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13. Precipitation-Hardening Stainless Steels

13. Precipitation-Hardening Stainless Steels

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CHAPTER 10

Precipitation-Hardening Stainless Steels
Summary
THE PRECIPITATION-HARDENABLE (PH) grades are a highly specialized family of stainless steels whose existence derives from the need for very high-strength materials with good corrosion resistance. The workhorse alloys are the martensitic PH grades, which are used in many forms. Primarily used as forgings, bar, and other hot-worked forms, they can also be obtained in cold-rolled sheet and strip, although not with the flatness expected from non-PH stainless. The semiaustenitic alloys are more amenable to production as sheet, strip, and wire and are designed for applications that require extensive forming before hardening. The fully austenitic PH alloys fill a small niche where high mechanical properties are required at temperatures above or below which the other PH grades are found lacking, when a nonmagnetic material is required, or when the higher thermal expansive coefficient of an austenitic material is desired. In no case is corrosion resistance better than that of normal 304 found in PH stainless steels. If enhanced strength and very high corrosion resistance are required, then the designer should look to duplex stainless steels for the optimal material. If cost is a greater concern than corrosion resistance or toughness, then martensitic stainless steels should be considered for applications where strength and hardness over that of annealed ferritic and austenitic stainless is required. The increased use of titanium alloys and advanced composite materials may occur at the expense of the stainless PH alloys and at the same time may create some new niche applications for them.

Introduction
The PH stainless steels exploit the low austenite stability possible in the chromium/nickel stainless steels by making the alloys so lean in composition that they can be made to transform nearly entirely to martensite by thermal or mechanical treatment. This martensite can then be further hardened by the coherent precipitation of intermetallic compounds, elemental copper, nitrides, or even phosphides. This precipitation hardening can also be made to occur in a fully austenitic matrix, and this also provides a commercial PH alloy. But, the martensitic PH grades are by far the more common. The border between the more highly alloyed martensitic stainless steels, which undergo secondary hardening during tempering, and the PH alloys is indeed vague. Some authors have astutely treated them as a single group. Here, we treat them separately because they are traditionally considered as separate alloys. The advantage of the PH alloys over the strictly martensitic stainless steels is that they attain great strength with higher toughness and corrosion resistance than can be obtained through the hardening of martensite through carbon. In addition, they can be fabricated in a relatively soft state and then hardened with very little dimensional change. The PH grades were developed at the beginning of World War II, with Stainless W (UNS S17600) by U.S. Steel generally acknowledged as the first. The later-developed grades are distinguished from the first by their more uniform, and therefore tougher, microstructure through the elimination of residual δ-ferrite and retained

These enriched zones are called Guinier-Preston (GP) zones. the zones can grow to sizes that cannot accommodate the small size differential. wt% 3 γ + Ni2AlTi 2 γ + Ni2(AlTi) + Ni3AlTi γ + Ni3(AlTi) 1 γ γ + Ni3Ti 0 1 2 3 Titanium. coherency is lost.138 / Stainless Steels for Design Engineers austenite and by more astute alloy design and chemistry control. but both also have benefits. AM350. wt% 4 γ + Ni3Ti + Ni3(AlTi) Cellular precipitation Fig. The aging temperatures can also be high enough that reversion of martensite to austenite occurs. and the coherency of the precipitate. Overaging causes the precipitates to lose coherency. This allows not only coherency but also strain. The coherent precipitate strains the lattice and impedes the motion of dislocations. and with it the hardening effect diminishes. are compromised. To the extent there is δ-ferrite or retained austenite. Close dimensional matchup between the precipitating species and the parent matrix is required. The differential should be on the order of a percent. Figure 1 shows the compounds that can form from the precipitation of supersaturated aluminum and titanium in an iron alloy matrix. and softening follows. The ideal microstructure for the initial matrix is 100% martensite. As time and temperature of precipitation increase. large bands of either δ-ferrite or γ-austenite is undesirable. The presence of some fine bands of δ-ferrite promotes easier and more reproducible precipitation of chrome carbides at the δ/γ interface during the “austenite conditioning” or “trigger anneal” heat treatment step for semiaustenitic alloys (17-7. the amount of precipitate. The mechanical properties of the final microstructure depend on the initial strength of the matrix before aging. The mechanism of precipitation hardening is parallel to that used to strengthen aluminum alloys in which the precipitation of a coherent second phase from a supersaturated solid solution is produced by an aging heat treatment. which also lowers subsequent tensile properties. The coherent precipitate is a effective barrier to dislocation movement. The precipitate that causes the hardening is normally nickel (aluminum/titanium) (Ref 1). 1 Possible aluminum/titanium precipitates . etc. especially yield strength and toughness in the transverse direction. The precipitation begins with the diffusion of the precipitating species to sites on the existing matrix. properties. Although bands of stable austenite are undesirable. a hardening may be produced by the precipitation of Cr2N (Ref 3).). producing strengthening. The precipitation has the dual function of stress relieving the martensite while further hardening the matrix through the precipitation of the coherent precipitate. In nitrogen-bearing alloys. While the presence of persistent. It is also possible to produce a hardening reaction by the precipitation of elemental copper (Ref 2). it is the presence of residual interlath γ + Ni(AlTi) + Ni3AlTi 4 Ni(AlTi) Ni(AlTi) + Ni2AlTi Ni2AlTi Ni2(AlTi) + Ni3AlTi Ni2AlTi Ni3Ti σ Limit of austenite ferrite region in solution treated conditions γ + Ni(AlTi) Aluminum.

