Basic english grammar structures and vocabulary

A short course in English for adult students

Prof. Juan Gmo. Moya Montaña
DEPARTAMENTO COMUNICACIONAL DEL EJÉRCITO 2da. EDICIÓN

BASIC ENGLISH GRAMMAR STRUCTURES AND VOCABULARY
A SHORT COURSE IN ENGLISH FOR ADULT STUDENTS
Prof. Juan Gmo. Moya Montaña

STUDENT´S NAME ________________________________________

DEPARTAMENTO COMUNICACIONAL DEL EJÉRCITO 2da. EDICIÓN

Profesor Juan Guillermo Moya Montaña Profesor de Inglés de la Academia de Guerra, la Academia Politécnica Militar, la Escuela Militar y Traductor de la División Doctrina del Ejército de Chile.

jmoyam@profing.tie.cl Cel. : 08-3619605 Ejército de Chile Departamento Comunicacional Registro de Propiedad Intelectual Nº151.465 I.S.B.N. Nº 956-7527-35-0 Impreso en los Talleres del Instituto Geográfico Militar Julio 2008 2da. Edición

ÍNDICE
Pág
• Presentación______________________________________________________________ 5 • Sugerencias Metodológicas_________________________________________________ 7 • Table of Contents__________________________________________________________ 9 • Unit 1___________________________________________________________________ 15 • Unit 2___________________________________________________________________ 27 • Unit 3___________________________________________________________________ 37 • Unit 4___________________________________________________________________ 47 • Unit 5___________________________________________________________________ 59 • Unit 6___________________________________________________________________ 77 • Unit 7___________________________________________________________________ 91 • Unit 8__________________________________________________________________ 103 • Unit 9__________________________________________________________________ 115 • Unit 10_________________________________________________________________ 127 • Unit 11_________________________________________________________________ 141 • Unit 12_________________________________________________________________ 157 • Unit 13_________________________________________________________________ 175 • Unit 14_________________________________________________________________ 191 • Unit 15_________________________________________________________________ 203 • Unit 16_________________________________________________________________ 215 • Unit 17_________________________________________________________________ 225 • Unit 18_________________________________________________________________ 237 • Unit 19_________________________________________________________________ 253 • Unit 20_________________________________________________________________ 263 • Unit 21_________________________________________________________________ 277 • Apéndices _ ____________________________________________________________ 297
A short course in english for adult students

3

Presentación
Presentación En la actualidad, nadie pone en duda que las exigencias que la sociedad le atribuye a las instituciones armadas son variadas y complejas. En este sentido y ya en pleno siglo XXI, las crecientes demandas de cooperación internacional, impulsan a nuestros soldados a tener un dominio cada vez mayor del idioma anglosajón. El material que se presenta a continuación, ha sido preparado como una contribución para los alumnos de las Escuelas dependientes del Comando de Institutos y Doctrina y el personal del Ejército de Chile -especialmente aquellos que se encuentran destinados en unidades alejadas- y que deseen actualizar y reforzar su dominio de las esctructuras gramaticales del idioma inglés, incrementar su vocabulario y mejorar las estrategias comunicativas, mediante un trabajo personal. Por este motivo, el Ejército decidió reimprimir este completo manual de autoaprendizaje, cuyo autor es el profesor Juan Moya Montaña, con el propósito de seguir contribuyendo a la formación y perfeccionamiento de todos sus integrantes.

DEPARTAMENTO COMUNICACIONAL DEL EJÉRCITO.

A short course in english for adult students

5

rendirá sus frutos y le traerá muchas satisfacciones. con las dadas en las Claves de Respuestas y corrija sus errores. 3. 9.Sugerencias Metodológicas 1. Estudiar en lo posible con otra(s) persona(s) para comparar. de modo que haya una continuidad y regularidad. Si hubiera muchas respuestas incorrectas (más de un 20%). discutir y practicar los ejercicios dados. Este esfuerzo realizado por Ud. Resolver los ejercicios dados como tarea. verbos. Comparar las respuestas dadas por Ud. 2. 8. los ejemplos dados y la pronunciación figurada indicada en algunos casos. adjetivos. etc. Distribuir en forma adecuada el tiempo de estudio. A short course in english for adult students 7 . Aprovechar cualquier momento libre para estudiar.). 5. estudiar de nuevo las definiciones y reglas dadas al inicio de la unidad pertinente y volver a hacer los ejercicios. Leer. estudiar y estudiar. 7. estudiar y memorizar las definiciones y reglas gramaticales dadas en las diferentes unidades del curso. frases y expresiones idiomáticas que aparecen al final de cada unidad. Use lápiz de grafito para escribir. No es conveniente estudiar varias horas de una sola vez y dejar pasar mucho tiempo antes de iniciar otra etapa. 4. Estudiar las ilustraciones. Estudiar y memorizar los listados de palabras (sustantivos. 6. preposiciones.

Bl 8 .

him. tomorrow. Whose?.General and specific • RELATIVE PRONOUNS: Who and P.TABLE OF CONTENTS PART ONE: ELEMENTARY LEVEL UNIT 1 P. etc. many. 15 . at present.57 • VOCABULARY: . etc. Past and Future) THE ENGLISH ALPHABET THE PHONETIC ALPHABET KEY TO ANSWERS 15 22 23 25 • What?. At. work. your. UNIT 5 • ARTICLES II . our. every month. P. How old? How long? What time? • This.Adjectives KEY TO ANSWERS 37 39 39 41 43 45 • • • • • • He has got a big house Uncountable nouns: money. them. theirs. What shape?. How thick?. men. us.. A(N). books. last week / last year / last Monday. its. • How old?.Clothes • KEY TO ANSWERS • • • • • He works here every day Every day. 47 . Two weeks ago. three times a year. yours. etc. yours. you. ours. etc.Professions And Occupations • KEY TO ANSWERS 77 78 83 84 86 87 89 • • • • He worked here yesterday Last week. On. for the time being. quarter past / to. today.. • Me. 37 .NOT ANY . etc. Countable nouns: people.. How deep?. thirty minutes ago. When?. A short course in english for adult students 9 . • Mine. next week.25 • • • • TO BE (Present. midnight PRESENT CONTINUOUS TENSE INFINITIVES AND GERUNDS TIME AND DATES ORDINAL NUMBERS QUESTION WORDS 1 UNIT 4 For describing people and things. Those. etc. Always. How many?. Who?. lots of. Who?. students. How fast?. There are 3 cars in the garage • How much? How many? • Much. How much?.. O´clock. at this time.. sugar. How?. a lot.45 • HAVE GOT / HAS GOT ADJECTIVES ARTICLES I . her. two days ago UNIT 2 P.Definite and Indefinite TELLING THE TIME VOCABULARY: . his her. Where?. last Monday. What color?. never. often. • My. For • Now. you.. temporarily. little. How? Whom?.. How long?. How high?.75 Which • VOCABULARY: . How big?. Past and Future) • SOME . Yesterday morning.. water. sometimes. last night. the day after tomorrow. at night Noon / midday.etc. etc. on the fifth of May. minutes past / to In the morning / afternoon / evening. it. How long?. generally. What size?.NO . How far?. your. milk. UNIT 6 P. few. In . their. half past. How often?. hers. etc. These. 1996. What sort of?. last month.People • KEY TO ANSWERS 27 27 33 34 36 • There is a car in the garage.90 • SIMPLE PAST TENSE • REGULAR AND IRREGULAR VERBS • USED TO + INFINITIVE • POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVES AND PRONOUNS • SUBJECT AND OBJECT PRONOUNS • VOCABULARY: . Why?. every week. at the moment. 77 . twice a week. What?. Once a day. his. Which?. yesterday evening. usually.ANY • CARDINAL NUMBERS • VOCABULARY: . yesterday. very few • • • UNIT 3 • • P. Time and Dates • KEY TO ANSWERS • SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE • TIME EXPRESSIONS (I): ADVERBS OF FREQUENCY • • • • • 47 48 52 52 54 55 57 59 61 66 67 68 71 73 • He is working at the moment • Now. 59 . How tall?. What time?. Until. What is / are . What kind of?.36 • THERE TO BE (Present. very little. like? • QUESTION WORDS II For requesting information. How wide?. That.Numerals. The . the day before yesterday. Why?. 27 .

He told me that he was tired. streets. Bob sent his girlfriend some flowers. etc... 103 .. • A doctor. They should t / ought to be more careful of what they say • I have to buy another dictionary.. = DEMORAR UNIT 9 • COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES P. TOO..... please? • Can I / May I / Do you mind if I open the window? • Shall I / Do you want me to / Would you like me to open the window? • Shall we / Would you like to / Why don´t we / Let´s go to a disco tonight. in the West Indies.. • Somebody / someone.. countries and UNIT 7 geographical names.better . professions. 141 . • Good .. • On Fifth Avenue. Dr. etc...Nationalities. / IT WILL TAKE. etc. • How long does it take to. nobody / no one. • What a tall woman!. something. Whom. at 10:30 last night. 91 . • The boy speaks Italian.EITHER. Bob sent her some flowers. P.Parts of the Body Time Expressions (II) • KEY TO ANSWERS • • • • • FUTURE CONTINUOUS TENSE MAKING REQUESTS ASKING FOR PERMISSION OFFERING TO DO SOMETHING INVITING OR SUGGESTING TO DO SOMETHING TOGETHER ALSO. more intelligent than. Peter must be here at 8:15 tomorrow.. • Bob sent some flowers to his girlfriend. etc.best.. • Peter doesn´t like golf and I don´t like it either.. etc.. The man whose car is parked outside.. • Can / Will / Could / Would you open the door please? Would you mind opening the door.. when they got married. AS WELL. SO.. an Englishman. • Bob can swim very well. the most intelligent • As fast as. • Who is he? Whom did you see? Whose is that car? Whose care is it? : The man with whom Mary is working now. too / as well. What beautiful flowers! What nice weather! How tall she is! How quickly time passes! • John will come here tomorrow / the day after tomorrow / next week / next month / at this time tomorrow / at this time next year.. You may use the phone now.. Peter doesn´t like golf and neither do I. In Salt Lake City. not anywhere. 115 .shorter than. White. When Peter arrived this morning. OUGHT TO UNIT 10 • HAVE TO = TENER QUE P. Cpt. nothing. don´t do that. but the girl doesn´t. • IT TAKES. etc..140 • VOCABULARY: ... not anything. SHOULD. Whose • SOMEBODY / SOMEONE.. somewhere. • He said that he was tired..the shortest • Intelligent.Our Health KEY TO ANSWERS 127 129 131 135 136 139 141 143 144 145 146 147 • John is coming here tomorrow / the day after tomorrow. SOMETHING. / IT TOOK... cities. Please. Scott. 10 A short course in english for adult students ... MAY. In Canada..114 • VOCABULARY: .102 • EXCLAMATORY FORM • VOCABULARY: .. etc. • SIMPLE FUTURE TENSE III : AM / IS / ARE+ING • MODAL VERBS: CAN. etc.The City • KEY TO ANSWERS 103 106 109 111 113 • SIMPLE FUTURE TENSE II : AM / IS / ARE+GOING TO.. He speaks Italian. • Mr.154 • 150 152 153 • • • • They will be working at this time tomorrow / the day after tomorrow. How about going to a disco tonight? • The boy also speaks Italian... in the USA. The boy speaks Italian and so does the girl. etc. etc. in North Carolina. 127 . a secretary. Jones. SOMEWHERE UNIT 8 AND DERIVED WORDS P. • An American... a Chilean. not anybody / not anyone. nowhere • SIMPLE FUTURE TENSE I: Will • RELATIVE PRONOUNS: Who. titles and ranks. please.The house • KEY TO ANSWERS 91 94 95 96 99 101 • He was working here at 9:30 last night • At that time.Food • KEY TO ANSWERS 115 116 119 123 125 • John is going to come here tomorrow / the day after tomorrow / next week.. NOT. an engineer...• PAST CONTINUOUS TENSE • IMPERATIVE FORM • ARTICLES III . MUST. • Open the door. • It takes me 20 minutes to. NEITHER / NOR BUT POSITION OF DIRECT AND INDIRECT OBJECTS VOCABULARY: . This one is too old UNIT 11 P.? • Short .126 • VOCABULARY: .

yet / already?. knife / knives. not yet.PART TWO: INTERMEDIATE LEVEL • PRESENT PERFECT TENSE • PLURALIZATION OF NOUNS • USE OF INFINITIVES AND GERUNDS I VERB + GERUND UNIT 12 • VOCABULARY: . early. Irregular plural forms Enjoy playing. certainly. three times. Sooner. keep talking. earlier. doesn´t he? He didn´t come to the meeting.COULD HAVE DONE SOMETHING UNIT 15 MUST / CAN / MUST HAVE. / P. Fast. 157 . since. etc. baby / babies. He cut himself. hard.Prepositions and Connectors P. etc. harder. brush / brushes. did he? 191 194 196 198 199 201 • • • • • • • • He had seen the film before The train had already left when he arrived Quickly. etc.174 • KEY TO ANSWERS 157 161 164 • • • • • • • • I have seen that movie Mary hasn´t finished typing it yet Have they arrived already? Just.Sports and Recreation • KEY TO ANSWERS • PAST PERFECT TENSE • ADVERBS: FORMATION AND COMPARISON • REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS UNIT 14 • PAST TENSE OF “GOING TO” P.202 • VOCABULARY: . too I saw her crossing / cross the road. for. never. I´ll help you do / to do that I like to playing / to play golf The floor needs cleaning / to be cleaned He works well. 203 . 170 173 • PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE • USE OF INFINITIVES AND GERUNDS II A. Verb + somebody + bare infinitive C. carefully. MAY HAVE / MIGHT HAVE DONE SOMETHING • VOCABULARY: . once.The Weather • KEY TO ANSWERS 203 205 205 207 207 207 209 • • • • • • • • • • • He had been working all day He should have studied harder. Verb + to-infinitive B.190 D. Go skiing. twice. day / days. late. / He ought to have done it You´d better take a taxi if you want to be there before your train leaves We could go to the movie We could have gone to the movie He must be very tired He can´t be hungry already He must have gone home He can´t have done that alone It may / might be true You must have / might have left it in the shop 210 212 213 A short course in english for adult students 11 . more carefully. already. MIGHT. lately. ever Book / books. go shopping. Verb + ing / to-infinitive • TAG ENDINGS • VOCABULARY: . Verb + somebody + bare infinitive / to-infinitive E. soon More quickly. etc.Nature • KEY TO ANSWERS 175 177 177 178 179 179 181 184 187 189 • • • • • • • • • • I have been working all day They agreed to meet outside the theater. He himself did it.before. He lives all by himself We were going to play football but it began to rain • PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE • PAST TENSE OF SHOULD / OUGHT TO • WOULD RATHER / HAD BETTER • MODAL VERBS II: • COULD DO SOMETHING . 175 .MAY. 191 . Verb + gerund / bare UNIT 13 infinitive P. He will let them play He wants us to go.214 CAN´T HAVE DONE SOMETHING . etc. etc.

. ETC. UNIT 16 • USE OF ELSE.. 225 . COMMANDS.252 • KEY TO ANSWERS • REPORTED SPEECH A. UNTIL. 253 .The Workshop • KEY TO ANSWERS 215 217 218 • • • • • They will have finished the work by then He says he´s tired / He said he was tired. 277 . When I see her tomorrow. AS SOON AS. 263 .275 • • • • • • At a social gathering At a hotel At a restaurant How to get to places At the station / airport Shopping • ASSESSMENT TEST • QUESTION BOOKLET (Listening Part) • QUESTION BOOKLET (Reading Part) UNIT 21 • ANSWER SHEET P.296 • TEACHER’S TEXT SCRIPT • KEY TO ANSWERS 277 279 283 291 293 295 APENDICES • CHART 1 BASIC VERB TENSES • CHART 2 BASIC VERB TENSES A) CONTINUOUS TENSES B) SIMPLE TENSES C) PERFECT TENSES 4) PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSES 297 299 299 300 302 303 12 A short course in english for adult students .261 .223 • VOCABULARY: .. ORDERS UNIT 19 • VOCABULARY: P. He said he wanted to go He told me that he wanted to go He asked me where they were He told me to sit down UNIT 20 P.The Armed Forces I P. STATEMENTS B. 219 221 223 210 • THE PASSIVE VOICE • BE SUPPOSED TO UNIT 17 • VOCABULARY: ..The Armed Forces II P. Do you need anything else? I´ll take a taxi. QUESTIONS C. 215 ..Regular and Irregular Verbs • KEY TO ANSWERS • USEFUL ENGLISH PHRASES AND EXPRESSIONS IN ENGLISH FOR TRAVELLERS 225 231 233 235 • The book was published in 1998 • The train is supposed to arrive at 9:45 237 244 245 248 251 253 253 254 254 257 261 263 • • • • • • • • • • • If you study hard you´ll pass the course If you studied harder you´d get better marks If you had studied harder you would have passed the course I wish I could swim I wish I had seen her I wish it would stop snowing I suggest that she wait a few minutes.• FUTURE PERFECT TENSE • SEQUENCE OF VERB TENSES • THE PRESENT TENSE AFTER WHEN.236 • KEY TO ANSWERS • CONDITIONAL SENTENCES • SUBJUNCTIVE AFTER WISH • VERB + PRESENT OF SUBJUNCTIVE UNIT 18 • VOCABULARY: . OR ELSE / OTHERWISE P.. or else I´ll miss my flight. 237 .

BASIC ENGLISH GRAMMAR STRUCTURES AND VOCABULARY PART ONE ELEMENTARY LEVEL .

Bl 14 .

This /!is/ este/a. On /on/ encima de. Thank you /"æ#k iu:/ gracias. the secretary. /iés. the students. the new instructor.UNIT 1 PART I.it iz. "æ#ks/ They´re very well.They´re cars. thanks. /its in !e gæridll/ It´s on the desk. Who? /hu:/ ¿Quién?. they are. It´s a pen /iés. las. thanks. /!eir ká:rz/ Son autos Yes. /hi:z !e niú: instráktor/ She´s Miss Black. /its on !e désk/ They´re in the car park. Thanks /"æ#ks/ gracias. Jim and Tom. It´s. /iés. it is. An /an/ (antes de vocal) un/a. !ei á:r. /!eir véri wél "æ#k iu/ 2. They´re. Much better /match béter/ mucho mejor What is this? /wót iz !is/ ¿Qué es esto? What´s that? /wots !æt/ ¿Qué es eso? What are these? /wót a:r !í:z/. At /æt/ en. TO BE (SER O ESTAR) A. its a pén/ Yes. ARE /a:r/ 1. /its a pén/ Es un lápiz It´s an ambulance. Fine /fáin/ bien.ARE I am /ai æm/ You are /iú á:r/ He is /hi: íz/ She is /shi: íz/ It is /it íz/ (Yo soy/estoy) (Tú eres/estás) (El es/está) (Ella es/está) (Es/está) We are /wi: á:r/ You are /iú á:r/ They are /!éi á:r/ (Nosotros/as somos o estamos) (Uds. !eir búks/ Yes. IS /iz/. These /!í:z/ estos/as. Jones. Very well /véri uél/ muy bien. thank you. La forma negativa se expresa usando la palabra NOT. los.) . /!ei a:r búks/ Son libros They´re cars. Escuche. /!éir in !e læb/ I´m fine. /hi:z at hóum/ It´s in the garage. We´re. They´re books. /iés it iz its e háus/ Yes. She´s. la. El verbo TO BE tiene tres formas en el tiempo presente: AM . !i/ (antes de vocal) el. /!eir !e stiú:dents/ He´s at home. Today /tudéi/ Hoy día.!eir ká:rz/ He´s Mr. normalmente se usan las contracciones I’m. son/están) (Ellos/as son/están) En conversación. /its an æmbiulans/ Es una ambulancia They are books. they are. Who are those men? /hú: a:r !óuz mén/ Where is Bob? /wéar iz bób/ Where´s the car? /wéarz !e ká:r/ Where´s the book? /wéarz !e búk/ Where are the cars? /wéar a:r !e ká:rz/ Where are the students? /wéar a:r !e stiú:dents/ How are you? /háu á:r iu:/ How´s John? /háuz dllón/ How are the children? /háu a:r !e tchíldrn/ It is a pen. repita y aprenda: What? /wót/ ¿Qué? ¿Cuál?. He´s. /áim fáin. That /!æt/ ese/a. /shi:z !e sékretri/ They´re Bob. "æ#ks/ He´s much better.IS . Now /náu/ ahora.. It is. It´s a house. ¿Qué son éstos? What are those? /wót a:r !óuz/.How? /háu/ ¿Cómo?. The / !e (antes de cons. In /in/ en. EL TIEMPO PRESENTE: AM /æm/ . /hí:z mátch béter. !ei á:r. You´re. /!éir in !e ká:r pá:rk/ They´re in the lab. ¿Qué son esos? Is this a pen? /iz !is a pén/ Is that a house? /is !æt a háus/ Are these books? /a:r !í:z búks/ Are those cars? /á:r !óuz ká:rz/ Who is that man? /hú iz !æt mæn/ Who´s that woman? /hú:z !æt wúman/ .) un/a. normalmente formando las contracciones ISN´ T /íznt/ o AREN´ T /á:rent/ I am not /ai æm nót/ You are not /iú á:r nót/ He is not /hi: iz nót/ She is not /shí: iz nót/ It is not /it iz nót/ We are not /wí: a:r nót/ They are not /!ei a:r nót/ ---------------------------You aren´t /iu á:rent/ He isn´t /hí: íznt/ She isn´t /shí: íznt/ It isn´t /it íznt/ We aren´t /wí: á:rent/ They aren´t /!ei á:rent/ I´m not /aim nót/ You´re not /iúr nót/ He´s not / hí:z nót/ She´s not /shí:z nót/ It´s not /its nót/ We´re not /wí:r nót/ They´re not /!eir nót/ A short course in english for adult students 15 . Where? /wéar/ ¿ Dónde?. Those /!óuz/ esos/as A/ a/(antes de cons.

He isn´t here. 10. Answer these questions. it isn´t.r iu: ó:l ráit/ ¿Estás bien? Is he a captain? /íz hi: a kæptin/ Es él un capitán? Are they busy? /á:r !ei bízi/ ¿Están ellos ocupados? Is my answer correct? /íz mai á:nser korékt/¿Está correcta mi respuesta? EXERCISES Ex. The instructor´s name _____ John Doe. (It´s not a tank. Escuche. 9. Are we ready to go? 4. He´s not very well.(vehículos lentos) Those weapons ______ powerful. repita y aprenda estas preguntas y respuestas: Is this a pen? /pén/ Is that a tank? /tæ#k/ Are these books? /búks/ Are those chairs? /tchéarz/ No. La forma interrogativa se expresa mediante simple inversión de orden con el sujeto de la oración. 2. Is that man Mr. He isn´t very well. They aren´t there. /trák/ No. They´re not there. are not /a:r nót/. 7. /páilot/ They are not students /stiú:dnts/. The train _____ ten minutes late. he is. 2. is not /iz nót/. there /!éar/ allí. it isn´t. 8. They´re tables /téiblz/.) It´s a pencil. John and Mary _____ good friends. Are the students in class? 6. It isn´t a train. Doctor Smith _____ busy right now. They aren´t in the lab. It´s not a train.rent !ei/ Debido a que no existe una contracción para AM NOT. Is Miss Jones a secretary? 7._____________ _______________________________________ Yes. (They´re not books. The men ______ tired. Am I? /am ai/ Are you? /á:r iú:/ Is he? /íz hí:/ Is she? /íz shí:/ Is it? /íz it/ * Aren´t I? * /á:rent ai / Aren´t you? /á:rent iu:/ Isn´t he? /íznt hi:/ Isn´t she? /íznt shi:/ Isn´t it? /íznt it/ Are we? /á:r wí:/ Are you? /á:r iú:/ Are they? /á:r !ei/ Aren´t we? /á:rent wi:/ Aren´t you? /á:rent iú:/ Aren´t they? /á. (It´s not a pen. He´s a pilot. a ne:rs/ ¿No es ella una enfermera? Aren´t they happy? /á:rent !ei hæpi/ ¿No están ellos felices? Isn´t this question correct? /íznt !is kwéstchion korékt/ Ex. Clark? 3. He´s not here. The instructors _____ in the staff-room. habitualmente se usa AREN¨T en este caso. Is this a modern plane? 16 A short course in english for adult students Yes. I´m not a pilot They´re not students. Am I a good instructor? 5.Escuche. (armas-poderosas) 6. repita y aprenda: I am not a pilot. over there /óuver !éar/ allá ---------------------------They aren´t students. /tréin/ Bob is not very well /véri wél/ The students are not in the lab /læb/. they aren´t. here /híar/ aquí. 3. 3. 5. They´re not in the lab. (They´re not chairs). Are you in the office? 2. 1. En conversación coloquial se usa la contracción AIN¨T /éint/ Ejemplo: Aren´t I your friend? Ain´t I your friend? Escuche. Those vehicles______ slow-moving. Yes.) They´re magazines. The teacher ______ in the classroom now. as in the example Is Tom a pilot? 1. /pénsl/ No. (sala de profs. They are not there /!éar/ It is not a train. isn´t /íznt/ . Use the correct form of the verb TO BE (am/is/are) 1. 4. He is not here /híar/._____________ _______________________________________ ________________ _______________________________________ ________________ _______________________________________ ________________ _______________________________________ ________________ _______________________________________ ________________ _______________________________________ .) It´s a truck. they aren´t. I ______ an undergraduate student. repita y aprenda: Am I right? /ám ái ráit/ ¿Estoy correcto? Are you all right? /á. /mægazinz/ No.) Aren´t I right? /á:rent ai ráit/ ¿No estoy en lo cierto? Aren´t you tired? /á:rent iu táiard/ ¿No estás cansado? Isn´t she a nurse? /íznt shi. aren´t /á:rent/.

It´s a knife 2. Is Bob at home? en casa (at work) en el trabajo 4. It´s a chair 7. Answer the questions as in the example: Are they instructors? (students) 1. Where?. The manager / in his office 2. They´re books 3. as in the example: It´s a plane. Is the table clean? limpia (dirty) sucia 9. Who?.(patio) 9. The package / light or heavy (liviano o pesado) 7. Bowman on duty? de servicio (off duty) de franco Ex. The course / interesting 4. How?. The children / in the playground. Are the men old? viejos (young) jóvenes 10. Are the boys angry? enojados (hungry) hambrientos 2. they are not. I´m fine. (They aren´t instructors) They ´re students No. The computer / connected to the Internet 6. Are you thirsty? sediento (hungry) 3. 1.Is Cpt. 3. The maps / in the library (biblioteca) Are the Browns at home? ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ No. Is your brother a doctor? (an engineer) 6. Are your friends American? (British) 7. The CD´s / in the drawer (gaveta) 10. 4 Ask questions. Are the children happy? felices (sad) tristes 5. The books are on the table 9. Is the bank open? 10.Are you hungry? (hambriento) ________________ _______________________________________ ________________ _______________________________________ ________________ _______________________________________ Ex. as in the example below: The Browns . thanks 5.at home 1. Your friends / from Canada 5. Are you a navy officer?(an army officer) 8. Ask questions using the wh-words What?. The pictures / clear (nítidas. 5. The cigarettes are in the bag 4. The children are tired 10.That woman´s my wife What´s this? o What´s that? _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students 17 . claras) 8. The cat´s under the sofa 6. Peter and John / in class 3. Are the manuals updated?(actualizados) 9.8. _________________ ( _________________________ ) ___________________________________ ____________________ ( _________________________ ) ___________________________________ ____________________ ( _________________________ ) ___________________________________ ____________________ ( _________________________ ) ___________________________________ ____________________ ( _________________________ ) ___________________________________ ____________________ ( _________________________ ) ___________________________________ ____________________ ( _________________________ ) ___________________________________ ____________________ ( _________________________ ) ___________________________________ ____________________ ( _________________________ ) ___________________________________ ____________________ ( _________________________ ) ___________________________________ Ex. That boy´s my brother 8.

______ you alone? No. Come and meet her. Wisconsin. Jack Jim Jack Jim Jim Jack Janet : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : How do you do? My name ______ Robert Brown. Brown? I ______ American. Peter Michael Peter Michael Peter Michael Peter Michael 4. /míster djækson woz híar "rí: wí:ks agóu/ (Yo estuve muy ocupado ayer) (John estuvo en casa todo el día hoy) (Nosotros estuvimos en Paris el año pasado) (Mary era la mejor alumna de mi curso) (Ellos eran / fueron muy buenos amigos) (Mr Jackson estuvo aquí hace 3 semanas). in the library. eran/estaban/fueron/estuvieron) They were /!ei wé:r/ (Ellos/eran/estaban/fueron/estuvieron) Escuche. Hello. El verbo TO BE tiene las siguientes formas en el tiempo pasado: WAS /woz/ . 6. Oh. Where ______ you. (pausa) This ______ Janet. She ______ a new student. thanks. How old? /háu óuld/ ¿Qué edad? Last week /lá:st wí:k/ la semana pasada. B. /dllón woz at hóum ó:l déi tudéi/ We were in Paris last year /wi wé:r in páris la:st íar/ Mary was the best student in my class. Hello. How ______ you? I ______ fine. Why? /wái/ ¿Por qué?. Mr. I ______ with my friend Janet. She ______ married. Oh. I ______ from Appleton. Where ______ you from. My name ______ Frank. Yesterday /iésterdi/ ayer. That ______ very interesting. EL TIEMPO PASADO: WAS /woz/ . /ai woz véri bízi iésterdei/ John was at home all day today. Two days ago /tú: déiz agóu/ Hace dos días. I ______ an instructor.Ex. Last night /la:st náit/ anoche I was very busy yesterday. Robert Jack Robert Jack 2. éramos/estábamos/fuimos/estuvimos) You were /iú: wé:r/ (Uds. How ______ you? I ______ fine. Where ______ she from? She ______ from Australia. lea y aprenda: When? /wén/ ¿Cuándo?. 1. Sir. Hello. Jackson was here three weeks ago. Mike Hello. I´m glad to meet you. 18 A short course in english for adult students . Oh. Jim? I ______ here. ______ you a student here? No. Peter. Jane. I ______ glad to meet you. / méri woz !e bést stiú:dent in mai klás/ They were very good friends. She ______ my classmate . too. The day before yesterday /!e déi bifó:r iésterdi/ anteayer. Frank John Frank John Frank 3. I ______ ______. /!ei wé:r véri gud fréndz/ Mr. She ______ from London. Who______ that girl? She ______ Mary. That´s bad news. Complete and practise these dialogues with a partner. I ______ not. Pleased to meet you.WERE /we:r/ I was /ai wóz/ (Yo era/estaba/fui/estuve) You were /iú: wé:r/ (Tú eras/estabas/fuiste/estuviste) He was /hí: wóz/ (El era/estaba/fue/estuvo) She was /shi: wóz/ (Ella era/estaba/fue/estuvo) It was /it wóz/ (Era/estaba/fue/estuvo) We were /wi: wé:r/ (Nos. ______ she single? No. What ______ your name? My name ______ John. she ______ ______. Jack. How do you do? My name ______ Jack Richardson.WERE /we:r/ 1.

The weather was fine that day. Change the following sentences into a) Negative b) interrogative 1. 3. George was a little better this morning. el año pasado) Mary wasn´t a good student at high school. Liz was in bed because she was sick. How old. 1. John was in the car at that moment. /!ei wé:rnt véri há:rdwérki#/ (Ellos no eran muy trabajadores) 3. Bob ______ very sick yesterday. Yesterday ______ Sunday. The men were tired after the long walk. Complete these sentences with the proper form of the verb TO BE. 4. lea y aprenda: I was not very busy last week. La forma interrogativa se expresa invirtiendo el orden de WAS / WERE con el sujeto Escuche.Why?. 5. 6. Where ______ the Johnsons last weekend? Where ______ they today? The elevator ______ out of order last night. John ______ in New York the day before yesterday but he ______ in Chicago today. 2. Henry was at the movie at 7 P. Ask questions using wh-words like What?. 3. but they ______ at work yesterday. 6. (¿Estuviste en clase esta mañana?) (¿Estuvo John enfermo ayer?) (¿Era Mary una buena alumna en el colegio?) (¿Dónde estabas a esta hora ayer?) (¿Por qué estuvo Jim ausente del trabajo?) Ex. 5. They were good friends at school. Where?. 4. 5. Mary was late for the train this morning.M. but he ______ much better today. 6.Y. The Smiths were in Chile in 1985. 3. 3. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students 19 . ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. lea y aprenda: Were you in class this morning? /we:r iú: in klás !is mórnin/ Was John sick yesterday? /woz dllón sík iésterdi/ Was Mary a good student at school? /woz méri a gúd stiú:dent at skú:l/ Where were you at this time yesterday? /wéar wé:r iú at !is táim iésterdi/ Why was Jim absent from work? /wái woz dllím æbsent from wé:rk/ EXERCISES: Ex. /ai woz nót véri bízi lá:st wí:k/ (Yo no estuve muy ocupado la semana pasada) John wasn´t at home this morning. How?. Mr Clark was about 85 years old when he died. 2. When?. 2.2. La forma negativa se expresa usando NOT después de WAS o WERE. Normalmente se usan las contracciones WASN´T /wóznt/ o WEREN´T /wé:rent/. present or past: 1. Tom was at home at midnight last night. 2. but it ______ working well now. /dllón wóznt at hóum !is mórni#/ (John no estuvo en casa esta mañana) We weren´t in New York last year. /méri wóznt a gúd stiú:dent at hái skú:l/ (Mary no era una buena alumna en el liceo) They weren´t very hardworking. 4. 7. They ______ free today. /wi wé:rent in niú: iórk lá:st íar/ (Nosotros no estuvimos en N. Who? 1. Today ______ Monday. John ______n´t in the office at ten this morning because he ______ at a meeting. Escuche. The secretary was busy at midday.

2. but it _____________________________________________ next month. John isn´t absent today. It is not very cold now. They won´t be here all day. 3. 1. For /for/ por. La forma negativa se expresa usando la palabra NOT después del verbo modal WILL Normalmente se usa la contracción WON´T /wóunt/. /ai wil nót bí: véri bízi tumórou/ No estaré muy ocupado mañana Mary will not be at home today. but he _______________________________________ next Monday. serán / estarán) They will be /!ei wil bí:/ (Ellos / as serán estarán) También se pueden usar las siguientes contracciones: I´ll be /áil bí:/ Escuche. lea y aprenda: I will not be very busy tomorrow. Next week /´nekst wi:k/ la próxima semana. La forma interrogativa se expresa usando el verbo modal WILL o la contracción WON´T delante del sujeto. lea y aprenda: How long? /háu ló#/ ¿Cuánto tiempo? Until /antíl/ hasta. as in the example: John is not at home today. 4. The weather was not very nice last month. but I ________________________________________________ in ten minutes. para What time? /wót táim/ ¿Qué hora? Tomorrow /tumórou/ mañana. The day after tomorrow /!e déi á:fter tumórou/ pasado mañana You´ll be /iu:l bí:/ He´ll be /hí:l bí:/ They´ll be /!eil bí:/ I will be very busy this afternoon. 20 (will be at home) tomorrow. but it ______________________________________________________________ this evening. Mr. /it wóunt bí: kóuld tunáit/ No estará frio esta noche 3. El tiempo futuro del verbo TO BE se expresa mediante el uso del Verbo Modal WILL seguido del infinitivo BE. but they _______________________________ next semester. I am not in my office at the moment. but he _________________________________________________ the day after tomorrow. Complete the sentences. Escuche. /dllón wil bí: in klá:s antil wán oklók/ John estará en clases hasta la 1 It´ll be hot tomorrow. de regreso? EXERCISES: Ex. Tom and Jack aren´t in the same class this semester.seremos / estaremos) You will be /iú: wil bí:/ (Uds. 5. Normalmente se usa la contracción ‘ll en la conversación diaria informal. but we _________________________________________________________ after lunch. bi: at !e mí:tin/ ¿No estarás tú en la reunión? When will they be here again? /wén wil !ei bí: híar agéin/ ¿Cuándo estarán ellos aquí nuevamente? How long will they be in Washington? /háu lo# wil !ei bí: in wóshi#ton/ ¿Cúanto tiempo estarán ellos en Washington? What time will you be back? /wót táim wil iu: bí: bæk/ ¿A qué hora estará Ud. Escuche. /ái wil bí: véri bízi !is a:fternú:n/ . /méri wil nót bí: at hóum tudéi/ Mary no estará en casa hoy día.C. 7.Johnson was not at the meeting last week. /ail bí: on lí:v for tú: wí:ks/ Yo estaré con permiso por dos semanas 2. /!ei wóunt bí: híar ó:l dei/ Ellos no estarán aquí todo el día It won´t be cold tonight. 6. /ítl bí: hot tumórou/ Estará caluroso mañana I´ll be on leave for two weeks. but he 1. I will be /ai wil bí:/ (Yo seré / estaré) You will be /iú: wil bí:/ (Tú serás / estarás) He will be /hi: wil bí:/ (El será / estará) She will be /shí: wil bí:/ (Ella será / estará) It will be /it wil bí:/ (Será / estará) We will be /wí: wil bí:/ (Nos. We are not busy right now. A short course in english for adult students . lea y aprenda: Will you be free tomorrow evening? /wil iú: bí: frí: tumórou í:vni#/ ¿Estarás libre mañana en la noche? Will the test be difficult? /wil !e tést bí: dífikalt/ ¿Será dificil la prueba? Will they be here on Monday? /wil !ei bí: híar on mándei/ ¿Estarán ellos aquí el lunes? Won´t you be at the meeting? /wóunt iú. EL TIEMPO FUTURO: WILL BE /will bi:/ 1. Estaré muy ocupado esta tarde John will be in class until 1 o´clock.

2. They will be here at ten-thirty. Answer the following questions. Esos niños no son muy buenos alumnos. 1. 5. Este no es un libro muy interesante. When is the next general meeting? 9. The weather will be very nice this month. ¿Cuándo estará Ud. Los informes no estaban listos todavía.Ex. All the shops will be closed tomorrow because it´s Sunday. Change the following sentences into the negative and the interrogative forms. 5. 6. Alguien estuvo aquí ayer en la tarde. Ellos fueron buenos amigos en el colegio 8. etc. 3. 5. 4. Ella será una excelente secretaria. My friends will be here before 12. Where will you be at this time tomorrow? 10. 3. 3. Ellos estarán muy ocupados mañana en la mañana. The program will be interesting. Johnson will be absent from work for three days? ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ Ex. 13. Translate the following sentences into English: 1. I will be free next Tuesday morning. 2. Nosotros no estuvimos aquí la semana pasada. Mary´ll be in the office all morning. 10. 9. 2. Who was with you at the party last Saturday? 8. ¿Dónde están tus amigos ahora? 4. The students will be in the lab this afternoon. 7. 8. 6. Why were you absent from class last Friday? Ex. I´ll be in the first team. How are you today? 4. Where were you at this time yesterday? 2. en esa ciudad nuevamente? ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ 21 . 1. It´ll be hot tomorrow. They will be in the next town before midday. Ask questions using Where?.When?. 14. 6. How?. ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ Ex. 7. They will be at home all day because the weather is not good. ¿Quién estuvo aquí esta mañana? 5. Who was absent from class last Monday? 5. Why is your friend in bed at this time? 6. When will you be on vacation again? 3. 2. John will be in class today. in English. Mary will be in New York next weekend. ¿Quién era ese hombre? 12. Where were you last weekend? 7. How long?. What time?. ¿Cuándo están ellos libres todo el día? 11. 1. 3. 9. 4. She will be back in Chile on Wednesday. 4. Mr. 7.Why?. Mr Jackson estuvo en la oficina todo el día.

A: My brother´s name is Ignacio. that´s V-A-S-Q-U-E-Z.Z .W . please? A: I-G-N-A-C-I-O B: Thank you /"æ#kiu:/ /kán iu: spél !æt plí:z/ /ai dllí: én éi sí: ái óu/ /mái brá!erz néim iz ignásio/ 2.B .L .R .U .I . B: Can you spell that.I .G .I .K .Y .D .N .O .G .V .E .L .PART II.X .I . /mái la:st néim is váskes. ¿Puede leer estas series de letras? 1.H . How do you spell your first name? /háu diu: spél io:r fe:rst néim/ 2. P . !æts vi: éi és kiú i: zéd/ 3.J .S . ¿Puede deletrear estas palabras? Yorkshire Mexico Washington Quebec geography Chicago Kalamazoo Venezuela Japan Shanghai whisky Tokyo 22 A short course in english for adult students .X .R .N .Z .G . Practique estos diálogos con algún amigo: 1.A . it only cost me eighty-five dollars /nóu it óunli kóst mi:éiti fáiv dólarz/ Ex.E .O . A: When did you buy your VCR? /wén did iú: bái io:r ví: sí: á.B .L .T .K .M .Q .r/ B: Last month.T .O .E .A 5. E . 2.W . E .F 4.B .N .I .Q .V -B 3.Q .U .I .A -E 2. Tom works for IBM in LA.O .F . 4.T .A Ex.U .W .Y .X .F .J .C .K .V .M . 3.L .C . Escuche.Y .X .Q .C .B .Y .E .P . /tóm wé:rks for ái bí: ém in él éi/ Ex.D .C .O . I bought it at the PX A: Was it very expensive? /wóz it ekspénsiv/ /lá:st mán" ái bó:t it at !e pí: éks/ B: No. 1.W . THE ENGLISH ALPHABET Vowels: Consonants: A /éi/ E /i:/ I /ái/ O /óu/ U /iú/ B /bi:/ C /si:/ D /di:/ G /dlli:/ P /pi:/ T /ti:/ V /vi:/ F /ef/ L /el/ M /em/ N /en/ S /es/ X /eks/ Z /zed/* J /dlléi/ H /eitch/ K /kei/ Y /uái/ Q /kiú/ W /dábliu/ R /a:r/ * En Inglés Americano la letra Z se llama /zi:/ PRACTICE EXERCISES: Ex. U .A . My last name is Vasquez.H . J .I .S .A .G .A . lea y aprenda: 1.X .O .X .

U for uniform. BBC UCLA VAT UFO NCO PTO p. FBI OK ITT a. A for alfa and N for November: JUAN 2. PLO USSR VCR NBT CO ADC EST ATM OAS IBM CIA IRA MIT APC DC COD GPS GMT MIA Ph. Estudie estas siglas (acronyms) de uso frecuente: USA B. A as in Alfa.D.m. L as in Lima. I spell: C as in Charlie. My name is JUAN. The commander´s last name is CLARK.m. I spell: J for Juliett. R as in Romeo and K as in Kilo: CLARK A short course in english for adult students 23 .Ex. A.C.D OBE CEO UK UNO DEA MP FOB CIF ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ MBA MBT ¿Puede agregar algunas otras siglas de uso frecuente? ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ THE PHONETIC ALPHABET This alphabet is used in radio / telephone communication to spell difficult words: as in A B C D E F G H I J K L M /az in/ como en Alfa /álfa/ Bravo /brávou/ Charlie /tchá:rli/ Delta /délta/ Echo /ékou/ Foxtrot /fókstrot/ Golf /gólf/ Hotel /houtél/ India /índia/ Juliett /dlluliét/ Kilo /kílou/ Lima /líma/ Mike /máik/ for N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z /fo:r/ para November /nouvémber/ Oscar /óskar/ Papa /pápa/ Quebec /kuibék/ Romeo /rómiou/ Sierra /siéra/ Tango /tá#gou/ Uniform /íunifo:rm/ Victor /víktor/ Whisky /wíski/ X-ray /éks réi/ Yankee /iá#ki/ Zulu /zúlu/ as in as in as in as in as in as in as in as in as in as in as in as in as in for for for for for for for for for for for for for Examples: 1. 5.

Bl 24 .

Yes. My friends won´t be. No. I´m hungry. 1.was 4. The secretary wasn´t. Why will they be at home all day? 9. Ex. / Was the secretary . The program won´t be . He´s Mr. Was . Somebody was here yesterday afternoon / evening . I´m not thirsty..is Ja: am . I´m not an navy officer. When will she be back in Chile? 8.. he is.. Where´s the cat? 6.. 4.? 5.. They won´t be. Mary won´t be.. / Will my friends be. 1..are R: am . What´s this / that? 7. Why will all the shops be closed tomorrow? 2. Are the CD´s in the drawer? 10. At what time will they be here? 5. 3.? 5.. He´s an engineer. 7. Where will the students be this afternoon? 4.. It won´t be . How are you? 5....Are J: am . we are-We´re ready to go. Was . it´s not.. Is the course interesting? 4. M: is P: is .. / Were the men .? Ex. will be absent 3. He´s at work. 14. Ex.? 6. 3. I´m hungry. 10. When will you be free? 3.? 4.? 4. He´s off duty.? 3. Who was here this morning? 5. They aren´t American. Yes. 1.. 1.. 13. No.. Ex.. (open answers) Ex.. is 10.. He isn´t at home. Those children are not very good students. They´ll be very busy tomorrow morning. will be at the meeting 7.. 3. it is. Who´s that boy? 8.. will be very nice. They aren´t happy. 5.. Yes.. 8.. No. 1.. How was George.. will be very busy 5. is 2. he´s not.. What are these / those? 3.. they are... How old was Mr Clark when. 3. will be very cold 4. It´s dirty.. 1. 2. I am. 1.. 1. Where are your friends now? 4.. they are.. 1. 3. Yes. 4. They´re hungry. They´re updated. No.. 2. He isn´t a doctor.. 8.? Ex.? 3. Mr Jackson was in the office all day.. Who was in the car. She´ll be an excellent secretary 7.. 6. / Will Mary be.. Clark..KEY TO ANSWERS UNIT 1 Part 1 A. Henry wasn´t . is 7.? 2. are 4.am J: is 2.. How are the children? 10.. What´s this / that? 2. 10. I´m not. Were . Yes. 1.. I´m in the office. / Was Henry. They´re sad. Yes.? 2. John won´t be.is 2. No. Are Peter and John in class? 3. How will the weather be this month? 6. he´s not. When will Mary be in New York? 7. / Was Mary. 2. No..No.are Ex... I am. 5.. Yes.were 3. Ja: are Ji: am Ja: are Ji: am not . 8. Where are the books? 9.. they´re not.? 7. You´re a good instructor. He isn´t on duty. Yes. are 6.? 6. he´s not... 1.is 6. Who was that man? 12. will be in the same class 2.. The weather wasn´t .R: is J: is . I won´t be.is 4.. / Will the program be. Are the pictures clear? 8. We weren´t here last week. Why was Liz in bed? 4. 9. / Was the weather. 1. 2. 4.. / Will I be . The reports weren´t ready yet. they´re not.? 4..is ..are Ja: am B. When were the Smiths . It´s a modern plane.. F: is .. Is .is Ex. will be in my office 6. / Will it be.. They weren´t..is J: is ..? 2.. / Will John be .. is 8.? 3.. Are the maps in the library? Ex. No. No. 5. I´m not. Ex.was 7.are 3... 1. 9. 1. They aren´t old. 2. Who´s that woman? Ex. 6. Yes.. Was . They´re in class. 4.. Ex. They´re young. 5.? 6..are 5. When will you be in that city again? A short course in english for adult students 25 . 1... She´s a secretary. 9... Are the children in the playground? 9../ Will they be. Now.am (pause) is . 6. They were good friends at school. How long will Mr Johnson be absent from work? Ex. Where are the cigarettes?. they´re not...am 3.. When are they free all day? 11. am 9.are F: am . Where was Tom at. they´re not. Are your friends from Canada? 5. The men weren´t .. 2.? C.. she is. 10.. It isn´t clean. Is the manager in his office? 2.. Yes.? 5.. They´re British.. I´m a army officer. Ex.. / Were they. Mary wasn´t . 7..is M: is P: is M: is P: isn´t ..you are. are 5.. 3.. it is. 1. 6. This isn´t a very interesting book... Was ... It´s open. They aren´t angry... Is the computer connected to internet? 6.... Are . Is the package light or heavy? 7.

Bl 26 .

There isn´t any (water). /!éarz sam wóter in !e glá:s/ There are some trees in the garden /!éar á:r sam trí:z in !e gá:rdn/ There isn´t any water in the glass. /!ear á:rent éni tchéarz in !e rúm/ There are no chairs in the room. There are no chairs. There is a book on the desk /!ear íz e búk on !e désk/ (Hay un libro sobre el escritorio) There´s a car in the car park. /!ear á:r nóu trí:z in !e gá:rdn/ Is there any water in the glass? /iz !ear éni wóter in !e glá:s/ Are there any trees in the garden? . /!ear á:rent tén stiúdents in mai klæs/ There aren´t any chairs in the room. There aren´t any (chairs). En la forma negativa se puede usar NOT ANY /not éni/ o NO /nóu/. En las interrogaciones se debe usar la palabra ANY /éni/. /!éarz sam wóter in !e glæs/ (Hay agua en el vaso) There are 10 students in my class. There´s a lot (of ice). THERE TO BE (HABER. ha advertido. There´s only one (door). PRESENT TENSE: THERE IS . EXISTIR) A. en el singular. THERE IS /!ear íz/ se usa con sustantivos singulares o incontables. Normalmente. /!ear iz nót e búk on !e désk/ There isn´t a car in the car park. Son equivalentes a la expresión HAY. /!éarz nóu wóter in !e glá:s/ There are no trees in the garden. algunos / as) solamente se usa en forma afirmativa. /háu match/ Como ud. / !éar íznt e ká:r in !e ká:r pa:rk/ There isn´t any water in the glass.PART I. THERE ARE /!ear á:r/ se usa con sustantivos plurales. /!ear a:r nóu tchéarz in !e rúm/ La forma interrogativa se hace mediante simple inversión del verbo con la palabra THERE. Estudie la siguiente tabla: Affirmative Negative SOME NOT ANY NO Interrogative ANY? There´s some water in the glass. /!éar íznt éni wóter in !e glæs/ There´s no water in the glass /!éarz nóu wóter in !e glæs/ There are not 10 students in my class. se usa la contracción THERE´S /!éarz/. /!éarz e ká:r in !e ká:r pa:rk/ (Hay un auto en el estacionamiento) There´s some water in the glass. There are three (windows). Is there a book on the desk? /íz !ear e búk on !e désk/ Is there a car in the car park? /íz !ear e ká:r in !e ká:r pa:rk/ Is there any water in the glass? /íz !éar éni wóter in !e glæs/ Are there 10 students in the class? /á:r !ear tén stiúdents in mai klæs/ Are there any chairs in the room? /á:r !ear éni tchéarz in !e rúm/ Hay dos palabras interrogativas estrechamente relacionadas con There is y There are: HOW MUCH? (¿Cuánto? ¿Cuánta?) y HOW MANY? /háu méni/ (¿Cuántos? ¿Cuántas?) How much whisky is there in the glass? How much ice is there in the glass? How much water is there? How many doors are there in this room? How many windows are there? How many chairs are there? There´s very little (whisky). /a:r !ear éni trí:z in !e gá:rdn/ A short course in english for adult students 27 .THERE ARE UNIT 2 Estas expresiones se usan para indicar la existencia de algo. /!ear á:r tén stiúdents in mai klæs/ (Hay 10 alumnos en mi curso) There are some chairs in the room /!ear á:r sam tchéarz in !e rúm/ (Hay algunas sillas en la sala) La forma negativa se expresa con THERE IS NOT / THERE ISN´T /!ear íznt/ o THERE ARE NOT / THERE AREN´T /!ear á:rent/ There is not a book on the desk. /!ear a:r nót tén stiúdents in mai klæs/ There aren´t 10 students in my class. la palabra SOME /sám/ (algo. There´s no water. /!ear á:rent éni trí:z in !e gá:rdn/ There ´s no water in the glass. /!ear íznt éni wóter in !e glá:s/ There aren´t any trees in the garden. en castellano.

very little money left in the box. Cuando THERE IS/THERE ARE van seguidas directamente por un sustantivo. MANY /méni/ muchos/as.una) no tiene una forma para el plural. There are trees in the garden There are some trees in the garden There are several trees in the garden. estudie la siguiente tabla some a lot of much a little very little no/not any some several many a lot of a few very few no/not any There is milk in this bottle There are flowers in the garden. very few people at the conference. 1. 4. En las oraciones negativas e interrogativas se prefiere usar las palabras MUCH o MANY. EXERCISES Ex. Complete the sentences using THERE IS or THERE ARE: 1. por lo tanto se omite. /!éar á:r e lót ov buks on !e shélf/ There isn´t much sugar in the bowl. La expresión A LOT OF normalmente se usa en oraciones afirmativas. There are no flowers in the garden Finalmente. FEW /fiú:/ (pocos/as) y A LOT OF /e lót ov/ (bastante/bastantes) There´s very little water in the glass /!éarz véri lítl wó:ter in !e glá:s/ Hay muy poca agua en el vaso There´s a lot of ice in my glass. 28 _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ A short course in english for adult students some books on the shelf. There are many trees in the garden.Note el uso de LITTLE /lítl/ (poco/a). 3. en las negaciones generalmente se usa la palabra NO /nóu/ There´s water in that bottle. . There are flowers in the garden. Normalmente el artículo A/ AN se reemplaza por las palabras SOME /sam/ algunos/as. según sea el caso There´s a lot of sugar in the bowl /!éarz e lót ov shúgar in !e bóul/ There are a lot of books on the shelf. /!ear a:r e lót ov tchéarz in rú:m/ Hay bastantes sillas en la sala. /!ear a:r véri fiú: desks in !e rú:m/ Hay muy pocos escritorios en la sala There are a lot of chairs in the room. There is a tree in the garden. /!éar íznt match shúgar in !e bóul/ There aren´t many books on the shelf. 2. There´s no water in that bottle. SEVERAL /séverl/ varios/as. /!éar á:rent méni buks on !e shélf/ Is there much sugar in the bowl? /iz !éar match shúgar in !e bóul/ Are there many books on the shelf? /á:r !éar méni buks on !e shélf/ Affirmative a lot of not much not many much? many? Negative Interrogative El artículo indefinido A/AN (un. only one student in the lab now. /!éarz e lót ov áis in mai glá:s/ Hay bastante hielo en mi vaso There are very few desks in the room.

There are 24 hours in a day.. 5. four men. There´s central heating in the room. Change the following statements into the negative form. There are more than 10 students. a lot of work. ___________________ money _______________? 2.. 4... ___________________ video tapes ___________? 5.. ___________________ men _________________ in the crew? Ex. 1. There´s a lot of free time in the mornings. 4. and THERE’S or THERE ARE in the answers . There’s a lot of fruit in the basket.. _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ no more milk in the jug. just a little. There is another chair in that room 8.. two. 6. There´s a telephone in the room. FEW. no more CDs in the box. ___________________ work _________________ today? 6. There are 30 days in February.. There are very ______________________________ books in the school library. 2.. A short course in english for adult students 29 . just one. There are 8. Use LITTLE. There are more women than men. 1. ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ very little. sir. 10. 9. There are some students absent today. There are some more clean glasses. a lot. very few. ___________________ milk _________________ in the jug? 4.IS THERE? or HOW MANY. There´s a hotel near the Training Center. A LOT in the blank spaces. 8. There´s ____________________________________ milk left in the bottle. some letters for you on the desk. There´s a train for Paris in the morning.. Ej. 9. 6. There are some extra chairs in the room. 5. 10. no milk in it. There´s some more coffee in the cup.. 1. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. several helicopters in the airfield. 2. Change the following sentences into the interrogative form. five or six. 7.. There are a lot of students absent. a lot of mistakes in your composition. 7. 2.: How many dictionaries are there? 1. no time left. There are a lot of people in the room. 5. 3. 10. 8. 4. 6. ARE THERE? in the questions. ___________________ secretaries____________here? 9.. ___________________ doors ________________ in the lab? 3. 3. 2.. There´s some more money in my pocket. Use HOW MUCH.5. Ex. There´s some more meat in the fridge. ___________________ people _______________ in the room?. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. 3. Complete the following questions and answers. ___________________ butter ________________in the dish? 8. There are some more books. 7. 9. ___________________ women_______________ in that group? 10. 7.

2. There isn´t much time to talk./ !ear wóz nou bíar. There´s very little whisky left. How much free time was there during the Basic Training Period? 4. There´s a lot of work in the office today. 1. tickets available. There weren´t many books on the desk. How many students were there in this class last year? 2. There are only a ____________________________ 7. of trees in that park. How many days were there in February that year? 7.. /!ear we:r méni pí:pl æbsent/ Había muchas personas ausentes. Normalmente se usan las contracciones THERE WASN´T /!ear wózent/ THERE WEREN´T /!ear wé:rent/.. PAST TENSE: THERE WAS . /!ear wóznt éni bíar in !e kæn/There was no beer. There are very few people in the pub. of errors in my check. /!ear wé:rnt méni buks on !e désk/ No había muchos libros sobre el escritorio. It´s very sweet. How many people are there on board? 7. of course) 3.. of sugar in my coffee. 2. There are __________________________________ 8. El pasado de THERE IS/THERE ARE se expresa usando THERE WAS /!ear wóz/ / THERE WERE /!ear we:r/ La negación se expresa usando la palabra NOT después de WAS y WERE./No había nada de cerveza en la lata. Are there many errors in the bill? 10. There are two books missing from the shelf. _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ Ex. There wasn´t any beer in the can. 5. 8. lots of cars) . There are __________________________________ 6. Is there enough money for the trip? 6. La interrogación se expresa invirtiendo el orden de las palabras WAS y WERE con la palabra THERE. Escuche. using the information given in parenthesis: 1. Answer these questions.THERE WERE ice in my glass. of noise in this room. Were there many cars in the street at that time? 30 A short course in english for adult students (yes. Was there enough bread for all the people? 5.3. There aren´t many hotels in this town. because it was a leap year) ( Yes. lea y aprenda There was a lot of noise in the room /!ear woz e lot ov nóis in !e rú:m/ Había bastante ruido en la sala. There were many people absent. students absent from class today. There´s ____________________________________ 9. 9. There´s ____________________________________ 5. There are __________________________________ 10. 3. Were there many people at the meeting last Monday? (about 20) (No. more than enough) ( not any) (29. whisky left in the bottle. How much milk is there in the fridge? 4. How many students were there in the laboratory? 6. Was there a TV in the room? / woz !ear e tÍ: ví: in !e rú:m / ¿Había un televisor en la habitación? How many people were there at the party? / háu meni pí:pl we:r !ear at !e pá:rti / (¿Cuánta gente había en la fiesta?).. How much coffee was there? / háu match kófi woz !ear / ¿Cuánto café había? EXERCISES: Ex. Change into the Past Tense: 1. There´s just a_______________________________ B. not more than 30) (very little. There´s very ________________________________ 4.

There is a lot of free time in the evening. How many students ___________________________ 10. eni mó:r réin nekst wi:kend/ How many tests will there be next week? /háu méni tésts wil !ear bí: nekst wí:k/ EXERCISES: Ex. There´ll be some more rain next weekend. /!ear wil not bí: aná!er mí:ti# !is í:vni#/ There won´t be two more tests next week. ______________________________________________________________ 3. There are some women at the meeting. Past or Future). Translate the previous sentences into Spanish. lea y aprenda: There will not be a good program on TV tonight.1. normalmente formando la contracción WON´T /wóunt/. ____________________________________________ 7. ____________________________________________ 8. 31 . /!ear wil not bí: e gud próugram on tí: ví: tunáit/. Escuche. 1. Habrá otra reunión esta tarde. 3. ______________________________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students at the party last Saturday? a lot of noise in this room now. 2. /!earl bí: sám mó:r réin nékst wikénd/. 1. Use the right tense of There To Be (Present. 2. There´ll be another meeting this evening. En las preguntas. not any more exercises in the book now. En la conversación diaria WILL se une con la palabra THERE. 4. 6. How many people are there at the reception? How much money is there in the box? Is there any more work? Are there more than ten students in your class? ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. Change into the future tense. There will not be another meeting this evening.C. ______________________________________________________________ 2. Habrá dos pruebas más la próxima semana. ____________________________________________ 3. Escuche. 5. lea y aprenda: There will be a very good program on TV tonight /!ear wil bí: e véri gud próugram on tí: ví: tunáit/. a lot of noise at the disco last night. ____________________________________________ Ex. 1. ____________________________________________ 4. Habrá algo más de lluvia el próximo semana fin de La forma negativa se expresa usando la palabra NOT después del verbo modal WILL. very few flowers in our garden. ____________________________________________ 6. in your class last year? much milk left. How many women ____________________________ 2. There isn´t any food left in the fridge. Habrá un muy buen programa en la TV esta noche. /!ear wóunt bí: tú: mó:r tests nekst wí:k/ Will there be a good program on TV this evening? /wil !ear bí: a gud próugram on tí: ví: !is í:vni#/ Will there be any more rain next weekend? /wil !ear bí. ____________________________________________ 9. /!ear wil bí: tú: mó:r tésts nekst wí:k/ . 7. FUTURE TENSE: THERE WILL BE El futuro de THERE IS/THERE ARE se expresa con la forma THERE WILL BE /!ear wil bí:/. next time? very little food in the fridge now. There will be two more tests next week. Just one or two bottles. formando la contracción THERE´LL BE /!earl bí:/. /!earl bí: aná!er mí:ti# !is í:vni#/ . How much free time __________________________ 5. several trees in the park now. 3. el verbo modal WILL precede a la palabra THERE.

Answer these questions in English. 9. No había mucha gente en el edificio a esa hora. Había muy poco tiempo libre durante la mañana. ¿Hay un restaurant cerca de aquí? 4. How many days will there be in February next year? 3. 7. No habrá otro concierto hasta la próxima semana. 8. Había muy pocos niños en la calle ese día. 5. 9. 1. No habrá muchos partidos de fútbol este fin de semana. How many eggs are there in a dozen? Ex. How much money is there in your wallet? 10. 12. Will there be another meeting this week? 7. ¿Cuánto dinero hay en la billetera? 5. Translate the following sentences into English 1. Hay mucho ruido en esta sala ahora. Are there any spelling mistakes in the letter? 9. 5. Habrá otra reunión general el próximo viernes. ¿Cuántos autos había en el estacionamiento esa tarde? 10. Había solamente dos hoteles en ese pueblo. 10. 7. How many computers are there in your office? 5. __________________________________________ No. How many days are there in a week? 2.. 11. 3. 8. 6. How many students were there in your class last year? 4. ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ No. __________________________________________ Yes. ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ Ex.4. __________________________________________ No. Was there much work to do in the office last Monday? 8. ___________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ 32 A short course in english for adult students . 6. 2. 4. How many people were there in the room at 8:30? 6. No hay tiempo para conversar.

Las palabras hundred. 3. forty.80 Ex. thousand.. 1 Read and then write these numbers a) 12 h) 597 a) c) e) g) h) i) j) k) l) m) n) b) 56 i) 846 c) 79 j) 1. US$ 4. There are hundreds of / lots of trees in the park.394 e) 33 l) 24. 400 four hundred.285 d) 94 k) 6.” Ej.365. Las palabras twenty. million y billion no se pluralizan en inglés.971 forty-five thousand nine hundred and seventy-one /fórti fáiv "áuzand nain hándred and séventi uán/ Importante: 1.000.387 five thousand. Ej.000 three million. lea y aprenda: 1 one /uán/ 6 six /siks/ 11 eleven /ilévn/ 16 sixteen /sikstí:n/ 20 twenty /tuénti/ 70 seventy /sévnti/ 2 two /tu:/ 7 seven /sévn/ 12 twelve /tuélv/ 17 seventeen /sevntí:n/ 30 thirty /"é:rti/ 80 eighty /éiti/ 3 three /"ri:/ 8 eight /éit/ 13 thirteen /"e:rtí:n/ 18 eighteen /eití:n/ 40 forty /fó:rti/ 90 ninety /náinti/ 4 four /fo:r/ 9 nine /náin/ 14 fourteen /fo:rtí:n/ 19 nineteen /naintí:n/ 50 fifty /fífti/ 5 five /fáiv/ 10 ten /ten/ 15 fifteen /fiftí:n/ 60 sixty /síksti/ 100 one hundred /uán hándred/ 1.875 g) 148 n) 5.973 f) 28 m) 256. 5. two hundred and sixty-five. There are millions of / lots of stars in our galaxy 5. Al escribir cifras en inglés. three hundred and eighty-seven. Ej. 3. Ej. 70.45 km.PART II. 4.265 four hundred and sixty-three thousand.000 one thousand /uán "áuzand/ 200. las palabras thousand.000 two million /tú: mílion/ 5. 365 three hundred and sixty-five. el punto es coma y la coma es punto. Las palabras hundred.362 five thousand three hundred and sixty-two /faiv "áuzand "ri: hándred and síksti tú:/ 45.000 two thousand /tú: "áuzand/ 2. NUMBERS Escuche.000. thousand y million se pluralizan solamente en las siguientes expresiones. etc siempre van seguidas de un guión antes del número unitario. 68 sixty-eight. Ej. 12.5% . twenty-one. 21..000 two hundred thousand /tú: hándred "áuzand/ 200 two hundred /tú: hándred/ 2. There were thousands of / lots of people in the stadium.328 _____________________________________________ b) ________________________________________________ _____________________________________________ d) ________________________________________________ _____________________________________________ f) ________________________________________________ _____________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students 33 . para indicar lo mismo que “lots of. 2. thirty. 32 thirty-two. million y billion no van seguidas de and.000 five thousand. 45 fortyfive. 5. La palabra hundred siempre va seguida de and. 94 ninety-four. 463.687.

grænmá/ father-in-law /fá:!er in ló:/ mother-in-law /má!er in ló:/ son-in-law /san in ló:/ daughter-in-law /dó:ter in ló:/ brother-in-law /brá!er in ló:/ sister-in-law /síster in ló:/ step-father /step fá:!er/ step-mother /step má!er/ step-son /step san/ step-daughter /step dó:ter/ step-brother /step brá!er/ step-sister /step síster/ foster-father /fóster fá:!er/ foster-mother /fóster má!er/ god-father /god fá:!er/ god-mother /god má!er/ papá.BASIC VOCABULARY: Study these words PEOPLE (Personas) GENERAL (General) person /pe:rsn/ people /pí:pl/ child /children /tcháild/tchildrn/ boy /boi/ girl /ge:rl/ persona gente. niños hijo hija hermano hermana tío tía sobrino sobrina primo dad. pequeño/s niño niña man/men /mæn/men/ woman/women /wuman/wímen/ gentleman/gentlemen /dlléntlman/-men/ lady/ladies /léidi/léidiz/ kids /kidz/ hombre/s mujer/es caballero/os dama/as chicos. mummy /mam. mámi/ grandpa /grænpa:/ granny. mami abuelito abuelita suegro suegra yerno nuera cuñado cuñada padrastro madrastra hijastro hijastra hermanastro hermanastra padre adoptivo madre adoptiva padrino madrina 34 A short course in english for adult students . marido esposa. personas niño/s. niños FAMILY AND RELATIVES (La familia y los parientes) grandparents /grandpéarents/ grandfather /grandfá:!er/ grandmother /grandmá!er/ grandchildren /grandtchildren/ grandson /grándsan/ granddaughter /grand dó:ter/ parents /péarents/ husband /házband/ wife /waif/ father /fá:!er/ mother /má!er/ children /tchíldren/ son /sán/ daughter /dó:ter/ brother /brá!er/ sister /síster/ uncle /á#kl/ aunt /a:nt/ nephew /néfiu/ niece /ni:s/ cousin /kázin/ abuelos abuelo abuela nietos nieto nieta padres esposo. dædi/ mom. grandma/græni. mum. daddy /dæd.papi mamá. mujer padre madre hijos.

7. 4. 9.. 2.. A short course in english for adult students 35 . How much milk was there. There are Ex. There is 4. few 8. There won´t be many football games / matches this week end. Are there any more. 8. 3.? 9...? 10..? 7.. are there. There were. there are no spelling mistakes. 5..Is there a restaurant near here.. is there. Will there be any..? 7. It was a leap year. 12.... There is 3... Hay muy poca comida en el refrigerador ahora 6. 1.. 4.. There were only two hotels in that town. 3. There were about 20 . There was very little. There are twelve eggs. There isn´t a.. 4.. There are 7.. is there. are there. Were there 2. There are seven days.. Hay varios árboles en el parque ahora 4.. Hay muy pocas flores en nuestro jardín 9.. There isn´t any more. 4.. computers. There will be another general meeting next Friday.. Ex. 1. 7.. Ex.. Ex. 9...? There are. There isn´t much. Is there any more.. There wasn´t.. How many people will there be. Are there more... There´s 6.. 1. there was a lot of work.? 4. There were.. How many cars were there in the car park that afternoon / evening? 10. a lot 6. 5... ¿Cuántos alumnos había en tu curso el año pasado? 10. 8.? 10. There weren´t any 6. Is there a train.. There were 29. are there.. 2. There weren´t.? Ex.? 4.? There´s.Hay bastante ruido en esta sala ahora.. there aren´t any. 5.? 7.were there 10. are there.. 6. Había bastante ruido en la discoteca anoche 8. There will be a lot.. students.. Are there more than. There´s a lot of noise in this room now.... there won´t be another meeting 7. How many.? There´s. 1.... Was there enough. There was.......... are there..? Ex. There was 8.. 10.There are 10. 3.. 1. There isn´t Ex.. a lot 9.? 6. No hay más ejercicios en el libro ahora 7. There was..... of course. Ex. there were lots of cars. 5. There are 4. How much. There won´t be any. little 3.? There´s. Will there be 5. Is there a hotel.? There are. 2.. There are 9... There´s just one / There are. 1.. How much money is there in the wallet? 5. 7..... There are 7.. is there? There´s. Ex. 4...? 3. 1. 1. 2.. There were. 9. 5. 3. 3. 8. 2.. There weren´t many people in the building at that time... / There are no extra. How much. a lot 5. 1.. How many.? 8.... There´s 3. There are 9.? 6. 6... 8. There are 2.... No.. Will there be more than.. How many. few 7. How many. a lot 10. There was very little free time during the morning.people....? 2. 9..? 6. Yes.. Is there another. 4. 2. How much.. 9.. There were.... How many. 4. little B. 10.. Sólo una o dos botellas. 2. 2.. No. 1. How many. There won´t be another concert until next week. ¿Cuántas mujeres había en la fiesta el sábado pasado? 2. How many people were there... C. 5. there was more than enough. few 2. / No.. There were very few children in the street that day.. 1.. little 4... / There´s no more. 8. 3. There aren´t many. Are there 24. No.. 7. There will be some..KEY TO ANSWERS UNIT 2 Part I A.? There are. Are there any students.. There´s only 25 dollars. 3. Is there much free... 4. There isn´t much money in it.. 3. Ex. How much.. 11.. Yes..There aren´t any extra.. 1.. Were there.. How much money will there be. ¿Cuánto tiempo libre habrá la próxima vez? 5.? 5. 5.? 5..? There are.. is there.... Ex. There´s no central.. There aren´t any more. 2.? There´s... there weren´t more than 30 3.. are there? There are.. There´ll be 28 days. Ex.. There isn´t any more. 1. 2. There aren´t 30. / There are no more. There are 5.. / There´s no more.. There aren´t many. 1.. There is 6... 10. No hay mucha leche sobrante.. Yes. There is 8. 3. 1.. 6.. 6... There is no time to talk..

eight hundred and seventy-five n) five million.Part II. three hundred and twenty-eight. 1. Ex. nine hundred and seventy-three m) two hundred and fifty-six thousand. a) twelve b) fifty-six c) seventy-nine d) ninety-four e) thirty-three f) twenty-eight g) one hundred and forty-eight h) five hundred and ninety-seven i) eight hundred and forty-six j) one thousand. six hundred and eighty-seven thousand. two hundred and eighty-five k) six thousand. 36 A short course in english for adult students . three hundred and ninety-four l) twenty-four thousand.

I have./ How much money have you got? How many brothers and sisters has Bob got? EXERCISES: Ex../ I haven´t got a car.. He´s got one sister and two brothers. It´s got very long ones.... they haven´t./ The rooms have not got central heating. /pí:terz gót. Yes. John _____________________________ a new uniform./ They haven´t got a big house../ They have got a big house... I´ve only got 5 dollars.. /pí:ter hæzent gót. /!e rú:mz hav gót séntral hí:ti#/ (Las habitaciones tienen calefacción central) En la forma negativa se usa HAVE NOT GOT y HAS NOT GOT./ La forma interrogativa se hace por simple inversión del sujeto y HAVE o HAS: Escuche.. they haven´t got one. A short course in english for adult students Yes. (of friends) No. /!ei hav not gót. /!ei hav gót e bíg háus/ They´ve got a big house. /!ei hævent got.... /!e rú:mz hav not gót . HAVE GOT = TENER Esta expresión verbal se usa especialmente en inglés británico ( y solamente en el tiempo presente) para indicar posesión o propiedad./ The rooms haven´t got central heating.. Yes../ Peter hasn´t got many friends. /pí:ter haz not gót./ Has the dog got long ears? /haz !e dóg gót./ Have the rooms got a TV? /hav !e ru:mz got. En el Presente Afirmativo se conjuga de la siguiente manera: I have got /ai hav gót/ You have got /iú: hav gót/ He has got /hi: haz gót/ She has got /shi: haz gót/ It has got /it haz gót/ We have got /wi: hav gót/ You have got /iú: hav gót/ They have got /!éi hav gót/ Escuche./ My dog hasn´t got long ears. lea y aprenda: I have got a car. I haven´t./ Have they got a big house? /hav !ei gót. /mai dógz gót. Hans ____________________________ long black hair ./ Has Peter got many friends? /haz pí:ter gót. tienen) (ellos tienen) Peter has got many friends. tenemos) (uds. es decir. / No. he´s got a lot. /ai hævent gót.. /mai dóg hæzent gót... I´ve got very little (money).1 Complete the following sentences using HAVE GOT or HAS GOT 1.. it has. /ai hav gót e ká:r/ I´ve got a car /aiv gót e ká:r/ (Yo tengo un auto) (Peter tiene muchos amigos) I´ve got /aiv gót/ You´ve got /iu:v got/ He´s got /hi:z gót/ She´s got /shi:z gót/ It´s got /its gót/ We´ve got /wi:v gót/ You´ve got /iú:v gót / They´ve got /!éiv gót/ (yo tengo) (tú tienes) (él tiene) (ella tiene) (él / ella tiene) (nos. /mai dóg haz not gót. significa TENER.UNIT 3 PART I../ My dog has not got long ears... /!eiv gót. /pí:ter haz gót méni fréndz/ Peter´s got many friends./ They have not got a big house. /!e rú:mz hævent gót.. Normalmente se usan las contracciones HAVEN´ T GOT /hævent got/ y HASN´ T GOT /hæzent got/ Escuche../ The rooms have got central heating... lea y aprenda: I have not got a car. They´ve got a small one... But they´ve got a radio... /ai hav not gót.. 3../ (Ellos tienen una casa grande) (Mi perro tiene orejas largas) My dog has got long ears. The soldiers ______________________ a very good instructor./ Peter has not got many friends. /mai dóg haz gót lo# íarz/ My dog´s got long ears. lea y aprenda: Have you got a car? /hav iú gót... 37 .. 2. (ones = ears) No..

My friends ________________________ 9. You´ve got many things to do today. a new blue dress. 3 Change into the interrogative form: 1. 3. 4.? 1. 3. The students have got a new instructor. She´s got blue eyes and black hair. Bob´s got some money. The book _________________________ 6. a lot of money. The house has got a garden. The boy has got black shoes.4. a small house in the country. Have you got any friends in Europe? 7. Ex. 9. 6. 2. Bob´s sister has got a car. 4. 3. They ´ve got very little free time. My friends have got a telephone. a son and two daughters. How much money have you got in your pockets? 2. We´ve got 2 bottles of milk. 2. The students have got some experience.. Ex. Have you got a computer at home? 38 A short course in english for adult students ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ . 10. 8. Has your parents´ house got a garden? 5. Bob´s got five dollars. 5. A car has got four wheels . My flat ___________________________ 10. four wheels. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. They´ve got two cars. 5 Answer these questions: 1. 10. Have you got any brothers or sisters? 10. We´ve got a small classroom. You´ve got your passport here. 4 Ask questions with HOW MUCH. I´ve got some cigarettes. They´ve got a lot of friends there. 4. 2.. They´ve got our telephone number. You´ve got a lighter. 6. two bedrooms. How many rooms has your house got? 8. The flat has got two bathrooms. Has your wife / husband got a car? 4. I´ve got three children.? / HOW MANY. Nancy´s got a computer. 6.. 8. Bob´s got a big family. My father´s got a modern car. 7. We ______________________________ 5. 5. three children.. 7. 9. The car __________________________ Ex. 5. How many children have you got? 3. Have you got a dog or a cat? 6. 200 pages. They´ve got a big family. Bob´s got our address. 2 Change into the negative form 1. I ________________________________ 7. Have you got a big library at home? 9. Mary _____________________________ 8. 7.

son invariables. This is an apple. determinados. There is a tree in the garden There are trees in the garden There are some trees in the garden There are several trees in the garden There are many trees in the garden / An apple (adj) tree A one-dollar (adj) bill One exercise (adj) book A hotel (adj) manager Three apple (adj) trees A five-dollar (adj) bill Ten exercise (adj) books Two hotel (adj) managers 2. las) se usa para referirse a objetos específicos. Ej. /hí: iz an ónest mæn/ (El es un hombre honrado). SEVERAL /séveral/ (varios/as) o MANY /méni/ (muchos/as).PART II. es decir la misma palabra se usa en el singular. EL ARTÍCULO INDEFINIDO A (un. los adjetivos siempre preceden a los sustantivos: Tom is a tall man. /!is iz a búk/ (Este es un libro). /!is iz an æ´pl/ (Esta es una manzana). EL ARTÍCULO DEFINIDO THE (el. Those are trees /!óuz a:r trí:z/ (Esos son árboles). There is a book on the desk. Ej. ARTICLES (I) 1. no específico. los. El artículo A se transforma en AN antes de una palabra iniciada con un sonido vocal o una h “muda”. altos. These are houses. la. /!æts a gé:rl/ (Esa es una niña). El articulo indefinido a/an no tiene plural. plural. Ej. Hay palabras que comienzan con una letra o pronunciada como /w/. That is a tree /!æt iz a trí:/ (Ese es un árbol). This is a house /!is iz a háus/ (Esta es una casa). A. /!æts an órindll/ (Esa es una naranja). Ej. Those are animals /!óuz a:r æ ´nimalz/ (Esos son animales). pero también se pronuncia como una semiconsonante en palabras como uniform /iúnifo:rm/. The books are old. en cuyo caso se trata como semi-consonante. ADJECTIVES En inglés. altas. This is an old car /!is iz an óuld ká:r/ (Este es un auto viejo). Por lo tanto. /!is iz an órindll/ (Esta es una naranja). The women are very tall. Por lo tanto se deber decir: This is an umbrella /!is iz an ambréla/ (Este es un paraguas) y This is a uniform /!is iz a iúnifo:rm/ (Este es un uniforme). masculino o femenino. This is a book. There´s a car in the street. The woman is very tall. /!i:z a:r háusiz/ (Estas son casas). Ejemplo. alta. todos los sustantivos (noun) actúan (noun) como adjetivos (adj) cuando preceden a otro sustantivo. Compare: Show me a photograph (Muéstrame una fotografía) (cualquiera fotografía) Show me the photograph (Muéstrame la fotografía) (una fotografía específica) A short course in english for adult students 39 . The book is old. He is an honest man. Debido a que a / an no tiene una forma para el plural. The man is very tall. En estos casos no deben pluralizarse (porque los adjetivos nunca se pluralizan!!). There are several books on the desk. el adjetivo tall /to:l/ se podría traducir como alto. Compare: This is an orange. Mary is a beautiful woman This is an interesting book That is a big car Además. That´s a girl. Además. /!is iz a wán wei tíkit/ (Este es un boleto de ida). This is a one-way ticket. La letra u se considera vocal en palabras como umbrella /ambréla/. en su lugar se usan normalmente palabras como SOME sam/ (algunos/as). una) se usa para referirse a un artículo cualquiera. Se usa tanto con sustantivos singulares como con plurales. That´s an animal /!æts an æ´nimal/ (Ese es un animal). The men are very tall. That´s an orange. An apple (noun) A dollar (noun) An exercise (noun) A hotel (noun) B. /!éarz a ká:r in !e strí:t/ (Hay un auto en la calle).

