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THE VARIANT READINGS OF THE QUR'ÄN: A CRITICAL STUDY OF THEIR

HISTORICAL AND LINGUISTIC

ORIGINS

CAbd CAll Allah Ahmad Muhammad

Submitted for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy
University of Edinburgh July 1984

ý,t. Uýýj

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11

Dedication

To the soul of my beloved father, filled

the man who and

me with his devotion to the Qur'an,

enlightened

me with his wisdom and wide knowmessage of the Qur'an,

ledge in spreading the

the ever preserved word of God:
"We have, without doubt, Sent down the Message, And We will assuredly

Guard it

(from corruption). " (S. XV, 9) was a great loss to me, company I

The death of my father

as in his precious and spiritual lived the most beautiful

days of my life. a shaykh, an a friend

Indeed to me he was a father, excellent and

example for me to follow,

a9

iii

DECLARATION

I hereby declare that this

thesis

is entirely

my own composition.

tAbd A. A. M. A11äh

iv

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Dedication Declaration Acknowledgement
System of Transliteration

ii iii vii xvii

ix

Abbreviations Abstract
Introduction

x
xix

Chapter
REVELATIONOF THE QUR'AN IN SEVEN AHRUF The meaning of seven ahruf Meaning of ahruf The interpretation Chapter 2 32 during the reigns of Abi in the ahädith Language 1 7 10 12

in the Arabic of

'Seven ahruf'

COMPILATIONOF THE QUR'ÄN Compilation of the Qur'an

Bakr and

CUthmän
in this compilation of the Qur'an to the provinces of the Qur'an in the

35
39 43 45

Methods adopted The materials The sending The dating reign of

of inscriptions of the masähif of the compilation cUthmän of Abi Bakr's urrä' slain

49 compilation 54 58 of verses in their s6ras 66 69 73

The validity The number of The compilation

and arrangement verses

The problem of missing

The meaning of the term jamC al-Qur'an

V

Theory of naskh The Shiite opinions on the alteration of the Qur'an

78 90

Chapter 3
cUTHMÄNIC OF MASÄHIF THE DEVELOPMENT The masähif Orthography and their relation to the ahruf 103 103 106

of the masähif

Chapter 4 THE cUTHMÄNIC CODICES MASAHIFANDTHE PERSONAL OF THE
COMPANIONS AND SUCCESSORS Differences between the masähif Chapter 5 122 of the amsär 134

THE LANGUAGE OF THE QUR'AN

140

Chapter 6
THE ORIGIN OF THE QIRA'AT The development The kinds of the conditions for accepted readings 179 186 196 readings 201 207 of shädhdh and the Qur'an compilers 210 212 213

of readings end anomalous

The successive Definition

of shädhdh

Development of the concept The relationship The compilation

between the Qirä'ät of Qirä'ät

and the earliest

vi

Chapter 7
IKHTIYAR IN THE QIRÄ'AH AND ITS BASES 220

Refutation

of free exercise

of choice in selection 223

of readings CUthmänic The masähif and the problem of grammatical or orthograp iical errors

249

CONCLUSION

267

BIBLIOGRAPHY

274

support throughout I would like Secretary library My thanks Finally Departmental and the inter services. respect and kind encouragement." Hence I wish to express my sincere gratitude V. to thank Miss I. at all to Dr. . does not thank God.Vii / ACKNOWLEDGEMENT Thanks are indeed to God Almighty worthy of all praise. Crawford the of both the Departmental for their kind Library and the staff loan of the main library are also due to Mrs Grace Young who has typed this thesis with great care and accuracy. The one who does not thank people. extending my My acknowledgement would be incomplete without thanks to innumerable colleagues and friends who have helped me in one way or another and who need not be mentioned by name here. I am truly indebted to my family both direct and extended who have always been an inethaustible my absence from home. Michael study with constant care and this research He has indeed spared no time in supporting stages with his guidance. McDonald who has supervised this patience. I have greatly benefited from diverse sources to In particular which he has directed me especially the European sources. I should also like Islamic University financial source of hope throughout to express my sincere gratitude to the of Omdurman which has provided me with the period.

.viii Last and certainly not least my indebtedness is due to the Ibrahim al-Tayyib soul of my deceased honourable shaykh Muhammad under whose supervision and guidance I committed to memory at the earliest stage of life the holy Qur'an.

e. In passages from the Qur'än where the precise of the text idghäm. g. Makkah not Mecca. with the exception of the bibliography. . is relevant to the discussion such features have also been indicated. pronunciation as icräb. 2. modifications: 1. forms of Arabic geographical to Anglicised terms have in Transliterated general been preferred forms. Tä' marbütah is rendered "-ah" The alif of the definite article is always retained. etc.ix SYSTEMOF TRANSLITERATION The system of transliteration the Department following slight of Islamic adopted and Middle here is Eastern that recommended by with the Studies.

Dhawq al-Haläwah bi-Bayän Imtinäc Naskh al-Tiläwah Diräsat fi Tärikh al-Khatt al-CArabi a1-Munajjid. al-Budür al-Zähirah al-Shätibiyyah fl al-Qirä'ät wa-al-Durri al-Mutawätirah Min Tarigay Bulügh al-Amäni ý1_Rýhýani - al-Bannä: Bulügh al-Amäni Min Asrär al-Fath Bukhäri. Abü Hayyän. 1st and 2nd edition. Diräsät fi Tärikh al-Khatt al-Umawi E. al-CAsr Dhawqal-Haläwah - al-Ghamari. al-Jämic al-Sahih. al-cAsr al-Jähili al-Jahili - Dayf. Concluding of the Text of the Dayf. Burhän - al-Bukhäri. Tafslr al-Bayän fT Tafsir Ibn Kathir. I. 2 - al-cArabi Mundh Bidäyatih I15 Nihäyat al-cAsr Encyclopaedia of Islam. al-Bidäyah fl wa-al-Nihäyah al-Tarikh al-Budür al-Zähirah al-cAshr - al-Qädi'. Fadä'i1 Abu calimuh wa-Ma CUbayd. Abü Fadä'i1 a1-Qurän wa-Adäbuh - a1-Qur'5n a1-Awä'i1 al-Bahr Bayän - - al-CAskari - : al-Awä'il al-Bahr al-Qur'an al-Bidäyah wa-al-Nihäyah al-Muhit al-Muhit al-Khü'i. or Sahih al-Bukhäri a1-Burh5n fi cU1üm a1-Qur'5n Essay on the Materials Qur'an Concluding Essay for the History Jeffery. Tärikh al-Adab al-cArabi.X ABBREVIATIONS cUbayd. al-Zarkashi. I. E. 1. .

Kitab Idah al-waqf wa-al-Ibtida' fi cAzzawa-jall Kitäb Allah Ibn Kathir. Funün a1-Afnän fi Gharä'ib a1-Qur'an wa-Raghä'ib - a1-Nisäbüri. Ibn Hajar h1ajm-uc kh al-Islam Fatäwä Shay. - a1-Igtiräh fi Usü1 al-Nahw__ bi-Sharh Sahih Irshäd al-Sari al-Qastalläni. al-cArabiyyah wa-al-Asälib Funün a1-Afnän - - Flick. al-cArabiyyah Diräsät Fl a1-Lahajät cUyün cU1üm al-Qur'an Ibn a1-Jawzi. Tabagät a1-Qurrä' DhawTa1-Diräyah Ghayth al-Nafc al-Hakim a1-Safägisi. Kitäb al-Fihrist Flick. Ghäyth al-Nafc cAla fi al-Qirä'ät al-Sabo al-Hakim. Ibräz al-cIgd Tafsir. bi-sharh Sahih a1-Bukhäri al-Fihrist al-Nadim. Irshäd al-Sari al-Bukhäri al-Istiab cC Ibn Abd al-Barr. a1-Farid al-Igtiräh - al-Suyuti.Ibn al-Jazari. Ibn Kathir. al-Furgän Tafsir Gharä'ib al-Qur'an Ghäyat a1-Nih yah Ghäyat a1-Nihäyah fi . al-Mustadrak al-Sahihayn CAn Maiani a1-Qirä'ät Ibänah. Fath a1-Bari Ibn Tayniyyah Fath al-Bari al-cAsgalani. a1-Ibänah Idah Ibn al-Anbari.xi Fatäwa - Ibn Taymiyyah. Tafsir Ibräz a1-Qur'an a1-cAzim al-Amäni a1-Maiani al-Farid Abu Shämah: a1-Maiani al-cIgd Min Hirz cAbd Ibn Rabbih. al-Istiýab fi MaCrifat al-Ashäb Ithäf " - al-Dimyäti. cAshar Ithäf fudalä' al-Bashar bi-Qirä'ät al-Arbacat . a1-Qaysi.

al-Kurdi. al-Sabcah Kitäb al-Zinah . al-cArabiyyah Kitäb al-Zinah fT al-Kalimät al-Islämiyyah Khizänat al-Adab wä-tubbLubäb'Lisän al-Khatib al-Baghdädi. Islamischen fi Tafslr al-Qur'an Koranauslegung). al-Qastalläni. wa cUyün CAn Hagä'iq Ghawamid a1-Tanzil Kitäb al-Sabcah - al-Agäwil Kitäb IItujüh al-Ta'wil fl al-Qirä'ät Ibn Mujähid. al-Qur'an Mac al-Masähif. CA1i CAbd by Hasan a1-Qädir . Tarikh al-Qur'an . (Die Richtungen der. Yusuf Ibrahim. al-Madhähib -al-Nur. fi Tafsir Mac al-flas-ahif al-Karim a1-Isl5miyya al-Qur'an Goldziher. Jeffery. al-Hisän al-Itgän - fl cUlum al-Qur'an al-Hisän fi al-Kalimät al-Mutici. al-Karim al-i'tadhähib al-Islämiyya Trans. a1-Kalimät al-Hurüf a1-Kämi1 Kanz al-Maiani al-SabCah wa-JamCal-Qur'an a1-Kämi1 fi a1-Tärikh fl Sharh Hirz Ibn a1-Athir.xii Itgan - al-Suyüti. al-Ja cburi. wa-Gharä'ib Rasmih wa Hukmih Lane..al-Räzi. Kitäb al-Mabäni fT Nazm al-Ma am cUlüm Mugaddimatän fi See Jeffery. Madd al-Qämüs. Kashf al-Zunun CAn Asämi al-Kutub al-Kashshäf - wa-al-Funün al-Kashshaf fl al-Zamakhshari. ed. Lisän a1-CArab C Mabäni Anon. Kanz al-Maiani al-Amäni wa-Wajh al-Tahäni Kashf al-Zunun Häjji - Khalifah. Tärikh al-Qur'an al-Karim Lane - Arabic-English Lexicon Latä'if. al-CArab Khizänat al-Adab al-Kurdi. - Latä'if a1-Ishärät 1i-Funun a1-Qirä'ät Lisän al-cArab Ibn Manz-Ur.

al-Muhadhdhab al-Qirä'ät al-cAshr wa-Tawjihuhä Min Lughat al-cArab al-Muharrar al-Wajiz - Abu Shämah. al-Mukhtasar fi Shawädhdhal-Qira'at wa-Murshid a1-Tälibin Ibn al-Jazari. Madhähib al-Tafsir al-Islämi Islamischen Koranauslegung). cAbd Trans. wa-al-Idäh al-Bakri. by al-Halim al-Najjar. - 'C Manähil al-Irfän al-Halabi. Munjid al-Mugri'Tn .al-Räzi. al-K-ufah wa-Manhajuhä fl Diräsat al-Lughah wa-al-Nahw Mafätih al-Ghayb . Madrasat Madrasat al-Küfah al-Makhzümi. Miftäh c Ulum fi a1-Sacadah wa-Misbäh Mawdu at al- al-Muhadhdhab. al-Murshid bi-al-Kitäb al-CAziz al-Wajiz I1ä c Ulüm Tata'allaq al-Muhkam al-Dam.Xlii (Die Richtungen der Goldziher. Mucjam Mä Istacjam Min Asmä' al-Biläd wa-al-MawädiC Mukhtasar Munjid - - Ibn Khälawayh. Kitäb Materials fl Täshkubri for Jeffery. al-Kibär al-Masähif Materials Miftäh - cAla al-Tabagät wa-al-Acsär al-Masähif the History'of the-Text Of the Qur'an Ibn Abi Däwüd. Muhaysin. Maratib al-Nahwiyyin al-Qurrä' al-Kibär al-Dhahabi. al-Muhkam fl' Nagt a1-Masähif al-Muhtasib - Ibn Jinni. Manähil Marätib MaCrifat Mafätih al-Ghayb fl Ulüm al-Qur'an al-Nahwi Macrifat in al-Qurrä' - al-Zurgäni. al-Muhtasib cAnhä fi Tabyin Wujuh Shawädhdh al-Qirä'ät Mucjam Mä IstaCjam. al-Sacadah al-Siyadah Zädah. Madhähib al-Tafsir al-Islami.

Dirasah Tashriciyyah Tärikhiyyah Nagdiyyah al-Nihäyah. al-Mashhürah al-Amsär al-Atiyah al-Tawatur al-Qur'an Qurtubi - al-Qurtubi. al-Mustasfä fi CIlm Min al-Usül al-Muzhir al-Lughah wa-Anwäciha 1i-Kitäb al-Naqd al-Tahlili . Ibn al-Athir. Nukat a1-Intisär al-Amsär al-Qämus al-Muhit Ibn Hazm. al-Jämic Al-Rawd al-Unuf - a1-Suhayli.al-Feyr al-Qirä'ät Ibn a1-Bägilläni. Mushkil al-Äthär al-SahTh - Muslim. Mashhurah fi üzäbädi. Sunan al-Nasä'i. a1-Nagd a1-Tahlili fl al-Adab a1-Jähili a1-Nasä'1 Nashr al-Nasä'i. fi Gharib al-Hadith wa-al-Athar li-Nagl Nihäyah. - Nukat al-Intisär Masähif Qamus. al-Musnad al-Mustasfä al-Muzhir - - al-Ghazzäli. Jeffery. or al-Jämic Ibn Hanbal. al-Rawd al-Unuf Hisham al-Riyäd fl Sharh al-Sirah al-Nabawiyyah li-Ibn al-Riyäd a1-Mustatäbah - al-CÄmiri': al-Mustatäbah fl Jumlat Man Rawä fi al-Sahihayn min a1-Sahäbah . Rasm Masähif al-Amsär Mushkil Athär Muslim Musnad - al-Tahäwi. al-Mugni Mugaddimatän fi fl cUlüm al-Qur'an al-Dam.a1-Ghamräwi. al-Suyüti. a1-Qirä'ät al-Naskh fi Abu Zayd: fi a1-Qur'an al-Karim al-Naskh a1-Qur'an al-Karim. al-Nashr fi a1-Mujtabä al-cAshr Ibn al-Jazari.al-Qir-'ät Majic li-Ahkäm al-.xiv Mugaddimatän al-Mugni cC - - ed. Sahih Muslim.

Ibn. Hanbal al-Shaybäni al-Tatawwur al-NahwT Bergstraesser. al-YaCqubi. Ibn Mäjah. Nabawiyyah a1-Qädi - a1-Shifä' Ibn Hishäm Ibn Ishaq Ibn Hishäm. Sunan Abi Dawu-d Sunan Ibn Mäjah Tabagät al-Huffäz Tabari. Sharh al-Sunnah bi-Tarif Huqüq a1-Mustafa al-. al-Tatawwur al-Nahwi li-al-Lughah al-CArabiyyah . Sirat Sirat - al-Baghawl. Sirat Ibn Ishäg Subh a1-Acshä al-Qalgashandi. Tafsir a1-Qüran Tafsir al-Hakim a1-Maräghi Tafsir Tafsir a1-Maräghi a1-Qummi - a1-Maräghi. al-Si'rah Ibn Ishäq. TärTkh al-Rusul Tärikh al-YaCgübi al-Fath wa-al-Mu1ük Tarikh a1-YaCqübi. bi al -Sähi al -Sähi bi Sharh al-Sunnah al-Shifä'. al-RabbanT li-Tartib Musnad Ahmad b. - Abi Däw-ud a1-Sijistani. al-Qummi. Tadhkirat Tafsir Tafslr - al-Tabari. - cAn Ta'wi1 al-Qurän Jämic al-Bayän Tadhkirat Tafsir al-Huffäz al-Dhahabi. Fi al-Amr wa-al-Nahy Tafsir al-Manär - Rids. al-Suyüti. Tartib al-Musnad a1-Bannä. c Subh al-Ashä fi Sina at al-Inshä Sunan Abi Daw-ud Sunan Ibn Mäjah Tabagät al-Huffäz. - al-Huffäz al-Khams Mi'at wa-al-Halal Ayah Mi'at al-Khams Ayah Min al-Qur'an wa-al-Haräm Mugätil.xv Ruh al-Maiani - al-Alusi. Tafsir al-Qummi Tarikh al-Tabari al-Tabari. wt-al-Sabo Ruh al-Maiani al-Mathäni fi Tafsir al-Qur'an al-cAzim Zakariyyä.. CIyäd.

fl Adäb Hamalat al-Qur'an fl Tafsir al-Qur'an al-Tibyän Maghäzi al-Tibyän Kitäb al-Maghäzi . al-Tamhid al-Radd al-MuCattilah Wa-al-Räfidah Wa-al-Khawärij Wa-alt4uctazilah. al-Nawawi. Mansüb cAlä Ibn fi al-Tamhid al-Bägilläni. al-Wägidi. al-Tibyän al-Tüsß.. al-Wägidi.Xvi . Ta'wil - Ibn Qutaybah. al-Tibyän al-Tüsi. al-Thä alibi. Ta'wil Mushkil al-Qur'an Thimär-al-Quldb fT al-Mudäf wa-al- Thimär al-Qulu-b.

several is of the Arabs is discussed in Chapter 5. are that they the orthography by among the scholars which correspond include with these masähif what is transmitted to certain chains. In the first seven ahruf recitation. personal and avoid ähäd readings which belong and are transmitted to us in unauthentic The language of the Qur'an and whether it or all the dialects includes one. the completeness missing the compilation during compilation the time of The problem of naskh is discussed and trustworthiness of the Qur'an to demonstrate there and that are no verses or which used to be read and were abrogated by Naskh al-Tiläwah either with or without hukm. compilation preservation as in written the further chapter we study the revelation that of the Qur'an in ways of the and conclude they mean seven linguistical in the following the lifetime chapter The discussion of the Qur'an of the Qur'an form. ABSTRACT The present ahruf study attempts to investigate has been revealed the nature of the seven the in which the Qur'an in readings and the reason for variations among the Qurrä' of the Qur'an.xvii . deals with during of the Prophet and the in the memories of the companions as well during the time of Abu Bakr and cUthmän. and it concluded that the language of the Qur'an represents the commonspoken . The following third and fourth chapters cUthmanic deal with the mas-ahif and their The most acceptable two opinions accommodate all of the masähif tawätur codices or certain and that ahruf relation to the seven ahruf.

each other. the selection governing the Qurrä' should of one reading who select than an other reading.xviii literary language of the Arabs which is based on all features. and the rules is shown that any reading i. ikhtiyär. the orthography may differ of the masähif These readings in meaning but do not contradict In the conclusion we review briefly thesis. e. be subject to the correspondence and the Arabic language. their dialects with a predominance of Qurashi dialect In Chapter 6 the origin conditions chapter governing studies accepted of the Qirä'ät readings is examined and The final rather a hand in are studied. this with It the Qurrä' do not have a free and that riw5yah. the issues discussed in the seven chapters of this .

when copies while the personal which dominated Qurrä'.xix INTRODUCTION From the earliest years of my life in reading of three I have been aware of among the Qurra' readings readings. of our present readings represent discuss has been concluded of the Qur'än without the received various alteration. the reasons behind I have been concerned here to investigate these variations and the origins of the Qirä'ät. time the phenomenon of variation because of the existence Sudan. disappeared masähif and it text The development is studied down to the printed that these masähif. and its the of the Arabs in ways of recitation the revelation The ahädith which substantiate Qur'an in seven ahruf are found to be sound and successive The following preservation lifetime further chapters study the status as in written of the Qur'an records in memories as well during of the Prophet compilation of and the compilation cUthmän of Abu Bakr and-the the amsär.. the mushaf for having been published of the Qur'an in the which dominate (al-Dürr one of these for the first cAn AbT CAmr) in the Sudan in 1978. Thus I have studied the nature of the seven ahruf in which the Qur'än has been revealed to conclude that they mean seven linguistical reflecting the Qur'an. were sent accompanied by distinguished codices which did not correspond and ceased to exist. We shall . various dialects variations of of the (mutawätir). with cUthmänic the masähif cUthmänic of the day.

that the and as a result which include what is transmitted accommodate either all or a certain unspecified number of the ahruf which cUthmanic correspond with the orthography of the masähif. The question of the language of the Qur'an is investigated ýin ancient sources as well as in modern linguistical result the text of the Qur'an is seen to reflect of the Arabs. the influence As a of various dialects in identifying their criteria The views of the scholars dialects In this differed of the Arabs according to connection an attempt is made sources and to distinguish modern studies. concerning to demonstrate the completeness and trustworthiness Furthermore the relation seven ahruf masähif. with a predominance of Qurashi features. which is based on all their dialects. is studied c between the Uthmänic masähif and the it is concluded by tawatur. noticed although only after of the Qirä'ät go back to the teaching of the in readings is of the the phenomenon of variations the Hijrah in Madinah due to the increase to various tribes. studies. between lughah and lahjah in ancient Indeed the language of the Qur'an represents the common spoken literary language of the Arabs. this being number of Muslims belonging to facilitate we find that the reading in order respect of the Qur'an among them. the most fluent for fluency. In this whenever the companions differed in reading among .xx issues in a critical the history way refuting of the text many episodes of the Qur'an and allegations and the masahif of the Qur'an. The origins Prophet.

some examples are studied readings they are sound and accepted fluency on the grounds with various sound transmission. their reading by referring it by the reading which to the teachings following are studied correspond This method is followed for the accepted generation.xxi themselves they used to support of the Prophet. and correspondence Arab dialects. The Ikhtiyär is governed in reading among the qualified for the accepted Qurrä' of the Qur'an readings. although they may differ the main the sound accepted never contradict each other. and authentic Certain reading but never to initiate are objected or to by to accepted readings some philologists conclude of their that and grammarians. of the Qirä'ät and the effect with the The forebears of Ibn Mujähid's together with al-Sabcah on the following generation are discussed. it errors is emphasised that there are no grammatical or cUthmänic in the masähif. conditions Thus the readings for an accepted the three reading or which lack one or more of them are studied together classification of the kinds of readings. thesis are briefly . The orthography of the masähif is intended to preserve the sound transmitted create a reading. in meaning. a survey of books composed on the subject of the Qirä'ät. readings. with with their The conditions development. In addition orthographical Moreover. Thus they by the conditions have no free hand in their selection and the theory of reading the Qur'an in accordance with the meaning is shown to be groundless. In the conclusion issues discussed in the seven chapters of this reviewed.

we have used the books of al-TabarT. grammar and studies. fi RasmMasähif al-Amsär and al-Muhkam fi Nukat al-Intisär. compilation of revelation of the Qur'an in of the Qur'an. al-Zarkashi's al-Burhän and al-Qastalläni's al-Suyuti's In fact they are most used in discussions the seven ahruf and their personal codices and their In the field al-Zamakhshari. al-Musnad and the four al-Sunan. and the sciences history. in interpretation and support concerning about the meaning of the relation cUthmänic to the masähif. Hadith. al-Ishärät. mainly from Bukhäri. verses of certain of certain certain other accepted readings arguments readings. and al-Kashf CAn Wujüh al-. . works.X ii In the present books in manuscript the Qur'an Arabic study we have relied and printed upon various standard of form on Qirä'ät Tafsir. of Qirä'ät. f1 al-Qirä'ät Ibn Mujähid's al-Sabc. In the Qirä'ät benefited and the sciences of the Qur'an we have mainly al-Qur'an. al-Muwattä'. the arrangement of suras and from the standard Muslim and verses and the problem of Naskh. Qirä'ät al-Nashr and Munjid al-Mugri'Tn. Makki Ibn Abi Tälib CAn Macäni al-Qirä'ät Ibn al-JazarT's Latä'if al-Itgan. we have benefited books on the literature other canonical of Hadith. (CUlüm al-Qur'an). As regards the substantiation seven ahruf. al-Qaysi's Ibn al-Bägilläni's al-Ibänah al-Sabc. al-Mugnic cUbaydah's Fadä'il from Abu al-Däni's al-Taysir Kitäb al-Sabcah. which are read in various and grammatical ways al-Qurtubi. end the origins of Tafsir al-Räzi. Abu Hayyän and Ibn Kathir. Nagt al-Masähif.

many primary and most fluent used such as Sibawayh's al-Khasä'is Ibn Faris' al-Sähibi. tawatur is always required. and the problem of sources are connection we have also used al-TabärT's al-Kamil and Ibn Kathir's al-Bidayah. Ibn Jinni's and al-Suyüti's al-Muzhir has also topics. sound from the point of view of their are not accepted because on the matter of the Qur'än. In the commentaries on ahädith we most benefited al-cAsgaläni's In this Ibn al-Athir's Fath al-Bari and al-Baghawi's from Ibn Hajar Sharh al-Sunnah. al-Kitäb. In fact the primary sources are mainly used in support of the to certain modern works. Tärikh. for Nöldeke's. field reference has views discussed with reference Although been made only many books have been read in this to those cited. Geschichte Materials the History of the Text of the Qur'an. al-Ibyari. study. Des Qur'än. in questions and issues relating Finally fluent to the compilation as regards the language of the Qur'an. Jeffery's al-Qur'an al-Nür's al-Zurgäni's Manähil wa-al-Lahajät and a number of works entitled al-Zinjäni. particularly of the Qur'an. of Arab dialects. been made and we have consulted Use of modern studies various books on different Tafsir. languages such as al-Alusi's Hammudah's al-Qirä'ät Tärikh Shähin.Xxiii We have only used the authentic their transmission and context. C Ma al-Masähif. al-Kurd-i. The bibliography shows the books used in the present . and and composed by Rüstüfadu-ni. and al-Igtiräh. ahadith which are sound in ahädith although Furthermore certain asänid. written in different al-CIrfän.

there is still In the present work we have attempted to study comprehensively and critically variant origins.xxiv The importance of this studies lies topic it in the ancient and modern in the fact that concerns the Qur'an which is the word of God to the main source of belief believers. Jeffery in publishing and Arthur In the writings of modern Arab scholars some like Hammüdah and al-Zurgäni with certain are very helpful. the questions relating to our limited historical will topic of the and linguistic readings of the ur'än and their thesis It is hoped that this make some contribution deserves to our knowledge of the sciences of the Qur'an which still a great deal of elucidation. though they only deal to aspects of the problem. or are devoted generally than the Qirä'ät. Bergstraesser like Gustavus Fluegel. those of wholly to the question of Qirä'at. need of critical the sciences of the Qur'an rather what has been written bibliography in the field Thus although as the studies. In particular and law and the eternal there is no work in any Western language devoted despite the great contribution Otto Pretzl. made by Western scholars G. texts on Qirä'ät. shows. . is very extensive.

1 CHAPTER REVELATION OF THE QUR'AN IN SEVEN AHRUF .

pp. and disagreements amongst the Companions on this reciting the Qur'an whenever one of them found another way from that in a different took place in which he had been taught. 29.. "l till recited Variousahäditharguments offer some indication of the existence of subject. of_. and al-Baghawi. p. One such event cUmar between b. 561. following hadith: and Hishäm b. Hakim as illustrated 1.. Tafsir. vol. is a good indication of the existence of these various of recitation: it is narrated CAbd by Allah CAbbas b. 501. I. 1 . BukhärT. vol. p. p. Then I requested him (to read it in another in other harf ahruf)and continued asking him to recite he ultimately it in seven ahruf. Muslim added "Ibn It has been narrated to me that these seven harfs are in one meaning and do not differ concerning Halal or Haräm". this view to finding understanding hadith out how and why variant some of the implications existed and also The following ways of the texts.CHAPTER 1 REVELATIONOF THE QUR'AN IN SEVEN ANRUF The text equally of the Qur'an valid has allowed from the earliest Several ahädith. will be discussed readings time several which are often here with a ways of recitation. Shihäb al-Zuhri said: Muslim. vol. that the prophet the Qur'an to me peace be upon him said 'Gabriel recited in one harf. quoted in support. practice.. TabarT. I. VI. IV. Sharh al-Sunnah. vol. al-Khattäb the. 481-482.

ways which Allah's I was about to jump over him during his prayer but I controlled my temper and when he had completed his prayer I put his upper garment around his neck and seized him by it and said: "Who taught heard you reciting? " it to me. Tafsir. Tabari. the argument between Ubayy b. IX. the same way as Apostle said "It was CUmar'" I revealed in this way" and added "Recite 0 Allah's Apostle then said: it as he had taught me. 1. p. Bukhäri. vol. Kacb and cAmr b. and between Fäth al-Bari.It is narrated "I cUmar b. VI. See also 482-483. Massüd. 24-25. It would appear from this of the Qur'an in seven ahruf is to facilitate and in fact there are many references revelation in the: ahädith to make its to the recitation of the Qur'an in seven ahruf easy for people. vol. vol. for Allah's recitation different al-Furgän during to his and I listened he recited in several to me in a different way from yours. Then Allah's whichever is easier for you. cAbd Allah b. Hakim reciting Apostle time of Allah's the life and noticed that Apostle had not taught me. recited "It was revealed in this way. " So I dragged_him to Allah's Apostle and said (to Allah's Apostle) "I heard this person reciting Apostle has taught it Surat al-Furgän in a way which you have not taught me!" cUmar)! On that Allah's Apostle said "Release him (0 Recite 0 Hishäm! " Then he recited in. ""' hadith that the purpose recitation of the revelation for Muslims. al-Khattäb from Surat he said: heard Hishäm b. pp. 26. pp. I. 2 . " I said "You have told you this surah which IApostle taught He said: "Allah's a lie. so recite revealed to be recited of it I heard him reciting. This Qur'an has been in seven ahruf. al-CÄ5 and another.

"4 . Tcffsir. LIV. 3 . 390. vol. the aged shaykh. the servant and the female servant. 2. To "And We have indeed understand and remember. vol. al-Baghawi. vol. 508 and Tabarl. vol. p. 3. "3 in seven ahruf. 46. TafsTr. 4.. 391.The following 1. I. " Then he said to him "0 Muhammad the Qur'an has been revealed in seven ahruf. and the man who has never read a book. IV. " Upon this he said "I ask for Allah's pardon and forgiveness. See by Tirmidhi Sharh al-Sunnah. 63. easy 17). Tabari. easy my The revelation of the Qur'an in seven ahruf for the Muslims in verse: order to make it easier for them is 'confirmed by the following made the Qur'än " (S. it. "' 2. are some examples: so recite what "The Qur'an was sent down in seven ahruf. p. Muslim. 4.. p. p. so at liberty. among them are the old woman.. XIV. seems easy therefrom. vol. 1. vol. "Gabriel came to the prophet peace be upon him and said "Allah has commanded you to recite to your people the Qur'an in one harf. 3. p. "Verily recite this Qur'an has been revealed . ibid. Related p. 5. My people are not capable of doing 5. Muslim.. 391. p. I. SahTh al-Tirmidhi. The prophet peace be upon him met Gabriel and told him "I have been sent to an illiterate people. In another hadith "Make things easy for my people" or "Make "5 for affairs people. 35... who says it is a good and sound hadith. Il. Il..

and because people tried to cling strongly to their dialects. Nashr. they would be right. Tafsir. My people would not be able to do it. 40. vol. " and forgiveness. " "Allah came for the second time and said: should recite he 'again said: has commanded you that you Upon this my people time the Qur'än to your people in two ahruf. vol. " He (Gabriel) from Allah.Ghifär when Gabriel and said: "Allah has commanded you to recite Upon this he said: to your people the Qur'an in one harf. " time and said: "Allah has and He then came to him for the fourth commanded you to recite the Qur'an to your people in seven ahruf. p. p. vol. Muslim. 4 . 1. l The permission to recite after upon the Hijrah as is clear the Qur'an in seven ahruf was given from the following hadith. "2 in whichever they would recite. 136. 22. vol. X.. I. I.I p. would not be able came for the third and said: "Allah has commanded you to recite Upon this he said: the Qur'an to your "I ask pardon and people in three ahruf. I. Tabari. (may peace be came to him Ubayy b. " "I seek pardon and forgiveness to do so.Many commentators the Arabs who were ways of pronunciation abandon their This point out that it was very difficult people with for various in most or dialects an illiterate to be ordered or even asked to all at once. Ibn Hajar al-cAsgalänT. own dialects and ways of recitation is because it was difficult to do so. Itgän. " forgiveness from Allah. Kacb reported that the Apostle of Allah him) was near the Tank of Banü. Suyüti. "I ask from Allah pardon He then My people are not capable of doing it. Ibn al-Jazari. 22. 391. p. Fath al-Bari 2. 1. vol. p.

vol. 28. 508. 132. p. p. I. pp. p.Adät Bani Ghifär Ghifar" Ghifär is a place which is translated as "the Tank of Banü to the Banu l near Madinah. IV. al-Suyüti. IX. 61. who says: It is good and sound hadith. the hijrah was the only part to be recited mentioned argument This is shown by the previously CUmar between and Hishäm about different versions of Surat al4 Furgän which was revealed in Makkah. BaghawT. Itgän. vol. p. I. 117. vol. Mujähidsays Sae Ibn al-Athir. p. vol. Such arguments between the companions were not acceptable. 2. 4. mean that that part of the Qur'an which which was revealed after in seven ahruf. however. 35. 27. because they used to live In another version it is stated that Gabriel met the prophet near Ahjär al Mira'2 which is a place near Qubä' in the countryside aroundMadinah. Tabari. I. vol. vol. it is Qubä' itself. p. Ahmad. p. Musnad vol. see vol. 36. al-Bakri. I. 35-36. vol. 35. p. was confused when he mentioned it as in Makkah. 164. his companions to_dispute_about he found some of them disputing Once he said: I. 203. Sharh al-Sunnah. 3. I. p. because of differences Fath al-Bari. al-Nihäyah. 5 . V. In fact he thought Sujiyy al-Sabäb was the same place as Ahjär al-Mira'. Related by Tirmidhi Sahih al-Tirmidhi. vol. 1. 1. I. This does not. Latä'if al-Ishärät Tafsir. al BakrT in his book MucjämMa-Istacjam vol. "IV. Tabari. p. being attributed around this tank. See Tabari. p. Tafsir. ani. al Qastall and so the prophet himself this forbade matter and became angry whenever in recitation. MuCjam Mä -IstaCjam vol.

vol. these ahädith to the Alif are shädhdh and Bä' of al-Balawi. p. and he interprets regarded as mutawätir. Alif Ba' Vol I. Tabari. Nevertheless it is a famous and good hadith. Suy-uti studied the work of Ibn al-Jazari and added two to the nineteen which the latter had already collected. pp. vol. 1. 21. Itgän. vol. 44. 21. "l this Qur'an has been revealed There are so mayahädith in seven ahruf that about the revelation b. See Nashr. p. Salläm 2 Despite of the Qur'an (224/838) this. I. 4 seven dialects. p. p. I. 6 . 78. Madhähib al-Tafsir 4. p. that which refers different to the seven ahruf being revealed in seven The. Related by Ahmad. ahruf. vol. Nashr. that them as successive attributes without In fact Goldziher to him the opinion an acceptable however it isnäd. p. vol. vol. I. 210. 5."Verily in seven to be recited in every harf you recite you have done so correctly. p. p. al-Islämi. vol. 131. considered cUbayd Abu al-Qäsim (mutawätir) ahädith. So don't argue since this may lead to kufr. 54. quoting al-Balawi. 2. 18 below. See a1-Zurgäni Manähil al-cIrfän. 132. IV. p. vol. I. In fact this large number of companions who narrated these hadiths must have been CUbayd's Abu the reason for them as successive considering hadiths (mutawätir). 21. 65. 169-170. 3. 5 these hadiths. I. Itgän. p. 15-16 below). other ahädi'th are them as referring to meanings (see pp. See p. Ibn Kathir: Fadä'il al-Qur'an. IX. Musnad. I. al-Suyüti narrated (911/1505) counted the names of the companions who and he found out that there were twenty of them. Fath al-Bari. since this number of people found in the generation of the companions do not exist among the successors. by 3 referring one hadith is only which is rejected Abu cUbayd.

131. CUthmän had heard this hadith. by al-Häfiz Abu YaCla in his book al-Musnad al-Kabir. p. vol. p. Fath al-Ba-ri. CAffän asked those at the mosque of Madinah if anyone of them had ever heard the Prophet peace be upon him saying: "The Qur'an has been revealed to be recited in seven ahruf". 21. 2. vol. 482. The meaning of seven ahruf in the ahädith There are many interpretations meaning of the Ahruf scholars tried to find mentioned which attempt in the ahädith to clarify .This fact is supported by another present hadith to the effect that cUthman b. I. p. is not even The argue on this to favour one harf as being better is that all way" . 1. Nashr. VI. Ibn al-Jazari says this hadith is related Itgän. Bukhärß. that they a huge number of them stood up and testified . 26. 1. In response Since it is established that all these ahruf are correct and sound there was felt Hence it permitted is forbidden to be little ti point in disputing matter and it over them. vol. IX. vol. Consequently himself emphasised ' this hadith by stating that he testified with them. reason for this revealed in this the ahruf are sound and Accordingly It has been as everyone should recite he has been taught. 7 . the exact Each group of out and establish the exact meaning according to its own views. p.2 than the other.

Wewill
then attempt

here discuss all
to establish

the views given on this

matter and

the meaning on the basis

of the

available First

evidence. of all, however, we must discuss the meaning of the

expression "Seven". 1. A group of scholars say the number "Seven" mentioned in the

hadith is not intended as an exact number, but is a symbolic term meaning a considerable number less than ten. figures Hence the number just as seventy

seven denotes numerousness in the single

means numerousness in tens and seven hundred means numerousness
in hundreds. who spend their corn: it For instance substance in the Qur'änic verse "The parable that of those of

in the way of God is and each ear

of a grain

groweth

seven ears,

hath a hundred grains.

God giveth manifold

increase

to whomHe pleaseth. " or not (their

(S. I:I,. 26l;)...: In another

verse "Whether thou ask forgiveness
unforgivabl'e):. God will If

sin is

though,. thou ask seventy times. forgiveness.,. them". a hadith (S. IX, 80). which says: "Every (good) deed of the a tenfold

not forgive

There is also

Son of Adam does will

be multiplied, ' to seven hundred reward".

a good deed receiving

1. Muslim (Arabic Text),

p. 480; for the translation hadith see Mishkät al-Masäbih, vol. II, p. 417. vol. Il,

of the

8

Ibn Hajar al-cAsgaläni
cIyäd 2. (544/1149) The majority

(852/1448) related
1

this

saying from

and his successors. maintained that

the exact

meaning of the expression seven that
\i '

"Seven" follows respect

in the hadith the number six we can refer

means precisely and precedes

number ödd the eight in arithmetic. verses

In this in which the

to the following

Qur'änic

number is meant to be the same, neither a. "To it are seven Gates: for

more nor less. each of those Gates

Is a (special)
b. "(Yet others)

class

(Of sinners)
seven,

assigned. " (S. XV,44)
the dog being

the eighth.

say they were " (S. XVIII, 22)

And in fact

there is no reason for abandoning the exact meaning it as a

of the number seven and making attempts to interpret metaphorical

term, for there is no clear evidence to support this.
itself makes clear to be the exact in various versions that

Moreover the hadith the number seven is

intended

number neither

more nor

less.
a.

Among those versions
"...

are the following:
ahruf till he ultimately

And he recited it in other it in seven ahruf. "2 recited

1. Fath al-Bari, it attributed Ibn al-Jazari

vol. IX,

p. 23, Itgän,

vol. I,

p. 131;

also

al-Zarkashi

to certain scholars. says in Nashr, vol. I,

See Burhän, pp. 25-26,

number seven does not mean the exact meaning. " the numerousness and simplicity. See also the Encyclopaedia of Islam, 1, vol. Il, p. 1073. in his book Icjäz al-Qur'an, al-Räfici cÄdil cUlüm 70, Ahmad his book Kamäl in p. al-Qur'an, pp. 85-86, and CAbd have chosen this opinon. al-Saber Shähin in Tärikh al-Qur'an 2. Bukhäri, vol. VI, p. 482. 9

vol. I, p. 212. "It is said the But it means here

b. c.

11 ...

Then I realised

it

has been ended in this

number. "1

The repeated asking for more ahruf between the Prophet and 2 Gabriel started from one harf to two, three, up to seven. opinion of the scholars is that the number is

Thus the majority limited after

and confined to the number seven and we may be able to say, this discussion, that the number seven mentioned in all the

versions of this
to the people. revealed "seven",

hadith is precisely
The hadith indicates

the real and exact number known
that the Qur'an accepted this has been meaning of seven

in seven ahruf, but differed

and the majority

in explaining

and identifying

these

ahruf and giving

examples.

Meaning of ahruf in the Arabic Language The word ahruf is the plural in the -Arabi c lexicons-; -'-; 1. The extremity,
as,

of harf.

It is given several meanings

verge, border, margin, brink,
for instance, the side of a river

brow, side or edge
and of a ship or

of anything, 3 boat.

In this

respect we can refer

CAbbas "People of to saying of Ibn

cal the book do not come to the women, except from the side (i11ä
harf )". 4

see Itgän, vol. I, pp. 131-132. 2. Muslim, vol. I. I, p. 391 . 3. Qämus, vol.. IlJ, p. 130, al-Nihäyah fi Gharib al-Hadith, Lisän al-'Arab, vol. IX, p. 41, Lane, Book 1, Part II,

1. Related

by Nasä'i

vol. I, p. 550.

p. 369,

4. Lisän al-cArab,

vol. IX, p. 42.

10

The word harf occurs in a. Qur'änic .

verse with the same meaning:

"There are among men some who serve God, a. s it were, if good befalls them, they are, on the verge: therewith, well content; but if a trial comes to them, they turn on their faces: they lose both this world and is loss for all to see! " (S. XXII, 11) the Hereafter: that 2. A letter of the alphabet, the letters being thus called because

they are the extremities

of the word and the syllable. like

alif 3.

Harf can be used to describe a she-camel, probably thin l in the Arabic alphabet, big or huge like the mountain. As a grammatical term, it means a particle,

i. e. what is used to
Every other

express

a meaning and is not a noun or a verb. 2 definition of it is bad. Mode or manner, or way, as, according for instance,

4.

in reciting

the

Qur'an

to seven modes or manners of reading,,

whence such

phrases as "Fulan yaqra'
of

bi-harf

Ibn Mascüd".

(Such a one reads in in

3 cmanner Ibn Masüd. ) an idiom or mode of expression, the hadlth peculiar to certain

5.

A dialect,

'Arabs'.

Accordingly

"Nazal al-Qur'an

calä Sabcat ahruf"

1. Qämüs, vol. Ill, p. 131, Lisän Book 1, Part II, p. 550. 2. Qämüs, vol. III, p. 131, Lisan Book 1, Part II, p. 550.

al-CArab, al-cArab,

vol. IX, vol. IX,

pp. 41-42,

Lane,

p. 41, Lane,

3. Lisän a1-cArab, vol. IX, p. 41 Lane I, II,

p. 550.

11

would mean. the dialects

"The Qur'an has been revealed to seven dialects of the Arabs. " This interpretation
al-Azhari

of to

is attributed
(370/980), and

cUbayd, Abu Abu a1-cAbbas

(291/903),

Ibn a1-Athir interpretation

(606/1209).

Ibn al-Athir 2 the best one.

1

considered this

The interpretation

of "Seven Ahruf" meant to be

Most of the Scholars say that the number seven is really the exact number, but differ ahruf in the hadith, in interpreting

the meaning of the word

since as seen above ahruf is a commonword which 3 has several meanings which can only be determined by context.
of the ahädith under discussion we find 4 all of thirty allows for more

However the context than one interpretation, interpretations This early

and as a result

differing

of the ahädith difference

as a whole.

of opinion

produced many sayings,

which are repeated

and overlap.

Ibn Hibbän (354/965)

counted

five

of them,

5

while al-Suyüti

although he did not quote all

claimed that there were about forty 6 of them.

1. Qämüs, vol. III,
p. 550. 2. Nihäyah, 3. Manähil, 4. Burhän, vol. I, vol. I, vol.!,

p. 131, Lisän al-CArab,
p. 369, p. 146. p. 212.

vol. IX, p. 41, Lane, I,

II,

(see Chapter 5).

5. Itgän,

vol. I, pp. 173-176, Burhän, vol. I, p. 212, Ibn Hibbän himself says: "These sayings resemble one another and are
possible, and other interpretations are possible". See Itgän

vol. I, p. 176. 6. Itgän, vol. I, pp. 131-141.
12

A comprehensive study and comparison of all opinions expressed concerning this
them as follows:

the views and

hadith allows us to summarise

and arrange

I.

They are ambiguous and their
because the word harf a word,

meaning cannot be known with
has different or a way. 1 This view has been meanings, a letter

certainty,

of the alphabet, This

a meaning,

is the view of

Ibn Sacdän al-NahwT. (231/845).

opposed on the ground that

a common word can be known and fixed

according to the context.

For instance,

the word (cayn) has more in the sentence, and

than one meaning which can be realised in which it (Sharibttmin
ambiguous.

and identified

occurs,

for example (Nazartubi_al-cayn al-mujarradah) The 'meaning is clear
the word (cayn) This

cayn Zubaydah).
In the first it

and it

is not
and in

sentence means 'water'.

means 'eye'

the second sentence

is made clear sentence 2

by the use and the

of the word (Nazartu)(I word (Sharibtu)(I

have seen) in the first

have drunk)

in the second sentence.

The. harf may mean "ways of pronunciation" _word 3 b. Ahmad-(170/786). of al-Khalil

2.

which was the view

Qur'an be been in This has to-because the word objected no can ,
read in seven ways with word "uff". two or three the exception of very few words such as the each word may read in one way or are many words which can be read

Even i! f it; is argued that or more up to seven,

there

in more than seven ways.

4

1. Burhän, vol. I, p. 213, Itgän, 2. Manähil, vol. I, p. 165.
3. Burhän, vol. 1, p. 213.

vol. 1, p. 13T.

4. Burhän, vol. I, p. 213, Itgän,

vol. 1, p. 132. 13

ibid. vol. p. are view and even al-Zarkashi ' if (794/1391) considered it However the seven ahruf. p. pp. ibid. for example al-Tabari (310/922). al-Jamic 4 fT-1-Qira. attempt to limit Later al-Tabari (310/922) wrote a book called although much of the material is incorporated Many scholars did not agree with Ibn Mujähid's to seven for the precise the number of readings reason that the following generation might think that these seven 5 to in the hadith. 1. studies used to collect readings regardless of number. which did not exist in the life time of Ibn Mujähid the Prophet or even in the first Indeed scholars of Qur'änic century. 2.4'/935). 36.. This work is no longer extant. Sa11äm (224/838) 3 who is said to have given twenty five readings. p. Abu Shämah (665/1267) readings were the same as the seven ahruf referred Indeed a famous scholar in the field of Qur'änic readings. more detail 1. 213/217. must not be regarded time by with the seven readings which are collected for the first 2 (32. I. Nashr. 4. 33-34. vol. 3. Burhän.Most of the scholars. taken in this the meaning of the word is to be as being in any way connected way.. opposed to this the weakest one. 34. CUbayd form is Abu readings in written a1-Qäsim b.at which contained more than twenty readings. I. vol. 34. into his Tafsir. on this matter is available j on pp. 213. p. 14 . Nashr. I. and many more readings than the seven of The first scholar known to have collected Ibn Mujähid existed.

p. 25. lawful. related and parables There is a hadith in favour according of this view: by Hakim (405/1014) and al-Bayhagi has been revealed (458/1065) "The Qur'an from seven doors to seven ahruf. Itgän. Those who subscrijbe-to Some say. "No one thinks that these seven readings are what is meant in the hadith except the ignorant". Nashr. 4 Furthermore al-Bayhagi himself who narrated hadith mentioned that what is meant here by the seven ahruf is the kinds of meaning in which the Qur'an has been 5 revealed. I. of the verses but_only_a. 138. 15 . but that the other ahädth refer to dialects. I. 3 However this hadith which is not and amthäl. Burhän. mutashäbih reported elsewhere unlawful. in their interpretation.. p. I. vol. bout the ways of the 6 cUmar and Hishäm and others. for example. This is also the view of Abi Shämah. pp. p. 4. Ibn al-Jazari (833/1429) raised a_good_reason for refuting this view which is that the Companions did not dispute and disagree with each other about the interpretation recitation 1. Abu Abu see al-CAla' al-Ahwazi'. 136-138.is quoted as having said. 136. 2. 1. 3. muhkamand mutashäbih (that disputable) whose meaning is accepted and that which is (amthäl). muhkam. vol. vol. commending. cAli ibid. 3. pp. 137. differ Seven kinds of meanings. p. 216. Itgän. 6. ibid. 5. as happened between vol. restraining. Itgän. 2 lawful and unlawful. p. this that opinion it refers to commandand prohibition. 171-172. I. vol. and al-Hamadäni.. is said CAbd by Ibn al-Barr (563/1070) not to be authentic and definitely this weak and not sound.

asric. 4. p. cajjil. in which the is meant to show that the ahruf has been revealed are synonymous in one meaning.. 1. the names of Sufyän b. I. Itgän. against this cajjil. vol. 42. agbil. 4. p. Related by Ahmadand Tabaräni with a sound chain. Itgän. 2. I. Itgän. it it is impossible is halal or barm or amthäl.Finally. vol. vol. It is allowable to recite to recite l the Qur'an as if all of a verse in several ways of recitation. vol. al-Suyu-ti quoting vol. versions which give the same meaning. Qurtubl. 134 quoting cAbd Ibn al-Barr. idhhab. Itqan. "4 First We can bring of all. aqbil. e. . Seven ways of recitation using synonyms. al-Tabari. punishment with mercy or a verse of mercy with punishment. vol. Qur'an this hadith many arguments interpretation. 16 p. 1. 134. )-5 1. lä7. Ibn Wahb and al-TahäwT. this cAbd-al-Barr from Ibn attributes to most of the scholars and specifically mentions cUyaynah. 42. halumma. p. 3. and secondly to witness that there is no contradiction in these ahruf (i. for example. " each "Ask for he reached seven ahruf. they do not seal a verse of punishment with mercy. you do not seal a verse of and sufficient. 1. c Taal. p. ibid.. the Prophet and Mikä'il effective to the revelation of the Qur'an "Gabriel is narrated by Abu Bakrah that the Qur'an and said said "0 Muhammadrecite more" till provided in one harf. T. but not for a verse to be read in various ways which lead to 2 contradiction as would be the case with halal and haräm. 5. pp"134-135. there are other See Qurtubi. like your saying: -Ta al. adopted referring It this opinion3 quoting their evidence in came to Many scholars from the ahädi'th seven ahruf. asriC.