This is confusingly called the annealed condition. and alloys were designed that had minimal δ-ferrite and still transformed entirely to martensite. molybdenum. H-950 ( 510) H-925 (495) H-925 (495) H1100 (595) H-950 (510) H1050 (565) H-900 (480) H1100 (595) H-950 (510) H1050 (565) H-950 (510) H1000 (535) H-975 (525) H 1100 (595) . The most advanced PH alloys are martensitic PH grades by Cartech. contained up to 10% δ-ferrite stringers. to predict equilibrium phase composition. This is accomplished by adding elements that lower the martensite start temperature. 48 40 49 48 54 48 54 . which was developed for welds. ... 40 20 70 25 70 60 180 8 25 13 28 .05%) martensite as opposed to the higher carbon found in the martensitic stainless steels. The early alloys of this type. but this is asking too much of the Schaeffler-Delong diagram. This was done first by trial and error and more recently by using thermodynamic computer models. Their martensite is a relatively soft. cryogenic treatment. The most straightforward alloys are the martensitic.. which caused poor through-thickness toughness. After the material is fabricated..50 12 14 23 10 14 11 13 5 13 14–16 42 41 41 34 47 42 .g. and it has the possibility of superior corrosion resistance because of higher chromium content.. This development was very significant for making the alloy family useful as a high-strength/hightoughness material for demanding applications requiring high mechanical properties and corrosion resistance. their unusual combination of high strength plus ductility and toughness in the fully hardened state.. 1240 1210 1210 930 1450 1270 460 1515 1205 1650 1500 1855 1315 1565 1340 1310 1300 1025 1550 1350 970 1585 1310 1765 1600 2005 1572 1985 14 14 15 17. as stated. Table 2 shows Mechanical properties of martensitic precipitation-hardenable alloys UNS Condition Yield. Martensitic Precipitation-Hardenable Stainless Steels The martensitic PH alloys are.. to predict the phase composition of alloys that have been homogenized by hot working. also called the martensitic PH alloys.. low-carbon (less than 0. if the austenite is made very stable by further alloying additions. or a destabilizing anneal to cause the matrix to become martensitic before its precipitation aging treatment... even though the matrix is untempered martensite. if not at room temperature. Last. a precipitation reaction can still be made to occur by the same type of aging treatment without martensite ever forming. % HRC Toughness. it is subjected to an aging treatment designated by the aging temperature in Fahrenheit (e.. It is this work hardening that gives the PH alloys. The complexity of PH steels comes from the processing involved in producing the martensitic structure in which the precipitation will occur. Custom 465 and 475. such as more chromium. MPa Elongation. MPa Tensile. The inaccuracy of the diagram for more complex systems was overcome. at least at a reasonably attainable subzero temperature. especially the semiaustenitic ones. A second major group of PH grades is the semiaustenitic. The precipitation takes place in austenite and therefore results in lower room temperature Table 1 Alloy strength than that of which the martensitic or semiaustenitic alloys are capable. The austenite is more formable than martensite. fully martensitic at room temperature. 18 . 17–7 PH and 17-4 PH. These aging temperatures range from 950 °F (510 °C) to 1150 °F (620 °C). These steels are supplied in the fully martensitic condition with hardness in the low Rc 30s.Chapter 10: Precipitation-Hardening Stainless Steels / 139 austenite that provides the work-hardening ability in many of these PH alloys. and nickel. or condition A.. The austenitic PH strength is better above 750 °F. such as ThermoCalc. CVN ft-lb Stainless W 17-4 PH 15-5 PH 13-8 PH Custom 450 Custom 455 Custom 465 Custom 475 Ferrium S53 S17600 S17400 S15500 S13800 S45000 S45500 S46500 .. This would be expected from the Schaeffler-Delong diagram. Table 1 shows the more significant of these alloys compared on a strength basis. H-950). This is balanced by the need to use either cold work. These grades in the normally furnished condition A are fully austenitic.