2. ________ 31. 13. There is a new student in this class. ________ pencil ________ apple ________ egg ________ envelope ________ umbrella ________ hour ________ honor ________ house ________ banana ________ big banana ________ exercise ________ easy exercise ________ difficult exercise ________ university ________ old university ________ new university 17. 12. ________ 22. 14. 3. 16. I´ve got a question for you. 2. ________ 26. They´ve got an interesting book in the library 8. I haven´t got a cigarette. This is a car. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. This is an interesting novel. There is a student in the laboratory now. 3. There´s a woman in the office. 9. Smith. 10. That man isn´t a teacher. ________ 30. 2. The boy´s got a book in English. 12. ________ car used car modern car young woman old woman one-dollar bill five-dollar bill hotel instrument musical instrument answer question impertinent question usual question unusual question hard lesson Ex. Is that an apple tree or a pear tree? 14. ________ 23. Is that man an engineer? 12. 4. 8. 3. Please show me a photograph. ________ 29. 6. Change the following sentences into the plural. 11. 7. The student has got a new notebook. Change these sentences into the plural. 1. ________ 32. Use the indefinite articles A or AN 1. 7. I´ve got a magazine on my desk.Ex. 5. MANY or SEVERAL 1. 11. Is that woman a nurse? 11. There is a letter for you. ________ 21. 4. 15. 9. use SOME. ________ 20. Mr. ________ 24. There will be an interesting program tonight 6. ________ 28. 10. 9. There´s a textbook on the teacher´s desk. This boy isn´t a new student. There was a car accident last Sunday. Peter´s got a new pen. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 40 A short course in english for adult students . 13. 8. There´s a yellow flower in the garden. 3. ________ 19. That is a picture 2. 5. 7. 13. There´s a tree in the garden. 14. 15. 1. ________ 27. ________ 25. Is this an envelope? 4. 5. 10. ________ 18. 6. I´ve got a friend in San Francisco. I´ve got a coin in my pocket. They´ve got a horse on the farm.

m.21:00) at night /at náit/ (en la noche. please? /wót táim iz it plí:z/ ¿Qué hora es por favor? What´s the time.m. TELLING THE TIME (Diciendo la hora) What time is it. EXERCISES Ex. I. It´s twenty to one 2. It´s five to nine 5. /pi: em/ 24:00 It´s midnight It´s five o´clock in the morning It´s four o´clock in the afternoon It´s seven o´clock in the evening It´s ten o´clock at night A short course in english for adult students 41 .m.m. de 13:00 .m. 04:00 p. A 12:20 08:30 09:45 02:15 07:05 08:55 03:10 04:50 04:00 12:40 06:25 10:35 B C D 1. G. escuche y aprenda: o´clock /oklók/ 01:00 07:15 06:30 09:45 quarter past /kuórter pá:st/ half past /ha:f pá:st/ 05:00 10:15 12:30 03:45 quarter to /kuórter tú:/ It´s one o´clock It´s quarter past seven It´s half past six It´s quarter to ten to /tu:/ It´s five o´clock It´s quarter past ten It´s half past twelve It´s quarter to four minutes to /mínits tu:/ past /pá:st/ minutes past /mínits pá:st/ Nota: La palabra “minutes” generalmente se omite después de 5 o múltipos de 5.PART III. 10:00 p.m. It´s twenty-five to eleven 7.m. Match the times in Column A with the sentences is Column B A. It´s a quarter to ten 11. 05:10 02:40 01:27 07:38 It´s ten (minutes) past five It´s twenty (minutes) to three It´s twenty-seven minutes past one It´s twenty-two minutes to eight. It´s a quarter past two 3.m.m. please? /wóts !e táim plí:z/ ¿Cuál es la hora por favor? It´s ten to eight /its tén tu éit/ Son diez para las ocho Lea. hasta las 12:00) in the afternoon /in !i a:fternú:n/ (en la tarde. /éi ém/ p. /pi: em/ It´s seven o´clock p. J. /ei em/ It´s four o´clock p. It´s ten past three 4. 07:00 p. C. 11:25 09:55 It´s twenty-five (minutes) past eleven It´s five (minutes) to ten midday /míddei/ mediodía noon /nu:n/ mediodía midnight /mídnait/ medianoche a.m. It´s half past eight 9. L. /pi: em/ It´s ten o´clock p. después de las 21:00) 12:00 05:00 a. D. K. de18:00 . It´s ten to five 6. It´s five past seven 8. It´s twenty past twelve 10. H. F.17:00) in the evening /in !i í:vni#/ (en la tarde / noche. B. It´s four o´clock E F G H I J K L It´s midday / It´s noon It´s five o´clock a. E. /pí: ém/ in the morning /in !e mó:rni#/ (en la mañana. It´s twenty-five past six 12. 1.

___________________________________________________________________________________ 11. 12:00 ___________________________________________________________________________________ 15. 01:45 ___________________________________________________________________________________ 18. 08:00 a. 05:25 ___________________________________________________________________________________ 20. 01:15 ___________________________________________________________________________________ 6. 03:25 ___________________________________________________________________________________ 14. 03:20 ___________________________________________________________________________________ 16. 10:14 ___________________________________________________________________________________ 8. 04:00 p. 24:00 ___________________________________________________________________________________ 9. 08:15 ___________________________________________________________________________________ 21. 11:30 ___________________________________________________________________________________ 19. 02:57 ___________________________________________________________________________________ 10. 2. 09:00 ___________________________________________________________________________________ 42 A short course in english for adult students . 09:00 It´s ________________________________________________________________________________ 2. ___________________________________________________________________________________ 13. 03:30 ___________________________________________________________________________________ 4.Ex. 04:35 ___________________________________________________________________________________ 22.m.m. 08:50 ___________________________________________________________________________________ 3. 11:00 p. 11:45 ___________________________________________________________________________________ 5. ___________________________________________________________________________________ 12. 01:38 ___________________________________________________________________________________ 23. Write down the times and read: What time is it? / What´s the time? It´s 8 o´clock 1. 10:05 ___________________________________________________________________________________ 17.m. 10:18 ___________________________________________________________________________________ 24. 09:05 ___________________________________________________________________________________ 7.

atrasado flojo claro. sano pesado. ingenuo soñoliento lento pequeño suave recto extraño estúpido alto grueso delgado sediento diminuto cansado feo disparejo. helado cómodo fresco curvo barato oscuro caro. gratis lleno. sin punta brillante ocupado claro frio. puntiagudo corto.celeste A short course in english for adult students 43 . incorrecto joven COLOURS (Colores) What colour is the car? What colours is the Chilean flag? black /blæk/ white /wait/ green /gri:n/ blue /blu:/ red /red/ brown /bráun/ yellow /yélou/ negro blanco verde azul rojo café amarillo It´s white. leso. plomo morado rosado azul oscuro azul claro. brusco.rk blú:/ light blue /láit blú:/ anaranjado gris. grey /gr i/ purple /pé:rpl/ pink /pi#k/ dark blue /dá. dificil esforzado saludable. precursor fácil vacío parejo. enojado malo grande romo. apreciado profundo dificil opaco. agitado triste agudo. sick /il. no plano temperado ancho. firme gordo tonto. bajo de estatura tonto.contento pobre. completo bueno feliz duro. intenso alto caliente enorme hambriento enfermo. adinerado correcto. fijo. agradable raro. sensato maravilloso equivocado. amplio sabio. indispuesto interesante grande ENGLISH late /leit/ lazy /léizi/ light /lait/ long /lo#/ narrow /nærrou/ new /niu:/ nice /náis/ odd /o:d/ old /ould/ pleased /pli:zd/ poor /púar/ pretty /príti/ rich /ritch/ right /rait/ rough /ra:f/ sad /sæd/ sharp /sha:rp/ short /sho:rt/ silly /síli/ sleepy /slí:pi/ slow /slou/ small /smo:l/ soft /soft/ straight /streit/ strange /streindll/ stupid /stiu:pid/ tall /to:l/ thick /"ik/ thin /"in/ thirsty /"é:rsti/ tiny /táini/ tired /táiard/ ugly /ágli/ uneven /aní:vn/ warm /wo:rm/ wide /waid/ wise /waiz/ wonderful /wánderful/ wrong /ro#/ young /ja#/ SPANISH tarde. fome temprano. impar (números) viejo satisfecho. sik/ interesting /íntresti#/ large /la:dll/ SPANISH airado.liviano largo angosto. leso libre. estrecho nuevo bonito. white and red. orange /órindll/ gray.BASIC VOCABULARY: Study these words ADJECTIVES (Adjetivos) ENGLISH angry /ængri/ bad /bæd/ big /big/ blunt /blant/ bright /bráit/ busy /bízi/ clear /klíar/ cold /kould/ comfortable /kámfortbl/ cool /ku:l/ curved /ké:rvd/ cheap /tshi:p/ dark /da:rk/ dear /díar/ deep /di:p/ difficult /dífikalt/ dull /dal/ early /é:rli/ easy /í:zi/ empty /émti/ even /í:vn/ expensive /ikspénsiv/ fast /fæst/ fat /fæt/ foolish /fúlish/ free /fri:/ full /ful/ good /gud/ happy /hæpi/ hard /ha:rd/ hard-working /há:rd wé:rki#/ healthy /hél"i/ heavy /hévi/ high /hai/ hot /hot/ huge /hiudll/ hungry /há#gri/ ill. par (números) caro rápido. insatisfactorio bonito rico.derecho tosco. It´s blue.

Bl 44 .

? Ex.. 1.. 6.. It´s ten to nine 3. The house hasn´t got.... 10.a 23. 5.... How much free time have they got? Ex. 12.11 L . It´s twelve o´clock / noon 15. 8.9 B . 8. 1. a 29. an 3. There are many women. It´s twelve o´clock / midnight 9. It´s forteen minutes past ten 8. Has the boy got black. Those are pictures 2. How many children have you got? 3..KEY TO ANSWERS UNIT 3 Part I. has got 3.. 3. It´s eighteen minutes past ten 24.. a 10. 1.. Ex. have got 7.an 4.. 1. an 26.5 I . a 18.. It´s quarter to twelve 5. They´ve got horses. Have you got your.? 9. a 15... 3. The boy has got some books. It´s half past three 4..10.. It´s twenty past three 16. How many bathrooms has the flat got? 6. I haven´t got any cigarettes. Those men aren´t teachers 5. 2.F.. Are those apple trees or pear trees? 14..? 5.? 2.. a 25. a 9. 11. Are these envelopes? 4.3 H .. There are some trees... a 11.8 C . I´ve got several magazines.. There are many textbooks... These are cars 3.a 17. 2. It´s four o´clock in the afternoon 12.. 3. These boys aren´t new students 9. 3. has got Ex. My friends haven´t got. How much milk have we got? / How many bottles of milk have we got? 7..1 K .... an 8. There are some new students. It´s quarter past one 6. It´s three minutes to three 10. 13. Please. a Ex. 9. 7. Ex.They haven´t got many friends. a 21. She hasn´t got blue. 1. I haven´t got cigarettes Ex..4 G . We haven´t got a. They´ve got some interesting books. (open answers) Part II. 1. It´s twenty-five to five 22. It´s nine o´clock A short course in english for adult students 45 . Are those men engineers? 12. Bob hasn´t got a. Ex. I´ve got friends in S.. Have you got many.. Have you got a. These are interesting novels 10.. Nancy hasn´t go a. 1... It´s twenty-two minutes to two 23. It´s nine o´clock 2. How much money has Bob got? 5. show me some photographs.? 6... The student has got some new notebooks 14.? 7. an 6... Have the students got a.. / The students have got no experience. There are yellow flowers. How many cars have they got? 2. Are those women nurses? 11. an 32. I´ve got several questions.? 8. There are many students. Has Bob´s sister got a.2 E .. 2.. has got 8. The students haven´t got any experience. Ex. My father hasn´t got a.. 4. Has Bob got any money? 3.. 2.. has got 10.. an 22. an 13.. It´s quarter past eight 21.6 Ex. B. It´s eleven o´clock at night 13. It´s five past ten 17. an 28. 7. an 16. 1. 5. have got 5.. How many wheels has a car got? 4. has got 6. have got 4. It´s twenty-five past three 14. Part III. an 12. There were several car accidents.. It´s five past nine 7. 4.. a 19. a 14. Peter´s got new pens 8. 13.. a 31. Have they got a. an 5. It´s quarter to two 18.. 1.10 D . It´s eight o´clock in the morning 11.? 4.? 10... a 27. 6. a 2. 9. have got 9. 5. a 20. an 7.... It´s half past eleven 19. 6. has got 2.12 J . There will be many new students. Has Bob got our.. A . There are several letters. Have they got our.4. 1. 15. / I´ve got no cigarettes 7.7 F . I´ve got some coins. an 30. It´s twenty-five past five 20. 2. 1.. a 24..

Bl 46 .

según la ortografía usada en la formación del gerundio: Grupo A: Verbos terminados en consonante que agregan -ing al infinitivo: to speak /spi:k/ (hablar) to eat /i:t/ (comer) to work /we:rk/ (trabajar) speaking /spi:ki#/ (hablando) eating /í:ti#/ (comiendo) working /wé:rki#/ (trabajando) Grupo B: Si el infinitivo termina en -e muda. Es conveniente recordar aquí que el gerundio de un verbo principal se forma agregando -ING al infinitivo. +cons. Escuche. Mary´s not working in Room 10 now. /!éi a:r livi# in niu iórk at prézent/ (Ellos están viviendo en N. I am not living with my brother John. TEMPORARILY /temporárili/ (temporalmente). /hé:rberts hævi# lántch at !e móument/ (Herbert está almorzando en este momento) For the time being. esta letra se omite al formar en gerundio: to live /liv/ to write /ráit/ (vivir) (escribir) living /lívi#/ writing /ráiti#/ (viviendo) (escribiendo) Grupo C: Si el infinitivo está formado por consonante+vocal+consonante o cons. They´re not living in New York at present. El uso de las contracciones ISN´T y AREN´T es frecuente en la conversación diaria. lea y aprenda: They´re living in New York at present. Estos tiempos verbales se usan para especificar qué estamos. estoy viviendo con mi hermano John) La forma negativa se expresa usando NOT después del verbo TO BE. They aren´t living in New York at present. /for !e táim bí:i# áim lívi# wi! mai brá!er dllón/ (Transitoriamente. EL TIEMPO PRESENTE CONTINUO (THE PRESENT CONTINUOUS TENSE) Introducción: Los Tiempos Contínuos Son tiempos continuos o progresivos todos aquellos tiempos verbales que se expresan con una forma del verbo TO BE y el GERUNDIO DE UN VERBO PRINCIPAL. Escuche. I´m not living with my brother John A short course in english for adult students 47 . parando) swimming /suími#/ (nadando) EL TIEMPO PRESENTE CONTINUO O PROGRESIVO. Hay tres grupos de verbos. Mary is not working in Room 10 now.UNIT 4 PART I.parar) (nadar) sitting /síti#/ (sentándose) cutting /káti#/ (cortando) stopping /stópi#/ (deteniendo. FOR THE TIME BEING /for !e táim bí: i!/ (mientras tanto. El tiempo Presente Continuo o Progresivo está formado por el Presente del verbo TO BE (AM/IS/ARE) más un GERUNDIO de un verbo principal y se usa para expresar acciones que se están realizando NOW /náu/ (ahora) o AT THIS TIME /at !is táim/ (a esta hora). For the time being. + vocal + cons.transitoriamente). Mary isn´t working in Room 10 now.10 ahora) Herbert´s having lunch at the moment. AT THE MOMENT /at !e móument/ (en este momento). estábamos o estaremos haciendo en un momento determinado.Y. AT PRESENT /at prézent/ (en estos días. /mériz wé:rki# in rúm tén náu/ (Mary está trabajando en la Of. Mary´s working in Room 10 now. la última consonante debe ser duplicada: To sit /sit/ To cut /kat/ To stop /stop/ To swim /suim/ (sentarse) (cortar) (detener. I´m living with my brother John. en la actualidad).. actualmente). Este sufijo se pronuncia /i#/ . lea y aprenda: They are not living in New York at present.

Where is John living at present? What are the children playing? Why are you wearing a sweater? La pregunta más frecuente en este tiempo verbal es: WHAT ARE YOU DOING? /wót ar iú du: i#/ (¿qué estás haciendo?) EXERCISES Ex. fijar/fijando dar/dando ir/yendo ayudar/ayudando invitar/invitando aprender/aprendiendo partir/partiendo. arreglar/arreglando.. ARE) con el sujeto. solicitar/solicitando comprar/comprando cerrar/cerrando venir/viniendo cortar/cortando hacer/haciendo (actividades) beber/bebiendo conducir/conduciendo secar/secando comer/comiendo terminar/terminando reparar/reparando. viviendo mirar/mirando hacer/haciendo abrir/abriendo pagar/pagando jugar/jugando. IS.La forma interrogativa se expresa mediante simple inversión del verbo TO BE (AM. lea y aprenda: Are they living in New York at present? Is Mary working in Room 10 now? Are you living with your brother John? Am I doing the exercise correctly? Aren´t they living in New York at present? Isn´t Mary working in Room 10 now? Aren´t you living with your brother John? Aren´t I doing the exercise correctly? Cuando deseamos formular preguntas introducidas por una palabra interrogativa como What. When. tocar/tocando (un instr. Escuche. Where. etc.) poner/poniendo leer/leyendo recibir/recibiendo . The children are playing soccer. lea y aprenda estos verbos: INFINITIVE To answer /á:nser/ To arrive /erráiv/ To ask /a:sk/ To ask for /a:sk fo:r/ To buy /bái/ To close /klouz/ To come /kam/ To cut /kat/ To do /du:/ To drink /dri#k/ To drive /dráiv/ To dry /drái/ To eat /i:t/ To finish /fínish/ To fix /fiks/ To give /giv/ To go /gou/ To help /help/ To invite /inváit/ To learn /le:rn/ To leave /li:v/ To listen to /lísn tu/ To live /liv/ To look at /luk at/ To make /meik/ To open /óupn/ To pay /pei/ To play /pléi/ To put /put/ To read /ri:d/ To receive /risí:v/ 48 A short course in english for adult students GERUND answering /á:nseri#/ arriving /erráivi#/ asking /á:ski#/ asking for /á:ski# fo:r// buying /báii#/ closing /klóuzi#/ coming /kámi#/ cutting /káti#/ doing /dú:i#/ drinking /drí#ki#/ driving /dráivi#/ drying /dráii#/ eating /í:ti#/ finishing /fínishi#/ fixing /fíksi#/ giving /gívi#/ going /góui#/ helping /hélpi#/ inviting /inváiti#/ learning /lé:rni#/ leaving /lí:vi#/ listening to /lísni# tu/ living /livi#/ looking at /lúki# at/ making /méiki#/ opening /óupni#/ paying /péii#/ playing /pléii#/ putting /púti#/ reading /rí:di#/ receiving /risí:vi#/ SPANISH responder/respondiendo llegar/llegando preguntar/preguntando pedir/pidiendo. En las preguntas negativas se usan las contracciones ISN´ T / AREN´ T delante del sujeto. 1. debemos mantener el mismo orden de palabras usado en las preguntas simples. dejar/dejando escuchar/escuchando vivir. Escuche. lea y aprenda: John is living in New York at present. How. Escuche. How often. I am wearing a sweater because it´s cold.

/ Reading letters/the newspaper /rí:di# létez/!e niuzpéiper/ Working in the office /wé:rki# in !i ófis/ Talking with friends /tó:ki# wi! fréndz/ Leaving the office /lí:vi# !i ófis/ Doing the shopping /dú:i# !e shópi#/ Buying the paper/cigarettes /báii# !e péiper/sígaréts/ Watching TV /wótchi# tí: ví:/ Listening to the news/to the radio /lísni# tu !e niú:z/réidiou/ Writing to a friend /ráiti# tu e frénd/ Calling up a friend /kóli# áp e frénd/ Playing cards/soccer /pléii# kárdz/sóker Walking to the park /wó:ki# tu !e pa:rk/ Running across the park /ráni# akrós !e pá:rk/ Doing exercise /dú:i# éksersaiz/ Working out /wérki# áut/ Visiting a museum /víziti# a miu:zíam/ Studying for a test /stádii# for e tést/ Washing the car /wóshi# !e ká:r/ Cleaning the house /klíini# !e háus/ Making the bed /méiki# !e béd/ Tidying up the room /táidii# áp !e rú:m/ Cooking a meal /kúki# a mi:l/ Preparing some drinks /pripéari# sam drí#ks/ Going to bed /góui# tu béd/ levantándose tomando un baño/una ducha vistiéndose desayunando/almorzando/cenando yendo a casa/al trabajo/a la oficina yendo en auto a casa/trabajo/of. leyendo cartas/el diario trabajando en la oficina conversando con amigos saliendo de la oficina haciendo las compras comprando el diario/cigarrillos mirando TV escuchando las noticias/la radio escribiendo a un/a amigo/a llamando a un/a amigo/a (por fono) jugando cartas/football caminando al parque corriendo a través del parque haciendo ejercicio (gimnasia) visitando un museo estudiando para una prueba lavando el auto limpiando la casa haciendo la cama ordenando el cuarto cocinando una comida preparando algunos tragos acostándose A short course in english for adult students 49 .comenzar/comenzando permanecer/permaneciendo (quedarse) estudiar/estudiando tomar/tomando. intentar/intentando esperar/esperando caminar/caminando lavar/lavando observar/observando usar/usando (ropas) trabajar/trabajando. lea y aprenda estas actividades frecuentes: Getting up /géti# ap/ Having a bath/a shower /hævi# e ba:"/e sháuer/ Getting dressed /géti# drést/ Having breakfast/lunch/dinner /hævi# brékfast//lantch/díner/ Going home/to work/to the office /góui# hóum/tu we:rk/tu !i ófis/ Driving home/to work/to the office /dráivi# hóum/tu we:rk/tu !i ófis/. funcionar/funcionando escribir/escribiendo Ex.contar/contando (narrar) pensar/pensando.llevar/llevando conversar/conversando decir/diciendo. creer/creyendo viajar/viajando tratar de/tratando de. Escuche.To rain /réin/ To run /ran/ To say /séi/ To sell /sel/ To send /send/ To sing /si#/ To sit /sit/ To sleep /sli:p/ To speak /spi:k/ To spend /spend/ To start /sta:rt/ To stay /stéi/ To study /stádi/ To take /téik/ To talk /to:k/ To tell /tel/ To think /"i#k/ To travel /trævel/ To try to /trái tu/ To wait for /weit fo:r/ To walk /wo:k/ To wash /wosh/ To watch /wotch/ To wear /wéar/ To work /we:rk/ To write /ráit/ raining /réini#/ running /ráni#/ saying /séii#/ selling /séli#/ sending /séndi#/ singing /sí#i#/ sitting /síti#/ sleeping /slí:pi#/ speaking /spí:ki#/ spending /spéndi#/ starting /stá:rti#/ staying /stéii#/ studying /stádii#/ taking /téiki#/ talking /tó:ki#/ telling /téli#/ thinking /"í#ki#/ travelling /træveli#/ trying to /tráii# tu/ waiting for /wéiti# fo:r/ walking /wó:ki#/ washing /wóshi#/ watching /wótchi#/ wearing /wéari#/ working /wé:rki#/ writing /ráiti#/ llover/lloviendo correr/corriendo decir/diciendo vender/vendiendo enviar/enviando cantar/cantando sentarse/sentándose dormir/durmiendo hablar/hablando gastar/gastando. 2.pasar/pasando (tiempo) empezar/empezando.

4. Mr. The children are watching TV 2. They ___________________________ (work out) Ex. 8. 9. He__________________________ the grass. The students _________________________ to school now. (wait) 4. 5. The students are writing a composition. Why. 3. (listen) 2. etc. 1. (arrive) 7. Bill´s answering the phone. Mary´s eating an apple now. (work) 5. John and his friends are watching TV.They´re looking at the horses. The cadet´s sleeping in class. There are several students in the gym. 12. 2. (cut) 12. George is travelling by plane. (spend) 9. 8. Ask questions using questions word like What. They __________________________ the weekend in Miami. 7. Our friends___________________________ Disney World today. Change into a) negative and b) interrogative 1. 1. 4.The men are running now. They´re living in Bristol at present. The girl´s washing the dishes. Mary __________________________ as a secretary.I´m trying to open the window. It´s raining very hard now. using the Present Continuous tense of the verb provided. 4. For the time being. 10. 6. 12. 3. 11. 7. You ___________________________ the exercises well now. I´m helping John with the work 5. 5.Ex. The boy´s singing an English song. We´re making a lot of progress. I´m answering a letter. You´re doing the exercise correctly. Where. The dog´s drinking milk. 6. (visit) 6. 11. (do) 8. 3. John´s having breakfast now. I´m singing because I´m happy. There´s a man in the garden. I______________________________ to the news at the moment. He isn´t working because it´s Sunday. The train_____________________________ at the station at this time. Complete the following sentences. 10. Look! The bus ___________________________ over there! (come) 10. Smith ____________________________ for the bus. 9. The students are reading a story. Listen! Those children ____________________________ Spanish! (speak) 11. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 50 A short course in english for adult students . Billy´s wearing the new sweater. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. (go) 3.

of course! Robert : Well.. And Jim´s in his room. And Betty´s in the kitchen. too. Bob! Where ______ you ____________? ( go) To the post office. Where´s Billy? He´s in his room. Why ______n´t you ____________ (drive) your car? It´s in the garage. 6. he isn´t. Hans Bob Hans Bob 2. Study them and practise them with a friend: 1. He ____________ (sleep). Robert : Where are the children? Mary : Billy ____________ (watch) TV in the living-room. Complete the dialogs using the verbs provided in the Present Continuous tense. What ______ he ___________?(do) I don´t think he ____________(sleep).Ex. I think she ____________ (cook) dinner. he ____________ (plan) to study engineering. Mary : Great! Let´s do that.then. Jane Peter Jane Peter Jane Peter : : : : : : : : : : Hello. They ____________ ( fix) the brakes. He ____________ (study) for a test. 3. A short course in english for adult students 51 . I ___________ (go) there. let´s go for a walk. you know. He ______ always ____________ ! (study). No. That´s why he ___________ (do) so well at school this year Well.

Jane´s birthday is on the twenty-fifth of June /dlléinz bé:r"ei is on !e tuénti fíf" ov dllú:n/. May the first. First /fé:rst/ 2nd Second /sékond/ 3rd Third /"é:rd/ 4th Fourth /fó:r"/ 5th Fifth /fif"/ 6th Sixth /six"/ 7th Seventh /séven"/ 8th Eighth /éit"/ 9th Ninth /náin"/ 10th Tenth /tén"/ Escuche. and Autumn /ó:tom/ (or Fall /fó:l/) Otoño There are seven days in a week. además de usarse para indicar orden o lugar de precedencia. Jane´s birthday is on June the twenty-fifth /dlléinz bé:r"ei is on dllú:n !e tuénti fíf"/ (El cumpleaños de Jane es el 25 de Junio) 11th 12th 13th 14th 15th 16th 17th 18th 19th 20th Eleventh /iléven"/ Twelfth /tuélf"/ Thirteenth /"e:rtí:n"/ Fourteenth /fortí:n"/ Fifteenth /fiftí:n"/ Sixteenth /sikstí:n"/ Seventeenth /seventí:n"/ Eighteenth /eití:n"/ Nineteenth /naintí:n"/ Twentieth /tuéntie"/ 21st 22nd 23rd 24th 25th 26th 27th 28th 29th 30th 31st Twenty-first /tuénti fé:rst/ Twenty-second /tuénti sékond/ Twenty-third /tuénti "é:rd/ Twenty-fourth /tuénti fó:r"/ Twenty-fifth /tuénti fíf"/ Twenty-sixth /tuénti síks"/ Twenty-seventh /tuénti séven"/ Twenty-eighth /tuénti éit"/ Twenty-ninth /tuénti náin"/ Thirtieth /"értie"/ Thirty-first /"é:rti fé:rst/ 52 A short course in english for adult students . The days of the week are: Monday /mándi/ Tuesday /tiú:zdi/ Wednesday /wénzdi/ Lunes Martes Miércoles Thursday /"é:rzdi/ Friday /fráidi/ Saturday /sæ ´terdi/ Jueves Viernes Sábado Sunday /sándi/ Domingo Monday is the first (primer) day of the week. I was born on August the fifteenth. "áuzand tú:/. Tuesday is the second (segundo) day. lea y aprenda The date today is Wednesday the first of May. Los números ordinales son: 1st. Friday is the fifth (quinto) day. o también. Summer /sámer/ Verano. se usan para expresar fechas. o también. TIME AND DATES day /déi/ día week /wí:k/ semana month /man"/ mes year /yíar/ año season /sí:zn/ estación There are 365 days /déiz/ in a year. nineteen seventy-five /ai woz bó:rn on ó:gast !e fiftí:n" náintin séventi fáiv/ (Yo nací el 15 de Agosto de 1975). Spring /spri#/ Primavera. and Thursday is the fourth (cuarto) day. The months of the year are: January /dllæniuari/ February /fébruari/ March /má:rtch/ April /éiprl/ May /méi/ June /dllú:n/ Enero Febrero Marzo Abril Mayo Junio July /dllulái/ August /ó:gast/ September /septémber/ October /októuber/ November /nouvémber/ December /disémber/ Julio Agosto Septiembre Octubre Noviembre Diciembre There are four seasons /sí:zonz/ in a year: Winter /uínter/ Invierno. nineteen seventy-five /ai woz bó:rn on !e fiftí:n" ov ó:gast náintin séventi fáiv/. two thousand two /!e déit tudéi iz wénzdi !e fé:rst ov méi tú. Ordinal Numbers: Los números ordinales. The date today is Wednesday. and the sixth (sexto) day is Saturday. o también. A.PART II. two thousand two /!e déit tudéi iz wénzdi méi !e fé:rst tú. The third (tercer) day of the week is Wednesday. "áuzand tú:/ (La fecha de hoy es Miércoles primero de Mayo de 2002) I was born on the fifteenth of August. The seventh (séptimo) and last (último) day of the week is Sunday. There are 52 weeks /wí:ks/ in a year /jíar/ There are twelve months /mán"s/ in a year.

1956 13.28.EXERCISES Ex. 10. How many months are there in a year? 14.27.2000 6. Answer the following questions: 1.1987 12. 18.09. 04. When was your father born? 3. What are the seasons of the year? 7.1492 14. nineteen ninety-nine ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ Ex.1810 8. 10. What day is today? 4.03. What´s the first month of the year? 11.03.01. Write the following dates.1978 9. 05.1906 4.2003 The twelfth of September.1963 2. How many days are there in a week? 6.2001 7. What´s your favo(u)rite season? 8. 06.1900 5. as in the examples: 1. How many hours are there in a day? 15. 05.1956 15.05. 02.1999 11.02. 12. What´s the last month of the year? 13. 12. What are the months of the year? 10. 01.08.1938 3.07. What´s the date today? 5. When´s our Independence Day? ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students 53 .09.11.12. 18. 07.12. When is your birthday? 2.1893 10. 2. 08. 1. nineteen sixty-three ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ April the thirtieth.30. What´s the third day of the week? 12. 02. What are the days of the week? 9. When is New Year´s Day? 16.

? /háu wel/ How heavy. triangular /traiængiular/ triangular. lea y aprenda ENGLISH How old? /háu óuld/ How tall? /háu to:l/ How far? /háu fa:r/ How long? /háu ló#/ How high? /háu hái/ How fast? /háu fæst/ How deep? /háu di:p/ How thick? /háu "ik/ How wide? /háu wáid/ How big.? /hau hévi/ What color? /hwot kólor/ What size? /hwot sáiz/ What shape? /hwot shéip/ What is /are.200 mt... habrá advertido. oval /óuval/ ovalado light /láit/ liviano heavy /hévi/ pesado. light /láit/ claro 54 A short course in english for adult students . big /big/ grande huge /hiu:dll/ enorme tiny /táini/ diminuto. young /ya#/ joven old /ould/ viejo.. round /ráund/ redondo. Study these words: Nouns age /éidll/ edad length /le#"/ longitud width /wi"/ anchura thickness /"iknis/ grosor distance /dístans/ distancia speed /spí:d/ velocidad depth /dep"/ profundidad height /háit/ estatura. rectangular /rektængiular/ rectangular. away How long is the river? It´s 85 km. high How fast is the train moving? At about 90 k/h How deep is the lake? It´s 120 mt. square /skwear/ cuadrado. How high is that hill? It´s about 1.. Nota importante: Como Ud.? /háu big?/ How well. thin /"in/ delgado distant /dístant/ distante..láik/ SPANISH ¿Qué edad? ¿Qué estatura? ¿Qué distancia? ¿Qué longitud? ¿Qué altura? ¿Qué velocidad? ¿Qué profundidad? ¿Qué espesor / grosor? ¿Qué anchura / ancho? ¿Cuán grande? ¿Cuán bien? ¿Cuánto pesa? ¿Qué color? ¿Qué tamaño / talla? ¿Qué forma? ¿Cómo es / son.) para describir objetos. shallow /shælou/ poco profundo tall /tó:l/ alto. narrow /nærrou/ angosto thick /"ik/ grueso. dark /da:rk/ oscuro. wide How big is the house? It has got five rooms How well do you drive? I drive very well How heavy is the box? It weighs 5 kilos What color is the car? It´s light blue What size is this shirt? It´s extra large What shape is a football? It´s round What is the house like? It´s very comfortable What are the rooms like? They´re very small What´s Mary like? She´s very nice and friendly. Question Words (1) Describing people and things Escuche. Iz /a:r..70 meters tall How far is the airpòrt? It´s about 20 km. short /sho:rt/ corto wide /wáid/ ancho. slow /slóu/ lento deep /dí:p/ profundo.like?* /wot. etc. En castellano normalmente se usa el verbo tener: How old are you? I am 35 = ¡Que edad tiene Ud? Yo tengo 35 Ex. new /niú:/ nuevo long /lo#/ largo. 1. altura size /saiz/ tamaño.? (Descripción de cosas) (Descripción de personas en cuanto a su carácter) EXAMPLE How old are you? I´m 21 years old How tall are you? I´m 1. viejo. en inglés se debe usar el verbo BE (am/is/are/was/were.. long. thick How wide is the road? About 15 mt. talla shape /shéip/ forma weight /wéit/ peso Adjectives old /ould/ anciano.. low /lóu/ bajo small /smó:l/ pequeño. short /shó:rt/ bajo de estatura high /hái/ alto.. deep How thick is that wall? It´s about 40 cm.B. nearby /níarbai/ cercano fast /fa:st/ veloz....

DAYS OF THE WEEK (Días de la semana) Monday /mándi/ Tuesday /tíu:zdi/ Wednesday /wénzdi/ Thursday /"e:rzdi/ Friday /fráidi/ Lunes Martes Miércoles Jueves Viernes Saturday /sæ´te:rdi/ Sunday /sándi/ Sábado Domingo Nota: En Inglés. UNITS OF TIME (Unidades de tiempo) second /séknd/ minute /mínit/ hour /áuar/ day /dei/ week /wi:k/ segundo minuto hora día semana month /mán"/ season /sí:zon/ year /íar/ century /séntchuri/ mes estación. temporada año siglo 2. A short course in english for adult students 55 .000.000th 1.000th ORDINAL NUMBERS (Números ordinales) first /fé:rst/ primero second /séknd/ segundo third /"é:rd/ tercero fourth /fo:r"/ cuarto fifth /fif"/ quinto sixth /siks"/ sexto seventh /sévn"/ séptimo eighth /éit"/ octavo ninth /náin"/ noveno tenth /tén"/ décimo eleventh /ilévn"/ décimo primero twelfth /twelf"/ décimo segundo thirteenth /"e:rtí:n"/ décimo tercero fourteenth /fo:rtí:n"/ décimo cuarto fifteenth /fiftí:n"/ décimo quinto sixteenth /sikstí:n"/ décimo sexto seventeenth /sevntí:n"/ décimo séptimo eighteenth /eití:n"/ décimo octavo nineteenth /naintí:n"/ décimo noveno twentieth /twéntie"/ vigésimo twenty-first /twénti fé:rst/ vigésimo primero twenty-second /twénti séknd/ vigésimo segundo thirtieth /"é:rtie"/ trigésimo thirty-first /"é:rti fé:rst/ trigésimo primero fortieth /fó:rtie"/ cuadragésimo fiftieth /fíftie"/ quincuagésimo sixtieth /síkstie"/ sexagésimo seventieth /sévntie"/ septuagésimo eightieth /éitie"/ octogésimo ninetieth /naintie"/ nonagésimo one hundredth /wan hándre"/ centésimo one thousandth /wan "áuznd"/ milésimo one millionth /wan mílion"/ millonésimo TIME AND DATES (Tiempo y Fechas) 1.000 one thousand /wan "áuznd/ mil 1.000.000 one million /wan mílion/ un millón 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th 7th 8th 9th 10th 11th 12th 13th 14th 15th 16th 17th 18th 19th 20th 21st 22nd 30th 31st 40th 50th 60th 70th 80th 90th 100th 1. los días de la semana y los meses del año siempre se escriben con mayúsculas.BASIC VOCABULARY: Study these words: NUMERALS (Numerales) CARDINAL NUMBERS (Números cardinales) 1 one /wan/ uno dos 2 two /tu:/ 3 three /"ri:/ tres 4 four /fo:r/ cuatro 5 five /faiv/ cinco 6 six /siks/ seis 7 seven /sévn/ siete 8 eight /eit/ ocho nueve 9 nine /nain/ 10 ten /ten/ diez 11 eleven /ilévn/ once 12 twelve /twélf/ doce 13 thirteen /"é:rtí:n/ trece 14 fourteen /fortí:in/ catorce 15 fifteen /fiftí:n/ quince 16 sixteen /sikstí:n/ dieciséis 17 seventeen /sevntí:n/ diecisiete 18 eighteen /eití:n/ dieciocho 19 nineteen /naintí:n/ diecinueve 20 twenty /twénti/ veinte 21 twenty-one /twénti wán/ veintiuno 22 twenty-two /twénti tú:/ veintidós 30 thirty /"é:rti/ treinta 31 thirty-one /"é:rti wán/ treinta y uno 40 forty /fó:rti/ cuarenta 50 fifty /fífti/ cincuenta 60 sixty /síksti/ sesenta 70 seventy /sévnti/ setenta 80 eighty /éiti/ ochenta 90 ninety /náinti/ noventa 100 one hundred /wan húndrid/ cien 1.

3. two thousand one) He was born on January 26th. 2001 (the second of May. MONTHS OF THE YEAR (Meses del año) January /dllæniuari/ February /fébruari/ March /ma:rtch/ April /éiprl/ May /mei/ June /dllu:n/ 5. 1957 (January the twenty-sixth. SEASONS OF THE YEAR (Estaciones del año) summer /sámer/ verano autumn / fall/ó:tm/ /fó:l/ otoño 4. DATES (Fechas) Today is Monday. nineteen fifty-seven) Enero Febrero Marzo Abril Mayo Junio July /dllulái/ August /ó:gast/ September /septémber/ October /októuber/ November /nouvémber/ December /disémber/ Julio Agosto Septiembre Octubre Noviembre Diciembre winter /wínter/ spring /spri#/ invierno primavera 56 A short course in english for adult students . 2nd May.

The girl isn´t washing the dishes / Is the girl washing the dishes? 6. What are the men doing now? 11.? 10.. John isn´t having breakfast now / Is John having breakfast now? 3. Saturday and Sunday. April. New Year´s day is on the first of January. What´s Mary eating now? 2. May.. June. October. Our Independence Day is on September the eighteenth A short course in english for adult students 57 . / Are the students writing.? 12... How´s George travelling? 7.. 5.? 8. nineteen seventy-eight 9..? 7. fourteen ninety-two 14. 1. 9.. 16. 5.? Ex. The fifth of May. The dog isn´t drinking milk / Is the dog drinking milk? 11. June the third two thousand three Ex. November and December 10. is my favority season.. February the twenty-eighth.. are working out Ex. The eighteenth of September. 4. nineteen fifty-six 15.. October the twelfth. Bill isn´t answering the phone / Is Bill answering the phone? 4. Friday. The tenth of August. am listening 2.. 2. There are twelve months in a year 14.going Hans : am going / are . Hans: are . 8. is arriving 7.. Jane: is .. I´m not helping John. March.. The twelfth of March... What are you trying to do? 12. He was born on. is coming 10. nineteen hundred 5... What are John and his friends doing? 3. You aren´t doing the exercises.. Spring. The boy isn´t singing.. Why isn´t he working? 8. The first of January. 1. are visiting 6. / Is the cadet sleeping. 1. The third day of the week is Wednesday 12. What are the students reading? 6. July the second. is working 5. eighteen ten 8. September. two thousand one 7... It isn´t raining. / Is it raining. / Are we making much. eighteen ninety-three 11.. The eighteenth of July. Which sweater is Billy wearing? 9.. Summer and Autumn / Fall 7.. are doing 8. The students aren´t writing. 1.. There are twenty-four hours in a day 15.. 4. 1. The days of the week are Monday. Where are they living at present? 4... 6. 3.driving Bob: are fixing 2. The months of the year are January. nineteen oh six 4.. are going 3.doing / is sleeping Peter: is studying Jane: is . nineteen thirty-eight 3. / Is the boy singing. There are seven days 6. / Am I helping John. The fifth of December.. 1.. The second of November. / Are you doing the exercises. two thousand 6.The first month of the year is January 11.. is cutting 12.. The children aren´t watching TV / Are the children watching TV? 2. We aren´t making much. The seasons of the year are Winter. July. 2. Mary: is watching / is cooking / is sleeping Part II Ex. is waiting 4. 2.? 9. 3. The last month of the year is December 13... What are you doing? 5.? 5.studying / is doing Peter: is planning . February..KEY TO ANSWERS UNIT 4 Part I Ex.. Why are you singing? 10. are spending 9.. Wednesday. Today´s. What are they looking at? Ex. nineteen eighty-seven 12. nineteen fifty-six 13. Thursday.3. are speaking 11. August. It´s on. The cadet isn´t sleeping. The date today is.. August the twenty-seventh. Tuesday.

Bl 58 .

Escuche. the boy. usually /íushuali/ (usualmente).UNIT 5 PART I. /ai spí:k spæ ´ nish évri déi/ (Yo hablo español todos los días) We go to the beach every summer. /!e sékretri ánserz !e télifoun/ (La secretaria contesta el teléfono) The bus stops here. etc. /wi: góu tu !e bí:tch évri sámer/ (Nos. hardly ever /há:rdli éver/ (casi nunca).changes /tchéindlliz/. Son adverbios de frecuencia: always /ó:lwiz/ (siempre). Es importante destacar aquí que en el Presente Simple afirmativo no se usa el verbo modal DO/DOES (está tácito). /!e bás stóps híar/ (El bus para aquí) ´terdi/ (Bob lava el auto los sábados) * Bob washes the car on saturday. three times /"ri: táimz/ (tres veces). a week /e wi:k/ (a la semana). /dllón stádiz fréntch on fráidi mó:ni#/ John estudia francés los viernes en la mañana)** The sun rises in the east. sometimes /sámtaimz/ (a veces). persona del singular (he. etc. You and I. /hi: spí:ks spæ´nish and í#glish wel/ (El habla español e inglés bien) The secretary answers the telephone. The secretary does not answer the telephone/Does the secretary answer the telephone? Escuche. seldom / séldom/ (raramente). -ge sólo agregan -s en la tercera persona del singular. ** Los verbos terminados en -y precedida de consonante transforman dicha letra en -ies : study . it). el SUJETO (I. Si la -y está precedida de vocal se agrega -s: play /plei/. /ai ófn sí: méri at !e kláb/ (Yo a menudo veo a Mary en el club) They always come here on Saturday. /!e stiúdents pléi sóker wáns e wi:k/ (Los alumnos juegan fútbol una vez a la semana) Cuando el sujeto es tercera persona del singular (he. a month /e mán"/ (al mes). *** Los verbos regulares terminados en -se. “ The secretary answers the telephone” estamos diciendo “The secretary does answer the telephone”.studies. it. como every day /évri déi/ (todos los días). every morning /évri mó:ni#/ (todas las mañanas). watches /wótshiz/. etc.rises /ráiziz/. generally /dllénerali/ (generalmente). Las expresiones de tiempo que más se usan en este tiempo verbal son aquellas que llevan la palabra EVERY /évri/. The students. Cuando decimos “I speak Spanish every day” estamos diciendo “I do speak Spanish every day”. several times /sévral táimz/ (varias veces). sino que con qué frecuencia ocurren las acciones indicadas por el verbo). /bób wóshiz !e ka:r on sæ My wife watches TV in the evening. Los verbos have. change /tchéindll/ . /dllón tchéidlliz !e bátriz wáns e mán"/ (John cambia las baterías una vez al mes) *** Notas: En la 3ra. se deben considerar las siguientes reglas: * Los verbos terminados en -s. seguidas de las frases a day /e déi/ (al día). se debe agregar una -s o -es al verbo principal. lea y aprenda: I speak Spanish every day.También son frecuentes en este tiempo verbal los adverbios de tiempo formados por once /wáns/ (una vez). En la forma afirmativa. -ch-. Esto se comprueba cuando queremos expresar oraciones negativas o interrogativas: I do not speak Spanish every day/Do I speak Spanish every day?. Cuando decimos. the telephone. You. y go tienen las siguientes formas en la 3ra.) va seguido por el INFINITIVO de un verbo principal. lea y aprenda: He speaks Spanish and English well. never /néver/ (nunca).vamos a la playa todos los veranos) I often see Mary at the club. -sh. pero ese sufijo se pronuncia /iz/ y pasa a ser una sílaba más: rise /ráiz/ . do. Las expresiones que llevan la palabra every habitualmente van ubicadas al final de la oración. mientras que los adverbios de frecuencia van ubicados siempre antes del verbo principal. she. many times /méni táimz/ (muchas veces). o -z deben agregar -es al verbo. twice /twáis/ (dos veces). Persona del singular: has /hæz/. /dllón pléiz téniz évri fráidi a:fternú:n/ (John juega tenis todos los viernes en las tardes)** John studies French on Friday morning. EL TIEMPO PRESENTE SIMPLE (THE SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE) Este tiempo se usa para expresar acciones que ocurren a diario. en forma habitual. -ce. -x.). she. does /daz/. often /ófn/ ( a menudo). plays /pléiz/. También se usan con este tiempo los ADVERBIOS DE FRECUENCIA (que no indican cuando. /mai wáif wótchiz tí: ví: in !i í:vni#/ (Mi mujer mira TV en las tardes) * John plays tennis every Friday afternoon. A short course in english for adult students 59 . /!éi ólwiz kám híar on sæ´terdi/ (Ellos siempre vienen acá los sábados) The students play soccer once a week. Este sufijo plural se pronuncia /iz/ y es una sílaba más: washes /wóshiz/. goes /góuz/.etc. every weekend /évri wikénd/ (todos los fines de semana). /!e sán ráiziz in !i í:st/ (El sol aparece en el este) *** John changes the batteries once a month. rarely /réarli/ (rara vez).

WHERE. HOW MUCH. se debe usar do / does en las negaciones e interrogaciones). We don´t have lunch /dóunt hæv lántch/ at school every day.En la forma negativa se debe usar el verbo modal DO /du/ seguido de la palabra NOT (normalmente formando la contracción DON¨T /dóunt/ ) más el infinitivo del verbo principal. Do your friends have /du ior fréndz hæv/ a new car?. Escuche. En la tercera personal del singular se debe usar DOES /dáz/ seguido de NOT (normalmente formando la contracción DOESN´T /dáznt/ ) más el Infinitivo del verbo principal (sin agregar -s / -es). como en to have breakfast (desayunar). Escuche. My friends have a new car My friends don´t have a new car Mary has many friends in Canada Mary doesn´t have many friends in Canada = = = = My friends have got a new car. Mary has got many friends in Canada.. Do we go /du wi góu/ to the beach every summer?. The students play soccer every day. lea y aprenda: I speak Spanish every day. Does your wife watch /dáz ior wáif wótch/ TV in the morning?. por lo tanto necesita el verbo modal do / does en las negaciones e interrogaciones. o to have a good time (pasarlo bien. comer. Recuerde que en inglés británico genertalmente se prefiere usar la expresión have got / has got (Ver Unit 3). WHEN. divertirse). En las preguntas negativas se deben anteponer las contracciones DON´ T / DOESN´ T.?) 60 A short course in english for adult students . My friends haven´t got a new car. He does not speak /daz nót spí:k/ English well. Para expresar interrogaciones debemos anteponer los verbos modales DO/DOES al sujeto. The students don´t play /dóunt pléi/ soccer every day. Cuando deseamos formular preguntas introducidas por palabras interrogativas como WHAT. beber. Cuando se usa el verbo to have para expresar la idea de servirse. Does the bus stop /dáz !e bás stóp/ here?. Doesn´t Mary work /dáznt méri wérk/ on Saturday?. My wife watches TV in the morning. We don´t go /dóunt góu/ to the beach every summer. The bus doesn´t stop /dáznt stóp/ here. etc. My wife doesn´t watch /dáznt wótch/ TV in the morning. Bob doesn´t change /dáznt tchéindll/ the batteries once a month. debemos mantener el mismo orden usado en las interrogaciones simples. Mary hasn´t got many friends in Canada. He speaks English well. We go to the beach every summer. Mary has many friends in Canada. Do the students play /du !e stiú:dents pléi/ soccer every day?. Does Mary have /dáz méri hæv/ many friends in Canada?. Does Bob change /dáz bob tchéindll/ the batteries once a month?. Do you have lunch /diu hæv lántch/ at school every day?. lea y aprenda: What language do you speak at home? /wót læ#guidll diú spí:k at hóum/ When do they go to the beach? /wén du !ei góu tu !e bí:tch/ Where does the bus stop? /wéar daz !e bás stóp/ Why does John change the batteries every month? /wái daz dllón tchéindll !e bæteriz évri mán"/ La pregunta más habitual en este tiempo verbal es : WHAT DO YOU DO? /wót diu dúu/ (¿Qué hace ud. Bob changes the batteries once a month My friends have a new car. I do not speak /du: nót spí:k/ Spanish every day. Does he speak /dáz hi: spí:k/ English well?. My friends don´t have /dóunt hæv/ a new car. Don´t you speak /dóunt iu spí:k/ Spanish at home?. o experimentar. lea y aprenda: Do you speak /diu spí:k/ Spanish every day?. Mary doesn´t have /dáznt hæv/ many friends in Canada. The bus stops here. Nota: El verbo to have (tener) es un verbo principal. HOW. We have lunch at school every day. Escuche.

Complete the conjugation of the following verbs: Affiirmative a. Study the following expressions of time: Every Monday /évri mándi/ Every Tuesday /évri tiú:zdi/ Every Wednesday /évri wénzdi/ Every Thursday /évri "é:rzdi/ Every Friday morning /évri fráidi mó:ni#/ Every Saturday afternoon /évri sæte:rdi aftenún/ Every Sunday evening /évri sándi í:vni#/ Every morning /évri mó:ni#/ Every afternoon /évri afternún/ Every evening /évri í:vni#/ Every day /évri déi/ Every night /évri náit/ Every week /évri wi:k/ Every month /évri mán"/ Every year /évri yiar/ Once a day /wáns e déi/ Twice a week /twáis e wiik/ Three times a year /"ri: táimz e yíar/ Several times a month /sévrl táimz e mán"/ Always /ó:lweiz/ Frequently /fríkwentli/ Usually /iúshuali/ Generally /dllénerali/ Sometimes /sámtaimz/ Often /ófn/ Rarely /réarli/ Hardly ever /hárdli éver/ Seldom /séldom/ Never /néver/ In the summer /in !e sámer/ In the autumn/fall /in !i ó:tom /fo:l/ In the winter /in !e wínter/ In the spring /in !e spri#/ Todos los lunes Todos los martes Todos los miércoles Todos los jueves Todos los viernes en la mañana Todos los sábados en la tarde. I watch TV after dinner You __________________________ Bill ___________________________ Ann __________________________ We __________________________ They _________________________ Negative I don´t work here every day You ________________________ Bill _________________________ Ann ________________________ We _________________________ They _______________________ I don´t watch TV after dinner ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ Interrogative Do I work here every day? ______ you _______________ _______ Bill _______________ ______ Ann _______________ _______ we _______________ ______ they _______________ Do I watch TV after dinner? __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? A short course in english for adult students 61 . Todos los domingos en la tarde Todas las mañanas Todas las tardes (13:00 .TIME EXPRESSIONS (I) EXERCISES Ex. I work here every day You __________________________ Bill ___________________________ Ann __________________________ We __________________________ They _________________________ b. 1.21:00) Todos los días Todas las noches Todas las semanas Todos los meses Todos los años Una vez al día Dos veces a la semana Tres veces al año Varias veces al mes Siempre Frecuentemente Usualmente Generalmente A veces A menudo Raramente Casi nunca Rara vez Nunca En el verano En el otoño En el invierno En la primavera Ex. 2.17:00) Todas las tardes (18:00 .

The manager generally _______________ the office after 8:00 p. (read) 5. _________________________________________________ _______________________________________________ ? _______________________________________________ ? _________________________________________________ _______________________________________________ ? _______________________________________________ ? 62 A short course in english for adult students . 2. (speak) 10. Myriam________________________the floor once or twice a week. (arrive) 8. (watch) Ex. (get up) 2. I play tennis on Saturday You __________________________ Bill ___________________________ Ann __________________________ We __________________________ They _________________________ e. (eat) 12. 3. My wife and I often ___________________________ in that restaurant. (play) 6.c. We seldom ________________________ to the North in the summer. They live near here. (have) 4. Then translate them into Spanish.m. b) interrogative. (go) 3. I ____________________________breakfast at 7:15 every morning. John _____________________ the newspaper on the train every day. (wash) 9. The train ___________________ in London at 7:50 every morning. (leave) 11. The children _____________________ at this time every morning. (optional) 1. Complete the following sentences using the Simple Present Tense of the verbs given in parentheses. I never __________________________________Spanish at school. Mr Smith ______________________ TV after dinner every evening. 4. You __________________________ Bill ___________________________ Ann __________________________ We __________________________ They _________________________ g. Peter _________________ bridge with his friends every Friday night. I go to the movies every night You __________________________ Bill ___________________________ Ann __________________________ We __________________________ They _________________________ d. The students sometimes ______________________ rugby at school. Mary likes to drink coffee with milk. I have dinner at work. I do the exercises well You __________________________ Bill ___________________________ Ann __________________________ We __________________________ They _________________________ I don´t ______________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ Do I ______________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? Ex. and c) Wh-questions: 1. I study English every day You __________________________ Bill ___________________________ Ann __________________________ We __________________________ They _________________________ f. (play) 7. Change the following sentences into a) negative.

2. WHEN. 6. 7. How many legs has a dog got? _________________________________________________ 4. They play golf twice a week. How often does your English teacher use the VCR in class? _________________________________________________ 9. She usually sleeps six hours every night. Ask questions using wh-words like WHAT. They go to the park on Sunday. What do you do after dinner every evening? _________________________________________________ 7. They have two cars. 10. They get up at 7:15 every morning. 4. What´s he doing? _________________________________________________ 3. 5. Peter does everything well. Ex. 7. The children are in the park. They don´t like the car because it´s too small. The bus leaves at 7:45 5. Answer these questions in English: 1. 14. 6. 10. 1.3. We go to the club on Friday. WHERE. Bob always drinks beer. Mary goes shopping on Saturday. They need twenty dollars. 6. 3. Peter watches TV every night. Ex. 8. etc. 8. 13. Mary comes to work by bus. John goes to Pucón in the summer. What are they doing? _________________________________________________ 6. HOW. 9. Are there any trees in your garden? _________________________________________________ 5. How many weeks are there in a year? _________________________________________________ 2. 11. They work out every morning. That man speaks German. 12. 9. Bob is in the office. She lives near Wimbledon. He walks to work because he hasn´t got a car. The students need more practice. Where do you usually spend your summer vacation? _________________________________________________ 10. When does a person go to see a doctor? _________________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? A short course in english for adult students 63 . They have two cars now. 5. _________________________________________________ _______________________________________________ ? _______________________________________________ ? _________________________________________________ _______________________________________________ ? _______________________________________________ ? _________________________________________________ _______________________________________________ ? _______________________________________________ ? _________________________________________________ _______________________________________________ ? _______________________________________________ ? _________________________________________________ _______________________________________________ ? _______________________________________________ ? _________________________________________________ _______________________________________________ ? _______________________________________________ ? _________________________________________________ _______________________________________________ ? _______________________________________________ ? _________________________________________________ _______________________________________________ ? _______________________________________________ ? 4. How much free time is there in an intensive course? _________________________________________________ 8. They come here twice a week.

My grand parents ________________________ in a very small apartment. 9. Look! It __________________________ to rain! Let´s go inside. Rice ___________________________________ in Britain. 3. Why ____________ you ______________________ English now? Are you planning to go to the USA? (study) 19. 10. Listen! Somebody _______________________ the piano upstairs. My brother Jim __________________________ in Boston at present. (watch) 4.m and _____________________ at 6:30 p. Look at that man. 2. The swimming pool _________________________at 9:00 a. Put the verb into the correct form. 2. Why ____________ you always ____________________ home so late every night? (Get) 20. Who can it be? (play) 17. (wear) 64 A short course in english for adult students . I don’t understand this sentence. Complete the sentences using one of the following: cause(s) open(s) close(s) speak(s) 1. (work) 2. 5. You must always speak to him in English. Look! John __________________________ over there. I never ___________________________ coffee. 7. (understand) 16. What _____________________________________(this word / mean)? Ex. 5. Ex. (not / drink) What time _________________________________in Britain? (banks / close) A: Where __________________________________from? (Martin / come) B: He’s Scottish. 6. 4. Use one of the following verbs to complete these sentences. 8. The secretary generally _________________________the office at 7:30 every evening. 1. (take) How long __________________ you? (it / take) I ___________________________the piano (play) but I ______________________ it very well (not / play). An atheist ____________________________________ in God. An interpreter ______________________________________ from one language into another. The sun _____________________________________ in the east. 4. What _________________ the boy ___________________at the moment? (do) 11. 6. 6. Vegetarians _______________________________________ meat. The Olympic Games ___________________________every four years. He ______________ not ________________ Spanish. (begin) 12.m. Tom _____________________________ as a mechanic. 3. He ___________________________ a green uniform. drink(s) live(s) take(s) place Ann __________________________ German very well. Sometimes you need the negative: believe eat go flow make rise grow tell translate 1. Janet _______________________________ tea very often. 7. (do / watch) 14. We ________not ___________________ anything special right now. A: What __________________________________? (you / do) B: I’m an electrical engineer. (come) 6. The bar _______________________ at 6:45 and _____________________at 10:30 every day. (Review) Use the Present Continuous or the Simple Present. Scott ____________________________ the news on TV at the moment. 3. (go) 5. 8. Ex. Mary __________________________ to visit us once or twice a month. A liar is someone who ____________________________________ the truth. We seldom _______________________ to the coast in the winter. Where ________________ they _____________________at present? (live) 9. 5. The River Amazon _____________________________ into the Atlantic Ocean. It __________________________me an hour to get to work. We_______ just ____________ TV. The earth _____________________________________ round the sun. He must be a police officer. 2. For the time being. 7. Where ________________ they usually _________________ in the summer? (go) 10. of the verb given in parentheses: 1. every day. Bob! What _____________you _______________ there now? (do) 15. (leave) 3. (work) 8. Bad driving __________________________ many accidents. (open / close) 13.Ex. 4. Mr. Hello. (come) 7. What ___________ you ______________________ doing when you are at home? (like) 18. 9. Bees __________________________________ honey.

Wilson (sit) ______________________ at the breakfast table. They (play) ____________________________ with their toys instead. He (drink) _________________________ two cups of coffee every morning before he (go) to work. There´s a cartoon on TV now. She (read) ________________________ the morning paper. Right now I´m in class and I (sit) _______________________ at my desk. They (like. you) __________________________________ sometimes? A short course in english for adult students 65 . She usually (walk) _______________________________instead.He (speak) _________________________ Arabic. (Review) Complete the sentences by using the Simple Present or the Present Continuous of the verbs provided. _________________much in the South in the winter? 8. She (eat) _________________________________ dinner. Alice (take. (Rain. 5. not) __________________right now. not) __________________________ TV either. but this morning they (pay. Mr and Mrs Wilson (watch. (Take. The sun (shine) ________________ and the sky (be) ___________blue. Black´s at home. it). not ) __________________________ to watch cartoons. 10.m. not) ____________________________ any attention to the TV. it) ______________________ now? Should I take my umbrella? 9. They usually (watch) _____________________ cartoons in the morning. Look out of the window. 3. not) ____________________________ the bus to work every day. but right now he (speak) _____________________English. 11. (Rain. Mr Wilson (pour) ____________________________________ a cup of coffee. It (rain. She always (eat) ______________________ dinner with her family around six o´clock. It´s 7 o´clock now. It´s 7:30 a. 4. 6. I usually (sit) _______________________ at the same desk in class every day. Arabic is his native language. Our teacher (stand. Mrs. 2. you) _______________________ the bus to get to work every day. but the children (watch. 7. Mrs. He (sleep) __________________ for ten hours every night. not) _____________________up right now. 1. Mustafa comes from Saudi Arabia . or (walk. Shhh!! The little boy (sleep) _____________________ . She (read) ____________________________ the newspaper every morning. now and the Wilsons are in their kitchen.Ex. He (sit)_______________on the corner of his desk. not) ___________________________________ it.

PART II.
A. QUESTION WORDS. (II) Study the following list of interrogative words
ENGLISH What? /wot/ Who? /hu:/ Which? /witch/ When? /wen/ Why? /wai/ Where? /wéar/ How? /hau/ Whose? /hu:z/ Whom? /hu:m/ How much? /háu mátch/ How many? /háu méni/ How often? /háu ófn/ How long? /háu long/ What time? /wot táim/ What kind of? /wot káind ov/ What sort of? /wot sort ov/ Where...from?* /wéar ..from/ Where...to?* /wéar .. tu/ Who...with?* /hu:...wi$/ Who...about?* /hu: .. abáut/ Who...for?* /hu:.. for/ What...for?* /wot...for/ What...with?* /wot...wi$/ What... about?* /wot...abáut/ What...at?* /wot...at/ What do /does...look like?
/wót du /daz...lúk láik/

SPANISH ¿Qué? ¿Cuál / es? ¿Quién / es /? ¿Cuál / es? ¿Cuándo? ¿Por qué? ¿Dónde? ¿Cómo? ¿De quién? ¿A quién? ¿Cuánto / a? ¿Cuántos / as? ¿Con qué frecuencia? ¿Cuánto tiempo? ¿Qué hora? ¿Qué clase / tipo de? ¿Qué clase / tipo de? ¿De dónde? ¿Hacia dónde? ¿Con quién? ¿Acerca de quién? ¿Para quién? ¿Para qué? ¿Con qué? ¿Acerca de qué? ¿Hacia qué? ¿Cómo es/son...? (Descripción de personas - físico)

EXAMPLE What is that? ; What do you want to eat? What ´s your name?; What´s your opinion? Who is that man?; Who wants to play? Which book is mine? Which car do you like best? When is your birthday? When do you watch TV? Why is Tom absent today? Why are you leaving? Where is Mr Smith? Where do you live? How are you today? How do you feel today? Whose is that car? Whose address do you need? Whom did you see? To whom is Bob speaking? How much money is there in the wallet? How many students are there in your class? How often do you play tennis? How long does the program last? What time is it? At what time do you get up? What kind of books do you like to read? What sort of programs do you watch on TV? Where are they from? Where are you going to? Who do you practice golf with? Who are they talking about? Who is this letter for? What is this for? What do you use a knife for? What do you take photographs with? What are they talking about? What are you looking at? What does Betty look like? She´s tall and thin.

Nota:

Muy a menudo, las preguntas que comienzan con PREPOSICIÓN + WHOM / WHAT / WHERE, normalmente trasladan la preposición al final. Ejemplos: From where is she? = Where is she from?; About what are they talking? = What are they talking about?; With whom will you go? = Who will you go with? (Al trasladar la preposición, whom vuelve a ser who)

Ex. 1. Ask the corresponding wh-question for each of the following answers 1. Susan is very thin and has got blue eyes. 2. They need twenty-five dollars. 3. Ann likes apples, oranges and pears 4. We go to the South in the summer. 5. Mr Jackson gets up at 6:45 every morning. 6. My friends come from San Diego, California 7. Jack visits his parents twice a month. 8. The boys usually talk about football. 9. The boy sometimes wears his father´s shoes 10. It takes me about 20 minutes to get there. 11. I go there three times a week. 12. Bob plays golf with his boss on Sunday. 13. Mr Jenkins writes about his trips round the world. 14. They look at the stars with the telescope. 15. We take photographs with a camera. 16. I like Mary because she´s very friendly.
66
A short course in english for adult students

_________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________

? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?

17. 18. 19. 20.

Mr Williamson usually travels by plane. Ann writes detective stories. The students go to the gym after lunch. Bob goes to bed early when he´s tired.

_________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________

? ? ? ?

B. ARTICLES (II) El artículo definido THE se usa para referirse a sustantivos determinados o específicos y se usa con sustantivos singulares o plurales, es decir, se traduce como el, la, los y las . El artículo indefinido A/AN se usa con sustantivos singulares no determinados ni específicos. Ejemplos: The secretary works in the laboratory every day. The secretaries work in the laboratory every day The book which I want is on the table. The books which I want are on the table. Lea y compare: I need a dictionary. (Necesito un diccionario) (general) That is a car. (Ese es un auto) (general) I need the dictionary which is on the shelf. (Necesito el diccionario que está sobre la repisa) (específico) That is the car which I like best. (Ese es el auto que me gusta más) (específico) No se debe usar ningún artículo con los suntantivos incontables (water, milk, money, experience, happiness, etc) o sustantivos plurales (books, cats, students, people, men, etc.) cuando estamos refiriéndonos a ellos en forma general. Pero sí debemos usar el articulo definido the cuando nos referimos a sustantivos en forma particular o específica. Lea y compare: General Water is good for the health. Gold is an important metal. Books are expensive in Chile. Girls work harder than boys. Específico The water in this glass is not clean. The gold in this ring is of good quality. The books on that shelf are very expensive The girls in this group work very hard.

Ex. 1. Supply the definite article (the), where necessary, in the following: Example: __________ fresh air is good for the health. (Fresh air is good for the health). 1. ______________ air in this room is not good. 2. ______________ history is an interesting subject. 3. We are studying ______________history of France. 4. We have ______________ good light in our classroom. 5. ______________ light in this room is not good. 6. I always drink ________________water with my meals. 7. ______________ water in this glass is dirty. 8. ______________ leather in these shoes is very good. 9. We get ________________ leather from the skins of animals. 10.We all need _______________fresh air. 11. ______________ air in large cities is not very fresh. 12. We like _________ animals. 13. ______________ animals in that photograph are wild animals. 14. We eat _______________ meat almost every day. 15. ______________ fish in the refrigerator is fresh. 16. ______________ children like to watch cartoons. 17.Do you sell ____________ stamps here?
A short course in english for adult students

67

18.I like collecting _______________stamps and ______________ coins 19. ___________stamps and ______________ coins in this collection are interesting. 20.Mr.Jones has got _____________English books and magazines. ____________ magazines are very easy to read. C. PRONOMBRES RELATIVOS WHO Y WHICH 1. Cuando queremos especificar acerca de qué persona, animal o cosa estamos hablando, debemos usar las pronombres relativos WHO o WHICH. Ambas palabras se traducen en español con la palabra QUE. En inglés, el pronombre relativo WHO se usa con las personas, mientras que con los animales y las cosas debemos usar WHICH.. Lea los siguientes ejemplos: The man who is talking with John is an engineer. The people who are waiting outside the theater want to buy tickets for the concert. This is the book which we use in class. The dog which is in the garden is a cocker spaniel. 2. Normalmente el relativo which se omite cuando precede a un nombre o pronombre: This is the book which we use in class. This is the book we use in class.

3. Las frases who is/are y which is/are generalmente se omiten en oraciones como las que se expresan a continuación The book which is on the desk is a bilingual dictionary. I don´t know the man who is in Mr. Smith´s office. The woman who is crossing the road is my wife. The plane which is flying over the city is a spy plane. The women who are wearing a white uniform are nurses. The cars which are imported from Japan are really good. The men who are trained at our school are good pilots. Ex. 1 Fill in the blanks with WHO or WHICH: 1. The girl _____________________ is with him is his sister. 2. The book ___________________ I want is on the table. 3. The man ___________________ is driving the car is my father. 4. Is this the camera __________________ you are planning to buy? 5. Is that the bus __________________ goes to the airport? 6. The chair on ________________ I am sitting is very comfortable. 7. John is the student_________________ speaks English well. 8. The books __________________ are listed in that catalogue are in English. 9. Is it Mr Williamson _________________ wants to see the manager? 10. The magazine __________________ is on the sofa is a sports magazine. 11. The movie __________________ is on at the Rex today is very good. 12. Is this the newspaper __________________ you read every day? 13. Are these the envelopes __________________you need? 14. The people ____________________ are described in the story are very interesting. 15. The men ___________________ are working in that room are engineers. 16. Are these the boys ___________ study with you? 17. The man ___________________ is walking down the road is the postman. 18. Is this the computer __________ you use every day? 19. Do you know the woman _____ is coming over there? 20. That is exactly the car ________ I would like to have. (I would like = me gustaría) ! ! ! ! ! ! ! The book on the desk is a bilingual dictionary. I don´t know the man in Mr. Smith´s office. The woman crossing the road is my wife. The plane flying over the city is a spy plane. The women wearing a white uniform are nurses. The cars imported from Japan are really good. The men trained at our school are good pilots.

68

A short course in english for adult students

Ex. 2. Translate the sentences in the previous exercise into Spanish. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________

Ex. 3, Rewrite the sentences in Ex. 1, omitting the relative pronoun WHICH, or the word groups WHO IS/ ARE o WHICH IS/ARE whenever it is possible, as in the example: 1. The girl with him is his sister 2. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 3. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 4. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 5. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 6. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 7. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 8. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 9. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 10. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 11. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 12. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 13. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 14. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 15. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 16. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 17. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 18. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 19. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 20. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ Ex. 4. Translate the following sentences into English. Underline the word(s) which can be omitted in everyday conversation. 1. El hombre que está conversando con Mary es el Dr. Smith. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 2. Los libros que están sobre esa silla son míos. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 3. El libro sobre el que ellos están conversando es un best-seller. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 4. Las personas que están trabajando en esa oficina son ingenieros. ______________________________________________________________________________________________
A short course in english for adult students

69

5. Ella es la secretaria que trabaja con el Profesor Stephens. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 6. Este es el bus que nos lleva al trabajo todas las mañanas. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 7. Estos son los libros que nosotros usamos en las clases de inglés. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 8. ¿Conoces tú al hombre que está trabajando en el laboratorio de idiomas? ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 9. Los zapatos que nosotros fabricamos son de muy buena calidad. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 10.¿Es este el computador que usted quiere comprar? ______________________________________________________________________________________________

70

A short course in english for adult students

BASIC VOCABULARY : Study these words
CLOTHES /klou(z/ Vestuario suit /siu:t/ coat /kout/ jacket /dllæket/ trousers /tráuserz/ shirt /shé:rt/ T-shirt /ti: shé:rt/ tie /tái/ sweater /suéter/ hat /hæt/ socks /sóks/ shoes /shu:z/ boots /bu:ts/ gloves /glavz/ umbrella /ambréla/ scarf /ská:rf/ belt /belt/ glasses /glá:siz/ earring /íarri#/ sunglasses /sanglá.siz/ fur coat /fé:r kóut/ swimsuit /swimsiut/ trunks /tránks/ traje abrigo chaqueta pantalones camisa polera corbata suéter sombrero soquetes zapatos botas guantes paraguas bufanda cinturón lentes aro, arete lentes para sol abrigo de piel traje de baño traje de baño dress /dres/ blouse /bláuz/ skirt /ské:rt/ raincoat /réinkout/ cardigan /ká:rdigan/ handkerchief /hændkertchi:f/ stockings /stóki#z/ briefs /bri:fs/ cap /kæp/ galoshes /gæloshiz/ sneakers /sní:kerz/ sandals /sændalz/ waistcoat /wéiskout/ slip /slip/ kerchief /ké:rtchi:f/ bracelet /bréislet/ wrist watch /rístwotch/ finger ring /fí#ger ri#/ parka /pá:rka /, anorak /ænorak/ leather jacket /lé!er dllákit/ necklace /néklis/ vestido blusa falda impermeable chaleco de lana pañuelo medias calzoncillo gorra galochas zapatillas sandalias chaleco de terno enagua pañuelo brazalete reloj pulsera anillo parka chaqueta de cuero collar

A short course in english for adult students

71

72 A short course in english for adult students .

.. You don´t go to the movies..... They don´t work here... Bill has dinner at work....watches Ex... You study English every day Bill studies English... They don´t play tennis.... /Does Bob always drink. We don´t do the exercises......? Do they watch TV. They don´t live...?/ What time does the bus leave? 5. We don´t play tennis.go 3.? Does Bill play tennis....? Do we work here..? What language does that man speak? 6... /Do they live ... /Does that man speak.... Ann doesn´t study English....?/ What does Peter do every night? 4. You have dinner at work.? Does Bill study English. They don´t have dinner.. Bill doesn´t go to the movies. They study English........?/ When do they work out? 7... You don´t play tennis..? Does Bill go to the movies. Bill doesn´t study English....... /Do they work out.... They don´t do the exercises. 3. You do the exercises well Bill does the exercises well Ann does the exercises well We do the exercises well They do the exercises well Negative You don´t work here.?/ Where do they live? 3.eat 12.... 1..? Does Ann study English. Ann doesn´t watch TV..... Affirmative You work here every day Bill works here every day Ann works here every day We work here every day They work here every day You watch TV after dinner Bill watches TV after dinner Ann watches TV after dinner We watch TV after dinner They watch TV after dinner You go to the movies every./ What does Mary like to drink? 2....... Bob doesn´t always drink.? Do you study English......... 1... You play tennis on Saturday Bill plays tennis.? Does Ann go to the movies.speak 10... You don´t study English... They don´t study English... We go to the movies... They don´t go to the movies..? Does Ann work here.........KEY TO ANSWERS UNIT 5 Part I Ex.. Bill doesn´t watch TV. We don´t have dinner........ Ann doesn´t play tennis... Ann doesn´t work here..? Does Bill watch TV. Ann has dinner at work...? Do we watch TV.? Do you watch TV... We don´t watch TV....... Ann doesn´t go to the movies... Interrogative Do you work here.? Do you have dinner at work? Does Bill have dinner at work? Does Ann have dinner at work? Do we have dinner at work? Do they have dinner at work? Do you do the exercises well? Does Bill do the exercises well? Does Ann do the exercises well? Do we do the exercises well? Do they do the exercises well? Ex... /Does the bus leave...? Do they work here... They go to the movies..? Do we play tennis...? Do they study English.washes 9.. We have dinner at work.. They play tennis.? Does Ann play tennis...leaves 11. Peter doesn´t watch.have 4... They don´t watch TV. We don´t work here....? Do you play tennis.. /Does Peter watch. Ann goes to the movies.. Bill doesn´t do the exercises. /Do A short course in english for adult students 73 ...? Do you go to the movies... That man doesn´t speak.? Do we go to the movies.. We don´t go to the movies.arrives 8. We study English..... You don´t have dinner...... /Does Mary like...? Do we study English. Ann doesn´t have dinner.. You don´t watch TV.. You don´t do the exercises.. They don´t work out. We don´t study English. Ann plays tennis. They don´t have. Ann studies English. 4.? Does Ann watch TV.plays 7..... Bill doesn´t play tennis. 2. We play tennis..get up 2. The bus doesn´t leave.?/ What does Bob always drink? 8..? Does Bill work here....? Do they go to the movies.. They have dinner at work..reads 5... Bill goes to the movies.play 6... Bill doesn´t work here..? Do they play tennis. Ann doesn´t do the exercises. Mary doesn´t like.. Bill doesn´t have dinner......

causes 5. 1. stamps 18.. They don´t come. That is exactly the car which I would like to have. How much money do they need? 3. English books / The magazines C. doesn´t tell 9.?/ How does Peter do everything? 10. fresh air 11.don´t play 7. 2. is watching 4. speaks 2. How does Mary come to work? 7. does-understand 16. translates 8. 12... is eating/eats 6. meat 15. is not standing/is sitting 5. 9. play . is playing 17. What does Mr Jenkins write about? 14.The men who are working in that room are engineers. Where do the students go after lunch? 20.. live 6.. 5. How many cars do they have now? 12. He hardly ever/never uses it. What kind of stories does Ann write? 19. Is it Mr Williamson who wants to see the manager? 10. There are fifty-two weeks in a year. What do the boys usually talk about? 9. Do you know the woman who is coming over there? 20. 7. Who does Bob play golf with on Sunday? 13. is beginning 12. What do the students need? 5. 1. opens . is sitting / is reading / reads / is pouring / drinks / goes / are not watching / are playing / watch / are not paying / are not watching / don´t like 10. He/she goes to see a doctor when he/ she is sick Ex.closes 4. How long does it take you to get there? 11. The magazine which is on the sofa is a sports magazine 11. 1.coins 19. are-doing 15. How often does Jack visit his parents? 8. The leather 9. 1. Are these the boys who study with you? 17.they have.. The chair on which I am sitting is very comfortable 7. I usually watch TV /read a book/ etc. The man who is driving the car is my father 4.. How often do they play golf? 3. He´s working 3. takes/does it take 6. good light 5. The girl who is with him is his sister 2. the history 4. Is this the camera which you are planning to buy? 5. Ex. Does it rain 8. When do you go to the club? 8. John is the student who speaks English well.?/ How often do they come here? Ex. 1. The light 6. rises 4. doesn´t drink 2. animals 13. is sleeping/sleeps 2. How many hours does she usually sleep every night? Ex.?/ How many cars do they have? 9. 8. The book which I want is on the table 3. The animals 14. is not raining / is shining / is 7. When does Bob go to bed early? B. There is very little free time 8. Children 17. leather 10. 1. do the banks close 3. do-go 10. Is that the bus which goes to the airport? 6. Is this the newspaper which you read every day? 13. History 3. does Martin come 4. 1. is wearing Ex. make 5. /Do they come.. What does Mary do on Saturday? 10. do you do 5. 11. 1. I usually spend my summer vacation in. drink 3. Where does John go in the summer? 6. are-studying 19. The man who is walking down the road is a postman 18. don´t eat 6. speaks/is speaking 4. 10. are-living 9. 1. The air 12. is working 2. 1. comes 7. 74 A short course in english for adult students . Where do your friends come from? 7. 6. They´re playing /running/ etc. Is it raining 9. 1. What do they do on Sunday? 9. The water 8. The fish 16.water 7. The air 2.. Ex. 9. A. The movie which is on at the Rex today is very good. At what time does Mr Jackson get up every morning? 6. Yes. 10. go 5. flows Ex. Why does he walk to work? 13 Why don´t they like the car? 14.the coins 20. 15. 8. How does Mr Williamson usually travel? 18. What kind of fruit does Ann like? 4. Ex. /Does Peter do. Peter doesn´t do. am sitting/sit 3. does this word mean? Ex. How much money do they need? 11. 7. The stamps . What does Susan look like? 2. do-get 20. are-doing/are-watching 14. take place Ex. Where does she live? 2. isdoing 11. What do they look at with the telescope? 15. It´s got four legs 4.. there are some trees/No. 1. is coming 6. The people who are described in the story are very interesting. 1. does not take / walks / Do you take / do you walk Part II. opens-closes 13. leaves 3. 6.. The books which are listed in that catalogue are in English 9. doesn´t believe 7. 16. there aren´t any trees 5.. stamps . What do you take photographs with? 16. At what time do they get up every morning? 4. Why do you like Mary? 17. goes 2. Whose shoes does the boy sometimes wear? 10. doesn´t grow 3. How often do you go there? 12. Where do you go in the summer? 5. Are these the envelopes which you need? 14. do-like 18. is working 8. Is this the computer which you use every day? 19.

The men working in that room are engineers. John es el alumno que habla inglés bien. Do you know the man who is working in the language laboratory? 9. 15. 2. John is the student who speaks English well. 16.The people who are working in that office are engineers. ¿Es este el diario que ud. These are the books which we use in the English lessons 8. 12. The man driving the car is my father 4. Is this the camera you are planning to buy? 5. 1. ¿Es esta la cámara que estás planeando comprar? 5. La silla sobre la que estoy sentado es muy comfortable 7. ¿Son estos los sobres que ud. usa todos los días? 19. The books listed in that catalogue are in English 9. 5. lee todos los días? 13. Ex. Is that the bus which goes to the airport? 6.18. 3. El hombre que está conduciendo el auto es mi padre 4. The book I want is on the table 3. 8. The shoes which we make are of very good quality. ¿Conoces a la mujar que viene allá? 20. 1. The magazine on the sofa is a sports magazine 11. The girl with him is his sister 2. La revista que está sobre el sofá es una revista deportiva 11. ¿Es ese el bus que va al aeropuerto? 6. La niña que está con él es su hermana 2. Is this the newspaper you read every day? 13. 16. Is this the computer which you want to buy? A short course in english for adult students 75 . Las personas que están descritas en el cuento son muy interesantes. Williamson quien quiere ver al gerente? 10. The man who is talking with Mary is Dr Smith. Do you know the woman coming over there? 20. Los hombres que están trabajando en esa sala son ingenieros. 10. Are these the envelopes you need? 14. El hombre que está bajando el camino es el cartero. Los libros que están incluidos en ese catálogo están en inglés 9. The movie on at the Rex today is very good. 2. La película que está en cartelera hoy día en el Rex es muy buena. Ese es exactamente el auto que me gustaría tener. The books which are on that chair are mine. necesita? 14. 3. Is this the computer you use every day? 19. ¿Es este el computador que ud. The man walking down the road is a postman 18. ¿Es el Sr. 15. That is exactly the car I would like to have. Ex. The people described in the story are very interesting. She is the secretary who works with Professor Stephens 6. ¿Son estos los niños que estudian contigo? 17. The book about which they are talking is a best-seller / The book they are talking about is a best-seller 4. El libro que quiero está sobre la mesa 3. 8.Ex. 4. Are these the boys who study with you? 17. The chair I am sitting on is very comfortable 7. 12. 1. This is the bus which takes us to work every morning 7. Is it Mr Williamson who wants to see the manager? 10.

Bl 76 .

