdnc—Destruction tyrant Meeting of HcaLani and Izdubar. of 207 of Ishtar. of Isbtar. Command tablet. xii —Twelve tion. and fame of Izdubar. of Conquest.. Izdubar's Heabani.. Sin of the world. —The —The — — Hades. Dream of • Description. — —His —Journey Mas. of Izdubar. — —Her — —The —Uddusunamir.. . Destruction op the Tyrant Humbaba. — Harimtu —Entrance Humbaba. solitary life.. —Fear — —The — of the gods. baba. . Hum- of —Death . — — Dates —Elamite of Isbtar. — Adventures Deluge and — — Kingdom Nimrod. region. Identifications.

— Ishmacl. in ark. Ecsting of Ark. —The birds. of Eesurrection of — Comparison with — — —Ten —Early Burial of warrior. Dm-ation of generations. Comicction of legends. of Ur. legends. —The xUi descent from — Speeches —Translation Izdubar.— — - CONTENTS. 2G3 of Izdubar Chapter XVII. Genesis. —Abram. — —The — Cure — Syrian ark. of Berosus. cities. Age of descent. Ileabani.— His — Concealed — —Garden —Age Nimrod. — Assyrian 295 Babylonian of Notices of Genesis. —Doubtful — —Izdubar —Urukh — Cannes. birth. theories. — — —Mount Heabani. Conclusion. 'Eden. of Chaldccs. Points of toiitacl:. . seals. Creation. — Correspondence names.— —Egyptian names. sculptures . deluge. nation. sacrifice. —Ui — Sargon. tlie of Hasisadra. — His — Lament over of gods. return.


Composite animals. Tvevorse of inscribed terra cotta tablet. . Fight between Bel and the dragon. 62. lOG. to face p. from cylin- der. 12. 4. Sacred tree or grove. from Babylonian cylinder. Men engaged in building. with attendant cherubim. from Assyrian cylinder. Photograph. 39. from Babylonian cylinders. 158. for the conflict with the dragon. Merodach or Bel armed in fiom an early Babylonian cylinder.C. showing the various fragments of which 3. containing the account of the Deluge.LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. Bel encountering the dragon. tree. 10. Sacred tree. 6. from Nimroud sculpture. 5. FRONTISPIECE. Men engaged in building. Eagle-headed men. 159. conflict with a lion. Fight between Merodach (Bel) and the dragon. 89. 7. Izdubar (Nimroil) in from an early Babylonian cylinder. it is composed. 95. 99. from the seal of a Syrian cliief. 91. 102. 2. 10. Oannes and other Babylonian mythological figures. attendant figures and eagle-headed men. ninth century B. from cylinder.. from Babylonian cylinder. seated figure on each side and serpent background. 102. 9. from Babylonian cylinder. 41. 11. Sacred 8. 13. from Assyrian cylinder. to face p. 14 and 15.

239. Cannes. a lion. 297.LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 24. 21. 26. 163. the site of Ur of the Chaldees. Tower in stages. and Izdubar. Mugheir. 188. Izdubar and Ileabani in conflict with the lion and bull. Izdubar. to face 174. or Noah. from strangling Khorsabad sculpture. 25. from an Assyrian cylinder. and Hasisadra (Noah) in the ark. 257. the supposed site of Tower the of Bahel. Hasisadra. 22. 19. . 306. Composite figures (scorpion men). 237. Bowareyeh Mound at Warka (Erech). 17. from early Babylonian cylinder. 18. xvi 16. 162. 27. from an Assyrian bas-relief. from early Babylonian cj'linder. composite figures. Migration of Eastern tribe. View of Birs Nimrud. to face p. 283. 164. 262. from an early Babylonian cylinder. Izdubar p. the site of the temple of Bel. from Nimroud sculpture. View of the Babil mound at Babylon. 23. 20. site of the temple of Ishtar.

offer. preserved the in works of various later writers. — Clay records. B . Fragments of Creation — Solar Myth. the period before the Flood. the Deluge. literature. exploits. — Babylonian origin of Assyrian Mythological — Izdubar. Fall. — Tower of Babel.C. &^ Berosus. and. his —Discovery of Deluge —Mutilated condition of —Lecture on Deluge — " Daily Telegraph " — Expedition to Assyria. as this was three hundred years after the Jews were carried captive to Babylon." — " Daily Telegraph " — Interest of Creation legends. Historical texts. lived in the time of Alexander the Great and his somewhere about B.— Chapter I. who recorded these events. however. texts. tablets. tablets. Berosus. — Account of creation in " Telegraph. tablets. Cosmogony of Berosus. THE DISCOVERY OF THE GENESIS LEGENDS. collection. — —Discovery of Cuneiform Inscriptions. texts. and other matters forming parts of Genesis. his works did not j^rove successors. have shown that the Babylonians were acquainted with traditions referring to the Creation. — Second journey to Assyria. 330 to 260. — List of ^^P^^^HE fragments of the Chaldean historian. — The —New fragments. tablets.

Mr.THE BISGOVEBY OF 2 that these traditions were in Babylonia before the Jewish captivity. Rassam. Layard's treasures. The stance attention of decipherers drawn was in the first in- to the later historical inscriptions. Sennacherib. estimated the number of these fragments of inscriptions at over twenty thousand. have been subsequently found by Mr. H. and directly numerous other ancient sovereigns. opposite the Mosul. On form the discovery and decipherment of the cuneiinscriptions. bearing on the Bible. and further collections. and who was the first to recognize their value. also forming parts of this library. Layard discovered part of the town of Royal Assyrian library. Oriental scholars hoped that copies of the Babylonian histories and traditions would one day be discovered. par- ticularly to those of the Assyrian kings with the Hebrew monarchy. Nabonidus. and myself Sir Henry Rawlinson. Esarhaddon. Inscriptions of Tiglath Pileser. Loftus. Sargon. Shalmaneser. and giving new Hght upon parts of ancient history before obscure. Nebuchadnezzar. and could not afford testimony in favour of the great antiquity of these legends. and we should thus gain earlier and more satisfactory evidence as to these primitive histories. mound In the of Kouyunjik. for a long . who made the preliminary examination of Mr. Mr. and number inscriptions a very large importance rewarded the toil contemporary in this section of of texts of great of Assyrian scholars.

it . as the Assyrian nation was mostly southern and older kingdom. Attention was early drawn to these points by Sir Henry RawHnson. copied it their and sources. for cuneiform inscriptions were some years first after deciphered. 3 time occupied almost exclusively the attention of students. and overshadowed any work in other divi- sions of Assyrian literature. and suggested the great probability that the accounts in Genesis had a Baby- lonian origin. who pointed out several coinci- dences between the geography of Babylonia and the Eden account of in Genesis. Although civilization was known that Assyria borrowed its and written characters from Babylonia. I noticed references to the Creation in a tablet numbered .THE GENESIS LEGENDS. as new texts were brought became evident that the Assyrians literature largely from Babylonian the events of Genesis into notice. it yet. it hostile to the could not be guessed beforehand that the peculiar national traditions of Babylonia would be transported to Assyria. appeared likely that search among the fragments of Assyrian inscriptions would yield traces at least of some of these ancient Babylonian legends. Under the these circumstances. in the Museum allusions in other tablets to similar I therefore set about searching through the collection. When at work preparing the fourth volume of Cuneiform Inscriptions. nothing was looked for or discovered bearing upon but. legends and K 63 .

I soon found half of a curious tablet which had evidently contained originally text. all the tablets and fragments of the same class together." to find.THE DISCOVERY OF 4 collection. I had been able to complete several texts. to easily find and ject required. On looking first down and sixth) were entirely the third column. which had previously selected under the I head of " Mythological tablets. The mythological contained division and relating to the mythology. I saw its of the finding no resting- at once that I had here discovered a portion at least of the Chaldean account of the Deluge. and found speech from it was in the through form of a the hero of the Deluge to a person . Commencing among a steady search these frag- ments. some of these legends. and place and returning. all which the gods took a leading tablets all the legends in with part. two others six (the second and still fifth) were imperfect. at any time any sub- to get a general idea of the contents of the collection. my eye caught the statement that the ship rested on the mountains of Nizir. together prayers and similar subjects. followed by the account sending forth of the dove. This mythological collection was one of six divisions into which I had parted the Museum collection of cuneiform inscriptions for con- By placing venience of working. if possible. I then proceeded to read the document. about half remaining. two of these columns of and fourth) were (the third nearly perfect. while the remaining columns (the lost.

I had discovered that the Izdubar series contained at least twelve tablets. for there were thousands of fragments to go over. I My found a frag- of another copy of the Deluge. however. proved to belong to the same series. This search was a long and heavy work. proved successful. meeting of the Society of Bibhcal December 3rd. and. ment meaning. 1872. Deluge I in the state in now had which first the account of the I published it at the Archosology. the sixth. but these. them in one after another until I Portions of a greater part of the second column. on comparison. and contained so little of the subject. 231. and gradually collected several other portions of this tablet. thhd copy next turned up. containing again the sending forth of the birds. . on the other hand. and then I commenced a search for any miss- ing portions of the tablets. completed a considerable part of the and sixth columns. while on the one side I had gained as yet only two frag- ments of the Izdubar legends to judge from. when joined together.TUB GENESIS LEGENDS. series the tablet describing the Deluge was I afterwards Of this the eleventh and K 231. fitting had completed the which. to the same hero Izdubar K. the unsorted fragments were so small. that it was extremely difficult to ascertain their search. I recollected a leo^end belonoino. Numerous other fragments turned up at the same time. 5 whose name appeared to be Izdubar. and found this to be their exact number. which. while they hicrcuscd my knowledge of the legends.

who is newspaper. E. Soon after I commenced excavating at Kouyunjik. on the site of the palace of Assurbanipal. but these were in such mutilated condition that I could not make a connected translation of them. leave the British absence for six months being granted to purpose. which the next fragments of these legends. Arnold. had already sent to me expressing his interest these discoveries. time happened the intervention of the proprietors of the " Daily Telegraph " Mr." the history of this brought me me to of for this work. including tne war of the gods and three fables. and they directed me to go Assyria and make a short excavation. Some other fragmentary legends. I also found at the same time. in my discoveries. and immediately after my in lecture he came armed with a proposition from the proprietors of the " Daily Telegraph " to re-open. at their cost.THE DISCOVEBY OF 6 could not be arrano-ed in order from want of indicao tion of the particular tablets to which they belonged. I gave a sketch of the Izdubar legends. This proposition was submitted to the trustees of Museum. my In on the Deluge lecture tablets. I found a . and expressed belief the that Chaldean various other similar stories bearing upon the of Genesis. I have related. on the direction of that paper. " Assyrian expedition. the excavations in Assyria. new information on the subject and gain some of these legends. which Just at this my contained inscriptions would prove of the highest Book interest.

and not far from the place of the Deluge fragment. This fragment described the destruction of the bull of Ishtar by Izdubar and Heabani. excepting the one with the account of the creation of animals. this was the upper corner of a tablet. At that time I did not recognize the importance of these fragments. new frao^ment of the Chaldean account of the Deluo-e belonging to the the 7 command filling Some first to build column of the tablet. two Further on other portions Creation and the fall of of the creation of I discovered of this legend. as I wards to return to England. which I found afterwards. trench the other having part of war between the gods and eyil spu-its. I came upon a fragment of the sixth tablet of the same series in this trench. which was already still the most perfect one in the trench in which Izdubar The series. other fragments. My next discovery here was a frag- ment evidently belonging to the of the creation world. coveries in this direction. and. further completed this tablet. and nearly- up the most considerable blank in the story. had immediately I made no after- further dis- . found the fragment in question I must have passed very near the place where the Assyrians kept a series of inscriptions belonging to the early history of Soon world. relating and fill the ark. and gave a fragmentary account animals. an incident often depicted on early Babylonian gems.THE GENESIS LEGENDS. the after I discovered the fragment of the Deluge tablet. one giving the in man this .

I Some months was engaged in my I think further do not warrant passed. 2468. which view. I was. was copied into several of the papers.THE DISCOVERY OF 8 On my return from the east. that that they symbolized the passage of the sun is. at that time hardly prepared to publish these legends. during which second journey to Assyria. Lenormant. Rev. which appeared in the " Athenaeum. each sign of the tablet representing a This opinion. and in realizing the results of that expedition. Sayce. A. which at once attracted attention. fact that these leofends covci ed twelve tablets led to the impression that they were a form of the solar myth. they could be completed . however. and in January. I will give as nearly as I can the contents of the Izdubar legends. brought from Genesis legends Assj^ria several I fragments again of the which helped to complete these curious stories. H." No. I once more this a regular search for Very soon afterwards I these commenced fragments. zodiac. but I think myself it on too rests In a subsequent chapter insecure a basis to be true. I published some of the discoveries I had made. succeeded in discovering a notice of the building of the tower of Babel. as I had not ascertained how from our far j)i"esent collections. on joining the fragments of the Deluge or Izdubar series. through the separate heavens. and started by Sir other scholars. first Henry Rawlinson. was at once ac- cepted by M. The that they formed exactly twelve tablets. 1875. and I now found. and a notice of it.

Subsequently the ruins were turned over in search of treasure. and .THE GENESIS LEGENDS. if the inscrip- they would present very perfect. to have and many of them were cracked and scorched by the heat at the burning of the palace. little dif- ficulty to the translator. 9 Subsequent search did not show that any further fragments of the Babel tablet were in the British Museum. and these chemicals form crystals in every available crack. and then. The greatest difficulty with which I had to contend in all these researches and deficient There can be no doubt found. splits The growth the tablets. shivered. wards transferred to the library. every spring soaking through the ground. to complete their ruin. The reason why these many scattered. the rain. and the different parts so be explained from the nature of the material which the tablets are composed. tablets were composed of fine clay of and the changes These and were inscribed with cuneiform characters while in a soft state were then baked in a furnace until hard. but I soon added several fresh portions to the fragmentary history of the Creation and Fall. undergone by them since they were written. may legends are in so fragments. they after- These texts appear been broken up when Nineveh was destroyed. and the tablets still further broken. of the crystals further some of them being hterally . tions was the extremely mutilated condition in which the tablets were were that. saturates them with water containing chemicals.

Many of the twenty years old fragmentary tablets which have been in the British to considerably Museum have by fragments which I been added found during . which rian tablets. The clay records of the Assyrians are by these means so broken up. showing the various fragments of which it IS composed. text. and it is only by collecting and joining together the various fragments that these ancient texts can be restored. Reverse of Inscribed Terra Cotta Tablet containing the Account OF THE Deluge. Deluge In this tablet there are sixteen fragments. that they are in some cases divided into over one hundred fragments .THE DISCOVEEY OF 10 Some idea of the mutilated condition of the Assy- and of the work of restoring a single be gained from the engraving below. will exhibits the present appearance of one of the tablets.

and in the same trench I sub- sequently found the fragment which I afterwards recognized as part of the Chaldean story of the . and yet tliere 11 remain at least 20. was soon fol- . 1875 " Having recently made a Book series of coveries relating to the was : important dis- of Genesis. my conviction that all Genesis would receive tions the new Account of the 3. I sent the following account to the editor of the " Daily Telegraph. among some remarkable texts. I discovered the missing portion of the first which I column of the Deluge tablet. as your readers know. Being now many urged by friends who were interested in the subject.000 fragments buried in the ruins without the recovery of which it is impossible to complete these valuable Assyrian inscriptions. which I delivered on Dec. I stated narratives earlier of inscrip- and Assyrian I was " My lecture. an account of sent home. but I little thought at that time that so near to finding most of them.— THE GENESIS LEGENDS. which form part of the collection Museum by presented to the British of ' The Daily Telegraph. lowed by the proposal of your proprietors and the organizing of Assyria. light from the so long buried in the Chaldean mounds 1872.' the proprietors I venture once more to bring Assyrian subjects before your readers. my " In lecture on the Chaldean Deluge." which printed in that paper on the 4th of March. ' The Daily Telegraph When excavating at ' expedition to Kouyunjik during that expedition. my two journeys.

but I had no leisure to look again at those particular legends until the end of January in this year. the most interesting and remarkable this story. which (as I had then no idea of the general subject of the tablet) did not appear very valuable. of the temptation. and had not time to properly examine my great prize. to the general public. and of the when I was. On my return to England some other discoveries among pursuit my of these this fragment store. while still working under your auspices. fall. another portion belonging to — more precious in fact. I excavated later on. whicli relic I liave noticed already in your columns.THE DISGOVEBY OF 12 Creation. starting ' The Daily first noticed. I subsequently went a second time to Assyria. the first lines in the note-book of my first subsequently found several smaller . I only copied the two or three first lines. This turns out to contain the story of man's original innocence. I down at Kouyunjik. and re- turned to England in June. on the eve of departing.' with the rest of theu* collection. made I and in the was overlooked. and I forthwith packed transport to England. 1874 . far cuneiform tablet yet discovered. to the British Museum. where was presented by the it box in the it for arrived safely. Then. and these I soon found the overlooked fragment had excavated of which I took expedition. which I had began to among which I collect other portions of the series. I with the fragment of the Creation in Telegraph' collection. and of proj^rietors 'The Daily Telegraph. I found it. I think.

the heritage of all Christian countries. giving the history of the world from the Creation doAvn to some period found also other these. and the his- tory upon it corresponding is much account longer and fuller than the the in Book of Genesis. Avorld-wide importance of these subjects will therefore give the especially the newly discovered one relating paralleled value. the Creation and Fall. " The first series.' may The Story of when complete must have which I call ' consisted of nine or ten tablets at least. I Man. pieces in the old Museum and collection.TEE GENESIS LEGENDS. it may be said that the account of the In fall of man. after the Fall of Linked with on series of legends pri- mitive history. that such a should have resulted from your exj^edi- tion. and an un- glad. the Fall. and treasure I am to inscriptions. particular. for it is pivots on which one of the Christian religion turns. indeed. every word has been scanned by eager scholars. while the age and authenticity of the narratives have been discussed on all sides. form parts of a continuous series 13 all join or of legends. has been the centre of the The this controversy. With respect to these Genesis narratives a furious strife has existed for many years. and every possible meaning which the various passages could bear has been suggested. including the story of the building of the Tower and of Babel of the Confusion of Tongues. " Whatever the primitive account may have been .

it is in the Pentateuch omits a explanations the fall pent. in the inscriptions. The desolate and empty state of the universe and the generation by chaos of monsters are vividly The chaos is presided over by a female power named Tisalat and Tiamat. with the lightning playing before him.TEE DISCOVERT OF 14 Book from whicli the earlier part of the was evident that the brief narration given copied. &c. and the description of magnificent. when there existed a chaos or confusion. as to the origin of evil. as it proceeds. as in the . through He is represented riding in a chariot celestial space. the Thalatth of Berosus . and wielding a thunderbolt as a weapon. hand against the sanctuary of the him is really of heaven. surrounded by the storms. but. the Such points as these are included in the I can say little Cuneiform narrative. wickedness of the of the angels. of the fall of the celestial being who appears to correspond bition he raises his God In his am- to Satan. We are told. " This rebellion leads to a conquest of the powers of war evil. corresponding to given. the Assyrian account agrees rather with the Bible than with the short account from Berosus. course creating the universe in in heaven and the the gods in due stages. but of course about them until ser- prepare full translations of the I legends. — for number of Genesis of incidents and instance. "The narrative on commences the Assyrian tablets of the period before the world with a description was created.

it the noble faculty of speech." This will serve to exhibit the appearance these . as upon the fragment which I first journey to Assyria. their as to comparison with the Biblical narrative. 15 Mosaic narrative. number of important questions as to the date and origin of the legends. invoking on his head since afflicted humanity. this condition of blessing does not last long before man. story. surveying each step of the work and 2^ronouncing nates in and free The divine work cuhnithe creation of man. besides. " The Deity then delivers a long address to the newly created being. and how far they may supplement the Mosaic account. and the discovery of this single relic in creases falls him a my over the value of opinion in' The Daily Telegraph' collection. excavated during my all many times . and endowed by the gods with good. Deity then pronounces upon the curse. and pointing out the glory of his But state. hope during the spring to the collection of smaller and to parts of the legends which There will more of the in a position to give the full transla- arise. yielding to temptation. a light upon any smaller may have escaped me. but I find time to search over fragments of tablets. instructing him in all his duties and privileges. " I have at present recovered no and am not yet tions and details. I have before stated.THE GENESIS LEGENDS. who is made upright from evil. and terrible the evils which have These last details are.

was inaccurate will be evident it in several points. After I had published this notice in the " Daily Telegraph " I set to work to look over the fragments in the collection. but these added knowledge. the inaccuracies in the account being due to the broken state of my the tablets and recent knowledge of them. It is a notable fact that the discovery of these legends was one of the fruits of the expedition organized by the proprietors of the " Daily Telegraph. only enabling A minor fragments. no frao. both as to the order and translation of the legends but I had not expected had not been time it to be otherwise. The Genesis legends which I had collected from . me httle later I discovered a little to my my notice." and these legends and the Deluge fragments form the most valuable results of that expedition. THE BISGOVEBY OF 16 me legends presented to soon after I discovered them.- satisfactory- account of them could be given. On comparing and notes that my I this account with the translations have given in first notice this book. for there to collect and translate the ments. and I had then to copy and translate the tablets as far as their mutilated condition would allow. until that was done. This closed my discoveries so far as the fragments of the tablets were concerned. and. in search of other and found several.. new fragment of the to correct tenth tablet of the Deluge series. and last of all a further portion of the sixth tablet of these legends.

second account of the creation having a closer correspondence with the account of Berosus. 10. 11. 8. 5. the father of the gods. 9. Legend of the sin of the God Zu. 6. Legend of the god Sarturda. 3. the powers of 2. follows 1. Legend of the tower of Babel. A and a and man. Legend of the good man Atarpi. and appear to belong to the same early literary age. Story of the ox and the horse. and her return. Collection of five tablets giving the exploits of Lubara the god of the pestilence. . 12. 7. Story of the wise man who put forth a riddle to the gods. c dispersion. Story of the descent of the goddess Ishtar or Veims into Hades. 4. who insults Elu. who turned into a bird.— THE GENESIS LEGENDS. All these stories are similar of Genesis. and Story of the Eagle and Etana. apparently part of a third version of the creation. A Bihngual legend of the history of the seven evil spirits. So far as I have made out they are as : A long account of the origin of the world. and the wickedness of the world. 17 the various Assyrian fragments included numerous other stories beside those Avhich parallel the account Book in the in character. the conflict fall of man from between the gods and evil. the creation of the animals a sinless state.

15.TEE GENESIS LEGENDS. and an account of the flood. 18 13. with the his- tory of Izdubar. Story of the fox. Legend of Sinuri. show that there was a considerable These collection of such primitive stories almost unrepresented in our present collection. 14. Izdubar legends: twelve tablets. 16. . Various fragments of other legends.

Difficulties as to date. king of Ur. — Izdubar legends. to to library. —Later Babylonian — Creation and copies. — Sargon of Assyria. the latter belonging to the The tablets. — Urukh. which are of time of Assurbanipal. —Baby—Arrangement of —Literary period. Cliro- literature. condition. and . Babylonian astrology. —Babylo— nian — Assyi'ian empire. and The fragments of their terra cotta tablets containing these legends were found in the dt^bris which covers the palaces called the South' West Palace and the North Palace at Kouyunjik. — Sennacberib. — Sumir. fall. — Kouynnjik —Fragmentary — Subjects. —Dates. — War of Gods. Babylonian library. — Hammurabi. at library. —Library Calab. are nearly all in fragments. tablets. all sizes. tablets. from one inch long to over a foot square. — Akkad. — Removal of Library Nineveh. Descrijition N order to understand the position of these legends it is necessary to give some account of the wonderful literature of the copyists. — His additions of contents. —Assurbanipal or Sardanapalus. the Babylonians Ancient Assyrians. the former building being of the age of Sennacherib. —Babylonian lonian source of nology. — City of Assur. literature. libraries. BABYLONIAN AND ASSYRIAN LITERATURE.— Chapter II. — Assyrian — Syllabaries and bilingual —Mutilated condition.

and there are occasional clusters of frao-ments at various heig-hts in the earth which covers the buildings. or subjects were on other cases the commenced on tablets of the number of same tablets size Stories and continued and form. tablets in a series in some and on e amounting to over one hundred. in cases they lay in groups or patches on the pavement.BABYLONIAN AND 20 in consequence of the changes which have taken place in the ruins the fragments of the same tablet are sometimes scattered widely apart. Difl'erent fragments of the same tablets and cylinders are found in separate chambers which have no immediate connection with each other. showing that the present distribution of the fragments has nothing to do with the original position of the tablets. chambers they lay covering the whole other floor. and have fallen on the deIn some of the lower struction of the building. the series of Astrolo- numbering over seventy tablets. appears It from a consideration of the present positions of the fragments that they were originally in the upper chambers of the palace. Each subject or series of tablets had a title. A consideration of the inscriptions shows that these tablets have been arranged according to their subjects in various positions in the libraries. the title being formed by the first phrase or part of single subject phrase in the subject. Thus. bore the . gical tablets. The other fragments through all are scattered singly the upper earth which covers the floors and walls of the palace.

appointed for the store of the tablets. Elu.000 inscribed tablets. probably floors of the palaces. take charge of them." this being the of the At first tablet. show the and other small tablets. catalogues of these documents written like them on clay tablets with titles oval upon them. thus : 21 " the first the end of its number When the "When the tablet of Anu. and custodians or librarians to It is probable that all these regulations were of great antiquity. Elu. it appears probable that there were in the Royal Library at Nineveh over 10." &c. title "When tlie commencement gods Anu. every one except the last in a series ing of the end a catch phrase. Elu." the second tablet of Anu. There had first at the were beside. further . in gods gods to preserve the proj^er position of each tablet. including almost every subject in ancient literature. and. There were regular on the uj^per libraries or chambers. apparently labels for the various series of works. All these arrangements care taken with respect to literary matters.ASSYRIAN LITEBATUBE. and the most probable period at which the original copies greatest may have been number inscribed.. and were copied like the tablets from the Babylonians. In considering a subject like the present one it is a point of the utmost importance to define as closely as possible the date of our present copies of the legends. &c. consist- line of the following tablet. Judging from the fragments discovered. every tablet in each series was written the work. By far the of the tablets brought from Nineveh .

C. Written many of and appealing to the strongest feelings of the people on one side. copies were multiplied. themselves that this It is it is to Babylonia to look to ascertain the approximate dates of the original documents. but it tablets are conclusive and have not been called in question. Clay. the material on which they were written. who reigned over Assyria B. was everywhere abundant. increased by the following The difficulty here is considerations : it appears that at an early period in Babylonian history a great literary development took place. and numerous works were produced which embodied the prevailing myths.BABYLONIAN AND 22 belong to tlie age of Assurbaiiipal. or registering the highest efforts of their science on the became the standards for Babylonian literature. but are only copies from earlier texts. and every copy of the Genesis legends yet found was inscribed during his reign. and of course we have unfortunate that never preserved. religion. in a noble style of poetry. and later generations were content to copy these writings instead of making new works for themselves. and by the veneration in which they other. these texts were held these texts fixed and stereotyped the style . the date of the original copies thus a wide door is is for difference of The Assyrians acknowledge literature was borrowed from Babylonian sources. them and science of that day. 670. equally stated and acknowledged on all is hands that these tablets are not the originals. and thrown open opinion on this point. The statements on the present on this point.

the Assyrians copied the Genesis legends. have a slightly similar case in England. and of devotion literature remained speech of the bulk of the people was the gradually modified . is always a thorny subject. and dry and unsatisfactory to most persons beside. where the language of devotion and the style of the Bible differ in several respects from those of the English of to-day. 23 of Babylonian literature. although is. and who were one thousand rabi. The private and in the time of Assurbanipal. lano-uas^e fixed. These considerations show the the age of a culty is document from further increased hangs over all Chronology its difficulty of fixing style. there being no sensible difference in style to match the long interval between them. of the day was in very different letters and despatches of this age which have been discovered differ widely from the language of the contemporary public docaments and relio. and the diffi- by the uncertainty which Babylonian chronology. some . Sargon. happens that texts of Rim-agu. when the common speech style. There the however. and the language in which they were written remained the classical style in the country down to the Persian conquest. reason to believe that.ASSYRIAN LITEEATUBE. showino^ the chansre the Ian- guage had undergone since the style of these was We fixed. nezzar and Nabonidus. Thus it Hammu- years before Nebuchad- show the same language as the texts of these later kings.ious writin2:s.

C. BABYLONIAN AND 24 notice must. however. Before the time of Hammurabi... 1300 for the conquest of Babylonia by Tugultininip.C. it is best to start chronology is not in question. so later than the sixteenth 1550 may be accepted as the most moderate one possible for the epoch of Hammurabi. foreigners Arabs. because there is is of no evidence of these legends being written after his epoch. In this case the later and. had been may be the government was in the hands of and was much more centralized than before. to this. or obtained dominion there under a king named Hammurabi. The date of Hammurabi consequence in the question. and consider no one. be taken of show the reasons for the dates it here. B. however. in order to and epochs fixed upon for the Genesis legends. whose date is thus Many scholars do not agree Hammurabi much more ancient fixed about B. during which a foreign race ruled at Babylon. fixes him century that the date B. Before this date we have a period of about 250 years. This circumstance fact that accounted for by the during the period following the conquest of Hammurabi foreigners. Babylon being. so the sole capital. there ruled several . 1550.C. It is is Berosus calls these known as to their supposed that this race came into Babylonia. which had been centres of hterature suffering a decline. with the generally received date of about B. king of Assyria. but nothing original home or race. the great cities far as it we know.C.

. but they probably covered the period from B. Era of Urukh. 2000 to 1550. Their inscrip- of Ur. It must. cities tions whom we 25 do not determine the length of their rule. 2000 will show evidences taken by the kings is . It appears probable that previous to the reign of Urukh the two divisions of Sumir and Akkad were separate monarchies and it is therefore likely that any literature written before B. 2000 epoch of independent king- Babylonia ." that is. somewhere between latitudes 32° and B. Hammurabi the that of title of honour principally " King of Sumir and Akkad. possess numerous monu- These monarchs principally reigned at the races of kings. 2000. Karrak. the metropolis. Larsa. many scholars place him From the time of Urukh to however. 2000. Ur rise of Sumir. 33°.C.C. King of Lower and Upper Babylonia. be remarked that at a much earlier date. of this division. and be much more ancient that several of the lowest them may : Down doms in to B. and in the present state of our may be researches he fixed B.C. always bear- ing in mind that the diff*erent dates are we can fairly assume. and Akkad. the principal centre of activity being Akkad. The rough this period outlines of Babylonian chronology at may be arranged as follows. the southern part of the country. a region on the Euphrates. The name satisfactory first ments is whose time we have the evidence of contemporary monu- monarch of the in read Urukh.— ASSYRIAN LITEBATUBE.C. king of Ur. of ments.C.

it is quite were buildings and inscriptions and there are two literary works should judge to be certainly older than this epoch. 2000 to 1850.C. B.C. Nituk or and Assan. apparently later additions. 1850.BABYLONIAN AND 26 B. Gutim or Goim. Martu. In the glosses. 1700. want of a better title. and some parts. appears to belong to the northern half of the country. 2000. the great Chaldean and a legend which.C. Asmun. give also the kingdoms of Kassi. It and implies it to be the mentions besides. Karrak the metropolis. for work on Astrology. 1600. 1550. the kingdoms of Subartu. body of the work there appear or the peoples. king of Akkad. Sumir. and always speaks as a separate state. king of Babylon. and Elam. mentioning kingSr I any gloss containing a royal name have not noticed later than the kings of Ur. Babylon the metropolis. revival of the power of Akkad. any monu- fix the dates of B. Yamutbal. of the period B. Era of Sargon. Era of Ismi-clagan. king of Karrak. certain that there before that date which I . namely.C. The work I have ^provisionally called " The Ex- . The Chaldean work. Era of Hammurabi. containing the bulk of their astrology. B. Rise of Larsa as metropolis.C. or Syria. Although we cannot ments before the time of Urukh.C. perhaps of later date than the body of the work. I call the Exploits of Lubara. Kissati. B. that of Akkad is to Akkad. leading state.

C. but rather an argument is for a later date than I have chosen. About the same time tion. for while there are over seventy large tablets of the astrology. It seems. containing the story of the Flood.C. ploits of great 27 Lubara. is much a shorter one. Kassi. however. The Izdubar legends. and were common The in some form to all the story of the Creation and Fall belongs to the uj^per or Akkad division of the country. the principal being the people of the coast. and at least as early as B. from the indications in the inscrij^tions. Avhich I should provisionally place about the same date. tradition and there which contained is was a third account from the City of Cutha. but even this is of great antiquity. closely agreeing in some respects with the account handed down by Berosus. only contained five small This work notices a large number of peoples tablets.ASSYRIAN LITEBATUBE. Elam. a series of tablets a totally different probably written . and what I beheve to be the history of Nimrod. that . the notice of the Assyrians is not mentioned. Goim. Akkad . 2000. on the other hand. were probably written in the south of the country. of the Creation. These legends were. 2000." and which also bears evidence of antiquity. traditions before they were committed to writing. which was accomplished at least B. and may not have been committed to writing so early as the Izdubar legends. country. the uniting of Sumir and Akkad. Subartu. or states. Sutu. Lullubu. as the account of the Crea- on evil spirits. Assyria. this.

In the first for we place. and other similar legends.C. and probably most of the syllabaries. it must be noticed that the Assyrians themselves state that the documents were copied from ancient Babylonian copies. In spite of the indications as to peculiarities of worship." vol. 2000 to 1850 a general collecting and development of the various traditions of the Creation. ii. and no other that this . but a few are of later date.BABYLONIAN AND 28 there happened in tlie interval B.C. belong to this period also. . bilingual and explanatory tablets. Again. in " is actual proof of the antiquity of a an Assyrian copy of part of which Cuneiform Inscriptions. a new set of astro- was written. Flood.C. is but one or two cona perfectly reasonable likely period can be found the original composition of the documents unless ascend to a greater antiquity. A little later. and in some cases state that the old copies were partly illegible even in their day. Tower of Babel. king of Akkad. together with a long work omens these ajipear to belong to the on terrestrial kingdom and period of Sargon. vocabularies. names of states and capitals. historical allu- and other evidence. when our only copies in many cases are Assyrian transcripts made in the reign of Assurbanipal. in one case there text. siderations may show view. logical tablets about B. 1600. Some at least. is published plate 54. Nos. in the seventh century B. grammars and . sions many it may seem hazardous to persons to fix the dates of original documents so high.

the this Babylonian copy being about one thousand years older than the Assyrian one. according to the ordinary chronology of our Bibles. and of it the to the time of in some points Book of Genesis. far as known contemporary inscriptions are . kings mentioned in it. belonging. those given in the Many of tions have been discovered but there can be dition. exhibit great difference in details. which will one day clear up the difficulties which now explorations meet us So at will reveal perfect copies. It however. IGOO. in sadly mutilated con- no more doubt that future and numerous companion and explanatory texts. and during this period appears that of the traditions universe.C. probable that most of the legends is. and human Nimrod. as embodied in the various works. Taking the period of literary development in Babylonia as extending from B.- the present volume had treated of in existed traditions in the country long before they as were com- mitted to writing.C.ASSYRIAN LITEBATUBE. it roughly synchronizes with the period from Abraham to Moses. 2000 to 1550. we may say. showing that they had passed through many changes. 3 & 29 In a collection of tablets discovered by Mr. existed history parallel creation down to. 4. and some of these traditions. Loftus at Senkereh. is part of an ancient Babylonian copy of very text. according to the to about B. the documents embodying these tradi- identical with. every step of their consideration.

and explana- tions. we find a great accession of material. tables. and their manifestations and Grammatical works. to the period of the Passing kingdoms of Karrak. almost every sented by contemporary specimens. and Mathematical works. and some of be of much greater antiquity. titles. cube . literary being repre- class of writing It is certain that even then the inscribed clay tablets were not isolated. and these some of the principal collections were placed at From Senkerch and cities. the following being some of the contents of this earliest known library: Mythological tablets. king of Ur. v It is generally considered that the earliest inscrip- tions of any importance which we now possess belong to the time of Urukh. however numerous and important are the Genesis legends. Larsa. calculations. neighbourhood have come our earliest its specimens of these literary tablets. square root. and Akkad. lists of words. 2. we cannot consider our present researches and discoveries as anything like sufficient to give a fair view of the literature of Assyria and Babjdonia. they form but a small portion of the whole literature of the country. lists of the gods. but already they were arranged in collec- tions or libraries. 3. The principal inscriptions of this period consist of texts on bricks the latter down may and on signet cylinders. whose age may be placed with great probability about two thousand years before the Christian era. including 1. measures.— BABYLONIAN AND 30 concerned. and.

and beside these there are numerous copies. 6. 7.ASS TBI AN LITERATURE. 885. A literary works are only revival of the Assyrian empire began under Assur-nazir-pal. and the earliest known tablets date about B. throne B. wills and loans. Beyond the scanty records of some of the monarchs nothing of value remains of this library for several and the Assyrian known from later copies. only known to us through later but which' certainly had their origin as early as this period. one of 4. being in the B. Historical cylinders. 1600 (the earliest Kudur-mabuk. astrology. and omens. British Museum. king of Assyria. In Assyria the first centre of Literature and seat of a library was the city of Assur (Kileh Shergat). He who ascended rebuilt the city of Calah the (Nim- roud). 1500. Astronomy. Tablets were procured from Babylonia by . Geographical tablets. known cylinder). texts. for find only detached inscriptions. 8. 31 5.C. and this city became the seat of an Assyrian library. centuries. Such are the inscriptions from the libraries of the early inhabitants of Babylonia. and of towns lists and countries.C. evidence of the gradual shifting both of the political power and activity literary from Babylonia to Assyria. Laws and law cases. Passing we down from some centuries accompanied by this period. sale and barter. Legends and short historical inscriptions.C.

and placed in Vul-nirari. grandson of Shalma- added to the Calah library. and these were copied by the Assyrian the royal library. Early he appointed Nabu-suqub-gina principal and this officer set to work making new copies of all the standard works of the day.C. Esarhaddon. continued to add to his father's library at Calah. 705. during the reign of Nabu-bal-idina. B. 1600. to make the Assyrian royal hbrary worthy of the empire. neser. 860.C. where from this time the national library remained until the fall of the empire. 681. In the period which followed there was a general aU the ancient works which had escaped destruction. 812. 745.C. tablets written at Nineveh. B. B.C.C.C. in his reign librarian. and placed in it various copies of historical inscriptions.C. however.BABYLONIAN AND 82 Shalmaneser. some mythological tablets beiiio' a dated in his reio-n. During the whole of his term of office copies of the great literary works Were produced. B. the majority of the texts preserved belonging to the early period previous to B. 755. further . and the study of this early literature became a marked feature of the time. literary and had Assurnirari. son of Assur-nazii'-pal. B. who founded the last Assyrian dynasty. enlarged the library. B. B. continued the scribes. but late in his reign he removed the collection from that city to Nineveh. 722. It was.C. son of Sargon. work. king of Babylon. reserved for Sargon. O Tiglath Pileser. son of Sennacherib. revival of Sennacherib.

companying them we have a series of mythological tablets of various sorts.e of the subjects embraced Among stories place . Erech. as they will be further described in the present volume. Nipur and various other cities were transferred to . Akkad. the Genesis and similar legends occupied a prominent these.C. The fragments brought over to Europe give us a ofood idea of this librarv and show the rano. Borsippa. we owe our knowledge of the Babylonian myths library than and it is almost to tablets Avritten in his reis^n that all and early beside history. was the greatest of the Assyrian sovereims. need only be mentioned here. the Assyrian capital to enrich the great collection there. the Sardanapalus of the Greeks. most of his workf being of a religious character. and he on account of is his magnificent far more memorable patronage of learning than on account of the greatness of his empire or the extent of his wars. Assurbanipal. varying D Ac- from legends of the . the different classes of texts. The agents of Assurbanipal sought everywhere for inscribed tablets. Assurbanipal added more to the Assyrian royal aU the kings who had gone before him. Cutha. brought them to Nineveh. Larsa. Ur. B.ASSYRIAN LITERATURE. 673. son of Esarhaddon. and thus the literary treasures of copied them there Babylon. by this collection of inscriptions. 33 increased the national collection. many other important matters.