6. 1.Further. 3. p. 351 and 376 adding Khalaf to Hamzah and al. where Fatabayyanü is also read such a temporary for the first generation implied vol. being is vol. interpretation because it is still permissible to recite the this Qur'an in several ways. The latter the reading Kitäb alread by the rest of the Qurrä'. or that easier claim that all variants concession is of this with type have been the aim of making by the term al-Hujurät. p. 22. so that one can find an example of synonyms in Surat Fatathabbatü.? ' cUmar and Hishäm where each one said "Allah's argument between 3 Apostle has taught it me". vol. Qurtubi. 1. Manähil. 480 and 681 and al-Nashr. 483. vol. Bukhäri. 134-135. 5. see al=Qaysi. Moreover those who adopted this opinion agreed that this permission was given in the beginning when most of the Arabs were illiterate and that subsequently the other six ahruf were abrogated. Thus we cannot abrogated recitation 6 harf. 43. 1. 68-69. and Hamzah of al-Kisä'i while 6.Kisä'i. vol. 43. recitation from the prophet should have heard the appropriate himself directly or from him through his Companions and In this respect we may refer to the above-mentioned successors. own way or to put one word or letter 1 One whether it changes the meaning or not. quoting 2. Qürtubi. 4. Vl. IX. Il. XLIX. Fath al-Bari. recite it is not within the discretion of individuals to the Qur'an in their instead of another. I. pp. pp. al-BägillänT. p. 4 contest'' is harf We that there can only one so available now. vol. pp. Tabsirah. p. p.17 the former . 1. vol. Itgan.

al-BägillänT. in order -to make (things) clear to them. " (S. pp. 33. ThaClab. and that they were leaders for the tribes of the Arabs. I. variants i. (923/1517) maintains that Quraysh were neighbours al-Qastalläni s of the Ka bah. I. that the ahruf of Qurashi Arabic. vol. I. p. Latä'if. vol. Burhän. I. differ and the although all Ibn Qutaybah (275/888)_ attempted to prove that the Qur'an was revealed only in the dialect of Quraysh. see also and Ibn Ibn Abi Zakariyyä. 18 . 169. alcAtiyyah. 4). vol. vol. In his opinion these dialects should represent various branches of 3 Quraysh. 4. Itgän. vol. p. Qädi Abi Bakr. pp. of Wisdom. Itgän. vol. Qurtubi. 24. 135-136.5. Now God leaves straying those whom He pleases and Full guides whom He pleases: and He is Exalted in Power. pp. Itgän. Salläm. pp. 41-42. Nashr. 44-45. Seven of the dialects of the Arabs. be an attempt to conflte_two were dialects this different ideas. quoting the Qur'änic text "We sent not an apostle except (to teach) in the language Of his (own) people. various versions including greatly. al-Azhari. these seven dialects are agreed in There is no agreement on identifying. 218-219. SijistanT. 217-218. where Abü p. XIV. 2 that of Quraysh. vol. al-Ahwa-zi is also quoted. CUthmän "The Qur'än to In and that they were all respect there is a statement attributed 1. pp. CAll 135. I. I. Burhän. The dialects of the Arabs view l were of course more than seven. p. al-Sähibi. from Then they used to choose the best of style and words from each dialect 4 This view however appears to all the tribes who came to Makkah. This view is CUbayd Abu by related al-Qäsim b. but the supporters maintain of this that what is meant are the seven most eloquent dialects. vol. 3. I. e. 2. I.

e. Y. vol. Qurtubi. p. p. 24) and the tamtamah because it it read of Tamim. Lata'if In some versions of these sayings the name CAbd instead Al-Barr ofMudar appears of Quraysh. For example. vol. 2nd person . pp. changing sin to ta' so that in "al-Nas" "al-Nat" (Qurtubi. 44. 1. vol. However many that the Qur'an was not revealed solely Although sometimes it in the of accounts indicate style of Quraysh. 44 quoting Ibn al-Barr and al-QädT Ibn who says Allah Almighty says: We have made it a (XLIII. version is the first is sound and came through the people of Madinah.. No one claims that only Quraysh is meant here because the name of Arab covers all (Qurtubi. since features from are found. Ali's Translation. 1. the Kashkashah of Qays. 'vol. 1. but Ibn says: "the authentic in which Quraysh was mentioned. statement. g. g. so do not recite to the See also al-Qaställa-ni. (Burhän. sing. p. they turn the fem.!. QurtubT. 1. people in the dialect of Hudhayl". 3.has been revealed in the language of Quraysh". most that this. e. 219-220). vol. vol. for example the retention of hamz which 2 disappears in the language of Hijäz. other tribes of the Arabs For according to the most fluent and shortest ways of expression. pp. al-Tayyib Qur'an Almighty vol. tribes. Burhän. there is another version attributed cAbd in which he wrote to Allah b. comes in the style Quraysh it also comes in the style of. cAbd p.Ki into Taktaki" to read "Rabbushi Tabtashi" Shi in the verse "Rabbuki (XIX. can_mean is l The the '- that Qur'an is mainly in the dialect other dialects generally of Quraysh. 2. p. ) 19 . 1342) and the in Arabic did not say "Qur'änan Qurashiyyan". Also some features of the speech of Mudar are anomalous and are not allowed in the recitation of the Qur'an. i. 44. 45. 1. Mascüd "The Qur'an has cUmar to been revealed in the language of Quraysh. p. 33. 219-220). 1. A.

al-Saläm vol. it. to. own dialects these dialects were extremely Thus they were not'ordered in favour of that or even asked to abandon their because. 1067 his revelation "The language in which Muhammaddelivered was says: according to the most natural assumption the Hidjäz dialect of the people of Mecca". p. 22. Itgän. varied. vol. p. al-Qirä'ät wa-alLahajät p. although both of them in their recitation. Nädirah. p. 3 from the prophet. vol. 24. ). 4. 136. I. this was for the sake of easiness in the recitation 2 and understanding of the Quran. referred 1. p. It does not belonged to Quraysh. 3. p. and because people tried And above all. vol. Nashr. In this respect the Encyclopaedia cAbd b. vol. 20 . 1. neighbours came later which Arabs to recite bearing the Qur'an in mind that they were used to. p. Fath al-Bari. al-cIzz objected to the interpretation of the seven ahruf as seven dialects (Khams Rasä'il See Hammu-dah. I. p. Nashr. was difficult of Quraysh. 1. l about digging a well It might be most reasonable to assume that the of Quraysh and their Then the permission in their own dialects Qur'an was revealed in the dialect at the beginning on for all of the revelation. p. II. cling strongly to their dialects. 136. there are this idea of the revelation of the Qur'an in no objections seven dialects against cUmar because and Hishäm. 2. 45.instance Ibn CAbbas did not understand the meaning of the word Fatar till using this he heard two Bedouins talking verb. Itgän. 64). 1. to do so. Qurtubi. Vol. IX. differed seem reasonable to one dialect to accept unless that disagreement difference between two men who belonged 4 to something else. On the other hand. This permission was not. everyone should be synonyms in his dialects. 25. left to the individuals to change any word to one of its taught it directly but. of Islam (1st ed. vol. 22.

3. for instance. XI. For more details see Chapter 5 below. e. 21 . to make it He says: is a symbolic term meaning a considerable of the Arabs own way to - "These seven ahruf mean the dialects to recite dialects". who was The first followed suggestion with by the following that generation little or no modification. as. easy for each tribe the Qur'an in their He claimed that as they were used to in their Arabs after the word harf merely means "dialect". and the Vocalisation of the word the meaning of the word but does not alter its which alters 3 ba ada. 78. 70-71. e. is Ibn Qutaybah. consonantal outline. Icjaz 2. rabbana ba id/rabbuna A difference in the Icräb A difference (2) 1. g. g. but the number seven in his opinion number. Ibn Qutaybah states in readings he has studied the ways of the differences and found them seven ways: (1) in the Icräb and vocalisation of the word which does not alter its consonantal outline in the orthography and does not alter its meaning. 19. pp. 2 hunna atharu/hunna athara.Later in his Icjäz interpreting al-Qur'an al-RäfiCi adopted this view of the seven ahruf as seven dialects of the Arabs. meaning his reading) 6. XXXN. al-Qur'an. But they began - Islam - to use the word harf for a word read in other ways of they say "Hädhä fi harf Ibn Mascüd" recitation. Seven varieties scholar and differences to make this in the readings.

XXXVI. 35. fol lows the same approach to this question in identifying a1-Räzi and giving (630/123 Abu-a1-fadl as Ibn Qutaybah. 19. 22 . . g. g. 259. II. e. in känat illä sayhatan/zagyatan.(3) A difference in the ahruf of the word but not in its its meaning and does not change its Icräb which alters l e. 2. g. consonantal outline. e.24) the example would be valid. Ibn al-Jazari it has not relevance to the difference "If he had used as an example in place of this bi-danin/ says: See as r. LVI. in the word which changes its meaning. and its 3 mandüd/wa-talcin (6) (7) in word order. mawti bil-hagqi/Sakratu-l-hagqi camilathu/ A difference in letters or augment. L. but he puts the ways of differences order. 5. 4. 3. wa-talhin consonantal (5) A difference outline nadid. 28. bi -zanin (LXXX1. his first in a different in the and second types are included 1. XXXVI. 29. Ibn Qutaybah in the ways in Ibn al-Jazari's which he explains clearly except that he discusses them more examples. For instance. 29 &/Lfbn'al-Jazari of Ibn Qutaybah approved this analysis it with respect to this example since except that he criticised in reading. wa-ma 5 camilat. (4) A difference in the word which changes its consonantal the orthography and does not change its meaning. wa-ma A difference work agrees with the ahruf. p. g. g. vo I. e. nunshizuhä/nanshuruhä. outline-in 2 e. wa-jä'at sakratu-lbi-l-Mawti.

Mushkil al-Qur'an. n Qutaybah and refined 6. Itgän. 1 who agree in to be a question hamz. Mugaddimatän. tafkhim. Nashr. Ta'wil pp. says here Ibn Hajar vol. 8 (403/1012). Abi' Tälib mentions that a to that of Ibn Qutaybah. S 6 Makki b. pp. 23 . Fath al-Bari. 28-30. 109-113. be included in fact this and agrees with of al-RäzT the fifth might possibly in the this last ' of Ibn Qutaybah and Ibn al-Jazari. pp.fifth type of Ibn Qutaybah and Ibn al-JazarT arrangement of al-Räzi the seventh covers the first while the third in two. 26-27. Ibänah. al-Räfici. vol. 25. Some scholars consider all of pronunciation of this differences type. 120-122 and Qurtubi. vol. I. pp. al-Mabäni fi Nazm al-Macani'7 and Ibn al-Bägilläni 1. 221-228. it". between the scholars. al-Räzi's The sixth finally first and second of the other of the others. Ibn al-Jazari. Tälib al-Qaysi (437/1045)._in here to difference way. 29. p. vol. Jeffery. Nazm al-Macani adopts the same view. See pp. 133. the author of Kitäb al-Räzi. in his 3 4 Mugaddimatän fi 2. book Icja-z al-Qur'an. but group of scholars he only explains adopted a view similar their interpretation. 221-228. 37-42. p. MakkT b. for instance. because in dialect concerned with absence or presence of Imälah. 4. 70. al-Räzi . Nukat al-Intisär. 36. of differences These are the differences their general approach. pp. The work of the author of Kitäb al-Mabäni fi adopts this view. CUlum al-Qur'an. Ibänah.. of al-Räzi should since although suggestion of its not be dismissed refers significance. p. p. quote 3. 5. A. I. I.? The scholars who take this view are Ibn Qutaybah. ibid. etc. ed. 7. pp. IX. "al-Räzi p. 8.

1. Abu Jacfar's statement "The Qur'an has been revealed from One. a]-Bayän fi Tafsir al-Qur'an. CAbd Allah was asked about people's stated (p. 438-439. a1-Khü'i. pp. 177-190. It is also comes from the narrators". For instance permission to recite in different in these the Qur'an according after many In one to one hadith requests. IV. ahruf was given gradually it was given all but in another hadith at once.. pp. 439) that Abu sayings that the Qur'an was revealed in seven ahruf and he "They lied and were enemies of Allah and it was replied but the difference revealed in one harf from the One". version Ubayy entered the mosque and saw a man reciting different from his.The author of al-Bayan fi ähädi'th of the revelation Tafsir al-Qur'an 1 rejected all the of the Qur'an in seven ahruf simply on the through the Isnäd of the that grounds that these hadiths were not narrated Ahl al-Bayt after in line with his Shicite methodology. 3. ibid. ibid. in Hence no versions their view. Isnäds of versions these versions. 177. reference in religious be made only to the Qur'an and the Ahl al-Bayt are valid if whom Allah Almighty has purified. 24 . vol. they differ from what is right Thus there this is no need to speak about the reason to reject 2 at all. but in another version it in a way is mentioned that Ubayy in was in the mosque and two men entered the mosque and recited 3 different ways from each other. 2. being the first them authentic these and not to consider Furthermore he claims that there are contradictions versions. He quotes from Usül al-Käfi. He states affairs should the prophet. p..

. ibid. and are invalid. all discussions of the approach would rule out 'a priori and from an objective academic point of view there is no of the/hadithof the Ahl al- justification Sunnah. CUmar CUthmän. It for denying the validity is clearly stated in the Qur'an: "0 mankind! and tribes. of the Qur'an in seven ahruf and it This view has no firm ground to stand on. 25 . ye may despise honoured of you the most and made you into ye may know each other Verily of God " (S. in the sight of you. five or thirty sürah should be reckoned as having thirty six verses. is not agreed outside Shicite circles references for the Islamic including First of all it that the Ahl al-Bayt are the only of the lýý Sharicah and that the narrations Ahl al-Sunnah Al-Khu'i's ahruf. XLIX. nor can contradicitions 1. 178.. was beside the Prophet and answered "The Apostle of Allah ' commands you to recite as you have been taught". All in all. each other). We created that you from a single (pair) nations (not that of a male and a female. in letters or righteous In any case the differences between the versions words do not affect refute an authentic the truth hadith. of the hadith. p. there is no reasonable meaning is not cAll as having differed for the revelation 2 understandable.Finally question he said that the reply was not related relating to the reported in the version to Ibn Massüd who is with another person as to whether a certain . Abu Bakr.. 2. in his opinion. ibid. the most is (he who is) 13).

XIII. Hijrah If this between the narrators do not contradict is so. Masüd) the objection is no relation and the answer (in the hadith cAbd Allah of this can be answered quite simply by pointing the recitation out that the Companions were learning and counting the verses. 9.. vol. not more than ten verses The Companions and at a time to recite Naturally. but rejects 1. p. See al-Albani. 402. Bayän.Al-Khü'i "Hence we find al-Plutanabbi's existence himself that falls into contradiction differ when he says: the narrators in some words of does not invalidate transmission the " poems but this or its difference successive of the gasidah (tawätur). and Tartib p. 3. the question principle As for should not also be applied that there to the question of between b. al-Hakim. he most surprisingly is closest mentions that al-Räfici's opinion to the truth. them all. the differences details itself of the Prophet's 1 or its tawätur. he does not accept the interpretation but simply uses opposing arguments in an attempt to discredit Despite opinion this. in the In the same way. 70-71. in his it. p. al-riusrad. This is confirmed by a sound hadith Sifat related by Ab--uDäw-udand p. 26 . was part of the process of teaching. 158. however. having rejected the revelation of the Qur'an in of the hadith. Salat al-Nabiyy. Ibn Taymiyyah. vol. Fatäwä. XVIII. 2. it the Hijrah to is very difficult see why this the ahruf. because the prophet used to pause on the end of each verse (äyah)2 and that this used to study 3 practice. seven ahruf.

2. 4. In addition. 37.. ways of difference in addition rejecting the premises of Ibn Qutaybah's argument he wishes to show that his arguments are in any case fallacious. p. Tärikh al-Qur'an.because al-Räfic1 ' other reasons. interpreted "Seven" as a symbolic Ibn Qutaybah's term. the. For more information about the authenticity of these hadiths see pp. ahädith have a meaning which is that easier for and making it in interpreting the of facilitating 3 The differences the Muslims. and for However. Ibid. Moreover. 191-193. he then goes on to say and that his seven to Ibn Qutaybah does not take this are in fact eight. pp. 188. 5. these ahädith 4 However the Shicite Tärikh al-Qur'an cAbd Allah al-Zinjäni scholar Ab-u narrated in his book and quoted the hädith . into 2 account Thus. 27 . For the text of this hadith and some others. a1-Zinjani. La an. Tärikh a1-Qur'än pp. 33-37 and p -4 above. do not affect the of theseiahädith:. see a1-Zinjani. al-Khattäb as the best many othen"ahädith interpretation.:.5 this cUmar by b. p. 6-7 of this study. See pp-2-4 of this study. interpret 6 this He chooses the view of al-TabarT referring to the seven ways of recitation that it might be possible to using Later he mentions hadith as referring to the differences in the 1. the Qur'an he says there is a seventh way of reading which is that upon which all that scholars are agreed. synonyms. contrary perfectly recitation of scholars authenticity feasible to al-Khü'i's claim. he reduced views to six. 3. 6.

1. The disputes during and quarrels among the successors caliphs. See Tärikh a1-Qur'an. See Ibn AT Däw-ud.recitation of the Qur'an. of the Qur'an order: indicate which can be put in the following that that ahruf. 5.Kitäb al-Masähif. This Tafsir al-Zinjäni is called Mafätih al al-Asrär says is a respected Tafsir. Jeffery. 36. e.. al-Qäsim b. ibid. The fact precisely different 2.. in his Tafsir.4-5. A manuscript copy of this work exists in the Majlis Library. 1. who was born in 477 A. Ahmad al-Shahrastäni. 28 . the time of particularly. passim. pp. a theologian 3. and died in 548 A. wa Masabih al-Abrär The author of this which 2. study. (Täbicün) in The discussions 3. 1-7 of this 4. H. 4. H. g. See pp. the time of the orthodox 5 cUthman. 1-2. A. among the Companions about in recitation during the lifevarieties and differences time of the prophet. and see pp. many authentic the Qur'an 3 and sound ahädith has been revea end in seven and disputes. who himself taught them to recite 4 in many different ways from each other. p. Imälah. 16-17 of this study. Ishmäm and Idghäm as they have by the seven readers. The many examples of differences in recitation which exist in the books of Sunan like those of al-Bukhäri. and jurist Tafsir is Abu-61-Fath Muhammad b. ibid. ed. 1 A1-Zinjäni attributed this been narrated view to a1-Shahrastäni In conclusion 2 we have many sources and we can say that references which support and witness the revelation in seven ahruf. Tehran.

Qur'an. when various tribes dialects dialects who spoke a number of different difficult to abandon their own. 5. of recitation. this Those who deny the authenticity of the ahädith dealing with objecive subject do not seem to have any basis for their arguments. See also A. or more on the Qirä'ät under Jämic al-Bayän fi 3. of the Text of the al-Masähif. In each book there Tafsir and Fadä'i1 2. The gurrä'. Jeffery. p. unanimous that the Qur'an has been revealed in seven ahruf. al-Tirmidhi and others) Moreover in the books like that of al-Tabari2 of Tafsir and books on the history of Qirä'ät and Masähif like that of Ibn Abi 3 Däwüd. readings of the Qur'an in different ways according to rules of riwäyät and Isnad. Material including Kitäb Tafsir for al-Qur'an. is a chapter al-Qur'an. In the following conditions chapters we will study these girä'ät and the governing them and an attempt will be made to discover cUthmän. we may say that the scholars are virtually in order came after In conclusion. and found it immediately. to facilitate the reading of the Qur'an. embraced Islam. the memorised and taught to their students and followers girä'ät. the readers of the Qur'an generation in different after ways generation. al-Tabari. 1. continuously. based whether any of them are not on the Mushaf of and whether in this case they may be derived from the ahruf. This apparently the Hijrah. 4. 29 . 5. a1-Qir5'5t Wa'1-Lahajät. there are found many different riwäyät of the 4 readings of the Qur'än. the History passim.Muslim.

meaning of the ahruf. to linguistic However it definitions scholars. is in the manner of reciting to commit ourselves linguistic variations to any of the specific advanced by various 30 .Finally although scholars disagree-as. the most natural variations difficult of these interpretation --to. -the is that they refer the Qur'an.

2 CHAPTER COMPILATION OF THE QUR'ÄN .

and for more detail on this see pp. pieces of wood (alwäh) and shoulder bones (aktäf). It is stated that whenever he received verses or süras he commanded one of his scribes instructed Qur'än. was put in a pre-ordained view. p. 2. pp. Al-Baghawi. p. vol. VI. some of them were assigned the task of recording permanent basis. vol. Sharh al-Sunnah. These are said to have included palm stalks (Cusub). 43-44 below. 2 them to arrange immediately to record them and places in the süras of the them in their There are many accounts which support this of which is that every revealed verse was written of its revelation. the implication down at the time and kept in a order The scribes who took down the revelation were many. being given the title of the revelation 'Kätib on a while al-Wahy'. 3 safe place. 478 and 481. See BukhärT. vol. 480 32 . thin white stones (likhäf). 1. IV. al-Bukhäri. 522. 3. VI.CHAPTER2 COMPILATIONOF THE QUR'ÄN The Prophet order to write be him upon peace down the revelation had scribes of the Qur'an whom he used to on the materials' which were available at that time.

Fata al-Bari. 245-247. Kitib al-Masähif. Kitab al-Wuzarä' wa'1-Kuttäb. IV. p. 5. p. 12-14. Certain scholars Thäbit6 who is specially To ensure that known as Kätib al-Uabiyy or Kätib al-Wahy. tried to count them using the sources available 3 to them. 339-355. pp. IX.. 3. vol. p. pp. V. Beirut 1981. vol. 2. al-Musnad. Kab and Zayd b. al-Bidäyah wa-ä. 245-254. vol. al-Bidäyahwa-al-fihäyah. p. pp. 7. VII. furthermore 1. pp. IX. al-Bidäyah wa'1-Ni 'häyah. p. Kitab vol. pp. 339-355. number increased to thirty c Cc famous among them are Uthmän. 3. 22.339. VI. with his own 7 the Qur'an would not be confused utterances. pp. al-Bidäyah wa'1-Nihäyah. al-CIgd al-Farid. 33 . All. IX. Kuttäb al-Nab: yy. vol. 6.others were normally engaged on other secretarial duties and only very seem to have been brought in to take down the revelation ' occasionall"y. 15-18. 145 and Fatb al-Bäri. 22. p. vol. Mac al-Masäbif. pp. The scribes write of the revelation whomthe Prophet used to ask to of the Qur'an he used to receive for down the verses and portions and were many him for secretarial the number of the scribes who used to write 2 duties was greater. 12. IV.55.3. pp. p. al-Jahshiyäri. vol. 4. 22 and al-cIgd al-Farid vol. al-Wuzarä' weal-Kuttäb. vol. 250.1-Nihäyah. 12-14. Ubayy b. vo1. IX. V. Fath al-Bari. and recently we find the 5 The most three4 or about sixty. V.. p. Third ed. 22. Kitäb al-Wuzarä' wa'l-Kuttäb. vol. Ibn Kathir counts twenty two. Fath al-Bari. write the Prophet is reported to have ordered his companions to he commanded those who nothing except the Qur'än.

pp. 2 -. al-. pp. 2. p. is guidance sure. using all possible it was not written after in the shape of a mushaf. e. recorded. 245.may have written As a result secured. See for example al-Baghawi. adds these two names to the list given in 6. I. cUthmän. 3. Kitäb al-Masähif. 72 and a1-Khatib al-Baghdädi. vol. Massüd. "the book" even before in the Qur'anic doubt These records were known as 'al-Kitäb'. vol. Abü al-Dardä'. Zayd b. VI. cA1i. 20-238. p. A number of the companions were able to have their own codices 3 in addition to memorising the Qur'än. the same verses and süras in the very 6 same order). IV. Il. pp. it took the book form. IV. 487. Salim (the mawlä of Ubayy b. 5. al-Nasä'i'. vol. Tagyid a1-cI m. p. Fadä'il 4. II. Kacb. 1. cAbd Allah are the following. 518. The most famous among them who are said to have taught many others. V. 50-88. the entire revelation is said ' kept in a written form and stored to have been gradually 2 in the Prophet's house. vol. p. 34 . Manähil. b. Isäbah fi TamyTz al-Sahäbah. 13. p. was to be done later the Prophet had passed away. Thäbit. vol. 2) "This is the book in it to those who fear God". Fath al-Bari. Manähil. Bukhäri. Abu Müsä al-AshcarT4 5 Abu Hudhayfah) and Mucädh b. 521-522. Sharh al-Sunnah. Jabal. without al-Qur'an. Sharh al-Sunnah. Thus according to these accounts the Qur'an was memorised by quite a good number of the companions and was all written down in the form which has come to us (i. down anything other than the Qur'än to efface it. for instance it is so described verse (S. Though the Qur'an was fully writing this materials. pp. vol. 489 and Materials. p.

519. 3. . when seventy of the Huffäz were killed fighting against the self-proclaimed Prophet Musaylimah. but in the young and newly converted Muslims the Qur'an. see also pp. 2 When the time the period was no more abrogation the formal and the revelation to be carried had come for compilation Burton argues against this view on the basis of his rejection However a stronger it would be pointless of the two modes of mansükh al-tilawah3 favour would be the fact into a bound mushaf until that argument in its to compile the Qur'an the process of revelation was completed. . Qurtubi. VII 1. H. 54-55 below for a further of the number killed. 2. C Compilation of the Qur'an during the reigns of Abu Bakr and Uthman The companions and their teaching followers relied on memorising the Qur'an. 4. 1 to it. book form until in Yamämah 4 the same the The Qur'an remained uncompiled in official year 12 A. p. 50. For a further discussion discussion . vol. See pp. 184. I. Sharh al-Sunnah. . -al: -NawawT . See The Collection of this question. who that this during was because the abrogation of the revelation of some verses took of the Qur'an. 78-90 below. not be*misgüided if The reason for not compiling these records in an official mushaf during the time of the Prophet is explained states place there by al--Baghawi. out. al -NawawT Sahi h Muslim bi -Sharp vol. 35 of the Qur'än.The Prophet is also reported as having said before his death: "I have left you stick amongst you Muslims that which you-will. was sealed. p. the book of Allah". p. Passim. vol. V. addition they had their personal codices and manuscripts.

. the work by comparing versions him. of those of out the who were available He then wrote 1. V. of compilation he was the well known scribe of the revelation (K-atib al-Wahy al-Mashhür). the loss Abu Bakr gave consideration about it.: al-Kämil. 287-8. knowledgable. vol. 13. 3. II. pp. IX. 346-350 . vol. pp. Fath al-Bari. p. 36 . he had checked through the text with the Prophet after the Prophet had recited it in the presence of Gabriel for the last time.number or forty of Bi'r Maunah. asked Zayd b. Thäbit to take on the responsibility since he had the following 1. hlaghäzi. and he started with the memorised and written in Madinah. pp. after thought carefully He then some hesitation. I. he was young. II. and agreed with cUmar to the matter. 2. 2 he was skilled at writing the Qur'an. Tärikh al-Tabärr. vol. 545-549. l Huffäz having been killed earlier in the battle cUmar came to Abu Bakr with the suggestion that the Qur'an should be compiled in a single of some parts of the records book as a safeguard against or the death of the Huffäz. 171-172. he was a h5fiz of the Qur'an. wise and reliable. pp. and Bukhari. 5. 4. vol. Zayd was afraid could not do something finally Prophet's the huffäz persuaded record the Prophet had not asked him to do. qualifications. al-'Wägidi. of carrying out this task as he felt that he Abu Bakr the 2. vol.

al-Mugnic. K-ufah. military . vol. vol. Itgän. who was the executor of 'her father. Bukhari. the daughter cUmar. CUmar This was because had died before the installation of 2 the third Khalifa. he died. vol. p. 21. al-Yamän was in the battle zones of Armenia and Azerbaijan Muslims as to the reading at what he had witnessed and witnessed the disputes between of the Qur'än. p. p.Bakr and kept it in his custody_. pp. VI. Hudhayfah b. Many complaints action CUthmän. Tafsir. Tabari.entire text in book form and presented the mushaf to Abu. of and the wife of the Prophet. then with who received it The mushaf remained with Abu Bakr until cUmar until the end of his life and then with Hafsah. I. 21. Such disputes among the Muslims. p 102. I. 10-16. p. were brought before these disputes led to occurred and in the him to take urgent and division before in many places. 478. and 1. 2. and companions and the followers they were sent to in versions which differed also because the companions were reciting ahruf they were permitted to use. the Qur'an in the seven cUthmän disputes By the time of among the readers became so acute that they were accusing each other of unbelief urging fighting (kufr). Fath al-Bari. Basrah. al-Masähif. 8. 37 . 3 in Madinah itself. and was herself a Häfizah. Syria camps (ajnäd). and came hurriedly He became very annoyed and in alarm to Madinah vol. 3. IX. At this time disputes arose about the reading of the'Qur'an among the Qurrä' and readers because some of the were teaching students in the cities in various ways.

479. 5. so that we may compile the Quranic materials the manuscript to you". 479. ibid. Bukhäri. cAbd A11äh b. 111-112. Thäbit. Bukhäri. Harith the manuscripts men "If in perfect copies. "0 chief reading of the Qur'an. Thäbit on any point in it in the dialect tongue".5. p. p. Hafsah sent it copies and return cUthmän. be burnt. write was revealed in their written many copies. Vo1.hi CUthmänthen ordered Zayd b. al-Zubayr. VI. Hishäm cAbd b. CUthmän said to the you disagree with Zayd b. discussion of this. Save this He Ummah of the believers! before they differ ' before". a1-Känil. III. Consequently consulted reading about the Book as the Jews and the Christians did cUthmän called for the Muhäjirün and Ansär and him to unify the them. to write Qura:. 3 (lisän) of Quraysh as the Qur'an the Qur'än. vol. 1. For further 4. 3. pp. b. 2. 4 Hafsah. Sacid al-CAs and al-Rahmän b. vol. VI. They did so and when they had the original manuscript to cUthmän returned cUthmän sent to every Muslim region one copy of what they hadcopied. written and ordered that all the other Quränic materials whether 5 in fragmentary manuscripts or whole copies.cUthmän to and suggested a unified addressed him saying. 38 . agreed and encouraged cUthmän sent a message to Hafsah saying: "Send us the manuscript in perfect to of the Qur'an. and they all 2 of the Qur'5n. see Ch.

171. because he from any abrogated versions. them that which was agreed upon1 and that he did not do anything without consultation and the consent of all companions. they were 1. see below. they wrote that down they ensured were revised according to the final revel ation. 39 . vol. the rebels agreed to have confronted cUthmän cUthmän burnt only the and said to them that masähif which varied from the final revelation and preserved for . of CAll pp. p. VII. 112. 2. I. vol. 260-261. and furthermore added that if have done the same thing. the learned men and the leading figures cUthmän with and were happy about the decision including against CAli who is reported he had made. al-Bidäyah-wa-al-Nihäyah. 90-93. 3 Methods adopted in this We may reasonably investigation authenticity that into compilation the scribes of the Qur'an made every in order possible assume that the text to secure the of the written that all form compared with the verses and süras memorised versions. For a discussion in Shicite sources. III. pp. he was in the place of cUthmän he would 2 CUthmän's action and agreed In fact Muslims in general admired to it united unanimously with the exception them in one mushaf. Manähil.The companions. it cleansed of Ibn MasCud. p. of the position 3. which may and freed from any Abad reading or any interpretation have been added to the text. al-Kämil vol.

Massüd. the reading of Abu Bakr. which was taught used to read the Qur'an the last Ramadan before once in every he passed away he read it Zayd b. where the "l ýýg `g is sometimes said to be read Al9 word aw but the authentic in the final one is the first. cUmar. Sharh al-Sunnah. Zayd b. b. cAbd Allah revelation. charge of the compilation for the first compilation 1. pp. Thäbit and read it to the Prophet and taught his For this reason also he was in and the second one. pp. Thäbit bore witness to this with the Prophet and wrote it Hence this final revelation and read it way. The Prophet Ramadan.convinced that the text revelation. the latter having been abrogated Thus the people agreed unanimously with compilation Abu Bakr. was as it and that had been recited there by the Prophet verses in the final were no abrogated in the mushaf (for example Surat al-Jumucah S. 257-260. 2 because he wrote it students what he had been taught. Ayah 9. down for him in this reading was named the reading of Zayd b. was in accordance with the first It is stated in a sound hadith cUthmän since his new of compilation (riwäyahsahihah)that cUthmän. also he witnessed 40 . the Muhajirün and the Ansär was the same. but in twice. 525-526. V. 62. Manähil. Thäbit. I. vol. CA11. that It is narrated the final to 2. and was the common reading to them after with the final Gabriel revelation. vol. 1 revelation).

according Ibn Abi Däwud (316/928) narrates Muhammad b. 112. p. "Kuthayyir b. 2. vol.The scribes 1 to Bukhäri. 479. Kacb. being from the Muhäjirün and the Ibn Sirin adds. Fath al-Bari. 3 and Sacid was more eloquent Those who say that the scribes were twelve include dictated and others who wrote. 41 . and see p. Thäbit and Said in writing b. 1. ibi.and he was one of the scribes in writing when they differed it. VI. Kuthayyir b. vol. and that Ubayy b. VI. that Ansär. Zayd b. Aflah. 5 Amir in Abi-C four Bukhäri. p. Malik b. Kacb was one of them. and a -Masähif. vol. but do not mention all scribes who names. alcAs. Sirin on the authority of (110/729) that the scribes whom cUthman instructed to compile the Qur'an were twelve. III. 19 and al-Masähif. see also p. Ubayy b. of their al-CAsgaläni found out that nine of them are mentioned in various 4 They are. 25-26. Anas). p. to the addition mentioned (grandfather of Mä1ik b. 5. 19. IX. 38 of this chapter and al-Kämil. I think something they used to postpone writing it corresponded to the final postponing was to make sure that 2 revealed version". Aflah told me . p. of the compilation of cUthmän were four. vol. of this for that this It is said also that the scribes two. 479. pp. revelation the reason were only that in Zayd was the best pronunciation. Fath al-Bari. 3. IX. p. pp-25-26- 4. in places by Ibn Abi Däwudand gives a list of them. vol. 38 above.

argues that in fact there was no one from Thagif 2 as they were either from Quraysh or the Ansär. Fath-al-Bärii. 3. Abi Bakr adds "but the followers of Ibn Mascüd did not agree with him then Ibn Mascüd asked cUthman for permission to return to Madinah as he did not wish to stay in K-ufah. 444. pp. Thäbit was a young boy playing with children. p. 52. IX. to have been annoyed when he was not asked to join the committee set up to compile the Qur'än. the names of the other p. Yah b. 11. p. and gave his mushaf back to 1. Mä1ik and cUmar b. 'p. but when help was needed to write sent to the provinces. by the Prophet while 4 Zayd b. p. vol. andal-Tamhid a The author Muhammadb. For a modern attempt to establish scribes.5. 59. V. feeling that he had been ignored or insulted. As a result Ibn Mascüd is said cUthmän to be burnt. see also Qurtubi. to have refused to give his his mushaf back to students to follow him in and to have told this. 18. al-Musnad. 53. 19. Qurtubi. 325. p. He tries beginning to evaluate these views and suggests that it of the compilation was at the when Zayd and Sacid were the sole scribes. Ibn Massüd is quoted as having said that he had been taught seventy süras. wa-l-Bayän fi Magtal al-ShahidCUthmän. 19. vol. vol. He was given permission and came to Madinah some months before he passed away". Anas b. Ibn P1asCüdis said out more copies to be 3 the other scribes were added. see Mac al-Masähif. II. 52-52. p. I. 92 and Diräsät fi al-Thagäfah al- 4. p. vol. Fath al-Bari. IX. decision Ibn Abi Däwüd states however that Ibn Massüd reviewed his 5 cUthmän. al-Khattäb commandedthat'ho Ibn Abi Dawüd states that in our one should dictate masähif except those who belonged to Quraysh and Thagif'' al-cAsgaläni among the scribes. 42 . 2. p. p. Allah b. and Ibn Sä d al-Tabagät. al-Masähif. al-Masähif.CAbd CAbbäs. I. vol. vol. ibid. Islämiyyah.

292. at the time that was in Kufah. was in charge of Abu Bakr and of of the Thus Zayd had the privilege of being a scribe and the man who was in charge of the first compilation and of the second. of compilation cUthmän. p. 4. vol. the compilation which were taking did nothing. cUthmän by the in different provinces. pp. Leather (adim) Pieces of cloth (rigäc )2 1. II. Miftäh al-Sacadah. p. 3. vol. VI. except to reproduce the very same pages compiled and Zayd b. Bukhäri. 478-481. action He for in Madinah`. Fath a1-Bari. Thin white stones (likhäf) Boards (alwäh) Scapula Saddles bones (aktäf) (agtäb) 6. I. 19. and . 7. vol. of inscription available of the. 43 vol. al-Muharrar al-Wajiz. 64.cUthmän The reason for not including is discussed by al-cAsgaläni who points CUthmän the name of Ibn Mascüd out that Ibn Massüd was not the committee. 5. Qur'än compilation during at the time of the first of the Prophet are said to have included (cusub) the following: Palm stalks 2. IX. 2. revelation on both occasions. p. Thäbit in the times command of Abu Bakr in one mashaf. ' The materials The materials the lifetime 1. while CUthmän appointed was in a hurry in order to take urgent of the Qur'än place to put an end to the disputes Furthermore.

one to compile al-cAsgaläni that Abi Bakr was the first the Qur'än on paper4 and in one mushaf. I. this is an anachronism. 5. Potsherds (khazaf) Shells (sadaf)1 Z Ribs (adläc) Parchment (ragq)3 took place during the reign of Abu Bakr When the compilation the materials were not similar states to those of the first compilation. p. Fath a1-Bäri. p. 16. p. 6. 222p. 10. In this which was parchment at the time. al-Muharrar 3. vol. used to come with reported that individuals who used to ask one of the scribes al-Bayhagi. He supports his view by (124/741). a version attributed is not authentic leaf stalks. period in Arabia. He points out that it and palm 6 He adds to Ibn Shihäb al-Zuhri that Zayd wrote for Abu Bakr on leather he rewrote it for cUmar on paper.8. al-Wajiz. ibid. 9. 64. The author interprets ragq as waraq also it is connection a waragah to the Prophet See on it for him. IX.. and that that the correct and palm leaf version is that the Qur'an was written on leather was rewritten before the time of Abi Bakr and it 7 on parchment during the reign of Abu Bakr. 16. to write vol. 7. 2. ibid. 11. I. al-Tamhid. stalks 1. vol. since use at this even papyrus was not in Presumably what is intended is parchment. vol. Ibn al-Bagillani. 4. al-Awä'il. Clearly al-Sunan al-Kubrä. VI. 214. p. 44 .

a1-Masähif. 6. p. 6 Likewise in many other primary or secondary sources no reference is made to a particular Later on reference mentioning number of masähif. a modern study it in existence It is written thing is argued that the oldest mushaf is that found in the Mosque of cAmr b. al-Zafzäf. 3 was not known in the Islamic The sending of the masähif to the provinces The number of masähif sent to the cities old sources no fixed the authority number is mentioned. 12. Malik says "CUthmän sent to every. 479. is not specified. a1-TaCrif bi al-Qur'an wa-a1-Hadith. al-Thacalibi. al-Ma carif. Thimär al-Qulub. ibid. ibid. VI-.In. p. 1. 4. 84-85. in Egypt which is not far 2 Paper none of the old masähif which exist today use it. p. 20. -vol. 3. 2. on parchment which seems to be the best thing like the Qur'an which is intended for an l important to have a long life. al-cAs in Egypt. 45 . world before(l34/75i). Muslim ufuq min province a copy of what they had copied" "I1ä kull Äfäg al-Muslimin"4 Ibn Abi Dawüd states that "CUthmän sent a mushaf to every Muslim battlefield"3 and "he distributed masähif to the people". 5. Although papyrus was of course available from Arabia. p. 160 and 218.. However al-Bukhäri In the on of Anas b. pp. 543 and Latäif pp. Bukhäri. is made to four copies with or without Those who mentioned the number of names of cities.

that 3 a1-CAsgalän. a copy being sent CUthmän kept a copy for to Küfah. p. 2. Nukat al-Intisär. al-Masähif. IX. p. Basrah and Makkah. Fath al-Bari. 3. al-Wajiz. i adds one to the previous 4 is they are five. CAshir Ibn argues that five Damascus (shim). Basrah. Irshäd al-Sari. 11 and al-Murshid 4. Hamzah. 46 . 359. p.. p. while 1. while cUthmän. 6. of the fourth adds copy was kept in Madinah in the custody al-Dani that this is the opinion of the vast majority four of scholars. Ku-fah and Madinah. 20. p. p. cAmr Abu a1-Däni which three (444/1052) states that there were four copies of were sent to Kufah. 74. 96/714) is quoted as supporting 1 CUthmän that the number of masähif sent by was four. the view stated that his mushaf was copied from the Küfan mushaf which was one of the four 60 2 masähif sent to the cities. VII. al-Mugnic. ibid. vol. Yamanand Bahrayn. 34. vol. while ' himself. in the names of the cities to which the masähif Ibrahim al-NakhaCi (d. 5. one of the seven canonical readers. by al-Qastalläni 6 mentioned by al-CAsgaläni. 35.masähif differ were sent. p. He is followed who opts for the number masahif were sent to Makkah. stating the famous saying According to Ibn a1-Bägilläni they are five. 535. cUthmän kept a Basrah.

774/1372) except that the latter puts Egypt in the place of Bahrayn. 2. II. I. vol. but adds that there was an eighth copy which was that retained 7 cUthmän by himself which was known as al-Musha. Fadä'il the later al-Qur an he gives the list he mentions quoted above. p. I. pp. a1-Bid5yah wa a1-Nihäyah. Yemen. 1. says: cUthmän the rest sent seven masähif. vol. p. 7. vol.sixth copy for himself which is known as "al-Imam""1 a1-Zurgäni tried to weigh the evidence for the existence of copies five as five and six. 47 . p. Bahrayn. 7. but in al-Bidäyah. Tahdhib Tarikh Dimashq.f al-Imam. 34 and al-Murshid al-Wajiz. 6. in his M1-Räfici Egypt in the place of Bahrayn. 216. p. p. ibid. Damascus. 3. 4. 250/864). vol. He suggested that the scholars who counted them did not count the personal copy of cUthmän. I. Abu Hätim a1-Sijistäni'(d. He was followed Ibn Kathir in this 5 by Ibn C4 Asäkir (d. 833/1.429) opts for the number mentioned by Abu Hätim. 571/]175) and (d. p. 403. 20-21. al-Nashr. and Küfah3 to Makkah. In. al-Masahif. 5. in his a1-Bidäyah. III. and he 2 therefore supported the view which counted them as six. 73. choosing the names suggested by Ibn Kathir. keeping one in Mad'inah and distributing Basrah. Ibn al-Jazari (d. 6 book Tarikh Adäb al-cArab supports this view. Manähil a1-CIrfän. vol. 44.

places. Abu al-Rahmän 3 CAmir CAbd b. 403-404 and Mac al-Masähif. I. 1471. 2 cUthmän is said to have that. to the list given by Abu. and never mention any other mushaf. Shihäb to Sham. 264-300.Hatim. Yemenor a9-Jazirah there is not one piece of evidence pointing in. 98-131 and Ab--u 3. This is also supported by the fact entrusted five Qurrä' with the masahif.Finally. 4. Manähil. 90-91. students and followers since Then their generations seems to be no place for Egypt. to Küfah and al-Qays to Basrah. 48 pp. vol. Bahrayn. (284/897) counts nine copies adding two 1 Egypt and al-Jazirah. while the assumption that there were seven or more masähif is less likely. these directions. Damascus (Sham). al-. p. pp. vol. al-Mugnic. al-Sä'ib cAbd Allah to teach the people of Madinah. Makkah. . and sent to Makkah. He appointed Zayd b. Fadä'il pp. is that all of the scholarly works on Qirä'ät The reason for this refer constantly to the masahif of Madinah. The earliest cities reports which do not mention a fixed number of cities were can be interpreted in favour of the argument for five disputes since these were the main places in which textual taking place at that time. 403-404. 1. al-Yacqubi we may remark that the most reliable evidence In conclusion suggests that the number of masähif was six. pp. Thäbit b. vol. Manähil. al-Mughirah al-Sulami CAbd b. taught the following 4 Thus there in the same way that they had been taught. Tärikh a1-YaCqübi. II. 1. 2. pp. Kufah and Basrah and al-Mushaf al-Imam. Qur'an cUbaydah.

his This is supported mushaf was references cUbayd Ab--u that he by the fact before for when cUthmän personal him and he was reading. 138-139. In this respect al-Shätibi from that of states that Näfic cUbayd Madinah Abü to while used to quote used quote the mushaf of 4 c that of Uthmä n. Tafsir. 12 and Mäoa -a1-Masähif. mushaf and mentions is reported al-Qäsim b. 49 . 89. pp. Bukhäri. 3. Salläm quotes from this 2 Ibn al-Jazari also has seen it. p. there is no trace of any suggested date other that the event took place after among the Qurrä' Hudhayfah had witnessed the dispute of Armenia. -. Ilaca ä1-Masähif. vo1-. a1-Tamhidwia-a1-Bay5n. 5. cAgTlat Aträb a1-Qasä'id. 89. p. pp. pp. 481. 89. vo1. 59-61. VI. 3 to have seen this Moreover the mushaf of Madinah is different cUthmän himself. cUthmän There are very early the mushaf of which is known as al-Imäm. and Kitäb a1-Masähif. 2. 11-26. Fadä'i1 al-Qur'an. pp.The addition takes into account that of a sixth cUthman's mushaf may be reasonable in that it personal was killed ' copy. mushaf. reign of the compilation of the Qur'an CUthmän in the than c time of Uthmän. p. 264-300 and Maca a1-Masähif. Tabari. The dating of the compilation In all ahädith which mention of the Qur'an in the. Abu cUbaydah. p. Kitäb p. 4.-I. 5 in the battlezone 1.

534. and that if must have taken place two years He adds that in another he years and nine months after this is so then the compilation and three months after version it his installation. ibid. IX. He quotes of Muscab b. if are said not to be authentic. is given as thirteen years instead of fifteen=4 compares the two views and concludes that the event must have taken place one year after the installation of cUthmän which can be taken as the end of the twenty fourth year of the Hijrah5 or the beginning of the twenty fifth quoted by a1-CAsgaläni they were sound. the year 26 A. vol. twelve the death of the Prophet. 6. i. Irshäd al-Sari 50 . which suggests 2. only Wagqäs. Abi 0 People. p. However both versions 6 Indeed. this is the first that it who suggests was in (24/644). in the as Khalifah". 4. He states opinion al-CAsgaläni reports. I. al-Suyüti. e. 246. p. ibid. IV. vol. in the year twenty three of the Hijrah. Tärikh al-Tabari. Fath al-Bärl. he also mentions another version vol. Itgän.al-Tabari event. 170. In this he was followed by al-Qastalläni. Sacd b. of cUthmän took place after cUmar's death at the end installation of Dhü'l-Hijjah. VII. 3. 17. p. 5. as saying "cUthman preached and said fifteen years elapsed since the Prophet passed away and you differ 3 in the recitation al-cAsgaläni argues that the of the Qur'5n". ibid. it a fixed date for this opted for He says. p. p. H. al-Murshid al-Wajiz. vol. 1. and tried to support by other "This event took place in the year twenty five third CUthmän's installation or second year of Ibn Abi Däwud on the authority that of the Hiirah. 59.

* Vo1. p. 4. other suggestions would have been brought into al-CAsgaläni also says "It is claimed by some of our contemporaries that the event took place in the year thirty does not quote any reference of the Hijrah". Brockelmann. 2. but he The contemporary whom he quotes as suggesting the year thirty of the Hijrah al-Nashr fi earlier is Ibn al-Jazari'. Muhammadb. although he does 2 He is. 58. III. For example Abu al-Fidä'. than Ibn al-Jazari In some western scholars' according to their compilation view the event took place in (33/653) Hence the 5 dating of the conquest of Armenia. 7. pp. al-Mukhtasar p. wa-al-Bayän. al-Masähif. and no the discussion. fi Tarikh al-Bashar. who is reported to have refused to give his mushaf cUthmän back to and to have told his students not to hand their 6 is said to have died at the end of the masähif over to be burnt. Latä'if History pp. 167. 51 `-' . I. which is Ibn Mascüd. that view. 1. p. Fath. p. 64. Peoples. 6. 4 without opting for either of them. al-Ishärat. 17. al-Kamil. al-Tamhid p. who fixed In fact this year in his book who is al-Qirä'ät * al-CAshr. however which stands against this There is one fact. 50. 3 Some scholars mention both dates this by some other scholars. 13-18. 3. 1 or give any evidence.: followed in not give any reference to support his view. p. I. Ibn al-Athir mentions the same date. For example. Yahyä b. Abi Bakr. vol. I. of the Islamic vol. of the Qur'an would have taken place at that time. 111-112. IX. vol. 5. vol.the scholars would have accepted his opinion unanimously.

However. as narrated by Abu Mikhnaf. 459. 9. 28. states that it was in 25 A. al-Tabari. above dating for the compilation must have taken place earlier. p. to Abu NuCaym al-CAsgalani attributes and others the year 32 A. Ghäyat al-Nihäyah. p. ). 526.. H. 324. p. al-Isäbah. 83. the narrations differed in dating the event. Il. 7. 10. al-Riyäd al-Mustataba. They are: 5 3 6 4 Ibn Qutaybah. to Yahyä b. p. date Hudhayfah himself participated The first '0 Then mentioned. ibid. vol. H. Bukayr. vol.year (32/652). al-Macarif. p. p. and 9 in three of them. 109. In fact there were many campaigns of conquest in Armenia. 307. al-Tabari states that Hudhayfah was directed to the conquest of 1. p. IV. 104. Ansäb al-Ashräf. as above. 2. IV. al-Kämil. 308vol. 52 . 5. p. al-Isticäb. al-CÄmiri. H. a1-Yamän was present. 4.. II. is 24 A. p. since this and these events compilation has been connected with the conquest of Armenia in which Hudhayfah b. a1-Balädhuri (279/892). p. vol. pp. VI. vol. and the year 33 A. vol. 8. 3. I. Il. Tärikh al-Tabari.. 190-192. vol. must be too late. Ill. H. 369. 7C 8 If this date is correct the a1-Dhahabi. I. 6. Tahdhib al-Tahdhib. 2 The -following scholars agree that Ibn Mascud died at Madinah in (32 A. l or in 33 A. vol. al-Tabari then adds that it is narrated by others that the event Ibn al-Athir was in 26 A. see Tahdhib al-Tahdhih. vol. Tärikh al-Islam. Tarikh al-Tabari. H. H. H. and Ibn Abd al-Barr.