/ We didn´t work hard that day. To see . /ai dídnt bái. / A short course in english for adult students 77 .. como at 10:15 this morning (a las 10:15 de esta mañana). como last week (la semana pasada).stopped . yesterday morning/afternoon/evening (ayer en la mañana / tarde / noche).. /!éi dídnt sí:. el Tiempo Pasado Simple se expresa con el SUJETO más el PASADO de un verbo principal.3 los tres pasados corresponden a Verbos Irrregulares. mientras que los de los ejemplos 4. /méri didnt klí:n. 1810). estamos diciendo “I did buy the car last year”. 5 y 6 son de Verbos Regulares : 1. -d.2.cleaned. como To want.etc.To buy . 1810 (el 18 de Septiembre. Mary cleaned the house yesterday morning. 5.worked . To complete. last weekend (el fin de semana pasado). /wí: dídnt wé:rk. needed /ní:did/. Los verbos terminados en -t.../ They didn´t see a good film yesterday.saw . /pí:ter kéim híar "rí: déiz agóu/ (Peter vino acá hace tres días) 3. EL TIEMPO PASADO SIMPLE (The Simple Past Tense) Este tiempo se usa para expresar una acción que se realizó o que ocurrió en el pasado.stopped La pronunciación del sufijo -d/-ed es /d/ o /t/ (nunca /ed/ !!).. pero este sufijo debe ser pronunciado /id/ como en wanted /wóntid/. o una hora o fecha pasada.come.UNIT 6 PART I. Peter came here three days ago. También se usan en este tiempo verbal las expresiones que llevan la palabra AGO. To need. /!éi só: e gud fílm iésterdi/ (Ellos vieron una buena película ayer) 4. on September 18th. last night (anoche). completed /komplí:tid/.. La forma negativa se expresa usando DID NOT /did nót/ seguido del INFINITIVO (no el pasado) de un verbo principal. Escuche. al igual que en la forma negativa. -te. To work . 2. va en INFINITIVO. that day (ese día). se usa la contracción DIDN´T /dídnt/. Escuche.came . the day before yesterday (anteayer). como comprobaremos al expresar las negaciones e interrogaciones: I did not buy the car last year. They saw a good film yesterday. a long time ago (hace mucho tiempo). /méri klí:nd !e háus iésterdi mó:rni#/ (Mary limpió la casa ayer en la mañana) 5. last Monday morning (el lunes pasado en la mañana). decided /disáidid/.. To stop ./ La forma interrogativa se expresa anteponiendo el verbo modal DID o DIDN´T al sujeto y el verbo principal.. 4./ Did Peter come here three days ago? /díd pí:ter kám./ Peter didn´t come here three days ago. /pí:ter didnt kám. Los infinitivos que tienen cons+vocal+cons o cons+cons+voc+cons deben duplicar la última consonante: To stop . Las expresiones más usadas en este tiempo verbal son aquellas que llevan antepuesta la palabra LAST. several weeks ago (hace varias semanas). Además están las expresiones yesterday (ayer). tanto de los Verbos Regulares (aquellos que agregan -ed/-d para formar el Pasado y el Pasado Participio) como de los Verbos Irregulares (aquellos verbos que no siguen dicha regla). pudo advertir a través de los ejemplos anteriores.. Did I buy the car last year? Importante: Es necesario aquí aprender el pasado./ Did they see a good film yesterday? /díd !éi sí:.. lea y aprenda: Did you buy your car last year? /díd iú: bái./ Did Mary clean the house yesterday morning? /díd méri klí:n. En los Ejemplos 1.... aquí el pasado del verbo modal Do (DID) no se usa en la forma afirmativa (está tácito) Cuando decimos “I bought the car last year”.bought. /wí: wé:rkt há:rd !at déi/ (Nosotros trabajamos duro ese día) 6./ Mary didn´t clean the house yesterday morning. last year (el año pasado). en la conversación diaria.. Al igual que en el tiempo Presente Simple.seen. como two days ago (hace dos días).bought . Escuche... To decide también agregan -ed/-d. A menudo.cleaned . To come .. lea y aprenda: I didn´t buy the car last year. I bought the car last year /ai bó:t !e ká:r lá:st íar/ 2. lea y aprenda: (Yo compré el auto el año pasado) 1..stopped (ver formación de gerundios UNIT 4).worked 6. We worked hard that day. They stopped talking when the teacher arrived /!ei stópt tó:ki# wen !e tí:tcher rráivd/ (Ellos dejaron de conversar cuando el profesor llegó) Como ud. To clean .-de. 3.

Study the Past Tense form of the following regular verbs which are most frequently used. atender ../ La pregunta más habitual de este tiempo verbal es: WHAT DID YOU DO? /wót did iú dú:/ (¿Qué hizo ud. WHERE.... pedir transportar.. HOW. 1. esforzarse usar. no gustar ayudar esperar.?) EXERCISES: Ex../ Where did they see a good film yesterday? /wéar díd !éi sí:. permanecer estudiar sugerir conversar tratar.... llevar limpiar cerrar secar disfrutar./ When did you work hard? /wén díd iú wé:rk. etc. gustar necesitar preferir llover recibir recordar reparar./ Why did Peter come here 3 days ago? /wái díd pí:ter kám. gustar terminar odiar. se debe mantener el mismo orden de palabras de las interrogaciones simples: Escuche.Did you work hard that day? /díd iú wé:rk.../ Didn´t you buy your car last year? /dídnt iú bái./ Didn´t Peter come here three days ago? /dídnt pí:ter kám. WHEN. arreglar repetir solicitar.. localizar mirar amar./ Why didn´t Mary clean the house yesterday morning? /wái dídnt méri klí:n.. pedir fumar comenzar. partir quedarse./ Cuando se formula una pregunta introducida por una palabra interrogativa como WHAT.. lea y aprenda: When did you buy your car? /wén díd iú: bái. desear invitar escuchar ubicar. INFINITIVE To answer /á:nser/ To arrive /arráiv/ To ask /a:sk/ To carry /kærri/ To clean /kli:n/ To close /klóuz/ To dry /drái/ To enjoy /endllói/ To finish /fínish/ To hate /heit/ To help /hélp/ To hope /hóup/ To invite /inváit/ To listen /lísn/ To locate /loukéit/ To look /luk/ To love /láv/ To need /ni:d/ To prefer /priféar/ To rain /rein/ To receive /risí:v/ To remember /rimémber/ To repair /ripéar/ To repeat /ripí:t/ To request /rikwést/ To smoke /smóuk/ To start /sta:rt/ To stay /stéi/ To study /stádi/ To suggest /sadllést/ To talk /to:k/ To try /trái/ To use /iú:z/ To visit /vízit/ To wait /weit/ 78 A short course in english for adult students PAST TENSE answered /á:nserd/ arrived /arráivd/ asked /a:skt/ carried /kærrid/ cleaned /kli:nd/ closed /klóuzd/ dried /dráid/ enjoyed /endllóid/ finished /fínisht/ hated /héitid/ helped /helpt/ hoped /hóupt/ invited /inváitid/ listened /lísnd/ located /loukéitid/ looked /lukt/ loved /lávd/ needed /ní:did/ preferred /priféard/ rained /réind/ received /risí:vd/ remembered /rimémberd/ repaired /ripéard/ repeated /ripí:tid/ requested /rikwéstid/ smoked /smóukt/ started /stá:rtid/ stayed /stéid/ studied /stádid/ suggested /sadlléstid/ talked /tó:kt/ tried /tráid/ used /iú:zd/ visited /vízitid/ waited /wéitid/ SPANISH contestar. utilizar visitar esperar... responder llegar preguntar..

conocer aprender. llevar enseñar contar. enterarse partir. conducir comer caer sentir(se) hallar. Study the Past Tense form of the following irregular verbs which are most frequently used : INFINITIVE To begin /bigín/ To bring /bri#/ To build /bild/ To buy /bái/ To come /kam/ To cut /kat/ To do /du:/ To drink /dri#k/ To drive /dráiv/ To eat /i:t/ To fall /fo:l/ To feel /fi:l/ To find /fáind/ To forget /fo:rgét/ To get /get/ To give /giv/ To go /góu/ To have /hæv/ To hear /híar/ To keep /ki:p/ To know /nóu/ To learn /le:rn/ To leave /li:v/ To lend /lend/ To lose /lu:z/ To make /meik/ To meet /mi:t/ To pay /péi/ To put /put/ To read /ri:d/ To run /ran/ To say /séi/ To see /si:/ To sell /sel/ To send /send/ To shut /shat/ To sing /si#/ To sit /sit/ To sleep /sli:p/ To speak /spi:k/ To spend /spénd/ To stand up /stænd áp/ To swim /swim/ To take /téik/ To teach /ti:tch/ To tell /tel/ To think /"i#k/ To shine /sháin/ To understand /anderstænd/ PAST TENSE began /bigæn/ brought /bro:t/ built /bilt/ bought /bo:t/ came /kéim/ cut /kat/ did /did/ drank /dræ#k/ drove /dróuv/ ate /eit/ fell /fel/ felt /felt/ found /fáund/ forgot /fo:rgót/ got /got/ gave /géiv/ went /wént/ had /hæd/ heard /he:rd/ kept /kept/ knew /niú:/ learnt /le:rnt/ learned /le:rnd/ left /léft/ lent /lent/ lost /lost/ made /méid/ met /met/ paid /péid/ put /put/ read /red/ ran /ræn/ said /sed/ saw /so:/ sold /sóuld/ sent /sént/ shut /shat/ sang /sæ#/ sat /sæt/ slept /slépt/ spoke /spóuk/ spent /spént/ stood up /stu:d áp/ swam /swæm/ took /tuk/ taught /to:t/ told /tóuld/ thought /"o:t/ shone /shon/ understood /anderstúd/ SPANISH empezar. decir pensar. 2. comenzar traer construir comprar venir cortar hacer beber manejar. narrar. creer brillar entender. pasar tiempo pararse nadar tomar. fabricar reunirse. funcionar Ex.To walk /wo:k/ To want /wont/ To wash /wosh/ To watch /wotch/ To wish /wish/ To work /we:rk/ walked /wó:kt/ wanted /wóntid/ washed /wósht/ watched /wótcht/ wished /wísht/ worked /wé:rkt/ caminar querer lavar observar. administrar (un negocio) decir ver vender enviar cerrar cantar sentarse dormir hablar gastar. encontrar olvidar conseguir. obtener. dejar prestar perder. servirse oir guardar. (get to = llegar a un lugar) dar ir tener. comer. saber. mantener saber. mirar desear trabajar. comprender A short course in english for adult students 79 . conocer pagar poner. colocar leer correr. salir. extraviar hacer.

2. 3. John sold his house for 120. 17. They go to Europe every year. 7. 6. 8. They sell lots of books every year. 6. 15. We went to work by bus. 10. Change the following sentences into a) negative. 12. 16. They bought the car in Paris. 4. b) interrogative and c) Wh-questions: 1. We had dinner at the Club. The boy did the exercise well. 18. Mother makes an apple pie every Saturday. 14. 7. Remember that you have to use the word LAST instead of EVERY in the expressions of time 1. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. We wrote the letter in Spanish. 10. We watch TV every night. 13. The boy reads a book every month. 8. __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________? 80 A short course in english for adult students . I buy the newspaper every Sunday. We enjoy our vacation every summer. Peter comes here every week. I give the boy a present every year. They saw the car accident. 9. 3. 4. It rains a lot here every winter. 19. __________________________________________ last week. 11. They eat fish every Friday. Bob washes the car every Saturday. Father tells the boy a story every night. They receive a letter every week. Mary visits her parents every month. 2. Change the following sentences into the Simple Past Tense. desgastar escribir Ex. Peter came here yesterday. We have a test every week. 3. 20. 5.000 dollars. 9. 5. The postman brings a letter every Monday. I wanted to drink tea. I sleep well every night. I write to Mary every week-end. They studied English in London. 4. Peter drives to Baltimore every Sunday.To wear /wéar/ To write /ráit/ wore /wo:r/ wrote /róut/ vestir.

HOW. etc. Bill spent one hundred dollars. Did you read the book in English? (French) 8. I didn´t (go by bus). HOW MUCH. Did Mr. 5. In each case. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students 81 . Peter saw the film last week. as in the example: Did you go by bus? (taxi) 1. Did John go out last night? (stay at home) 3. Smith come in the morning? (at midday) No. 1. What did you eat for dinner last night?. WHERE. Did the old man feel well? (weak and tired) 14. 7. 8. Did Jack have lunch at home? (at work) 13. Bob did the same exercise three times. Ask questions using question words like WHAT. __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________? Ex. the underlined part must be the answer of the question asked. Did you see Mary last Sunday? (yesterday) 12. What time did you get up this morning? ___________________________________________________ Ex. Answer the following questions with complete sentences: 1. He went to the zoo yesterday. They stayed in Vancouver for a week. He went to the doctor because he was ill. How long did it take you to get here today? ___________________________________________________ 4. 10. HOW OFTEN. Did they watch TV last night? (listen to the radio) 2. When did you begin to study English? ___________________________________________________ 3. Did the man speak to you in English? (French) 15. 9. WHEN. Did Mary send you a fax? (a letter) 5. He didn´t go because he was tired. 6. Did they walk to the park? (take a bus) 6. 6. I went by taxi. what did you watch? _________________________________________________ 7. Did Peter say “yes” (“No”) 7. Where did you go last Saturday evening? ___________________________________________________ 2. 7. Did you eat fish for supper? (chicken) 4. 5. The children got up at 6:30 3. ___________________________________________________ 6 Did you watch TV last night? If so. Did the woman buy a dress? ( a jacket) 11. They came here by taxi. 4. What did the teacher tell you to do? ___________________________________________________ 5. 2. Did John write a poem? ( a short story) 10.Ex. The boy wanted to play. Answer these questions using the information given in parentheses. Did they drink beer? (wine) 9.

Did the secretary leave the office early? (late) 19. Did you fly American Airlines? (United Airlines) 17.16. Did you give the boy an apple? (some money) 18. Did Jane wear a short skirt? (a long one) 20. Did he break his arm in the accident? (his leg) ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 82 A short course in english for adult students .

(not. (Bob la amaba mucho. Ahora no juego bien) They used to visit /!ei iú:st tu vízit/ us every summer. (not. pero de todos modos obtenía buenas notas). anymore) ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 7.. anymore. (no longer) ___________________________________________________ Bob worked in the car factory.. Scott smoked cigars. Ahora ya no la Jim didn´t use to work /dídnt iú:s tu wé:rk/ very hard at school. (Jim no trabajaba mucho en el colegio. Mother played the piano well. I don´t play well now.. Peter was a good student.. Equivale a la terminación -aba o -ía del español. lea y aprenda: I used to play /ái iu:st tu plei/ football well when I was young. We exported shoes to the USA. (not.. (not. Ellos no nos visitan más en el verano). any longer) ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 9. now) ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 10. Scott used to smoke cigars.. now) ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 2. (not. Bill helped me with my homework... Escuche.. He no longer loves her now.. (not. ___________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students 83 ... now) ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 8. Bill brought her flowers every Friday.. not. any longer) ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 6. EXERCISES Ex 1. They don´t visit us in the summer anymore/any longer. Where did you use to spend /did iú iú:s tu spénd/ your summer vacation when you were young? (¿Dónde pasabas tus vacaciones de verano cuando eras joven?). any longer o no longer (antes del verbo principal)...PART II. “USED TO + INFINITIVE” Esta expresión se usa para referirse a actividades que antes se realizaban en forma regular y que se han dejado de hacer. Bob used to love ama).. John Kerry went to that school. (no longer) ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 5. but he used to get /iú:st tu gét/ very good grades anyway. En las oraciones negativas que siguen a una oración con USED TO normalmente se usan las expresiones not. Mary spoke Italian at home. Uncle Paul lived in that house. Introduce USED TO by changing the italicized verbs.. Ann came to class on time every day. Mr.. (Ellos nos visitaban todos los veranos. (not. anymore) ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 3. (He doesn´t work there now) Mr. /iú:st tu láv/ her very much. now) ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 4. (not. as in the examples Bob used to work in the car factory. Explain the change in meaning.. (He doesn´t smoke cigars anymore/He doesn´t smoke cigars any longer/He no longer smokes cigars) 1. (Yo jugaba fútbol bien cuando era joven. I rode the subway to work..

Jones take ___________ children to the park on Sunday. de ud. Escuche. Mr. The teacher writes with ___________ pen. lea y aprenda: The book of the student is new. The house is ours.(su auto). The students´ books are new. Con los sustantivos plurales solamente se debe agregar un apóstrofe. o cosa) Our /áuar/= nuestro Your /ió:r/= vuestro Their /!éar/= su (de ellos) Possessive Pronouns Mine /máin/=mío Yours /ió:rz/= suyo. That´s my brother´s car. It is her car. This is John´s book. 3. . This is the house of my parents. lea y aprenda: This is the book of John. The house of Mr Smith is very big. The car is hers. John walks to___________ desk. The books of the students are new. 4. Clark goes to ___________ office every day 5. Mrs. We moved to ___________ new house last month. POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVES AND POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS Estudie la siguiente tabla: Subject Pronouns I /ai/ You /iú:/ He /hi:/ She /shi:/ It /it/ We /wi:/ You /iú:/ They /!éi/ Possessive Adjectives My /mái/= mi Your /ió:r/= su (de Ud. 1. You walk to ___________ school every morning. The names of the children are Bob and Joe. 84 A short course in english for adult students The student´s book is new. es decir. Fill in the blanks with the correct possessive adjective.PART III. Un possessive pronoun (pronombre posesivo) reemplaza a un adjetivo posesivo y a un sustantivo que ha sido mencionado con anterioridad. That is the car of my brother. I walk to ___________ chair 2.. Escuche. 8. (mi libro) The book is mine. de él Hers /hé:rz/= suyo. This is my parents´ house. (mío) Mary bought this car last year. This is my book. (de ella) We´ve got a house. Mr and Mrs. 7.) His /hiz/= su (de él) Her /hé:r/= su (de ella) Its /its/= su (de un anim. This is our house (nuestra casa). Escuche. 6. agregando un APÓSTROFE + S (´s) a los nombres o sustantivos referidos a personas. His /hiz/= suyo. EXERCISES Ex. de ella -------------------------- Ours /áuarz/= nuestro Yours /ió:rz/= vuestro Theirs /!éarz/= suyo (de ellos) Un possessive adjective (adjetivo posesivo) siempre acompaña a un sustantivo para indicar posesión. The children´s names are Bob and Joe. They went back to ___________ seats and began to write. lea y aprenda: I´ve got a book. A. Smith´s house is very big. (de nosotros) La posesión tambien se expresa usando el Saxon genitive (genitivo sajón). salvo que sean sustantivos plurales irregulares. 1.

Mr. 4. This is the book of John. the pen is _______________. We have two English books. What are the names of those men? (This is John’s book.) ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. 6. My brother drives ______ car every day. These are their newspapers. Is this your pencil? 10. This is her room. 8. 2. This is John’s office. 5. Jones has a new car. 2. the dog and the cat are _______________. 4. 7. the dog is mine . Helen has a cat. The friend of my sister is very sick. I have a dog. 8. 11. the dog is _______________. Is this your coat or her coat? 11. 3. This is my notebook. the pen is _______________. the dog and the cat are _______________. Change the underlined words into the Possessive form. 6. These are our seats. 7. 12. The office of Mr. 3. The dog wags ______ tail. Smith is very large. 10. 9. 5. ____________________________________________________ This room ___________________________________________ This office ___________________________________________ He took his book and left _____________________________ These newspapers ___________________________________ These ______________________________________________ That ________________________________________________ This ________________________________________________ Is this_____________________________________________ ? or Is this coat ________________________________________ ? These ______________________________________________ This ________________________________________________ Ex. This is the pen of Helen. 13. 6. 9. He took his book and left my book. 5. Ex. That’s the home of my teacher. 4. 3. the English books are _______________. John has a dog. the cat is _______________. 8. That is Helen’s notebook. 10.2 . Complete the following by adding the necessary possessive pronoun: 1. That is the room of the teachers. 12. He’s also the teacher of my friend. This is the notebook of William. What´s the name of that man? 14. These are Peter´s cigarettes. Mary has a new pen. the car is _______________. You have a dog and a cat. 4. 3. The house of my friends is beautiful. Helen and Mary have two English books.. You have a pen. I have a dog and a cat. Substitute possessive pronouns for the italicized words: 1. 2. This book is mine. This is the wife of Mr Smith. 9. This is my book. as in the example: 1. The desk of the teacher is new.9. A short course in english for adult students 85 . This is the teacher’s desk. He’s the teacher of Helen. the English books are _______________. 7. 10.

EXERCISES Ex. (last summer) 9. 5. Answer these questions using the expressions of time provided in parentheses. They are talking about the accident. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 86 A short course in english for adult students . 9. 10. them) instead of the underlined word or words: 1. 6. 8. Is this letter for Mr. it. I know William and his wife very well. When did she send the letters? (last Monday) 5. William studies the book 3. Bob studies his book every day. us. 2. I understand the teacher very well. Substitute the correct pronoun for the underlined word or words: 1. She speaks with John. 1. 14. When did you buy the car? (5 years ago) 3. Use object pronouns (me. James goes with John and Alice to the club.B. Jones or for his wife? ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. When did they wash the car? (2 weeks ago) 6. When did you speak to Tom? (yesterday morning) 10. I like this song very much. Subject Pronouns I /ai/ You /iú:/ He /hi:/ She /shi:/ It /it/ We /uí:/ You /iú:/ They /!ei/ Object Pronouns Me /mi:/ You /iú:/ Him /him/ Her /he:r/ It /it/ Us /az/ You /iú:/ Them /!em/ Los SUBJECT PRONOUNS (pronombres nominativos) reemplazan al sujeto de una oración. When did they eat the apples? (this morning) 12. When did she spend the money. When did he invite you? (last month) 11. SUBJECT PRONOUNS AND OBJECT PRONOUNS Estudie la siguiente tabla. him. 13. por lo tanto. her. Jim goes with Mary and me to the lesson. Pedro speaks with Helen in English. Janet sent the invitations to Mary and me. you. Los OBJECT PRONOUNS (pronombres complementarios) reemplazan a un DIRECT OBJECT (complemento directo) o a un INDIRECT OBJECT (complemento indirecto) y. The teacher likes Mary and William. When did he visit Mary? (last Sunday afternoon) 4. 4. When did you visit your parents? (last weekend) 7. 11. When did you see Peter? (2 days ago) 2. 2. 7. siempre van ubicados después de un verbo principal o de una preposición. John likes Mary. When did she meet Robert? (last Friday morning) (I saw him 2 days ago). 12. When did he get his diploma? (a long time ago) 8.

conductor electrician /elektríshn/ electricista engineer /endlliníar/ ingeniero farmer /fá:rmer / granjero firefighter /fáiarfáiter/ bombero fireman /fáiarman/ bombero florist /flórist/ florista gardener /gá:rdner/ jardinero greengrocer /gri:ngróuser/ verdulero grocer /gróuser/ almacenero hair-dresser /héar dréser/ peinadora hostess /hóustes/ azafata janitor /dllænitor/ conserje jeweller /dllúeler/ joyero journalist /dlló:rnalist/ periodista judge /dlládll/ juez lawyer /ló:yer/ abogado manager /mænidller/ mechanic /mekænik/ newsagent /niuzéidllent/ newspaper boy /niu:zpéiper bói/ painter /péinter/ photographer /fotógrafer/ pilot /páilot/ plumber /plámer/ policeman /polísman/ postman /póusman/ priest /pri:st/ real state agent /rial steil éidllent/ realtor /riáltor/ receptionist /risépshonist/ salesman /séilzman/ secretary /sékretari/ shoe-maker /shu:méiker/ singer /sí#ger/ steward /stiú:ard/ stewardess /stiú:ardes/ student /stiúdent/ tailor /téilor/ technician /tekníshan/ teacher /tí:tcher/ telephonist /teléfonist/ tourist guide /túrist gáid/ vicar /víkar/ waiter /wéiter/ waitress /wéitres/ watch-maker /wótchméiker/ writer /ráiter/ gerente mecánico agente de diarios suplementero pintor fotógrafo piloto plomero. sacerdote clerk /kle´:rk/ vendedor cook /kuk / cocinero inspector (trenes) conductor /kondáktor/ doctor /dóktor/ doctor dress-maker /drés méiker/ modista driver /dráiver/ chofer. cura corredor de propiedades corredor de propiedades recepcionista vendedor (de tienda) secretaria zapatero cantante sobrecargo azafata alumno sastre técnico profesor telefonista guía turístico vicario. cura garzón garzona relojero escritor A short course in english for adult students 87 . boticario clergyman /kle ´:rdlliman/ clérigo. peluquero barber /bá:rber/ butcher /bútcher/ carnicero chemist /kémist/ farmacéutico.BASIC VOCABULARY : Study these words PROFESSIONS AND OCCUPATIONS (Profesiones y oficios) actor actor /æktor/ actress /æktres/ actriz architect /á:rkitekt/ arquitecto artist /á:rtist/ artista baker /béiker/ panadero barbero. gásfiter policía cartero sacerdote.

88 A short course in english for adult students .

She doesn´t come to class on time every day now 4. They sold lots of... They didn´t study. 5.They didn´t buy the. Why didn´t he go? 8. 13. 11.his Ex. No. She sent me a letter. We used to export shoes to the USA.. When did Peter see the film? 5. 6... 2.. He doesn´t go to that school now 10. 5. Ann used to come to class on time every day. 4. She doesn´t play it well now 8... 7. Mother used to play the piano well.its 10. They ate fish. I watched. He stayed at home.. he didn´t (say “yes”). 1. 1. No. She left late. she didn´t (wear a short skirt). No. / Did John sell his. My sister´s friend is very sick 6. they didn´t (drink beer) .13. they didn´t (walk ) They took a bus. I gave the.. The boy read / red / a... She wore a long one. I don´t ride it to work any longer 6. He felt weak and tired... It rained a lot...? / When did Peter come here? 3.. Part II Ex.. I saw her yesterday. She doesn´t speak it at home anymore 3... 1.. he didn´t (go out). 2.. Mary visited her. He said “No” 7. Part III... How much money did Bill spend? 10.our 8. Ex. I didn´t (read it in English). He wrote a short story. What did the boy want to do? 7. Bob washed the.his / her 7.KEY TO ANSWERS UNIT 6 Part I Ex... Why did he go to the doctor? 4. How many times did Bill do the same exercise? Ex. & 2. Study List of Regular and Irregular Verbs Ex... He spoke to me in French. No. A.. / Did they study. (didn´t = did not) 1. This is William´s notebook 8...? / What did I want to drink? 4.. / Did they buy the. No. / No.his 3.? / How much did John sell his house for? 6... 17. he didn´t (feel weel) . I didn´t (eat fish).... No. No.. 14. / Where did they study English? Ex..17. Bill used to bring her flowers every Friday. / Did we have dinner. 2. he didn´t (come in the morning). 8. 20. I didn´t (give him an apple) .. No. How did they come here? 6. We didn´t write the.3.? / Where did we have dinner? 9... Mr Smith´s office is very large 7. Uncle Paul used to live in that house. Peter drove to. 6. The postman brought a. I did. He´s Helen´s teacher 9. / Did I want to drink.. he didn´t ( speak to me in english) .. No.. He doesn´t help me with it any longer 9.. What are those men´s names? A short course in english for adult students 89 .. No... I didn´t want to drink. 5.. 2. No. 1. He no longer is a good student 5. No. 2. I didn´t (see her last week). 10.... No. We didn´t go to. 9. 11. I ate. 6.... 10. He doesn´t live there now 2. 11. 7.. John Kerry used to go to that school. 1.her 5. He came at midday.their 6. I gave him some money. ago / last. I ate chicken. The boy didn´t do the. I got up at. That´s the teachers´ room.) 3... 4.. Peter came here. They listened to the radio. 6.. Father told the. they didn´t (watch TV). No. I wrote to.. Ex.. Yes. No.. They didn´t see the... I began to study English (. I went to. 4. 7.? / What language did we write the letter in? 10.. No.. 12.. They received a. 15.. / Did the boy do the. 4... Peter used to be a good student. 1. Mother made an.. We watched TV.? / How did we go to work? 2. (open answers) 1. No. 16. / Did we write the.. 5.? / How did the boy do the exercise? 8. John didn´t sell his. 3. He doesn´t bring her flowers on Friday anymore 7.. She bought a jacket. I slept well. No. Peter didn´t come. How long did they stay in Vancouver? 9. I didn´t (fly American) I flew United Airlines. The teacher´s desk is new. They went to . He broke his leg... 18. 12. 14.4. / Did Peter come.. / Did we go to. Ex. 19..my 2.. she didn’t (leave early). 3.your.. We didn´t have dinner. They drank wine. / Did they see the. We no longer export shoes to the USA. At what time did the children get up? 3. 1. 1. He´s also my friend´s teacher 10. 3. she didn´t (buy a dress)... 8. 19. 15..? / Where did they buy the car? 7. He / she told me to.. My friends´ house is beautiful 12. We enjoyed our..? / What did they see? 5.. No.. I used to ride the subway to work. he didn´t (write a poem). he didn´t (break his arm). 9. I bought the. That´s my teacher´s home 5.. Mary used to speak Italian at home. 20. What´s that man´s name? 14.. Where did he go yesterday? 2. We had a. I didn´t. 16.. 4.. he didn´t (have lunch at home) He had lunch at work. It took me about. / in. Bill used to help me with my homework. 13. This is Mr Smith´s wife. I read it in French... This is Helen´s pen...their 9. 18. No she didn´t (send me a fax) ..

5. Ex.mine 10. She sent them last Monday 5. Ex.Ex. 9. her 11. 2.hers 7. us 8. This desk is the teacher´s. This notebook is mine. 8. him 4. These seats are ours.yours B.mine 2. That notebook is Helen´s. it 7. They ate them this morning. 11. He visited her last Sunday afternoon. She met him last Friday morning. 7. 3. 1. He invited me last month. us 13. them 6. Is this coat yours or hers? 11. 4. them 12. it 3. Ex. 6.his 3. her 2. This office is John´s 4. I visited them last weekend. 8. 3. These newspapers are theirs.theirs 9. 10. 9.hers 4. 3. 2.ours 8.his 6. I bought it 5 years ago. it 9. him / her 5. them 10. They washed it 2 weeks ago 6. These cigarettes are Peter´s. 12. 90 A short course in english for adult students . 2. She spent it last summer. 1. 7. 4. He got it a long time ago.yours 5. He took his book and left mine. 1. I spoke to him yesterday morning. 12. This room is hers. him or her?. Is this pencil yours? 10. it 14.

./ Wasn´t he visiting his parents in Detroit on the 5th of June? /wóznt hi: víziti#. Normalmente se usan las contracciones WASN´ T /wóznt/ o WEREN´ T /wé:rent/: Lea. escuche y aprenda: I was driving to the airport at 10 o´clock this morning.../ We weren´t having lunch when our friend Jack arrived last Sunday.UNIT 7 PART 1./ Weren´t you sleeping when the telephone rang last night? /wé:rent iú slí:pi#.. como at 10 o´clock this morning /at tén oklók !is mó:ni#/.. /wi: wé:rent hævi# lántch. También son importantes las expresiones compuestas por When + SUBJECT + Past Tense como When I got home last night /wen ai got hóum la:st náit/... Lea.. /ai wóznt dráivi#. /dei wé:rent pléii#../ He wasn´t visiting his parents in Detroit on the 5th of June.. etc. escuche y aprenda: I was not driving to the airport at 10 o´clock this morning./ A short course in english for adult students 91 . /hí: woz víziti# hiz péarents in ditróit on !e fif" ov dllú:n/ (El estaba visitando a sus padres en Detroit el 5 de junio) I was sleeping when the telephone rang last night..... /ai wóznt sli:pi#. at midday last Sunday /at míddei lá:st sándi/. Las expresiones de tiempo que normalmente se usan con el pasado contínuo son aquellas que indican una hora exacta en el pasado. EL TIEMPO PASADO CONTINUO O PROGRESIVO (THE PAST CONTINUOUS TENSE) Este tiempo verbal se usa para expresar una acción que se estaba realizando en un momento o en una fecha determinada en el pasado. /ai woz dráivi# tu !i éarpo:rt at ten oklók !is mó:ni#/ (Yo iba conduciendo al aeropuerto a las 10 de esta mañana) They were playing football at midday last Sunday. En este tiempo verbal se debe usar el pasado del verbo To Be (WAS /woz/. / La forma interrogativa se expresa mediante la inversión del orden del sujeto y los verbos WAS/WERE (o las contracciones WASN´ T/WEREN´ T) Lea./ I wasn´t sleeping when the telephone rang last night./ Were we having lunch when our friend Jack arrived last Sunday? /we:r wí: hævi# lántch../ They were not playing football at midday last Sunday. o WERE /we:r/) más el gerundio de un verbo principal. /hi: wóznt víziti#. /wí: we:r hævi# lantch wen áuer frénd dllæk arráivd lá:st sándi/ (Nosotros estábamos almorzando cuando nuestro amigo Jack llegó el Domingo pasado)) La forma negativa se expresa usando la palabra NOT después de was/were. /!éi we:r pléi# fútbol at míddei lá:st sándi/ (Ellos estaban jugando fútbol al mediodía el domingo pasado) He was visiting his parents in Detroit on the 5th of June..../ Were they playing football at midday last Sunday? /we:r !éi pléii#.. /ái woz slí:pi# wen ! télifoun ræ# la:st náit/ (Yo estaba durmiendo cuando sonó el teléfono anoche) We were having lunch when our friend Jack arrived last Sunday.. escuche y aprenda: Was I driving to the airport at 10 o´clock this morning? /woz ái dráivi#.

. 6. They were walking in the park at midday. Ask questions using question words like WHO. Mary was eating a sandwich in her room. (leave) 10. The sun _________________________ when Peter got up this morning.? /wót we:r iú: dú:i#. WHERE. We ________________________when the lights went out last night. Ann ________________________in Germany when the war broke out. ___________________________________________________ 5. When we got to the station../ Where were they playing football at midday last Sunday? /wéar we:r !ei pléii# fútbol. the train ________________________ .En las preguntas introducidas con palabras interrogativas como WHAT. etc. Mary and John _______________________________ in the park when we saw them yesterday. 5. I ________________________to the coast when the car broke down. ______________________________________________ 92 A short course in english for adult students . HOW. WHY. (play) 4.. We ________________________the road when the accident happened.. etc. (camp) 8.?) EXERCISES Ex. ___________________________________________________ 2... WHERE./ Why weren´t they having lunch when Jack arrived? /wái wé:rnt !ei hævi# lántch. everyone _________________________to go to work. (cross) 5. 1. (drive) 7. Brown ____________________________ the shopping when she had the accident.. 7. the underlined part must be the answer to your question. We ________________________near the river that evening...... 2. The students ___________________________ rugby when it began to rain. The men were going to work. (live) 9. The generals were working in the conference room. 1. She was having a bath. (walk) Ex./ Why wasn´t he working at 9 o´clock this morning? /wái wóznt hí: wé:rki#. We were running down the road. (shine) 2. ___________________________________________________ 3. Bill _________________________the report when Mr. 3. 3. ___________________________________________________ 4. The boys were studying for a test. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. 2. (do) 12.. Complete the following sentences using the verbs given in parentheses in the Past Continuous Tense 1. Alice was making the beds./ (¿Qué estaba haciendo ud. (get ready) 6. Peter wasn´t working because he was on vacation. escuche y aprenda: What were you reading when the teacher entered the room? /wót we:r iú rí:di#. (read) 3. I was getting dressed when you called me up this morning. Change the following sentences into a) negative form and. The soldiers were doing exercise 4. WHAT. se debe mantener el mismo orden de las interrogaciones simples: Lea. b) interrogative form : 1../ La pregunta más frecuente en este tiempo verbal es: What were you doing. The children were watching TV. At that time. (have dinner) 11. In each case.. Mrs. Jenkins entered the room.

(have. 6. 9._________________________________________________ 7..walk) 7... You must use either the Past Simple or the Past Continuous Tenses only. a esa hora? ___________________________________________________ ¿Por qué no estaban ellos trabajando ese día? ___________________________________________________ ¿Dónde estaban viviendo tus padres cuando se conocieron? ____________________________________________ ¿Qué estabas haciendo a esta hora ayer? ___________________________________________________ Yo estaba escuchando las noticias en ese momento. (go. (work. When the war broke out. He _________________________ the newspaper while he ______________________ the bus to work. I ___________________________ very well last night. (read. We ________________________ golf when it ______________________________ to rain yesterday.see) 4. 7. Translate the following sentences into English: 1.. What _______________________ you ______________________________________ last Saturday afternoon? (do) 10. 1. What _______________________ you ________________________________________ at this time yesterday? (do) 11. 3. _______________________________________________ Cuando llegué. Peter _______________________ his wife Lynda when he __________________________ in Chicago (meet. 4.. Where were you working in December last year? ___________________________________________________ 3.begin) 6. 6. Mr. 5.. Ellos estaban jugando bridge a esa hora. What were you doing at this time yesterday? ___________________________________________________ 2.drive) 9..6. White was lying on the sofa because she was tired. They _______________________ to the office when I ___________________________them this morning. __________________________________________ 10. Where were your parents living when they got married? __________________________________________________ 4. When John ______________________ us last night. Bob was taking a shower when the fire started. (work. todos estaban conversando ___________________________________________________ ¿Qué estaba haciendo ud.have dinner) 8. Johnson ______________________ in New York when he _____________________ chairman of the company.. ___________________________________________________ 9.ride) A short course in english for adult students 93 .. live) 5.. I ___________________________ soundly when you ______________________________ last night. Peter _______________________ the accident while he _______________________________ home. 1. Give complete answers.. ___________________________________________________ Yo no estaba durmiendo cuando ellos llegaron ___________________________________________________ Juan y sus amigos estaban mirando TV en ese momento . (play. Answer the following questions in English. Mrs. we ____________________________ ( call on. The soldiers were jogging when it began to rain. they were living in the north of France. 8. (Review) Fill in the blank spaces using the verbs provided in the appropriate verb tense. 5. _______________________________________________ Ex..become) 12. Bill ________ not _____________ in the office when the boss ____________________ into the room. 2. (sleep) 2. ___________________________________________________ 8. What were you doing when Jack phoned you last night? _________________________________________________ Ex.arrive) 3. More than ten people were standing outside the building. (sleep..... 4.. ___________________________________________________ Ex.

esta implícito en la orden). You eat more slowly. 8. please 3. 1. don´t open the window Don´t speak so fast. 4. 5. (you) open the window. You call me up after 9 o´clock. please. You write your answer on the whiteboard. You study hard every day. 4. no abra la ventana No hable tan rápido.PART II. Come again this afternoon. 9. Drink black coffee. Work hard. abra la ventana Hable más lento. 7. Change the following imperative sentences into the negative form: Speak slowly. 10. (so /sou/= tan) ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 94 A short course in english for adult students . /pli:z óupn !e wíndou/ (you) Speak more slowly. You have another cup of coffee. You drink milk every morning. THE IMPERATIVE FORM (LA FORMA IMPERATIVA) La forma imperativa se usa para dar órdenes o para solicitar servicios. A. Change the following sentences into the imperative form: Add the word PLEASE at the end of your sentence: You look at the map 1. Escuche lea y aprenda: (You) Come here /kám híar/ (You) Listen to me /lísn tu mí:/ Please. please 6. 5. Normalmente se usa la palabra PLEASE. 3. Say that again. You spell your first name. Take a taxi. 7. Give Mary my new address. 1. Listen to him please. 2. please ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ No venga para acá No me escuche Por favor. You come here tomorrow morning. 9. please /spí:k mó:r slóuli/ Venga para acá Escúchame Por favor. por favor Para expresar una orden negativa se debe usar la contracción DON´T /dóunt/ antes del infinitivo Escuche lea y aprenda: Don´t come here Don´t listen to me Please. please Don´t speak so slowly please. Drive fast please. 8. Work slowly please. Las órdenes o solicitudes se expresan mediante el uso del INFINITIVO sin sujeto ( el pronombre you. 2. 2. You listen to the story carefully. ya sea al inicio o al final de la orden o solicitud. 6. please. You fill up the tank. 10. por favor (so /sou/= tan) Ex. please. Look at the map. please EXERCISES Ex. Eat my bread and butter.

They are planning to spend a week in the West Indies.) Santiago is the capital of Chile. 7.. etc. 4. Escuche. Cpt. (adj. White to a famous Italian restaurant that evening.. países. (adj.) Escuche lea y aprenda When did they go to Europe? Did you see Mary this morning? They lived in New York City for several years. They are coming back from China. Later we want to visit __________ Dominican Republic. canales. President. He spent several weeks in __________ Italy and several weeks in __________ Spain. __________ United Kingdom and __________ Soviet Union were permanent members of the UN Security Council. Some ships can cross __________ Atlantic Ocean from __________ France to __________ Unites States.B. Tampoco se debe anteponer artículo a los nombres de personas cuando éstos van precedidos de títulos (Mr.) EXERCISES Ex.. Cuando los nombres de ciudades o países cumplen la función de adjetivos estos van precedidos del artículo definido THE. 3. ciudades.) 2. __________ United States. 5. continentes. montes. Sgt. President Bush and Senator Payne will meet at 10:15 next Tuesday.) y también delante de los nombres de países compuestos de Adjetivo+Sustantivo (excepto cuando el adjetivo es un punto cardinal). mares. You should take a trip sometime to __________ West Indies.. lea y compare New York is a large city. (We plan to spend our vacation in Mexico and North Carolina. We plan to spend our vacation in __________ Mexico and __________ North Carolina. Lady Macbeth fainted when she saw the body of her husband lying on the floor. __________ Panama Canal joins __________ Atlantic and __________ Pacific Oceans.etc.) o grados (Gen. Supply the definite article THE.. Sin embargo se debe usar el artículo definido THE delante de los nombres geográficos (ríos. calles.. The Pacific Ocean is much larger than the Atlantic Ocean. ARTICLES (III) No se debe usar ningún artículo delante de los nombres de personas. __________ China. Prof. 9. He lives on Fifth Avenue.Ms. We live on __________ Madison Avenue near __________ Central Park Station. Escuche lea y aprenda The Mississippi and the Missouri rivers are in Central United States. estados. The Santiago newspapers are not very expensive. __________ Hudson River lies west of __________ New York City.They´ve climbed Mount Everest. cordilleras. Smith to send the message right away. Mrs. Lady. Senator. A short course in english for adult students 95 . 6. The New York City subways go very fast. Johnson ordered Sgt. Mr De Ponti invited Dr. where necessary: 1. Gen. 1. Miss.. The principal city of __________ Germany is __________ Berlin.. 10. Sir. etc. 8.. The United States and South Korea will sign a new free trade agreement. cuando éstos son usados como nombres propios. No se usa THE delante de los nombres de continentes. volcanes. Dr.

Ex. 7. __________ England is a small country. __________ London School of Economics is very famous.) 2. 96 A short course in english for adult students . 11. 12. 6. / adv. Lots of oil tankers go from _________ Persian Gulf to _________ Mediterranean Sea through _________ Suez Canal. 4. 3. 8. 3. __________ Mexican climate is warm. 5.London and __________ York are beautiful __________ English cities. 1. 9. 12. __________ Europe is a large continent. _________ English language is easy. (He lives in Mexico. in __________ Utah.11. Some __________ European cities are very interesting to visit. THE EXCLAMATORY FORM (La forma exclamativa) Las exclamaciones en inglés se expresan de la siguiente manera. 4. 2. 6. We walked along __________ Broadway. Supply WHAT or WHAT A(N) in the following exclamatory sentences: 1. __________. ______________________ good idea! ______________________ beautiful day! ______________________ pretty eyes she has! ______________________ strange thing to say! ______________________ easy exercise! ______________________ difficult lesson! ______________________ funny name to give a dog! ______________________ good whisky! ______________________ happy child! ______________________ happy children! ______________________ beautiful music! ______________________ large room! ______________________ foolish mistake! ______________________ hot day! ______________________ beautiful weather!. (+S + V)! Examples What a beautiful woman (she is)! What an interesting book (you are reading)! What beautiful eyes (you have)! What nice people (we met at the party)! What nice music (this is)! What good coffee (they served)! What terrible weather (we are having)! How silly (I was)! How fast (you´re driving Tom)! How expensive (that book is)! EXERCISES Ex. + plural noun (+S + V)! What + adj. 10. 13. 7. 11. 5. They live on __________ Clark Street in __________ Salt Lake City. 2. Fill in the blanks with the correct articles. __________ New York city traffic is very slow. 9. C. where needed: 1. Estudie el siguiente diagrama: Structure What + a(n) + adj. 10. 14 15. He lives in __________ Mexico. + uncountable noun (+S + V)! How + adj. 8. __________ Broadway buses are slow. + singular noun (+ S +V)! What + adj.

. ______________________ pretty girl! 2. ______________________ beautiful eyes she has! 8. 3. a) What a tall man Peter is! b) How tall Peter is! ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. 4.! or c) WHAT A(N). 3. as in the examples Peter is a very tall man 1. 5. 14. These shoes are very expensive. 12. b) WHAT. I was a very stupid person. It is a beautiful day.Ex. Mary is a very friendly person 13. 8. This trip is very interesting.. as indicated: 1. ______________________ beautifully she sings! 9.!.. ______________________ hot it is today! 6. ______________________ well she swims! 5.. 3. These photographs are very beautiful 11. _____________________ quickly the time passes! 13.. She is an excellent pianist. 6.!. Mr Johnson is a very pleasant man.. _____________________ excellent student he is! Ex. 2. _____________________ hot weather we are having! 11.. 7. _____________________ hot day it is today! 12. WHAT.. or WHAT A(N) in the following exclamatory sentences: 1. Change these sentences to exclamatory form by using a) HOW. ______________________ hard sentences these are! 7.. or How.. New York is a fascinating city. Supply HOW. He runs very fast. The movie was very exciting. _____________________ well she speaks English! 14. 4.!.!. This music is very romantic. This is a very incredible story. These exercises are very difficult. ______________________ pretty she is! 3.. John is a very intelligent person. ______________________ strange remark to make! 4.. ______________________ foolish thing to say! 10. What.!. 9. __________________________________________________ ! __________________________________________________ ! __________________________________________________ ! __________________________________________________ ! A short course in english for adult students 97 . 2. She plays the piano well. 2. Make exclamations using What a(n). They are very beautiful women. 4. This whisky is very good 10.

It´s a cold day today. __________________________________________________ ! __________________________________________________ ! __________________________________________________ ! __________________________________________________ ! __________________________________________________ ! __________________________________________________ ! __________________________________________________ ! __________________________________________________ ! __________________________________________________ ! __________________________________________________ ! __________________________________________________ ! __________________________________________________ ! __________________________________________________ ! __________________________________________________ ! 98 A short course in english for adult students . It was very cold last night. He is a very tall man. 18. 6. 10. 7. Bob acted very foolishly. It is very cold today. He is a handsome fellow. Grandfather told us a sad story. 17. 15. 14. 12. 11. 16. 8. She is very pretty. It was a very fast train. She plays the violin beautifully. 13. Ann was a generous woman. We were very tired after the walk.5. 9. She is wearing a beautiful dress. You have a beautiful new car.

BASIC VOCABULARY: Study these words THE HOUSE (La casa) a) Housing /háusi#/ (Vivienda) departamento (USA) apartment /apa:rment/ apartment building /apá:rment bíldi#/ edificio de dptos. d) The Sitting-room /!e síti#rum/ (El living) arm-chair /á:rm tchéar/ carpet /ká:rpit/ CD player /sí: dí: pléier/ chair /tchéar/ china /tcháina/ clock /klok/ curtains /ké:rtenz/ fireplace /fáiarpléis/ picture /píktcher/ sillón alfombra (UK) reproductor de CD silla loza fina... cabaña casa pareada casa en hilera casa de veraneo c) Rooms of the House /ru:mz ov !e háus/ (Piezas de la casa) attic /ætik/ basement /béisment/ bathroom /bá:"rum/ bedroom /bédrum/ cellar /sélar/ dining-room /dáini#rum / kitchen /kítchen/ ático subterráneo sala de baño dormitorio bodega (vinos) comedor cocina laundry room /ló:ndrirum/ library /láibreari/ lounge /láundll/ pantry /pæntri/ sitting room /síti#rum/ study /stádi/ toilet /tóilet/ lavandería biblioteca salon (UK) despensa living estudio baño.c./ terrace house /térris háus/ villa /víla/ casa de campo departamento (UK) casa choza.(USA) block of flats /blok ov flæts/ edificio de dptos.cajonera bata de noche velador pillow case /pílou kéiz/ pillow /pílou/ pyjama /pidllámaz/ sheets /shi:ts/ slippers /slíperz/ wardrobe /wó:dróub/ funda almohada pijamas sábanas zapatillas ropero A short course in english for adult students 99 .rm háus/ flat /flæt/ house /háus/ hut /hat/ semi-detached house /sémi.w. reloj cortinas chimenea cuadro porcelain /pó:rselein/ radio set /réidiou set/ rug /rag/ sofa /sóufa/ table /téibl/ telephone /télifoun/ television set /télivilln set/ VCR /vi: si: a:r/ porcelana radio alfombra (USA) sofá mesa teléfono televisor video-grabadora e) The Bedroom /!e bédrum/ (El dormitorio) alarm clock /alá:rm klók/ bed /bédrum/ bed spread /bédspred/ blanket /blæ#kit/ chest of drawers /tchést ov dró:erz/ night gown /náit gáun/ night table /náit téibl/ reloj despertador cama cubrecamas frazada cómoda. excusado.quinta detached house /ditætcht háus/ casa aislada b) Parts of the House /parts ov !e háus/ (Partes de la casa) ceiling /síli#/ door /do:r/ floor /flo:r/ front door /fránt dó:r/ landing /lændi#/ cielo raso puerta piso puerta de calle descanso (de escaleras) roof /ruf/ staircase /stéar kéis/ wall /wo:l/ window /wíndou/ techo escaleras muralla ventana farm house /fá. (UK) bungalow /bá#galou/ bungalow condominio condominium /kondomínium/ cottage /kótidll/ casa de campo.

) block de borrador impresora perforadora escáner corchetera teléfono máquina de escribir 100 A short course in english for adult students .f) The Kitchen /!e kítchin/ (La cocina) broom /brú:m/ escoba can opener /kæn óupner/ abrelatas (USA) cooker/stove/range /kúker/stóuv/réindll/ cocina (artefacto) cookery book /kúkri buk/ libro de recetas corkscrew /kó:rkskru:/ sacacorchos crockery /krókeri/ loza corriente cup /kap/ taza aparador cupboard /kábord/ cutlery /kátleri/ cuchillería dishwasher /dishwósher/ lavadora de vajilla drier /dráier/ secadora fork /fo:rk/ tenedor freezer /frí:zer/ congeladora refrigerador fridge /frídll/ frying pan /fráii# pæn/ sartén garbage can /gá:rbidll kæn/ basurero (USA) glass /glá:s/ vaso glassware /glá:swear/ cristalería kettle /kétl/ tetera knife/knives /náif /náivz/ cuchillo /s microwave oven /máikrouweiv ávn/ horno micro-ondas g) The Bathroom /!e bá:"rum/ (La sala de baño) bath tub /bá:" tab/ cold water tap /kóuld wó:ter tæp/ comb /kóum/ electric shaver /iléktrik shéiver/ faucet /fó:set/ hair brush /héar brash/ hair dryer /héar dráier/ hot water tap /hot wó:ter tæp/ lotion /lóushn/ mirror /mírror/ safety razor /séifti réizor/ tina de baño llave de agua fria peineta afeitadora llave del agua (USA) cepillo de pelo secador de pelo llave de agua caliente loción espejo máquina de afeitar shaving brush /shéivi#brash/ shaving cream /shéivi# krí:m/ shower /sháuer/ shower cap /sháuer kæp/ soap dish /sóup dish/ tap /tæp/ tooth brush /tú"brash/ tooth paste /tú:"péist/ towel rack /táuel ræk/ towel /táuel/ wash basin /woshbéizin/ hisopo crema de afeitar ducha gorra de baño jabonera llave del agua (UK) cepillo de dientes pasta dental pañera toalla lavamanos mixer /míkser/ máquina licuadora napkin /næpkin/ servilleta oven /ávn/ horno pan /pæn/ olla plate /pléit/ plato pot /pot/ cacerola refrigerator /refrídllereitor/ refrigerador rubbish bin /rábish bin/ basurero (UK) saucer /só:ser/ platillo silverware /sílverwéar/ platería sink /si#k/ lavaplatos spoon /spú:n/ cuchara tea pot /tí: pot/ tetera para el té teaspoon /tí:spu:n/ cuchara de té tin opener /tin óupener/ abrelatas (UK) toaster /tóuster/ tostadora trash can /træsh kæn/ basurero (USA) tray /trei/ bandeja vacuum cleaner /vækium klí:ner/ aspiradora wall clock /wó:l klók/ reloj de pared washing machine /wóshi# mashí:n/ lavadora de ropa h) The Studio /!e stúdiou/ (La sala de estudio) book shelf /búk shélf/ bookcase /búk kéis/ chair /tchear/ computer /kompiú:ter/ desk /desk/ desk lamp /désk læmp/ fax machine /fæks mashí:n/ file /fail/ filing cabinet /fáili# kábinet/ j) Outdoors /áutdó:rz/ (El exterior) fence /fens/ garage /gæri:dll/ garden /gá:rdn/ gate /geit/ lawn /ló:n/ reja garage jardín puerta (reja) césped orchard /ó:rtcha:rd/ huerto path /pa:"/ sendero swimming pool /suími# pú:l/ piscina vegetable garden /védlletabl gá:rdn/ huerta repisa para libros librero silla computador escritorio lámpara de escritorio máquina fax archivador archivo laptop /læp top/ notebook /nóutbuk/ note-pad /nóutpæd/ printer /prínter/ punch /pantch/ scanner /skæner/ stapler /stéipler/ telephone /télifoun/ typewriter /táipráiter/ PC portátil (US) PC portátil (Br.

4.doing 11....... Come here tomorrow morning. 1.Madison Avenue... were going / saw 4. please..were playing 4..? 4.What an.. The men weren´t going. Don´t take a taxi. Fill up the tank.. (when they got married / then)... were crossing 5. Eat more slowly. 10..They were playing bridge at that time. 5.What a. 8..? 7..UNIT 7 Key to answers PART I Ex.. 9. 3.English cities 7. The Broadway buses... The boys weren´t studying. please.. Ex.. What were you doing at this time yesterday? 9. read / was riding PART II A. was getting ready 6. Where were they living when the war broke out? 10..the Persian Gulf.The Atlantic Ocean.. everyone was talking. 9. What was Bob doing when the fire started? 9. Don´t work so slowly. slept 2. 5. 8. 1. 12. She wasn´t having. 9. please. the United States 6..... Don´t listen to him. Ex. 7. please.. was driving 7. 2..? 5.Berlin 9. please 7. 3... please. C. 10.. What were the soldiers doing when it began to rain? 8.. please..The Panama Canal. What was Mary eating in her room? 3... Listen to the story carefully.. 6. European cities.. 2..The United States. / Were the boys studying.? 3. 4.....What....What a. 3. York.. please. I was.. was living 9. What were you doing when I called you up this morning? 6. London.. Why was Mrs. (in December last year). / Were the soldiers doing. Why weren´t they working that day? 7.do 10. (when he phoned me last night) Ex. Call me up after 9 o´clock. Don´t say that again.. please.Don´t drive so fast. Where were the generals working? 5. A short course in english for adult students 101 .. please. 7.. 1. 3. I wasn´t sleeping when they arrived. were camping 8. Write your answer on the whiteboard.. was . Have another cup of coffee..What a. / Were we running. 3. They were living in. What were you doing at that time? 6. 1. 11.? Ex. 10.What a. I was listening to the news at that moment. Central Park Station 11. were having dinner 11. / were the men going. called on / were having dinner 8.Clark Street. was sleeping / arrived. the Suez Canal 12.. please. The children weren´t watching. / Were the children watching.. I was... 4.. 5...the Atlantic and the Pacific oceans 8. had / was driving 9. 10.What were they doing in the park at midday? 2. 5. please 5.... did .Utah Ex.... 2. White lying on the sofa? 7..What. 1.... Don´t give Mary my new address.. Alice wasn´t making... How many people were standing outside the building? Ex.. please. 3..) 2.. John and his friends were watching TV at that moment. The New York City traffic.. 6.. please.the Dominican Republic 3. please.What. were ... 2. The London School of Economics... 15... please.. 4. The soldiers weren´t doing.. The Mexican climate. 2.Italy. Ex.Broadway. 3. 14. was working / became 12.What a.. were walking Ex. were playing / began 6.. 1. China. 13. was shining 2... Spell your first name.What a. 1.. Ex. 1.. The English language. 4. please 5. Salt Lake City. please. 1. 8. Don´t come again this afternoon. Don´t eat my bread and butter. 2.. Spain 10.What a..... Drink milk every morning. Study hard every day.. 1. 11..? 2.. B. 4. Why wasn´t Peter working? 4. / Was Alice making.. Europe.working / walked 7. 2. 9... 4. I was working.The Hudson River / New York City 4. was reading 3.. We weren´t running.What. was leaving 10.. (at this time yesterday..The West Indies 7. Ex. met / was living 5. Don´t drink black coffee.the Mediterranean Sea.. Where were your parents living when they met? 8. Don´t work so hard. 6.. was doing 12. 1. When I arrived. 1.. 6.Germany.France. England... 8.What. (Open answers) 1. please 2. 6.. 2. / Was she having.. the United Kingdom and the Soviet Union 5.. 3. please..What a.? 6. What a..

. What good whisky this is! / How good this whisky is! 10.What a. What a handsome fellow he is! 12. 3.. What beautiful photographs these are! / How beautiful these photographs are! 11. 13. What a fascinating city New York is! / How fascinating New York is! 12. 8. What a sad story grandfather told us! 15. What a.. What expensive shoes these are! / How expensive these shoes are! 14. 4. What a beautiful new car you have! 14. Johnson is!. What an intelligent person John is! / How intelligent John is! 2.Ex. What a pleasant man Mr.. 14. How foolishly Bob acted! 102 A short course in english for adult students . What. 1.. What a. What a generous woman Ann was! 18... What an incredible story this is! / How incredible this story is! 4. How. Ex... 1. What a fast train it was! 17.. How. How fast she runs! 5. 1. 2. What. 4. How. How.... 12. 11.. What a. What beautiful women they are! / How beautiful they are! / How beautiful those women are! 3. 2. What a friendly person Mary is! / How friendly Mary is! 13... How cold it was last night! 10. How. 10.. How well she plays the piano! 2.. What a cold day it is today! 8. Johnson is! / How pleasant Mr... 3.. How cold it is today! 7. What an exciting movie it was! / How exciting the movie was! Ex.. What difficult exercises these are! / How difficult these exercises are! 9..What an interesting trip this is ! / How interesting this trip is! 6. How beautifully she plays the violin! 6. 7. What a stupid person I was! / How stupid I was! 5. What an excellent pianist she is! 3. What romantic music this is! / How romantic this music is! 8.. What an. 5. What a beautiful dress she is wearing! 13. 6. What a beautiful day it is today! 4..7. What a tall man he is! 9. How pretty she is! 11.. 9.. How tire we were after the walk! 16. What.. How.

escuche y aprenda: They will visit us next week-end. escuche y aprenda: They will not visit us next weekend. acordadas o previstas con antelación. /!éi wil vízit as nékst wí:kénd/ Ellos nos visitarán el proximo fin de semana Mary´ll come to work tomorrow. tu wé:rk tumó:rou/ I will not be at home all day next Sunday. They won´t visit us next weekend. SUBJECT + WILL + INFINITIVE para referirse a decisiones. Peter is coming to Chile next month. next month /nékst man"/ el próximo mes.. SUBJECT + AM / IS / ARE +ING (Present Continuous) para referirse a actividades agendadas.. próximo mes EL FUTURO SIMPLE CON WILL Esta construcción generalmente se usa para expresar el Futuro Simple.UNIT 8 PART 1... etc El Futuro Simple se puede expresar de tres maneras../ Won´t Mary come to work? /wóunt méri kám. En la conversación diaria se prefiere usar la contracción WON´T / wóunt / Lea. escuche y aprenda: Will they visit us next week-end? /wil !ei vízit. intenciones. /méri wóunt kám. o sucesos que evidentemente o muy probablemente ocurrirán. Where.. EL TIEMPO FUTURO SIMPLE THE SIMPLE FUTURE TENSE Este tiempo verbal se usa para referirse a acciones que ocurrirán en el futuro.. etc. /ai wóunt bí: at hóum ó:l dei nékst sándi/. When../ Will Mary come to work tomorrow? /wil méri kám. /pí:ter wil kám tu tchile nekst mán!/ Peter vendrá a Chile el próximo mes 2./ Won´t they visit us next week-end? /wóunt !ei vízit. /!ei wóunt vízit as nékst wí:kénd/ Mary will not come to work tomorrow. se debe mantener el mismo orden de palabras usado en las preguntas simples: Lea. En la interrogación.. se debe anteponer el verbo modal WILL (o la contracción WON¨T) al sujeto. Las expresiones de tiempo frecuentes en este tiempo verbal son tomorrow /tumórou/ mañana./ Will you be at home all day next Sunday? /wil iu: bí: at hóum o:l déi nekst sándi/ When will they visit us? /wén wil !ei vízit ás/ Why won´t Mary come to work tomorrow? /wái wóunt méri kám tu wé:rk tumórou/ A short course in english for adult students /pí:ter iz kámi! tu tchíle nekst mán!/ Peter viene (tiene previsto venir) a Chile el 103 . I won´t be at home. SUBJECT + AM / IS / ARE+ GOING TO + INFINITIVE para referirse a planes.. in three months /in "rí: mán"s/ dentro de tres meses. next week /nékst wí:k/ la próxima semana. según la idea que se desee transmitir: 1. /áil bí: at hóun ó:l dei nekst sándi/ Estaré en casa todo el día el próx. Si se desea formular una pregunta introducida por What. /méril kám tu wé:rk tumórou/ Mary vendrá a trabajar mañana I´ll be at home all day next Sunday.. promesa o determinación. En la forma negativa se usa la palabra NOT entre el verbo modal WILL y el Infinitivo. by the end of this year /bai !i énd ov !is yíar/ hacia fines de este año. next year /nekst yíar/ el próximo año. the day after tomorrow /!e déi áfter tumórou/ pasado mañana. Peter will come to Chile next month. Lea. En la conversación diaria WILL forma la contracción ´LL. Dgo. y sugiere la idea de decisión. Mary won´t come to work tomorrow. 3. promesas o determinaciones. Peter is going to come to Chile next month. /pí:ter iz góui! tu kám tu tchíle nékst man!/ Peter va a venir a Chile el próximo mes.

They´ll talk about many things tomorrow ___________________________________________________ 104 A short course in english for adult students . They´ll go to the north in the summer. The soldiers ________________________ to the top of that hill tomorrow. 5. Bob will sell the car because it´s old. John will give the answer next week. They´ll get married in May 6. (sell) 5. ___________________________________________________ 7. The train will arrive soon.? Ex. Professor Lee________________________ a conference in Paris next month. (move) Ex. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ¿Qué hará ud. (march) 2. We´ll wait for you in the cafeteria ___________________________________________________ 9. My little brother ________________________ a hard test next Monday. Use the verbs given in parentheses in the future simple tense. The instructor ________________________ the data show. (buy) 11. 3. They´ll stay in Toronto for three days ___________________________________________________ 8. Mr Jackson ________________________ a limousine to take his guests to the airport. What. We ________________________ a new house soon. You will send them a fax. In each case. 3. NASA ________________________ a space ship to Mars next week. (hire) 12. They´ll need five volunteers. (launch) 8. The soldiers will wait there until dawn. (send) 3. 2. Ask questions using question words like When. 1. ___________________________________________________ 10. (use) 6. Where. I ________________________ you a post card from Washington DC. etc. Sue will not buy the dress because it´s too expensive. the underlined part of the sentence must be the answer for the question asked. (have) 4. The Smiths ________________________ to a new house in the Spring. Mr Smith will see you tomorrow. I ________________________ busy all day tomorrow. (attend) 9. ___________________________________________________ 3. ___________________________________________________ 4. Mary will go out this evening. ___________________________________________________ 5. (dig) 7. The gardener ________________________ a deep hole in the ground to plant the tree. 1. and b) interrogative.La pregunta habitual con esta construcción verbal es: WHAT WILL YOU DO? /wót wil iu: dú:/ EXERCISES: Ex. John will accept the offer. 4. Mr Jackson ________________________ his old car. (be) 10. Mr Smith will send them another catalog ___________________________________________________ 6. using WILL 1. 1. How long. ___________________________________________________ 2. How.2 Change the following sentences into a) negative.

PART II.
A. USE OF SAY AND TELL (Uso de los verbos SAY / TELL) Los verbos SAY y TELL tienen el mismo significado (DECIR), pero difieren en cuanto a su uso. El verbo SAY se usa en los siguientes casos: 1. Antes o después de una cita textual John said (to Helen), “I love you, Helen” Mary said, “I am very tired after the long walk” Mr. Jackson said (to his students), “Please sit down and look at the map” “I love you very much”, he said. “I am very tired after the long walk”, said Mary. 2. Antes de la conjunción that (la que puede ser omitida) John said (that) he loved Helen Mary said (that) she was very tired after the long walk. 3. En posición final I didn´t understand what she said. Sorry, what did you say? What are you going to say? El verbo TELL se usa cuando se menciona al interlocutor, es decir, la persona a quien se le habló. John told Helen that he loved her. Mary told me that she was very tired after the long walk. Mr. Jackson told his students to sit down and look at the map. (You) Tell Mary that I want to speak with her, please. EXERCISES Ex.1. Fill in the blanks with SAY or TELL 1. John ________________________ that he is very busy at the moment. 2. Yesterday I ________________________ my teacher that I liked my lessons. 3. John ________________________ yesterday, “I´m going to phone you as soon as I get home” 4. Yesterday, Mr Jackson ________________________ us all about his trip to Nepal. 5. The boy ________________________ that he likes geography very much. 6. Mary ________________________ her teacher that her mother was sick. 7. Miss Brown ________________________ that she loves spring. 8. “I will be back at about 10:30”, ________________________ Mr Jones before leaving the house. 9. “This book is very interesting “, she ________________________ 10. Bob ________________________ that he doesn´t like hot weather. 11. Can you ________________________ me where the office is, please? 12. Please ________________________ John that I´ll send him the money tomorrow. 13. Yesterday John ________________________ his friends that he was planning to get married. 14. Did you hear what she ________________________? Ex. 2 Change SAY to TELL. Then make whatever other changes are necessary. 1. She said (to me) that she was sick. __________________________________________________________________ 2. Mr Smith said (to Peter) that he was too busy to go with us. __________________________________________________________________ 3. John said (to his friends) that he could not go with them to the park. __________________________________________________________________
A short course in english for adult students

105

4. Ann said (to the officer) that she did not speak French. _____________________________________________________________________ 5. William said (to the doctor) that he had a terrible headache. _____________________________________________________________________ 6. Helen said (to the travel agent) that she was travelling alone. _____________________________________________________________________ 7. The boy said (to us) that he liked to swim in the river. _____________________________________________________________________ 8. The teacher said (to Paul´s parents) that Paul was a good student. _____________________________________________________________________ 9. The man says (to me) that he wants to see the manager immediately. _____________________________________________________________________ Ex. 3. Change TELL to SAY.Then make whatever other changes are necessary. 1. Bob told me that he could speak French well. _____________________________________________________________________ 2. I told my girlfriend that I wanted to go for a walk in the park. _____________________________________________________________________ 3. The teacher told John that our compositions were very good. _____________________________________________________________________ 4. Mr Smith told his friends that he knew how to play tennis. _____________________________________________________________________ 5. I told Mr Smith that I knew how to play, too. _____________________________________________________________________ 6. John told the police officer that he lived near the church. _____________________________________________________________________ 7. The boy tells me that he wants to drink some water. _____________________________________________________________________ 8. He tells me that she doesn´t want to participate in the game. _____________________________________________________________________ B. RELATIVE PRONOUNS WHO, WHOM, WHOSE (Los pronombres relativos WHO, WHOM, WHOSE)

Habíamos visto que la palabra WHO? significa ¿quién? Y que además es un pronombre relativo y que se debe traducir con la palabra QUE para especificar acerca de quién estamos hablando (Revisar el uso de los pronombres relativos who y which, en BEGS & VOC Unit 5) Who is that man? (¿Quién es ese hombre? The man who is in the car is a policeman. (El hombre que está en el auto es un policia) The car which is outside is a police car. (El auto que está afuera es un auto policial) WHOM es un pronombre interrogativo que significa a ¿a quién?. Whom did you see at the party? (¿A quién viste en la fiesta?) La palabra WHO se tranforma en WHOM /hu:m/ después de las preposiciones y cuando actúa como complemento directo de un verbo, y por lo tanto va seguido de un pronombre o un nombre. With whom will you go to the party?/ Who will you go to the party with? (¿Con quién irás a la fiesta?) I met a man in the street. The man whom I met was John´s father. (Me encontre con un hombre en la calle. El hombre con quien me encontre era el padre de John) Jim was talking about a woman. The woman about whom Jim was talking was his wife. (Jim estaba conversando acerca de una mujer. La mujer acerca de quien Jim estaba hablando era su esposa)

106

A short course in english for adult students

La palabra WHOSE /hu:z/ (posesivo de who) se puede traducir como ¿de quién? en interrogaciones, pero también es el pronombre relativo cuyo(s)/cuya(s). a) Whose? = ¿De quién? Whose is this hat? / Whose hat is this? (el sustantivo puede ir al final o junto a whose) (¿De quién es este sombrero) Whose are these cigarettes? / Whose cigarettes are these? (¿De quién son estos cigarrillos?) Whose is that yellow sweater? (aquí solo una estructura es posible por que el sustantivo está modificado por un adjetivo) (¿De quién es ese suéter amarillo?) Whose is that book (which is) on the desk? (aquí solo una estructura es posible por que el sustantivo va seguido de una frase adjetiva) (¿De quién es ese libro que está sobre el escritorio?) b) whose = cuyo(s) / cuya(s) The man whose daughter called you this morning wants to see you, Mr Clark. (El hombre cuya hija lo llamó por teléfono esta mañana desea verlo a usted, Sr. Clark) The man whose car is parked outside the building is a doctor. (El hombre cuyo auto está estacionado a fuera del edificio es un médico) EXERCISES Ex. 1. Choose the correct form. 1. To (who,whom) did you write a letter last night? 2. With (who, whom) does he want to speak? 3. (Who, whom) is the best student in your class? 4. (Who, whom) did you meet at the party? 5. The man (who, whom) telephoned you is my brother. 6. The woman (who, whom) you saw is my new teacher. 7. About (who, whom ) are they talking? 8. The girl with (who, whom) I danced was very beautiful. 9. From (who, whom) did you get the money? 10. The boy (who, whom) the policemen rescued from the boat was terrified. Ex. 2. Fill in the blank spaces with Who, Which, Whom, Whose 1. __________________ jacket do you like best, the blue one or the brown one? 2. __________________ pen-knife is this? I think it´s Peter´s, but I´m not quite sure. 3. With __________________ will you go to the theater tomorrow? 4. He is the man __________________ daughter will participate in the competition. 5. This isn´t the dictionary __________________ we generally use in class. 6. The man about __________________ they are talking is a well-known football player 7. __________________ will you ask for help? 8. __________________ are those cigarettes on the small table? Are they yours? 9. The man with __________________ John is speaking is an Australian pilot. 10. The woman __________________ we met at the party was a friend of Peter´s. 11. The train __________________ leaves at 10:25 is an express train. 12. __________________ are they talking about? 13. The man __________________ Prof. Clark mentioned in his lecture is a famous American writer. 14. The boy __________________ father died in the accident is still in hospital. 15. __________________ are those brown shoes __________________ are under the chair? 16. __________________ are you talking to? 17. The children with __________________ my son is playing are not Chilean. They are American. 18. __________________ was working in the office at 9 o´clock this morning? 19. With __________________ will you work on the thesis?
A short course in english for adult students

107

20. 21. 22. 23. 24.

I don´t know __________________ watch this is. Is it yours? The children __________________ are in Room B are 2nd grade students. Everyone liked the poem __________________ Prof. Smith read in class yesterday.. Is that the bus __________________ we must take? She is the woman __________________ I really love.

Ex. 3. Combine the two sentences to make one single sentence,using WHO, WHOM or WHOSE 1. I met a man yesterday. He wrote detective stories. I_________________________________________________________________________________________________ met a man yesterday who wrote detective stories 2. I met a woman yesterday. Her husband died in a car accident. I met a woman ___________________________________________________________________________________ 3. Peter came to the party with a young woman. This is the young woman. This is the young __________________________________________________________________________________ 4. The policemen interrogated the old man. His car was parked outside the school. The policemen interrogated _________________________________________________________________________ 5. There´s a man in the lobby. He wants to speak with you. There´s a man ____________________________________________________________________________________ 6. They contacted a man. They found his wallet in the street. They contacted the man ___________________________________________________________________________ 7. You were talking to a man in the lobby. Where is he? Where is the man ________________________________________________________________________________ ?. Exercise 4. Ask questions with whose, as in the example. To whom does this pen belong? (belong = pertenecer) Whose pen is this? / Whose is this pen? To whom does that old blue jacket belong? Whose is that old blue jacket? Whose car is this? Whose is this car? To whom does this car belong? ___________________________________________________ To whom do these books belong? _________________________________________________ ? To whom does this brand new car belong? _________________________________________________ ? To whom does that coat belong’ _________________________________________________ ? To whom does this gold ring belong? _________________________________________________ ? To whom do the cigarettes on that table belong? _________________________________________________ ? To whom does this camera belong? _________________________________________________ ?

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Ex. 5. Make synonymous sentences using the verb BELONG instead of the possessives. 1. This pen is mine 2. That house is ours. 3. That´s not your leather jacket. 4. Those keys are mine. 5. Is that car yours? 6. That is not John´s bicycle.. 7. These aren´t Mary´s shoes. 8. Are these cigarettes yours? 9. Whose is this watch? 10.Whose glasses are these? 11.I think that this wallet is yours. 12.I´m sure that that house isn´t theirs. 13.This house is ours. It isn´t theirs. 14.That car isn´t his. It´s hers. 15.This sweater isn´t my sister´s. It´s my brother´s _________________________________________________ This pen belongs to me _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ ? _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ ? To ______________________________________________ ? _________________________________________________ ? To ______________________________________________ ? _________________________________________________ ? _________________________________________________ I´m sure __________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________

108

A short course in english for adult students

C. SOMEBODY, SOMETHING, SOMEWHERE AND DERIVED WORDS (Alguien, algo, algún lugar y sus derivados) Study the following chart
Afirmative Negative Some Not...any No Interrogative Any Somebody/someone Not... Anybody Not...anyone Nobody / No One Anybody / Anyone Something Not...anything Nothing Anything Somewhere Not...anywhere Nowhere Anywhere

En la BEGS & VOC UNIT 2 (p.27), habíamos aprendido que la palabra SOME solamente se usaba en oraciones afirmativas, y que en las interrogaciones se debía usar ANY. En las oraciones negativas había dos alternativas: se podía usar NOT... ANY o NO. Esta misma regla se debe seguir al usar las palabras derivadas, es decir con Somebody / Someone (alguien) Something (algo, alguna cosa). Somewhere (algun lugar, alguna parte), etc. Estudie los siguientes ejemplos: 1. I ´ve got some friends in Atlanta (Yo tengo algunos amigos en Atlanta) I haven´t got any friends in Atlanta / I´ve got no friends in Atlanta Have you got any friends in Atlanta? 2. I saw somebody in the car (Yo ví a alguien en el auto) I didn´t see anybody in the car / I saw nobody in the car Did you see anybody in the car? 3. They need something now. (Yo necesito algo ahora) They don´t need anything now. / They need nothing now Do they need anything now? 4. They will go somewhere after the lesson (Ellos irán a algún lugar después de la clase) They won´t go anywhere after the lesson / They will go nowhere after the lesson Will they go anywhere after the lesson? EXERCISES Ex. 1. Change to negative form Use a) NOT... ANY b) NO ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 2. I saw somebody in the corridor. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 3. Please put it somewhere in this room. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 4. There is someone at the door. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 5. He lives somewhere in New York. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 6. He told somebody about it. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 7. He gave the book to somebody. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 8. I put the money somewhere in this drawer yesterday. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 9. Tell somebody about Peter´s problems. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 10. He said something to her. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________
A short course in english for adult students

1. There is someone in the room

109

11. He has something to do. 12. He´s going to do something now. 13. They found the money somewhere. 14. They will send the goods to someone. Ex. 2. Change to question form 1. I saw somebody at the desk. 2. He went somewhere last night. 3. She has something to do. 4. He told somebody about it. 5. She put it somewhere. 6. There is someone in the next room. 7. Somebody wants to speak to him. 8. I saw somebody I knew. 9. He brought something with him. 10. He gave it to someone. 11. He took them somewhere on Long Island. 12. I liked something about her.

___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________

_________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________

? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?

Ex. 3. Rewrite the following “NO” sentences in the more common “NOT ... ANY” negative form: 1. They found nobody at home. 2. There is no more coffee. 3. They want nothing to drink. 4. There is nowhere for him to sit. 5. She spoke to no one about it. 6. I want no more, thank you. 7. He can see nothing without his glasses. 8. We saw nobody at all in the park. 9. They gave us nothing to eat. 10. We went nowhere after the dance. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________

110

A short course in english for adult students

calzada roundabout /ráundabáut/ rotonda school /skú:l/ colegio.) college /kólidll/ corner /kó:rner/ esquina cruce crossroads /krósroudz/ department store /dipá:rment stó:r/ tienda de depart. tintorería dry-cleaner’s /drái klí:nerz/ estate car /estéit ká:r/ ranchera (UK) cuartel de bomberos fire brigade /fáiar brigéid/ flower shop /fláuer shop/ florería greengrocer’s /gri:ngróuserz/ verdulería almacén (UK) grocer’s /gróuserz/ grocery store /gróuseri stó:r/ almacén (USA) ferretería hardware store /hárdwear stó:r/ hospital /hóspitl/ hospital hostel /hóstel/ hostal hotel hotel /houtél/ jeweller´s /dllúelerz/ joyería level crossing /lével krósi#/ cruce FFCC (UK) lorry /lórri/ camión (UK) museum /miuzíam/ museo news-stand /niuz stænd/ puesto de diarios night-club /náit klab/ boite park /pa:rk/ parque pavement /péivment/ vereda (UK) pedestrian /pedéstrian/ peatón pick up /pik áp/ camioneta (USA) planetarium /planetærium/ planetario bridge /bridll/ puente post office /póust ófis/ oficina de correos public library /páblik láibreari/ biblioteca pública railway station /réilwei stéishn/ estación de trenes restaurant /réstorant/ restaurant road /róud/ camino.) store /stóar/ tienda (USA) street /stri:t/ calle street-car /strí:t ká:r/ tranvía subway /sábwei/ paso bajo nivel (UK) subway /sábwei/ tren subterráneo (USA) supermarket /supermá:rkit/ supermercado tailor’s /téilorz/ sastrería take-away restaurant /téikawei réstrant/ restaurante de platos preparados para llevar taxi /tæksi/ taxi tea shop /ti:shop/ salón de té theatre /"íater/ teatro town hall /táun hó:l/ municipalidad traffic lights /træfik laits/ semáforo traffic sign /træfik sáin/ señalización train /tréin/ tren travel agent´s /trævel éidllents/ agencia de viajes truck /trak/ camión (USA) tunnel /tánel/ túnel underground /ándergráund/ tren subterráneo (UK) university /iunivérsiti/ universidad van /væn/ camioneta (UK) zebra crossing /zibra krósi#/ cruce de zebra zoo /zu:/ zoológico A short course in english for adult students 111 .BASIC VOCABULARY: Study these words THE CITY (La ciudad) airport /éarport/ aeropuerto all-you-can-eat restaurant /ó:l iu kn í:t réstorant/ restaurant tenedor libre art gallery /á:rt gæleri/ galería de arte panadería baker’s /béikerz/ book shop /búk shop/ librería police station /polís stéishn/ cuartel de policia building /bíldi#/ edificio bus /bás/ bus paradero de buses bus stop /bás stop/ bus terminal /bas té:rminl/ terminal de buses butcher’s /bútcherz/ carnicería cab /kæb/ taxi (USA) café café /kæfei/ cafetería /kafitíria/ fuente de soda.casino car /ka:r/ automóvil casino /kazínou/ casino de juegos farmacia chemist’s /kémists/ church /tché:rtch/ iglesia cinema /sínema/ sala de cine bus interurbano coach /kóutch/ coffee shop /kófishop/ cafetería escuela (univ. escuela shoe shop /shu: shop/ zapatería shop /shop/ tienda (UK) sidewalk /sáidwo:k/ vereda (USA) snack bar /snæk bá:r/ fuente de soda station wagon /stéishn wágon/ ranchera (USA) stationer’s /stéishonerz/ librería (art. disco /dískou/ discoteca lavaseco.escrit.

Bl 112 .

whom Ex... whom Ex. I said that.. whom 7.whom do these glasses belong? / Who do these glasses belong to? 11.which 16. 6... Which 2. 2. What will they talk about tomorrow? PART II. B. Those shoes don´t belong to Mary 8... 7. 8.. Why will Bob sell the car? 4.. / Will John accept. whom 18. Whose . 2.. will use 6.. 2. whom 10.... 6. It doesn`t belong to them.. That car doesn´t belong to him.. When will John give the answer? 3.. What will Mr Smith send them? 6. 1.. I´m sure (that) that house doesn´t belong to them . will be 10. Ex. 3.. who 6. whom 14.. / Will you send. said 10. Whose is this brand new car? 4.. / Will Mary go out.. Who 13.. who 22. whose 5. which 24. will have 4.. That house belongs to us 3. told 14.. / Will the train arrive.. 1. whose 15. 4. which 23. 5. 5. told 7. says 8. 1.. 8. I said that. Helen told the travel agent that. will march 2. It belongs to my brother.. Whose 9. Mr Smith said that.. 12. 1.. / Will they get married? 6. Whom 5.. 2. 3. which 12. will dig 7..... Whose is this gold ring? 6.. the boy told us that. says 6. This house belongs to us. Mr Smith told Peter that. 3... 6..to whom you were talking in the lobby? Ex. Bob said that he.. William told the doctor that. will buy 11..... Mary will not go out. told 5.... The teacher told Paul`s parents that. whom 8. I think (that) this wallet belongs to you. Who 4.? 5. 2. 4..the old man whose car was parked outside the school.UNIT 8 Key to answers PART I A. whom 4. Whose coat is that? Whose is that coat? 5.. Those keys belong to me 5. He says that she. says 2. Whose camera is this? Whose is this camera Ex.whom does this watch belong? / Who does this watch belong to? 10.... The teacher said that. It belongs to her. 4. The boy says that. 2. 9.. How long will they stay in Toronto? 8. 1.. They won`t get married.... John said that. 1.woman with whom Peter came to the party. whom 11. Who(m) 8.. whom 3. whom 20. Does that car belong to you? 6. will send 3. Who 19. The train won´t arrive. will sell 5. 5. That leather jacket doesn`t belong to you? 4. How many volunteers will they need? 10. 1.. 2. 2.? 3. John will not accept. Mr Smith won`t see.? 2. How long will the soldiers wait there? 5. 1. said Ex.? 4. 7. whose 21. which 6. 7. 13. 1. 4. whom 9. whom 7. 1. Ex. whose wallet they found in the street. This sweater doesn´t belong to my sister. Whose books are these? Whose are these books? 3. John told his friends that. 7.who wants to speak with you. says 11. whom 2.. A short course in english for adult students 113 . 14. Where will you wait for me / us? 9. That bicycle doesn`t belong to John. tell 13. She told me that... 1. will hire 12.. Ann told the office that. Do these cigarettes belong to you? 9.? Ex.. Why won`t Sue buy the dress? 7.whose husband died in a car accident 3. told 3.. will move Ex. A. Whose 3.. said 9. Ex. 3. 15....5... 3. Where will they go in the summer? 2. Who 17.. / Will Mr Smith see. tell 12.whom 10. The man tells me that. You won`t send. Whose are the cigarettes on that table? 7.. Ex. said 4.. will launch 8 will attend 9..