1600. a superstition the believed in in those days.BABYLONIAN AND 34 2:ods. down to of these texts take the form of charms to be used in sickness and for the expulsion of evil spirits some of them . are of great antiquity.C. songs. psalms. &c. mere allusions and lists Many of names. prayers. Historical texts formed another section of the . being at least as old as the creation and Izdubar legends. but principally by the great these subjects covering over seventy tablets which was borrowed from the early Chaldeans. and hymns. one of the most ancient texts in the Euphrates valley. of the prayers were for use on special occa- such as on starting on a campaign. as I have already stated. In this work everything in nature is supposed to portend some coming event. about B. Izdubar is fully mentioned in one of these tablets as lord of the oaths or pledges of the world. There were also numerous copies of a long work on Terrestrial omens. which were in the Library of Assur- This work on Astrology and Astronomy was. which appears to date from the time of Sargon. king of Akkad. Some sions. cerns One fine series con- cure of witchcraft. on the occurrence of an eclipse. There is a fragment of one Astrological tablet which professes to be copied from an original of the time of Izdubar. Astronomy and Astrology were represented by various detached inscriptions work on and reports. and many copies of banipal.

reeds. There are codes of laws. of kings and annual of various Assyrian monarchs. insects. trees. and calculations. grasses. and the tablets serve to show that the same laws and customs prevailed in Assyria as in Babylonia. These tables and grains. histories of the relations between Assyria and Baby- Elam. examples syntax. hsts lists of titles and trades. declen- of nouns. conjugation of verbs. and these included tions of early numerous copies of inscrip- Babylonian kings chronological tablets with officers. reptiles. according to the sup- of the various and show considerable advance in the sciences. Mathe- matics had a place in the library. there being problems. explanatory lists. loans. but this branch of learning was not studied so fully as in Babylonia. these tablets were copied from the Babylonians. and taxes. All &c. barter. despatches. of property. plants. and reports on the state of the empire and military affairs. fishes.. posed nature and by earths. inscriptions 35 lists . Natural animals history mammals. figures. lists are classified affinities of and birds. species. stones. In Geography the Assyi-ians Avere not very forward . law and civil of In matters the library was also rich. . sale. ASSYRIAN LITEBATUBE. there being many works on these subjects. mations. library. there were beside. procla- lonia. &c. law cases. and Arabia. bihngual tables. including sion lists of the signs and explanations. tribute. Grammar and Lexicography were better represented. was represented &c. treaties.

little. ' . Such are some of the principal contents of the great librar}^ from which we have obtained our copies of the Creation and Flood legends. but these remarkable inscriptions have preserved to us texts which show the wonderful advance made by the people of Chaldea before the time of Moses. mountains. and Nebuchadnezzar and successors made Babylon the development of Bab}lonian literature explorations being still light the texts of this epoch. and peoples. after Of this later we know very required to bring to Few by wandering Arabs fragments only. which had been the parent of Assyrian writing. 36 but there are of of countries and their productions.ASSYBIAN LITEBATUBE. or by recovered chance travellers. rivers. but there is in them evidence enough to promise a rich reward to future excavators. the original copies of the works have m most cases disappeared . revived the fall of Nineveh. most of the tablets were copied from early Babylonian inscriptions. discovered his seat of a library rival- ling that of Assurbanipal at Nineveh. Babylonian literature. lists cities. have yet turned up.

— Tower Babel. from copied. Polyhistor.. Hestiseus. about B.- Titan. — Cory's — Babylonia. Triad. king. — Larancha. laus Sibyl. lived. Alorus. Berosus. Sisithrus.— Chapter III. Belus. — Deluge. Berosus and his copyists. — Cannes. —Alexander —Creation.—Bel. — Xisuthrus. of colonies. The — — Tower Babel. HAVE included in this chapter the principal extracts from ancient authors respecting the Babylonian accounts of Genesis. — Dispersion from Titan and Prometheus. — ApoUodorus. —Moymis. — Damascius.C. Many others are known. from his position as a . — —Nico—Armenia. —The Ark. CHALDEAX LEGENDS TRANSMITTED THROUGH BEROSUS AND OTHER ANCIENT AUTHORS. whom as I 330 to tlie principal extracts have mentioned in Chapter 2 GO. teaching. Pantibiblon. —Kissare Return to Babylon. — — De— —Ten Abydenus. first kings. are I. —Tauthe. — and Assorus. and of less immediate interest to my subject. — Cronos and — Babylonian Damascenus. but are of doubtful origin. of luge. and. translation. his — Chaldean kings.

and of the memorable And actions which they had achieved. and sesame . Extract from Alexander Polyhistor I. of the birth of mankind. and in respect to That there were variety of fruits fish which are merely of the lakes. (Cory. 21). Berosus. p. and that produced the roots called gongas. and and apples. informs us that And the son of Philip. The others are later writers. who copied in the main from Berosus. that it abounded with wheat. 38 Babylonian had priest. in the lakes also flight. comprehending a period of above fifteen and that these writings myriads of years.CHALDEAN LEGENDS. which are food. the translations of Cory as being standard ones. He were fit for nutriment similar to barley. in the first place he describes Babylonia as a country situated between the Tigris and the Euphrates . barley. I have preferred as usual. and made without prejudice from recent discoveries. tlie best means of knowing the Babylonian traditions. also palm-trees . contained histories of the heaven and of the sea . birds. he mentions that there were written accounts. preserved at Babylon with the greatest care. Baby- his history of he lived in the age of Alexander. and and ocrus. and whose notices may be taken as giving abridgments of his statements. and a both those and those which frequent adds that those parts of the country . in the book of first lonia. and of the kings.

from that part of the Erythraean sea which borders upon Babylonia. head he had another head. Oannes and otheu Babylonian Mythological Figtjres fkom cvlinder. and a representation of him is preserved even to this day. first year there appeared. This being was accustomed to pass the day men. with sirfiilar tail. whose whole body (according to Apollodorus) was that of a fish . He and .CHALDEAN LEGENDS. by name Oannes. too. and language were articulate and human . 39 bordered upon Arabia were without water. there was (in these times) who resort of people of various nations. but that the parts which lay on the other side were both hilly and At Babylon fertile. among and he gave sciences. and arts of taught them to construct cities. but took no food them an at that season insight into letters every kind. and lived in beasts of the In the a lawless a great inhabited manner like the field. to . to those of a the account of that under the fish's feet below also man. H'liich and barren. subjoined to the fish's His voice. an animal endowed with reason. Chaldea.

but the one that of a man. They had one body. while others united the hind quarters body of a man. the other of a woman.— CHALDEAN LEGENDS. some had horses' feet. Oannes wrote concerning the generation of mankind. tlie He made them distinguish the seeds of the earth. resembling in shape the hippocentaurs. sun had sea. which were produced of a two-fold principle. and of their civil polity. set this being Oannes retired again into the and passed the night in the deep. of which Berosus proposes to give an account when he comes to the history of the kings. Moreover. . for he was amphibious. he instructed them in every thing which could tend to soften manners and humanize their lives. After this there appeared other animals like Oannes. and showed them how to collect the fruits in short. wherein resided most hideous beings. faces. others with and with two two heads . nothing material has been added by way of And when the improvement to his instructions. to compile laws. and the fol- lowing is the purport of what he said : " There was a time in which there existed nothing but darkness and an abyss of waters. . Other human figures were to be seen with the legs and horns of a goat . There appeared men. 40 found temples. and likewise in their several organs both male and female. and explained to them principles of geometrical knowledge. From that time. Bulls likewise were bred there with the heads of men and dogs with fourfold of a horse with the . some were furnished with two wings. of whom four.

Of all which were preserved delineations in the temple of Belus at Babylon. men. and of one half of her he formed the earth. 41 bodies. Belus All things and cut the asunder. For. being in this woman situation. and at the same time destroyed the animals within her (or in the abyss). tails creatures in which were combined the limbs of every species In addition to these. the sea. but which in might equally be interpreted the moon. and the In short. serpents.CEALBEAN LEGENDS. with other which assumed each fishes. Greek Thalassa. The person Avho presided over them was a woman named Onioroca. and of the other half the heavens. there were of fishes. reptiles. "All this" (he says) of nature. *^Bfc> 1 i=S Composite Animals from Cylinder. which in the Chaldean language is " Thalatth. came. "was an allegorical description the whole universe consisting of . and other animals. monstrous animals. too. with the heads and bodies of horses. terminated in their extremities with the tails of horses also with the heads of dogs. other's shape and countenance. "fishes. of animals.

and animals being continually generated tliei'ein.) (In the second book was contained the history of the ten kings of the Chaldeans. This Belus." is the (Such. in this the tenth. and the five planets. whom they and separated the heavens from the earth. and partake head . Belus formed also the stars. and to mix the blood with the earth. In his time happened a great . or four reaching to For Alexander. and from thence to form other men and animals. by signify Jupiter. the deity above-mentioned took off his own upon which the other gods mixed the blood. enumerating the kings from the writings of the Chaldeans. hundred and thirty-two thousand years the time of the Deluge. not being able to bear the prevalence of light. his son Xisuthrus reigned eighteen sari. and the moon. manner) who is : "After the death of Ardates. 42 moisture. which should seeing a vast space unoccupied. account which Berosus gives in his first book. and from thence formed men. after the ninth Ardates. divided the darkness. Belus upon this. to order. died. and the periods of the continuance of each reign. of divine knowledge. and reduced the universe But the animals. proceeds to called by them Xisuthrus. . according to Polyhistor Alexander. On this account it is that they are rational. be capable of bearing the air. as it gushed out. and the sun. by nature commanded one of the gods to take off his head. though fruitful. which consisted collectively of an hundred and twenty sari.— CHALDHAN LEGENDS.

.'. and He offered up a prayer for the good of then obeyed the divine admonition. He therefore enjoined him to write a history of the beginning. which not finding any food. : . built a vessel five stadia in length. and to build a vessel. After the flood had been upon the earth. he sent them and they now returned tinged with mud. and last of his children. all both birds and quadrupeds. procedure. and was in time abated. and all conveyed into it his wife. and take with him into it his friends and relations and to convey on board every thing necessary to city of the sustain together with life. nor any place whereupon they might rest their feet. deluge the history of which . is 43 thus described. the different animals. but they returned to from whence he judged that the surface of the earth had appeared above the waters. he was to sail. Xisuthrus sent out birds from the vessel. warned him that upon the fifteenth day of the month Dsesius there would be a flood. by which mankind would be destroyed. He made a trial a forth a second time. ' and two in Into this he put everything which he had prepared. and to bury it in the Sun at Sippara. and trust himself fear- Having asked the Deity whither he was answered. breadth. and conclusion of all things. After an interval of some days. To the Gods lessly to the deep. The and deity Cronos appeared to him in a vision. upon Avhich he mankind. CHALDEAN LEGENDS. with their feet third time vdth these birds him no more . his friends. returned to him again.

and likewise informed them that it was upon account of his piety that he was translated to live with the gods. and make by way of an alexipharmic and amulet. the gods. offered altar. who remained They. . finding that their companions did not return. was ordained. and. all man- moreover. search for the writings at Sip- which they were to make known to kind. with those within. Xisuthrus then paid his adoration to the the pilot. The part of vessel being thus stranded in Armenia. To this he added that they should return to Babylonia. and. and could air. his daughter. : sacrifices to having constructed an come out of the who had vessel with him. and . called Him continually on the they saw no more they could distinguish his voice in the but . and the people scrape with which use of it some yet remains in the Corcyrsean mountains it off" the bitumen had been outwardly coated. journeyed towards Babylonia. disappeared. that his wife and daughter and the pilot had obtained the same honour. that the place wherein they then were was the land of Armenia. The rest having heard these words offered sacrifices to the gods. and of Xisuthrus. hear him admonish them to pay due regard to religion . and. taking a circuit. earth and. 44 He therefore made an opening and in the vessel. as it para. upon looking out found that it was stranded upon the side of some mountain upon which he immediately quitted it with his wife.CHALDEAN LEGENDS. quitted the vessel with many name lamentations. it of Armenia.

Annedotus it was after Abydenus. (All particularly fish and a man. and after- wards Alaparus and Amelon. in his time (he says) appeared again from the Erythraean sea a fourth Annedotus. for the Then reigned Euedorachus from Pantibiblon term of eighteen sari. in whose time appeared the Musarus Oannes. the shape of a fish blended with that of a man. who came from Pantebiblon . having the same form with those above. anticipating the event.— CHALDEAN LEGENDS. Chron. says Apollodorus. and Babylon was thus inhabited again. Chron. 8. and after him Daonus. and he reigned eighteen sari . xxviii. v. the Annedotus from the Erythra3an (But Alexander Polyhistor. makes the second appear after twenty-six sari. the shepherd from Pantibiblon. Euseb. sea. related and circumstantially whatever Oannes . he reigned ten sari. however. having the same complicated form between a Odacon. but Apollodorus says that forty sari. has said that he appeared in the first year. a Chaldean. Syncel.. whose name was these. from Apollodorus (Cory.) Then succeeded Megalarus from the city of Pantibiblon. 30). reigned ten sari. Berosus. tells us that the first king was Alorus of Babylon. in his days there appeared another personage from the Erythraean sea like the former. then Ammenon the Chaldean. p. And when 45 they returned to Babylon and had found the writings at Sippara they built cities and erected temples. This the history which Berosus has transmitted is He to us.

CHALDEAN LEGENDS. v. his son Xisuthrus reigned eighteen sari .the eiohth Then reigned in order reigned ten sari. a Chaldean. and he beino. after Amillarus reigned who was Am- of the city of Panti- then Megalarus of the same place reigned eighteen sari . p. concerning these Abydenus made no mention. 46 had informed tliem has of. now a sarus is esteemed to be three thousand six hundred years. — SynceL Chron. all the kings is ten . Euseh. . . It is said that the first king of the country was Alorus. So much concerning the wisdom of the Chaldeans. upon the death of sari. he reigned ten sari . in his double-shaped personages came up out . xxxix. Otiartes. from Abydenus (Cory. sari. he was of Pantibiblon . a neros six hundred. from Larancha. Chron. to him succeeded Amillarus from the city of Pantibiblon. Berosus. a semi-demon very similar in his form to Cannes menon twelve biblon. who After him Alaparus reigned three sari. in his time came up from the sea a second Annedotus'. then Daos the shepherd governed for the space of ten time four sari. Otiartes. and the term which they collectively reigned an hundred and twenty sari. and that he gave out a report that God had appointed him to be the shepherd of the people.) Then reigned Amempsinus. in his time happened the great So that the sum of Deluge. reigned thirteen sari. 32). and a sossus sixty. and he reigned eight And. a Chaldean from Larancha.

and was presently inspired by God. (And among other things not irrelative to the subject he continues thus concerning the Deluge) After Euedoreschus some : reigned. But the birds. of the sea to land. Avards in the time of Euedoreschus appeared another. when he had complied with these commands. xxxvili. 8. passing over an unbounded sea without finding any This he place of rest. that he might judge whether the flood had subsided. ix. the gods translated him from among men. Upon the third . it is a custom of the inhabitants to form bracelets and amulets of its wood. returned again to Sisithrus. Evan. which yet remains in Armenia. . for the birds then returned with mud. so that in the amounted and the term of their reigns to ten kings. Pr^wp. sailed immediately to Armenia. hundred and twenty to an whole the number sari. 47 whose names were Eueclocus. trial And when upon the third he succeeded. After these reigned other kings.day after the cessation of the rain Sisithrus sent out birds by way of experiment. Chron.— : CHALDEAN LEGENDS. others To him the deity Cronos foretold that on the fifteenth day of month Daesius there would be a deluge of rain and he commanded him to deposit all the writings whatthe ever which were in his possession in the city of the sun in Sippara. and last of all Sisithrus. Sisithrus. and Anementus after- . . Euseb. repeated with other birds. and then Sisithrus. Eneuboulus. lib. Euseb. v. With respect to the vessel.. Eneugamus. Chron. their feet stained with Syncel. Anodaphus.

this was the same individual of legislator of the Jews. Euseh. whom made mention. Evan. and that the remains of the vessel were long preserved upon the mountain. PrcBp. Chron. and its ruins are said to be . ix. xiii. the Ark. the Jos. i. and overthrew the work upon its contrivers. The Cronos and Titan. undertook to raise a tower whose top should reach the sky. Proep. 34). Of . CHALDEAN LEGENDS. in the place in which Babylon now stands but when it approached the heaven the winds assisted the gods. 3 . They say p. p. Eiiseh. own glorying in their strength and size and despising the gods. 48 Of the Tower of Babel (Cory. for confusion is by the Hebrews called Babel. and the gods introduced a diversity of tongues among men. There is above Minyas very great mountain which it is said that many Armenia a Baris. ix. to which in the land of is called persons retreated at the time of the Deluge and were saved. Euseh. . Chron. Evan. Ant. now place in which they built Babylon on account of the confusion of tongues. lib. . and that one in particular was carried thither in an ark and was landed on its summit. who till that time had all spoken the same language and a war arose between at still Babylon . 49). Perhaps ]\Ioses. xliv.— — . that the first inhabitants of the earth. from Nicolaus Damascenus (Cory. the tower is called Syncel. has Jud.

p. Prcep. Of tiie Dispersion. . i. ix. Evan. Ant 4. Evan. ix.Sy?2C. Of the Tower of Babel. each settling in such situations as chance or . 318). Jos. 50). that they might climb up into heaven.—. like the rest of the barba- over in silence the One principle of the and they constitute two. Titan and Prometheus. Tauthe and Apason. The Theogonies. c. the imple- ments of the worship of the Enyalian Jove. and universe. Jud. Prccp. xliv. rians. p. pass (Cory. which is the reason that the name deluge lived of that city is After the Bab}ion. E . The Sibyl says That when all men formerly spoke the same language some among them undertook to erect a large and lofty tower. from Alexander PolyHisTOR (Cory. Jos. when Titan undertook a war against Cronus. i. Ant. and gave to each tribe a particular language of its own. and came to Senaar in Babylonia. The priests 49 trom Hesti^eus (Cory. 50). Euseb. But they were again driven from thence by the introduction of a diversity of tongues upon which they founded colonies in various parts. 4 Euseh. led them to occupy. God the direction of Jud. from Damascius But the Bab}lonians. . making Apason the husband of Tauthe. c. But God sending forth a whirlwind : confounded their design.— CHALDEAN LEGENDS. who escaped took with them p.

minus. is is born a the fabricator of . Dache and Dachus and again a third. from which last three others proceed. and Aus. the Demiurgus. And from these proceeds an only-begotten son. Moymis. and .CHALDEAN LEGENDS. And of Aus and Davce son called Belus. 50 denominating her the mother of the gods. From them also another progeny is derived. who. Anus. which I conceive is no other than the intellio-ible world proceeding from the two principles. the world. they say. Kissare and Assorus.

but to identify the deities it is difficult in mentioned many by the authors. — Table Shamas. — — EquivaVenus. BABYLOIS'IAN' MYTHOLOGY. Ishtar. —Hea. —Three great —Twelve great —Anu. lent to the Elu. — — — Greek accounts. Anunit. gods. —Mythology —Antiquity. —Yul. Spu-its. In this chapter it is only proposed to give a general account of some parts of the Babylonian mythology. — Bel Succoth Benoth. because the phonetic reading of the of the Babylonian gods classical writers often is cases Greek names very obscure. N their accounts of the Creation the early history of the human and of race the Babylonian divinities figure very prominently. Colonies. or Jupiter. — —Sin moon — Ninip. — Cannes. god. —Merodach.— Chapter TV. — — Angels. the . — Conquests. —Anatu. which appeared to them to correspond with the Babylonian names. to show the relationship between deities and their titles and work. Nergal. of gods. and the mention these divinities by the terms in their own mythology. gods. local in origin. Zirat-banit.

that the people of conquering cities should claim that their gods were superior to those of the cities they con- quered. and it is probable that the idea of weaving the gods into a system. and gained conquests over others. and their divinities Anu. Erech. in Avhich each should have his part to play. as they considered themselves sons of the cities they started from. It is probable that the gods were in early times only worshipped at their original cities or seats. and Bel were considered .BABYLONIAN MYTEOLOGY. by the antiquity of this mythology fact. of the gods had a particular city which was the seat of his worship. also considered their gods to be sons of the gods of the mother cities. and Nipur. Christian era two thousand years before the was already completed. and kings gradually united the country into monarchies. Hea. gods. and gave rise to numerous myths relating to the different personages in the mythology. In some remote age there appear to have been three great cities in the country. but some cities it was natural as wars arose. only had its origin at a later may be seen The time. and the Again. 52 Babylonian mythology was local in origin each . and its deities that it definitely connected into a with little system which remained change down to the close of the kingdom.- the various cities or settlements being independent of each other. and thus came the sj^stem of difterent ranks or grades of among the some cities. colonies were sent out colonies. Eridu. to the rise and Political changes in early times led fall of various cities and consequently of their deities.

the changes led to the decline of these 53 cities. of the deep. 6. wisdom and fate. crowns. the " great gods " of Subsequent country. lady of the city of Nipur. maker of 3. king of angels and spirits. Hea. 11. lord of the city of Cutha. Sin. lord of 4. holder of the golden sceptre. judge of heaven and earth. 7. maker of brightness. mother of the great gods. also called great. 9. Ninip. god of lord of the city of Eridu. Shamas. destroyer of wicked. formed members of a These gods of twelve gods. lord of the city of Nipur. Nusku. lord of the city of Ur. 10. lord of the city of Erech. 8. 2. lord of the city of Babylon. Vul. Belat. lord of the city of Nipur. deities still retained their position at the but their head of the Babylonian system. creator. lord of the city of Muru. du'ector lord of the cities of Larsa and Sippara. the lofty god. lord knowledge.: BABYLONIAN MYTHOLOGY. just prince of the gods. Nergal. father of the gods. lord of birth. lord of the world. Anu. 5. . of all. These three leading circle and deities their titles are given as 1. lord of canals and atmo- sphere. giant king of war. wife of Bel. Bel. the strong god. Merodach. w^arrior of the warriors of the gods.

and below these were arranged the Igege. his sign is the simple star. one of the manifestations of two forms Lahma and Lahama. eldest of heaven and earth. Ekimu. the symbol of di^dnity. while the lower region or earth was called Anatu. and at other times the Maltese Anu cross. as the upper Anatu being Anu is the female principle or wife of Anu. or angels of earth. The relationship of the various principal gods and Below these deities there their names. and they are Anu was as the . and he appears as an original principle. Islitar. and the god of the whole of heaven and earth. and was a offices large will be seen by the following remarks. 50. raising the face of warriors. Yadukku. This deity is named Anu. termed the old god. represents abstract divinity.BABYLONIAN MYTHOLOGY. titles. perhaps as the original principle of nature. see p. 54 12. and when these were divided the upper region or heaven was called Anu. some good. which probably correspond to the Greek forms Dache and Dachus. and the Anunnaki. or angels of heaven. some of these were evil. He represents the universe and lower regions. Gallu. sometimes considered as the ruler and god of heaven. These forms are said to have sprung out of the original chaos. and others. body of gods forming the bulk of the pantheon. Below these again came various classes of spirits or genii called Sedu. At deity the head of the Babylonian mythology stands a who was sometimes identified with the heavens.

but is sometimes contrasted with him. and the air-god. Yul was space . may and and he bears titles generally divinity. His indicate height.. among numbered Sar-ziri. the wife or consort of Anu. the names Alalu and Papsukul. when Anu represents height and heaven. between the heaven and earth. and Uban or Ben. whose The air-god is usually called Vulj he has also the name Pur. Vul is god of the region of the atmosphere." Anatu. antiquity. BABYLONIAN MTTHOLOGT. and the epithets Ramman or Rimmon. or name is uncertain. the is mother of the god Hea^ the mather producing heaven and earth. 55 followed by the two forms sar and kisar (the Kissare and Assorus of the Greeks). Anatu represents depth and earth. sar means the upper hosts or expanse. Anu and Anatu their sons are desert. Latarak. kisar the lower hosts or expanse these are also forms of manifestations of Ann Anu wife. purity. and the great temple there was called the " house of Anu. Kusu. is also lord of the old city. thus. the king of the Abgula. and she is one of the many goddesses called Istar or Venus. the female fish-god. the self-existent. of storms and whirlwind. of thunder and liirhtninff." or the " house of heaven. was originally his Anu worshipped at the city of Erech. have a numerous family. which was called the city of Anu and Anatu. and he be taken as the general type of divinity. of floods and watercourses. is generally only a female form of Anu. she also lady of darkness. he is the god of rain.

it gradually superseded that of Anu. Her worship was at first subordinate to that of Anu. The planet Venus. . sensual view prevailed. Another important god. with the connection with of the Biblical Vulcan. came to be regarded as the temple of Venus. noticed Istar. his name may be read some Tubal Cain and the possibility Bil-kan. goddess of Akkad. Vul in is alv^'ays lie Armenia he was ' bore called considered an active deity. a son of Ann. until in time his temple. as the evening star. while the morning star was Anunit. The fire-god mythological numerous takes an active part in the tablets and legends. The most important of the daughters of Anu was named Istar she was in some respects the equivalent of the classical Venus. As in Babylonian the worship of this goddess increased in favour. where name Teiseba. There were various other goddesses called among which may be Istar.BABYLONIAN MYTHOLOGY. and was extensively worshipped. while Anu was god of heaven. and as she was goddess of love. it is probable that the first intention in the mythology was only to represent love as heaven-born but in time a more . was the god of fire . was identified with the Islitar of Erech. of Daddi. the house of heaven. and he is considered to be the most potent deity in relation to witchcraft and spells classical ffenerallv. daughter of Sin . and the worship of Istar became one of the darkest features mythology. 56 in hiirli the esteem in Syria and Arabia.

and son was their principal Maruduk or Merodach. Merodach or Bel was identified with the classical Jupiter. who is 57 sometimes confounded with the daughter of Anu. god of Bab}'lon. The Dav-kina. to the Merodach. A Anu companion deity with who Hea. the Bel of later times. appears in earlier inscriptions as the agent of his father all the Hea. these things do appear in the inscriptions. the consort of the deep. and that he was the Oannes of Berosus. Hea was the goddess of the lower regions. of music. in fact of all the lower regions. he goes about in the world collecting information. Bel. He has two features. he is beings. who was god of that city. wife who of is however. and of Hades or hell. he is lord of gifts. creation. after Babylon had been made the capital. and receives commissions that appears wrong. Merodach. in others to their Poseidon or Neptune.BABYLONIAN MYTHOLOGY." was only given to but the name him in times sub- . lower region. In later times. he bears the titles lord of wisdom. not. but is from his father to set right all Merodach is an active agent in always subordinate to his father Hea. the moon-god. he is Hea called is god of the lord of ther sea or abyss lord of generation and of all human . It has been supposed that the serpent was one of his emblems. " the lord. was raised head of the Pantheon. the Davke of Damascius. is god of is the sea and of Hades. of mines and treasures . of fishermen and sailors. and corresponds in some respects to the Saturn or Cronos of the ancients.

is the most the gods in the general affairs of mankind. and was lord of the surface of the earth and the affairs of men. and Bel. so generally worshipped in early times that he came to be regarded as the national divinity. and his temple at the city of type of all temples. the wife of Bel. The same remark may be applied to the name Is tar. or Beltis. the god of knowledge and was worshipped was a favourite at the literature. seem to when point to a time his city. Belat. Nipur. or Bel. and the high honour in which he was held.f and was city of Nipur. meaning " goddess. 68 The wife of Mero- sequent to the rise of Babylon. Elu. Beside Merodach Hea had a nume- rous progeny. who neighbouring city of Borsijjpa. deity in later times. Kaptu." or " goddess." which is apj)lied to any female divinity. is a famous deity celebrated in all ages. A his third great god was united with Anu and Hea. as was also his consort Tasmit. but as the only " lady. Nebo. . he was the original Bel of the Babylonian mythology. and had a consort Elu. Elu was lord of the named Belat active o. or Ishtar.BABYLONIAN MYTHOLOGY. or Beltis." for many it title Belat was was a common one goddesses. and the notices of Beltis pro- bably refer to several different personages. was the metro- polis of the country. names were Enu. Xipur was regarded as The extensive worship of 'the Bel. his sons being principally river gods. the Succoth Benoth of the Bible. dach was Zirat-banit.

eldest son 59 numerous family. and the Shamas of Larsa was probably considered a different deity to Shamas of Sippara. The following table will exhibit the relationship of the principal deities j but it must be noted that the . may like Ninip. and early assumed an important place in the mythology. Ninip. god of Cutha. or Samas. Agu or Aku. his called Ur. Istar In the Babylonian system the moon takes precedence of the sun. Elnhad. and of the city of Akkad. like the other gods. god of hunting and war. the sun-god.BABYLONIAN MYTHOLOGY. but he to Sin. The moon-god figures prominently in some early legends. in later times generally termed Sin. at . the deity of one city of Sippara. was another cele- brated son of Elu he was worshipped with his father Ninip was also Nipur. who. and Anunit. and during the time the country his Ur was city of capital of the worship became very extensive and popular in the whole of the country. his character as presiding genius of war and the chase making him a favourite deity with the warlike kings of Assur. much worshipped in Assyria as well as Babylonia. Shamas is and a daughter. Among the other deities of the Babylonians be counted Nergal. in some of the Izdubar is generally subordinate legends and fables. Sin the moon-god had a son Shamas. an active deity or Yenus. Sin was presiding deity of the city of Ur. presided over hunting and war. a was the moon-god Sin and Itu.

| -^ :^~ 1 . Bil-kan (Yulcan) (atmosphere). —. Kisar (Kisare) r ^ (Ouranus) (heaven). Hea -1 (upper expanse). ^ (fire-god). (the deep). . either as to the sex or paternity of the gods : Tavtu Absu (Apason (the sea).. ^— ! . . Anu — Sar (Assare) (Saturn). ^r—^ A^'ul 1 Anatu r Elu. Istar (Venus). (earth). r Ilea (Saturn). I ?) I I Mummu (chaos ?) 1 I Lahma Lahama (force or growth).— — BABYLONIAN MYTHOLOGY. (lower expanse). 60 Assyrian inscriptions are not always consistent. or Bel. Beltis.

—Creation of animals. HAVE related in the first chapter the history of the discovery of this legend the tablets composing it are in muti- lated condition. BABYLONIAN LEGEND OF THE CREATION. or to give more than a general view of the whole subject. — of subjects. —Age of Mutilated condition of tablets. tree. — Comparison with Genesis. — Discussion. Fifth — — Planets. — Mutilation of documents. Fall. so far as I can The story. ^List of cbaos. and too fragmentary to enable a single tablet to be completed. — Doubtful fragments. —Weapons. The fragments of the stoi:y which I have arranged are as follows : . —Moon. sea. —Man. — His Dragon of — — Curse for disobedience. —War with Tiamat. but shows traces of having originally included very much more matter. — Description — Tiaraat. — Damascius. storj. tablet. — Destruction of Tiamat. judge from the fragment.—— . Chaptee v. duties. agrees generally with the account of the Creation in the Book of Genesis. — Sun. — Parallel Biblical account. — Generation of gods. — Merodach. — Abyss or chaos. Sacred — Dragon or serpent. — Three great gods. — Creation of moon. Stars.

is the upper part giving the description of the void or chaos. probably referring to the creation of land. the abyss also had not broken open their boundaries 4. and below on the earth a plant had not grown above. heavenly bodies. giving an account of the Chaos and the generation of the gods. and probably including over one hundred lines of text. Fragment of tablet placed here with great 2. 6. perhaps the second on the foundation of the deep. were not raised the heavens: up. sea) was the . 3. 5. When 2. Fragments of between the gods and tablets relating to the war evil spirits. 7. Part of the first tablet. Fragment of seventh? giving the creation tablet. doubt. fall Fragments of three tablets on the creation and of man. 4. The chaos (or water) Tiamat (the producing-mother of the whole of them. 3. The translation is 1. Fragment of subsequent tablet. the writing on each tablet being in one column on the front and back. The of the first fragment in the story first tablet. These fi-agments indicate that the series included at least twelve tablets. of land animals. Part of the giving the creation of the fifth tablet.: : BABYLONIAN LEGEND 62 1. and part of the generation of the gods.

w H pq H K O .o o < Q V a < w m w u «^ Q O Qi W iz.


gods Sar and Kisar were made . Those waters 6. a flower had not unfolded. and order did not exist 9. When at the. 7. a tree 7.. the A 13. . which among the kings who went before me. 8. none those writings had sought.— : . 12.. 3. the gods also the great gods. to whom Nebo and Tasmit attentive ears have given 4.. . a plant had not grown. 5. Lahmu and Lahamu they caused to come and they grew 11. the impressions? of the god yinstructor? aU dehghtful. king of Assyria. the gods had not sprung up. Were made 10. 16 On the reverse of this tablet there are only frag- ments of the eight tion of the passage 1. 5.. The wisdom of Nebo. 6. he sought with dihgent eyes the wisdom of the inscribed tablets. beginning 63 were ordained but had not grown. any one of them. it reads but the restora- : When above" (name of Creation series). course of days. is First tablet of " easy. the god Ann 15. 2. Palace of Assurbanipal king of nations. . the gods Sar and . and a long time passed 14. OF THE GEEATION. lines of colophon.

" the same word as . and i. spirit of God moved upon And the the face of the waters. and 9. and the movement first to the first 1. "In of creation. and these produc- find at ing Moymis. the statement of Genesis. the sea was the origin of all things. I studied. It evident that. for the inspection my of people within my palace I placed This colophon will serve to show the value attached to the documents." expressly told was the sea.BABYLONIAN LEGEND 64 8. I observed. And the earth was without form and void. is precious as giving the description of the chaos or desolate void before the Creation of the world. broken as copies. agrees with the Thalatth of Berosus. Mith where the chaotic waters are called omn. on tablets I wrote." On comparing the fragment of the first tablat Creation with the extract from Damascius. created the heaven and the earth. and the date of the present The fragment of the obverse. it is. but in the Creation tablet the ence is called Mummu first exist- Tiamatu. and darkness was upon the face of the deep. " the deep.water" or "sea chaos. of the we do not any statement as to there being two principles first called Tauthe and Apason. this also agrees 2. which we are "sea. accord- is ing to the notion of the Babylonians. a name meaning the The name Mummu Tiamatu combines the two names Moymis and Tauthe Tiamatu appears also as Tisallat and of Damascius. two verses of the the beginning first God This corresponds chapter of Genesis. 2.

which is. this word is ('' History closd}' con- nected with the word tiamat or tanitn. these are male and female personifications of motion and production. in tact. of the Assyrians we have waste. and one of its equivalents is Umun-. and it form might word was a corruption of Tiamat. and Tisallat. AVe have here not only ar agreement in sense. equal to the Hebrew pon noise or tumult. in Genesis the word inn. 65 the Tiamat of the Creation text and the Tauthe of Damascius. applied to this chaos. This appears to be the tehuta —a name of the sea-water of Assurbanipal." p. or formless. confusion. Beside the name of the chaotic deep called mnn in Genesis. but. Tiamat. but the Babylonian word is read Tiamtu. and Bahama or Lahamu be suspected that tliis . as I have said. rarer.OF THE CBEATION. 59). what same word used this chaos. different Thalatth. both stating that a watery chaos preceded the creation. the sea. The Assyrian word Mumwu is probably connected with the Hebrew naino. with the same sense however. and formed. Next we have in the inscription the creation of the gods Lahma or Lahmu. and correspond to the L)achc and F . the origin and groundwork of the uni\ersc. The correspondence between the inscription and Genesis is here complete. evidently the Tiamat of the Creation text. desolate. which last is more probably the origin of the word Thalatth of Berosus. the in both narrati\-es as the and given Berosus has is also in the account of certainly the slightly name of Damascius.

Kisar. and Daclius or spirit of Genesis. Anu writer. and Hea the represents the heaven. are represented in which principles combine in the formation of the universe. and Kissare names in these is probably closer than here represented. Anu. being an ordinary sign for the supreme god of the Assyrians. wind. for Sar or Ilsar is generally read Assur as a deity in later times. and corresponding to the Assorus The resemblance of Damascius. and Hea. and Kisar. In each case there appears to be a male and female principle. The successive forms Lahma and Lahama. It is probable that the inscription went on to relate the generation of the other gods. so mutilated but it appears 14 that the next step line Damascius) the generation of the three great gods. The resemblance between the extract from Damascius and the account in the Creation tablet as to . the Anus. stage in the inscrip- tion gives the production of Sar or Ilsar. and Aus of that Elu the earth. Sar and some of the god lists as names or manifestations of Anu and Anatu. in this new form of the universe. Illinus.BABYLONIAN LEGEND 6Q of Damascius. sea. and then passed to the successive acts of creation by which the world was fashioned. Here the cuneiform text becomes that little can be made out from from the fragment of was in (as it. Elu. the The next moving nn. representing the upper expanse and the lower expanse.

from the day that thou . . of the dry land. thou didst give 6 There is more doubtful fragment which a second appears to belong to this space. to which alluded as probably belonging to this space is I have a small portion of the top of a tablet referring to the fixing of the drj^ land story. pan .— — OF TEE GBEATIOK 67 these successive stages or forms in -the Creation.. like the last. 1. Book of Genesis.. is This fragment 1. . is the foundations of the ground of rock [thou didst make] 2. striking. is and leaves no doubt that there was a connection between the two. to the face of the 5.... we may conjecture that this part of the narrative contained the description of the creation of light. seems to relate part of the creation of the dry land. Certainly I will cover? .. The three next tablets in the Creation series are absent.. When but it may belong to a later part of the part of a speech to one of the gods. god . When 3.. the foundation of the ground thou didst call 3.. and of One fragment plants. there being only two doubtful fragments of this Judging from the analogy of the part of the story. . for it . and. I give it here under reserve . to the . thou didst beautify the heaven . 4. . . heaven 4. of the atmosphere or firmament. The god Sar 2.

. have made 9... god sea which the seat of is . Pal-bi-ki the his father and temples of the great . his of thee and over all him Avhich thy hand has made thee... the place 24. ...... he rejoiced .. I strengthen it Let there be made also e-lu . 25. he opened • • the to after work which • • .. the place 14.. gods .. Above the 8.. the god ... (firmament?) which I front of the esara . angry thou didst speak 5. over the earth 19 which thy hand has made having.. the 16.. .. mouth opened and spake..... .. . When it . may his city ... . he build and from the sea he raised 13... above 15. .... having..BABYLONIAN LEGEND 68 6. in 10. the gods 26... . . Within 12.. hfted up .. Pal-bi-ki which thou hast called 20 its name my hand 21 made? 22 may ...... anyone 23. Sar (or Assur) his to the 7.. (earth?) for the dwelling of [man?] 11. for ever they carry which in 27. lifted up . .. place .... .. below the place .. 17 18. .. . heaven ...

twelve months (or signs) of stars in three rows he arranged. 3. the sound and meaning of the word being- doubtful . all that was fixed by the great gods. 2. in the eio:hth line I have translated firmament with a query.— . The next legends recognizable portion of the this Creation the upper part of the fifth tablet. from the day when the year commences unto the close. and in line 10. their appearance [in figures] of animals he arranged. 4. . I translate earth for a com- more obscure still. OF TEE CREATION. which is gives the creation of the heavenly bodies. 5. Stars. To fix the year through the observation of their constellations. It was delightful. my translation being a conjecture grounded on some meanings of the individual monograms. Pal-bi-ki are the characters of one name of the city of Assur bination of two characters but I do not understand the introduction of name here. This fragment is 69 both mutilated and obscure. This tablet opens as follows : Fifth Tablet of Creation Legend. and runs parallel to the account of the fourth day of creation in Genesis. 1. Obverse.