5 2. (d) 17-7 PH showing residual ferrite stringers and inclusions Fig.6 0. 1.5 11 11 8 5........6 0. . .3 4.2 0. ..... Alloy designers found that to .. ..1 0..1 17 16 15 13 15 12 12 12 11 10 6. (b) 13-8 PH solution treated and aged displaying fine martensite....6 0. P 0.1 0..2 . 0... ..2 0.4 0......2 0..3 0.. ... 0.1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.2 Nb 8.5 6 8.3 V 14 Co Typical microstructures of precipitation-hardenable (PH) stainless steels: (a) 15-5PH as-quenched martensite.. .8 .2 .4 0. Figure 2 shows a series of photomicrographs of PH alloys. . .. 3..2 0 .3 0...3 0.3 Nb 0.....2 3..3 0....5 .. The main advancement metallurgically in these alloys from the top.. 0..3 ...140 / Stainless Steels for Design Engineers Table 2 Alloy Composition of martensitic precipitation-hardenable alloys Designation C Mn Si Cr Ni Mo Al Cu Ti Other Stainless W 17-4 PH 15-5 PH 13-8 PH Custom 450 Custom 455 Custom 465 Custom 465 (275) Custom 475 Ferrium S53 S17600 S17400 S15500 S13800 S45000 S45500 S46500 .2 0. .1 ...5 . 2 0.5 0. .3 4.. .. ..0 Co 1W 0.1 0.. 1. in Stain- less W to the latest in Custom 475 besides the elimination of δ-ferrite is in the volume fraction of the precipitating phase and the elimination of retained austenite. .. and earliest..3 8. 2 their nominal compositions.. . (c) 17-7 PH displaying ferrite stringers in a martensite matrix...2 0. 1 2 2 .. . 1 ..5 0. 1 1 5 2 0.6 0. .. . 1. .3 Nb .

Thus. MS. This is summarized in Table 3 in terms of the influence of the element on different factors measured in degrees Centigrade for a 12% chromium alloy. The martensitic PH stainless steels obey the same rules as other stainless steels with regard to corrosion resistance. The martensite carries no nitrogen in solution. and manganese because these elements lower MS without contributing to age hardening • Low chromium to suppress δ-ferrite • Sufficient nickel to suppress δ-ferrite and provide for precipitates without excessively depressing MS • Molybdenum to offset loss of corrosion resistance by minimization of chromium. which also reduces corrosion resistance. It has been established that this hardening mechanism optimizes resistance to stress corrosion cracking (SCC) for a given strength level. the cooling of these alloys must be completed expeditiously through the final stages of martensite formation with minimal delay. But. these alloys are designed to have maximum mechanical properties with adequate corrosion resistance. As a result. The precipitation hardening mechanism is the precipitation of Mo2C. Rapid quenching of these alloys is not required. the higher levels of molybdenum reduce the tendency to form secondary austenite during aging. but air melting and argon oxygen decarburization (AOD) refining are quite adequate. as alloy strength increases. and AerMet 100 on an equal mechanical properties basis but also provide the corrosion resistance necessary to be used in aircraft components without cadmium plating. When this happens. nitrogen. As with any alloy used at such high strength levels. To minimize δ-ferrite requires reducing chromium or molybdenum. and full transformation to martensite does not occur. 4340. to increase the temperature at which austenite forms. from a utility point of view. barely qualify as stainless with around 11% chromium. Corrosion Resistance. which also happens to reduce the temperature at which martensite forms. Last. They are air hardenable. so this is viewed as an acceptable compromise. the corrosion Table 3 Element Influence of alloying elements on key transformations N C Ni Co Cu Mn Si Mo Cr V Al Lowering of % ferrite per % element –220 –210 –20 –7 –7 –6 6 5 14 18 54 Lowering of MS –475 per % element Change of AC 0 to 280 per % element –475 –17 0 to 10 0 –17 0 –30 –11 –21 25 to 60 –17 0 to 35 –46 50 to 290 30 to 750 0 to 250 –30 to –115 –25 to –66 25 to 73 .Chapter 10: Precipitation-Hardening Stainless Steels / 141 reduce δ-ferrite they also tend to stabilize austenite. one of the recent alloys designed by computer-assisted thermodynamic calculations.3%Mo (Eq 1) In the martensitic PH alloys. It was designed to replace 300M. Its composition superficially seems deficient in chromium to provide “stainlessness. The alloying characteristics of these grades are: • Low carbon. During delays after the start of martensite transformation has occurred. Custom 465 and 475.” but the cobalt level raises the thermodynamic activity of chromium sufficiently that the equivalent of 12% chromium in a non-cobalt-containing alloy is achieved. microstructural cleanliness is essential. and to form another hardening precipitate in the presence of cobalt • Cobalt to stabilize austenite while raising MS • Aluminum or titanium to form intermetallic precipitates with nickel or copper to precipitate as elemental copper It is possible to quantify these various influences on phases. The alloys with the greatest strength potential. But. corrosion resistance is compromised. so the resistance to pitting is given by: PREN = %Cr + 3. the higher levels of austenite reduce subsequent mechanical properties after aging. The newest alloy is Ferrium S53. silicon. the remaining austenite tends to stabilize. no chromium is rendered ineffective by the formation of Cr23C6 since carbon is either held low or stabilized by titanium or niobium.