7. was in that region leading the people of Küfah. al-Kämil. in other places does not mention anything about the masähif. vol. 4. pp. event is suggested by some and supported by Ibn al-Jazari7 and followed other scholars. told cUthmän Consequently among the Qurrä'. opinion it the first narration of Abü Mikhnaf does not seem to be but in his for a1-Balädhuri (279/892) on one occasion quotes it. vol. 277-288. The other versions he gives do not 4 suggest any fixed date. vol. Tärikh al-TabarT. p. pp. pp. al-Kämil. as mentioned in other detailed sources. 306-307. 2. III. 281. 111-112. IV. III. al-Kämil. al-Nashr. consulted the companions 2 Two years later who agreed with him to compile the Qur'ä n. Ill.. pp. Ibn al-Athir states that Hudhayfah. 306-307. 6. III. I. 8 1. 3. p. See p. vol. above. 111-112. pp. Tärikh al-Tabari. 8. Leaving aside the issues raised by the death of Ibn MasCüdin the year 32 A. vol. H. al-Kämil. Futuh al-Buldän. IV. is not the best one. 131-133. pp. Rabica in the year al-TabarT who mentions some small details here and However (30/650). when he returned after this c Uthmän what he had witnessed in the battlefield conquest. In conclusion authentic.al-Bib (Darband) as a help to cAbd al-Rahmän b. although they correspond with the events in the conquest 5 of the year (30/650). 131-133. vol. 3 (32/650) Hudhayfah'. vol. pp. 52 vol. Tarikh al-Tabari. 5. 53 . 7. it of the compilation by Ibn al-Athir6 is reasonable to opt for the opinion took place in the year (30/650)' which that the. IV.

166. 3. cämmah Nazrah fi Tar kh 54 . 90-91. I. 14. Essay. p. of was not enough time for the Qur'an. anything except when two witnesses it is argued that if Abü Bakr had participated compilation it would have become an-official since if it which it was not. in the process of the mushaf for the state. cUmar is reported also that asked about a verse. 2. 1 It cUmar Some scholars argue that was the first In support of this they quote an account given by Ibn Sacd (230/244). p. there might death. III. Concluding Essay. and he would not accept 3 Furthermore testified to it. a1-Tabagät a1-Kubrä. Battle it is said that Abu. and when he was informed that it has been preserved in the memory of a certain man who was killed he ordered the Qur'an to be on the day of Yamämah. vol.The validity of Abu Bakr's compilation who compiled the Qur'an. ibid. pp. 4. a great task is argued. of the compilation in this Qurrä' occasion. but would have passed into the custody of to HafsaKdaughter of cUthmän. pp. that it Moreover among the Qurrä' was not such a considerable be feared 5 that some parts number of great of the Qur'an would be lost by their 1. it like that killed after the for more than fifteen of Yamämah. were it would not have been transferred cUmar. al-Figh al-Islämi. which. 2. anything from the Prophet to bring it. Concluding cAbd alrQädir. 5. 14-15. 2 He asked every person who had learned compiled in one mushaf. Itgan.Bakr did not live months. vol.4 In addition. p.

VI. 4. ibid. of Yamämah do indeed include many learned men like Hudhayfah. 76 below. mean that it CUmar himself. Ibn Kathircounted over of them. cUmar's mushaf then came into custody after remained with him until his death. 55 . Thäbit Sälim the Mawlä of Abü b. 90-91. al-Shammas. However. 334-340. could be said that of the Qur'an in According to one book to Abu Bakr and to assist the hadith discussed above he persuaded both Abu Bakr and Zayd b. VI. vol. wa-al-Nihäyah. Kharshah-andmany others. in answer to these arguments it the role of cUmar was to suggest the compiling him in this. was a personal copy belonging to of the succeeding Khalifah. Zayd b. 3. fi Tärikh 2. 477. 4 fifty Hbd a1-05dir.becauseshe was his executor. Qays b. Bukhäri. Abi 3 Dijän2h Simäk b. reasonable for the compilation he died before the installation The time-scale Qur'än. Furthermore the lists of Qurrä' killed at the Battle to help him in the task. ýNazrahCÄmmah 1. a1-Khattäb. pp. al-Islami. and because many people rallied which he carried out with the assistance 2 the companions who had memorised the Qur'an. pp.Furthermore lifetime the Qur'an was committed to writing during the of the Prophet1 as discussed above. especially if is quite of the we take into account the fact that Zayd was down round of experienced in the compilation the revelation of the Qur'an as he used to write for the Prophet.. Thäbit and supervised the work of compilation. a1-Bidäyah. al-Fiqh p. when it The and his installation was then transferred This does not because to his daughter Hafsah. See also p.vol.

vol. remains since that there would be further others. p. this in written would not have allayed since it was not compiled in a book form. but was written 1 on a variety of materials. 6. - came from 56 . ibid. p. -p. Bukhäri. pp. Ibn Abu Däwüd in his a7-Masähif. version is said not to be authentic (Itqan. vol. vol. p. of missing more learned the fact Qurrä'. f Ibn Sacd2 and al-Suyüti3 do not contradict if we consider he used of al-Bukhäri CUmar 4 which is attributed it to Abu Bakr. Thäbit to compile the Qur'an and told them to sit in front of the mosque and to write down what two witnesses testified This to be part of the Qur'an. 5. I. 14. of the Prophet. was the one who suggested and supervise to help Zayd b. vol. al-Burhän fi CUlüm al-Qur'an. VI. to Abu Bakr. 4. 238.Even if there was still their fear number were not so great. I. Ill. Thäbit the compilation. I. cUmar who persuaded Abu Bakr. but according. 2. to the authentic p. the suggestion Abu Bakr appointed CUmar and Zayd b. as we have seen. al-Tabagät al-Kubrä. even though the Qur'an may have existed form during the lifetime the fear. 3. 166. states that Essay. p. 476-477. 167) Jeffery in his Concluding a tradition of Bukhärl. Finally that that the riwäyaho. might while fail battles which would inevitably the danger that cause the death of the younger Qurrä' there was always some part to preserve of the revelation. Moreover. Itgan. and that 5 1. : indicates that Abu Bakr did not argues that this contradiction compile any official mushaf. 2. vol.

p. by Ibn Ham who was seven months and six days of Yamämah 4 Some other scholars the installation of Abu Bakr. whether it the date of the day of Yamämah. 7 as this ended in 12 A. p. 8. that opts to reconcile by suggesting but finally the conquest for the year began in 11 A. 332. 12th year of the Hijrah$ 1. ibid.. doubts on the compilation of Abu Bakr on the grounds that there is no agreement on was in the 11th or i-. 477. quotes 3 is said Ibn Qänic as having This date is supported at the end of this states later that after that year. Tärikh al-Tabari. p. 17 2. 281-301.. date. 2 of the Qur'an during the battle Ibn Kathir 1 of Yamämah. H. VI. Essay.Dating of the compilation during Abu Baler's reign the reign This of Abu Bakr took to have been in said that it was The compilation place after 11 A. the conquest it. H. is the most widely accepted. 3. ibid. VI.. 5. VI. 326. 226. H. according to him. H. e. Bukhäri. wa-al-Nihäyah. al-Bidäyah 6. vo1. vol. Concluding 57 . and 12 A. 4. p. al-Bidäyah ova-a1-Nihäyah. vol.. 14. 7. Jumal Futüh al-Isläm. pp. p. H.. vol . was in 12 A. Ibn Kathir 5 attributes He tries this date to mention a group of biographers these opinions and chroniclers. In the light of the above discussion it seems difficult to accept the argument of some researchers who throw. III. p. 341.

reasonable account of a 1. 5. 477. p. III. while Ibn KathTr quotes Khallfah b. to account of these events existence theory are logically necessary of the mushaf as we have it However to maintain in practice means to deny the validity of such an immense number of accounts to the contrary addition that Burton's view is surely untenable. VI. vol.The number of Qurrä' slain The number of slain is estimated to be between six hundred1 and seven 2 hundred Muslims. among them fifty of Muslims from the seven hundred men were Qurrä'. Burton. p. Tärikh al-Tabari. p. p. vol. 7. 50. of Abu Bakr and neither of these that for neither the this of the compilations that we should the view of Burton This compilations took place-. vol. 340. 296. . Khayyät (240/854) as having said that the total was four hundred and fifty 4 Muhäjirün and Ansär. p. The Collection of the Qur'än. I. 4. vol. Qurtubi. of some scholars all certain that a considerable number of Qurrä' were slain at Yamämah. III. vol. 296. al-Tabari states that among them were over three 3 hundred men of the Muhäjirün and Ans-r. 3. Bukhäri. 5 However it is while others consider the number seventy to be correct. of In the account given here which is based on a consideration and inherently the sources provides a logical historical process. 239. a1-Bidäyahwa-al-Nihäyab. vol. p. I. p. Tärikh al-Tabari. Qurtubi. slain In the opinion men. cUmar As is reported to have said "Casualties Qurrä' of the Qur'an on the day of the Battle Before cUthmän leaving the subject consider 7 were heavy among the 6 of Yamämah". 58 6. VI. 50. view is based on the opinion in order today. 2.

vol. while the mushaf of Ibn Mascüd began with al-Bagarah. vol. 66-69 in this p. 13. vol. 6.The arrangement of the süras The suras of the Qur'an were not arranged chronologically were revealed. sürat al-CAlaq would have been the There are also some verses revealed 2 in Madinah which were put in Makkan süras. i. p. pp. and in their opinion ijtihäd of the suras of each category. because of the different masähif. Itgan. 59 vol. I. 176. was only that the Qur'än in its according to the length arrangement is divided into four al-Mathäni of the süras. I. chapter. I. for as they instance sürah II was revealed. Qurtubi. the Hijrah 1 sürah revealed in Makkah. 256. They Others say that ijtihäd mean by this categories al-Mi'in. Qurtubi. Itgän. 23. 38-47. al-Burhän. 4 cImrän. Asrär Tartib al-Qur'an. 5 and al-Mufassal. p. Itgän. Kitäb Tanzil al-Qur'an. of these four categories. I. I. pp. while 6 all in the arrangement agreed about the order and contents 1. then Al took place only in limited areas. 3. p. 5. vol. p. I. p. e. . 179-180. p. There is an argument among the scholars as to whether the (tawgif) or by the süras were arranged according to the revelation endeavour of the companions (ijtihäd). then al-Nisä'. Some scholars argue that the süras were arranged by the companions. They were arranged differently. It arrangements of their cAli was arranged personal is said that the mushaf of chronologically. "etc. I. al-Burhän. 1. in Madinah after (XLVI) was the first while sürat al-CAlaq If the arrangement of the mushaf were chronological. al-Tiwäl. vol. p. 4. first sürah in the mushaf. al-Zuhri. However all scholars agree unanimously that the verses were arranged and put in their 3 order according to the revelation. vol. 61 and Ibn Taymiyyah. p. vol. 2. 59. Dagä'iq al-Tafsir. 237 and Itgän. More discussion will be forthcoming in pp. vol. 176. 68. I.

vol. and because the Prophet passed away without I where to put the basmalah. Tartib Musnad Ahmad b. I. pp. 398-399. This opinion has been refuted on the grounds that there are many evidences which indicate according to revelation without that the arrangement of the süras is a single exception. the part of al-Mufassal from S. vol. f. XVIII. 29. and one of them. except for that all süras were arranged according and IX. Itgän. of the revelation said: "We were in front of compiling Allah's the Qur'an from the fragments. Here are some of them as they have been reported a. Hanbal. p. II. 2. the Prophet as having said "I did not want to come daily". vol. Tartib Musnad. vol. 2 five and Abü Aws reported without completing the parts of the Qur'än I recite They asked the companions "How do you divide the recitation"? süras. Sunan Abi Dawud. p. p. I. vol. 229. Thäbit the scribe and arranging 3 Apostle". al-Hakim. c. 60 . suras. seven süras. was informing them surat al-Tawbah'is put after basmalah between them? surat al-Anfäl. 30. 3.Others are of the opinion to the revelation. the Qur'an for süras. "We divide eleven them three thirteen süras. XXXVIII Qäf) to the end. 1. They replied nine süras. XVIII. p. Zayd b. II. pp. 172. 44 and 61. pp. In the one case of süras VII this they rely on the following hadith: cUthmän was asked why and why there is no theme because their. b. al-Musnad.. came to the Prophet in Madinah. al-Murshid. vol. 114-116. A delegation in books of the sunan. that it He replied is one.

3. a1-Nisäbüri (828/1424) in his Tafsir l reports that whenever to put it in the Prophet received a surah*-heused to ask the scribe its place. It CAbbas is stated by Ibn that the Prophet used not to know that a surah-had been sealed until the revelation came to him with "In when it was the name of God. 4. and the Ummah'-has received from the Prophet the arrangement of every verse and surah. vol. . as they have received the recitation of the Qur'än. Gharä'ib al-Qur'an wa-Raghä'ibba1-Furgän. al-Hakim. I. "4 Referring promulgate arrangements it". not to the compilation the süras. 2. The basmalah was a sign for the sealing of the süras. al-Murshid al-WajTz. It is the same contained in this mushaf [of arrangement and style revealed to the Prophet in the very same manner of verses and suras with no difference in word order. I. Sharh al-Sunnah. 61 vol. 291. p. Sharh alSunnah. 2 In the light Abu Bakr can only of arranging of cUthmän. p. 231. 175. The same thing puts it. of the above the compilation have consisted 3 of compiling it during the reign of in one book. applies As Ibn al-Bägilläni The whole Qur'än. Most Merciful". vol. 17) "It Ibn Hazm concludes letters. p. IV. 502. LXXXV. I.c. and their places. Itgän. 32. whose compilation and writing Allah commanded. vol. vol.excluding the abrogated verses. p. words. IV. is what is CUthmän]. revealed he knew that the surah wassealed. I. is for that verses us to collect the Qur'an and süras it and to in all is as 1. p. 522 and al-Murshid al-Wajiz. p. p. p. of its to (S. 45. vol. 35. Sunan Abi Dawud. Most Gracious.

Fourth: the similarity between süras in general like 2 (XCIV). 71. I. al-Duhä XCIII and al-Inshiräh The differences between the masähif of the companions are explained as being due to the fact that they-were-. Mugaddimatän p. sürah_Iand surah II.revealed by Allah to his Prophet who taught the people accordingly. and nothing Various which is said through an authentic as a of suras about them should are given be accepted contradictory accounts of the order 1. 'vol. Third: fawäsil). fact. personal copies. If it so happened that during the absence of one of them a sürah it whenever it seemed convenient or more was revealed he would write 3 to him. al-Qur'an. with the. 260. Thus there is no one who can change anything. (similarities of verse endings or i. Tartib vol. 32 and Manähil. e. Ibn Ham. a1-Burhän. p. al-Wazn fi al-Lafz. Asrär 3. end of the beginning of predecessor. Us-ul al-Ahkäm. 62 . the end of siirah CXI (masad)and the beginning of surah CXII which ends in Akad. IV. example the end of. al-Ihkäm fi 2. We do not know about any of these masähif chain. (seven süras begin with (S. vol. XL to S. p. Some scholars Qur'an First: with say that the arrangement of the süras of the it is tawqlf: in the mushaf has features the arrangement according which prove that to the beginning of the suras Hämim letters like al-Hawamim. sürah. XLVI)). p. pp. 248-249. I. Second: its the agreement of the beginning for of a. 93.

I. I. 585. p. I. p. chain and its and has been text. 4. is not sound and should which is transmitted not be accepted with tawätur". 29-30. man is not accepted as regards the arrangement of the Qur'an. is in contradiction to the authentic reports. 329-330. p.but in any case they do not correspond to 2 the version of the final revelation. vol. vol. and Musnad vol. in fact has no basis-in its isnad. Elsewhere he says "An account narrated by a man like this. IX. Musnad. 1. includes a narrator. XVIII. and vol. 2. Bulügh al-Amäni. 60. 6. who is unknown and is regarded 3 The text (matn) of the hadith as weak by BukhärT and Tirmidhi. al-Manär. pp.330. "Hashiyahon 63 . pp. cUthman Finally the hadith which ascribes to the arrangement in various masähif. 6 of the Qur'än and says that it is impossible that all süras were arranged except these two 1. vol. al-Qur`än. 5.. for which successive narration 5 is necessary". for which is unique the arrangement to him. The chain l on the two levels_ofits Yazi'd al-Faris-ii. "veneration be to him. p. Qurtubi. AhmadShäkir argues that "This hadith is very weak and. " Rashid Ridä adopted the same opinion Muhammad stating that "a hadith narrated just by a single before Shäkir. 330. vol. 155. 3. Fada i"l 12 Musnad. al-Fihrist. p. In addition its text throws doubts on the or cUthmän beginning had added to it basmalah at the of suras as though 4 omitted some part of it as he liked. of suras VIII criticised and IX is said to be not authentic. 'p.

Fadä'i1 al-Qur'an. 4. 120-139) reveals no less than twenty six vol. but the 6 from the order of the mushaf. al-Khatib . Bukhäri. as they (the 5 (671/1272) argues companions) heard it from the Prophet". Qurtubi. p. al-Kifäyah fi CIlm al-Riwäyah. of a single chapter of a single source pp. 432. All authorities to the tradition and Gabriel "The Prophet to him during the Prophet 2 used to recite Ramadan once passed away he the 3 Rashid Rids refers the whole Qur'an every year. recited order It it to Gabriel but in the last twice to Gabriel Ramadan before and Gabriel to him".. the verdict of reason and the Furthermore. and argues that time. Thus a cursory (Sunan Ibn M jah. Malik (179/795) is reported to have said that "The Qur'an was but compiled according to the revelation. 12. 25. 1.. p. 53. pp. such references. p. al-Manär. 6. VI. inspection vol. It might be added that individual süras are repeatedly referred to by name in the hadith.suras. Ibn Kathir. al-Jämic p. 3. IX. Fadä'il al-Qur'an. recite state that the Prophet and his companions used to l süras of the Qur'an in their order in and out of the prayers. p. 2. al-Qurtubi that the arrangement of süras as a written readers are allowed to -recite differently document is tawg f. 485-486. vol. 585. I. 64 . 5. Li Ahkäm al-Qur'an. contradicts known at that of hadith that is an accepted "An isolated hadith verdict is not accepted of the Qur'an. II. vol. of these two süras must have been well principle if " 4 in the science it.

a whole book to this subject. would be. Maräsid al-. pp. He also al-Qädir second edition. al-Karim wa-Suwarih. called is treated al-Suyüti-devoted Tanäsuq al-Durar thoroughly fT Tanäsub al-Suwar3 in which the subject and rhetorically4 and studied linguistically to prove the succession of the verses and suras through all süras of the Qur'än. (peace be upon him) containing tied together These were arranged and 2 by a cord in order to ensure that none of it was lost. 1. See for instance. I. al-Jämic Hijäzi. Ahmad Cairo 1398-1978. al-Wahdah al-Mawd_üciyy4fi al-BayanT fi Tartib al--Icjäz al-Qur'an alÄy5t_. vol. 238. pieces of cloth). fi wa-al-Matälic. Different writings leaves). and al-Qäsim. and to be assembled in to be rewritten were found in the house of the Prophet the Qur'an. 60.S112. 4. Published with different Asrär Tartib al-Qur'an. of any surah. palm branches stripped Abu Bakr simply ordered it one place. a1-0ur'än 65 . I. all concludes that the order of süras is like that have come to us from the Prophet as they were If someonewere to change the order changing the structure of the verses. 3. al-Burhän fi al-Qur'an. But it was written used to command his companions to write on various materials. CUlüm 2.Furthermore al-Qurtubi of verses. like I and words. Chester Beatty Library. Matälic composed a short treatise on this subject entitled Tanäsub al-Magätic MS. (rigäc. KarTm. shoulder-blades) and (cusub. it al-Härith compilation al-Muhasibi (243/857) is reported to have said that the of the Qur'an is not an invented matter for the Prophet it down. title edited by cAbd cAtä'. p. revealed to him from Allah. 114-117. Dublin. of their (aktäf. letters. vol. the hundred and fourteen Li Ahkäm al-Qur'an. p.

. vol. 172. VI. II. Qürtubi. " the last verse revealed be CAbbas is reported Ibn in the Qur'in is (S. 37 says there recognised süras or chapters. Muir. Itgän. 46. 2. The Cora 1. the Qur'an) position. I. p. 9) "God commands justice. The süras used to be revealed on specific occasions and the verses came as an answer to a question or inquiry. vol. I.. süras is agreed to have been to the Prophet himself or his and was not left This can be supported by certain Ibn al-Zubayr pieces of evidence. them out write it has been abrogated by another verse. 'n. (in the Qur'än)? " for I will cUthmän not shift 2 Why then do you (where it is) 0 said "Leave it anything of it son of my brother from its original (i....The compilation and arrangement of verses in their süras The order of verses in the different ordained by revelation 1 companions. Bukhäri. vol. e. p. p. the doing of good and liberality to kith and kin. me to put this XVI. 3. 66 . 60. to have said that 281) "And fear the day when ye shall Then shall brought back to God. and Gabriel used 3 to tell the Prophet where to put them. and none shall every soul be paid what is earned Then Gabriel said to the were indeed be dealt with unjustly". verse sürah"(S. The Prophet is reported to have said "Gabriel here in this came to me and commanded. p. CUthmän: "This to verse which is in S-urat said without turning al-Bagarah Those who die and leave wives behind.

V. 3. vol. learned companions to teach to have said "When the CUbädah'-b. for it is one of the treasures "The end of surat al- of God's mercy from under His Throne which He gave to His people. ibid. and "He sent Mucädh and 6 Abu Musa to Yemenand commanded them to teach the people the Qur'än". al-Kalälah2to that he pointed his finger the extent to my chest and said to me "Be satisfied with the verse revealed in summer. Musnad. and. 4. 231. 76-78 and vol. ). VI.. A certain person asked the Prophet which verse he would like to bring good to him and his people and was told Bagarah. Itgan. vol. XVIII. which is in the end of surat al-Nisä ""' (S. 60-61. 28-29. Mishkät al-Masäbih (English Trans. 9. one who dies without leaving a son or a father. I. he used to ask one of-his the Qur'an. 1. i. The Prophet also used to send teachers to the far cities places to teach the Qur'an. pp. See Qurtubi.Prophet. II). e. p-458- 67 . Il. p. On one occasion. 5. 41. pp. vol. p. p. Qurtubi. p. l cUmar is reported to have said "I have not asked the Prophet about anything more than I asked him about. vol. 6. vol. vol. The Prophet used to teach his companions the Qur'än. IV). al-MabänT. "Put it after verse 280 of al-Bagarah"(S. Tartib al-Musnad. if he became busy. a1-Sämit is reported Prophet became busy and someone migrated to him he used to ask one of 5 us to teach him the Qur'än. I. 173. p. 8. 1. ý. pp. and there is no good in this 4 world and the next which it does not include".

. like unto it. then produce a Sura like thereunto. süras in the prayers among his revealed order would have been that they have a fixed points out. impossible different Furthermore. which indicates (tawgif). "l each. Itgän. God. 9. arrangement. forged. The Prophet also used to recite companions. " (to your "" Say. vol.. 1. it al-Suyüti for the companions to arrange the verses in an order from the one they used to hear the Prophet use in his 2 recitation.' it chal- However the Qur' än itself süral. ten verses.. and they used not--to-learn another unit of-ten verses before they understood their meaning and fulfilled their requirments. a1-Suyüti al-Musnad.indicates. p. "Bring aid) 13) "Or they may say. has. other than God. speak the truth. XVIII. I. (S. which is a strong argument for tawgif. II.that-. . vol. " (S. if your (doubts) are true. 174. . -. and call your witnesses or helpers (if there are any) besides 23).One of the Followers is reported to have said The companions who used to teach them the Qur'an said that they used to learn the Qur'an from the Prophet. If ye ye then ten süras whomsoever ye can. The challenge of the Qur'än continued in the Madinan period "And if ye are in doubt as to what we have revealed from time to time to our servant. . 68 . Tartib 2. XI. -. its own internal: " .. .:. p.: Thus lenged the Arabs in the Makkan period: "He forged and call it.

128-129) that and recited the verses vol. 127 of surah LX. Abi' Tälib a1-Qaysi. IX. taken from Yüsuf 1. 172-176.. I. 16 and Itgän. 69 . I. Anas. thin white stones and also from the men who knew it by heart. as supporting 1 suras. al-Bayhagi and Ibn al-Hassar him on the succession of verses in the different The problem of missing verses Zayd b. Itgän. Thäbit Then they for turn reached the end of verse God hath turned that understood their not". Makki b.. pp. Fath al-Bar-ii. is "now hath come unto you an Apostle from amongst it grieves him that ye should perish. vol. p.. yourselves: (S. 101. For instance. vol. Thäbit is quoted as saying of the compilation of Abu Bakr. it "I started looking for the Qur'an and collecting from (what was written on) palm stalks. (from the light) aside: hearts they are a people the Prophet Ubayy b. 110` '(till the end of Barä'ah) It seems that Abu Khuzaymah-wasthe only one who had kept this verse in a written form. verse of surat al-Tawbah (repentance) with Abi Khuzaymahal-AnsärT and I did The verse not find it with anybody other than him. of the verses has been 3. p. The translation _: CAli. for 3 there were many Qurrä' who had. 128-129). committed had till I found the last the whole Qur'än to memory. Bukhäri. IX. Malik b. p. vol. 70. when Zayd b. IX. ". Ibn al-Bägillani. VI. Kacb informed him that had taught him two verses after (S. 2..quotes Ibn Hajar a1-CAsgaläni.

Fath al-Bär1. 470. as clearly 1. pp. say: "God sufficeth me: He. 2. vol. to the missing that stated here. IX. by vol. p. Throne (of Glory) Supreme. p. revealed. vol. with the addition verse to memory. " Zayd says: in the Mushaf. a1-Masähif. Il. Thäbit al-Ansäri (that 23) "Among the believers verse was) (XXXIII. away. English Translation James Robson. p. In another version "A verse verse of the Qur'an to be it is reported that Zayd said: from siarat al-Ahzäb was missed by me when we "used to hear Allah's Apostle copied the Qur'an and it. VI."Now hath come unto you an Apostle from amongst it grieves him that ye should perish: yourselves: to the believers ardently anxious is he over you: is he most kind and merciful. ""2 "We then added it to its surah The same theory which was advanced-with--respect verses of al-Tawbah' can be applied Zayd himself had committed this by him in this account. p. are men who have been true in their covenant with God. So we searched for peace be upon him reciting it and found it with Khuzaymah b. 35. 70 . Mugaddimatän. ""' But if there they turn is no god but He the lord of the Ubayy added that this was the last 1. 11. Bukhäri'. 9. on Him is my trust. 479-480 and Mishkät al-Masäbih.

Fath al-Bam. who.It has been argued that this episode of the missing verse of of cUthmän. al-Masähif. contradiction pp.. f. 1. Ahmad Shäkir has also munkar this it is the that refuted version on grounds shadhdh in to the Mutawätir. Ibn Abi Däwud in another version related this event to CUthmän. 21. pp. Musnad. vol. because it by another version of the same tradition 2 authentic. 163-164. XXXIII definitely during the first compilation of Abi Bakr. it has three problems in its isnäd. 30. 2. 71 . 163-164. see p. 15. Ill. 4 This version however is said. 4. addition this version and the order states that of verses Abis Khuzaymah out the two verses it is agreed unanimously in the compilation that the end of Surat al-Tawbah. XVIII. IX. There is a version narrated Khuzaymah b. and came with cUmar which is regarded as by Ibn AbT Däwüd3 in which from the end of verses he these two verses that if they said had been three that would have made them a sürah. IX. al-Banns. and the text that (matn) contradicts taught In at his successive and sound reports which state the Prophet and süras. p. suggested to seal with these two verses the last revealed sürab. p. for end of S. not to be authentic.l Surat al-Ahzäb took place during the second compilation Nevertheless Ibn Kathir has'no hesitation in asserting-authoritatively occurred is confirmed that the missing of the verse 23 of S. 5. 31. vol. p. though he was not one of the scribes who participated 5 Qur'ä n. See Musnad. Thäbit Surat al-Tawbah. Fadä'i1 al-Qur'än. p. 3. companions the Qur'an. vol. Then he suggested he should decide Consequently they were put at the on a surah and annex them to it. c. 173. Ill. Bul-ugh al-Amäni. Indeed Ibn Abi Däwud himself of the narrates in the same book. vol.

me two verses after this Then he informed them. it and read it and the Prophet sent in congregation sürah to recite 4 of the Hajj at Makkah. H. 174-175 of Bul5gh al-Amäni'. S. al-Musnad. al-Nasä'i' Furthermore. vol. p. vol. 3 to have said that those two verses were the last It was revealed exactly CAli with this in the year 9 A. p.. al-Murshid al-Wajiz. (303/915) in his Fadä'i1 al-. 4. another above. "The Prophet taught "verily hath come unto you an Apostle. al-Masähif. IX)". ""1 In support of the latter on the authority last of al-Barä' hadith. 5. 173. 63. there is a hadith in al-Musnad 66 who is reported to have said "The to the Prophet is Surat Bara'ah (S.. Ubayy is reported revealed verses. Fada'i1 al-Qur'an. Tart-lb al-Musnad. ibid.. pp. 174. 72 . XVIII. Thäbit about the compilation is notable that he did not 5 Ibn Hazm (456/1063) mention the missing of two verses of Surat al--Tawbah. vol. See pp. XVIII. which states compiled the Qur'an. Qur'än during the time of Abu. The report is regarded as sound. XVIII. that version which contradicts that verse the Ubayy b. 173-174 accepts this version as a sound hadith p. accepted to al-Hakim. IX.Bakr. 3. Tartib p. p. XVIII. Kacb reported thought that when they 127 of S. sürah was as well known to the Nevertheless 2 surah revealed completely is a fact Thus it that the end of this companions as the beginning and the body of the sürah.indeed on the same page.. The author of Bulugh al-Amäni. 128-129. vol. 156-158. 54-55 and pp. and it 1. Tartib alMusnad. IX was the scribes the end of the surah. 2. 54. Qur'an repörted of the the hadith narrated by Zayd b. pp. 56.

to have said "5 meaning. 5. the concIusiön verses were arranged and put systematically any single exception. The sense in the phrase "Inna expression Jämic al-Qur'an likewise their and its plural Jummäcal-Qur'an. a1-Ihkäm fi Usü1 al-Ahkäm. vol. Tafsir. Fadä'i1 al-Qur'an. Qurtubi. 331. cAmr is reported fa-qara'tu bi-hi fi kulli laylah. S. p. p. 2.. 832. vol. a1-Nasä'i. Nukat a1-Intisär..accepts the validity verses with of the hadith of Zayd that he found the two that this refers only ' to Khuzaymah. but emphasises form. Ibn Hazm. "jamactu al-Qur'an 1. 101. I. 4. are used to mean a man or people who commit the whole book to CAbd Thus Allah b. According to al-Qurtubi they were substantiated by Khuzaymahalone 2 but with the consensus of the companions. One of these is "to memorise". LXXV. In the light of all the above accounts. as it the written had been memorised by Zayd himself. 17. 73 . memories. 56. 3. VI. Ibn al-Bägilläni on the validity of this addition to the hadith form the other hand refutes completely without and stated that the Qur'an was recorded in written 3 any exception. p. which occurs in the Qur'an with this 4 calaynä jamcah-u wa-qur'änahü". is that the in their order without The meaning of the term jams al-Qur'an The word jamaca in the phrase"jamaca a1-Qur'5n"has two meanings. p.

"to collect and write meaning of the word jamaca is down". Kitäb al-Masähif. 74 . the companions across more than thirty of them. There were many reasons for the companions to memorise the whole Qur'än during the lifetime excellence of the Prophet. Itgan. 3. 5. 5. vol. of them are said See Bukhäri. the of the language of the Qur'an for the Arabs6 and the use of 1. Ansäb al-Ashräf. although on one occasion seventy 5 A. Macrifat al-Qurra-' al-Kibär. pp. 287-288. as a book(between two boards). pp. we have no precise information about anonymous Qurrä'. who had memorised some parts and süras of the Qur'än were in their 5 hundreds or indeed innumerable. 4. 201-204. meaning that he compiled the this form. Icjäz al-Qur'an. 200. p. al-Balädhuri. 6. vol. yaqulu: hafizahu".. CUthmän i. I. pp. I. "Jamaoa al-"Qur'än oalä oahd Rasü1 Allah sallä Allah The other C1 alayh wa sallam. H. I. pp. Qur'än in a written The companions who committed the whole Qur'än to memory were 3 In the course of our study we_h4ve come quite a good number. to have been killed. Itgän. for instance. Part IV. V."I have committed the Qur'an-to Qur'än having every night. said that " In this memory and recite respect Ibn Sirin the (whole) is reported the lifetime as cUthmän memorised the Qur'än during of the Prophet. 489. We find jamaca al-Qur'an in such expressions as "Abu Bakr Awwal man 2 bayn al-lawhayn". vol. 29-39. e. 33-50.. These are those whom we know by name. 4 In addition. p. p. Ibn al-Bägilläni. as early as vo1. 2.

al-Qur'an. vol. Nukat al-Intisär. Mä1i. 7. e. pp. pp. 427-499. pp. business and state affairs. i.. Aws. vol. 38. IV. (Taw). 488. Sharh al-Sunnah. vol. X. vol. vol. Fath al-Bari. he asked them not to. especially the Qur'an collectively and in night prayers during the month of Ramadan. since he was boasting of their achievements compared to 7 the other branch of the Ansär. person who has memorised the Qur'an is highly position in society. vol. as Muir puts it. al-Musnad. ' The Qur'an was also for them a book of sharicah. pp. Sharh al-Sunnah. p. the only reasonable one is that he meant amongst his tribe of Khazraj. Bukhäri. 1. k is reported as having said that only four persons committed the Qur'an to memory at the time of the 6 Prophet. 19-31 and al-Nasä'i. 46-54. seal the Qur'an 5 in less than a week or three days. 3 the Arab's memory. suras or the whole Qur'an. II. 120-139. ibid. 6. The Prophet urged them to recite privately.the Qur'an for prayers and private and collective recitations. On the other hand Anas b. p. IX. VI. Although many interpretations of this statement have been offered. p. pp. 427-436. pp. but of completing the recitation when the Prophet was informed. 2 The and to memorise some verses.. and social. was possessed and he will honoured and has a good rewards in be rewarded and given the hereafter. 43 and al-Nasä'i. 5. 75 . Fadä'i1 3.. 70-76. 4 Some companions went to the extreme of the whole book in one night. The Corän. IV. 101-103. pp. 4. 2. In addition of a marvellous tenacity.

M. means is is found in the Qur'an (S. 76 . 428. vol. as a derivation the only accepted form is garawiyyün. IX. p. revelation and as mentioned above they were The words sahifah and mushaf and their The word sahifah. However the Prophet used to have scribes who took down the to aid memorisation.Thus Jummäcal-Qur'an and recite it by heart. Lisan. pp.A. 18-19) "And this (Revelations) 4 in the book of earliest the book of Abraham and Moses". p. History: A New Interpretation I. is clear seems to be groundless since it standard references being referred urrar to. LXXXVII. suhuf and sahä'if origins as a1-Jawhari states. al-Baghawi in his book Sharh al-Sunnah. Islamic 3. 186. It means the books revealed to them. 3 quite a good number. See pp.50-51. from the context of all that it is readers who are source gives whether late or early Furthermore no lexicographical from the word qaryah. 1. Shaban2 maintains (villagers) rather that the Qurrä' refer to Ah1 al-Qurä However this hypothesis than readers of the Qur'an. says: "Kull Shay'in Jamactahu fa-qad qara'tahu". IV. Shaban. 4. as it p1. 23. a book. ' are those who have memorised the Qur'an The words Huffäz and Qurrä' have exactly the same meaning. 32-34. 2. vol. above.

110-111. 1. IX. 4. Bukha-ri vol. means a (book) containing written said "It written sheets between two covers. and 4 of psalms in the masähif of mänks. 3. X.The word mushaf. 146. IV. al-'As it to the written is related form of the book the Qur'an. 2 Indeed in son of mine reads the mushaf in the day time. cAbd Allah b. of This In on the authority that a man came to the Prophet and said to him. 77 . ".. lest 3 destroy or dishonour it). p.. p. pp. Diwan Imru' al-Qays. mishaf or mashaf.. Musnad. Thus the word mushaf was not unknown to the Muslims and there is no need to suppose that they borrowed it death of the Prophet. is called a1-Azhari is reported to have of mushaf. 88. and we find Imru' al-Qays: zabürin fi it Atat hijajun Calayhä bacdi fa-asbahat masähif ruhbän: the writing became like some years elapsed since my presence. another version a the Prophet is reported as having forbidden the enemy take it travel (and with mushaf to the land of the enemy. p. There is a hadith which proves that the Prophet used the word mushdf in reference support of this cAmr b. Lisän al-cAräb. In fact it or invented it after the the word was known to the Arabs in a verse of the pre-Islamic ka-khatti poet even before Islam. vol. 186. vol. . 2. because it was made a container ' sheets between two covers".

"The Siffin vol. about the meaning and though they differ 1. It is maintained also that the word text of the Qur'än mushaf does not necessarily mean the entire . However it above it may be pointed out that in the references the entire text which is referred the entire compilation text to. However as seen above the word mushaf whether or not of Ethiopian origin was current in Arabic long before this and indeed it in this seems. Ibn Massüd. particularly of naskh in the Qur'an. XVII. Studies. Martin Semitic p46. Arbitration pp. Essay: that the Isnäd of this Journal of Agreement" 78 . is interpreted Hinds.strange that the compilation. Theory of naskh The majority of scholars agree on the existence on many points. mentioned Some is clearly personal codices may not have included cUthmanic entire masähif based upon the first but the the included Qur'an without any exception as seen above. I. and that 2 Ibn Massüd suggested this name for the compilation of Abu Bakr. 3 but can also refer to a portion of it.: Itgan. 95-96.It is maintained that the word mushaf is of Ethiopian origin1 and that it was brought back by the Muslims who emigrated to Ethiopia. Concluding 2. vol. al-Suyüti states (Mungatic). who was otherwise way. p. 166. report 3. not involved In short. should be brought in in this account cannot be accepted.

pp. vol. p. pp..p. I. 123-124. see Mafät b al=-h. and a1-Juwayni. cUthmän and that when compiled the masähif he could not find anything 5 but what is present today. Ibn Ham. PMafäti'qal=Ghayti. I. 4 It is also said that surahXXXIII used to be two hundred verses. instance Naskh al-Hukm wain surahII. II. III. vol. the Prophet night harf' while cUmar Ibn is reported two men a sürahtand they used to recite prayers they could they were offering not remember a single him what of what and they came next day to the Prophet The Prophet informed them that and told happened. It is said that some verses For example. Dhawqa1-Haläwah. 3. Itgän. 4. see Dhawq al- 5. 11. vol. -al-Juwayni. vol. a1-Burhän. Mafatih p. p. 12. In another version it is said that this 1. II. 72. vol. 2.. vol. pp. Except the Muctazili scholars who are reported to have objected the theory of Naskh entirely. vol . being said found for by verse to be abrogated 234 of the same surah3 The second mode of naskh discussed is Naskh al-Hukm wa-l-Tilawah. 1312. 263. II. vol. `a1-Amidi. Itgän. verse 240 agree2 on the first which is Bagä' al-Tiläwah. fi Usul al-Fiqh. vol. I. a1-Ghazzäli al-Mustasfä. p. ' mode of it.. 79 . vo1. the Isnäd is not authentic. taught and parts of verses were eliminated to have said it. 74 but the Isnäd is weak as is pointed out by al-Ghdmäri. a1-Ihkäm fi Usü1 a1-Ahkäm. pp. -al=Ihk5m p. and told them to forget about it. vol. al-Ghayb. 435. II. 1293-1300. 435. this was a part had been abrogated. al-Ihkäm fi Us-ui al'-Ahkäm. p. I. from that One the Qur'an. ayb. ai-ý3urhän fi Us&l al-fiqh. 432-433. p. Hal äwah. I.modes of naskh and their They all examples. p. 264. III. 440-441..

al-Ghämäri CAbd attributes this is it to the rejected. vol. Itgän. vol. 3 Qur'an were lost. Ill. SomeQurrä' were killed at Bir Macinah and there was This was "Inform revealed a part of the Qur'an which was eliminated. strongly to the Qur'an. p. for he does not know what is the There is much of the Qur'än which whole Qur'an. al-Idäh. abrogated are still in recitation. a1-Thawri is reported to have said that he came to fighting know that some Qurrä' among the companions were killed Musaylimah on the day of Yamämah. has been eliminated. * ibid. judged_to This means that there are some verses they are not recitable. 72. Itgän.surah was similar to sürah II. 1. p. p. Ill. it false and contradictory p. 75. Itgän. they are but although be existent in_practise. 46. Musannaf of and he considers 4. Moreover Hudhayfah is reported less than a fourth to of the have said that what we read of sürah His original. 2 It is related cUmar that he said. The examples given as follows. 2. Dhawqal-Haläwah. He adds that al-Razzäq. Ill. 3. 18-19. He should rather say that he has memorised what is found of it. p. our people that we have met our Lord. 75. He is well pleased with us and 4 has satisfied al-Suhayli points out that this sentence us". 72. of Ibn "Nobody should say that he has committed the whole Qur'an to memory. and as a result. The last some Hurüf of the mode of naskh brought into the discussion is Mansükh a1-Tiläwah dün al-Hukm. vol. 80 . " * Finally.. pp.

45. of suckling relationship. foster to in the verse sisters" (S. IV. In this during Qur-'än. ibid. 2. it is said that the verse of suckling of the Prophet and he left used to be recited it as a part of the the lifetime 3 Makki refers is contradicted to the weakness of this version in that it 4 by the. al-Rawd al-Unuf. 44. of marriage to to you (for the In discussing the fostercA'ishah to case. passage and the verdict of abrogation both stand. 81 . 3. X. pp. 29-30 4. p. 2 This stylistic fact demonstrates the weakness of this The second example concerns the prohibition foster-sisters marriage) are referred .... al-Qirä'ät wa-al-Lahajät. 81. al-Räzi quotes necessary a hadith to establish attributed In this that the number was reduced from ten to five... p. Qur'än and reason. pp. sucklings is Mansükh al-Ti1a%eh wa-al=Hukm and five is Mansukh to either number al-Tiläwah d-un al-Hukm since there is no reference in the Qur'an. 5. vol. Sahlh Muslim bi: Sharh a1-NawawT. vol. "Prohibited 23). This report is narrated cA'ishah by indifferent versions.clearly differs from the style l of the Qur'an. al-Qays1. report. VI. 5 1. al-Idah li-Näshikh al-Qur'an wa-Mansükhih. al-Nawawi. p. He also regards this in the matter so that of abrogation the abrogated in that the abrogating example as strange passage is not recitable. 206-207. ten number of times.

and we will (from corruption)" 1. causes tahrim. despite rejects it and says that a single suckling verse hadith. Also the Qur'an itself the message. Anas. vol. 82 . would have been included states assuredly in the masähif. p. al-Jassäs the abrogation addition to it (370/980) rejects took place after (321/933) this version for it indicates 2 In that the death of the Prophet. al-Nahhäs (338/949) continues that Ahmad b. In addition. Ahkäm al-Qur'än. 11. Furthermore. 6. narrating this al-Nahhäs points out that Malik b. Mushkil al-Athär. 3. 4. p. A ishah herself and then it make tahrim. vol.After a1-Suyüti this argues he assigns it that to the second mode of naskh. Itgän. is that the cÄ'ishah what was meant by Prophet was near to his death when it was eliminated. p. since this is the implication of the Qur'anic already mentioned. Hanbal hadith. XV. p. until after or that the death some people did not know of the abrogation ' of the Prophet. since they to a hadith and Abu Thawr were also not in favour of this consider that three sucklings 4 in this connection. 125. the riwäyah a1-Tahäwi 3 considers to be weak and objects strongly. II. III. "We have without guard it doubt sent down (S. al-Näsikh wa-al-Mansukh. 2. vol. and refer al-Nahhäs states that if would have reported it this version was authentic to the committee of scribes. 9). III. 63.

p. Itgän. discusses and he could have been mistaken. 2. them as exemplary punishment from Allah. 4. and Allah is Mighty and 2 cUmar Wise". XII. while in one version prescriptions of five and ten times are revealed in a single the ten sucklings were revealed first while in another version then the five sucklings were revealed abrogating the ten sucklings. versions. p. 72. 117-120. when they fornicate. To conclude. report has come to us in many appears as Mansükh the verse and l At one time it a1-Tiläwah. 83 . and at other times not. al-CAsgalänT adds that the great the hadith. 86. p. The verdict of stoning is agreed to be sunnah. the hadith is not authentic The third Qur'änic verse example of this "al-Shaykhvia-al and is groundless. Bukhäri were reported cAli that stoning is established the penalty who narrates of stoning does not mention this and al-CAsgaläni intentionally. 3.. to have been a stone mode is what is said Shaykhah. Fath a1-Bär1.Hammüdahargues that this contradicting. vol. al-Tahäwi the stoning of a married person is established 1. scholars (A'immah. 117. al-Qirä'ät wa-al-Lahajät.and Huffäz) have not mentioned and concludes that this have narrated 4 but they it in detail by addition. addition of "al-Shaykh wa-ä1S haykhah" suggests that Bukhari may have done this because only one Räwi among many has mentioned it. vol. Ill. pp. XII. as and to have mentioned 3 by the sunnah of the Prophet. ibid. vol.

Then CUmarsaid to Zayd b. 76. Ill. 5. vol. Shaykh in this means an old man. and is married. Fath al-Bari. 17. it. dün be best Mansükh is to the al-Hukm. al-Ghämäri states that this version is very detestable.the sunnah of the Prophet. Thäbit "Don't you see that fornicates fornicates and is unmarried. Thäbit that he 2 al-Hakam is reported should include contradictory. 84-85. p. Itgän. al-Qirä'at wa-l-Lahajät. ' This and stoned her according to the sunnah of the Prophet". compilation Moreover Marwän is not known to have had any role in the of the Qur'an. to have said that when it was cUmär is reported Moreover revealed he came to the Prophet and asked him permission to write but he felt that the Prophet was unwilling for it to be written. he is flogged and that if However it the shaykh the young man was very he is stoned? "5 1. to the riwä ah of al-Shaykhway-a. context p. 4. but he refused on the grounds that "Don't you see that young married it was people are saying stoned if_they_fornic_ate? "- This would imply that Zayd was left material for inclusion in the to decide whether to accept or reject Qur'an. vol. pp. He supports his view by quoting CA1i As having said "I have flogged her according to the book of Allah. III. to have suggested to Zayd b. 3. 84 . Mushkil al-Äthar. vol. 2. simply because it and that Zayd could not have omitted contradicted something 4 the stoning of young married people. if it. Dhäw 7.al-Haläwah. 2. 143. XII. Marwän b. p. p. of al-Tiläwah one example said In addition l-Shaykha.

3 he who does good deeds will not be rejected. ) and therefore as opposed to commands. is reported to have said that the Prophet read sürah XCVIII to him and in it was this addition. and not Christianity. p. pp. al-Hakim. narrative prohibitions. p. these contraditions support the view that what some call It Äyat al-Rajm is not an Ayah at all. III. vol. not Judaism. 73. And which is not polytheism. II. 176. al-Rawd al-Unuf. ibid. 3. 85 . II. vol. al-Suhayli (581/. 17-18. Verily accepts the repentance of the one who repents. 4185) states that this allegedQuränic verse would in any case be khabar not hukm (i. to the rules of not subject 1. be given it. Itgän. and it for a verse revealed to cUmar is hard to understand how l to be revealed from Allah. abrogation. The fourth following. 4 etc.unusual for the Prophet to be unwilling him to be written down. e. he were to ask for and nothing And Allah the faithful a second and be given it. is at most a hadith. p. Ubayy b. 4. Dhawqal-Haläwah. 224. Äyah to could object an which he believe al-Ghamäri states Qur'an just that Allah would have not omitted an Ayah from the He adds that all the 2 because some people objected to it. religion in the sight of Allah is the straight path (al-Hanifiyyah). Kacb vol. example of Mansükh al-Tiläwah dun al-Hukm is the If the son of Adam were to ask for a wadi of wealth and he would ask for a second one.. would fill the maws of the son of Adam except the dust. and if he would ask for a third. 18. 2. p.

Ubayy himself that is reported to have said also that they used to think Surat al-Takäthur (S. Fifth. but that they remembered from it: it will be certified "0 ye who believe. Miskkät al-Masäbih. while the wording is 5 to the utterances of hadith. p. p. and you will be questioned about it on your necks 7 on the day of judgement". p. vol. 74. 4. 6. 11. VI. maintains that. XI. ' Prophet read sürah XCVIII to Ubayywithout In another version not know if this Ibn CAbbas is reported (addition) to have said that he did 2 However was from the Qur'an or not. ibid. vol. S. vol. e. do not say that which ye do not. Burhän.The authentic riwäyah of this hadith mentions only that the mentioning the addition. vol. to Ubayy was a1-A1üsi considers that the addition attributed 4 However. vol. LXI and S. 2. p. p. pp.. 256-257. (glorifying) 86 . II. LXII. 1. nasräninyyah are not found in the Qur'an. Hammüdah in not authentic. 80. 671. it and hanifiyyah similar is a haditn because the words yahudiyyah. 3. Fath al-Bari. Itgän. 37. III. 7. 213. stylistically his view. vol. which they thought was similar to one of al-Musabbihät. al-Qirä'ät wa-al-Lahajät.. Abu Musa is reported to have said that they used to read 6 a sürah. al-Musabbihät are those süras which begin with tasbih (i. p-208- 5. XXX. Bukhäri. which they forgot. Ruh al-Macani. XCIV) was it was from the Qur'an until 3 revealed.

and defended No person knows of the eyes are kept hidden for them . He "Do not reject against ' "yes! ". vol. fathers. Khälid al-Ansäri Abd al-Rahmän 2 from the Qur'än. "Fight been fighting replied for it was not found now.Sixth... successful them against what delights their with their wealth and suffered and persons. recite disbelief replied cUmar is reported your to have said for this that will they used to be (accounted) "was it so". CAwf if b. change 74 and S. you are and those who gave them asylum and aided the people with whom Allah is angry. that it was from the part eliminated Maslamah b. 3. 74. 2. to have said Eighth. XXXII. III. VIII. which were "Those who believed path of Allah. he did not find at first" to have asked cAbd al-Rahmän as you have in what was revealed. you". 87 . 1. Itgän. 74. It is obvious that these two verses are little from S. cUmar is also reported Seventh. The riwäyah is not authentic because there is a break in the transmission. exile and fought for in the rejoice. p. p. III. Then he said to Zayd. is reported that there were two verses from the Qur'än which were not recorded.as a reward for 3 (good) deeds". p. " with the addition vol. 13. 17 and borrowed with joined together. cÄ'ishah is reported to have recited S. ibid. Itgan. Ninth. see Dhawqal-Haläwah.. XXXIII. 56 "God and His Angels send blessings on the Prophet.

Tm. and it of the Qur'an and its abrogation by isolated reports. 73. 'al-Naskh Fl-al=Qur'an a1-Kar. The hadith is not authentic as its includes two unknown räwis. al-Hafad was composed sürat 3. 2. Ill. although he agrees in general to the Mansükh al-Tiläwah wa-al-Hukm. book Min Qadäyä al-Qur'an. Tafsir. vol. were eliminated to this from the Qur'an. Nukat-a1-Intisär. p. these reports are fabricated. impossible to judge He quotes a group of scholars who object because the reports the revelation to this is are isolated. 3 A and contemporary researcher concludes that all the theory of al-Naskh. Itgän. 88 . Mustafa Zayd. p. which are not sufficient has studied evidence. Isnäd al-GhämärT states that what is called CUmar. 19. 1. line".oi. This addition is which indicates that the report is said that the süras which are sometimes combined as into one sürah known as al-Qunüt and sometimes known separately sürat al-Khal However. 235-236. pp. c2 and sürat al-Hafad. 75. pp. who states that Allah should make his Prophet cAbd in his al-Karim al-Khatib makes the suggestion' that in to other the final revealed version some verses were transferred but does not quote any references süras rather than being eliminated. p. p. Supporting his view. 4. 14. 480. III. p. kind of abrogation. 103-104 and Itgän. I. Il. Dhawqal-HalSwah. 282=3. It än. p. vol. vol.:. by any means that it is not impossible forget some (verses) revealed to him. p. by Dhawq al-Haläwah. III.!. it more than sunnah. vol."And those who pray in the first reported to have been a hadith of CÄ'ishah isno Finally.since the elimination and the lifetime of the took place during the period of revelation 4 Prophet. to support his view. of Ibn al-Bägilläni objects theory f"lansukh al-Tiläwah. he quotes al-Tabari. 75.