14. 20 21. and stretches towards the dawn 19. of the month. to fix it also for the light of the night. at the rising of the night. 22 23 formed beautifully and . On the seventh day to a cii'cle he begins to swell. that they may not do injury.. and may not trouble any one. When further. And he opened the great gates in the darkness shrouded 10. 13. At the beginning 1 5..BABYLONIAN LEGEND 70 6. its That the month might not be broken. Shamas was perfected the dawn Shamas should chano^e to the orbit goiog on its path . until the shining of the day. 12. 16. 7. He marked the positions of the wandering stars (planets) to shine in their courses. 9.e. In its mass were strong on the {i. the god Shamas (the sun) in the horizon of heaven. in the east. 17. he made a boiling.. the night he overshadowed. the god Uru (the moon) he caused to rise out. his horns are breakins: throuo'h to shine on the heaven. the fastenings 11. 18. 8. and in amount be regular. left and the lower chaos) right. Hea he the positions of the gods Bel and fixed with him.

of tablet "When above" (Creation series). "16. the greater lesser light to rule the made the stars also. for days. And God made two light to rule the day. 71 24 giving judgment 25 to 26 a second time tame 27 Reverse. where day of Creation we read : " It in the first chapter And God said. This fine fragment style of this series. . . and for signs. great lights and the . the firmament of the heaven to give light upon the earth. 1 he fixed 2 3. . And to rule over the day and over the night. a typical specimen of the is and shows a marked stage in the Creation. And God set them in night. he "17. of the gods on his hearing. and And let . Let there be lights in the firmament of the heaven to divide the day from the night for seasons. and them be for lights in the of the heaven to give light was them be let and j^ears firmament upon the earth : and it so. 4. Fifth . the appointment of the heavenly orbs. Country of Assurbanipal king of nations king of Assyria.: OF THE GEEATION. " 18. " 15. parallels the fourth of Genesis. 5.

were the fourth day." The fragment of the first tablet of the Creation series showed that that was rather introductory. gives the creation of the animals which. probably with tablet The 8. leads to the inference that the events of each of the days of Genesis were recorded on a separate and that the numbers of the in the tablet. the darkness saw that "19. took place on the sixth day. y. 6th and 7th day. tablets generally followed same order as the days of Creation in Genesis. Tablet 1. And the evenino. probably with tablet 2. probably with tablet 7. . it : and God was good. and dealt with the generation of the gods more than the and the creation of the universe. V.: BABYLONIAN LEGEND 72 and to divide the light from. probably with tablet 6. according to Genesis. 26 and following. under the fourth day. probably with tablet 3. fact that the fifth tablet" contains the Creation given in Genesis. while a subsequent tablet. thus Genesis. probably with tablet 4. Chap.and the mornino. probably the seventh. tablet which I think to be the eighth appears to give the Creation by several other and Fall of Man. agree with tablet 5. and is followed tablets giving apparently the war . I.

while the Bible says they were set as " lights in the firmament of heaven. 37-50). one north and one south of the zodiac. that The only difference It appears that the Chaldean was good.OF THE CREATION. The that fifth the tablet previous creations satisfactory. is." or agreeing with the oft-repeated state- ment of Genesis. record contains the review and expression of satisfaction at the head of each tablet. while there does not appear to be anything like the same agreement between these inscriptions and the accounts transmitted to us through Berosus (see pp. the creation of the heavenly orbs. just as two sets of twelve stars each are mentioned by the Greeks.- but all of very mutilated. I have translated one of these names . 73 fair beyond the There fifth tablet. and no number can be positively proved however. while the it at the close of each We then come to which are- act. " God saw that here commences • one of after each act of creative power. between the gods and the powers of are these evil. reason to suppose that there was a close agreement in subjects and order between the text of the Chaldean legend and Genesis. so the inscription de- were The twelve and just set in courses to point out constellations or signs of the and two other bands of constellations are mentioned." book of Genesis says they were seasons. is Avith were the statement " delightful." it detail. Hebrew has set for as the signs and years. for days and scribes that the stars the year. described in the inscription as arranged like animals. zodiac.

The passage given in the eighth line of the inscription.BABYLONIAN LEGEND 74 nihh\ " wandering stars" or " planets. that the functions of the stars were according to the Babylonians to act not only as regu- and the year. god of the heavens. was shut in by gigantic gates and strong fastenings. was considered to be the creator of the heavenly hosts . When the deity decided to create the . They evidently considered that the world was drawn together out of the waters. by their appearance and were coming on the positions. star scription on the tablet of the Chaldean astrology first and astronomy. as in Genesis i. and there Nibir near the place where the is is not a star called sun crossed the boundary between the old and new years." but this the usual word for planet. signs of events which earth. and rested or reposed upon a vast abyss of chaotic ocean which This dark infernal the space below the world. ninth line of the tablet opens a curious view as to the philosophical beliefs of the early Babylonians. to the effect that the God who fixed places or habitations for Bel created the stars and Hea with him- self in the heavens. but lators of the seasons as signs. to be also used 14. which jDrevented the floods from overwhelming filled lake the world. for in those ages it was generally believed that the heavenly bodies gave. points to the fact that Ann. for it is and Hea the divisions of the The he who shares with Bel face of the sky. and this was one of twelve supposed to be favourable to It is evident. from the opening of the inBabylonia.

part of the first line Y. destined way its across the vaults of heaven. in reverse order to that in Genesis. of the sixth tablet. moon. which led to its is first moon After the recorded. The stars. then. its beauty and and the regularity of its orbit. Here it is evident that Genesis is truer to nature the than the Chaldean text. gives us. no further fragment of this tablet having been recovered. The colophon at the close of tablet however.OF TEE GBEATION. The Babylonian account continues Avith the regulation of the motions of the moon to overshadow the night. he is this abyss. but . arose the moon like a giant bubble. from this turmoil. details of the creation of the planets which would have been very important and to us. at his bidding. and evidently the Babylonians considered the moon the principal body. the creation of the sun perfection are extolled. 75 represented as drawing aside the gates of and creating a whirling motion like boil- ing in the dark ocean below. The Babylonian account of the Creation gives the creation of the moon before that of the sun. are unfortunately lost. to regulate and give light until the dawn of day. The phases of the moon are described its com: mencing as a thin crescent at the day of the month. and its evening on the gradually increasing and travelling further into the night. mounted on and. being considered the type of a judge. passing through the open gates. and the regulator of the world. while Book of Genesis makes the sun the greater light.

cattle of the field. they caused to be living creatures the gods in their assembly had created 4. the upper broken. . and creep- ing things of the field 5... and recognized at once as a part of the description of the Creation. seventh in the series. that this dealt with the creation of creatures of the water and fowls of the and that these were the the companion deity to Anu. When 2.. they fixed for the living creatures 6 cattle and creej^ing things of the city they fixed the assembly of the creeping things 7 the whole which were created 8 which in the assembly of 9 and the god Mn-si-ku my family (the lord of noble face) caused to be two 10. This fragment is like portion of a tablet Trom its some of the much others. is pro- bably represented by a curious fragment. The translation of this frao'ment is 1. the air. creation of Bel. The next tablet. the assembly of the creeping things he caused to go .: BABYLONIAN LEGEND 76 not enough to determine its It is probable subject. beasts of the field. and only valuable generally clear meaning. were delightful the strong monsters 3. vfhich first I found in one of the trenches at Kouyunjik.

three kinds being distin- guished. i. 24-25) : "And God said. however. 23. and then we have in the ninth line a curious but broken account of Nin-si-ku (one of the names of Hea). apparently that of the monsters or whales. Let the earth bring forth the living creature after his kind. exactly agreeing with the Genesis account. and creeping thing. had given to Genesis i. and cattle after their kind. cion." The Assyrian tablet 'commences with that a statement of the satisfaction a former creation. 15 This tablet corresponds to the sixth day of Creation (Genesis. cattle. to notice a tablet which refers . and beast of the earth after his kind and " it was so. . here referring on to relate the creating of living animals on land. And God made the beast of the earth after his kind. the wording of the next fragmentary suspicion that this lines leading to the was the opening of the account of the creation of man. and everything that creepeth upon the earth after his kind and God saw : it was good.: OF TEE CUE AT I ON. This. creating two beings to be with the animals. for the lines are so mutilated nothing can be fairly proved is only a suspi- and obscure that from* them. It then goes . however. 13 pure presence . . . 14 pure presence in the assembly . It is curious here. 77 11 flesh beautiful? 12 pure presence .

) .. mankind ... ... sacrifice. 1... those which really relate to the first is great difficulty.. race is K 63. . and all the references in other inscriptions*make this his work. appears to give the speech it to (man and of the deity to the newly created pair woman) instructing K them 3364 obverse. In considering the next fragments.. Every day thy god thou . 6. evil 2.. for. in 4... space lost there may be a string of negatives which would entirely reverse the meaning. heavy.. eaten is by the stomach . in their duties. consumed . the cre- given to Hea. growing . be the reverse of the tablet which. other side of the fragment It is probable that the is a discourse to the first woman on her duties. .. 5. extended.. so I think it far as can be translated. human ation of the In this tablet.. (Many lines lost. firmly thou shalt speak 7. . in fragment to be noticed. .BABYLONIAN LEGEND 78 to the creation of man. and the support of 8. thee shalt approach (or invoke) 9. there in the . 10. to thy prayer of the mouth and instruments god in reverence thou shalt carry. which 3. on one side the muof the tablet renders the sense totally un- tilation certain man...

. Beautiful place also 2... and not thy sentence 5.. god thou 14.. thee to the end? presence of beauty and shalt speak 6..... 23. .... Sacrifice saving 18.. When thou shalt speak also he will give .... 79 for divinity. 11. 26 . OF TEE CBEATION.... (Many lines lost. and 15. v. . . and worship 19. In thy knowledge and afterwards in the tablets in the fear also of shalt be holy. and bowing of the face. and thou shalt 13.. in the . 25.... the fear of god thou shalt not leave • • 20... . With friend • • ....... Whatever be suitable shall 12.) 1. shalt make? . divide of thy beauty and ... supplication. hand . in beauty and . and enemy? speech thou . When thou shalt trust also thou .. humility. (writing) 16... and thou to the presence 4. thy 3. the fear of the angels thou shalt live in 21...'orship and goodness shall be raised? . 17.. thou shalt fix .. to enemy? also ... fire? bring tribute.. 24.. thou shalt trust a friend . thou shalt give to him... ... • • .. thou . 22. under? sjDeech thou shalt make good thy knowledge also 27 Reverse..

various gods are mentioned by name. his rising? . and alludes to the Karkartiamat. at thy The obverse of this tablet is a fragment of the address from the deity to the newly created and his duties to his god. with the lord of thy beauty thou shalt be faithful... li. to do evil thou shalt not approach him. in other parts of the story.. but it would ground an argument on a sino^le frao-ment.. so far as the be ascertained. and simply The fragments of this tablet might as the "God." belong to the purest system of rehgion in this case be wrong to . BABYLONIAN LEGEND 80 . .. circle I fill? 9. The give more deity.. the man beantiful and 7 8. at thy illness 13. too mutilated to than a general idea of its contents. the companion of the man. to give drink? . informing her of her duties towards her partner. here only one god is mentioned.. 12. it is man on curious that while... The next fragment is a small one. or dragon of the sea.. is it the lower corner of a tablet with the ends of a few lines. to be addressed to the sense can woman.. This fragment because it is of importance. . mentions a speech of Hea to man. . small as it is.. his enemies he seeks .. however.. may It possibly belong to the tablet of the Fall to be mentioned later. . . to him distress .. in connection with a revolt against the fragment is. 10. The reverse of the tablet appears..

81 Obverse.OF THE CREATION.. Before the commencement of lines 1. 1 seat lier 2 all tlie o his lords might 4 the gods. both in fair preservation . 27. the dragon of the sea 9 against thy father fight might Connected with this fragment is the account of the curse after the Fall. These explanatory glosses show G . This forms about half a tablet. there are glosses stating that the divine titles commencing these lines all apply to the same deity.. 19. fairly perfect.. and so far as they go. on the remarkable fragment which brought over from I my first expedition to Assyria. 5 his noble C his fear? Sartulku 7 his 8 to them. man 1 Hea 2 height of his greatness 3 the rule of any god 4 Sartulku knew it called to his . lord lofty? 5 kingdom exalted 6 in multitudes increase Eeverse. being part of the obverse and reverse. but containing at present many obscurities in the speeches of the gods. 11. 5. and 29 on the obverse.

may he speak. 11. causer to be fruitful and abundant. and may his mouth of the dark will not races which his fail. them he made man. The god Ziku (Noble not fail in preparing ? . life) r . to fear 18.BABYLONIAN LEGEND 82 that even in the Assyrian time there were difficulties in the narrative. may he exalt (noble crown) in concern. of fertility. 16. another to us has come up. 1. May he be 15. 9. good kinsman. Obverse. may he glorify. 6. and greatly increased. The god Mir-ku raised a protection? 12. . hand has made. . may 5. from death of the gods imprisoned. Director of purity. their account 4. 2. quickly called. master of perception and 7. in thy powerful advance spread over him good. 14. his majesty. lips with his five fingers sin . The god of noble may he cut cfF. saviour lf3. in the established. 8. 10. 17. lord of noble lips. 19. The god Zi which he had fixed 3. the accomplisher of restoration. establisher right. the breath of life was in him. his pleasure he established he fixed upon the gods his enemies.

The god . who with his noble 83 charms removes the evil curse. for ever.OF TEE CBEATION. because the dragon Tiamat had 5. The god Libzu wise among the gods. 22. and watch The god Suhhab.. . .. 33 Reverse. the pourer out to swiftly them 31. he shut up and surround. . who had chosen his possession. established in the come out of him. 21. the doing of evil shall not 23... . 1 2 the star 3. . 9. keeper of 29. 30. his he take the tail and head . like a 8. director of rig-ht 26. like . . not destroy . the gods tremble all of he bind Tiamat her prisons may 10... in 32. may 4.. Nissi 28. them Afterwards the people of remote ages may she remove. punishment the planets possessing 6.. 24.. by the 7. he re- joices their heart. of corruption 27. company of the gods.. 20. . Subduer of the unbeliever 25. may stars of sheep may they heaven themselves may .

Wisdom and knowledge hostilely may they injure him. by his fifty names he called. all my seed may he destroy. 28. and at once cut off. Hea may he punish also my course of 17. may they bend their ear. ruler. 29. the his liver corrupted his purity.. the pronounced their 13. also father and son and governor. to king. May he be conquered. because his 16. 22. 26. May they cause anger also to the lord of the gods Merodach. issue all of him.. at his urgent trouble no god shall receive him . his back shall be broken and not be healed. and it his will be un- . 25. 23. them may he remove. The god Hea heard and 15. He me like man had was angry. the opening of his mouth no god shall take notice of. his desire shall be cut answered off. His land may it bring forth but he not touch 27. 24. 19. to the place 12. and 18. May they put at enmity and may they plunder. in the ranks of the angels curse. In the language of the fifty great 20. Lord of the earth Elu name his called out. he made strong. : BABYLONIAN LEGEND 84 11. 14. father he created. 30. gods and turned away in anger from him 21.

. general meaning but the obverse. This valuable fragment in some is unfortunately obscure especially on the parts. who was supposed to be under the especial care of the It happens in this case that there is deities." and " the god of noble lips. The obverse gives a series of speeches and state- ments respecting the newly created man. no clue to the reason for these speeches. OF THE CREATION. or part the of following tablet. 31. but a point the purity of the man." " the god of noble crown. in various other fragments of these legends they . who is is evidently made of said to be established company of the gods and The various divine titles to rejoice their or names. and his mind be troubled 32. and the approximate is position of the fragment in the story It evidently follows the is quite clear. fragment giving the creation of the land animals. " the god of noble life. in the hearts. his heart shall be shall 85 poured out." are all most probably titles of Hea. and either forms a further portion of the same. It appears from beings spoken of and line 18 that the race is of human the zalmat-qaqadi^ or dark race. the key portions of the inscription being lost. undoubted. to sin and wrong 33 his face shall come front 34 In a second copy which presents several variations lines 14 to 19 are omitted.

where it breaks off leaves him in a state of of purity." has already been pointed out by Sir Henry Rawlinson that the Babylonians principal races : the Adamu. and called their name Adam. which to have fallen. God made he him. We are informed in Genesis that when the world became corrupt the sons of God intermarried with the race Adam.). v. and in Genesis. vi. two and the Sarku. but certainly in we are (Genesis. It appears incidentally from the fragments of inscriptions that race of Adam. which man is exactly the name in Genesis. . ch. probably in the same manner that two races are mentioned in Genesis. Adam is appears as a proper name sages only used in the same sense as the Assyrian is word. or light race. but there is at present it was the was believed no clue to the position of the other race in their system. and where the narrative recommences on the reverse man has already fallen. or the dark race. the sons of Adam and the sons of God. The obverse of the tablet giving the creation of man. 1) : in the likeness of told on the creation of " In the some pas- human beings day that God created man. and blessed them. and thus spread the evils which had commenced with the Adamites (see Genesis. The word Adam used human being is in these legends for the first evidently not a proper name. male and female created he them. It in the day when they were created.BABYLONIAN LEGEND 86 are called Admi given to the or first Adami. but only used as a term for mankind. recognized or dark race.

but nothing whatever is The said as to the origin or history of the serpent. and is . and that he tempted the woman to sin. according to the Babylonians. evidently in the same relation as the serpent. existed before the creation of the universe. of man's innocence.OF THE GBEATION. Here it is difficult to say how 87 far the narrative of the inscription agrees with that of the Bible. being concerned in bringing about the Fall. This attributes the relate (Genesis. or the dragon of the sea. that the serpent was more subtle than any beast of the field. dragon is is called the This dragon of tiamat or the sea generally conceived of as a griffin. and inquired if God had for- bidden them to eat of every tree of the Garden of . the serpent addressed the Avoman (Genesis. self-existent and eternal. fragmentary account of the Fall in the inscriptions mentions the dragon Tiamat. which agrees with the inscription. This was the original spirit of chaos and disorder. case is it is better to review the Biblical account. and compare it In this which with the fragmentary allusions in the inscriptions. it connected with the original chaos. the female principle which. the Bible goes on to After the statement 1). According to Genesis. 1). iii. a spirit opposed in principle to the gods. the Thalatth of Berosus. iii. complete. for the birth or separation of the deities out of this chaos was the first step in the creation of the world. and. older even than the gods. origin of sin to the serpent. according to both the inscriptions and Berosus.

the fruit of was a which was forbidden to them. and Gihon. Surappi. Tigris. both in the Babylonian gem engravings. the Tree of Life. Tigris. grove. the There present fragments indicating a is nothing in belief in the Garden of Eden or the Tree of Knowledge there is only an obscure allusion in lines 16 and 22 to a thirst for knowledge having been a cause of man's . Euphrates. and especially in the legends of Izdubar. which certainly appears to correspond to the sacred grove of Anu. as. In several other places in the Genesis legends. divine tree or grove is and this often represented on the sculp- tures. fall. The loss of this unfortunate. which a later fragment states was guarded by a sword turn- ing to all the four points of the compass. eliciting from her the statement that there tree in the middle of the Garden. portion of the Creation legend however probable Hebrew and Babylonian it may is be that the traditions agree about the Garden and Tree of Knowledge. Genesis account (ch. Euphrates. in the it. Eden rivers. Sir Henry Rawlinson has pointed out the agreement of the Babylonian region of Karduniyas or Ganduniyas with the Eden of the Bible. 22) . When . iii. we cannot now prove There is a second tree. watered by the four rivers. but outside these inscriptions. watered by the four and Pison. similar in description. or forest of the gods. Ganduniyas is is a fruitful place. and Ukni. and on the walls of the Assyrian palaces and temples. there are allusions to the tree.BABYLONIAN LEGEND 88 Eden. from the general body of Assyrian texts.

Adam and 89 is attended by side of the sacred Eve. but some passages in the cuneiform account are too mutilated to allow any certainty to be attached to the translation. and so by disobedience b -ojight sin into the world. iii. the representation is complete. or Grove. corresponding passages may be found which show that the same idea runs through o both narratives. the serpent. 9 to 19. eat of the fruit of the Tree of Knowledge. Throughout this. tempted by ml J '!^_ ^^^ J a^^^^^ Sacred Tree. corresponding to the passage. FROM Assyrian Cylinder. which opens again where the gods are cursing the dragon and the Adam or man for this transgression. the notices in other parts. lost. These details are also lost in the cuneilbrm text.OF THE GEEATION. one on each emblem. the tree two figures of cherubims. and the allusions in the mythological scenes on the Babylonian gems will serve to guide us as to the probable drift of the missing portion. Although so much of the most important part of the text is of. Genesis. . According to Genesis. with attendant Cherubiai. and the loss of the previous parts the text prevents our knowing what points the allusions are directed to.

legs terminating in claws. scales. and wings on the back. and in fact is the The name of the dragon is not written phonetically." or animal equivalent of the serpent. One striking Museum portant specimen of early type in the British collection has tree. Our own like an eagle." where we have turhuhtu 9. for the place or den of the dragon. but by two monograms which probably mean the " scaly one. be copies from the Chaldean works.BABYLONIAN LEGEND 90 that the dragon It is quite clear dragon of Tiamat is of the sea or connected with the Fall hke the serpent in the book of Genesis. The only passage where planation of the signs vol. the early Babylonian seals. of course. early sculptures none while at We know of these figures were chance devices. stretched a serpent. 1. covered with This description. heraldic griffins are so strikingly like the sculptures of this creature that we might almost suspect them to In some cases. or a fish. perhaps connected with the Hebrew The form of am. however. might apply either to a fabulous dragon. creature as given on the gems is this that of a griffin or dragon generally with a head like a carnivorous animal. sea-monster. but all represented events . more closely ap- proached the Genesis story. is in there is any phonetic ex- "Cuneiform Inscriptions. two fio-ures sittino^ one on each side of a holding out their hands to the the back of one is well that in these and im- fruit. 32. a serpent. ii. which contained devices taken from these legends. p. body covered with scales.

The dragon which. (line 23). similar to that of Genesis. Seated Figure on each side. and he an embodiment of the which was opposed spirit is of chaos or disorder to the deities at the creation of the world.OF THE CREATION. was known in early times in Babylonia. 29 No . the living principle of the sea and of chaos. he will anger the he shall not eat the fruit of his labour he shall pour out useless prayer 31). is the creature of Tiamat. (line 24). and that the ^ods invoke on the head he shall have family quarrels shall submit to tyranny gods (line 25). and figures in their legenas it is . 27). It is clear that the drag-on for the Fall. leads man in to sin. (line 26). thus evident that a form of the story of the Fall. 9L or supposed events. FROM AN EARLT BaBTLONIAN CtLINDER. he shall and included in the curse human race all the evils which afflict huWisdom and knowledge shall injure him (line 22). and Serpent BACKGROUND. of the manity. is (lines have trouble of mind and body he shall commit future sin (line 28 and (lines (line 32). in the Chaldean account of the Sacred Tkee. he shall be disappointed in his desires 30). Creation.

which are led by Tiamat. war with series. which the gods and powers of and the punishment of the dragon Tiamat. but again our narrative is broken. contains and shows the gods preparing for battle. K 3473. but I have no direct proof of this. I now followed the account of the Fall. too mutilated to contains speeches of the gods before the war. The first translate. my anger me send to thee 4 of thee let 5 thou ascendest 6 thee to thy presence 7 their curse 8 in a circle 9 them make the vine? of them may they hear the renown cover them he set and 10 11 let may they also sit . there are several fragments.BABYLONIAN LEGEND 92 doubt subsequent lines continue these topics. The second speeches. idea of this part was that the first the powers of evil preceded the Creation think it . and it only reopens where the gods are preparing for war with the powers of evil. Of the subsequent tablets of this include the war between evil. . which war probably arose from the part played by Tiamat in the My fall of man. fragment. mouth opened a word he spoke 1 his 2 his 3 satisfy . it of these is K 4832. It is very fragmentary.

.... strong serpent ... delightful.. carrying weapons unyielding .... great serpents .. Udgallu.— OF THE CREATION. . : great animal ... her breast.. 5 6. 19 and 20 destroyed not night and day 21 burning 22 they made division 23 the end of all hands his 93 a2:ainst all them hand Tiamat coming . 7. fear he made to carry ... 3.. 10. . 24 formerly thou 25 unyielding I 26 their bodies fill .. days arranged....) The third fragment.. her back .... . 17 the gods of 18 made her hands . 2.. 12 thee cliange to 13 he sent them 14 me he held me 15 he sinned 16 and angrily me . .. . Urbat and . five . flowing? and first ... 27 fear shall cover them .. . their bodies were powerful and .. .. 4. K 3938... their sight was very great .. . 9. . (Several other mutilated lines.... is on the same subject. 8. some lines of this give the following general meaning 1.

... carrying weapons thou . making god who should meet in war relates to the the dragon. 14. among 16. the dwelling of the god 7. or even to ascertain their order. and on by some being Tiamat to make war.. • heart 2. 13. the K 3449... burning 3. upon war . 12... The fourth fragment.. his the gods collected hand appointed There are many more similar broken the other side fragments of a speech who desires lines..: BABYLONIAN LEGEND 94 11.. of weapons to arm... the great gods 8. the work 12. marcliiug in front before . in the temple . may 6. the sword that was 10... 15. from 4. All these fragments are not sufficiently complete to translate with certainty. carried gods that also was made they placed Anu in the assembly of the . . the gods said? 9.... saw made also the gods the saw bow which was strung 11.. the god Kingu subdued . This reads with some doubt on account of its mutilation 1. 5.. and he fix they .. ..

the bow lie fitted she 14.. Sixth Fragment.. and establish the resting place of 18. from the choice of 19. this fragment appears to distinguish between the dra2:on of Tiamat or the sea monster. speed her heaven 17. and Tiamat the female personification of the sea. Noble wood who against 95 said shall first thus draw thee? ? punishment the star of the bow in 16. and is weapon of Bel in the sculptures in this war. but I The sure of this distinction.. and he spake of the bow thus and 15. and place his throne 20 in heaven 21 The next fragment or collection of fragments gives Bel encountering the Dragon . or sickle-shaped ahvays represented both inscriptions as a am hand he distributed .OF THE CREATION. 13. the final struggle between Tiamat and ^lerodach or and Bel. sword. . 1 he fixed 2 to his rio-ht not saparul. from BatLONIAN ClLINDEK.

13. the seven winds the sword to silence the dragon of the sea. ... driving he rode: he took her and four fetters on her hands he fastened. the hostile wind. he fixed not to come out of her wound. seven winds. the dragon of the sea stretched out. the 11. He made the evil wind.. On the South.) . .. her 17 unyielding. hand (Several other fragmentary lines.. 5 6. 12. liis hand hurled. 15. 14. the storm. 8. 9. .. unrivalled.. . fierceness filled his body. the East. in a chariot 16. He brought out the winds he had created seven of them. came after him. he carried the thunderbolt his great weapon.BABYLONIAN LEGEND 96 and quiver S 4. the wind the irregular wind. the tempest. He made 7. the lightning he sent before him. of . . storming 18 with their sting bringing death 19 sweeping away knowledge 20 destruction and fighting 21 left 22 fear .. .. the North. the four winds. .. the grove of his father the god Anu. . 10. and the his hand the sword he caused to hold before West.

she took a girdle? . 21. 14. at once joined 17. strongly this and changed her resolution. Tiamat on hearing 16. and the gods for for them their weapons. to thee they shall be spoil.OF TEE CEEAIION. Tiamat called 18. Tiamat attacked the just prince of the gods Merodach. Bel also drew out his H sword and wounded her. . the standards they raised in the conflict like a battle. 97 Reverse. upon them by thy weapons. 23. to break the thou shalt be delivered and the tribute to thy maternity shall be forced 13. and placed war prepared 19. I will stand by and made god a 15. 1 the god Sar 2 dwelling 3 before the 4 field weapon 5 above 6 struck to the god 7 them 8 cut into 9 said to his wife 10 him 11 evil? 12 thy evil thou shalt subdue. and firmly she encircled with her defences. 20. 22. and quickly arose.

.. and broke up themselves.. 27. and her face was distorted. the throwing of stones going . and her work he ended. her inside it broke. 25. down the enemy. and the god Kingu again . 44. and conquered her heart. He part of the enemy under him . 34. the force of the 30. 41. and her heart trembled.. 47. the evil wind he caused to swallow him. 37. the expiring of her 38. and overcome at once the strength of their work was Avith terror. 46. before she could shut her lips 28. 29 violently seized her stomach. He 32. trembled... 45.. Her allies stood over her astonished.. their strength removed. cast 48 Again the main difficulty arises from the frag- .. BABYLONIAN LEGEND 98 24. Tiamat opened her mouth 26. 31. wind her stomach filled. when Tiamat their leader was conquered. 42. knowing their capture.. her The evil wind coming afterwards struck against face. his hand . 35. and the gods her helpers who went beside her 36.. Her ranks he broke. sitting in darkness. life they fled from.. like a sword cast down. shut in bonds. tered. imprisoned her. her assembly was scat- 33. 43. war surrounding they were fleeing not stand- ing? them and 39 their weapons he broke 40. to enter.. full of grief. feared.

who will engage in Bel or Merodach volunteers. who has become her husband. chaos and order. Tiamat is encouraged by one of the gods Mekodach. and goes forth armed with these weapons to fight the dragon. lines 15 to 20) to any of the gods battle with her. that the gods have fashioned for a sword and a Anu bow to fight proclaims great.OF THE CREATION. however. and meets Merodach in battle. This war between the powers of good and evil. is extra to the text is the Creation. and remark- but the connection so uncertain at present comment upon them until more complete. mentary state of the documents. but rather finds its parallel in the war .Mi^D toR the Conflict with the Dragon: from Assyrian Ctlinder. It ap- them the dragon Tiamat. and pears. or Bel. The description of the fight quent triumph of the god are very ably curious in their details. it 99 being impossible even to decide the order of the fragments. does not correspond with anything in Genesis. AK. between the fragments that it is is better to reserve and the subse- fine.honour (fourth fragment.

man points to the These fragments of of the Creation and Fall agree so far as they are preserved with the Biblical account.C. called " the great dragon. essential dragon conquered by Michael. Fight between Bel and the Dragon.100 BABYLONIAN LEGEND OF CREATION- between Michael and the dragon 7 to 9. and show that in the period from B. which deceiveth the whole world. FEOM Babylonian Cylinder. xii." strikingly like the This description is impression gathered from the fragments of the cuneiform story . and in a celestial war. where the dragon is in Revelation. called the devil and Satan. 2000 to 1500 the Babylonians believed in a similar story to that in Genesis. . that old serpent. the dragon Tiamat who fought whose fate against the gods and led it was to be conquered closely corresponds in all the cuneiform account to sin.

or " stories" repeated by word of mouth. — Seven wicked accounts originallj Variations. in heaven. Variations of storj. — Translation. traditions. spirits. Composite animals. — Poetical account of Creation. according to the period and condition of the country. — Seven —War men. sometimes very widely. the Thus many different versions of a story and there can be no doubt that case this with the Creation legends. . was actually There must . of Berosus. — — Eagle-headed men. Destruction of N brothers. the last chapter I fragments of the have given the principal story of the Creation and Fall from the cunei- form inscriptions. and wards committed to writing.— CPIArTER VI. Cuneiform Account — — Tablet from Cutha. they are liable to vary. OTHER BABYLONIAN" ACCOUNTS OF THE CREATION. arise. handed down from generation When after- such traditions and depend on being to generation by word of mouth. are not reduced it appears from were " traditions" but the tablets that all these legends to writing.

) . who drank turbid waters and pure water did not drink. and there is evidence of other stories.. differing entirely from the cuneiform account in the last chapter and from the Genesis account. 6. (Many lines ... lord of the lord of angels 5.. host gods . mutilated as usual. .OTHEB BABYLONIAN ACCOUNTS 102 have been a belief leading features in the Creation and some of the story long of this before these Creation legends were committed to writing. lord of lost at tablet. that man he enclosed.. which were at about the same time committed to writing. 37-50) supplies us with a totally different story.. of another version having many lowing is points of agreement with the This legend. he took. The story of the Creation transmitted through Berosus (see chapter iii. upper region and the lower region . and there were not left the carcasses and waste? . 7. related to those ah*eady given.. pp. 2 his lord the strength of the 3 his host 4.. Legend of Creation from Cutha 1. ..... a translation. is fol- stated to be copied from a tablet at Cutha. and some fragments of tablets from Kouyunjik belonging to the library of Assurbanipal give a copy. commencement. he destroyed. 8. his weapon. of Avhich the account of Berosus. on a tablet nothing was then written. with his flame...

. Frcvi Nimroud Sculpture.Eagle-headed Man.


28. their his Milili.. 26. . dada was evil . who went brother . 11! with the faces of ravens. was II. . 25. . their eldest Mimangab was 23.. the queen was 22. and in the earth the gods created for them a dwelling. and increased in number. in the midst of the earth they grew up and became great. name. ru was his name. . 13. their third brother 2.. . 10. their seventh brother Column (Many man . their mother 21. 24. Tamat gave unto them strength... 15. 9. tur was his name.. 16. . 19.. 17. Seven kings brothers of the same family. 18. 14. second brother Midudu was his name.. their fifth brother 1 before them. .) his will his his name. 12. their fourth brother 27. their sixth brother .. turned name. come 103 from the earth nothing arose and I had not to it. 20. tah was his name. .. lines lost.OF THE CREATION. six thousand in number were their people. their life the mistress of the gods raised. Men with human beings the bodies of birds of the desert... . these the great gods created. Banini their father was king.

Zamama. 24. 11. heart now here am is left ? I and ... may I 18. .. let there not I and . I called the worshippers and sent. In the first year in the course of 20. I worshipped also the great gods 9. one out and . 7. They were rooted out they were punished. . heart.... 22. I eat. thus I said in 14.OTHER BABYLONIAN ACCOUNTS 104 4. In the third year in the course of it. my Now here 15. in of man he carved ? them. In the second year in the course of it. one of them did not return.21.. sixty thousand seven hundred the same. ninety thousand the same. .. Anunitu Nebo .. my 19. I gave them noble reeds? (pipes?) 8. I purified? On a tablet the evil curse 5.. .. 17. seven in width and seven in depth I arranged 3. and . 25.. Ishtar. .. Shamas the warrior. it hundred and twenty thousand men among I sent them. 23. let there my am not 16. I take.. at this time my what rest. I 26. . . the gods listened to doings he did not give and 12 13. I rejoiced... 6. Thus made a I said in 27. 10.. my go as heart: gi'ound I trust in iron Bel may ..

.. . this tablet I write to thee... .. . Thus I said in I fled from me. blood 2 midst of them twelve men 3. them turned my heart Column IY. the spirits. swiftly I went. the powerful king 3. in the 9. sanctuary of Nergal. in the temple of Sitlam. thou king.OF TEE CREATION.) Fragment of Column 1. those men. (Several lines lost at commencement. those men 7... shall rule the kingdom. in the city of Cutha. . hand . I the king. I caused to pursue III. 28. in the 4. and who else.. have done may corpses and waste be left. 31.) 1. meaning quite uncertain. the gods 4. I captured 6.. take them 5.. viceroy. to 2. 8. prince. saving of the people from night. or any one 6. whom God shall call. When I not is tlie 105 preserver of his country. not the preserver of his people.. (Many more broken lines. am 29. and the ruler 30. 5. death.. . I leave for thee. who shall rebuild this house. curses... 7. After them I pursued.

the beings who and those with m^n's heads bird's heads and men's bodies. ninth century b. the first column. thou in thy works shall be glorious. 17. and do not turn away.c. thy canals shall be full of water. may thy supjDort be established. to the words of 12. thy forts shall be strong. forms part of a relation similar to that of Berosus in his history of the Creation were and killed by the bird's bodies. thy silver. do not and fail. This is a very obscure inscription. thy goods. attendant TiGtrRES and Eagle-iieaded Men. thy corn. this tablet listen. however. tliis tablet see. 14. . thy furniture. 11. lines. 20. 13. and . (A few more mutilated shall be multiplied.) Sacred Tkee. 19. and.OTHER BABYLONIAN ACCOUNTS 106 10. do not rebel. and thy instruments. 16. light. then 15. do not fear. 18. from the SEAL OF A Syrian Chief. thy treasures.





agree with the composite monsters of Berosus, while
the goddess of chaos, Tiamat,



over them,



same again as the Tiamat of the Creation legends
and the Thalatth of Berosus.


relation in the second

the inscription



and does not correspond

The fourth column

with any known incident.

and third columns of

an address to any future king who


should read

the inscription which was deposited in the temple of

Nergal at Cutha.
It is probable that this

the work

legend was supposed to be

of one of the mythical kings of Chaldea,

describes the condition and history of the world


before his time.



another legend which appears to be con-

nected with these, the legend of the seven evil spirits,
which I have given in my former work, " Assyrian
Discoveries," p. 398.



the story of the

Seven Wicked Gods or



In the


the angels



days the evil gods

who were

in rebellion,

lower part of heaven

had been created,


they caused their


devising Avith wicked heads






in the





ruling to the river


There were seven of them. The


the second was a great animal

which any one








was a leopard ....
the fourth was a serpent ....
the fifth was a terrible .... which to ...
the sixth was a striker which to god and king

10. the third




did not submit,

was the messenger of the

14. the seventh





The seven of them messengers of the god Anu


their king


from city to city went round

17. the tempest of heaven

was strongly bound


18. the flying clouds of
19. the

heaven surrounded them,

downpour of the



in the bright


makes darkness, was attached

21. with a violent wind,





wind, they began,

Vul was their might,
hand of Vul they came,

22. the tempest of
23. at the right

from the surface of heaven hke lightning they

25. descending to the abyss of waters, at first they


In the wide heavens of the god

27. evil they set up,


the king

and an opponent they had





time Bel of this matter heard and

29. the account sank into his heart.

With Hea

the noble sage of the gods he took

counsel, and


31. Sin (the moon),

(the sun), and Ishtar

(Venus) in the lower part of heaven to control




With Anu to the government of the whole of
heaven he set them up.
33. To the three of them the gods his children,


day and night to be united and not to break


he urged them.


In those days those seven evil

37. in the lower part of heaven



38. before the light of Sin fiercely they came,
39. the noble

Shamas and Yul


god of the

atmosphere) the warrior to their side they turned


Ishtar with

41. they raised


the king into a noble seat

in the

government of heaven

they fixed.



The god


The god

4. Avhich

In those days the seven of them






head in the control to


at the




for the drinking of his noble


The god Sin the


mouth ....
.... mankind

of the earth

troubled and on high he

12. night

and day

minion he did not





fearing, in the seat of his do-


gods the messengers of





14. devised





another, and

they spake together, and




from the midst of heaven

like a


to the

earth they came down.

The god Bel

18. in heaven,

he saw and

Bel to his attendant the god Nusku said

20. "


of the noble Sin, his trouble

Attendant Nusku


account to the ocean


21. the

news of


child Sin





greatly troubled
22. to the




god Hea

in the ocean repeat."

Nusku the will of his lord obeyed, and
to Hea in the ocean descended and went.
To the prince, the noble sage, the lord,




Nusku the message

of his


at once re-



in the ocean that

message heard, and



his lips spake,


and with wisdom


mouth was





his son the

god Merodach




word he spake
30. "

Go my

son Merodach


31. enter into the shining Sin




greatly troubled
32. his trouble from heaven expel.

Seven of them the


having no

evil gods, spirits of death,


34. seven of

them the

35. descend

and sweep over the



evil gods,



the earth like a storm they

37. Before the

38. the


like a flood

hght of Sin fiercely

come down.
they came

Shamas and Vul the

their side they turned and

The end of this legend

warrior, to


is lost



probably recorded

the interference of Merodach in favour of Sin, the



In this story, which


differs again



supposed to place in the heaven the Moon,


Sun, and Venus, the representative of the

the others,

have no analogy with the other

this can

only be considered a poetical






of the


This legend



part of the sixteenth tablet of the

evil spirits


but the tablet contains other

matters as well, the legend apparently being only

quoted in



of the same sort on


another remarkable legend

another tablet of this series





The whole

"Cuneiform Inscriptions,"

of this series concerns the wanderings of

the god Merodach,

vol. iv. p. 15.


remove curses and

goes about the world seeking


in every difficulty

applying to his father Hea to learn
the influence of the evil

tunes were attributed.

spirits, to







Chapter VII.





— Obscurity of legend. — Translation. — Sin

— Speeches of Anu
Nebo. — Answer
Speech of Anu
—The Zu — Bird of

Anger of the gods.

of JSTebo.



of Zu.

—Vul's answer.
— Changes

prey. — Sarturda lord of

to Vul.





the legends of the gods, com-

panion stories to the accounts of the
Creation and Deluge, one of the most



the legend of the sin com-

mitted by the god Zu.


This legend stands alone





the stories,


actor being otherwise

unknown from cuneiform



have at

present only detected one copy of the story, and this

in so mutilated a condition that


cannot be con-

nected with any other of the legends.
similarity in style, I conjecture that
first tablet




From some
may form the

of the series which I have termed the

of the Gods."

I have,

however, no sufficient

evidence to connect the two, and for this reason

The first and fourth column are almost entu-ely lost. from which I judge among the gods. and there are in the Assyrian account One several very difficult words. each column having about sixty lines of writing. is I only transcribe it here phonetic may of these It must be seriously mutilated in parts. is by talisman or There are besides the two words Jpar^:^ and some the mean some oracle in the possession of Bel. K tablet containing the account of the sin of 3454. it and values possibly of c'ult par- tereti^ merely transcribing in my added that the inscription which characters which was robbed I diffi- have preferred translation.. The single fragment preserved. belonging to the . the is all a being is named three cases of an Preceding the name the determinative of divinity. there not being enough anywhere to translate from. and the mutilation of Ouranus by his son Saturn. here a separate place. but there is not sufficient evidence to connect the stories. preceding the tablets of it the " AVars of the Gods. ticularly obscure. from him by Zu. Zu. originally contained four columns of text.THE SIN OF TEE GOD 114 give ZJT. sin of Zu has sometimes Zu to have been ranked The story of the minded me of the outrage of Ham re- on his father Noah. Za and Zi. giving additional difficulty in the trans- lation. in the Museum collection. The Zu." The principal actor in the legend name being found in Assyrian noun Zu. ordinary the um-sim-i.

soldier of the temple of Hamsi. The desire? of majesty he conceived in his heart me carry away and the tereti of all the gods 12. Bel . the clothing of his divinity. Column I. going II. column. . the fate? them he .. three? streams? of water in front and 5. all sent. but not so as to prove these The titles following of this tablet to be his.. with a of titles. of the gods of Zu? like Zu grew old and . 10. such as " warrior.. The desire? of majesty he conceived in his heart.— : THE SIN OF THE GOB first Z 115 U. the 6. the venerable of heaven and earth. him . 2 3. Zu stripped also the father of the gods. mentions some being who was the seed number or fii'stborn of Elu or Bel. the venerable of heaven and earth.. 3454.. umsimi. Let 13. and he stripped also the father of the gods. 4. his 8. lost. The crown of his majesty." and the name of the god Zu occurs.. work Bel finished? he slept in it. 9. may it burn. his crown? Zu stripped. is a partial translation of the remains : K. Column I.. the umsimi of the gods. 7. II..