They won´t send the goods to anyone / They´ll send the goods to no one. 1. 2. / I saw nobody in. put it nowhere in. 6.. Did he go anywhere last night? 3. Did he bring anything with him? 10. 2. 3. / I put the money nowhere.. We didn´t go anywhere after the dance 114 A short course in english for adult students . / Please. / He said nothing.. He doesn´t live anywhere in.. Ex.. / Tell nobody about. thank you.. We didn´t see anybody at all in the park 9... 10. Did I see anybody at the desk. Did he tell anybody about it? 5. 9. Ex.. don´t put it anywhere in.. Did he give it to anyone? 11.. I didn´t see anybody in. There isn`t anyone at. Please. 3.. Does anybody want to speak to him? 8. 5.3. I didn`t put the money anywhere. Does she have anything to do? 4. / He lives nowhere in. They didn´t find the money anywhere / They found the money nowhere 14. Did I see anybody I knew? 9. / There´s no one in. 1.. Is there anyone in the next room? 7. 7. She didn`´t speak to anyone about it 6.. He doesn`t have anything to do / He has nothing to do 12. There isn´t anywhere for him to sit 5. They didn´t give us anything to eat . He isn´t going to do anything now / He`s going to do nothing now 13. 11..? 2. 7. Did I like anything about her? Ex. I don´t want any more.. There isn`t anyone in..... They don´t want anything to drink 4.. / There`s no one at. Don`t tell anybody about.. They didn´t find anybody at home 2....C. 1... 8.. / He told nobody. He didn´t tell anybody. 1... There isn´t any more coffee. Did he take them anywhere on Long Island? 14. He didn`t give the book to anybody / He gave the book to nobody 8. 10... He didn´t say anything. He can´t see anything without his glasses. Did she put it anywhere? 6.... 4..

“TÚ VAS A . 4. When are they going to visit us? /wén a:r !éi góui# tu vízit as/. Lea. They´ll travel to Mexico in March. 2.. 8. Equivale a la expresión “YO VOY A . escuche y aprenda: They aren´t going to visit us next week-end.”. /!éi a:r góui# tu vízit as nékst wí:kénd/ Ellos van a visitarnos el próximo fin de semana. Change the sentences you wrote in the previous exercise into a) negative and b) interrogative 1. 4. /méri íznt góui# tu kám tu wé:rk tumórou/. 7. The Johnsons will spend their vacation in Acapulco.”. 6. 5.. 2.. The instructor will use a video. 3. Jackson will play tennis tomorrow Jane will buy a bilingual dictionary. escuche y aprenda: They are going to visit us next week-end.UNIT 9 PART 1.”. I will send Mary a post-card from L. Are they going to visit us next week-end? /á:r !éi góui# tu vízit as nékst wí:kénd/ Is Mary going to come to work tomorrow? /iz méri góui# tu kám tu wé:rk tumórou/. etc. Mary va a venir a trabajar mañana En la negación y en la interrogación se aplican las mismas reglas dadas en el Presente Continuo. /!éi á:rent góui# tu vízit as nékst wí:kénd/ Mary isn´t going to come to work tomorrow. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. Change the following sentences using AM / IS / ARE + GOING TO instead of WILL: 1.. EL FUTURO SIMPLE II (THE SIMPLE FUTURE TENSE II) EL FUTURO SIMPLE CON AM/IS/ARE + GOING TO Esta construcción gramatical se usa para expresar intenciones o planes que probablemente se llevarán a cabo en el futuro cercano. Mary is going to come to work tomorrow /mériz góui# tu kám tu wé:rk tumórou/. Tom isn´t going to come to Chile next year. Tom will come to Chile next year. 5... Why isn´t Mary going to come to work tomorrow? /wái iznt méri góui# tu kám tu wé:rk tumórou/. 6. 2. La pregunta habitual en este tiempo verbal es: What are you going to do? /wót a:r iú góui# tu dú:/ ¿Qué va a hacer usted? EXERCISES Ex. 8. Lea. 7. Paul will go to Germany and France. Mr. _____________________________________________ _____________________________________________ _____________________________________________ _____________________________________________ _____________________________________________ _____________________________________________ _____________________________________________ Is Tom going to come to Chile next year? _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ ? ? ? ? ? ? ? A short course in english for adult students 115 . 1. “ÉL VA A .A. 3.

Ella va a comprar otro par de zapatos. “It didn´t take... 4. 5.. Bill is going to answer the question..”. to fly from London to Chicago PAST It took FUTURE It will take Escuche. LA EXPRESION IDIOMATICA “IT TAKES.. 3.?”. 2.?”. /it tuk !e stiú:dents abáut an áuar tu á:nser !e kwéstchonz/ Los alumnos demoraron más o menos una hora en contestar las preguntas. demorará por lo La forma negativa se expresa mediante el uso de “It doesn´t take. 4. Clark demora cerca de 20 minutos en conducir a su oficina.. en casa esta tarde? Yo voy a visitar a Mary este fin de semana. 3.”. We´re going to buy fruit and drinks. o “It won´t take. La forma interrogativa se expresa con “Does it take. Ask questions using question words like When.. o “Will it take. 2. 4.. In each case the underlined part of the sentence will be the answer to the question asked.. Translate the following sentences into English 1. ¿Cuándo vas a vender tu auto? ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ PART II. 1..Ex... 6... Bill is going to travel by plane.. menos una hora en tipear el informe /it wil téik iú: at lí:st an áuar tu táip !e ripó:rt/ Ud. ¿Qué vas ha hacer mañana en la mañana? ¿Van a estar uds. How long. They´re going to fix the engine. “Did it take. to learn English to build the pyramids to type the report to build the new highway. etc.” / “IT WILL TAKE.?” 116 A short course in english for adult students . Ellos no van a venir a la fiesta esta noche. 7. It will take you at least an hour to type the report. 3.”. Where. “ tomar tiempo” Study the following chart: Whom? PRESENT It takes Mr Clark the students us ________________ the students the men me ________________ you the men ____________________ How long? about 20 minutes about 15 minutes about one hour about 2 hours about 1 hour six months more than a year a long time at least an hour two years about 10 hours To do what? to drive to his office to run to the stadium to walk that distance to drive to Viña del Mar to answer the questions to build the bridge. lea y aprenda: It takes Mr Clark about twenty minutes to drive to his office /it téiks míster klá:rk abáut twénti mínits tu dráiv tu hiz ófis/ El Sr. I´m going to get back from work at 6:30. 6..” Esta expresión idiomática se usa para expresar la idea de “demorar”. It took the students about an hour to answer the questions.” / “IT TOOK. A. Bob and Jim are going to swim. _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ ? ? ? ? ? ? ? Ex.. She´s not going to go because she´s tired.. 5.

___________________________________________________ 8. or IT WILL TAKE.. en.. He does his homework every day in one hour.? Escuche. 2. It didn’t take Herbert a long time to walk to work. 1. I found my mistake in a few minutes. I did my exercise in one hour. ___________________________________________________ 11. 3.Escuche. 4. ___________________________________________________ 12.. Will it take you more than an hour to type the report? ..: 1.. Change the following to introduce IT TAKES. Then ask a Wh-question with HOW LONG? 1. en. Did it take the students much time to answer the questions? It won´t take you more than an hour to type the report. 2. en...? How long will it take you to. ___________________________________________________ 10. lea y aprenda: How long does it take Mr Clark to drive to his office every morning? How long did it take the students to answer the questions? How long will it take you to type this report? EXERCISES Ex. They will build the bridge in two years. ___________________________________________________ 5. 5.. (It takes me ten minutes to come to work on the bus. Change to negative and to interrogative form. Did it take Herbert a long time to walk to work? How long did it take Herbert to walk to work? ___________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ ? _________________________________________________ ? ___________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ ? _________________________________________________ ? ___________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ ? _________________________________________________ ? ___________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ ? _________________________________________________ ? A short course in english for adult students ¿Cuánto tiempo se demora Ud.. Does it take Mr Clark more than twenty minutes to drive to his office? It didn´t take the students much time to answer the questions.? 117 . IT TOOK.... ___________________________________________________ 9. ___________________________________________________ 3.. It takes me seven minutes to walk there. I do my homework every night in a short time. I walked to the station in fifteen minutes. ___________________________________________________ 6.? ¿Cuánto tiempo se demoró Ud..? How long did it take you to... ___________________________________________________ Ex. They will complete the work in six years. We drove to Philadelphia in one hour.? ¿Cuánto tiempo se demorará Ud. I come to work on the bus in ten minutes. ___________________________________________________ 7. I finished the work in an hour. It takes me ten minutes to get there by subway.) 2. ___________________________________________________ 4. lea y aprenda: It doesn´t take Mr Clark more than twenty minutes to drive to his office. She learned to speak English in only one year.... It took him several hours to finish the report. It took them many years to build the road. I wrote the letter in a few minutes. It took Herbert a long time to walk to work. La pregunta habitual con esta expresión idiomática es : How long does it take you to.

no demorará mucho tiempo en leer ese artículo _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 118 A short course in english for adult students . 12. It took them two days to find him. It takes an hour to do this exercise.6. It takes much time to learn English. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 9. demorarán por lo menos tres meses en preparar el informe. Ella no demoró mucho tiempo en aprender a usar el computador. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 8. ¿Cuánto tiempo demora Ud. Uno no demora más de dos horas en viajar de Santiago a Puerto Montt en avión. Translate the following sentences into English 1. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 4. It will take a long time to get to the airport. Ud. en aprender a conducir un auto? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 5. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 3. Uds. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 2. 8. It will take you a week to read this book. ¿Cuánto tiempo demoraremos nosotros en aprender a hablar inglés bien? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 6. 3. ¿Cuánto tiempo demoró Ud. Los alumnos demoraron más de dos horas en contestar todas las preguntas. 9. It took a month to complete the work. It took an hour to discover the mistake. 11. 7. usualmente en ducharse todas las mañanas? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 7. 10. ___________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ ? _________________________________________________ ? ___________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ ? _________________________________________________ ? ___________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ ? _________________________________________________ ? ___________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ ? _________________________________________________ ? ___________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ ? _________________________________________________ ? ___________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ ? _________________________________________________ ? ___________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ ? _________________________________________________ ? Ex. Yo generalmente demoro diez minutos en caminar a casa desde la oficina.

tall . (Mary es una niña hermosa) Bob is an intelligent person. (Mary es la niña más hermosa en el grupo) Bob is the most intelligent person I know. (Bob es tan inteligente como George) Our house is as big as your house.more important A short course in english for adult students 119 . thin . (Nuestra casa es la casa más grande en el barrio) This is the oldest car in this town (Este es el auto más viejo en este pueblo) 4. (Nuestra casa es más grande que vuestra casa) This car is older than that one. Grado Superlativo y Grado de Igualdad. (Bob es más inteligente que George) Our house is bigger than your house. Al usar el Grado Comparativo debemos observar las siguientes reglas: a. Si el adjetivo está formado por cons. Si el adjetivo tiene tres o más sílabas se debe anteponer la palabra more: intelligent . GRADOS DE COMPARACION DE LOS ADJETIVOS Cuando usamos un adjetivo calificativo como beautiful. Grado Comparativo. (Mary es tan hermosa como su hermana Alice) Bob is as intelligent as George. (Este auto es muy viejo) 2.taller.B. (Bob es una persona inteligente) Our house is very big. (Este auto es más viejo que ese) 3. (Este auto es tan viejo como ese). Cuando usamos el GRADO DE IGUALDAD estamos diciendo que dos personas o cosas tienen la misma característica.shorter b. Mary is the most beautiful girl in the group. short . intelligent estamos haciendo comparaciones. (Nuestra casa es muy grande) This car is very old. es decir son iguales. Los adjetivos tienen cuatro grados de comparación: Grado Positivo. old. Cuando usamos el GRADO SUPERLATIVO estamos comparando una persona o cosa con todas las demás de su especie. Mary is as beautiful as her sister Alice. EL GRADO POSITIVO es aquel que usamos cuando no especificamos con qué persona o cosa estamos comparando. (Bob es la persona más inteligente que conozco) Our house is the biggest house in the neighborhood.thinner c. 1.bigger. hot . Mary is a beautiful girl. (Mary es más hermosa que su hermana Alice) Bob is more intelligent than George.+vocal+cons o cons+cons+vocal+cons debemos duplicar la última consonante: big .more intelligent important . (Nuestra casa es tan grande como vuestra casa) This car is as old as that one. Nosotros usamos el GRADO COMPARATIVO cuando especificamos con qué persona o cosa estamos comparando: Mary is more beautiful than her sister Alice.smaller. big. A los adjetivos de una sílaba debemos agregar el sufijo -er: small . Cuando decimos que “Mary is a beautiful girl” estamos comparándola con otras niñas que hemos visto anteriormente.hotter.

. Compare: pretty common prettier more common clever modern cleverer more modern e. (El no es TAN alto como su hermano) (su hermano es mucho más alto) EXERCISES Ex.best bad .biggest hot . A los adjetivos de dos sílabas de origen sajón (que no se parecen al español) se le agrega el sufijo -est.as.. The weather today is ____________________________ yesterday.. si es de origen latino o griego se le antepone la palabra more. debemos duplicar la última consonante big .most important d. (short) 3. dependiendo del grado de diferencia existente He is as tall as his brother. A los adjetivos de una sílaba debemos agregar el sufijo -est: small .. si es de origen latino o griego se le antepone la palabra most..(larger than). Si el adjetivo tiene tres o más sílabas se debe anteponer la palabra most: intelligent .worst far .most modern e.+vocal+cons. + as. (tall) 4. (hot) 7. Si el adjetivo está formado por cons. Existen algunos adjetivos que tienen una forma excepcional en el grado comparativo: good .most GRADO DE IGUALDAD Estas oraciones se expresan usando as + adj. (old) 5.. (bad) 6. This article is ____________________________ that one.thinnest c.prettiest common . John is ____________________________ William. This summer is ____________________________ last summer.hottest thin . 1.+vocal+cons.least many .cleverest modern . o doble cons. pretty . (large) 2.shortest b.smallest tall .Washington.most much . (interesting) 120 A short course in english for adult students .most intelligent important . Existen algunos adjetivos que tienen una forma excepcional en el grado comparativo: good bad far better worse farther little many much less more more Al usar el Grado Superlativo debemos observar las siguientes reglas: a. This book is ____________________________ that book .d. Henry is ____________________________ I...tallest short . Philadelphia is.as o not so. (El es tan alto como su hermano) He is not as tall as his brother.most common clever .farthest little . En las oraciones negativas el grado de igualdad puede ser expresado con not as. (El no es tan alto como su hermano) (su hermano es ligeramente más alto) He is not so tall as his brother. Supply the comparative form of the adjectives in parentheses + THAN 1. A los adjetivos de dos sílabas de origen sajón (que no se parecen al español) se le agrega el sufijo -er .

Is this exercise ____________________________ the last one? (difficult) 9.. Henry is ____________________________ dancer in the school. (intelligent) 8.. Use words of your choosing to complete each sentence: 1. (hot) 3... first in comparative form....... (beautiful) 7. This street is ____________________________________________________ 5. This exercise is not more difficult than the last one... and second in superlative form. The weather today is not better than it was yesterday. This street is. (healthy) 11. (interesting) 4. The weather today is not colder than it was yesterday. 3. This book was __________________________________ 8. Helen is __________________________________________________________ 4... is. This is ____________________________ apple of all. Henry is not taller than I.. The Empire State Bldg. New York is also ____________________________ city in the United States. (little) Ex... This street is not wider than that street.. New York is not smaller than Chicago.(interesting) 5. Frank is. (large) 5. 2.... (good) 9. (bad) 10. New York is _____________________________________________________ 3.... (good) student ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students 121 . Is this exercise ____________________________ the last one? (important) Ex... Some people are ____________________________ others.. This exercise is _______________________________________ 6. introduce the superlative form of the adjective in parentheses: 1. Grace is.. John is ____________________________ boy in the class.. (light) 12...... The Mississippi River is.. He is also ____________________________ student in the class.... Complete these sentences by using the adjective which is the opposite of the one in italics: shorter than I 1..... This is ____________________________ room in the whole building.(wide) 9.. Which man in the group has ____________________________ money? (much) 14.. (young) 6.. This book is. This book was not more expensive than my French book.8.. This book is not thicker than my French book. (tall) 2. John is a. The weather today is ________________________________ 9.. These apples are ____________________________ those.... (good) 10.(long) 8. (sweet) 6. State the adjectives in parentheses... This room is ____________________________ that one..... Helen is not younger than her sister. Today is ____________________________ day of the year. New York is ____________________________ city in the United States... John is ____________________________ boy in the class. In the following. Which is ____________________________ city in this country? (large) 11. 4.. This book is ______________________________________________ 7.. That city has ____________________________ parks in the region.. John has ____________________________ experience in computers in the group. (light) 12..(intelligent) 4.(tall) 2. (few) 15. Henry is ___________________________________________________________________ 2.. Bill is. Henry is.. Which student in your class knows ____________________________ English words? (many) 13... This is ____________________________ park in the city.(pretty) 3......The weather today is _________________________________ Ex.(tall) 7..

3. John is as tall as his brother.. 10. Our apartment is larger than yours. 8. 12.. Helen is more beautiful than Mary. John isn’t as / so tall as his brother. This book is better than the other.. 7.C. This street is wider than that one. 6. State each sentence first in positive form and then in negative form: 1. (easy) ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. New York is more important than Washington D.10.John makes more mistakes than Henry.. 2. The sky is darker than it was yesterday. 9.. This exercise is. 5. 11. This corridor is larger than the room. This exercise is longer than the last one.There are more people today than yesterday 13.. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 122 A short course in english for adult students . John is taller than his brother.The weather today is worse than it was yesterday. 4. 5.. John has less experience in computers than I. Rewrite each sentence to show equality of comparison. Peter has more money than Henry 14..

pez espada 123 A short course in english for adult students . Provisions /províllnz/ (Abarrotes) bread /bred/ biscuit /bískit/ butter /báter/ cake /keik/ candies /kændiz/ coffee /kófi/ cookie /kúki/ cracker /kræker/ cream /kri:m/ cheese /tchi:z/ chips /tchips/ egg /eg/ french fries /frénch fráiz / jam /dllæm/ lard /la:rd / margarine /má:rdllari:n/ marmalade /má:rmeléid / 2.camarones salmón ostión mariscos langostinos lenguado calamar albacora.BASIC VOCABULARY: Study these words FOOD /fu:d/ (Los alimentos) 1. Sea Food /sí: fu:d/ (Pescados y mariscos) abalone /abalóuni/ clam /klæm/ cockle /kókl/ cod /kod/ conger eel /kónger i:l/ crab /kræb/ eel /í:l/ fish /fish/ haddock /hædok/ hake /heik/ herring /hérri#/ loco almeja caracol. Meals /mi:lz/ (Las comidas) breakfast /brékfast/ brunch /brantch/ lunch /lantch/ supper /sáper/ dinner /díner/ appetizer /æpetáizer/ 3. pastillas tea /ti:/ té toast /tóust/ tostada(s) vinegar /vínegar/ vinagre 4. plaice /pléis/ squid /skuid/ swordfish /sórdfish/ caballa o jurel cholga.merlango merluza arenque mackerel /mækerel/ mussel /mázl/ oyster /óister/ prawns /pro:nz/ salmon /sá:mon/ scallop /skælop/ shellfish /shélfish/ shrimps /shrimps/ sole /soul /. Meats /mi:ts/ (Carnes) beef /bi:f/ breast /brest/ chicken /tchíkin/ chop /tchop/ duck /dak/ fillet /filét/ lamb /læm/ leg /leg/ mutton /mátn/ vacuno pechuga pollo chuleta pato filete cordero lechón pata. mejillón ostra gambas. pié cordero pheasant /féznt/ pork /po:rk/ rib /rib/ sirloin /sé:rloin/ T-bone /tí: bóun/ turkey /té:rki/ veal /vi:l/ venison /vénison/ wing /wi#/ faisán cerdo costilla lomo entrecot pavo ternera ciervo ala desayuno desayuno-almuerzo almuerzo cena (informal) cena (formal) aperitivo hors-dóeuvres /o:dévre/ starter /stá:rter/ first course /fé:rst kó:rz/ main course /méin kó:rz/ dessert /dizé:rt/ entremeses entrada primer plato plato de fondo postre pan galleta (UK) mantequilla torta calugas café galleta (USA) galleta de agua crema queso papas fritas (UK) huevo papas fritas (USA) mermelada. berberecho bacalao congrio jaiva anguila pescado abadejo. dulce manteca margarina mermelada cítrica mashed potatoes /mæsht potéitouz/ puré de papas noodles /nú:dlz/ fideos oil /oil/ aceite pepper /péper/ pimienta rice /ráis/ arroz salad dressing /sælad drési#/ aliño para ensaladas salt /sólt/ sal sauce /so:s/ salsa soup /su:p/ sopa spaghetti /spagéti/ tallarines sugar /shúgar/ azúcar sweets /suits/ dulces.

Fruits /fru:ts/ (Frutas) apple /æpl/ apricot /éiprikot/ banana /baná:na/ blackberry /blækberi/ blueberry /blú:beri/ cherry/cherries /tchérriz/ coconut /kókounat/ cranberry /krænberi/ dates /déits/ gooseberry /gú:zberi/ grapefruit /gréifru:t/ grapes /greips/ hazel nuts /héizl nats/ centolla langosta trout /traut/ tuna fish /túna fish/ urchin /é:rchin/ trucha atún erizo manzana damasco plátano mora arándano cerezas coco arándano agrio dátiles grosella pomelo uvas nueces melon /mélon/ orange /órindll/ peach /pi:tch/ peanut /pí:nat/ pineapple /páinæpl/ plum /plam/ prunes /prú:nz/ quince /kuins/ raisins /réizinz/ raspberry /ræzberi/ strawberry /stró:beri/ watermelon /wotermélon/ melón naranja durazno maní piña ciruela ciruelas secas membrillo pasas frambuesa frutilla sandía 6.choclo pepino garlic /gá:rlik/ lemon /lémon/ lettuce /létis/ onion /ánion/ pea(s) /pi:(z)/ potato(es) /potéitou(z)/ pumkin /pámkin/ raddish /rædish/ red /green pepper /péper/ spinach /spínidll/ tomato(es) /toméitou(z)/ ajo limón lechuga cebolla arveja(s) papa(s) zapallo rábano pimentón /morrón espinaca tomate(s) 7. Vegetables /védlletablz/ (Verduras) celery /séleri/ artichoke /á:rtitchouk/ asparragus /aspáragaz/ bean(s) /bi:n(z) beetroot /bí:trut/ broad bean /broud bí:n/ cabbage /kæbidll/ carrot /károt/ chicory /tchíkori/ corn /kó:rn/ cucumber /kiukámber/ apio alcachofa espárrago poroto(s) betarraga haba repollo zanahoria chicoria maíz.king crab /ki# kræb/ lobster /lóbster/ 5. Beverages /bívridlliz/ Bebestibles beer /bíar/ coffee /kófi:/ drink /dri#k/ herbal tea /hérbal tí:/ juice /dllu:s/ lemonade /lémoneid/ milk /milk/ cerveza café trago infusión de hierbas jugo limonada leche red wine /réd wáin/ soda water /sóuda wó:ter/ soft drink /sóft dri#k/ tea /ti:/ water /wó:ter/ white wine /wáit wáin/ wine /wáin/ vino tinto agua de soda refresco té agua vino blanco vino 124 A short course in english for adult students .

. It doesn´t take an hour to. 4. Jane´s going to buy. What time / When are you going to get back from work? 5... 4. It didn´t take an hour to. / How long did it take him to......? 8.... She´s going to buy another pair of shoes...? 2. Ex.. / Does it take much time to.. taller than 4.? / How long does it take me to...? 9.? / How long did it take them to build. 3. When are you going to sell your car? PART II A. 1... 9. Tom isn´t going to come to.? 7...? / How long does it take to. 2. 1.. Who is going to answer the question? Ex.. 3.. older than 5........ It won´t take you very long to read that article. Jane isn´t going to buy.. 1. Paul isn´t going to go to. It will take them six years to complete the work.. / Is Jane going to buy. It took me an hour to do my exercise 3. It took me an hour to finish the work 10. The instructor´s going to use.. What are you going to do tomorrow morning? 4... 2... healthier than 11... It took the students more than two hours to answer all the questions. / Did it take an hour to.. It didn´t take a month to. What are they going to do? 6.. / Is Paul going to go to. / Did it take them two days to.. How is Bill going to travel? 2.? 7. / Does it take me seven minutes to. Mr Jackson isn´t going to play. 1. What are you / we going to buy? 4.. It will take them two years to build the bridge... It takes him one hour to do his homework every day. 1..? 6... 1. lighter than 12. They are going to travel to...? / How long did it take to..3. It took me fifteen minutes to walk to the station .. 6. I´m not going to send Mary. It won´t take you a week to. Ex. Are you going to be at home this evening? 5. 11.. The Johnsons are going to spend... 6. 2.. It didn´t take them many years to build.... It didn´t take her very long / much time to learn how to use the computer. 2...? / How long does it take to.? 4. B.. / Did it take him several hours to. / Did it take a month to. 12...? 4. It will take you at least three months to prepare the report. more interesting than 8.? Ex... / Am I going to send Mary. Mr Jackson´s going to play.. Paul`s going to go to.? 5.They aren´t going to come to the party tonight......? / How long does it take me to get. It didn´t take him several hours to.. worse than 6. 2.... / Is Tom going to come to.. / Did it take them many years to build.. How long did it take you to learn to drive a car? 5. more important than A short course in english for adult students 125 .? Ex...? 12... shorter than 3. It doesn´t take me ten minutes to get.. 5. 1. It generally takes me ten minutes to walk home from the office.? 11.? 5. It took me a few minutes to write the letter.. It took us one hour to drive to Philadelphia..? 10.. It doesn´t take me seven minutes to. 2. 3. more difficult than 9..? / How long will it take you to. It takes me a short time to do my homework every night 7.? 3.. It doesn´t take more than two hours to travel from Santiago to Puerto Montt by plane.. hotter than 7.? / How long did it take them to. 8.... How long does it usually take you to take a shower every morning? 7. / Is Mr Jackson going to play. It took me a few minutes to find my mistake....? / How long did it take to. / Are they going to travel to....UNIT 9 Key to answers PART I Ex. / Does it take an hour to. 8. 3. better than 10. / Is the instructor going to use. 1. / Are the Johnsons going to spend. 4.? 6... 7. / Will it take you a week to. Ex.? 8.. What are Bob and Jim going to do? 3. How long will it take us to learn to speak English well? 6. 2. Why isn´t she going to go? 7.? / How long will it take to.? 3. I´m going to visit Mary this weekend? 6. I´m going to send Mary... 5. It won´t take a long time to.... It didn´t take them two days to. 8.. 4. They aren´t going to travel to.. It doesn`t take much time to. 9. / Will it take a long time to. The Johnsons aren´t going to spend. Tom is going to come to.. 2.... Ex.. It took her only one year to learn to speak English.. The instructor isn´t going to use. / Does it take me ten minutes to get.

John makes as many mistakes as Henry. the worst 10. the most intelligent 8. thinner than my French book 7. 3. the best 9. Ex. the most 14.New York is as important as Washington. The weather today is as bad as it was yesterday. older than her sister. the lightest 12. 1. 4. the largest 11. the most beautiful 7.This corridor is as large as the room. Ex. This exercise isn´t as / so long as the last one. 2. 126 A short course in english for adult students . 9. Peter has as much money as Henry. bigger than Chicago 3. Peter doesn´t have as / so much money as Henry. The Mississippi River is longer than the Colorado River / The Mississippi River is the longest river in the USA 8. Helen isn´t as / so beautiful as Mary. 2. 3. / Grace is the prettiest girl (whom) I know. Frank is younger than his sister / Frank is the youngest person in the family 6. This book is more interesting than that one. The Empire State Building is taller than the RCA Building. (Open answers) 1. 3. / This is the easiest exercise in this unit. Bill is more intelligent than James. The sky isn´t as / so dark as it was yesterday. 7. 10. John is a better student than Peter / John is the best student in my class. This exercise is easier than the previous one. This book isn´t as / so good as the other. 8. This street isn´t as / so wide as that one. 14. 6. The sky is as dark as it was yesterday. The weather today isn´t as / so bad as it was yesterday. the most 13. the most interesting 4. This corridor isn´t as / so large as the room. 5. 4. 10. easier than 6. This street is wider than my street. There are as many people today as yesterday. narrower than 5. 12. the largest 5. 2.5. the fewest 15. 13. Our apartment isn´t as / so large as yours. 4. cheaper than my French book 8. / This is the most interesting book (that) I have ever read 5. 4. the hottest 3. John doesn´t make as / so many mistakes as Henry. warmer / hotter than it was yesterday. / This is the widest street in this town. There aren´t as / so many people today as yesterday. 9. worse than it was yesterday. / The Empire State (Building) is the tallest building in New York. This exercise is as long as the last.Ex. / Bill is the most intelligent person in my class. 2. the least Ex. Our apartment is as large as yours. 9. This street is as wide as that one. Helen is as beautiful as Mary. John has as little experience in computers as I.. 11. This book is as good as the other. John doesn´t have as / so little experience in computers as I. the sweetest 6. Henry is taller than Bill / Henry is the tallest person in the group. the tallest 2. 7. / New York isn´t as / so important as Washington. Grace is prettier than her sister.

We´re staying there for 10 days. etc. en esta variante se usa la misma estructura del Presente Contínuo (S+AM/IS/ ARE+ING/. to travel. We´re flying / We´re going by plane. Make sentences using the Present Continuous to refer to future activities. to stay. escuche y aprenda: They are visiting us next week-end. previstas o fijadas con anticipación para una fecha próxima. Esta construcción gramatical se usa para referirse a actividades que han sido acordadas. 1 Practice these questions and answers with a friend: What are you doing on Friday night? What are you doing next week-end? What´s the boss doing this afternoon? What are you and your wife doing next summer? How are you getting there? When are you leaving? How long are you staying there this time? I´m going to a disco with some friends. por ejemplo: to go. to have lunch/dinner. He´s attending a meeting. Lea. to attend. to arrive. He went to his travel agent this morning and bought an air ticket (fly). /!éi á:rent víziti# as nékst wí:kénd/ Mary isn´t coming to work tomorrow. John wrote in his diary: “Monday 10:30 Conference at YMCA Auditorium” (attend) John __________________________________________________________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students 127 . to leave. EL FUTURO SIMPLE III (THE SIMPLE FUTURE TENSE III) EL FUTURO SIMPLE CON AM/IS/ARE + GERUNDIO Como probablemente ud. to fly. /!éi a:r víziti# as nékst wí:kénd/ (They accepted our invitation) Mary´s coming to work tomorrow. Mr Mitchell _____________________________________________________________________________________ 2. Mr Mitchell wants to visit Sydney next week. 1. We´re leaving on January 21st. 2. I accepted their invitation. (¿Qué tienes previsto / planificado hacer mañana en la mañana / el domingo / etc. Las forma negativa e interrogativa se expresa en la misma forma que se hizo con el Presente Contínuo Lea. Ex. agendadas. to come. /méri íznt kámi# tu wé:rk tumórou/ Are they visiting us next week-end? /á:r !éi víziti# as nékst wí:kénd/ Is Mary coming to work tomorrow? /iz méri kámi# tu wé:rk tumórou/ When are they visiting us? /wén a:r !éi víziti# ás/ Why isn´t Mary coming to work tomorrow? /wái íznt méri kámi# tu wé:rk tumórou/ La pregunta más frecuente en este tiempo es: What are you doing tomorrow morning/on Sunday/ etc? /wót á:r iu dú:i# tumórou mó:rni#/on sándi/ etc. to visit.UNIT 10 PART 1. /mériz kámi# tu wé:rk tumórou/ (She confirmed this morning) Los verbos más comúnmente usados en esta variante son aquellos que indican movimiento o desplazamiento de uno a otro lugar. like in the example: The Johnsons invited me for dinner next Friday evening. to drive. We´re going to Cancun again. (have dinner) I´m having dinner with the Johnsons next Friday evening. to come back. ha advertido.?) EXERCISES Ex. I´m visiting my sister in New Jersey. escuche y aprenda: They aren´t visiting us next week-end.

07:40 Fly to Houston. 1. After dinner. by boat or plane? _____________________________________________ 6._________________________________________________________________________ 7. Let´s hurry up. Make complete sentences: 1. Novoa ____________________________back to Chile. “ Yes. Sat. 12. 2. He is arriving at Arturo Merino Airport at about 21:15. Write sentences indicating Dr. Novoa will have a very busy week next week. On Monday evening. 4. he ____________________________________________________________________ 13. When are your friends from New York coming to visit you? ____________________________________________ 5. In the evening. Novoa is going to the USA next week. Mr. Where are you going on vacation this year? ___________________________________________________ 3. At midday. What are you doing next Friday evening? ___________________________________________________ 4. On Wednesday morning. he´s ________________________________________________________________________ 3. (not attend) Mr Brown______________________________________________________________________________________ 7. he _____________________________________________________at the Nasa Space Center 11. DC 10:15 Fly back to Chile. After that. How is Mr Jackson travelling to Japan. Now complete the sentences using the information given in the chart. Dr. Answer these questions in English. On Friday morning. _________________________________________________________________________________ 6. He´s _______________________________________________________________________ on Tuesday morning. he _______________________________________________________________________ 10. Mary: “Yes. I want to play tennis tomorrow. It´s 8:15 now. “Arriving on 8:15 train Saturday morning” (arrive) Our daughter___________________________________________________________________________________ 6. Surgeons Club Wed.Texas 14:00 Conference at the Houston Medical Center 08:00 Conference. Novoa´s Schedule Mon. We just got a telegram from our daughter. 4. I´ll be away on a business trip”. 10:00 Visit the Bethesda Medical Center 19:45 Concert. at 16:00. Right after lunch. At 10:15 on Saturday. at the Kennedy Center Thurs. Dr. Texas. Ex. I asked Bob if he wanted to play with me and he said. 19:30 Reception at the White House Tues. Fri. What are you doing on Saturday? ___________________________________________________ 7. It says. Brown said to us. On Thursday afternoon. he´s _______________________________________________________________ at the Waldorf Hotel. Novoa´s activities in Washington and in Houston. (leave) Our train_____________________________________________________________ in ten minutes. Use the information given below: Dr. United Airlines Flight 908 from National Airport. 10:30 Meeting at the US Medical Assn. On Monday morning. Dr. ____________________________________________________________________________________ 8. 09:30 Play tennis with Dr. As you can see.. I can´t come to your wedding party on Friday. First he is visiting Washington DC and then he is attending a Conference in Houston. Ex. We must hurry up. the Nasa Space Center 12:45 Lunch with friends at the Waldorf Hotel 16:00 Fly back to Washington. let´s go”! (go) Jim and Mary __________________________________________________________________________________ 5. Mary?”. The departure of our train is at 8:25. late in the evening. “I´m afraid. 3. he ______________________________________________________________________ 9.3. of course!” (play) I______________________________________________________________________________________________ 4. 14. he´s attending a meeting at the US Medical Association. What time are you getting home tonight? ___________________________________________________ 128 A short course in english for adult students . Brown 11:30 Ceremony at the Lincoln Memorial 20:00 Dinner party at the US. At 7:40 AM on Thursday. He is arriving in Washington DC. What are you doing this evening? ___________________________________________________ 2. Jim: “Why don´t we go to a disco tonight. he ___________________________________________________________________________________ 5.

1. Mary vendrá a vernos la próxima semana. PODER = ser posible o probable 1. 2. be likely to. have to 2. You can see the lake from here. MAY. DEBERÍA = consejo. 5. Según el itinerario. ¿A qué hora vas a llegar del trabajo esta tarde? ___________________________________________________ 10. Be allowed to Example 1. ___________________________________________________ 3. PODER = tener permiso para (Informal) Synonym 1. DEBER = tener que (deducción/ conclusión) 1. be allowed to 2. Esta noche tenemos previsto cenar con Mr. = Bob is able to swim well 2. PODER = ser posible 3. Translate the following sentences into English 1. ___________________________________________________ 7. be advisable to / convenient / had better Estos verbos modales o especiales acompañan a un verbo principal y tienen las siguientes características: • Van seguidos de un infinitivo sin TO (excepto. / I assume. Ej. “He can to swim”) • No agregan -s en la tercera persona singular en el tiempo presente. Ellos van a estar con nosotros varios días. 1. 2. ¿Cuándo tienen ellos previsto viajar a los EEUU? ___________________________________________________ 9. PODER = tener permiso (formal) 2. ¿a qué hora vamos a llegar allá? __________________________________________________ PART II. Jones ___________________________________________________ 4. (No se debe decir. I think. He cannot / can´t swim well (cannot es el único caso en que el verbo modal y not van unidos) • Interrogan mediante simple inversión con el sujeto. A short course in english for adult students 129 .Ex. Bob = You are allowed to use my computer 1.. ___________________________________________________ 5. It´ll probably rain tomorrow.. You may leave now = You are allowed to leave now. He must be over 70 years old. Te prometo que no haré eso nuevamente. ¿Qué harán ellos con el dinero que recibieron? ___________________________________________________ 8. MODAL VERBS (I) A. Can he swim well? • Rara vez se usa el verbo modal OUGHT TO en oraciones negativas o interrogativas. You must obey orders.. DEBER = tener que (obligación/ necesidad) 2. CAN. SHOULD/OUGHT TO Estos Verbos Modales (también llamados defectivos o especiales) tienen los siguientes significados: Spanish CAN 1. Creo que ella no va a aceptar nuestra invitación. “He cans swim well”) • Niegan agregando la palabra NOT (formando en algunos casos una contracción) Ej. You had better study every day MUST 1. You can use my computer. = I think / assume he is over. 1. recomendación 1. Ej. / You ought to study every day = It is convenient for you to study every day. Yo no voy a salir de Stgo. = You have to obey orders. ___________________________________________________ 6.. = It´s possible (for you) to see the lake from here 3. 2.. este fin de semana. He can swim well. = It is likely to rain tomorrow. Be possible to 3. Be able to 2. MUST. ___________________________________________________ 2. He can swim well. You should study every day. It may rain tomorrow.. (No se debe decir. PODER = ser capaz de. Bob can swim well. probably MAY SHOULD OUGHT TO 1. OUGHT TO) Ej.

Estos verbos tienen los siguientes significados y usos : Can (Poder) 1. Para indicar incredulidad o asombro. Joe. dad? (¿Puedo encender el televisor. 5. (Ud. I think that you should see a doctor /. You ____________ take your umbrella in case it rains this afternoon. He is a retired civil servant. Está descompuesto) You can leave now. if you wish. si lo desea) You may not use this telephone at any time.. Peter. Para dar consejos. MUST. (Negative). John can swim very well. (Ud. 6. Tommy. (Ud. debe obedecer las leyes del tránsito) Students mustn´t smoke in the laboratory. Must (Deber) 1. Para indicar posibilidad o probabilidad EXERCISES Ex. It´s dangerous. (formal). Para indicar capacidad. Sr. Sir? 8. (No te subas a esa silla. (El está usando un uniforme verde. No es bueno para tu salud) You should feel proud of being a Chilean. Now I ____________ read better. Debe ser un policía) Ask the secretary. Complete the blanks with CAN. 2. Te puedes caer y quebrar un brazo) Cigarette smoking may cause cancer! (Fumar cigarrillos puede producir cancer) Should / Ought To (Debería) 1. puede retirarse. 3. (Se está nublando. (Deberías sentirte orgulloso de ser chileno) 3. you ____________ ask questions at the end of the presentation. Creo que deberías ver un médico) You should not smoke so much. You ____________ study harder if you want to get better grades. según corresponda. You ____________ easily fall and break your leg. Gentlemen. puede ver el lago desde esta ventana) We can´t use the elevator now .you ought to see a doctor / iu: ó:t tu sí: e dóktor / (No te ves bien. 1. (Uds. 2. Tommy. You ____________ not do that again.. ____________ I have another piece of cake. habilidad o destreza. papá?) That can´t be true! (Eso no puede ser cierto!) I can´t believe my eyes! (No puedo creer lo que estoy viendo!) You must obey all traffic regulations. hablar Inglés?) You can see the lake from this window. (Puedes retirarte ahora. It´s not good for your health. (No debería fumar tanto. reprochar o indicar un deber moral You don´t look well. if you like. (Pregúntele a la secretaria. 2. I just put on my glasses.?) It´s getting cloudy. It´s out of order.(Mary no puede tocar la guitarra) Can you speak English? (¿Puede Ud. MAY o SHOULD. 3. You may fall down and break an arm. 1. No pueden usar este teléfono a ninguna hora) May I smoke here.(No podemos usar el ascensor ahora. mother? 9. Sir? (¿Puedo fumar aquí. 7. 130 A short course in english for adult students . John. She must know where Mr Jackson is now. 2. ____________ I use your pen please. (Positive) Para indicar suposición o deducción. Peter) Can I turn on the TV. (Informal) Para dar o pedir permiso o autorización. 4. Para indicar que la posibilidad para hacer algo. (Los alumnos no deben fumar en el laboratorio) He´s wearing a green uniform. Para indicar obligación. It may rain tomorrow. You ____________ have a passport and a visa to enter the United States. He ____________ be over 65 years old now. He must be a policeman. (John puede nadar bien) Mary can´t play the guitar. Puede que llueva mañana) Don´t get on that chair. Para pedir o dar permiso o autorización. 4. Para expresar incredulidad o asombro May (Poder) 1. Ella debe saber dónde está el Sr Kackson ahora) You must be joking! (Debes estar bromeando!) It must be a mistake! (Debe ser un error!) You may leave now.

They may use Room 203. 2. He ____________ lift that heavy box easily.We don´t accept cash. The man is very strong. El trabajó muy duro. Debe estar cansado. b) interrogative and c) Wh-question : 1. What ____________ I do in order to improve my pronunciation. You ____________ be punctual for the meeting. 3. I think you ____________ go on a diet. (Peter tiene que trabajar hasta tarde esta noche) A short course in english for adult students ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ 131 . 19. Bob can speak three languages. Lea. He sometimes goes home for lunch. You ____________ insert two coins in the slot if you want to use the telephone. en el uso díario HAVE TO se utiliza frecuentemente para expresar idea de necesidad. It´s too young. I don´t know why they´re talking. Ex. B. 3. ¿Qué debería hacer yo ahora? 7. He ____________n´t be driving the car! He doesn´t even know how to start a car. ¿Puedes tú ayudarme esta tarde? 8. señor? 9. They´re very poor. 22. 5. ¿Puedo sentarme aquí. The boss gets very angry when people are late. Billy . 21. 2 Change the following sentences into a) negative.10. He is only 18 years old! Miss Clark ____________ type fast but she ____________n´t use a computer. 11. (Yo tengo que ir al hospital a ver a un amigo) Peter must work until late this evening. Eso puede suceder nuevamente. 6. pueden fumar aquí. Why don´t you phone at his home. Puede que ellos nos visiten mañana. 14. They ____________ be sleeping at this time. debe venir mañana nuevamente. He ____________ be there. (Yo debo ir al hospital a ver a un amigo) I have to go to the hospital to see a friend. professor? You ____________ pay by credit card or by cheque. ____________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ ? __________________________________________________________ ? ____________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ ? __________________________________________________________ ? ____________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ ? __________________________________________________________ ? ____________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ ? __________________________________________________________ ? Ex. They should take a taxi. John. 20. Ud. 17. They ____________ be working instead. 23. 24. 2. Uds. 13. Translate the following sentences into English 1. mientras que MUST enfatiza más la idea de obligación. El puede correr muy rápido. He ____________n´t be an engineer. You are too fat. It´s almost midnight now. escuche y aprenda: I must go to the hospital to see a friend. 18. 12. You ____________ come and visit us any day. (Peter debe trabajar hasta tarde esta noche) Peter has to work until late this evening. You´ll be welcome to our home. 4. El no puede hablar español bien. Why don´t you give them some more money? You ____________ be more generous. 15. 10. The little bird ____________n´t fly yet. 16. HAVE TO = TENER QUE El verbo modal MUST (deber) tiene un sinónimo: la expresión idiomática HAVE TO . We must go because it´s late. A pesar de ser sinónimos. 4. 3.

WON´T. You must read this article. We must prepare our lessons every night. Mary and John must fly to Paris today. (Yo tendré que ir al hospital a ver a un amigo) (Present) Peter must work until late this evening. Lea. escuche y aprenda: Does Peter have to work until late every evening? Did Peter have to work until late yesterday evening? Will Peter have to work until late this evening? EXERCISES Ex. escuche y aprenda: (Present) I must go to the hospital to see a friend (Yo debo ir al hospital a ver a un amigo) (Past) (Future) = I have to go to the hospital to see a friend (Yo tengo que ir al hospital a ver a un amigo) = I had to go to the hospital to see a friend. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 132 A short course in english for adult students . They must stay there at least an hour. I must write many letters. (Peter tuvo que trabajar hasta tarde ayer) (Future) = Peter will have to work until late this evening. I must work tonight. 5. Substitute the correct form of HAVE TO for MUST in the following: 1. 4. DID. I must get up early every day. al igual que con los verbos principales. los verbos modales DO / DOES. WILL + NOT o las contracciones DON´T / DOESN´T. John must go out of town this afternoon. DIDN´T. ni tampoco se puede usar en otros tiempos verbales. 7. 9. (Yo tuve que ir al hospital a ver a un amigo) = I will have to go to the hospital to see a friend. We must learn many new words every day. escuche y aprenda: Peter doesn´t have to work until late every evening Peter didn´t have to work until late yesterday evening Peter won´t have to work until late this evening En las interrogaciones debemos anteponer los verbos modales do/does/did/will al sujeto Lea. 8. 2. 12.Debido a que el verbo modal MUST no tiene una forma para expresar el pasado. We must write a composition each night. 6. (Peter debe trabajar hasta tarde esta noche) (Peter tiene que trabajar hasta tarde todas las noches) (Past) = Peter had to work until late yesterday evening. 10. 11. 1. John must also take another language. Peter tendrá que trabajar hasta tarde esta noche) En la forma negativa de HAVE TO se deben usar. Mary must study French next year. 3. es necesario recurrir a la forma correspondiente de HAVE TO. = Peter has to work until late every evening. Lea.

I have to work today. I have to get up early. We __________ telephone her right away.Ex. 10. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 133 A short course in english for adult students . 3. We __________ hurry in order to get there early. 2. I ____________ answer this letter at once. We have to get up early. Mary has to come with him. Mr. 5. 3. 4. He __________ spend more time on his English. He __________ stay at home and rest. We have to write a composition tonight. 9. (at once = right away= = immediately) I will have to leave at once. 9. We had to meet him at noon. He __________ learn all the new words. He __________ go to the hospital right away. 8. He had to be there at two o’clock. 6. Smith has to go out of town. Change to past and future time: 1. 3. 6. Ex. We have to go to the hospital this afternoon. 2. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 2. John has to stop his English lessons. Read the following with MUST. 8. I had to leave at once. We __________ make reservations at once. You have to wait a few minutes. We have to study tonight. 4. 7. They have to come back later. 11. Change to negative form: 1. 7. 5. They have to study very hard. change to past and future time: 1. We all have to write a short story. They have to write many letters. 5. John has to be here at two o’clock. 4. 2. 10. Then. 12. I must leave at once. Ex. 4. He has to see a doctor. She__________ attend class every day. 6. 3.

9. 11. I have to buy a new pen. We have to get up at 6. 3. 5. 6. 11. 1. John had to go to the hospital. He had to leave at noon. He had to return yesterday. WHERE. They have to study every day. 10. 7. 9.7. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. He has to wear a coat because it´s cold. We have to work on Sunday. 10. Change to interrogative form. 2. 12. 8. WHAT TIME. We have to prepare our homework every day. He has to take more exercise. Then. 4. 12. They will have to come back later. They have to rent an apartment soon. Did he have to leave at noon? ___________________________________________________ What time/ When did he have to leave? ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 134 A short course in english for adult students . He will have to wait a few minutes. They had to leave early. etc. 8. He had to leave a tip for the waiter. ask questions with WHEN. WHY. She has to rest a while because she´s tired.00 every morning. We will have to learn many new words. He had to buy several new books. 5.

The Trunk /!e tru#k/ (El tronco) back /bæk/ backbone /bækboun/ bladder /blæder/ bowels /báuelz/ breast /brest/ buttocks /bátoks/ chest /tchést/ gall bladder /golbláder/ heart /ha:rt/ hip /hip/ espalda espina dorsal vejiga vientre.BASIC VOCABULARY: PARTS OF THE BODY /pá:rts ov !e bódi/ (Las partes del cuerpo) 1. ti:"/ labio bigote boca cuello nariz fosas nasales pupila patillas cráneo sien garganta lengua diente(s) 3. fi:t/ hand /hænd/ heel /hi:l/ index finger /índeks fí#ger/ knee /ni:/ kneecap /ní:kap/ knuckle /nákl/ leg /leg/ tobillo brazo axila pantorrilla codo dedo (mano) pie /s mano talón índice rodilla rótula nudillo pierna limbs /limz/ little finger /lítl fí#ger/ middle finger /mídl fí#ger/ nail /neil/ palm /pa:m/ ring finger /rí# fí#ger/ shin /shin/ shoulder /shóulder/ sole /soul/ thigh /"ai/ thumb /"am / toe /tou/ wrist /rist/ extremidades meñique cordial uña palma anular canilla hombro planta (del pie) muslo pulgar dedo (del pie) muñeca 4. Related Words /riléitid we:rdz/ (Palabras relacionadas) corn /ko:rn/ callo cough /kof/ tos freckle /frékl/ peca hiccough /híkap/ hipo mole /moul/ lunar pins and needles /pinz an ní:dlz/ calambres sigh /sai/ sneeze /sni:z/ wart /wo:rt/ wrinkle /rínkl/ yawn /ió:n/ suspiro estornudo verruga arruga bostezo A short course in english for adult students 135 . entrañas pecho (mamas) nalgas pecho. The Head /(e hed/ (La cabeza) beard /bíard/ brains /bréinz/ cheek /tchi:k/ chin /tchin/ ear /íar/ eye /ái/ eyebrow /áibrau/ eyelash /áilæsh/ eyelid /áilid/ face /feis/ forehead /fó:red/ hair /héar/ head /héd/ jaw /dllo:/ 2. torax vesícula corazón cadera intestines /intéstinz/ kidney /kídni/ liver /líver/ lung /la#/ navel /néivl/ ribs /ribz/ spleen /spli:n/ stomach /stómak/ waist /weist/ intestinos riñón hígado pulmón ombligo costillas bazo estómago cintura barba cerebro mejilla mentón oreja ojo ceja pestaña párpado cara frente cabello cabeza mandíbula lip /lip/ moustache /mustá:sh/ mouth /mau"/ neck /nek/ nose /nouz/ nostrils /nóstrilz/ pupil /piú:pl/ sideburns /sáidbernz/ skull /skal/ temple /témpl/ throat /"rout/ tongue /tá#/ tooth /teeth /tu:". The Limbs /!e limz/ (Las extremidades) ankle /æ#kl/ arm /a:rm/ armpit /á:rmpit/ calf /ka:f/ elbow /élbou/ finger /fí#ger/ foot / feet /fu:t.

lo más pronto posible siempre generalmente usualmente frecuentemente a menudo ocasionalmente .TIME EXPRESSIONS /táim iksprésh now /náu/ at the moment /at !e móument/ at present /at prézent/ for the time being /for !e táim bi:i#/ right now /rait náu/ today /tudéi/ yesterday /iésterdi/ tomorrow /tumórou/ this morning /!is mó:rni#/ this afternoon /!is a:fternú:n/ this evening /!is í:vni#/ tonight /tunáit/ tomorrow morning /tumórou mó:ni#/ yesterday afternoon /iésterdi a:fternú:n/ last night /la:st náit/ last week /la:st wí:k/ next Monday /nekst mándi/ last Tuesday morning /la:st tíuzdi mó:rni#/ next Sunday afternoon /nekst sándi a:fternú:n/ the day after tomorrow /!e déi a:fter tumórou/ the day before yesterday /!e déi bifó:r iésterdi/ in the morning /in !e mó:rni#/ in the afternoon /in !i a:fternú:n/ in the evening /in !i í:vni#/ at night /at náit/ a week next Monday /e wí:k neks mándi/ a week last Sunday /e wí:k la:st sándi/ in December last year /in disémber la:st yíar/ in the summer of 1976 /in !e sámer ov náintin séventi síks/ every day /évri déi/ every week /évri wí:k/ every month /évri mán"/ every year /évri iíar/ every Monday morning /évri mándi mó:ni#/ every other day /évri á!er déi/ every other three days /évri á!er "rí: déiz/ once a day /wans e déi/ twice a week /twáis e wí:k/ several times a month /sévral táimz e mán"/ many times a year /méni táimz e iiar/ a long time ago /e ló# táim agóu/ many years ago /méni iiarz agóu/ ten minutes ago /tén mínits agóu/ not very long ago /nót véri lo# agóu/ ages ago /éidlliz agóu/ a short while ago /e short wáil agóu/ immediately /imídlliatli/ at once /at wáns/ right away /ráit ewéi/ as soon as possible. por ahora ahora mismo hoy día ayer mañana esta mañana esta tarde esta tarde esta noche mañana en la mañana ayer en la tarde anoche la semana pasada el próximo lunes el martes pasado en la mañana el próximo domingo en la tarde pasado mañana anteayer en la mañana en la tarde en la tarde por /durante la noche el lunes subsiguiente el domingo antepasado en diciembre del año pasado en el verano de 1976 todos los días todas las semanas todos los meses todos los años todos los lunes en la mañana día por medio cada tres días una vez al día dos veces a la semana varias veces al mes muchas veces al año hace mucho tiempo /mucho tiempo atrás hace muchos años hace diez minutos no hace mucho tiempo hace muchísimo tiempo hace un rato. un rato atrás inmediatamente de inmediato al instante. ASAP /as sú:n as pósibl/ always /ó:lweiz/ generally /dllénerali/ usually /iúshuali/ frequently /fríkwentli/ often /ó:fn/ occasionally /okéillonali/ 136 A short course in english for adult students nz/ (Expresiones de tiempo) ahora en este momento en la actualidad transitoriamente. “al tiro” lo antes posible.

de vez en cuando.sometimes /sámtaimz/ rarely /réarli/ seldom /séldom/ hardly ever /ha:dli éver/ never /néver/ from time to time /from táim tu táim/ once in a while /wáns in e wáil/ now and then /náu an !én/ off and on /óf an on/ a veces raramente rara vez casi nunca nunca de vez en cuando de vez en cuando. de vez en cuando. A short course in english for adult students 137 .

Bl 138 .

. He can´t speak Spanish well. Must 6. Can ... / I´ll have to answer. Should / ought to 21. He worked very hard. / They´ll have to write... 2.11.. 10. / He´ll have to learn. 3. / Should they take. Mr Brown isn´t attending our wedding party on Friday...... Must / should .can´t 14.. I think / believe she´s not going to accept our invitation 7. 3. / Must we go.. Can 12. I have to work. 1... 4..... Ex.. You have to read. at what time are we getting there? PART II... Sir? 9. Ex. Should / ought to 4.. I´m playing tennis with Bob tomorrow. What should I do now? 7. 4. Must 23. 4. Mr Mitchell is flying to Sydney next week. 3. 1. He´s attendding a concert at the Kennedy Center. 9. They may visit us tomorrow 5.. / We´ll have to study. Can´t Ex. He´s flying to Texas. I have to write.... I had to work.. / We´ll have to telephone. 8.. / Can Bob speak. He didn´t have to be. 3.. She had to attend.. 4. / John will have to be. I have to get up.We have to learn Ex. -I had to get up. Can you help me this afternoon? 8.. At what time are you going to arrive / get back from work this evening? 10. We have to prepare. 2.. / He´ll have to stay. Open answers Ex.? / Which room may they use? Ex. Should / ought to 24. He had to learn. 2.. / She´ll have to attend. He´s attending a dinner party at the US Surgeons Club 6.. He´s attending a conference at houston Medical Center.12. 3. Our train is leaving in ten minutes. Bob can´t speak.. 2. 4. He´s having lunch with some friends at the Waldorf Hotel.. 10. 5. 2.. Can / must 16.. 6.. Mary has to study.. 4... 3... They may not use... / We´ll have to write.. Can´t 13. 12. You can / may smoke here. He´s flying back to Chile from National Airport. Ex.. Playing tennis with Dr Brown 4. 2. 2. Must 11. John also has to take.You must come again tomorrow.... / He´ll have to spend 7. B. 2. / Mary will have to come. 6. 2. / We´ll have to make.. Can 5.. Mr Smith doesn´t have to go. 5. John had to stop.. John is attending a conference at YMCA at 10:30 on Monday. Should / ought to 7. 6. He had to spend. Can´t 15. 3.. Must 3. 10.. 7... 12. / John´ll have to stop.. Is attending a ceremony at Lincoln Memorial... They have to stay... 6... 5. We had to telephone. I promise you I will never do that again. / I´ll have to work. 5.. We don´t have to write.. 14. 7.. May 2. / I´ll have to get up.can / may 10. 6. I don´t have to buy. A.5. / We´ll have to hurry.. We don´t have to get up.. 5.. I´m not going out of Santiago this weekend. May 8.... John has to go out. He can run very fast.. 7. We had to make.8. 7... He had to stay.... / We´ll have to go. 1. Ex. They had to write. 2.... 3. They don´t have to study... 9.. Our daughter is arriving on the 8:15 train on Saturday morning. / He´ll have to go. 11.. Ex. They didn´t have to leave. We had to hurry. Jim and Mary are going to a disco tonight. 11... 1.He´s visiting Bethesda Medical Center. 4.... Attending a reception at the White House 3. 8. 1.? / What should they do? 3. Ex... 3.Key to answers UNIT 10 PART I. 1. / You´ll have to wait. Must 22.? / Why must we go? 4.... 2.. / May they use. Mary and John have to fly. Can 9.... Should 19. 3.. We had to study.8.. 9.. / He´ll have to see. Mary will come to see us next week...10. 6.. He had to go. We must not go. 4. 9. According to the schedule. / They´ll have to come back. We didn´t have to meet. 4.... 1. A short course in english for adult students 139 . We have to write. I had to answer. Mary had to come.. Should / ought to 18. May 17. John had to be. Must 20.. He must be tired....? / How many languages can Bob speak? 2. They shouldn´t take.. May I sit here. Ex. 8. We all had to write. 5. You had to wait.. 1. They´re going to stay several days with us. 6. That may / can happen again.. 5... We´re having dinner with Mr Jones this evening.. 1. He´s flying back to Washington DC. 7. They had to come back.... What will they do with the money they received? 8...... 1. When are they traveling to the USA? 9.. He´s attending a conference at Nasa Space Center.. 10. 9. We had to go. He had to see..

When will they have to come back? 10.11. When did he have to return? 8. We don´t have to prepare. 2.. How long will he have to wait? 9. What did he have to buy? 6. 5. John didn´t have to go.. 10. Why does he have to wear a coat? 11. What did he have to leave for the waiter? 7. What do they have to do every day? 4. Ex. 12. What time do we / you have to get up every morning? 3..... Why does she have to rest a while? 12.. When do they have to rent an apartment? 5.We don´t have to work. What does she have to do? 140 A short course in english for adult students .. We won´t have to learn.

We________________________ soccer at this time next Saturday. (watch) 10. They will be working in the laboratory at this time next Monday. I ________________________ to work at this time tomorrow morning. con WILL NOT / WON´T en las negaciones e invirtiendo el orden del sujeto con el modal WILL en las interrogaciones: Escuche.UNIT 11 PART I. /!e tchíldren wil bí: slí:pi# wen !e próugram stá:rts tunáit/ Los niños estarán durmiendo cuando el programa comience esta noche. At this time next month. The Browns ________________________ some friends at 9 this evening (entertain) 5. 2. Mr Scott and his friends ________________________Toronto next weekend. at midday next Saturday /at míddei nékst sæterdi/ (al mediodía el próximo sábado). La forma negativa y la forma interrogativa se expresa como en el tiempo futuro simple. Lynda will be travelling in Europe at this time next month. At 10 o´clock tomorrow morning. Complete the following sentences using the verbs given in parentheses. (drive) 4. (travel) 3. in the Future Continuous Tense: 1. /wi: wil bí: hævi# lántch at wán oklók tumórou/ Nosotros estaremos almorzando a la una mañana. etc. (work out) 9. o when the program starts tonight /wen !e próugram stá:rts tunáit/ (cuando el programa comience esta noche). The students ________________________ in the gym after 7 this evening. cuando otra acción ocurra. Escuche. lea y aprenda: 1. 1. /!éi wil bí: wé:rki# in !e labóratri at !is táim nékst mándi / Ellos estarán trabajando en el laboratorio a esta hora el próximo lunes. at ten o´clock tomorrow /at tén oklók tumórou/ (mañana a las 10:00). 5. EL TIEMPO FUTURO CONTINUO (THE FUTURE CONTINUOUS TENSE) Este tiempo verbal se expresa con el futuro del verbo BE (WILL BE) más el GERUNDIO de un verbo principal y se usa para referirse a acciones que estarán realizándose a una hora o fecha determinada en el futuro. What _____________ you ________________________ at this time tomorrow? (do) A short course in english for adult students 141 . es decir. (visit) 6. 2. 4. (work) 2. I ________________________ here. (do) 7. como when you come home this evening /wen iú: kam hóum !is í:vni#/ (cuando tú vengas a casa esta tarde). Jane ________________________ the shopping at midday today. También se usan expresiones de tiempo como.?) EXERCISES: Ex. They won´t be working in the laboratory at this time next Monday. 4. /!éi wóunt bí: wé:rki# in !e labóratri at !is táim nékst mándi/ The children will not be sleeping when the program starts tonight. Por lo tanto son frecuentes las expresiones de tiempo compuestas por WHEN + SUBJECT + PRESENT + TOMORROW/ NEXT MONDAY. 3. 3. The President will be flying to Tokyo at this time on Tuesday /!e prézident wil bí: fláii# tu tókiou at !is táim on tiú:zdi/ El Presidente estará volando hacia Tokio a esta hora el martes. /línda wil bí: tráveli# in iúrop at !is táim nékst mán"/ Lynda estará viajando en Europa en esta fecha el próximo mes. /!e tchíldren wil nót bí: slí:pi# wen !e próugram stá:rts tunáit/ Will they be travelling in Europe at this time next month? /wíl !éi bí: tráveli# in iú:rop at !is táim nékst mán"/ What will the President be doing at this time on Tuesday? /wót wil !e prézident bí: dú:i# at !is táim on tíu:zdi/ La pregunta habitual en este tiempo es : WHAT WILL YOU BE DOING? /wót wil iú: bí: dú:i#/ (¿Qué estará haciendo ud. We will be having lunch at 1 o´clock tomorrow. The children will be sleeping when the program starts tonight. I ________________________ television when you come home tonight. at this time tomorrow /at !is táim tumórou/” (a esta hora mañana). (play) 8. we ________________________ in the USA. lea y aprenda: 1.

(practise) 7. Jim won´t be working tomorrow because it´s a holiday. Hans will be working all morning tomorrow. 3. What time __________________ you __________________ this morning? (get up) 18. Janet will be travelling in Asia for 2 weeks. (have dinner) 7. ____________ you always ________________________ home at midday? (phone) 14. They ________________________ at a Chinese restaurant tonight. Use the Present. we ______________________________ television. Where _______________ they __________________ when World War II started? (live) 16. (spend) 3. They _________ not ________________________ English very often. _________ your friends __________________you when you arrived at their home yesterday? (expect) 15. HOW LONG. 1. WHERE. At 10:30 last night. 3. ___________________________________________________ 3. Mr. My friends will be taking their final exams by this time next month. What___________ Mary ________________________ at this time tomorrow? (do) 11. 4.2. _________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. They´ll be having dinner at 8 this evening. What _______________ you ________________________ at midday on Sunday? (do) 10. They ____________ not ________________________ the story at the moment. The train will be arriving at 12:30 tomorrow. (come) 5. we ________________________. What _____________ the Johnsons ________________________ last Saturday? (do) 10. Use the verbs provided in the Simple Future (WILL + INF) or the Future Contínuous Tense (WILL BE + ING): 1. ___________________________________________________ 4. Where _________ they ________________________ when they visit Paris in June? (stay) 9. ___________________________________________________ 2. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. Mary ________________________ dinner when John gets home tonight. They´ll be running up the hill at midday. The students will be taking a test at 10. Smith ________ not __________________ home for dinner tonight. of course. Mr. ___________ they ________________________ their holidays in Chile again next year? (spend) Ex. How often ________ your friend ________________________to you? (write) 17. (work) 4. They ________________________ Brazil next month. 2. At this time tomorrow. (play) 2. Ask questions using question words like WHAT. Change the following sentences into a) negative and b) interrogative: 1. I´ll be working in the lab tomorrow morning. ___________________________________________________ 5.Ex. Mr. __________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 8. ___________________________________________________ 6. (live) 6. Jackson will be attending a meeting at this time on Thursday. Helms ________________________ a very good movie last night. (visit) 3. in their Simple or Contínuous forms: 1. John usually ______________________________ here on Tuesday. Listen! Mary ______________________________ the piano now. etc. (come) 13. ____________ n´t you ________________________ the newspaper this morning? (buy) 12. We ________________________ our vacation in Majorca next year. ___________________________________________________ 7. I´ll be staying at the Carlton Hotel in London. (come) 5. (cook) 8. (read) 9. Jane __________ n´t __________________________ to see me every day. the Past or the Future tenses. What ___________ you ________________________ at this time yesterday? (do) 8. 4. (watch) 4. Review Practice. (have) 2. 5. They ________________________ in Boston at this time next year. They ________________________ dinner at 8:45 this evening. (see) 6. Mike will be washing his car in the morning. Use the proper verb tense of the verbs provided. What time __________________ you __________________here tomorrow? (be) 142 A short course in english for adult students .

. PLEASE? 1.ing. A: Why ________n´t Helen _____________________ abroad on her vacation last summer? (travel) B: Because she hates flying. 23... MAKING REQUESTS . 7.(SOLICITANDO SERVICIOS O FAVORES) Para solicitar que una persona haga algún servicio o favor. (go) When _____________the Johnsons________________________. A: Could you help me. Turn the radio down. PLEASE?. (instead of = en vez de) 1. 3. two or three nights? (stay) Walter never ______________________________ in bed...PLEASE? or WOULD YOU. 2. Pay attention. Ask somebody to do the following things. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 2. lea y aprenda: 1. Sit on this chair..... ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students 143 . 21. PART II A.PLEASE?. Speak more slowly... 4. using CAN YOU. Open the window.. today or tomorrow? (arrive) How long __________ you ________________________ at the hotel this time. will you? Could you speak more slowly. Use the other elevator.. Help me open the suitcase.+ infinitive.. please + will you? (Informal) Could you + infinitive. 2. 22. 7. Take off your hat.. 5. 6. Wait for me in the lobby. 2. please? (Formal) Would you mind +. Sign your name here. 5. instead of the simple imperative form. please? Would you sign your name here... Repeat your question.. please? (Informal) Imperative. 1. 6. please? (Formal) Would you + infinitive. as a rule.. or WILL YOU. 20. please? Would you mind waiting outside. 3.19. (smoke) A: Why________ you ________________________ your sweater yesterday? (put on) B: Because it was too cold.please? (Informal) Will you + infinitive. Ask somebody to do the following things. 24. Speak more slowly. please? B: With pleasure EXERCISES Ex.. Be quiet. please? B: Sure Ex. Come back this afternoon. 4. They ______________n´t ________________________ out tonight because it´s too cold... please? Normalmente estas solicitudes se responden con expresiones como las siguientes: • • • • With pleasure /wi! pléllar/ Con mucho gusto Sure /shúar/ seguro Certainly /sé:rtenli/ Por cierto Of course /ov kó:rz/ Por supuesto Escuche.. generalmente se usan las siguientes fórmulas: • • • • • • Can you. A: Will you lend me your pen.. using COULD YOU. please? (Muy formal) Can you open the door please? Will you help me please? Listen to me please.

lea y aprenda: A: Can I use your computer. You: ____________________________________________________________ . You want a stranger to show you the way to the railway station. 6. It´s too cold. You : María. please? Stranger: Sure. 144 A short course in english for adult students . You want Sr. At what time do you want me to call you up? 5. You: _________________________________________________________________ ? Peter: With Pleasure 2. 7. Repeat your question. A: Do you mind if I open the window? B: Please don´t. Turn the radio down. Ask him. ASKING FOR PERMISSION (solicitando permiso) Para solicitar permiso para hacer algo debemos usar las siguientes fórmulas: • • • • Can I + Infinitive? (Informal) May I + Infinitive? (Formal) Do you mind if I + Infinitive? (Formal) Would you allow me to + Infinitive? (Formal) Can I open the door? May I ask a question? Do you mind if I smoke? Would you allow me to use the phone? Normalmente estas solicitudes se responden con expresiones como: • Sure. Ask her to do that informally. certainly. You: _________________________________________________________________ ? He/She: Yes. 4. 2. Escuche. • Please don´t. You want your brother Tom to turn down the radio. Tom? Tom:: Of course. Ask him..ING. John? John : Certainly. 3. go ahead. 3. • Please do. Take off your hat. Follow the instructions carefully.. Make requests. __________________________________________________________ ? María: Yes. You : _________________________________________________________ . I didn´t know you were studying. B. Repeat the previous exercise using the polite form WOULD YOU MIND. John? B: Sure. of course. You want a friend to give you a hand (= help you). Perez to help you translate this letter into Spanish. PLEASE? 1 Speak more slowly. Ask him. You want María to call you up tomorrow morning.Ex. You want somebody to spell his/her surname for you. 1. Wait for me in the lobby. Use the other elevator. 5. Ask him/her politely. 6. 3. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. Sign your name here. Ask him. go ahead. 4. S-M-I-T-H. Walk along this street as far as the traffic lights and then turn left. Smith 4. You : __________________________________________________________ .

please • No. A short course in english for adult students 145 . (OFRECIENDOSE A HACER ALGO) Cuando nos ofrecemos a hacer algo por alguien podemos usar las siguientes estructuras: • • • • Shall I + Infinitive? Do you want me to + Infinitive? Would you like me to + Infinitive? Can/May I + Infinitive. please do. mum? Your mother: Yes.EXERCISES Ex. Follow the instructions carefully. Mr. 5. You want to ask a question. Ask his permission. Sir? Can/May I help you? Normalmente estos ofrecimientos se responden con expresiones como: • Yes. 1. to turn the light on. You: _________________________________________________________________________________________. 3. It´s all yours. You want to go in . 1. Ask his permission. You : ____________________________________________________________________________________________ Host: Sure. Jackson: Sure.. C. go ahead. My Spanish is not very good Shall I ____________________________________________ ? Yes. Ask his permission. You are a visitor and you want to use the telephone. please. 6. to spell your last name. It´s too cold outside. thank you. You want to take a look at his newspaper. I´ve got a bad cold. come in please. Ask your host´s permission. Ask the speaker´s permission. Ask permission to do things. please. I don´t need it now. You want to open the window. You want to turn on the TV. You: ______________________________________________________________________________________ . Jack? Jack. Ask your mother´s permission. 2. please. Ask his permission. You : ______________________________________________________________________________________ . 1. I´m working. 2.Sir? Old man: Please don´t open it. You want to use your friend´s lighter. I read it this morning.? Shall I help you? Do you want me to get you a taxi? Would you like me to carry your bags to the room. Mr Jackson is working in his office. here you are.. 7. You: _________________________________________________________________________________ . You are at a friend´s house. 3. You: ______________________________________________________________________________________ . Mr Jackson. You´re sitting next to an old man on the bus. please. OFFERING TO DO SOMETHING. Offer yourself to do these things : 1. I can do it myself / I can manage it myself EXERCISES Ex. You´re at a conference. but keep the volume down. You: _____________________________________________________________________________________________ Speaker: Certainly. Shall I ____________________________________________ ? Yes. 4. to shut the window. It´s getting dark Do you want me to _________________________________ ? Yes. Bob? Bob: Sure. Please use the microphone so everyone can hear your question.

I´m a little hungry. that´s a good idea. Do you want me to _________________________________ ? No. 10. certainly / Yes. Sorry I can´t. How about _______________________________________ ? I don´t think we should. It´s getting late. Shall I ____________________________________________ ? Yes. 7. of course. to speak more slowly. to repeat your question. I´m too busy / It´s too late / I have to study for a test. Sure. Shall I ____________________________________________ ? Please do. I need to tell her something Would you like me to _______________________________ ? Yes. Why _____________________________________________ ? Good idea. Would you ________________________________________ ? Of course! We´d love to. 5. I´m a bit busy right now. Las invitaciones o sugerencias de este tipo se responden con expresiones como las siguientes: • • • • Good idea! Let´s do that. (INVITANDO O SUGIRIENDO HACER ALGO EN CONJUNTO) Para invitar o sugerir una acción conjunta normalmente se usan expresiones como estas: • • • • • • Shall we + infinitive? Do you want to + Infinitive Would you like to + infinitive? Why don´t we + Infinitive? How about +. EXERCISES Ex.. etc. please. I can manage myself. 146 A short course in english for adult students . Let´s _______________________________________________ Yes.ing? Let´s + infinitive Shall we go to a disco this evening? Do you want to play cards now? Would you like to have dinner with us tonight? Why don´t we sit down and talk for a while? How about going out for a walk? Let´s take a walk after dinner.. 3. thanks. 1. It´s not necessary Would you like me to _______________________________ ? Yes. I don´t understand English very well yet. please. 4. To go to the seaside next weekend. please. Let´s do that. To spend the summer holidays with us.4. to get me some coffee and a sandwich. To go to the movies after dinner tonight. to call back later today. Why not? Yes. 2. I don´t understand French. please. thanks. 8. D. Do you want me to _________________________________ ? No. 9. To sit on the grass and rest for a while. INVITING OR SUGGESTING TO DO SOMETHING TOGETHER. to tell Mary that I want to see her. 6. to help me complete the application form. Invite or suggest your friends to do the following activities together: 1. to translate this letter into English Would you like me to _______________________________ ? Yes.

2. Peter went to the party as well.TOO.5. I´ll be free all morning tomorrow. Peter didn´t go to the party either. John didn´t like the party. 9... John went to the party. To invite the Smiths to dinner one evening. Peter: And so will Janet! 2) John: Mary will come to the party tonight. To stay at home and watch TV . 3) Mike: John was sleeping at the time. 7. let´s do that. Peter also went to the party. AS WELL AND SO (TAMBIÉN). 1) Mary: I really like that dress. To travel by boat instead of by plane 8. John went to the party.. How about _______________________________________ ? I´d rather (preferiría) go out for a walk. John went to the party. Why not. Also se usa antes de un verbo principal. Let´s _______________________________________________ Yes. John didn´t go to the party and neither did Peter Or John didn´t go to the party and nor did Peter. 2) John. Would you ________________________________________ ? Yes. To take a taxi to the airport Why _____________________________________________ ? Sure. SO va seguida de un Verbo Modal + Sujeto 1) Mary: I really like that dress. EITHER AND NEITHER / NOR (TAMPOCO). _________________________________________________ ? I think we should travel by plane. John didn´t like the party. 3) Mike: John was sleeping at the time. / BUT +S+ MV 1. NOT. ALSO. 10. either NEITHER +MV+S / NOR +MV+S John went to the party.. + + + - + But BUT +S+ Contr. 6.too. John went to the party and so did Peter. They´re very nice people. John went to the party. Jane: So do I . La palabra SO es un sinónimo de ALSO. To go to the arts exhibition. Mary will come to the party tonight. let´s do that. A. Escuche. Peter: And Janet will come too! A short course in english for adult students 147 . Las palabras ALSO. To play tennis tomorrow morning. but Peter did. but Peter didn´t. It´s a very interesting exhibition. TOO y AS WELL significan TAMBIEN. It´s much cheaper. Tom: And so was his brother . Peter went to the party. TOO y AS WELL y se usa para abreviar y hacer más fluída la conversación. I´d love to. BUT (PERO) Study the following chart Also Too As well SO+MV+S Not. but Peter didn´t go to the party. It´s a pleasant evening. or else we´ll miss our plane PART III. Why _____________________________________________ ? Yes. John didn´t go to the party. lea y aprenda. Jane: I also like it very much. mientras que las palabras too y as well se usan al final de las oraciones. but Peter liked the party. Tom: And his brother was sleeping as well.

7. Mary: Neither do I. Mr Johnson isn´t going to attend the meeting. Mary likes pie for dessert. as in the examples: Bob likes coffee. (the children) Bob likes coffee and Jane also likes coffee. (he) 5. Do you ___________________ speak Spanish. Mary: I don´t like it either. 1. 148 A short course in english for adult students . The boys didn´t go to the lab and the girls didn´t go ___________________ 4. 5. 2a) John: I didn´t see you at the meeting yesterday. (I) 4. 3..3. What language do you speak. I eat lunch in the cafeteria. We´ve got a big house. 2b) Ruth didn´t see the accident BUT Jane did. Las palabras NOT.EITHER (tampoco) pueden ser reemplazadas por NEITHER (o NOR) para abreviar y hacer más fluida la conversación. He liked the picture. She comes here every day. John walks to school. 1b) Peter: I don´t like classical music. Peter likes dogs very much and his sister likes them very much ___________________ 2. 2b) John: I didn´t see you at the meeting yesterday. Use ALSO / TOO / AS WELL. (We) 7. Ann: I didn´t see you either. then? Ex. Mary can speak Italian well. He´s going to go to France. ___________________ Mr Clark is (going to attend the meeting). 2a. 9. Mary is going to go to Spain. EXERCISES Ex. ___________________ my husband can. 1a) Peter: I don´t like classical music. They´ve ___________________ got a big one. (the secretary) 3. EITHER. I don´t understand it ___________________ 6. or do you speak another language? 10. lea y aprenda. John is going to travel to Europe and we´re going to travel there ___________________ 8. Peter doesn´t understand Italian. John went to the movies with us (Peter) 6. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 2a) John will go to the meeting BUT Mary won´t go. (my wife) 8. 1a) Ruth didn´t see the accident BUT Jane saw it. lea y aprenda. First use ALSO / TOO / AS WELL and then use SO. Escuche. I can´t drive a car. La palabra BUT se usa tanto en la forma completa como en la forma abreviada. So you don´t speak Spanish and you don´t speak Italian ________________.. ___________________ John is not going to go there. (Carmen) 2. or BUT 1. (Jane) 1. I watch TV after dinner. Bob likes coffee and SO does JANE. Escuche. Ann: Nor did I! 4. 2b) John will go to the meeting BUT Mary won´t.

as in the examples Bob likes coffee.(My wife´s car) 12. (Carmen) 2. Then use NEITHER (or NOR). ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students 149 . (we) ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. (the secretary) 3. We won´t go by train. but Jane doesn´t. I don´t watch TV after dinner (My wife) 8. Mary doesn´t like pie for dessert. (Carmen) 2. 3. first use NOT. They weren´t very busy.. (the secretary) 3. (My friends) 10. (my wife’s car) 12. Bob doesn´t like coffee. Mary can´t speak Italian well. John doesn´t go to school . My car isn´t very old. They mustn´t pay more. (I) 13. (he) 5. (you) 14. (I) 4. They must pay more. (Jane) 1. I ate there yesterday (my friends) 10.EITHER. (they) 11. (Peter) 6. She doesn´t come here every day. I didn´t eat there yesterday. (They) 11. Bob doesn´t like coffee and NEITHER (o NOR) DOES JANE. They were very busy. He didn´t like the picture (We) 7. John didn´t go to the movies. 1. (The children) 9. John walks to school. Now. as in the example Bob doesn’t like coffee and Jane doesn’t like coffee either.. My car is very old. (I) Bob likes coffee. Complete these sentences with BUT. I don´t eat lunch in the cafeteria. I eat lunch in the cafeteria. but Jane does. Mary should work harder. Mary shouldn´t work harder. (we) ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. (you) 14. 2b. We will go by train. (I) 13. Mary can speak Italian well.9.