77. in many different versions. 234-261. Nöldeke accepts the traditional 45 while Burton rejects the entire accounts of Mansukh concept as a fabrication. pp. or or are isolated reports. 13. fi al-Qur'an. must be pointed out that there are many reasons to both kinds of Mansükh a1-Tiläwah either with or the Hukm: All examples given are either not authentic. Although there is--general agreement among both the Shicites of Mansükh al-Tiläwah. a1-Tibyän fi Tafsi'r al-Quran. Itgän. Des Qoräns. Burhän. I. 238. CUlum fi al-Qur'an. p. and these examples are not successive. Mabähith 2. They are not similar to the style of the Qur'an as for instance can be seen from a comparison between the end of (S. 22-25. 3.However it for objecting without 1. III) and the Ducä' al-Qunüt. al-Tüsi. I. Dhawq al-Haläwah. al-Qummi. 2 and the Ahl al-Sunnah about the existence some ShiCite scholars claim that the sunn scholars' acceptance of kh al-Tiläwah prove that the Qur'an has been the theory of MansU 3 Western scholars have adopted various opinions on the corrupted. and therefore are anomalous reports. II) and (S. Nöldeke. 19-20. 2. 89 . p. vol. Tafsir vol. al-Bayän Introduction Geschichte The Collection of the Qur'än. Il. pp. subject. p. 36. 5. al-Khü'i. p. vol. 201. Tafsir Tayyib al-Müsawi al-Jazä'iri. p. It is an agreed rule among all usülis that the Qur'an is substantiated only by successive reports. 75. 1. al-Qira at wa-al-Lahajät. I. p. 266. Burton. III. contradict each other. p. pp. 4. 3. vol. of the Editor. vol. al-Tiläwah.

5 4 . ibid. sC is said to have been equal in length the virtues of the Ahl al-Bayt and that had been omitted. vol. vol. 631-634. pp. ibid. 'im came he should read the original-Qur'an Surat al-Ahzäb (S. 634. a1-Us5l mi. 1. 5. 7. ibid. Here are some examples: since they concerned the Abu cAbd Allah is reported to have said of that the Qur'an as revealed by Gabriel 3 seventeen thousand verses.. Us-U1 al-Käfi. n al-Käfi. 6.Wansbrough on the other hand in line with his general approach back in time of the regards the whole problem as a projection disputes of a later period) The ShiCite opinions on the. II. al-Usül min a1-Käfi. vol. 4. edited V. to Muhamad consisted He is also reported to have said that sürah XCVIII includes the names of seventy men of Quraysh and the names of their fathers. II. alteration of the Qur'än There are many riwäyas in Shicite Qur'an has been altered sources which claim that the parts. CAbd Abu Allah again is reported to have directed one of his followers to read the Qur'an as it is now. . Studies. 197. p. which by the omission of certain they claim has been done intentionally. 178-204. Rüha1-Macäni. I. that the Armrah it should be corrected to be read as A'immatun hiva azkä min &'immatikum. II. p. p. Moreover Abu Abd Allah is reported to have said and that 7 Ummatunhiya arbä min ummahhas been corrupted. p. 633. 2 position of the Ahl al-Bayt. al-Mu zaffar. pp. saying that when the in its complete form. Part 3. Wansbrough. by vol. XXXIII) to Surat al-Anum (S. 24. Quranic 2. cAbd*al-Husayn b. VI). 90 .

199-204. 4. The editor. 264. 28-29. p. 70). ibid. Geschichte des. LL.. Tafsir 2. pp. from different the Shicites süras with some little themselves it addition and alteration. (S. I. Introduction Mukhtasar al-Tuhfa al-Ithnay of Muhibb al-Din al-Khatib. V. Among and is said that these reports were fabricated T. Yüsuf All's p. 5. In addition it is claimed that there are two süras missing from the mushaf concerning the rank of the Ahl al--Bayt called Surat al-Waläyah 5 brought They Quranic Surat consist of some verses and al-Nürayn. . pp. 3. ibid. and that 3 Furthermore it did not contain a single harf of the latter.Certain Shicite verses scholars also claim that the meaning of certain distorted. 178-181. to thee from thy Lord" (S. vol-. ' iiöldeke. pp. ý. 4 it is said that no one has the whole Qur'än except the A'immah. vol. cAshriyya. Usül al-Käfi. The word aliyy as appears in the context. p. pp. al-Müsawi al-Jazä'iri and gives "0 Apostle! agrees with the cAliyy omission of FT as an example the alleged Proclaim The (message) which hath been sent after Translation. Furthermore. 5.. which means high (in dignity) them to refer full of wisdom". 91 . It %an example of which is the In has been deliberately 4) verse "And verily.. 31. that which is not in 'is said that the mushaf of Fätimah was three times the size of the existing mushaf. Part V. is taken by l CAll b. high (in dignity). 102-103. is in the Mother of the Books. Abi Tälib. author. II.Qorans. al-Qummi states to of the Qur'än by putting it 2 contains Thus it one harf in that there has been alteration the place of another and that accordance with the revelation. Our Presence. al-Qummi. XLIII. vol.

5 the non-authenticity stylistic the title. III. p. 5. the that and the fact given as al-Nürayn. Madkhal. to correct there any errors or to put everything alteration. al-Kämil. vol. l are many errors Moreover CAll which are proof CUthmän of their and ruled lack for for of authenticity. Daräz. 3. but they are interpreted interpretation added to the text as Tafsir only and not by any means 1. p. 2. 40. vol. Tafsir Ä1ä' al-Rahman. would have been able in its proper order if who ruled months. 92 . The author's introduction. 40. p. 4. fi Tafsir al-Tibyän al-Qur'an. 16-17. 6. pp. source there 2 is given for them in Shicite reference works. p. vol. al-Tusi. ibid. 3. differences of the reports and linguistic on the grounds of 4 fabrication. pp. pp. several several years came after and was succeeded by his son al-Hasan They. 15 and Nukat al-Intisär. Tafsir 'Ala' al-Rahman. referring cAli to the Prophet and in the seventh which are said to in the is known historically century of the hijrah6 be authentic.no original Stylistically. p. I. Madkhal. 16-17. Daräz. p. Majmac al-Bayan fi Tafsir al-Qur'an. 365. I. Tafsi'r Al'äal-Rahmän. to have been invented later There are some reports though they indicate that there is alteration as referring to additional mushaf. cUthmän had been any Furthermore and supported cA1T is reported to have agreed with him against him in the matter of compilation and defended 3 Among the Shicites the rebels. al-Tabarsi. also the majority deny and reject entirely the theory of alteration and their errors. 17-18. 112.

93 vol. VI. has been discussed reported as having by many writers. 18-19. This problem is end he doubt upon the trustworthiness The first of these is the story of the gharäniq. pp. Spring 1982. and Tirmidhi. 1. "Those are the high-flying cranes" JSSXV (1970). Tafsir. and A. III. 49-56. 363. 88-89. vol. pp. Qissat al-Gharaniq. 58.. M. Number I. Muhammadat Mecca. though any They agree in the recitation may differ Before concerning concluding they the meanings and Tafsir. Fi Zill alcAbd Qur'än. 246-265. Watt. this chapter it may be appropriate to mention briefly cast two supposed episodes which have sometimes been used to of the text of the Qur'an. IV. p. See for example al-Räzi. pp. additions or omissions. pp. . 2431-36. orientalism" al-Qasimi. Tafsir. al-Albani. 54-61 and Burton. III. Ahsan. Sayyid Qutb. recited the Prophet in Makkah (S.a part of the Qur'än. vol. without alterations. and when he came to its by those who 3 were present at the time. vol. XXIII. among whomwere some non-Muslims. vol. clyad. p. The masähif were accepted and copied in Iran and other places. pp. Tafsir Al'äal-Rahmän. "A note on the Gharäniq and related Qur'änic problems" Israel Oriental Studies. and orthography. vol. 1061-85. II. 27-36. vol. Mafätih al-Ghayb. 3. 5 (1975). Intröduction to the Qur'an. pp. III. Lichtenstaedter. vol. 2. pp. LIII). See also Bell and Watt. The 'satanic' verses and the Hamdard Islamicus. 229-81. al-Karim al-Khatib. pp. pp. 2 In essence. l Indeed the masähif which exist printed today in Egypt among all Muslims are the same. 36-57. 101-109. V. pp. he was followed made the sajdah of Tiläwah and in this pp. al-Tafsir alQur'äni. Ibn Kathir. 282-305. pp.BukhSrT. a1-Shifä'. Nasb al--Majäniq Li-Nasf vol. XII. .

versions and not being yet attributed alone'ýto any of its 3 to any one of the. Tabari. being example of Satan interfering The story earlier in the process however is no more than a fiction. al -ähayb. p. pp. 1388-1968 vol. vol. 186-190. but some narrators in which it is said annex to this that report the are accepted. vol. found no in the than the time of the followers. and that Ghara-niq whose intercession Gabriel came with a revelation to abrogate as an Moreover certain Mufassirün quote the story of revelation. 51. and hence al-Räzi Is1am4 asserts that the story is invented by enemies of The presence of this different story in many books of Tafslr is no under the name from the presence there of what is introduced 1. companions. Ibn Kathir. Tafsir. Prophet. ed. Ill. 289. III. al-gharäniq when the Prophet of the Qur'an la-Turtajä". II. pp. pp. 3. 330-333. 94 . Hafatih vol. XXIII. 229-231 and al-Shifä'.A certain Abyssinia having following reports story recited "Tilka number of the earlier are reported Muslims who had emigrated returned to to have subsequently to Makkah heard that the people of Makkah had embraced Islam after l So far the the Prophet in his Sujüd al-Tiläwah. XVII. of al-gharäniq (S. p. 2. LIII. 4. Tafsir. immediately. Vol . is to be it the words 2 19-20) he added in the text wa-inna al-culä shafäcatahunna "These are the exalted hoped for". third (unedited version). Sirat Ibn Hishäm.

contradicts for it is impossible that he would wish to praise false intentionally saying "verily or otherwise. al-Shifä'. cIyäd objects a1-Qädi the first being that it to it and refutes obscure. II. the infallibility of the Prophet gods. because the Prophet is reported my eyes sleep but my heart does not". Thagif had offered only by looking In addition Quraysh and idols the Prophet that favour if he pleased their on them with their they would embrace Islam and which indicates the falsehood the Prophet of the story had refused proposal I of the gharäniq. contradictory and is not attributed to anyone among the companions. verses of the Qur'an: 1. 302. 289-297. or for Satan to have any effect in style He continues that these words differ and seem alien to the Qur'an. 2. out that it 2 is rejected by the Qur'an..of Isrä'iliyyat. as Secondly the context. on him. that no-one converted Muslims reverted from Islam as a result happened on the occasion of the Isrä'. pp. p. Firstly he quotes the following 95 . and that there is no report origins that any of them among the newlyof this story as from the enemies of Islam of different used the story against the Qur'an and. two grounds. attributed al-Räzi the word gharäniq to their in his refutation of the story it was abrogated. According to him if interpretation their the story were authentic the best for al-gharäniq would have been the angels since but when the polytheists idols points intercession could be hoped for. sunnah and reason. ibid. vol. it on is groundless.

(S. Nor could any of you withhold right (S. 73-74) Have inclined to them a little. "And their purpose was to tempt thee away From that in Our which We Had revealed unto thee to substitute (In the case). "By degrees shall " (S.. p.. "Nor does he says (aught) Of (his own) Desire. behold! name something quite different: 3-4) And have made thee (their friend)! They would certainly had We not Given you thee strength thou wouldst nearly " (S. ". " b.. Thus (is it heart thereby. We teach " slow well-arranged f. XVII. 32) thee to declare (S. It is not for me Of my own accord. so thou shalt Secondly was fabricated reports he reports not forget. To change it: I follow Naught but what is revealed Unto me: if I were to disobey my Lord. We should Any sayings in seize him by his him hand. l the story. ".. 15) C. I should myself fear the Penalty of a Great Day to come. Ibn Khuzaymah (311/923) as having said that and it by Zanädigah as having and composed a book of this stated of it "this story subject. that We May strengthen thy and We have Rehearsed it to thee in stages gradually. e. 96 . vol. LIII. XXIII. "And if the apostle were to invent certainly Our name. X. revealed). down It is no less than Inscription to sent d. 44-46) (From Our wrath). XXV. LXXXVII.a. LXIX. 51. 6) (The Message). al-Bayhaqi is groundless He also in its refers transmission to al-Bukhäri and the narrators who does not mention are rejected". " him. Mafätih al-Ghayb. 1." (S.

Tafsir. 4. e. vol. He adds that we would have thought that God in the beginning it. Sirat Ibn Hishäm. ibid. 51. 6. see TabarT. XXIII. 46-47. that the Prophet could add or omit anything I Furthermore what is meant by the word "Yansakhu" in S. pp. XXIII. thus is would have prevented Satan from causin g mischief rather allowing than allowing him to do so and then correcting of confusion. al-Ghayb. Mafätih p. 53 is its linguistic meaning (i. vol. vol. However Muhammad is reported as having narrated this episode with the addition of al-Gharäniq. pp. Ishäq pp. vol. 187 (unedited version). Izälah) rather than the term used in 2 Furthermore the word Tamannä in this wa-al-Mansukh.. Ibn Kathir it objects to the story of the gharäniq and confirms that has been narrated in many different is not accepted. 3. XVII. III. p. not acceptable no 6 is reported. the possibility He concludes that it to the impossible revelation. e. 5. 2. pp. Ibn Kathir. vol. 97 . to recite. XII. XXII. 52 and 56. 5 more than the fact that the Muhäjirun came back to Makkah. p. Tafsir. b.Thirdly be attributed al-Räzi argues that to praise idols is kufr which cannot to the Prophet and that he was not able to pray in the polytheists had left it. 330-333. and although it it is rejected weak versions matter how often it because the weak is. since their hatred the Kasbah until-after for him was too great. 1. Ill. Tafsir al-Qäsimi. al-Räzi. Mafätih al-Ghayb. ibid. al-Näsikh context means only hope3 although it may have in Arabic another 4 In fact Ibn Hishäm mentions nothing meaning. 229-231. vol. i. 51.

he was ordered to be killed. who is reported as a result to have cAbd Allah to reverted write from Islam and gone back to Makkah and claimed that he used to In another version it is said that when the it down he commented what-he wanted.CAbduh Muhammad points (pl. 40. Qurtubi. S. VII. 98 clyäd comments that the report to a non-believer whose . and that Prophet saw little point in objecting to this and that he accepted them on the grounds that it is written makes no difference whether it CAlim or Alimun samic. 3. vol. 2 The story is attributed samicun b. XXIII. gharäniq) out that this word hug rnüq or as having harn g been used is not found in any sound report by the pre-Islamic their idols. 56. Prophet recited 12-14 and asked him to write "Fatabäraka allahu it ähsanu a1-khäligin". Tafsir al-Qäsimi. al-Shifä'. p. The first in the books of Maghäzi and Sirah of mentioning this is on the authority reference 1. it is maintained that certain in deceive him to Prophet the and make alterations used scribes of the text of the Qur'an. 306. I to conclude that none of them seems to be relevant As regards the second episode. The Prophet then said "so and said that it 3 had been has been revealed" whereupon he reverted revealed to him as much as to the Prophet. p. vol. is no more than a narration attributed report is most likely to be rejected.. Il. vol. it However this reliable On the conquest of Makkah report is groundless since For example is not mentioned in the earlier sources. XII. p. changing the ending of the verses. there is no mention of this Ibn Hishäm. Arabs in their poems or speeches as a name for the meanings of the word In addition he studies lexicographically to the idols. Abi al-Sarh. al-Qadi 2.

vol. vol. In no single while play an important role in the beauty of the case do the scribes differ in writing any Fäsilah the word they have been reported as having differed in writing al-tabüt. Abi Khatal3 and and 4 The same thing to an ex-Christian reverted who is also said to have made alterations to Christianity. a1-Wägidi. 1 However both men are accused of being liars and on the other hand they are Shicite which may indicate who was related that they forged the story against Ibn Abi al-Sarh c2 to Uthmän. 2. cUyün al-Athar. p. Kitäb al-Masähif. lord when The story For it however is groundless and it to believe himself that seems difficult the Qur'an memorised by the Prophet certain and many too of his own personal of whom used to have their codices. it is impossible verses (al-Fawäsil) style of the Qur'an. Ibn Sayyid a1-Näs. pp. 1. 89. al-Barä' b. Maghäzi. II. p. 216-17. 4. 3. is attributed CAbd Allah to b. and that his grave cast him up many times. should the will as . 3. 175-176 and 315-316. Kuttab al-Nabiyy. al-ACzami. vol. pp. 5. 855. Bukhäri. VIII. to write it with final tä' or hä'. Ibn Abi Däwüd. 99 . II. against have been altered of the Prophet having corrected or undergone any change either The Prophet or by his consent. p. which used to be companions. _ is reported Azib when he changed a single he read from his memory what he had been taught to say when going that he would have permitted 5 Furthermore the ending any change in the text of the Qur'än to sleep and thus. is no more than fiction.of Ibn al=Kaibi (146/763) and al-Wagidi (207/822).

sources mention about that he was a Muslim and one of the scribes of the and-hereverted and fled from Madinah to his people in As a result when the Prophet conquered Makkah he ordered should be killed. 100 . p. who was sent on a mission but joined Musaylimah the people of Musaylimah. 289. 1318 hadith no. in the case of al-Rahhäl Ban--uHanifah. It seems also very difficult deceived three times respectively is not stung twice from a single by some people) Thus we to believe that the Prophet was given that he said "the believer hole". b. Sunan Ibn Mäjah. III. II. 2 In conclusion we can say that the Qur'an was committed (tothe hearts of the companions and was safely during the life the revelation guarded in the records kept scribes for of the Prophet who used to have special of the Qur'an. CUthmän interceded but was accepted. with Even Ibn Abi al-Sarh the Prophet to accept his repentance and this if he claimed after this leaving allegation Islam that he used to make alterations should not be accepted any more than to and told in the Qur'än. that the reliable CAbd Allah b. cUnfuwah. vol. p. 2. the people that he came with a message that the Prophet agreed to share with Musaylimah and was followed cannot accept these allegations. 3982-83. Abu Bakr compiled these records in a complete mushaf and put them in their supported custody in found writing as and chapter of verses orders and this it and by the memories of Huffäz cUmar who left and passed to mushaf was kept in his of his in the custody 1. vol.In fact Abi al-Sarh revelation Makkah. Tärikh al-Tabari.

in the of of of the Qur'an without Obscured. be accepted every piece of the Qur'an concerning which needs tawatur its text. When with of a decision mast from the to the r»copy make copies companions consent of Abu Bakr and distributed the people accordingly. information Although the abrogation certain verses during the lifetime of the Prophet does not affect claimed examples of. matter weak or fabricated. of the Qur'an. all with or without Hukm studied are shown to be had räniq and the of the Qur'än.daughter because he died before the installation differences arose between the Qurrä' cUthmän took of cUthmän. tawätur record generation after them to the Amsär with a Qäri' The Qur'än was received generation. as are also the two episodes of the the fawäsil scribes who are said to have altered 101 . the trustworthiness Mansükh al-Tiläwah groundless. alteration. reports to teach with and transmitted Hence our mushaf is a complete addition cannot for or omission.

3 CHAPTER CUTHMÄNIC MASAHIF THE DEVELOPMENT OF .

Ibn alview. of the ahruf T of Abu Bakr. cannot abandon anything from the compilation stating that the masähif this Ibn Hazm supports CUthmän did not change anything in the Qur'an could not rescind the permission to recite given to the Muslims to facilitate aim of cUthmän was to unify the Qur'an in seven ahruf He adds that the them with masähif its reading. 2.3 CHAPTER cUTHMÄNIC THE DEVELOPMENT MASAHIF OF The masähif and their Did the masähif discussed relation to the ahruf the seven ahruf differ according to compiled CUthmän by include chapter? in the first Views on this the various views on the nature of the seven ahruf. Ibn al-Jazari the masähif contain attributes to a group of scholars They argue that and that the view that the ummah were copied view. 1. 31. stating that in what to have supported cUthmän had done was to stop people from reciting the Qur'an certain unauthentic ways and interpolating explanatory material. p. al-Nashr. 77. 103 . p. Muslims and to provide and their all this to correct the mistakes of some qurrä' a reference for and to make his masähif Bägilläni is reported personal codices. al-Fisal fl al-Milal wa-al-Nihal. 1. 2 Muslims. vol. vol. II. and the seven ahruf.

for this. vol. Mushkil 5. Ibn Finally majority is said. Tafsir Tafsir al-Äthär. al-Wajiz. TabarT. I. 104 . Qurtubi. view to Sufyän b. 142 and al-Jacburi adopts this view and the authentic one. the Qur'an and that in seven ahruf. al-Murshid regards it 2. the 2 for the Ummah what had previously Moreover. See his Kanz al-Macani. pp.!. cAbd cUyaynah. vol.He adds that neither make difficult them. 3. supports states that the permission for seven ahruf was due to necessity. pp. p. he says that the people did not differ ahruf but only about isolated state that CUthmän famous and authentic Another masähif al-Tabari group of scholars one harf. for Muslims to change their He adds when their dialect habits as bearing in mind their became close to that of the Prophet and when the people who could write cUthmän by to read theQur'än were commanded al-Qurtubi attributes this increased they 4 in only one harf. Allah b. that the masähif contain as much as possible 1. that was not an obligation but only a on Muslims to recite permission (rukhsa). scholars. Mushkil al-Athär. 190-191. f4. 42-43. compiled in only argues abandoning stating the rest it of the ahruf. pp. 63-64. CUthmän when witnessed the disputes of the view and among the Muslims over the Ummahto unify irqä'ah he decided-with 3 al-Tahawi the consent this them in one harf. pp. pp. 4. 58-59. a1-Tahäwi. 190-191. IV. al-Tabari. vol. vol. IV. and most of the Wahb. 5 it cAbd al-Barr. I. vol. this view being attributed to the vast of of scholars. Tabari. it was found difficult illiteracy. cUthmän nor any other Muslim leader could been made easy for about l readings.

al-Nashr. 30.. Fath al-Bari. in the masähif as having in the mushaf of Makkah while it is 4 Abu Shämah quotes of the other cities. I. 31-32. Fath a1-Bari. vol. in the masähif. pp. 140-142. and considers it the sounder al-Mahdawi supported one. as has Those who agree that the masähif include only one unspecified abrogation this it number of ahruf differ whether this harf or certain among themselves as regards their of the Prophet. number of ahruf. this view. 2. 3 Al-CAsgaläni using the argument of al-TabarT. Ibn al-Jazari opts for this view. exists 100). 105 . Itgän. al-Nashr. supports this view that the masähif contain an unspecified number of the seven in which the word stating ahruf. pp. 4. attributing Indeed this since indications it to the eminent scholars. IX. vol. al-Murshid al-WajTz. 5 and acceptable last view seems to be the most likely of more than one harf exist 6 been pointed out by a1-'Asgaläni. 141-142. 1. p. 30. an example from the masähif. was later at the time of the compilation that it was not an obligation on Muslims to-preserve 1. IX. pp. 31. IX.the ahruf as can be accommodatedwithin Qur'an. p. took place during the lifetime to the vast majority of view being attributed of scholars or whether cUthman all on the grounds seven ahruf. 3. ibid. p. I. vol. according to the final masähif include an undefined the orthography of the I Consequently the revealed version. vol. vol. 6. 5. certainly more than one 2 harf but not all seven ahruf. 'min' omitted He gives in (S.

but rather

a rukhsah (permission)

and that when

cUthmän

witnessed

the dispute among the Muslims concerning girt 1 permission.
However the existence amount of them in the girt of all seven ahruf

he removed this

or some unspecified mean that they

does not necessarily

were written

down in the masähif.

Makki b. Abi Tä1ib al-Qaysi

states

that "the Qur'an was written

in one harf to minimise the difference 2 (in readings) among Muslims". This is supported by a1-Baghawi who 3 states that this was according to the final revealed version.

Orthography

of the masahif

The masähif contained neither orthography resembling in this, Somescholars diacritics portion

vowels nor diacritic the scripts

points

the Arabic was derived. and

from which it

have maintained that this so that either all

lack of vocalisation

was intentional,

seven ahruf or some

of them could be accommodated. view are al-Däni,
This

Among the scholars who opted for this
c Ibn al-Arabi, 5 Ibn Taymiyya 67

4

and Ibn al-JazarT.

view would

make it

necessary to assume that vocalisation

and diacritics

were

known to the Arabs when they wrote the masähif. authorities maintain that the Arabic letters

Indeed many

had always possessed

1. Sharh al-Sunnah, vol. IV, pp. 525-526, Sharh al-Zurgani, pp. ll-12 and al-Mutii, C al-Kalimät al-Hisän,

vol. Il,

pp. 113-114.

2. al-Ibanah, p. 33 and Munjid, p. 56. 3. Sharh al-Sunnah, vol. IV, p. 525.

4. al-Muhkam fi' Nagt a1-Masähif,

p. 3.
p. 481.

5. a1-cAwäsim min a1-Qawäsim, vol. II, 6. FatäwN, vo1. XII 100-102 pß,. !i .

7. al-Nashr,

vol. I, p. 32.

106

those features

or at least

icjam (dotting).

l

In support of this, first

we might adduce certain
century A. H. The first

documents which date to the early
one dates from the reign

CUmar in (22/643) of

and in it

i. e. kha', dhäl, there appear some letters with dotting, 2 The other is that of al-Tä'if z5y, shin and nün, which dates in it most letters which

from the reign of Mucäwiyah in (58/677), 3 require to be dotted are dotted.

The masähif remained free from any change until necessary to develop their of vocalisation perfectly orthography

it

was felt

by means of the introduction

to help the readers of the Qur'an to read it in the icrib

which had been brought 4 about by non-Arabs who had embraced Islam. and avoid errors
Du i ng . ü he . ; rei: a. n, of Mucawiyah, Ziyäd,

Governor of Basrah, is reported to introduce to introduce masähif. 5 final vocalisation.

to have appointed Abu al-Aswad al-Du'ali He was accordingly into the first scholar

vocalisation

(Naqt al-Icra-b)

the orthography of the

1. Subh al-Acshä, Kashf al-Zunün, mentions

vol. III, vol. I,

p. 151, Miftäh p. 712, al-Däni

al-Sacädah,

vol. II,

p. 89, p. 35

in his book al-Muhkam, of

the Pre-Islamic and diacritics.

Aslam b. Khudrah as a pioneer

vocalisation

2. Grohmann, From the World of Arabic papyri, Cairo 113-114. al-Munaj-i: id, Tärikh al-Khatt al-cArabi, and al-Jabburi, 3. Early Islamic Asl al-Khatt Inscriptions al-'-Arabi Near Taif

1952, pp. 82 and pp. 37-39,116,126 p. 107. JNES, VII (1948

awwuruhü, wä in the Hijaz, _ al-CArabi,

Tärikh al-Khatt pp. 236-242 and al-Munjjid, 4. al-Muhkam fi Nagt al-Masahif, pp. 3-4 and 18-19. 5. al-Muhkam fi Nagt al-Masähif, pp. 3-4, al-Aghäni,

pp. 101-103.

vol. X. 'II, p. 298, Itgan, vol. IV, p. 160, al-Awä'il, vol. 11, pp. 129-130 and al-Anbäri, Nuzhat al-Alibbä', He adds that the authentic view is pp. 8-li. cAl Abu by b. Abi Tälib. that al-Aswad was appointed

107

Some other was the first

riwäyas

state

that l

CÄsim Yahyä b. Yacmur or Nasr b.

to introduce

Nagt.

However, al-Qalgashandi Abu al-Aswad introduced of Abu al-Aswad final vowels (iCräb)

that most of scholars agree that 2 vocalisation, although Naqt al-Icrab states merely of the indication of

al-Du'ali

consisted 3 and tanwin.

The next step in the development

of the masähif

was the

introduction

of diacritic cAbd
(d.

points al-Malik

(Naqt al-Icjam)

.

This took place

during the reign of
commanded al-Hajjäj scholars said

b. Marwän who is said to have
Iraq to appoint certain

95 A. H. ) Governor of the letters. to carry

to distinguish

As a result out the task. for

cAsim is Nasr b. He then was the of the of and

to have been appointed to introduce

the first first step, 4

Naqt al-Icjäm

the same reason as for the reading

Naqt al-Icräb, Vocalisation

which was to facilitate and diacritics by colour,

masähif.

were the same, consisting red 'for Naqt al-Icräb

dots which were distinguished

c5 black for Naqt al-Ijam.

1. al-Muhkam, pp. 5-6, al-Däni states that Yahyä and Nasr were probably Naqt to the people, and they had been the first who introduced Naqt. Qurtubi, taught by Abu al-Aswad who started vol. I, p. 63. (Itgän, He adds the name of al-Hasan to that of Yahyä. vol. IV, it to all of them Abu al-Aswad, Yahya, p. 160) Suyuti attributes to the attribution and al-Hasan adding Nasr, but considering

Abu al-Aswad the most accepted. 2. al-Muhkam, p. 6. 3. Subh al-Acsha, vol. III, 4. al-Muhkam, pp. 18-19.
5. ibid., pp. 19-20 and 22-23. 108

Miftah al-Sa adah, vol. II,

p. 24.

p. 156.

Among the scholars
disapproved masähif, their 1

there were many who disliked

this

idea as they
of the in

of any change or development and because for them it

in the orthography

was easier

to read the masähif of the Qur'an the introduction

form since the actual recitation 2 Indeed for a long time after on the riwäyah. original

depends of

and men of letters 3 they used to consider the use of naqt in letters as an insult. The third step in the development of the orthography of the

naqt the idea was so disliked

by the scholars

that

masähif was that of al-Khalil

b. Ahmad (d. 170)786) who introduced for the Icräb. disliked It was not applied what they called

a new system of symbols (harakät)

immediately to the masähif, for the scribes Naqt al-Shicr and were unwilling to use this

new system in place of since they were used

the Nagt al-Icräb to it

of Abi al-Aswad al-Du'ali', 4

and regarded as the way of the salaf.
The harakät symbols of al-Khalil 5

b. Ahmad eventually In addition

dominated into his

and replaced

the Naqt a1-Icräb.

he introduced

the signs new system of orthography 6 Ishmäm. The consonantal spelling as the vast majority They argued that of the scholars should

of Hamz, Tashdid, of the Qur'an were firmly

Rawmand

remained unaltered against any change.

the masähif

remain as they have come to us

from the companions, 1. ibid.,

and the orthography

7 is argued to be tawg f.

pp. 10-11 where he mentions the names of some eminent cUmar, like Ibn Mascud, Ibn Qatädah, Ibn Sirin, scholars

b. Anas and Ahmad b. Hanbal. 2. Ibn Taymiyyah, Fatawa, vo1: XI. I, pp. 100-1'01. 3. al-Süli, Adab al-Kuttäb, p. 61. 4. al-Muhkam, pp. 22 and 43. 5. Itgän, vo1. IV, p. 162.

Malik

6. al-Muhkam, p. 6.
7. ibid., p. 17 and Igäz al-Acläm, Passim.

109

CUbayd, Abü Malik b. Anas, Ahmad b. Hanbal, and al-Bayhagi
reported to have objected to any change in the orthography

are

of the

masähif. states

'

al-Zamakhshari

seems to have supported this

view as he should

that "the orthography of the masähif is sunnah, and it 2 not be changed".
The Islamic day, for Institutions have supported only this

view to the present to the traditional

the masahif

are printed

according

orthography.

Certain scholars

argue however that the orthography of the for people to write Ibn althat

masähif is convention and that is permissible their

masähif in accordance with the new orthography. is reported to have supported this
from the Qur'än is any fixed

Bägilläni
there

view, stating

is no evidence that there

or sunnah or consensus or Thus in his view,

analogy,

way of writing.

any orthography which gives the correct reading and is easy to 4 follow is permitted. Ibn Khaldün supports this view and argues that the art of orthography
perfect point when the masähif in keeping

is merely conventional
and that

and was not
is no particular why

were compiled

there there. is

the old orthography not be written

and that

no-reason system. 5

the masähif

should

according

to the-new

1. ibid.,

p. 11, Itgän, vol. IV, pp. 146-147, Miftäh al-SaCadah, vol, II, cUlum 225, p. al-Burhän fT al-Qur'än, vol. I, pp. 379-88.
wa-al-Masähif, Rasm al-Mushaf pp. 11-16, p. 12, al-Shingiti,

2. al-Kashshäf, vol. III, p. 265. 3. RüstüfadünT, Tärikh al-Qur'an ßäz al-Ad am li-Wujüb Ittibäo Khulasat pp. 72-78. al-Nusüs al-Jaliyyah,

al-Im-m, al-Haddad, Makhlüf, CUnwan al-Bayän,

4. Tafsi'r al-MaräghT, vol. I, pp. 13-14. 5. al-Muqaddimah, p. 457. 110

Finally, that it

al-cIzz

cAbd b. a1-Saläm is reported permitted but is necessary

to have maintained that the

is not only

(wäjib)

masahif should be written

according to the new orthography into error) al-Zarkashi

so that opts for
also adopts by be

uneducated people may not fall
this view while adding that

cUthmänic the orthography inheritance. -,, the same reason as that

should

preserved this

and kept as a precious that he, for

al-Maräghi given

view stating

al-CIzz

CAbd b. al-Saläm preferred

to write

the verses while writing because he says, at the
used to in the

his tafsir
present

according to the new orthography,

time people are more eager for. it 3 time of al-cIzz.

than they

However, according to the general belief

the orthography of the says, this

masähif should not be altered. since, as Ibn al-Jazari orthography accommodates the variant accordance with the revelation al-Däni

readings of the Qur'an in 4 of the Qur'an in seven ahruf. between masähif in preserving

states that the differences certain letters

or omitting preserve all companions.

and words is because of the need to

the ahruf revealed to the Prophet and received by the 5 way of dealing with this problemmay phaps in which

The most practical

be that adopted in certain the words which differ

masähif intended for learners,

in writing

from the contemporary orthography are

1. al-Burhän

fi

CUlüm

al-Our'än.

vol. I.

D. 379.

2. ibid.
3. Tafsir al-Maräghi, vol. I, 4. al-Nashr, vol. I, p. 12. p. 15.

5. al-Mugnic,

p. 114.

Examples will 111

be forthcoming,

134f.

the word "al-Mukhraji'n" "al -Mari umin" Verse 167. al-Jalil and Mushaf al-Shurüq al-Mufassar. was changed to "Yatasannah" [I Is "Sharic atan" "Yanshurukum". 49-50 and 117-118. It 48. al-Däni. XXXXIII. 2. the word "Lillah" occurs three times. 3. X "Yusayyirukum" " c "Shiratan" was changed to 4. IV.58. S. 11. Verse 116. SXXVI. particularly 1 This system helps the contemporary while preserving the inherited 2 the learners. LVII. Verse 45. S. 1. S. 2. pp. This method was adopted recently in al-Mughaf al-Muyassar. - Verse 259. XXVI. the word "'Ätikum" was changed to "'Unabbi'ukum" 5. XXIII. 112 . Malik b. 22. LXXXI. the last 6. the word "Macä'ishahum" was changed to 9. II.explained in the margins. S. SXII. by for al-Muhkam fi 3. al-Masähif. two of them being changed to be "Allah" was changed to S. cAbd clsä. Ibn Abi Däwud attributes certain to al-Hajjäj the introduction of consonantal and orthographical modifications in eleven places in the Qur'an.11 According to him they are as follows: the word "Yatasanna". . Verse 11. p.59. XLCII 7. reader. S. Verse 24. the word "Yäsin" 11 11 It "Ittaqaw" "Zanin" was changed to "Äsin" " 11 it " "Anfaqü" 10. _ It 11 "Danin"3 1. was changed to 8. orthography of the masähif. learners orthography. S. S. Verse 15. "Maci shatä hum" 7. Anas is reported to have agreed to write masahif in the standard Nagt al-Masähif. See. S. the word "al-Marjumin "al-Mukhrajin" Verse 32.

63 of Chapter of alif after the wäw of plural consistent. Tadhkirat 3. 113 . p. pp. Il. See for al-Huffäz. Fourth. p. al-Hajjäj father. if he had made this alleged modification. fah b. pp. Kitäb al-Ducafä' pp. himself most unlikely have made any innovations. 76. 26-27. 4 It is said that he thus al-Hajjäj is said even though no alteration which makes it in the meaning of that he would the text would be involved.. In any case it is said that 1. 340-419. 4. regarded al-Däni. and Tärikh Khal. pp. 75-76 example Tar kh al-Tabar. al-Masähif. Ibn Ali' Däwüd says . vol. Passim. al-Sa hir. pp. pp. V. pp. is not sound since the author cites Ibn Abi Däwüd is the only source for this information.on the same page cAbd Allah of (alif) b. see p. bearing in by his own mind the fact that his scholarship had been discredited 2 Third. 166-167. I. 2. the omission The isnäd vol. al-cAsgaläni. al-Bukhäri. 3 in his time or later. vol. VIII. Yazid al-Färisi who was 2. 117. Ziyäd that he asked Yazid al-Färisi to add the letter twice in the middle and the end of gälu and känü. VI. added two thousand (alifs) to have objected to this. al-Bidäyah wa-al-Nihäyah. vol. pt. 770-772. 89-115. an unnamed book by his father 1 Second. except in a few cases of which he gives examples.However this authentic report of Ibn Abi Däwüd is not regarded as First. al-Mugnic. Tabagät al-Huffäz. p. Ibn Kathir. would have been opposed by his opponents. and two obscure and unacceptable ruwät in the isnäd. However according to was includes as weak. Tahdhib al-Tahdhib. 117-139. IX. 117. and vol. i. Khayyät. the isnäd of this riw5 ah for several reasons. al-Masähif. into the mushaf.

while the in the first people of Iraq read lilläh place and Allah in the l other two. to be preserved in the accepted readings. Thus their readings were governed only by riwäyah and to al-Hajjäj is in fact only the introduction of what can be attributed c Naqt of al-jam particular throughout the masähif and not only in these The mushaf continued to be read according to the and dotting was in accordance with this. riwäyah. the orthography of these words they were not apparently al-Hajjäj. p. Maca a1-Masahif. XXVI. Someexamples are accepted in both forms among the Qurrä' such as the first example while others are not-as in S. 58-59. 2 Thus we can see that all two occasions and lilläh of these variants existed on the before the time of a1-Hajjäj with the matter. and the vocalisation Jefferyregards modification this supposed consonantal and orthographical new recension of the Qur'an" and maintains as "an entirely 1. Mugiddimatän. while again in the mushaf al-Imam and the mushaf of Basrah Allah occurred on the first third. 119. XXIII. correct spellings acknowledged errors aim was to in the text we would not expect any of these as in fact they are. 2. 117-118. examples. pp. these spellings and that therefore references he can have had nothing to do of In fact can be given to show that all although it given by al-Däni predate äl-Hajjäj. 114 . 116 and 167 which-are not found However.Ibn Massüd read lilläh in three places in S. as regards dotted before in any source as to be read except in their present forms. Finally if al-Hajjäj's is not necessary to quote them here.

History by who himself was commanded the introduction of titles of vocalisation and diacritic -----------of süras with an indication of their revelation8 of Middle 7 and the place of their of the Qur'an". but b. 6. p. The Textual Society. He is also reported to have distributed copies of masähif to the Metropolitan cities. 8. 117.. including Egypt. See p. Thus.. for he felt 5 the work of al-Hajjäj. Yusuf". p. regarding to send a mushaf to him.seems to have undergone promulgated by al-Hajjäj ' Indeed he exaggerates the more or less extensive alterations". nothing can be attributed masähif apart from the diacritic certain that he had no need of to al-Hajjäj as regards the by points which were introduced scholars appointed by al-Hajjaj 6 cAbd al-Malik b. 4. al-cAziz insult b. 3. on that of al-Hajjäj recension of However al-Hajjäj had done nothing except to sanction the diacritic points introduced by scholars whom he had appointed for 4 the purpose. that "this new text role of al-Hajjäj claiming that "If as stated in the Kitäb al-Masähif2 this is so. cAbd 5. our textus to the extent of receptus is not based on the 3 CUthmän. whose it as an CUthmänic cAbd Governor. 108 of this chapter. 108 of this chapter. 78. See p. Marwa-n. ibid. 115 . 2. 7. Futüh Misr Wa-Akhbäruhä. 117-118. pp. pp. The next step after points was the addition beginnings and endings 1. Tärikh al-Mu$haf al-Sharif. al-Muhkam. Ibn al-Hakam. 16-17. Journal and a sign Eastern Spring 1947. p. 45.tookof_fence. Marwän.

4. pp.. I.consisting the verses of three dots at the end of each verse. which existed for a long time in different into the masähif in their However. 17. 3. colours The signs were introduced manuscript forms. were divided into portions ' Furthermore and acshär of akhmas (fives) (tens)2 and then the mushaf was divided into thirty parts (ajzä') (hizb) and each hizb into four and each juz' into two divisions 3 In addition signs were introduced for all the above arbäc . 4 by hand. for example the signs of the six which were by kinds of awgäf al-tiläwah(pauses) initiated other by the Egyptian editorial and sajdät al-tiläwa. p. al-Burha-n. p. and annexed to the Khätimah of the first Maca a1-Masähif. H. pp. Introduction of the editorial committee of the Mushaf al-Malik of 1337 A. 14-15. 91-94. could not continue with due to the difficulty Moreover. 5 1. ibid. ibid. p. 78. 116 . mentioned innovations. certain of dealing with press. 129-130... pp. 250. edition 5. vol. 2. committees and followed committees of masähif. these coloured signs. additions/signs in printed masähif. Tärikh al-Mushaf al-Sharif.. ibid. Ta-rikh al-Mushaf al-Sharif. as long as masähif were written the appearance of printed them in the printing were introduced texts.

4. for c färisi. 413 A. Hila-l who is known as Ibn al-Bawwäb (d. 140. not be vocalised they should the masähif errors. p. of Marracci. to be suitable that the masähif. 4 Thus the first printed mushaf appeared in 1649 in Hamburg. H. pp. This was in two big volumes under the supervision it was published under the supervision of Fourthly 1. ) the best calligrapher of his time. cAIT b. al-Kurdi.The calligraphy_of form until development the masähif remained unchanged in the kufic 1 A new the late years of the fourth century A. Tärikh al-Qur'an. 710-711. and another appeared nearly half a century later in 1698 in Padua. al-Kurdi. Mabähith fi cUlum al-Qur'an. p. 328 A. HäjjT Khalifah points out (p. p. 160. There is a copy of a mushaf written by Ibn al-Bawwäb which in Dublin. vol. al-Sälih. 711) that AbuMuqlah(d. vocalised to save the reader printed from committing The first but it mushaf was that produced in Venice in 1530. I. in this of khatt al-thuluth was the introduction 2 khatt al-naskh is and then naskh whicl 1 eventually dominated field the most beautiful considered one for the masähif. 3. 117 . ibid. Kashf a1-Zunu-n. had it was not distributed because the church authorities destroyed immediately. Tärikh a1-Qur'än. exists today in the Chester Beatty Library 2. diwäni. 99. H. ) was the first who introduced al-Khatt alBadic and that he was followed cAli by b. H. and other kinds ä si at and shikastah are said not because the rules while for them are should 3 be like rugah.

HkiwaHatbüc. This publication The first mushaf printed was in the calligraphy in perfect CUthmanic accordance with the of Shaykh 4 (1308/1886). and its and re- This mushaf is called edition been. . Muhammadal-"M0hallilati Finally. 100.1 It was printed in 1787. Mt babith fi"CU1üm ail-Qur`an. 91-92. al-Sä1ih. 1. Mawlänä at St Petersburg and fifthly.cUthmän three times. Mawlawl Mahbub The first Turkish printed edition of the mushaf appeared in 3 cUthmän. 118 . and 1839. it is in fact 1332. three editions of the mushaf appeared in 1834. of the orthography was that published under the supervision Ridwän b. the author wrongly put ff. time in India between the years Makhdüm (1280-82/1863-65).. T rikh al-Mushaf al-Sharif. the date as 1342 A. at Leipzig. Fendik. 103. pp. unanimously considered the best edition is said to be 5 of the mushaf. 99. of Häfiz being revised by their Shaykh 1297/1879). p.1842 It was printed for the first and 1870. Mabähith fl 3. in has It re-edited appeared This edition published several times since then. (1923) while Maca al-Masähif. cU1'üm a1-Qur'5n. al-QanuCbimä Huwaºiatbü pp. p. under the supervision of Flügel.1819 lithographically for the first time in Iran in Tehran in 1828 and again in Tabriz in 1833. see 4. under'the supervision of Häfiz Muhammad CAbd al-Häfiz.2 Thereafter. Kith Iktifä' 111-112. p.1790 and 1798 respectively at Kazan three times in 1803. al-Cnücbimä. . 112. Fendik. in Egypt in the mushaf was printed under the supervision Mashyakhat al-Azhar Egypt. and Mawlawi Muhammad CAll.KitRb Iktifä' 2. a1-Sälib. (1337/1918). H. has but. 5. first and the committee appointed by King Fu'äd of Mushaf al-Malik Fu'äd.

in the Sudan in (1398/1978). p. and al. and it in some parts of Egypt and Chad. 103. readings of the Qur'an 2 by famous leading Qurrä' in Egypt. Saudi places in Moroco. al-Mushaf second edition. which is the common reading The edition of the mushaf according time in (1349/ to the reading of Warsh From Näfic appeared for the first 1 1930) in Egypt. for the first time according to Finally. For more information al-Murattal. At the present time new means of recording in the field of Qur'an studies. The third most commonreading in some parts of North Africa The first printed is the reading of Qä15n from N fic.l canonical have been introduced have been recorded orally 1. is used the This reading is the most commonreading in the Sudan. Tunisia. Arabia and very recently reading comes in the second place in commonuse after it is the commonreading in North and West Africa and in some parts of the Sudan and Egypt. readings are known to a considerable of Qirä'at number of readers who have graduated from the Institutes of al-Azhar and of the Sudan and many others. the reading-of c from Abu Amr. Various editions of Warsh have been printed in kufic or standard naskh in different Nigeria. Maca al-Masähif. 2. about this project see al-Sacid. These four masähif represent commonreadings used for public However the remaining canonical purposes in the Islamic world today. of Hafs from the Muslim world. in Libya. all the reading dominates the above mentioned editions were according to which cAsim..However. to this reading appeared in Tunisia the mushaf was printed al-Dori mushaf according (in 1401/1981) then in Libya. Cairo. Hafs This and Algeria. 119 1978. .

this has been taught. of this cUthmänic chapter that the The ahruf being more than one. in the masähif are these which can be accommodated in the cUthmänic orthography of the masähif which correspond with the final revealed version.We may say in conclusion masähif include included certain ahruf. having were not vocalised first been introduced in stages. recorded various according readings As regards the written to one was only harf text it has been and permission to read the other that it is or in the recitation The masähif provided read as it dotted. Marwän to remained dominant Aswad al-Du'ali who was asked to carry the reign of out the task cAbd al-Malik appeared and then during make reading unchanged. and al-Düri. Printed The orthography masähif of the masähif the four today represent of Hafs. by Abu alwhen Lahn b. 120 . readings easier. Warsh. Qäl-un.

CHAPTER4 cUTHMANIC MASÄHIF AND THE PERSONAL THE CODICES AND SUCCESSORS OF THE COMPANIONS .

See for fi example Tafsir al-Tabari. pp. al-Fisal. Min al-Milal vol. of al-Zamakhshari. 75 and Itq-an.CHAPTER 4 CUTHMANIC THE MASAHIF AND THE PERSONAL CODICESOF THE AND SUCCESSORS COMPANIONS There are quite. 122 . Different views and interpretations of this problem. Muqaddimat Kitab al-Mabäni. Mugaddimatän. considerable companions which differ which Qirä'at a still number of Qirä'ät attributed to the cUthman. 183. p. See for example Ibn Hazm. 3 the Fätihah and the Mucawwidhatän. the two final süras. that Ubayy b. vol. vol. 1.. II. I. p. 4. from the masähif compiled by and al- to be found in the old books of Tafsir 1 al-Shädhdhah (anomalous readings). 182. Mugaddimatän. vol. 75 and Itgän. Ibn Jinni and al-Mukhtasar 2. p. fi Shawädhdh al-Qirä'at al-Muhtasib Shawädhdh al-Qirä'ät of al-Kashshäf of Ibn Khälawayh. 220-221. I. readings can be classified These divergent as follows: 1.. I. p. into categories The problem of addition and omission of certain süras It is related. 3. Kaob added to his mushaf two süras of al-Qunüt2 and that Ibn Mascud omitted from his mushaf three su-ras. p. p. wa-al-Nihal. ä. 77. is have been brought to bear ----------- on the discussion (a) A group of scholars hold a view that the story 4 untrue and fabricated. 75 and Itgän.