ZJT. And he hardened his heart to make war. the on the seat umsimi he took his crown? was placed. spread out 20. Hero Vul let there not be opposition in thee . he waited until the head of the day. may I govern the whole of the seed of the angels. in the vicinity of the house where he slept. 25 he sent the glory of the gods was destroyed in . 21. 17. divinity . their king. the powerful light the son of 32. 23. 16. 15. and spake 26. 27. To Vul his sons: may his name be renowned. in his hand. To Vul the powerful Hght the son of 34. in all the countries 31. the ruler Bel. a speech he made to Anu him. and made a commotion.: TEE SIN OF THE GOD 116 14. Anu 28. 30. Then spread darkness. 24. 18. also and spake to him.. and said to the gods 29. the majesty he carried off he cast away the parzi^ 22. When Bel poured out the beautiful waters 19. may my throne be established.. his mouth opened. 33. a speech to Anu he made to Imn. Whoever will. also and spake him 35. may I possess the parzi. the father. Zu fled away and in his country concealed himself. let him slay Zu.

they shall cry in the presence of the gods praise thy 43. 38. 41. Father to a desert country do thou consign him.) III. May thy city be exalted like the temple. fled away and III. (Sixteen lines lost here. the gods swept 53 I will not go he away said. parzi^ 49. in the midst of thy brothers. the majesty he cast away the off. and Zu himself. to his father the speech. first set up. 40. in his country concealed . opening his mouth 50 like the venerable of heaven and earth 51 like mud 52 was. 46. Let Zu not come among the gods thy sons. 42.THE SIN OF TEE GOD ZV. 117 36. May thy name be renowned in the assembly of the gods. made 39 also fragrant with spices. 45. slay Zli with thy weapon. in the four regions they shall fix thy city. 37. for the umsimi he took in his hand. 47. part on this column. part on Column Column 1. Vul answered 44. he carried 48. and Zu fled away and country concealed in his himself. and name. Anu word he spake.

the child of Ishtar. opening his moutli like the venerable 2 of heaven and earth 3 like mud 4 was. parzi^ 21. May thy city be exalted like the temple. To Nebo the 7. and name. 22 opening heaven and earth liis mouth like the venerable of .. they shall cry in the presence of the gods praise thy 15. Hero Nebo let there 9. Let Zu not come among the gods thy sons. the majesty he carried off he cast away the 18. to his father the speech. 20. slay 6.. Zu with thy weapon. the gods swept 5 I will not go he said. Anu word he spake 17. and Zu fled away and in his country con- cealed himself. 19.. Nebo answered 16. 14. a speech he made to him 8. in the four regions they shall fix thy city. 13. Father to a desert country do thou consign him. May thy name be renowned in the assembly of the gods. away powerful .: TEE SIN OF THE GOD 1]8 : ZTT. also and spake to him not be opposition in thee. made 11 also fragrant with spices. 12. 10. for the umsimi he took in his hand.

. Column IV.. ..» . In his 8.... Anu ... iv.. .. lost.THE SIN OF TEE GOD About ten 33. 36. 4.. his father had not placed him and with him did not [go]. and there is never counted would be no clue to his nature were it not for a curious tablet printed in " Cuneiform Inscriptions. His mother had not placed him and had not .... 119 lines lost here. in 3... The divine Zu here mentioned whose sin among spoken of is the gods... to own heart a resolution he made. Such are the fragments of the story so far as they can be translated at present. to . the strength of his knowledge 6. 5. tion: 1. And ZV. the likeness of a bu'd he changed. the will of his heart a resolution he did . p.. from which it appears that he was in the likeness of a bird of This tablet gives the following curious rela- prey... 14.. The god Sarturda (the lesser king) to a country a place remote [went]. From not 7. thus the god ." vol... I also 35.. 39. he turned The god 38. He heard also . the land of Sabu [he dwelt]... 2. and thus 37.. 34.. of noble face ..

the wife of the divine Zu divine bird. 11. Zu 14. 15. 10. the son of the bird. from the nest of the divine Zu bird he came. 16. lines lost here. the flesh eating bird. mountain he loved. col. in companionship he The goddess Enna. his wife forcibly he associated with. the crown he placed on his head 1 2. . brightness Many was set in . This Zu Zu bird I suppose to be the same as the god of the inscriptions. her girdle 19." This bird is called the cloud or storm bird. 107). the lion or giant bird. darted. the goddess of perfumes a female fashioned? of her mother in her likeness 17. Zu bird) he changed.. to the likeness of the divine storm bird (or 9. 1. a female fashioned? of her mother in her like- ness. 18. and indicates some ravenous bird which was it evidently deified by the . where he says his warriors " like the divine zu bird upon them scriptions. 20. p. 22.THE SIN OF THE GOD 120 ZU. made 12. the lady of Tigenna. his nature is shown by a pas- sage in the annals of Assurnazirpal (" Cuneiform Ini. silver and gold. ukni stone. the story recommences on reverse. ii.." vol. Her appearance was like bright was adorned with brightness was fixed in .. . 13. the bird of prey. in the sit. the bird with sharp beak..

121 excellent remarks on the nature of this bird are given byDelitzsch in his " Assyrische studien. who offends against Bel. may "the young king" was lord of the or Marad. in is it the the which the god Sarturda as obscure as the first. Merodach. and causes Anu to god Anu request that call on his Zu while the sons of he may be expelled from sons in succession to slay company of the gods. otherwise have no mention in any other inscription of we this per- sonage. 116. In of my Zu is translation of the legend very obscure. • Some ZV. and I am quite unable to see through the allusions in the text. but in Nebo usually called son of is this inscription he is called son of on K 3454." pp. Zu In the story of the offence of there is another instance of the variations which constantly occur in the Assyrian inscriptions with respect to the relationship of the gods. changes into a Zu bird. The Zu of the legend. I suppose to be the same as the divine bird of prey mentioned in the other inscriptions. . as raises the anger of Bel. there being also in this doubtful words and mutilated pas- . and he is be explained Amarda city of said to have been the deity wor- shipped by Izdubar. The second legend. 96.TEE SIN OF THE GOD Babylonians. the sin Anu. but it quite is evident that his sin was considered to be great. In the legend of Sarturda Zu into a it is said that he changed Sarturda which bird.

although a celebrated god in early times. and there is no information anywhere as to the females or goddesses mentioned in the legend. . ZU. The explanation of these legends must be left until the meanings of several words in them are better known. Sarturda. The idea of the gods sometimes changing themselves into animals was not uncommon in early times.TEE SIN OF TEE GOD 122 sages. is seldom mentioned in the later inscriptions.

. — Ann. —The great destruction — Sin and — Shamas. Lubara. and the fifth tablet was a smaller one of two columns to contain the remainder of the story. — Song of Lubara. — Seven — God of people.— Chapter VIII. — Prayer Pestilence. — on Power and glory of Lubara. Itak. Itak goes Cutha. but I have only dis- covered a few fragments of them. Ishtar. — Goddess of Destruction of — warrior destruction of Babylonians. — God Ner. From the indications presented by these fragments I believe the first four tablets had each four columns of writing. — —The Plague. Blessing's his to arrest PIE tablets recording this story (which I formerly called the " war of the gods ") are five in number. the worship. to Syria. Elu. Sin and of Speech — — Karrak. THE EXPLOITS OP LUBARA. — — god and Duran. — Plague. The god whose exploits are principally recorded bears a name which I read with much hesitation as Lubara or Dabara and whom I conjecture on some doubtful grounds to be a form of the god Ninip. of Erech. — Internal wars. gods.

or the personification of the plague. 340. 192." pp. j). 1. and the passage Deluge table in the coveries. Anu to go It is evident here that exactly the same views prevailed in Babylonia as those among the Jews. 25. Lubara has a companion deity named Itak who marches before him. ii." vol. shows Assyrian Dis- (" this name with the same meanino^. stroying everything before it. The fragment which appears the series is to me to come a very mutilated portion of a tablet. column is perfect Only a enough characters on this are so to worn that the translation cannot be other than doubtful. my have given in " History of Assurbanipal" and in "Assyrian Discoveries. con- taining parts of three columns of writing. first in and first the. and that deity ordered Lubara forth and strike the people with the pest. that the people of the world had offended god of heaven.124 THE EXPLOITS OF The passages I LTTBABA. serve to show that this deity was the god of pestilence. fragment of the translate. and seven gods who follow him in his destructive course. " Cuneiform Inscriptions. 20)." p. The whole of this series of tablets may be described by a and de- as a poetical picture of the destruction caused plague. The point of the story in these tablets appears to be. 339. My reading Lubara is taken from the passage. It appears to eadr . 1. 343. 13. visitations from pestilence or famine being always supposed to be sent by the deity in punishment for some sin. sweeping over district after district.

like in ... . thy son name? like afterwards ? 13. spake to him and he learned? at the doing of Hea . ... like he will strike thy heart also to make a destruction 7.. the all them Anu heard and 5. war not This passage appears to describe the forthcoming destruction.. the fifth time . thy them and cast down their weapons. Anu .. 1 is of a diiferent character. god Ner strike with the desolation of the and thy weapon against their swords may thy 9.. the god Anu commanding the slaughter. 4. 3. 14..THE EXPLOITS OF LUBABA... The next fragment appears from its he . an old man. 125 . 1. . • • . . 3.. he said? to them also to Lubara the warrior of the gods may thy hand move of . seven I? say? strengthened above and below seeking .. of the people of the nations their pit 6. . . set the people of the dark races to ruin thou shalt 8... . . He 12. . like a slaughter in the house.. name in the house. spake to him and he 2... hand move 10. to capture he was turned 2... against the seat devised 15. ... but style to belong to this series. Lubara do thou go and said to . slay 11. words of the account of the seven gods 4....

such as the peoples enumerated in the fourth column. four columns of "writing being represented. 11 strong to later days to 12 sin of 13 triumphantly the net 14 to 15 4. extending from the horizon of heaven to the top of heaven 8 looked and his fear he saw 9 Anu who hand? 10 of Hea over him his calamity . e^c. thou dost not sweep away 1 his 2 thou turn est his troop 3 . mankind . he broke heaven he ascended. dwelling . made made . . 126 5. the gods of heaven and earth all there were who thus answered 6. probably the fourth.. . .THE EXPLOITS OF LUBABA. beside the special purpose of the legend.. his will 7 which was Hke the will of Anu who .021 people he placed 16 the illness which was on the . she thus body of the people he placed 17 the illness the goddess of Karrak made to cease The next portion of the legend is a considerable part of one of the tablets. the action of the gods of the various cities... are many all There curious points in this tablet. . COLUIMN I..

thou goest out to another thou destroy est the land. 26. like is like a bird he 13 he destroys 14 great curse 15 strike their 16 the 17 taken flies hands fire his fierceness? covered? 19. . he gathers 8 he draws out his sword 9 he 11. Warrior Lubara. Thou leavest also the land. fills war 10 . The wicked Babylonians watched it and 23. 25. .TRE EXPLOITS OF LUBABA. 127 and he said: Lubara is couching at his gate. over the corpses of chiefs and slaves 21.. .. 24. thou art their curse. The people weapons. in his heart 20.. callest. thou placest his seat.. To the floor thou tramplest didst break through them and thou . see thee and they reach their . 28. 4 thou enterest within 5 thou 6 an appointment has not 7 thy . thou enterest 27 the palace. 22. a tent bow made and he seeks Elu it his 12 18..

36. raising the 39. and enters the city. 128 29.TEE EXPLOITS OF LVBAEA. do not tremble at a man. 38. SO. thou man S3. Small 35 and great at once cast down and of evil leaving fear ? thou dost not save any one.. 32. Before the face of the people they do evil violently. 40. Their swords thou takest. To that city I send thee. 42. shaking the bow. The collection of the goods of Babylon thou spoilest... of the people spoiled Anu and who sword are punished by Dagon. 41. The great lord Merodach saw and angrily spoke. the people the king gathers. their corpses like the pouring down of thou dost cast down in the vicinity of the rain city. and their treasures thou openest. like the spoiling of enemies to spoil he sends forth his soldiers. 46 on an unsparing curse his face of the river fled not is set. 44. thou dost sweep into the 43. shalt not fear. in his heart he resolved. . . river. 45. 37. 31. 34. The high priest the avenger of Babylon hardens his heart.

. hardened. bows . on the waters she scatters.. who make the people manhood turn to . 7.. to of Ishtar fear..THE EXPLOITS OF LUBABA.. the high priest. make . Ishtar countenance turn . in his . Column Many II. a deluge he did not 3. 9... he does not lead the expedition? 18. the city of the ladies. . Against Shamas his tower thou destroyest thou dost cast . The enemies whom thou destroyest do not return to . 2. their . .. The 8. makers. 15. seat of Death they Ishtar fear they are delivered into thy hands.. Their foundations... carrying swords. lines lost. E . of the lord of the earth 1 129 . dupe^ and zur7n 11.. his face over them day and night? 13. 6.. of Ishtar. who to raise the spirit of Ishtar trust 12. the festival Suti with the Suti are placed in . slay the house of heaven. Of Erech the 5.. . Samhati and Harimati. their 14.. the priests.. Anu and 4.. angry and troubled over the city of is Erech. Dwelling 17. . 16. . 10. . the enemies she strikes and like corn Parra ... .. carrying naklahi..

I in 26. 14 head of the king of Kutha? Two other mutilated lines. The great god answered the speech The city of Duran to blood .. to the Suti my 25.. . Four other broken . 8. and the unjust 11... .. .. 130 19... the day he brought me fate I him.. 10.... this all and the portion ... . and of me thou dost not leave . 4 5.. . 20. . swear and the house country and father . the people are in the midst of it like reeds are trembling 22.. I city Duran judge uprightly do not 27. who do not sin against thee also in Kutha. the upright people I leave 29.. lines lost. The warrior Lubara.. just also of Kutha? Kutha. 6. . . who 21. the 1 2 3. 12. foundation and fixed . 7.. a fire is fixed . lines. . . also of 13 of the god of Kutha. house built now ... Column Many III... Afterwards may he waste to another .. who sin against thee also in Kutha. me 24. evil? I .THE EXPLOITS OF LUBAHA... like sick? before the waters their pit 23.. . his seat also he lays waste? . do not give and 28. 9.. .... ..

16... Country with country. Satu with Sutu 13. and fight against them. and 18. 8.. 131 Column IV. 20.. Assyrian with Assyrian. 3. he sea coast with the sea coast. to his might'. 14. Goim with Goim Lulubu with Lulubu 15. The 6. destroyed the seat of the king of the 5. 21.. house with house. Itak to the land of Syria set his face. Elamite with Elamite 11.. Go also Itak. 17. The planet Jupiter 2. . in the country close and may they destroy each other.. 10. Cossean with Cossean 12.. and thus spake the warrior Lubara: 9. The warrior Lubara him a word spake 19. increase. to . and afterwards may the people of Akkad together. the whole of them may they destroy. fearing and . man with man. . send and 7. The warrior Lubara heard also the words Itak spoke to him then . . .. in the according to all to Itak who goes before word thou hast spoken do thy heart. . brother with brother.. Subarta with Subarta. 1... not rejoicing 4. gods may the side carried him.... who .: THE EXPLOITS OF LUBABA.

Lubara all of shake also I 7. like spoiling the country right and . Obverse.THE EXPLOITS OF LTJBAEA. . 12.... as stated.. 1. .. them . I have before 1282.. Lubara placed ? and in the is first sin .. which could not be written on the fourth tablet.. in the mouth of a dog noble? and the place .. the land of Syria he took for his country... my heart 8. he broke through the ranks? 28 ... 132 22. against the setting much broken here. all . the country of Syria the warrior went....... am . angry and sheep up of boundaries . To 25. 1282. 27.. marched 24... may .... When 2. K. the land of Akkad its Fifteen lines 28 strength . and the seven warrior gods unequalled 23.. the forests of people ... mouth opened and . his 5.. like The next fragments of the story are on a muti- K lated copy of the last tablet... is only a smaller supplemental one to include the end of the story. . 11... his after him. hand he and destroyed the land. .. also lifted 26.. the whole of you . the gods 3. like a flock of 10. This tablet...... the angels and spirits 4. 9. 6.

.. the . one of thy seven chiefs like 30. he set 4.. . 34. • .... to the midst spoil... him.. Reverse..... 11 Itak went before him rejoicing . 10. they gather Four mutilated .. in the to the . reduce thou dost 31. mighty one of the .THE EXPLOITS OF LUBABA.. his . Merodach son of ... lord ' 3.. the gods of the country strong thou removest afar off ... his great spoil of 133 ... of the great also to sweep the glory .. .. 7... 2.. his cities to ruins . 8. 12 all of them placed with him. For years untold the 1... of the night he sent ... collecting his his face .... 32..... . within it . Itak his adviser quieted him and stayed 6.. also Lubara received and before . and mounds thou dost .. When Lubara was angry countries . Any Lubara one who shall speak of the warrior . god Ner and . and like in the year Not any one and went not down against .. 33.. 9 13. lines here. commencement gods..... the productions of the countries 35... 29.

. .. shall be great in the land. shall not die by the chastisement. the people of all the cities exalt and may establish . 26. In the places of the people the established my name places. the chastising sword not touch him whose face thou establishest. they fix the part for ever may they 28. is where their goods are angry the seven gods turn him aside. shall glorify guard continually wilt cover and 15 in his place. 24. Here we see a picture of Oriental feeling with reference to natural phenomenon or disaster to man- .. Fifth tablet of the exploits of . THE EXPLOITS OF LUBAEA. 20.. their ears I open. his may he not meet. shall cry it out... That song 27. may they see. 23.. they proclaim. an adversary 19. The prophet who 16.. thou . Whoever my heroism shall recount. 18. . The 21. higher than king and prince he shall raise his who studies and people. In the house the place placed.. 22. 17.. name shall be proclaimed over the world. and heroism 29.. the countries all of glorify my them may they hear. when Lubara may may 25. may he not fall? . 134 and that song 14.. tablet writer it flees from the wicked. and my name.

fragment shows the anger of command supposed sin and his Anu first at their sin or Lubara to The to take his weapon. character of this city is described. beheved This god Ner was a legendary being in at the time of Izdubar. For this the plague is sent. who is mentioned name and being with Etana a as having a terrible dweller in Hades. it commences with a tion of preparation for battle. The next fragment exhibits the goddess of Karrak as healing the illness of some of the people. and desolate the land Hke the God Ner. The next city belongs to Shamas. the . and city its progress visited is graphically described. It is supposed in lines 29-31 that the sin of the Babylonians arose from the chief j)riest or governor of the arming the troops and sending them out to plunder the people. chief nor slave. or The Venus worship. where he spares neither and enters even the palace. the women of pleasure Samhati and Harimati. It is 135 supposed that some deity or angel stands with a sword over the devoted people and sweeps them into eternity. In the next and largest fragment the story becomes a little more connected. kind. the Sippara. and then the plague reaches Erech.THE EXPLOITS OF LUBABA. What record these Babylonians had been guihy of the is not perfect enough to show. descrip- and goes on through speeches and actions to describe the course of Lubara and his plague over Babylon. 4102 being mentioned as struck with disease. slay the people. being either Larsa.

and the progress of the Then the great god the plague over the place. last tablet deals in generalities pointing the action of Lubara and when telling all the glories to those deity. justice. stroys The and Itak sweeps over the country and deit. priests and ceremonies. and good that should come who should spread On out his praise a song in honour of this the spread of a plague the Babylonians had no better it is evident that means of arresting it than to pray and praise the supposed terrible deity of the scourge. Guti. next mentioned column. Assyrians. Goim. and Lulubu. all which troubles benefit should to the Akkadians or upper Babylonians. from come Elamites. Subarti.136 TEE EXPLOITS OF LUBABA. of Duran comes forward and pleads to mind its uprightness and for his calling praying its Cutha is deity city. and then the in fourth the obscure third column describes a prophecy of Lubara that there should be internal war among the Mesopotamian peoples of the sea-coast. was neglected. . Cosseans. and exemption from the plague. that he might sheathe his sword of anger. Then according to his wish Lubara sends Itak his servant. with the seven warrior gods to destroy Syria.

the name must not be taken character in this direction. ox. eagle. speech in animals. — Story of the — Etana. eagle. — Power of —Common the — Serpent. together. — His show of sorrow. of fox. treated as alle- . to imply any distinctive It is probable that all these stories even in Babylonia were equally believed in by the devout and the ignorant. horse. fox. — His punishment. fortune.— Chapter IX. — Speech of —Fable the horse and — They consort — Speech of the — His good of the — Contrast with the — Hunting the — —Further recount — Story of — East. — Judgment of Shamas. horse. traditions of the early history of man. and accounts of the Creation. ox. to ox. tablets. — Shamas. serpent. story. are fragments of a series in Avhich the various animals speak and tinguish act. — Eats the — Story of the — Speech of — Seven — Third —His cunning. I call these tablets " Fables " to dis- them from the others. as many of the others are equally fabulous and very similar in style. tablet. — Anger of The eagle caught. BABYLONIAN FABLES. — Description. gods. birds. but. in Fables. Offers Sj^eech Ishtar. jOMBINED with these stories of the gods.

there are only four fragments. and repudiated as fabulous In the " Fables " or stories in which the learned. are the eagle The second Two having similar in is character. where the trees are made to speak again in the Izdubar serpent. animals play prominent parts. where the trees answer Heabani. in I it of the acting animals and the serpent. the leading animal being the fox or jackal. in .BABYLONIAN FABLES. This story appears to be the longest and most curious of these legends. day is this idea en- was whole of Western found in various Egyptian is it in the and stories. The Story of the Eagle. I. but there is nothing to show the nature of the story. 138 gories by the poets. The third writing. The it is fourth is a single tablet with two columns of a discussion between the horse and ox. legends. but the very mutilated condition of the various fragments gives as usual . it occurs in Genesis. is a single fragment in which a calf speaks. where we have a speaking Numbers where Balaam's ass reproves his master. and I have no evidence as to the of tablets . this may number belong to the same series as the fable of the eagle. The first contained at least four tablets each four columns of writing. common even in that Asia and Egypt. These legends so in far a*s have discovered are four number. and in the stories of Jotham and Joash. each creature dowed with by the power of speech.

BABYLONIAN FABLES.. thy stroke? this 11. to the eagle 4. placed . The serpent I give 2527. to Bau (Gula) was .... 14. 15. me not ... 12.. my 6. in . he birds of heaven • • . .. ..... 139 considerable difficulty in attempting an explanation. .. commencement. I feel ? nest I leave ? of my go down and enter people ? Shamas has pronounced on me Shamas thy 10. I am unable to ascertain the order of the fragments of these legends and must translate K Many 1. Again the nest 5. the way pass • • . Go . I 8. open also his heart 18.. doing evil the goddess 13... The sorrow of the serpent [shamas saw and] Shamas opened his mouth and word he spoke . them as they come. 16... lines lost at 2.. in thy sight? let sight ? in the earth . 19 . One of the actors named Etana who in the story is an ancient monarch mentioned as already dead..... and is as being an inhabitant of the infernal regions in the time of Izdubar. command ? 3... . I cut thee off? 17. the sentence which 9. the assembly 7..

at pent the and work . 1.. with the 16. to cover the 5..... 5. dying of hunger and 9.. warrior.. like 4. The 1.... . like also . the anger of the birds of heaven 14. god? knew 2. took him ... . 13.. 6.. to the midst at his entering .. .. Five other mutilated On words lines... him 1 issu to 2 god my Etaua kill 3. Within the gate of Anu. ... enclosed the feathers of his wings 7.. the ..... the eagle young of the birds . father . • few . seat .. ... fragment another are following the : Obverse... Etana the king 6. them . • . .. The eagle opened his mouth . Elu ... May ... his claws ? 8. 15. 10.. to enter to the food he sought 3... ... Reverse.. he opened also his heart ...— BABYLONIAN FABLES. • ... .. .... he placed 12..... 4. the ser- . he took also the serpent to 11.» thee me . his pinions to thirst Shamas the of .. . 140 Reverse.. eagle with ...

.. I sweep . back bone .. K 2606. The 9. 15 K The next fragment. they took their counsel .. as con- some early legendary story taining an account of in .. I take also . do thou fix for 14.. ........ ... will fix within the gate of I 5 6 sin. opened . the king him eagle to also to Etana 13..BABYLONIAN FABLES..... this brickwork 4 fixed 5 to the 6. 8.. I fear the serpent? . spirits .. I cover the throne .. government of them . .. in the series... ......... Babylonian history.. . 2606... placed ... Shamas.. in the midst .. 141 This tablet formed the third and from it we gain part of the title the tablets. 4 7.. we 2. • • of .... turned? and .. placed 1 2 3...... Etana he gave them 7 sword 8. . . ... make me great . . and greatly I break ..... the course . • .. me . 10. 12. is curious..... 9 the seven its .. 3. Yul and 11...

BABYLONIAN FABLES... Elu 20. and a sceptre of ukni stone 15.. ... .. to ...... from of old he caused to wait 2.. The eagle his mouth opened ... gods over the people they raised . in the wide country 26.. In those days also 14... 1.. 142 placed in the country 10 of 11 all 12 they them the angels .. .. over the cities they raised .. the gods of the country Reverse. 13... 24. the city of the angels Surippak? 19... and the king flew . kingdom ... the 27. .. . 1... to rule the country 16. 18. . The his lord eagle his ... " The city they mouth opened and Shamas he spake The next fragment is a small portion probably of the fourth tablet. . 17. he took and 28. 21....... Ishtar to the neighbourhood to . the seven . ..... Third tablet of 3. ... and the king flew 23. Inninna to the neighbourhood 22... he sought also 25.. encircled the sanctuary of .... . ...... Many lines lost.

. eagle his Why 10. and desire that the eagle should be excluded from their ranks. the people of the bh'ds 3. angrily I speak 7.. After trap for some one... baits a the eagle. there are seven spirits or angels j^rincipal actors in the matter. 143 2 . 12. but the whole story is obscure at present. The other fragments concern city. Such are the principal fragments of this curious Etana 11. speech? ...BABYLONIAN FABLES. mouth opened and . the building of some Etana being king.... comest thou ... falls eagle is left. into the trap and until dying for is caught. which it The other birds then take oiFence. in the 8. whose name is lost. and a connected plot cannot be made out. . This fable has evidently some direct connection .. According to the fragment K 2527.... meat. to be eaten by the bat the eagle declined the repast.. and the bird going to get the this. Now it is the glad takes and tares open. he .. 6.. condemned by the god Shamas eagle . . the serpent had committed some sin for which it was legend.. and in these relations the eagle again appears. mouth opened and . his .. want of food to eat the serpent. angrily he spake .... 4 5... mouth of Shamas the warrior .. the people of the birds The 9....

he had raised life . . is perhaps part of the same story. 11.. II. by his will is the destruction of life. 9.. Shamas in thy sentence. . the fragments are so disconnected that they must be given without any attempt at ar- rangement. 10.. .. 4. K 3641. he had asked and . that of the fox.. for Etana mentioned as an ancient Babylonian monarch Izdubar legends... his will he . thou ... thou knowest enticing ? and cunning. 6. ... ... probably on account of their deeds.. of 2. let To not the people . lU with the mythical history of Babylonia. His memory was is in the cherished as belonging to one of the terrible monarchs who were inhabiting Hades. the answer ? let him 12... not escape. The next fable. . 7... chains. about the rising of the jackal also he sent me ... 5.. . again 13. bTORY or THE FoX. thou in that day also 8.BABYLONIAN FABLES.... 3. in a firm command he set my feet. . mother called . . father . Column 1. I. ..

they bind thee and not .^ and ends of all the lines..... Go 2. . thou hast fixed . thou..... by the anger of my ... 7. ... they fell thy limbs . mouth .: BABYLONIAN FABLES. lost... 5.. he bowed his head . . 8.. . . 16. (Columns II.. The next fragment has lost the commencement. 10. to . by wisdom and cunning let 145 them put to death the fox. bowed his head in the presence of Shamas and wept. heart and fierceness of my face thou shalt fear before me.. they take hold of thee and not . 11.. With Shamas do not destroy this sentence me. 3. my forest. To the powerful presence of Shamas he went 15. ... Then wept the jackal . in his tears 17... 9.. 1. The fox on hearing this.. do not turn back afterwards come shall not out. 12.. 14. 6.. 1 carried in his 2 before his . and III.) Column IV... taking the ... and the sun shall not be seen. any one shall not cut thee off 4.. may may may may they keep thee and I will not Four other mutilated lines.

.. The fourth fragment contains only also right and five legible lines.. . 5 in the field the fox G was decided under the ruler the 7 all down under him and laying .. me .. and not any one . of Bel .. . he fled ...... ..... .. The following fragment is in similar condition... and 10 .. I did not weave and unclothed J am not «... a good place 7 of the city of Nisin I 8 limbs and the bodies did not stand 9 life 10 my dog was brought . . .... .. ... 13 the dog is Why .. of the jackal all was it . know ... of ... removed and .. . The limbs not .. I did not end ...... .. 146 3 thou knowest wisdom and 4 in .. 3 stranger I 4 I cauo'ht 5 from of old brother and I surrounded the also ... 6 he begot me. 1 was placed 2 their ruler sought 3 let it not be ...... mayest thou become old ... 1 2. .. command....... 8 he 9 ^Jigiy also .............BABYLONIAN FABLES. ...... . left . .... up . 11 in those 12 the people he spoke. take days also the fox carried ..

... of food . as he brings tears to his assistance that the fox or jackal whenever anything is to be gained by it.. con- .. is a two columns of text. The last fragment is a small scrap. K 3456. The incidental allusions in these fragments show was even then considered cunning. . the Tigris situated the river 3456. at the end of which the fox petitions Shamas to spare him.. The fable.BABYLONIAN FABLES. This largest fragment. 3... The next his own behalf. (Several lines lost at commencement. it is copied from an There are altogether four portions of but only one is perfect enough to be worth is earlier text.. translating. rest . height . . and the animal in the story was evidently a watery specimen. K tains about one third of the story... he feared and did not throw down his 4 spoil 147 . He had offended Shamas by some means and the god sen- tenced him to death. and the ox. that of the horse single tablet with only date of the tablet and there no statement that is in the reign of Assurbanipal.) 1 2. a sentence which he escaped through powerful pleading on III.... fox in the forest 5 ... Fable of the Horse and Ox. the text.

. he dried up rivers of waters. From the beginning of the year to the end of the year I ponder at 19....... 20. the vallies and springs he made for his country. a carpet he made.. the high places he despised. 148 4. 13.. of the waste he turned earth were free within 12. The ox opened his to the horse glorious in 17. tliey 5. .. I am pondering mouth. made the timid . destroyed abundance of food. 16.. in the flowers he rolled. .... they rejoiced their 15. He my appearance.: BABYLONIAN FABLES. was in the flowers . . the country 6. 22.. the tribes of beasts rejoiced in and afraid it companionship friendship. 11. at the appearance 9. the high places 7... .. 21.... he raged in the floods. they disported in the ? . 18. appearance . a boundless place 10... 14. in the side ... they consorted over the friendship. between the ox and the horse friendship was made. floods ended ... the vallies 8. and were prosperous.. and spake and said war now upon the good fortune at my hand.. . and pleased their hearts..

. .. Here the ox gives a good picture of his state and enjoyment.. fate 2...... why . I one not suited I 8. The ox opened to the horse glorious 7... and looks with contempt on the horse because he tamed... tiraicl portioned for his learned ceased broke the ropes and waited and the horse 27. 1.. high seek 6.. lord and prince do not ... like 4. . . is afraid.. by speeches Most of these speeches are lost or only present in small fragments... drives horns make the 149 will not . ? with a cloak priest.. am clothed and ... he ascends also . is After this comes a speech from the horse to the bull.... he man ...BABYLONIAN FABLES. boundless place 25. in say I am his mouth and spake and noble and thou gatherest thy fighting said .. . the 26. king.... they catch thee thyself 29. 23. and the story recommences on the reverse with the end of a speech from the horse. . the rest of the tablet being occupied and answers betAveen the two animals.... approach a child. and he him ... strong brass 3. 28.. over me any 5.. . the sight of his A 24. .

.. my body I am firm ... in the paths of thy country 26..... is . I reveal? ox the story . . strength carries a curse 14... 28.. in •11. said .. the swords 22 23..... the my . it is not ... lation me and the lord of the chariot destroys deso- . to the horse 31. hearing weapon 21.... his . 19.... like .. in my inside I am firm . 29. Of the his mouth and spake and . ..... . the 15.... .. mouth and spake and ....... 30... .. thy splendour is subdued? . he causes to go on the path over The horse opened to the ox .... my weapon of masters over he causes to see servitude like 16 in thee 17.. stories which thou tellest .... not 18. 10. 150 9. In 20.. the warrior draws out of 13. 12. ... in thy appearance. ... 27... said his quiver ...BABYLONIAN FABLES..... the horse .... in crossing that river which does not . strength? of the heart 24. The ox opened 25....

told and matter.BABYLONIAN open 32. king of nations. is unfortunate. is evident that Ishtar was a very celebrated god- dess. commencing the discussion. It is uncertain if is. (that first of) FABLES. the answer of the horse recommences it is lost. tar . appears from these fragments that the story de- when scribed a time and the ox and horse The . . and the horse ultimately offers to a story. (Colophon) Palace of Assurbanipal. but where the story appears that the ox objects to the horse drawing the chariot from which he (the ox) hunted. the animals associated together. any other tablet followed this . praised himself. . it however. king It . the ox choosing the story called " noble Ishtar tell is the ox When the probably some story of the same cha- ". Although there is no show the date of this fable. probable that there was one containing the story told indication think. The of Ishtar. I should style same date the volume. and her adventures formed the subject of many It narratives. Some of the words and forms in these fables are exactly the same as those used bar and Creation legends^ and in the Izdu- in all these stories the . racter as Ishtar's descent into Hades. "When 151 the noble Ish- . fell into a friendly conversation. . to by the by the horse. ox. it belonged to about as the other writings given in this loss of the tablet containing the story by the horse to the ox.

BABYLONIAN FABLES. is not enough of this to make . 152 deity Shamas more prominently tlian is usual The last fable is a mere fragment figures in the mythology. containing a story in which the calf speaks. similar to the others. it worth There translation.

The inscrip- tion has originally been a long one. FRAGMENTS OF MISCELLANEOUS TEXTS. text is not are and a fragment The first and re- principal the story of Atarpi. and there are numestory is rous repetitions throughout the text. and there is only one copy. — Obscurity of legend. —Babil. sons. — Hea. It is very mutilated. —Locality mentary Babylon. very little being preserved except Column III. — Incantation. but which directly connected. — Dream. — Divining by fracture of reed. — Punisliment of world. the text differs . —Not noticed by Berosus. — Tower of Babel. — Frag—Destruction of Tower. —Famine. lating to the tower of Babel.. tablet. — Birs Nimrud. HAVE included in this chapter a num- ber of stories of a similar character to those of Genesis. Sinuri. probably extend- ing to about 400 lines of writing. of tlie world. — Assyrian representations. — — Nature and universal presence of — Gods. — Calls his — Riddle of wise man. or Atarpi-nisi.— Chapter X. — Orders Zamn. — Sin Atarpi. —Mother and daughter quarrel. — Building. drought. This on a tablet in six columns. — Dispersion. air. ISTusku.

stomach let am shall not he turns. 5. and Atarpi then invoked the god Hea to remove these He I evils. poison. I only give an outline of most of the story. and relates to them stating that he also that disease. and at the close we are told of doings of a with the Atarpi. . or Atarpi the man " who had " couch beside a his river. angry at the sin of the world. but took no notice of these things. being very In consequence of this and difficult. Their wickedness I . I will look to 7. Hea After this the story reads called his assembly he said to the gods his sons 2 I made them shall not stretch until before 3. This is followed by the statement that these things came to pass. 4. We are first told of a quarrel between a mother and her daughter. answers. the god Elu or Bel calls together an assembly of the gods his sons. 1. and turns her daughter adrift. and that the mother shuts the door of the house. other reasons.: FEAGMENT8 OF 154 from the generality of these obscure and inscriptions. Vul drink up his rain. their punishment 6. above angry at. be small. Where the story next opens. he will bring down upon them is and distress. . sometimes called Atarpi-nisi. The man named Zamu have some connection affair. and was pious to the gods. let food be exhausted. judge the people. in their 8. . and announces his resolve to destroy the people.

let the 13. 9. lower regions were shut up. fields bring forth thorns. Above Vul drank up 19. 16. distress 25. food not arise not produce. This will serve to show the style of the tablet. growth of corn 11. favour it did not produce. good was not given. the was broken up. was spread over the people. and cultivation 23. and floods not carried in the streams. The ground was hardened which had been overflown. 21. stomach food he exhausted. The instrument of punishment was apparently a . let 155 the lower regions be shut up. favour be broken off. in their 18. 20. was broken off. and good not be given. and the floods not be carried in the streams. He looked also to judge the people. the plowed fields brought forth thorns. let the overspread the 12. and it 14. 17. 24. ground be hardened which was over- 10. 22. the over the growth of corn ceased. let the flown. may blackness fields. 15. plowed may the cease. blackness spread fields.MISCELLANEOUS TEXTS. the his rains. food did not rise. cultivation be broken up. may may distress be spread over the people.

7. in the secret j)lace is .. me ... to her face also 3.) is ... but it evidently belongs to the mythical portion of Babylonian history. • puts a . 2407. his Nusku 4.. and place seven on each side. FRAGMENTS OF famine from want of but there are some obscure rain...... present no satisfactory story can be of the said to assembly of the great gods the will? . directing another person to cut something into portions. The next text is a single fragment. be- man who riddle to the gods... the connection of which with the former part is obscure. in the 6. .. Anu 8. which in the house 2. curse the goddess 1. made out detached fragments of this tablet. Anu opened . which 2407.. . your king has sent? has sent . . their At . Nusku open thy 5. round them. longing to a curious story of a wise (Many 1. mouth and spake and gate thy weapons take speech? . and where it recommences some one is making a speech. then to build brickwork After this comes a single fragment.. Here the story is again lost. . lines lost. K K .. I 2.156 . words even in this passage.

. which in the ditch of the house open. house stands. to you a mutilated passage containing and actions of the gods who con- sider the riddle. titles. It is evident that it is air or wind which the wise man means in his riddle. which 4... 13.. 1. who uses a divining rod to ascertain the meaning of a dream. is am unable ? . Next we have another single fragment about a person named Sinuri.... which barks like a dog.. flutters like a which brays sail... lays in the vicinity . Sar-nerra heard the word which the wise son of man 14. which by the sides of the house goes down . which like a bull. and all the gods he sent to: Friends are ye I After this there the names. asked. ... and Sinuri spake . and in animals. which is in the foundation of the on the the of floor? 157 house . 5... which into the breast of a man into the breast of a woman enters. 10. 2. for this is its sounds imitates the cries of everywhere. 7. which roars 9. like a sheep.: MISCELLANEOUS TEXTS. which 6. 15.... which enters. 3. 11. which . which growls 12 like a bear.. down 8. . Sinuri with the cut reed pondered with his and thus said right hand he broke it.. like which bleats an ass...

no representation on any of the Babylonian gems which can with any certainty be I have. If 8. shrub of ? Shamas at thou. if it may its good not be lost to me. which in the evening. 7. may its evil not happen to me. at midnight. but belongs. Judge. thou judgest (or divinest). has come. we can judge from the fragments of his copyists. which thou knowest. and early writers had to quote from writers of more than doubtful authority in order to confirm it. but I do not know. howdescribed as belonging to this story. 4.FRAGMENTS OF 158 3. Book of Tower of of the most obscure incidents in the Genesis undoubtedly the building of the is )>/'^' Men engaged Babel. or in the morning. 6. divine con- cerning this dream. There is also . there was no reference to it in the work of Berosus. Now the plant of Nusku. fkom Ijabilonian Cylinder. 5. So in far as qM Building. be good it be evil There are some more obscure and broken no indication as One to the story to which it lines.

There is no proper proportion between the supposed structure and the men. ever. either in Berosus or the inscriptions. from Babylonian Cylinder.MISCELLANEOUS TEXTS. in much a god always represented is in Building tall piles. the same attitude. and I would not urge more than a possible con- nection with the myth. picked out three which I think may from a 159 series of these carvings be distorted representations of the event. as if erect- . and there Men engaged near. In these and some others of the same sort. The utter absence of any allusion to the tower. figures have their hands on ing them. led me to doubt at one time if formed part of the Babylonian history. the story ever .