We will go by train. lea y aprenda. Del mismo modo. He sent a letter to me. la frase “a pair of shoes” es el complemento directo porque responde a la pregunta. “What did Peter send yesterday”. He sent some candy to his sister. I watch TV after dinner. “What did Mary buy?. habrá advertido los complementos directos e indirectos van unidos por las preposiciones TO o FOR. (my wife) 8. They were very busy. A su vez. (you) 14. Place the indirect object before the direct object: 1. John went to the movies with us. El complemento directo responde a la pregunta What? En la oración. El complemento indirecto se reconoce porque responde a las preguntas to whom? (¿a quién?) o for whom? (¿Para quién?) : “To whom did Peter send a letter yesterday”? “For whom did Mary buy a pair of shoes”? El orden de los complementos directo e indirecto puede ser invertido. (we) ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ B. (my friends) 10. Mary shouldn´t work harder. I ate there yesterday. (Peter) 6.”Peter sent a letter yesterday” el complemento directo es la frase “a letter” porque responde a la pregunta. My car is very old. 4. POSITION OF INDIRECT OBJECT (posición del complemento indirecto) Son Verbos Transitivos aquellos que van seguidos de un Complemento Directo (Direct Object). Ex. He liked the picture. el complemento directo puede ir seguido por un Complemento Indirecto (Indirect Object). 5. (the children) 9. The teacher gave some dictation to us. 150 A short course in english for adult students ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ . Como ud. En la oración “Peter sent a letter to Mr Smith yesterday” el complemento indirecto es “Mr Smith” y en la oración “Mary bought a pair of shoes for her son”. (We) 7. (he) 5. Peter sent a letter to Mr Smith yesterday Peter sent Mr Smith a letter yesterday= Mary bought a pair of shoes for her son. He told the story to us. They must pay more. (I) 13. pero en ese caso se deben omitir las preposiciones TO o FOR. 6. 3. Mary bought him a pair of shoes.4. (my wife’s car) 12. en la oración “Mary bought a pair of shoes”. (they) 11. Mary likes pie for dessert. La inversión del orden de los complementos directo e indirecto es muy común cuando el complemento indirecto es un pronombre complementario (object pronoun) Escuche. She comes here every day. Mary bought her son a pair of shoes= Peter sent him a letter yesterday. 1. She brought the book to me. He gave the money to me. 2.Los verbos To send y To buy son verbos transitivos porque van seguidos de un complemento directo. el complemento indirecto es “her son”.

They sent us the material right away. 9. 8. 5. They sent us an invitation to the party. 4. Henry told us the story of his trip. They gave us some magazines. I gave him the note which you sent. Ex. He gave some excellent advice to all of us. He gave a ring to (=phoned) his girlfriend. 11. Please give us some dictation today. 2. John lent some money to his friends. 9. Please lend me your pencil for a few minutes. Place the indirect object after the direct object: 1. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students 151 . 6. 7. Please hand me that book. 3. He bought some flowers for his wife 8.7. He sent his mother several letters. Will you lend your pen to me? 12. They sent an invitation to us. 10. 12. John gladly lent me the money. 11. 10. He gave me some books. 2. They brought us many presents from abroad.

BASIC VOCABULARY: Study these words OUR HEALTH /áuar hél"/ (La salud) arthritis /a:r"ráitis/ blister /blíster/ chicken-pox /tchíkin poks/ chilblain /tchilblein/ chills /tchilz/ cold /kóuld/ colic /kólik/ constipation /konstipéishn/ diarrhea /daiaría/ disease /disí:z/ earache /iar eik/ fever /fí:ver/ flu /flu:/ hay fever /héi fí:ver/ headache /héd eik/ health /hél"/ heart attack /ha:rt atæ ´ k/ artritis ampolla alfombrilla sabañón escalofríos resfrío cólico estitiquez colitis enfermedad dolor de oídos fiebre gripe fiebre del heno dolor de cabeza salud paro cardiaco illness /ílnis/ enfermedad insomnia /insómnia/ insomnio mumps /mamps/ parotiditis nervous breakdown /né:rvas bréikdaun/ depresión pain /pein/ dolor rheumatism /rú:matizm/ reumatismo runny nose /ráni nouz/ romadizo sickness /síknis/ mareo smallpox /smol poks/ viruela sore throat /só:r "róut/ faringitis stomach-ache /stómak eik/ dolor de estómago stroke /stróuk/ trombosis tonsilítis /tonsiláitis/ amigdalitis toothache /tú" eik/ dolor de muelas typhus /táifus/ tifus whooping cough /hú:pi# kof/ tos convulsiva. 152 A short course in english for adult students .

.. don´t we take. 1. please? 2 Could you / Would you wait. 1. does . / Will the students be taking. me to help you.. will be doing 7. 1. will.? 6.? 4... Can you / Will you be..? C.. did ...Why won´t Jim be working tomorrow? 5... please? 7.... will spend / are going to spend / are spending 3.. Do ...staying 22. 1 They won´t be running..... please? 5.Would you mind speaking..? Ex.. Can I take. 9.travel PART II A.arrive / are .. 4. please? 3... 4. please? B.. will . go.? 2. please? 6. will ...? 3.3...going to arrive / are . / Will they be running.. please? 6.. Can you / Will you speak. were .. Could you / Would you repeat. The students won´t be taking. 4.please? 2.going 20. staying. 6.. May I / Do you mind if I ask...... What will your friends be doing by this time next month? Ex.phone 14..stay / are .living 16... D..buy 12.please? 3 Can you / Will you open .. don´t we invite..be doing 11. 1. 8.. 10..... play. did . comes 5... please? Ex. May I / Do you mind if I go in.... will .? 2. 7.. will ... will .. How long will Janet be travelling in Asia? 3.. and resting. Would you mind using. will be playing 8.... please? Ex. 1. does ... saw 6.. Ex.. 1. Will . 6.. Could you / Would you use.... Could you / Would you turn. shut.5. will be working 2.reading 9. / Will Mike be washing..? 3. is playing 2. Would you mind signing.come 5. will visit 3.do 10. Hans won´t be working.. Did .. Can you / Will you come. will ... Ex. like to spend.going to stay / are . Were ... Mr Perez? Would you mind helping me. 1. Would you mind taking...get up 18.. will have dinner 7. 2.? 3. will be entertaining 5. will ..please? 5. 3.... were watching 4.. What will Mr Jackson be doing at this time on Thursday? 8. me to get you...doing 8. don´t we travel...expecting 15.. smokes 23. Where will you be working tomorrow morning? 4. 1. please? 4..? 5. 8......stay 9... May I / Do you mind if I use. At what time will the train be arriving tomorrow? 7.practice 7. turn.put on 24. please? / Would you mind showing me.. 1.? 2... Can I use your. 1. did .please? 7.. do .. will be visiting.. like to go. Could you / Would you help me.... 2.? 5.. Can you / Will you pay. please? Ex.. sitting. 6.arriving 21. Ex.spend ..be / are .. will be having 2.. please? 4.. are . will be living 6. Could you / Would you show me.and watching..? 6. 5.be doing 10. please? 6..going to be 19. Can you / Will you call me up. 9. were .. will be travelling 3. please? 5..going to go / are ...? 7........ please? 4. Could you / Would you sign. Could you / Would you speak. Would you mind repeating. 10... me to speak.KEY TO ANSWERS UNIT 11 PART I Ex. May I / Do you mind if I open. A short course in english for adult students 153 . will . 4. 1.... 5.. 3. Could you / Would you spell.? 4. 2. will be cooking 8. Where / In which hotel will you be staying in London? 6. Can you / Will you give me. 7. 1. Mike won´t be washing. Would you mind turning. Ex. Can I turn. 1 What will they be doing at 8 this evening? 2. 3. me to translate. will be driving 4... Ex.. 1. me to repeat my.come 13. will be watching 10. Could you / Would you take. Mr Perez? 2... please? 7..write 17. 1.. will be working 4.please? 4.. please? / Would you mind spelling. 1. please? 2... Can you / Will you turn down... did .. Can you / Will you sit. call back. will be working out 9...be doing Ex. please? 3. don´t we go. to spell my.. / Will Hans be working. Would you mind waiting. tell Mary that you. Can you / Will you help.go / are ..

I diidn´t eat. and we mustn´t pay. but we must B.. Mary can´t.. 13. John doesn´t walk. and you shouldn´t work... and the children also like.. but I was. 1 gave the note which you sent to him. and I wasn´t. but Peter didn´t / John didn´t go.... 10. 6.. and neither / nor does the secretary.. 1. but Peter did..They brought many presents to us from abroad. and neither / nor will they. 1.. but my wife´s car isn´t / My car isn´t. and neither / nor does my wife 8. Mary can speak. too / as well 8. The teacher gave us some dictation 6.....either / Mary should work. Mary likes... / We won´t go.. 12. They sent us an invitation. He liked. Mary shouldn´t work... He liked. We´ll go... and so was I 13.... They must pay and we must pay. and neither / nor did my friends. 3. and Peter also went. and he comes.. and my friends didn´t eat.. They mustn´t pay.. but 3..... They weren´t.12... I ate.... 5. / Mary doesn´t like. Please lend your pencil to me for a few minutes.. either 6. as well / John walks... Mary doesn´t like. and I don´t walk. 9.... He bought his wife some flowers.9.....either..... also 5. John walks.. as well.. and we liked. and Carmen can´t. 11.... 2.. but my wife´s car is. and Carmen can... / Mary likes. 13. either / John doesn´t walk...... as well / They were. 1.. John lent his friends some money 11... He gave all of us some excellent advice Ex. John didn´t go. I watch.... 6. My car isn´t. and so do I 4... 2. as well / He liked..either / My car isn´t very old and neither / nor is my wife´s (car) 12... and so did we 7. either 4... 8... and I was. She comes. Ex. / John doesn´t walk. and neither / nor was I.... 1.. I don´t eat. but 7. either / They weren´t. My wife´s car is. but we mustn´t / They mustn´t pay.. 2b. and so does my wife 8.. I watch.either / I didn´t eat.. 10. He sent his sister some candy. but Carmen can´t / Mary can´t speak... She comes. but he doesn´t / She doesn´t come...... 4. / They weren´t... either / I don´t eat.either / We won´t go. too.... 1. too / She comes.11. 3. 6. Ex.and neither / nor does he 5. 4.and so did Peter. Will you lend me your pen? 12... and the secretary doesn´t eat..8.. She doesn´t come.. and so do the children 9. / John didn´t go.. too / Mary can.. / My car´s very old and so is my wife´s (car)12. either / He didn´t like.. and Peter didin´t go. They sent the material to us right away. and my wife also watches.. Mary can.. but they will...7. Mary should work. 11. and so does the secretary. John walks. John went.. and neither / nor do I 4. and so can Carmen 2. 11.. I don´t watch. They sent an invitation to the party to us.... 2a. / I eat. 8... and neither / nor did we 7..but the secretary doesn´t / I don´t eat...... but the secretary does 3.. I eat...too / Mary should work.. 14. / They must pay. and neither / nor do the children 9. 3. 10.. My car is. and so will they... They gave some magazines to us.. and so did my friends.... but 9.. 1.. but we did. 14. but my friends didn´t / I didn´t eat.... and we didn´t like...PART III A.5. and my friends also ate. 7.. and neither / nor should you. He gave his friend a ring... We will go... 6.. Mary likes.... but the children don´t..... but you should . and you should work. but I do.. 7.. and they will also go. She brought me the book. but I don´t....... and the children don´t like.. / I don´t watch. and my wife doesn´t watch... and my wife´s car isn´t.. John went. too / as well 2.. They were.either / She doesn´t come... 9...and so does he 5. and the secreatry also eats.. also 10. 10. but the children do... and neither / nor can Carmen 2...either / Mary doesn´t like..... / John went... He gave me the money 2.. either / They must pay... and my wife´s car is.. and so should you. but my friends did. 14. but I wasn´t.... 10. and he doesn´t come. and neither / nor must we Ex. but Carmen can 2. Please hand that book to 154 A short course in english for adult students ... Mary should work. He told us the story 5.. either Ex.. We won´t go.. John gladly lent the money to me.... / We´ll go. 1.... but they won´t. but we didn´t / He didn´t like. Henry told the story of his trip to us. and they won´t go... but you shouldn´t / Mary shouldn´t work....... either / Mary can´t.. They were. and I walk. He didn´t like.. 3 He sent me a letter 4. They must pay..and neither / nor did Peter. / I don´t watch.. 1. but my wife does.. and so must we Ex. He gave some books to me. / I ate. / I watch.... but he does. I ate. I eat. 3.... but my wife doesn´t. Please give some dictation to us today. He sent several letters to his mother.

BASIC ENGLISH GRAMMAR STRUCTURES AND VOCABULARY PART TWO INTERMEDIATE LEVEL A short course in english for adult students 155 .

Bl 156 .

También es importante recordar aquí que el verbo HAVE en inglés y HABER en español tienen las siguientes formas en los tiempos presente.. /pí:tez bó:t a niú: ká:r/ We have finished our job. María ha escrito otra novela Peter ha comprado un auto nuevo Nosotros hemos terminado nuestro trabajo.worked.decided . /ái hav sí:n !æt mú:vi twáis/ I ´ve been there before.UNIT 12 PART I EL TIEMPO PRESENTE PERFECTO (THE PRESENT PERFECT TENSE) INTRODUCCIÓN Son TIEMPOS PERFECTOS todos los tiempos verbales compuestos por una forma del verbo modal o auxiliar HAVE (haber) más un PARTICIPIO PASADO (3ra. forma) de un verbo principal. /aiv/. To study . y por lo tanto Ud. Ej. You´ve. forma o Participio Pasado de los verbos regulares e irregulares de uso más frecuente..decided. etc.. Recuerde que son VERBOS REGULARES todos aquellos verbos que forman el Pasado y el Pasado Participio agregando el sufijo -d o -ed al infinitivo del verbo.. habían Ellos habían Inglés I will have You will have He will have She will have It will have We will have You will have They will have Futuro Español Yo habré Tú habrás El habrá Ella habrá El / Ella habrá Nos. A short course in english for adult students 157 . habrán Ellos habrán Ejemplos: I have seen = Yo he visto I had seen = Yo había visto I will have seen = Yo habré visto Mary has been = Mary ha estado Mary had been = Mary había estado Mary will have been = Mary habrá estado They have worked = Ellos han trabajado They had worked = Ellos habían trabajado They will have worked = Ellos habrán trabajado EL TIEMPO PRESENTE PERFECTO (THE PRESENT PERFECT TENSE) El Presente Perfecto se forma con el presente del verbo modal HAVE (HAVE /hæv/ o HAS /hæz/ ) más el PASADO PARTICIPIO de un verbo principal. Recuerde que se pueden formar contracciones. She´s /shí:z. como por ejemplo: I´ve. debe aprenderlos y memorizarlos. /áiv bí:n !éar bifó:r/ Mary has written another novel. habíamos Uds. /méri haz ríten aná!er nóvel/ Peter ´s bought a new car. la mayoría de nuestras acciones o actividades cotidianas se expresan con verbos irregulares. habremos Uds. /!éiv á:nserd !e léter/ Yo he visto esa película dos veces Yo he estado allí antes. /hí:z/. To decide . Curiosamente. He´s. /wí: hav fínisht áuar dllób/ They´ve answered the letter. ahora deberá aprender la 3ra.studied .studied.worked . To work . Como Ud.. puede ver. lea y aprenda: I have seen that movie twice.. Escuche. Son VERBOS IRREGULARES todos aquellos verbos que forman el Pasado y el Pasado Participio en forma diferente. pasado y futuro: Presente Inglés I have You have He has She has It has We have You have They have Español Yo he Tú has El ha Ella ha El / Ella ha Nos. hemos Uds. /iu:v/. han Ellos han Inglés I had You had He had She had It had We had You had They had Pasado Español Yo había Tú habías El había Ella había El / Ella había Nos. Ellos han contestado la carta.

Es frecuente aquí el uso de la palabra JUST pasado participio. escuche y aprenda: The train has just arrived. /!éiv dllást léft/ Ellos acaban de retirarse/irse • Para referirse a una acción que ha ocurrido antes (BEFORE /bifó:r/) o últimamente (LATELY /léitli/). Lea. Ellos me visitaron en el invierno de 1995 • También se debe usar el Presente Perfecto con las expresiones ALREADY / olrédi / (ya) y YET / yét / (aún). once. durante). Las expresiones de tiempo más usadas en este caso son SINCE /síns/ (desde) y FOR /for/ (por.. /tóm haz wé:rkt híar sins náintin náinti tú:/ Tom ha trabajado aquí desde 1992 We have lived here for several years.? Lea. /áiv sí:n !at dokiuméntri twáis/ Yo he visto ese documental dos veces We´ve been in New York several times. They visited me in the winter of 1995. /hav iú éver. many times /méni támiz/. escuche y aprenda: A: Have you ever drunk tequila? /hav iú: éver dræ#k tekíla/ ¿Has tomado tequila alguna vez? B: No. /yés wáns !éi vízitid mi in !e wínter v náintin náiti fáiv/ Sí. en las negaciones se debe usar yet.. /wí: hav lívd híar for sévral yíarz/ Hemos vivido aqui por varios años • Son frecuentes. nunca A: Have they ever visited you in the winter? /háv !éi éver vízitid iú: in !e wínter/ ¿Te han visitado ellos alguna vez en el invierno? B. hasta este momento. since 1978 /ins náintin séventi éit/.? vez. Lea. En las interrogaciones se puede usar indistintamente already o yet. Lea.EL PRESENTE PERFECTO SE USA EN LOS SIGUIENTES CASOS: • Para describir una acción que acaba de suceder. for 2 weeks /for tú: wí:ks/. Mientras since va seguido de una fecha u hora. alguna 158 A short course in english for adult students . etc.. escuche y aprenda: I am sure that I´ve seen that film before. Already siempre se usa en oraciones afirmativas. several times /sévral támiz/. las preguntas que comienzan con HAVE YOU EVER. Lea. /wí:v bí:n in niú: ió:rk sévral tamiz/ Nosotros hemos estado en Nueva York varias veces • Para referirse a una acción que comenzó en el pasado y ha continuado hasta el día de hoy. sin especificar cuándo exactamente ella ocurrió. la palabra for va seguida de un período: since last Monday /sins lá:st mándi/. escuche y aprenda: I´ve seen that documentary twice. /shiz bí:n híar léitli/ Ella ha estado aquí últimamente • Para indicar que la acción expresada por el verbo ha sido realizada varias veces a la fecha de hoy. for ten years /for tén yíarz/. /!e tréin haz dllást arráivd/ El tren acaba de llegar They´ve just left. Las expresiones de tiempo más usadas en este caso son: once /wáns/./ /dllást/ antes del Ha Ud.. never /nóu/néver/ No.. since 10:30 /sins tén "é:rti/. una vez. escuche y aprenda: Tom has worked here since 1992. twice /twáis/.. /áim shó:r !at áiv sí:n !t fílm bifó:r/ Estoy seguro de que he visto esa película antes She ´s been here lately. three or four times /"rí: or fó:r támiz/. Yes. tambien...

Lea. /áiv olrédi sí:n "æt mú:vi/ Yo ya he visto esa película. learned /lé:rnd/ learnt /le:rnt/ learned /lé:rnd/ left /léft/ left /left/ lent /lent/ lent /lent/ lost /lost/ lost /lost/ A short course in english for adult students 159 . conocer aprender. extraviar begun /bigán/ brought /bro:t/ built /bilt/ bought /bo:t/ come /kam/ cut /kat/ done /dan/ drunk /dra#k/ driven /drívn/ eaten /í:tn/ fallen /fó:len/ felt /felt/ found /fáund/ forgotten /fo:rgótn/ got/gotten /got /gótn/ given /gívn/ gone /gon/ been to /bi:n tu/ had /hæd/ had /hæd/ heard /hé:rd/ heard /hé:rd/ kept /kept/ kept /kept/ knew /niú:/ known /nóun/ learnt /le:rnt/. escuche y aprenda: I´ve already seen that movie. enterarse partir. /!éi hæ ´ vent sí:n "æt dokiuméntari/ Have they seen that documentary? /hav !éi sí:n "t dokiuméntari/ How many times have they seen that documentary? /háu méni táimz hav !éi sí:n "æt dokiuméntari/ Mary has sold her car. mantener saber. dejar prestar perder. We haven´t had breakfast yet. encontrar olvidar conseguir. /méri hæ ´ znt sóuld he:r ká:r/ Has Mary sold her car? /haz méri sóuld he:r ká:r/ Why has Mary sold her car? /wái haz méri sóuld he:r ká:r/ La pregunta habitual en este tiempo verbal es: What have you done? /wót hav iú: dán/ ¿Qué ha hecho Ud. Generalmente ´ vent/ HASN´T /hæ ´ znt/). servirse. conducir comer caer sentir(se) hallar. Estudie el Pasado Participio de los siguientes verbos irregulares: Infinitive To begin /bigín/ To bring /bri#/ To build /bild/ To buy /bái/ To come /kam/ To cut /kat/ To do /du:/ To drink /dri#k/ To drive /dráiv/ To eat /i:t/ To fall /fo:l/ To feel /fi:l/ To find /fáind/ To forget /fo:rgét/ To get /get/ To give /giv/ To go /góu/ To have /hæv/ To hear /híar/ To keep /ki:p/ To know /nóu/ To learn /le:rn/ To leave /li:v/ To lend /lend/ To lose /lú:z/ Past Tense began /bigæ ´ n/ brought /bro:t/ built /bilt/ bought /bo:t/ came /kéim/ cut /kat/ did /did/ drank /dræ#k/ drove /dróuv/ ate /eit/ fell /fel/ felt /felt/ found /fáund/ forgot /fo:rgót/ got /got/ gave /géiv/ went /went/ Past Participle Spanish empezar. Mary hasn´t sold her car. /!éi hav sí:n "æt dokiuméntari/ Ellos han visto ese documental They haven´t seen that documentary. /wí: hævent hæd brékfast yet/ No hemos tomado desayuno aún. salir. /méri haz sóuld he:r ká:r/ Mary ha vendido su auto. En las interrogaciones se debe invertir el orden se prefiere usar las contracciones HAVEN´T /hæ de have/has con el sujeto: Lea. Has the train arrived already/yet? /haz !e tréin arráivd olrédi/ yet/¿Ha llegado ya el tren? En la forma negativa se usa la palabra NOT entre HAVE/HAS y el pasado participio del verbo principal.? EXERCISES Ex. 1. haber oir guardar. comenzar traer construir comprar venir cortar hacer beber manejar. escuche y aprenda: They have seen that documentary. obtener dar ir ir (y volver) tener.

Peter has had dinner already. 2. colocar leer correr. Cambie las siguientes oraciones a) al negativo y b) al interrogativo. You´ll have to take the 8:15 train which leaves from Victoria Station. Hurry up! (start) 2. He can tell you where to go and what to do there. 6. Peter ________________ just ________________ a letter. vestir escribir Ex. comprender usar (ropa). They have studied the report. I´m quite sure that I ________________ that woman before. He knows it well.To make /meik/ To meet /mi:t/ To pay /péi/ To put /put/ To read /ri:d/ To run /ran/ To say /séi/ To see /si:/ To sell /sel/ To send /send/ To shut /shat/ To sing /si#/ To sit /sit/ To sleep /sli:p/ To speak /spi:k/ To spend /spénd/ To stand up /stæ ´ nd ap/ To swim /swim/ To take /téik/ To teach /ti:tch/ To tell /tel/ To think /"i#k/ To understand /anderstæ ´ nd/ To wear /wéar/ To write /ráit/ made /méid/ met /met/ paid /péid/ put /put/ read /red/ ran /ræn/ said /sed/ saw /so:/ sold /sóuld/ sent /sént/ shut /shat/ sang /sæ#/ sat /sæt/ slept /slept/ spoke /spóuk/ spent /spént/ stood up /stu:d ap/ swam /swæm/ took /tuk/ taught /to:t/ told /tóuld/ thought /"o:t/ understood /anderstú:d/ wore /wo:r/ wrote /rout/ made /méid/ met /met/ paid /péid/ put /put/ read /red/ run /ran/ said /sed/ seen /si:n/ sold /sóuld/ sent /sént/ shut /shat/ sung /sa#/ sat /sæt/ slept /slept/ spoken /spóukn/ spent /spént/ stood up /stu:d ap/ swum /swam/ taken /téikn/ taught /to:t/ told /tóuld/ thought /"o:t/ understood /anderstú:d/ worn /wo:rn/ written /rítn/ hacer. I ________________ that man before. (work) 9. 1. (speak) 12. The soccer game has already finished. 2. I don´t remember when. The students ________________ already ________________ that book (read) 11. fabricar. Bill ________________ in Tokyo several times. 3. (see) 5. Complete las siguientes oraciones usando el verbo dado en el tiempo Presente Perfecto: 1. John has sent them a fax. He´s reading it now. (be) 3. Your train ________________ already ________________. (go) 10. 5. (receive) 7.conocer pagar poner. 4. administrar decir ver vender enviar cerrar cantar sentarse dormir hablar gastar. The tennis game________________ just ________________. llevar enseñar decir pensar. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 160 A short course in english for adult students . Mary ________________ to him about it twice already. My friends ________________ in this house for over 10 years. Sir. (go) 8. creer entender. He________________ to America. confeccionar reunirse. The plane has already left. pasar tiempo pararse nadar tomar. 3. They´ve given her Tom´s new address. (meet) Ex. John ________________ for that company since 1987. Bob ________________to San Francisco several times. (leave) 4. He isn´t in Chile. (live) 6. but I´m sure I know him.

___________________________________________________ Tom´s lived in Pakistan for over a year. 2. WHEN. /t/. ___________________________________________________ 8. ___________________________________________________ Ann hasn´t answered the letters because she´s been too busy. etc.. HOW. 2. Conteste las siguientes preguntas usando las expresiones dadas después de cada pregunta: 1. ¿Has mirado televisión esta tarde. ___________________________________________________ John has been in Chicago and Boston. 3. HOW LONG. Traduzca las siguientes oraciones al inglés. ¿Cuánto tiempo ha trabajado Ud. ___________________________________________________ Paul´s worked for our company since 1989. como /m/. _______________________________________________ Yes. ¿Dónde han estado ellos desde las ocho de esta mañana? ______________________________________________ PART II A. pero se debe pronunciar /z/ cuando se agrega a los sustantivos singulares que terminan en una consonante sonora. 4. El General ya se ha ido a la reunión. ___________________________________________________ I´ve eaten a ham sandwich. 5. /d/. Este sufijo se pronuncia /s/ cuando se agrega a los sustantivos singulares que terminan en una consonante sorda. 4. 1.Ex. 1. /l/. _______________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. 5. ___________________________________________________ He´s gone to bed because he´s ill. Has Maria ever visited the USA? (twice) 3. Have you ever been to Japan? (never). 9. 5. Have they ever seen a UFO? (Never) Have you ever driven a Mercedes? (Once or twice) Has your father ever lived abroad? (several times) Have you seen the President in person? (never) Has Susan ever come to Chile? (a couple of times) ___________________________________________________ Yes. etc. 11. Ellos han estado aquí varias veces antes. como /k/. ___________________________________________________ 6. En Inglés los sustantivos normalmente se pluralizan agregando una -s al singular. ___________________________________________________ The students have done the same exercise three times. ___________________________________________________ 3. 6. Tom´s seen that same movie three times. WHERE. Esta regla también se aplica a los sustantivos terminados en -e “muda” Ejemplos: one book /buk/ one hat /hæt/ one dam /dæm/ one pad /pæd/ two books /buks/ six hats /hæts/ two dams /dæmz/ ten pads /pædz/ one top /top/ one bag /bæg/ one club /klab/ three tops /tops/ three bags /bægz/ two clubs /klabz/ A short course in english for adult students 161 . Formule preguntas usando palabras interrogativas como WHAT. /p/. 6. 7. /g/. 10. Ellos han estudiado Inglés por más de dos años. ___________________________________________________ 4. ___________________________________________________ 2. ___________________________________________________ They´ve sold ten books today. 8. es decir con vibración de las cuerdas vocales. ¿Por qué no han visitado California Uds. Mi suegro ha vivido en esta ciudad toda su vida. Yo no he leído ese libro todavía. She __________________________________________ In 1991 and in 1997 ___________________________________________________ Yes.____________________________________________ The boys have done nothing today. 7. ___________________________________________________ They´ve bought a new house. es decir sin vibración de las cuerdas vocales. 6. ¿Qué te ha contado Mary acerca de ello? ___________________________________________________ 7. /b/. _________________________________________________ Ex. 4. PLURALIZATION OF NOUNS (LA PLURALIZACIÓN DE LOS SUSTANTIVOS) 1. en el Ejército? ___________________________________________________ 10. John? ___________________________________________________ 5. todavía? ___________________________________________________ 9. ___________________________________________________ We´ve waited for them for more than two hours. etc. ______________________________________________ No. 12.

Los sustantivos terminados en -o precedida por una consonante normalmente agregan -es para formar el plural (excepto las palabras relacionadas con música (generalmente de origen italiano) como. -sh. Ejemplos: one leaf /li:f/ one wolf /wulf/ one wife /waif/ two leaves /li:vz/ five wolves /wulvz/ three wives /wáivz/ one loaf /lóuf/ one knife /naïf/ three loaves /lóuvz/ ten knives /náivz/ Algunos sustantivos terminados en -ief. Los sustantivos terminados en -f o -fe. several beliefs /bilí:fs/ one cliff /klif/. -oof. no siguen la regla anterior. banjo. Los sustantivos terminados en -o precedida por una vocal normalmente agregan una -s. Los sustantivos terminados en -y precedida por una vocal agregan -s para formar su plural. sino que simplemente agregan -s para formar el plural. some cliffs /klifs/ a roof /ru:f/. forman su plural cambiando la -f o -fe en -ves. Los sustantivos que terminan en -s. los que solamente agregan -s pero en este caso la pronunciación tambien es /iz/ Ejemplos: One bus /bás/ One watch /wótch/ One case /keis/ One page /péidll/ two buses /básiz/ three watches /wótchiz/ two cases /kéisiz/ ten pages /péidlliz/ one brush /brash/ one box /boks/ one face /féis/ four brushes /bráshiz/ ten boxes /bóksiz/ three faces /féisiz/ 3. o -z forman el plural agregando -es /iz/ . Ejemplos: one handkerchief /hænke:rtchi:f/. pero aquellas que terminan en -y precedida por una consonante cambian la -y por -i y enseguida agregan -es Ejemplos: one day /dei/ one key /ki:/ one boy /boi/ two days /deiz/ five keys /ki:z/ three boys /boiz/ one lily /líli/ one baby /béibi/ one fly /flái/ three lilies /líliz/ two babies /béibiz/ several flies /fláiz/ 4. piano. soprano. -ce. -x.one gate /géit/ one note /nóut/ one name /néim/ one tone /tóun/ two gates /geits/ ten notes /nóuts/ two names /néimz/ two tones /tóunz/ one lake /léik/ one cave /kéiv/ several lakes /léiks/ two caves /kéivz/ 2. two roofs /ru:fs/ 5. -ge. etc). two handkerchiefs /hænke:rtchi:fs/ a belief /bilí:f/. -ff. también se incluyen aquí los sustantivos terminados en -se. -ch. Ejemplos: one tomato /toméitou/ one hero /híarou/ one radio /réidiou/ one video /vídiou/ one studio /stúdiou/ two tomatoes /toméitouz/ two heroes /híarouz/ two radios /réidiouz/ three videos /vídiouz/ two studios /stúdiouz/ one potato /potéitou/ one folio /fóuliou/ one zoo /zu:/ two potatoes /potéitouz/ two folios /fóuliouz/ several zoos /zu:z/ 162 A short course in english for adult students . solo.

: mosquitos/mosquitoes /moskitouz/ . volcanos/volcanoes / volkéinouz/ .Excepciones one piano /pianou/ one kilo /kílou/ one photo /fóutou/ two pianos /pianouz/ two kilos /kílouz/ several photos /fóutouz/ one banjo /bæ ´ ndllou/ one memo /mémou/ two banjos /bæ ´ ndllouz/ three memos /mémouz/ Los sustantivos mosquito /moskitou/. tornados/tornadoes /to:rnéidouz/ . Existen algunos sustantivos que mantienen la misma forma en el plural: Ejemplos: one/several fish /fish/ one/two series /siariz/ one/several aircraft /éarkrá:ft/ one/ten deer /díar/ one/ten sheep /shi:p/ one/several means /mí:nz/ one/two species /spíshiz/ 8. tornado / to:rnéidou /. zeros/zeroes /zíarouz/ 6. Existen algunos sustantivos de origen latín o griego que tienen plurales especiales o irregulares: Ejemplos: criterion /kraitérion/ analysis /anæ ´ lisis/ crisis /kráisis/ oasis /ouéisis/ thesis /"í:sis/ curriculum /karíkiulam/ medium /mí:diam/ stimulus /stímiulas/ cactus /kæ ´ ktas/ syllabus /sílabas/ formula /fó :rmiula/ vertebra /vértibra/ appendix /apéndiks/ index /índeks/ criteria /kraitíaria/ analyses /anæ ´ lisi:z/ crises /kráisi:z/ oases /ouéisiz/ theses /!í:siz/ curricula /karíkiula/ media /mí:dia/ stimuli /stímiulai/ cacti /kæ ´ ktai/ syllabi /sílabai/ formulae /fó :rmiuli:/ vertebrae /vértibri:/ appendices /apéndisi:z/ indices /indisi:z/ phenomenon /fenómenon/ basis /béisis/ hypothesis /haipó"esis/ parenthesis /parén"esis/ bacterium /bæktí:ariam/ datum /déitam/ memorandum /memoræ ´ dam/ cactuses /kæ ´ ktasi:z/ syllabuses /sílabasiz/ formulas /fó :rmiulaz/ appendixes /apéndiksi:z/ indexes /índeksiz/ phenomena /fenómena/ bases /béisi:z/ hypotheses /haipó"esi:z/ parentheses /parén"esi:z/ bacteria /bæktía:ria/ data /déita/ memoranda /memor!da/ A short course in english for adult students 163 . volcano / volkéinou / y zero / zíarou / forman el plural agregando indistintamente -s o -es. Existen algunos plurales irregulares que no siguen ninguna de las reglas anteriores y que debemos memorizar: Ejemplos: one man /mæn/ one woman /wúman/ one child /tcháild/ one tooth /tu:"/ one foot / fu:t / one goose /gu:z/ one louse /láus/ one mouse /máus/ one ox /oks/ two men /men/ three women /wímin/ several children /tchíldren/ two teeth /tí:"/ two feet /fi:t/ ten geese /gí:z/ several lice /láis/ three mice /máis/ four oxen /óksen/ 7.

USE OF INFINITIVES AND GERUNDS. como To want (I want to read the newspaper). etc. salir. I enjoy playing tennis. seguir To mind /máind/ importar. 1.B. Ann will soon finish typing the letter. parar. molestar To miss /mis/ echar de menos. El gerundio es la forma simple de un verbo principal + el sufijo -ING: going. recordar con nostalgia To postpone /pospóun/ postergar To practise /práktis/ practicar To quit /kuit/ dejar. seguramente recordará. como To make (He made us do the exercise again). I was playing tennis at this time yesterday. Además. abandonar To risk /risk/ arriesgar. gustar To fancy /f(nsi/ agradar. Mrs Brown goes shopping every Saturday morning. También existe un grupo de verbos que pueden ir seguidos indistinatamente de TO + INFINITIVO o de un GERUNDIO (I like to swim / I like swimming). no aceptar como cierto To dislike /disláik/ disgustar o desagradar To enjoy /endllói/ disfrutar. speaking. (ver reglas dadas en la Unit 4) Un gerundio puede actuar como: a) b) c) d) Sujeto de una oración: Complemento directo de un verbo: Complemento de una preposición: Adjetivo: Playing tennis is fun. El verbo TO GO va seguido de un gerundio en expresiones que se refieren a actividades deportivas como las siguientes: To go boating /góu bóuti#/ ir a andar en bote To go bowling /góu bóuli#/ ir a jugar a los bolos To go camping /góu kæmpi#/ ir a acampar To go dancing /góu dænsi#/ ir a bailar To go fishing /góu físhi#/ ir a pescar To go hang gliding /góu hæ# gláidi#/ ir a planear (delta) To go hiking /góu háiki#/ ir a excursionar To go jogging /góu dllógi#/ ir a trotar To go running /góu ráni#/ ir a correr To go sailing /góu séili#/ ir a andar en yate To go shopping /góu shópi#/ ir de compras To go sightseeing /góu sáitsí:i#/ ir en un tour To go skating /góu skéiti#/ ir a patinar To go skiing /góu skí:i#/ ir a esquiar To go skydiving /góu skáidáivi#/ ir a hacer salto libre To go swimming /góu swími#/ ir a nadar To go trekking /góu tréki#/ ir de excursión To go water-skiing /góu wó:terskí:i#/ ir a esquiar (acuat. detenerse To suggest /sadllést/ sugerir Ejemplos: Would you mind closing the door? I enjoy walking in the park in the morning. pensar en To delay /diléi/ retrasar To deny /dinái/ negar. 164 A short course in english for adult students . to write. correr el riesgo de To stop /stop/ dejar de. they went to the library. writing. como ud. comprender To keep /kí:p/ mantener(se). continuar. etc. VERB + GERUND Los siguientes verbos van normalmente seguidos de un gerundio: To admit /admit/ admitir. Existen algunos verbos que van seguidos normalmente por un GERUNDIO. After playing tennis. (Uso de los infinitivos y los gerundios) Se denomina Infinitivo a la palabra To + la forma simple de un verbo principal: to go. gustar To finish /fínish/ terminar To imagine /imádllin/ imaginar(se) To involve /invóulv/ involucrar. I heard some surprising news. el gerundio (en este caso el presente participio) se usa con el verbo TO BE para expresar los tiempos continuos o progresivos: I am playing tennis now. como To enjoy (I enjoy reading) y otros verbos que normalmente van seguidos de TO + INFINITIVO. They went sightseeing in the morning.) To go window-shopping /góu wíndow shópi#/ ir a vitrinear Ejemplos: I usually go jogging in the evening. to speak. o de un BARE INFINITIVE (infinitivo sin To). aceptar como cierto To appreciate /áprishieit/ agradecer To avoid /avóid/ evitar To consider /konsíder/ considerar.

Have you fínished ______________________________ (read) the book yet? 4.. mantenerse esperar con ansia.. Ann is fond of gardening.. (take) 6..?) There´s no use waiting any longer. (go) Ex. seguir insistir en continuar. Las siguientes expresiones idiomáticas también van seguidas de un gerundio: There´s no use /!eaz nóu iu:s/ No vale la pena. seguir. 3..? Is it worthwhile /iz it we:r"wail/ ¿Vale la pena. It´s no use /its nóu iu:s/ Es inutil There´s not much point in /!eaz nót match póint in/ No sirve de mucho Is this..we:r"/ ¿Vale la pena. They´ve stopped ______________________________ (speak) to each other. 1. He left the house ______________________________ good bye. seguir. Supply the gerund form of the verb in parentheses 1. mantenerse soñar con. Bob will soon get used to living in this country.. They kept on talking for hours. ______________________________ to bed. (eat) 3. rendirse continuar. discutir pensar en. 1.. (work) 5. Is this book worth reading? Is it worthwhile going there now? EXERCISES Ex. I look forward to seeing you soon. soñar que sentir o tener ganas de perdonar a alguien por terminar acostumbrarse a dejar de. the old woman locked all the doors. worth /iz !is.. las siguientes expresiones van seguidas de un gerundio To accuse someone of /akiú:z sámwane v/ To apologize for /apólodlláiz for/ To be accustomed to /bí: akástomd tu/ To be afraid of /bí: afréid v/ To be capable of /bí: kéipabl v/ To be fond of /bí: fond v/ To be tired of /bí: táiard v/ To be used to /bí: iu:st tu/ To carry on /kæ ´ ri on/ To dream of/about /drí:m v. We’re thinking ______________________________ a trip to Europe. Bob left the restaurant ______________________________ the check. I can increase my salary ______________________________ overtime. A short course in english for adult students 165 . Use the correct preposition in the blank space and the gerund of the verbs in parentheses. (leave) 7. (pay) 4. abáut/ To feel like /fí:l láik/ To forgive somebody for /forgív sámbodi for/ To get through /get "ru:/ To get used to /get iu:st tu/ To give up /giv áp/ To go on /gou ón/ To insist on /insíst ón/ To keep on /kí:p ón/ To look forward to /luk fórward tu/ To prevent somebody from /privént sámbodi from/ To put off /put óf/ To succeed in /saksí:d in/ To talk about /to:k abáut/ To think about /"i#k abáut/ acusar a alguien de disculparse por estar acostumbrado a tener miedo a ser capaz de ser aficionado a estar cansado de estar acostumbrado a continuar. dejar para más tarde o después lograr exitosamente conversar. planificar Ejemplos: John´s given up smoking at last. 2. He put on his coat ______________________________ the house. We’re considering ______________________________ (take) a new course. Would you mind ______________________________ (wait) a few minutes? 2. desear evitar o impedir que alguien postergar..Todas las preposiciones van seguidas de un GERUNDIO. The girl washed the apple ______________________________ it.esta/e. It´s no use insisting There´s not much point in doing that. (say) 2. Por lo tanto.

The boy’s finished ______________________________ (eat) his supper.5. 8. you risk _______________________ knocked down by a passing car. 2. Ann: You were driving so fast! Bob: Yes. If you walk ínto the road without looking. 4. Complete the sentences so that they mean the same as the first sentence. Hello! Fancy _______________________ you here! What a surprise! 10. I can do what I want and you can´t stop me. Complete the sentences for each situation using -ing. 10. Jim is 65 but he isn’t going to retire yet. Shall we go away tomorrow. He wants to carry on _______________________. I didn’t! Bob denied ___________________________________________________________________________________ 6. Sarah gave up _______________________ to find a job in this country and decided to go abroad. Could you please stop _______________________ so much noise? 3. Bob: No. I dislike ______________________________ (ride) on the subway. I aIways enjoy ______________________________ (visit) new places. What a stupid thing to do! Can you imagine anybody _______________________ so stupid? 12. Use -ING. 11. They can’t risk ______________________________ (be) seen. 1. 2. 1. It´s not a good idea to travel during the rush hour. I don’t mind ______________________________ (have) to work till late on Fridays. 3. 6. 5. not really. Ann: Can you wait a few minutes? Bob: Sure. It´s better to avoid ______________________________________________________________________________ 3. The driver couldn’t avoid ______________________________ (hit) the pedestrian. instead of today? Shall we postpone _________________________________ until _______________________________________? 166 A short course in english for adult students . Ann: What shall we do? Bob suggested going to the cinema. You can´t stop me doing what I want. Ann: Why don’t we go for a swim? Bob: Good idea! Ann suggested ________________________________________________________________________________ 5. 2. no problem. 7. I really must do it today. He tried to avoid _____answering ____my question. Ann: You broke into the shop. I considered _______________________ for the job but in the end I decided against it. Ann: Do you want to play tennis? Bob: No. 9. I’ve put off _______________________ the letter so many times. Ex. Bob: We could go the cinema. Have you finished _______________________ your hair yet? 6. Bob didn’t mind ________________________________________________________________________________ Ex. 4. Complete each sentence with one of these verbs: answer apply be be listen make see try use wash work write 1. 8. I don’t mind you _______________________ the phone as long as you pay for all your calls. Ex. I enjoy _______________________ to music. Bob didn’t fancy _______________________________________________________________________________ 3. 5. 7. Sorry! Bob admitted __________________________________________________________________________________ 4. 9. it’s true.

6. (hit) 6. 1. ________________________________________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students 167 . John got tired _______________________ for us.4. 2. Use your own ideas to complete these sentences. Henry needs much more practice _______________________ (speak) 4. I don’t fancy ______________________________________________________________ l’m afraid there aren’t any more chairs. The driver of the car said it was true that he didn´t have a licence. please? Would you mind ______________________________________________________________________________? 6. They will fly to Mexico. Could you turn the radio down. Join the following pairs of sentences by using INSTEAD OF /instéd ov/ (en vez de) 1. ________________________________________________________________________ 4. He will not work in his father’s store. ________________________________________________________________________ 6. He will marry Helen. (go) 3. ________________________________________________________________________ 5. She’s a very interesting person. John insisted _______________________ to the stadium with us. She will study music. There is little chance _______________________ her again. I won’t work in the garden today I will play tennis instead of working in the garden today. I couldn´t stop __________________________________________________________________ My car isn´t very reliable. 5. (see) 7. They won’t go abroad. Bill has no intention _______________________ part in the game. He will not stay at the home of his cousin. 8. I aIways enjoy talking to her. (do) 8. ________________________________________________________________________ 8. ________________________________________________________________________ 7. They will not drive in their new car. lt’s a question _______________________ it at once. We look forward _______________________ you soon. 7. (finish) Ex. (take) 12. 3. We are thinking _______________________ French. Please don´t interrupt me all the time. (drive) 10. (see) 5. so I suggested ________________________________________________________________ It was very funny. (wait) 11. 4. We will not visit the Smiths. (study) 9. Use gerunds. ________________________________________________________________________ 3. 2. He will not remain a bachelor. 6. Mary is very fond _______________________ in the river (swim) 2. They will stay home this summer. Bob has very little experience _______________________ trucks. There´s no possibility _______________________ the work today. Supply the correct preposition and the gerund form of the verb in parentheses: 1. It keeps _________________________________________________________________ Ex. l’m not feeling very well. John will study to be an engineer. I will play tennis. The seat belt prevented me _______________________ my head against the windshield. I hope you don`t mind _________________________________________ It was a lovely day. Would you mind ______________________________________________________________________________? Ex. The driver of the car admitted ____________________________________________________________________ 5. He will live in a dormitory. We’re going to the movie tonight. She won’t go to the university.

14. Keep _______________________. lt’s slowly falling apart. It´s driving me crazy. We discussed _______________________ Colorado for our vacation. I’m thinking about _______________________ a biology course next semester. B: Oh? A: I quit ___________________________________ B: That´s wonderful! 5. B: Let´s go. 10. could you help me in the kitchen? B: Sure. 9. A: Could you please stop doing that? B: Doing what? A: Stop ___________________________________ . A: What are you doing? B: I´m helping Teddy with his homework. I´m considering ___________________________________ 3. buy a new car do things go to the zoo on Saturday rain repeat that help him do my homework get a Toyota try read a good book smoke tap your fingernails on the table 1. yesterday.Ex. 1. Complete the sentences in the dialogues. sometimes I put off ___________________________________ 7. but it finally stopped _______________________ around 10 p. A: When you finísh ___________________________________ . and I still don’t understand it. I don’t cough any more. A: Would you mind _______________________ the window? B: Not at all. A: Would you like to go for a walk? B: Has it stopped raining? A: Yes. Beth doesn’t like her job. 2.m. it has. she dusted the furniture. 168 A short course in english for adult students . A: Are you a procrastinator? B: A what? A: A procrastinator. 12. A: What do you usually do in your free time in the evening? B: I enjoy ___________________________________ 4. 9. I´m not tired yet. Use the expressions in the list or your own words. Let’s keep on _______________________ for another hour or so. 4. try. 2. 5. A: Are you listening to me? B: Yes. 13. Ex. try again. if necessary. When Martha finished _______________________ the floor. We had a blizzard. 11. I’m listening to you. Add a preposition after the gerund. news! I feel great. I´d be glad to. It was cold and rainy yesterday. She’s talking about _______________________ a different job. so we postponed going to/visiting the botanical gardens. Sometimes students put off_______________________ their homework. 10. 8. I´m thinking about ___________________________________ B: Do you think you´ll get another Honda? A: No. B: Oh. Complete the sentences by using GERUNDS. I quit _______________________ comic books when I was twelve years old. 6. 7. I´m considering _______________________ New York City. B: Well. Keep__________________________________ lf at first you don`t succeed. The Porters´ house is too small. I enjoy _______________________ sports.. and I don’t run out of breath when I walk up a hill. don’t give up. That’s someone who always postpones ___________________________________. then. A: I’ve been working on this math problem for the last half hour. They’re considering _______________________ 3. A: I´ve been having a lot of trouble with my old Honda the last couple of months. A: Do you want to take a break? B: No. Well. 6. 8. A: Good. Be sure to use a gerund in each sentence.

What does she like to do? She likes to go swimming 2. “Three free trees. What do they probably do a lot? They _________________________________________________________________________________________ 10. the Smiths sometimes go to a mountain resort. On weekends in the winter. “ Ex. What does he like to do? He likes _______________________________________________________________________________________ 5. 11.9. What do they like to do? They like ______________________________________________________________________________________ 3. Jim and his wife live near the sea. She runs a couple of miles every day. The Taylors are going to go to a little lake near their house tomorrow. so the lake is completely frozen. What do you like to do for exercise and fun? I _____________________________________________________________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students 169 . What did he do last summer? He ___________________________________________________________________________________________ 4. They like to race down the side of a mountain in the snow. What does Sara often do? She __________________________________________________________________________________________ 9. Answer the questions. What do they like to do? They _________________________________________________________________________________________ 7.. Mr. It´s winter now. She goes to a place where she rolls a thirteen-pound ball at some wooden pins. What do they like to do? They ________________________________________________________________________________________ . What do they do on buses? They _________________________________________________________________________________________ 13. Mr. When there’s a strong wind. they like to spend the day ín their yatch. My sister goes to the beach almost every day. Colette and Ben like to jump out of airplanes. He slept in a tent and cooked his food over a fire. What does she do every day? She __________________________________________________________________________________________ 6.ING 1. A: Do you have any plans for this weekend? B: Henry and I talked about ___________________________________ 10. What does Joe like to do? He ___________________________________________________________________________________________ 8. They don’t open their parachutes until the last minute. What are the Taylors going to do tomorrow? They _________________________________________________________________________________________ 11. Frank and his girlfriend like to spend the whole day on a lake with poles in their hands. Tourists often get on buses that take them to see interesting places in an area. Would you mind ___________________________________? B: Of course not. The ice is smooth. Last summer John went to Paine National Park. I said. Jim Clark is a nature lover. George and Jane know all the latest dances. A: I didn’t understand what you said. Johnson likes to go to the Shopping Mall and buy things. Use the expressions GO +. Barbarta prefers indoor sports. Smith´s wife takes good care of her health.. What do they like to do? They _________________________________________________________________________________________ 12. She spends hours in the water. 14. He usually takes long walks in the woods.

BASIC VOCABULARY: A. at 4. cerca de a pesar de hacia abajo durante lejos de para. a en la parte posterior de en la parte inferior de en la parte superior de antes de detrás de más abajo de más abajo de al lado de además de entre (dos) más allá de por. en dirección a debajo de hasta hacia arriba de con dentro de sin Example about the history of the USA above the clouds across the street after the lesson against the enemy along the coast among all the girls around the house at home.r/ behind /biháind/ below /bilóu/ beneath /biní:"/ beside /bisáid/ besides /bisáidz/ between /bituí:n/ beyond /biyónd/ by /bai/ despite /dispáit/ down /dáun/ during /diúri#/ far from /fá:r from/ for /fo:r/ from /from/ in /in/ in front of /in fránt v/ in the corner of /in ! kórner v/ inside /insáid/ into /íntu/ near /niar/ next to /nékst tu/ of / v/ off /of/ on /on/ onto /óntu/ opposite /óposit/ out /áut/ out of /áut v/ outside /autsáid/ over /óuver/ since /sins/ through /"ru:/ till /til/ to /tu/ towards /tuwó:rdz/ under /ánder/ until /antíl/ up /ap/ with /wi!/ within /wi!in/ without /wi!áut/ 170 A short course in english for adult students Spanish acerca de más arriba de a través de (de un lado al otro) después de en contra de a lo largo de entre (varios) alrededor de en. por desde. PREPOSITIONS AND PREPOSITIONAL PHRASES (Preposiciones y frases preposicionales) English about / báut/ above / báv/ across / krós/ after /á:fter/ against /egéinst/ along / ló#/ among / má#/ around / ráund/ at / t/ at the back of / t ! bæ ´ k v/ at the bottom of / t ! bótom v/ at the top of / t ! tóp #v/ before /bifó. hacia hacia. de en al frente de en la esquina de dentro de hacia adentro cerca de próximo a de lejos de encima de (sobre) hacia encima de frente a afuera hacia afuera fuera de sobre desde a través de hasta a. for 3 days from the USA in the garden in front of the school in the corner of the room inside the classroom into the room near the hospital next to the supermarket of the week off the coast on the desk onto the table opposite the bank out in the street out of the room outside the office over the roof since that day through the tunnel till tomorrow to the office towards the east under the table until next Sunday up the road with my friends within a week without money .15 at the back of the room at the bottom of the map at the top of the shelf before the lesson behind the door below the carpet beneath the ground beside the table besides John Clark between you and me beyond the hill by the river despite the noise down the coast during the day far from London for the students.

8.. /bóu"... The yard is too big. it has an excellent location 14. 9. On the one hand.. de lo contrario similarmente. no obstante therefore /!éarfo:r/ en efecto.. my roommate is not doing so well. nonetheless...B. he went to the post office. The student speaks English well... in addition. acto seguido sin embargo. we´ve known each other all our lives. Mary was sick. First.. 11.. por consiguiente así. so he failed the exam.. he took her to Europe. ni... en realidad además a pesar de ello en primer lugar mientras tanto del mismo modo por un lado por otro lado para comenzar para comenzar A short course in english for adult students 171 .nor /ní:!er. yet she didn´t pass her exam. on the other hand.. 10. al comienzo instead /instéd/ en último término del mismo modo. no obstante después. I´m getting along quite well. en lugar de eso Phrasal adverbial connectives after all /á:fter ó:l/ as a consequence /az kónsikwens/ as a matter of fact /az máter ov fæ ´ kt/ as a result /az rizált/ even so /í:vn sóu/ first of all /fé:rst v ó:l/ for example /for igzámpl/ for instance /for ínstans/ for one thing /for wan "i#/ for that reason /for !æ ´ t rí:zn/ Examples: 1. she came to class. then. no obstante ello de otro modo. 5. por lo tanto then /!en/ sin embargo. CONNECTORS (Conectores) Coordinating conjunctions: and /ánd/ or /o:r/ so /sou / for /fó:r/ not /not/ y o por lo tanto porque. besides. ya sea. moreover. It´s cold outside. Peter and Tom went to visit Hans in hospital.. the house is not very comfortable. así mismo mientras tanto además..o:r/ neither. pues por lo tanto. por fin similarly /símilarli/ en primer lugar. next /nékst/ a pesar de. we have to wash the car.. con posterioridad por lo tanto. He´s my best friend.. aunque.... primeramente so /sóu/ además subsequently /sábsikwentli/ de aquí que. del mismo modo por lo tanto. 13.no:r/ not only. por cierto thus /!as/ inicialmente..or /í:!er. 12.. 6. Alice studied very hard. o..and/ either.ni.but also /nót óunli.. but he didn´t do well in the test. en consecuencia posteriormente. enseguida. we can´t afford the house. however.. He gave her a beautiful diamond. He didn´t study hard enough. por otra parte sin embargo.bat ólsou/ yet /iét/ tanto. sin embargo. he seems to know a lot about our customs. 2. He studied hard as well. no obstante Adverbial connectives: accordingly /akó:rdi#li/ actually /æ ´ ktchuali/ although /ól!ou/ anyway /éniwei/ besides /bisáidz/ consequently /kónsekwentli/ despite /dispáit/ equally /íkwali / finally /fáinali/ first /fé:rst/ furthermore /fé:r!ermó:r/ hence /héns/ however /hauéver/ indeed /indí:d/ initially /iníshiali/ en conformidad last(ly) /lá:stli/ en realidad likewise /láikwaiz/ aún cuando..como... nevertheless.. Both Peter and Tom went to see Hans in hospital. he went to the bank. furthermore.. como resultado de ello aún así en primer término por ejemplo por ejemplo en primer lugar por ese motivo in fact /in fækt/ in addition /in adíshon/ in spite of that /in spáit v !æt/ in the first place /in ! fé:rst pléis/ in the meantime /in ! mí:ntaim/ in the same way /in ! seim wéi/ on the one hand / n ! wan hæ ´ nd/ on the other hand / n !i á! r hæ ´ nd/ to begin with /tu bigín wi!/ to start with /tu stá:rt wi!/ de hecho. 7.. 4. no obstante nonetheless /nan!eles/ igualmente otherwise /á!erwaiz/ finalmente. debido a que no both. de este modo en cambio..and. después de todo como resultado de ello en realidad. a pesar de meanwhile /mí:nwail/ de todos modos moreover /mó:rouver/ además nevertheless /néver!elés/ en consecuencia. 3.sino que también. no sólo. entonces.

Bl 172 .

have met Ex.. of driving 10. riding 7. from hitting 6. applying 5. to seeing 5. 2. before going Ex. working 8. of doing 8. 3. 1.Yes. reading 4....been 10. 1. (Possible answers) 2. of swimming 2. Ex. without / after paying 4. / Have they given her. Ex. of taking 12. They haven´t given her. 2. waiting 2. has ... making 3. 8. 9. about studying 9. laughing 6. 1. How many books have they sold today? 6. they´ve never seen one 4. having 10. waiting a few minutes. The general has already gone to the meeting.. of seeing 7. breaking down Ex. being 7. she´s been there twice 3. buying 8. John? 5. 6. Yes. snowing 7. How long have we / you waited for them? 12. Yes. eating 6. going out for a walk 5. has gone 8. They´ve studied English for more than two years. 4. Why hasn´t Ann answered the letters? 10. 5. How long has Tom lived in Pakistán? 5. trying Ex.? Ex. I´ve driven one once or twice 5. practising 11. 7. has spoken 12. instead of remaining a bachelor 8. please? 6.received 7. How many times has Tom seen that same movie? 2. on going 3. speaking 13. taking 9. travelling during the rush hour 3.. What have you eaten? 8. playing tennis 3. No.instead of working in his father´s store 6. speaking 3.instead of driving in their new car Ex.. What have they bought? 3. What has Mary told you about that? 7. going for a swim 5. How long have you worked in the army? 10. about taking 6. Breaking / having broken 6.instead of staying at the home of his cousin 7.. have lived 6. 1.started 2.. not having a license 5. tomorrow 4. without / after saying 2. John hasn´t sent them a fax / Has John sent them a fax? 6. I haven´t read that book yet 2. has been 3. 1. have . 3. has ..read 11. before leaving 7. I´ve never been there 2. Peter hasn´t had dinner yet / Has Peter had dinner already / yet? 3.instead of going to the university 3. using 9. she´s come here a couple of times.. (Possible answers) 2. before eating 3.. My father-in-law has lived in this city all his life. turning the radio down. doing 6.. They´ve been here several times before.1 1. answering 11.Key to answers UNIT 12 A. I´ve never seen him in person 7. They haven´t studied the report / Have they studied the report? 4. visiting Ex. seeing 10. What have the boys done today? 11.. The soccer game hasn´t finished yet / Has the soccer game finished already / yet? 2.. washing 6. Ex. 2. 6.. 1. has worked 9. not interrupting me all the time? Ex. working 14. has . The plane hasn´t left yet / Has the plane left already / yet? 5. 4.. Have you watched TV this afternoon / evening. 5. listening 4. vacuuming 5. has . Ex. hitting 9. Why haven´t you visited California yet? 9. How long has Paul worked for our company? 7. taking 5. Where have they been since eight o´clock this morning? B. being 12. Yes. 3.left 4. 8.. of finishing Ex. 1. moving into a larger house 3. 2.. he´s lived abroad several times 6. by working 5. closing A short course in english for adult students 173 . No. visiting 12.. instead of going abroad 4. have seen 5. Why has he gone to bed? 4. going out this evening 3. instead of visiting the Smiths 5. of waiting 11. in speaking 4. Where has John been? 9. 2. Driving / having been driving too fast 4. going away.. looking for 10. standing up 4. being 8.. How many times have the students done the same exercise? Ex. No. 6... going to 4. 4.

to go water-skiing 3. like to go (fishing / window-shopping / swimming. goes jogging 6. like to go sky-diving 14. 2. like to go sailing 12. goes bowling 9. are going to go ice-skating 11. tapping your fingernails on the table 9. trying 6. 10. likes trekking 8. like to go skiing 7. smoking 5. reading a good book 4. repeating that Ex. doing things / doing his homework 7.Ex. went camping 4. going to the zoo on Saturday 10. to go shopping 5. go dancing 10. etc. 11. go sight-seeing 13. 174 A short course in english for adult students . buying a new car / getting a Toyota 3. 2. helping him 8.

/hi:z bí:n wérki# !éar for abáut tú: áuarz/. 2. The cadets _______________________________ at attention for about 15 minutes. (sit) 4. They _______________________________ in the office for several hours. That man _______________________________ there for about 2 hours. /wí:v bí:n stádii# i#glish for óuver tú: mán"s/ It´s been raining for about an hour. (work) 3. Tom ha estado trabajando ahí desde Ellos han estado viviendo en Nosotros hemos estado They have been living in Miami since 1985.30. 2 horas They ´ve lived in the South ever since they got married. Normalmente este tiempo describe acciones que se empezaron a realizar hace poco tiempo. 1.UNIT 13 PART 1. Complete the following sentences using the verb provided in the Present Perfect Continuous Tense. 1. El ha estado trabajando allí aprox. /!éi hav bí:n lívi# in maiámi sins náintin éiti fáiv/ We´ve been studying English for over two months. /!éiv bi:n lívi# in !e sáu" for at lí:st tú mán"s/ Ellos han estado viviendo en esa casa por lo menos 2 meses. /tóm /hæ ´ znt bí:n wé:rki# !éar for mó:ar !an tú: áuarz/ Tom no ha estado trabajando allí por más de dos horas Have they been living there very long? /hav !ei bí:n lívi# !éar véri ló#/ ¿Han estado ellos viviendo allí mucho tiempo? How long have you been practising English today? /háu lo# hav iú: bi:n præ ´ ktisi# í#glish tudéi/ ¿Cuánto tiempo has estado practicando inglés hoy día? La pregunta más habitual en este tiempo es: WHAT HAVE YOU BEEN DOING? /wót av iu: bi:n dú:i#/ ¿Qué ha estado haciendo Ud. /its bí:n réini# for abáut an áuar/. (stand) A short course in english for adult students 175 . Lea. escuche y aprenda: Tom hasn´t been working there for more than 2 hours. Lea. estudiando inglés por más de dos meses. /hi:z wé:rkt !éar for méni yíarz/ El ha trabajado allí por muchos años He´s been working there for about 2 hours. Este tiempo verbal describe una acción que comenzó en el pasado y ha continuado realizándose en forma ininterrumpida hasta este momento. Tom _______________________________ here for several months (live) . Ha estado lloviendo cerca de una hora Compare: He´s worked there for many years. hasta esta fecha. /!éiv lívd in !e sáu" éver sins !éi gót mæ ´ rid/ Ellos han vivido en el sur desde que se casaron They´ve been living in that house for at least two months. Miami desde 1985. La forma negativa se expresa usando HAVEN´T BEEN /hæ ´ vnt bí:n/ HASN´T BEEN /hæ ´ znt bí:n/ más el GERUNDIO y en la forma interrogativa de debe usar HAVE/HAS delante del sujeto de la oración. /tóm haz bí:n wé:rki# !éar sins éit "é:rti/. EL TIEMPO PRESENTE PERFECTO CONTINUO (THE PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS) Este tiempo verbal está formado por el presente perfecto de To Be (HAVE BEEN /hav bí:n/ HAS BEEN /haz bí:n/) más un GERUNDIO de un verbo principal. escuche y aprenda: Tom has been working there since 8:30 las 8.? EXERCISES Ex.

They´ve been saving money because they´re planning to buy a house. Jane´s been feeling well since March. He´s been living in Caracas since 1995. 1. (discuss) Ex. a) ______________________________________ 2. 1. When. They´ve been staying at the Rex Hotel. The boy´s been listening to the radio since 7 o´clock. They´ve been discussing the new project too long. Bill´s been sleeping all morning. Change the following sentences into a) negative. 2. a) ______________________________________ 5. _____________________________________________________________________ ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 176 A short course in english for adult students . _____________________________________________________________________ 7.5. _____________________________________________________________________ 2. I _______________________________ for the bus for more than 10 minutes (wait) 6. The generals _______________________________the situation all morning. Henry´s been reading the newspaper all morning. Ask questions using question words like What. How long. The commander _______________________________ the report all evening. _____________________________________________________________________ 3. a) ______________________________________ b)____________________________________________________ b)____________________________________________________ b)____________________________________________________ b)____________________________________________________ b)____________________________________________________ Ex. Where. Miss Black _______________________________ her new novel since April. The officers _______________________________ in the gym for about 45 minutes. (run) 7. _____________________________________________________________________ 5. They´ve been waiting for a taxi for about 15 minutes. etc. (write) 9. Bob´s been swimming all morning. My friends have been living in Madrid since December 2002 _____________________________________________________________________ 6. Jack and Mary _______________________________ in the park for nearly an hour. a) ______________________________________ 4. (read) 8. a) ______________________________________ 3. They´ve been playing tennis since midday. 3. and b) interrogative. (work out) 10. _____________________________________________________________________ 4.

que son las siguientes: 1. verse. USE OF INFINITIVES AND GERUNDS. simular Prometer Rehusar. 2. Verb + to be +Gerund (Continuous Infinitive) Los verbos TO APPEAR /apíar/ aparecer. She promised not to be late. TO WISH /wish/ desear. TO PRETEND /priténd/ fingir.PART II. TO SEEM TEND /tend/ tender a. Verb + to be + adjective Esta estructura es muy común con los siguientes verbos: TO APPEAR /apíar/ aparecer. VERB + TO-INFINITIVE Ciertos verbos como TO WANT /wont/ querer. autorizar Convenir Solicitar Intentar Reclamar. simular. TO SEEM /si:m/ parecer. The students tend to be negligent. TO TEND /tend/ tender a They seem to be very annoyed. Querer (necesitar) /disáid/ decidir. afirmar autoría Decidir Merecer No conseguir. I promise to help you. no lograr Olvidar Esperar (desear) Aprender Conseguir (lograr) Tener intención de. tambien pueden ir seguidos de TO BE + Gerund: Mary appeared to be suffering too much. TO DECIDE planear. /si:m/ parecer. They seem to be doing well now. Peter wants to study engineering. He pretended to be reading the paper. van seguidos por to+Infinitive Los siguientes verbos van seguidos de to+infinitive: To agree /agrí:/ To afford /afó:rd/ To aim /éim/ To allow /aláu/ To arrange /arréindll/ To ask /a:sk/ To attempt /atémpt/ To claim /kléim/ To decide /disáid/ To deserve /disé:rv/ To fail /féil/ To forget /forgét/ Acordar Disponer (dinero o tiempo) Aspirar Permitir. The woman pretends to know everything. so I agreed to lend him some money. II (Uso de los infinitivos y los gerundios) A. TO A short course in english for adult students 177 . The man attempted to escape from the prison twice. verse. querer decir Ofrecer(se) Planificar Fingir. simular. Existen algunas variantes de la estructura presentada anteriormente. etc. TO PLAN /plæn/ To hope /houp/ To learn /lé:rn/ To manage /mæ ´ nidll/ To mean /mi:n/ To offer /ófer/ To plan /plæn/ To pretend /priténd/ To promise /prómis/ To refuse /refiú:z/ To threaten /"réten/ To want /wont/ Ejemplos: Sam was in a difficult situation. I can´t afford to buy a Honda car. negarse a Amenazar. pensar. We aim to increase our exports to Europe. TO PRETEND /priténd/ fingir. The boy doesn´t want to do his homework now.

saber. TO KNOW /nóu/. solicitar To expect /ikspékt/ esperar To beg /beg/ rogar. I would like to go. (No se debe decir.. (Por favor. (El tiempo caluroso me hace sentir cansado) Her parents wouldn´t let her go out alone. A To want /wont/ querer To ask /a:sk/ pedir. + to-Infinitive Después de los verbos TO ASK /a:sk/ solicitar. I begged to see the photos. I would prefer /wud prife´:r/ preferiría I would love /wud lav/ me encantaría I would hate /wud héit/ me desagradaría. TO ASK /a:sk/ preguntar o consultar. preguntar. (Tú me haces sentir feliz) The customs officer made Sally open her suitcase. I´d love to go to the club. VERB + BARE INFINITIVE Los verbos TO MAKE /meik/ hacer. TO DECIDE /disáid/ decidir. pueden ir seguidos por un complemento indirecto (Peter. Bob taught us how to use the computer. Verb + Somebody+ wh + to-infinitive Los verbos TO SHOW /shóu/. him. TO UNDERSTAND /anderstænd/ entender. déjeme salir) 178 A short course in english for adult students B I want you to go there He asked us to take part. We expect to be there soon. etc. me. pedir. I´d prefer to do it now. (so far = hasta ahora) Bob seems to have lost weight. I´d like you to go I´d prefer them to do it now I´d love you to go to the club. He asked to take part.. where. 4. obligar y TO LET /let/ permitir. Verb + Wh. We expect you to be there soon. (El oficial de aduana hizo a Alice abrir su maleta) Hot weather makes me feel tired. suplicar To mean /mi:n/ tener la intención de I would like /wud laik/ me gustaría. “You make me TO feel happy”. señora) Please let me go out. Do you understand what to do? 5. I don´t mean you to do it now. se puede usar una palabra interrogativa seguida de to+infinitivo We asked how to get to the station Have you decided where to go for your holidays? I don´t know whether to apply for the job or not. He asked them where to go. I´d hate to do that here.3. when. ´ The IRA claimed to have planted the bomb in the car. I want to go there. them. etc) + una palabra interrogativa (what. madam. (Sus padres no le permitirían a ella salir sola) Let me carry your bag for you. dejar van seguidos de un BARE INFINITIVO (Infinitive sin TO) en la siguiente estructura: TO MAKE / TO LET + Somebody + bare infinitive You make me feel happy. TO TELL /tel/ decir. . B. I begged them to see the photos.Mary. the student. mostrar. 6. implorar. Verb + (somebody) + to-infinitive Los siguientes verbos pueden ir seguidos por a) un to-Infinitive o por b) un Complemento Indirecto + to-Inifinitive. They don´t mean to do it now. (Permítame llevarle su bolso.) + un to-infinitive Can someone show me how to change the film in this camera? I told them what to do and where to go in London. Verb + to have + Past Participle Perfect Infinitive) Hay algunos verbos que pueden ir seguidos de TO HAVE + un Pasado Participio: They seem to have been doing well so far. TO ADVISE /adváiz/ aconsejar y TO TEACH /ti:tch/ enseñar. I´d hate the boys to do it here.

(go) 6. (bark) 7. 1. (go) 3. 6. Mary: OK. I can manage myself. 2. I wish that dog would stop _____________________________ . TO HEAR /híar/ oir. We were all too afraid to speak. 1. Bob: Can I carry your bag for you? Woman: No. Ex. Put the verb into the correct form TO-INFINITIVE or -ING 1. VERBO + GERUND o BARE INFINITIVE Los verbos de percepción TO SEE /sí:/ ver. Jill has decided not _____________________________ a car. VERB + SOMEBODY + TO-INFINITIVE/BARE INFINITIVE El verbo TO HELP /hélp/ ayudar puede ir seguido indistintamente de un to-Infinitive o un bare Infinitive Ejemplo: Can you help me to lift / lift this box. Complete each sentence with a suitable verb. Jack : Please help me. so we decided _____________________________ for a walk. Man: What´s your name? Woman: I´m not going to tell you. She promised not_____________________________ late. They arranged _________________________________________________ 5. They can’t afford _____________________________ out very often. (acción completa) D. I haven’t learnt how _____________________________ it yet. thanks. let´s They decided __________________________________________________ 2. Mary agreed ___________________________________________________ 3. 4. please? EXERCISES Ex. 5. 2. 3. Bob offered ____________________________________________________ 4. 3. Tom: Shall we get married? Betty: Yes. 179 . It was a nice day. (parte de la acción) I saw her cross the road. TO WATCH /wótch/ observar. There was a lot of traffic but we managed _____________________________ to the airport in time. It’s relaxing.C. When I’m tired. It’s a nice day. Don’t forget _____________________________ the letter I gave you. (call) A short course in english for adult students La ví cruzando la calle La vi cruzar la calle Los hemos oído cantando una canción Los hemos oído cantar 10 canciones. It’s driving me mad. (parte de la acción) We´ ve heard them sing ten songs. I’m not in a hurry. Our neighbour threatened _____________________________ the police if we didn’t stop the noise. The woman refused _____________________________________________ Ex. fine. I don’t mind _____________________________ (wait) 5. 1. Complete the sentences for each situation. Does anyone fancy _____________________________ for a walk? (go) 4. van seguidos de un GERUND cuando nos referimos a una acción parcial o de un bare infinitive cuando nos referimos a la acción completa Ejemplos: I saw her crossing the road. (acción completa) We´ ve heard them singing a song. (watch) 2. I wonder where Sue is. Hans: OK. Nobody dared _____________________________ anything. I enjoy _____________________________ television. They don’t have much money. We’ve got a new computer in our office. Bob: Let´s meet at 8 o´clock.

5. 7.. TO SHUT. do get go ride say use Do you know _____________________________ to John’s house? Can you show me_____________________________ this washing machine? Would you know_____________________________ if there was a fire in the building? You´ll never forget _____________________________ a bicycle once you have learned. My father said I could use his car. 4.. Why don´t you come and stay with us for a few days? _____________________________________________________________________ Mary: No _____________________________________________________________________ Hans: Don´t worry. Tom asked _____________________________________________________________________ Ex. I was surprised that it rained.(seem) Tom is worried about something. 5. (find) Ex. _____________________________________________________________________ 5. 6. Make a new sentence using the verb in brackets. Sue told Hans to lock the door. (appear) You know a lot of people. 1. (miss) 10.(tend) They have solved the problem. (have) 9. I was really astonished. (seem) That car has broken down.? with one of these verbs (+ any other necessary words): TO COME. 2. 4. Use DO YOU WANT ME TO. TO SHOW. so I suggested _____________________________ dinner early. (appear) David forgets things.. 6. I’ve been invited to the party but I don’t know _____________________________ or not. Sylvia warned Hans: OK. My father allowed _________________________________________________________________________________ 2. Sylvia: Be careful. (seem) My English is getting better. I will. I didn’t know _____________________________.? or WOULD YOU LIKE ME TO. (claim) He ________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ You _______________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. Hurry up! I don’t want to risk _____________________________ the train. TO WAIT 1. We were hungry. 6. 3. 2. CompIete the sentences for each situation. 1. 6. 4. I’m still looking for a job but I hope _____________________________something soon. 8. 2. 5. TO LEND. TO REPEAT. Ex. Complete these sentences so that the meaning is similar to the first sentence. of course. 4. I didn’t expect ____________________________________________________________________________________ 180 A short course in english for adult students . 2. Tom: Can you give me a hand? Jane. I´d love to Tom and Betty invited John 3. Do you want to go alone or do you want me to _______________________________________________________? Have you got enough money or do you want me to ___________________________________________________? Shall I leave the window open or would you like me to _________________________________________________? Do you know how to use the machine or would _______________________________________________________? Did you hear what I said or do _____________________________________________________________________? Can I go now or do _______________________________________________________________________________? Ex. Yes. Tom & Betty: John: Yes. Bob: Can I use your phone? Mary wouldn´t let 4. Complete the questions. Complete each sentence using what/how/whether + one of these verbs: 1. 1. 3.. 5. 3. 7. Sue: Lock the door. He has lost weight.8.

estos cambian el significado de la oración. I regret saying what I said. the minister then went on to talk about foreign policy. I wouldn’t recommend you_____________________________in that restaurant. 9. Remind __________________________________________________________________________________________ 7. TO START /stá:rt/ comenzar. What do you advise me _____________________________?(do) 4. TO LIKE /láik/ gustarle a uno. (He talked about the same thing) El ministro siguió hablando por dos horas. (I said that. Glasses make ____________________________________________________________________________________ 5. TO LOVE /lav/ encantarle a uno. and now I am sorry about it) Lamento haber dicho lo que dije. (smoke) 2. He was kept at the police station for two hours and then he was allowed _____________________________ (go) 6. you are able to travel round more easily. TO STOP / detenerse. TO GO ON /gou on/ continuar también pueden ir seguidos de un gerundio o un to-infinitive pero. sin cambiar de significado. I love to go to baseball games. (I remembered I had to do that. stop/ parar. Después de hablar acerca de la economía. CAN´T STAND /ká:nt stænd/ no soportar. Where would you recommend me _____________________________ for my holidays? (go) 7. TO REGRET /rigrét/ lamentar. Los verbos TO REMEMBER /rimémber/ recordar. Don’t let me forget to phone my sister. At first I didn’t want to apply for the job but Sarah persuaded me. My lawyer advised. Let ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 4. I was told that I shouldn’t believe everything he says. Los verbos más comunes de este tipo son: TO PREFER /prifè:r/ preferir. If you’ve got a car. I was warned not _________________________________________________________________________________ 10. a diferencia de los anteriores. It started snowing around midnight We continued working until 10:30 I like listening to music while I´m studying I love going to baseball games I can´t stand waiting in lines too long = = = = = It started to snow around midnight. I’ve never been to Iceland but I’d like _____________________________there. The film was very sad. so I did that) Me acordé de hacer eso. She said the letter was personal and wouldn´t let me _____________________________it. I remember doing that.. 1. (study) E. TO CONTINUE /kontíniu/ seguir. TO HATE /heit/ desagradar. I regret to say that we can´t send the price lists yet. Having a car enables ______________________________________________________________________________ Ex. TO INTEND /inténd/ tener la intención de. el ministro pasó a hablar acerca de la política exterior. It made me _____________________________ (cry) 9. recordarse.ING/TO-INFINITIVE Algunos verbos pueden ir seguidos indistintamente de un gerundio o de un to-infinitive. My lawyer said I shouldn’t say anything to the police. (I´m sorry that I have to say that) Lamento decir que aún no podemos enviarle la lista de precios. I remembered to do that. After discussing the economy. ________________________________________________________________________________ 9. TO BEGIN /bigín/ empezar. (read) 5. She doesn’t allow us _____________________________ in the house. They stopped working in the fields when it started to rain / raining. VERBS +. I like to listen to music while I´m studying.continuar. (go) 3.3. A short course in english for adult students 181 . Carol’s parents always encouraged her _____________________________hard at school. Put the verb in the right form : -ING or INFINITIVE (with or without TO). They will stop (in order) to rest for a while. I think you should know the truth. The food is awful (eat) 8. (I did it and now I remember it) Recuerdo haber hecho eso. I’m in a difficult position. Sarah persuaded _________________________________________________________________________________ 8. I want ___________________________________________________________________________________________ 6. I can´t stand to wait in lines too long. The minister went on talking for two hours. arrepentirse. He looks older when he wears glasses.. We continued to work until 10:30. Don´t stop him doing what he wants. They have been working all morning and feel very tired.

(live) 19. The boy’s father promised _____________________________for the window to be repaired. (say) 23. Did you remember _____________________________ the cat this morning? (feed) 13. Can you remind me_____________________________ some coffee when we go out? (buy) 7. (come) 22. “How did the thief get into the house?” “ I forgot _____________________________ the window. (go) 4. (jog) 21. 3. I clean (= completely) forgot. I enjoy cooking gourmet meals (cook) 3. I don’t want _____________________________out tonight. Why do you keep _____________________________me questions? Can’t you leave me alone? (ask) 8. Don’t put off _____________________________ your composition until the last minute. (steal) 2. What time do you expect _____________________________ in Denver? (arrive) 16. 2. she just carried on _____________________________ (eat) 13. I’ve just begun _____________________________ a movie on TV. (cry) 16. I like _____________________________ new people. Helen started talking/to talk about her problem. Some children hate _____________________________ to school. I haven’t got enough money. (lock) 18. (see) 15. That’s not what I meant! I meant _____________________________ just the opposite. I don’t mind _____________________________ with four roommates. Complete these sentences with a suitable verb in the correct form: TO-INFINITIVE or GERUND. Ann was having dinner when the phone rang. 1. Julia has been ill but now she’s beginning _____________________________ better. I’ll phone her tomorrow. (get). Ken had to quit _____________________________ because he hurt his knee. Has it stopped _____________________________ yet? (rain) 6. Use the verb provided in the correct form: TO-INFINITIVE or GERUND. (help) 10. 2. Alex seems _____________________________ this weekend. I promise _____________________________ on time. (go) 17. (answer) 10. I’m considering _____________________________ to a new apartment. She didn’t answer the phone. 182 A short course in english for adult students . I can’t afford _____________________________ out tonight. Please stop _____________________________ your knuckles! (crack) 12. I want _____________________________this afternoon. The company will continue _____________________________ (hire) new employees as long as new production orders keep _____________________________in. A: Did you remember _____________________________ your sister? B: No. Ex. (watch) 11. 1. (be) 14. (break) 11. My roommate offered _____________________________ me with my English. I won’t be late. (pay) 12. (meet) I hope _________________________ you again soon. A: You lent me some money a few months ago.’ (shut) 14. (move) 15. Bud and Sally have decided _____________________________ married. I’m too tired. I forgot _____________________________ the door when I left my apartment this morning. Sometimes either form is possible. The Wilsons went _____________________________ in Yellowstone National Park last summer. I’ve enjoyed __________________________you. (want) (go) (sail) Ex. (write) 20. (talk) 4. (get) 5. Please remember to lock the door when you go out. (camp) 9. 3. The baby began _____________________________ in the middle of the night. I need to study tonight (study) 2. B: Did l? Are you sure? I don’t remember . 1. (drive) 3. Please stop _____________________________ me questions! (ask) 9._____________________________you any money. (meet) 8. (go) (shop) 24. I don’t enjoy _____________________________very much. I refuse _____________________________ any more questions. Are you planning _____________________________ a vacation this year? (take) 7.EXERCISES Ex. (eat) 6. We finished _____________________________ around seven. One of the boys admitted _____________________________ the window. Complete the sentences with the TO-INFINITIVE or the GERUND form of the words in parentheses. (go) 5. 1. They denied _____________________________the money.