291-292. Qurtubi. ibid. ibid.. 551. 6. 1. See for example Mugätil. Moreover. pp.(b) In another attempf to explain this problem it is said that Ubayy and Ibn Massüd were confused. p. Icjaz al-Quran. five the obligatory sunnahafter the have written al-Qunüt on the back of-his 3 Duca "as we do on our masähif". p. 4. On this basis he that the companions could concludes that it is impossible not distinguish and what is not the 5 Qur'an and that the number of süras was known to them. XX. since they in hear Prophet the first to the al-Qunüt recite used prayers. 123 yah. 75. Indeed we find in support of this view many authorities between the Qur'an to Ubayy is no more than who confirm that what is attributed 6 ca Ducä' and they call it Du al-Qunüt. of Kitäb is supported by the fact that the transmission of Qirä'ah from him to the A'immah (leading experts in Qirä'ah)does not mention that Ubayy taught 2 Ibn al-Bägilläni the Qur'än. pp. vol. 5. p. p. said to have thought that the last two süras of the mushaf were not from the Qur'an because he used to see the Prophet recite them as an incantation for al-Hasan l is rejected However this interpretation and al-Husayn. 292. 5. 53 and vol. 251. Mugaddimatin. particularly daily most important prayers and that Ubayy came to believe that they were Ibn Massüd on the other hand is from the Qur'an. them al-Qunüt suggests as part of that Ubayy might as a mushaf in the prayer of al-Witr. he studies in a special chapter the stylistic between the differences 4 Qur'an and the sayings of the Prophet. 3. II. Tafsir al-Khams Mi'at i al-Akhfash. 291-297. The author by certain scholars on various grounds. p. p. vol.. I. 291. and Ibn al-Baqillani. Maani al-Qur'an. 75 2. Icjaz al-Qur'an. p. and . p. a1-Mabäni states that Ubayy's profound knowledge him from being unable of the Qur'an would have protected This to distinguish what is the Qur'an from what is not. Mugaddimatän.

p. to write only what he heard directly pp. his wide knowledge not be aware of the most famous. 251. 96-97.. I would have as Ibn al-Anbäri Qur'an is it must be (d) The author of Kitäb al-Mabäni states that it might be that Ibn Mascüd did not include them because he wanted 5 from the Prophet. p. . vol. 3. XX. Thus there was no fear that they even the children. is reported to have answered "If I wrote it with every sürah" meaning written interprets this . of Kitäb al-Mabäni states. vol. Qurtubi. 97. 2. aTMu ä in his opinion. 124 . 4. p. Mugaddimatän. XX. Qurtubi. widely known and the easiest suras of the Qur'an. ibid*. vol. ibid. Mugaddimatän. However Ibn al-Anbäri this is reported view on the grounds that his mushaf short süras like al-Kawthar al-NasV similar CX) and al-Ikhläs in length to. I.(c) The third view held in the discussion of this problem is that attributed to certain scholars which maintains that the reason that Ibn Mascud did not write those süras was because they were memorised by all Muslims. the Fätihahwhich in all (CXII idhatän? to have rejected Ibn Mascud included ( CVIII) ) which are It is Ibn Mascüd in understandable did not write because it however that could prayers is recited not be forgotten 3 and Rakcals. 53. 1. p.that a portion of the during every and that this alt recited preceded by the Fätihah.when he This is supported by the answer of Ibn Mascüd He was asked why he did not write it in his mushaf. - 5. might have been forgotten. 251. as the author how could Ibn Massüd with Otherwise.

not be regarded all differences -attributed (people). 125 . the consensus of the companions to us. XX. p. Thus his mushaf contains both the süras he heard from the rý ophet and those which he learned from the companions. to Ibn Mascüd as false and related by ignorant although he does not deny that Ibn Mascüd like any other häfiz might fall into error in certain hurüf. al-Musnad. pp. pp. he says. 46-47. I. V. 2. Qurtubi. pp. 3. (f) Furthermore riwäyas Ibn al-Bägilläni reports In addition states that all these are isol_ated which should he considers as reliable. and vol. 258-259 vol. of these süras from the mushaf does Ibn Mascüd of not mean that they were not memorised by him for as is well known they are among the shortest and easiest suras of the Qur'än. pp. (e) al-Qurtubi attributes to Yazid b. be impugned by 3 1. that he of the suras from other companions. Ibn Hanbal. vol. The alleged exclusion. since quarrels lesser importance have been reported on matters of much Also. Har-un the view that learned the rest Ibn Mascüd died before he had completed the memorisation However al-Qurtubi objects to this of all the suras. which indeed has no evidence to support it. 53 and 58. 291-292. 2 view. IX.However this view seems not to be sound for the reason that Ibn Mascüd himself is reported to have from said "I have been taught seventy süras directly "' which indicates the mouth of the Prophet-. He adds that f Ibn Mascu-dhad denied these two sealing süras the companions would have disputed with him and would have become widely known. and Fath al-Bari. that this on the compilation of mushaf cannot these anomalous inventednarrations.1 C jäz al-Qur'an. vol. 251.

645. The problem of the interpolation of certain of explanatory material. He supports stating 1. 82-83. vol. 2. 891 and p. be regarded 2. al-Ahädith al-Sahihah. 238-239. Mugaddimatän. al-Suyüti. certainly is reported \' ýN g`s q. this will (a) Someexamples of be quoted and discussed as follows: Ibn al-Zubayr to'1 The author addition. vol. KaCb and as authentic. this by to and that some narrators were confused and incorporated it into the text. Hadi'th no. Thus these narrations aware of them. vol. CAbd Allah b. 3. 126 . Sunan Abi Däwüd. pp.Finally referring there are quite a considerable to the position of these and above all to the story behind their revelation2 recitation of them by the Prophet while at home and travelling3 that Ibn Mascud clearly which indicate was certainly attributed cannot number of ahädith l the süras. II. 4. pp. Sunan Abi Däw-ud. Sunan Abi Däwüd. II. See for that these very same words were attributed example: al-Albani. 582-583. Il. pp. p. vol. 152-153. material consisting of to the The interpolation explanatory one or more words. 102 and Materials. is a(gloss)by Ibn al-Zubayr and his own words. Hadith no. al-Masähif. II. p. into the text of the Qur'an is attributed personal codices of some of the companions. Lubab al-Nuqul fi Asbäb al-Nuzul. Mascud to Ubayy b. pp. p. 152. 152-153. 227. 249. to have added the words after of the Kitab al-Mabani says that this if it is accepted as authentic. pp.

Mugaddimatän. 193. 4. 201.. and not as part of the Qur'an. corresponds to al-Mu*baf al-Imäm mention no in it. The author-of Kitäb al-Mabäni argues that this attribution cAll is invalid on the ground that the Qirä'ah_of to Abu CAbd al-Rahmän al-Sulami. Kacb with the further 3 the The author of Kitab al-Mabäni states addition is regarded as authentic it that if is an explanatory to the text and that certain narrators were confused and incorporated them into the text. which suggests that he recited them in his preaching as an explanation only. 4 j 5 331 ý 'ý (CIII. 127 . cAlT if Secondly. 1. 15). since otherwise he would have l added them to his own al-Mushaf al-Imäm. _.. (b) cAbbäs is reported Ibn CSvj ýºý attributed ýý 'ý to have added the words after 2 (XX. 5. This is also words C. Materials for the History of the Text of the Qur'an. _ p. p. the attribution to were authentic. Furthermore the isnäd of the riwäyah to Ubayy is magtuc (interrupted) and the transmission of the Qirä'ah addition cAmr from Ubayy to Abu and Ibn Kath-Ir invalidates (c) CAll is reported to have added the words immediately after it. Materials. 1). p. p. the transmitter of the CAli Qirä'ah from and his close student who also taught al-Hasan and al-Husayn. ibid. 102. 3. is there and of this addition. p. 146. 2. 227.CUthmanhimself. V-4! 1 to Ubayy b. ibid.

'is 2 This addition. ibid. al-Hakim. It is also reported 1. II. vol. 3. or that fasting l month of Ramadan is. that the consensus the nine obligatory wives marrying is allowed. so that if anyone alleges any single addition it or omission that contradicts is no different from claiming that prayer are fifty. 4 to Ubayy b. p. However. al-Nashr. 225-226. into account the unanimous agreement of the Muslims on al-Mushaf al-Imam. as tafsir. it is correct. the result of which would have been tot. AbT Wagqäs is reported to have added the two 6ý rý LJ-° words A3 after ý' \5 rI (IV. this tafsir agreed that as a1-Suyüti_`-points_out.he would have incorporated it into the text and would have not abandoned these words. which he agreed with Zayd. this it. -Mustadrak pp. more than the (d) Sacd b. al-Sahihayn. I. 4. that the narrator either lied or we must take:. I. after 26). cAlä 5. suggests Thirdly. -vol. Kacb that he added the 0-9 19? IfzS CUmar is reported regarded is unanimously (e) It is attributed sentence to (XLVIII. therefore forgot. 28. and to have asked Zayd to read He read it according to the general reading. a duty. Itgän. a-1. 2. 5 to have objected to reading of Ubayy. 216. pp. Mugaddimatän. 103-104. 128 . decrease``the reward of alter This reciter and a meaning wanted by Allah. p.. vol. 12).

Mascu-dthat he added to A ý? to (' Discussing this example. This is supported by the transmission of a Qirä'ah CAmr. was not aware of this addition since he heard this surah directly from the Prophet on the occasion of Hudaybiyyah? (f) It is attributed the word ( S. p. Qurtubi. n stylistically. differs from the. Furthermore. as his interpretation above reading attributed of the verse and his madhhab. but did he points not out. 3. because the Qur'an is not the substantiated except by Tawätur. and therefore not from the Qur'an. He considers to Ibn Mascud and regards it as not Mutawätir. 91-93. vol. addition cUmar he_-asks how it could be that Finally. 129 . al-Ghazzäli from the mushaf these readings differ to the companions. from Ubayy to Abu JaCfar. 283. pp. 2. VI. Consequently it should be considered. -hey and are to be attributed are not part of the Qur'an. Mugaddimatän. He quotes Abu Hanifah 1. Ibn Kathir and Abu who from Ubayy the ways of reading in madd transmitted (prolongation) report this this and shadd (doubling). Qur'ä. addition. V 91 that )"3 argues cAbd Allah b. before the final particularly revealed version.that to let Kitäb Ubayy defended him read it al-Mabäni his reading accordingly. transmitted reported that reading before its abrogation. l and that cUmar agreed The author of objects to this report as a strange reconciled-with be the book one which cannot been preserved and received by the Prophet-having In addition Ubayy might have from him. ibid.

points the companions may have written in their interpretations readings although they were sure of what they_had_ been taught as the Qur'an. p. al=Bahr al-Muhit. I. 161. 3. vol. al-Hasan al-Basri the Prophet. pp. unnah heard from l Among the successors. I. 5. pp. interpolation Ibn al-Jazari of explanatory material. 1. because it for report has not been reported to us as a s. 216. 102. . Itgän. 2 addition of the meaning of the word of al-Hasan himself but that it into some narrators made a mistake and incorporated 3 Concerning this general problem of the the text. p. I.as wäjib as having adopted this interpretation (obligation). ibid. . he states that it is not true that the In addition out that the Qur'an text. Although Abu Hanifah did not accept än.i objects conclude that this as an isolated Nevertheless. vol. that 71). al-Mustasfä. he accepted it Qur' this addi ti on_ as__part__of _the_ as an isolated report which in his view was sufficient evidence al -Ghazza. al-Nashr. 17-18 and for more discussion 130 . Munjid. 4.. to Abu Hani fäh`s view and is not even acceptable addition for practice. p. by Finally of readings of being companions used to allow_reading meaning as opposed to the literal Abu Hayyän maintains attributed Shicite that the majority to Ibn Massüd are suspected 5 inventions. I. 321-330. vol. see Chapter 7. is reported to al-Suyuti this quotes Ibn al-Anbäri is an interpretation to have added the words U as having said XIX. practice. vol. 2.

3. 12-13.Xtý Sý9 1 Although certain scholars quoted as an example of one of the seven 2 Ä'ishahthat it by is she heard her father ahruf. p. pp. C Ibn Abbas is reported to have interpreted read it 4.cy.. 78. vol. Another example of this attributed cAbbas to Ibn that he read 4 this sürah and O) (isit found in the asýS. Qurtubi. Qurtubi. 208. Materials. reported Abu Bakr in his final it illness 3 reciting this verse in the same way as is that it is occurs in the mushaf. pp. L. 232. read the word in the orthography For example. I. p. it meaning. Materials. 16-17 and. certain -ud_thathe (S. 5. See Chapter 1. 7. 5 A difference in the word which changes its and does not change its to Ibn Mas consonantal outline i. vol. 2. Chapter 1: 131 . 6. For example Abu Bakr is reported while it is in the mushaf asý. in their because of the abrogation 1. 4. synonyms. e. 26-27. XX. See pp. al-Nashr. while mushaf However. vol. 29) as this being quoted by 6 scholars as an example of one of the seven ahruf. p. view this was eventually 7 of certain ahruf. 21-22.3. reading no longer allowed is attributed However. A difference in word order is attributed to have read to certain GA1 companions. pp. XVII. in accordance with the mushaf.:2122. XXXVI.

p. Materials. p. 4. 9) as 2 (S. 132 .eAbd Allah b. .. he read ý_ Jfj _ý ý'9iý°" 1 19. 5. 6. 191.. 3..4) 1 eUmar is also reported to have o-S as read the word and it is attributed to Ubayy that (LXII. p. 2. 111p. A difference meaning.. LVI. LVII. by certain 6 scholars as an example of one of the seven ahruf which was abrogated. 13) as u9j 3 These examples were quoted by certain scholars as examples of one 4 of the seven ahruf which were abrogated. In all of these cases as we have seen in Chapter 3. cAli 29) as is reported to have read the word 5 This was quoted in the word which changes its consonantal outline and its For example of (S. ibid. it is of arguable=whether a certain harf was abrogated during the lifetime the Prophet or whether the permission to read in this c7 when Uthman issued his masähif. Materials. See p. pp.. See pp-16-17 and 21-22 Chapter 1. 221. 1. 7. Masoud is reported to have read the word C-(C1. ibid. 169. 16-17 and 21-22 Chapter 5. way was removed 1. 105-106 above.

agree as against cUthämic the masähif. 185. interpretations and are not to be stated 3 the condition are not part confused for using with of the original the mushaf. text since it the additional of the Qur'an was clearly them as Qur'än. which were expressed maintaining doubts that it to the personal being part codice of the original is not known yet were allowed into whether the text they are original only or not and that they l On the same as interpretations. the mushaf provided However. these synonyms may be quite fictitious. 3. cUthmänic However. differences are said to be in one hundred and twenty In nine places two. 21. a1-Islämi. but this is the maximumextent of agreement MadhahLb 2. in . were reported additional regard the companions kind of they did not permitted the writing of this that interpretation 2 in. when he mentions that certain as part page however he contradicts later scholars considered and supports as having himself these this additional view. them was only as tafsir and not as Qur'än. p. al-Qira'ät 1" al-Tafslr Wa'1-Lahajät.a comparison between the masähif and all personal codices of the companions it has been found that the three places. Goldziher text. --: but was subject the additional to the riwayah.Alternatively. arguing interpretations that of the text. Whatever the case the reading was not left the individual. As regards attributed about their to<the free choice__of_. three or four personal codices. interpretations . ibid. p. 133 .

p. Mac a1-Masähif. 147 p. some one had inserted he would have been notorious verse in the poetry of AbQ. On the other hand Ibn Massüd alone is reported for one hundred and two out of to have been the sole reference l the total number. let transmitted night. 3. Mac a1. 134 .among them. which the personal codices differed 2 In this connection al-Jähiz very small.a1-Shamaqmaq among the ruwät. Furthermore it is argued that the Qur'an contains over seventy seven thousand words and that the number of words in. ibid. said that "verily the trustworthiness omission in it there are certain cUthmänic from the masähif is thus is quoted as having people who cast doubt on or of the Qur'an and search for an addition the cow t'of However if without the Prophet and consensus a poetic of the companions. =Masehif. 2. 3 alone-the book of Allah almighty which is day and in Tawätur and sound chains-'and is recited Differences between the masähif of the amsär cities cUthman to which masähif were sent by are The metropolitan 1. 147.

pp. except for two examples. XXI. p. 54) we find `' 0 '. 11 and Fatb al-Bäri. p. all examples are differences in letters between the in particles. al-MugniC.reported addition respect that find to have differed or omission it is said in certain letters ahruf. which. pp. al-Mugnic.. II. it differs of the mushaf of Kufah that ahruf. 23) where the masähif. . 108-124. J1 word although it of letters is omitted from the masahif of Madinah and Sham 3 The differences exists in the masähif of other cities. Mugaddimatän. of Basrah in five written (S. example in we find (S. for example in . V. m 135 . we find have differed (S.. IX. 3. as regards the In this from of certain or particles. while it is omitted in the other 2 The second example is that of (S. (Uis masähif. in the latter However. p. 115. 4) we while in the Basran to in the Kufic mushaf Also. al-Mugnic. 117-121. IX. vol. 9 for Sý9 from those of Iraq example in while in 132) in the M?dinan we find we find the masähif for of Syria and Iraq the Iraqi Finally in forty while are said to have differed ahruf. are difference The first one is that of (S. 2. can be classified into various categories as follows: 1. LVTI. the Madinan mushaf is reported in twelve ahruf. 30. 100 ) where the word found in the mushaf of Makkah.

35) and Omission of pronoun suffixes and Lý 9 6. XXXXIII. 22) in (S. XVIII.1. L) and 136 . . Morphological and in (S. change. g 132) i and )ý . `Consonantal 5. LV. XXXVI. 54). X. and j to differences 4. XCI. in 11 (S.. 7. Grammatical change in (S. Replacementof. X. V. 53) Omission of conjunction. 15) also in (S. in (S. 33) 07/6 9. i-. C9 conjunction. 38) and 8. Verbal change in (S. XL. dod 9 cýsý in (S. 93) V ) cý. 9. 78) Singular and and dual alternation in(S. 2. . II. 26) G cý`I°' 3. V. and ý. in (S. Singular and and plural alternation in (S.

Mascüd to with the original 1. al-Mabänistudies they are all in one mushaf. material additional are no more than explanatory which they used to add to the text of the Qur'än because they were their own personal codices and they were sure of not confusing them text.The reason for discussed differences by al-Däni these differences that between the masähif all for when is who maintains and authentic and that of the above mentioned they have been revealed are correct and heard from the Prophet masähif and it cUthmän compiled these l all the readings was not possible he distributed the author to accommodate all them in the masahif. pp. Moreover.' companions and their chains and that they The personal codices attributed followers differ are transmitted in unauthentic from each other. 2 to substantiate ahruf revealed In conclusion we can say that research confirms that the to certain . 137 . 2. and concludes he states that correct the examples studied or mistake. 123. all but that did not differ they were made and heard from due to any forgetfulness intentionally the Prophet. Mugaddimat5n. a1-Mugnic. p. and contradict interpolations cUthmanic the masähif. The accounts attributed cAbd Allah b. 121-133. linguistically In addition of Kitäb that examples and sound.

these ways are 138 . and to Ubayy b. consisting to have differed in letters of the addition or omission of letters except in two places where huwa and min are sometimes These accounts are all it authentic in found and sometimes absent.that he used to omit from his mushaf the first süras. their transmission and linguistically is proved that in the Arabic language in which the Qur'an has been revealed all acceptable and fluent Arabic. Kacb that he used to write al-Qunüt as a sürah are absolutely Finally certain groundless. and the last two in his mushaf CUthmanic the masähif are reported or particles.

CHAPTER5 THE LANGUAGE OF THE QUR'ÄN .

number of verses of which we may quote a few examples: 140 . addition It or whether to that is number-_of. The Qur'an as 'Arabic'. qualification that the available conclusion we must add the to allow data are not sufficient on the subject. of the Qur'an We do not intend to undertake grammatical. 'standard whatever Arabic' may be understood or 'poetic Koine' but reflecting of the standard features.CHAPTER5 THE LANGUAGE OF THE QUR'ÄN In this question variant thorough which will chapter weJoose'to-address ourselves the text to the thorny with its a of what type of Arabic readings represents.. tentative. or alternatively it contains a Hijäzi version language. our beyond the scope of. fluent dialects in of Quraysh. the present -. purpose here is the more modest one of examining provided scholars represents whether Hijäzi it by classical in an attempt Qurashi is in Arab scholars to decide the information of modern of the Qur'an by this term.: and lexicographic-'analysis be well of the Qur'an. and the theories the language whether Arabic. dialects refers to the language reference language. has been revealed without to any particular In support of the Arabic one of the various ä of this there are considerable . this will pave the way to a better although understanding hoped that of the problem of the seven ahruf. thesis. in which it more than a'.

(S. Qur'an 2) "We have sent that in order 3) down as an Arabic ye may learn wisdom. mayest admonish in the persp ciaus Arabic e. "A book whereof the verses are explained in Arabic Qur'an for people who -A understand. XXVI. XLIII. XXXIX. Idäh al-Waqf wa-al-Ibtidä'. 3) "We have made it (and learn a language) a Qur'an ye may be able to understand (in wisdom)". d. XLI. they would have said: 11 Why are not its verses explained an Arab? " ""' in detail? Say: What! (a Book) not in Arabic "It is a guide and healing and (a Messenger) to those who believe. " states that the Qur'an language "(It is) a Qur'an in order in Arabic the Lord of the Worlds: with of Faith and Truth to thy heart is a revelation from it came down the spirit that thou tongue. except a few statements to certain companions: 1. to any particular attributed dialect in the sunnah. that "We have made it ye may be able 3) " a Qur'an in Arabic to understand and learn wisdom. There is no reference. p. 28) crookedness against Ibn a1-Anbäri in the most eloquent. 141 . the Qur'an that says: evil. 12. (S. XII. "Had we sent this as A Qur'an than Arabic. in detail. (S. XLI. " it b.a. I. 192-195) "Verily this and mind. XLIII. (S. for however. vol. " without any (therein) that they may guard (328/939) purest has been revealed of the Arabs. (S. other and (S. " c. in Arabic 44) since and clearest (S.

view is also adopted by the majority However it is not always clear refer to an actual meant by the term (lughah). 28 and 142 . Fada'il al-Muzhir. was written 2 Quraysh. Fadä'il al-Qur'an. p. p. 3. p. al-Wagf wa-al-Ibtidä'. I. cUthmän is reported appointed to have commanded the committee by him to compile the Qur'an. vo . p. Thäbit on any point in the Qur'an. Ubayd. CAbd Allah scribes b. al-Sähibi. p. B-_u vol. VI. it with tä' according to the dialect of 2. vol. "1 revealed to have made the same statement when the scribes differed ý as to Ü"3? in writing the word al-Täbüt eventually whether to write it with final hä' or tä'. I. vol.1. unanimous in (lughah) of what is dialect in agreeing that the Qur'an has been revealed in the dialect of Quraysh. I. p. cUmar It is reported of that he wrote to Ibn Mascud that the Qur'an had been revealed in the tongue of Quraysh and that he should teach people accordingly 3 It and not according to the language of Hudhayl. IX. vol. al-Muhtasib. I. 1. p. 310. 343. al-Murshid al-Wäjiz. Mascüd is reported to have preferred 5 of the masähif to be from Mudar. p.: vo1. 310. C 5. 211. al-Zinah. does this khäri. Abu Ubayd. Thäbit. 479. all of whom "If b. 13. then write it in the dialect in their of Quraysh as the Qur'an was He is also reported tongue. p. al-Qur'an. p. p. Fath al-Bär-1. and this contemporary scholars. 20. 4. vol. Tdäh. 27. the The scholars of the classical period are almost. IX. cUmar is elsewhere reported that said that the scribes 4 of the masähif should be only from Quraysh and Thagif. 92. Fath al-Bari. Abu'. Kitäb 3. Zayd Qurashi you disagree except were with Zayd b. 141. 2.

Tabagät al-Nahwiyyin Wa'l Lughawiyyin. 424. Is it even Fushä of phonology. or perhaps to a Qurashi version of a language. uses the word and he for example and to mean an acceptable form of 'carabiyyah' al-Hijäz says: "Lughah Li-Ahl CArabiyyah. 1 In this with them 'lughät'. Ibn Abi Däwüd. S1bawayh. or uswah) 'Wa-humä 2 They also used to use the meaning no more than dialects. 5. p. vol. 2. and vocabulary? the classical as do some scholars with Arabic the speech of Quraysh? The ancient to mean 'lahjah' distinguishes scholars use the term 'lughah' (dialect) in different contexts cc as Ab_ Amr b. Kitäb a1-Masähif. al-Zubaydi. (tongue) to mean 'lughah' which may be interpreted as word 'lisän' 'lahjah' (dialect). 143 . 4.. 34. "Wa-Hiyg a al -Lu hah al-cArabi yyah al-Qadimah 1. however. p. MaCani al-Qur'an..Alä'. two ways of pronouncing lughatän' Ölt connection al-Farrä' (iswah. e. II. 339. p. Wa-Hiya Jä'izah'4 alJayyidah". does when he and 'cArabiyyah' while he calls in that the latter what does not agree says about the is between 'lughah' what agrees with the majority. II. 'lahjah'. 3. 416. which exhibits morphology that standard literary in the field being claimed is identical certain Qurashß features . al.the full sense of the term. 32. p. mean 'lughah' 'lughah' the word 'lahn' to and they used to interpret 3 i. ibid. al-Kitäb. p. al-Farrä'. vol.

4-5. 135. al-Räfici. pp. philologists the problem of 'lughah' and 'lahjah' tackled and what is meant by both words is that the dominant view among the of al-Ghamräwi states is that Lughat Quraysh means no more than a dialect 2 Arabic language. though minor variations term. I. This is mainly a question of accent. West Arabian 144 .. Ancient 3. p.1st 1368-1948. ' means exceptional its meaning in the word as regards and morphology Amongmodern Arab scholars is more carefully explained. 2. as it exists It is important to realise that the concept of 'dialect' and that today was not recognised by early Arab writers dialects attempts such as that of Rabin5 to reconstruct on painstaking results. Cairo.. al-Naqd a1-Tahlili. in form For the 4 to the way of pronunciation. to reach some conclusion 1.According to the ruwät. majority. and are not likely must be based to produce more than sketchy now examine the views of the scholars and then attempt on this question. We shall work. a common language which is the existing in his 'al-Qirä'ät Hammüdah using modern linguistic refers wa-al-Lahajät'3 studies both terms methodology. 4. of words or of meaning are also encompassed by this purpose of the following discussion we shall regard the term 'lughah' but not used by the as meaning a form which is acceptable Arabic. the word 'lughät' and rare forms. p. vol. Tärikh Adäb al-CArab. ed. and differences and grammar. 210. ibid. According to him 'lahjah' the sound of words and phonetics. 5.

I..The view that the Qur'an has been revealed in the lughah (dialect) a. Fi-a1-Adab a1-Jähili. 145 . vol. vol. In addition all that scholars. XIV. Itgän. ibid. of the Qur'än. it maybe pointed out that the consensus of Islam and-the agreement among the and Mufassirun is narrators. The Prophet accordingly 2 Qur'än. Mushkil al-Äthär. p. p. any objection The reason for the language of the Quraysh having this position is said to be: superior 1. ibid. 2. b. 3. quoted and interpreted "We have sent not an apostle except (to each) in the language of his (own) people to make (things) clear to them". 4) in favour of Quraysh. disputes d. Muhaddithun. XXVI. himself was a Qurashi with and his sayings of the were those of the language of correspond the language c. Quraysh. p. The style of the sayings attributed to the companions and the people of their time belonging to Quraysh is 3 said to have agreed with the language.. of Quraysh bases itself The first on the following by the Qur'an arguments: people addressed Quraysh who used to understand easily In this connection certain the Qur'an. 4. IV. 135. verses are (S. Arabs after the Qur'än has been revealed in the dialect of and that despite the quarrels and political among the tribes and the existence of Shucübiyyah there was never on the part of Himyar and of the non-Arabs 4 to this.185. 110-111. pp. 110. 214) "And admonish thy nearest ' kinsmen". also (S.

Abu Fadä'i1 Intisar. 3. gatherings at Arabs used also to visit Makkahfor religious purposes and trade. Hence Quraysh used the perfection of their to choose the best of other tribe's speech and poems and to their innate tongue. so that their and that the accordingly 2 tongue. . I. . pp. connection the Prophet is reported to have said that "I am the most eloquent of you because I belong 1 to Quraysh and was brought up in Sacd b. p. 2. In this because of its high quality and fluency. The statement is attributed to Qatädah that Quraysh used to choose the best of the Arabs' tongue. 588. 33-34. Quraysh used to the most tongue became the best of all. I. a1-Qur'än. al-cAsr al-Jähili. pp. vol. al-Iqtirah. vol. natural 5 of the Arabs. I. 222. 133. p. Nukat al- vol. p. p.a. 5. 146 vol. a1-Räfici. ni. I. 1. a1-Sahibi. Bakr". 4. Fi Ilm al-Lughah al-CÄrnm. 386 and al-Muzhir. 309. 85-90. 211. p.. Qur'an has been revealed in Quraysh's is reported to have said that al-Färäbi be the best among the Arabs in choosing eloquent utterances and the easiest in pronunciation in expressing and the best in hearing and the clearest 3 oneself. Tarikh Adäb al-Arab. Lisan al-cArab. Also. al-Muzhir. delegations visit arbitrate Ibn Faris states in his al-Sähibi that for pilgrimage and other purposes used to Makkahand that they used to ask Quraysh to between them because of their eloquence and language. 210. 22. 1940. ability By doing they so and adding to it became the most add it their eloquent cUbayd. p. p.2nd ed. in the Arabic language is said to have This superiority been acquired by Quraysh as a result of their communication with other tribes in the course of their conflicts and CUkäz The cultural and other markets. Ibn al-Bägi11 p.

I. I. 'Mäjälis Thaclab'3 that Quraysh have a high standard cAncanah in fluency so that they did not have the of Tamim. 4 c Kasrah as Tilamüna. ibid. The second reason given for Quraysh having had this is the fact that they were far away from position neighbouring non-Arab states. holding this protected According . example (cAncanah) is the CAnna cAbda cAyn Allahi as to say changing of Alif to Qä'imun for Anna. a1-Igtiräh. Cairo. Dar al-Macarif. al-Mugaddimah. p. 635. 23. al-Muzhir. Third cAbd 3. 1. vol. p.as Quraysh from to philologists view the acceptability of the dialects to their vicinity to of the Arabs was in proportion l is quoted by or distance from Quraysh. while the second (Taltalah) is the pronunciation of the present tense prefixes c Ti giluna and cü Tisma cAncanah with na. in the neighbourhood c. vol. Edited by al-Salam Harlin. of Dabbah and Taltalah He only gives examples for of Bahr ä'. cAjrafiyyah Tadajjuc of Qäys. 147 .b. 2. p. which were attributed connection there are many examples of such defects Thirdly to certain tribes of which a few examples attributed Abi ai-CAbbäs states in his may be quoted. 212. 4. 1969. Quraysh were immune to pronunciation defects In this to other dialects. Kashkashah of Rabicah.. ed. Kaskasah of Hawäzin. p. and this Ibn Khaldun puts it non-Arab influences. al-Färäbi al-Suyuti as having pointed out that the philologists ignored the Arab tribes who used to live 2 of foreign nations. 81. The first and Taltalah.

Someof these features still exist in certain In this connection the kashkashah (i.More kinds of pronunciation dialects is in other sources. g. of e. ibid. Bakr. l täba al-hawä'u. pp. e. al-Yaman Qadiman Wa-Hadithan. cajcajah The as minhim. defects were attributed to various among them the Fahfahah of Hudhayl which Kalb which cayn ha' the change of to and the wakm. such contexts cases. definite article the tumtumäniyyah of_Himyar is the use of the instead hawä'u for täba. of changing The istintä' the changing as in such words as tamimij Hudhayl. al-MMuzhir. There is a hadith im-siyämu fi im-safar". Lahajät 3. Watm in the language of for al-nas. of Qudäcah consists for tamimi. of -hum as -him in. p. am -am -al.. 3 parts of Arabia.and wahm of the plural suffix becomes -kum calaykim means that -kim when the preceding Wahm is the canhim and vowel is kasrah. suffix parts and some other of Yemen it tumtumännyyah is also referred to as being still parts of Yemen. "Laysa e. pronunciation baynihim final -i in all to -ij Thus they say and bikim. pp. 148 . and the in use in Häshid. 2. Khawlän and some other quoted as using i. 20. 221-223. 47-48. I. for of sin as ta' for example al-nat The 1akhlakhäniyyah of Shihr and Omanis saying masha allah mäshä'a allah. Arhab. Qays and the ansär is cc of an to nun in the word anti Yemen is the pronunciation for ats. unciation Sancti of the fem. of Sacd b. vol. al-Azd. the pron-ik as -ish) may be mentioned as in 2 is still in use. min am-birri -am 1.

2. 149 . pp. Figh al-Lughah. Arab tribes. date as the standard language 1. al-Jahili. in the north and to Yemen in centre in Arabia.. Figh al-Lughah. Wafi. 85. 2 The Qur'an mentions and safeguard journeys "For the covenants Their covenant (enjoyed) by winter and summer. The subsequent acquisition authority by Quraysh of political power and 3 Abu Bakr is reported to have among other Arab tribes. of security (covering) Makkah itself this used to be the commercial in sura CVI. The religious factor in that the Arabs used to make the pilgrimage to Makkahwhere Quraysh were the servants of the house and the pilgrims and had the custody of the Kacbah'. 3. Quraysh were tradesmen and merchants places in Arabia. Wäfi. I. IV. vol. p. ibid. 3. n wä-a1 Tabyin. 109-110. to Syria who used to travel different the south. al-Rafici. 2nd ed. pp. al-Sähibi. 33. "4 The richness prestige Qurashi literay and purity of the QurashT language and the political to have lead to of Quraysh are argued by some modern scholars Arabic becoming accepted throughout at an early 5 Arabia. Tärikh Adäb al-Arab. by the Quraysh. p. 111-112. al-Bay 5. p. 4. 10. p. 1940. So Quraysh were 1 to favoured and respected among all 2. words: "The Arabs only follow addressed the ansär in the following Quraysh. FT al-Adab vol.The factors acquiring which assisted features the language are said of Quraysh in these superior to be the following: 1. 109.

p. 2. to the Arabs irrespective of Hence the Qur'an was understandable 2 their different tribes. then its In its development Quraysh final and most passed through three stages in its first stage it was developed by a single the tribes collectively. vol. from about 500 A. For instance certain of various other dialects companions among Quraysh are 1. 150 . Hasan CAwn. and select that it as a result of which they used to hear others al-Räfici finally concludes a the best of other tongues. I. 86. pp. that this was almost miraculous hundred or one hundred and fifty However. Tärikh Ädäb a1-cArab. tribe. I. because of their living He argues that Quraysh acquired in the vicinity of the kacbah position and meeting pilgrims. Dirasät 3. certain scholars development started 3 years before the hijrah. p. 79-86 and 89-90. e. (i. was taken up by all and finally to its alone are to be credited important this with having brought it stage of development. to the view that object the Qur'an has been revealed only in the lughah of Quraysh on the ground that there are many evidences showing features in the Qur'an. Tärikh Adäb al-cArab F -al-Lughah wa-al-Nahw. Cairo. 58. vol. al-Räfici asserts that the Arabic language has developed and development in fluency.This victory considerable culture fifty for years of QurashT Arabic supposedly took place a Islam so that it was the language of time before all Arabs more than a century or one hundred and 1 before the hijrah. D. ).

Kitäb al-Lughät FT-al-Qur'an. cAlT cUmar. attributed cAbbäs himself Ibn used not to know the meaning of al-fattäh until I heard the daughter of Dhu Yazin saying to an (come to arbitration with me) then opponent of herb halumma fätihni I knew it. Yahyä al-Qatici and 6 Ibn Durayd. p. p. Cairo. ed. vol. 4. Itgan. II. Edited by Saläh al-Din al-Munajjid. vol. 5. Yazid al-BasrT has a mentions that Muhammad 1. II. al- CAdi. AsmaC1. Edited by Ist Muhammad 2nd ed. Abu CUbayd. being the version of Ibn Hasnu-non the authority 4 cAbbäs. it). 3. 31) (wa-fäkihatan. Fadä'il al-Qur'an. "2 Abu Bakr and CUmarboth are reported not to have known the meaning In this of the word abb in (S. a1-Fädi1. p.. Published with Tafsir al-Jalälayn. LXXX. 38. 5. cAbd Thus Allah used not to until anä to I know the meaning of (the word fätir al-samäwät met two bedouin quarreling fatartuhä. al-Mubarrid. Cairo. I began it that about a well. Beirut. p. 4. 113-114. 7. of Ibn and t4ä Warad F -a1-Qurän Min Lughät al-Qabä'il 5 Sallam. Muhammad b. 6.2 vols. 1342 A. al-Daw-udi in his Tabagät al-Mufassirin7 b. In addition al-Nadim states that al-Farrä'. al-Fihrist. Itgän. "I "' One of them said It is also (or started he said. 2. Abu Zayd. p.. composed books on Lughät a1-Qur'än. 1392-1972. 4- pp. CUbayd by Abu al-Qäsim b. al-Haytham b. 314. wa-abban)3 connection reference may be made to a number of books and treatises composed by early scholars among which are. reported meaning of some Quranic to have said: in) fätir "I words.reported not to have known the exact cAbbas is b. H. 151 . vol. II. Itgän.

pp. pp. Cairo. ibid. Nukat al-Intisär li-Nagl Fusüi Min Fiqh al-cArabiyyah. 89-120. dialects al-BaräghTth. II. since they 4 are the nearest kinsmen of the Prophet. vol. and al-Suyuti. in the Qur'an for example in of grammatical such as what is (S. 1.. of Quraysh as meaning that on the grounds and that the was in this features verse to all in the main. Ist ed. He quotes the statement attributed to the Prophet. p.. in the Qur'an a Qur'an that that Quranic refers that 3) "We have made it In addition he states in Arabic" whoever maintains dialect should people the Qur'an evidence has been revealed for that. 267. XLIII. pp. 71) This ancient semitic feature is found in of it. dialects exist but not entirely. XXI. chapter is l This subject has been treated by 2 each of whomdevotes a chapter to it. Ramadan al-Tawwäb. 291-296. 81-82. al-Burhän fi-cUlüm pp. II. based on the work of Abu CUbayd. Arabs. al-Ladhin Minhum". 1971. Itgän. CAbd 3. Furthermore are many more examples showing the existence belonging to other. 2. in any particular if this provide He argues were so other would have said that it should be the tongue of Häshim. "I am the most eloquent of you because I belong to Quraysh and was brought up 1. the 3 Wa-SammüKathirun the language of other Ibn al-Bägilläni revelation it Arab tribes. vol. vol. 385-386. al-Qurän. 4. al-Qur'an. 152 . but Quraysh was free of CUthman interprets the statement in the dialect about of the Qur'an dialect of other (S. Zalamu" and V.book on Lugt al-Zarkashi al-Suyuti's there al-Quran. 3) features called Lughat Akaluni al-Najwä "Wa-Asarru cAmu "Thumma (S.

belongs He accepts most of the language that of the different to Quraysh but states before who recited the Qur'an the Prophet the Banu Tamim were the most fluent and clearest of all. Bakr". . I. al-Burh5n. p.in Sacd b. thus the reading of according to their 1. 386-387. vol. p. Itgän. 95. p. vol. scholars as having said that the Qur'än has been revealed not only in the tongue of Quraysh but in that of those of their neighbours who were fluent urän speakers. vol. This statement of Ibn al-Bägilläni of also asserts that the Prophet accepted the lughah i. Fatb al-Bari. vol. pp. Fadä'i1 al-Qur'an. pointing Qirä'ät out that the of other tribes as the retention quotes certain of the Qur'in. IX. 284. Quraysh omits it. 3. p. IX. 27. according because the language to the most eloquent of the Arabs and according is lesser in eloquence. Qur'an Qur'an and comments that that does not mean that the has been revealed could be revealed in the language of Quraysh. p. all Arab dialects 3 allowed to read the according to their He elsewhere states that the Qur'än includes because its to read it revelation was for them all different and that they were permitted dialects. such 2 Abu Shämah of hamz while. to the language of those whose language all varieties that of Arabic used in the of the tribes since Qur'an Qur'an are eloquent. 103. 2. p. CAbd Ibn al-Barr dialects supports this exist in all view. 1 Khuzäcah and others. Ibn Kathir. e. 22. II. dialect Tamim and that he used to read the Qur'an in the language of Tamim. Fath al-Bär-ii. Nukat al-Intisär. al-Murshid 153 al-Wajiz. while the Arabs were accustomed dialects. 27.

except the for Qur'an has been revealed in which are in a few features accordance with the practice for example the following: of Tamim. LIX. 3. such as idghäm (assimilation). these different lughät. 4. p. 31). IV.Qur'an differed. p. g. e. 217). 154 . VIII. 12). XXII. XX. 81). "yartadid' (S. "yuhbibkum" (S. I. dialects. 103. vol.4) "wa-man yushägqi A1lahä" 217) for Qurashi yushägiq which was not read thus by anyone and (S. 27) . (XX. pp. 424. Ibräz al-Macani. 115) and (S. (S. (S. vol. while the Hijazi is originally practice a Tamimi feature of separating and only occurs the consonants occurs (S. II. 487. 13). 31) "yahlil" practice (S. XX. He adds that when the masähif were established readings were abandoned except for those whose corresponded with the orthography of the i. II. more frequently "wa-al-yumlil" (S. III. 2. a1-Burhän. e. in the Qur'an. 15). vol. the consonants is considered 3 1. 1 According to Ibn Malik the dialect of Hijäz. 282). p. al-Kitäb. This assimilation rarely. 2 The Nijäzi of separating by Sibawayh as the best ancient Arabic. 285-286. 63). "Wa-Ahlul" (S. II. II. LXXI. "yumdidkum" "yuhädid" "yushägiq" "Fa-al-yumdid" (S. Na-man yartadda minkum" for Qurashi yartadid. IX. Itgän. "ishdud" (S. 1. masähif.

286. various (S. 6. being the reading of 1. a1-Burhän. 2. I. Sibawayh studied this book entitled type of exception in the section of his Hädhä bäbun yukhtäru fl-hi al-nasbu Ii-anna al-äkhira laysa min nawo al-'awwal to Tamim who use damm. vol. p. al-Kitäb. 155 .Moreover it Il1ä Ittibäc is agreed unanimously (S. although nobody recited 31)3 as opposed to this passage in Tamimi "i1ä hädhä basharun" the latter manner. as "bi-rabwatin" with fath according to Tamimi practice. according to Sibawayh. 265) 6 is in has been this in Qur'an the revealed and more use In addition dialects the readings of the Qur'än represent among them Hija-z'11and Tamimi. p. II. however. opts for not aware of how it was in the mushaf. ibid.. 125. 363-365. 28. I. vol. 4. ibid. vol. I. I. 5. except among those who were 4 He. I. XII. Ibn Jinni but the Hijäz'i (392/I 001). states is more in use. 157) with among all fath qurrä' to read is in al-Zanni with because this accordance the Hija-zi tongue in which they use fath in this type of exception1 [as opposed to Tamim who use damm]. corresponds with the Mä Tamimiyyah in general on the grounds that it 5 analogy. 3. He prefers the Hijäzi because it language. vol. p. IV. pp. 103. vol. Itgän. a1-Kitäb. al-Khasä'is. Likewise we find pia-huwa Lughatu ahl al-hijäz as opposed "t1ä hadhä basharan" (S. p. that mä in Tamim usage is more analogical.

p. vol. 104.CAsim.Qirä'ät. al-Muhtasib. al-Muhadhdhab Fi-al-Qirä'ät p. 146. Fath al-Bari. it comments on this versa the Arabs change hä' similarity cattä for in their hattä because of their He concludes that is permitted is not wrong but that the preference is for hattä because it is 6 Hammudahsupports this view.which were accepted of Hamzah and al-Kisä'i in among the Qurrä'. 241. cairn to place of and 5 is no objection to choosing that Ibn Jinni and vice articulation. al-'Ashy. the Tamimi version The Hijäzi Nushuran is the reading of Näfic. Ibn Jinni fluent "bi-rubwatin" of the rest of (S. p. regards 57) Nushuran as more . Ibn Kathir. 255. 2 of the people of Hijäz. al-Muhtasib. p. p. such as the reading 1. 3. 2. CÄmir Ibn while and to Quraysh. I. vol. 1.Jacfar of %ir. 27. al-Muhadhdhab fi-al-Qirä'ät 4. vol. certain sound readings attributed to Hudhayl. I. permitted to read the Qur'än from within in seven ahruf the seven ahruf. 5. while because it is the language is Nushran. I. p. Abu Abu. IX. Hujjat al . only of CAmr. 343. 142 above. vol. al-cAshr. giving reference to more in use. vol. VII with damm is attributed 1 being the reading the reading of the ten qurrä'. Ibn 3 and Yacq-ub and the Tamimi is the reading argues that the statement cAbd Ibn al-Barr cUmar to Ibn Mascüd4 indicates mean that that there since he forbade it is merely his own preference He points and does not out Ibn Mascüd's reading. See p. 156 . 6.

that these seven Mudari dialects Kacb b. p. 308. 11) "fa-li-immihi" to the question instead of. al-Murshid al-Wajiz. According to Ibn cAbbas branches of Quraysh and of Khuzäcah were 4 neighbours. Fath al-Bari. e. e. p. 66. This interpretation in seven ahruf 1 above. vol. 101. Mucäwiyah they were called with Suf1ä Tamim cUlya Hawäzin (Upper Hawazin) who were considered 1. Bakr. Fadäil al-Qur'an. p. Bakr. 93.which they read (S. c 4. al-Tabarl. 27. dialects of the Arabs. Abu Ubayd. p. 157 . Ibn Kathir. them as Sacd b. CUbayd Abu identifies and Thagif. are thoseofQuraysh. 27. p. Hawäzin. However. 22.. i. al-Kalbi ahruf are seven dialects. Ibn is reported by some scholars to have identified these seven as Kacb of Quraysh. Lu'ayy and Kacb of Khuzäcah. al-Qur'an. p. 2 identification scholars all to certain interpretation involved. 3. Fada'il p. Dabbah and Qays. i.""fä=fii=wnmihi". He adds that Nasr b. cAmr of Khuzäcah. Tafsir. of the in l leads of the revelation in some detail Qur'an Chapter which has been discussed Among the interpretations of the term ahruf mentioned there is that they refer However scholars who support this their certain Mudar. attributes five cAbbas to Ibn the view that of them belonging the to the Acj-az of Jusham b. IX. vol. Wa-'1-lahajät. 3 cAbbas Asad. al-Murshid al-Wajiz. Hudhayl. T. in have differed According to in the tongue of of the dialects seven ahruf are included to certain CUbayd Abu attributes ünnamedr'scholars the view Kinänah.. Kacb b. al-Qirä'ät 2. Tamim. III.

p. for the saying is attributed to the Prophet "I am the most fluent of Arabs because I am Qurashi and brought up in 2 cd Abu Shä to certain unnamed scholars Sa b. Itgän. Bakr is the of all Arabs. e. Kinänah. 96. p. p. pp. 6. 309. 4 Tamim and Yemen. a1-CAla It may be noted that only identifies of Hawäzin. Bakr". Hudhayl and Quraysh. 100. 1. I. 4.(Lower Tamim). Bakr. p. According to another version Abu them as Quraysh. I. I. Abu Fad5'i1 al-Qur'an. Kinänah. p. 5. Ban-u-Därim the most fluent .al-Azd. CUbayd. al-Nashr. I. vol. 99-100. 2. TamTm.. Hudhayl. Hawäzin and Sad b. 3. al-Murshid a1-Wajiz. vol. p. p. p. 24. Manähil. al-Murshid al-Wajiz. Thagif. 158 . cc6 Rabi ah. ibid. ibid. mah attributes the view that five remaining two to all of the seven dialects the Arabs. vol.. 94. p. Hawäzin. al-Nashr. This view apparently widens the seven ahruf to include nearly all the Arab dialects. According to Abu Hätim al-SijistänT they are Quraysh. vol. most fluent four of the five dialects belonging to the Ac z cc However. I. al-Wajiz. al-Murshid 180. according i. vol. al-Muzhir. 24. and that the remaining two are divided among the tongues of all the 5 Arabs. according to Abu Ubayd Sad b. Thagif. 210. 135.1C of the Arabs Abu Ubayd c to Amr b. belong to Hawäzin and the view it is In support of this argued that the Prophet was brought up in Hawazin and lived with 3 CUbayd is reported to Hudhayl. Hudhayl. attribute to certain unnamed scholars have identified Abu Shämahand Ibn al-Jazari the view that they are Sacd.

3. I. al-Fädi1. Itgän. 2. 309 and al-Fädi1. 4. Tafsir. Tabari. cAmr Abu b. I. al-Fädi1. Abü Fadä'i1a1-Qur'än. 135. Amongthose who accepted the existence Qur'an. 113. 46-47.According to al-Tabari some dialects the language of the Qur'an represents tongues of the Arabs and not all ' and languages were more than seven. Sacd b. although the Qur'an has been revealed in all 3 of the Arabs. Bakr is the most fluent of all Arabs. Qays or Upper Hawäzin and Lower Quraysh. p. of the best al-Mubarrid that every Arab whose language to his people (tribe) has not been changed is fluent the meaning of the statement they are more similar in according Bang fulän and that is that afsahu min bani fulän their language to the language of the Qur'an. CUbayd. p. tongue of Quraysh. p. because of vol. p. of them because their According to Ibn Qutaybah the 2 all seven ahruf are included within was exclusively in which the Qur'an revealed. 1. speakers states views differed of the Arabic concerning language of other dialects in the the most eloquent among all the Arabs. p. 113. CAli and Abu al-Ahwäzi. pp. and the language of the languages Quraysh. 5. al-cAla' is quoted in different versions as mentioning the most eloquent of Arabs as Upper Hawäzin and Lower 4 Tamim or Upper Hawäzin and Upper Tamim or Upper Hawäzin and Lower 5 CUbayd. According to Abu however. vol. 113. 159 .

Nasr b.the statement attributed to the Prophet discussed above. Kinnnah. 52. 5 Arabs. 160 . Muqaddimah. Jusham b. 65. vol. a1-Kari1. p. al-Muzhir. p. 211. p. '6. Hudhayl. as mentioned opts for Quraysh as being the most eloquent of the Arabs. are Qays. vol. Tamim and Asad. al-Färäbi followed 3 Khaldün and al-Räfic4 i. Other sources refer to many other tribes 6 eloquent. vol. then after them in fluency are Khuzäcah. 7. Bakr. Mucäwiyah and Thagif. then Hudhayl and ý al-Räfi'i some parts of Kinänah and Tayyi: asserts that the the Arabs are Quraysh. p. p. ibid. I. I. Ibn al-Bägilläni the Arabs 2 Ibn by al-Suyüti. 211. C 8.1 jaz al-Qur'an. such as Hudhayl and Thagif as being the most of all the Arabs after Quraysh. 635. 8 of Makkah are Asad and Dabbah. 2. a1-Sähibi. 223. 5. II. ICjäz al-Qur'än. p. however. 3. The most fluent according to al-Färäbi. Quraysh was regarded as the most eloquent of all according to Ibn Färisl. and after them most eloquent of all immediately are Sacd b. Bakr. p. it tribes and come to visit Qays and other frequently of Central them in fluency 1. while mentioning al-Mubarrid considers the fluency and clearness of the language of Tamim. 65. They used to be neighbours and after Arabia. in his a1-Kämi1 on the authority Jarm the most fluent of all of al-AsmaC1. al-Muzhir. 4.

is regarded (such as Qatä.. 66. which have not been the differences selected as one of the seven ahruf3 and also that if between them were dialectal reported as having differed cUmar and Hishäm would not have been to the same tribe weak (dacif) of their al-Kaibi) all in reading.dah and 5 1.. pp-70-71 2. 212. al-Tabari. I. regarded as mentioning the seven lughät on the basis traditions since isnäd. vol. societies eloquent in Arabia reason for and clear these differences in speaking. al-Tabari of Quraysh. Tafsir. ibid. 136.The number seven. 3. al-Muzhir. vol. and al-Itgän. 1 these views. In studying however. ibid. vol.. by mixing since with were influenced who came to live regions later. as being an important most fluent. 5. nomadic to accept were the people language of The philologists from certain regions of all to have refused whose dialects information considered of Ta'if or their the most fluent such as Thaqif. 161 . p. according to al-Räfci consider is symbolic. 180-181.. we should the time factor as to who was the tribal non-Arab clients. pp. in settled areas and came to influence are said and tribes Arabs. p. none of their as accepted narrators in any chain. 2 with its all different versions in its text has This view of seven dialects been refuted on the grounds that the Qur'an includes many words belonging to other Arab dialects. Manähil. p. 4. vol. 1. I. I. their and the towns of Hijäz tongues on the grounds that were changed and distorted by the influence foreign clients. because both of them belonged 4 Furthermore.