9. their strong place (tower) all the day they founded . was 4 of him.. to their strong place in the night 11. them? the 1 I. Column principal part I. [small] and great he confounded their speech. his heart 2 . against the father of all the gods was wicked. 12. 7 8. evil. of which fragments of The four remain. describing the The frag- to a tablet containing from sin of the people in building the tower. . but have been unable to find any more of this tablet. on having one of the Assyrian fragments cleaned.. that con- it tained a mutilated account of part of the story of the tower. In his anger also word thus he poured out: . is was evil. Babylon brought to subjection. [small] and great he confounded their speech. ment preserved belongs four to six columns of writing. the beginning of \^ Column 3. 10. It is evident it from the wording of the fragment that was preceded by at least one tablet. father of him.. I have since searched through the whole col- lection. except two minute fragments which add nothing to the text. his heart 5 Babylon brought to subjection. entirely he made an end. . 6.FBAGBIENTS OF 160 Early year I was astonished to this find.

. . 7. 9. ... Reverse Column . but the not apparent. which carried wisdom 10. 13. ... . a long time in the 4... their counsel was confused the course he broke 15 fixed the sanctuary- 16 There is a small fragment of connection with Column Column II. front carried Anu . .. is Column II... either the third or the fifth. . In those days also ... 1. for III.. . like his heart also 5.... ...... In 2... in 3. I. 14... to 4. Sar-tul-elli 2. 8.... Bel-sara his father . number(?) 11. like cities ... he blew and 3. 1. or Y. his There . . heaven and earth M ... He said. ... [to] scatter abroad he he gave this? 161 set his face command. he carried him .. My son I rise and ..MISCELLANEOUS TEXTS. entirely is a third portion on the same tablet be- longing to a column on the other side.... 6.. Nunanner went 5.. . Nin-kina . ..

FRAGMENTS OF 162 6. violence (?) . very much they grieved ... in the day the god destroyed in the night. lines 9 to 11.. fiercely 8.... 13.. the place mentioned being The building or work is called tazimat or tazimtu. the gods looked . that path they 7. of stopping not .. ... that what they built Babylon.. the supposed site of the Tower of These fragments are so remarkable that it is Babel. 11. 9. he saw them and the earth . Bitterly they 14... a word meaning strong... went they approached to the presence wept at Babi View of the Biks Nimeud. 12.... 10.. .. most we have not the remainder of the tablet. of the gods . first art we have the anger of the gods unfortunate In the ] at the sin of the world. at their misfortune and ..... 15.. and there is a curious relation... .

The come down to us seem point to the great pile of Birs Nimrud. the site of the Temple of Bel. this opinion held by Sir Henry Rawlinson and authorities of weight. most other This ruin has been examined . risons until various notices which have to me to near Babylon. The whole account that I think it is better to at present so make no fragmentary detailed compa- more of the text is obtained. which fractured be completed Babil or Babel. end of the 13th line of the third fragment has the may beginning of a name Babi. of the first fragment word with 8th lines have translated the word I "speech" with a prejudice. View of the Babil Mound at Babylon. 163 The remainder of the fragment and the two frag- ments of the other columns agree with the story as far The as their mutilated condition allows. as the is site of the tower.MISCELLANEOUS TEXTS. s Syrian 6th and this I have never seen the meaning. but I have not ventured on the re- In the case of the storation.

each stage being of a different colour. and 26 feet high... 544. this stage is supposed to . xviii. which was an exact square. was the first stage.FRAGMENTS OF 164 by Sir Henry Rawlinson. 272 feet each way. Asiatic Soc. details of his operations here are given in " Jour. the bricks blackened with bitumen. The temple was devoted to the seven planets. from an Assyrian Bas-relief. Sir Henry discovered by excavation sisted of seven Tower platform. that the tower con- stages of brickwork on an earthen in Stages. the height of the earthen platform was not ascertained. and Rawlinson's " Ancient Monarchies." vol." p.

faced supposed to be devoted third stage. fifth stage is supposed to have been 104. and 26 feet high. one of these given on the stone of Merodach Baladan I. stage of the building set in the centre of the stage rested. These stages were probably devoted Each Mercury. . and was probably devoted to the Sun. faced with red bricks. and the seventh 20 feet square. oppo- site p. the level of the plain. the sixth 62." another occurs on the sculptures at Nineveh. 146 feet square. was not was placed 30 154 feet feet pile in front. Venus. I the Babil which is mound within the enclosure the site of the Temple of Bel. 236 of " Assyrian Discoveries. . and is cated to Mars.. In the Babylonian and Assyrian sculptures there are occasionally representations of towers similar in style to the is supposed Tower of Babel. 15 feet high. Rawlinson to have been originally The plated with gold. have given views of both ruins as the possible alternative sites. supposed by Sir H. only other ruin which has any claim to represent the tower is of Babylon. feet. and the Moon. it and at present rises above. representing the of Babylon this tower is probably the Borsippa . 165 26 feet high. most imposing on which from the The ruin 12 feet from the back. The second have been devoted to the planet Saturn. but the top was too ruinous to decide these measurements. city pile. was probably dedi- The fourth stage.3II80ELLANE0U8 TEXTS. stage was a square of 230 with orange-coloured bricks The to Jupiter. 188 feet square. but to the whole and is the The country.

consists of seven stages. before probably presented the appearance shown in the Assyrian sculpture. 166 which is supjiosed to represent the Birs Nimrucl now top stages were only built his time it Tower of Babel." .MISCELLANEOUS TEXTS. but the by Nebuchadnezzar . and in the similar Baby- lonian representation figured o^^posite page 236 of " Ass}Tian Discoveries.

" These legends have also been commented upon by M. I believe. — Surippak.— conclusion. They record the adven- whom I whose name cannot at tures of a famous sovereign of Babylonia provisionally call Izdubar. Translation. — Ark — — Extent of Legends. ings of Izdubar. Babylonian cylinders. the history of Mmrod. Fox Talbot in the "Transactions of the Society of Biblical Archaeology. but . of Izdubar. Illness — Description of Deluge and — — Kingdom Nimrod. ^^^^^^^HESE legends. —Destruction of and wander— tyrant Humbaba. I have published the most perfect portions in various forms since. are principally of interest in from their containing the Chaldean account of the Deluge.— Chapter XT. which I discovered 1872. —Age of Legends. the most complete account being in my "Assyrian Discoveries. — Description. THE IZDUBAR LEGENiDS. — Izdubar. —Nimrod. — Adventures of Account of Deluge. Lenormant in his " Les Premieres Civilizations. N"otices tablets. Tablet. City. — Elamite Conquest." and by Mr. of — First Identifications. Traditions. — In—Twelve troduction. —Meeting of Heabani and Izdubar." The Izdubar legends the Biblical hero give. — Dates. Ishtar.

THE IZDUBAB LEGENDS. Noah journey of Izdubar in search of or Hasisadra in his ark.C. and 2000. is 2000. 168 present be plionetically rendered. . we have of these traditions probably on early Babylonian cylindrical known the earliest is seals. and the war between Tiamat the sea-dragon and the god Merodach. very been thrown on the age and exploits Among all the references and nothing exact or satisfactory to scheme of Babylonian the in discovery first light has of Izdubar. there He closest fame and actions to the Nimrod of the Bible. 1600. age of the kings of These Akkad and them may be older than B. these stories were traditions in the country be- fore they were committed to writing. but it is when many similar tablets were written. B.C. the Hasisadra. Since little monarch who bears the allusions fix his place The age history. devices on these seals we have scenes from the legends of Izdubar. seals belong to the of Ur. The some of principal incidents represented on these seals are the struggles of Izdubar and his companion Heabani with the lion and the bull. their antiquity as traditions The is earhest evidence in the carvings Among much greater than that. and from the story of the Creation. There is a fragment of one document in the British Museum which claims to be copied from an omen tablet belonging to the time of Izdubar probably not earlier than himself.C. of the legends of Izdubar in their present form unknown. but may As fairly be placed about B. to be the in his the is appears to me resemblance of his history.

which must have been written at least eighteen hundred years before the Christian era. being the most important of the this the eleventh. in allusion to the story of his Avanderings. p. is called the notices on this tablet 2000 and 1800. this ship another reference to the Flood legends. as a god . was written is lists of ii. as I have before stated. king of Assyria. long be- b." vol.THE IZDUBAB LEGENDS. In chapter series. of which there are remains of at editions. copied from an original. honour also given to several other Babylonian kings. and tion may now pass on to the descrip- and translation of the various fragments. The legends of Izdubar are inscribed on twelve tablets. also mentioned in a witchcraft. which contains objects. In this tablet Surippak name forming or ark city.C. wooden but in the time of Assurbanipal. and none of them are complete . suit the period The geographical between fore the rise of Babylon. to the reign of Assurbanipal. This tablet. 46. There is an 169 inciclental notice of Izclnbar and his ship. described the successive steps in the discovery of these legends.c. in the seventh century B. All the tablets are in fragments. the fragments of our present copies All belong. in the tablet printed in "Cuneiform Inscriptions. the mutilated condition of many of them From it is im- . Izdubar is of tablets relating^ to series and on a tablet containing prayers to this last showing that he was him an deified. have I i. but it is least four a fortunate circum- stance that the most perfect tablet is which describes the Deluge.

fifth and sixth columns lost. Probable subjects: conquest of Babylonia by the Elamites. probably — Number of lines First and second columns fourth columns about half preserved. third initial line preserved. and each column had generally from forty to in all fifty about 3. birth and parentage of Izdubar. 170 possible at present to gain an accurate idea of the whole scope of the legends. uncertain.THE IZDUBAU LEGENDS. I have conjecturally divided the fragments into groups corresponding roughly with the subjects Each of the tablets. Pa7't I. The of writing. about 240. lost. columns lost. the have to lost order even of some of the tablets cannot be deter- mined. of lines uncertain. —Number about 240.000 there being of cuneiform text. however. Tablet I. we have fragments in my of present account. six tablet when complete contained columns of writing. Part Tablet IT. which exhibits be seen by the following my present knowledge of the fragments. First second column — Introduction. lines lines divisions I have adopted will summary. fourth column doubtful fragment inserted. third fifth and and sixth . column twenty-six lines preserved. and many parts which are be supplied by conjecture. and is it uncertain if the whole twelve tablets. — Meeting of Heahani and Izdubar. probably column lost. II.

— Number of Part III. Most of column. —Number of First line of first lines probably about 240. and part of second column preserved. Probable subjects : contests with wild animals.— Number of lines about 210. —Adventures of Ishtar.— Number of lines about 270. Part IV. fragments of Humbaba. column preserved. third and fourth of descent of Ishtar into Hades. —Destruction of Tablet IV. fragment of sixth column. VI. Heabani invited comes to Erech. and explains the dream. fourth. lines About one-third of doubtful first.— Number of lines about 260. the tyrant probably about 260. Most of column preserved. and third columns. third. second. Probable subjects : dream of Izdubar. fourth columns nearly column a perfect. third and fourth columns partly preserved. and sixth columns. third. column fourteen and fifth First lines preserved. . second column column partly preserved. fifth and sixth columns conjecturally restored from tablet lost. Izdubar and Heabani slay the tyrant Humbaba. fifth. Tablet first Y. fourth. second column nearly perfect. sixth fragment. second.TEE IZDUBAB LEGENDS. fifth and Tablet first sixth columns nearly perfect. and fifth columns lost. 171 Tablet III. Tablet VII.

—Description of Deluge. of first — Number of lines about 200.THE IZDUBAB LEGENDS. first. fourth and fifth probably about and second. her ascent to heaven. 270. All Part VI. and Tablet XL — Number of 294. 172 Probable subjects Isbtar : her Izdubar. — Number of lines Conjectured fragments of third columns. ill- ness of Izdubar. his lamentation over Heabani. Tablet IX. and his identity with the Izdubar of these legends. sixth column perfect. Illness Tablet VIII. Tablet X. dreams. con- jectured fragments of sixth column. In this chapter I give under the head of the tablet an account of my latest conclusions first on the subject of the personality of Nimrod. Probable subjects : discourse to trees. of — Number of — Number of lines columns preserved. destruction of her bull. . Tablet XII. columns lost. hell. Probable subjects : description of Deluge. of all six all six lines about 190. lines six columns nearly perfect. Portions columns preserved. cure of Izdubar. death of Heabani. her descent to Part V. — and wanderings of Izdubar. Portions four columns preserved. wanderings of Izdubar in search of the hero of the Deluge. Portions about 270. conclusion. loves amours. two lines of fifth column.

" one meanings. title from want of any context to explain them. lost. forming the introduction to the story. that the but it appears mother of Izdubar was named Dannat. the first tablet are pre- served. . they happen as usual to form the title of the series. is fits is being I have before it has another the character "curse" or "mis- meaning." This makes the legends the story of a curse or misfortune which befell the great Babylonian king Izdubar. but the expressions in the are obscure. the opening line of the legends. having its meaning." which conceived to be . After the heading and opening line there considerable blank in writing being entirely the story. is a two columns of It is probable that this account of the parentage and part contained the previous history of Izdubar. " Of the mis- this will read as the title fortune seen to happen to Izdubar. and. this meaning fortune.THE IZDUBAB LEGENDS. history there is In the subsequent portions of the very little information to supply the loss of this part of the inscription. naqbi and kugar meaning of kugar quite is ambiguous. Tablet The opening words of 173 I. and naqbi "channel" or " water-course. now that the fragments are put together and arranged in order. think better of the legends. There are two principal or key words. which I meaning here Taking but . it appears that this is a correct description of the contents of these curious tablets. several now the unknown.

Erech. empire in Asia. the Lord.TEE IZDUBAB LEGENDS. and Accad. appears as a mighty is man a leader. and Erech. although born of earthly whose mothers. he began to be a mighty one in the earth. whose character as hunter. parentage. 174 which only a is title meaning "lady" or " wife of His father the chief. with the kingdom of Nimrod. giant of that many so heroes thus doubtful. named not is referred to in the third is most probably represented to be a is the most likely deity supposed to interfere very much god." present fragments. : Nimrod : He was a mighty hunter before the Lord it is said. and any of our in was a common idea of Samas. but he He tablet. : wherefore even as Nimrod the mighty hunter before And the beginning of his kingdom was Babel. according to Genesis " And Gush begat 10. like Izdubar. in the land of Shinar. leader. and Izdubar by his prowess established a dominion over makmg The have thus the first X. had divine fathers. strong in war and who gained dominion in hunting. of antiquity. is who in his behalf. Akkad. where we read of the 8." All these cities were ultimately within the dominion of Izdubar. and Galneh. and site many Nipur. 9. and king corresponds with that of . of these. and at agrees Babylon. Babylonia. centre of the empire of Izdubar appears to in laid the region of Shinar. is It men who distinguished themselves very much. whole of the Euphrates valley was at this a The time divided into petty kingdoms. that antiquity.



He afterwards became king. The two passages already quoted from Genesis afford the only reliable information with respect to Nimrod outside the cuneiform inscriptions. his Accord- a " son of Gush. 175 Nimrod.THE IZDUBAE LEGENDS. but I prefer to read with the margin." that is a and he distinguished himself prowess being so great that name passed into a proverb. and still later extended his empire into Assyria. between Nineveh and Calah the same is a great city. ing to Genesis Nimrod was Cushite. The next passage in Genesis after the one de- scribing Nimrod's dominion also in my opinion refers Nimrod. as that of the father of Nimrod." These verses " will then read (Genesis. " Out of that land he went forth to Assyria. or Ethiopian. commencing his reign in Shinar or his Babylonia. 11. x. 12) Out of that land he went forth to Assyria. and Resen. or Samas the sungod. I think it Nimrod has will be useful to notice the various accounts of this hero. and Calah. who may read Kusu. and relates the extension of kingdom into Assyria. Our version makes Assur the moving party here. different hypotheses and the propounded with respect to his identification. and Rehobothair. where he laid the foundations of that state ." instead of " Out of that land went forth Assur." to his : : As my indentification of Izdubar with met with some objection. as a mighty hunter. the same is most probably represented name as his father. and builded Nineveh. and the name of Shamas.

that a had grown up among early Christian writers that the Biblical Nimrod was the first kino. and has thus lost to us his position in the series of Belonging to the first Babylonian sovereigns. made by the early chronolohas caused them to overlook his name and true gists. and his son and successor. epoch in the list of Berosus. It is most probable that this false identification of Nimrod with Evechous. and Resen. this identification gives little hope of finding an historical Nimrod. of Babylonia after the Flood. The fame of Nim- again alluded to in the Bible. in his history. and they at once assumed that the Evechous of Berosus was the Nimrod of the Bible. and as Evechous has given to him the extravagant reign of four ners or 2. of later who have made us familiar with a traditions of Nimrod.THE IZDUBAB LEGENDS. four ners and five sosses.400 years. 176 by the foundation of the four leading Calah. idea but his account of the giant hunter has this appears to be. centuries of the Christian era are the works of various Jewish and Christian writers. rod is Nineveh. After the date of the later books of the Old Testament we know nothing of Nimrod for some time it is probable that he was fully mentioned by Berosus . where Assyria is called the land of Nimrod. or 2. and looking at the Berosus they found that after the list of Flood according to him Evechous first reigned in Babylonia. that he was a prime mover number Josephus declares in building the Tower of .700 years. cities. Chomasbelus. Rehobothair. been false The reason of lost.

and as Nimrod was always the time of the early Christian writers to to-day. everything good or evil is attributed to him. Nimrod with Ninus^ the mythical founder of the city of Nineveh. Babel. in Syria. said to have extended his dominions to the foot of the Armenian mountains. him it in was necessary to any chronological Africanus and Eusebius held that he was the Evechous of Berosus. the inventor of idol worship. have been taken up by the Arabs. These remained the principal identifications before modern research took up the matter . and a furious worshipper of fire. falling in battle there when attempting' to enforce his authority over Haic. At the city of Orfa.TEE IZDUBAB LEGENDS. he Abraham is said to have cast into a burning fiery furnace because would not bow down he These traditions to his idols. and he first after him with is the Bel. that one writer actually identified N . and reigned Flood. general known as a famous sovereign find a definite place for scheme. Moses of Khorene identified the great god of Babylon. king of Some other writers identified Armenia. him contemporary with Abraham. and the most important ruins are even From now called after his name. and that he reigned at Later writers make Babylon during the dispersion. and although his history has been lost worthless stories and replaced by absurd and Nimrod remains the most pro- still minent name in the traditions of the country. down men have been busy framing systems of chronology. an enemy 177 of God. but so wide a door was open to conjecture.

" This work is a comparatively modern forgery. name of first Nimrod and he endeavoured of the second and father seriously attempted to in the cuneiform inscrip- to find the name god of the great Chaldean in that triad. whose called known to In lost. has Part held little by tion of inquirers as fixing the position of favour. but it any of its statements for some of the possible that is book may be compiled from traditions now this work. tion to the question of the identity Sir Henry Rawlinson. pretending to be a literary production of the early Chaldean period. as called a Cushite in Genesis. argued with considerable force in favour of these Canaanites being the Arabs of Berosus.^ 178 Mmrod with the Alorus of Berosus. name is un- me. The discovery of the cuneiform inscriptions threw a new hght on the subject of Bab} Ionian history. and soon after the decipherment of the inscriptions atten- was directed age of Nimrod. (See . was certainly Cushite. was grounded on the " Book of Nabatean Agriculture. there tion to identify him with and not. the of Assyrian discovery. 1550 to 1300. the king first of Babylonia before the Flood.TEE IZDZfBAB LEGENDS. and. One of the most curious theories about Nimrod. been is was a great tempta- This idea. fix the tions. Nimrod heads a list of Babylonian kings Canaanite^ and a writer.C. however. gained I Nimrod Arab the leader of the dynasty. who of Arabia reigned about B. any sec- Nimrod. What grounds there may be I do not know . think. suggested in modern times.

2286. but he does not himself iden- him with any king known from the inscriptions. Elu. the at represented beside which. Sir gal as meaning "great man. 153. theories have been started.) i. some new Since this time. he also recognizes the historical character of his reign. Rawlinson's " Ancient Monarcliies. The names of this deity are really Enu. with the idea of identifying Nimrod one ." and his character as a warrior and hunter-god but even Nergal if this is Nimrod was similar to that of deified under tlie Nimrod. makes some judicious remarks on the chronological position of Nimrod. in the first volume of his "Ancient Monarchies. and following." p. cuneiform characters on was grounded do not bear identification the phonetic values then supposed. however. 179 p. when this was written (1871)." vol." also suggested (" Ancient god Nergal was a deifi- Henry rightly explains Ne?'- p. 136) that the cation of Nimrod.C. is Kaptii. of these. brought forward . and Bel.THE IZDTIBAB LEGENDS. and he was evidently worshipped dawn of Babylonian history. brother of Sir Henry. name of does not explain his position or epoch. and supposes him to have founded the Babylonian monarchy. and suggests that he may have reigned a century or two before B. the conclusions of Canon Rawlinson were the most satisfactory that had been advanced since the discovery of tify At the time the cuneiform inscriptions. Sir Henry Kawlinson Monarchies. in fact he as one of the creators of the time has shown that the which the world . Canon Rawlinson. 117.

makes the word name. and vol. the first Arab king of Berosus. p. This identification failing.for the traditions attached to the name. I then Bible. Another theory brought forward by the Rev. Nimrod with Merodach. whose name Eastern in and tradition. His absence from previous histories. but. Considering that Nimrod was the most famous of the Babylonian kings in tradition. a con- fresh evidence from time to time. TBI] 180 by Professor Oppert." vol. but I first inclined to the mistaken idea that he might be murabi. but such an explanation a geographical evidently quite is insufficient to account . 243. Sayce and Josef Grivel. and therefore they could not have supposed him to be a deified Flood. 136. I figures so king whose reign was after the have always felt that prominently Nimrod. beside other objections. the god of Babylon.IZDUBAB LEGENDS. it is evident that no his- tory of the country can be complete without some notice of him. ii. and . ought to be found somewhere in the cuneiform text. A. part 2. 1. identifies Babylonians to have been one of the creators of the world. I until I discovered the was entirely Deluge tablet conjectured that the hero whose called Izdubar in name by dark I provisionally was the Nimrod of the jecture which I have strengthened in the 1872. " Transactions of Society of Biblical Archa3ology. we have the fact that Merodach was considered by the part iii. H. Ham- as this line of kings appeared to be connected with the Cosseans. p. whose reign is clearly stated in Genesis.


which have been pro-

the unsatisfactory theories


to account for

which surround




show the

serve to


his identification.

Nimrod was an ethnic or
geographical name, which was slightly favoured by
Sir Henry Rawlinson, and has since been urged by
Professor Oppert, is quite untenable, for it would be
supposition that

impossible on this theory to account for the traditions

which spread abroad with regard to Nimrod.

The idea that Nimrod was Bel, or Elu, the second
god in the great Babylonian triad, was equally impossible for the same reason, and because the worship
of Bel was, as


have already stated, much more

ancient, he being considered one of the creators of

the universe and the father of the gods.

Bel was

the deification of the powers of nature on earth, just


wsis a deification of the

Nimrod was Merodach,

the god of Babylon, and

to his identification with Nergal,



Similar objections apply to the supposition


powers of nature

who was

Of course Nimrod was


the man-

deified like

several other celebrated kings, but in

a deified king invested as one of the

and represented
only come




such a process could

a nation entirely forgot

lost its original

My own

as a creator





opinion that he was the


no case was
supreme gods

Izdubar was


hero I have

founded on the

discovery that he formed the centre of the national
historical poetry,

and was the hero of Babylonian



cuneiform history, just as Nimrod


stated to have

been in the later traditions.

subsequently found that he agreed exactly in

character with Nimrod; he was a giant hunter, ac-

cording to the cuneiform legends, wdio contended

with and destroyed the

lion, tiger, leopard,

and wild

bull or buffalo, animals the most formidable in the


chase in any country.


first in


over the region which from other sources

we know


have been the centre of Nimrod's kingdom.



dominion to the Armenian mountains,

the boundary of his late conquests according to tra-

and one principal scene of


his exploits


triumphs was the city of Erech, which, according to

was the second


There remains the

of this



capital of


name Izdubar,

fact that the cuneiform

undeciphered, the

applied to him, being, as I have


stated, a niakeshift, only

adhered to because some

scholars were reluctant to believe he





was Nimrod,

better to continue the use of a

name which did not


prejudice the question of his

and could consequently be used by

spective of their opinions.

My own

all irre-



however, that when the phonetic reading of the characters





name Nimrod.

will turn out to correspond


plying this reading to the characters, but


it is


work hke the
believe that the translations and notes

possible to give the proofs in a popular



have already evidence for ap-



given in this book will lead to the general admission
of the identity of the hero I call Izdubar with the

Nimrod, and when

this result is estab-

lished I shall myself abandon the provisional


Izdubar, which cannot possibly be correct.


the time of the opening of this story, the great

and the

city of the south of Babylonia,

capital of

was Uruk or Aruk, called, in
Erech was
the Genesis account of Nimrod, Erech.
devoted to the worship of Ann, god of heaven, and
this part of the country,

his wife, the

goddess Anatu, and was ruled at this

who was

time by a queen named Istar or Ishtar,

supposed to be daughter of

Ann and

had been the wife of the

chief of Erech,




of the Greeks),





like her





the death of Dumuzi, Ishtar had

ruled at Erech, and accordino; to the accounts had

indulged in a dissolute course of


which was the

scandal of the whole country.


I provisionally place

the Izdubar legends,




fragment of

This fragment con-


of part of the third column of a tablet,

believe of the first tablet





gives an account

of a conquest of Erech by some enemy, which hap-

pened during the time of Istar and Izdubar.
fragment reads:
1. his


2. his

went down

3. in



to the river,

the river his ships were placed.


.... and wept





placed, the city of


Ganganna was power-








she asses


Like animals the people feared,




doves the slaves mourned.

The gods


Erech Suburi

11. turned to flies


spirits of

13. turned to Sikkim


in droves,

and went out

For three years the

resist the


Erech Suburi
city of

in companies.

Erech could not


15. the great gates

were thrown down and trampled



the goddess Istar before her enemies could


her head.

mouth opened and

17. Bel his

18. to Ishtar the




queen a speech he made:

midst of Nipur



have placed,





Babylon the house of







hands have given.

he looked at the sanctuaries




in the


the great gods.

Here we have a graphic account of the condition
of Erech, when the enemy overran the country, and
the first question which occurs is, who were these



original idea

was that they were

a tribe



who held Erech for a short time, and were
out by Izdubar, whose exploit and subsequent

assumption of the crown of Erech were related in
the remainder of the

" Assyrian Dis-

first tablet (see

coveries," p. 169), but this conjecture has not

confirmed by



subsequent investigations; in fact

appears that Izdubar did not assume the crown



until long after the events recorded

Izdubar did not become king until

It appears that

after he



this tablet.


Humbaba, and this
conclusion that it was Hum-

the tyrant

directly to the

baba, or at least the race to which he belonged, that

conquered and tyrannized over Erech and probably
over the whole of Babylonia.

The name of Humbaba,
sionally written,

it is


evidently Elamite and composed


of two elements, "

or Hubaba, as

Humba," the name

of a celebrated

Elamite god, and "ba," a verb, usually a contraction


for ban, bana,


whole name meaning



meaning "



make," the

made [me]."
Elamite names compounded with Humba








Humba-undasa, an Elamite general
opposed to Sennacherib; Humba-nigas, an Elamite

an early chief;

monarch opposed




Tul-humba, an Elamite

city, &c.


notice of foreign dominion,

and particularly

of Elamite supremacy at this time, may, I think,
form a clue from which to ascertain the approximate
age of Izdubar but I would first guard against the



impression that the Elamites of this age were the

same race as the Elamites known in later times. It
is probable that new waves of conquest and colonization passed over all these regions between the time
of Izdubar and the Assyrian period, although the same
deities continued to

be adored

in the countries.

Looking; at the fras^ments of Berosus and the no-

Greek and Roman authors, the question noAV
is there any epoch of conquest and foreign

tices of

dominion which can approximately be fixed upon as
the era of Izdubar?



think there

earlier part of the

following dynasties
the Flood





of Berosus gives the

more properly, periods from


86 Chaldean kings reigned from the Flood

down to

the Median conquest, 34,080 or 33,091 years.

Median kings who conquered and held Babylon,
234, or 224, or 190 years.

11 other kings, race and duration unknown.

49 Chaldean kings, 458 years.


last of these dynasties, the

as I have already pointed out in

49 kings, reigned,
p. 25,

from about

2000 to 1550, and throughout their time the
Izdubar legends were known, and allusions to them
The time of Izdubar must therefore be
are found.

before their period, and, as he headed a native rule
after a period of conquest, the only possible place for

him, according to our present knowledge,


at the

head of the 11 kings, and succeeding the Medes of

This position for Izdubar or Nimrod,



if it

turn out correct, will guide us to several valuable
conclusions as to Babylonian history.




far as the

concerned, which Berosus calls Median,

most probable that these kings were Elamites




tainly we have no knowledge of the Arian Medes

being on the Assyrian frontier until several centuries





generally conceded that Berosus, in

them Medes, has only expressed their Eastern
Alio win 2^ them to be Elamites, or inhabitants of Elam, there remains the question, to what


race did they belong



later Elamites are believed to

Turanians or Arians
tain that


have been either

but we are by no means cer-

no new race had come into the country since

the time of Izdubar.

There was a constant stream

immigration from the east and




gradually but surely altered the character of several
of the races of Western Asia.

In Babylonia
this sort took

itself it is believed that a



early times,

change of



Turanian population having been conquered and enslaved by Semitic tribes, and there has always been
a difficulty as to where the Semitic peoples originated.

The Semitic race was already dominant in Babytwo thousand years before the Christian era,
and before this time there is only one conquest recorded—that of Babylonia by the Medes or Elamites,


I think it is


likely that

from Elam the

from early Babtlonian Cylinder. In the Book of Genesis Elam son of Shem first may the time that book was written. is this direction previous to the sixteenth century before the Christian era. inscriptions a period of 1635 is In these mentioned as ending . Migration of Eastern Tribe . counted as the or Semitic nation. of and translations in my is as years back I pub- which I gave the texts " History of Assurbanipal. 188 Semites The usual theory came. first Semitic race came from Arabia but this that the is quite un- no known conquest of Babylonia likely. and 1 think this indicate a knowledge." pp. referring to the goddess Nana. as there is from . The next question which to the date of these events. strikes an observer Some lished a curious inscription. 234 to 251. at tion is came from this direc- they were probably driven westward by the advance of the Arians. that the Semitic race . the Ishtar of Erech. also called Uzur-amat-sa. and these latter in their progress may have the Semites obliterated nearly all the traces of whom they dispossessed.TEE IZDUBAB LEGENDS.

about B. was probably one of Humba-ba was the later kings of this dynasty. B. appears to have then ruled over and oppressed the land of Babylonia. thus making the At date B. 2280. 2450. king of Elam. iii. too-ether the detached notices period. Elamites overrun Babylonia. A fragment which refers to " Cuneiform Inscriptions. who. relates the by the Elamites. B.C. ravages Erech. Puttino. according to these inscriptions. at the capture of Shushan. p. a clue to the age of Izdubar. This date and the circumstances of the Elamite conquest form. 2280. who plundered Erech. Izdubar or Nimrod slays Humba-ba. B.THE IZDUBAR LEGENDS. and restores the Chaldean power. that time an image of carried into captivity from Erech initial Nana was by the Elamite king. mentioned in the fragment of the first tablet of the Izdubar legends.C. recounts the very event alluded to by Assurbanipal. the dates being understood as round numbers. hundi. . Kudur-nanhundi. and as exceeding his predecessors in the injury he did to the country. I conjecture the following to be of this somewhere about the chronology. 2250. the capital of 189 Elam. It is possible that the ravaging of the city of Erech. as following one of the other monarchs of this line." vol.C. by the Assyrians. 645. Kudur-nanhundi. destruction wrought in the country and gives Kudur-nanhundi this period in 38. and the last.C. Kudur-nanI think.C.

190 There is one serious objection to this idea. uzur. contemporary with Kudur-nanhundi. Several of these dates are connected either directly or Nimrod. Al- 2280 appears to be given in the inscription of Assurbanipal for the ravages of Kudurthough the date nanhundi. sent to Aristotle from Babylon a stellar observations reaching back 1. to be Bel-zakir- is in this form has yet 1500. The following are some of these notices : Simplicius relates that Callisthenis.c. iii. 2234.— THE IZDUBAB LEGENDS. 38. No. the friend of Alexander. No name compounded been found than earlier B. p.C." vol. Although the dates transmitted through ancient authors are as a rule vague and doubtful. there are many independent notices which seem to point to somewhere about the twenty-third century before the Christian era for the foundation of the Babylonian and Assyrian power. One of these. 2. who first by implication with formed a united empire over these regions.002 years before Semiramis and the Trojan war. made the foundation of Babylon 1. according to Stephen. B. This would 1903 + 331=b. Philo-biblius. yet the other mutilated notices of this Elamite monarch are combined with names of Babylonian monarchs who do not appear to be anything like so ancient.903 years before the taking of Babylon make series of by Alexander. as these later were supposed to . " Cuneiform Inscriptions.C. said in the inscription.

and founded Nineveh in Assyria. same date. These and other notices probably point to about the same period. it in the twenty-third B. .C. ally insert here for • which I provisionwant of a better place. I will give a small fragment..THE IZDUBAB LEGENDS. Bel thy father sent 3.....C.. Diodorus makes the Assyrian empire commence a thousand years or more before the Trojan war..... 1. to be about the middle of the eighteenth 480 years before it. thus 4.C. Ctesius and Cephalion in the make twenty-second century Auctor Barbarus makes century its foundation early B." p. fii'st first heard me . have been in the thirteenth.. These three instances are given in Rawlinson's " Ancient Monarchies.. in the midst of those forests its fragrance and . .C... the latter date was supposed century B. 2. century 191 This comes B. . he rejoiced at 6.. 149. Before parting with the consideration of the tablet. AVhen 5... the time when Nimrod united Babylonia into one monarchy. comes also to abput the same date.. to about the Berosus and Critodemus are said by Pliny to have made the inscribed stellar observations reach to 480 years before the era of Phoroneus. at to thee . .

. .. Go and thou 8...192 TEE IZDUBAB LEGENDS.. take first tablet we have as yet . 7. May est Of slialt thou rejoice the latter part of the no knowledge.. .

— His journey to Erech. N this chapter I have included the frag- ments of what appear %i7^ and third tablets. — Heabani. — The midannu or —Festival — Dream of Izdubar. Izdubar. MEETING OF HEABANI AND IZDUBAR. — Speech of Hea- Dream life. the notice of his mother Dannat appears in one of the tablets given in this chapter. —Harimtu and Samhat.— Chapter XII. and his peculiarities can be seen by noticing the photograph from a Babylonian gem at the beginning of the book. prominently for- ward. the engraving from an Assyrian sculpture o . at Erech. —His wisdom. —Friendship with Heabani. Heabani. I have already noticed the supposed parentage of Izdubar . petition. is always represented with a marked physiognomy. tiger. story Izdubar to be the second In this section of the comes. in the Babylonian and Assyrian sculptures. — His solitary —Zaidu. — Izdubar's Tempt bani. —Might and fame of Izdubar. and meets with Heabani. of Izdubar.

and it fourth columns of appears from this that Izdubar was then at Erech. different in cast to the usual Babylonian type. and it appeared a little later that he claimed descent from the old Babylonian kings. He thought he saw the stars of heaven fall to the ground. This or district was probably the Amordacia or Mardoca^a of Ptolemy. single to this tablet. In all these instance where Izdubar man as a and cases." Tablet I have recovered a believe to belong II. he is indicated with masses of curls over his head and a large curly beard. is every other in represented. contains part of the third and writing. It it is K I "vvhich oo89. So marked and is this. from which I suppose he was a native of the district of Amarda Marad. and he had a curious dream. calling Hasisadra his " father. but I do not know where it was situated. and in their descent then saw they struck upon his back. fragment. where that god was worshipped. and he He the was armed with . tinct The deity of Izdubar was Sarturda. The fragments of the second and third tablets assume by their notices that Izdubar was already known as a mighty hunter. that I cannot help the impression of its being a representation of a dis- and probably Ethiopian type. standing over him a terrible being. in page 239 showing Izdubar and Heabani struggling with wild animals. aspect of his face was fierce.MEETING OF HEABANI 194 and the engraving in the last chapter.

. 1 9.. of the description the occupied columns dream and I. some men fate to to explain reward to any one who can interpret Here the fragment Column K 3389 comes ru 2 he and the princes 3 in the vicinity send him. may he .. they ennoble his family.: AND IZDUBAB. 195 lost. . claws. head of his feast may he set thee array thee in jewels and gold enclose thee . seat thee into the houses of the gods may he cause thee to enter 10 seven wives 11 cause illness in his stomach 12 went up alone 13 his heaviness to his friend 14 a dream I dreamed in 15 the stars of heaven 16 I stood my fell to sleep the earth still 17 his face 18 his face 19 like the claws of a lion.. part of . like tlie The greater claws of lions. in III. . Izdubar calls on all the wise and offers a the dream. II. 4 may 5 at the 6 7 may he may he 8 in his kill I . jDrobably it of the second tablet. Thinking that the dream portended it. 20 the strength in was terrible me were his claws . is himself. .

and with horns on his head. bears some resemblance to that of Izdubar.. Nebuchadnezzar in the Book of Daniel. should abandon his solitary at the request that life he for the friendship of Izdubar. the hero. much A description mutilated. After this fragment and story. of dream of The conduct the follows. with of reference to his dreams... in his being invested with jewels of honour. seals to have always drawn with the of an ox. part of this fragment appears to contain the honours ofiered by Izdubar family. and was supposed to possess wonderful knowledge both of nature and human Heabani was angry affairs. go to the city of Erech that he the we have and interpret Heabani appears. and his wives being increased. application ao^ain a would appear that it was made to a hermit in blank in the this interval named Heabani would dream of Izdubar. his his any one who should These included the ennobling interpret the dream. and where our narrative reopens the god Samas is persuading him to accept the offer. of to recognition assemblies. . from the representations on and other objects on which he been a satyr or faun. said to have lived in a cave among the wild animals of the forest. feet He and is tail He is is figured.MEETING OF BEABANI 196 21 he slew 22 me 23 over 24 corpse The first me .

he shall enrich thee shall make thy feet and the men of Erech he silent before thee .... on a beautiful couch he 13. he shall clothe thy body in raiment and . and Izdubar 11. was appeased was appeased Here we are still dealing with the honours which Izdubar promises to the interpreter of his dream. and these seem to show that Izdubar had some power . they shall array thee in trappings of divinity 7. and he 17.: AND IZDUBAB. they shall make thee become great 9. and the anger of 20 after thee shall take all his heart . Heabani heard the words of Shamas the warrior 19. 1 me 2 on my back 3. 197 Column IV. And Shamas 4. and spake and from heaven said to him and the female Samhat (delightful) 5 opened his mouth thou shalt choose 6.. 16. he shall cause thee to recline on a grand couch 12. he shall will cause thee to sit friendship unto thee shall seat thee on a comfortable seat a seat on the left 14.. and Izdubar thou shalt call and incline him towards thee make 10. they shall give thee the insignia of royalty 8. the kings of the earth shall kiss 15. 18.

... ... appear have been an independent king... 10 which 11 I strove 12 god? who from like all with him not to leave 13 carry . I. III. Tablet This tablet previous ones is it . .. the subject being continued on the thu'd tablet.MEETING OF HEABANI 198 at to Erech at this time .. and two columns of that the next it is probable now this tablet. he does not.. contain negotiations for bringing Heabani to Erech. lost.. Column knows all things and difficult wisdom of all things 1 2 3 the knowledge that 4 which is is seen and that hidden bring word of peace to 5 6. however..... 14 leave . 7 on tablets and 8 and tower of Erech Suburi 9 beautiful that rests . (Many Imes .. lost. broken account of the wisdom of Heabani....) . road he will come and I rest and .. .. from a far off .. far better preserved than the two gives the account of the successful Heabani mission to bring opening with a to Ur..

wife of 14. . their mio. thou 15. thou makest to be sons and family 6.. 3. 21 . Column 1.. Izdubar did not leave 2. Aruru . she bowed her breast and lay on the ground Heabani she made a warrior.... begotten of the seed of the soldier Ninip 20. hast made 16. the strength of Anu in the midst Aruru put in her hands. . he changed and the city of Erech 18. one day his heart 17. Daughter of a warrior. . lord 5. retiring in com- panionship Hke a woman. made firm 12. .... heard and Aruru strong and great. Aruru on hearing made 19. there 7. covered his body. Izdubar did not leave Dannat. Izdubar did not leave. the son to his father day is ? not any other like thee depth made and night 9. this.AND IZDUBAB. .. the son to his ? and wise mother 13. in the 8. . he their ruler and 11. their might 4. the gods of heaven.ht the 2:od . again making his strength. he the ruler also of Erech 10. 199 II. Daughter of a warrior.