The material susceptibility is largely a function of resistance to crack propagation in any given alloy that is measured by fracture toughness. The existence of pitting is a sufficient. permit them to be manufactured as coldrolled sheet and strip. This has been accomplished for a group of alloys called the semiaustenitic PH grades. 3 reflect the lower carbon content of the martensite. 22 HRC. condition for SCC to occur if the temperature is within the range of susceptibility and the material is inherently susceptible. the austenite could be made stable at room temperature. while the last two have no apparent precipitating components. giving the austenite the stability of a normal 301-type alloy. The martensitic PH grades have excellent toughness and low rates of crack propagation. which reflects the fact that the martensitic matrix has the toughness of a lower-hardness martensite. for martensitic alloys. These permissible hardness levels are significantly higher than allowed in non-PH martensitic alloys. and chromium. Figure 3 shows a chart of these heat treatment options. Examination of the chemistries in this table shows that the first two alloys rely on the precipitation of Ni3Al for the hardening. In marine environments. Their hardening is a more subtle . it has long been clear that. while S45000 can be used if it has been aged at 620 °C for 4 h and its hardness is 31 HRC or less. most importantly. Semiaustenitic PrecipitationHardenable Stainless Steels If a martensitic stainless steel were alloyed more strongly with austenite-stabilizing ele- ments. The amount of carbon that can be held in solution is a function of annealing temperature. a powerful austenite stabilizer. in solution in the austenite. The threshold strength for ordinary martensitic stainless steels would be 1030 MPa (Ref 4). Some of it will thus form M23C6. but none should be considered immune to SCC since their hardness is never below the Rc 22 level. This causes a higher Ms temperature because of the lower amount of carbon. This permits extensive forming. the use of S17400 is permitted if it is double tempered at 620 °C and its hardness is 33 HRC or less. S17400 aged at 480 °C with a yield strength of 1240 MPa is susceptible to SCC. The main alloys of this group are listed in Table 4. while higher aging temperatures (above 540 °C) producing lower strengths renders the materials immune at stresses near the yield strength. in solution. While the mechanism of SCC in austenitic alloys is still debatable. then it could be age hardened just like the martensitic PH grades. This is in a sense deliberately sensitizing the alloy. if not necessary. The austenite is rendered stable by fairly high levels of carbon. cold work. SCC is simply a manifestation of hydrogen embrittlement in which the hydrogen is provided by local corrosion. The suitability of high-strength alloys for use in potential SCC-provoking environments containing H2S is regulated in many locales by National Association of Corrosion Engineers (NACE) International Standard MR01-75. If the austenite could then be transformed to martensite by cryogenic treatment. approximately 1170 MPa. which is considered to be the threshold hardness for susceptibility to SCC in body-centered cubic (bcc) ferrous alloys. The “semi” signifies that the austenite in these alloys is metastable rather than stable at ambient temperatures. These alloys are complex metallurgically because of the technique used to make the austenite stable at room temperature after a full solution anneal.142 / Stainless Steels for Design Engineers resistance will equal that of stabilized ferritic alloys of the same pitting resistance equivalent number (PREN) for which voluminous data are available. The key is to apply a subsequent lower-temperature anneal so that less carbon goes into solution. the Ms temperature can be controlled so that a transformation to martensite can be raised to either room temperature or some attainable cryogenic temperature. The lower strength levels achieved by the condition T route in Fig. This would make the alloy softer and more fabricable and. it should be noted that these semiaustenitic alloys usually contain some δ-ferrite in their predominantly austenitic microstructure after annealing. In it. but the sensitization takes place at such a high temperature that chromium deficits around precipitated carbides are minimized by diffusion. Depending on the temperature at which the anneal is done. A greater concern is the risk of SCC in these alloys. or special heat treatment. while the highest strength of the condition C route reflects the compound influence of cold work and martensite hardness with similar subsequent contribution from age hardening. The 1050 °C anneal of the condition A mill anneal puts all the carbon in solution. the PH alloys are susceptible to SCC if used at a high strength level. Also.