24-26 and Chapter 2. ibid. al-Murshid al-Wajiz. 168. vol. p. p. 96-97. al-Wäsiti Ibn al-Nagib Qur'an includes is reported in itself all to have said in his TafsTr that the 4 Arab dialects.Ibn al-Jazari objects to interpreting ahruf to mean 'dialects' and states that what is meant by ahruf is not dialects l differences. al-Nashr.. p. 7. pp. 4 above. 102. In support of this types of linguistic is reported but seven view Abu Bakr to have said that there are forty dialects 2 (lughät) of the Arabs in the Qur'än. 3. XIV. In support of this to have said that the view Ayyüb a1-Sikhistiyäni is reported verse "We sent not an appostle except (to each) in the language of 5c his own people" (S. 5. p. ibid. thirty a1-Suyu-ti identifies 3 two dialects. quoting examples of them in the Qur'än. vol. ibid. Itgän... 94. 89-104. 4. All and Ibn are also reported as having said that the Qurlan has been 6 In the version revealed according to the dialects of all Arabs. ibid. I. 4) refers to all Arabs. pp. every tribe is stated that the Prophet used to teach people in and then he started 7 features of various cAbbas so they found difficulty according to their dialects. pp. cAbbäs Ibn it of one dialect. teaching Since however there are different dialects of the Arabs in the text of the Qur'an we shall commonly accepted today that the Qur'an next discuss the view in the common has been revealed 1. 6. I.. 162 . 96.

however. 240. changed by the poets while in the rest of Arabia a quite language. 1. Ancient p. whether specified pages we shall In the following and contemporary be discussing views of modern are based scholars whose arguments and analysis on modern methodology embarking upon this and linguistic discussion evidences. this being based on a certain or not. The Seven Odes. Ancient West-Arabian. opposed to classical 3 of cases and moods". 3.literary dialects language. dialect or of the Arabs. own. of its 'a popular lack is extremely different from that of Vollers who the official and sought This text its of the Koran as a grammarian's original text form in the non-canonical he believed variant reconstructed to be representative Arabic above all by language'. p. 4. 163 . briefly However before consider the we shall hypothesis evolved by Vollers on the speech of the bedouin that classical Arabic was based in Najd and Yamämah. Arbery. in classical However. He then. 17. his approach "rejected fabrication readings. eme. p. Vollers claims that the Qur'an was composed in that popular Arabic 1. West-Arabian. 2 Rabin declares that theory has been abandoned as-too extr. 2. "I goes on to present a hypothesis presentation literary of his of the diction accept the Othmanic text but believe as a true that his language Muhammadused. Vollers' and subsequently rewritten style. the ancestor of the modern Hadari colloquial. but was much different was spoken.

Nabatean as languages. Ibrähima Rabbuhü" (S. VIII. Wolfensohn. Tärikh a1-Lughät al-S-amiyyah. a1-Is-lam. 8) and "Anna. 51 f. p. al-cArab. "1 which Vollers' by R. Leiden 1914. Bergstrasser. al-mushrikina been received in the manner of Tawätur 6 The teaching of the Qur'an was writing down and reciting. 276. Shorter Moreover. IX. In Nabatean particularly. vol. . Na idhä hadara min u1ü al-qurbä" wa-rasuluhu" (S. p. Ltttmärij: Arabic Inscriptions. II.Fathah and Käsrah 4 In support of this we may quote the Harrän inscription are found. al-Mufassal 6. 3. Leipzig 1899. al-cArabiyyah.. 215. Alla-ha bari'un (S. p. Sprachen. p. Nöldeke established. 3). accordingly 1.Milieu idiom his the spoken of of some elements contained happens to be a specimen of another lost view was rejected language. in Arabic. p. al-Tatawwur 4. 5 In the which contains an accusative form. 124). 157 and Johann FUck. but is an original Babylonian. *Ndldeke. p. the-Qur'an has -with Icrab in c with Iräb West-Arabian. Geyer and Nöldeke who rJ jht1y either point out traditions case Icräb feature. Encyclopaedia when it was read in prayers and taught to the p. 3 Hebrew. al-Nahwi. and other Semitic Ethiopic. Die-Sernitischen 5. Enno 3. 4. XXXV. fi Tärikh Fish al-Lughah. 28). Dammah. Wäfi. p. Ancient 2. IV. is not found only Semitic being found in Akkadian. that there is no support for it in the oldest 2 In any nor in the evidence of the Arabic itself. (Dhä a1-Martul). such as cIbädihi "Innamä Yakhshä Alläha Min ibtalä "Wa-idh : al-gismata al-cUlamä'u" (S. of Islam. all cases of Icra-b. g. p. e. 37. 164 Qabi. 75. text of the Qur'än there are many examples whose meaning are impossible to understand without taking ICräb into account. 549.

Book I. 28).suppo_ses The word Icräb. See pp. %smply_-a formulation reference to the language grammar of the rules of the Qur'an use with speakers and of fluent thus creating Arabic as a science. ibid. "4 There. and understandable. 2. speaking barbarousness. e. Figh al-Lughah. and Shahidan and Icräb with Huruf. 4. Lane. system of Icräb ' language goes back to ancient in the Arabic and what the grammarians governing its introduced special was. to make things in its clearly. Part 5. the presence in the case of the nunated accusative such as Rasülan. g. "speaking earliest in the Arabic incorrectness.students. of Alif Bashiran supports the existence of ICrab. XXVI. Wäfi. English p. although free e. 21-22. Arabic tongue" (S. appearance without surely_. Lexicon. are certain statements and certain companions encouraging Muslims to read the 1. 195) and"(it (therein)" clear is) a Qur'an This in Arabic without any crookedness Icräb (S. al-Mu'minün and 3 The Qur'an refers to its language as "Perspicious al-Mu'minin. 1492. above. 3. CAl1 Wäfi points out that the writing of the mushaf which is received in the manner of tawätur. The Qurrä' did not differ in the Icräb except in few cases which were due to the permission to read the Qur'an according ----The times to the seven ahruf. the Prophet etc. pre. g. An Arabic 165 . p. lexicon without attributed to means. 215.. from vocalisation. however. XXXIX.

3. 3 above. al-Haläli. 5. Il. vol. 1947. Ibn al-Anbäri. pp. 4. and of the we accept statement of Abu Bakr is. 6. Kitab vol. I. pp. Ibn alpp. 20 and 23. 3-7. I. 107. ICräb this f. London. however. al-Awä'il.Qur'an according to Icräb. it or accepted In this (recitation) without would be no to in any case and there connection Abu Bakr is reported have said that "verily reading the Qur'an with the manner of Icräb 3 is more beloved to me than just memorising certain verses". Ch. 166 . Shorter Encyclopaedia of Islam. p. p. the Qur'an al-Malik b. Itgän. AnbärT. 156. vol. 276. Marwän. p. 10äh. Wa'1-Ibtidä'. used to be read without would have been mentioned in the 6 Furthermore certain early and language sources. 2. vol. by Icräb in this context l al-Suyüti comments that what is meant is no more than the knowledge of the He objects to its interpretation as a meaning of the words. oldest traditions 1. 3. 3. al-Muhkam. II. Itgän. This however. Idäh al-Wagf p. vol. 15-36. meaning evolved after the introduction of Naqt al-Icrab by Abü al-Aswad al-Du'a1i during 5 CAbd the reign of If. misunderstood by Paul Kahle who people to read the Qur'an Icräb. Die Kairoer Geniza. Il. grammatical term on the ground that Qirä'ah is not considered 2 reward without it. Risälah fiäl-Tajwid. pp. 78-84. comments that with that Icräb seeking ICräb and asking that it indicates used to be read without and introduced the Icräb 4c was found later to the text Qur'an The word Iräb in the statement of Abü Bakr if its refer validity means clearness in reading the Qur'an and it as this does not to grammatical terminology. 130 and p.

not this the the idea of invention and that process. while in the field of languages languages In conclusion. a1-Sähibi. pp. to have objected to Naqt al-Icräb and Naqt but only on the grounds that it practice was not in accordance if the inflectional they would whereas with the orthographical of the salaf. al-Wajiz fl p. As al-Antäkl ' remarks. 167 . small between spoken in the main part region). at all. 129-132. it seems quite impossible fabricated that a group characteristics time of grammarians could and force without out that acceptable is a gradual people impose on Arabic these to accept them and use them in such limited In addition it any resistance or rejection. we may say that development and language of the Qur'an it dates back with 2 Islam. 2. states in fact there is no mention of such protest Icrab in its grammatical sense.scholars are reported al-Icjam. all is a natural its characteristics and qualities centuries before To return-to dialects Euphrates the main discussion. Fiqh al-Lughah. as Ibn Faris "distinguishes the meaning. the differences (Hijäz. are subject therefore tongue in its to evolution. 76. endings themselves had been in invention have protested against this or innovation also with much more vigour. may be pointed is. according of Arabia Najd and the and the literary to Nöldeke'Were 1. and with the use of Icräb we understand what the speakers meant".

vol.. p. 5. but not identical spoken in Najd and adjoining 3 any one of them. 2 wordstocks that had grown up with the absorbtion vocabulary of the Jahiliyya Qasida and its great However. including and Hartmann held the view that classical Arabic was identical 5 did not specify which. xxv-xxvi. 6 but he He does not here discuss its relation to the dialects. . 41-48. Ancient West-Arabian. 17. 168 . p. yyät.language is based on all according to Lyall of them equally". and Madinah. I. October 1917. al-Mufaddali. I. Lyall. 2. Majallat al-Hiläl. Makkah to him this in the middle of Arabian 4 Fischer of the sixth peninsula most parts in Hijäz. 3. classical dialects with Arabic according to Guidi is a mixture of regions. l Classical Arabic is "a language of poetic convention of tribal of the immense number of synonyms". pp. Brockelmann like "classical with one particular dialect but Wetzstein and others before him claims that Arabic was never spoken in the form in which we know it". vol. p. maintains of the tribes that Nallino colloquial the classical Arabic was based on a due to the rise of Macadd which were united of Kingdom of Kindah whose kings them generously. literary dominated and Tä'if language According used to welcome poets and reward colloquial century became the common A. 4. pp. 17. Kayfa Nasha'at al-Lughah al-cArabiyyah. Ancient West-Arabian. Sir Charles J. 6. 1. Ibid. 17. D. XXVI. Ancient West-Arabian.

"classical is unmistakably The that according to Beeston 7 of the poetic corpus of the sixth century". Tärikh al-Lughät al-Sämiyyah. maintains the pronunciation succeeded in down in a form reflecting of the Western dialect of Makkah. p. 1929. p. however.. argues that this dialects of their commonliterary language is a mixture of many and they became a united language after 4 speakers. 4. Published 3. working hypothesis that several of the dialects language of the Qur'an. Fiqh al-Lughät 2. Arabic language is based which one. Tärikh al-Adab al-cArab. 77. based on one or 6 of Najd. al-Sämiyyah. 30. p. p.. Cairo. The Arabic Language Today. Ancient West-Arabian. Bergsträsser in his "al-Tatawwur al-Nahwi Li'l-Lughah he calls al-CArabiyyah"2 Hijäzi dialect may be quoted in favour of what as he states that the orthography of 3 Wolfensohn the mushaf was with accordance with HijäzT dialect. p. ibid. CAsr 5. perhaps in archaic form". 7. in Matbacat al-Sacadah. He objects. p.elsewhere regards the language of the Qur'an as based on the l dialect of Quraysh. 6. al a1-Jähili. 169 . 27. that it was first written He. 3.and that the scholars 1. that the literary not specify the disappearance Blach6re maintains on a native dialect. 13. but he did however. 166. to the Qurashi dialect 5 literary language was based. as the native Rabin offers dialect on which the the what he calls Arabic is.

Generally about the origin western scholars Najd.. usage of J. 5. 13. ibid. a1-Kur'5n. Flick (cArabiyya. El2 vol. art. p. A. art. 565. p.1-5) in the expression that cArabiyya to the the literary language speech" 5 of the Bedouins. vol. 2. definite of classical Arabic. Rabin. it acquired some purely artificial others again think 2 characteristics. T. 3. 170 . carabT 1905. carabi to the "literary of the Qur'an or about classical stabilisation of both in the third/ in the Qur'anic There is nothing. Press. to have been originally others a compromise between various dialects. pp. However Wansbrough in his chapter others without little Arabic ninth to the "origin he rejects offering "Qur'anic Studies. C. 85-118. 419. University cArabiyya. I.. and its Berlin refers cognate he maintains. Elz 1977. p. most agree in seeking its it home among the bedouins of the language of one Some believe tribe. however. ibid. V. Oxford 4. 1. "clear Arabic form to support the suggestion of . 3 devotes a the of classical Arabic"4 in which unlike Arabic language that the concept any clear of the literary alternative. Welch. adding reading marks to it. He asserts very can be known about the text prior century.introducing by only certain features characteristic l of the eastern dialects.

however. but is opposed to western before scholars that In order that the Tähä Husayn and others him. p. Alternatively he states that perhaps one. he is obliged Arabia to postulate well before to reconcile influence He follows standard organised two ideas of Quraysh spread throughout Vendryes in pointing or common language political is Islam. to the influence 1.Watt's final conclusion. out that "due either the formation of a of an social to the extension of a predominant power. al-CArabiyyah. p. 84. might say that the Qur'an . according to certain does not belong to any particular Arab tribes because it has accepted contemporary Arab philologists. however. appears to be that the somewhere between the poetical He also notes the omission of the as a peculiarity of l language of the Qur'an falls Koine and the Meccan dialect. 171 . asserts common language these is based on the speech of Quraysh. which is mentioned Meccan speech and has affected the orthography of the Qur'än. like language. but it belongs to all elements from them all 2 all of them. Introduction to the Qur'än. 61-62. 3. and thus it seems to be (like and) near to cAli Wäfi3 accepts the view that the Qur'an is revealed in the common literary in that this he. 2. Tamm m Hassan. was in a Meccan variant This commonliterary language. hamzah. 111. tribe. Figh al-Lughah yäriyyah Wa'l-Wasfiyyah. al-Lughah Bayn al-M pp.orglottal stop. of the literary language.

the language in which the Qur'än has been revealed. al-Qirä'ätw&. that the origin of this language is the 4 'Lahjah' Moreover. there are always political. 111-112. CAll Wafi is followed and researchers with by most Arab scholars 3 modifications. verse and prose was composed is. Cairo 1980. to its preservation".class or to the supremacy of a literature.1-Lahajät. but are based on what he sees as the and economic position enjoyed by Makkahin the and his arguments are used certain additions or dominant cultural Jähiliyehperiod. Language. but he adds of Quraysh dialect or what is called the occasions conferences the Hijäzi dialect. -a1-Lahaj5t. recognised origin. 172 . Cairo 1948. Hammüdah. a1-Qirä'ät wa.. Fi11m 2. al-cArabiyyah. p. 261. general Anis refer-_ýto of pilgrimage. anri Madrasat al-Kufah. Baghdad. conferences. t-iahdi al-Makhzümi. 30. Shähin. Islamic this commonliterary language in which preaccording to Hammüdah. p. and negotiations and was the language of and the delegations' correspondence. Fiqh al-lughah ''. 1955. 4. 2 speeches and poems. of these Whatever may be its social l or economic reasons which contribute that at least and then argues to of the second and third dominating dialect reasons apply Quraysh. Furthermore. 3. art Their then became the language and written works of prose and poetry. before gatherings for and cultural the unity of the Islam which were factors 1. any linguistic His arguments for this theory do not est. on evidence. al-lughah a1-cÄmm. A Linguistic Introduction to History.

Arabic language on the bases of the QurashT dialect. 3. . 5. as the vast majority of scholars 4 But the Qur'an contains many other elements view. al-Naqd al-Tah1T1T. ' and he maintains elsewhere that the most eloquent manner of pausing in verses. p. 2. ibid. Qur'anic The dialect of Quraysh. 210. language of language of the Qur'än represents the commonliterary 3 all Arabs and not only of Quraysh. p. is that of 2 He elsewhere. al-Ghamräwi who accepts the commonliterary that the only difference the influence was so great distinguishes language asserts is that between Qurashi and other dialects language on the dialect to the markets. 69. p. Fusel. p. 215. of common literary due to their vicinity of Quraysh He notably between the literary that language and the spoken language by the common of Quraysh and postulates both were influenced literary tribes language while this mainly influence was as regards the other 6 on the language of poems. 6. which is dominant in the Qur'än. 173 . is argued to have contributed to the commonliterary language with many elements and features. Mustagbal-al-Lughah al-cArabiyyah. however.. asserts that the Quraysh and Hijäz. 4. Fi al-Lahajät al-cArabiyyah. however. Min Asrar al-Lughah. Min Fiqh a1-cArabiyyah. in attributing to the extent that there might not be any exaggeration it generally this adopted to Quraysh or Hijaz. 32. with that of people and features of Hijäz which are known to have disagreed 5 including Quraysh. 9. 1. p.

d. Rabin. C. Qur'an fi al-Lahajät al. CUkäz had only The Süq Islam been established shortly before e. The Mufassirun from poets and cite used to quote other dialects belonging to other tribes to interpret words. vol. 565. 4.However. Lughat al- Juz' 174 . ' p. "Kayfa Nasha' at al-Lughah al-cArabiyyah. e. Domination Qur'an of certain non Qurashi 3 features in the such as Hamz. 1968. I. Abduh al-Räjihi. The poets belonging to Quraysh were few in number. October 1917. the meaning of archaic c. 41-48. a. 55 . Nahlah. there are certain objections raised against the view that the language of the Qur'an is based on the dialect which may be summarised as follows: of Quraysh. GAmma. Nöl deke. rather than a linguistic. E12. XXVI. 133-137. Shawqi Dayf. Die Ser:i ti schen Sprachen. alHiläl. to bedouin Reference is made by the philologists dialects rather than the QurashT one. I one. art CC 3. f. Nallino. b. Majallat 2. 74-75. vol. pp. The only reason for the Qurashi dialect to be favoured is a theological. pp. CArabiyya. I. These points wereri ýn-refuted by the supporters of the of other view that the language of the Qur'an is based on the dialect Quraysh on the grounds that the Qur'an certainly contains dialect origins features 4 which were to be interpreted was the influence with reference to their but that it of non-Arabs on the tongue 1. that they are the tribe of the Prophet. CAsr alal-Jähili. pp. Qur'äniyyah. p. i.Arabiyyah fi'l Qirä'ät al- Cairo.

Khizänat al-Adab.. p. vol. Peninsula. 18. their numbers were very small. al-Mugaddimah.! Tanmiyat pp: 1T-12. vol. al-Muzhir. al-A1fäz. p. 211. 136-137. vol. Turug. Int.of the people of Hijäz after philologists the spread of Islam that led the to seek the pure language in the areas which were not 1 occupied by non-Arabs or where. C 5. Najd and other regions of Arabian language was Thus the Qur'an which is revealed in this to them all. 128 and 345. I. 635. I. had vanished The philologists of the second century researches that found during distorted. their 3 the tongue of Quraysh had become from bedouins and accepting 4 century A. al-CAsr-. pp. XXVI. 175 . 28) and a "perspicuous CArabiyyah This referred Arabic (S. VI. I. Shawgi Dayf. =lähili. 342-343. As for after the towns the purity the first half their of language (Fasähah) A. 338. Aswäq al-Arab. I. pp. 0 Lane. XXXIX. understandable for example as when the Muhäjirün and 1. p. Ibn Khaldün. 5-6. 3. pp. al-Mufassal fi Tärikh al-Nahw al-CArabi'. p. but the commonliterary language which was the medium between people of Hijäz. In conclusion been revealed CUkäz Furthermore had come into existence before Islam the Qur'an refers without to the language in which it any crookedness tongue" (therein)" has as an "Arabic (S. TarikhAdäb al-cArab. H. is neither Qurashi to in the Qur'an nor other. 195). Tärikh Adäb al-Arab. pp. but they continued until the middle collecting dialects or end of the fourth not shortly 5 as claimed but at least one hundred years before. p. H. al. 2. C 4. Lexicon.

II. 479. 2. Ibn Hishäm. Ibn Sacd. VII. that all any more. 357-427. 176 . so that apparently the found no difficulties 1 Qur'än. 258-358. features This does not mean. the seven ahruf. I. VI. p. al-Naqd al-Tahlill. pp. 33. dialectal the of Arabs did not exist In support of this text of the Qur'an contains Although to the dialect variant readings the orthography features of various Arab dialects. o al-Tatawwur al-Nahwi.. ShawgT. however. Bukhäri. pp. 134 and al-GhamräwT. p. 114. al-Munjid. al-Sirah.Ansär met in Madinah communicated and understood delegations used to come to the Prophet used to send teachers each other. 22 and al-Mugni. p. Mutawätirah) of variant example in Läkinnä) 38) and (Ana Uhyi) 1. p. p. would have been very difficult by its verses. parts The of Arabia from various and the Prophet they with them. al-CArabiyyah. al-Kubra. vol.. to understand or be influenced The impact of the Qur'an on all that it eventually Arab dialects was so great on all literary had an overwhelming influence productions. If language the Qur'an of all it in communicating or understanding had not been revealed it in this common literary for them Arabs. : Ibänah. is said still to be according allows of the masähif of Quraysh2 the text since permission of the Qur'an was given to all Arabs to read Thus in readings thus for 258) the the Qur'an practice (Qirä'ät in varying ways ys according . p. 210-211. (S. al-Tabagät. al-cAsr al JähilT. 4. XVIII. we find in sound accepted the existence (S. vol. readings or canonical dialects. p. 27. pp. v6l.

l selections Although the language of the Qur'an represents from many Arab dialects. and Tamimi are more frequent or Hijäzi in general is more but the Qurashi dominant. mainly in Hijäz readings of various on the dialect and Najd. and a1-Bannä. In the variant of the Qur'an Arab dialects and that as discussed as regards Qurashi above we observe etymology. p. 1. and morphology other dialects. the existence grammar than vocabulary. p. Ibräz al-Maiani. while according to the other it is preserved only in the pausal form. Ithäf 177 . Abu Shämah. Fudalä' al-Bashar.final e is pronounced long in both continued speech and pausal c and Näfi of Madinah tribes and readings form according to the reading of Abu Ja'far being Tamiml. 383. 193. it might be argued to have been based eloquent neighbours canonical of Quraysh and their particularly Tamim.

CHAPTER 6 THE ORIGIN OF THE QIRA'ÄT .

87-88. parts which we have divided thou mightest by stages" recite from time to time) in order to men at intervals: we have revealed (S. 2. VI. it: and to promulgate recital but when we have promulgated nay more it is for us thou its it (as promulgated): clear)" to explain also states (and make it about its (S. follow it to make haste therewith. Masud that he was asked by the Prophet to recite before reported and that him and that he recited that S. ibid. connection the Prophet "Move not thy It is for tongue concerning us to collect it. in stages that "(It The Qur'an is) a Qur'an that it revelation (into it 106). 1. 456-457 179 . 16-19).6 CHAPTER THE ORIGIN OF THE QIRÄ'ÄT The Prophet of verses used to receive revelations of the Qur'an in portions them in 1 and to teach them to his and in leading the Qur'an the (Qur'an) companions and recite before his own prayers In this prayers addresses the companions. Kacb is also to him to have said he recited the Prophet 3 asked him to recite S. Furthermore the Prophet used to ask certain recite to him. pp. 1-41? Ubayy b. In this connection it companions to CAbd Allah to from the Qur'an is attributed c b. 2. 3. pp. pp. LXXV. 64 and 67. XVII. vol. III. XCVIII. Bukhäri.. See Ch.

and read the Qur'an is reported from the very For example it by Ibn Ishäq that when Umar visited their his sister and her husband he found them with =Aratt reading and studying from a teacher Khabbäb'b. Umm Maktüm. p. places and the Prophet tribes. al-t4usnad. XVIII. the men first 2 a special circle for them. 4. Ibn Ishaq. vol.The Muslims used to study early c Makkan era. after newly converted Muslims came to the Prophet he used to appoint one of his learned companions to teach them the Qur'än5 to have sent Qurrä' conquering to teach to certain Furthermore. p. the Hijrah. Sirat 2. 180 . 3. al-Qur'an. a?. whenever individuals or delegations of In Madinah. pp. Tartib 6. 299. is reported particularly after Makkah and in Makkah itself the people there the Qur'än. 1 It is attributed to the Prophet sahifah suras XX and LXXXI. Ghäyat al-Nihäyah. Jabal was appointed The number of the Qurrä' increasing gradually who had committed that the Qur'an to the extent at Bi'r Maünah 1. 128. Yasir and Bilal.. al-Zinjäni. ibid. 9. was Muscab b. he used to that whenever he received certain teach them to his companions. followed The first Qäri' to teach the Qur'an to the people 3 cUmayr. II. 40. b. Certain learned Qurral were directed and then the womenin by the Prophet when he was in Makkahbefore the Hijrah in Mad nah. p. ibid. H. Tärikh 5. to memory was alone in 5 A. p. Qur'änic verses. and he was 4 CAbd CAmmar by Allah b. vol. 6 cädh Mu b. 161-162.

5-493). Shäm etc.. II. with each mushaf he sent to the metropolitan according to (Amsär) to teach the people of his city Orthographical of the cities assert differences are reported between the masähif Certain should scholars prepared by the command of CUthmän. vol. 356-357. 403-404. Basrah.. 3 `Abd Allah Hims and Mucädh b. after his compilation of the masähif is reported to have appointed a Qäri' cities 6 it. of 4 Küfah. Among the companions and their different conquered cities 1 followers who settled was quite counted hundreds in the number of Qurrä' Kitäb al-Tabagät considerable. Macal-Masahif.seventy or forty. See pp. 4. 2. Prophet according 1. Massud was appointed the people and Abu Musa al-Ashcari 5 was sent to Basrah. b. vo. 13-14. and see . p. ibid. 345. vol. VII. 1. pp. Manähil. vol. his caliphs from them. Ibid. al-Sämit Palestine. vo1. 181 pp. that this was in order that these variations authentic accommodateall readings received from the. 3. 6. (pp. 35-36 above. al-Tabagät al-Kubrä. pp. of them were killed.. used to the cities. 1. for for Three distinguished for for prominent Qurrä' were sent to the cities example Abu'al-Dardä' CUbädah Damascus. . cUthmän. 48 above. VI. pp. 90-91. Il. and their students 2 After the Prophet. al-Tabagät 5. Jabal to teach b. -p. Ibn Sacd in his of those who settled who transmitted to appoint Qurrä' in Küfah. al-Kubrä.

There was no need for them. pp. Thus they did not need to depend on a book as the people of the book did. in one single mushaf were divided l For example it is reported of the cities. 2. 1. Ibn al-Jazari. dialects according and readings which were permissible to certain authorities. They wished to preserve the possibility of different c c readings such as Yamalüna and Ta malüna.to the revelation which could of the Qur'an in seven ahruf. al-Muhkam. asserts that the masähif in the time of the reasons: companions were freed from Naqt for the following a. al-MugniC. pp. 3 until in reading the Qur'an the time came to use the followed by c Naqts of al-Iräb and al-Ic jam. al-MugniC. 109p. Wa-Awsä written in the masähif of 132) we find Madinah and Sham while Wa-Wassä with in the rest the omission of the masähif it is written 2 it is agreed In addition of Alif. of its the Qur'an was in portions to facilitate memorisation. I. Chapter vol. The variations not be allocated between the masähif that in (S. bearing in mind that the transmission In addition Qur'än-is the revelation with Tawätur. 123-124. II. They were dependent on their memories rather than the of the masähif. of Naqt because they used not to commit lahn. being Arabs. Ibn Taymiyyah. 106-109. 182 . and al-Nashr.. that c the Uthmänic masähif were free from Naqt both of al-Icräb this also being in order to accommodate various and al-Icjam. 3. 33. b. c. See also 3 above. p. p. 2.

Chapter 3. Muslim b. CUbaydah. pp. b. Ill. al-Härith cAmr b. . Ibn Shihäb al-Zuhri b. Subh al-Acshä. c. Fadilah. 1. is argued that as it has always to found with the alpahabetical was difficult distinguish between them without using it. al-Qäri. Masruq. 68. Yasär. vol. Shurahbil. cAtä'. I. Hurmuz. VI. 7-8 and see p. vol. p. In Makkah: clkrimah and Ibn Abi Mulaykah. In Küfah: CAlgamah. The masähif and readings of the amsär by the command of became famous and were adopted throughout all canonical readings are attributed the Muslim world. 100-101. Ibrahim al-Nakhaci and al-Shacbi. al-Ibänah. and Zayd b. al-Musayyib. p. Hence to the Qurrä' of the amsär. Qays. Sulaymän b. cUmayr.The introduction followers with when certain colours of Naqt took place of them started during the lifetime of the using Naqt in their of lahn it different As regards due to the appearance it letters masähif 771 at that time. 3. cAbd cUmar b. Any reading which did not correspond with them was abandoned and the personal codices were destroyed 3 cUthmän. Sacid b. Aslam. CAbd al-cAziz. alRahmänb. -al-Nashr. cAtä' b. 479. 2. Bukhäri'. Jarir. CUbayd CAmr b. Abu Zarcah Ibn Hubaysh. Sacid b. cUbayd b. Yasär. al-Rahmän al-Sulami. p. Jubayr. 151 and for detail 183 . Sälim b. CAbd Allah. alZubayr. al-Rabic b. pp. vol. the cities 2 were established according Schools of reading in all cUthmanic to the masähif. b. In Madinah. Fatäwä. CAmr b. vol. Jundub. al-Aswad. XII. 107. Maymun. among whomare the following: a. Abu CAbd Zarr b. Mujähid. been Naqt al-Icjäm. among the distinguished Qurra' were Mucädh cUrwah b. Taws. Khaytham.

Shaybah b. cAbd cAmir. al-Qacgäc. Yazid al-Hadrami. because of their cities agreed on and because people of their Qirä'ät. cAsim b. CAbd Isms 11 b. al-Härith al3 Dhimäri and Shurayh b. Allah b. The readings were then attributed because they had taught Qirä'ät Ikhti their ä2 r in Qirä'ah for a long time. In Kufah: Yahyä b. Qays a1-Kiläbi. b. For an explanation 184 . In Madinah: Abu Jacfar C In Makkah: Abd Allah b. These scholars are the following: . term see p. p. cAmir b. Abi In Basrah: CAmr cAsim Abu b. Nash and Näfic b. of this pp". Abüa. Husayn. In Sham: b. cAsim. and Qatädah. Yazid b. a. a1-cA1ä'. d.8-9. Yacmur. Sulaymän b.. al-Juhdari and Yacqub alHadrami. Kathir. al-Hasan. Allah a1-Muhäjir. al-Mughirah cUthmän a pupil of and Khulayd b. Sacd. Abi Nucaym.d. Yahyä b. Waththäb. 3. e. cAtiyyah Allah b. 220. 8. vol. Chapter 7. cIsä cAbd CUmar. vol. Ibn Sirin MuCädh. Yahyä b. e. 2. I. Abi Ishäq. and students from different people of their cities places migrated to them to learn from them. Qays al-ACraj b. 1. In Sham: The generation and certain scholars which followed these Qurrä'was more specialised The devoted themselves to teaching Qirä'ät. I. CAbd Qays. al-Nashr. Abi Shihäb al-Makhzumi. 1-cAliyah. a pupil 1 of Abu &l-Dardä'. b. Hamzahand a1-Kisä'i. and Muhammadb. al-Nashr. In Basrah: Abu Raja'. Zayd. Nasr b. Abi a1-Najüd. c. al-Acmash. Jäbirb. Humaydb.

2. differences cUthmän. Munjid. 1. by stating himself. way from the Prophet and Hishäm were reported his to have differed each of them referred reading to the Prophet. who asserted that the Qur'an had been revealed in both ways. connection are certain certain companions who were reported ahruf of the Qur'an to have differed in reading for and who came to the Prophet his arbitration. p. Lisän adopts in support Ibn Mujähid. vol.There had been no differences as regards readings reported era. quoting Manzür in his al-Azhari. vol. pp. 64 and Itgän. 3 is not permissible al-Zajjaj is quoted as having said that it to read any reading which does not correspond with the orthography cUthmanic masähif on the grounds that it of the is sunnah to follow vol. 386. I. that he For before the Everyone of them used to support had been taught example Prophet. pp. cUthmänic l These of in readings continued even. after men were now ordered masähif the compilation although to read and teach the Qur'an cUthmänic to the Thus all masähif readings and the teaching of authorised with 2 the Ibn which did not correspond and regarded this view. 482-483. Lisän al-cArab. 3. 185 . were rejected al-CArab as shädhdh. 213-214. and Ibn al-Anbäri. pp. I. X. I. vol. p. Latä'if. al-Nashr. according Qurrä'. VI. 16-17. Bukhäri. vol. CUmar it in that reading. p. 14. The first the Hijrah there time we during the between the companions in the h: akkan notice lifetime this phenomenon :is in Madinah after In this of the Prophet.

p. This statement. refer it The only condition for the authenticity of a Qirä'ah was that it should be read in accordance in reading they used to since whenever they differed back to the riwäyah. prominent Qurrä' of the companions such as 1. Kacb. vol. al-Ibänah. to the effect that we should follow which is consistent is forbidden a1-Qädi. I. authority of their of cUmar 1 Ibn al-Jazari reports on the and Zayd b. VI. and thus any reading should be according to it.them and read according to them. acceptability with riwäyah. followers cUmar b. 186 . al-Zubayr. p. Itgän. among the companions and CUrwah b. al-Nashr. cAbd Qirä'ah al-cAziz and CElmir al-Shacbi that they said that to their 2 is sunnah and that it is taught by the salaf descendents. 17. Ibräz a1-Maiani. 211. vol. p. 482. pp. vol. il according to a1-Bayhagi and Ismäc . 69-73. I. Bukhäri. is to be interpreted reading of the salaf masähif and that it 3 of the masähif. 2. stating that they had been taught it 4 by the Prophet. any cUthmanic with the to disagree with the orthography The development of the conditions The companions and their followers for accepted readings used to read the Qur'an as they by and had been taught by the Prophet and by those who were authorised him to teach others. p.. 397. We also find the followers referring their readings to cUbayy b. Thäbit Ibn al-Mukandir. 4. 3.

187 . the cities For 3 Eventually (amsär) (with some slight for instance as in the case of Ibn Mascüd4 and Ibn Shunbüdh5). 481-483. such as the reading Muctazilites reading is "Wa-kallama A11äha Mu-sätaki "Wa-kallama man" while the authentic (S. according to an isnäd traced on the grounds that this had been the practice the Qur'an. ibid. VI. 5. 64). 2. Another A11ähu Müsä takliman" example of such an unauthentic Shioites. as the Prophet with used to learn it from Gabriel and taught it to his companions 2 cUthmän After the compilation of the Qurrä' were accordingly. reading was attributed to certain "Wa-mä kuntu muttakhidha al-mudillayn oadudan". al-Jaoburi. pp. Thäbit. See p.. See p. fol. Kanz al-Macani'. 485-486 and 482-483. asked to read only according to the reason the personal codices were collected cdthmanic the masähif dominated all resistance. vol. al-Qastalläni (Bidýah)started maintains that some people of innovation depending reading the Qur'an from the masähif without of isnäd in order to support their attributed to certain on riwäyah or transmission theological views.cAbd Allah scholars it b. 42 of Chapter 2 above. 4. Mascud and Zayd b. Bukhäri. and destroyed. T95 below 3. all this cUthmanic masähif. 15. to 1. pp. agreed unanimously directly that l Accordingly the in transmitting the Q4rä'ah it must be learnt from the QärT' who was taught back to the Prophet. IV.

He must rely on riwäyah (narration) ways of Icräb. on There must be consensus of the people of his city his Qirä'ah. p. while the authentic reading is "al-Mudillin"'(S. should be perfect'in his memorisation of the b. of wide knowledge. of their in teaching orthography of their Kitäb that readings CUthmänic cities on accepting as having with and the consensus of the people l is quoted in his them. He argues that in this from each city basis way the scholars chose certain Qurral cUthmänic to which the masähif integrity. Latä'if 2. Qirä'ät. al-Tabari. He should have knowledge of different Qirä'ät and Lughät. The Qäri' Qur'an. c. p. 66.interpret it as referring to Abu Bakr and CUmar. 188 . correspondence masähif were sent on the long experience with the of authenticity. of Qirä'ah the Qari' himself rather considering in his evaluation According the following than the Qirä'ah. and isnäd. al-Ibänah. vol. d. a1-Ishärät. 51) with plural instead of dual. 1. XVIII. requires to his criteria conditions: the acceptability of a Qirä'ah a. all readings of provided masähif al-Qirä'ät authenticated they corresponded the orthography with cUthmanic isnä and were transmitted from the Prophet authentic Ibn Mujähid introduces'more---conditions. I. 53.

al-Nashr. g. if it agrees with According the following is acceptable conditions: a. Il. Abi Ta-lib considering them in his al-Ibanah itself rather in his evaluation to him any three than the Qurrä'. the reading Malik. Kitäb 5. ways of fluency. or indirectly. Edited 4. ibid. al-Sabcah Iraq were the and Sham whose readings descendants unanimously In connection development classified Qirä'ah Qirä'ah he collected and that of the Täbicun in their with took Qirä'ät were accepted cities. either such as'the reading Malik i. 2. in a way which is consistent I. . e. It should be sound linguistically. 5 with the orthography. 1. 2 vols. Its transmission from the Prophet should be authentic. Consistency with the Arabic even if it language is lesser in any of the in eloquence.. 3). b. modifications 1. a new and the ' own cities the conditions and other for neighbouring readings studied accepted place when Makki b. p. cUthmänic Agreement with the orthography of one of the directly. 87. 3. by Tali bi. 2. e. 189 . I.Ibn Mujähid (324/935) asserts that the seven Qurrä' in his their Kitäb of Hijäz. masähif.90-91. 51. p. 9. p. Its orthography should 2 cUthmänic masahif. c. al-Sabcah. 485. as follows: Soundness of the isnäd. agree with one of the Ibn al-cArabi (543n148) in his al-cAwasim Min al-Qawäsim3 attributes these three conditions to certain unnamed scholars and gives them 4 Ibn al-Jazari adopts Makki's conditions with slight approval. vol. vol. pp. 3. al-Ibänah.

for accepted should not be accepted and it In support of his views on the three conditions readings Ibn al-Jazarl al-Dani. I. p. al-Nashr. I.. and al-"Suyüti opt cArabi. IX. 9. Makki. 145. p. for this. a1-Waj1z. C 6. I. vol. 225. 190 . 67 and Itgän. 51. 13. p. al-Arabi. comes through in Arabic According to them a reading is acceptable when it a sound mashhür isnäd which is supported by. al-Sakhäwi. 2. named and unnamed scholars as having 1. 210. 5. p. 485. by Makki. Ibn and Itgän. al-Nashr. vol. vol. al-Murshid p. p.He elsewhere used to opt for the tawätur (successiveness of l isnäd) of Qirä'ah. pp. but changed this to soundness only on the grounds that if other conditions.44. there is tawatur then there is no need to seek 2 should consist of The soundness of isnäd here means that it ähäd (isolated than more mutawatir it reports) and that although it may not be should at least be mashhur. I. its and its masähif. vol. ibid. II. al-Isharat. quotes other scholars Abu Shamah and al-Kawashi the salaf without al-Qastalläni before him. Munjid. vo1. al-Baghawi. p. vol. 4. vo1. vol. a1-Ibänah.172 and al-Nashr. supported many other 6 view. Fatb al-Ba-rl. is the view of all Ibn Hajar quoting this and he adds that 5 Ibn alexception. 13. 3. 15. I. fluency CUthmänic agreement with the orthography of one of the If one of these three conditions is not met the reading 4 should be regarded as shädhdh. p. p. pp. this al-Mahdawi. Lata'if al-CAwa-sim. I. al-CAsgaläni. This view is supported 3 Abu Shämahand Ibn al-Jazari. 32.

2. 13 and Itgän. ! nd _ ýät&'if 4. h. 4 Muhaddithun and others. I. that Makki was the by certain late scholars. all readings agreeing while according. the three conditions of a Qirä'ah to give knowledge which is the same as mutawätir. 70. 3. scholars cAtiyya. 191 . 37. Manähil vol. to the view discussed above which does of because according to him the majority Ibn al-Häjib. vol. vol.However according to al-Jacburi accepted reading is the authenticity includes the only condition of its for an the other requirements of fluency isnäd which necessarily 1 and orthography. I. all CAbd Ibn al-Barr. I. to al-Hudhali with the masähif are accepted 2 to the Ijmäc . 427. first one to differ al-Dimyäti Moreover he asserts and that he was followed following al-Nuwayri al-Banns' asserts that Makki was the 1. p. vol. p. p. al-Ishärät. al-CIrfan. al-Nashr. like al-Ghazzäll. I. p. 211. (897/1492) objects al-Nuwayri not make tawätur obligatory. in his al-Kämil provided that they are not in contradiction According to al-Zurgäni not make tawätur obligatory readings is that acceptability the reason why certain in the conditions scholars did of the accepted for the might be enough 3 since the Qur'an is mutawätir. Ibn al-Nawawl and al-Zarkashi of a reading. p. al-Qawrl al-dädhdh li-man Qarä'a Bi-al-Shädhdh vol. al-Nashr. I. demand tawätur as a condition In addition he states that for the acceptability the view which does not impose the condition innovation and stands against of tawätur is an the consensus of jurisprudents.

4 accept the Ibn Miqsam (332/943) is reported to have used to read cUthmänic the masähif of Ibn Miqsam. to one group of Qurral even if According to him therefore Amongjurisprudents with tawätur of its shuhrah of an isnäd. C a1-Tarif bi-a1'-Qur'an wa-al-Hadith. Ghayth al-NafC. 6. p.first one who did readings. al-Zafzäf. 7. according is not reliable between to him. 6. 192 . of the first because of its condition of authenticity 1. However. pp. 54-55.. do not accept a Qirä'ah Only the Hanafites except is not according to all the majority transmission. Jazari 2 He adds that this because it madhhab of Makki and Ibn aldoes not differentiate Furthermore. differing versions given by the Qurrä' do not affect because it it the successiveness of a Qirä'ah. for the authenticity Fugahä' of a and the Qurrä' the tawatur is essential Qirä'ah.. p. 3 shädhdh is what is not successive. p. 4. ibid. Ithäf Fudalä'al-Bashar. according and fluency can be successive according of them. 2. of to the two conditions in the Arabic omission of agreement with This reading language. 3. what is Qur'än and what is not. accepted not impose the condition 1 of tawätur for al-Safagisi (1118/1 706)argues that according to Usülis. sound chain and fluency Accordingly even if in Arabic it a Qirä'ah agrees with cannot be authentic the orthography with only a of the masähif by as was maintained by Makki followed Ibn al-Jazari.

Nukat al-Intisär. Munjid. I. 193 . The orthographical are known from various works and books composed on the subject early cUthmanic scholars who had seen the masähif and studied CUbayd's In this respect reference may be made to Abu Fadä'il al4c 5 Qur'an. Ibn Mujähid's Kitab al-Sabah. which he is reported chains (Akhbär to read the Qur'än it has been to write 2 that it except in successive transmission. 124-125. Edited by Shawgi Dayf. 17 and 4. . 60. 1972. 1398-1973. al-Nashr. 2. pp. including Ibn al-Jazari. Makkah. 3. -Ii. p. He was questioned by leading scholars of his time and was forbidden to have repented and 1 returned to the consensus of the scholars.isnäd was abandoned and rejected by the consensus of the scholars. intentionally and maintain condition of transmission that whoever reads accordingly 3 is to be considered an unbeliever (käfir). agreed among all the Muslims that it He adds that is not permissible or to read the Qur'an according to these anom. Nukat al-Intisär. pp. regard any as false reading which omits the first and fabricated. Ahäd) and maintains regards those readings which conflict as having non-successive is not permissible with to continue. 101-102. Edited by Jawhari. However all scholars_. vol. Cairo. vol. Munji 17. after Ibn al-Bägilläni cUthmänic the f masähi. differences cUthmänic between the masähif by them. p.1ous shädhdh readings. hayat a -Ni iaTah. I. Däni''s al-Mugnic fi Rasm p. 5. 52. p.

Ibn al-Jazari. masähif. 5. by Damascus. Cairo. 1966. Edited by Otto Pretzl. p. 7 -. and the people of every city according to their having been taught by companions who used 1. by Jeffery. Published. 4. Published. Finally the older books of Tafsir throughout Ay al-Qur'an the Qur'an. 194 pp. ed. al-Nawawi. of al-TabarT. Qurä'ah is agreed 9 Thus Malik b. Edited 2. pp. RamadSnin Majallat vol. Beirut. Cairo. al-Tibyän fT Ädäb Hamalat al-Qur'an. 17. cIzzat. that anyone who reads according to personal codices not corresponding 10 cUthmanic According to with the masähif should not lead prayer. 1347-69/1955-69. the final CUthmänic the masähif were written down according to read revealed version. Edited by M. in cAtiyyah published with the Mugaddimah of Ibn Mugaddimatän. Machad al-Makhcütät- al-cArabiyyah. ?: 4 vols. 117-133. Istanbul. 1388/1968 and ed. Anas is reported to have said upon unanimously. 1973. 1366/1947. Mugaddimatän. pp. 1954. 1932.Masähif al-Amsärl Hijä' and al-Muhkam F1 Nagt al-Masähif2 and al-Mahdawi's Masähif al-Amsär. Munjid. 98-99. 9.. Cairo. 8 al-Qur'än The condition of conformity with the orthography of one of cUthmanic the masähif for the acceptability of any. 20 vols in 10. 10. in-18 vol's. 3. XIX Part I. . 1972. these orthographicaldifferences the JämiC a1-Bayän Tafsir CAn Ta'wil for example 6 al-Kashsha-f of al-Zamakhshari7 and a1-Jämic 1i-Ahka-m of al-Qurtubi. Anon. In the anonymous Muqaddimat Kitäb alis devoted to the question of discuss Mabäni fi Ikhtiläf Nazm al-MacänT4 chapter five al-Masähif. Cairo. 8. 7" Published. 6. Shäkir (incomplete) in 16 vuis.

99. al-Nashr. of being consistent with fluent Arabic. 5. H. p. These readings of Ibn Shunbüdh were objected to by the consensus of the scholars of his time who met in Baghdad in 323 A. 195 . because the Qur'an has been revealed "In the perspicuous (S. al-Tibyän. p. 16-17. 195). p. I. al-Nashr. 3. 190. pp. 34. For more information. vol. al-Fihrist. vol. These differences were the same as those found in certain 2 c personal codices such as that of Ibn Masü d. 188-189 4. al-Murshid al-WajTz. 34-35. The followers continued accordingly using the same method of the ' Ibn Shunbidh. see Chapter 4 above. continue. agreement with the orthography cUthmänic of the masähif codices of certain was insisted companions in certain which does was not upon. ways differing from the companions in teaching their is reported to have read in certain cUthmänic masähif. to the exclusion and their ahruf followers of the personal which were reported masähif. XXVI. al-Fihrist. 17. pp. p. I. students. 1. was authentic The final is apparently Arabic tongue" condition.themselves to read according to the teachings of the Prophet. pp. al-Murshid al-Wajiz. 2. however. pp. 4 to have differed Thus every reading cUthmanic from the not correspond accepted and its to the orthography cUthmanic of the masähif its isnäd and was regarded language as shädhdh even if 5 was sound. Under the chairmanship of Ibn Mujähid and with the support of Ibn Muglah the Abbasid wazir sentenced him to be beaten and forbade him to 3 Since no one is reported to have opposed this condition. 7-8. and Munjid.

Abi Tälib following 1. cUthmänic isnäd and corresponds with the orthography of one of the masähif. The kinds of readings Views differed conditions concerning the kinds of readings according to the According into the for accepted readings as discussed above. disagree CUthmänic do not have authentic 1. This will 2. if a Qira'ah is transmitted in an authentic . contradicts the consensus. connection there are certain readings were objected not in accordance as Ibn al-Jazari on the grounds that they were l In conclusion. 2. ) transmission. vol. which is not acceptable it b. categories: the readings are classified The accepted readings which agree with the three conditions. In this in Arabic. p. 15. reports) in the Qur'an. the most fluent practice. he says. al-Qaysi to Makki b. (This kind is refused. be treated in detail in the following chapter. and secondly. then it is acceptable reading if its language 2 is acceptable whether or not another may be more fluent. pp. 249f. 196 . to by some scholars with says. al-Nashr. because it is ähäd (isolated firstly. The non-accepted readings which: a. with the orthography of masähif. 1.As regards the degree of fluency arguments among the scholars. for two reasons.

197 . . for each kind according after quoting Makki. al-Ibänah. li-takuna li-man khalfaka äyah". and he only quotes this here to give 2. "Nu najjika bi-badanika. Ibn al-Jazari. do. not. The examples of the second kind are as follows: a. 14-16. conform with their P-iakki does not give examples for the. vol. kind. Arabic the masähif-. However. 1. however. al-Nashr. -Li-taküna li-man " while the authentic reading is ya . is sound although cUthmänic not mutawätir and corresponds with the l language. to Zayd and Abu Hätim on the The reading attributed of Yacqüb "Adriya 4. c.4). is rare or non-existent according to Ibn al-Jazari. khalafaka an example. (1.c. b. 3). The reading attributed to Ibn Mascüd "Wa-a1--akara ta-'1-ijnthä" which is in the mushaf with addition of "Mä Khalaga" as Na-ßiä khalaga a -dhakara w&-al-vnthä" (XCII. pp. provides examples classification as follows: to Makkis 1. 2. pp. sake of even though transmission brevity. 51-52. Examples of the first kind are the two ways of reading Malik and Malik.-garibun" authority which should be This last read as "Adrirrgaribun" without fath. The reading attributed to Ibn al-SumayfiC and Abü al-Simä1 "NunahhTka bi-badanika. Ibn al-Jazari into: 2 divides the readings as regards their authenticity 1.

but does not correspond shädhdh because 5 cUthmänic from the orthography of the masähif. it differs with Arabic.a. The second category is that which is not accepted by the people 4 The third category is that which has and is not famous (Mashh5r). I. p.. ' readings which do not meet one of the b. 15. He elsewhere divides them into three different categories. Munjid. ibid. pp. The authentic readings which are consistent with all three conditions required for the accepted reading. 15. vol. 3. a sound chain and is consistent cUthmänic with the masähif. 16-17. p. 3 thus defined. as do all accepted readings. 16-17. Non-authentic conditions. ibid. the first being the famous (Mashhur) which is accepted by all the readings of the accepted narrators of Qiralat. (Qirä'ät which all have the status of successive readings mutawätir as that which is a fixed number of narrators). pp. Mutawatirah)? He interprets transmitted narrating by a group of people (without on the. al-Nashr. 198 . in madd go back to the the variations in among themselves is in their According to Ibn al-Jazari the variations seven ahruf revealed to the Prophet. gives knowledge. authority He adds that mutawätir. and certain people such as reliable books An example of the ways in which Mashhür readings vary treatment of madd (prolongation). of another group to the end of the chain. This category is called 1. pp. Munjid. 5. 2. 16-17. 4.