My father 3. shall 6. up before him and he and his beast entered into his house and up and overcome courage grew before him face was terrible 32 fear dried 33 his 34 his Column III. the courage of Zaidu dried 31. Zaidu opened his mouth and spake and said to 2. Zaidu catcher of men 28.MEETING OF HE A BAN I 200 were concealed 22... in clothing clothed like the god Ner 24. . and firmly 8. possessing knowledge of inen and countries. and firmly with the beast 7. with the creeping things of the waters his heart delighted 27. with the gazelles he eat food in the night 25. the first him day the second day and the third in the front of that field the same 30. I feared march over the country . in the first leader who shall go . the features of his aspect like the corn god 23. in front of that field confronted 29.. 1... his feet in the front of the field and I did not approach it . the land of Anu 4. like the soldier of 5. with the beasts of the field he consorted in the day 26.

who . Anu .AND IZDUBAE... he filled the cave which he had 201 dug 10 11. I ... Izdubar 15 ascend his 16 his 17 thy face 18 the might of a field might man 19 20 like a chief 21 field 22 to 24 three lines of directions 25.. .. the first leader 30. shall march over the country .. 34. like the soldier of 32. . he filled the cave it which he had dug 37 38.. I did not reach to the 13 and said to Zaidu 14 Erech... was not able my hands to reach to the covert. in the land of ... 33. shall go .. I ascended on 39. . did not approach 36.... 12. Zaidu went 27..... I feared his feet and I .... 31.. 9. I my ascended on hands to the . and firmly 35. he took the road and in the midst of Erech he halted Izdubar 28 29.. and firmly with the beast . According to the advice of his father 26.

And he Heabani had made for himself a mountain 3. Sam- . and Sam- hat he took. directions to the female to entice Heabani. 51. day and the second day in front of sat. in front of the field how 4o to 45. and when the beast . 46.. Column IV. the land where the creeping things of the water rejoiced his heart. Izdubar to him also said to Zaidu 41. Zaidu and Harimtu 50. take. the land where the beast drank of drink. details of the actions of the female hat and Heabani. the first the field they in their places sat.. 48. and Samhat 42. they took the road. with the creeping things of the waters his heart rejoiced. On the third day they reached the land where the flood happened. and went along the path. 5. 6. and 47. 4. go Zaidu and with thee the female Harimtu. with the beasts he drank of drink. 49. Zaidu went and with him Harimtu. 1. with the gazelles he eat food.: MEETING OF UEABANI 202 40. 2. Samhat the enticer of men saw him 7 to 26.

and he turned and 30. to the temple of Elli-tardusi the seat of and Anu Ishtar. Harimtu bent down her face. sat at the feet of 33. and was 28. 44. who before had not enticed him. 27. the also like a bull towers over the chiefs. to the temple of Elli-tardusi the seat of and Anu Ishtar. 40. also like a bull towers over the chiefs. I desire thy company to the midst of Erech Suburi. 36. 34. who mighty giant.. 41. and he listened attentive. Heabani to her also said to Samhat 42. I will bring to the midst of 2. Column Y. 1. . I join to my Harimtu companionship. and if he is Erech a able he will destroy it. Harimtu. 37. 43.. Why to dost thou associate with • the creeping things in the desert? 35. the dwelling of Izdubar the mighty giant. 31. wisdom of his heart flew away and dis- appeared. 38. and Harimtu spake. And 29.. And Heabani 203 approached Harimtu then. tiger. him also she said to Heabani: Famous Heabani like a god art thou.: AND IZDUBAB. the dwelling of Izdubar the 45. . and his ears heard 32. I will meet him and see his power. who 39. She spake to him and before her speech. 46.

day they made a festival city 9 10 daughter 11 made 12 13 becoming great mingled and 14 Izdubar rejoicing the people rejoicing 15. 19 destroy thy terror 20 the 21 and Hea have given god Samas loves him and intelligence to his ears come from the mountain the midst of Erech he will ponder thy 22. In tlie desert it is begotten. Izdubar his dream revealed and mother 25. he has 23. everything there 5 Heabani went in that is I know to the midst of Erech Suburi the chiefs 7 8. A dream I dreamed my in 26 the stars of heaven 27 struck upon 28 of heaven over 29 did not rise over my sleep back me it said to his . made submission . has great strength. to dream 24. A prince thou becomest glory thou hast 17 18. it . body who day and night fiUs his . before thee 4 6. went before him 16. . .MEETING OF EEABANI 204 3. . .

AND IZDUBAB. 30 205 stood over him and over him 31 32 33 . Tlie whole of this tablet is curious. and in very fragmentary condition the dream of the monarch. and on the other hand appeared hardly adapted for general reading. and IV. Samhat and Harimtu prevailed upon Heabani to come to Erech and see the exploits of the giant Izdubar. and he declared that he would bring a Midannu^ most probably a tiger. and it certainly gives the successful issue of the attempt to bring Heabani to Erech.. me know 36 I 37 to Izdubar 38 of heaven 39 over thy back 40 over thee 41 did not rise over 42 my 43 thee There is it one other mutilated fragment of this and the next column with part of a relation respecting beasts and a fragment of a conversation between Izdu- bar and his mother.. I have omitted some of the details in columns III. his 34 . princess 35 . to It appears that the females . because they were on the one side obscure.

here omitted probably stated that speech was figures legends. column. prominently in the earlier part of who these . at least one line being lost. in order to make bar. and Mandinu. in the Assyrian texts as a fierce carnivorous animal allied to the lion and leopard it is . and to trial of the strength of Izdu- see if he could destroy The Midannu is mentioned it. made by the mother here is The portion the following of Izdubar.HEABANI AND IZDUBAB. I believe that the Assyrian copy defective. part of the original story being probably omitted here. after the description of the which followed the arrival of Heabani. In the festivities called fifth Midannu. Mindinn. some there appears a break between lines 15 and 16. 206 Erech.

according to Berosus. relate the contest fifth between Izdubar and Humbaba. conquered and held Babylonia for about two ce. tion. I have already stated my opinion that Humbaba was an Elamite. words are very vaguely used in the inscriptions. where there were these two of the specie called Survan.C. now quite The various detached fragments belong to the fourth and tablets in the series. forest. and . Humbaba. DESTRUCTION" OF THE TYRANT HUMBABA. held his court in the trees.— Conversa— Journey to — Dwelling of Humbaba. —Hnmbaba. am even have the correct order. — Forest region. Humbaba midst of a region of erini also trees B. — Izdubar king. — Petition Shamas.— Chapter XIII. to forest. and that he was the last of the dynasty which. — Entrance to — Meeting Death of Humbaba.ituries. Elamite dominion. HAVE witli had considerable writing this chapter arranged the matter and such is if I now difficulty three times. and in have fact I the wretched broken con- dition of the fragments that I uncertain in . between 2450 and 2250.

we have further frao. and have here translated the word " pine.DESTRUCTION.OF THE 208 appear to refer rather to the quality and appearance of the trees than to the exact species. I at first placed in this division a story made up fragment of the from three parts of a tablet. I : survan I have translated " cedar. cedar. but it is quite possible that any further accession of new fragments would alter the arrangement I have here given. but I have since joined and restored some of them. disfigured by the poetical was unalthough it was leo. and con- taining a discourse of Heabani to some sequent investigation has caused me fragment and place it frao-nients are ments all but sub- withdraw this in the space of the eighth tablet." tion used Eri7ii is Lebanon is In one inscrip- said to be the country of survan^ in allusion to its cedar trees. adornments deemed neces- sary to give interest to the narrative. " Assyrian as dynasty and the described the overthrow of a accession of Izdubar to the throne. Izdubar This section of the doubtedly of great importance.ends for." and for a tall fine tree ash. When pub- I none of these Discoveries " fragments were in condition for publication.- . it is used for the pine. yet of it us in spite of lished my its has interest for it mutilated condition. but some of these useless until to complete them. In the case of the fourth tablet fragments of to trees. itself. six I think I have columns. and the new fragments have given sufiicient aid to enable me now to present them in some sort.

to Heabani: he goes to the great palace the breast of the great queen 15 knowledge.. [Izdubar] opened his mouth and spake..TYRANT HUMBABA.. 13.. his carcass the birds of prey surround me and we 10 to 11 thou may him they destroy will appoint thee king. 20D Tablet IY. everything he knows 16 17 establish to our feet hand 18 his 19 I to the great palace the great queen 20 (Probably over twenty lines lost here. 3 me.. .. 2 thy . shalt direct after the manner of a king 12. return 4 the birds shall rend 5 in 6 of the forest of pine trees . and said 14. him thy presence the battle 7 all 8 may 9 that. for the attack on that p . 1 mu . which led me to the opinion Izdubar was not yet king of Babylonia. Humbaba..) which gives part of the conversation between Heabani and Izdubar previous to It was this fragment. Column I.

on the remote path to Humbaba. 15.. 18. . .. and every one who is evil whom thou hatest 19. an expedition he knows not he will ride for long he will go and will return. 13. . 11. 8. hands hast thou established Izdubar. . all. she not .. In the day of the year he 20.: .. to. knows not he Avill confront. 9). Column II. I divided he ascended to the city 7. .. 16. May 21. .. Humbaba of [whom his city may] he destroy. DESTBUGTION OF THE 210 Heabani promises 10 and 11) that they will (lines make Izdubar king when they have and given and his corpse to slain the vultures Humbaba (lines 4. he he built an lifted his 10... in thy heart thou hast given him protection. and he goes 12. she not return at to fix . will may . him 17.. he went up to the presence of Shamas he made a sacrifice? 9. to take the course to the forest of pine trees. enter 1 2 he raised 3 the ornaments of her 4 the ornaments of her breast 5 and her crown 6 of the earth he opened ... Why In the presence of Shamas altar. when the son . he 8... A battle he 1 4. to ..

goddess Ishtar the bed Izdubar like the Heabani opened the great gate of the house of assembly 13. to 3. . city .. (About ten Here we that see 211 lines lost here.) Izdubar.. . . . with a view also to gain her aid in the enterprise. . in the gate of the house 14 Column ... magnitude of the task he prayer and sacrifice to The next fragment appears column... makes a Shamas to aid him in his task... III. which 10.. . 1. to the rising of . he burst open the road 4. like of a king 9. for a long time had been made ... . . placed the people together 7. to the 11..... This fragment of Column II. Izdubar to enter ..... to 12. impressed with the had undertaken.. . for .... and that 5.TYB. .. god Sakim .... . ... 3.... . reads 1 neighbourhood of Erech 2 strong and . . and the collection 6.... ...ANT HTTMBABA.... .. the people were ended 8. the corpse of 2.. and may also to belong to this refer to preliminaries for sacrificing to Ishtar..

.. ... .. of the starting of Izdubar on his expedition accompanied by his friend Heabani. which is surrounded by a forest of pine and cedar. Uncektain Fkagment. I Heabani .. lines.— DESTBUGTION OF THE 212 4. . This fragment shows Izdubar still invoking the Under gods for his coming expedition... him 7. . ....... Heabani strong not rising 4. may he 9... Five more mutilated being .. .. 5. the angels .. the next column I have placed a fragment... 5..... .. the rest of the column lost.. . the whole .. The sequel shows they arrive at the palace or residence of Heabani. he lifted to Somewhere here should be the story... the sister of the gods faithful 7. he was heavy 2. with thy song? 6. of the gods lifted .. wandering he fixed to 8.. now . . ....... may 6. 1... the sister 9. and the daughters of the gods grew 10. Column IV. . of which he she not return . . When . to fix destroy also 10. the position and meaning of which are quite unknown..... . lost.. .... the expedition which he 8. the road knows knows not . Heabani was 3. .

they had not yet entered.. Humbaba poured 4. 213 being enclosed by some barrier or wall. it appears to have consisted of speeches by Izdubar and Heabani on the magnificent trees they saw. 1. and the work before them. of Humbaba. to weapon make men fear him . Y. COLUJMN Y. with a gate for entrance. containing fragments of six lines. shows at the gate.. Heabani and Izdubar open where the story reopens on the fifth this gate column. Izdubar to him also [said to Heabani] Here we see Humbaba waiting but the rest of the column principally is lost . the sharp a tempest out of his weapon make men to fear mouth him [he took] 6. the sharp 2. I have only discovered fi'agments of this which opens with a description of the retreat tablet. The fifth tablet is Tablet Y. and in the path of he stood and his forest [waited] 7.TYRANT HZTMBABA.. and when the next tablet. he heard the gate of the forest [open] 5.. more certain than the appears to refer to the conquest of last. for the intruders. opens. them still No. . Humbaba it or Hubaba. A single fragment of Column YL. 3.

. and said to [Heabani] 31 . of pine trees. of the forest he perceived its approach. its Humbaba went the place where his step was placed.. the choice of the forest. full of pleasure. 14 like it kaspu . an excellent its shadow. 25 29.. 7.. (About 10 (7 miles) .... . . good was 9. • . 8.. the seat of the gods. in stood and surveyed the forest perceived lie height. . on a straight road and a good path. 10 the pine heaped 11 for one 12 cedar two-thirds of 13 grown . 5. .. He 2... Izdubar opened his mouth and spake. 3.. with their slaughter . 26 he made and he 27 drove to 28 he opened and .. it My : friena . 1. . . He saw the land of the pine trees.. the sanctuary of the angels. . tree. . ... lines lost here.. . . . 4. .) he looked 30. in front of the seed the pine tree carried ? its fruit..DESTBUGTION OF THE 214 Column I.. 6.

... 215 he did not speak before her... to an end may they seat 37 and day also 40 on his 41 slay him.) 6. 38 . they performed it. that year 36.. .. he did not come 9. 39 his heart prejoared for war. 34.TYRANT EUMBABA........) 17... 7.... . took my friend first . in entering to the house thou shalt not fear. (Five lines mutilated. . he did not . .. they passed through the forest . (Seven lines lost.." . his corpse falling appoint the people may the birds of prey surround of them he shall 42 43 goi^ig ke took the 44..e of war 33 who made fio-htino. make weight their will they established they entered into the forest 45 Column II.. thy hand .. and 35 like I take her also they .. Humbaba 8. heavy ... he made 32 with him .. knowledo. .

.... the killed the death of the oppressor being the signal for the proclamation of Babylonian freedom and the reign of Izdubar.... . It appears. .. 1 cedar to 2 he placed and . off his regalia.. from the various mutilated fragments of this tablet that Izdubar and Heabani conquer and slay Humbaba and take his goods. Heabani weapon he sharpened . and Y. The conclusion of this stage of the story and triumph of Izdubar are given at the commencement of the sixth tablet. wliich reads . Heabani opened .... ..: DESTBUGTION OF HUMBABA.. and a small portion of Column YI.) There are a few fragments of Cobimns III... 19 Humbaba 20 one by one and in . ... his moutli .. 4 the head of 5 his 6 tablet of the story of fate of It appears ..... Humbaba . IV. but much is wanted to connect the frao-ments.. that Izdubar and his friend to the palace of monarch and carried Humbaba. 216 18. . 3 120 .. (Many other broken lines. .... when the matter is stripped of the marvellous incidents with which the poets have surrounded went privately it.

to Tshtar's curse.— Chapter XIY. Her Ishtar's love. Tablet YI. —Her — Izdubar's answer. oifer of promises. for this section I and seventh have included the sixth tablets. — The by Izdubar. tion. tar. his I. Column 1 2. —Release Triumpli of Izdubar. which both pri- marily refer to the doings of Ishtar. — Descrip—The seven —The —Uddusunamir. feast. — marriage. Like a bull his country he ascended after him. is in better condition than and allows of something any of like a con- nected translation. —Lament Tammuz. . — The — —Her descent Hades. of Ishtar. — Amours —His — —Ascends Heaven. — Sphinx. of Ish- Ishtar's anger.. — Tammuz. THE ADVENTURES OF ISHTAR. — —Izdubar's triumph. N to curses. gates. weapon. he sharpened his weajxtn. refusal. Ishtar's despair. The sixth tablet the former ones. Slain bull.

thy oath to 9. A rival weak may there . 19 mules be swift 20 in the chariot strong not 21 in not be. lords. 11. I will be thy wife. 12. the yoke. lifted For the favour of Izdubar the princess Ishtar her eyes take thee Izdubar as husband. and princes. 4. 7. May Bitani at thy entrance 15. shalt drive in a chariot of ukni stone and gold. they shall give thee. may thy herds and flocks bring forth twins. Thou shalt acquire days of great conquests. 13. the fastening of the crown he took. Thou me shall be thy bond. of which the body is gold and splendid its pole. 218 3. be under thee kings. He destroyed him and his memorial was hidden. 14. There shall Euphrates kiss thy feet. Izdubar his crown put on (the fastening of the crown he took). The country he wasted. thou shalt be husband and 10.: THE ADVENTURES OF ISHTAB. The tribute of the mountains and plains they shall bring to thee. 6. I will 8. to the river 16. 5. taxes 18. 17. to Bitani in the country where the pine trees grow.

. ended wind and showers palace . 219 . 43.. Which alone . I take also the torch ? Column 1. 22.. .. 39. land of the enemy body .. .. 3. 38.. II.. for ever let not praise thee ........ 4. destroy thee ... carry her grand . 35. Izdubar opened his mouth and spake.. said to the princess Ishtar 24 to thee thy possession 25 26 body and rottenness baldness and famine 27 instruments of divinity 28 instruments of royalty 29 storm oO he poured 31 was destroyed 32 thy possession 33 sent in 34... country after country mourn his love.. 40... .. 37. 41. 2. cover her he said . her lord let them not marry thee . tower of stone let not be placed . after 44. .. he ascended .. her side to Dumuzi the husband of thee.. . . The wild eairlc also thou didst love and .. 36. courage beauty . ... 42. carry her body glorious . . and 23.: TEE ADVENTURES OF ISHTAE. ....

and his wings thou didst 5. 12. Every day he 17. 11. his weapons. and didst love also Isullanu the husbandman of thy father. ? . Thou 8. who 22. To me why dost thou come 28.. 25. Thou 20. 14. didst love also a horse glorious in war. 15. In thy taking him in thy portion. 220 thou didst strike him. and every day delighted continually was subject to thy order. also thou didst turn cruel. of eaten food for beauty ? and charms eat. 7. Thou didst love also a ruler of the country. Isullanu thy cruelty resisted. he poured out to the end and extent his love. and thy hand was brought out and thou didst strike? . 18. 10. Isullanu said to thee: 27. and continually thou didst break 16. 21. Thou 13. mother thou wilt not be and I do not 29. 9. didst strike him and to a leopard thou didst change him.. city drove him away. his own 19. break 6. 26. 24. thou didst draw out by sevens his claws.. THE ADVENTURES OF ISHTAB. propitiated thee with offerings.. 23. shaking and tumultuous was his love. After seven kaspu (fourteen hours) his love was not sweet. To his mother Silele he was weeping for love. Thou didst love also a lion complete in might. he stood in the forest and begged for his wings. his dogs tore his wounds.

31. tliou diclst strike him. my 3. My daughter thou shalt remove and Izdubar will count thy beauty. my charms. and 4. thy beauty and thy charms... 6. 8. Anu opened his III. hearest this 32. and like to them thou [wilt serve me]. 33. Ishtar 38. he goeth not 35. and to a 221 me pillar? thou didst change him. Column Izdubar despises 2... beauty and and mouth and spake. thou didst place him the midst of the in . 36. And me thou .. he riseth not up. Father. 7. and Anu her father . trembling and faintness overcome Thou .: : THE ADVENTURES OF ISHTAB. 1.. 80. ground 34. to the presence of and Anatu her mother she went said 40.. said to opened her mouth and spake. said to the princess Ishtar: 5. Ishtar 9. was angry and to heaven she ascended. Ishtar on her hearing this.. my beauty... dost love.. 39.. Izdubar hates me. . and Ishtar went to the presence of Anu her 37. father.

of ... I 14.. My . 11. (Some lines lost.) 1 warriors 2 to the midst 3 three hundred warriors .. will strike . 19 thou shalt join 20 of noble 21 maslii . opened his mouth and spake...) Column IV. when he 13... said to Anu names magnified 25 26 I will 27 of noble names 28 reducer 29 of foods . .. .. Izdubar 12. her father I will strike 30 . I is filled u 15 16.. create a divine bull Ann . ..... will join .. . and 18.. .. and 24. 22 which is 23. . and father. over 17. Ishtar opened her mouth and spake. break him (Some lines lost here. said to the princess Ishtar: . 222 10. ....: THE ADVENTURES OF I8ETAB...

may it .. joy .. .. (Three lines lost.... to the midst 4 slay 5 two in 7. 10.. divine bull by head he took hold his . .. it made. and 1 4.: TEE ADVENTURES OF ISHTAB. the 13...... . said to Izdubar 15.. bull 223 And Izdubar like a might and .. 1.. . his tail divine . um ...... will stretch out 16... ... .. the length of his tail .... the third division and . then we will and the might 18... his mioht o Heabani pierced . Friend we. in of Heabani divisions he parted in the midst of 6. the hands 22 23 24 bull he .. overthrow 17. to Vul and Nebo tai'ka ... .. ... Heabani opened his mouth and spake. .... ....) . . the divine Heabani struck? 11. 8. by also Heabani 26 Column V... his horns . 25 . 12.. ..... 2.... Heabani took hold . two hundred warriors 9..

the heart he had extended to the presence of Sha- mas . 15. 21. 7.... and he cut off the member Ishtar. from the city he destroyed. And . 10. 224 3. 22. 24. Ishtar ascended unto the wall of Erech Suburi. and the weight of his horns the young men took.. 4.. 30 23. . TEE ADVENTURES OF ISHTAB. the sharpness of the points was destroyed. and : in the middle of his horns vicinity of the .. I answer it.. manas of zamat stone within them... of the divine bull and before her threw it 13. Izdubar called on the people .. and over the member of the divine bull a mourning she made. 11. 19. he placed at the side the bulk 8. 20.. destroyed the covering and uttered a curse curse I Izdubar who dwells here. 9.. 6 gurs its mass together. .. Shamas . and the win2:ecl bull has slain.. 16. to the presence of 5. I will take thee and 14. Ishtar gathered her maidens 17. I as in this have heard thee..... 18. Heabani heard the speech of 12. 6. the curse I will turn against thy side.. Samhati and Harimati. all of them.

" 8. TEE ADVENTURES OF ISHTAB. 10. 2. and said to Izdubar. 3. " the chiefs. The seventh why do tablet opens with the words. round the 30. he took it in and worshipped 27. marked 225 their hands. 11. Any one of ability among Any one noble among men. 12. if I but I have provisionally placed here part of a remarkable Q . Izdubar is 1. Izdubar to the inhabitants of Erech 32 a proclamation made. Column VI. not of the inhabitants 7 him." I have found any other portion of am uncertain this tablet. Heabani lay down. washed 28. and a dream he dreamed. Tablet VII. in the river Euphrates they and they took and went 29. 9. Izdubar is 4. slept. Erech riding.. " Friend the gods take council. 25. among the chiefs. Heabani spake and the dream he explained. able 5 placed hearing 6 vicinity. Izdubar in his palace made a rejoicing. noble among men. the chiefs reclining on couches at night. and the assembly of the city of it at his fire. chiefs of Erech it. To the ark of his god Sarturda he dedicated 26. 31.

. if possible.. failing in lier heaven to avenge herself on Izdubar resolved to descend to hell. . .. and IL are mencing on column III. . of thy depression 12 for the females 13 let 14 sink them bow 15 down those who 16 she 17 placed in thy house 18 occui:)y are collected thy seat let .. 226 fragment.. 1 attempt in to the fragments recom- III. Columns I. . search out. the female 7 ends and 8 kej)t 9 like them weep he takes will expel thee by the great jailor going down they were angry? for thee 10. him. goods of the house of thy fullness 11. . It appears that this goddess. like death . .. to new modes of attacking lost. Avith a continuation of the story of Ishtar. good 6 thee. .. destroy his hand ap- proached 2 raise in thy presence 3 like before 4 Zaidu shall accomplish the wish of his heart 5.. with the female Samhat Samhat .THE ADVENTURES OF I8HTAB.. Column people? for his slight.

whom the gods Anu and Bel have given names. in darkness they dwell. me is my friend which I will enter. and In the house 11. chiefs also Its is are like birds covered with feathers 9. The food is made carrion. which never returns: their nourishment and mud. I descend. to the dwelling of the god Irkalla 4. treasured up a crown. • 227 thy resting place 19 20 thy feet 21 may they destroy 22 thee may 23 they gave many After they invoke lines destroyed. 1. to terrible 14. to the road the course of 6. the place where dust is the house entering which there their food 8. recommences . 2. descend to the house of darkness. I my wings.for liofht. 13. for 12. light is never seen. To the house in which the dwellers Ion g. with those wearing crowns who from days of old ruled the earth. I spread' like a bird 3. Column IY. no exit. water. they drink stagnant .: THE ADVENTURES OF ISHTAB. To 5. the story in the fourth column. 10. 7. [To Hades the country unseen] I turn myself.

while in the fourth column the goddess. and she Here the story being absent. and with the story here that it so closely connects itself I give it as part of the sequel to this tablet. 228 1 5." in fact I think that tablet to have been an extract from this part of the Izdubar legends. and YI. revels is suffering all the pangs of jealousy in the dark details of the description of the lower regions. evident that in the third column speaking to Ishtar trying to persuade her not to descend to Hades. . I will enter. . 1. it is the dwelling of Etana. and she 23. dwell the chiefs 17. dwell the monsters of the 19. In the house my friend 16. which and unconquered ones. . who and hate. There can be no doubt that is this part of the legend closely connected with the beautiful story of the Descent of Ishtar into Hades on a tablet which I published in the " Daily Telegraph. the mistress of the fields the mother of the queen of the lower regions before her submits. some one is It is is will bring again lost. and declares her determination to go there. .. the queen of the lower regions Ninkigal 20 21.. 22. dwell the bards and great men. 18. deep of the great gods. the dwelling of Ner. To Hades the land of . and there is not any one that stands against her in her presence. .TEE ADVENTURES OF ISHTAB. The descent of Ishtar into Hades from K. will see me me to her columns V. I will approach her 24.

clined daughter of Sin (the moon) her '^aji god in- . over the 12. the place where dust their food 9. 11.. thou openest not the gate and I am not ad- . 15. . are like also chiefs birds covered with feathers. I will strike the hinges and I will burst open the doors up the dead devour ers of the 19. to the house which on entering it they long for light. on her arrival at the gate of Hades. Stay lady his dead shall triumph. living. The keeper 22. their nourishment and mud. . 17. to 7. and called 23. command keeper of the gate a she called 14. Islitar 2. Keeper of the waters open thy gate. mouth opened and to the princess Ishtar: do not do this. to the door and bolts is scattered dust. spake. If mitted I may : enter. TEE ADVENTUBE8 OF ISRTAU. the road the course of which never returns. over the living the 21. . I will raise 20.229 daughter of Sin her[ear^ ^Vv^-^wiL to the house of darkness the dweUing of the Irkalla. Ishtar 13. 3. 18. 8. 5 to the 6. . Light 10. I will strike the door and the door posts I will shatter. open thy gate that 16. its is is never seen in darkness they dwell. inclined also the 4. house entering which there is no exit.

.. Why keeper crown of my head. 25. The second gate he passed her through and .. who 36. . 42. The keeper entered and 26. husbands who forsake eir wives. an insect 31. like the bite of . in.al. will her spirit uphold it. thy speech repeat to the queen Mnkio. this water I . The keeper went and opened The first may Hades is his gate. let me go and IS H TAB. the city of Cutha be . with 33. and enclose her former 39. . . . On Entering hast thou taken away the great lady. 43.Lo^ .. gate he passed her through and drew and he took away the great crown of her head.. 37.for the children who who from the wives fors bosom of their husbands .\JLet her mourn for the . 35. the palace of her the depart.^40. itiA*i *Uitw*. it ..THE ADVENTURES OF 230 24. like food eaten like jugs of water drank t(y^ Ii!4. 45. \Let her mqurnv miscarry^let her mournj are not born in their proper time. 44.. rejoicing at thy presence. the goddess of the lower regions does thus with her visitors. . Go keeper open thy gate 38. of the great vaults 28. 32. visitors. . Ninkigal on her hearing this 29. like on entering lady 41.. Will her heart support it. . this water thy 27 called to Ninkigal: sister Ishtar rvcV-«'-*c^UAjLA... like the cutting off of >30.

57. . 50. Why keeper hast my neck. The sixth gate he passed her through and drew her in. 52. 46. On entering lady. the goddess of the lower regions does thus with her visitors. and he took away the bracelets of her hands and her feet. On entering Lady. the goddess of the lower regions does thus with her visitors. hast thou taken away the binding girdle of 56. my of 47. drew her in. the goddess of the lower regions does thus with her visitors. On thou taken away the orna- entering Lady.THE ADVENTURES OF ISHTAB. Why keeper my waist. Why keeper hast thou taken away the earrmgs ears. her in. of 49. 55. Why keeper hast of my breast. ments 53. 54. The third gate he passed her through and drew her in. 231 and he took away the earrmgs of her ears. 48. 51. The fifth gate he passed her through and drew and he took away the binding girdle of her waist. and he took away the ornaments of her breast. The fourth gate he j^assed her through and drew her in. and he took away the necklace of her neck. On thou taken away the necklace entering Lady. the goddess of the lower regions does thus with her visitors.

74. Go Simtar at her she swore. 75. the bull Hades had descended]. diseased eyes strike her with. Ninkigal saw her and at her presence and 65. the regions does thus with her visitors.. 73. lets 59. entering lady. to her the whole of her [strike with disease]. Ninkigal her 68. On goddess of the lower entering lady. The seventh gate he passed her through and drew her in. diseased heart strike her with. 71. 61. Ishtar did not consider 66. 76. . would not would not approach unite. 58.THE ADVENTURES OF ISETAB. take her out to . diseased feet strike her with. On keeper hast thou taken away the cover- my body. and the . 232 AVhy keeper hast thou taken away the braceof my hands and my feet.. her body. 63. Why ing cloak of 62. the goddess of the lower regions does thus with her visitors. 64. command she me and called: [take Ishtar from] 69. with the cow ass the female ass 78. to Simtar her attendant a was angry. diseased head strike her with. 72. . diseased side strike her with. and the female slave would not approach the vicinity of the master. and he took away the covering cloak of 60. When scended a long time Ishtar to Hades had de- . mouth opened and 67. After Ishtar the lady [to 77. spake. Ishtar 70.

the female slave ceased in her gift. into the presence of 4. Samas 3. and the ass the female ass would not approach. vicinity of the master. full (the sun) 71 went and ^. may the seven gates of Hades be opened at thy presence 15. Hea the king he went in tears Ishtar to the lower regions has descended. The master ceased 79. and the female slave would not approach the 8.\ . in his command. CoLUjm Papsukul the attendant of the gods. ..^-^JvcJ. in his 80. : THE ADVENTURES OF ISHTAB. Oa them Wned .Sa. Hea wisdom of his heart considered. (set]his face 1. Ninkigal see thee and rejoice at thy . -^•'^^1^ ..the [s|)hinxTi V Go Uddusu-namir towards the gates of Hades in the set thy face 14. with the cow the bull would not unite. she 5. . II. and made Uddusu-namu. may arrival. -.. has not returned. The master ceased 9. 11. against 2.. in the presence of . a long time Ishtar to Hades had de- scended. 13..'L Vj^ his father he wept. 10.|rU . 7.. the female slave ceased in her gift. When 6.. 233 command.. 12. .ah.

That her heart be satisfied. throne 34. command she called : Simtar strike the palace of judgment. upon with the jDa-stone. May a slab of stone be thy seat May bondage and want strike thy 29. May the shadow of the dungeon be thy resting place. 22. she turned at this 23. May food of the refuse of the city be thy food. the stone slab he pressed 37. : TEE ADVENTURES OF ISHTAE. 28. Ninkigal her mouth opened and 30. 24. when command over the flowing stream shall be given. and comfort would not take go Uddusu-namir may the great jailor keep thee. Ninkigal on her hearing 21. bring out the spirit. on the flowing stream set thy mind. Go refuge spake. and her anger be removed 17. he struck the palace of judgment. Raise thy heads. 27. and seat it on the golden 32. this. 18. 25. 55. 26. 234 16. the stone slab press 33. May the drains of the city be thy drink. Over Ishtar pour the water of life and bring her before me. he brought out the spirit and seated it on the 36. golden throne. 19. the waters in the midst mayest thou drink.. 20. appease her by the names of the great gods. Simtar went. to Simtar her attendant a 31. . . beat her breasts and wrung her hands. upon with the pa-stone.

39. to her also turn. and he restored to her the ornaments of her breast.. The fifth gate he passed her out of. and he restored to her the covering cloak of her body.girdle of her waist. 49. 48... On Ishtar he poured the water of 235 life and brought her. and he restored to her the binding. and Belele give appease her grief.THE ADVENTURES OF ISHTAB. The first gate he passed her out of. and he restored to her the great crown of her head. 38. bracelets? of jewels place . The fourth gate he passed her out of... 43. . 54. . 42. in splendid clothing dress him. to Dumuzi the husband of her youth. beautiful waters pour out beautiful boxes . The sixth gate he passed her out restored to her the earrings of her ears. The second gate he passed her out of. Belele gave her comfort. 47. Precious stones like eyes are not 53. May Samhat 51. 46. her brother was slain? . 44. she struck.. and he restored to her the necklace of her neck. When her freedom she would not grant to thee 45... to her comfort. and he of. 41. 52. 50. 40. The seventh gate he passed her out of.... The third gate he passed her out of. and he restored to her the bracelets of her hands and her feet.. Precious stones like birds' eyes are not better than thee.

with only brother thou didst never wrong rings of rubies. lords. halls of the palace of Erech and feasted with his heroes. 236 me 55. One story. slaying head of the the Izdubar. merely these generally submitted to the local rulers. We now come to a curious part of the romance of Izdubar and Ishtar. In the day that Dumuzi adorned me. in several places. There were. mourners. so they were ready now to submit to Izdubar. Humbaba.TEE ADVENTURES OF I8ETAB. thus signifying that he assumed the empire. which was an adoration of . on a bier may they and gashes ? mq-y raise. him adorned me. they cut? This remarkable text shoAvs Ishtar threat and descending fulfilling to Hades. and just as they had bowed to Humbaba. but it her does not appear that she accomplished her vengeance against Izdubar At final after yet. and princes. men mourners and 57. my 56. as we are informed kings. the of the strange and dark features of the Babylonian religion was the Ishtar or Venus worship. with bracelets of emeralds. the opening of the sixth tablet we have scene of the contest with Humbaba. The kingdom promised to Izdubar when he started to encounter Humbaba now became and he entered the his by right of superior force. with him adorned me. takes the crown from the monarch and places it on his own head. with women 58. greatest but power.

sible there SITE OF may have been some in a tradition of some dissolute this represented in the legends as living at the time. accompanied by the reproductive ceremonies which were a reproach to the country. the ruler of Erech. . or to make an attack upon the superstition by quoting Izdubar's supposed defiance may of the goddess. basis for the story queen whose favour but we have to remember that these Izdubar legends were not intended for history. 237 power of nature.TEE ADVENTURES OF ISHTAB. and BOWARETEH MoUND AT WaRKA (KRECH). romance. but Izdubar refused for historical . was now one of the foremost Certainly Ishtar Ishtar worship. is cities as being the of Dumuzi. and the whole story of Ishtar be only introduced to show the hero's opposition to this worship. originally a seat of the worship of Anu. and widow in it is pos- THE TeMPLE OF ISHTAR. The city of Erech.

seem to and refer to no struggle with a winged bull on the Izdubar cylinders. Bitani by boundary eastern the the mountain ranges which separated Assyria and Babylonia from Media. beyond which nothing was known. a city which has In the course of the Ishtar. he calls to and traditions of still Nimrod." this animal I have supposed to be the winged bull so often depicted on Assyrian sculpture. show Ishtar obtaining from her father the creation of a bull called " the divine bull . that Heabani laid hold of the bull by . the author has here typified the universal power of love. On western boundary his dominions stretched the along the region of the Euphrates. and the south was the Persian Gulf. perhaps to Orfa. The northern boundary was Armenian the mountains.THE ADVENTURES OF 238 The I SETAE. extending over high and low. and the limits mark somewhere about the extent assigned to the kingdom of Nimrod by tradition. It would appear from the broken fragments of column IV. represented here. figured similar representations. and the Arabian desert. answer Izdubar gives to mind the various amours of I cannot avoid the impression that Ishtar. thirteenth to sixteenth lines of the first column appear to mark out the ultimate boundaries of the empire of Izdubar. but I am now inclined to think that this bull without wings. on the The struggle with a Babylonian numerous cylinder. which also bounded part of the west. The subsequent men and lines animals. this incident. There is is represented bull.

an extract from the seventh tablet of the Izdubar legends." but was entirely abroad as to the After this I published a short notice of "North British Review. the close of the sixth tablet the story is again only portions of the third and fourth columns is thrown by the remarkable of the next tablet being preserved. clear difficulties. Fox Talbot in the " Transac- of the Royal Societ}^ of Literature." to. These translations and various notices . The was tablet with the descent of Ishtar into Hades- first tions noticed by Mr. it in the up some of the has been subsequently translated by Lenormant and Oppert. 239 and Hea- represented holding the bull tail. I think it probable that this tablet was in great part IZDDBAR AND HeABANI IN CONFLICT WITH THE LlON AND BuLL. but light on this portion of the narrative tablet describing the descent of Ishtar into Hades.TEE ADVENTURES OF head and the tail while Izdubar killed bani in the engraving by its At lost. and it he meaning of the words. Fox Talbot. head and IS H TAB. is it. and re-translated by Mr.

Izdubar legends. as there who is no indication is difficulties in some cases as to Uddusu-namir." vols. which had three heads ac- half bitch and half man. THE ADVENTURES OF ISHTAB. ii. we It is evident that are dealing with the goddess as the Ishtar. and my own August i. daughter of Anu. translation in the " Daity Telegraph. custom of lamenting for and appears Dumuzi or . and vividly portrays the sufferings of the prisoners there . of the and iii. Paris.. however. The fifty heads according to others. to deliver Ishtar. but there are several the story.. and appears to correspond. 1874. and various papers on these subjects by Mr. Fox Talbot. more than one head. in described as a composite animal. 1873. that little need be said on the subject here. created by Hea acts or speaks. a small pamphlet on the Descent of Ishtar. latter part of the tablet is obscure. The story of the descent of Ishtar into Hades is one of the most beautiful myths in the Assyrian inscriptions tion.. with cording to some. 240 of the Deluo^e tablets will be found in " Les Premieres Civilisations " of Francois Lenormant. in the " Transactions Society of Biblical Archaeology. to refer to the Tammuz. in some respects. . it much attencommented upon by various has. by Pro- fessor Oppert." 19. although she of Sin (the The moon is same the in here called daughter god) description of the region of Hades is most graphic. to the Cerberus of the classics.. received so and been so fully scholars.

— — — adra. if I have discovered any of I provisionally place first. and sixth columns of a tablet which may belong to it. the first one is very uncertain. of — Journey of Izdubar.sisharasi." is one p. Tablet VIIL I am uncertain again this tablet of the . — — — His dream. F the three tablets in this secti'^n. but as . ^^. put the satis- factory. I have In some portions of these fragments there are references.— -Ragmu. here some fragments second. ment present Tvorth translating at but the only frag- given in "Assyrian Discoveries. and is together from two separate sources other two are more complete and . and the trees. ILLNESS Heabani Heabani. to the story of Humbaba. AND WANDERINGS OF IZDUBAR.— Chapter XY. — — of Deatli Scorpion men. UrWater of death. The conversation. Siduri and Sabitu. — Illness Izdabar. 176. thu'd. — The Desert of Mas. as I have there stated. The paradise.