We used_____________________________ on holiday every summer when I was a child. It needs _____________________________. I drove past Peter´s house yesterday. 4.4. It took him more than 20 minutes to do it. I don’t regret _____________________________ it. I saw him _____________________________ his car. (move) 19. I think Jane is quite used _____________________________ with Dr. so they´ll stop ________________________ (rest) a while. (go) 6.George? (do) 11. I want a different job. (Review) Use the verbs given in the correct form. A few years later he went on _____________________________ manager of the company. This jacket is dirty. 3. I am planning _____________________________ to a smaller apartment soon. 6. I haven´t phoned her at her home lately. She looked up and said hello to me. 12. (after a driving test) I regret _____________________________ that you have failed the test. GERUND. won’t you? 5. Could you helpj Jimmy _____________________________ that math exercise. (go) 7. Keith joined the company 15 years ago. 11. (do) 10. (move) 18. (watch) 12. They wanted _____________________________ the soccer game on TV. (work) A short course in english for adult students 183 . 1. I saw Bob _____________________________ the car yesterday. When I came into the room Liz was reading a newspaper. (live) 9. (wash) 2. Did you remember _____________________________ Mary last night. Remember that in some cases you have two alternatives and that sometimes there is a change in the meaning. and then went on _____________________________ her newspaper. I can’t go on _____________________________here any more. I don´t mind _____________________________ the washing up. The men have been walking up the hill for about an hour. BARE INFINITIVE. It is too expensive. or did you forget? (phone) 4. in La Paz or in Sucre? (meet) 13. Ex. (watch) 17. I believe that what I said was fair. I look forward _____________________________ to that wedding party on Friday. 10. He left the house without _____________________________ the front door. This is very urgent. 9. Bob never got used _____________________________ in that part of the country. (talk) 15. He was quickly promoted and became assistant manager after two years. 7. I can´t afford _____________________________ that house. When you see Mandy tomorrow. mum. As a matter of fact I do it every day. In fact I don´t remember ___________________ her for a long time (phone) 5. (lock) 20. (wash). 14. It started _____________________________ at about 7:30 this morning. The children stopped _____________________________ when the teacher entered the room. 8. I need _____________________________ with the manager immediately. (rain) 8. remember _____________________________ her my regards. I am considering _____________________________ to a smaller apartment soon.(buy) 16. Please let me _____________________________ cartoons. Where did they agree_____________________________. Someone must have taken my bag. TO-INFINITIVE. I´ve already done my homework. Smith. I clearly remember _____________________________ it by the window and now it has gone.

los tag endings siempre se expresan de la siguiente manera: Sujeto + aseveración afirmativa Mary is at home now. Salvo que estemos buscando una confirmación. They were both absent from the lesson. He has many friends here. She studies with you. Note that all these sentences are formed with the verb To BE. The wind is blowing very hard. There´s some more milk in the fridge. John is a good student. ________________________________________? 5. ________________________________? Ex. used either as the main verb or as the auxiliary verb: isn’t he? 1. You were absent from class yesterday. ______________________________________? 2. hasn´t he? Mary isn´t at home now. normalmente se usa una entonación descendente. Sujeto + aseveración negativa Mary isn´t at home now. __________________? 5. You know him well. _____________________________________? 11. _________________________? 3. _________________________________________? 6. can they? Thomas hasn´t been here before. I´m your best friend. He left at two o’clock. don´t you? Bob left on Wednesday. 2. Henry left at two o’clock. It is beginning to rain. ____________________________________? 6. ________________________________? 13. Smith has seen that movie. _________________________________? 4. has he? Como Ud. _________________________________________? 14. Contracción+ Pronombre (Nunca un nombre) isn´t she? don´t you? can´t he? Verbo Modal + Pronombre (Nunca un nombre) is she? do you? can he? EXERCISES Ex. I´m doing the exercise well. ___________________________? 12. They will be here early. ___________________________________ ? 3. 1. ________________________________________? 184 A short course in english for adult students . Helen and her sister are both studying English. do you? Bob didn´t leave on Wednesday.PART III TAG ENDINGS. He has to work tomorrow. The boy can speak French. He comes here every day. You are busy today. can´t they? Thomas has been here before. ____________________________________ ? 2. Add the proper tag ending. You don´t know him well. ha advertido. did he? The boys can´t speak French. ____________________________________? 7. _________________________________________? 10. is she? You don´t know him well. The boy can´t speak French. Both men look very much alike. You live uptown. Mary is at home now. didn´t he? The boys can speak French. Los Tag Endings se usan al final de una aseveración con el fin de buscar una confirmación o para indicar que lo que se afirma está correcto. He will be back later. ________________________________________? 4. ___________________________________? 7. ________________________________________? 9. Add the proper tag ending: doesn’t he? 1. Mr. ____________________________________________? 8. George is a very tall boy. Equivale a la pregunta ¿Verdad? ¿No es cierto?. isn´t she? You know him well. _____________________________________? 8. She can speak French well. _________________________? 9.

3. _________________________? 3. 4. She isn’t busy now. He didn’t visit us last night. ___________________________________ 12. __________________________________? 9. ______________________________? 11. _________________________________________? 12. _________________________________________ 11. ______________________________ 6. He put a stamp on the envelope. He never goes there in the morning. ___________________________________? 2. He doesn’t always buy stamps. Mr. José used to work in this office. William will be here soon. Mary goes shopping every day. _____________________________________ 14. ________________________________________? 6. _________________________________________? 4. They didn’t have to work yesterday. ______________________________ 8. Add the proper tag ending: doesn’t she? 1. He hasn’t got any money. Bob´s going to buy a new car this year.. There are many students absent today. There are many people ahead of him. ________________________________________? 7. He first goes to the window marked “Stamps. William has been working very hard today. He didn’t have to wait in line yesterday. _____________________________ ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? A short course in english for adult students 185 . ______________________ 4. They don’t live uptown. We don’t have to come to school tomorrow. Sue was at home when you called last night. __________________________ 7. The shopping district extends for many blocks. She can’t speak French. They didn’t come with her. The traffic on this street was very heavy that evening. He gave him the stamps. _____________________________ 10. __________________________________________? 7. ________________________________________? 12. He doesn’t always have to wait in line. __________________________________ 13. __________________________________________? 11. _____________________________________? 2. They don’t know each other. ___________________________________________? 6. He didn’t mail any packages. _______________________________ 3. William was born in Cardiff. _________________________? 10. They went into the church. _________________________________? 11. The sun is setting now. There are only a few people ahead of him. ______________________________? Ex.. __________________? 8. _______________________________________? 9. He won’t have to wait in line tomorrow. Smith is out of town. Add the proper tag ending: 1. ___________________________? 5. She won’t be at the lesson tomorrow. But he dropped the letter into the box. John didn’t receive any change.”.10. John often walks to the post office. _______________________________________________? 3. The sun sets at about six o’clock. He doesn’t come here every day. _________________________________________? Ex. __________________________________________? 5. ____________________________________? 4. ___________________________________ 5. ____________________________________________? 10. They didn’t arrive on time. _____________________________ 9. Add the proper tag ending: does he? 1. _______________________________? 12. They are leaving early in the morning. _________________________________ doesn’t he? 2. _______________________? Ex. 5. _______________________________? 8.

but you`re not sure. You think. You say: ________________________________________________________________________________________________? 3. You say: ________________________________________________________________________________________________? 12. but you`re not sure. but you`re not sure. You think Jane shouldn`t do that again. You think you´re a good student. You say: ________________________________________________________________________________________________? 14. 6. doesn`t she? You think the children can`t swim well. but you`re not sure. You say: ________________________________________________________________________________________________? 11. You say: ________________________________________________________________________________________________? 5. You think Bob didn`t attend the meeting last Monday. Read these examples: You think Mary speaks Spanish. You think my friends come from Wisconsin. can they? 1. You think they have to work a little faster. but you`re not sure. You say: ________________________________________________________________________________________________? 13. but you`re not sure. You think there isn`t any more whisky in the bottle. You think the train hadn`t left yet when I got to the station. You say: ________________________________________________________________________________________________? 10. but you`re not sure. but you`re not sure. You think I wouldn`t like to go there again. You say: ________________________________________________________________________________________________? 186 A short course in english for adult students . You think John`s been to England twice. You say: ________________________________________________________________________________________________? 2. but you are not sure. You say: ________________________________________________________________________________________________? 7. using tag endings. You say: The children can`t swim well. You say: Mary speaks Spanish. You think the boys worked harder than the girls. Ask questions. but you`re not sure. You say: ________________________________________________________________________________________________? 4. but you`re not sure. but you`re not sure. You say: ________________________________________________________________________________________________? 9.Ex. but you`re not sure. You think I was at the meeting too. You think John put on his new sweater. You think the boy has had dinner already. but you`re not sure. but you`re not sure. You think there was too much noise in the room. but you`re not sure. You say: ________________________________________________________________________________________________? 6. You say: ________________________________________________________________________________________________? 8.

T-shirt /ti: shé:rt/ polera voyage /vóiidll/ viaje walk /wó:k/ caminata water-skiing /wó:ter skíi#/ esquí acuático weight-lifting /wéit lífti#/ pesas A short course in english for adult students 187 . etc rink /ri#k/ cancha de patines rowing /róui#/ remo running /ráni#/ carrera seaside resort /sí:said risó:rt/ balneario sightseeing tour /sáitsi:i# túar/ paseo turístico skating /skéiti#/ patinaje skiing /skí:i#/ esquí skiing resort /skí:i# rizó:rt/ centro de esquí sneakers /sní:kerz/ zapatillas surfing /sé:rfi#/ surfing sweat-shirt /suét shé:rt/ polerón swimming /suími#/ natación sword /só:rd/ espada theater /!íater/ teatro tour /túar/ viaje.BASIC VOCABULARY: Study these words SPORTS AND RECREATION (Deportes y recreación) amusement park /amiuzment pá:rk/ angling /æ ´ ngli#/ athletics /a"létiks/ baths /ba:"s/ beach /bi:tch/ bowling /bóuli#/ boxing /bóksi#/ car-racing /ka:r réisi#/ casino /kazí:nou/ cinema /sínema/ circus /sé:rkas/ climbing /kláimi#/ competition /kompetíshn/ court /kó:rt/ cycling /sáikli#/ championship /tchámpionship/ disco /dískou/ diving /dáivi#/ drive /dráiv/ excursion /ekskérshion/ exhibition /eksibíshion/ expedition /ekspedíshion/ fair /féar/ fencing /fénsi#/ field /fí:ld/ fishing /físhi#/ game /géim/ gliding /gláidi#/ green /grí:n/ horse riding /ho:rs ráidi#/ horse-racing /hó:rs réisi#/ hunting /hánti#/ hurdling /hé:rdli#/ ice-skating /áis skéiti#/ javelin /dllævelin/ ´ jogging /dllógi#/ journey /dllé:rni/ jumping /dllámpi#/ parque de diversiones. pesca de río atletismo baños.box) movie theater /múvi "íater/ sala de cine museum /miuzíam/ museo night club /náit klab/ club nocturno oar /óar/ remo obstacle /óbstakl/ hurdle /hé:dl/ obstáculo. excursión tournament /tó:rnament/ torneo track /træk/ pista de carrera trekking /tréki#/ excursión en montaña trip /trip/ viaje trunks /trá#ks/ pantalones de atlet.valla paddling /pæ ´ dli#/ remo de paleta park /pá:rk/ parque pentathlon /pénta"lon/ pentatlón picnic /píknik/ picnic ride /ráid/ paseo a caballo. termas playa bocha boxeo carrera de autos casino de juegos cine circo andinismo competición cancha (tenis) ciclismo campeonato discoteca buceo paseo en auto excursión exposición expedición feria esgrima cancha (fútbol) pesca juego. partido planeo cancha (golf) equitación carreras hípica caza salto de vallas patinaje en hielo jabalina trote viaje salto lawn /ló:n/ césped match /mæ ´ tch/ partido (fútbol.

Bl 188 .

. working 10.. how to ride 5. cry 9. to cry / crying 16. meeting / to meet 8.. stealing / having stolen 2. to go shopping 24... / Have they been discussing. 1. 5. to feed 13.? 2. B. Ex. whether to go Ex. barking 7. to post. 3. him look older. read 5. go with you? 2.. cleaning 12. you want me to wait Ex. how to get 2..to say 23. Hans to be careful 5. 3.. to help Jack 3. to pay 12.. to smoke 2. 1. breaking / having broken 11. 7. to get married 2. to buy 4. David tends to forget things. not to say anything to the police.? 5. him do what he wants. you like to show you how to use it 5. / Has Jane been feeling. Where have they been staying? 4. to tell the man her name Ex. Bob hasn`t been swimming. missing 10. living 19. Ex. to go 6.. watching / to watch 11. 1 has been living 2. Bob use her phone 4. to go 6. going 4. have been discussing Ex. has been reading 8. 9. What has the boy been doing since 7 o`clock? 7. what to do 4. lend you some 3. 10. to believe everything he says. How long have your friends been living in Madrid? 6. to lock 18. jogging 21. shut it 4. moving 15.. 1. eating 6.? `t Ex. to take 7. cracking 12. to tell 8. me to apply for the job. to go 7.. to be 6..coming 22.. 1. writing 20. Jane hasn`t been feeling. Ex. 2. . 5. 1. 1. me to phone my sister. / Has Bob been swimming. 1. (how) to use 5. 2. 1. 3. 1. to eat 8. watching 2. to hire / hiring . What has Henry been reading all morning? 2. Ex. 7. driving 3. to do 4. 2. has been writing 9. to find Ex. waiting 5.? 3. to go 3. 3. to phone.. to study. have been waiting 6. you want me to repeat what I said 6. have been running 7. He seems to have lost weight 2. to become 9. you to travel round more easily.. 8. 6. 2. reading 11. how to use 3. you to know the truth. Jane to give him a hand. 5. Ex. You seem to know a lot of people. raining 6.. eating 13. He hasn`t been living. 2. to go 4. have been standing 5. to be 14... 7. 8. 2. me to use his car. They haven`t been discussing. They haven`t been playing.. to get 3. have been working 3. Why have they been saving money? 5. 2. / Have they been playing. 1. to want to go sailing Ex. to get Ex.. to help 10. 4. Ex. to buy 7. 3. / Has he been living. 9. meeting.That car appears to have broken down 6. asking 9. lending / having lent you 3. to go 3. to arrive 16. to talk / to meet A short course in english for adult students 189 ..to see 15. it to rain / it would rain. to give 5. to carry the woman`s bag 4. saying / having said 7. to come and stay with them for a few days 3. to answer 10. What has Bill been doing all morning? 3. to go 5. 4. They claim to have solved the problem. what to say 6. 4. 6. having left / leaving 6. camping 9. having 9. 1. Tom appears to be worried about something. 1. to meet at 8 o`clock 5. going / to go 17.? 4.. has been sitting 4. 4. 1. My English seems to be getting better. 4. (Possible answers) 1. to call 8. How long have they been waiting for a taxi? PART II. to shut 14. A. to get 5. have been working out 10. asking 8.Key to answers UNIT 13 PART I. to say Ex.

2. We don`t have to come. John didn`t receive. She won`t be... I´m a good student... wasn`t he? 6. didn`t he? 13. did he? 12.. hasn`t he? 2. He didn`t visit. hasn`t he? Ex. Bob didn´t attend the meeting last Monday. talking 15. He hasn`t got.. washing 3. He has to work... is there? 5.. to rain / raining 8.. isn`t it? 4. did he? 7. wasn`t it? 8. wasn`t there? 9. didn`t he? 11. phoning 5. did they? Ex. do they? 6.... You wouldn´t like to go there again... He doesn`t always buy.... doesn`t he? 6... 2. 1....to go 7. 6. aren`t they? 12. weren`t they? 3.... They went.. to move 19. would you? 12.. (in order) to rest 14. Ex. They didn`t arrive... aren`t there? 7. didn`t he? 11.. William was born in... aren`t you? 6. to living 9. wash 2. Bob`s going to buy. It`s beginning... I`m your. 2. He never goes.. isn`t it? 10.. to buy 16. had it? 190 A short course in english for adult students . Jane shouldn`t do that again. John`s been to England twice... 1.. did he? 4. will he? 10.... isn`t he? 11. to phone 4.... didn`t they? 12. 1. wasn`t she? 3.... don´t they? 3... aren`t there? 6.. They don`t know. did they? 11. moving 18... They don`t live... hasn`t he? 5.. They didn`t have to work... They have to work a little faster.. They were both absent.. There are many people. didn`t he? 5. weren`t you? 14. There isn`t any more whisky in the bottle. won`t he? 7.... 2. 4... don`t they? 13. There was too much noise in the room.. does he? 3.. They`re leaving....... watch 12. isn`t it? 10.. George`s a very.... won`t he? 10..... doesn`t it? 9.... to meet 13. The boys worked harder than the girls.. 2. has he? 12.Ex... isn`t he? 11... He first goes to.. The traffic on this street was very...... They`ll be... She can`t speak. to going 6.. He has many. can she? 5. Both men look.. He`ll be back.. do we? 10. He gave. aren´t I? 10.. aren`t they? 5.. Mr Smith``s seen. John put on his new sweater. 5.. 3..... doing 10... to watch 17... There are only a few.. You`re busy... isn´t there? 12.... He put. She studies. The sun sets.. You were absent. do / to do 11. He doesn`t always have to wait. aren`t I? 14.. There`s some. does he? 5.. didn`t they? 11. won`t they? 4. doesn`t he? 7... José used to work. The sun`s setting.. They didn`t come. weren`t you? 9.. should she? 7. Mr Smith`s out of. didn`t he? 13.. The wind`s blowing... Henry left. But he dropped.. locking 20. Ex.. The train hadn`t yet left when you got to the station.. hasn`t he? 8... You were at the meeting too.... I`m doing. doesn`t she? 9. didn´t he? 4. William will be. is she? 3. doesn`t he? 4.. did they? 4..... The shopping district extends.. to working C... William`s been working. She isn`t busy. Sue was at home..... didn`t he? Ex. did he? 14... Helen and her sister are both... He left.. aren`t I? 7. don`t they? 6. don`t you? 8.. will she? 8. She can speak.. There are many.. 2.. He didn`t have to wait..... You live.. do they? 9. doesn`t it..... aren`t there? Ex.. can`t she? 3. isn`t he? 8. Your friends come from Wisconsin.. 4. The boy has had dinner already.... He didn`t mail.... does he? 8. did he? 9.. He won`t have to wait...

By the time the ambulance arrived. pues siempre va junto a una oración expresada en pasado simple. las expresiones de tiempo que acompañan al Pasado Perfecto. Hans had already left when you phoned this morning.UNIT 14 PART 1. forma) de un verbo principal y se usa para describir una acción que ocurrió antes que otra acción sucediera. escuche y aprenda: Hans had not left yet when you phoned this morning. /!e shóu had olrédi stá:rtid wen pó:l arráivd at !e "íater/ El espectáculo ya había comenzado cuando Paul llegó al teatro. EL TIEMPO PASADO PERFECTO (THE PAST PERFECT TENSE) Este tiempo verbal se forma con el pasado del verbo modal Have (HAD /hæd/) más el Participio Pasado (3ra. /!e shóu hædént stá:rtid iét wen pó:l arráivd at !e "íater/ The old man hadn´t died yet by the time the ambulance arrived. the old man had already died. how. etc. Compare: They were having lunch when you called. la que cronológicamente ocurrió primero debe ir en el Pasado Perfecto. Lea. /háns had olrédi léft wen iú: fóund !is mó:rni#/ Hans ya había partido cuando tú llamaste por teléfono esta mañana The show started at 10:30. /!i óuld mæn hædént dáid iét bai !e táim !e æmbiulans arráivd/ Had Hans left already when you phoned this morning? /had háns léft olrédi wen iú: fóund !is mó:rni#/ Had the show started yet when Paul arrived at the theatre? /had !e shóu stá:rtid iét wen pó:l arráivd at !e "íater/ Where had they lived before they moved to Santiago? /wéar had !éi lívd bifó:r !éi mú:vd tu santiágou/ La pregunta habitual en este tiempo verbal es: WHAT HAD YOU DONE? /wót had iú: dán/ (¿Qué había hecho ud.?) A short course in english for adult students 191 . By the time the ambulance arrived. De dos acciones pasadas. When Paul arrived at the theatre. /!éi we:r hævi# lántch wen iú: kó. (Recuerde que en las oraciones negativas debe usar yet en vez de already). mientras que en la segunda oración la acción expresada por el Pasado Perfecto ya había concluído (They had already had lunch) cuando la segunda acción ocurrió (when you called). /bai !e táim !e æmbiulans arráivd !e óuld mæn had olrédi dáid/ Cuando la ambulancia llegó. (La acción ya había concluido) En la primera oración. Al igual que en el Pasado Contínuo. lea y aprenda Hans left at 8:15. Por lo tanto este tiempo no se usa en forma independiente. You phoned at 8:25. la acción expresada por el Pasado Contínuo todavía se estaba realizando (They were having lunch) cuando la segunda acción ocurrió (when you called). (La acción no había concluido) They had already had lunch when you called. son aquellas cláusulas compuestas por WHEN + S + PASADO SIMPLE: When you phoned this morning. /háns had nót léft iét wen iú: fóund !is mó:rni#/ The show hadn´t started yet when Paul arrived at the theater. where. The ambulance arrived a few minutes later.ld/ Ellos ya habían almorzado cuando tú llamaste. el viejo ya había fallecido. La forma negativa se expresa con HAD NOT (o HADN´T /hædnt/ ) más un Participio Pasado y la forma interrogativa se expresa invirtiendo el orden de HAD con el sujeto. The old man died at 11:25.ld/ Ellos estaban almorzando cuando tú llamaste. En las preguntas introducidas con una palabra interrogativa como what. Paul arrived at the theater at 10:40. The show had already started when Paul arrived at the theater. se debe seguir el mismo orden de palabras usado en las preguntas simples. Escuche. /!éi had olrédi hæd lántch wen iú: kó..

4. 1. 7. 3. (put out) 10. 10. 2. By the time the firemen arrived. (be) 6. 3. Remember in the negative you must use YET instead of ALREADY. Tom had already left the office. 4. I (see. 1. (take) 8. They arrived only ten minutes after John ______________________. Robert (be)______________________ a taxi driver before he (become) ______________________ a businessman. Change the following sentences into a) the negative. 6. he noticed that someone ______________________ his TV set. 2. not)_______________________________ him in years. Millions of years ago. The detectives (leave) ______________________ the place after they (collect) ______________________ enough evidence 5. They _____________________ already _____________________ the discussion when we entered the room. All of the other passengers (board. 1. dinosaurs (roam) ______________________ the earth. Bob ________________ just _________________ typing the report when the general called him to his office. not) ______________________ ______________________ him because he (lose) ____________________________ at least fifteen kilos. They´d already spent all the money. (steal) 7. 1. so we quietly (take) ______________________a seat in the back. I (see) _______________________________ John Palmer. (disappear) 5. Mary ______________________already ______________________ to the cinema when I arrived. (go) 2. As soon as he opened the door. already) ______________________ the test results when I (get) ____________________ to class. (leave) 9. 5. Complete the following sentences using the verbs provided either in the Simple Past or in the Past Perfect Tenses. never) ______________________any of Renoir´s paintings before they (visit) ______________________ the art gallery. and b) the interrogative. Mr Smith (feel) ______________________ a little better after he (take) ______________________ the medicine. I (recognize. the neighbours _________________already_________________the fire.already) ______________________ extinct by the time man first (appear) ______________________ 8. The policeman told us that we ______________________ the wrong road. When the police arrived. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 192 A short course in english for adult students . the thief ______________________ already ______________________. By the time the meeting (be) ______________________ over. 9. She said she ______________________ there several times before.Mary _____________________ already _____________________ to bed when we arrived home last night. Ex. an old friend of mine. 2.Yesterday at a restaurant. Complete the following sentences using the appropriate verbs in the Past Perfect tense. The students (see. The show (begin. Jane had seen that movie twice. the rain __________________________ already (stop) 6.(start) 3. 3. but they (become.EXERCISES Ex. The children had already had supper. already) ______________________ by the time we (get) ______________________ to the theater. (go) Ex. The teacher (give. Gloria almost missed her plane.(finish) 4. already) ______________________ by the time she (get)______________________ to the boarding gate. Mrs Bentley had gone to bed already. At first. Paul had already sent her a fax.

The girl had studied French at school. ________________________________________________________________________________________________ 9. 3. When. 7. ¿Habías comido esto anteriormente? 4. ___________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________ 3.Ex. Ellos habían visitado otros países antes de venir a EE. 10. Bill had made the same mistake three times. Yo no había visto un partido de crícket antes. Ask questions using question words like What. 7.000 before they arrived in Tokyo. He´d worked in the Army for 29 years when he became a general. 5.UU. 10. Ellos no habían estudiado allí por mucho tiempo. El dijo que había estado muy ocupado ese día. They´d spent over US $ 3. How. The plane had taken off from JFK Airport at 23:25 ________________________________________________________________________________________________ 6. etc. Ella nunca había estado en el extranjero antes. _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students 193 . John had visited them that evening. Translate the following sentences into English 1. Paul had sold his house the previous year. ¿Dónde habían estado ellos esa mañana? 8. ¿Por qué no habías escrito a nosotros antes? 5. 4. Ella no había leído ese libro aún. ________________________________________________________________________________________________ 4. Dr. 1. 6. How long. 2. Ex. ________________________________________________________________________________________________ 2. John had eaten three sandwiches that evening. 9. ________________________________________________________________________________________________ 8. Black had studied at Harvard University. ________________________________________________________________________________________________ 5. Ella había trabajado duro por mucho tiempo. Where. The engineer had graduated from UCLA in 1945.

A. COMPARISON OF ADVERBS 1. Formation of adverbs Muchos adverbios en inglés se forman agregando el sufijo -ly a los adjetivos correspondientes.(últimamente) 194 A short course in english for adult students . es decir. late /leit/ tarde/atrasado. I got up a little earlier than usual today. vimos que. Peter hardly works on Saturday. atrasados) 2. (adjetivo) It moves very slowly (adverbio) John is a careful (adjetivo) driver. (arduamente) They arrived late (tarde. Estos son los principales adjetivos / adverbios: ´ st/ rápido/rápidamente. I have to study hard (adv. (casi no. early /é:rli / temprano.PART II. Comparison of adverbs Cuando estudiamos la Comparación de los Adjetivos (Unit 9). He drives carefully (adverbio). tempranamente. adelantado. A dog runs faster than a horse. Normalmente el GRADO COMPARATIVO DE LOS ADVERBIOS se expresa mediante el uso de MORE+ ADVERB + THAN: John drives more carefully than Bob. se agregaba el sufijo -ER o se anteponía el adverbio MORE al adjetivo. Bob works harder than any of the other students. + THAN: We got there sooner than we expected. This train is very slow. Es importante notar que existen las palabras HARDLY y LATELY que tienen un significado especial Compare: Bob works very hard. Mike came more quickly than the other boys. FAST. no es necesario agregar el sufijo -ly al adjetivo para formar el adverbio. fast /fæ hard /ha:rd/ duro. intenso/intensamente. dependiendo del número de sílabas del adjetivos. LATE y HARD. We arrived there early (adv. slow /slóu/ lento quick /kuik/ rápido careful /kéarful/ cuidadoso happy /hæ ´ pi/ feliz certain /se ´ :rten/ cierto safe /sé:if/ seguro slowly /slóuli/ lentamente quickly /kuíkli/ rápidamente carefully /kéarfuli/ cuidadosamente happily /hæ ´ pili/ felizmente certainly /se ´ :rtenli/ ciertamente safely /séifli/ con seguridad Existen algunas palabras que pueden actuar indistintamente como adjetivo o adverbio. FORMATION OF ADVERBS. Examples: This is a hard (adj.) lesson. EARLY. difícil. Mr Blake will call later tonight. Con los adverbios SOON. They took the early (adj. apenas) I haven´t seen John lately .) train. A bus runs more slowly than a train.). el grado de comparación se expresa mediante el uso del sufijo -ER.).

He comes here _____________________________________________ she. (easy) 7. John works _________________________________________ I. We drove to the hospital very ____________________________. He always does his work ____________________________. as usual. She speaks English_____________________________. Supply the proper form: adjective or adverb: 1. 1 can do this exercise ____________________________. (foolish) 9. 2. (good) 10. (easy) 6. She works very ____________________________ every day. but Jack behaves worse as a rule. We went farther. It is always ____________________________ to prepare for the future. He can run much _____________________________________________________________ I. that. (careful) 4. (frequent) 6. (early) 5. They acted ____________________________ in that matter. (careful) 2. (foolish) 10. Bill behaves badly in class. John works _______________________________________________________ I (hard) 9. He always does his work ____________________________. I go there _______________________________________________________ he does. John was very ____________________________. (careful) 3. (quick) 8. 1 Supply the adverb form of the adjective in parentheses: 1. (bad) Ex. We walked very ____________________________. (fast). He studies __________________________________________________________ Mary. (easy) 5.+ AS Bob speaks English as well as Helen does. (beautiful) 7. (wise) 11. (quick) 4. 3.Hay algunos adverbios que usan una forma diferente en el grado comparativo. (hard) 5. (careless) 12. He gets up as early as I do. They acted ____________________________ in doing. (serious) A short course in english for adult students 195 . He comes here ___________________________________________________ he did before. He certainly acted ____________________________. He is a very ____________________________ student. We arrived home ____________________________ that evening. She prepares her lessons ____________________________. Mary is a ____________________________ girl. (fast) Ex. (quick) 2. 8. They get up every morning _________________________________________________ we.(regular) 4. John left the office __________________________ that afternoon. She plays the guitar ___________________________________________________ anyone else. (wise) 12. They went very far. John works better than William. She also sings and plays the guitar ____________________________. (beautiful) 3. (good) 9. He always drives ____________________________. He speaks very ____________________________. (beautiful) 8. 1 feel very ____________________________ today. (fast) 11. (good) 7. He did the work____________________________. La comparación de igualdad se expresa con AS +ADVERB. (early) 6. He learns his lesson ____________________________. (often) 3. EXERCISES Ex. (careful) 2. This is an ____________________________ exercise. Express the words in parentheses in comparative form: 1. well (bien) badly (mal) far (lejos) better (mejor) worse (peor) farther (más lejos) John works well.

Bob doesn´t work ____________________________ you do. He doesn’t walk (as fast as / so fast as) I do. (soon) 12.. 9.(en este caso se traducen con las palabras “mismo”. using equality of comparison (as. (good) 4. She doesn’t speak Spanish ____________________________ her sister. He came here ____________________________ he could. “personalmente” The King himself will visit the devastated area. Please. Se usan para expresar acciones reflejas. (bad) 9. He can’t come ____________________________ we. Bob cut himself with the knife.10. (early) 11. (soft) 10.. He will arrive________________________________________________________ they. (early) 6. using equality of comparison. Remember that you can use NOT AS.. 4. (fast) 2. He didn’t arrive here ____________________________ we expected him.. (regular) 10. (fast) 3. (easy) (bright) (fast) 5. He gets up ____________________________ his sister. (early) 3. Express in full form. She sings ____________________________ she plays. 12. (late) 2. Helen doesn´t attend class ____________________________ Mary. (Bob se cortó con el cuchillo) The men killed themselves. (late) 11. (early) Ex. He doesn’t play tennis ____________________________ he plays baseball. as): 1. (hard) 7. You can do it ____________________________ I . He doesn’t work ____________________________ she does. (easy) 5.. Se usan para expresar énfasis. AS o NOT SO. speak __________________________possible. They came to work ________________________________________________________usual. I go to bed ___________________________________________________________ you.. AS: 1. (quick) 8. REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS Los pronombres reflexivos son los siguientes: Singular myself /maisélf/ yourself /io:rsélf/ himself /himsélf/ herself /he:rsélf/ itself /itsélf/ Plural ourselves /auersélvz/ yourselves /io:rsélvz/ themselves /!emsélvz/ Los pronombres reflexivos tienen tres usos frecuentes: 1. He can run ____________________________ his brother. (good) 8. John speaks English ____________________________I do. He works ____________________________ he can. (El Rey visitará personalmente la zona desvastada) I myself will do it. (early) 5. (hard) B. I can’t do it ____________________________ I did it before. He goes to bed ____________________________ I. We drove to the hospital ____________________________ we could. (Yo mismo lo haré) 196 A short course in english for adult students . She can’t play the piano ____________________________ she can sing. (careful) 7. Express in full form. (good) 4. (beautiful) 6. The sun is shining ____________________________ it was yesterday. (Los hombres se suicidaron) 2. He came ____________________________ he could.

You ______________________________ have to do it.3. 6. 5. He said that he ______________________________ could meet us at the airport. (La niña resolvió el problema sola) EXERCISES Ex. The poor man killed ______________________________. boys. For the word ALONE substitute the preposition BY with the correct reflexive pronoun: 1. They ______________________________ will deliver the merchandise. I went to the movie alone. She likes to study alone. 4. 4. 7. He likes to walk alone in the park. My aunt lives alone in the cottage. Helen burnt ______________________________ with the match. He works alone in a small office. (John lives by himself in an apartment) ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students 197 . 7. 8. 1 Supply the correct reflexive pronoun: 1. John ______________________________ wrote to me. You ______________________________ must speak to him. (El pobre hombre vive completamente solo en una casa vieja) Hans studies in a group but I study by myself. 11. I shave ______________________________ every morning. The poor man lives all by himself in an old house. Do you like to talk about______________________________? 9. Miss Smith ______________________________ will speak to us. Ex. 3. John lives alone in an apartment 2. 11. Some people like to talk about ______________________________ 8. 2. 6. 2. He is only 2 3. Supply the correct reflexive pronoun (emphatic use): 1. 11. Mary ______________________________ will attend the meeting. 7. John hurt ______________________________ when he fell on the pavement. He fell and hurt ______________________________ on the ice. 12. 12. She looked at ______________________________ in the mirror. I myself will do it. sin la ayuda o la compañía de otra persona). I do not like to eat alone. 10. 2. 10. 10. 12. The little girl cut ______________________________ with a pen-knife. Both the boys and the girls study alone. The ambassador ______________________________ will sign the agreement. pero yo estudio solo) The girl solved the problem by herself. 3. 4. Se usan (con la preposición by) para indicar la idea de “alone” (= solo. 9. I do not think he can do it alone. The President ______________________________ attended the meeting. 6. 3. 8. 9. Helen ______________________________ will deliver the speech. William shaves ______________________________ every day. Do you like to go to the movie alone? 5. (Hans estudia en un grupo. He prefers to work alone. Ex. We enjoyed ______________________________ at the concert. Peter. We ______________________________ will wait for you. 5. The little boy cannot dress ______________________________. He wrote the entire book alone.

Substitute the past form of GOING TO for the italicized. Answer the questions as in the example 1. 2. Ann: Did you telephone Peter last night? You: No. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 12. 2. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 6. I intended to call you yesterday but I forgot I was going to call you yesterday but I forgot. I didn´t . (to call on = to visit). I was going to telephone him but I forgot. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 4. I intended to write you a letter last week but I couldn´t find your address. 2.C. I intended to go home early but the manager asked me to help him. I planned to go to the beach but it rained. verbs: 1. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 11. We intended to wait for you but we had to leave. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ Ex. Compare: We are going to play football at midday today. We intended to walk in the park but it was too cold. Ann: Did you go out after dinner last night? You: No. They intended to leave New York yesterday but they missed their flight. We planned to study for our examination but some friends called on us. I didn´t. (Nosotros vamos a jugar fútbol hoy al mediodía) We were going to play football at midday yesterday but it rained. I didn´t. (Nosotros íbamos a jugar fútbol ayer al mediodía pero llovió) EXERCISES Ex. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 10. I planned to come back earlier but I had to work until late. We intended to go to a movie first but we had to wait for our friends to arrive. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 3. EL PASADO DE “GOING TO” (SUBJECT + WAS / WERE + GOING TO + INFINITIVE) Esta estructura se usa para referirse a acciones que. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 8. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 7. We planned to eat early but our guests arrived late. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 5. Ann: Did you buy the car? You: No. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 9. _________________________________________________________________________________ 198 A short course in english for adult students . 1. _________________________________________________________________________________ 4. no se llevaron a cabo por algún motivo. I didn´t. We planned to telephone you but we couldn’t find your number. I ________________________________________________________________________________ 3. Ann: Did you visit your friends last Saturday? You: No. habiendo sido planeadas o planificadas con anterioridad.

satélite nat. pájaro ave de rapiña búfalo moscardón mariposa gato gallo flea /fli:/ fly /flai/ goose /gu:z/ geese /gi:z/ hare /héar/ hen /hen/ horse /ho:rs/ horsefly /ho:rsflai/ insect /ínsekt/ lion /láion/ louse /láus/ lice /lais/ monkey /má#ki/ pulga mosca ganso /s liebre gallina caballo tábano insecto león piojo /s mono A short course in english for adult students rama arbusto flor fruto pasto hoja /s plant /pla:nt/ roots /ru:ts/ seed /si:d/ shrub /shrab/ tree /tri:/ trunk /tra#k/ planta raíces semilla arbusto.BASIC VOCABULARY : Study these words NATURE /néitchar/ (La naturaleza) a) Geography /dlliógrafi/ (Geografía) air /éar/ archipelago /a:rkipélagou/ bay /béi/ beach /bí:tch/ canal /kanæ ´ l/ canyon /kæ ´ nion/ countryside /kántrisaid/ city /síti/ cliff /klif/ coastline /kóuslain/ comet /kómet/ continent /kóntinent/ country /kántri/ creek /krí:k/ channel /tchæ ´ nel/ desert /dézert/ earth /é:r"/ forest /fórest/ galaxy /gæ ´ laksi/ ground /gráund/ harbour /há:rbor/ hill /hil/ island /áiland/ ithmus /í"mas/ jungle /dllángl/ lake /léik/ land /lænd/ landmark /lændma:rk/ ´ aire archipiélago bahía playa canal (artificial) cañón campiña ciudad acantilado costa cometa continente país riachuelo canal (natural) desierto tierra (planeta) bosque. mata árbol tronco 199 . summit /sámit/ peninsula /penínsiula/ planet /plæ ´ net/ pond /pond/ prairy /préari/ rain forest /réin fórest/ river /ríver/ satellite /sæ ´ telait/ sea /si:/ shore /shó:ar/ slopes /slóups/ solar system /sóular sístem/ space /spéis/ spring /spri#/ star /stá:r/ strait(s) /stréit(s)/ stream /strí:m/ town /táun/ valley /væ ´ li/ village /vílidll/ volcano /volkéinou/ water /wó:ter/ waterfalls /wóterfo:lz/ paisaje luna. foresta galaxia suelo. rooster /rúster/ caimán hormiga oso abeja ave. cordillera océano cumbre península planeta laguna pradera selva tropical río satélite mar playa lomas sistema solar espacio vertiente estrella estrecho arroyo pueblo valle pueblito. tierra rada. villa volcán agua cataratas b) Vegetation /vedlletéishn/ (Vegetación) branch /bræ ´ ntch/ bush /bush/ flower /flaúer/ fruit /fru:t/ grass /gra:s/ leaf /li:f/ leaves /li:vz/ c) Animals /æ ´ nimalz/ (Animales) alligator /æ ´ ligéitor/ ´ nt/ ant /æ bear /béar/ bee /bi:/ bird /bé:rd/ bird of prey /bé:rd ov préi/ buffalo /báfalou/ bumblebee /bámblbí:/ butterfly /báterflai/ cat /kæ ´ t/ cock /kok/. bahía cerro. colina isla istmo selva lago tierra hito landscape /lændskeip/ ´ moon /mu:n/ mountain range /máuntin réingll/ ocean /óushn/ peak /pi:k/.

cow /káu/ crocodile /krókoudáil/ chicken /tchikin/ deer /dí:ar/ dog /dog/ dolphin /dólfin/ donkey /dó#ki/ ´ gonflai/ dragonfly /dræ duck /dak/ eagle /í:gl/ elephant /élifant/ fish /fish/ flamingo /flamí#gou/ vaca cocodrilo pollo ciervo perro delfin burro libélula pato águila elefante pez flamenco mouse /máus/ mice /mais/ ostrich /óstritch/ rabbit /ræ ´ bit/ rat /ræt/ rhinoceros /rainoseros/ seagull /sí:gal/ seal /si:l/ shellfish /shélfish/ snake /snéik/ squirrel /skuírel/ tiger /táiger/ turkey /té:rki/ whale /wéil/ ratón /es avestruz conejo rata rinoceronte gaviota foca marisco culebra ardilla tigre pavo ballena 200 A short course in english for adult students .

The children hadn`t had. 6 They had visited other countries before they came / before coming to the USA.had lost Ex.yet / already? 2. fast Ex. easily 7. 10. as / so carefully as 7. quickly 4. Jane hadn`t seen. more often than 3. as late as 2.? 5.started 3. carefully 4.sooner than 12.. yourself / yourselves 9. quickly 2. easy 5. carelessly 12. She´d worked hard very long. wise 11. 9. 1 1. 3 1. careful 2 carefully 3. PART II. herself 10. already / yet? Ex.gone 2..yet / Had Mrs. well 9. 4. Who had visited them that evening? 10. quickly 8. had stolen 7. / Had the children had.. as fast as 3. as softly as 10. as well as 4.got 10. as quickly as 8. as / so easily as 5. as early as 5. wisely 12. myself 11..had stopped 6. had never seen . 1. had . Black studied? 3. himself 4. 1. When had the engineer graduated from UCLA? 4. 2 . 3. earlier than 5. as brightly as 9. as / so well as 4. roamed ... ourselves 6. Where had they been that morning? 8. well 10. early 6.. already / yet? 6.yet. Bentley gone. hard 5. felt . had been 6. Mrs. 2. Ex 1 1.. 1. A. herself 7.had taken 3. had been . as early as 11. How many times had Bill made the same mistake? 9. easily 6. more carefully than 2. had . had left 9.. 2 1.. as / so badly as 9.got . / Had Jane seen.foolish 9.already / yet? 4. as / so well as 8. as / so hard as .took 7. herself 3. Tom hadn`t left.yet / Had Tom left. I hadn`t seen a cricket game before. had .had collected 5. B. himself 7. 2 . himself 12. 1. herself 4. later than 11. better than 7. badly Ex.had not seen .didn`t recognize . as easily as Ex.appeared 8.. foolishly 10. yourselves A short course in english for adult students 201 . himself 10. left . as / so regularly as 10. harder than 9. Where had Dr.put out 10. 5 . more seriously than 10. 1. had already boarded . yet. had already given .finished 4. faster than 8.yet / Had Paul sent. themselves 8.. himself / herself 9. He said (that) he`d been very busy that day..beautiful 7. had taken 8.. / Had they spent all.had already become . fast 11. yourself 12.. 2. What had Paul done the previous year? 5. himself 3.got 4. Ex. Bentley hadn´t gone. How many sandwiches had John eaten that evening? 2... himself Ex. had . as hard as 7.disappeared 5. Paul hadn`t sent. himself 5. as beautifully as 6. more frequently than 6. himself 2.visited 9. had .already / yet? . Why hadn`t you written to us before? 5.She`d never been abroad before. more regularly than 4. How much money had they spent before they arrived in Tokyo? 8.Key to answers UNIT 14 PART I Ex.. as / so early as 3. They had not studied there very long. beautifully 3.. as fast as 12.became 2. 5.. was . herself 11.. ourselves 6. had . beautifully 8. 7. 3. herself 8.gone Ex. At what time / When had the plane taken off from JFK Airport? 6. She hadn`t read that book before. Had you eaten / had this before? 4. 1. as / so early as 6. saw . 4 1. themselves 5. earlier than Ex.3. What language had the girl studied at school? Ex.. 1. How long had he worked in the Army when he became a general? 7. as / so fast as 2. had already begun ...They hadn`t spent all.

C.3.Ex.. 4. 7.. She likes to study by herself 3. I went to the movie by myself 4. I do not think he can do it by himself.. 2. 1.. He works by himself in a small office 8. He wrote the entire book by himself.. I was going to write you a letter last week but.. We were going to telephone you but... 5. 8.7. We were going to eat early but.. 2. 6. We were going to study for our examination but.. Ex... I was going to go home early. They were going to leave New York yesterday but. Ex. but. I was going to buy it but I decided to save more money to buy a newer model. Both the boys and the girls study by themselves 12. 2. Do you like to go to the movie by yourself? 5. We were going to wait for you but.. 11. 4. I was going to visit them but I could not go out of town because of the snow storm.. We were going to go to a movie first but. 9 I do not like to eat by myself 10... We were going to walk in the park but. 3. (Possible answers) 2... 3. I was going to go to the beach but. I was going to go out but then decided to stay in and watch the baseball game on TV instead. 11.. 12. My aunt lives by herself in the cottage. 202 A short course in english for adult students . I was going to come back earlier but.. He likes to walk by himself in the park 6. He prefers to work by himself. 9.. 10..

The men ________________________ for 6 hours when they got to the village. Tom ________________________ TV since 8:45 that evening. (watch) 2. /!éi had nót bi:n wé:rki# o:l déi/ Ellos no habían estado trabajando todo el día. escuche y aprenda: ´ n had wé:rkt o:l déi/ The man had worked all day /! mæ El hombre había trabajado todo el día. /! mæ ´ n had bin wé:rki# o:l déi/ El hombre había estado trabajando todo el día. They ________________________ not ________________________ too much before the bar closed. báut tú: áuarz/ La forma negativa se expresa usando HAD NOT o HADN´T /hæ ´ dent/. En la forma interrogativa se debe anteponer HAD al sujeto: Lea.?) EXERCISES Ex. EL TIEMPO PASADO PERFECTO CONTINUO (THE PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE) Este tiempo se forma usando el Pasado Perfecto del verbo modal BE (HAD BEEN /had bi:n/) más un GERUNDIO del un verbo principal. The man had been working all day. We ________________________ for over 12 hours when the plane landed in New York. The ground was very wet that morning because it ________________________ all night.UNIT 15 PART 1. escuche y aprenda: They had not been working all day. They´d been playing soccer for about two hours. Normalmente se usa en vez del Pasado Perfecto con el fin de enfatizar la idea de continuidad de la acción. Had they been playing soccer all day? /had !éi bi:n pléi# sóker o:l déi/ ¿Habían estado ellos jugando fútbol todo el día? How long had they been playing soccer? /háu ló# had !ei bi:n pléi# sóker/ ¿Cuánto tiempo habían estado ellos jugando fútbol? La pregunta más frecuente en este tiempo verbal es: WHAT HAD YOU BEEN DOING? /wót had iú: bí:n dú:i#/ (¿Qué había estado haciendo ud. They´d played soccer for about two hours. /!éid bi:n pléii# sóker for Ellos habían estado jugando fútbol cerca de dos horas. Complete the following sentences using the appropriate verb in the Past Perfect Continuous tense 1. What ________________________ they ________________________before we arrived? (do) 6. (study) 4. (rain) 5. Jack ________________________ German for 2 years before they sent him to Germany. (drink) 7. 1. (walk) 3. /!éid pléid sóker for abáut tú: áuarz/ Ellos habían jugado fútbol cerca de dos horas. (fly) A short course in english for adult students 203 . Lea.

Brown había estado trabajando arduamente ese día y ella se sentía muy cansada. El cielo estaba despejado y el sol estaba brillando. The patient had been feeling better. She´d been reading a magazine. Change the following sentence into a) the negative. Ella había estado trabajando en ese informe desde la semana anterior. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 204 A short course in english for adult students . ________________________________________________________________________________________________? Ex. El joven ingeniero había estado haciendo trabajo de investigación durante mucho tiempo. Where. ________________________________________________________________________________________________? 3. It´d been raining hard that afternoon. ¿Cuánto tiempo habías estado viviendo en ese departamento antes de comprar esta casa? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 4. The Johnsons had been living in the same house for about 20 years. La Sra. They´d been studying the report that evening. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 3. etc. Translate the following sentences into English: 1. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 7. ___________________________________________________ __________________________________________________? ___________________________________________________ __________________________________________________? ___________________________________________________ __________________________________________________? ___________________________________________________ __________________________________________________? ___________________________________________________ __________________________________________________? ___________________________________________________ __________________________________________________? Ex.Ex. and b) the interrogative 1. Bob had been sleeping since 8. I´d been working out for 20 minutes. ¿Qué había estado haciendo Ud. The students had been practising Spanish. He had been teaching Physics for 2 decades in that school before he retired. 6. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 6. Ask questions using question words like What. 4. Había estado lloviendo toda la mañana. The boy had been watching the stars before he went to bed that night. ________________________________________________________________________________________________? 2. 2. 4. How long. ________________________________________________________________________________________________? 4. 3. 2. esa mañana? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 2. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 5. Ellos habían estado conversando aproximadamente una hora antes que yo llegara. Mr. ________________________________________________________________________________________________? 5. 5. 1. 3. Smith had been saving money because he was planning to take a trip to Africa.30.

but she should __________________________________________________________ 4. He studied engineering in college. tienen una forma de expresar el pasado. 12. You ________________________ (give) that money to Mr. 10. but you came late. 7. You ________________________ (go) to the opera with us last night. as usual. I ________________________ (not go) to bed so late last night. Rara vez se usa OUGHT TO en oraciones negativas o interrogativas. You ________________________ (not tell) her anything about the accident. La oración “I WOULD RATHER WATCH TV” (Preferiría mirar TV) es sinónimo de “I prefer to watch TV”. 6. He sent the package by regular mail. He waited for me on the corner of 42nd Street. 4. but you ought ________________________________________________________ 6. He ________________________ (start) a long time ago. (Yo debería haber comenzado a estudiar Francés hace mucho tiempo. using constructions with SHOULD HAVE or OUGHT TO HAVE: 1. . (Yo debería comenzar a estudiar Francés ahora) I SHOULD HAVE STARTED to study French a long time ago. It was very interesting. en Unit 10 . pero no lo hice) You ought to come earlier. You ________________________ (telephone) to the police as soon as you reached home. They sent us the merchandise by parcel post. (Deberías haber llegado más temprano. but he should ___________________________________________________________ 5. Es importante destacar que esta estructura conlleva una idea negativa. He invested his money in real estate. You telephoned him at his office.p. 5. We went to Mexico on our vacation. 1. You ________________________ (tell) me that you were not able to come. but we should_____________________________________________________________________ 7.PART II. mientras que la oración “You HAD BETTER SEE a doctor right away” (Sería mejor que vieras un médico de inmediato) es sinónimo de “You should see a doctor right away” o “It is advisable that you see a doctor right away” A short course in english for adult students 205 . IDIOMATIC VERB PHRASES: “WOULD RATHER” AND “HAD BETTER” Estas frases idiomáticas se usan como si fueran verbos modales y van seguidas de un bare infinitive (Infinitivo sin “to”). (Deberías venir más temprano) You OUGHT TO HAVE COME earlier. but they should ____________________________________________ B. You ________________________ (not give) our address to John. Supply the proper past tense form of SHOULD or OUGHT TO (Alternate should and ought to ) 1. but he should________________________________________________________ 9. A. He left the books in Room 10. It was excellent. He ________________________ (come) at ten o’clock last night instead of twelve. but he should _____________________________________________________ 3. but I did not.OUGHT TO) Los verbos modales SHOULD y OUGHT TO (debería o debiera). 8. We sent her a fax. She gave the money to John. 2. He should have studied (study) before he took his examinations ( but he didn´t. You ought to have telephoned (telephone) me yesterday (but you didn´t) 3. but he should have waited for me on the corner of 57th Street. but he ___________________________________________________________ 8. Ex. expresa un reproche o crítica.) 2. 9. PAST TENSE OF SHOULD . He started to study English last month.OUGHT TO (El tiempo pasado de SHOULD . Compare: I should start to study French now.Smith yesterday 11. En este caso estos verbos van seguidos de HAVE + PAST PARTICIPLE .) 2. Complete the following in your own words. Ambas se refieren a situaciones presentes o futuras. You ________________________ (attend) the lecture last night. pero llegaste atrasado como de costumbre) EXERCISES Ex.129. but we should _____________________________________________________ 10. but he should ____________________________________________ (He waited for me on the corner of 42nd Street.

) ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ I like apples better than oranges I like watching TV better than studying math. Ex. 6. I prefer to drink tea with my meals. They prefer not to wait outside.. When I’m hot and thirsty. It will be better if we send him an e-mail right away. EXERCISES Ex. 9. 2. I’d rather have a cold drink than a hot drink. 1. 4. 5. 3. Change these sentences to introduce WOULD RATHER: 1. I like cold drinks better than hot drinks. It will be better if Helen begins to spend more time on her English. 3. 8. BETTER THAN I prefer apples to oranges I prefer watching TV to studying math. 7... 8. 2. 10.) 2. What had I better do.. ___________________________________________________ 8. ________________________________________ Ex. 2. She prefers to come back later. It will be better if she spends more time on her homework.. 7. What would you rather drink. It will be better if he goes to a doctor at once. Change these sentences to introduce HAD BETTER 1. When I’m hot and thirsty. TO. ___________________________________________________ 4. I prefer cold drinks to hot drinks.. I´d rather have an apple than an orange. 5. It will be better if you rest a while. I’d rather eat chicken ______________________________ beef. I like hip-hop ______________________________ classical music.. John prefers to go to the party with Helen. BETTER THAN or TO.. When I choose a book. ___________________________________________________ 3. como en estos ejemplos: I´d rather not go at all than go with them.. 4. 1. Al formular interrogaciones se debe anteponer WOULD o HAD al sujeto. I prefer to stay at home and watch television. ___________________________________________________ 10. _______________________________________________ 9.. It will be better if we don’t mention it to him. I prefer nonfiction ______________________________ fiction. I prefer not to go to the party alone. (I’d rather wait here. They prefer to speak to him at his home. stay in bed all day or see a doctor? Además de WOULD RATHER. I prefer to go to South America on my vacation. I prefer chicken ______________________________ beef. I prefer to wait here . (You’d better come back later. ___________________________________________________ 7. podemos indicar o expresar preferencia mediante el uso de PREFER. ___________________________________________________ 5. 206 A short course in english for adult students . It will be better if we don’t stand so close to the curb. When I’m hot and thirsty. = I prefer to see a movie than to go to the opera He should see a doctor immediately En la forma negativa se debe usar NOT después de WOULD RATHER o HAD BETTER. tea or coffee? You´d better not mention it to anyone. _______________________________________________ 6. = He´d better see a doctor immediately. It will be better if he takes private lessons. 6. o LIKE. I like chicken ______________________________ beef...3 Complete the sentences with THAN.. como los ejemplos siguientes: I´d rather see a movie than go to the opera. We prefer not to say anything to him about it. It will be better if you don’t work so hard after your illness.En las conversación diaria tanto WOULD RATHER como HAD BETTER se usan en contracción.. It will be better if you come back later.

We could go for a walk (podríamos salir a caminar) in the park. (Present) (Estoy tan cansado ahora que podría dormir durante una semana.9. I could hear something (Podia oir algo) (Past) Pero COULD también se puede usar cuando queremos referirnos a acciones posibles de realizar ahora o en el futuro. • When you go to New York next month. podríamos. En este caso COULD es sinónimo de MIGHT. • The phone´s ringing. especialmente cuando deseamos hacer una sugerencia. • Jim: If you need money. • I was so tired that day that I could have slept for a week. Tina prefers lying on the beach ______________________________ going swimming. no se realizaron o no sucedieron. podrías. etc. My parents would rather work______________________________ retire. They could arrive (podrían llegar) at any time. Compare las siguientes oraciones: • I am so tired now that I could sleep for a week. 16. • John: What shall we do this evening? Mary: We could go (podríamos ir) to the cinema. 11. En este caso COULD significa podría. I would rather take a picture of a wild animal______________________________ kill it with a gun. There´s a very good film on at the Rex. MODAL VERBS (II) 1. COULD (DO SOMETHING) AND COULD HAVE (DONE SOMETHING) Como sabemos.(Estaba tan cansado ese día que podría haber dormido una semana) (Past) COULD HAVE + PAST PARTICIPLE se usa para referirse a acciones que pudiendo haberse realizado o sucedido. He could have hurt himself badly. why don´t you ask Karen? Tom: Yes.(Pudrías haberte quedado con nosotros) • John fell off a ladder yesterday but he´s all right. También COULD se usa para referirse a algo que es posible ahora o en el futuro. (podría ser Tim) • I don´t know when they´ll be here. (Puedo oir algo) (Present). • I listened. I prefer visiting my friends in the evening ______________________________ watching TV by myself. They enjoy their jobs. It could be Tim. 10. C. My sister likes her math class ______________________________ her biology class. Tina likes lying on the beach ______________________________ going swimming. 17. You could have stayed with us. • It´s a nice day. 13. Tina would rather lie on the beach ______________________________ go swimming. 18. ser capaz de) • Listen. (Podría haberse lastimado seriamente) A short course in english for adult students 207 . I suppose I could do that (podría hacer eso). Mr. I can hear something. Kim prefers tea ______________________________ coffee with his evening meal. 15. My brother would rather read a book in the evening ______________________________ visit with friends. • Why did you stay at a hotel when you came to Santiago. 12. COULD es el pasado CAN (poder. you could stay (podrías quedarte) with Barbara. Do you like fresh vegetables ______________________________ frozen or canned vegetables? 14.

Ken had to work on Friday evening. If you’re very hungry. I ______________________________ eat a horse! 3.A veces esta estructura puede usarse para expresar la idea de “WOULD HAVE BEEN ABLE TO” (habría podido) • Why didn´t Liz apply for the job? She could have got it. He couldn´t have driven her to the airport (because his car had been stolen) 2. He plays the flute and he ______________________________ also play the piano. 1. Use COULD. Complete the sentences.’ 6. Ken´s car was stolen on Monday. Jack wanted Ken to lend him £50 last week. Paul couldn´t have gone (no habría podido salir) anyway because he was ill. 5. Answer the questions with a suggestion. 3. 2. Have you seen it?’ ‘No. 208 A short course in english for adult students . You have to say whether he could have done or couldn’t have done them. A: There’s an interesting job advertised in the paper. 5. It’s so nice here. Ken was free on Monday afternoon. 1. What shall we have for dinner tonight?(fish) 3. Ken was short of money last week. I ______________________________ stay here all day but unfortunately I have to go. 1. What shall I give Ann for her birthday?(a book) 4. Ken doesn’t know anything about machines. 2. (Podría haberlo conseguido) • We could have gone away (podríamos haber salido) if we´d had enough money. Where shall we go for our holidays? (to Scotland). ‘What shall we do?’ ‘There’s a film on television. Ken ___________________________________________________________________________________________ 4. A: Where shall we meet tomorrow? B: Well. Ken ___________________________________________________________________________________________ 3. A: The phone is ringing. Sometimes either word is possible. 4. Read this information about Ken: Ken didn’t do anything on Saturday evening. I ______________________________ to your house if you like. Ex. ‘I can’t find my bag. 4. Ken’s aunt wanted him to drive her to the airport on Tuesday. The weather is nice now but it ______________________________ change later. You ______________________________ for it. EXERCISES Ex. We ______________________________ watch that’. Ex. Where shall we hang this picture?(in the kitchen) We could go to Scotland. We could go to the cinema. 2 Put in CAN or COULD. We _______________________________________________ You _______________________________________________ __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________ Ex. we ______________________________ have dinner now. Another friend wanted him to play tennis on Monday afternoon. A friend of his wanted him to go out for a meal on Friday evening. When shall I phone Angela? (right now) 5. Peter is a keen musician. but it ______________________________ be in the car. ‘ B: Why did you stay at home? You ______________________________ to the cinema. • The trip was cancelled last week. 2. 1. I’m really hungry. 3. B: What sort of job is it? Show me the advertisement. 7. We ______________________________ but we decided not to. 1. Use COULD or COULD HAVE + a suitable verb. So he didn’t do any of these things. When shall we go and see Tom? (on Friday) 6. Some people wanted Ken to do different things last week but they couldn’t contact him. Who do you think it is?’ B: It ______________________________ be Tim. A: What shall we do this evening? B: I don’t mind. A: I had a very boring evening at home yesterday. A: Did you go to the concert last night? B: No. 4. 8.

(Debo haber estado dormido) • Jane walked past me without speaking. 1. Estudie los siguientes ejemplos: • George is outside his friends´ house. They can’t _____________________________many people. 7. /hi: mástav bi:n wótchi# tí: ví:/ He can´t have been sleeping /hi: ká:ntav bi:n slí:pi#/ EXERCISES Ex. 2. (No debe haberme visto) • It was about 9:15 in the evening. You ___________________ be very pleased. They can´t know many people. Tom was in his bedroom. I must have been asleep. 1. 4. She does the same thing every day. It’s always full of people. 2 Complete the sentences with a verb in the correct form. He must _____________________________ ill. cuando estamos seguros que algo es así. (No puedes estar con hambre ya) • They haven´t lived here very long. 3. 8. They haven’t lived here very long. He____________________________________________________________________________________________ 6. Bill and Sue go away on holiday very often. She can´t have seen me.(No pueden conocer mucha gente) En situaciones pasadas se debe usar MUST HAVE + PAST PARTICIPLE o CAN´T HAVE + PAST PARTICIPLE. I must _____________________________ it somewhere. (Debes estar muy cansado) • A: “Jim is a hard worker” B: Jim? A hard worker? You must be joking (Debes estar bromeando) He´s very lazy” • Carol must get very bored (debe aburrirse mucho) in her job. debemos usar CAN´T. como en los siguientes ejemplos: • You have been working all day. It rained every day during their holiday. You ___________________ be very tired.______________________________________________________________________________________________ 5. You. You got here very quickly. CAN´T. He can´t have been sleeping (Deber haber estado viendo las noticas en TV.. You must be very tired. I’ve lost one of my gloves. so they ___________________ have had a very nice time. 5. Cuando estamos seguros de que algo no es posible. You’re going on holiday next week. You’ve been travelling all day. Congratulations on passing your exam. 3. (Deben haber salido) • The phone rang but I didn´t hear it. That restaurant ___________________ be very good. /!ei mástav gón áut/ She can´t have seen me. /iú: más bi: véry táiard/ They must have gone out. es decir. He must have been watching the news on TV. Put in MUST or CAN’T. That restaurant ___________________ be very good. 6. No puede haber estado durmiendo) Note la pronunciación de las siguientes oraciones: You must be very tired. It’s always empty. AND CAN´T HAVE Sabemos que uno de los usos de MUST es el de expresar una suposición. so they ___________________ be short of money. 2. You ___________________ be looking forward to it.___________________ have walked very fast. MUST HAVE. You can´t be hungry already. Ted isn’t at work today. Ex. 1. como en los siguientes ejemplos : • You´ve just had lunch. /sh: ká:ntav sí:n mi:/ He must have been watching TV. MUST. o conclusión. A short course in english for adult students 209 . ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 2. Jane wanted Ken to come to her party on Saturday evening. He´s rung the doorbell three times but nobody has answered They must have gone out. que no puede ser cierto. Ken’s mother wanted him to repair her washing machine.

4. (I/forget/to turn it off) ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 10.(Puede que haya estado durmiendo) (= perhaps she was asleep) • A: I can’t find my bag anywhere. (it/very expensive) ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 4. 9. (the exam/very difficult) ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 7. I may not have enough. When I woke up this morning. I left my bike outside the house last night and this morning it wasn’t there any more. (Puede que no haya estado sintiéndose bien) (= perhaps he wasn’t 210 A short course in english for adult students . (she/listen/to our conversation) ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 8. Read the situations and use the words in brackets to write sentences with MUST HAVE and CAN’T HAVE. (the neighbours/have/a party) ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 3. Don passed the exam without studying for it. B: She may have been asleep. MAY / MIGHT AND MAY HAVE / MIGHT HAVE + PAST PARTICIPLE Los verbos modales MAY / MIGHT se usan frecuentemente para indicar una posibilidad: * It may be true (Puede que sea cierto) It might be true (Podría ser cierto). (Podría no ser cierto) (= perhaps it isn’t true) * I’m not sure whether I can lend you some money. (they/go away) ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 5. Jane walked past me without speaking. Ex. B: You might have left it in the shop (Podrías haberla dejado.. She’s still at work at this time. 3. I was woken up in the middle of the night by the noise next door.. (Quizás ella sabe lo que sucedió) La forma negativa se expresa usando MAY NOT o MIGHT NOT * It might not be true. There is a man walking behind us. (she/understand/what I said) ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 9. 5. It can’t ____________________ Mary. • A: I wonder why Kay didn’t answer the phone. The jacket you bought is very good quality. He has been walking behind us for the last 20 minutes. 2. He must ___________________________ ill. Fiona did the opposite of what I asked her to do. I can’t find my umbrella. (the driver/see/the red light) ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 11. Jack is putting on his hat and coat. 8. It can’t _____________________________easy for her. Look. (The doorbell rings) I wonder who that is. (Puede que no tenga suficiente) (=perhaps I don’t have enough) En el pasado podemos usar MAY HAVE + past participle o MIGHT HAVE + past participle.) (= perhaps you left it in the shop) • A: I was surprised that Sarah wasn’t at the meeting. She must _____________________ to the cinema a lot. The phone rang but I didn’t hear it. He must _____________________________ us. (Puede que no haya sabido) (= perhaps she didn’t know) • A: I wonder why Colin was in such a bad mood yesterday. (= perhaps it is true) * She may know what happened (Puede que ella sepa lo que sucedió) She might know what happened (Ella podría tal vez saber lo que sucedió) = perhaps she knows what happened. The lights were red but the car didn’t stop. Ann was in a very difficult situation. the light was on. He must _____________________________ out. 1. Ted wasn’t at work last week. 10. (she/see/me) ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 3.Somebody must _____________________________ it. Carol knows a lot about films. B: She might not have known about it. 7. (I/leave it in the restaurant last night) ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 6. I haven’t seen the people next door for ages. B: He may not have been feeling well. (I/asleep) I must have been asleep. She knew everything about our plans. 6.

‘Who was the man we saw with Ann yesterday?’ ‘I’m not sure. Complete the sentences using MIGHT. B: That´s possible. Do you think it was an accident? B. B: Well. 1. He __________________________________________________________________________________ 5. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. Perhaps she had to go home early. ‘Why are those people waiting in the street?’ ‘I don’t know. They say it __________________________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students 211 . I wonder where he is. It might ________________________________________ her brother. Why didn’t Tom answer the doorbell? I’m sure he was in the house at the time. MAY HAVE (or MIGHT HAVE). She ________________________________________________________________________ 4. Perhaps she was ill yesterday. Perhaps she wasn’t feeling well yesterday. 1. Perhaps she wasn´t invited. the police aren´t sure. I can’t find my umbrella. COULDN’T. Perhaps she wants to be alone. B: I agree. 1. 7. 11. A: I wonder why she didn´t say hello.’ Ex. 3 Read the situations and make sentences from the words in brackets.’ 2. She couldn´t have seen me 2. I can’t find George anywhere. Perhaps she isn’t working today. MIGHT NOT or COULD. Have you seen it? a (it / be / in the car) ___________________________________________________ b (you / leave / in the restaurant last night) ___________________________________________________ 4.’ 3. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ She might be in her office.feeling well) EXERCISES Ex. a (he / go / shopping) He may have gone shopping. Perhaps she didn´t see me. a (he / be / in the bathroom) ___________________________________________________ b (he / not / hear / the bell) ___________________________________________________ Ex. A: Tom loves parties. He might ___________________________________ it already. 1. She might not have seen you. B: Yes. 8.’ 5. Perhaps Margaret is busy. 3. Perhaps Margaret is in her office. He might ___be having lunch. ‘Who is that man with Ann?’ ‘I’m not sure. it´s possible. I´m sure he would have come to the party if he´d been invited. ‘Shall I buy this book for Tim?’ ‘You’d better not. Perhaps she is working. 4. 4. A: How did the fire start? I suppose it was an accident. she was too far away. A: I wonder how the fire started.’ 4. They might_________________________ for a bus. Perhaps she doesn’t want to see me. The police say it _____________________________________________________________________________ 6. 3. 10. Perhaps she went home early. b (he / play / tennis) He might be playing tennis 2. I’m looking for Helen. Write these sentences in a different way using MAY (or MIGHT)). ‘Where’s Bob?’ ‘I’m not sure. 5. 1. A: I wonder why Ann didn´t come to the party. Use MAY or MIGHT. 2 Complete the sentences with a verb in the correct form. 2. It might ______________________ her brother. Do you know where she is? a (she / watch / TV / in her room) ___________________________________________________ b (she / go / out) ___________________________________________________ 3. Perhaps she was working yesterday. 6. In sentences 9-11 use MAY NOT or MIGHT NOT. A: Do you think she saw you? B: No. 9.

aluvión de agua neblina.VOCABULARY: Study these words THE WEATHER /!e wé!er/ (El tiempo atmosférico) blizzard /blízard/ breeze /brí:z/ cloud /kláud/ cloudy /kláudi/ cold wave /kóuld wéiv/ cyclone /sáikloun/ dew /diu:/ downpour /dáunpo:r/ drizzle /drízl/ drought /dráut/ flood /flad/ ´ flashflood /flæshflad/ fog /fog/ foggy /fógi/ frost /frost/ gale /géil/ hail /heil/ heat wave /hi:t wéiv/ hurricane /hárrikein/ ice /áis/ landslide /læ ´ ndslaid/ lightning flash /láitni# flæsh/ mist /mist/ misty /místi/ ventisca brisa nube nublado onda de frío ciclón rocío aguacero llovizna sequía inundación torrente. bruma brumoso escarcha ventarrón granizo onda de calor huracán hielo aluvión de barro relámpago bruma matinal brumoso rainfall /réinfo:l/ ´ scattered showers /skæterd sháuerz/ shower /sháuer/ sleet /slí:t/ snowfall /snóufo:l/ snowflake /snóufleik/ sunny /sáni/ sunny intervals /sáni íntervolz/ sunny patches /sáni pæ ´ tchiz/ sunny spells /sáni spelz/ thunder /"ánder/ thunderbolt /"ánderboult/ thunderstorm /"ándersto:rm/ thundery /"ánderi/ tornado /tornéidou/ twister /tuíster/ typhoon /taifú:n/ whirlwind /wé:rlwind/ wind /wind/ windy /wíndi/ lluvia caída chubascos ocasionales chubasco aguanieve nevazón copo de nieve soleado intervalos de sol claros de sol ratos de sol trueno rayo tormenta eléctrica tormentoso (torm. eléctica) tornado tromba. remolino tifón remolino viento ventoso 212 A short course in english for adult students .

have sent her an e-mail. 10. Ex... to 16. 3.. I´d rather drink tea with my meals. 7.. You ought to have given. 2. Ex.. You could give her a book. He´d better take private lessons. have sent it by UPS / FedEx B.. 5. How long had the Johnsons been living in the same house? 5. It hadn`t been raing. had been raining 5. We could hang it in the kitchen. I ought not to have gone. 5. better than 11. 9.. 4. 7..? Ex. have sent it by air mail 3.. She´d better spend more time on her homework.What had they been doing that evening? 2.. What had the boy been watching? 3.? 5. Why had Mr. Helen had better begin more time on her English. 2. / Had she been reading. than 7. have left them in Room 11. She´d rather come back later. We could have fish 3. could 3. How long had you been living in that apartment before buying this house? 4. had been watching 2. better than 14. / Had Bob been sleeping. have studied medicine.. You should have gone. The young engineer had been doing research work for a long time. had .. to 12. 10. 2. Ex. 9. Ex. 3. 10.. 1.. 1. 3. How long had he been teaching Physics in that school before he retired? Ex. 3. 8. Mrs. 4. 1. to 5. 1.. 7. John would rather go to the party with Helen. I´d rather not go to the party alone. can / could 6. 8. 2. 8.. Smith been saving money? 4. Ex. 7. / Had it been raining. It´d been raining all morning . We´d better not stand so close to the curb. We could go and see him on Friday. could 8... We´d rather not say anything to him about it.. 4.. The students had not been practicing.Key to answers UNIT 15 PART I Ex. than 15.The patient hadn´t been feeling. They´d been talking for about an hour before I arrived. 2. 9. He´d better go to a doctor at once. have given it to Jane 4. We´d better not mention it to him.. I hadn´t been working.1. (Possible answers) 2.. . You´d better rest a while 4. 4. have gone to Tahiti 10. had . 1. to 17. had been studying 4. What had you been doing that morning? 2. You should have told. than 18.. 1. Bob hadn´t been sleeping. to have telephoned him at his home 6.. 5. 1. 3.. 6. better than C. 11. 2. 3. 6. better than 9. You should not have given.. 4.. 6. can / could 4. We´d better send him an e-mail right away... 9.been doing 6. can 7... 1.. You should have attended. He ought to have come.? 3.. I´d rather go to South America on my vacation. had been flying Ex. She´d been working on that report since the previous week.? 2. better than 6. 5. 8. 7. You´d better not work so hard after your illness... They´d rather speak to him at his home.. Ex. 6. The sky was clear and the sun was shining. to 8. can / could 2. / Had I been working.? 4.. could 5.. than 13. had been walking 3. You should not have told l her. 6.? 6. He ought to have started. to have invested it in stocks / shares.. could A short course in english for adult students 213 . 2.. / Had the patient been feeling. / Had the students been practicing. Ex. You ought to have telephoned. You could phone her now .... She hadn`t been reading. Brown had been working hard that day and she felt very tired. 5.been drinking 7. I´d rather stay at home and watch TV... They´d rather not wait outside 5. 12. than 10. PART II A. 1.

She may / might have had to go home early 8.The neighbors must have been having a party . be 4. (Possible answers)2. might have come if he´d been invited. be 6. He may / might have been in the bathroom. She may / might be working 4. It may / might be in the car. 6.must 7. might have been an accident 214 A short course in english for adult students . 11. He couldn´t have lent him £50 because he was short of money. Ken couldn´t have gone out because he had to work. 10. 6. The driver can´t have seen the red light. 3. She may / might be busy.She can´t have seen me. 3. Ex. 2. She may / might not be working today 11. She must have listened to our conversation. 3. 3. The exam can´t have been very difficult 7. She may / might be watching TV in her room. It must have been very expensive 4. (Possible answers) 1. 10. must 2. 5. C. 1. She may / might have been ill yesterday . She may / might have gone home early 7. have bought Ex. 2. 5. 2. 1.Ex. have been 5. can´t 6. I must have left it in the restaurant last night. could come Ex.They must have gone away. be following Ex. could apply 4. 2. 2a. 6. must 5.2.could have gone 3.could have gone 5. have taken / stolen 9. She can´t have understood what I said. 1. 8.She may / might have been working yesterday. She may / might not have been feeling well yesterday. He couldn´t have come to her party because he didn´t do anything on Friday evening. 3. 4. I must have forgotten to turn it off.. 9. She may / might want to be alone 5. be waiting 5. 2. might not have been invited. 3. 3. Ex. 3b. C. 2. Ex. have left 2. Ken could have played tennis on Monday evening because he was free. 4. She may / might not want to see me. 6. 9. 2b. 4. You may / might have left it in the restaurant 4a. can´t Ex. 3. She may / might have gone out 3a. He couldn´t have repaired it because he doesn´t know anything about machines. b e 3. can´t 4. 5. know 3. go 7. He may / might not have heard the bell. might have been an accident. be going 8. must 8. must 3. have been 4. 4. 4b. Ex. have been 10.

. Will they have finished the work by 10:30? What time will they have finished the work? La pregunta habitual en este tiempo es: WHAT WILL YOU HAVE DONE? /wót wil iu: h v dán/ ¿Qué habrá hecho Ud... la nave espacial habrá llegado a Júpiter. When Peter gets home tonight. we will have gotten our third trophy. Este tiempo se expresa usando WILL HAVE más el PASADO PARTICIPIO de un verbo principal. Las expresiones de tiempo usadas en el Futuro Perfecto son aquellas introducidas con by + una fecha futura como by December 15th.? Note como la palabra WHEN cambia el significado de las siguientes oraciones: You come here every day.) She is free now. nosotros habremos viajado más de doce horas. EL TIEMPO FUTURO PERFECTO (THE FUTURE PERFECT TENSE) Este tiempo verbal describe una acción que será completada antes de una fecha específica dada en el futuro.. lea y aprenda : They will have finished the work by 10:30 They will not/won´t have finished the work by 10:30.) I have the information now. (Ella está libre ahora) When she is free next time. etc.. yo ya habré cenado When we get to that town tomorrow..) A short course in english for adult students 215 . nosotros habremos vivido cinco años en este país By the end of this month the spaceship will have reached Jupiter. (Cuando tú vengas acá mañana.. by the end of this month. Tambien son comunes las expresiones que contienen WHEN / IF + S + PRESENTE SIMPLE + UNA FECHA FUTURA. La forma negativa se expresa usando WILL NOT HAVE + past participle y en la interrogación se antepone el verbo modal WILL al sujeto. (Cuando ella esté libre la próxima vez. /wen pí :ter géts hóum tunáit ail hav hæ ´ d díner alrédi/ Cuando Peter llegue a casa esta noche. I will have had dinner already. /bai disémber !e fift:n" wi wil hav lívd in !is kántri fáiv yíarz/ Hacia el 15 de diciembre. Escuche. /bai !i énd ov !is mán" !e spéiship wil hav rí:tcht dllú:piter/ Hacia fines de este mes.. nosotros habremos ganado nuestro tercer trofeo.... When we get to that town tomorrow (cuando lleguemos a esa ciudad mañana). lea y aprenda : By December 15th. (Tú vienes acá todos los días) When you come here tomorrow. Escuche. we´ll have travelled more than twelve hours. /wen wi gét tu !æ ´ t táun tumórou wil hav træ ´ veld mó:ar !an tuelv áuerz/ Cuando lleguemos a ese pueblo mañana. if they arrive after 10 tomorrow (si ellos llegan después de las 10 mañana). etc.UNIT 16 PART I.. (Cuando yo tenga la información esta tarde. (Yo tengo la información ahora) When I have the information this afternoon. /if auar tí:m winz !e nékst géim wi wil hav góten áuar "e:rd trófi/ Si nuestro equipo gana el próximo partido. como When Peter gets home tonight (cuando Peter llegue a casa esta noche). by this time next week. If our team wins the next game. we will have lived in this country five years.

By the end of March. Before they leave New York next Sunday. 2.EXERCISES Ex. 3. (have) 6. 1 Complete the following sentences using the verbs provided in the Future Perfect Tense. ___________________________________________________________________________________ 5. 1. I will have finished reading this book. (learn) 10. ______________________________________________________________________________________ 3. we ________________________________________________ the work. you _____________________________________________ from your illness. ___________________________________________________________________________________ c) By the time I retire. (forget) 9. If he doesn´t hurry. I will have completed this course in English. El ya habrá realizado todos sus planes antes termine el verano. ___________________________________________________________________________________ 4. 1. the students ___________________________________________ their first course. Antes de las seis de la tarde. Ellos habrán terminado ese edificio antes del fin de año. ___________________________________________________________________________________ 3. I will have worked as a teacher for thirty-five years 2. ___________________________________________________________________________________ b) By the end of this year. If you come at noon tomorrow. ___________________________________________________________________________________ 3. 2. I________________________________________ in this country two years next October. By tomorrow. they ________________________________ and _______________________________ . Si no tomamos un taxi. they ____________________________________________ dinner when he gets there. ___________________________________________________________________________________ 5. 216 A short course in english for adult students . the weather ______________________________________________ considerably. (visit) 12. the Johnsons ____________________________________ already. ______________________________________________________________________________________ 4. 1. What things will you have done: a) by the end of this month? b) by the end of this year?. ___________________________________________________________________________________ 3. he _____________________________________________________ many things. ___________________________________________________________________________________ 5. (be) 8. el concierto ya habrá comenzado cuando lleguemos al teatro. they___________________________________ the most important places of interest.go) Ex. By December. 1. ___________________________________________________________________________________ Ex. When he becomes a man. a) By the end of this month. ______________________________________________________________________________________ 2. they _____________________________________________ home. ___________________________________________________________________________________ 4. I _____________________________________________________ all these grammar rules. If he gets here at 6 o´clock. (leave) 2. (recover) 11. ___________________________________________________________________________________ 4. nosotros ya habremos procesado toda la información. When you arrive at midday tomorrow. 2. Translate the following sentences into English: 1. (come . (finish) 4. (go) 5. (complete) 7. (change) 3. and c) when you retire? Write at least three sentences for each question. By two o´clock. By this time next month.

might. __________________________________________________________________________________ 8. los demás verbos subordinados deben estar expresados en el TIEMPO PRESENTE o en el TIEMPO FUTURO. do / does. (Ellos dijeron que debían en estar en el aeropuerto a las 8:30) A short course in english for adult students 217 . can. muy pronto Ud. could. se habrá recuperado de su operación. Escuche. yo ya habré aprendido a conversar en inglés. will. b) Cuando el verbo principal está expresado en el TIEMPO PASADO. (El hombre dijo que vendría acá mañana) They say they must be at the airport at 8:30.) He says that his first name is Robert. SUBORDINATE VERB PRESENT FUTURE PAST POTENCIAL a) Cuando el verbo principal de una oración está expresado en el TIEMPO PRESENTE. SEQUENCE OF VERB TENSES (CONCORDANCIA DE TIEMPOS VERBALES) Observe la siguiente tabla: PRINCIPAL VERB PRESENT PAST Según la regla de la concordancia de los tiempos verbales. may deben ser cambiados a las respectivas formas del pasado: was / were. would. must. (Tom cree que puede venir a la fiesta esta noche) Tom thought that he could come to the party tonight. __________________________________________________________________________________ 7. (Tom creía que podría venir a la fiesta esta noche) The man says that he will come here tomorrow. __________________________________________________________________________________ PART II. (El dijo que su nombre de pila era Robert) Tom thinks that he can come to the party tonight. __________________________________________________________________________________ 6. had to. Hacia fines de este curso. los verbos modales am / is / are. did. (El dice que su nombre de pila es Robert) He said that his first name was Robert. A. los demás verbos subordinados deben estar expresados en el TIEMPO PASADO o en el POTENCIAL. La mayoría de los pájaros habrá emigrado al norte antes que llegue el invierno. De acuerdo con esta regla. (Ellos dicen que deben estar en el aeropuerto a las 8:30) They said they had to be at the airport at 8:30. los resultados de elección habrán sido enviados a la prensa. had. (Mary dijo que conocía bien a Bob.) Mary said that she knew Bob well. (Mary dice que conoce bien a Bob. Antes de la medianoche. have / has.______________________________________________________________________________________ 5. (El hombre dice que vendrá acá mañana) The man said that he would come here tomorrow. Si sigue los consejos de su médico. lea y aprenda : Mary says that she knows Bob well.