4 0.1 0.8 0.3 . 3 Processing routes for S15700 Source: Ref 5 Table 4 Alloy Compositions of semiaustenitic precipitation-hardenable alloys Designation C Mn Si Cr Ni Mo Al N 17-7 PH 15-7 PH AM-350 AM-355 S17700 S15700 S35000 S35500 0.1 0... aluminum rather than titanium is the precipitating agent because titanium would preferentially deplete the alloy of carbon and nitrogen.3 0.5 0. 0 0 0. In AM350 and AM355.Chapter 10: Precipitation-Hardening Stainless Steels / 143 Fig.1 0.. .3 0.1 7.1 0..5 0.8 1 1 ..9 0.1 0.4 17 15 17 16 7. 2.3 4. it is the precipitation of . precluding the action of the conditioning heat treatment.8 2.2 2. which relies on manipulating the amount of carbon in solution..1 4. In 17-7 and 15-7.1 secondary hardening from the tempering of martensite rather than the classic precipitation hardening via precipitation of intermetallic compounds.

MPa Tensile. the order of ascending solution annealing temperature and ascending Ms.. The semiaustenitic PH alloys tend to higher values of PREN than the martensitic alloys inherently since they are alloyed to have lower Ms temperatures. Their separate existence is due to the need for alloys that are more fabricable at room temperature than are the alloys that are martensitic at room temperature. The effective corrosion resistance of these alloys thus is similar to ferritic 430. This lowers the corrosion resistance from what would be expected based on the bulk composition. they have very good resistance to SCC compared to ordinary martensitic stainless steels. These two early alloys did not possess the hardening potential that alloys employing copper-.. lower-carbon martensite. Austenitic Precipitation-Hardenable Stainless Steels The austinitic PH class consists of just one important commercial alloy. From an engineering point of view. TH 1050 (565) RH 950 (510) CH 900 (480) TH 1050 (565) RH 950 (510) CH 900 (510) SCT 850 (450) SCT1000 (540) SCT 850 (450) SCT 1000(540) 1100 1380 1585 1380 1550 1720 1210 1020 1250 1035 1310 1520 1655 1450 1650 1790 1420 1165 1510 1124 10 9 2 7 6 2 12 15 13 22 42 46 49 45 48 50 46 40 48 38 (Cr. which is better than TH.. it is best to assume that all carbon is present as chromium carbide.144 / Stainless Steels for Design Engineers Table 5 Alloy Mechanical properties of semiaustenitic precipitation-hardenable alloys UNS Condition Yield. The δ-ferrite and the generally well-tempered martensitic matrix provide a crack-arresting feature and good inherent toughness that resist SCC at higher strength levels than in straight martensitic stainless steels. . In addition.. This means it is very formable and nonmagnetic. And. the precipitation takes place at a higher temperature. which can cause some degree of chromium depletion at grain boundaries. Thus condition CH is better than RH. titanium-. AM-355 in the SCC (850 °F) condition can withstand stresses of 75% of 0. because the precipitation takes place in an austenite matrix. then the alloy and heat treatment that yields the greatest amount of chromium in solution should be chosen. Corrosion Resistance. The importance of the alloy is that it is entirely stable austenite in both the solution-annealed and the age-hardened condition. The mechanical properties of these alloys are not greatly different from the martensitic alloys. This benefit is offset by the necessity to condition anneal before age hardening. around 700 °C. and they employ a tougher. % HRC 17–7 PH 15–7 PH AM-350 AM-355 . . especially if double aging is performed. or aluminum-based precipitates enjoy. The fact that the semiaustenitic alloys are typically sheet products generally makes their service toughness requirements less onerous... If corrosion resistance is a high concern. and nitrogen can remove chromium as a nitride. carbon can remove some molybdenum in the form of carbides. While the general and pitting corrosion resistance of the semiaustenitic PH alloys are never quite as good as most austenitic stainless.. In addition. The designer is thus advised to consult with producers about corrosion resistance depending on the thermal processing that will be used.2% offset yield strength in salt spray without SCC failure. so that their retained δ-ferrite is not a crippling drawback because of its detrimental effect on through thickness toughness. molybdenum produces a secondary hardening in carbon-bearing martensite. and that the chromium content is diminished by that amount before applying Eq 1. MPa Elongation.. as can be seen in Table 5. This gives the alloy the . The martensitic PH grades have somewhat better strength because they have a more uniformly martensitic structure. A-286. The thermal processing of these alloys causes a significant portion of the chromium to be removed from solution as chromium carbide. .Fe)2N within the martensite phase that is responsible for age hardening.