I.al-cAsgaläni a. completing to the the readings of the three Qurrä' In addition the then. 'The readings which are agreed to be anomalous (shädhdh). cl and Abu Ja far as an example. is a 2 c. Mutawätir: hid: being which are the seven prominent readings. divides the readings into three categories as follows: The readings which correspond with the orthography cUthmänic of the masähif. The readings which correspond with the orthography of cUthmanic the in mashhür masähif and are transmitted isnäds and accepted-by the scholars generation after This kind of reading is according to generation. The readings which differ from or do not correspond cUthmänic He says that this kind with the masähif. 2. is not regarded as 1ur an. vol. but are transmitted with -He regards these as the same as strange isnäds. p. b. IX. vol. p. him acceptable. the companions are regarded as same as 1. 32. Latä'if. 2. 170. classifies readings into the following categories: readings. The readings which are agreed to be successive there The readings about whose successiveness difference of opinion. Fath a1-Bäri. and he gives the readings of Yacqüb b. the readings attributed Ähäd. the above. 199 . al-Qastalläni a. c. According to Jaläl divided into three al-Din al-BulginT (824/1421) the readings are categories: 1.

and for whom authority it would be impossible that they should agree on false. Shädhdh: being the readings of the followers such as al-Acmash. Yahyä b. quoting with approval Ibn al-Jazari on the grounds that acceptability objects to this view al-Suyüti of al-BulgLni be subject only to the three conditions In conclusion. An example of this is where the He asserts that of the seven Qurrä' vary. in reading the Qur'an only these kinds are permissible and that they should be accepted without any doubt. Waththäb and Ibn Jubayr and their ' like. which is narrated with a sound chain. I. the in greater detail. and be consistent with al-Mashhür. The example of this kind is what all agree of all on the authority of the seven readers from them. The greater part category. but is not mutawätir. of a Qirä'ah acceptability of each kind as follows: al-Mutawätir. kinds giving 1. vol. 3.3. 210. with the condition that it should correspond CUthmänic to one of the masähif. al-Ahäd. which is narrated something narrators upon transmitting readings is in this 2. p. which are narrated with a sound isnäd but are not consistent with the Arabic language or the orthography Readings of this kind are ähäd even if of the masähif. by a group on the of another to the end of chain. *is their isni This kind is not accepted and mashhür. 200 . the Arabic readings language. 1. Itgän. 2. ibid. of reading an exact a1-Suyuti as regards definition classifies their should 2 for an accepted reading.

which has no origin or is fabricated which were such as the readings compiled by al-Khuzäci to Abu Hanifah. e. to Sacd b. II. i. An example of this is found in the al-Mustadrak of al-Hakim who reports on the authority of the Prophet the reading (rafärif) which is found in the mushaf as (rafraf). pp. and the reading (Qurrät) which in the mushaf is 4. 201 . Thus-they by and Kitäb were-accepted 1. 5. 12 ) and the reading attributed to Ibn cAlaykum to Laysa with the addition of Fi Mawäsim al-Hajj Junähun An Tabtaghü Fadlan Min Rabbikum) (S. al-Mudraj. 215-216. g-. 197 ). that (Qurrat) (S. vo1. 17). for example the reading of (Malaka) and ucbadu) which and according to accepted readings are (Maliki) (Nacbudu) (S. after Wa-Lahü AkhunAw Ukhtun cAbbäs (S. I. is (Yakhshä Alläha min al-ctlamä'u) which is similar to al-Hadith al-Mudraj. 6. al-Shädhdh. Itgän. IV. I. al-Mawdüc. XXXII. what is added to the text of the Qur'an as tafsir. Abi Wacgas. 1 The successive and anomalous readings The views of the scholars agree upon the successiveness of the seven distinguished Ibn Mujähid readings in his of the amsär which were compiled al-Sabcah. e. e. which has no sound chain. g. (Yakhshä Allähu attributed cIbädihi Min al-cUlamä'a) where the authentic reading cibädihi XXXV.it is not permissible to read the Qur'an according to it. that 4-5). 28) (S. the reading attributed with the addition of Min Umm.

al-Nashr. II. although certain others. adding one 5 Ibn al-Jazari of Ibn Mujähid. Munjid. Ibn Khaldün. al-Flügaddimah. edited by al-Najdi and others CAli 2. adopts this most strongly and states that the ten readings have been accepted by the salaf no objection reported from them. 2nd ed. 479. and their descendants.canonised by the consensus of the scholars with their fourteen ' Many books were composed by prominent philologists versions. 4 successive readings are ten. Ibn Taymiyyah and Ibn Hayyän to the of his view he quotes 1. Beirut 1977. a1=Ishärät. I. 38-43. vol.. ed. 202 . pp. vol. pp. Ist edited by Mukarram. al-Nashr. Abu Jacfar. Yacqüb and Khalaf. 4. 58-98. Latä'if al-Bahr. or more to the list view and supports it nine or ten Qurrä'. 15-16. al-Hujjah. p. Ibn Mujähid himself regards other readings than his in al-Sabcah as shädhdh and his view was adopted by a group of scholars. connection many books were composed on the readings of eight. while they agree with Ibn Mujähid on the add to them the three readings of Thus according to this In this view the 3 successiveness of his al-Sabcah. p. I.. p. vol. for there is to Ibn al-JazarT He Thus according the ten readings were accepted by the people unanimously. Ibn Kh 1awayh. 170. 5. Cairo 1966. 3. p. 1. 43 and pp. and vol. Abu al-Färisi. 324. studies the chains (asänid) of the three additional that they have the same status In support readings to prove 6 as the seven successive readings. support of al-Sabcah in their phonetical aspects and linguistic 2 features. al-Hujjah.

ibid. do not know them all.. 6. pp. but if according to them the people who ' and accepted by the people. pp. 57. In conclusion are equally successive without the ten readings Finally to quotations al-Baghawl. XIII.effect that the seven readings are different for the first from the seven ahruf and were introduced century. ten readings are successive. time by Ibn Mujähid in the fourth while before him the ten readings were known in the amsär In addition. 3 that himself century until the 2 in the ninth century. approving the successiveness of only 6 the seven readings. 390-394. 4. Ibn al-Jazari there are certain they should not reject lists what they do not know. Munjid. 29-45. 28-29. p. pp. ibid. 479. 5.. Moreover. Ibn Khaldün opts for this view. 45-46. vol. 46-49. Munjid. Mugaddimah. Qurrä' the names of prominent or some of them from the time of Ibn Mujähid in the fourth time of Ibn al-Jazari he asserts exception. 203 . ibid. 3. 2. he devotes chapter five from scholars supporting of his Munjid al-Mugri'in his view. to Ibn al-Häjib According except the seven readings like in certain ways of pronunciation the madd and imälah. Fatäwä. referring 4 are successive 5 to Ibn Taymiyyah and al-Ja'buri. -pp. p. f. pp. This view was rejected among the scholars on grounds that the seven readings were transmitted from the salaf with 1. c..

vol. being the ten readings and the reading 1. 86. orthography. p. al-Nashr.all their asänid. As regards the madd for example the Qurrä' of prolongation. 93. and Latä'if and Munjid.. but differed Abu Shämahregards the seven readings as successive when they Thus when they differ they are not agree with each other.'pp. linguistic aspects including phonetics and ways of pronunciation. Munjid. 2. 63. ibid. 1. p. 54. I. vo1. 78-79. all successive according to Ibn al-Jazari or disagreeing the ten readings are each other and in agreeing with concerning all their aspects. 4 The In support of the ten readings many books are written. In support of this view in to he states that each one of the seven readings were transmitted successive select chains what Ibn Mujähid 3 each from among many. al-Wajiz. l agreed unanimously on the existence only concerning the degree of madd. a1-Ishärät. p. al-Murshid pp. vol. Munjid. 87 -:: 62`. and that had done was only two ruwät Furthermore. 438/1046) Kit. 408/1017) a1-Muntahä fi -al-Qirä'ät al -CAshr. followed Qirä'ät Ä1i by Abu al-Ihdä al-Mäliki (d. Ibn al-Jazari objects to this view as successive. 62-67. p. first is book known having them to on composed a us.ab al-Rawdah fi alof cAsharah. p. 204 . I. contradicting to the view of the majority. and Latä'if al-Ishärät. 3. as author 5 He was a1-Khuzäci (d. pp. 4. 5. 2 However. 177.

. 205 . 84. p. p. 97. 3. I.. p. 7 Ä1T Abu Fi al-Qirä'ät al-Muhadhdhab Fi al-Qirä'ät Kitäb al-CAshr. 461/1068) Kitäb al-Jämic al-Kämil Fi al-Qirä'ät Fi al-Qirä'ät al-cAshr. al-CAshr (d. al-cAshr. ibid. 4. 450/1058) al-Jämic Fi al-Qirä'ät al-CAshr. ibid. Hasan al-Färisi Ibn Jubärah wa-al-Arbacah Mustanir Kitäb (d.. 74.. 82. 11. 769/1367) Kitäb alyah Fi al-Qirä'ät al-CAshr. p. 6. 541/1146). p. 521/1127). ibid. p. 84. ibid. 550/1155) Kitäb al-Misbäh FT al-Qirä'ät al-CAshr.. 740/1339) al-Kanz Fi a1-Qirä'at al-`Ashr and a1-Kifä 12 Ibn al-Jundi (d. p. 12. ibid. p. 91. 93.. 8. 13 Sibt a1-Khayyät (d. 539/1144) Fi al-Qirä'ät Kitäb Müdih Fi al-Qirä'ät and al-Miftäh al-CAshr. ibid. ibid. p. 94. ibid. 496/1102) al-'Ashr. ibid. ibid. 443/1051) al-Tidhkär Fi al-Qirä'ät al-cAshr. 11 (d. 75. 2. 7. 4 Abu-alIbn Faris (d. 9. ibid. al-CAshr Kitäb al5 1 al-Maghribi al-Zä'idah (d. Bustän Fi a1-Qirä'at al-cAshr. 1. 13. 10. 86. vol... ibid.. al-Qirä'ät Irshäd g Ibn Khayr-un (d.Nasr al-Baghdadi (d. p. 8 Abu al-cIzz al-CAshr. al-Shahrazüri al-Wäsiti (d. al-Qalänisi al-Mubtadi' Watadhkirat alal10 al-Wäsiti MuntahiFT (d. 3 2 Ibn Shita (d. . al-Nas hr. 6 Ibn Suwär (d. 499 /1106) al-Khayyät. 465/1072) cAlayha. 5. 442/1050) al-Mufid Fi al-Qirä'at Ab--u al-Acmash.

p. `. for ll c (d. 448/1056) Allah books composed by Ibn Ghalbün 7 Fi al-Qira'at Abu Macshar al-Tadhkirah al-Thamän. 93. 4 F1 al-Qirä'ät Tahbir al-Taysir fi Qirä'ät al-A'immah alal-cAshr. p. p. 541/1146) of of Abu Macshar (mentioned al-Mubhij Fi al-Qira'at al-Acmash. ibid.. I. 77.. after 420/1029) Ibn ala1-Ishärah Fi a1-Qirä'ät al-CAshr. p. 399/1008) (d. Cairo. by Ibrahim by al-Qädi 2 vols. al-Dabbäc. d. 83. included . 1381-1961. ibid. ibid. Ibn Muhaysin.. 1 al-Hadrami being an abridgement above)9 and Sibt Thamän adding Khalaf al-Talkhis (d. 73. 84. Finally we find certain scholars who devoted their books to the readings of the three additional example the books of al-Däni Qurrä' or only one of them. I.. al-CAshr. Edited 4. 8. 2. 6. al-Nashr. and Tayyibat al-Nashr FT al-Qirä'ät al-Ashr. p. c5 CAsharah.. ibid. ibid. al-Nashr. We also (d. 10. Edited 5. 1st ed. Cairo. 833/1429) al-Nashr Fi al-Qirä'ät Tagrib al-Nashr al-cAshr. ed. p. al- al-Khayyät to them the readings 10 and al-YazidT. 1393-1973. 7.. ). p. Ist and Qamhäwi. 444/1052) Mufradat Yaqub. 11.Abu Nasr Mansur b. 3. on eight readings (d. 9. vol. 3 Jazari (d. 1. Cairo. CAtwah CAwad.. 560/1164) of Kitäb Kitäb al-Mufid F1 al-Qira'at al-Thamän find Irädat 1ib Fi a1-Qirä'ät a1-Tä. 206 . Ahmada1-CIrägi 2 (d. in Ithaf al-Bararah bi-al-Mutün al-CAsharah. Ed. 1354/1935. 8 CAbd Kitäb al-Talkhis Fi al-Qira'at Abu al-Thamän. vol. 93. Beirut (n. Edited by ai-Dabbäc. 60.

Definition of shädhdh followed by Abu Shämahand Ibn al--Jazari.Samnudi Ala Matn alof Abu Jacfar. 3.da-al-idäh called or at least He refers al-Muhtasib a famous (mashhür) transmission to the material fi contained in the Tabyin Wujüh Shaw dhdh alkind. and . 833/1429) (died-after 650/1252) al-Durrah al-Mutammimah Fi' a1-Qirä'ät C a1-Ashr being the readings I c Shark a1-. 4 Durrah al-Mutammimah Fi al-Qira at al-cAshr.. al-Wajiz. 1393-1973. 5. CAnhäSas an example of this According to Makki and Ibn al-JazarT. 6. 18. al-Nashr. Edited by al-Dabba Cairo. 98. p. chain although 1. ). Ibn a1-Jazari (d. Cairo. 516/1122) Mufradat Yacqub. Yacqüb and Khalaf. Alternatively it corresponds might be authentic has been transmitted the orthography in an unauthentic and fluent Arabic. and Abu Muhammad al-Sacidi 2 Mufradat Yacq-ub. 2.. which contradicts Arabic although it it with shadhdh is the reading the orthography cUthmänic of the masähif or the in its chain. Aleppo. (n. Edited 207 . Edited by tasif 2 Cairo. book of Ibn Jinni Qirä'ät . a According to Ibn al-Saläh. 4. Ist ed. pp. vols. ibid. p. d. 75-77. and others. by al-Qädi and Qamhäwi. vol. I. narrated as Qur'an without successive transmission accepted by the people.. al-Murshid 184 Munjid p.Ibn a1-Fahhäm (d. . 1386-89/1966-69. shädhdh is the reading which has been.

. 181-182. See 197 above. majority Fugahä' and other scholars. is not permitted to is cAbd Moreover Ibn al-Barr reported to have stated that the scholars agreed unanimously in 4 al-Qastalläni rejecting shädhdh readings. In support of his view referring to al-Ghazzali. al-Qädi of scholars' as objecting al-Nawawi and al-Sakhäwi 3 to shädhdh readings. Abu Shämahwith to read the Qur'an is forbidden Muslims and the tawä tur. 6. 72-73. 74. and the lacks the condition he quotes Hsülis. al-Murshid pp. 73. vol. al-Zarkashi. al-Tirmidhi 5 reading with shädhdh.. refers to al-Adhruci. because they contradict 6 the consensus of the 1. pp. p. ibid. cAdud al-Din. the reading Thus al-Qastalläni because it states that shädhdh is not regarded as Qur'an of tawätur. . a1-Qirä'ät 2. 5. p. a1-Ishärat. al-Shädhdhah. the people. al-Nasä'i and al-cAsgalänT as having forbidden Furthermore al-Sakhäwl is quoted by his pupil his approval as having said that it with shädhdh readings. according to the majority which is not transmitted in a successive shädhdh is 2 manner. Latä'if 4. al-Waji'z. However. ibid. ibid. 10. 3. al-Asnawi. l is not famous (mashhür) and was not accepted of scholars by. 208 .Alternatively but it again it corresponds with the three conditions. p. Ibn al-Häjib. al-Nawawi is reported to have said that it read shädhdh in or outside prayers. I.

209 . Ibn Mujähid. 2. p. pp. Makki. al-Iclan. al-Safräwl. its of the Qur'an use as a source to substantiate this is only according of scholars the earlier although since to to a certain disagree scholars only group of jurisprudents. al-Sabcah. al-Qalänisi. Irshäd Müjaz.As regards al-Nuwayri interpretation use of the anomalous readings allowed al-Safägisi quotes as having the use of shädhdh in the for linguistic arguments purposes in Islamic and also law. like the books of Sibt al-Khayyät. Hirz al-Amäni. Those who compiled books or readings which they of their successiveness or received irrespective anomalousness. al-Tabsirah. al-Däni. Ibn al-Fahhäm. Ghayth al-Nafc. Abu Shahrazüri. al-Hudhali. Munjid. al-Talkhis.. and whose like the unanimously. the majority al-Nuwayri According who were reported for to have read with mentioned above. b. al-Taysir. ": Abu Macshar. with this opinion. readings Abu Macshar al-TabarT. al-KäfT. 18-19. 1 the two purposes How does one distinguish question states two categories a. Ibn Shurayh. al-Tajrid al-Ahwäzi. 7. shädhdh must have read it but never as Qur'än. shädhdh? Ibn al-Jazari answering this into that the books composed on Qirä'ät according to their authors: are divided Those who compiled the accepted readings the people agree with two books entitled al-Ghäyah of Ibn Mahrän and alHamadäni. and al-Shätibi. Ibn Faris and Abu al-AhtväzL2 1. al-Mubtadi'. CAll C Ali al-Mäliki.

the readings differing cUthmänic from the ones were regarded as shädhdh. development regarded was that Ibn Mujähid readings stage rather after introducing the other In this than his composed his book. 210 . The first his al-Sabcah. I. 14-15. al-Sabcah al-Muhtasib al-Mukhtasar. vol.Ibn al-Jazari elsewhere attributes of accepting to certain unnamed scholars the practice attributed followers. 1 or they might not have been from the Development of the concept of shädhdh After the compilation cUthmänic of the masähif. and as shädhdh. al-Nashr. that it should correspond with the orthography of cUthmänic the masähif and accordingly the readings contradicting CUthmänic the masähif were abandoned and destroyed. as mutawätir. pp. transmitted seven ahruf. shädhdh readings which were to the personal codices of some companions and their He states that the majority of scholars object to the shädhdh readings on the grounds that they are not mutawätir and that even if they used to be authentic in transmission they are now abrogated by the final revised version or by the consensus or they had not been cUthmänic of the companions on the masähif. condition for the authenticity of Thus it was made an obligatory any reading. Ibn Jinni and Ibn Khälawayh wrote They both regarded his two books a1-Badic the other readings over the 1.

al-Qirä'ät al-Shädhdhah 211 . I. 148/765) 4. vol. to the people 2 Accordingly of his time the description of them as shädhdh. Ibn Jinni regards shädhdh as the readings which were not included in l He attributes Kitäb al-Sabcah of Ibn Mujähid. 32-33. p. Yahyä al-Yazidi (d. pp. al-Acmash (d. Farah (303/915)4 Baghdad 0 1. ibid. ibid. The next step was the introduction for the accepted readings as a result one of the three conditions effect readings of accommodating mean that of the three conditions of which any. 2. reading missing This had the four as shädhdh. 21/614) 2. al-Hasan al-Basri (d. 3.seven readings compiled by Ibn Mujähid as shädhdh. is regarded as shädhdh.. 123/740) Makkah al-Bazzi (250/864) Ibn Shunbüdh (328/939) 3. thus what is meant by shädhdh here does not necessarily 3 it is linguistically anomalous or Lughah Shädhdhah. al-Muhtasib. 202/817) Kufah al-Shunbüdhi (388/998) Sulaymän b. 32. al-Hakam (235/849) al-MutawwiCi (371/981) Ahmadb. Ibn Muhaysin (d. three readings while the other over the ten readings anomalous readings were finally are as follows: regarded These four The Qäri' His district Basrah 1st Räwi Shujäc (190/805) 2nd Räwi al-Döri (246/860) 1. 4.

al-Ishärät. there is no. cAshar. 170-171andIthäf fudala1 al-Bashar. Cairo. p. the difference between them Ibn al-Jazari the Qirä'ät definition Qirä'ät in their does not make a comparison between the Qur'an and definitions. 318.s. in the variations t- differences Anfac authentic is that-of of readings of the Qur'5n. remains clearly distinguishable. al-Burhän fi' al-Qur'an. pr. but he seems to have opted for the He states that of the Qirä'ät given by al-Zarkashi. Edited by a1-Dabbäc. Latä'if vol.These four readings are included al-Dimyäti. major difference between the between them reading and the Qur'an and that the relation the part to the whole. although the Qur'an Th there is an overlapping this Howeyer connection between and close and and Qirä'ät u. is the revelation Qirä'ät miraculously According to him the Qur'an revealed to the Prophet while the phonetical and linguistical 2 are the orthographical. CUlüm 2. vol. I. does not unite make them the same thing. p. l Ithäf in the work of al-. is the science of knowing the agreement of the transmitters 1. 1359. 5. Banns al-Arbacata Fudalal al-Bashar bi-al-Qirä'ät The relationship al-Zarkashi between the Qirä'ät by a1-Qastalläni and the Qur'an and al-Bannä' differentiates followed between the Qur'an and the Qirä'ät. 212 . I.

1. vol. al-Zabidi. p. Ishäq al-Hadrami Qirä'ät called al-Jämi. 258/871) is reported cities. wa-al-Nahwiyyin. I. vol. He was followed by many other scholars who composed books on the Qirä'at Jubayr al-Kufi (d. 63. 2. p.. al-Lughawiyyin 4. by the book of Ismäcil b. Munjid. vol. without number of Qirä'ät. scholar themselves to a fixed known to us as having composed a book on Qirä'ät who is reported as having Yahyä b. Ishäq al-Ma-likT (d. al-Nashr. 282/895) After which is said to have contained readings of twenty Qurrä'. 51. p.and their differing in the transmission of the Qur'an as regards lughah and icrab. 205/820) by Yacqüb b. Ahmadb. 224/838). and the orthographical differences between the The compilation The first started of Qirä'ät and the earliest of Qirä'ät compilers was that certain scholars step in the collection collecting Qirä'ät and composing books on them. 3. selecting of the cities. 85. I. p. 34 and Latä'if. 4 have included twenty five readings. to have written a book on the This readings of the five was followed a Qäri" from each city. The first is a restricting. Yacmur (d. 1 masähif. p. Qurtubi. c3 who composed a book on According to Ibn al-Jazari the first author on the subject is CUbayd Abu His book is reported to al-Qäsim b. I. 3. Tabag t. 129/746) book on the Qirä'ät according authored followed cUthmänic to the masähif? (d. Salläm (d. 213 .

310/922). 118/736) Ibn CAmr (d. 324/935). 120/737) MTdinah Makkah Damascus Basrah Küfah Kufah Kufah was criticised it had created by certain confusion scholars among the CÄmir (d. The Qurrä' whose readings were compiled by Ibn Mujähid are the following: The Qäri' His district Näfic (d.Küfah. pp. 2. 3. vol. 156/772) a1-Kisä'i (d. 169/785) Ibn Kathir (d. Il. 1. I. 36-37 and Munjid. 70-71. pp. pp. Makkah. 154/770) Abu cAsim (d. 189/804) Ibn Mujähid This work of of his time on the grounds that common people between the two terms of the seven ahruf and the 3 Accordingly for the purpose of removing seven canonical readings. by Shawgi Dayf.. 33-34. 85-86 and al-Nashr. His book is entitled and Sham (Damascus). Edited vol. 1972. I. (d. vol. whose book on Qiralat is reported by that to have contained more than twenty readings and was followed of al-Däjüni readings. pp.this came al-Tabari (d. scholar known to have introduced the seven Qurrä' and to have selected them from the five cities. Madinah. al-Nashr. Cairo. 128/744) Hamzah (d. 214 . Basrah ' 2 Kitäb al-Sabcah. 324/935) which is reported They were followed to have included eleven the first by Ibn Mujähid (d. Latä'if.

215 . than their basing his arguments on the evaluation 4 Qirä'ä t. 2. Latä'if. al-Nashr.this claimed confusion certain scholars are reported of only one QR H to have or ten composed books on the Qirä'ät 1 Qurrä'. pp. Kitäb al-Saboah. 3. or eight In support of Ibn Mujähid's Ibn Abi Häshim states that book. his pupil Abü Tähir people went too far and misunderstood Ibn Mujähid. as follows: to him. 72-73. readings His reason by choosing for them was to facilitate the two most among the ruwat who. were the most knowledgeable They may be classified 1. Ibn Mujähid mentions in his introduction his reasons for selecting these seven Qurrä'. pp. 43-44. 4. I. pp. p. 45-46. 86. of the men rather Although the ruwät of his al-Sabcah were very numerous he selected only reducing prominent two or three! `ruwat for each Qäri'. vol. it is argued that his intention readings. selecting seven was simply that he wanted this number to agree of with the number seven which occurs with regard to the revelation 3 the Qur'an in seven ahruf. Munjid. according and reliable. who was far beyond what people thought about him and than to confuse the seven ahruf and the seven was more intelligent 2 in Furthermore.

. Ibn Mujahid regards the readings other than his al-Sabcah as shädhdh4 This was objected to by certain scholars on the grounds that there were many Qurrä' whose status was argued to be the same as his al-Sabcah or even greater.The Qäri Näfic Ibn Kathir %ir Ibn His first Rawl His second Rawl Warsh (d. 1983. pp. 128/ mentioned in Furthermore. 2. 3. 8-9. 1974. vol. al-Budür-al-Zähirah. Edited by. 220/835) al-Bazzi (d. -al-Muhtasib. 216 . 291/903) Qä1ün (d. 32-33.. Ramadän. 250/854) Hishäm (d. Damascus. the teacher of Näfic. 261/874) Hafs (d. 193/809) Khalaf (d. 245/859) Ibn Dhakwän (d. India. 220/835) (d. 180/805) Khalläd a1-Düri (d. 197/812) Qunbul (d. 4. 246/860) Shucbah (d. 246/860)1 CAmr Abu cAsim Hamzah a1-Kisä'i Ibn Mujähid's like al-Duri (d. 229/843) Abu äl-Härith (d. his introduction Yaoqüb al-Hadrami like Abu Jacfar of Madinah(d. 205/820)was one of. ibid. his own al-Saboah *pp. 1. 240/854) work was adopted and revived among his followers al-Qaysi in his al-Tabsirah al-Sabc al-Qirä'ät FT. Edited by al-Nadawi. 2 vols. I. Abi Talib al-Sabc2 and al-Kashfcan whose book al-TaysTr Wujüh al-Qirä'ät was adopted and followed by the scholars and has become to the present day the standard work for students of the seven readings in their fourteen versions. whom Ibn Mujähid himself as a learned and respected Qäri'. 242/856) a1-Süsi (d. 747). of Basrah(d. and al-Däni Makki b.

3. However. 123/740 A. 269-271. 202/817 A. al-Qirä'ät a1-Mashhura-h. are ten. over the existing his son Abü'l-Hasan and al-Baghawi all 4 ten readings are anomalous (shädhdh). vol. ) of Küfah In their support it is pointed out that the acceptability of a reading should be subject only to the conditions readings. D. a1-Qastalläni' asserts that the readings Shädhdhah are these which were agreed to be Qirä'ät 3 four after the ten. 229/843) two has been argued Thus according these 1 three latter to be as authentic to this readings as al-Sabcah Ibn Mujähid. al-Nashr. 2. 16. ) of Makkah (d. readings 1. I. 110/728 A. in addition of The reading to these of Khalaf al-Baghdädi (d. to certain districts or people who received it 2 in the manner of tawätur. 39. 148/765 A. Ibn Taymiyya. ) of Basrah a1-Basri (d. ) of Basrah (d. p.XIII. pp. Fatäwä. view the successive readings being added to the seven of Ibn Mujähid. pp. 217 . p. Latä'if. pp. I. vol. 15 and al-Nashr. remaining Abu Nasr al-Subki. pp. I. However. 36-36. 392-393. Ibn Ham. njid. D. D. 77. according to Ibn a1-Sa1äh. Munjid. some or all and Qurrä' are argued to be authentic (d. D.before he replaced him by al-Kisä'i. authentic and that the transmission of some or all for the accepted these readings is according.170. Moreover. according to certain readings of the following accepted readings: Ibn Muhaysin a1-Yazidi al-Hasan ' a1-Amash other scholars. uFT vol. 4. p. vo1-.

e. readings are entirely different It ruling is confirmed that the seven from the seven ahruf since the first used to collect readings without compilers and books on the subject limited condition number. The successive readings have been studied together of shädhdh and its development. sent to different the people The. i. of them became famous and devoted hence the readings are attributed dominated to them and eventually and were canonised three by the seven highly the selection of esteemed readings Ibn Mujähid. and that any reading for acceptability which does not correspond with riwäyah or the other two conditions.In conclusion to this chapter we may say that variations in readings have existed since the lifetime of the Prophet and that to the fact The everyone of those who differed in reading used to refer way. agreement with as shädhdh. obscure the masähif or completely and the Arabic unacceptable. language is regarded 218 . Thus we find with the definition that the acceptability accepted readings of any reading is subject to the conditions whose development has been studied. It is emphasised that riwäyah is the most important of any reading. number of the Qurrä' themselves increased to the and certain Qirä'ät. that they had been taught by the Prophet in this successors followed them certain teach the companions in this Qurrä'were practice and among cities to distinguished the Qur'an. although an additional readings are argued to have the same position as the seven of Ibn Mujähid.

7 CHAPTER IKHTIYAR IN THE QIRÄ'AH AND ITS BASES .

p. pp. concerns the fact that certain qualified one or more readings from among a number of ikhtiyär on the most authentic and fluent 1 judgement. p. See 186-196. either as meaning the people of Madinah and Küfah. -2. al-Murshid al-Wajiz. 4. 3. 1. 89. 51.CHAPTER 7 IKHTIYAR IN THE QIRA'AH AND ITS BASES The question of ikhtiyär scholars may select readings. this ikhtiyär. being a strong reason for 3 or as the people of Makkah and Madinah. p. of Qirä'ät to the Qurrä'. Chapter 6. fluency of Arabic. readings of their and students. 99. 220 . 172 and al-Ibänah. %mah correspondence with the masähif and agreement of the on 2 This termcämma is interpreted accepting them. al-Tibyän. al-Nashr. The method of the Qurrä' Qirä'ät is based on the basing their ways of reading in their who are reported three conditions to have chosen certain for accepted readings. vol. p. I. Discussing the attribution Ibn al-Jazarl preferred This states that they selected certain them in their is only own readings exercised and teaching ikhtiyär in respect of selection from own existing readings. and never extends to inventions or their 4 In this connection we find the word ikhtiyär composition.

1397/1977. "In book I have mentioned the readings of distinguished Qurrä' who were famous by their 3 Qirä'ät and ikhtiyärät. 2nd ed. Edited by Mukarram. 3. p. 4. Beirut. scholars composing books to establish readings on the basis of of certain selected correspondence with the masähif and fluency of Arabic. Accordingly. I. 5. See p 23f. 190 Chapter 221 . 43.. Dar al-Shuruq.. below and p. Ghay t al-Nihäyah.occurring a. ibid. "l for example: by the common b. II. ikhtiyär started and the compilation of the Qirä'ät the The next step after was that certain authenticity transmission. the on of depending on the is not left to There is no doubt as to the essentiality äthär for any ikhtiyär the discretion subject in the Qirä'ät. 1. al-Nashr. 62. Ibn Khälawayh in the work attributed to him a1-Hujjah Fial-Qirä'ät al-Sabc4 mentions of the seven Qurra that they based-their ikhtiyär 5 äthär (traditions).. "The people agreed upon the ikhtiyär of them 2 (i. 6. e. p. the Qurrä' of the ten readings). d. of Yacqub is followed of Basrah. vol. vol. frequently "The iktiyär [people] in the books of Qirä'ät. nor that it of anyone to adopt or select readings which are not to the conditions for accepted readings mentioned above. ibid. 37. this c. 6. 2. is rejected any reading which does not conform to these conditions 6 and regarded as shädhdh. p.

. 2 (d.. p. 1397-1977. al-Hasän al-Ansäri (d. al-Fihrist. p. 86. 65... cAbd Abu Tähir al-Wähid al-Bazzär li- (d. ) Hujjät a1-Qirä'ät. Beirut. 35-36. c bi- Ilaliha al-Kabir. by Mukarram. the author 1. 316/928). pp. to Ibn Khälawayh is disputed. philologists author and hence their known to us as having (d. 2. I. p. 6. 222 p. the author Ihtijaj al-Qira'at. Kitäb al-Ihtijäj of several Li-al-Qurrä Ibn Miqsam Kitäb (d. ibid. 332/943). Muhammad b. 'Nisbat al-Hujjah Majallat al-Lisän al-cArabi. Kitab al-Sabah books on Qirä'ät. p. 3. The authenticity of this attribution see MubammadalcAbid ilä Ibn Khälawayh Lä Tasihh". 35. '. 5 21 and al-Afghani.. ibid. 7. 349/960) a pupil of Ibn Mujähid and author of Kitäb al-Intis-ar 5 Hamzah. 351/962) to whom is c cIlalihä Kitäb al-Sabah bi attributed al-Kabir6 Ibn Khälawayh (d. 38 and 68-69. known as Kitab al-Sabcah al-Awsat and Kitäb al-Sabcah al-Saghi'r Shifä' al-Sudiar. ibid. a1-Fäsi. (ed. Edited pp. VIII. ibid. Kitäb Ihtijäj Ibn Darastuwayh al-Sarräj al-Qirä'ah. vol. Accordingly required accepted or preferred and the The first subject is views differed ikhtiyär among the Qurrä' differed. 5. p. pt. . 370/980) to whom is attributed 7 Abu CAll al-Färisi Kitäb al-bujiah of a large fi'1-Qiralat al-Sabc.bearing in mind that the philologists for differed readings concerning the degree of fluency ones. 285/898) composed a book on this who was the author of a book entitled l Kitäb Ihtijäj He was followed by Abu Bakr b. 24. ibid. al-Qirä'ät. al-Mubarrid (died after 330). 50. 2nd ed. 4.

. This book of Cairo Ibn Faris 1966.Zarcah cAbd students) al-Rahmän b. pp. 30 and 39. 22. 69. Damascus.. I. 437/1080) book Wa-Hujajihä. is edited by al-Najjar 1st ed. and others. 223 . 1399-1979. themselves by rejecting and obvious. (d.. 2 vols. Kitäb 1 al-Sabcah al-Hujjahli-al-Qurrä' Abu. 5. Edited by Sacid al-Afghani. Zanjalah whoseHujjatu al-Qirä'ät2 (one of al-Färisi's (403/1012)3 before and Abi Bakr was composed b.. The condition of of all with authentic riwäyah. 2. 3. ibid. century we find Makki's al-Sab. Allah Macani Qirä'ät Ahl al-Amsär includes Hadrami in addition In the fifth al-Kashf the reading of Yacqub al4 to the seven of Ibn Mujähid. 1394-1974. from the practice since they used not to react immediately any reading they heard from each other for 1.book in support entitled Kitäb of his teacher Ibn Mujähid's al-Sabcah. cc An Wujüh al-Qirä'ät C5 Wa. Idris whose al-Mukhtär fi cUbayd Ahmad b. al-Fihrist. 2nd ed. is most essential Qurrä' of the Qur'an..Ilalihä Refutation of free exercise of choice in selection is concerned that certain ignorant of readings people might Ibn al-Bägilläni misinterpret the differences between the Qurrä' as meaning that they were absolutely desired. p. Muhammadb. 4. vol. p. he says. He asserts free to choose whatever way of reading they that this view is groundless and that it is agreed unanimously that no single it has been transmitted reading should be accepted unless chains. Edited by Ramadan. ibid. Beirut..

4. 415.. NäfiC is reported to have said that he had been taught the Qur'an from seventy Qurrä among the Followers. al-Sabcah. p. Nukat a1-Intisär. 62. Ibn Mujähid states that Näfic was following 4 äthär of the Qurrä' before him. the b. fearing that it might be authentic and based on connection the riwäyah according to the other readers. c. p. 54.. ibid. 2. p. 82. p. Ibn Mujähid. ibid. Sufyän al-Thawri is reported to have supported the reading of Hamzahon the grounds that he had not Harf of the Qur'an without depending read a single 5 äthär". 416. read without how it comments that since this be that was the practice the Qur'an 2 of could they would allow to be fulfillment of the condition we also find of riwäyah? a large In support of the condition attributed of riwäyah number of statements among to distinguished and famous Qurrä' of the Qur'an whom we may quote the following: a. and that he based his ikhT tiyär on the 3 agreement of two of them. al-Acmash is reported in a different Ibrahim said In this as having said that when he used to read way from what he had been taught by his teacher the latter ' used not to say 'it is wrong' but al-NakhaC1 'read so and so'. Ibn a1-Bägilläni the salaf. ibid.. Kitäb p. on 1. 5. 224 . 0 3.the first time.

e. al-cAla' Abu if he had been free to read in certain ways as he ' desired. he would not have read it. using grammatical and other evidences. 2.. forbidden 3 corresponding with riwäyah.d. pp. p. had not heard it. ibid. 419-420. riwäyah.. He is also reported as having been asked concerning his own reading and ikhtiyär whether he had heard it To this he replied that if he all from the salaf. Ghäyat a1-Nihäyah. his ikhtiyär. because reading of the Qur'an should be according to the 2 Ibn al-BägillänT Accordingly. to read in a way not states that it is. 3. Furthermore al-Qastalläni' certain than the states that preference as between to the readings is based only on the grounds of conformity 1. I. riwäyah). their Ibn al-Bägilläni agree says that the Qurrä' who substantiate that they have been transmitted there is no objection logical own readings all from the Prophet himself and that to adding the evidence of riwäyah other No one among the Qurra? explaining why he evidence in support of. p. sunnah (i. As regards the grounds on which the Qurrä' support their ikhtiyär. 417. Nukat al-Intisär. 4. p. 290. m 225 . ibid. cAmr is reported to have said that b. he would have read so and so. e. vol. 418. is doing more than supporting selects this reading but not rejecting or refuting the readings of that other Qurrä'. this He only says in support of his own ikhtiyär in Arabic and more beautiful way is the most fluent 4 others.

4. Nukat al-Intisär. al-Kashshäf. this. connection are used only to substantiate this way of reading other In this who thought ikhtiyär 2 but never as the sole reason for ikhtiyär. with to the final vol. p. 226 . -al-Intisäf 3. chapter 4. linguistical evidences in support of the Qirä'ät the reason for choosing or selecting than others. p. of ikhtiyär is restricted to use only in accordance A free hand in using synonyms or reading according to the meanings of the vocabulary of the Qur'an is not regarded as ikhtiyär readings. Hence. I. of using ikhtiyar permissible among the various authentic provided that it readings among the scholars according 3 to the riwäyah and used by qualified and authorised Qurrä'. which are attributed unauthentic in their revealed Certain which represent were regarded abrogated 1. version of the Qur'än. 44. 122f. 170.most eloquent and best known ways in the Arabic language. vol. See. pp. Ibn al-Munayyir objects Qurrä' to al-Zamakhshari that the seven distinguished at will The right is still is had exercised their as if they were free from the condition of riw5yah. The right with riwäyah. since 1 they are all authentic and accepted readings. II. pp. 321-330 and Munjid. shädhdh. Latäif to the personal codices. I.. pp. 2. for more information. transmission or 5 as either according a1-Ishärät. pp. vol. äl-Nashr. forbidden 4 because it hence it contradicts is strongly the conditions rejected for accepted and considered beyond the kind is examples The scholars agreed unanimously that this and should be stopped and destroyed. 17-18. 69-70. 5.

3. 19. al-Qirä'ät wa-al-Lahajät. Tafsir al-Madhähib al-Islämiyyah. pp. 6. 5. Madhähib al- 2. LXXXVII. p. were only with the ways of reading. this their respect readings we notice which had to correspond the companions and their of the Prophet al-Khattäb Kitäb followers himself. Published in Cairo 1360-1941. of the differences variations riwäyah. Hakim. The text of the Qur'an is agreed to represent form the first other various Harf in which it has been revealed. 1-2 of Chapter 1). 82. 192-193. l) is Sabbih 1. vol. (quoted in pp. vol. I. 106 Chapter 3. p. BukhärT. 17. in In referring taking 5 as an of the scholars in their interpretation. al-Islämi. Itgän.Goldziher uses examples of this latter kind of reading to conclude that they were used to make fundamental changes in the I ignoring the fact that all readings of this successive readings. in accordance regardless with 4 in its written Thus the ways of reading ur'än the permission to read the in seven ahruf. to the teaching CUmar b. example the case of and Hishäm b. 227 . kind in contradiction of the common accepted reports readings are regarded 2 as shädhdh and isolated opposed to the mutawätir. VI. p. c. C Abu Ubaydah on the other hand is reported purpose of this as having said that the the meanings kind of anomalous reading is to explain 3 of the well known (mashhür) readings. Goldziher. . 48. p. 4. See p. Icräb Thaläthin Thus Ibn Khälawayh in his al-Qur'an reading al-Karim6 states of that S-urah min and accepted Isma Rabbika the only authentic in the beginning (S. f.

56. I. ibid.. followers He attributes to certain companions (cUmar. p. and it cammah5 or not accepted by the 1. I. 1316/1898. freed from vocalisation and dotting in order to preserve various authentic readings which correspond with the orthography of the masähif. XV. not to create readings according to every possible 3 the text. transmission from each other) of generations.. 3. p. the statement: cUrwah. linguistically as we find it elsewhere could be read as Sabbih Fasabbih (bi) Ism(i) in the Qur'än bi-Hamdi Rabbika (S. thi asserts that to use free analogy in selecting but -s 'is Ibn al-Jazari certain and their readings is forbidden. The cUthmänic masähif are said to have been. p. should be according to the sunnah. al-Nashr. Ibn al-Mukandir. ibid. 228 . Zayd. 98) Qirä'ah not accepted because the l should be according to the riwäyah. vol. cUmar should be one 2 cAbd b. 54. 5. For example Sibawayh in his al-Kita-b4 Qirä'ät and objects to certain but way of reading supports certain other ways although they might be only on the ground that the Qirä'ah should not be disputed substantiated linguistically. vol. Rabbika. Published in Bulaq. 4. and everyone should read as he has been taught". p. 17. 2. 74.although. Munjid. al-cAziz and al-Shacbi) "Qirä'ah according to the sunnah (i. e.

reasons for which this mentioning is to be preferred. adopted The first the practise for his man among the companions known to us as having of choosing choices (S. e. as Tafsir.. al-Farrä'. al-Kitäb. 293..Icrab' Thal athin Sürah Min a1-Qur'än al-Karim. 3. 4. Passim. 2. II. 6. 5. Cairo 1360-1941. of supporting . 22). i:e. for authenticity example he says the evidence authenticity of a certain construction is the reading of the people of Madinah) We find earlier among the companions and their certain way or that chosen Qirä'ät. We also Qirä'ät. al-Kitäb. I. vol. and phonetical 3 Qirä'ät. p. Among the earlier followed by his student evidences philologists we find al-Khalil b.Furthermore he uses certain Qirä'ät in support of certain for of grammatical grammatical the tosubstantiate-the arguments . al-Bahr al-Muh-lit. vol. discussions topics the authenticity notice this phenomenon of choosing them with various and selecting in the certain and supporting evidences of Quranic scholars and in the form of books on such 6 4 5 Macani al-Qur'an. LXXX. followers the the phenomenon_. Il. MaCani al-Qur'an in 3 vols. e. 417 and passim. Ab-uHayyän. Ibn Khalawagh. al-Bahr al-Muhlt in 8 vols.: constructions. 1. and Icräb al-Qur'an. Ahmad morphological of certain Sibawayh using to substantiate grammatical. i. i. 229 . p. is certain Qirä'ät and explaining the reasons 2 cAbbas Ibn who is reported his reading as having by quoting read Nanshuruhä Thumma Idhä 259) substantiating Shä'a Ansharah (S.

2 to.. Shalabi. ibid. referring scholar 'Abbas l to Abü a. and a a man of religion of grammar and language. 5. 69-70. between Yahyä as having been accustomed not to make preferences the seven readings and having said "when the seven. speech of the people I prefer Abu Hayyän approves as reliable.For example al-Zajjäj studies (I. of any Qirä'äh 4 successive In this connection Abu Hayyän reports Abu-al-cAbbäs Ahmad b. 87. Qurrä' differ concerning the icräb in the Qur'an I do not prefer one to another. pp. Cairo. vol. IV. 3 and other evidences in order to authenticate This work of al-Acwar was objected to by the people of his time on the grounds that should be subject the acceptability only to its and authenticity transmission. 4. 3. 1394-1974. al-Bahr al-Muhit. the but when I turn to the ordinary form which is stronger". p. p. Munjid.. before 200/S15) is reported used to gather certain transmission readings and to have investigated their them. p. linguistically rafc in his Maiani al-Qur'an ways of readings corresponds with Wa-I'räbuhl for al-Hamdu the various because it 2) and adopts the authentic riwäyah which should be followed in the Qur'än. Edited al-Jalil 2. I. vol.have Härün b. to certain writers According numerous variations in ways of reading came about because the masähif were. free from vocalisation CAbd by 1. 69. Musa al-Anwar (d. 7. ibid. 230 . 5 the above statement.

See for example Brockelmann. from the grammatical point of view the Quranic phrase kun fayakün (S. various existence readings were only according before the compilation to the riwä ah. He was prevented from propagating backed by the consensus of views by the Abbasid authorities. p. f. 47) is raft 1. 181. al-Qirä'at wa-al-Lahajät. Goldziher. p. VI. III. alMawsü!ah al. free to read according been left possible to their inclinations compatible with the orthography of the mushaf it have been expected that all such readings would have been accepted.and dotting and hence differences of opinions took place among readings. 115. al-Kurdi. III. vol. al-Khatib. An the Qurrä' as a result early example of this of the different possible tendency is provided by Ibn Miqsam (d. p. This approach however is not valid. vol. al-Islämi. p. 328/939 ) only on the written text of the mushaf his who is said to have relied and the Arabic language. 482-483. 82) can be read either with but the only way accepted in (S. 183 and p. 17). was subject to the riwäyah. p. 2. if the people had in any way might according to the riwäyah. I. p. p. 3. Bukhari. Quranic scholars of his time. Tärikh al-Qur'an wa-Gharä'ib Rasmih wa-Hukmih. I. p. 8. 48 of Chapter 2. p.ur'äni ah. Tärikh a1-Adab a1-CArabi. For example. XXXVI. 47 and S. nasb or rafc. and were in of the Qur'an and the distribution cUthmänic of the masähif to the amsär which were themselves accompanied by distinguished cities Qurrä' 3 to teach the people of their Moreover. vol. 4. aT-Ibyäri. a1-Furgän. 231 . Madhähib al-Tafsir al-Madhähib al-Islämiyyah. 80 and al-Khu'i'. al-Bayän. 134. 22 (also. 82). 4 while both ways are accepted in (S. 4. c. XXXVI. and we for as we have seen the Qirä'ah cUmar have the example of the argument between and Hishäm where 2 The each of them referred to the Prophet as his authority.

only the orthography they would have read it example and with khafd in the latter. being an is regarded anomalous reading as a strange Furthermore. 28.Another example of this 162 9ý )' the word where word is written followed without alif kind is found in (S. to Hammädal-Räwiyah. to the the other aba-hu. as shädhdh on the grounds that contradicts 1. XXXV. Shalabi. with ya' and tä'. VII. while the rest of the Qurrä' 1 with nasb and the latter with khafd. is written 23) with ali"f while the same If the Qurrä' had with nasb However. 33. 232 . Jjt to the strange opposed as - 48 the word O9. contradictory although it to the common reading. which is regarded 3 riwäyah. in the same s-urah. 94 the word and fatabayyanü. e. in S. II. a1-Qur'5n. 123 As regards dotting is walä tanfacuha shafäcatun while a similar example is read in both ways. in S. fatathabbatü S. in the first Näfic and cAsim read the first read them both. Tärikh al-Ma cani. 3. Abu Shämah. öUI is read both possible because both were transmitted. Rasmal-Mushaf wa-al-Ihtijäj bi 1i-al-Qirä'ät. IX. walä yugbalu (S. pp. i. 114-115. 48)2 ways while in as minhä shafäcatun and wala tugbalu minhä shafäcatun In S.while this being the authentic possible way. p. p. is read by the reading it tastakthir-un the cämmah-astastakbiru-n. XXII. 406. with nasb. is attributed reading. Ibräz 2. IV. according reading 114 the word iyyähu is readable to the orthograpy attributed 6 Lý cämmah. the only way of reading found in S. al-Kurdi. II.

CXIV. while 3 is always dependant on this. g. 115-116. 96.. XXVII. LXVIII.. -Ib"räz -a1-MacanT. 271 and Tahbir al-Taysir.47 yä' and ji''a. of a li-shay'in (S. ) and which are read bi-aydin basis and bi-ayyikum. 239. 23) which are read connection (S. also ]. ibril. the essentiality in a way different reading does not provide them all. ibid. jabril. p. ý?. 6) with the addition 2 Accordingly the original of any Qirä'ah the orthography practice differ same. and other 26 (Malik in these but they differ read (Malik). 21) Examples of this s( with the addition kind are (S. words we find various authentic while the jabra'il and jabra'il. from the usual one. pp.200 and 41. 233 . p. as certain readings all Qurrä' transmission. For example they agree unanimously and in (S. being authentic 4 because of the soundness of their 1.On the other readings. pp.405 and vol. III. 4. al-Kurdi. 1. 2) (Malik read (Malik) al-Nis). "ý 3C5 -9 (S. which also confirms 1 Some other Quranic words are written of riwäyah. pp. Tärikh al-Qur'än. In this \ 23) and (S. orthography e. Abü Shämah. II. L1. LXXXIX. Mulk) that is agreed to be the riwäyah. 3. 4 the Qurrä' others in certain they are orthographically in S. itself hand in certain. we find J. 2. which is according to the riwäyah. 116. vol. Hence we find in read in certain although places with consensus and the alS. of an alif. p. I. al-Nashr. but only indicate a single is that which . 406. XVIII.a-adhbahannahu.

connection scholars calä 106) Wa-Qur'änan Faragnähu Li: tagra'ahu linguistic mukthin. offers whether do not studies to this the existence of variant the explanations evidence. II. 1 is only read by the consensus of the Qurrä' as (mukth). own understanding at a relatively theory overlooks However as we have seen above this importance of riwäyah and ignores the existence of scholars who had devoted their Whatever the reasons accepted or shädhdh. 234 . which from the but point of view could be read mukth. we find certain theoretical ways of reading which Arabic correspond with the orthography of the masahif and agree with-the as having language but which no one among the Qurrä' is reported read. reading by Goldziher to a report Qatädah (d. 117/735) authentic reading in S. calä of riwäyah.Moreover. vol. makth and mikth. XVII. will that which Goldziher An examination serve to clarify est to( seem on any real of some of the this. 88. 54 a-Ugtulü the latter with Anfusakum)instead Goldziher maintains of-the that Qatädah considered to convey a severe punishment and thus recited which was incompatible the sin mentioned the passage in the alternative 1. In this this also tends to confirm the essentiality refer al-näsi to (S. al-Bahr al-Muhit. Goldziher advances the theory that these different readings arise from certain Qurrä' interpreting a vocalised and undotted text late the in accordance with their date. VI. p. readings. For examples discussed example he refers read(Fa-Agilü Anfusakum). for of the vast number subject.