. . 5 father .. . has not aroused her hearing 24. in 20.. ..... and the pine tree a bush ... sides does not . carried door . the door on 23. . .. . his speech he made 7. Heabani 21. 10..... 26... . .. . it is I see . 6. to his friend 2 and 3 . 17 and 18 19. I join his mouth opened and spake and .. . there is not another like thy tree . 15.. 4. it Column 1.. Izdubar my 8. in the .. 16. joined 11... . thy 22.. I. . Izdubar ... Heabani 12.. raised . 14. . with the . of .. . . . . the door .... . thy name .. him . ... . for twenty kaspu (140 miles) 25.. it ...ILLNESS AND WANDERINGS 242 the fragment appears to refer to the ilhiess of Izdubar I think belongs here. .. 9 .. said to 13. .. .. its . .

in thy land Izmanubani 44. thy 29. The Izmanubani tree was angry made a likeness ? 48. . . thy circuit. . . . . not strong is . thou also 39. not great . . in the collection of everything 41. for I have his face. . 40.. . . a ofreat destruction . . for he took . 32. and thy smell 47. . . . . . Six gars (120 feet) feet) is 243 thy height. . 49. . the cedar. thy contents.OF IZDUBAE. make which know thy and entrance like this good this is thee in the city of Nipur is in . . thy shadow ? . 43. thy breadth mass . is . 28.. . thy . . not agreeabla 46. two gars (40 is . 27.. the pine tree... I . in its cover 38. . • fill 34 35. may . . take . . is . . I 31. . the whole of the trees bush 45.. fourth and fifth columns appear to be entirely absent. . . . thy 30. .. 37. for I 33. . . third.. . 42. 36. . like the tree The second... . the inscription reappearing on a fragment of the sixth column.

he pit . . He said to his friend 7. made ? the mountain .. Heabani the dream . in the vicinity . ... . .ILLNESS AND WANDERINGS 244 CoLmm (Many 1.. . the . Izdubar ascended to over 17.. h-^ 5.. the 19... mountain was subdued.. dream was deceptive all the mountain which thou didst see when we captured Humbaba and we 11.. 1. like .. of his helpers to thy 12. .. good omen of the dream 10. ..) The dream which I saw .... the dream made it and . 8... by the 18. lines lost. 9.. . II.. the mountain like corn of the field . 3. . 2.. ... 4. in the presence of made a halt? Shamas he dug out a 16. . . The mountain was subdued.. . Column III. They nimgi struck 5... . . .. turban? cast ... him down and ... side of his house he approached .. he struck . at thirty kaspu he 15. ... 4.. in the storm to 13. . . . 3. . For twenty kaspu he journeyed a stage 14. ..... .. 2. . the dream he made it and . .. brought? forth 6.

the I saw entirely disappeared. . the third day and the fourth day which . and came out the shadow of death. 10. . and in the desert thy lord to Izdubar. . God 13. . 19. 6. . The fourth and lost. and it it turned to a palm tree. . 245 Izdubar at the destruction set up . 1. 14. the fire sank. 20. fifth columns of this tablet are This part of the legend appears to refer to the illness of Izdubar. . . . why do my limbs burn. . 1 6. . god of the earth and desired death. . me why I am naked. Anatu the injurer of men upon him struck. My 2. me why I am spoiled. Friend I saw a third dream. the dream which in that evening not is . . . Column VI. . He invoked will not depart. OF IZDUBAB.: . Friend thou dost not ask 1 1 thou dost not inquire of 12.. 9. It disappeared. he struck 21. . . A storm came out of the darkness. and in the midst of his limbs he died. the day he dreamed the dream. which Heabani 5. 22. 4. . . He spake and said to his friend 7. Heabani lay down also one day friend . the end 3.. 17. And Heabani the dream considered and said . and kindled a fire. the lightning struck 18. was proceeding. and the dream which 15. 8.

. . . . . but they and I fill up an evident blank in the story here. . . . I turn to battle 14.. . . eighth. 15. The fragment of the sixth column shows Heabani unable to interpret a dream. but from the In the first mutilation of the text I so. 10. . . while Izdubar asks his friend to fight.ILLNE88 AND WANDERINGS 246 sixth. Heabani in that evenino. . . After this happened the violent death of Heabani. the eleventh and twelfth 9. friend hostile to . . the friend who . my me then in the midst of fight and 13. in battle . . ninth 6. . fifth. but no this part of the story is preserved. . . I in It must here be noted that this the eighth tablet are my grounds making for extremely doubtful. Izdubar asked also 11. and they are supposed to have the power of hearing and answering him. seventh. Heabani praises one tree and sneers at another. when Heabani was troubled 8. the 7. . have inserted them pending further discoveries as to their true j)osition. . Avhich added fragment of to the misfortunes of Izdubar . and that according to the story this charm was known to the trees. it is possible that the fragments are of diff'erent tablets. is 12. . column Heabani appears to be addressing certain trees. it does not appear why he acts conjecture he was seeking a charm to open the door he mentions.

he he broke struck my .. and all the narrative is clearer from this point. erred in 15. .. 247 Tablet IX. I had no judgment like Heabani Weakness entered into my soul death I feared. and I feared. 6. his girdle . he struck . and to Sin (the moon god) I prayed. and they sent peace unto me. 7. their fruit ? . bitterly lamented. were bound to 17. and joyfully I went. 1 Izdubar over Heabani his seer 2.. a dream I saw. to and lay down on the ground... . . For the advice of Hasisadra. son of Ubaratutu The road I was taking. The ninth tablet commences with the sorrow This tablet is in a of Izdubar at the death of Heabani. OF IZDUBAE. 9. dream.. the neighbourhood of the mountains I took at night. Column I. 8.. not a single column of the inscription being entirely lost. 5. 4.. I bowed on my face. to his hand. 3. and into the presence of the gods came supplication 12. and lay down on the ground. life. jDrecious stones 16. . 11. . like the time 18. 13 14 Sin. somewhat better state than the others. . 10.

. who each day guard the rising sun... 3. and heads reaching heaven. 4.... The scorpion-man guarded the 1. and . 22. whither he has wandered in search of Hasisadra. Izdubar saw them and fear and terror came into his face.. 2. he carried 25... he 21. they 10. the former 23. . terribleness.. 9. their These beings are supposed to guide and direct the sun at its foUows rising and setting. (About six lines lost here.. hell their feet burning with were placed.. new name . Of the country hearing him . the rising of the sun and the setting of the guarded the sun. . he was guarded name . the might of his fear shook the forests....... the 24.. to .. gate. This passage is as : Column II. under 6.. . 5. At sun. their appearance was like death..) The second column shows Izdubar in some fabulous region. Here he sees composite monsters with their feet resting in hell. . threw .. To the mountains of Mas in his course . 8.. Their crown was at the lattice of heaven.. 7.— ILLNESS AND WANBEBINGS 248 19.. 20.

Do 9.) 5. In it Izdubar and where the third them his purpose. 2 lost. Column (1 and III. 12.. for twelve 11. 17 of the gods the word he said 14. his of the gods is kaspu (84 miles) [is the journey] completely covered with sand. is converses with the monsters is difficult. Summoning 249 he approached be- his resolution fore them. He Hasisadra my father who is established in the assembly death and life [are known to him] 6. . to the rising sun field. The monster opened 3. 4. 16. 7. of the country it there which is mouth and spake .. The scorpion-man 13. and said to Izdubar 8.. 15. not Izdubar 10... The scorpion-man of the hero asked.. : 18 distant road 19 come 20 of which the passage The to rest of this my presence column column begins he is telling lost..OF IZDUBAE. Who his comes of his female asked: to us with the affliction of god on body To the scorpion-man his female answered: The work of god is laid upon the man. . to seek Hasisadra. . 11.. and not a cultivated 12..

he brought out . the text lated .... he was not able to look behind him. field. and then is. Column Y. lands of Mas .. 1 9. . in prayer .. .. column..... there are column. 6. the monster . and there was not a cultivated 8. 2. 6... 7. 15. Izdubar .. to the setting sun . to tlie setting sun 14... the road of the sun 8. and kaspu he went there was not a cultivated field... the monster describes by Izdubar there are now wanting. until we come to the fourth the journey to be taken many lines ....... . 5. . Column IY... 1. muti- and doubtful... In this mutilated passage... which was completely covered with sand. however..ILLNESS AND WANDERINGS 250 .. 10..... 4 kaspu he went 7.. he was not able to look behind him.... 3. the bottom of the fourth column five lines lost at the top of the fifth the narrative reopens. 4. 2 This kaspu he went is . again thou . 13. 11. which was completely covered with sand. go Izdubar .

7 kaspu he went . there 21. which was completely covered with sand. he was not able to look behind him. he was not able to look behind him... 12. and there was not a cultivated field... 20.. 6 kaspu he went .OF IZDUBAB.. and there was not a cultivated field. 8 kaspu he went . 15.. 9. it . which was completely covered with sand. 16. carried as branches its fruit were encircled to the points . he was not able to look behind him.. which was completely covered with sand. of the trees of the gods in equal... 9 kaspu he went 22 his face 23 a field 24 to look 25... and there was not a cultivated field. 10.. 19. it forest was Emeralds 32. to the north behind him kaspu? he went? . to the appearance 31. 17. the covered..... which was completely covered with sand.. and was not a cultivated field.. 10 ... 18. he was not able to look behind him. turned? .. him 26 meeting 27 4 kaspu 28 shadow of the sun 29 beautiful situation 30. 14.. 11.. 13. 5 kaspu he went 251 .

. 5. the fruit Some it it carried as shoots? carried to the sio.ht were lars^e of the words in this fragment are obscure...... 2.... The frag- : Column YI. (About six hnes 1.— . ... and the other Sabitu. that This tablet brings Izdubar to the region of the sea-coast.) . 3. lost..... ka stone . ILLNESS AND WANDERINGS 252 33.. its nest of stone . 4..... Fragments of several hnes of this column are preserved. but too mutilated to translate ments are with certainty. but the general meaning is clear. the sea was . one named Siduri... the goddess Ishtar the pine tree he carried 7 10. which ^ opens . In the next column the wanderings of Izdubar are continued. and he carried 8. beautiful jet stone. may he raise 11.. 6. Ukni stones 34. 9.. jet stones Hke worms? and caterpillars . gugmi a bustard it caught? . and he comes to a country near the sea.. His further adventures are given on the tenth tablet. asgege which ...... ukni stone? not striking the sea . Izdubar [saw this] in his travelling 12. but his way is then barred by two women. like .

dwelt also 3.. affliction in .... And is this is : message no one upright in .. 2. and shut her place? Sabitu saw 16. Izdubar struck with disease 6. 11. What 14..... .. And 18. but I am able to described the meeting of Izdubar with a boatnamed Urhamsi.. column . . Izdubar to her also said to Sabitu: why dost thou shut thy place? 20. 19. and a resolution made... Sabitu afar off pondered. 9. to go on the distant path his face 7. her gate she 17. 8. covered with stripes of 5...OF IZDTfBAE. him and shut her place? shut... There 15.. he struck his hands and made he Izdubar having ears heard her . 253 Tablet X.. Within herself also she considered 13. thy gate thou closest 22. who in the land beside the sea dwelt . making 4. and they commence together a it man journey by water in a boat on the second column. . 10.. .. is lost. . I will strike the The say rest of this .. illness covering his . . spake within her heart. was set. having the brand of the gods on his there was shame of face on . ... .. . 12. making a dwelling. Sabitu 21.. Siduri and Sabitu 1.. .

there 5... 1 said to Izdubar 2 and 3 the ship 4 of death 5 wide 6 ends 7 to the river his lower part 8 ship 9 in the vicinity 10 boatman 11 he burned 12 to thee Here there are many lines lost. thou goest on the distant path is tried shame of is face 6 burning and 7 thus thou 8... ILLNESS AND WANDERINGS 254 Very little of column tliis is preserved .. . . 9 . him also said to Izdubar to .... then recommencing the story proceeds on the third column.... I give two fragments only here. my heart is not . and thy heart 4.. should I curse thee 3... . Izdubar to him also said to Urhamsi 10 my hand has not ... 1 Urhamsi 2.. Why Column II.. and then we have some fragments of the bottom of the column.... affliction .... 11 shame of face on . Here again there are many wanting lines. . on ... .

. 1.. Take Izdubar the axe in thy hand .. .. .. Izdubar on his hearing 1 1...... Column 265 III. and carry it 14.. 12.. go down 16. On . took Urhamsi the waters of death .. Izdubar to him also said to Ur-hamsi 4. if not carried [to cross the sea] 7. why . what brings 6. . I 3.. he took and made a burden of it. . the ship the waves took and they 20. . 15. fifteen days. in the place of the stones hidden and they 13. five . Ur-hamsi to him also said to Izdubar 8. OF IZDUBAB... a journey of one month and .. and carried [to the ship] 18.. took the axe in his hand it . Again Ur-hamsi 5. he went down to the forest and a spear of .. carried to cross the sea.. to the forest and a spear of five gar capture and make a burden of it. Izdubar and Urhamsi rode in the ship 19. (matters) to .. Thy hand Izdubar 9. .. . gar 17. thou hidest in the place of the stones thou ceases 10.. me if it . the friend Avhom I loved 2. the third day in their course 21. .. . . if am not like him .... . this... ..

.. wonder he is not . the 18. the eleventh and twelfth time. wonder he is not . Izdubar seized the 11.. time Izdubar was 5. ninth. waters the was .. Here there certain. the the spear . lifting the spear 7.. Let not hand 4.. spake within his heart and a resolution made.. .. .. and seventh time Izdubar was ...... on his win2:s a cord he CD . I man hidden is not come to . the extent of which is and where the narrative recommences unit is .. Within himself also he considered: 15.. . Urliamsi to liim also said to Izdubar 2. sixth.. and the fourth lifting the spear 6. the third time.. the tablets? Izdubar 3.. lii'ting fifth. the eighth... I the ship is is a blank. is 19... . 12.. of .. 14. and tenth time Izdubar was . Hasisadra afar off pondered. death enclose thy the second tnne....... Why 16. and he broke his girdle to 10.. wonder . I 20. still not ended the voyage 17..ILLNESS AND WANDERINGS 256 lY. me and ... 13... COLUiATN 1. on the one hundred and twentieth time Izdu- bar finished the spear 9. Izdubar lifting the spear 8.

. but there is I have conjectured was the wife of Hasisadra or no ground possible that this individual for this opinion. weapon . (fragment). it is was the gatekeeper or Izdubar. that individual this Noah. the full Where Ragmu 2. by whom Izdubar had Cylinder. name Ragmu-seri-ina- first my desired III.OF IZffUBAB. used. . for friend is connection with Hea- when he to Erech.. and Hasisadra (Noah) in the Ark from an Early Babylonian . whenever the story re-opens Izdubar of his bani and his offers to him come is him to . that the lines lost record the meeting between Izdubar and a person named Ragmu-seri-ina-namari... 3. Composite Figures. informing to. while. the name Ragmua Izdubar spoken is namari occurs... 4. Column 1. free thee .. whenever Izdubar speaks to this being. It is curious that. guard.... to pass in going to reach Hasisadra.. 257 on a small fragment of the third and fourth column of another It appears copy.. bright star .

I will clothe thy 7. Ragmu-seri-ina-namari on his hearing this 8. his fetters loosed I after thee will The speech of the column are take body all in raiment lost. and the men of Erech I will silent before thee. (fragment). .. the rest of (fragment). 1. 2 Izdubar opened his mouth and said to my presence? Ragmu . . seat left.. me to my ... the narrative recommencing on Column Y.. 2 3 bitterly I spoke 4 my 5 ascended to 6 to . 1.. Ragmu to Izdubar and Column V.. of Izdubar. On a beautiful couch I will seat thee. the 4. I wept hand me me leopard of the desert Column Y. and . .ILLNESS AND WANDERINGS 258 Column IV. I will on the cause thee to on a c^omfortable kings of the earth shall kiss thy I will enrich thee make sit feet. with another speech 7.. 5. . and 6. 1 . 3. ... 2.

field to the face of the earth . Izdubar further Ragmu what Where he did in conjunction with the story reopens on Column VI.. .. he 19. is again mutilated. like a lion? he tore? him 17.. the same. the leopard of the field. . he was cut oiF and given to 21. pour out? . mountain.. he broke? and destroyed his defence? 20.. Heabani 8. We conquered also Humbaba who in the forest of pine trees dwelt! 11. 7... Thou wouldst have not have 13.. No my friend . Again why did his fingers lay hold to slay the lions. he did not succeed in slaying the same 14. 9. his heart failed.. 16. 3 not strong 4 my 5 lay clown in the 6 of the 259 face field. 12. one else was with us. and he did not strike .. was cast down . And . over him I wept. 10.. feared and thou wouldst all the difiiculty. we ascended the mountain.. We took it and the city we destroyed... he covered also my friend like a corpse in a grave..OF IZDUBAB. 15. Ragmu-seri-ina-namari on hearing this Here the record informs Heabani. like a lioness? placed 18.

treasure 3. a . . 5. whenever was collected Whenever brothers fixed ... and where we again meet the story Izdubar has spoken to Hasisadra and is receiving his answer. 4. : . Whenever the river makes a . Whenever a house was built. 1.. .. I Avas 2.. Whenever hatred is in . 1. great flood. taking 2 to thee 3 thou art great 4 all the account 5 forest of pine trees 6 went night and day 7 the extent of Erech Suburi 8 he approached after us he ojDened the land of forests 9 10 we ascended 11 in the midst like thy mother 12 cedar and pine trees 13 with our strength 14 silent 15 he of the 16 by her 17 the Euphrates field side Here again our narrative is lost...ILLNESS AND WANDERINGS 260 Izdubar relates part of their adventure with Hum- baba. Column VI. angry ..

In the ninth tablet to my former I am translation ... 246. death and of death the day is life not known. The present division of the legends has peculiar difficulties . the spirit of the great 13. as seems suggested by the fragment in he its an attempt to slay a p.. 9. half men. The word for scorpion has been some time ago discovered by Professor Oppert. 12. 261 8. she has fixed 15. or that which lion. his hand. Whenever 10. also it occurs on a fragment of a tablet which I found at Kouyunjik the star of . OF IZDUBAB. Spoiling and death together exist 6... which included the story of the Flood. mouth . the face that bowed before Shamas from of old was not . The man or servant on approaching death. reviling within the death the image has not been seen. able to make I find the a correction monsters seen by Izdubar were composite beings. half scorpions.. to them their fate brings. and I find in the description of these beings . by the poisonous it now fell in own does not it original idea. of 11.. This statement of Hasisadra closes the tenth tablet and leads to the next question of Izdubar and its answer. in the first place appear how Heabani was that he was I find to killed be incorrect. is implied in the passage p. and either that he was My killed. insect tambukku^ appears most likely killed in a quarrel with Izdubar. 259. gods takes The goddess Mamitu maker of fate. 14. 7.

as from the mutilated condition of the inscription attacked with it. of course." vol. 1.WANDERINGS OF IZDUBAB. I do not. seen by Izdubar on his journey." The land of Mas or desert of Izdubar travels in this tablet is Mas over which the desert on the west of the Euphrates. I have altered my translation of the 255. however. Inscriptions. understand the passage. 52. This in it explaining a curious tablet printed assists in "Cuneiform should naturally appear. 256. 262 the scorpion said to belong to tlie eighth month. iii. believe to relate that Izdubar Urhamsi made a spear from one of the trees of the forest before going across the waters of death which separated the abode of Hasis- adra from the world of mortals. This tablet speaks which has been misunderstood. in is which. feathers like precious stones. of the appearance of comets. No. it does not appear what he . which I now at the direction of passage in pp. on the sixth column the frag- ments appear to refer to some bird with magnificent Composite Figures (Scorpion Men). from an Assyrian Cylinder. p. one of which has a tail "like a lizard (or creeping thing) and a scorpion.

— Sin of the world. This tablet series. nation. — Care Izdubar. ark. of adra. cities. Tablet XL Column 1. —Early to build the ark. building. tions. Nizir. of of descent. and certainly the most important on account of the Flood. gods. —The descent from the — Resting of —The —The —Translation of Hasis— Speeches —Lament over Heabani. birds. manner also said to Hasis- . Izdubar after adra afar off. of gods. ark. legends. this I. THE STORY OF THE FLOOD AND CONCLUSION". of gods. of of warrior.— Chaptee XYI. of deluge. Its contents. — Command —The — The Flood. scarcely any its containing the story of is the most perfect in the line being entirely lost. contact. —Burial — Comparison with — Syrian —Points —Connection of —Mount — Duration —Ten genera—Age of Izdubar. sacrifice. Genesis. —His Resurrection Heabani. return. Eleventh —The — tablet. of people. HE is eleventh tablet of the Izdubar series the one which first attracted attention. Destruction of —Fear the — End Deluge.

3. its length.. their will he revealed in the midst 19. 11.. and to me Surippakite son of Ubaratutu . not The . the gods within 13 their servant. Be revealed to thee Izdubar the concealed story. 10.. . presses? of thee. . me from thee. Hasisadra after this manner also said to Izdubar 9. 12. why 4... 24.. I consider the matter.... 15 the god Bel.: : TEE 8T0BY OF THE FLOOD 264 2. it . and the judgment of the gods be related to thee. 21 make 22 I 23 cause to go in? the seed of a ship after this destroy? the sinner and life . and the god .. I 7.. how thou hast done.. the great gods 14 the god Anu.. city Surippak the city where thou standest placed... 600? cubits shall be the measure of and shalt make. The ship which thou 25.. . . 18. lord of Hades. thou repeatest not to my to me from thee. that city is ancient . 17. 16 the god Ninip. 8 /^ . and thou repeatest not 5.. and in the assembly heart to of the gods ahve thou art placed. make war come up after thee.. life all of it to the midst of the ship. thy ceasing 6. I his will was hearing and he spake 20.

closed the ship . thy furniture.. .. . on the earth fixed one the ship will not make .: : : AND CONCLUSION. and thy goods. . Any 48. 39.. and they shall be enclosed in thy do6r. slaves. Hea opened his mouth and spake and said to 28. the flood which I will send to you. 31.. into the deep launch . thy . • \ 42. it. 38. I will gather 44. the animals of the field all. above and below . . thy wealth. . 32.. . . and said to Hea my lord The ship making which thou commandest me. 41.. 30. 34 he has turned from 35 fixed over 36 37. like caves . -s 26. 43. . Adrahasis his 46. 40. 27.. I will and send to thee. . . me . 60? cubits the amount of its 265 breadth and its neight. young and old will deride me. 45. his lord 47. it enter and the door of the ship turn. the beasts of the field.. . when I shall have made.. thy female and the young men. into me and woman servants. and "" f' W*^- -r*^ . said to Hea mouth opened and spake. Into the midst of it thy grain. . I perceived 29. me his servant 33 thou shalt say unto them.

over .. 3 measures of bitumen I poured over the v^inside. which making which thou commandest me . 11... men carrying its baskets.. 6. 16 17 18. 12. were . . . measures of boxes I had distributed to the boatmen.. its 8. I rode in it .. in II. Planks against the waters within it I placed. I it. .. 3 . it.. 3 measures of bitumen I poured over the 9. .. on the 3. 1. see also tlie sliip it it measured it . .. To . Two 15... I placed in the boxes the offering they sacri- ficed. . Column -V^ . . I enclosed on the sixth time . in its circuit 14 measures day fifth . . I 10. outside.. THE 8T0BY OF THE FLOOD 266 may 49 I 50 on the ground the ship 51. examined its exterior on the seventh time -^ examined on the eighth time. sacrificed oxen dust and wine in receptacle of goats I collected like the waters of a river. strono: 2.... also ... I placed its roof. 14. 14 measures 5. 4. its frame.. the ship 52. interior I 7. they con- structed boxes 13. saw rents and the wanting parts I added.

the sons of the people 30. the animal of the field. material of the ship 21 completed. all my male female servants. of 34. it and shut my . A flood all of them. In the day I celebrated his festival 36. I entered to the midst of the ship door. Shamas . 24 25.. all I possessed the strength of it 27. 26. 37. 267 19. the day of watching fear I had.. all I possessed the strength of life. he spake saying in the night it : I will cause to rain heavily. which he spake saying in the night: I will cause tt will rain) from heaven heavily. all I it. they went in two-thirds of it. gold. the reed oars of the ship I caused to bring above and below. Shamas made and 31. it the seed of the whole 28. I caused to go servants and my up into the ship. 33.. enter to the midst of the ship and shut thy door. 29. food like the dust of the earth also 20. I collected in boxes with my hand I placed. strong and 22 23. to rain {or 35. I caused to go up. the beast of the field.AND CONCLUSION. 32. that flood happened. All I possessed the strength of sessed the strength of pos- it silver.

1.. know In heaven 5. the surface of the earth like 2. The gods like dogs fixed in droves prostrate. the spirits carried destruction. Brother saw not his brother. from the face of the . 44. 48. in their glory they swept the earth Vul the flood reached to heaven. 43. TEE 8T0BY OF TEE FLOOD 268 To 38. it swej)t.. the destroyer Nergal overturned. and Nebo and Saru went in front. 49. the strong deluge over the people. Vul in the midst of it thundered. they did not the people. it earth 3. . arose. Ninip went in front and cast down. close the ship to Buzur-sadirabi the boat- man 39. the throne bearers went over mountains and plains. reached to heaven. they ascended to the heaven of ^nu. 42. the palace I gave with its goods. sought refuge . Column III. 47. from the horizon of heaven extending and wide. 46.. Ragmu-seri-ina-namari 41.. 45. 7. the gods feared the tempest and 6. The bright earth to a waste was turned... 40. of 50.. 4. destroyed all life .

AND G0NGLV8I0N. were weeping with her. 10. passed. like the young my people and of the fishes they The gods concerning the spirits fill the sea. quieted. and the light broke over my face. Spake Ishtar 9. uttered Rubat her speech like a child. I opened the window. and the wind and deluge ended. it passed. over my I sat down and face flowed my ) wept. . over- whelmed. 269 : turned and then I in the presence of the gods prophesied evil. the gods in seats seated in lamentation. tears. 29. 18. and all the deluge 22. 27. covered were their lips for the coming 19. which had destroyed 23. 12.- ^y^^^ injLcui . deluge. like reeds the corpses floated. mankind turned to corruption. 8. 24. 21. On day the seventh in its course was calmed j^ the storm. were devoted 13. I perceived the sea 25. thus : 16. Six days evil. to evil my all people and I pro- phesied 14. sea he caused to dry. 28. and nights 20. and the whole of 26. the wind. All to corruption are 11. 17. making a tossing. have begotten I 15. As I prophesied in the presence of the gods evil. and storm. The like an earthquake.

I perceived the shore at the boundary of the sea. for twelve measures the land rose.30. tain of Nizir the same. and sixth. the moun- third day. and 41. a resting-place it did not 42. On 38. 45. I the seventh day in the course of sent forth a dove and it it The dove left. and did not return. The swallow went and turned. ^^" "^^ ^^^ country of Nizic ' ajCUAk rJWC TEE STOBY OF THE FLOOD 270 to pass over 34. the decrease of the water saw. 31. and 39. I libation. 47. it left. the moun- it it first tain of Nizir the same. went the ship. 46. and swallow and it left. and 44. and the second day. a resting-place 40. 35. it returned. the The ship. day. it and The raven went. it did eat. went and turned. I sent forth a raven 43. The and the fourth day. I sent forth a it did not find. and find. I built an altar on the peak of the mountain. and it returned. it swam. and was not able. . by sevens herbs I cut. I sent the animals forth to the poured out a four winds. The fifth. 36. mountain of Nizir stopped the 33. and wandered away. the mountain of Nizir the same. 37.

4. and simgar. and went Elu with anger filled to the gods and spirits 8.: : : AND CONCLUSION. of old also Elu in his course ship. Let not any one come out alive. Who then will ask Hea. 2. the gods good savour. the glory my neck I in those days I desired that for ever I might gods on the charm round 53. let not a man be saved from the deep. and Hea knew 12. 49. " Thou prince of the gods warrior. saw the people he had consigned to the deep. may Elu not come to my altar. 48. Ninip his mouth opened. at the bottom of them 271 I j^laced reeds. and said to"^ . May the gods come to my altar. my 5. 1. 3. for he did not consider and had made a deluge. of those would not leave Column TV. and spake and said to the warrior Elu 10. 9.. the warrior Bel 13. Hea his the matter he has done? all things. pines. mouth opened and spake. The gods gods 50. and 6. From 7. 11. 52. the 51. collected at its like flies over the sacrifice gathered^^^ From of old also Rubat in her course The great brightness of Anu had created. When collected at its savour. not leave them.

Adrahasis a pestilence dream they judgment of the gods. 29. he established in a covenant. . may leopards and men be reduced 19.'' 21.. THE STOBY OF TEE FLOOD 272 14. mouth mouth of the rivers. instead of thee Jncrease and men be destroyed. . he caused to and raised me up. he made a bond. and his wife. He took my hand 25. sent. instead of thee making a deluge. the just prince let ful let 17. may 20. Instead of thee making a deluge. . may lions in- 16. and the judgment of the gods he heard. the doer of evil did his evil. AVhen his judgment was accomplished. in the presence of Hasisadra and the people thus: 28. 24. crease and men be reduced 18. I did not peer into the 22. 27. Bel went up to the midst of the ship. to be like the gods are carried away. . and the people. instead of thee increase making a deluge. the faithhim not be destroyed. then shall dwell Hasisadra in a [ ^ at the 30. him not be cut off. and gave this blessing. 23. and in a remote place remote place at the of the rivers they seated me. They took me. raise and to bring my wife to my side 26. . may a famine happen and the country be destroyed making a deluge. When Hasisadra. when thou angry a deluge thou makest art doer of sin did his 15. the sin.

second the mussuhat^ third the radbat^ fourth she opened his zikaman. the seventh in a mantle she clothed him and man go fme. great gate open and may he return to his 40. 36. 41. clothe him. And the day when he ascended the side oi the 47. ship. the gods have chosen and seven on the edge of like a also. His wife to him also said to Hasisadra afar off: man be sent away. 43. fifth the cloak she placed. 33. his 48. his seat. this be done six days 34. she did. 51. 39. the 42. 37. let . 1. storm shall be laid upon him. Hasisadra to her also said to his wife announce that the chief who grasps at health the way like a storm shall be laid upon him. The cry of a man alarms thee. Column V. road that he came may he return in peace. 31. I 38. the and let the country. 49. hurummat she placed on his head. 45. like sitting 273 nights. 46. sixth the bassat.: AND GONCLUSION. which thou seekest and askest. this do his kurmnmat place on his head. for the health way 35. first the sabiisat of his Jcurummat^ 50. And the day when he ascended the side of the ship. When whom the to tliee 32. Hasisadra to her also said to his wife 44.

and thou hast. illness has destroyed the strength of his limbs. seventh in a cloak I have clothed thee and let thee go free. 13. 4. Hasisadra to him also said to Izdubar. also said to to thee we Urhamsi the cross to pre- serve thee. 17 his 18. In this off: way thou wast compassionate over me. 10. joyfully thou hast restored me. : THE STORY OF THE FLOOD 274 2. separated thee. 15 collected 16 dwelling in death. Hasisadra to back? dies him boatman 19. before. fifth the cloak she placed. 20. disease has body 22. second the mussukat^ third the radbaf. Izdubar to him also said to Hasisadra afar off: Hasisadra 14 thee to may we not come. thy kurummit. 8 ^. Who filled his is beside the man whom thou comest 21. 5.. Urhamsi also. 7 thy kurummat. . sixth the bassat^ 12. fourth she opened the zikaman^ 11. made me. the of support. Izdubar to him also said to Hasisadra afar 3.

That he may go to his country. 275 to cleanse take him. and Urhamsi rode in the ship. but leave. may it turn. that he may take his road. 33. 28. 34. his disease in the water to beauty 25. that which thou hast given him. 35. the hanging cloak alone 30. carry him Urhamsi. 24. His wife to him also said to Hasisadra afar off: 39. may it restore the hair of his head. his disease in the water to beauty turned. That he might go to his country. 38. he per- forms 40. hanging to cover the cloak of his body. but alone left. hanging down to cover the cloak of his body. that he might take his road. 27. 29. Izdubar 37.AND CONCLUSION. to cleanse he took him. away. and the sea carry it away. may he cast off his illness. and the sea carried 32. Urhamsi carried him. he cast off his illness. 36. 23. may health cover his skin. where they placed them they rode. and returns to his country. the he hanging cloak he did not cast off. and health covered his it skin. . he restored the hair of his head. he is satisfied. 26. 31. may he may he not cast off. Izdubar goes away.

If a 8.. and the ship touched the shore... . ... this account .. in his heart take .... 1.. he carried the account 3. to 5.. this in his hearing heard. and thou re- turnest to thy country. Be revealed to thee Izdubar concealed the story.. his mule . Hasisadra to him also said to Izdubar 44. an account and turn to. .: THE STORY OF TEE FLOOD 276 41. he collected great stones .... and . and the judgment of the gods be related to thee.. to . .. 48. 51... And 42. they dragged 2. 50.. This account like bitumen 49. that I have given thee.. . thou perform est which 45.. he carried the spear? of Izdubar... up the great stones . .. and to . its renown when like the Amurdin tree the account a hand shall take Column VI.... piled 4. Izdubar to him also said 6. . Izdubar thou goest away. thou art satisfied.... may 9 it man they bring him to Erech Suburi speech 10.. 46.. Urhamsi: 7. . 47.. 43. I will give .. Izdubar. 52.

. noble of said to .. midst of Erech Suburi.. 277 For 10 kaspu (70 miles) they journeyed the for 20 kapsu (140 miles) they journeyed the stage 12. and the 22.. his face coursed his tears.. 20 kaspu (140 miles) then I opened . Izdubar approached 17. Erech Ascend Urhamsi will over where the wall go 29. For 30 kaspu (210 miles) they made the ascent. the instrument 24. the bricks of its casing are not made.. Izdubar to her also said to Urhamsi the boat- man: 28. 20 kaspu (140 miles) they journeyed the stage.. and of its foundation is not laid to thy height. 11.. .. I my misfortune is my have not done good to 21. 30. my own self.. 14.. 26. stage. Then my turning.. the sea not to its wall then could I get. At my misfortune Urhamsi 19. and over Urhamsi 18.... men . at 20.. 27. and Izdubar saw the hole 13. And they left the ship by the shore. they came to the midst of Erech Suburi. they returned to the . the cylinders are scattered. in his return 16.. 15. : AND CONCLUSION.. heart troubled. lion of the earth does good. 25. for 23 in and he . .

again lost for reappears Izdubar my . misfortune also . 1 it : " : Tammabukku in the lines. like a 6. measure of Ishtar. to to . 1.. able to correct some of these. who most probably died in attempting to imitate the feat of Izdubar when he destroyed the The fragments Column 1. . .. In is ." several next tablet line of the ... . is house of the After this the story left.. lion. . 3 measures tos-ether the divisions of Erech The opening reads was circuit of the city... in the house of the .. was (Several lines lost. . of this tablet are Tammabukku : I. the assembly they do not call thee .— THE 8T0BY OF THE FLOOD 278 31. The noble banquet thou dost not 7.. a cloak shining 5. .. Izdubar 2. mourning for and where it Heabani. .. preserved.) . share.. When 3.. 1 measure the boundary of the temple of plantations. measure the 1 Nantur the house of 32... to happiness thou 4.. is account in first " Assyrian Discoveries" there are several errors which were unavoidable from the I am now state of the twelfth tablet. and find the Avords tamhuklcu and mikke do not refer to the author or manner of the death of Heabani..

whom thou lovest thou dost not kiss. 5. 11. his Avife the mio'ht of the earth has taken him. 16. darkness. 279 The bow from the ground thou dost not lift. it The next appears to have contained the remainder of this lament. darkness. his 4. the slain feet : thou dost not wear. the bottom of the column has him lost all the first upper column. darkness. his 3. 9. The fragments commence the middle of this 1. 2. thy wife whom thou hatest thou dost not strike Thy child whom thou lovest thou dost not kiss. mother Ninazu. at . her feet like a deep well enclose him. 10. the spoil defies thee 12. the third person being used instead of the second. and a repetition of the lamentation. darkness. an appeal to one of the gods on behalf of Heabani. Her noble 7. The arms of the earth have taken Thy 14. darkness 6. thy child whom thou hatest thou dost not strike 18. : AND conclusion. stature as his mantle covers him. wife thee. 1 7. whom he hated he struck. part. Shoes on thy 13. her feet like a This is deep well enclose him. what the bow has struck escapes thee The mace in thy hand thou dost not grasp.: . darkness. 15. on the ground thou dost not stretch. child whom he loved he kissed. 20. mother Ninazu. 19. Her noble stature as his mantle covers 21. child whom he hated he struck. 8.

passage. 12.. COLTOIN III. Father Bel the matter do not despise 6.. 15. a deadly 8. . . Then .. In the place of the battle of heroes they did not strike him. Heabani who to 9... 10.. a sting 7. 5. Then Heabani from the 9. sting to the earth has struck me. 14. Simtar did not take him 3. ..) 23.. . the resting-place . wound . ni son of .. . the earth took him.. Ninsun for his servant Heabani wept 13... 11. THE 8T0BY OF TEE FLOOD 280 8.. a deadly wound to the earth has struck me... 10. Simtar . ... the earth took him. Simtar did not take him. the earth took him. . of Nergal . Father . The resting place of Nergal the unconquered did not take him. . .. . the resting place of Nergal the unconquered did not take 4. not him . Asakku did not take earth him. 1.. to the house of Bel alone he -vvent. Simtar did not take him fly ... . " Father a Bel. (About 12 hues containing repetition of this lost. Sin. fly .... ... Heabani who to 2. In the place of the battle of heroes they did .

resting place of Nergal tlie 281 tlie unconquered 25. Noble warrior Merodach the noble warrior .. friend. weeping sit may you weep youth also thy heart rejoice become old. the spirit (or ghost) of and Heabani like glass (or transparent) from the earth arose and thou explainest.. the earth covers what I have seen I will tell thee. the worm entering in youth also thy heart rejoice full of dust . the divider 30. the noble warrior 33. 35 36. he pondered and repeated CoLmm my this IV. 3. .. 24. Father Hea . When friend. Merodach son of Hea 32.. my 1... 31... . I will not tell 4.. .. thou 5 sittest 6 may you 7 in 8. terrible my friend. Terrible 2 may the earth cover what th ou hast seen. 29. the divider the earth opened. To 28... 27... I will not tell. ...: : .. AND CONCLUSION. in tlie place of tlie battle of heroes tliey did not . the spirit . 26.. 9 10 . Merodach . terrible.. 34.. .. To his father .

.... which he was blessed . 6 may he mourn 7 Kisu and Harriskalama. pure water drinking. 1. 1. . . . ..THE STOBY OF THE FLOOD 282 he passed over 11 12 I see Here there about twenty insert a is a serious blank in the inscription. Here there are about thirty lines missing. may he mourn ... poured out . ... . and I conjecturally fragment which appears to belong to part of the narrative. On 2.. is column there are only remains lost. He who a couch reclining and in battle is slain.. which is perfect. thou seest and I see.. the story recommencing with Column VL. like a 2. Column VI.... Column V.. lines being lost... Cutha The rest of Column IV..... and of the next of the two first lines.. like good prince who .. . 3. may he mourn for my fault .. . 5 . 8 his 9 Eridu? and Nipur which thou trusted 2 3 4 . for him and for . geographical names I 1 it this very curious from the It is contains.. city of Babylon r^ ..

the food eaten. in " . . The main is feature the description of the Flood in the eleventh tablet. The captives conquered come 12. which 13. This passage closes this great national work. clear.AND CONCLUSION. which evidently refers to the same event as the Flood of Noah in Genesis. In my Biblical two papers The Transactions of the Archaeological Society. 283 4. 5. 11. not taken. and his wife over him weeps. which even in its present mutilated form is of the greatest Hasisadra or Noaii and Izdubar from an Early Babylonluj Cylinder. and vol. His father and his mother carry his head. of the spoil account thou seest and 10. is is uncovered. I see. thou seest and I see. tablet of the legends of Izdubar. this ancient people. Like the ancient copy written and made in the tents is placed is after. 6." vol. iii. The twelfth 14. His spoil on the ground 9. in this part of the Izdubar legends manners. ii. 8. importance in relation to the and customs of civilization. 7. His friends on the ground are standing.

and extent of their combination. but between Chaldea and Palestine was a a wide extent of country inhabited by different nations. "Assyrian Discoveries. There is only one point which I think should not be avoided in this matter : section of scholars that the in some form. are points which I shall not require to notice. a thorough comparison of the Biblical and Babylonian accounts of the Flood being only possible in conjunction with a critical examination both of the Chaldean and Biblical Biblical texts. . that up any of the prevailing views without being a party to the controversy. I think all will admit a connection of some sort between the Biblical narrative and those of Berosus and the cuneiform texts. matter independent sources . judgment upon them. not competent to pronounce an inde- pendent opinion." but I have myself to acknowledge that these comparisons are to a great extent superficial. The authorship and dates of the original documents and the manner.THE STOBY OF THE FLOOD 284 have given some comparisons with the Biblical account and that of Berosus. which I am criticism however. from two principal termed the Jehovistic narrative. a subject on is. and some of them so unmistakably coloured I feel I could not take by prejudice. and the views of Biblical scholars on the matter are so widely at variance. the other the Elohistic. and I have made similar I comparisons in my work. and I must confess I do not think we are at present in a position to form date. it is Book taken one is the view of a large of Genesis contains.

while Palestine was a hilly region with no great rivers. it was only natural each nation should in accordance with its own ideas. and . unknown. which was in contrast to . in relating the coloiu' mythology. up the connection between the two. well watered and flat. and their mythology and traditions are until future researches on the sites of their which their cities shall reveal the position in tions stood towards those of Babylonia we shall not be able to clear tradi- and Palestine. and these being joined by complicated relations marked system. who races 285 The Aramean and Hittite once inhabited the region along the Eu- phrates and in Syria have passed away. the maritime regions being mostly in the hands of the Philistines and Phoenicians.AND GONCLUSION. and the Jews were shut out from the coast. difference There was a total between the religious ideas of the two peoples.the severe simplicity of the Jewish them same stories. while the Babylonians worshipped gods and lords many. Chaldea was essentially a mercantile and maritime country. every city having its local deity. the Jews believing in one God. whose territories these two formed a connecting link between extremes. the creator and lord of the Universe. in a poetical AVith such differences that. but when we consider the differences between the two countries of Palestine and Babylonia these variations do not appear greater than we should expect. their history has been lost. There are some differences between the accounts in Genesis and the Inscriptions.

