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GEOTECHNICS 2 CC502

OBJECTIVE

The main purpose of this project is to obtain a representative sample of the soil to aim identify and classification. Among the soil samples were disturbed and undisturbed. The objective of a site investigation is to to gather the information needed carry out the risk assessment, in order to be in a position to assess the presence and significance of land. The information gathered enables the risk assessment to be carried out to conclusion in which an acceptable degree of confidence can be place. At many stage of an investigation, the overall objectives will be to characterize the contaminants present and to identify pathways and receptor for the purpose of the risk assessment. The information required to carry out the risk assessment to a robust conclusion should be identified before designing or planning an investigation. The objective of a site investigation. The objective of a site investigation will vary, depending upon the stage in the process that has been reached the and the underlying for the land involved. Objectives may be to define or clarify what is already thought to be occurring on site, support a risk assessment, provide data for the design of remedial works and benchmark the contaminated status of a site.

GEOTECHNICS 2 CC502
INTRODUCTION

Before any civil engineering work done, an adequate site investigation should be made in advance. Sufficient information necessary to yield a safe and economic design and will not lead to problems during construction. Experience identify whether the site is suitable for the proposed work. To be able to design a safe and economical. To predict and take appropriate measure to want any complication that my arise during construction due to soil conditions and other condition. To investigate the incident or the cause of changes in either natural or caused by other things. When a decision is taken to proceed, it will be necessary to carry out a site investigation targeted towards understanding the occurrence of gas and leach ate at the development site, the output from to investigate should bring the level of knowledge of these parameter up to a level sufficient to allow for the proper assessment of the risk and design of appropriate protection measures. When carrying out the investigation it must be borne in mind that flammable gas can occur in mind that flammable gas can occur in the soil as a result of other factors besides landfills. Other sources flammable gas include : Marine sediments,Sewer gas,Geological methane and Main gas.

GEOTECHNICS 2 CC502
THEORY

In A Clients Guide to Site Investigation the AGS (Association of Geotechnical andGeoenvironmental Specialists) states that adequate site investigation is of importance to the civil engineer for the successful completion of any building project,The design of a structure which is economical and safe to construct, is durableand has low maintenance costs, depends upon an adequate understanding ofthe nature of the ground. This understanding comes from an appreciation of thedistribution of the materials in the ground, and their properties and behaviourunder various influences and constraints during the construction and lifetime ofthe structure. An adequate and properly structured site investigation is therefore an essential part of any civil engineering or building project. A site investigation simply is the process of the collection of information, the appraisal of data, assessment, and reporting without which the hazards in the ground beneath the site cannot be known.

DESK STUDY AND SITE RECONNAISSANCE

Phase 1 starts with searching readily available archives and databases to produce adesk study report that firstly introduces the site setting: Site location; Site description; Site walkover; Geological setting; Hydrogeological setting; Hydrological setting.

Furthermore, the report outlines the results of environmental searches such as: Waste treatment and disposal sites; Air pollution controls; Radioactive substances; Pollution incidents; Discharge consents; Green Belt areas; Designated sites;

GEOTECHNICS 2 CC502
Nitrate vulnerable zones; Geological constraints; Coal mining report; Radon report.

Earlier uses and state of the site such as underground mining, opencast mining, quarryoperations, waste tips and landfills, industrial sites as well as ancient monuments andecology should be discerned from:Firstly, the gathered information is used to clarify geological constraints and hazardssuch as: Slopes (landslides); Swelling and shrinking clays (heave or subsidence); Soluble rock (subsidence); Compressible or collapsible ground (excessive or uneven settlement); Running sand (problems with excavations, tunnelling; problems with irrigation, surface water disposal); Radon (naturally occurring radioactive gas that causes lung cancer); Methane and carbon dioxide (asphyxiants and explosive); Groundwater (flooding); Underground mining (stability)

SAMPLING GROUND AND GROUNDWATER

The BS 5930:1999 identifies four main types of sampling: a) Taking disturbed samples from excavating equipment and the drill tool in the course of excavation or boring; b) Drive sampling, in which a tube or split tube sampler having a sharp cutting edge at its lower end is forced into the ground, either by a static thrust or by dynamic impact; c) Rotary sampling, in which a tube with a cutter at its lower end is rotated into the ground, thereby producing a core sample; d) Taking block samples specially cut by hand from a trial pit, shaft or heading.