Tafsir. report against this we find that all fa'gtulü versions except one Qatädah as having read it anfusakum and having each other in was martyrdom interpreted as meaning that they stood fighting they were asked to stop and that it two rows until for those who were killed and repentence for those who remained 2 al-Qurtubi. al-Madhähib al-Islämiyyah. al-Islam-i. however. p. II. 11. thereby giving it the 3 Another example of this same meaning as agtulü. Qurrä' occasion he uses certain Thus he notes using that zäy he the aid. 11. c. 342.way attributed to him above. 235 . Madhähib f. p. material word because it while the latter word is less restricted in meaning. Madhähib al-Tafstr al-islämi. al-Tabari. commenting on this point ' he says "In this example we see an objective behind the differing reading". I. al-Tafsir p. they may have wished to avoid according to him. f. al -Qurtubi. The reason behind is that implies. both words occur in different places in the Qur'an. of view which was the reason However. readings is Goldziher's 9. 3. in which on this as opposed to others. "save yourselves from error by killing". p. alive. Ibn Kathir. 2. p. Vol. 5. tentatively. for 1. TafsTr. is read by certain as Tucazzizühu this of rä'. who reports Qatädah as having read Fa-agilü interpretes the word agilü (save) as meaning anfusakum . vol. 76 c. supposed change. 4 In fact. vo1: ý. treatment authentic Tucazzirühu instead suggests former of XLVIII. 92 p. 4.

VII. there are no Furthermore. XLVIII. In support of this theory he quotes S. ). e. VI. Lisän al-cArab. Nawfal as having of the Prophet at the very beginning of the revelation. p. CAjibta 12 Bal via-yaskharun (Truly dost thou marvel while they ridicule). there is any difference be maintained in meaning between C cazzaza. means al-Nasr by said in if language al-Taczir tongue and sword. 237. 1.example in S. XLVIII. wa-al-tawgir really I will aid him (sa-ucazziruhu al-taczir wa- Ibn Manzür says of this. ibid. in meaning. vol. wa-gawwähu. Goldziher considers between the Qurrä' are due to their something that differences fear of from to God and his Apostle which may detract attributes. support He reports Waraqah b. differences cAzzarahu 157 and S. he is sent while I am alive ansuruhu). He quotes in support of his interpretation and (S. azzartum-uhum. as fakhkhamahu. wa-al-nasr that hähunä al-Icänah Thus it cannot c2 marratan bad marra. with fath. Ibn Manzür interprets sa-acanahu. 236 . wa-nasarahu. in the Arabic cAzzara between and Nasara. with no apparent difference lexicon. 9) cazziruhu Li-tu wa-tuwagqirühu) He adds that in the Arabic 1 12 ) Wa-c. V. (S. i. in while the cAjibta Qurrä' the Küfah which some of of read commonreading of the rest of the Qurrä' is with damm. 2. azzara and Continuing certain attributing their the same general approach. wa-cazzamahu. XXXVII..

reading. polytheists polytheists ridiculed said. vol. Goldziher the two readings contradict-one-another. is reported as having objected to Shurayh's CAjibtu cAbd Allah Mascüd who used to read argument and stated that 2 According to with dammwas more knowledgable than Shurayh. time to abandon one reading in favour of the other. ) used on and objected the grounds that CAjab cannot be attributed However Ibrahim al-Nakha i. they are view that the and sound. Madhähib al-Tafsir-a-l-Islämi. pp. him for this that the and that God marvelled at what the 1. in his discussion confirms the authenticity of both al-Tabari readings and states both correct that although they differ He states in meaning. in support of this Prophet marvelled at the verses which he was given. pp. He maintains inappropriate reading to attribute CAjibtu is this with the original damm and quotes authenticates and accepts in al-Tabari. to God. cajab He argues that the Mufassir-un a difference 'marvelling' interpreted the word while as referring to God with the of opinions. 237 . Tafsir. XXIII. al-Tabari. vol. al-Tabari on the grounds that he does mention fath the Qur'an that has been revealed two ways1 although to read CAjibta with Shurayh (d. 33-35. by al-Tabari of both readings indicates that it and the acceptance was difficult at his 3 However. IV. 3. some preferred since that it is to attribute to the Prophet. 2. both readings In fact.CAjibtu. however. al-Kashshaf. 80/699 to the other to God. 37-38. 29.

238 vol. XV . They plot and plan and God. He also c Abu Ja far al-Nahhäs as having approved this regarded it cAjibtu Bal as a sound one. certain or a supposed fear of attributing to God and his Apostle defects had led the Qurrä' to change certain Goldziher thought. II. cäjibtu Bal having cajiba al-Bayhaai in this in support with context the Hadith a1-Nagqä. Sulaymän as having said the reference quotes agree to give cAjibtu one meaning and that in both cAjibta and is to the Prophet. In fact if if readings were really is an old Arab usage not subject to the riwäyah. 70-71. 30). But the best of 1. p. that both readings al-Qurtubi reportsCAli b. al-Qurtubi "truly interpretation and adds that-the their action of this meaning-of is heinous as having cAjiba may be something like in my eyes" and he quotes connected the word 1 Rabbuka. VIII.Furthermore. 2. 71.too plans. a. "God disdains of things not (lä Yastahi) to use the similitude 26 lowest as well as highest. 0 ) b. al-Fadl cajab when it supported by stating refers to God means inkär and taCzim and that this 2 (wa-huwa lughat al-CArab). while in actual done nothing except to interpret language. planners is God. ibid. Hadith and others see Qurtubi. as one might expect the Qurrä' to have changed fact they have examples in the Qur'an. them according to the Arabic Examples may be quoted as follows: . For the text of this pp.sh is reported al-Hasan that as having is interpreted reported as as Bal ankartu. " (S.. Moreover. many similar ways of reading. this b." (S.

2. 42. ". Kudhibü and Kudhdhibü were subsequently 1. "Soon shall we settle opinion your affairs LV.c. C that hypothesis. vol. 31)1 "(S. 110 the original reading Goldziher further is Kadhabu and that the Muslims were confused and faced with the problem of finding many solutions the original introduced a way out from this a fact reading. 4. Hammudah. 67) . 70. vol. Tafsir. XXIII. Nay. Ajibtu The mufassirün interpret the verse so that both readings 3 confirm one another. pp. 38 and al-Al-usi. vol. Il. p. both his He giveth pleaseth. al-TabarT.. 356. XXIII.. and the Qurrä' accept and authenticate the two readings.. vol." d. V. al-Kashshäf al-Qira at p. a1-Zamakhshari. 223 and Hujjat 5. al-Qirä'ät wa-al-lahajät. XXIII. _al-Kashshäf. as He (S. hands are widely outstretched. 199-206. p. 606-608. p. both o ye worlds: and regarded as Moreover Shurayh's unacceptable. vol. Rüh al-Maani p. al-Nashr. on the grounds that he contradicted the tawätur. was rejected and thus was not followed by anyone. al-Zamakhshari. Il. vol. Madhähib al-Tafsir _al-Islämi. there is no evidence with dammis the whatever for Goldziher's original reading. reading. p.. pp. because they agree with the conditions for accepted readings. 3. IV. p. 4 argues that in S. 29. which indicates and the readings by the Qurrä' 5 . al-Kashf. 239 . 70. XII. and spendeth (of His bounty. 2 Finally. According that it to him was were suggested.

296. reading in fact Indeed. knew that their people lied. vol.. p. 309-310. iyyah. states that this reading has been it if contradicts the reading the authentic was However. pp. Mukhta$ar p. to assert that of the This ma is the original since the text Qur'an does not provide any evidence for such a claim. and that the anomalous reading which is attributed solely to Mujähid is derived from the two authentic readings. people (who rejected people thought that the 4 there reached them our help". al-Tabari. the verse as meaning their 3 Mujähid is reported as having interpreted "when the Apostles gave up hope of their message) being punished and that their Apostles told a lie. p. 2 and not as Goldziher maintained the opposite. 209. VIII. to al-Tabari The_best__ is as people who the successive interpretation follows: "Until Mujähid's according give when the Apostles up hope of their treated them as liars - being punished by God and the Apostles ". al-Qirä'at wa-'al-Lahajät. which are the commonones.Once again. 3. it is not attributed to any Qari'except Mujähid has been argued that the original readings are Kudhibu and Kudhdhibu. 240 . 65 and Fath al-Bari. al-Tabari unanimously readings permissible rejected on the grounds that He argues that of the amsär.. p. 41-42. vol. 25. al-Madhä hib al-Isläm pp. vol. XVI. however. 310. c. p. f. 4. 1. XVI. Tafsir. Ibn Khalawayh. al-Tabari. 2. Madhähib al-Tafsir al-Islämi. it would have been interpreted readings for and better reading than that in a way not contradicting of Mujähid. Tafsir. it this way or that seems pointless reading.

p. al-TabarT. the discussion was purely concerned with the question of kudhdhibü in favour of the former. utilizing the authority cllm and Qatädah that zann may give the meaning of 1 (knowledge). VIII. ibid. pp. 310. XVI. 241 . and Fath al-Bari. Tafsir. Mukhtasar. 367f. al-Tabari. 4. vol. 7 than the Qirä'ah argues that her objection was to the Qirä'ah it in the manner of kudhibü on the grounds that she had not received 1. XVI. 5.al-Tabari of al-Hasan offers this interpretation. 6. p. I. p-349vol. contradict Ibn al-JazarT attributes states that Abu al-Qasim al-HudhalT readings with that in his al-Kämil isnäd3 of errors to Mujähid mentions certain a non-authentic his his book is full and elsewhere concerning readings puts this of al-HudhalT irä'ät the Asänid of and that which have no authentic reading of Mujähid transmission.. II. Goldziher also mentions discussion. attributed 6 as opposed to kudhibü. 306-308. 306-307. 2. 65. which she rejected although her objection CAbbas to Ibn rather al-Qastallani was in fact to the interpretation itself. vol. Ghäyat al-Nihäyah. cA'ishah's contribution to this in that but his account of it seems somewhat misleading. al-Tabari.. book contains unaccepted 4 Ibn Khälawayh also 5 among the anomalous readings. 7. Thus both Mujähid's reading and his interpretation 2 the consensus of the Qurrä' and Mufassirin. Tafsir. ibid. vol. Tafsir. pp.:42. vol. p. XVI. 309-310. pp.. 3. p. vol.

V. al-Islämiyyah. 510. believing that his 4 interpretation However a careful reading of represented Kadhabü. al-Madhähib 5. 4. reading is regarded as shädhdh. p. attributing it to by the fact he mentions 5 Mujähid. to Ubayy Ali. it and Goldziher is does not appear at all in supposing that discussion. 42. The second authentic reading is Kudhdhibü which is 1. p. Madhähib al-Tafsir al-Islämi. it confirms that it that is based on Kudhibü. followers CAsim.tawätur. in this ý As for the reading Kadhabü. While Mujahid's attributed readings. p. 354. 3 Goldziher misunderstood al-Zamakhshari. al-Bahr vol. 25. f. vol. c. al-Kashshäf. Irshäd ad-Sari 2. III. 2 who represent a1-Zamakhshari based his Tafslr as meaning: told "Until on this reading and interprets souls it when the Apostles thought that their them a lie when they told them a lie". al-Muhit. 242 . VII. 3. there are two authentic being among the highly esteemed seven canonical . Ill. al-Kashshäf. 216. is Kudhibu which is attributed Ibn Mascud c and Ibn Abbas among the companions and to their Mujähid. 510. p. p. vol. and the matter is settled Kadhabu separately. vol. being and successive readings. Talhah and al-ACmash and to Hamzah and al-Kisä'T the Kufans among the seven distinguished Qurrä'. The first only to him. incorrect she was objecting to Kadhabü. p. or "their hope told them that they would be victorious".

p. Kacb.. Tabari. 243 . al-Acraj 2 Ibn Abi Mulaykah. al-Bahr al-Muhit. Muhammadb. among them as liars and the Apostles come to think their onw followers.attributed cÄ'ishah1 to and among the followers to al-Hasan. al-Tabari as liars 4 there reached them the help of God". word zann in the place of cilm He adds that the Arabs only where the knowledge is acquired 1. ibid. that they were treated to certain interpretation other scholars who read of the verse: "Until attributes Kudhdhibü the following when the Apostles gave up hope of their Apostles came to think (knowledge) that their that people believing in them and the contect cilm (meaning by zann in this them as liars. 308. Abu Raja'. vol. vol. Tafsir. p. and Abi to Näfic Ibn Kathir. and Qatädah. a1-Tabari. XVI. 308. 354. al-cAlä. 309. vol. p. V. basing his objection on the grounds that it contradicts use the by the the views of the companions. but al-Tabari mean attributed objects to it. This latter interpretation of the word zann to cilm is to al-Hasan and Qatädah. p. vol. Tafslr. cA'ishah is reported to have interpreted to her reading Kudhdhibü as follows: up hope of their people who treated "Until this verse according when the Apostles give becoming believers. Tafsir. people treated there reached 5 them our help". XVI. XVI. Qurrä' 3 and among the seven distinguished cAmir cAmr Ibn b. harf.

which Goldziher seen. 3. ibid.. p. Il. ibid. 137) Fa-In amanu bi-mithli mä emantum bi-hi. p. verse cannot mean example. Tafsir. Furthermore Ibn himself is reported as having 4 cUthmänic According to agreed in reading with the masähif. al-Tabari believe the interpretation in what are mentioned as you believe that of this in this verse should be that when they passage of the books of God and his Prophets path. II. XVI. al-Tabari. mänu bi-al-ladh1 5mantum bi-hi as opposed CUthmänic to the commonreading which corresponds with the masähif (S. 5. ibid. 114.. p. connection is the similarity they believe 5 in. 114. cAbbäs Ibn bases his objection that there is no being similar However al-Tabarl contradicts states to the commonreading on the grounds 2 to God. 1. vol. 244 . 4. vol. that this report about Ibn CAbbas the common masähif of the Muslims and the consensus of 3 CAbbas the Qurrä'. 2. 113. ibid. also quotes in support äman-u CAbbäs Ibn is reported as having read Fa-In bi-mä amantum bi-hi or Fa-In a. p.means of reports word zann in this or when it is not physically l cilm. in them they are indeed on the right in this not between what He concludes what is meant by similarity between two beliefs. 309. and thus the To take another of his theory..

that is. b. vol. Mugaddimatän p. 1. 195. Wa-Icra-buhu. 3. they like you. al-Mabäni studies the construction authenticity a. is the the sense of mithla mä and phrase c. 116. poetic intensification is nothing whatever like this interpretation Another example in support of verse: is. The word mithl is added in order to give corroboration (tawkid) and the sense of the phrase is thus Fa-In Ämanu bi-Mä Amantum bihi. if they believe is that the meaning is clear. XLII. is added for the purpose of so that the meaning of the passage is that there unto Him. 11 Laysa Ka- Shay'un where the word mithl.. 245 . in the Prophets in the straight the author you believe are therefore and believe in unity as you do. I. al-Qur'an 2. this Kamithl al-Shams Idh is added in Bazaghat Bi-Hä Nuhza Wa-Mictäru where the word mithl the same way. 2 path and have become Muslims of Kitäb Mugaddimat Kitäb Furthermore. Macani p. see Magaddimatän. In this Mithlihi connection reference is made to S. It means if The letter they believe bä' is only added for emphasis (ta'kid) ämantum bihi.On this point al-Zajjäj similar argues that if someone were to ask if the as l there is anything reply to the Imän other than Iman itself. p. anon. of this verse linguistically and supports its on the following grounds: as you believe. 116.

XLI. with the Arabic orthography language. others isolated readings. i-mi thl i ka -akhi attributed C to Ibn Abbas like many which contradict report CUthmänic the masähif is no more than an to successive (Mutawätir) on the of the (Khabar Ähäd) in opposition which are accepted authenticity by the consensus of the Qurrä' in transmission. grounds of their CUthmänic masähif and accordance states that Ibn al-Jazari meanings according the readings may differ in various to the revelation of the Qur'an in seven ahruf 1. Kitäb a1-Masähif. 76-77. he says. 246 . pp. that the people of the cities particularly that it It is and the companions should have agreed on an error. is accepted in the language of the Arabs. in the Qur'an and the is right and accepted He continues in the speech of the Arabs to"say to a person who meets you in a manner of which you disapprove "Ayustagbalu ' ithli He quotes in support: (S. the report 1i-akhi ka wa-1ii ' "myself". 11) Laysa kamithlihi bi-hädhä? " shay'un which means Laysa kamithli Rabbi shay'un and the expressions Lä yugälu 11 Wa-lä I i-mithl i and Lä yugälu in which these expressions mean In conclusion. practice of prayers.Ibn Abi Däwud narrates objects to them all this riwäyah that it in different is written versions. Mä but and states Bimithl Amantum bihi in al-Mushaf al-Imäm and all the masähif of the cities and that it impossible.

the former reading is only attributed 17 Abu Sacid CAli. Madhähib al-Tafsir al-Islämi. because the event took place it according to his prophecy although according to Goldziher 3 indicates no more than a hope. CAbbas Ibn and to companions. in the Qur'an support his much discrepancy. He maintains most of the Qurrä' read in accordance with the former reading. XXX. 4. a1-Alusi. 4. al-Khudri. D. XXI. I.These variations because it Qur'an (with in meanings do not contradict that contradiction one another. 82) "Do they not consider been from other than God. to Mucäwiyah b.. al-Bahr al-Muht. XIV. p. 17. "' considers that there are examples of contradiction and thinks that S. Cand äni. as a miracle regarded the victory of the Greeks in 2 and of the Prophet. 2.. p. Qurtubi.. p. f. Qurrah and by the consensus of scholars and is thus regarded as shädhdh. could be found in the the Qur'an is impossible which states care)? Had it (S. In fact. p. because the victorious according according to the former are the defeated to the latter reading. VII. al-Madhähib al-Islämiyyah. each other. Sayughldbüna- and Ghulibat. that the Muslim scholars 625 A. 2-4 could that be a good example to theory. CUmar Ibn and among the followers 4 It is not accepted al-Hasan. vol. vol. 29-31. ibid. they would surely have found therein Goldziher. 247 . IV. 3. 18. vol. pp. 161. Ruh al-Ma vol. The only authentic reading accepted 1. c. p. 48.. Here he argues the two readings Sayaghlibüna contradict reading that Ghalabat. certain however.. al-Nashr.

in fact contradict historical it it reading. In the Past and in the Future: on the Day Shall the believers He helps whom He will " Most Merciful. 3 which was of Yarmük in 14 A. victorious year Persia meaning provided is they do not contradict in a group of people times. al-Bahr al-Muhit. D. (this) defeat of theirs will soon after Within a few years with God is the be victorious. the: Byzantine was defeated later Empire was defeated by the Byzantines by Persia around the year which confirms the commonreading: "The Roman Empire has been defeated but they (even) in a land close by. 248 . p. H. shädhdh reading in Syria we find in its support that victory were defeated by the Muslims in Jordan in 8 A. H. accounts are carefully for is permissible their two readings that to differ from each other one regards another. p. 3. XXI. 198. Ruhal-Macani. 17. al-Alüsi. 2. D. in the battle followed by the battle known as Ghazwat Mu'tah. vol. 2 and there no contradiction at two different being and defeated Thus around the while 622 A.Cämma by the and regarded as mutawatir is the latter The former reading. decision. 1 although it is regarded as_shädhdh does not meaning if or as al-Alüsi the puts as the commonreading in its studied. 615 A. VII. and Hamm p. ibid.. Finally the prophecy of these Qur'änic in their mutawätir verses is accepted by irrespective of Muslims as a miracle reading. dah a1-Qirä'ätwa-al Lahajät. rejoice and He is exaulted in Might. As regards the Romans after the other their with the help of God. 1. vol. 161.

ibid. because it relates knowledge of unseen. 467. al-Zamakhshari. al-Mugni«. p.the interpretation placed upon them by Goldziher. that cUthmän who with the agreement of seems impossible 1. p. ' which is not knownexcept to God. 249 . 124.. al-D ni states acceptable for the following mursal. 2. al-Dam. being matn (context) is mudtarib. cUthmänic The masähif and the problem of grammatical or orthographical errors CUthmän When the masähif were compiled and brought before to look through them. III. asserts that this In this connection al-Zamakhshari greatest miracles verse is one of the which bears witness to the trueness of the that the Qur'an is prophecy of the Prophet and to the fact revealed from God. p. According to another version he is reported as having added that if the scribe was from Thagif and the reciter 3 not be any lahn. However. and its Secondly it from Hudhayl there would that this reasons: report first is groundless and not its chain is weak. vol. he is reported to have found lahn in certain ahruf but to have told the committee of the masähif to leave them as they 2 were on the grounds that the Arabs would read them soundly. 3. 125. a1-Kashshäf.

on the grounds that it literally. 126-128. 1 if they are read would have a orthography for example J9 latter &nd 9ýýý " cUthmän may thus have meant this . 104-105. al-Tabari. 395 and 250 . 2. al-Mugnic. 63) In hadhäni la-Sähiräni b. orthography. in the masähif. IX.. Mugaddimatän. according different argues that the report the word lahn means the recitation because to their meaning.. passages in which she considered mistakes to occur are the following: a.a mistake (akhta'ü). 162) Wa-a1-mugi'mi'naal-saläta al-Zakäta (S. and regarded is impossible since the that she could have meant the word akhta'ü scribes had written in this way with the consensus of the companions. 124-125. pp. Tafsir. (S. ibid. XX. aman-uwa-al-Iadhina hädü a1-Däni argues that the meaning of this report is that she considered these readings not to be the. ibid. Inna a1-ladhina 3 'Via-al-säbi' -una. 3. p. He goes on to report that when cA'ishah was asked about this The lahn she replied that the scribes made. p. would have left to be corrected if in the masähif al-Däni by those who come after is supposed to be rather than the Finally authentic. (S. most fluent her own ikhtiyär as the best. vol. -there are many words which. 72) wa-al-Mutüna c. pp. 124. pp. kind which the Arabs would read soundly since the Qur'an 2 has been revealed in their language. V. 1.the companions compiled the masähif in order to unite and terminate or error the Muslims any lahn him. IV. l the dispute among them.

c. (S. wrongly in the masähif disagreeing reported we would have found all masähif. 5. al-TabarT supports the authenticity if they had been written earlier cUthmänicmasähif.. 394-97. ibid. abdihim idhä c. a1-Mugnic. pp. in Mugaddimatän. Qirä'atihi his recitation). 115.ähadü wa-al. LXIII. to certain scholars The author of Kitäb al-Mabäni2 attributes cA'ishah the view that objected not correspond with the dialect according to the other dialects In addition errors a. 104. the statement of he quotes cÄ'ishah certain scholars as having the scribes as meaning that made mistakes in choosing the best ahruf among the seven ahruf. 352-54 and vol. p. p. §abirina 177) Ida--al-m füna bi-c. e. XXI. Jeffery. 127-128. Ill. p.. 2. vol. although they are sound 3 of the Arabs. it is said that there are other orthographical in the masähif as follows: (S. as in the Bacda Lahnihi" CUmar "Ubayy Agraunä Wa-Innä la-Nadacu or (i. to these readings because they did of Quraysh. - b. Included 3. ibid. p. According statement to them lahn means recitation or lughah. However.. 251 . edited by A. IX. cUthmänic with the agreed in his reading c Ubayy is whereas as having 1. 4. II.In support interpreted of his argument. Tabarl. 3) Wa-asarru al-najwa of all the examples 5 and states that mentioned above according to various Arab dialects. 10) Fa-assaddaqa wa-akun min al-Sälihin al-ladhinazalamü 4 (S. Tafsir. Cairo 1954.

For example in is found (S. Finally. had been mistakes CUthmänic the orthography of the masähif the companions would not have taught their followers except in the correct manner. Tafsir. 2. in the - 162) Wa-61-Mugimina al-Sal äta wa-al-M-ut-una al. vol. 397-398. Bukhäri. pp. cUthmanic the agreement of the that if what is in our masähif in fact there masähif today is in of Ubayy indicates and that sound and not wrong. VI. 479. of the Qur'an and left to the people to correct 0 1. The scribes differed final it tä' cUthmänic masähif are reported of the to have with as to whether the word or hä'. IX. p. vol.and mushaf with cUthmänic the masähif. tä' should be written cUthmän is said to have commandedthem to write on the grounds that according to the Qurashi dialect 2 the Qur'än has been revealed in their dialect. he states that the transmission accordance with their by the Muslims of these readings in cUthmänic as found in the correctness and soundness orthography masähif is the strongest and that this attribute evidence for their is nothing to do with the scribes . -Zakäta cUthmänic cUbayy in the mushaf of same way as in the al-Tabari with that concludes that masähif. al-Tabari. with final Since the scribes in writing certain used to consult CUthmän whenever they differed them it seems very words and he used to correct that he found certain it difficult to believe cases of lahn in the ahruf it in their readings. IV. and one should not to them any mistake in writing. 252 .

. 2 As regards the authenticity from the linguistic of the examples mentioned above examine the views of the point of view. 253 and al-Nashr. vol. Jeffery. 2. khabar is 1. pp. 63 was with omission of alif. icräb and interpretations In Hädhäni La-Sähiräni räwi of CÄsim. as in 4 Both of these readings read In both of these cases hädhäni is mubtada' and its la-sähiräni or la-sähiränni. of CUbaydah is reported Abu cUthmän as having stated about the mushaf O Jý U' that it concerning S. read in variant accepted readings which we shall as follows: to Hafs" the mention with their different a.. being attributed b. example many lines of Ancient Arabic quoting in support of each poetry. 3. 320-321.If he had told the scribes to leave alleged lahn to be corrected by the Arabs. 104-116. VI. ibid. p. it seems reasonable to suppose that he would have with the word ýy? ý done the same thing Furthermore the author of Kitäb al-Mabänil mentioned above and substantiates their studies all examples acceptability as good Arabic according to various Arab dialects. and that the scribes used 3 This Qur'änic passage is to add rya' in cases of nasb and khafd. ibid. a1-Bahr a1-Muhit. we shall commentators on each example in detail: 1. 4. Mugaddimatan. by A. vol. . II. 255. 1954. being marfüc. edited Cairo. In Ha-dha-ni1a-Sähiränni being attributed U to Ibn Kathir. XX. pp.

p. He counts those who use this form among the Arabs as: b. Ibn Abü JaCfar. 4 this as the best explanation of this 1. and is to be understood as meaning innahu hädhäni.. reported b. vol. cUdhrah. cammahof the Qurrä'. It is said that inna in this context means nacam3 and that hadhäni is mubtada' and its khabar is La-sähirani (attributed Ismäcil b. 254 . VI. p. It is attributed rawi of Hafs). 1 Hamzah. Khathcam. al-Bahr al-Muhit. ibid. to al-Mubarrid. CAbd interpretation Allah b. c. and the people of that region. It kinds of icräb and for this reading as follows: is damir al-shacn with the -hu omitted.Secondly Inna Hddhäni la-Sähiräni. Banu Hajim. al-Zubayr as having of is Inna Wa-Räkibahä said: to a poet who said to him Lacana Allähu 2 Nägatan Hamalatni Ilayka. Mugaddimatän. Kinänah. Muräd and Abu Hayyan considers reading. 3. cAmir. Ishäq and Abu al-Hasan al-Akhfash al-Saghir). II. This this In support view is regarded as weak. al-Nashr. a1-Kisä'i The grammarians suggested various interpretations a. 2. This reading is read by to Näfic. vol. 111. Banu al-Harith Zabid. Abu Hayyän attributes to certain Arabs the use of the dual of this word with alif in all cases. Shucbah (another Yaoqüb and Khalaf.. 321. Kacb. 255. Banu al-Anbär. p. 4.

cAmr Abu b. reports al-Zajjäj as having however. Mugaddimatän.al-Zamakhsharl alif author of the dual similarly states that certain Arabs treat the Magsurah (i. al-Bahr al-Muhit. III. is reported reading. vol. Inna Abähä wa- to them also this Aba Abähä Qad Balagha fi Finally poetic verse: 3 al-Majdi Ghayatäha. and Nazartu I1ä al-CAbdäni. VI. p. p. 2. Abu Hayyän that it did objected to on the grounds 4 CUthmänic not correspond with the masähif. 255. invariable). latter tribe that they say Akramtu al-Rajuläni. authority He reports a1-Farrä' as having narrated on the of a man belonging to al-Azd on the authority that they recited the saying of of certain people of Banü al-Härith al-Mutalammis as follows: Fa'Atraqa Iträga al-Shujäci al-Shujäc Wa-law Ra'ä lasammama Masäghan linäbähu and that Banu al-Harith He attributes say: - Ha-dhäKhattu Yadä Akhi Acrifuh-u. 255 . 3. p. Included in Mugaddimatän. al-cAlä' This as having read Inna Hädhayni 1a-Sähiräni. 4. 72. The 2 of Muqaddimat Kitäb al-Mabäni claims that Quraysh adopted as Alif this form from Banü a1-Härith. 109. e. He says of this Rakibtu a1-Farasäni. vol. al-Kashshäf. 1.

590. vol. 4. a1-Kashshäf... 660-661. 220. al-Tabari The word al-Säbirin as being regarded as a nasb of distinction 1. is only made by those who do not know the various ways the Arabs use in their their language. ibid. pp. p. 256 . 3. al-Zamakhshari states that no attention orthographical should be paid to the claim that there is an here or elsewhere. II. ibid. error. I. 4 in the masähif. could not possibly to be corrected 3. V. kadhä wa-al-säbi'üna al-Zamakhshari quotes Sibawayh in support as having quoted the cfamü bughätun mä bagina anna wa-antum example: Wa-Illa Fa' 3 ciamufi Shigäqi meaning fa' anna bughätun wa-antum kadhälika. (S. ibid. IV.2. This claim. 4. (S. 177) Wa-al-mU-füna bi-cähdihim is read with nasb as it cahad-u Idhä wwia-al-sabirina is written and praise. (S. 2. he says. their vigorous support of in the mushaf Islam. p. Inna al-ladhina which may be understood as meaning hädü wa-al-nasärä hukmuhum amanu w-al-ladhina kadhälika. 69) by the following Inna al-ladhina any defect 2 generation. ämanuwa-al-Ladhina hidü wa-al- Sabi'üna Ua-al-Nasärä The word al-Säbi'üna is written and read with rafc being a mubtada' whose khabar is omitted. He argues that the salaf virtues have left and their who were known for wide knowledge. 162) Wa-al-mugimina is written al-saläta wa-al-mütuna al-zakäta nasb being the The word a1-Mugimin and read with nasb of praise while according to Sibawayh al-Mugimin is in khafd l being in opposition to the word minhum.

IV. XXI. ' language and quotes in support 5. al-Kashshäf. they are a1-najwä al-ladhina as follows: Firstly. LXII.. a. in V. 352-353. jazm as found in the masähif as being dependent on the phrase law Lä akhkhartani. (S. 2. 3) Wa-asarrü al-Ladhina Zalam-u in the Qur'änic zalamu. p. as though the sentence 2 were: In akhkhartani assaddaq wa-akun. 6.fi'shtirä'i lughat wakulluhum-u alwamu. b. vol. nasb and passage khafd are suggested (S. Abu Hayyän states for that various kinds of icräb. vol. It It is badal (permutative) is the agent (fäcii) to this of the noun-of asarru belonging to the verb zalamü while wa-asarr-u only indicates the plural. with various interpretations. According interpretation it would be an This latter example of lughat akalüni al-baräghith. al-Tabari. 10) Fa-assaddaqa wa-äkun min al-sälihin The word akun is read with. raft. 257 " . 71) Thumma the Qur'an passage similar minhum and a poetic verse wa-sammü kathirun attributed Yalümunani to a poet among Azd Shanü'ah: ahli al-nakhili -.states that this certain form is found in the Arabic lines. camü (S. being attributed Azd Shanu a is is supported by a . 1.. interpretation is regarded by certain unnamed scholars as being lughah shädhdhah. 544. but according to certain to others it is lughah hasanah. Ill. pp. raft. Tafslr.

VI. 296-297. be for example Yaqulu or Asarrahä. p. I. al-Bahr al-Muhit. In fact. 'reading corresponding with one of the Arab dialects. is khafd. According to certain is mubtada' and its is other grammarians al-Ladhina khabar is Wa-Asarru al-Najwä. 102. 258 .c. being to d. e. the language of the Qur'an being the commonliterary Arabs includes various Arab dialects there should have been no dispute among the philologists and the grammarians concerning any. the iCrab of al-Ladhina on the assumption that is an attributive of the word l. Or al-Ladhina fa-cil it may be reckoned understood from the passage. or that it is badal of this this word. al-Kashshäf. it is suggested that the icräb of al-Ladhina c blame or with the word ani is suggested it that is nasb understood. is omitted. objected however many authentic of them are reported readings only as having that they to certain on the grounds do not correspond with the most fluent according to them strange Arabic or because they are or wrong or uncommon in use. Secondly. and its ficl is omitted. i'-al-näsi in the first verse. III. pp. vol. According and its to certain mubtada'. it either to indicate Finally. others al-Ladhina is khabar which is hum. Abcad al-Agwä11} However Abu Hayyän regards as far-fetched while al-Zamakhshari does not mention it at a11. 2. vol.2 readings according and since therefore language of the Since the text of the Qur'an allows variant to the revelation of the Qur'an in seven ahruf.

in(S. and of the al-Kisä'i. MaCäni al-Qur'an. 263-65 below. Marätib pp. 3. as having cAmir of Ibn in S. VIII. M. 26.'adrasat 2. and see pp.Ikhtiyär is reported idghäm. preferring al-Farrä' 11) Qadsamica with with his own. 232. LVIII. 259 . Abu al-Tayyib who denied the scholarship He was followed by his of the Kufan Qurrä' al-Mubarrid al-Lughawi 4 and grammarians. vol. VI.3 The scholars of the Basran school are known to have raised more objections if to certain linguistic features in the readings readers even of they were as highly In this esteemed as the seven canonical respect we may mention Ibn Mujähid. al-Nahwiyyin. I. student who went to exaggerated 1. 337. vol.The grammatical schools of Basrah and Küfah differed views concerning readings only the authenticity and acceptability with in their of certain analogies ' Arab dialects. e. 4. al-Bahr al-Küfah. 137. qas-samica)2 the reading. cämmah. a few cases in which they In this connection we may to certain to a Küfan grammarian who is at the same time a Qäri'. He is reported as having objected the izhär to the reading of däl in qad. among the Kufans themselves accepted readings. their because they did not correspond of fluency for the various or to their criteria The scholars of the Küfan school are in fact respected we may find object refer and accepted the Qirä'ät said to have although more than the Basran. p. p. refuted (i. al-Muhit. 357-358. p.

cUdaymah. lengths Hamzah in (S. For more information see. al-Muhtasib. vol. 7. al-Muqtadab.. ed. I. pp. pp. int. p.. vol. III. he would have certainly However. vol. if 3 al-Qurtubi reports al-Mubarrid as having said that he had heard any imam reading thus according to the reading of 4 left him and gone away.. p. 5. III. 72-73. vol. objects including Ibn Jinni to certain himself who. al-Muhtasib. p. vol. 4. I. 39. Hamzah. following 7 authentic readings.in rejecting any reading which did not correspond with ' For example he objects to the reading of Basran analogy. school. 3.pp. al-Bahr a1-Muhit. 260 . Tafsir.27 and 252. p. Ill. 5 and the grammarians agree in theory ikhtiyär and that their the sunnah in their CUthmänic masähif readings correspond with the orthography of the and agree with the Arabic language. supports certain linguistic In this respect Ibn Jinni readings although he sometimes cannot find any support. 2. 6. pp. both ways of reading are accepted among the Qurrä' and the reading of Hamzahwith_khafd In fact the philologists that the Qurrä' follow is accepted as fluent Arabic. p. 85-86. vol. al-Kämil. his Basran 1. vol. I. vol. Wa'l-Arhämi with 1) Wa'*ttaqü Alläha 'l-Ladhi . pp.262-3 below. 240-243 and a1-Khasä'is. 111. V. 157. but he accepts them on the grounds evidence in their that the Qäri' freely without must have heard it relying failed and that he could not have read 6 on the riwäyah. vol. IV. 157. 2. I. to apply their theory in practice However they consistently. while Tasä'aluna bihi read it his khafd in al-Arhämi2 the majority with nasb. al-Bahr a1-Muhit. II.

also reported as having objected al-wiläyatu of Hamzah in 72) M lakum min (S. one of the seven distinguished Qurrä' read bi-musrikhiyyi. VI. XIV. vol. considers this 1. XVIII. objected to the reading to him is CAmir in of Ibn (S. a1-Zajjäj the reading we find this phenomenon even among certain to have objected we may mention to certain Qurrä' accepted are reported In this connection cUbayd Abu and their objection with is to who are reported in to have expressed (S. 3 We shall next quote some examples in which the grammarians accepted readings among the seven distinguished their authenticity to their objected to certain readings. al-Nashr. 130. 22) of Wa-mä antum bi-musrikhiyyi cAmr Abu b. VI. 3. p. 22) the common reading is Wa-mä antum bimusrikhiyya with nasb of the final yä' while Hamzah. p. 419. V. XIV. in the Arabic language with references Arab dialects: among the various In (S. al-Bahr vol. al-Kashshäf. 193. al-Bahr al-Muhit. wiläyatihim regarding as having ya-dbata 44) Hunälika and waläyatihim. vol. as opposed to the commoner a1-waläyatu 2 Likewise Härün al-Acwar is reported the former as lahn. 42) which according lahn as opposed to yä abati. alCAla' to the reading and (S. 261 . 551. al-Muhit. XIX. khafd as opposed to bi-musrikhiyya. 277 and al-Bahr vol. II. p. latter reading al-Zamakhshari 4 weak. II. 4. and then examine them and substantiate and acceptability origins a.In fact who themselves readings. VIII. al-Muhit. vol. p. p. 2.

9-520 and-al-Bahr 4. vol. al-Muhit. supports this reading this form. vol. being attributed and that it is sound Arabic. ibid. III. 262 . pp. IV. 1) the commonreading is Wa' ttaqü Alla-ha 'l-Ladhi Tasa'alüna bihi attributed Certain that it accept Wa'l-Arhäma. 158. p. ibid. r. al-Tabari. He states that the Kufan school which accepts this and that the Basrans are not right 4 the transmission of the latter form and supports it in their objection is correct. 158-159. 157. authenticity and the fluency of its Arabic. vol. 3.. while it is read by Hamzahbeing 2 also to al-Nakhaci. 462. III. 420. pp. as arhämi. 51.. to the dialect of the Banü Yarbüc. grammarians object Qatädah and al-Acmash.Abu Hayyän reports having rejected this certain philologists and grammarians and as latter reading. other authorities in In (S. latter reading on the grounds to this is not sound Arabic and leading Basran grammarians do not 3 Abu Hayyän. In addition Abu Hayyän studies reading and asserts that it is a successive reading and has been received from the Prophet in the manner of tawätur and that 1. 'vo1. 2. p. but he opposes this states that the reading is authentic though rare.. ibid. vol. to this form. Tafs p. V. III. al-Bahr al-Muhit. I. however. He quotes Qutrub and certain 1 support of this. and al-Kashshäf. on the grounds of its as there are various examples in Arabic prose and poetry which support this. p.

Hamzah has not read any concludes that it harf in the Qur'an to follow except with athar. with fluent nasb and shurakä'ihim and should that with khafd on the grounds that awlädahum it is not He not be used in the languaje of the Qur'an. vol. IV. maintains cAmir Ibn read in this way because he saw the word shurakä'ihim in certain masähif with yä' as . 263 . 263. al-Bahr al-Muhit. Ghäyat a1-Nihäyah. the people of Hijäz and Iraq is Min al-Mushrikin while the commonreading of Wa-Kadhälika Zayyana likathirin 4 Qatla Awlädihim Shurakä'uhum which means "Even so. p. and other states 3 fields that Qäri' things in Arabic which are transmitted many others only transmitted mentions by the Basrans. p.!!. Ibn one of the seven canonical Qurrä'. 137) Wa-Kadhälika Zuyyina Likathirin Mushrikina Qatlu Awlädahum Shurakä'ihim.5 1. 3. p. CFlmir. 5. of Hamzah that and that Ibn al-Jazari of Kufah after knowledgable of Islamic cAsim and al-kmash in the Qur'an. 70. 166. vol.harf He elsewhere with Hamzah has not read a single except athar. vol. 229. al-Kashshäf. He is not necessary in the Arabic language either the Basran school or any other for there are many only by the Küfans and l he was the chief he was reliable. 4. vol. 159 2. vol. their the slaughter of their children". 'partners' made alluring objects to the in the eyes of most of the pagans. VI. al-Bahr al-Muhit. I. p. I. p. al-Zamakhshari cAmir former reading in which Ibn read qatlu with rafc. al-Nashr. is reported as Pein al- having read (S. studies the Arabic language 2 and a devout man . III.

vol. are many verses form. al-Nashr.However. in the manner of who received to a fluent the appearance cAmir. vol. II. Ibn al-Munayyir al-Zamakhshari that it and supports refutes the reading with this allegation of cAmir on the grounds of Ibn He objects to used to has been transmitted idea that or simply on riwäyah. IV. al-cAziz reign of also the chief gädi and q ri' 3 the consensus of the salaf. 2 Ibn al-Jazari refers CÄmir to Ibn as a great Imam. a1-Zamakhshari's read optionally without relying the Qurrä' followed l and supports of the seven readings the orthography of the masähif Abu Hayyän discusses and says that although certain the reading this of cAmir Ibn grammarians accept form in Arabic. al-Bahr 3. Ibn cUthmän before from and that there of lahn in the tongue of the of poetry in support of this Arabs. 69. respected follower and prominent scholar who led prayers in the UmayyadMosque and who was cUmar cAbd the in Damascusduring b. p. 264 . Moreover the Hadith Ibn Hajar and that his reading is accepted with al-CAsgaläni points out that the Icräb that of Fa-Hal Antum Täriku Li Ashäbi agrees with of the 1. vol. p. 229. p. with al-Kashshäf. tawätur. cAmir's Ibn reading on the grounds that and is attributed has been transmitted Arab. it except in the is the majority of the Basran school He asserts it that reject case of poetical correct tawätur it licence. I. al-Intisäf. al-Muhit. 114. 2.

Fath al-Bari. CUdaymah finds possible The grammarians in fact found in the Qur'an and its the constructions that there are of icräb examples in which they objected to certain kinds 1. but the grammarians certain Qiralat when they rejected analogy objects because they differed or the common rule. could not deal with all readings. become happy. 265 . vol. e. lines i. 193. 2. III. perhaps I have been and are separated by a prepositional by the direct language should they are separated The grammar of the Arabic based on the whole Arabic the Qur`änic construction opposite from their al-Räzi readings of Arabic literature in its various dialects should have been accepted and used in the opted for the grammar. p.cAmir since in the latter reading of Ibn the mudäf ilayhi in the former passage the mudäf and phrase. an. 25c. Mafätib al-Ghayb. to this procedure and states that we quite regularly find the grammarians in a dilemma concerning certain fluency and line they Qur'änic words as regards how to support their acceptability. VII. of the Qur'änic the right method would have been the opposite. and that when they find an unknown poetic He comments that this practice is very surprising line as to him and that whereas they regard this an indication of the correctness unknown poetic words. of the poetic. a1-Räzi. p. to authenticate the words 2 on the grounds that they are found in the Qur. vol. while object.

al-Karim. to any reading not find if it did 1 He adds that with they used to analogy or not correspond for it their they could substantiation according to their knowledge.. but despite and accepted readings on the grounds of their these readings are valid on the basis of other dialects. ibid. 2. they do not contradict revealed in seven ahruf. acceptability but depended upon the three conditions discussed above. point in rejecting all of them good Arabic. misunderstanding In conclusion we may say that ikhtiyär was not left to the free for choice of the individual. I. pp. may have rejected analogy. certain this those of Basrah. It was in no way dependent upon the that they were in orthography of the masähif or to do with the fact undotted and unvocalised. vol. 5-13. cUudaymah. any of them on grammatical grounds. pp. Li-Us1üb al-Qur'an-.although object if they are found in the Qur'än. and although accepted readings may differ one another. or of certain Qirä'ät although they 2 are successive readings and are in accordance with their analogy. 22-25. Since the Qur'an was there is little In practice meaning. other grammarians have accepted them. particularly some grammarians. 266 . or if because of their it did not agree with what is in commonuse. Dirasät 1.

CONCLUSION .

It is the Qur'an has been revealed in seven ahruf. concluded that the phenomenonof differences apparently took place after the Hijrah increased. The first Qur'an from its transmitted development in the field suhuf and different was that Abi Bakr gathered the as it had been The was materials from the Prophet. and compiled them in the mushaf. The Qur'an was thus preserved in the heart of the Qurrä' as well as in book form. considerable number who had committed to heart among whom were a the entire Qur'an or some parts of it. were of Muslims from various intended to facilitate tribes the reading of the Qur'an The ahädith which substantiate the revelation of the Qur'an (mutawätir). variations of in seven ahruf are regarded as sound and successive The term seven ahruf means seven linguistical reflecting the Qur'an. certain of them having their own codices. text of the Qur'an and this title word mushaf denotes the entire 268 . when the number and that the ahruf among them. among the companions in Madinah. The Prophet was revealed used to have certain scribes various dialects of the Arabs in ways of recitation to write down what available at to him in verses or portions on materials the time to aid the memories of the companions.CONCLUSION Coming to the final conclusion we may review briefly the main issues discussed in the seven chapters of this Firstly thesis.

given ancient

to the Qur'an Arabic

during

the lifetime

of the Prophet. poetry. of cUthmän,

It

is an

word used in pre-Islamic

The next step was the compilation masähif

who copied them to the

from the mushaf of Ab--uBakr and distributed cities accompanied in order by distinguished to unite

metropolitan

Qurrä'

to teach

the people accordingly, disputes

them and put an end to

among the people

in the encampments, the amsär and in the personal codices. - The in the cUthmanic

Madinah itself; arrangement masähif

hence he destroyed

of the süras as well

as the verses

is shown by many sound reports

to be based on the revelation by their transmission

as they were found in the original from the Prophet.

supported

The problem of Naskh is studied with the two episodes of the gharäniq and the scribe of whom it alteration a result in the fawäsil, is said that he used to make

the verse endings of the Qur'an, and as of the Qur'an has been

the completeness and trustworthiness

demonstrated,

there being nothing missing or which-used to be read either with or without. hukm.
and the are

and was abrogated by Naskh al-Tiläwah
As regards seven ahruf, that the relation

CUthmänic between the masähif two opinions

the most acceptable

among the scholars all or a certain with

cUthmänic the masahif

accommodate either

unspecified

number of the ahruf

which correspond what is

the orthography by codices were

cUthmänic masähif, of the Tawätur

which include attributed

transmitted personal

but not Ähäd readings

to certain

and transmitted

to us in unauthentic

chains.

The masähif

269

recorded in one ahruf. The additional

harf with the permission of reciting

in seven

interpolations

attributed

to the personal and interpretations.
dubious or

codices are found to be their
They all rejected. generally are isolated

own explanations
reports

(Akhbär Ähäd),

The accounts alleging

that Ubayy added to his mushaf the Ibn Mascud denied

ducal of al-Qunüt as one or two s-uras and that al-Fatihah c

and al-Mu awwidhatayn are to be regarded as unauthentic. vocalisation

The `Uthmänic masähif remained unchanged', without or dottings,

for they used to be read soundly according to the The former was introduced by

riwäyah and teaching of the Qurrä'. Abu al-Aswad al-Du'ali

due to the appearance of Lahn because of and the second was

c the overwhelming numbers of non-Arabs in Iraq,

done by the students of Abu al-Aswad at the request of al-Hajjäj
during the reign of CAbd al-Malik b. Marwän.

The signs of vocalisation

and dottings

were further

developed with

the adoption of the harakät of al-Khalil unchanged since then.
more than the introduction Thus no alteration and the printed text

b. Ahmadand have remained to al-Hajjäj
into

What can be attributed
of Naqt al-Icjam

is no

cUthmänic the masähif. by him,

or recension masähif

of the masähif

was introduced

of the present alteration.

day represent

the received

of the Qur'an

without

The language in which the Qur'an has been revealed is studied ancient sources as well as in modern linguistical the views of the scholars. studies to

in

investigate

It is found that the text of

270

the Qur'an

reflects

the influence

of various

dialects

of the Arabs. as seven as to whether

The views of the scholars dialects

who interpret in their

the seven ahruf identification,

of the Arabs differed

the seven dialects. dialects criteria of all for

belong entirely

to Quraysh or to the most fluent according to their between

the Arabs,

and they. differed

fluency.

An attempt

is made to distinguish and modern studies.

lughah and lahjah

in ancient

sources

The language of the Qur'an is concluded to represent spoken literary dialects language of the Arabs which is based on all

the common their

with a predominance of Qurashi features. of Qirä'ät is investigated
of the Prophet, in readings way. with

The origin

and it
for

is concluded that
we find that every

they go back to the teaching companion when he differed the Prophet the Qur'an corresponded any reading regarded had taught accordingly. with

someone used to say that generation to have while taught

him this

The following reading

Any accepted

is found

the conditions

governing with

accepted

readings,

which does not correspond dubious conditions with

them or any one of them is unaccepted. The theory The of reading

as shädhdh, of these

or completely is studied.

development the Qur'an

in accordance

the meaning is shown to be groundless their students according the Qirä'ah bearing to the from the

and as the Qurrä' conditions

used to teach

governing

them and as they received it from the Prophet,

companions who were taught fact their that

in mind the would refer between them.

the companions. whenever they differed to the Prophet

in reading

reading

or come to him to arbitrate

271

The first unspecified introduced

compilers

of Qirä'ät

used to compile Ibn Mujähid

a certain who

number of Qirä'ät. the seven readings

was the first

of the seven Qurrä'

of the distinguished

Amsär, regarding specific

the other readings as shädhdh.

In choosing this

number, although it

corresponded to the number of ahruf, he

never intended to confuse the seven ahruf with his seven readings. The. seven readings compiled by Ibn Mujähid were adopted in the Amsär and dominated the circles readings in addition strongly of the Qurrä', although another three

to Ibn Mujähid's

al-Sabcah were supported and as his seven. In this

argued to have the same position a quite considerable

connection we list the subject. Ikhtiyär
more rather Qurrä' subject

number of books composed on

in reading,
than another

which is the selection
or others), hand in this, with riwä

of one reading (or
The should be

is next considered. because any reading ah, the orthography

do not have free to correspondence language.

of the masähif the

and the Arabic fact that there

The emphasis is made to substantitate or orthographical errors certain behind objecting

are no grammatical The Qurrä'

in the

cUthmänic support or opting accepted

masähif. choice

when they select the reasons but without

readings preference

their for

by mentioning ikhtiyär,

their

a certain

to the other

readings. the philologists agreeing to, with and grammarians the conditions agreed theoretically for accepted readings

Although that

any reading

should

not be objected

in practice

they disagreed

on the degree of

272

fluency

required,

and certain

of them objected

to some authentic examples to

and highly

esteemed readings.

We have studied certain

conclude that they are accepted readings on the grounds of their sound transmission, dialects. Finally, although the sound readings may differ each other, in meaning they fluency and correspondence with various Arab

do not contradict

and the orthography of the masähif to the riwäyah
any readings.

preserves the authentic
and the orthography itself

readings which are subject
does not initiate

or create

273

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