EXERCISES Ex. 1. Change to past tense, following the rule of sequence of tenses: 1. He says he will be here at noon. 2. I think I can meet you. 3. He hopes he can be there early 4. I think it may rain this evening. 5. He wants to know where she is. 6. He says he is very sorry. 7. The young man tells us he is married. 8. I think it will be very hot this afternoon. 9. I think he will be there by ten o´clock 10. He believes he can do it. 11. The weather man predicts it will rain. 12. He says he has to work hard every day 13. I know where she lives. 14. Bob wants to know how many people there are. 15. The boy says he has seen the movie. 16. The girl says she is studying for a test. 17. I think Mr Jones may be in his office. 18. I think there´ll be a lot of work to do. 19. I don´t know where Mary is. 20. I don´t think Bob will like the new job. Ex. 2. Choose the correct form: 1. He said he (will, would) be here. 2. He thinks he (can, could) do it easily. 3. He asked me where I (live, lived). 4. I didn’t know what the word (means, meant). 5. The newspaper says it (will, would) rain. 6. She said she (was going, is going) away. 7. I told him that I (cannot, could not) go. 8. He said he (has been, had been) a soldier. 9. She said she (does not, did not) feel well. 10. I don’t know what his name (is, was). 11. I didn’t know what he (is, was) trying to do. 12. She said she (may, might) be late. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________

B. THE PRESENT TENSE AFTER IF (EL TIEMPO PRESENTE DESPUES DE IF ) Se debe usar el TIEMPO PRESENTE (y no el tiempo futuro) después de la palabra IF, aún cuando nos estemos refiriendo a situaciones futuras. Escuche, lea y aprenda : If John comes (no, “if John will come” ) tomorrow, he will see Mary. If it rains (no, “if will rain”) next Sunday, they will not go to the beach. Del mismo modo, debemos usar el PRESENTE (y no el futuro) después de las palabras WHEN (cuando), UNTIL (hasta que), AS SOON AS (en cuanto), BEFORE (antes que), AFTER (después que), UNLESS (a menos que), AS LONG AS (durante todo el tiempo que), u otra palabra similar para introducir una cláusula subordinada en el tiempo futuro.

218

A short course in english for adult students

Escuche, lea y aprenda : When John comes here this evening, he will see Mary. (Cuando John venga acá esta tarde, él verá a Mary) As soon as I see Mr Smith tomorrow, I will give him your message. (En cuanto yo vea a Mr Smith mañana le dare su mensaje) Wait here in the lobby until the bus arrives, within ten or fifteen minutes. (Espere aquí hasta que el bus llegue, dentro de 10 o 15 minutos) EXERCISES Ex. 1. Supply the correct form of the verb in parentheses: 1. If he____________________________ (arrive) on time tomorrow morning, he can go with us on the city tour. 2. lf it _____________________ not ______________________ (rain) tomorrow, we may go to the beach. 3. lf he ____________________________ (be) late this evening, they will not wait for him. 4. When he ____________________________ (come) this afternoon, please let me know. 5. Call me as soon as he ____________________________ (get) here tomorrow morning. 6. Do not leave before I ________________________________________ (tell) you to go. 7.` If he ____________________________ (like) the job next week, he will keep it. 8. If the weather ____________________________ (be) good tomorrow, we will go to the beach. 9. As soon as he ____________________________ (telephone) today, please give him the message. 10. Do not call me tomorrow morning unless he ____________________________ (come) to the office. 11. I will not go to the meeting next Monday unless you ____________________________ (go) too. 12. If he_____________________not _____________________ (come) here soon, we will have to leave without him. Ex. 2. Insert the missing conjunction: UNTIL, WHEN, AS SOON AS, AS LONG AS, WHILE, BEFORE, etc.: 1. We will not leave the hotel ____________________________ you are ready to go, too. 2. I´ll write to you ____________________________ I get to New York next Friday evening. 3. Don´t start moving. You must wait ____________________________ the light changes to green. 4 They will stay in the South West ____________________________ the war lasts. 5. We wilI wait here ____________________________ you telephone this afternoon. 6. You can stay here ____________________________ we go to the movie this evening. 7. You will know him ____________________________ you see him at the meeting tomorrow. 8. We’ll come to see you next week ____________________________ you leave on your vacation. 9. The doctor will arrive within a few minutes. Please, wait here____________________ he arrives. 10. I´ll believe ít ____________________________ I see it

PART III. USE OF “ELSE” /éls/ Y “OR ELSE”/o:r éls/. A. ELSE Esta palabra se usa junto a las palabras derivadas de SOME, ANY y NO (somebody, someone, something, somewhere; anybody, anyone, anything, anywhere; nobody, no one, nothing, nowhere) como un sinónimo de some other person, any other person, no other person, some other thing, any other thing, etc. Escuche, lea y aprenda : Somebody else ( = some other person) will take care of you. (Alguien más se preocupara de ustedes) Is there anything else (= any other thing) that you need? (¿Hay algo más que necesite usted?)

A short course in english for adult students

219

B. OR ELSE /o:r éls/ / OTHERWISE /á!erwáiz/(De lo contrario o de otro modo) OR ELSE se usa como un sinónimo de if not (= o si no). También se puede usar en este caso la palabra OTHERWISE (= de lo contrario o de otro modo) Escuche, lea y aprenda : We must hurry or else (if we don´t) we will be late for the train. = We must hurry, otherwise we will be late for the train. He´d better wait here or else (if he doesn´t) he will miss her. = He´d better wait here, otherwise he will miss her. You´d better tell him about it or else (if you don´t) he´ll be angry with you. = You´d better tell him about it, otherwise he´ll be angry with you. EXERCISES Ex. 1. Substitute the correct expression with ELSE for the words in italics: 1. Did they go any other place? 2. No other person helped him with the work. 3. You must ask some other person about it. 4. Haven’t I met you some other place? 5. They´ve never sold that product in any other place. 6. Did you see any other thing that you liked? 7. Let’s do some other thing tonight. 8. I didn’t tell any other person about it. 9. Can I show you any other thing, Mrs. Smith? 10. There was no other person in the room at that time. 11. Do you have any other thing to tell us about him? 12. Will they go any other place after the concert? ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________

Ex. 2. Join the following pairs of sentences, substituting OR ELSE for the words in italics: 1. We must hurry. If we don’t, we´ll be late. ________________________________________________________________________________ 2. You must do as your mother says. If you don’t, she´ll punish you. ________________________________________________________________________________ 3. We had better hurry. If we don´t, we´ll miss the train. ________________________________________________________________________________ 4. Turn off the radio. If you don’t, you’ll wake the baby. ________________________________________________________________________________ 5. Save your money. If you don’t, you won’t be able to go away on your vacation. ________________________________________________________________________________ 6. You must study hard. If you don’t, you won’t pass the course. ________________________________________________________________________________ 7. You must practise your English every day. If you don’t, you will soon forget it. ________________________________________________________________________________ 8. I must go home right away. If I don’t, my mother will be angry with me. ________________________________________________________________________________ 9. Helen must rest more. If she doesn’t, she may have a nervous breakdown. ________________________________________________________________________________ 10. Put the dog outside. If you don’t he will bark and wake everyone up. ________________________________________________________________________________

220

A short course in english for adult students

Ex. 3. Repeat the previous exercise, but this time substitute the word OTHERWISE for the words in italics: 1. We must hurry; otherwise we´ll be late 2. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 3. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 4. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 5. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 6. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 7. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 8. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 9. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 10. _________________________________________________________________________________________________

VOCABULARY: Study these words THE WORKSHOP /(! axe /æks/ bolt /bóult/ bucket /bákit/ blowtorch / blóuto:rtch/ chisel /tchízel/ drill /dril/ file /fáil/ hammer /hæ ´ mer/ jack /dllæk/ lathe /lei!/ lever /lí:ver/ measuring tape /méllori# téip/ nail /neil/ needle /ní:dl/ nut /nat/ plane /pléin/ pliers /pláiarz/ hacha perno balde soplete cincel taladro lima martillo gata torno palanca huincha de medir clavo aguja tuerca formón alicates
wé:rkshop/

(El taller) serrucho tijeras tornillo desatornillador soldadora pala llave de tuercas escuadra tenazas banco de torno golilla soplete para soldar alambre banco de trabajo alambre llave inglesa

saw /so:/ scissors /sízorz/ screw /skru:/ screwdriver /skru:dráiver/ soldering-iron /sólderi# áiron/ spade /spéid/ spanner /spæ ´ ner/ square /skwéar/ tongs /tongz/ vise /váis/ washer /wósher/ welding torch /wéldi# tó:rtch/ wire /wáiar/ workbench /we:rkbéntch/ wire /wáiar/ wrench /réntch/

A short course in english for adult students

221

Bl 222

Key to answers

UNIT 16
PART I.
Ex. 1. 1. will have left 2. will have changed 3. will have finished 4. will have gone 5. will have had 6. will have completed 7. will have been 8. will have forgotten 9. will have learnt (or learned) 10. will have recovered 11. will have visited 12. will have come - (will have ) gone Ex. 2. (Open answers) Ex. 3. 1. They´ll have finished that building before the end of this year. 2. He´ll have fulfilled / carried out all his plans before the summer ends / is over. 3. Before 6 this evening, we´ll have processed all the information. 4. If we don´t take a taxi / cab, the concert will have already started by the time we get to the theatre. 5. Most birds will have emigrated to the north before winter comes. 6. By / Towards the end of this course I´ll have learnt to talk in English. 7. I you follow your doctor´s advice, very soon you´ll have recovered completely from your surgery 8. Before midnight, the results of the election will have been sent / released to the press

PART II.
A. Ex. 1. 1. He said he would be here at noon 2. I thought I could meet you. 3. He hoped he could be there. 4. I thought it might rain this evening. 5. He wanted to know where she was. 6. He said he was very sorry. 7. The young man told us he was married. 8. I thought it would be very hot this afternoon.9. I thought he would be there by ten o´clock. 10. He believed he could do it. 11. The weather man predicted it would rain. 12. He said he had to work.hard every day. 13. I knew where she lived. 14. Bob wanted to know how many people there were. 15. The boy said he had seen the movie.16. The girl said she was studying for a test. 17. I thought Mr Jones might be in his office. 18. I thought there would be a lot of work to do. 19. I didn´t know where Mary was. 20. I didn´t think Bob would like the new job. Ex. 2. 1. would 2. can 3. lived 4. meant 5. will 6. was going 7. could not 8. had been 9. did not 10. is 11. was 12. might B. Ex. 1 1. arrives 2. does - rain 3. is 4. comes 5. gets 6. tell 7. likes 8. is 9. telephones 10. comes 11. go 12. does - come Ex. 2. 1. unless 2. as soon as 3. until 4. as long as 5. until 6. while 7. when / as soon as 8. before 9. until 10. when / as soon as

PART III.
Ex. 1. 1. Did they go anwhere else? 2. Nobody else helped him with the work. 3. You must ask somebody else about it. 4. Haven’t I met you somewhere else? 5. They´ve never sold that product anywhere else 6. Did you see anything else that you liked? 7. Let’s do something else tonight. 8. 1 didn’t tell anybody else about it. 9. Can I show you anything else, Mrs. Smith? 10. There was nobody else in the room at that time. 11. Do you have anything else to tell us about him? 12. Will they go anywhere else after the concert? Ex. 2. 1. We must hurry; or else we´ll be late. 2. You must do as your mother says; or else she´ll punish you. 3. We had better hurry; or else we´ll miss the train. 4. Turn off the radio; or else you’ll wake the baby. 5. Save your money; or else you won’t be able to go away on your vacation. 6. You must study hard; or else you won’t pass the course. 7 You must practice your English every day; or else you will soon forget it. 8. 1 must go home right away; or else my mother will be angry with me. 9. Helen must rest more; or else she may have a nervous breakdown. 10. Put the dog outside; or else he will bark and wake everyone up. Ex. 3. 1. We must hurry; otherwise we´ll be late. 2. You must do as your mother says; otherwise she´ll punish you. 3. We had better hurry; otherwise we´ll miss the train. 4. Turn off the radio; otherwise you’ll wake the baby. 5. Save your money; otherwise you won’t be able to go away on your vacation. 6. You must study hard; otherwise you won’t pass the course. 7 You must practice your English every day; otherwise you will soon forget it. 8. 1 must go home right away; otherwise my mother will be angry with me. 9. Helen must rest more; otherwise she may have a nervous breakdown. 10. Put the dog outside; otherwise he will bark and wake everyone up.
A short course in english for adult students

223

Bl 224 .

Mr.Jackson saw the accident. 3. He will deliver the merchandise today.) (be + p.O). 4. 17.) (be + p. 5.) (doer) Para cada oración en voz activa hay una oración pasiva correspondiente (Present) (Past) (Future) (Pres. 13. He has fixed the car. The money was taken by him last Monday evening ___________________________________________________ __________________________________________________? ___________________________________________________ __________________________________________________? ___________________________________________________ __________________________________________________? ___________________________________________________ __________________________________________________? ___________________________________________________ __________________________________________________? ___________________________________________________ __________________________________________________? ___________________________________________________ __________________________________________________? ___________________________________________________ __________________________________________________? ___________________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students Active Voice He fixes the car. (Present) (Past) (Future) (Pres. debido a que éste es desconocido o no es importante. Smith teaches that class on Friday. He will have fixed the car.) (doer) A new bridge will be built (by the workers) over that river. perfect) (Past perfect) (Fut. The car was fixed. They will bring the boy tomorrow.) (be + p. He had fixed the car. Somebody has taken my book.UNIT 17 PART 1. The workers will build a new bridge over that river. Change to passive voice: 1. People will forget it in a few days. (P. They had finished the work by noon. The car will be fixed. They have found the child at last. perfect) EXERCISES Ex. 6. They will leave the tickets for you. perfect) Passive Voice The car is fixed (by him). 2.O).V) (D. (P. She has just taken the newspaper.S.S. THE PASSIVE VOICE (La voz pasiva) A.p. (S) (Tr. Mr. 1. 10. 18. 16. Este sujeto pasivo va seguido de una forma del verbo modal BE más el participio pasado del verbo principal. En la voz pasiva. (P. 11. He took the money last Monday evening. The car had been fixed. They fought a big battle here many years ago. The car has been fixed. 12. She ate the cake this morning. 7. 9.V) (D. 14. He will do the work this afternoon. 225 .V) (D. Normalmente en una oración pasiva no se hace mención del sujeto agente (doer). es decir. The car will have been fixed. He fixed the car. He will fix the car. Mrs.p. En una oración en voz activa el verbo principal es un verbo transitivo (transitive verb). Mary prepares the meals in the kitchen (S) (Tr. The letter was written (by Peter) last year. The wind blew the smoke away soon.p.) (doer) The meals are prepared (by Mary) in the kitchen. Smith wrote the book last summer. She broke the plate on purpose. el complemento directo de la oración activa pasa a ser el sujeto pasivo (passive subject) de la oración. (S) (Tr. Peter wrote the letter last year.O). perfect) (Past perfect) (Fut. 15.S. 8. éste va seguido por un complemento directo (direct object). Hay oraciones gramaticales expresadas en VOZ ACTIVA y oraciones gramaticales expresadas en VOZ PASIVA. People speak English all over the world.

Smith. ___________________________________________________ 9. The book was written by Mr. 7. 8. Change to negative and to question form: 1. The book has been returned by John. America was discovered in 1492. The house was struck by lightning. Someone has put all the chairs in the next room. They left the wounded soldiers behind.19. 2. 10. 24. Will the work be done by Mr. The work had been finished by June. 3. __________________________________________________ 8. Longman __________________________________________ 6. They ______________________________________________ 4. The book will be published next spring. This book was written by Mr. 4. They ______________________________________________ 11. ___________________________________________________ Ex. 3. ___________________________________________________ 13. 9. The work won’t be done by Mr. Our exercises are corrected each night by our teacher. Thompson. It was discovered by Christopher Columbus. 2. Smith. The book will be published in June. ___________________________________________________ 15. Smith. 14. 5. The book was found by Mary. Columbus _________________________________________ 14. The merchandise will be delivered tomorrow. He was struck by an automobile. The town will have been captured by Wednesday. A car ran over our dog a short while ago. The city was destroyed by bombs. They will send the book next week. 23. The work will be completed tomorrow. 15. The money has been found. Smith. ___________________________________________________ 5. Smith? ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 226 A short course in english for adult students . America was discovered in 1492. They made this gun by hand. My grandfather _____________________________________ 12. Scott. 22. ___________________________________________________ 3. He _______________________________________________ 10. The e-mail was sent this morning. ___________________________________________________ 7. The lecture was attended by many people. The money had been stolen by one of the boys. The work will be done by Mr. Our class is taught by Mr. 13. The house was built in 1950. 2. 12. The city has been destroyed (by the enemy). 6. 20. 11. The money was stolen by a thief. __________________________________________________? ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. Change to active voice: 1. The books will be brought by John. The lesson is taught by Mr. The dish was broken by the maid. 21. He broke his leg in an accident. Mary found the book. The cries of the child were heard clearly.

The work will be completed next month. was. ________________________________________ by the maid. (Passive) This report has to be sent (by them) today. Why was the train delayed? 10. _________________________________________ in the park. 4. SHOULD. etc. When was this book published? 4. HAVE TO Al cambiar oraciones activas que contienen un verbo modal como can. ___________________________________ for about 2 hours. have to. _________________________________________in Scotland. By whom are your exercises corrected? 9. (Passive) This job must be finished (by them) today. He was injured in an automobile accident. (When) ________________________________________________? 4. _________________________________________by the chef. B. ____________________________________________in 1999. should. ____________________________________ by our instructor.. (Active) They must finish this job today. _______________________________________ in Valparaiso. Where was the money put? 17. The child was finally found in the park. In what country was Helen born? 15. beginning each question with the question word in parentheses: When was America discovered 1. _________________________________________ in the safe. (In what kind of accident) ______________________________________? 9. Where were they married? 14. America was discovered in 1492. How long was the man held by the police? ____________________________ by Christopher Columbus. (Active) They have to send this report today. A short course in english for adult students 227 . When was the news released? 12. The house was built in 1945. The book will be published in June. (Passive) The road was being built (by the men) when I was there C. se debe usar el VERBO MODAL + BE + el PASADO PARTICIPIO del verbo principal. (At what time) ____________________________________________? 8. (When) ________________________________________________? 2. ___________________________________________ in 1492. _________________________________________ in Chicago.. Where was the child finally found? 7. a la voz pasiva. were) + BEING + el PASADO PARTICIPIO del verbo principal. Who will the dinner be prepared by? 8. ________________________________________about 10:30.by / By whom) _____________________________________? Ex. When will the work be completed? 13. The tree was planted by my father. (How) ________________________________________________? 3. Where was the money hidden? 11.. MAY. (Active) They boy can do this exercise easily. LA VOZ PASIVA CON VERBOS MODALES CAN. The money was stolen by one of the servants. ____________________________________ in a wooden box. Who was the money stolen by? 6. 5. _____________________________ by the end of the month. must. (When) ________________________________________________? 7. _____________________________ because of bad weather. (Where) ________________________________________________? 5. (Who. (In what year) ________________________________________________? 10. are. Change to question form. (Passive) This exercise can be done by the boy easily. The house was destroyed by fire. Answer these questions: 1. By whom was the plate broken? 16. (Active) The mechanic is fixing the car now (Passive) The car is being fixed (by the mechanic) now (Active) The men were building the road when I was there. Where was this book published? 5. In what year was America discovered? 3. (Who. The mail is delivered at ten o’clock every day.Ex.by / By whom) _______________________________________________? 6. La voz pasiva de los tiempos PRESENTE Y PASADO CONTINUO se construye usando la forma continua del verbo modal BE (am. LA VOZ PASIVA EN LOS TIEMPOS CONTINUOS. may.. MUST. By whom was America discovered? 2. is. __________________________________one of the servants.

___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ The material is being sent (by them) today. How. 12. Change to negative and to question form. 2. They cannot put those things here. 12. Where. 8. We must lose no time. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. She is typing that letter now. 9. They are sending troops there today. They are sending the material today. 6. We are using this room. He has to do it immediately. 6. 9. They are transferring him to another class. He cannot finish this today. This must be checked twice. 9. He was killed in an accident. The police may hold him for several days. 9. 12. 3. He should send this message right away. Change to passive voice: 1. 7. They have put the chairs in the room. They are sending the merchandise today. The story is being published today. They were cleaning the office this morning. Was he killed in an accident? How was he killed? ___________________________________________________ __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________? ___________________________________________________ __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________? 228 A short course in english for adult students . We have to write these exercises at home. 6.Ex. 7. . John brought the mail yesterday. We must help him. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ This can be finished (by us) right away. They are defending the city well. John will bring the mail tomorrow. 3. They have to deliver the books today. They may send the fax tomorrow. 7. We must find him immediately. 2. State each question twice. The mail is brought by John every day. John may bring the mail tomorrow. John brings the mail every day. once in simple form and once with some question word like Who. He sent the e-mail last week. 3.: 1. John has brought the mail every day. 11. 10. 5. 2. Ex. Ex. 3. We can finish this right away. 5. 11. John has to bring the mail every day. 8. John is bringing the mail now. They are holding the meeting today. He wasn’t killed in an accident. 11. Change to passive voice: 1. They may deliver the goods tomorrow. He is finishing the work now. Change to passive voice : 1. 10. 7. They are considering that question now. 4. 8. 8. You can use this room for the lesson. By whom. 5. 6. 2. They were discussing the question when I went in. They are examining him now. 4. 4. etc. 10.

_________________________________________________________________________________________________ 2. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 7. It has to be done at once. 8. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 3. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students 229 . lt can be done three or four times a month. ___________________________________________________ __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________? ___________________________________________________ __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________? ___________________________________________________ __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________? ___________________________________________________ __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________? ___________________________________________________ __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________? ___________________________________________________ __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________? ___________________________________________________ __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________? ___________________________________________________ __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________? ___________________________________________________ __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________? D. EL SIGNO “SE” EN ESPAÑOL En español. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 4. lt has to be sent right away. 9. Smith. The material is being prepared by Mr. Se enviaron todas las invitaciones por correo aéreo. This book was published in 1945. 7.Reese. Esto se puede hacer fácilmente. no siempre se expresa la voz pasiva con el verbo SER más un PARTICIPIO PASADO de un verbo principal. 5. si se usan las herramientas apropiadas. The class is taught by Mr. Muchas cartas se envían al extranjero desde esta oficina todos los días. The money has been sent to New York. Se están desarrollando nuevos métodos para controlar la inflación. It should be sent immediately. “A new bridge will be built here next year” Ex. This room can be used for our meetings. Se han descubierto otros planetas en nuestro sistema solar. 12. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 5. sin embargo es muy frecuente el uso del signo “SE” en este tipo de oraciones. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 6. 11. 10. Este libro se ha traducido a varios idiomas. 6. Compare las siguientes oraciones pasivas: El español es hablado en este país Una gran batalla fue librada en este lugar Un nuevo puente será construido aquí el próximo año En este país se habla español En este lugar se libró una gran batalla Aquí se construirá un nuevo puente el próximo año Estas mismas oraciones se pueden traducir al inglés de la siguiente manera: “Spanish is spoken in this country”. Translate the following sentences into English: 1. Se deben construir nuevos caminos en esta parte del país. “A big battle was fought here”.4. 10.

_________________________________________________________________________________________________ 5. Next time. Se construirán varios hospitales en el país durante los próximos 5 años. By the end of the 90’s. several animals will be sent into space in order to study the effects of weightlessness. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 2. It is considered that English has become a universal language. 1. During this week. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 10. Translate the following sentences into Spanish. 11. Several different techniques may be applied. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 7. 10. All kinds of computers are repaired here. 230 A short course in english for adult students . Ex. the comet will be easily seen near the Southern Cross _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 8. most goals had been successfully attained. using the word “SE” in each case. A new type of missile has been tested recently. The information is being analyzed thoroughly. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 6. The economic policies have been changed in order to control inflation. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 3.8. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 9. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 9. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 4. Durante ese año se habían llevado a cabo varios proyectos importantes. Se deberían mejorar los servicios de transporte publico en esta ciudad. The data was being processed at that moment.

He ______________________________ (meet) us in Macy’s. This fax ______________________________ (send) yesterday. 1. 2. 2. We expect him to leave for Europe next week. He is supposed to leave tomorrow morning. 12. Se supone que Bob está aquí ahora. Change to introduce SUPPOSED TO: 1. He isn’t supposed to leave tomorrow morning. (Passive Voice) 13. 5. 8. 4. The train ______________________________ (be) faster than the bus. (Passive Voice) Ex. (Passive Voice) 15. (Passive Voice) 14. 7. They are supposed to leave (leave) at ten o’clock. We expect the parade to begin soon. (Present) Helen is supposed (by us) to arrive tomorrow. He ______________________________ (send) this letter yesterday. We expect the weather to be hot tomorrow. 11. 8. 6. We expect her to bring the book with her. 4. Supply the correct form of SUPPOSED TO: 1. (Future) This book is supposed to have been published in 1975. 7. We expect the bank to open at nine o’clock. Se supone que este libro fue publicado en 1975. 2. These chairs ______________________________ (put) in the next room. 3. 12. He ______________________________ (come) tomorrow at five. 11. They expected the war to be over sooner. WHERE. Se supone que Helen llegará mañana. John ______________________________ (be) a better student than Henry. This book ______________________________ (publish) last year. 10. He was supposed to bring the money last night. Is he supposed to leave tomorrow morning? When is he supposed to leave? ___________________________________________________ __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________? A short course in english for adult students 231 . Change to negative and to question form. WHAT TIME. THE IDIOMATIC VERB PHRASE “BE SUPPOSED TO” (La expresión idiomatica “se supone que”) Esta expresión se usa para referirse a una obligación del sujeto de llevar a cabo una promesa o un compromiso. 3. He ______________________________ (be) here yesterday at three o’clock. 5. He ______________________________ (be) here now. 6. En las ideas futuras se debe usar el verbo BE en presente. Se suponía que el barco llegaría anoche (Past) Bob is supposed (by us) to be here now. 9. The merchandise ______________________________ (send) tomorrow. once in simple form and once with some question word like WHEN.) ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. We expect our lesson to last one hour.PART II. (John is supposed to come at six o’clock. We expect John to come at six o’clock. State each question twice. We expected him to arrive last night. They expect the train to arrive at four o‘clock. We expect our lesson to finish at ten o’clock. We expect the bus to stop here. 3. They ______________________________ (deliver) the merchandise last week. He ______________________________ (know) her well. He ______________________________(call) me tomorrow. Ex. Esta es una oración pasiva que surge debido a que “se supone” o “se espera” que el sujeto realice la acción prometida o el compromiso adquirido. etc. 9. 2. The ship was supposed (by the public and by the officials) to arrive last night. 10. Esta frase idiomática se usa solamente en los tiempos presente y pasado.: 1.

4. The King is supposed to visit the USA in May. The letter was supposed to be sent yesterday. 5. We were supposed to meet them on 42nd Street.A. 6. 8. 10. ___________________________________________________ __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________? ___________________________________________________ __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________? ___________________________________________________ __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________? ___________________________________________________ __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________? ___________________________________________________ __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________? ___________________________________________________ __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________? ___________________________________________________ __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________? ___________________________________________________ __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________? 232 A short course in english for adult students . They´re supposed to finish the job tomorrow. He was supposed to telephone me yesterday. He´s supposed to be living somewhere in L.. 9.3. The book is supposed to be published in June. 7. They´re supposed to start the work soon.

VOCABULARY: Study these words THE ARMED FORCES /(i á:rmd fó:rsiz/ (Las Fuerzas Armadas (I)) Army /á:rmi/ Air Force /éar fó:rs/ ´ #ks/ Ranks /ræ Commander /kománder/ Subordinate /sabó:rdinit/ Ejército Fuerza Aérea filas comandante subalterno Navy /néivi/ Rank /ræ ´ #k/ Officer /ófiser/ Superior /supíarior/ Marina rango. bomba A short course in english for adult students 233 .) compañía grupo (cab. BRANCHES /bræ Armored Cavalry /á:rmord kæ ´ valri/ Caballería Blindada Medical /médikal/ Airborne /éarbó:rn/ aerotransportada Mechanized /mékanáizd/ Artillery /a:rtílori/ Artillería Ordnance /ó:rdnans/ Engineers /endlliníarz/ Ingenieros Signal /sígnal/ Finance /fáinans/ Intendencia Transportation /transportéishon/ Infantería Infantry /ínfantri/ Sanidad Mecanizado material de guerra Telecomunicaciones Transportes COMMISSIONED OFFICERS /komíshond ófiserz/ (Oficiales comisionados) Full General /ful dlléneral/ General de Ejército Major /méidllor/ Lieutenant General /luténant dlléneral/Teniente General Captain /kæ ´ ptin/ Major General /méidllor dlléneral/ Mayor General First Lieutenant /fé:rst luténant/ Brigadier General /brigadíar dlléneral/ Brigadier General Second Lieutenant /sékond luténant/ Colonel /ké:rnel/ Coronel Ensign /énsin/ Lieutenant Colonel /luténant ké:rnel/ Teniente Coronel Cadet /kadét/ NON-COMMISSIONED OFFICERS /non komíshond ófiserz/ (Suboficiales) Sergeant Major /sá:rdllent méidllor/ Sargento Mayor (US) Private First Class /práivit férst kla:s/ Staff Sergeant /sta:f sá:rdllent/ Sargento Mayor (UK) Lance Corporal /láns kó:rpral/ Sergeant First Class /sá:rdllent fé:rst kla:s/Sargento Primero Private /práivit/ Sergeant /sá:rdllent/ Sargento Segundo Recruit /rékrut/ Corporal /kó:rporal/ Cabo TACTICAL UNITS /tæ ´ ktikal iúnits/ Squad /skwod/ Platoon /platú:n/ Troop /tru:p/ Company /kámpni/ Squadron /skuódron/ Battery /bæteri/ (Unidades tácticas) escuadra pelotón escuadrón (cab. pistola ´ nd granéid/ granada de mano Hand grenade /hæ Howitzer /hóuitser/ obús Knife /naif/ cuchillo Machine gun /mashí:n gán/ ametralladora Mass destruction weapon /mæs distrákshon wèpon/arma de destrucción masiva Missile /mízil/ misil Mortar /mó:rtar/ mortero Mine /main/ mina Pistol /pístol/ pistola Rifle /ráifl/ fusil Rocket launcher /rókit ló:ntcher/ lanzacohetes Sword /só:rd/ espada Shell /shel/ proyectil. proyectil Propellant /propélant/ Cartridge case /ká:rtridll kéiz/ vainilla Shrapnel /shræ ´ pnel/ Primer /práimer/ estopin TACTICAL WEAPONS /tæktikal wéponz/ (Armas tácticas) bomba Bomb /bom/ Bullet /búlit/ bala Dagger /dæ ´ ger/ daga Flame-thrower /fléim "róuer/ lanzallamas Gun /gan/ cañón.blin.) Battalion /batæ ´ lion/ Regiment ´/rédlliment/ Brigade /brigéid/ Division /dividllon/ Corps /ko:r/ Army /a:rmi Mayor Capitán Teniente Subteniente Alférez (en la marina) Cadete Soldado Primero (US) Soldado Primero (UK) Soldado Soldado conscripto batallón regimiento brigada división cuerpo Ejército propelente o pólvora metralla o esquirla ROUND OF AMMUNITION /ráund ov amiuníshon/ (Tiro de munición) Bullet /búlit/ bala. grado Oficial superior ´ ntchiz/(Ramas o servicios) ARMS /á:rmz/armas.) batería (art.

coraje decisión Decisiveness /disáisivnes/ Dependability /dipendabíliti/ confiabilidad Determination /diterminéishon/ determinación Dignity /dígniti/ dignidad Echelon of command /éshelon v komæ ´ nd/ escalón de mando Endurance /endiúarans/ resistencia PARTS OF A RIFLE /pa:rts v ráifl/ (Partes del fusil) Aiming mechanism /éimi# mékanizm/ mecanismo de puntería Barrel /bæ ´ rel/ cañón Bolt /boult/ cerrojo Butt /bat/ culata Chamber /tchéimber/ recámara Firing mechanism /fáiari# mékanízm/ mecanismo de disparo Firing pin /fáiari# pin/ percutor Front sight /fránt sáit/ punto de mira Hammer /hæ ´ mer/ martillo Locking lug /lóki# lag/ asegurador THE TANK /!e tæ ´ #k/ (El tanque) Armor /á:mor/ Armor plate /á:mor pléit // Gun /gan/ Gun tube /gán tiu:b/ Gunner /gáner/ blindaje plancha de blindaje cañón tubo del cañón artilllero Main Battle Tank / mein bætl tæ#k/ tanque de combate Mine sweeper /main suí:per/ barreminas Speedboat /spi:d bout/ lancha de desembarco Submarine /sábmarí:n/ submarino Tank /tæ#k/ tanque Truck /trak/ camión Warship /wó:rship/ buque de guerra ´ Enthusiasm /en"usiázn/ Esprit de corps /esprí: de kó:r/ Initiative /iníshiativ/ Integrity /intégriti/ Justice /dllástis/ Leader /lí:der/ Morale /morá:l/ Pride /práid/ Span of control /spæ ´ n v kontróul/ Subordinate /sabó:rdinit/ Tact /tæ ´ kt/ Trait /tréit/ Willing obedience /wíli# obí:diens/ entusiasmo espíritu de cuerpo iniciativa integridad justicia líder. gatillo guardamonte Tank driver /tæ ´ #k dráiver/ Tank commander /tæ ´ #k komá:nder/ Tracks /træ ´ ks/ Turret /tárit/ Wheel /wi:l/ conductor del tanque comandante del tanque orugas torreta rueda posición de pie posición en cuclillas FIRING POSITIONS /fáiari# posillonz/ (Posiciones de disparo) Kneeling /ní:li#/ position posición arrodillada Standing /stæ ´ ndi#/ position Prone /próun/ position posición tendida Squat /skuot/ position Sitting /síti#/ position posición sentada 234 A short course in english for adult students .TACTICAL VEHICLES /tæ ´ ktikal víiklz/ (Vehículos tácticos) Airplane /éarplein/ avión ´ rier/ portaviones Airplane carrier /éarplein kæ APC /éi pí: sí:/ transporte de personal Bomber /bómer/ bombardero Chopper /tchóper/ helicóptero cazabombardero Fighter plane /fáiter pléin/ Helicopter /hélikopter/ helicóptero LEADERSHIP /lí:dership/ (Liderazgo) conducta Behavior /bihéivior/ Chain of command /tchéin v komá:nd/ cadena de mando Command /komæ ´ nd/ mando Commander /kománder/ comandante Confidence /kónfidens/ confianza Control /kontróul/ control Cooperation /kuoperéishon/ cooperación Courage /káridll/ valor. comandante moral orgullo ámbito de control subalterno tacto. característica obediencia espontánea Magazine /mæ ´ gazi:n/ Muzzle /máz l/ Rear sight /ríar sáit/ Receiver /risí:ver/ Sighting mechanism /sáiti# mekanízm/ Sling /sli#/ Stock /stok/ Trigger /trígger/ Trigger guard /trigger gá:rd/ cargador trompetilla alza caja de mecanismos mecanismo de puntería correa porta fusil cantonera disparador. criterio rasgo.

/ Was the dish broken by. 24. He may be held by the police for several days. 13. That class is taught by Mr.. 10. / Was the city destroyed by. His leg was broken (by him) in an accident. The smoke was blown away by the wind soon. 9. The work is being finished by him now.In what year was the house built? 10. 10. 5. The enemy has destroyed the city. 11. This message should be sent by him right away. 9. The accident was seen by Mrs. A big battle was fought (by them) here many years ago. 4.? 14. My grandfather built the house in 1910. Those things cannot be put by them here.. 7 Our teacher corrects our exercises each night. Smith on Friday. Troops are being sent (by them) there today./ Is the lesson taught by. Jackson.. 13.? 8. The book will be sent by them next week. 11.? 11. The work had been finished by them by noon.? 10. 7. 2. Who was the money stolen by? / By whom was the money stolen? Ex. 19. Our dog was run over by a car a short while ago.The house wasn´t struck by lightning.The book won´t be published in June.The cries of the child weren´t heard clearly.. / Was the book written by. They´re corrected by our instructor. 6. 6 Many people attended the lecture. It was broken by the maid. 5. 8. 7.. This gun was made (by them) by hand . Ex.The money hadn´t been stolen by one of the boys. English is spoken (by people) all over the world. It was delayed because of bad weather conditions. 4. 10. The book wasn´t written by Mr. Ex. 4. Columbus discovered America in 1492. That question is being considered by them now.. 13... 20. The fax may be sent by them tomorrow. 3.? 12. All the chairs have been put by someone in the next room. 12.. 6. 3. 15. 17. How was the house destroyed? 3. 12. 8. It was hidden in a wooden box. The book was written by Mr./ Will the work be completed. The cake was eaten by her this morning 4. The wounded soldiers were left behind (by them). The goods may be delivered by them tomorrow. 16. 6.. 10. It was discovered in 1492. 2.America wasn´t discovered in 1492.. 8. 4. 15.? 5. The mail was brought by John yesterday... 1. This room is being used by us.The money hasn´t been found. / Was the house struck by. 22. 21.. It will be prepared by the chef. 17. The newspaper has just been taken by her 6. They will have captured the town by Wednesday. The work won´t be completed tomorrow. This cannot be finished by him today. 14. He was held for about two hours. / Will the book be published in.The book hasn´t been returned by John. It was discovered by Christopher Columbus. The work will be done by him this afternoon. 2.. 3. 7. 10. This room can be used by you for the lesson.? 15. 8. 12. He must be helped by us . 11. Mr.? Ex. 16. They were married in Valparaiso. When will the book be published? 7.Scott wrote this book. 2. / Had the money been stolen by. Ex. 2. The meeting is being held by them today. It wasn´t discovered by Christopher Columbus. The question was being discussed by them when I went in..? 9. / Was it discovered by. The city wasn´t destroyed by bombs. Smith teaches our class. Smith last summer 5. It has to be done by him immediately. 23. It was released at about 10:30 12. The tickets will be left for you by them. It was put in the safe. That letter is being typed by her now.? 6.Key to answers UNIT 17 PART I.. Who was the tree planted by? / By whom was the tree planted? 6.(At) what time is the mail delivered every day? 8. 2. 3. These exercises have to be written by us at home. 5. It was published in 1999. 11.. John will bring the books. The city is being defended by them well 11. 5. 2. 5. Ex.The lesson isn´t taught by Mr. My book has been taken by somebody. / Were the cries of the child heard clearly? 7. He´s being examined by them now.. The child has been found by them at last 15. No time must be lost by us. The office was being cleaned by them this morning. Where was the child finally found? 5. It was published in Chicago. The boy will be brought by them tomorrow. 8. 14.. The mail will be brought by John tomorrow. 7. 3. It will be forgotten(by people) in a few days. 6. 3. The mail has been A short course in english for adult students 235 . It was stolen by one of the servants. 8. They will deliver the merchandise tomorrow. 2. Ex. Mr.. / Has the book been returned by. 7. When will the work be completed? 4.? 3.The telegram wasn´t delivered this morning. He had finished the work by June. 4. 9. In what kind of accident was he injured? 9. An automobile struck him 9. Longman will publish the book next spring. 14. It will be completed by the end of the month. / Was the telegram delivered. He´s being transferred by them to another class. 1. 4. The plate was broken by her on purpose. 12. He was finally found in the park. A thief stole the money. Ex. She was born in Scotland. 18. 9.? 4. Smith. The merchandise will be delivered by him today 3.. Thompson. The dish wasn´t broken by the maid.. / Has the money been found? 13. / Was America discovered in. 2..

. / Is he supposed to be living. is supposed to come 3. several important projects have been carried out.. Se considera que el Inglés ha llegado a ser un idioma universal. / Has the money been sent to NY? / Where has the money been sent to? 8. He must be found by us immediately.. / Does it have to be done at once? / When does it have to be done? 12.. 10. The train is supposed to arrive at. 5. It doesn´t have to be sent right away. 2.. 1. 11. New roads have to / must be built in this part of the country. 6. Durante esta semana se verá el cometa fácilmente cerca de la Cruz del Sur. She is supposed to bring the. 8. 5.. 8. / Is the material being prepared by Mr. Reese? / Who is the material being prepared by? 10.. It doesn´t have to be done at once.. 12. 10.. 5.? / When was he supposed to telephone you? 8. / Was he supposed to telephone. He wasn´t supposed to telephone.. 7. is supposed to call 9. 3. 1. / Should it be sent immediately? / When should it be sent? 11. 8. 7. Ex. are supposed to be put Ex. 1.. New methods are being developed to control inflation. The money hasn´t been sent to NY. Se estaban procesando los datos en ese momento.. 10. Ex. 2. The e-mail was sent by him last week. The parade is supposed to begin. se habían logrado satisfactoriamente la mayor parte de las metas.. 6. 5.. The story isn´t being published today / Is the story being published today? / When is the story being published? 3. It shouldn´t be sent immediately. 2.11. La próxima vez. 4. Other planets have been discovered in our solar system. All the invitations were sent by air mail. Smith / Is the class taught by Mr.. / Is the King supposed to visit. This book has been translated into several languages.. Se pueden aplicar varias técnicas diferentes.. The war was supposed to be over. is supposed to be sent 13. 10. The mail may be brought by John tomorrow. Several hospitals will be built in the country during the next five years. Reese.? / When is the King supposed to visit the USA? 236 A short course in english for adult students . se enviarán varios animales al espacio para estudiar los efectos de la ingravidez / falta de gravedad PART II. 9. The class isn´t taught by Mr. We aren´t supposed to meet them. is supposed to be 6. The letter wasn´t supposed to be sent yesterday / Was the letter supposed to be sent yesterday? / When was the letter supposed to be sent? 6. The merchandise is being sent by them today. The bus is supposed to stop.? / Where are we supposed to meet them? 9. / Can this room be used for our meetings? / What can this room be used for? 7. 9. is supposed to be 8. 2. / Does it have to be sent right away? / When does it have to be sent? 6.. were supposed to deliver 4. He wasn´t supposed to bring it. is supposed to be 7.brought by John every day. 3. The bank is supposed to open at. The books have to be delivered by them today. / Can it be done three or four times a month? / How many times a month / How often can it be done? 5.. 4.? / Where is he supposed to be living? 7. was supposed to be 11. The weather is supposed to be hot. is supposed to know 12.. 12. 6. They aren´t supposed to finish tomorrow. The mail is being brought by John now. Aquí se repara todo tipo de computadores.. Ex. The material isn´t being prepared by Mr. 10. Public transport services should be improved in this city.. Hacia fines del la década de los 90. Se ha probado un nuevo tipo de misíl recientemente. 7. 4. This mustn´t be checked twice. The mail has to be brought by John every day. He is supposed to leave for. was supposed to send 5. It can´t be done three or four times a month.. He isn´t supposed to be living. is supposed to have been sent 14. 2. Our lesson is supposed to finish at. 6... During that year.. / Was he supposed to bring it.. is supposed to meet 10.. 9. 11. 2.. Ex. 9..... 9.... 8.. / Must this be checked twice? / How many times must this be checked? 4. / Are we supposed to meet them. 3. The King isn´t supposed to visit... / Are they supposed to finish tomorrow. Se han cambiado las políticas económicas con el fin de controlar la inflación.. 2. This room can´t be used for our meetings. The chairs have to be put by them in the room. They aren´t supposed to start soon / Are they supposed to start soon? / When are they supposed to start the work? 4. he was supposed to arrive. 7.? / When are they supposed to finish? 5.Many letters are sent abroad from this office every day. This book wasn´t published in 1945. The book isn´t supposed to be published in June / Is the book supposed to be published in June? / When is the book supposed to be published? 10. Smith? / Who is the class taught by? Ex. / Was this book published in 1945? / When was this book published? 9. Se está analizando minuciosamente la información. This can be done easily if the right / appropriate tools are used.. 3.. Our lesson is supposed to last.? / When was he supposed to bring it? 3..

tendrás un accidente) A short course in english for adult students 237 . you would have seen him. Existen tres tipos de oraciones condicionales: a.. If he comes tomorrow. (Si él hubiera venido acá ayer. you´ll have an accident. ORACIONES CONDICIONALES DEL PRIMER TIPO: FUTURO POSIBLE En este tipo de oraciones condicionales.) . she´ll miss her train. 3.. (Si él viene mañana. listen and repeat these examples: 1. 2. you will be able to see everything.. 6. 5. Una de ellas es la CONDICIÓN. (Si no eres cuidadoso cuando estás conduciendo.. (Si veo a Juan en la fiesta. you will see him. (Si él viene mañana. PASADO IRREAL (Past Unreal): If he had come here yesterday. perderá su tren) If you aren´t careful when you´re driving. (Si. ORACIONES CONDICIONALES Introducción 1. you will see him. (Si te sientas aquí. La estructura de este tipo de oraciones condicionales es la siguiente: Condición If + Subject + Present Resultado Subject + will + Infinitive Read.. Son oraciones condicionales aquellas oraciones que empiezan con la palabra IF. (Si él viene mañana. too.UNIT 18 PART I. you would see him more often. we will go to the beach (Si el tiempo está bueno mañana. le daré tu mensaje) If you sit here.. Las oraciones condicionales son oraciones compuestas. la segunda es la cláusula de RESULTADO. you will see him. podrás ver todo) If you don´t study hard. 4. ya que están formadas por dos cláusulas. no te sacarás una buena nota) If Diana doesn´t leave at once. 4. I´ll give him your message. El orden de las cláusulas que componen una oración condicional puede ser invertido If he comes tomorrow.. You will see him if he comes tomorrow. tú lo verías más seguido también) c. tú lo habrías visto) I. lo más probable es que se dé el resultado previsto en la cláusula de Resultado. (Si no estudias duro. cuando la condición introducida por IF se materializa.. lo verás) (Condición) (Resultado) 3.) 2. iremos a la playa) If I see John at the party. (Si Diana no sale de inmediato.. you will not get a good mark. PRESENTE IRREAL (Present Unreal): If he came here more often. (Si él viniera acá más seguido. FUTURO POSIBLE (Future Possible): If he comes tomorrow. introducida por la palabra IF.. If the weather is good tomorrow. If he comes tomorrow.). tú lo verás. b.

so she doesn´t go to the beach very often) La estructura de este tipo de oraciones condicionales es la siguiente: Condición If + Subject + Past Resultado Subject + would/could/might + Infinitive Es importante observar que cuando se usa el verbo TO BE en estas oraciones debemos usar el subjuntivo de dicho verbo. compraría muchas cosas) EXERCISES Ex. he will tell us what happened. 4. verá al Príncipe) I will wait here until she telephones. UNTIL (hasta que). I would buy that suit. aún cuando nos estamos refiriendo a una acción futura.1. 238 A short course in english for adult students . I would study French. If I ________________________(be) in your position. I would go if I ________________________ (have) more time. she would go to the beach more often. we could study better. he would be a better student. 11. él viajaría en auto a California) (Real situation: He doesn´t have a car. we would go for a walk. (lf Mary had more time. she will see the Prince. 10. We would speak better if we ________________________ (have) more practice in conversation. this evening. (Si yo fuera millonario. etc. 5.Es importante notar aquí que en la condición. If the weather ________________________ (be) warmer. she would study more. so he can´t drive to California) If Mary knew how to swim. como tomorrow. 8. lf he ________________________ (prepare) his lessons every night. 3. cuando se está usando una expresión de tiempo futuro. If he ________________________ (know) her better. él nos contará qué pasó) As soon as she opens her eyes. BEFORE (antes que). (Si John estuviera aquí. ella iría a la playa más seguido) (Real situation: She doesn´t know how to swim. es decir todas las personas deben usar la forma WERE. Del mismo modo. next Monday morning. 9. él nos ayudaría) If I were a millionaire I would buy many things. 6. etc.) 2. John would do it if he ________________________ (be) not so busy. AFTER (después que). he could go with her to the party. she would study more. lf John ________________________ (be) here now. listen and repeat these examples: When Kevin comes this afternoon. he would help us.. If Mary comes tomorrow (No. ORACIONES CONDICIONALES DEL SEGUNDO TIPO: PRESENTE IRREAL En este tipo de oraciones condicionales nos planteamos una situación hipotética (es contraria a la realidad) If John had a car. If John were here now he would help us. Supply the proper form of the verb in parentheses in the following PRESENT-UNREAL conditional statements: 1. “If Mary will come”). Read. (Esperaré aquí hasta que ella llame por teléfono) II. she would speak English better. lf our room ________________________ (be) larger. lf Mary ________________________ (have) more time. el verbo debe ir en presente simple (y no en futuro). lf I ________________________ (have) the money. (Cuando Kevin venga esta tarde. WHILE (mientras). AS SOON AS (en cuanto). lf Helen ________________________ (be) a good student. AS LONG AS (durante todo el tiempo que). debe usar el tiempo presente (y no el futuro) después de los conectores WHEN (cuando). 7. he would drive to California (Si John tuviera un auto. I will give her your message. UNLESS (a menos que). (Si Mary supiera nadar. (En cuanto ella abra los ojos. 12.

... If he came to class more often. __________________________________________________ 10.. I.. 5. 12. 9. If I have more time . we ______________________________ (go) to the beach.. He has very little practice in speaking. Mary isn’t here now. If he goes to the party.. he will pass. ___________________________________________________ 6. 9... 4. he________________________ (learn) more. 3. he ________________________ (take) trip to Japan. If today were a holiday. ___________________________________________________ 5. 6. he. 6. If he came to class on time..) 2. If he studies hard.. he will meet her. I will read more books. but if. ___________________________________________________ 10... She ________________________ (go) with us if she were not so busy. ___________________________________________________ 6. but if. Change to Present Unreal Conditions: 1. lf John prepared his lessons every night.. 2. ___________________________________________________ 7. I will go to the beach. but if. ___________________________________________________ 12. If we have more practice. ___________________________________________________ 4. He doesn’t like to study English... but if. he would go) 2. William never comes to class on time. we. He has very few friends.. 11. If he had more time.. we will speak better. He would speak better if. ___________________________________________________ 3.. If he came to class regularly. If he is here... he.. ___________________________________________________ 12... ___________________________________________________ 9. would be very happy. ___________________________________________________ 7. but if. If I knew her well. but if. he. ___________________________________________________ 4. ___________________________________________________ 11.. If I could speak French. If I were free tomorrow. ___________________________________________________ 5.. he. lf he were here. If he comes. they will succeed. lf he had more money. 7. (If he had time..... he will go. 4. he can help us.. (John does not study hard. (If he were here.. he ________________________ (be) a better student. If today were a holiday. but if. He has very little free time.. 5. If he studied more. If he has time. Supply the proper form of the verb in parentheses: 1.. he ________________________ (feel) better. ___________________________________________________ Ex. I will go to the movie. ___________________________________________________ 11. Complete the following by using Present Unreal Conditions: 1.. 2 . I. I don’t speak English well. If he went to bed earlier. ___________________________________________________ 8. She ________________________ (speak) English better if she had more practice. I __________________________ (visit) the museum Ex.) 2. lf I knew her. 7.. lf I am free tomorrow.Ex. If the weather is cold. lf they try hard.. he. he ___________________________ (work) harder. lf John were here. he will make good progress. 3. 10. She ________________________ (make) more progress if she studied more. ___________________________________________________ 8. I ________________________ (speak) to her. but if. I can’t speak French. Complete the following: 1. I am not in Florida now.. but if he studied hard he would learn more quickly.. he would help us. 8. but if.. John does not study hard but if. 8.. I. ___________________________________________________ 3. Mary does not prepare her lessons. She has very little money.. If l were in Florida now. 4.. I. he will see her. but if. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students 239 . he ________________________ (help) us. ___________________________________________________ 9. but if. lf I don’t have to work.. If he prepares his lessons. 5. 11.. If I were you.. 3. If he were stronger . we will not go. 10. ___________________________________________________ Ex.

If I (know. If today were Sunday. we. Ex. knew) how to swim. If he (knows. If you knew English perfectly. If I were you. I will go to the movie. he could telephone me. will come) here tomorrow. have) time tomorrow.. habría aprobado su examen). how would you spend it? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 7. I would go swimming every day. I am sure he would... 6. were) in your position. knew) my number. He said he (may. had) the time. I would study French.) 2. 9. If you had much money. Would you speak English better if you had more practice in conversation? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 4. If he (can. 11. would) be here soon. 4. He would speak better if. Mary told me that she (can. 8.. If you studied harder. When John (comes. 10.. If you had an automobile. (Si John hubiera estudiado más. they would have called you up. where would you go and what would you do? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 8.. John said he (will. 12. Choose the correct form: 1. he would have passed his examination. I would. Mary would go with us if. If I (had. If I (was. (Si ellos hubieran conocido su número telefónico. will be) nice tomorrow. If John had studied hard. what other language would you begin to study? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ III. I (will. where would you drive this weekend? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 3. what country would you visit first? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 6. Would John speak English better if he spent more time on his lessons? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 9. 3. Mary will talk with him. 13. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. might) be late. could) not come. If you could visit any country in the world. te habrían llamado) (Real situation: They didn´t call you up because they didn´t have your telephone number) La estructura de este tipo de oraciones condicionales es la siguiente: Condición If + Subject + Past perfect Resultado Subject + would have/could have/might have + Past participle 240 A short course in english for adult students . we may drive to the country.. 7. 7. 5..12. (Real situation: He didn´t pass his examination because he didn´t study hard) If they had known your telephone number. 14. would) walk to school. If today were Sunday. could) help us. (lf I were in your position.. 15.. 6. If today were a holiday. Answer these questions: 1. If the weather (is. would you get better marks in all your subjects? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 5. ORACIONES CONDICIONALES DEL TERCER TIPO: PASADO IRREAL En este tipo de oraciones nosotros nos referimos a una situación hipotética (contraria a la realidad) en el pasado. We would go for a walk in the park if. where would you go? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 2. He would go to the theater more often if he (have.

I didn’t have a car last winter. Supply the correct form of the verb in parentheses: 1. I would have visited you if I________________________ (know) you were living in New York. 8. If I________________________(have) your address. but if. We ________________________ (go) to the movie last night if we had been free. (succeed) . but if _____________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 4. He would have gotten sick if he ________________________ (go) out in the rain. I ________________________ (help) him if he had asked me. este tipo de oraciones condicionales se expresan sin IF. 4. 4. EXERCISES Ex. He would have come to the party if he had known (know) about it. She didn’t come on time. 9. They ________________________ (drive) to the country if they had had a car. but if he had prepared them he would have learned English better . 2. Had he known that you were ill. 10. 1. If I________________________ (be) in your place. I would have been glad to go. John didn’t prepare his lessons. 9. I would have called on you. 7. We ________________________ (be) glad to meet you if you had invited us. he ________________________(catch ) cold. but if ___________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 10. He didn’t tell me about it. John wasn’t at the meeting yesterday. I would not have been so angry. 7. they would have gone to the park.En situaciones formales o literarias. he he would have succeeded. 3. 2. He ________________________ (be) angry if he had learned the truth. Complete the following sentences by adding a PAST-UNREAL conditional statement: 1. 6. 6. but if ______________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 8. 5. but if ___________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students 241 . but if ___________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 9. If the weather ________________________(be) nice yesterday. but if_________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 11. 10. I ________________________ (tell) you about it if I had known all the facts. 5. He couldn’t speak English at the time. but if ______________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 12. If he had studied more. If he________________________ (tell) me the truth. I didn’t have your telephone number. If yesterday ________________________ (be) a holiday. I didn’t know his name. En estos casos el verbo modal HAD precede al sujeto. I wasn’t in Florida last winter. Supply the correct form of the verb in parentheses: 1. I would have told him. He________________________ (write) to you if he had had your address. he would not have caught cold. Mary didn’t come to school yesterday. 8. If he had not worn his overcoat. If he ________________________ (wear) his overcoat. he would have come to see you . 3. 2. I wasn’t in his position. but if ___________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 6. Ex. but if ___________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 5. Ex. we would have gone to the beach. We ________________________ (come) earlier if we had known about it. 2. but if ________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 7. 3. She didn’t wear her raincoat. ___________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 3. If you ________________________ (call) me.

If it rains. the meeting will be good a ______________________________________________________________________________ b ______________________________________________________________________________ Ex. they will stay at home a ______________________________________________________________________________ b ______________________________________________________________________________ 10. _____________________________________________________________________________ 3. If he had telephoned me. If I am free next week. they will go to the beach a. They would have come if they _______________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 4. I will do it gladly a ______________________________________________________________________________ b ______________________________________________________________________________ 6. If I see her. _____________________________________________________________________________ 4. b. If he works harder. If the weather is nice. He would have helped us if __________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 242 A short course in english for adult students . I will call her up a ______________________________________________________________________________ b ______________________________________________________________________________ 5. If John is present. If I can do it. 4. I would go if I _____________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 8. If he had come. he will go with us a. 5. If I had known about it. I ____________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 3. (Open Exercise) Complete the following: 1. 2.Ex. she will speak to him. she would speak to him. he will be promoted a b ______________________________________________________________________________ 11. If he came. _____________________________________________________________________________ b. If he has time. he would take part in the game 2. she would have spoken to him. I will give her the message a ______________________________________________________________________________ b ______________________________________________________________________________ 8. If you had asked me. a. I ______________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 6. he may go with us a ______________________________________________________________________________ b ______________________________________________________________________________ 12. If he is here. I _____________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 5. he will let us know a ______________________________________________________________________________ b ______________________________________________________________________________ 9. _____________________________________________________________________________ b. If he has the money. If he goes there. I __________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 7. If he were here. Change to PRESENT-UNREAL and to PAST-UNREAL Conditions: 1. he may help us a ______________________________________________________________________________ b ______________________________________________________________________________ 7. If he comes. If I were you.

If I had been invited. He acts as if he (was. 7. If yesterday had been a holiday. were) you. could have gone) if they had asked me. were) the manager of the place. had known) this yesterday. He acted as if he (had. 10. I (will. 8.) 2. has been. would you have gone on that picnic yesterday? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 3. 14. would you have gone to the movies with your friend? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 6.He will not go unless she (goes.I think he (would come. If I (knew.9. were) a holiday. If you had studied harder. Choose the correct form: 1. John looks as though he (was. I might have caught cold if I _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ Ex. were) sick. I would have acted differently. 6. will rain) tomorrow. we could have gone to the beach. If England had been better prepared for war. would have come) if we had asked him. Would the party have been better if Mary had been present? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 8. (lf I were you. we could go to the beach. If you hadn´t had to study last night. 4. I would not accept the work. 12. had had) a great shock. had been) a holiday. If I (was. If the weather were nice. 15. had been) here last week. will come) before noon.If I (would be. will go) too.I feel as if I (ate. where would you have gone? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 5. 3.If today (was. If it (rains. he would have taken part in the discussion. had eaten) a large dinner. would you have gotten a better mark on your examination? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 4. where would you have gone? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 2. If you had had last week off. we may not go away.. we _____________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 15. Germany __________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 10. Would John have gone to the stadium with you if he had not been sick? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 7. 13. 6.. 5.Call me if he (comes. I would certainly do it. we _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 14. If the weather had been nice. I ________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 11. 7.If yesterday (was. Ex. 11. If he (was. I would certainly do it. Would you have helped your friend with his homework if he had asked you? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students 243 . 16. Answer these questions: 1. If I had more time.) (as though = as if = como si. were) in his position. would) like to study Spanish if I had the time. He would have succeeded if he ______________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 12. 9. I _______________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 13. They would have joined the class if they _______________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 16. If you had known it was going to rain. I (could go.

.” I don´t know how to swim. John wishes she were here now. I wish I ______________________________ (have) today off. I wish I weren´t so busy. Ex.) 2.. I wish I knew how to swim. 10. 10. A. 8. Today isn’t a holiday but I wish. 11. I wish I ______________________________ (know) her better. I didn’t study before my examinations but I wish.. I wish John ______________________________ (be) here now.”... ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ . “Me gustaría. 1.. I wish it ______________________________ (be) not so cold now.. I wish I ______________________________ (can) swim. I cannot swim but I wish. 8. I don´t have a car but I wish. 7.. USO DEL SUBJUNTIVO DESPUES DE WISH Debido a que el verbo TO WISH (desear) sugiere una situación que es hipotética o contraria a la realidad.. Mary is not here now.. 3.. al igual que en las oraciones condicionales.. I wish I ______________________________ (have) yesterday off.. va seguido de un verbo en PASADO en situaciones presentes y un PASADO PARTICIPIO en situaciones pasadas.. Cuando queremos expresar un deseo relacionado con una situación futura. (I wish John were here now. este siempre debe ir seguido por el MODO SUBJUNTIVO. Complete the following sentences: 1.”. es decir. I didn´t see Mary at the meeting yesterday.I can’t speak English well but I wish. I am not a millionaire but I wish. Yesterday wasn’t a holiday but I wish. John wishes he ______________________________ (be) in Florida now. 12. I wish I had seen her. 2. I wish he wouldn´t do that again Observe la siguiente tabla: Situaciones Presentes: Situaciones Pasadas: Situaciones Futuras: EXERCISES Ex. I wish I ______________________________ (study) English when I was a boy. I wish I ______________________________ (know) about this yesterday.. It´s been raining hard for about five hours. 7. I wish I ______________________________ (go) with you to the movie last night. o “Me habría gustado.. I can´t go to the conference because I´m very busy. 4.. 11.. 6. Mary isn’t here but I wish.. 2.. I wish today ______________________________ (be) a holiday.. 4. 5. debemos usar el verbo modal WOULD.I have to work this afternoon but I wish. I´d certainly invite her to the party.. I wish it ______________________________ (stop) snowing soon. 244 A short course in english for adult students S + Past I wish S + Past Perfect S + Conditional I don´t have a car but I wish I had one... 3.. 9. I wish it would stop raining soon. Supply the correct form of the verb in parentheses: 1. 9. The weather isn’t nice today but I wish..PART II. John won’t do it for us but I wish. 5. 6. En estos casos estas expresiones se usan para expresar un deseo y equivalen a “Ojalá...

I’m sorry that I don’t know her better. I´m sorry John is not here with us. I´m sorry it is raining so hard. He proposed that John __________________________ chairman of the committee. TO DEMAND. TO ASK.) 3. “It is necessary that. I suggested that you should see the manager today.. _______________________________________________ 7.”. (Yo sugerí que usted viera al gerente hoy día) 2. I’m sorry he does not speak English well. It´s advisable that you be there before midday.) 2. I’m sorry that today is not a holiday. (take) A short course in english for adult students 245 . _______________________________________________ 10. TO REQUIRE. etc. (be) 5. VERBOS SEGUIDOS DEL PRESENTE DEL SUBJUNTIVO 1. _______________________________________________ 4. Smith _________________________ a long vacation.) I suggested that you see the manager today. _______________________________________________ 5. He recommended that she _________________ with him.. _______________________________________________ 3. “It´s essential that. He recommended that she should wait for us outside the theater. He recommended that she wait (sin “s”) for us outside the theater. Supply the correct form of the verb in parentheses: 1. En el Presente del Subjuntivo. (Ella pidió que nosotros estuviéramos alli antes del mediodia) They recommended that I be there a few minutes earlier. (come) 6. I’m sorry you could not go to the opera last night. Los verbos TO RECOMMEND. 1. TO INSIST y TO PROPOSE. Cuando se desea usar el verbo TO BE no se debe usar las formas am/is/are.. todas las personas usan la forma simple del infinitivo. 3. _______________________________________________ 8. They recommended that I should be there a few minutes earlier 4. Is it necessary that this _________________________ finished today? (be) 9.12. Change the sentences to introduce I WISH instead of I´M SORRY: I wish he spoke English well.. 1a. I’m sorry he did not go with us last night. I recommended that you _________________________ back later. He asked that it__________________________ done right away.”.. TO SUGGEST. como los siguientes ejemplos: It is necessary that Mary see the manager today. (go) 10. También se debe usar el presente del subjuntivo después frases como. (Ellos recomendaron que yo estuviera alli. _______________________________________________ 6. She asked that we should be there before midday. The doctor suggested that Mr. _______________________________________________ B.. (wait) 3.. I’m sorry that Helen can’t go with us to the beach today. _______________________________________________ 2.”. I’m sorry that you can’t swim. En la conversación diaria coloquial se prefiere usar el verbo modal should + infinitive para expresar estas ideas.. He suggested that John_______________________ a few minutes.Mary isn’t going with us but I wish ___________________________________________________ Ex. (be) 8.. “It´s imperative that. (Él recomendó que ella nos esperara.”. It is imperative that they _________________________ there on time.. (go) (He recommended that she go with him. deben ir seguidos de THAT + PRESENTE DE SUBJUNTIVO cuando estamos refiriéndonos a una situación propuesta o hipotética.. EXERCISES Ex. sino que la forma simple BE She asked that we be there before midday. “It´s advisable that. por lo tanto no se debe agregar -s o -es en la tercera persona del singular.. _______________________________________________ 9. He insisted that she _________________________ on with the work. They insisted that we _________________________ them again. (be) 4. I’m sorry that she could not go with us to the beach that day.. (visit) 7.

(suggest) ___________________________________________ 8. If I (were. Is it necessary that this ______________________________ finished today? (be) 9. (recommend) ___________________________________________ 7. Change the sentences to introduce SUGGESTED / INSISTED / RECOMMENDED instead of ASKED: I suggested that John wait / should wait for me. John said he (will. 12. to be sent) tomorrow. He recommended that she __________________ with him. 3. He recommended that I (am. 2. 2. (be) 4. (visit) 7. 1b. may be sleeping). 6. (wait) 3. He asked me to be there on time. (recommend) ___________________________________________ 4. I would go swimming. He would have finished sooner if he ______________________________ (hurry). 246 A short course in english for adult students . The teacher asked us to visit her in her home. He suggested that John (come. If he (will come. I recommended that you ______________________________ back later.Ex. would be) in Florida now. If John were here. If he felt better. 12. has been living) here many years. 9. 2. We asked her to be at our home at eight o’clock. John asked me to take a walk with him. (recommend) ___________________________________________ 10. (go) 10. He (is living. I wish I (went. (come) 6. (suggest) ___________________________________________ 5. (suggest) ___________________________________________ 2. He suggested that John__________________________ a few minutes. He insisted that she ______________________________ on with the work. (go) (He recommended that she should go with him. He asked me to lend him the money. he ______________________________ (go) to the party. I ______________________________ (telephone) you. Repeat the previous exercise using SHOULD : 1. If yesterday ______________________________ (be) a holiday. it (would be) (be) much easier for us. I ______________________________ (do) it. 9. We asked them to go with us in our car. he ______________________________ (come) to the meeting. would be) in Florida now. What would you do if you ______________________________ (be) I? 4. 3. The doctor suggested that Mr. John always (sits. 5. is sitting) at this desk. The merchandise is supposed (to send. please let me know. had gone) with you to the party last night. 7. If he had been well. be) there early. (insist) ___________________________________________ 3. He asked that it______________________________ done right away. comes) soon. 14. I (saw. Choose the correct form: 1. had seen) that movie already. 5. comes) back later. Were I you. If he had felt better. 6. 10. 8. (take) Ex. Had I had more time. (suggest) ___________________________________________ Ex. 1. 8. me). He said he (saw. 11. have seen) John yesterday. 13. Had I known your number.) 2. The owner of the store asked me to call back later. Smith ______________________________ a long vacation. he would spend it at the beach. (be) 8. He proposed that John ______________________________ chairman of the committee. 4. If today ______________________________ (be) a holiday. He would help us if he ______________________________ (can). 4. I (may sleep. 11. Supply the correct form in the following: 1. he would have spent it at the beach. (insist) ___________________________________________ 9. John sat between Mary and (I. If you come too early. 10. They insisted that we ______________________________ them again. (insist) ___________________________________________ 6. The teacher asked Bill to be more careful. would) be here tomorrow. 3. Ex. I asked John to wait for me. I asked her to come back later. he ______________________________ (go) to the party. I wish I (were. 7. It is imperative that they __________________________ there on time. (be) 5. I ______________________________ (begin) to study Spanish.

Would you be pleased or sorry to hear that your friend was sick? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 7. Would you be pleased or sorry to hear that you had failed your examination? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 9. to own a house or an apartment? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 6. Would I be right or wrong if I said that you spoke English very well? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students 247 . German or Chinese? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 4. Which would you prefer. to be rich or poor? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 3. Which would you prefer. Which would you prefer. Would I be right or wrong if I said that birds could swim? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 12. to travel in Europe or in South America? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 5.Ex. Which would you prefer to be. Would you be pleased or sorry to hear that you were not going to graduate? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 10. Which would you prefer to study in the future. Would you be pleased or sorry to hear that you had won a large prize? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 8. in good health or in bad health? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 2. Would I be right or wrong if I said that fish could fly? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 11. 5 Answer these questions: 1.

carnicería baja de guerra cese al fuego capellán civil enfrentamiento combatiente combate comando conflicto golpe de estado sitio. auxilio Rescue team /réskiu ti:m/ equipo de rescate Reservist /rése:rvist/ reservista Reveille /revæ ´ li //réveli/ toque de diana Retreat /ritrí:t/ recogida. asedio toque de queda derrota acción defensiva zona desmilitarizada despliegue destrucción destacamento disuasión fuego directo ruptura del combate buzo doctor ejercicio fuego enemigo lucha. combate flanco enemigo fuego amigo frente línea de frente guarnición Mercenary /mersenæ ´ ri/ Militant /mílitant/ Mountaineer /maunteníar/ Nurse /né:rs/ Offensive action /ofénsiv æ ´ ktchn/ Orderly /ó:rderli/ Parade /paréid/ Paratrooper /paratrú:per/ Peace /pí:s/ Peace treaty /pí:s trí:ti/ Peacekeeping forces Policeman /polísman/ Preemptive action /pi:skí:pi# fó:rsiz/ mercenario militante andinista enfermero acción ofensiva ordenanza parada paracaidista paz tratado de paz fuerzas de mantenimiento de paz policía acción preemptiva /priémptiv æ ´ ktchon/ Preventive action /privéntiv æ ´ ktchon/ acción preventiva Prisoner /prízoner/ prisionero Raid /reid/ incursión Ranger /réindller/ comando Rear /ríar/ retaguardia Rear position /ríar posíshon/ posición de retaguardia Reconnaissance /rikónisans/ reconocimiento Reinforcement /riinfó:rsment/ refuerzo Relief /rilí:f/ ayuda. cuadra batalla campo de batalla bombardeo campaña matanza.BASIC VOCABULARY: Study these words THE ARMED FORCES /!i á:rmd fó:rsiz/ Las Fuerzas Armadas (II) Allied forces /aláid fó:rsiz/ Armistice /á:rmistis/ Assault /asó:lt/ Attacking unit /atæ ´ ki# iunit/ ´ rak/ Barrack /bæ Battle /bæ ´ tl/ Battlefield /bæ ´ tlfí:ld/ Bombardment /bombá:rdment/ Campaign /kampéin/ Carnage /ká:rnidll/ Casualty /kæ ´ llualti/ Ceasefire /si:sfáiar/ Chaplain /tchæ ´ plin/ Civilian /sivílian/ Clash /klæ ´ sh/ Combatant /kómbatant/ Combat /kómbat/ Commando /komæ ´ ndou/ Conflict /kónflikt/ Coup d´etat /ku:detá:/ Siege /sí:dll/ Curfew /ké:rfiu/ Defeat /difí:t/ Defensive action /difénsiv æ ´ ktchon/ Demilitarized zone /dimilítaráizd zóun/ Deployment /diplóiment/ Destruction /distrákshn/ Detachment /ditæ ´ tchment/ Deterrent /dité:rrent/ Direct fire /dairékt fáiar/ Disengament /disengéidllment/ Diver /dáiver/ Doctor /dóktor/ Drill /dril/ Enemy fire /énemi fáiar/ Fight /fáit/ Flank /flæ ´ #k/ Foe /fou/ Friendly fire /fréndli fáiar/ Front /frant/ Front line /frant lain/ Garrison /gæ ´ rison/ fuerzas aliadas armisticio asalto unidad de ataque barraca. retreta Review /riviú:/ revista Revolt /rivólt/ revuelta Riot /ráiot/ revuelta Salute /saliút/ saludo Sharp shooter /sharp shú:ter/ tirador escogido Skirmish /ské:rmish/ escaramuza Slaughter /sló:ter/ matanza Spy /spái/ espía Strategy /stræ ´ tedlli/ estrategia Struggle /stræ ´ gl/ lucha Surrender /sarénder/ rendición Surveillance /se:rvéilans/ vigilancia Tactics /tæ ´ ktiks/ táctica Truce /tru:s/ tregua 248 A short course in english for adult students .

ayudar rendirse librar una guerra ganar replegarse A short course in english for adult students 249 . pelear disparar rendirse inspeccionar invadir To kill /kil/ To lead /li:d/ To lose /lu:z/ To mobilize /móbiláiz/ To occupy /ókiupái/ To overcome /óuverkám/ To overrun /óuverrán/ To patrol /patróul/ To raid /réid/ To recruit /rekrú:t/ To retreat /ritrí:t/ To review /riviú:/ To salute /saliú:t/ To seize /sí:z/ To shell /shel/ To sight /sáit/ To spy /spái/ To struggle /strágl/ To supply /saplái/ To support /sapó:rt/ To surrender /sarrénder/ To wage /wéidll/ To win /win/ To withdraw /wi"dró:/ matar guiar. estallar capturar realizar comandar conquistar derrotar defender desplegar destruir desarmar ejercitar resistir trabar combate luchar. asir bombardear hacer puntería espiar luchar suministrar apoyar. bajas maniobras Unmanned /anmæ ´ nd/ Veteran /véteran/ Victory /víktri/ War /wo:r/ Warfare /worféar/ Warrior /wórior/ Withdrawal /wi"dróal/ no tripulado veterano de guerra victoria guerra (evento) guerra (actividad) guerrero retirada llevar a cabo apuntar emboscar armar atacar sitiar estallar bombardear bombardear comenzar.Guerrilla /geríla/ Headquarters /hedkuó:rterz/ Hostage /hóstidll/ Indirect fire /indairékt fáiar/ Killing /kíli#/ Logistic support /lodllístik sapó:rt/ Losses /lósiz/ Maneuvers /manú:verz/ Verbs: To accomplish /akómplish/ To aim /éim/ To ambush /æ ´ mbush/ To arm /a:rm/ To attack /atæ ´ k/ To besiege /bi:sí:dll/ To blow up /blou áp/ To bomb /bom/ To bombard /bombá:rd/ To break out /breik áut/ To capture /kæ ´ ptcher/ To carry out /kæ ´ ri áut/ To command /komæ ´ nd/ To conquer /kó#ker/ To defeat /difí:t/ To defend /difénd/ To deploy /diplói/ To destroy /distrói/ To disarm /disá:rm/ To drill /dril/ To endure /endiú:ar/ To engage /engéidll/ To fight /fait/ To fire /fáiar/ To give up /giv áp/ To inspect /inspékt/ To invade /invéid/ guerrillero cuartel general rehén fuego indirecto matanza apoyo logístico pérdidas. conducir perder movilizar ocupar vencer invadir patrullar incursionar reclutar retirarse revistar saludar tomar.

Bl 250 .

. I´d have called you up. Ex..I had been there. they would have gone to the beach. 3. had worn 6. he came to class on time he´d be a better student. 10. would have written 8. 6. I´d go to the beach. 5.she were here I would be talking with her now. 13.would plan a trip to France.. 11. 4.. Ex. he´d make good progress. 5. He´d certainly speak better.. were 8... he´d enjoy living here. Ex. would have told 9. she wouldn´t have miss the first act of the opera. knew 8... / If I´d been able to do it..she had the day off / free. 10. And I´d. would have helped 4. / If I had been free yesterday. Ex.it were not so cold. would take 9. would go 12. 3. would have gone 10. could 6. I ´d have done it gladly. had gone 9. 2.. 7...would buy a modern car. had been 8. I´d speak a lot better . prepared 10. 4. If 1 were free now. If he were here. I´d go to. 1. I´d have gone on a cruise in the Caribbean.. I´d buy. 2.he liked to do it. had known 7. would go 10. 6. Yes. knew 4.If the weather were nice... 8. C) Ex..... he would have gone with us.. 6. she would have taken part in the competition.. If he were here. I would call you up.. would go to the beach. If I had more time. (Suggested answers) 1. 2 . had 11.. I would have driven to Denver at Christmastime . they would go to the beach... 1. 2. we would not go. would have caught 3. I would have included it in the list of guests 7.he had more free time.could go on a picnic. were 3.I were there now I would visiting Orlando. I´d would visit.. I´d give her the message. 3. 9. 3. I´d have given her the message.. were 9.he had been there. / If he´d been here. 4. would visit Ex. is 3. 2. (Possible answers) 2. 2. 9.. 5. of course. 5.would invite her out to dinner. he would pass 5. would make 5.. had been Ex. 12.. 4. 10. 3. he might have helped us.. he studied harder 3..... If the weather were cold. 6.I had had one. would work 11. If it rained. 4.. had called 5... he would go with us. 11. 8..... 6... 1 would do it gladly.. he would see her. 6.. had 11.I spoke it well. I´d read more books.. 6... / . 9. he´d speak it better.. he could help us.. had had 3. would 5. 5. (Possible answers). / I´d go to. he had more practice in speaking he would speak a lot better. would have driven Ex.. were 12. he would play tennis more often.he had more practice in conversation. would have come 6. If I could do it....I had had it. 12. comes 10. I would be a CEO (Chief Executive Officer).. Yes. knew Ex. I´d be planning a trip to France... 11.he had spoken it. she had come. 2.he´d learn more... 2. I´d drive to. would speak 6. I´d beging to study... If I were free tomorrow. 2. were 6.. I´d getter better marks.he´d be a better student.. would learn 4.would visit Epcot Center 7. would be 7. If I saw her. would feel 8. would speak 3. If he´d gone there....I could speak it. If he had time. he might he1p us. If he prepared his lessons.Key to answers UNIT 18 PART I B) Ex.. If he went there...... 9. 4. would learn faster 4.. had told 10. I´d go to the movie. were 7. she wouldn´t have caught cold. 8. 3.he had more friends...... would have been 5.I had been in his position. might 12. would 4. had Ex. 15... If I didn´t have to work.. 8. he would meet her. she had come on time. he ´d have gotten a better job.... she´d be able to travel abroad more often. they would succeed.. 9. 7. 7. had 5.. first. I´d have acted differently. 12. she prepared her lessons she´d learn more. 3. If we had much practice. / If I´d seen her. I´d go to... 4. you would have seen him. 11.. had been 4. 10. If he went. / If the weather had been nice.would do more things every day. if he studied hard. 2. 8.. (Possible answers) 2. 14. 7. he had told me. I ´d have asked for an interview with the boss. he will let us know. 7. 2.. 9. I had known it. Oh yes. / If he had had time.. could 7. I would have called you up. would have been 7.she had more money.. If they tried hard. they would stay at A short course in english for adult students 251 . 8.. he would have let us know.. 12.she had wore it. have 9. If he came.. 5. we would speak better.

. 6. were 11. We recommended that she be / should be at our home at eight o´clock. be / should be 8. of course / No..... could have gone 7. 1. come 5. could Ex.. 2. go / should go 10. He suggested that I be / should be there on time. a) y 1. 10. 13. they would have stayed at home.we had asked him to help us..had gone out in the cold yesterday evening. 252 A short course in english for adult students .. would 8.. me 9. 10. of course. would go out for a walk 14. had gone 6. had studied 4. had been 8. comes 13.wouldn´t have attacked the territory by air.. would have done 7.. would 10. / No.were 4. I´d be very sorry to hear that. 2. 3. The teacher recommended that we visit / should visit her in her home. of course. I wish Helen could go with us to the beach. I´d prefer to own a horse. I would have gone to. had been 12.. Yes.. knew Ex. I´d have gone to a concert instead. I´d be sorry to hear that. 5.. 12. If it had rained.. of course. 8. 2. Ex. Ex. John recommended that I take / should take a walk with him. 4. he would be promoted.. I wish he had gone with us last night. 2. 8. 12. could 3. I wish it weren´t raining so hard. to be sent 10. 5.. would have come Ex. 3. were 14. Yes. / If John had been present. saw 13. 5. The owner of the store suggested that I call / should call back later. I wish she had been able to go with us to the beach. 4. would have phoned you 3. I love the rain. comes 8. I wouln´t have gone. I had studied 4. he wouldn´t have gone. I´d prefer to be rich. 11.. be / should be 4. (Suggested answers) 2. had known 9.. the meeting would be good. I didn´t have to work. . I wish today were a holiday. may be sleeping 11. Ex... You´d be very wrong if you said that. 5. 8. visit / should visit 7. would have gone 10. No. were 2. 1. of course. 3. 5. He suggested that I lend / should lend him the money. 9. rains 6. (Possible answers) 1. PART II A) Ex.. I insisted that she come / should come back later 3. sits Ex.. 7. 5. were 9. would go 9. I could speak it . 3. he had worked harder during the term. 2. 12. were 5. If John were present. My English is not very good. The teacher insisted that Bill be / should be more careful. Of course he would have gone. 4. 2. I were 8. 6. the meeting would have been good. 3. it would have been the same 8. were 7. I wouldn´t have gone to the movies. 1. You´d be wrong if you said that. would buy a Japanese car. would have come 8. He hates sports.. I would have gotten a better mark. had had 4.. had known 5. of course. would 7.had been invited 4. Ex.. he might go with us / If he´d had the money. 8.home.. he would do it 9. would have telephoned 3. 10. of course. 10. 10. 4. perhaps it would have been better if she had been present / No. 4.. 7. take / should take Ex. 5. 10. I think. 2. be / should be 9. I´d prefer to speak English perfectly.. it had been a holiday 6. I wish you could swim / I wish I were able to swim B) Ex. I would have gone all the same. 7. 11. had had 12. I wish I knew her better 7. I would have certainly helped him. had 11.. It depends. would have gone out for a walk 15. I hate the rain / Yes. You´d be right or wrong. I wouldn´t have helped him. (Suggested answers) 1. 9. were 3..b) 2. it were nice 7. Yes. he would have been promoted. If he worked harder. would have helped you 6. were 10. 1. Yes.. had eaten 16. / . / . I like riding horses. she were. be / should be 5. would have I´d have told him you were here.. We insisted that they go / should go with us in our car. be 4. 11. were 11. I could swim 3. I wish John were here with us. I´d have gone to. 2. I would have gone. If he´d worked harder.would have attended the conference. he might have gone with us. 2. would watch TV every day 11. I´d be pleased to hear that.. 12. of course. I´d prefer to travel to Europe. I was too busy at that moment. wait / should wait 3.. come / should come 6. had known it started today. of course. 9.. would begin 5. 9.. 5.. 2 . 6. had hurried 6. has been living 12. I wish you had been able to go to the opera last night. had gone 3. goes 15. 7. I´d be very sorry to hear that.. 16. had already seen 14. had the day off . had been 12.. were 6.. 6. she were here. If he had the money. He loves sports / No. 6. it were a holiday. I´d prefer to be in good health... 7.