. austenitic PH stainless represents a way to strengthen the austenite matrix. 0. Table 6 gives the typical composition of A-286. the nickel. so aging treatments are typically 16 h. titanium).3 3 0. These last alloys can attain greater strength and creep resistance than A-286. effectively ending further development of austenitic PH alloys. 4 A-286 properties as a function of test temperature. 5.Chapter 10: Precipitation-Hardening Stainless Steels / 145 Table 6 Alloy Austenitic precipitation-hardenable composition UNS C Mn Si Cr Ni Mo Al V Ti A-286 Discalloy S66286 S66220 0. The mechanical properties can be greatly enhanced by cold working prior to aging. which has the following advantages: • High ductility and therefore high formability in the soft. The toughness of the austenitic matrix is abundant and quite temperature insensitive. It has slightly .and cobalt-based superalloys. Source: Ref 5 potential to be used to near 700 °C without fear of overaging. Thus. The corrosion resistance of A-286 is comparable to that of 304 and 316.. The hardening mechanism of A-286 is the precipitation of Ni3 (aluminum. and SCC resistance This alloy is rightly considered an ironbased superalloy and is the root of the group that succeeds it in properties..5 0.5 26 1.04 1. unaged condition • High toughness at all temperatures and strength levels • Excellent creep and stress rupture properties • Excellent oxidation.5 15 14 25.7 Fig.3 . and Fig. corrosion. Charpy V-notch values of over 60 J are typical from –200 to 800 °C. even at the higher temperatures. is slower in austenite.15 1. 2.15 . The lower cost of the A-286 alloy..5 1. 4 shows some typical properties as a function of temperature for a standard 980 °C solution treatment followed by a 720 °C.05 0. compared to nickel-base PH alloys. Diffusion. 16 h aging.6 0. as is shown in Fig. makes it attractive for a variety of aerospace and nonaerospace uses.

Aggen. 5. Physical Metallurgical Developments of Stainless Steel. Hono.146 / Stainless Steels for Design Engineers Fig. Carnegie Mellon University 4. April 17–20. Denhard.B. Sept 3–4. Italy). 1984.E. Vol 30A. 5 The influence of cold work on aging response in A-286. M. thesis. Microstructural Evolution in a 17-4 PH Stainless Steel After Aging at 400 °C. Ph. Source: Ref 5 better resistance to SCC despite its higher strength level. p 2–28. Murayama. Met- allurgical and Materials Transactions A. diamond pyramid hardness. Feb 1999. 3. Allegheny Technology Blue Sheets . paper presented at the Twenty-fourth Meeting of the AGARD Structures and Materials Panel (Turin. Katayama. 2. Pickering. F. REFERENCES 1. and K. Y. Stainless ’84. G.D. 1967. E. DPH. “Stress Corrosion Cracking of High Strength Stainless Steels in Atmospheric Environments”. Goteborg.

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