GEOTECHNICS 2 CC502

WORK PRODUCE FOR SITE INNVESTIGATION

Step of work involved in the site investigation desk study to collect all the relevant data and information reconnaissance of site investigation. Planning program after revewing the above groung or soil exploration including boring, sampling and testing. Laboratory testing (also field if nessesery) preparation and document of SI report engineering design stages. Review during construction and monitoring.

GEOTECHNICS 2 CC502
SAFETY & HEALTH
Safety and health while performing a work is very important to protect these individuals. Safety and health should be established to provide protection to anyone, including student, researchers, technicians and teachers during the use of various materials and equipment in the geotechnics laboratory. There are three situation in safety and health during conduct practical work :

BEFORE CONDUCT PRACTICAL WORK We must know that the location of first aid and eye station. Wear appropriate clothing for easy to work. Follow all instructions lecturer. Knows the nature and characteristics found in the construction site. Aware of any risk that may be in curred in the conduct of testing laboratory.

DURING CONDUCT PRACTICAL WORK Do not running, eating, drinking or smoking while conduct practical work. Do not joke when using the equipment. Use tool with the best Hand Auger with sharp eyes may result in injury. Ensure the equipment used in good condition. Take a reading of the sample correctly. Wear gloves when entering the sample in oven car for themselves and friend. Do practical work under the surveillance of lecture. Comply with regulations while in the laboratory. use the hydrometer to be careful when putting it into the measuring cylinder.

GEOTECHNICS 2 CC502
AFTER CONDUCT PRACTICAL WORK Store the equipment after using it with carefully. Make sure the hole is dug filled up again to avoid any injury occurring in the future. Follow further instructions from the lecturer after testing is completed. We must follow established procedures to follow ethical standards in safety and health. Wash hands after investigation complete. Wash all the tools they used to be clean

SUITABLE UNIFORM FOR LABORATORY WORK

GEOTECHNICS 2 CC502
MATERIALS & APPARATUS:

Tare

Anger hand

Chisel

GEOTECHNICS 2 CC502
Shovel

Tray

Oven

GEOTECHNICS 2 CC502
Digital Balance

GEOTECHNICS 2 CC502
PROCEDURE

Identify the location selection. Make sure that location are safe from dangerous obstacles like electrical cable or water pipe.

Clean the location to make sure that we easy to dig a hole.

Dig a hole with a hand auger to the required depth.

GEOTECHNICS 2 CC502

Take the sampel at the depth as a ditrubed soil and put it into the tray.

Take the weight of empty tare. Books the data.

Then, put the soil into a two differens tare and take the weight. Books the data.

GEOTECHNICS 2 CC502

Put both of that tare into the oven for 24 hours. The aim is to get the weight of dry soil.

After 24 hours, take the both of tare and take the weight of that tare. Books the data.

GEOTECHNICS 2 CC502
RESULT & CALCULATION

PROJECT: SITE INVESTIGATION LOCATION : AREA POLIMAS LAND: DISTURB SAMPLE POINT NUMBER: 1 DEPTH: 1 METER

FORMULA :

>Moisture content,m(%)

m@W =

x 100

>Average,m(%)

M=

x 100%

GEOTECHNICS 2 CC502
TABLE 1 TO DETERMINE THE SOIL MOISTURE

BIL

EXPLAINATION

NO. TARE (g) 5/4 17.808

II/IV 17.893

Mass of tare Mass of tare + Wet soil Mass of tare + dry soil Mass of water

55.005

57.434

52.095 Bil 2-bil3

54.417 Bil 2 bil 3 =57.434-54.417 =3.017 Bil 2 Bil 1 =55.005-17.808 =37.197 Bil 3-Bil 1 =52.095-17.808 =34.287 m@W =

4 5 Mass of wet soil 6 Mass of dry soil Moisture content,(m%) m@W = 100

=55.005-52.095 =2.91 Bil 2-Bil1 =57.434-17.893 =39.541 Bil 3- Bil 1 =54.417-17.893 =36.524 m@W =