THE STORY OF THE FLOOD 286 would naturally in each case be laid upon points with which they were familiar. . tablet. . Size of the ark 6. Animals to go 7. Thus we should stress expect beforehand that there would be differences in the narrative such as we actually find. . . Sin of the world 3. it . and we may also notice that the cuneiform account does not always coincide even with the account of the same events given by Berosus from Chaldean sources. — Genesis. to be saved 5. Command to build the Bible 1. Building of ark 8. 10. . Threat to destroy 4. . . out with bitumen 9. Coated within and with- in ark . The Food taken . Deluge vi. ark 2. two narratives compared in order will serve to show the correspondences differences between the two. Seed of life . The great value of the inscriptions describing the Flood consists in the fact that they form an inde- pendent testimony in favour of the Biblical narrative at a much earlier date than principal points in the their and any other evidence. in the ark Coming of flood . Chap. . . ..

Translation 13 v. 384-4 45 46 .&c. . 1. 1. 7—12 1. V. 1. again the 4 v. End 13. 19. . Deluge tablet. 18. . . no unexpected or material difference four of these points.. III. v. 11 to . 1. v.17. pa- Genesis 1. 24 IV.AND CONCLUSION. A deluge not There 1. 21 1. 18. 21 happen Chap.. 1. while these are given in Genesis as fifty cubits and thirty cubits respectively. 6 20 20.. Chaldean measures are effaced it is evident that in the inscription the breadth and height of the vessel are stated to be the same..1-15 v. (in v. Bible — 287 Genesis. Covenant and blessing of the .27 19 21. Opening of window mountain Ark rests on a 16. Chap.. ix.21-26 v. 15. vii. With regard there is to those who were saved in the ark again a clear difference between the two . 17-20 v. 9 Chap. .24. 47.49 Col. 20 offering v.. viii.l2. 33 1. 28 of Enoch) first v. Chap. . Building the altar 22. Destruction of people Duration of deluge 12. v. Sending forth of the birds 17. The sacrifice The savour of the 23. . Leaving the ark 14. but with reference is the size of the ark there for although the is in to certainly a discrepancy. 11... of deluge . 26 1. Col.19-21 v. triarch 1. 48 1. v.

often an ambiguous word. may be remarked. of the family of Noah. was north of It is evident that different mountain of the ark in and there is not positive the earlier traditionary spot. days for the point the inscription this flood. making a total duration of one year and ten days. probably between latitudes 35° and 6° (see " Assy- rian Discoveries. 217). and seven days gives seven for the resting of the ark on the mountain. 216. while the Bible gives the commencement of the flood on the 17th day of the second month and its termination on the 27th day of the second month in the following year. that those scholars two distinct who documents being included Plere it believe in in Genesis. while Ararat. were saved. friends. traditions have the })laced the totally different positions. wliile the in- scription includes his servants. Nizir. near Lake Van." and might be a . tioned in the cuneiform text. hold that in the Jehovistic narrative the statement is that the flood lasted fort}^ days. and boatmen but certainly the most remarkable difference between the two is with respect to the duration of the On deluge. Forty is. proof as to which The word Ararat is is Bible. meaning " many. the mountain mentioned in Assyria. or pilots . which is certainly nearer to the time specified in the cuneiform text. however. derived from an old Babylonian Avord Urdu^ meaning " highland.TEE STOBY OF THE FLOOD 288 accounts. the Bible stating all tliat only eight persons.ain a difference as to the which the ark rested . being east of Assyria." and number." pp. tain on not necessarily There is fixing exactly the mounthe place men- ao.

28D general term for any billy country. Some of the other differences are evidently due to the ojDposite religious systems of the two countries. to have predicted the Flood. In the account of sending forth the birds there is a difference in detail between the Bible and the Inscriptions which cannot be explained away. but there is again a curious point in connection with the close of the Chaldean legend. view it the land My own more southern part of the mountains east of Assyria was the region of the original tradition. and Enoch is said. sometimes ten . other similar differences will serve neither of the two documents is to this show and that copied directly from the other. and that the other sites are subsequent identiis that the fications due to changes in geographical names and other causes. shows some similar points. with which Egyptian mythical history commences. It is a curious fact that the dynasty of gods. In the Book of Genesis seventh patriarch Enoch not it is who is Noah but translated.AND CONCLUSION. This dynasty has sometimes seven. some connection Enoch and Noah in ancient or confusion between tradition both are holy men. the three generations before the Flood. like appears to have been There . Noah. and I think quite possible that when Genesis was written of Armenia was not intended by this term. this is the transla- tion of the hero of the Flood.

which is the length of life of the seventh patriarch Enoch after the birth of his son. show the three lists.TEE STOBY OF THE FLOOD 290 reigns. the Jewish patriarchs. and Chaldean kings. . I here Egypt. there is the same name for the seventh and tenth reign. both being called Horus. the Egyptian gods. and in the Turin Papyrus of kings. and the seventh reign is stated at 300 years. which gives ten reigns.




e.g., and the
upon it, the sacred tree, and composite
beings, show similar stories and ideas to have pre-

a Syrian chief in the ninth century

vailed there to those in Babylonia.

One question which



be asked, and asked in


" Did either of the



Jews or Baby-

borrow from the other the traditions of these
early times, and if so, when ?"




one point in connection with this question

worth noticing


even on the showing

these traditions are not fixed to

near Palestine, but are,

of the Jews themselves, fixed to the neighbourhood
of the Euj^hrates valley, and Babylonia in particular
this of course is clearly stated in the





Eden, according even to the Jews, was by the

Euphrates and Tigris; the
rancha, and

Sippara were

founded before the Flood.


of Babylon,


supposed to have been
Surippak was the city of

the ark, the mountains east of the Tigris were the
resting-place of the ark,

tower, and


of the

Babylon was the


of the

Chaldees the birthplace of

Abraham. These facts and the further statement
that Abraham, the father and first leader of the
Hebrew race, migrated from Ur to Harran in Syria,
and from there

to Palestine, are all so



was the
and that the Jews

in favour of the hypothesis that Chaldea



of these stories,

received them originally from the Babylonians

on the other




there are such striking differences



some parts of tlie legends, particularly in the
names of the patriarchs before the Flood, that it is

evident further information


required before at-

tempting to decide the question.

Passing to the

next, the twelfth and last tablet, the picture there

and the curious story
at the bidding
from the

given, the lament for Heabani,

of his ghost rising

of Merodach, serve to


this as

important in

relation to the Babylonian religion as the eleventh





to the

book of Genesis.

the spirit of one of the diseases, and



the attendant of the goddess of



Asakku would
Heabani, while he was equally

trouble appears to be that Simtar and

not receive the soul of

repudiated by Nergal and shut out from the region

appointed for warlike heroes.


soul of Heabani

was confined to the earth, and, not resting there, intercession was made to transfer him to the region of
I at one time added to this tablet a
the blessed.
fragment Avhich then appeared to belong and which
I interpreted to refer to Heabani's dwelling in hell

and taking
covery of a

both the



way from there to heaven. The disnew fragment has forced me to alter





considerably weakens

and position of
in the



seventh tablet.



argument that the Baby-

lonians had two separate regions for a future state,

one of



the other of joy.

column I have provisionally
placed a curious fragment where Izdubar appears




mourn with him for his friend.
remarkable for the number of cities

to call on his cities to

This tablet


mentioned as already existing in the time of Izdubar.


this notice

with other parts of the legends,

the statements of Berosus and the notice of the cities

Nimrod in Genesis, we get the following list
known cities in the Euphrates valle}^


of the




11. Sippara.



12. Kisu.



13. Harriskalama.











16. Assur.






18. Rehobothair.



19. Resen.

10. Calneh.



20. Calah.

far as the various statements go, all these cities

and j^robably many others were

in existence in the

time of Nimrod, and some of them even before the



the fact, that the Babylonians four thousand

years ago believed their cities to be



such an-

shows that they were not recent foundations,

their attainments at that time in the arts

sciences proves that their civilization

known ages


had already

The epoch of Izdubar must
be considered at present as the commencement of
the united monarchy in Babylonia, and as marking


of progress.

of the series of great conquests in Western

Asia, but



back we have to go from our




known monuments

to reach his era

we cannot


It is

probable that after the death of Izdubar the

empire he had founded


to pieces,

and was only

when Urukh, king of Ur, extended
power over the country and founded the Chaldean
or Southern Sumerian dynasty.
partially restored


Every nation has
on the revival of





was only natural

his empire that the Babylonians

should consecrate the


to give


of the king,

who had

them that unity without which

they were powerless as a nation.

Chapter XYII.


— Correspondence of names. — Abram.
— Sargon. — His

— Concealed
Age of Nimrod. — Doubtful
— Gai-den

of Eden. — Cannes. — Berosus. — Izdubar legends. — Urukh of Ur.
— Babylonian
— Egyptian names. —Assyrian
Notices of Genesis.

TIr of Clialdees.










through various cuneiform

inscriptions are other notices, names, or

passages, connected with the



Although the names of the


Genesis patriarchs are not in the inscriptions giving
the history of the mythical period, the corresponding

personages being, as
different names, yet

have shown

(p. 290), all under
some of these Genesis patriarchal


names are found detached

The name Adam

in a


in the inscriptions.

in the Creation legends,


general sense as man, not as a proj^er name.

Several of the other names of antediluvian jmtriarchs

correspond with Babylonian words and roots, such
as Cain with gina and kinu, to " stand upright," to be



" right,"

Enoch withEmukor Enuk," wise," and Noah
with niih, " rest," or " satisfaction " but beyond these
some of the names appear as proper names also in
Babylonia, and among these are Cainan, Lamech, and

Tubal Cain.

found as the name of a Babylonian town


Kan-nan the meaning may be " fish canal," its people
were sometimes called Kanunai or Canaanites, the
same name as that of the original inhabitants of

In early times tribes often migrated and


names to their new homes
it is possible that there was some connection of this
sort between the two Canaans.
carried their geographical


Lamech has already been pointed out by Palmer
(" Egyptian Chronicles," vol.
p. 56), in the name of
the Deified Phoenician patriarch Diamich this name is


found in the cuneiform texts as Dumugu and Lamga,
two forms of a name of the moon.
Tubal Cain, the father or instructor of all metal
workers, has been compared with the name of Vulcan,
the god of smiths, the two certainly corresponding
both in name and character.
The corresponding


Babylonian mythology, the god of

melter of metals, &c.,

has a

name formed


of two

characters which read Bil-kan.


names of patriarchs after the Flood
names of towns in Syria, but not in

of the

are found as



these are



Ragu, Serug,

and Harran.

The name






no doubt




of the


Assyrian inscriptions in the time


found in the

of Esarhaddon.

After the captivity of the ten tribes, some of the
Israelites prospered in Assyria,

and rose

to positions

of trust in the empire. Abram was one of these, he
was sukulu rabu or " great attendant " of Esarhaddon,
and was eponym in Assyria, B.C. 677. Various other


Hebrew names





are found in Assyria about this time,

including Pekah, Hoshea, and several compounded with
the two Divine

names Elohim and Jehovah, showing

that both these names were in use among the Israelites.

The presence of proper names founded on the Genesis
stories, like Abram, and the use at this time of these
forms of the Divine name, should be taken into consideration in discussing the evidence of the antiquity

of Genesis.

After the time of Abraham the book of Genesis is . among the witnesses to some documents at Larsa in Babylonia. mentioned in Genesis xiv. who have come out of 31) to xi. of 1850) coincides with the date to generally given for the (Genesis kingdom title I of the have no doubt the Baby- There meant. Some of the other Gbnesis names are found very much earlier. In the reign of Hammurabi. the first which appears on a contemporary monument being Ishmael.C. evidence of a northern stated is Ur Ur and is not the slightest a northern land o the Chaldees at this period. 2000 Chaldees. B. 298 It is a curious fact that the rise of the Ur (cir. satis- is yet and even the outlines of the chronology unknown. Now although evidence has been found confirming the existence of a powerful monarchy in Elam at this age. and other .Hittite and Arabian names are found in the inscriptions of the time. about B. appears a man named " Abulia son of Ishmael." This period in Babylonia is supposed to have been one of foreign and Arabian dominion. we must remem- ber that our knowledge of Babylonian history are names no direct record of these conquests has been discovered. by which lonian city of Ur is life of Abraham. king of Elam. king of Babjlonia. and factory proof of the correctness of the proper mentioned in this chapter.CONCLUSION.C. 1550. but in its infancy. In the Babylonian records we might expect to find some notice of the wars of Chedorlaomer.

and and of the has no it connection with Babylonian history and traditions there remains. with bitumen exit she sealed up. GONGLZrSION'. curious story is This found on fragments of tablets from Kouyunjik. true. was a Babylonian monarch reigned at the city of The name Akkad about 1600. or legi- timate king. am Sargina the powerful king the king of Akkad I. however. 3. My mother was a princess. In the city of Azupiranu which by the side of the river Euphrates 4.: . situated mother the princess difficulty she my is me in me conceived me . affidrs immediate vicinity. She launched drown me. 2. 6. and ascending the may have been assumed on Sargon throne. and desiring to strengthen his claim to the throne put out the story given in this tablet to connect himself with the old line of kings. and reads as follows 1. me on the river which did not . although not within the period covered by Genesis. one story which has a strik- ing likeness to that of Moses in the ark. a brother of my father ruled over the country. of Sargon signifies the right. concerned with the countries in its 299 of Palestine. and which. my brought She placed 5. B. his was probably of obscure origin. my father I did not know. in forth an ark of rushes. Sargina or Sargon who I.C. is of great interest in connection with the early history of the Jews.

&c. for every action. lifted 9. This story B. In the body of various fragments my present work of the Legends I have given the describing the Creation. me Akki the water carrier in tenderness of bowels me. and I have . and. it is quite likely that this account had a connection with the events related ii. is supposed to have happened about 1600. &c. Akki the water carrier as his child brought uj). 17. coast three times I advanced. Flood. 13. as we know that the fame of Sargon reached Egypt. 10.. over rugged countries with chariots of bronze I rode.C. 8. the people of the 14 dark races I governed. time of Nimrod. years the kingdom I have ruled. Akki the water husbandman carrier as his placed me. has a tendency to be repeated. I govern the upper countries 16. 45 ? my husbandry Ishtar prospered me. 300 The river 7. to Akki the water carrier brought me. it carried me. 18. After this follows an address to any king who should at a later time notice the inscription. 11. when in Exodus once performed. rather earlier than the supposed age of Moses. .CONOLUSION. I rule? over the chiefs of the lower countries To the sea Dilmun submitted. Durankigal bowed. &c. and in 12. 15.

however. new and I have projected respect- my own opinions many have no doubt that any accession of material would change again ing the parts affected by it. as well as I can at present. and have more accurate knowledge of the texts for in cuneiform matters we have often had to led to the certainly advance through error to truth. assisted the inquiry. have. that apart from the more perfect and main parts of these texts. this. I have founded this theory on several plausible. . we have no clue whatever to the age and position of the most famous hero in Oriental tradition. and res]3ecting their principal points of contact with the Bible narrative of Genesis. I have also put forward some theories to account for various difficulties in the stories. on their way. 301 indicated.CONCLUSION. I have changed times. The most hazardous of these theories is the one which makes Izdubar or Nimrod reign in the middle of the twenty. and . . although not always correct. both in the decipherment of the broken fragments and in the various theories 1 ing them. my views respect- These theories and conclusions. but probably merely superficial grounds accepts my view on this point.third century before the Christian era. and to connect together the fragmentary accounts. failing it. the grounds for my present conclusions what are them. I never lose sight myself of the fact. it will similar reasons to those if any one be only for which caused me to propose namely. because.

or add to the story. it similar in is many such additions to historical narra- tives. 2250. I think. I think that which has any foundation within a generation of the time With regard stances happened. and in some cases. probable that the traditions on which these legends were founded arose shortly the death of Izdubar dition . but I would not reject nature to those events which may have order to illustrate a current romance of the happened. 302 my In thing low theory for the position of certainly clear is in the chronology I : as it have Nimrocl. 2000.C.GONCLTJSION. because of its evident inaccuracies and the marvellous element generally combined with stories of almost it. if this were true. highly probable that legends were written about B. after every tra- in fact springs when up the circum- to the supernatural element introduced into the story. Making the date of Nimrod so recent as B.C. especially in the East. now too general a tendency to repudiate the earlier part of history. every nation The are. early resolved into elaborate descriptions of natural phe- nomena. one possible is him placed as make to him. the . in fact. poems and by some writers. the writer has introduced the supernatural. because in belief. I have only left from 200 to 250 years between his time and the age of the oldest Looking these at the fact that it is known monuments. the intervening period of two centuries does not appear I think it too great. There is.

substantially agrees. and myths given in the foregoing pages have. although different forms of this story were current. the con- tents of this it fifth after to the creation of the heavenly orbs. Beside the in certain features they all agreed. which was the origin of things. the signs of the zodiac. probably. account of the present animals. it According there was a chaos of watery matter before the Creation. and. tablet in the series relates how God created the constellations of the stars. the sj^irit of con- fusion and darkness. myth would have taken to create as that of the philosophers The stories who it 303 a genius as great explain it. the planets or wandering stars. as far as is to preserved. history and traditions the Babylonians placed an account of the creation of the world . they related the creation of legions of monster forms which disappeared before the human epoch. with the Biblical account. After another blank we have moon a frag- .OONGLUSION. and we come The all have then a considerable blank. given in Chapter Y. and from this We things were generated. which we can only conjecture. The all and which was even older than the gods. and head of their the some . very different values are genuine traditions for natural At — some phenomena. it.. the and the sun. principal Babylonian story of the Creation. and they accounted for the great problem of humanity presence of evil in the world —the —by making out that proceeded from the original chaos. compiled to account some jDure romances.

with spirit. as in the Bible he is made per. the first I recoa'nized tion of wild which and domestic animals relates the crcait is . and instructed in his various religious duties. fect." or wild animals. to lead the heavenly host The war. the animal of Tiamat. and so far as I know the Creation tablets end here. Our next fragments refer to the creation of mankind. the offends against his god. 304 ment. for them." it was or domestic animals. and curses him. called Adam." . In Chapter V. or chaos on one side and the gods on The gods have weapons forged and Merodach undertakes against the dragon. and the " animals of the city. and to meet the requirements of those who desire to study them in the cuneiform character I have arranged to translations publish copies of the principal fragments of the Creation tablets in the " Transactions of the Society of Biblical Archa3ology. that the oris^inal taming: of domestic curious here animals was back that all knowledge of even then so far lost. who down on the his head all sj)irit of chaos. the other. which is described ends of course in the triumph of the principles of good. but afterwards he joins with the dragon of the deep. and calls evils and troubles of humanity. were considered different creations to the " animals of the desert. This is powers of followed by a war between the dragon and evil.CONCL USION. I have given as far as possible and comments on these texts.

It is probable that some of these Babylonian le- gends contained detailed descriptions of the Garden of Eden. describing the beginning of the world. as Sir Henry Rawlinson in respect to the geography name which render the identi- There are coincidences of the region and fication its very probable believes. III. X all tend . describing of man. the Euphrates and Tigris. describing the conflict between the gods and the spirit of chaos. describing the IL Fragment creation of the heavenly bodies. some- times Gan-dunu.— conclusion: The fragments are I sas have selected for this purpose : I. the ibur rivers in each case. and other considerations. Fragment of the chftos at the first tablet. its name. the known fertility of the region. IV. two. Besides this account of the Creation I have given other fragments bearing upon the same events. certainly identical. of the fifth tablet. so similar to Gan-eden (the Gar- den of Eden). Obverse and reverse of the principal fragment. which was most likely the district of Karduniyas. Obverse and reverse of the the fall tablet. . principal feature in the second account scription of the eagle-headed of leaders — this men with is The the de- their family legend clearly showing the origin of the eagle-headed figures represented on the Assyrian sculptures. these differing considerably from the longer account.

although the render even used is engravings very probable that there was a legend of it kind one in Genesis. and . or only known by mere fragments or allusions. 306 towards view the that is it the Paradise of Genesis. which must have been one of the Babylonian stories of the Creation. and was my my I have given in Chapter IX. to be separate from the only excuse for inserting them here desire to exhibit as clearly and fully as possible the literature of the great epoch which pro- duced the Genesis tablets. . There are evidences of the belief in the tree of life. like the made of a named Cannes. half fish. half man. this is also these legends. is who was supposed to have appeared out of the sea and to have taught to the Babylonians all their The Babylonian and Assyrian sculptures learning. The fables which form a series now appearing others. and have so far given evidence that Berosus has truly described this mythological figure. In the history of Berosus mention composite being. but fact that the it is a curious legend of Oannes. Besides this. as an ornament on dresses mentioned several times present there is a sacred tree . which is one of the most common emblems on the seals and larger sculptures. early times still there are evidently many stories of unknown. but at in no direct connection known between gem the tree and the Fall. have made us familiar with the figure of Oannes.CONCLUSION. has not yet been recovered.

.Cannes. From Nimroud Sculpture.


civili- details given in the Flood leave no doubt that inscriptions describing the both the Bible and the Babylonian story describe the same event.. continuous line. Berosus in his history has given an account of ten Chaldean kings who reigned before the Flood. so far as I can judge. The enormous reigns given by Berosus to his ten kings. includinof writina.080 years after the Flood down to the kings are historical. and the other the story of Atarpi. Most of tlie 807 other stories.CONCLUSION'. the work of Berosus. although there may be some foundation for his statement of a The zation before the Deluge. and have little celestial visitors connection with Babylonian history. and the inhabitants of the world were very clearly divided into the good and bad. and hereafter turn out of great importance story of the sin committed one . is the by the god Zu. and various arts were known. but the stories are only fables with a moral attached. and According to Berosus several of the Babjdonian cities were built before the Flood. and the Flood becomes the starting point for the modern world in both histories. and the close of this period is known from the well descriptions of the Deluge in the Bible. Ac'cord- ing to Berosus 86 kings reigned for 34. making a total of 432. it is Median conquest. doubtful if If these they formed a and they could scarcely cover a longer . force us to discard the idea that the details are historical. -wheTi came backwards and forwards to the earth.000 years. Two may of these stories are very curious. are fixed to the great period before the Flood. the Deluge tablet.

which weakened them and laid them open to foreign invasion.000 years for or Elamite if we allow the previous the Flood fall about B. or Nimrod. but our information about this period about so scanty that nothing can be said is this dynasty. and that he readily found the means of uniting the country under one sceptre. conquest took place about the round number period. that there was a civilized race in Babylonia before the Median Conquest.C. of the It is probable from the fragments of Berosus that the incursions and dominion of the Elamites lasted about two hundred years. the progress of which must have received a rude shock- when the country was overrun by the uncivilized Eastern borderers. probable that Izdubar. see.o. it make will 2450. 3500. b. unfortunately too mutilated to make much use of it. during which the country suffered very I think it much from them.CONCLUSION. 1. 308 The Median period than 1. slaying . Among the fragmentary notices of this period is the portion of the inscription describing the building Tower of Babel and the dispersion. In a fragmentary inscription with a list of Babylonian kings. however.000 years. must be received with mere than the of the Deluge usual grain of We can and a suggestion as to the date salt. some names are given which appear to belong to the 86 kings of Berosus. and. as the people saw the evils of disunion. owed a great portion of his fame in the first instance to his Humbaba.

and two females. wlio claimed descent from a long line of kings. called Nana and Uzur-amatsa. god. Ishtar. and extended two friends. angry at his answer. Izdubar. he has a dream. to be an instrument of her . they Humbaba. brings to Erech a midannu slays and Izdubar After these things. and after named Heabani is persuaded by Zaidu. a famous hunter. and. surrounded by a wall. the conquest and sacking of the city of Erech being one of the incidents in the story. He refused. heaven and petitioned her father Anu to create a bull for her. according to others of the moon Elu or Bel. an Elamite. the daughter according to some authorities of Anu. start to attack having invoked the gods. Dumuzi. Nimrod commence with brought upon Babylonia by The legends of Izclubar a description of the evils 309 or foreign invasion. reaching up to the time of the Flood. Humbaba dwelt in a thick forest. Izdubar was now proclaimed king. and here he was visited by the who slew him and carried off his regalia. a rihu or She was queen and goddess of Erech. ascended to and the goddess. friends. become or tiger to test his strength. w^as and according widow of to others of Sin. offering him her hand and kingdom. to come to Erech and interpret the dream of Izdubar. his court and palace being at Erech. fell in love with Izdubar. his authority from the Persian Gulf to the Armenian mountains. having heard the fame of Izdubar. now comes much trouble a hermit forwarxl .CONCLUSION. Izdubar and Heabani it. Heabani. and ruler. a hunter. who tyrannized over Babylonia.

310 created collected Izdubar. Izdubar then met two females.CONCLUSION. and abandons his into the desert to seek the who had been transand now dwelt with the gods. and. and which Izdubar and Heabani a band of warriors and went a against Heabani took hold of the animal by while Izdubar slew its head and it. lated for his piety Izdubar now had to the region a dream. mourning his double kingdom and wanders is now affliction. against v^engeance {he bull. satisfying her vengeance by striking Izdubar with a loathsome disease. it. he arrived at a region where splendid trees were laden with jewels instead of fruit. and. the friend of Izdubar. earth. its seven gates. and descended to Hell or Hades to attempt once more to unearthly powers against Izdubar. ushered into is The world of love goes wrong in the absence of Ishtar. after an adventure with whom he found a . on Anu complied. named Siduri and Sabitu. killed. her miother. and after this wandered where gigantic composite monsters held and controlled the rising and setting sun. passing across a great waste of sand. tail. advice of Ilasisadra his ancestor. and on the petition of the gods she is once more brought to the the presence of the queen of the dead. Ishtar on this cursed Izdubar. Izdubar. ultimately Anatu. Heabani. to the infernal regions. from these learned the road to the region of the blessed. passing through summon She descends which are vividly described.

an . The details of this and especially the story. as I have already Nimrod. described to him the Dehige. fell The empire to pieces at his but the Assyrian colonies grew into a power- ful state. and on his intercession with the gods the ghost of Heabani arises from the ground where the body had lain. Here the legendary and Babylonia revived whom commenced the traditional age ends. he found it surroimded by the waters of death. founded by Nimrod probably death . king of Ur. He then extended his empire into Assyria. Coming near the dweUing of the blessed. and that he commenced afterwards hunter. in a the riligious views of the people. and then Hasisadra. Izdubar was met by one Ragmu. under Urukh. which he had to cross in order to reach the region. and founded Nineveh. are very striking. and after a brief period. and wonderful manner. where he mourned anew for friend Heabani. boatman named Ur-liamsl.CONCLUSION. probable that Izdubar was. illustrate. and slaying the usurper. Avho engaged him in conversation about Heabani. which he colonized. accounts of the regions inhabited by the dead. m^Iio Sll undertook to navigate him to the region of Hasisadra. delivering his life as a country his from foreign dominion. taking up the conversation. On arriving at the other side. It is stated. with monumental era. Izdu1)ar was afterwards cured of his illness and returned with Urhamsi to Erech.

C. cuneiform legend of the it it engraved on a hard is jasper cylinder in bold style. 95. 257. 91.C. have collected from these early Babylonian seals. a change the on in the illustrations to the present work. will were is becomes general. fact that the legends known. seals. 158. 89. 1600 or 1700. others B. 99 are from Assyrian One very seals. The character and which accompanies style shows this most ancient specimens. 239.C. down at to B. and example of early Babylonian similar cylinders of the on them relief is which from about inscriptions I art. The specimens engraved in pp. The numerous which to be one of the serve to show the at that time well ture of the country.C. may be ranged 2000. 159. 312 about this time the stories appear to have been com- mitted to writing. 39. 188. 262. and early example fine is photographed as the frontispiece of the present work. It is worth while here to pause. 1500. and among the are many specimens carved with scenes from hundreds earliest the seals first B. 41.CONCLUSION. and part of the litera- . 283 are from Babylo- nian seals. while those in pp. 100. other . various dates some of these are probably . a remarkable Many same period are known bolder than on the later B. and consider the evidence of the existence of these legends from this time doAvn to the seventh century We have the some of these there are in Genesis legends than older : European museums.

between B. On 990. which show knowledge of them was still kept Nearly thirteen hundred years before the serve to up. Kazartu. Surippak is called the ark city. In this tablet and mention is made of the ship of Izdubar. a knowledge of the mighty hunter there.C. and we lose sight of all evidence of these legends for some centuries. thty depicted in the temples the struggle . and these continue through almost every reign down to the close of the empire. Our copy dated in the seventh century graphical notices on it bc. we come again to numerous references to the Genesis legends.C0NGLU8I0N. we have in Egypt many persons named after Nimrod. ii. a great hunter. showing a knowledge of the story of his voyage to find Hasisadra.C. There 313 another curious illustration of the legends is of Izclubar in the tablet printed. After B. 46 of "Cunei- form Inscriptions. that Christian era one of the Egyptian poems likens a hero to the Assyrian chief. '^ strong/' " powerful. In the meantime Egypt supplies a few notices bearing on the subject. in the period B.C. show that the of this tablet but the geooriginal must have been written during the supremacy of the city of Ur. A little 1100 to 800.C. the revival of the Assyrian empire. showing later. p." is vol. The Assyrians carved the sacred tree and cherubims on their walls." has already been suggested that the it reference here is to the fame of Nimrod. 2000 and 1850. Kazartu probably means a and one. the literature of Babylonia is unknown. 1500. about B.

. no doubt. yield much . Search in Babylonia would.C. but that search has not yet been instituted. Heabani with the lion Nimrod strus-ales strangling a Nimrod of and and the bull even on their stone vases. and that all I have here written will one day be superseded by newer texts and fuller these works and more perfect light. who caused the present known copies to be made for his library at Nineveh. among the ancient Babylonians and Assyrians. they decorated their portals with figures of and carved the lion. to however. Looking. myths and legends belonging gem« so the to the valley of the Euphrates furnished materials for the sculptor. the paintings on the vases and the carving on their were taken from series of their myths and legends. . there can be no doubt that the subject of further search and discovery will not slumber. 314 between Merodach and tlie dra2:on. the engraver.CONCLUSION. and the painter. B. Just as the sculptures of the Greek temples. way we have continued evidence of the existence of these legends down to the time of Assurbanipal. tlie fio-ure of Oannes and the eagle-headed man. and at the important evidence which perfect copies of would undoubtedly give. 673 to 626. and for the present we have be contented with our Assyrian copies. In this earlier copies of all these works. at the world-wide interest of the subjects.

2Gi>. 47. 46. 46. Babel. 55. 168. Babylonian cit'os. 17. Age Assurbanipal. Athenajum. Babylonia. 38. 44. Ark. legends. 20. ^BRAM. 293. Alexander Polyhistor. Anus. 45. Arnold. 6. 46. 53. seals. Assorus. 109. 49. Atarpi. 31. 50. Accad or Akkad. 49. 53. of tablets. 46. 296. Apason. 46. Ammcnon. Adrahasis. 14. 31. 154. 6. Amarda. Animals. Belus. 293. 54. Antiquity of legends. 46.. 48. 3. 8. Amempsin. 76. 293. 45. 47. 265. Arrangement E.INDEX. Apollodorus. 58. Ardates. 155. Alorus. Babil mound. 37. 21. Assyrian excavations. creation of. 45. of. Anu. Amillarus. 33. 116. INIr. Abydenus. story 1. Aus. Assur. Alaparus. . 50. 293. Anomentus. 23. of documents. 42. 46. 6. Anatu. 53. Armenia. 265. 42. 1. 23. sources of literature. 25. 22. Assur-nazir-pal. Berosus. 163. 50. 99. 50. 48. 45. Belat. Alexander the Great. Bel. 272. Babylon. 293.

of deluge. Dragon. 7. Bull. 306. made by deluge. 265. '' Chaldean account of deluge. 50. of. tablet. 24. Eagle. 257. of. 25. Copies of texts. 284-289. Conclusion. . 91. Creation of animals. 293. Eden. of deluge. Description of Hades. 88. Cronos. 5. 17. 76." 6. Dachus. 41. 16. 11. of stars. 269. creation of. Cedars. of Erech. 170. 47. Chaos. dynasties. Davce. 227.17.. 49. 10. destruction wrought b}^ 268. Contents of library.12. 227-229. 70. 208. to 38-50. Change in Assyrian language. Clay records. 167. 4. commencement Conquest of Babj'lon. of man. Daonus. 27. 40. month. 1. Deluge. 293.. Birs Nimrud. 50. 70. 1G2. 3.3. 169. 1. 816 Bil-kan. 45. 291. 23. 48. 293. 48. 106. Dache. 22.INDEX. Cory. Cure of Izdubar. Dreams of Izdubar. 24. 295. of Izdubar legends. 305. 46. Daily Telegraph. 50. Borsippa. 34. 69. Constellations. Hades. S38. 216. Eagle-headed men. 15. 303. 61. Comparison of accounts of creation. predicted. 26. 268. 267. 56. Daos. Chronology. translations Descent of. 90. Dr. Coming Davkina. 121. 16. 138. 101. 22-4. 302. 293. 199. Eagle. 186. 46. 78. destruction of. Dannat. 275. astrology. 49. of. Destruction Corey raean mountains. Damascius. fable of sun. Creation. 189-191. 47. 57. Calah. 7. of end Humbaba. 267. 103. 184. 102. 65. 194. 44. Dsesius. 77. 15. Calneh. Cutha. Delitzsch. 72. of moon. Death of Heabani. collection. 269. Composite creatures. 245. Date of Nimrod. 69. 105.

32. 231. 144. 279. Nimrod. 293. same Flood. Eridu. 194. Hasisadra. 204. 214. tablets. Esarhaddon. meets Sabitu and Siduri. 221. Fragments of struck with disease. 147-150. . 47. 24. descent to Hades. 129. 217. ox. 256. Genesis. 26. 260. Ishmael. 194. 308. Itak. Evil spirits. amours Euedoreschns. 62.. 207. 173. Generation of the gods. 174. 45. Ganganna. Ismi-dagan. 111. 5. friendship with Heabani. 170. 26. God Zu. Expedition to Assyria. 173. mourns Hea. 33. Hammurabi. hears the story of the flood. for of. Mr. meets Urhamsi. 8. Heabani. 3. 254. Filling the ark. Heabani comes Eneuboulus. 277. wanderings of. 66. Etana. 69-71. 137. 54. as exploits of. stones. fable of. 122. of. 275. legend of. 17. 203. 47. 309-311. dream 7. to Erech. 53. 167. Forest of Humbaba. 183. 129. Fifth tablet of the creation. 245. 267. Humbaba. fiible of. sees Hasisadra. i cured of his illness. Fables. Humbaba. Eneugamus. 1. 47. 1. 227. Horse and Erech. returns to Erech. 293. 50. 109. 253. 193. conquers Fox loved by Ishtar. 18. anger 27. 213. 13. of. 193.27. Harriskalama. 248. in Hades. Ishtar. 124. 47. 141. loves Izdubar. 817 Elamltcs. 293.INDEX. Talbot. Fox. 220. minus. of. 11. legends. 11. 198. Fall. 108. 185. 307. return 235. 293. 17. First tablet of the creation. Izdubar. 218. Exploits of Lubara. 140. 298. 264. 216. 264. parentage. 168. 17. 239. 19. 56. travels over desert. meets scorpion men. 187. 218. 262. 251. 113. Euedoraclius. Euedocus. 18. Heabani. 167. History of Izdubar. 247.

19. 46. Prometheus. Merodach. rebels. 53. 49. 105. 31. 312-314. 112. 293. IMummu-tiama*. Kisu. 53. 301. 251. 290.. 29. " North Briti-h Review. Nergal. Planets. Language of inscriptions. 32. 41. Library of Assurbanijial. 25. 30. Position of inscribed fragments. Koujunjik. 45. Local mythology. Karrak. 45. 4G. 19. Otiartes. 51. 293. 33. 2. 57. 207. 11. 46. creation fall of. Oppert.. 123-136. Moymis. 58. Literature. Pantibiblon. Jove. JSTabubalidina. 63-65. 46. Assy- Nusku. Literary period. Paradise. 2G. 53. 306. 295. 45. 261. 81. 300. Cannes.INDEX. 59. 59. 239. Names Kudur-mabuk. 4. 2S4. 278-280. 17. 318 Jewish traditions. 239. Larancha. . Lubara. Libraries. exploits of. 53. 70. 293. 153. 83-87. Lecture on Lenorniant. 20. Larsa. Kissare. 4. 77. 45. 46. Nimrod. 39. creation Moon. Nineveh. 118. of. 49. M. Omoroca. Lament of Izdubar. Nicolaus Daniasccnus. Mythology. 8. 293. 14. Nipur. Mamitu. 167. Minyas. Babylonian and Notices of legends. INlr. Man. Nebo. F. Pentateuch. Pine Miscellaneous texts. 52. 25. 48. Niuip. tlie Nebuchadnezzar. La^'ard. creation of. rian. in Genesis. 80. 20. 35. deluge. Patriarchs. 50. Moses." 239. 78. 79. Mythological tablets. Prof. 70. Natural history. Megalarus. 48. 50. 2.. 270. trees. 23. 174-183. 36. Odacon. 166. pure. Nizir. 48. of. 30.

Quoen, great, 209.


Stars, creation of, 69,

Story of Ishtar, 151.

Eagmu, 257.

Snmir, 25.


Rawlinson, Sir H.

2, 3, 8, 86,

88, 1G4, 165, 178, 179.
Eehobotliair, 293.

Sun, creation



Surippak, 203.
Sibyl, 49.

Kcscn, 293.
Resurrection of Heabani, 281.

Eeturn of Izdubar


Erech, 277.

Riddle of the wise man, 156, 157.

Table of gods, 60.
Tablets, mutilation

Tablets upon

of, 9.

evil spirits,


Tauth, 49.
Thalassa, 41.

Sabitu, 253.

Thalatth, 14, 41.


Tiamat, 14, 99, 107.

Sargon, 26, 32, 299."

Tiglath Pileser, 32.

saved in aik, 299.
Sarturda, 119, 194.

Tisallat, 14.

Satan, 14.

Titan, 48, 49.

Sayce, Rev. A.

IT., 8.

Scorpion men, 249.

in stages,


of Babel, 8, 9, 13, 48, 158-

164, 165.


Semitic race, 188.

Traditions collected, 28.

Senaar, 49.

Sending out


of Genesis, 29.



Tugulti-ninip, 24.

Sennacherib, 32.
Serpent, 139, 140.


evil spirits,

17, 107.

Uddusu-namlr, 240,
Ur, 25, 30.

Siduri, 253.

Urhamsi, 254, 274, 275.

Sin, 53, 59.

Urukh, 25, 30, 294,

SinofZu, 113.
Sinuri, 157, 158.

Sippara, 43, 45, 293.

Vul, 53, 55, 108, 109, 116, 717.


Sisithrus, 47.

Shahiianesor IF., 32.

in heaven,





Shamas, 53, 59, 109, 197.
Society of Biblical Archaeology, 5,

283, 304.



Xisuthrus, 42, 43, 44, 46.
Zaidu, 200.


Zirat-banit, 58.



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crown 8vo, half calf, $5.50; cloth, $3.50

From the Atlantic Monthly.
"Easily comprehensible, and yet always pointing out tlie sources of

fuller investigation, it is ample,
both to satisfy the desire of those who wish to get the latest results of philosophy, and to stimulate the curiIt is by far the best and clearest summing up of the present
osity of whoever wishes to go further and deeper.
condition of the science of language that we have ever seen, while the liveliness of style and the variety
and freshness of illustration make it exceedingly interesting."



Max Muller, M.A., Fellow of All Souls College, Oxford. Reprinted from the
Vol. I. Essays on the
Second Revised I^ondon Edition, with copious Index.
Vol. II. Essays on Mythology, Traditions, and
Science of Religion.
Customs. Vol. III. Literature, Biography, and Antiquities. IV. MisFour vols., crown Svo, clolh, per vol., $2.50; the set in half


Front the Neiv York F.vening Post.


reader will find in these volumes a body of combined entertainment and instruction such as has
hardly ever been brought together in so compact a form."


ON the




crown Svo, half


$4.50; cloth


Frotn the Chicago Fvening Journal.


thoroughness of


method, the vigor and clearness of its discussions, and the extensive learning
it the high character which commands for such a production the rank

into the text of the work, give

ind authority of a standard."




on Dec.


1873, ^y

With an Introductory Sermon by Arthur Penrhvn
M. A.
Stanley, D.D., Dean of Westminster. One vol., i2mo, cloth,

Max Muller,



or all of the whove



postpaid, on receipt of the price, by the Publishers^








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