x
100

x
100 =8.260%

x
=8.487%

Average(M%) 8

M=
100%

=8.260+8.487 2 =8.374%

GEOTECHNICS 2 CC502
DISCUSSION

Site Investigation Work. Site investigation is part of the land inspection is very important in engineering geoteknik.Site investigation work includes reconnaissance, observation, testing insitu, taking samples and determining the profile of this work soil.This is necessary for the basic design and construction work because the soil has features which are not homogeneous, isotropic elastic and type of soil or change also significantly in levels of 50m to 30m depth from the surface of the BS 5930 listing soil.In site investigation purposes. 1. To determine whether sites are suitable for the proposed work. 2. To allow a safe design and economic 3. To predict take appropriate measures to address any complications that may ariseduring construction due to soil conditions and other local reasons. 4. To investigate the causes of events or circumstances change, either natural or other ferns. There are several methods of site investigation. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. A bore-hole Hole test The standard penetration testCone penetration test Plate-bearing test

Disturbed sample. Disturbed land is land taken regardless of the actual condition of the land binaan.biasanya progressed, used for the purpose of land classification and density tanah.ianya stored in an airtight container to avoid condensation and color changes. Undisturbed sample Sample of undisturbed soil sample was taken with the minimum disruption condition to maintain the real situation .Soil site should be stored in an airtight container and care more carefull.Usually this soil sample used for the shear test, permeability test and consolidation test. From the analysis,data had been recorded in the table. Data needed are mass of empty tare, mass of empty tare with wet soil,mass of empty tare with dry soil,moisture content and average. Mass of empty tare carried out by using balance. For tare II/IV, the weight of empty tare is 17.893 g. For tare 4/5,mass of empty tare is 17.808 g.

GEOTECHNICS 2 CC502
Mass of empty tare with wet soil also carried out by using balance. Wet soil is carried out at the location. Mass of empty tare with wet soil for II/IV is 57.434g. Mass of empty tare with wet soil 4/5 is 55.005 g. Mass of empty tare with dry soil is taken after the soil in the tare take into the oven. Mass of empty tare with dry soil for tare II/IV is 54.417 g and mass of empty tare with wet soil for tare 4/5 is 52.095 g. Mass of wet soil is carried out by mass of empty tare with wet soil minus mass of empty tare. Mass of wet soil for tare II/IV is 39.541 g and mass of wet soil for tare 4/5 is 37.197g. Mass of water for soil in both tare are carried out by mass of empty tare with wet soil minus mass of empty tare with dry soil. Mass of water far tare II / V is 3.017g and tare 4/5 is 2.91g. Mass of dry soil are carried out by mass of empty tare with soil minus mass of empty tare. Mass of dry soil for tare II/IV is 36.524g and for tare 4/5b is 34.287g. Moisture content for soil in tare II/IV is 8.260% and for soil in tare 4/5 is 8.487%. The average for both soil in the both tare is 8.374%.

GEOTECHNICS 2 CC502
CONCLUSION

In the investigation also that we know that we learn how to used the apparatus such as hand auger and trimming knife.We also will learn how to record the data that we made in the table and do the calculation was given.The calculation in this site based on the data that we get from the experiment in the lab was made. However, we also learn how to differentiate disturb sample and undisturbed sample in geotechnical to use it on the site.Disturb sample is soil taken regardless of the actual state of soil at construction sites and used to the classification and the density of the soil.Undisturbed sample is soil sample taken with the minimum disruption to maintain the true state of the soil and stored in an airtight container. Beside that, we also will know that teamwork is important to do the work in group because the work can be done in fast and easy, the work also is more coefficient and good quality.

GEOTECHNICS 2 CC502
REFERENCES

FROM LECTURER EN. JOHARI BIN MAT & EN. MOHD KAMARUZZAMAN BIN ABDUL WAHAB FROM MODULE CC502 (GEOTECHNICS 2) FROM INTERNET (GOOGLE- SITE INVESTIGATION) http://qjegh.geoscienceworld.org/content/39/2/189.abstract http://answers.yahoo.com/question/index?qid=20070807120007AAdNAtm