He said. Cambios de orden cronológico o geográfico (Optativos) Now Today This These Then That day / Yesterday That Those The day before / The previous day He said. nos preguntó o nos ordenó.” He said that he was busy at that moment He said. preguntas u órdenes del discurso directo al indirecto.” He said that he would work hard all day.” He said that he was busy that day / yesterday. John said. En esos casos debemos hacer algunos cambios que son obligatorios (verbos y pronombres) y otros son optativos.” He said that he had to do the job well. He said.” (Direct Speech) John said that he was very busy. “I was busy yesterday. He said.” He said that he could use a computer. Yesterday A short course in english for adult students 253 . He said. podemos utilizar las palabras textuales usadas por esa persona.” He said that he had worked very hard. pidió o advirtió hacer. “I always work hard.” He said that he always worked hard. “I like New York. “I will work hard all day. “It may rain again.” He said that he was busy then. pronominales o adverbiales para respetar la concordacia de los tiempos verbales y la correspondencia de los pronombres y las expresiones de tiempo o lugar. (Indirect Speech) John told us that he liked New York. dependiendo si entre lo que se dijo y lo que estamos contando ha habido cambios de orden cronólogico (tiempo) o geográfico (lugar) Cambios Verbales (obligatorios): Present cont. He said. “I worked very hard. “I have to do that again. He said.UNIT 19 THE REPORTED SPEECH (DISCURSO DIRECTO E INDIRECTO) Cuando deseamos contar a otra persona lo que alguien nos dijo.” He said that he was working very hard. “I can use a computer. He said. “I´m working very hard. “I have worked very hard. “I´m very busy. “I´m busy today. “ (Direct Speech) John said (to us). lo que se conoce como Discurso Indirecto en castellano (o Indirect Speech en inglés).” He said that he had worked very hard. DISCURSO INDIRECTO CON ORACIONES AFIRMATIVAS O NEGATIVAS (STATEMENTS) Existen ciertas reglas que debemos conocer cuando estamos cambiando oraciones. He said. “I´m busy at this moment. He said.” He said that it might rain again. “I like these books” He said that liked those books. “I must do the job well.” He said that he had to do that again. He said. “I´m busy now.” He said that he had been busy the day before. Es necesario revisar la regla de la concordancia de los tiempos verbales estudiadas en la Unidad 16. o podemos realizar algunos cambios verbales. He said. Simple present Present perfect Simple past Future Can Must May Have to / Has to Past continuous Simple past Past perfect Past perfect Conditional Could Had to Might Had to He said. (Indirect Speech) I. lo que en castellano se conoce como Discurso Directo (o “Direct Speech” en inglés).

Tomorrow Here Tonight Last night

The following day

There Last night The night before / The previous night

He said, “I´ll be busy tomorrow.” He said that he would be busy the following day. He said, “I´m very happy here.” He said that he was very happy there. He said, “I´m very busy tonight.” He said that she was very busy that night. He said, “I was very busy last night” He said that he´d been very busy the previous night.

Note que cuando se nombran a las dos personas que intervinieron en la conversación, según vimos en la Unidad 8, se debe usar TOLD en vez de SAID. Bob said, “I like New York.” Bob told us that he liked New York. II. DISCURSO INDIRECTO CON PREGUNTAS (QUESTIONS) Cuando se desea expresar un pregunta en el discurso indirecto, no se debe mantener la estructura interrogativa (VM+S+VP) en la cláusula subordinada sino que se debe usar la estructura AFIRMATIVA (S+VM+VP) John asked me, “Where does Mary live?” John asked me where Mary lived. The teacher asked the students, “Why is Bob absent today?” The teacher asked the students why Bob was absent today. Bob asked me, “Do you like New York?” Bob asked me whether / if I liked New York. Bob asked his friends, “Will you come to my party?” Bob asked his friends whether / if they would come to his party. III. DISCURSO INDIRECTO CON ORDENES, REQUERIMIENTOS, ADVERTENCIAS, ETC, (ORDERS, COMMANDS, REQUESTS, ADVICE, etc.) Cuando se desea expresar una orden, un requerimiento, advertencia, etc, en el discurso indirecto, se debe usar la siguiente estructura:
Subject He Miss White The teacher The instructors They Verb begged asked told warned requested ordered advised Object Pro (Noun). me you him / her us them the boy the boys TO/NOT TO + Infinitive. to sit down to work harder to be more careful not to be late not to talk in class

EXERCISES Ex. 1. Change the following statements from direct to indirect form: John said that he had to work tonight. 1. John said, “I have to work tonight.” ___________________________________________________ 2. Mary said to me, ‘’I will be back later.” ___________________________________________________ 3. Mr. Smith said, “We may have an exam.” ___________________________________________________ 4. He said, “I have no money.” ___________________________________________________ 5. The doctor said, “John is a very sick man.” ___________________________________________________ 6. Mary said to me, “I cannot go with you tonight.” ___________________________________________________ 7. He said, “I hope she comes soon.” ___________________________________________________ 8. He said, “l have known him a long time.” ___________________________________________________ 9. Mr. Smith said, “We will finish this tomorrow.” ___________________________________________________
254
A short course in english for adult students

10. He said, “I don’t know her well.” 11. She said, “I am going away tomorrow.” 12. He said to me, “He is supposed to be here now.”

___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________

Ex. 2. Change the following questions from direct to indirect form: Mary asked where John lived. 1. Mary asked, “Where does John live?” ___________________________________________________ 2. Helen said to me, “How long have you lived here?’’ ___________________________________________________ 3..Mr Smith asked us, “Do you understand this exercise?” _________________________________________________ 4. I asked John, “What time is it?” ___________________________________________________ 5. He asked me, “Do you have to work tonight?” ___________________________________________________ 6. John said, “ls it raining?” ___________________________________________________ 7. He said to me, “Are you going to the movies with us?” __________________________________________________ 8. The teacher asked, “Did you see that documentary?” ___________________________________________________ 9. He asked me, “When are you leaving for Europe?’’ ___________________________________________________ 10. He asked me, “What does the word mean?” ___________________________________________________ 11. I asked him, “When did you read that book?” ___________________________________________________ 12. He said to me, “How are you today?” ___________________________________________________ 13. I asked her, “ls John here?” ___________________________________________________ 14. She said to him, “Do you like my new hat?” ___________________________________________________ 15. I asked her, “Where is it?” ___________________________________________________ Ex. 3. Change the following orders, requests, commands, etc. to the indirect form: John told me to wait five minutes for him. 1. John said to me, “Wait five minutes for me.” ___________________________________________________ 2. The teacher said to us, “Don’t write in pencil.” ___________________________________________________ 3. I asked him, “Be more careful.” ___________________________________________________ 4. He asked me, ‘’Please don’t be late.” ___________________________________________________ 5. He asked me, “Try to come on time.” ___________________________________________________ 6. He said to me, “Don’t make the same mistake again.” ___________________________________________________ 7. He warned the child, “Don’t cross the road.” ___________________________________________________ S. He said to me, “Don’t forget what I told you.” ___________________________________________________ 9. He begged me, ‘’Please send me the money at once.” __________________________________________________ 10.He asked me, “Sit down for a few minutes.” ___________________________________________________ Ex. 4. Change the following imperative sentences to indirect form. Begin each one with THE TEACHER TOLD ME: The teacher told me to sit in the first row. 1. Sit in the first row. ___________________________________________________ 2. Wait outside in the hall. ___________________________________________________ 3. Come back later. ___________________________________________________ 4. Do your exercíses in ink. ___________________________________________________ 5. Give this message to Mrs. Smith. ___________________________________________________ 6. Don’t waste so much time. ___________________________________________________ 7. Don’t look at your neighbor’s paper. ___________________________________________________ 8. Sit up straight. ___________________________________________________ 9. Go to the whiteboard. ___________________________________________________ 10. Take your feet off the desk. ___________________________________________________ 11. Prepare your lessons more carefully. ___________________________________________________ 12. Sit down and read the story. ___________________________________________________ Ex. 5. Answer the following questions in the indirect form. Begin each answer with the words given in parentheses after the question: I don’t know where John is. 1. Where´s John? (I don’t know... ) ___________________________________________________ 2. Is he in the building? (She wants to know...) ___________________________________________________ 3. Where does she live? (Can you tell me...?) ___________________________________________________ 4. Is he a good student? (I´m not sure...) ___________________________________________________ 5. How much does it cost? (He wants to know...) ___________________________________________________
A short course in english for adult students

255

6. Where is she going? (She didn’t say... ) ___________________________________________________ 7. How is he getting along? (She wants to know . .) 8. How is he getting along? (Mrs. Jones wanted to know,.) _________________________________________________ 9. Is the elevator out of order? (Can you tell me...) ___________________________________________________ 10. Where is he now? (Can you tell me... ) ___________________________________________________ 11. Is Mr. Smith here? (I’d like to know...) ___________________________________________________ 12. When will he get back? (I´d like to find out...) ___________________________________________________ 13. How tall is he? (I don’t know... ) ___________________________________________________ 14. Is he very tall? (I really don’t know...) ___________________________________________________ 15. Where does he live? (Ask him...) ___________________________________________________ Ex. 6. . Change from indirect to direct form: 1. He said he was busy. 2. He asked me where I lived. 3. He asked her whether she liked New York. 4. She said she was going out of town. 5. She said her last name was Smith. 6. She said her maiden name had been Jones. 7. He told me not to wait for him. 8. He said that he could not meet us. 9. He asked how much it cost. 10. He told her to leave the room. 11. He asked whether I had mailed the letter. 12. He said he would be back soon. Ex. 7. Choose the correct form: 1. He asked me where I (live, lived). 2. I don’t know whether (I can, can I) do it. 3. Can you tell me what time (it is, is it)? 4. He said he (will, would) come here soon. 5. He (told me, said to me) that he was busy. 6. He asked me what time it (is, was). 7. I asked him what the word (means, meant). 8. I asked her whether she (is, was) married. 9. I’d like to know where (is it, it is). 10. He said he (can, could) meet us easily. 11. I´m not sure whether (he is, is he) here now. 12. He didn’t say where he (is, was) going. Ex. 8. Answer these questions: 1. Why did John tell you to wait for him after the lesson? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 2. What exercise did the teacher tell you to prepare for tomorrow’s lesson? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 3. Why did you ask Mary what time it was? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 4. Where did William ask you to meet him tonight? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 5. Why did the mother warn the child not to cross the street? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 6. Why doesn’t Henry know whether or not he can go to the party tonight? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 7. Did John say that he had or had not seen that movie? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 8. Did Grace tell you whether or not she had enjoyed the party? _________________________________________________________________________________________________
256
A short course in english for adult students

(He said, “I am busy.”) ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________

(He asked me where I lived.) ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________

BASIC VOCABULARY VERBOS PRINCIPALES: VERBOS REGULARES E IRREGULARES Todos los verbos principales tienen cuatro formas: INFINITIVO, PASADO, PASADO PARTICIPIO y GERUNDIO. Según la manera en que forman el pasado y el pasado participio los verbos principales se clasifican en dos grupos: Verbos Regulares y Verbos Irregulares. Son verbos regulares aquellos que agregan D / ED para formar el pasado y el pasado participio. Los que no lo hacen así se llaman Verbos Irregulares. Escuche, lea y aprenda: We work hard every day. /wí: wé:rk há:rd évri dei/ We worked hard yesterday. /wí: wé:rkt há:rd iésterdi/ We have worked hard this year. /wí: hav wé:rkt há:rd !is íar/ We are working hard now. /wí: a:r wé:rki# ha:rd náu/ They speak Spanish at home /!éi spí:k spænish at hóum/ They spoke English in class. /!éi spóuk í#glish in klá:s/ They have always spoken Spanish. /!éi hav ó:lweiz spóukn spænish/ They are speaking English now. /!éi a:r spí:ki# í#glish náu/ (Nosotros trabajamos duro todos los días) (Nosotros trabajamos arduamente ayer) (Nosotros hemos trabajado duro este año) (Nosotros estamos trabajando duro ahora) (Ellos hablan español en casa) (Ellos hablaron inglés en la clase) (Ellos siempre han hablado español). (Ellos están hablando inglés ahora)

A. VERBOS REGULARES DE USO FRECUENTE Infinitive To watch /wotch/ To work /we:rk/ To love /lav/ To play /plei/ (1) To study /stádi/ (1) To fit /fit/ (2) To stop /stop/ (2) To guide /gáid/ (3) To repeat /ripí:t/ (3) Past watched /wotcht worked /we:rkt/ loved /lavd/ played /pléid/ studied /stádid/ fitted /fítid/ stopped /stopt/ guided /gáidid/ repeated /ripí:tid/ Past Part. watched /wotcht/ worked /we:rkt/ loved /lavd/ played /pléid/ studied /stádid/ fitted /fítid/ stopped /stopt/ guided /gáidid/ repeated /ripí:tid/ Gerund watching /wótchi#/ working /wé:rki#/ loving /lávi#/ playing /pléii#/ studying /stádii#/ fitting /fiti#/ stopping /stópi#/ guiding /gáidi#/ repeating /ripí:ti#/ Spanish observar trabajar amar jugar estudiar calzar detener guiar repetir

NOTAS: 1. Los verbos terminados en -y precedida de una vocal deben agregar -ed; mientras que los que terminan en -y precedida de consonante deben transformar la -y en -ied. 2. La mayoría de los verbos que tienen la conbinación consonante+vocal+consonante, o cons+cons+vocal+cons, deben duplicar la última consonante antes de agregar -ed. 3. Aquellos verbos regulares terminados en -t, -te, -d, -de deben agregar -d/ed y ese sufijo se pronuncia /id/, y es una sílaba más: fit /fit/ fitted /fitid/; decide /disáid/ decided /disáidid/; request /rikwést/ requested /rikwéstid/.

Infinitive To answer /á:nser/ To arrive /arráiv/ To ask /a:sk/ To carry /kærri/ To clean /kli:n/ To close /klóuz/ To dry /drái/ To enjoy /endllói/ To finish /fínish/ To hate /heit/ To help /hélp/ To hope /hóup/ To invite /inváit/ To listen /lísn/ To locate /loukéit/

Past Tense /past Participle answered /á:nserd/ arrived /arráivd/ asked /a:skt/ carried /kærrid/ cleaned /kli:nd/ closed /klóuzd/ dried /dráid/ enjoyed /endllóid/ finished /fínisht/ hated /héitid/ helped /helpt/ hoped /hóupt/ invited /inváitid/ listened /lísnd/ located /loukéitid/

Spanish contestar, responder llegar preguntar, pedir transportar, llevar limpiar cerrar secar disfrutar, gustar terminar odiar, no gustar ayudar esperar, desear invitar escuchar ubicar, localizar

A short course in english for adult students

257

To look /luk/ To love /láv/ To need /ni:d/ To offer /ófer/ To prefer /priféar/ To rain /rein/ To receive /risí:v/ To remember /rimémber/ To repair /ripéar/ To repeat /ripí:t/ To request /rikwést/ To smoke /smóuk/ To start /sta:rt/ To stay /stéi/ To study /stádi/ To suggest /sadllést/ To talk /to:k/ To try /trái/ To use /iú:z/ To visit /vízit/ To wait /weit/ To walk /wo:k/ To want /wont/ To wash /wosh/ To watch /wotch/ To wish /wish/ To work /we:rk/

looked /lukt/ loved /lávd/ needed /ní:did/ offered /óferd/ preferred /priféard/ rained /réind/ received /risí:vd/ remembered /rimémberd/ repaired /ripéard/ repeated /ripí:tid/ requested /rikwéstid/ smoked /smóukt/ started /stá:rtid/ stayed /stéid/ studied /stádid/ suggested /sadlléstid/ talked /tó:kt/ tried /tráid/ used /iú:zd/ visited /vízitid/ waited /wéitid/ walked /wó:kt/ wanted /wóntid/ washed /wósht/ watched /wótcht/ wished /wísht/ worked /wé:rkt/

mirar amar, gustar necesitar ofrecer preferir llover recibir recordar reparar, arreglar repetir solicitar, pedir fumar comenzar, partir quedarse, permanecer estudiar sugerir conversar tratar, esforzarse usar, utilizar visitar esperar, atender caminar querer lavar observar, mirar desear trabajar, funcionar

B. VERBOS IRREGULARES DE USO FRECUENTE Infinitive To begin /bigín/ To bring /bri#/ To build /bild/ To buy /bái/ To come /kam/ To cut /kat/ To do /du:/ To drink /dri#k/ To drive /dráiv/ To eat /i:t/ To fall /fo:l/ To feel /fi:l/ To find /fáind/ To forget /forgét/ To get /get/ To give /giv/ To go /góu/ To have /hæv/ To hear /híar/ To keep /ki:p/ To know /nóu/ To learn /le:rn/ To leave /li:v/ To lend /lend/ To lose /lú:z/ To make /meik/
258

Past Tense began /bigæn/ brought /bro:t/ built /bilt/ bought /bo:t/ came /kéim/ cut /kat/ did /did/ drank /dræ#k/ drove /dróuv/ ate /eit/ fell /fel/ felt /felt/ found /fáund/ forgot /forgót/ got /got/ gave /géiv/ went /went/ had /hæd/ heard /hé:rd/ kept /kept/ knew /niú:/ learnt * /le:rnt/ left /léft/ lent /lent/ lost /lost/ made /méid/

Past Participle begun /bigán/ brought /bro:t/ built /bilt/ bought /bo:t/ come /kam/ cut /kat/ done /dan/ drunk /dra#k/ driven /drívn/ eaten /í:tn/ fallen /fó:ln/ felt /felt/ found /fáund/ forgotten /forgótn/ got/gotten /got/gótn/ given /gívn/ gone /gon/ been to /bi:n tu/ had /hæd/ heard /hé:rd/ kept /kept/ known /nóun/ learnt /le:rnt/ left /left/ lent /lent/ lost /lost/ made /méid/

Spanish empezar, comenzar traer construir comprar venir cortar hacer beber manejar, conducir comer caer sentir(se) hallar, encontrar olvidar conseguir, obtener dar ir ir (y volver) tener, servirse, haber oir guardar, mantener saber, conocer aprender, enterarse partir, salir, dejar prestar perder, extraviar hacer, fabricar

A short course in english for adult students

To meet /mi:t/ met /met/ To pay /péi/ paid /péid/ put /put/ To put /put/ To read /ri:d/ read /red/ To run /ran/ ran /ræn/ To say /séi/ said /sed/ saw /so:/ To see /si:/ To sell /sel/ sold /sóuld/ To send /send/ sent /sént/ To shut /shat/ shut /shat/ sang /sæ#/ To sing /si#/ To sit /sit/ sat /sæt/ To sleep /sli:p/ slept /slept/ To speak /spi:k/ spoke /spóuk/ To spend /spénd/ spent /spént/ To stand up /stæ ´ nd ap/ stood up /stu:d ap/ To swim /swim/ swam /swæm/ To take /téik/ took /tuk/ taught /to:t/ To teach /ti:tch/ To tell /tel/ told /tóuld/ To think /"i#k/ thought /"o:t/ To understand /anderstæ ´ nd/ understood /anderstú:d/ To wear /wéar/ wore /wo:r/ To write /ráit/ wrote /rout/

met /met/ paid /péid/ put /put/ read /red/ run /ran/ said /sed/ seen /si:n/ sold /sóuld/ sent /sént/ shut /shat/ sung /sa#/ sat /sæt/ slept /slept/ spoken /spóukn/ spent /spént/ stood up /stu:d ap/ swum /swam/ taken /téikn/ taught /to:t/ told /tóuld/ thought /"o:t/ understood /anderstú:d/ worn /wo:rn/ written /rítn

reunirse, conocer pagar poner, colocar leer correr, administrar decir ver vender enviar cerrar cantar sentarse dormir hablar gastar, pasar tiempo pararse nadar tomar, llevar enseñar decir, narrar pensar, creer entender, comprender vestir, desgastar escribir

A short course in english for adult students

259

Bl 260 .

I really don´t know whether / if he´s very tall. A short course in english for adult students 261 . He said to her.” Ex. 8. The teacher told me not to look at my neighbor´s paper. The teacher told me to do my exercises in ink.She said. 7. He asked. 3. 8. Mary told me (that) she could not go with me tonight. 11. 10. The teacher told me to come back later. 6. 4. . 2. 6. Because he wanted to tell me about his new plans. 7. 5. (Possible Answers) . I´d like to find out when he´ll get back. 4. 14. 9. 8. told me 6. She said. Can you tell me where he is now? 11. He asked me. 6. He said (that) he hoped she came soon. 4. “My last name´s Smith 6. Smith. He said to me. he is 12. Helen asked me how long I had lived here. The teacher told me not to waste so much time. 12. He told me not to make the same mistake again. He asked me what the word meant. Mrs. He said he´d seen it. 2. I can 3. I asked her whether / if John was here. 9. it is 10. 5. 7. Ex. was 9. “Did you mail the letter?” 12. He said (that) he didn´t know her well 11. Mr. 9. He begged me to send him the money at once. He asked me. Ex. She asked him whether / if he liked her new hat. Because I wanted to know what time it was and I didn´t have a watch. He said. The teacher told me to wait outside in the hall. Can you tell me whether / if the elevator is out of order? 10. it is 4. meant 8. I asked John what time it was. 12.” 9. Smith asked us whether / if we understood this exercise. Smith said (that) we might have an examination. The doctor said (that) John was a very sick man. 12. He asked me whether / if I was going to the movies with them. The teacher told me to give this message to Mrs. The teacher told me to go to the whiteboard. 15. Mr. 6. 8. 7. 10. 8. could 11. Mary told me (that) she would be back later. 5. 2. 3. John asked whether / if it was raining. She said. 1. would 5. Smith said (that) we would finish this tomorrow.” 8. She didn´t say where she was going . He warned the child not to cross the road. 6. I´m not sure whether / if he is a good student. 3. Jones wanted to know how he was getting along. The teacher told me to sit down and read the story. He politely asked me not to be late. The teacher asked whether / if I had seen that documentary. I´d like to know whether / if Mr. 6. Smith is here. 2. was Ex. 4. He asked me how I was today. “How much does it cost?” 10. 3. I asked her where it was. Ex. 14. Ask him where he lives. 2. 3. He asked her. The teacher told me to sit up straight. 5. He asked me to meet him outside the station. Ex.” 5. Can you tell me where she lives? 4. He told me to write a short story in English. “I´m going out of town. “Don´t wait for me. He wants to know how much it costs. He said (that) he had no money. 7. I don´t know how tall he is. 7. 5. Mr. “I can´t meet you . “My maiden name was Jones. The teacher told me not to write in pencil. She wants to know whether / if he is in the building. Because he thinks he´ll have to work till late tonight. “Leave the room. “Where do you live?” 3. He told me (that) he was supposed to be here now. 8. 13. 9. 4. He told me not to forget what he had told me. I told him to be more careful. He said. I asked him when he had read that book. The teacher told me to prepare my lessons more carefully. He asked me when I was leaving for Europe. Because there was too much traffic at that time. was 7. 5. 11. He asked me whether / if I had to work tonight . 2. 2. 7. He said (that) he had known him a long time. 1. 7. 6. 3. He asked me to try to come on time. 10. 13. 10. 5. 15. She wants to know how he is getting along. He asked me to sit down for a few minutes. She said she hadn´t enjoyed it. 4. 12.Key to answers UNIT 19 Ex. 2. 3. 9. 8. She said (that) she was going away tomorrow. “I´ll be back soon. 2. “Do you like New York?” 4. Ex. The teacher told me to take my feet off the desk. “ 11.

Bl 262 .

. Mi nombre es.. Permítame presentarme...Chile ¿Vive ud. un/a. hijos? ¿Cuántos hijos tiene Ud..... My name is./ /plí:z lét mi introdiu:z maisélf mai néim iz../ /!is iz míster/mísiz/mis/káptin/dóktor.USEFUL ENGLISH PHRASES AND EXPRESSIONS IN ENGLISH FOR TRAVELLERS Frases y expresiones útiles en inglés para viajeros A. But I speak Spanish and English I´m sorry I don´t understand French Are you married or single? Have you got a. . This is Mr/Mrs/Miss/Captain/Doctor. aqui? ¿En qué hotel está hospedado/a Ud./Sra/Srta/Cap/Dr.? Vengo de Stgo.? ¿Tiene Ud.. I´d like you to meet Mr/Mrs/Miss/Captain/Doctor.. Este es el o la Sr.? No estoy muy bien lamentablemente Encantado. Pero hablo español e inglés Lo siento.. Desgraciadamente no sé Lamentablemente no puedo ¿Cuál es su nombre? ¿Cuál es su apellido? ¿Qué hace Ud? Soy un oficial de ejército. ¿Cuál es su grado? ¿Habla Ud./ /hav iu gót éni tchíldren/ /háu méni tchíldren hav iu gót/ /wéar á:r iu from/ /aim from tchile/ /wéar diu kám from/ /ai kám from santiágou tchile/ /diu liv híar/ /witch houtél a:r iu stéii# æt/ /wóts io:r rú:m námber/ ¡Hola! Buenos días Buenas tardes Buenas tardes Hasta luego Buenas noches Hasta pronto Hasta mañana Hasta la noche Muchas gracias De nada ¿Cómo está Ud. Pleased to meet you I´m glad to meet you Please I´m sorry I´m sorry I´m late I´m afraid I´m afraid I don´t know I´m afraid I can´t What´s your first name? What´s your surname/last name? What do you do? I´m an army officer What is your rank? Do you speak French/German/Italian? No. I don´t..? Soy de Chile ¿De dónde viene Ud... My name is../Sra/Srta/Cap/Dr./ /plí:zd tu mí:t iu/ /aim glæd tu mí:t iu/ /plí:z/ /aim sóri/ /aim sóri aim léit/ /aim afréid/ /aim afréid ai dóunt nóu/ /aim afréid ai ká:nt/ /wóts io:r fé:rst néim/ /wóts io:r sé:rneim/lá:st néim/ /wót diu dú:/ /aim an á:rmi ófiser/ /wóts io:r ræ#k /diu spí:k fréntch/dllérman/itálian/ /nóu ai dóunt..? ¿Cuál es el número de su habitación? A short course in english for adult students UNIT 20 263 . Chile Do you live here? Which hotel are you staying at? What´s your room number? /halóu//hai/ /gud mórni#/ /gud afternú:n/ /gud í:vni#/ /gud bái//bái bái/ /gud náit/ /sí: iu: léiter/ /sí: iu: tumórou/ /sí: iu: !is i:vni#/ /" æ ´ #kiu:/ /"æ ´ nkiu: véri mátch/ /io:r wélkam/ /háu á:r iu tudéi/ /aim véri wel "æ#kiu/ /aim fáin "æ#ks and hau a:r iú:/ /aim nót veri wél aim afréid/ /háu diu: dú: mai néim iz.... casado/a o soltero/a? ¿Tiene Ud..... Please let me introduce myself. No entiendo francés Es Ud.? ¿De dónde es Ud.. mi nombre es.. At a social gathering (en una reunion social) Hallo!/Hello!/Hi! Good morning Good afternoon Good evening Good bye/Bye bye Good night See you later See you tomorrow See you this evening Thank you/Thank you very much You´re welcome How are you today? I´m very well../ /aid láik iu tu mí:t míster/mísiz/mis/káptin/dóktor... thank you I´m fine.? Have you got any children? How many children have you got? Where are you from? I´m from Chile Where do you come from? I come from Santiago. Encantado/a de conocerlo/a Me alegra conocerlo/a Por favor Lo siento Lamento haberme atrasado Lamentablemente. francés/alemán/italiano? No.. hoy? Estoy muy bien gracias Estoy bien gracias y ¿cómo está Ud... thanks and how are you? I´m not very well I´m afraid How do you do... bat ai spí:k spæ ´ nish and í#glish/ /aim sóri ai dóunt anderstæ ´ nd fréntch/ /a:r iu mæ ´ rid o:r síngl/ /hav iu gót a. Me gustaría presentarle al Sr...

Fue grato conocerlo a Ud. Así lo espero.? ¿Le molesta si fumo? No me molesta. Concuerdo con Ud..? ¿Está cansado/a? ¿Tiene frío? ¿Tiene calor? ¿Tiene hambre? ¿Tiene sed? ¿Tiene sueño? ¿Está Ud. Hágalo ¿Está bien si me siento aquí? Si. Sí. Go ahead Is it all right if I sit here? Yes. por favor hágalo Tiene Ud. por favor. come in and sit down Wait a moment. razón.? ¿Está preocupado/a? ¿Está enfermo/a Ud. please Can you wait a minute? Can you repeat your question.What´s your telephone number? What´s your address? Can I help you? Can you help me? Pardon? Could you speak more slowly please? Yes. that´s right That´s what I mean What do you mean by that? What does this word mean? What´s the meaning of this word? 264 A short course in english for adult students /wóts io:r télifoun námber/ /wóts io:r addrés/ /kan ai hélp iu/ /kan iu hélp mi:/ /pá:rdon/ /kud iu spí:k mó:r slóuli plí:z/ /ies ov kó:rs/sé:rtnli/shuar/ /nóu aim afréid nót/ /wi! pléllar/ /aim sóri ai mast góu náu/ /aim afréid its léit and ai hæf tu góu náu/ /it woz náis mí:ti# iu:/ /kan/mei ai kám ín/ /plí:z kám ín and sít dáun/ /wéit e móument plí:z/ /kan iu wéit e mínit/ /kan iu ripí:t io:r kwéstchon plí:z/ /háu diu spél io:r néim/ /kan iu spél it plí:z/ /sit dáun plí:z/ /dóunt óupn !e wíndou plí:z/ /léts sit hiar/ /léts góu insáid/autsáid/ /its kóuld in híar/ /its tú: hot híar/ /wót táim iz it/ /wóts !e déit tudéi/ /a:r iu ó:l ráit/ /a:r iu táiard/ /a:r iu kóuld/ /a:r iu hot/ /a:r iu há#gri/ /a:r iu "é:rsti/ /a:r iu slí:pi/ /a:r iu hæ ´ pi/ /a:r iu sæd/ /a:r iu wárid/ /a:r iu sik/íl/ /diu máind if ai smouk/ /nou ai dóunt máind góu ahéd/ /iz it ó:l ráit if ai sít híar/ /ies plí:z dú:/ /io:r ráit/ /io:r ró#/ /ai agrí: wi! iú:/ /ai dóunt agrí: wi! iú:/ /ai dóunt "i#k sóu/ /ai hóup sóu/ /ies ai "i#k sóu/ /ies !æts ráit/ /!æts wot ai mí:n/ /wót diu: mí:n bai !æt/ /wót daz !is wé:rd mí:n/ /wóts !e mí:ni# ov !is wé:rd ¿Cuál es su número telefónico? ¿Cuál es su dirección? ¿Puedo ayudarle? ¿Puede ayudarme? ¿Perdón? ¿Podría hablar más lento por favor? Sí. No lo creo así. su nombre? ¿Puede deletrearlo por favor? Siéntese. está equivocado. I´m afraid not With pleasure I´m sorry I must go now I´m afraid it´s late and I have to go now. correcto Eso es lo que quiero decir ¿Qué quiere decir con eso? ¿Qué significa esta palabra? ¿Cuál es el significado de esta palabra? . I don´t mind. feliz? ¿Está triste Ud. entre y siéntese Espere un momento por favor ¿Puede UD esperar un minuto? ¿Puede UD repetir su pregunta? ¿Cómo deletrea Ud. ¿Qué hora es? ¿Qué fecha es hoy? ¿Está bien Ud. of course/certainly/sure No. No concuerdo con Ud. ¿Puedo entrar? Por favor. creo que sí Sí.. lamentablemente no Con mucho gusto Lo siento debo irme ahora Lamentablemente es tarde y tengo que irme ahora. It was nice meeting you Can/may I come in? Please. por supuesto No. Sentémonos aquí Entremos/Salgamos Hace frío aquí adentro Hace demasiado calor aquí. please do You´re right You´re wrong I agree with you I don´t agree with you I don´t think so I hope so Yes. I think so Yes. please Don´t open the window. Ud. please? How do you spell your name? Can you spell it please? Sit down. por favor No abra la ventana. please Let´s sit here Let´s go inside/outside It´s cold in here It´s too hot here What time is it? What´s the date today? Are you all right? Are you tired? Are you cold? Are you hot? Are you hungry? Are you thirsty? Are you sleepy? Are you happy? Are you sad? Are you worried? Are you sick/ill? Do you mind if I smoke? No.

etc.... Shall I... etc..(do. No vaya allá (hable.)? Can Will 6. Sentémonos aquí (vamos.( haciendo.).etc. etc..(ayudarme. etc..) A short course in english for adult students 265 . ¿Le deletreo? ( Le ayudo. ¿Qué está estará (hizo.)? ¿Puedes ¿Quieres 6. (.. ¿Qué (hace.. spell it? (. etc) 3.)? 7..).... please. etc.)UD? did 3..(fumo.... go there ( speak.. What´s your. What are you will you be .(doing. etc..)? UD? 4.(sentarme aquí...... Could you.(name.. Do you mind if I. ¿Le molesta a UD si yo.(nombre dirección... ¿Puedo yo. etc)? 9. Can May I.. etc .)? Recuerde: 1.....(come here. 8. ) 7.(help me.. etc. etc.(smoke..etc.)? will 4.) please.)? ¿Querría Ud.... (sit here.).)? were you 2....etc. address. Sit here.... 8. Don´t..... por favor.... etc) . Siéntese aquí (venga.etc) (hará.. por favor. etc.. ¿Podría Ud.Remember: 1. ¿Cuál es su....etc. etc.)? estaba 2. help you.)? Would 5.etc)? 9.. go.. Let´s sit here. 5. What do you.

. I didn´t have/eat/drink/order this.oklók/ /ai laikt/ai dídnt láik !e sé:rvis/!e fu:d/!e rú. At a hotel (en un hotel) I want to check in What´s my room number? Could you take this suitcase to my room please? Is there a colo(u)r TV in the room? The central heating/air conditioner isn´t working well My bed hasn´t been made yet I need another blanket Could you change the towels? Could you get me some soap/shampoo... por favor? ¿Hay una oficina de cambio en el hotel? ¿Podría traerme un. please Can I send a fax/an e-mail from the hotel? At what time do you serve breakfast/lunch/dinner? Can I have breakfast in my room? Could you get me a newspaper in Spanish.m veri mátch/ ¿Me pueden traer desayuno a mi habitación? ¿Podría conseguirme un periódico en español. por favor? Hay un error en mi cuenta.tu mai rú:m plí:z/ /wéarz !e réstorant ápstéarz o:r dáunstéarz/ /antíl wót táim iz !e bá:r óupn/ /hav ai gót éni mésidlliz/ /kan ai hæv mai rú:m kí: plí:z rú:m námber tú: óu síks/ /iz !er e télifoun in !e lóbi/ /kan ai hæv mai bíl/tchék plí:z/ /!érz an éror in mai bíl/tchék ai "i#k/ /ai dídnt hæv díner híar la:st náit/ /ai dídnt hæv/í:t/dri#k/órder !is/ /iz !er a bá:rberz shop híar/ /kud iu póust !í:z léterz/póuská:rdz for mí:/ /wéar a:r !e lífts/elevéitorz/ /téik !e líft/elevéitor tu !e tén" fló:r/ /ai wónt tu tchék áut at. por favor? ¿Dónde está el restaurant? ¿Arriba o Abajo? ¿Hasta qué hora está abierto el bar? ¿Tengo algún mensaje? ¿Puede darme la llave de mi pieza. por favor Deseo hacer una llamada interna-cional a Chile El código de mi país es 56 y el código para Santiago es 2.. ¿Hay una peluquería aquí? ¿Podría Ud. por favor. Yo no cené aquí anoche.. please I need to make an international call to Chile. por favor. 266 A short course in english for adult students .. Yo no me serví/comí/bebí/pedí ésto. a mi habitación. /kan ai sénd e fáks/an í: méil from !e houtél/ ¿Puedo enviar un fax/e-mail desde el hotel? /at wót táim diu sé:rv brékfast/lántch/díner/ ¿A qué hora sirven desayuno/almuerzo/cena? /kan ai hæv brékfast in mai rú:m/ /kud iu gét mi e niuzpéiper in spæ ´ nish plí:z/ /iz !er e suími# pú:l/kazí:nou/dlli:m in !e houtél/ /kan iu wéik mi áp at siks oklók/ /kud iu gét mi e tæ ´ ksi plí:z/ /iz !er e máni ekstchéindll in !e houtél/ /kud iu brí# e. ¿Cuál es el voltaje usado aquí? 220 o 110? ¿Podría conseguirme un adaptador para mi afeitadora eléctrica? ¿Hay una lavadora operada con monedas? Deseo que me laven y planchen estas ropas.. o´clock I liked/I didn´t like the service/the food/the room very much /ai wónt to tchek ín/ /wóts mai rú :m námber/ /kud iu téik !is sútkeis tu mai rú:m plí :z/ /iz !ér e kólor tí: ví: in !e rú:m/ /!e séntral hí:ti#/éar kondíshoner íznt wé:rki# wél/ /mai béd hæ ´ znt bí:n méid iet/ ´ #kit/ /ai ní:d aná!er blæ /kud iu tchéindll !e táuelz/ /kud iu gét mi sam sóup/shæmpu: plí:z/ /wóts !e vóltidll iú:zd híar/tú: twénty or uán hándrid and tén/ /kud iu gét mi an adæ ´ ptor for mai eléktrik shéiver/ /iz !ear a kóin operéitid wóshi# mashí:n/ /ai wónt tu hæv !i:z klóu!z wósht and áiond plí:z/ /ai ní:d tu méik an internæ ´ shonal kó:l tu tchile/ /mai kántri kóud námber is fífty siks and !e kóud námber for santiágou is tú:/ /ai wónt tu méik it kolékt kó:l plí:z/ Deseo registrarme ¿Cuál es el número de mi habitación? ¿Podría llevar esta maleta a mi habitación por favor? ¿Hay un TV a color en la habitación? La calefacción central/El aire acondicionado no está funcionando bien Mi cama aún no ha sido hecha. Necesito otra frazada ¿Podría cambiar las toallas? ¿Podría conseguirme jabón/shampú. I want to check out at. me parece. My country code number is 56 and the code number for Santiago is 2 I want to make a collect call. Me gustó mucho/No me gustó mucho el servicio/ la comida/la habitación..B. despacharme estas cartas/postales? ¿Dónde están los ascensores? Tome el ascensor al 10° piso Quiero dejar el hotel/registrar mi salida a las. por favor? ¿Hay una piscina/casino/gimnasio en el hotel? ¿Puede despertarme a las seis. please? What is the voltage used here? 220 or 110? Could you get me an adaptor for my electric shaver? Is there a coin operated washing machine? I want to have these clothes washed and ironed... to my room please? Where´s the restaurant? Upstairs or downstairs? Until what time is the bar open? Have I got any messages? Can I have my room key. I think I didn´t have dinner here last night.. please? Is there a swimming pool/casino/gym in the hotel? Can you wake me up at six o´clock? Could you get me a taxi please? Is there a money exchange in the hotel? Could you bring a. por favor? ¿Podría conseguirme un taxi. Is there a barber´s shop here? Could you post these letters/postcards for me? Where are the lifts/elevators? Take the lift/elevator to the tenth floor. por favor. Habitación 206 ¿Hay un teléfono en el hall? ¿Puede darme la cuenta. please? Room number 206 Is there a telephone in the lobby? Can I have my bill/check. Quiero hacer una llamada con cobro revertido. please? There´s an error in my bill/check..

.( have another coffee.. Could you.etc..)? Where are the.. I want to. etc) Desearía. toilets.. bar.) in the hotel? 4.. ) 2.. etc)? 3.... etc.(make a phone call.. Is there a.(hacer una llamada. etc.(servirme otro café.) please? Recuerde: 1. ¿Dónde está el. Where is the. etc..(bar. ¿Hay un.(bar..etc.. Quiero...? 3..(lift. ) por favor? A short course in english for adult students 267 .) I would like to.Remember: 1......etc.(despertarme a las 7. / teléfonos. baños....etc..(wake me up at 7:30. etc.. bar..etc.)? ¿Dónde están los . ¿Podría Ud..(ascensor..) en el hotel? 4..etc.. (telephones.) 2.

mí:dium or wél dán/ /ai wónt it wél dán plí:z/ /wót wil iu hæ ´ v for dizért/ /aid láik tu ó... ¿Desearía algo para beber? ¿Vino. (a beer.. salted almonds or peanuts. You can keep the change.. etc. potato chips and a mixed salad Could you get me another knife? This one is dirty. (una cerveza... I want to have. etc.)? How would you like your. ¿Cómo quiere Ud su (té. ¿Podría pasarme la sal. cerca de la ventana? ¿A qué hora comienzan a servir el almuerzo/la cena? ¿Puedo pagar con tarjeta de crédito/con cheque/ en efectivo? ¿Puede cargarme ésto en mi cuenta del hotel? Habitación 2105 ¿Puedo mirar el menú? ¿desea un aperitivo? Me serviré una copa de vino blanco y queso. Muchísimas gracias. etc. etc. etc. etc.) ¿Puedo servirme. ¿Qué quiere Ud... please What would you like to start with? I think I´ll have chicken soup. near the window? What time do you start serving lunch/dinner? Can I pay by credit card/by cheque/cash? Can you charge this into my hotel bill? Room 2105 Can I take a look at the menu? Would you like an appetizer? I´ll have a glass of white wine and some cheese.. por favor ¿Con qué desearía comenzar? Creo que me serviré una sopa de pollo...) Can I have.. (another whisky. (beber. (más té. Thank you very much.. (otro whisky. (steak. (comer. (la cuenta. What do you want to (eat.rder e frú:t sæ ´ lad /kud ai hæ ´ v sam kófi:/ /wud iu láik sam likiuar/skótch/tchéri/ amarétou/ /kud iu brí# mi !e bíl/tchék plí:z/ /ai ríali endllóid !e mí:l/it woz véri gud indí:d/ /"æ ´ #kiu véri match/iu kan kí:p !e tchéidll/ Necesito una mesa para tres (personas) por favor. beer or a soft drink? Can I have a draught beer please? How do you want your meat? Do you want it rare. please? I´d like to have a glass of soda water Would you like something to drink? Wine. cognac o amareto? ¿Me podría traer la cuenta. Good bye. Quiero servirme. Could you pass me the salt.etc.)? ¿Qué desearía Ud. etc.)? ¿Cómo desearía Ud su (bife.)? 2.)? ¿Me podría traer....)? 3. What will you have for dessert? I´d like to order a fruit salad. (the bill. regular o bien cocida? La quiero bien cocida. (tea.. Fue muy buena en verdad. amaretto? Could you bring me the bill/check. a sandwich. It was very good indeed. etc.)? What would you like to (drink.etc. cherry.) 268 A short course in english for adult students . por favor ¿Qué se servirá a continuación? Me serviré un trozo de lomo.. etc)? Desearía pedir.) I´d like to have.. un sandwich. etc. Hasta luego. por favor. (some more tea. Recuerde: 1. Puede conservar el vuelto.s mi !e só:lt plí:z/ /aid láik tu hæ ´ v e glá:s of souda wóter/ /wud iu láik sám"i# tu drí#k wáin.)? 2. cerveza o una gaseosa? ¿Podría servirme una cerveza de barril. etc.. etc. papas fritas y una ensalada mixta ¿Me podría traer otro cuchillo? Este está sucio..)? 3. ¿Podría servirme un café? ¿Desearía un bajativo? ¿Whisky. . How do you want your.) /ai ní:d e téibl for "rí: (pí:pl) plí:z/ /iz !er e téibl in !e non smóuki# éaria níar !e wíndou/ /wót táim diu stá:rt sé:rvi# lántch/díner/ /kan ai péi bai krédit ká:rd/bai tchek/kæ ´ sh/ /kan iu: tchárdll !is íntu mai houtél bíl/rú:m tuénti wán óu fáiv/ /kan ai téik a lúk at !e méniu:/ /wud iu láik an apetáizer/ /ail hæ ´ v e glá:s of wáit wáin and sam tchí:z sóltid ó:lmondz or pí:nats plí:z/ /wót wud iu láik tu stá:rt wi!/ ´ v tchíkin sú:p plí:z/ /ai "i#k ail hæ /wót wil iu hæ ´ v tu fólou/ /ail hæ ´ v rámp stéik/potéitou tchips and e míkst sælad/ /kud iu get mi aná!er náif !is wan iz dé:rti/ /kud iu pá. almendras saladas o maní. Remember: 1.C..)? I´d like to order.. ¿Qué se servirá de postre? Desearía ordenar una ensalada de fruta.) Desearía servirme. por favor? ¿Cómo quiere la carne? ¿La quiere a punto. (chicken and rice. please What will you have to follow? I´ll have rump steak. ¿Hay una mesa en la zona no fumadores. please? I really enjoyed the meal.. por favor? Desearía servirme un vaso de soda. (pollo con arroz. etc. etc.. etc. por favor? Realmente disfruté la comida. Could I have some coffee? Would you like some liqueur? Scotch.. bíar or e sóft drí#k/ /kan ai hæ ´ v e drá:ft bíar plí:z/ /háu diu wónt io:r mí:t/diu wónt it réar. medium or well-done? I want it well done please. etc. At a restaurant (en un restaurante) I need a table for three (people) please Is there a table in the non-smoking area.)? Could you get me.

bil/ Tip /tip/ Change /tcheindll/ BREAKFAST /brékfast/ Bacon and eggs /béikonanégz/ Boiled eggs /bóild égz/ Bread /bréd/ Bread and butter /brédanbáter/ Coffee /kófi/ Cornflakes /kó:rnfleiks/ Fried eggs /fráid égz/ Ham /hæm/ Ham and eggs /hæmanégz/ Jam /dllæm/ Marmalade /mármeléid/ Milk /milk/ Poached eggs /póutcht égz/ Scrambled eggs /skrámbld égz/ Tea /tí:/ Toast /tóust/ Wholemeal bread /hóulmi:l bréd/ LUNCH /DINNER:/ lántch/díner/ Dessert /dezé :rt/ French dressing /fréntch drési#/ Fruit /frú:t/ Hors d’oeuvres /o :rdá :vre/ Main course /méin kó :rs/ Mayonnaise /máioneiz/ Salad /sælad/ Sauce /só :s/ Soup /su :p/ Starter /stá:rter/ MEATS: /mí:ts/ Beef /bí:f/ Chicken /tchiken/ Chops /tchops/ Duck /dák/ Fillet steak /fílit stéik // Lamb /læm/ Meatballs /mí:tbo:lz/ Mutton /mátn/ Garzón Carta. bill /tchek. pléis/ Squid /skuid/ Trout /tráut/ Tuna fish /tú :na fish/ BEVERAGES. plaice /sóul. menú Desayuno Almuerzo Cena liviana Cena Refrigerio Maestro de cocina Cuenta Propina Vuelto. TRAGOS Bebida alcohólica Cerveza Cerveza inglesa (amarga) Coñac Champaña Jugo de frutas Agua de hierbas Té helado Cerveza rubia (pílsener) Té con limón Limonada Licor Leche Agua mineral Vino tinto Vino Rosado Cerveza con orange Gaseosa Tea Whisky Vino blanco VERDURAS Alcachofa Espárragos Palta Bruselas Repollo Zanahoria Apio 269 A short course in english for adult students . DRINKS: Alcoholic drink /alkohólik drink/ Beer /bíar/ Bitter /bíter/ Brandy /brændi/ Champagne /shampéin/ Fruit juice /fru:t dllu:s/ Herbal tea /hé:rbal tí:/ Iced tea /áist tí:/ Lager /lá:ger/ Lemon tea /lémon tí:/ Lemonade /lémoneid/ Liqueur /líke:r/ Milk /milk/ Mineral water /míneral wóter/ Red wine /réd wáin/ Rosé /rouzéi/ Shandy /shændi/ Soft drink /soft drink/ Tea /tí:/ Whisky /wiski/ White wine /wáit wáin/ VEGETABLES: /védlletablz/ Artichoke /á:rtitchouk/ Asparragus /aspárragas/ Avocado /ævoká:dou/ Brussels sprouts /brásels spráuts/ Cabbage /kæbidll/ Carrot /kærrot/ Celery /séleri/ PESCADOS Y MARISCOS Loco Bacalao Jibia Arenque Centolla Langosta Cholgas pulpo Ostras Gambas Salmón Sardina Ostiones Erizo Langostinos Lenguado calamar Trucha Atún BEBIDAS.Restaurants: Useful vocabulary (Restaurantes: Vocabulario util) Waiter /wéiter/ Menu /méniu/ Breakfast /brékfast/ Lunch /lántch/ Supper /sáper/ Dinner /díner/ Snack /snæk/ Chef /tchef/ Check.cambio DESAYUNO Huevos con tocino Huevos duros Pan Pan con mantequilla Café Cereales Huevos fritos Jamón Jamón con huevos Mermelada (dulce) Mermelada (cítrico) Leche Huevos fritos en agua Huevos revueltos Té Tostada Pan integral ALMUERZO /CENA Postre Aliño francés Fruta Entremeses Plato de fondo Mayonesa Ensalada Salsa Sopa Entrada CARNES Vacuno Pollo Chuletas Pato Filete Cordero lechón Albóndigas Cordero FISH AND SEAFOOD Abalone /abalóuni/ Cod /kod/ Cuttlefish /kátlfish/ Herring /héri#/ King-crab /ki# kræb/ Lobster /lóbster/ Mussels /máslz/ Octopus /óktopas/ Oysters /óisterz/ Prawns /pró:nz/ Salmon /sá:mon/ Sardine /sa:rdí:n/ Scallops /skælops/ Sea-urchin /sí: é:rtchin/ Shrimps /shrimps/ Sole.

Pork /pó:rk/ Ribs /ribz/ Roast beef /róus bí:f/ Rump steak /rámp stéik/ Sirloin steak /sé:rloin stéik/ T-bone /tí : bóun/ Turkey /té:rki/ Veal /ví:l/ HOW MEAT IS COOKED Medium to rare /mí:dium tu réar/ Rare /réar/ Well done /wél dán/ HOW FOOD IS PREPARED Baked cake /béikt kéik/ Boiled eggs /bóild egz/ Broiled chicken /bróild tchiken/ Chilled wine /tchíld wáin/ Chopped fruit /tchópt frú:t/ Fried fish /fráid fish/ Grated cheese /gréitid tchí:z/ Grilled steak /grild stéik/ Ground coffee /gráund kófi/ Iced tea /áist tí:/ Melted sugar /méltid shúgar/ Minced meat (mínst mí:t/ Mixed salad /míkst sálad/ Poached eggs /póutcht égz/ Roast beef /róust bí:f/ Sliced bread /sláist bréd/ Smoked salmon /smóukt sá:mon/ Steamed fish /stí:md fish/ Stewed beef /stiu:d bí:f/ Stuffed turkey /stáft té:rki/ Whipped cream /wipt krí:m/ MISCELLANEOUS Ashtray /æshtrei/ Beerglass /bíargla:s/ Bottle of wine /bótl ov wáin/ Bottle opener /bótl óupner/ Bread knife /brédnaif/ Butter dish /báterdish/ Cruet /kru:it/ Cup /káp/ Dessertspoon /dezértspu:n/ Fork /fórk/ Goblet /góblit/ Jug /dllág/ Knife /náif/ Lighter /láiter/ Match /mætch/ Cerdo Costillas Rosbif Lomo Lomo vetado Entrecot Pavo Ternera COCCIÓN DE CARNES Regular. casi a punto A punto Bien cocido COMO ESTA PREPARADA LA COMIDA Queque horneado Huevos cocidos Pollo a lo spiedo Vino helado Fruta picada Pescado frito Queso rallado Bife a la parrilla Café en grano molido Té helado Azucar derretida Carne molida Ensalada mixta Huevos escalfados Vacuno asado Pan rebanado Salmón ahumado Pescado al vapor Bife estofado Pavo relleno Crema batida MISCELANEO Cenicero Vaso para cerveza Botella de vino Abridor de botella Cuchillo para pan Mantequillera Alcuza Taza Cuchara para postre Tenedor Copa Jarro Cuchillo Encendedor Fósforo Corn /kó :rn/ Cucumber /kíukumber/ Green beans /grí:n bí:nz/ Leek /lí:k/ Lettuce /létis/ Mushrooms /máshrumz/ Peas /pí:z/ Potato /potéitou/ Red pepper /réd /grí:n péper/ Tomato /tomá:tou //toméitou/ Maíz Pepino Porotos verdes Puerro Lechuga Champiñones Arvejas Papa Pimiento rojo Tomate FRUIT /frú:t/ DESSERTS /dizé:rts/ Apple /æpl/ Apricot /æprikot / éiprikot/ Banana /baná:na/ Blackberry /blækberi/ Cake /kéik/ Cherry /tchéri/ Chocolate mousse /tchóklit mu:z/ Grapefruit /gréipfrut/ Grapes /gréips/ Ice cream /áis krí:m/ Melon /mélon/ Mints /mints/ Orange /órindll/ Peach /pí:tch/ Pear /péar/ Pineapple /páinápl/ Plum /plám/ Raspberry /ræzberi/ Redcurrant /redkúrant/ Scone /skóun/ Strawberry /stró:beri/ Sweets /sui:ts/ Watermelon /wótermelon/ Yoghourt /ióga:rt/ HOW FOOD TASTES Bitter /bíter/ Hot /hot/ Salty /só:lti/ Sour /sáuer/ Spicy /spáisi/ Sweet /sui:t/ SPICES /spáisiz/ Bay leaf /béi lí:f/ Chilli pepper /tchili péper/ Cinnamon /sínamon/ Garlic /gá.rlik/ FRUTA POSTRES Manzana Damasco Plátano Mora Torta Guinda Mus de chocolate Pomelo Uvas Helado Melón Bombones de menta Naranja Durazno Pera Piña Ciruela Frambuesa Grosella Bollo Frutilla Pastilla Samdía Yogurt SABORES Amargo Picante Salado Agrio Condimentado Dulce CONDIMENTOS Laurel Ají Canela Ajo 270 A short course in english for adult students .

Mug /mág/ Napkin /næpkin/ Place mat /pléismæt/ Plate /pléit/ Saucer /só:ser/ Soup bowl /sú:p bóul/ Sugar bowl /shúgarbóul/ Tablecloth /téiblklo"/ Tablespoon /téiblspu:n/ Teaspoon /tí:spun/ Tin opener /tin óupner/ Tumbler /támbler/ Wineglass /wáingla:s/ Tazón Servilleta Individual Plato Platillo Plato para sopa Azucarero Mantel Cuchara para sopa Cuchara de té Abrelatas Vaso para gaseosas Vaso para el vino Ginger /dllíndller/ Ketchup kétchap/ Mustard /másta:rd/ Parsley /pá:rsli/ Pepper /péper/ Salt /só:lt/ Thyme /táim/ Genjibre Ketchup Mostaza Perejil Pimienta Sal Tomillo A short course in english for adult students 271 .

Sorry I don´t know. does this bus go to the stadium? Please. You have to take bus 44 here and get off at the Railway Station. ¿Podría indicarme el camino. I´m a stranger here myself. is there a restaurant near here? Yes. We are here. Could you show me the way please? Excuse me. Take the third turning on the right and then walk for about 40 meters. Excuse me. can you tell me the way to the park. óposit !e sínema/ /wót táim du !e bæ#ks óupen/ /wót táim du básiz stá :rt ráni#/ /wót taim du !e shóps klóuz/ /dáz !e supermá:rkit óupn on sándi/ ¿Tiene Ud. You need to take the train. en la Calle Park Perdón. por favor? Perdón. Perdón. Doble a la izquierda en la próxima esquina y baje (por esa calle) dos cuadras Tome la tercera bocacalle a la derecha y enseguida camine unos 40 metros No está muy lejos. there´s one in Bridge Street. Excuse me. It´s not very far. ¿A qué hora abren los bancos? ¿A que hora comienzan a correr los buses? ¿A qué hora cierran las tiendas? ¿Abre el supermercado los domingos? 272 A short course in english for adult students . frente al cine. Do you know where the station is. Hay uno en la calle Bridge. Camine por esta calle. Estamos aquí afuera de la estación. Necesita tomar el tren. opposite the cinema. Drive along this road till you come to Clark Avenue. No sé. ¿Qué bus necesito tomar para ir a la National Art Gallery? ¿A qué distancia está el aeropuerto de aquí? Esta a más o menos 20 kms. please? Excuse me. ¿Cómo llego yo al museo? Mire el mapa. What time do the banks open? What time do buses start running? What time do the shops close? Does the supermarket open on Sunday? /hav iu got/diu hæ ´ v e mæ ´ p ov lándon/ /ai wónt tu góu tu !e ka"ídrl. ¿Dónde está la estación de metro más próxima? ¿Puedo irme a pié. por favor? Perdón. how do I get to the museum? Look at the map. where is the nearest underground station? Can I walk. outside the station. please? Excuse me. Siga derecho hacia adelante hasta llegar al puente Tiene que tomar el bus 44 aquí y bajarse en la estación de ferrocarriles. Turn left at the next corner and walk down the street for two blocks. hasta el semáforo.¿Hay un restaurante cerca de aquí? Sí.D. Excuse me which bus do I need to take to go to the National Art Gallery? How far is the airport from here? It´s about 20 kilometers. ¿Va este bus al estadio? Por favor. in Park Street.por favor? Perdón. Pregúntele a un policía Perdón. Ask a policeman. Then turn right and you´ll see the tower at the end of the road. ¿Donde está la oficina de correos. please? Could you tell me where the bank is. How to get to places (como llegar a lugares) Have you got/Do you have a map of London? I want to go to the cathedral. Conduzca por este camino hasta llegar a la calle Clark. Yo también soy forastero aquí. Kan iu shóu mi !e wéi pli:z/ /ikskiú:z mi wéarz !e póust ófis plí:z/ /kud iu tél mi wéar !e bæ#k iz plí:z/ /ikskiu:z mi/diu nóu wéar !e stéishn iz plí:z/ /ikskiu:z mi/kan iu tél mi !e wéi tu !e pá:rk plí:z/ /ikskiu:z mi/háu du ai gét tu !e miu:zíam/ /luk at !e mæp/wi a:r híar autsáid !e stéishn/ góu stréit ahéd antil iu kæm tu !e brídll/ /iu hæf tu téik bás fó:rti fóar and get óf at !e réilwei stéishn/ /wó:k aló# !is strí:t as fá:r as !e træfik láits/ /té:rn léft at !e nékst kó:rner and wó:k dáun !e strí:t for tú: blóks/ /téik !e "é:rd té:rni# on !e ráit and !én wó:k for abáut fó:rti mí:terz/ /its nót veri fá:r/dráiv alo# !is róud til iu kám tu klá:rk áveniu/!en té:rn ráit and iul sí: !e táuer at !i énd ov !e róud/ /sóri ai dóunt nóu/aim a stréindller híar maisélf/á:sk e polísman/ /ikskiu:z mi/witch bás du ai ní:d tu téik to góu tu !e næshional á:rt gæleri/ /hau fá:r iz !i éarpó:rt from híar/ /its abáut twénti kiloumí:terz/iu ní:d tu téik !e tréin/ /ikskiú:z mi dáz !is bás go tu !e stéidium/ /plí:z téik mi tu !i óksford houtél in pá:rk strí:t/ /ikskiu:z mi wéarz !e níarest ándergráund stéishn/ /kan ai wó:k or du ai ní:d tu téik e bás/ /ikskiú:z mi/iz !er e réstorant níar híar/ Iés/!éarz wan in bridll strí:t. lléveme al Hotel Oxford. ¿Podría indicarme el camino al parque. Where´s the post office. Enseguida doble a la derecha y verá la torre al final de la calle Lo siento. dónde está la estación. please? Excuse me. o tengo que tomar un bus? Perdón. or do I have to take a bus? Excuse me. Walk along this street as far as the traffic lights. por favor? Perdón. Go straight ahead until you come to the bridge. por favor? ¿Podría decirme dónde está el banco. un mapa de Londres? Deseo ir a la Catedral. take me to the Oxford Hotel. ¿Sabe Ud.

. Where is the nearest. Where is the..? 2.Useful vocabulary (vocabulario útil) City.más cercana.... Hay un / una. Which bus do I need to take to go to the. ¿A qué hora abren / cierran las. Could you tell me the way to....... How far is the.. is.. /péivment/ vereda(UK) Sidewalk /saidwó:k/ vereda(US) Bus stop /bas stóp/ parada de buses Underground Station (UK) /ándergráund stéishn/ estación de metro Subway Station (US) /sábwei stéishn/ estación de metro Railway Station /réilwei stéishn/ estación de trenes Airport /éarpó:rt/ aeropuerto Square /skuéar/ plaza Traffic lights /træfik láits/ semáforo Park /pá:rk/ parque Remember: 1..por favor? ¿Dónde esta la. What time do the... ¿Cómo llego a. ¿Dónde está la.? ¿A qué hora abre / cierra el / la...de aquí? 7.. I need to buy a / some. please? 4.. please?.. ¿Sabe UD dónde está la.s. please? 3....? ¿Podría indicarme el camino a.por favor? 3... near here? Building /bíldi#/ edificio Hotel /houtél/ hotel Lift /lift/ ascensor (UK) Elevator /elevéitor/ ascensor (US) Restaurant /réstorant/ restaurant Store/Shop /stóar/shop/ tienda Shopping centre /shópi# sénter/ Centro comercial Shopping mall /shópi# mo:l/ Centro comercial Library /láibreari/ biblioteca Museum /miu:zíam/ museo Park /pá:rk/ parque Hospital /hóspitl/ hospital Supermarket /supermá:kit/ supermercado Department store /dipá:rment stóar/ Tienda de departamentos Book store /buk stó:r/ librería Book shop /buk/shop/ librería Post office /póust ófis/ Oficina de Correos Police station /polís stéishn/ Cuartel de policia Cinema /sínema/ cine Theater /"íater/ teatro Night club /náit klab/ club nocturno Recuerde: 1... Could you show me the way to. ¿Cuál bus necesito tomar para ir a.....por favor? ¿Puede decirme dónde está la. /síti/ ciudad Town /táun/ pueblo Street /strí:t/ calle Pavement..? 2. from here? 7. open / close? What time does the. ¿A qué distancia está el / la..? 6..... How do I get to.? 5..cerca de aquí A short course in english for adult students 273 . por favor? 4.? 5. please? Can you tell me where the....is...? Is there a...open / close? 6.. Necesito comprar un / algunos. Do you know where the....

´ ndbæg maisélf/ Yo mismo transportaré ese bolso de mano /ai wil kæri !is hæ Where is the luggage /baggage claim? ´ gidll kléim/ ¿Dónde está la entrega de equipaje? /wéar iz !e lágidll /bæ I have nothing to declare No tengo nada para declarar /ai hæv ná"i# tu dikléar/ How many bottles can I take with me? ¿Cúantas botellas puedo llevar conmigo? /háu méni bótlz kan ai téik wi! mí:/ Do I have to pay sales tax /customs duties? /du ai hæv tu pei seil taks /diútiz/ ¿Debo pagar IVA /derechos aduaneros? Is there a duty-free shop here? ¿Hay una tienda libre de IVA aquí? /iz !er e diu:ti frí: shop híar/ Where is the bar? /restaurant? ¿Dónde está el bar /restaurante? /wéarz !e bá:r /restorant/ Are we landing /arriving soon? ¿Estamos aterrizando /llegando pronto? /á:r wi lændi# /arráivi# sú:n/ We´re landing /arriving in a few minutes. please? What´s your last name. Please put your cigarette out now. doble la mesita y enderece your seat in the upright position. Estamos aterrizando /llegando dentro de unos /wi a:r lændi# /arráivi# in e fiu: minits/ pocos minutos. Can you spell it please? /kan ai hæv io:r pá:spo:rt plí:z/ /wóts ior læst néim plí:z kan iu spél it plí:z/ Can I see your ticket? /kan ai sí: ió:r tíkit/ I want a ticket to Milan /ai wónt e tíket tu milán/ How much is a single ticket to Naples? How much is a /háu mátch iz e síngl tíkit tu néiplz/ /háu return ticket to Lyon? mátch iz a rité:rn tíkit tu lión/ 274 A short course in english for adult students . Fasten your seat belt.E. /plí:z put io:r sigarét áut nau/ Por favor apague su cigarrillo ahora. Please remain seated until the plane /train has stopped. fold the table and put the back of /fá:sn io:r sí:t bélt /fóuld !e téibl and put !e Ajuste su cinturón. /plí:z riméin sí:tid antil !e pléin /tréin haz Por favor manténgase sentado hasta que el stópt/ avión /tren se haya detenido. At the station / airport (en la estación / aeropuerto) ¿Puede mostrame su pasaporte por favor? ¿Cuál es su apellido? ¿Puede deletrearlo por favor? ¿Puedo ver su boleto? Quiero un ticket a Milán ¿Cuánto cuesta un b oleto simple a Nápoles? ¿Cuánto cuesta un boleto de ida y vuelta a Lyon? How much is the bus ticket to the zoo? ¿Cuánto cuesta el pasaje de bus al zoo? /háu mátch is !e bás tíkit tu !e zú:/ Is it a direct journey / flight? /iz it a dirékt dllérni /fláit/ ¿Es un viaje /vuelo directo? How long does the journey / flight take? ¿Cuánto tiempo dura el viaje /vuelo? /háu ló# daz !e dllé:rni /fláit téik/ What time does the train /plane leave? ¿A qué hora sale el tren /avión? /wot táim daz !e tréin /pléin lí:v/ What time does the train /plane / get there? ¿A qué hora llega el tren /avión allá? /wot táim daz !e tréin /pléin get !éar/ Which platform /gate does it leave from? /witch plátform /géit daz it lí:v from/ ¿Desde cuál andén /puerta sale? How long does it take to get to Budapest? /háu lo# daz it teik to get tu budapést/ ¿Cuánto se demora en llegar a Budapest? What time do we need to check in? /wót táim du wi ní:sd tu tchek ín/ ¿A qué hora necesitamos presentarnos? Do they serve lunch on board? ¿Sirven almuerzo a bordo? /du !ei sé:rv lántch on bó:rd/ Can I have a seat by the window? ¿Puede darme un asiento al lado de la /kan ai hæv e sí:t bai !e wíndou/ ventana? I want a seat in the non smoking area /ai wónt e sí:t in !e non smóuki# éaria/ Deseo un asiento en la zona de no fumadores These are my suitcases Estas son mis malaetas /!í:z a:r mai sutkéisiz/ Please carry my suitcases with care Por favor transporte mis maletas con cuidado /plí:z kæri mai sutkéisiz wi! kéar/ I will carry this handbag myself. bæk ov io:r sí:t in !i apráit posíshn/ el respaldo de su asiento We hope you´ve enjoyed your trip /flight /wi hóup iuv indllóid io:r trip /fláit/ Esperamos que haya disfrutado su viaje /vuelo Can I have your passport.

We´ll send the items to the plane. Le enviaremos los artículos al avión ¿Cuánto vale este reloj? ¿Cuánto valen esos guantes? A short course in english for adult students 275 . Can I see it? Can I try it on? How much is it? /How much does it cost? Do you have a larger /smaller size? I like these /those glasses /shoes. Can you show me /ai wónt tu bái e prezent for mai wáif /kan something? iu shóu mi sám"i#/ Is it made of leather /plastic /wool /cotton /gold /silver? /iz it méid of lé!er /plástik /wu:l /kóton / góuld /sílver Please keep this receipt. Can I see them? Can I try them on? How much are they? /How much do they cost? Me gusta este reloj /esa chaqueta ¿Puedo verlo /a? ¿Puedo probármelo /a? ¿Cuánto vale? ¿Cuánto cuesta? ¿Tiene una talla más grande /más chica? Me gustans estos lentes /esos zapatos ¿Puedo verlos /verlas? ¿Puedo probármelos /las? ¿Cuánto valen? ¿Cuánto cuestan? ¿Puedo pagar con tarjeta de crédito? ¿Puedo pagar con dinero norteamericano / dólares? No me gusta el color. Do you have a different colo(u)r? /ai dóunt láik !e kólor /diu hæv e dífrent kólor/ What size do you take? /wót sáiz diu ték/ I want to buy a present for my wife. guarde este recibo.F. un color diferente? ¿Qué talla tiene Ud. Shopping (de compras) /ai láik !is /!æt wótch /dllákit/ /kan ai sí: it/ /kan ai trái it ón/ /háu mátch iz it /háu mátch daz it kóst/ /diu hæv e lárdller /smóler sáiz/ /ai láik !í:z /!óuz glá:siz /shú:z/ /kan ai sí: !em/ /kan ai trái !em ón // /háu mátch á:r !ei /háu mátch du !ei kóst/ Can I pay by credit card? /kan ai péi bai krédit ká:rd/ /kan ai péi wi! amérikan máni /iú: és Can I pay with American money /US dollars dólarz/ I don´t like the colo(u)r. ¿Tiene Ud. /plí:z kí:p !is risí:t /wí wil sénd !i áitmz tu !e pléin/ How much is this watch? /háu mátch iz !is wotch/ How much are those gloves? /háu mátch a:r !ouz glávz/ I like this /that watch /jacket.? Quiero comprar un regalo para mi esposa. ¿Puede mostrarme algo? ¿Está hecho de cuero /plástico /lana /algodón /oro /plata? Por favor.

Bl 276 .

Preguntas 1 .Esta prueba consta de 2 partes: A.READING PART (Parte Escrita) 2.UNIT 21 ASSESSMENT TEST (Prueba de Evaluación Final) INSTRUCCIONES GENERALES 1. compruebe sus respuestas con la ANSWER KEY (Clave de Respuestas) y cuente el número de respuestas correctas obtenidas.Para contestar las preguntas 51 a 120 de la READING PART (Parte Escrita) usted cuenta con tiempo maximo de 35 minutos.Usted deberá tener su QUESTION BOOKLET (Cuadernillo de Preguntas) y su ANSWER SHEET (Hoja de Respuestas) sobre su escritorio. El examinador deberá leer 2 veces cada una de las preguntas..Para contestar las preguntas de la LISTENTING PART (Parte Audio Escrita).. usted deberá solicitar a otra persona (en lo posible un profesor de inglés o una persona que tenga buen dominio de ese idioma). 3. 4... que le lea las preguntas que aparecen en el EXAMINER´S TEXT (Texto del para el Examinador).Una vez que haya contestado las 120 preguntas. 5.50.LISTENTING PART (Parte Audio Escrita) B.. antes de comenzar la prueba. Enseguida calcule su puntaje final según la pauta dada a continuación: Pauta de Evaluación Scoring (Puntaje): Listening Part: 50 % Reading Part : 50 % Overall Score: 100 % Your score x 1/0 Your score x 5/7 Your overall score: = ______ % = ______ % = ______ % A short course in english for adult students 277 ...

Bl 278 .

B. A. 3. C. A. 4. won’t can see it well. would know her new address. B. quite busy at the moment. C. would rather go by taxi. Ud. B. have just opened the door. en su HOJA DE RESPUESTAS. very ill now. which Peter sent Mary last week. so much difficult for him. 11. know her new address. D. 5. ought to see a doctor today. deberá elegir la alternativa A. B. C. whose Peter sent Mary last week. he seldom works hard. C. a few difficult for him. oirá oraciones incompletas. B. B. A. A. deberá consignarla. had dinner that evening. D. had been stolen. D. C. 7. A short course in english for adult students 279 . will give to him your message C. A. wants open the door now. D. 13. D. A. had to be there very quickly. B. too much difficult for him. A. had stolen. can see a doctor today. C. A. were there earlier. B whom Peter sent Mary last week. B. 15. who Peter sent Mary last week. won’t be possible to see it well A. have been having dinner that evening. a little bored. opens the door now. “How expensive watch is it!” D. LISTENING PART Instrucciones para las preguntas 1 . 12. everywhere that day.BASIC ENGLISH GRAMMAR STRUCTURES AND VOCABULARY A SHORT COURSE IN ENGLISH FOR ADULT ASSESSMENT TEST 1 QUESTION BOOKLET (Cuadernillo de Preguntas) A. won’t be allowed to see it well. he works hard as a rule. A. is trying to open the door now. B. D. A. knew her new address. “What expensive it is!” C. 10. had better go by taxi. D. C. should know her new address. will be there on time. “What expensive watch is it!” 8. A. might see a doctor today. are having dinner that evening. are better to go by taxi. were having dinner that evening. give your message to him 2. he often works hard. C. A. was been stolen.15. nowhere that day. No escriba en este cuadernillo 1. B. A. was stealing. B. am going to give him your message D. o D. anywhere that day. D. marcando una X sobre la letra correspondiente. somewhere that day. C. should to go by taxi. can be there now. C. A. D. Ud. B. C. “How expensive it is!” B. he always works hard. B. Una vez elegida la alternativa correcta. too late right now. C. D. D. won’t be able to see it well. D. En cada caso Ud. C. 9. C. may see a doctor today. too difficult for him. B. give him your message. D. 14. que complete en mejor forma la oración leída por el examinador. 6.

24. 16. Ud. A. Después de cada oración U¡. 21. A. Later in the day. B. C. He must finish the job sometime. Ud. Because it’s a quiet and pleasant place. B. Una vez que haya elegido la alternativa correcta deberá consignarla en su HOJA DE RESPUESTAS. B. D. They went somewhere else together. C. A. oirá oraciones completas esta vez. On his way to the office. Didn’t make a decision. B. C. He was working at home all day. A short course in english for adult students 32. D. B. A polite person. She’ll go and see them. D. 26. He preferred to go home by taxi. C. He wanted to take a walk. He used all his money quickly while he was living there. B. Because they like shopping. 280 . He was resting all day.Instrucciones para las preguntas 16 . Because they like the rain. B. que ten-ga el significado más parecido a la oración leída por el examinador. B. A. D. D. 17. She’ll call the roll. C. They decided to go home early. He doesn’t feel like going out today. oirá oraciones completas y. C. She’ll ring them up. C. A. B. que la conteste en mejor forma.30. A. He hasn’t studied her well. He’ s only seen her once or twice. He came to live in this house very recently. D. en su HOJA DE RESPUESTAS. en cada caso. He visited a friend he had met at the airport. A. una vez elegida la alternativa correcta deberá consignarla. 27. No escriba en este cuadernillo. B. They go there when they have time. A. 23. He has to work in the evenings too D. B. He drove to the airport to pick up a friend. It was a very crowded place. B. C. He was away all day long. C. At once. He hasn’t told us much about her. B. A. A kind person. C.He had no time to travel. A. B. 0 D. D. D. He remembered he had a friend. C. She’ll show them a map. A. C. They are 12 years old. 25. They go there when they want to have fun. They attended a meeting at the club. deberá elegir la alternativa A. D. No escriba en este cuadernillo. B. Because it’s a busy little town. 22. A. D. Instrucciones para las preguntas 31 -40. They go there only when the weather’s fine. C. marcando una X sobre la letra correspondiente. The weather was awful. They go there from time to time. oirá una pregunta y deberá elegir la alternativa A. D. 20. Didn’t care much. C. He would miss his family. Away from the office. C. A. He lived in this house until recently. Didn’t remember. D. D. 19. 28. C. He has to decide what to do soon. Didn’t forget. He’d better stay at home all day today. They are a different age. D. They are a little younger. He doesn’t see her so often. D. He must order someone to do the job. B. He became accustomed to living in this house quickly. He stayed in the garden all morning. 31 A. A. 29. 30. A. A. D. A sociable person. He hates to be at home during the day. There were too many people there. He’s happy when he can stay at home all day. B. He didn’t like hotels very much. B. 18. He wanted to get home more safely. C. He was away almost all day. They had dinner at the restaurant. o D. He wanted to save money. The buses were crowded at that time C. B. A dull person. They met people and went on sightseeing tours. They are 10 years altogether. C.

A. A. 39. C. deberá consignarla en su HOJA DE RESPUESTAS. 43. A. 38. 41. D. D. It doesn’t snow very often in that part of the country. D. Una vez que haya elegido la alternativa correcta. C. At a nice cheap guest house on the coast in Britain. Paul is too young to go abroad alone. Robert telephoned them in a given order. She wanted to travel abroad by boat. C. At an expensive hotel near Paris. He should have gone to the reception. They used to have two cars in those days. 281 . B. D. 36. Enseguida oirá preguntas relativas al texto leído. A. Paul is too young to have that kind of trouble. D. C. B. She wanted him to advise her where to go on holiday. deberá elegir la alternativa A. C. Mary touched him as soon as she saw him. She did everything immediately. 37. At a summer house they had in the south of France. They have used that car for a long time. B. A. She did everything following the instructions.33. A short course in english for adult students 42. Paul can’t travel because he doesn’t have enough time. Mary telephoned him after she got there. B. She did everything correctly. D. D. El examinador leerá una historia. C. They didn’t accept Harry’s invitation because it was cold. B. Instrucciones para las preguntas 41 -50. B. Robert called to give them a new order. A. A. He wasn’t allowed to attend the reception. C. Mary was very surprised to see him so soon. Because she wanted to go back Brighton next summer. C. They didn’t like the meal Harry served because it was not warm. 35. C. They worked in a garage in those days. He could not help at the reception. The weather in winter is not very nice in the area. Harry doesn’t know that area very well. o D. Robert called them up to tell them what had happened. A. 34. En cada caso. He wasn’t able to go to the reception. A. B. 40. Because she told him about her husband´s death. Because he was glad to see her again B. so they ate quickly and left the place. It wasn’t warm enough inside. C. B. Paul isn’t tall enough to drive the car himself.. D. B. D. They already knew how to repair cars in those days. Robert telephoned then to give them the new orders B. C. At a hotel which a member of the family had in Brighton. She wanted to buy an air ticket. They didn’t eat everything because the food was cold.. que responda en mejor forma la pregunta. Because he noticed she was an old lady now. A. A. Because they´d been friends for many years. C. D. Escuche atentamente. Mary was welcomed by him at the railway station. That area never appears on the maps. She did everything as carefully as possible. B. No escriba en este cuadernillo. D.

45. C. To a hotel a Potuguese friend had in Lisbon. Because it was a lot more convenient for them to go there on holiday. B. C. Because India was an amazing country. A. Because he thought Mrs Green had died a few months ago. To visit some friends in Portugal. Because Mrs Green was planning to spend her summer holidays in Asia. Because wanted to take a two-week package tour of India. D. A. C. Because the travel agent told them the weather was nicer in those countries. 46. Because they wanted their children to study a foreign language. D. Because they knew they were going to have good weather there. B. C. THIS IS THE END OF THE LISTENING PART OF THE TEST 282 A short course in english for adult students . D. B. A. C. Because she didn´t like traveling with other people. Because he was not expecting to see Mrs Green that day. They decided not to go on holiday abroad any longer. The Greens went on holiday abroad for the last time. D. A. C. Because that was the only way to visit interesting places in India. Because she didn´t like package tours very much. 50. To the same family hotel she used stay when she was young. To a nice and pleasant holiday resort in Potugal. Because she wanted to arrange her holiday herself and travel cheaply. To a particular holiday place in India. Because everything was included in the fare and she wouldn´t have to worry about anything. To spend her summer holidays in Britain. To spend her summer holidays abroad. 49. B. C. Mrs Green´s husband passed away. B. 47. Mrs Green went to her travel agent to inquire about cheap hotels in Portugal. D. A. Because lots of people were spending their holidays there these days. A. 48. D. Because he happened to have a guidebook and some brochures to show her. To go to a cheap hotel in Italy or Spain. D. A. as usual. B. B.44.

ought to 59. A. before to leave 58.B. they were having D. No escriba en este cuadernillo.drink D. for . I think you __________ eat less and do more physical exercise. too good B. before you’re leaving D. enseguida. Do – drank B. But I know it’s a very strong liquor. Jack! Do you think you´ll have time to read them all? A.the highest C. You are getting too fat. En cada una de las oraciones hay uno o dos espacios en blanco. What is the ____________ professional experience you’ve had in your military career? A. How much time . B. Remember that you have to turn off all the lights ___________ the office. must to B. in order to leaving C.the higher 57. Have . What a lot of D. most good 54. Captain Thomas has not worked _________ during the last three months. hardest D. too many C. never. better C. Mary seems to be a very responsible person. A. would rather D. 51. valuable B. Have . _____________ books you´ve brought with you. A. __________ did you use to write to ____________ when you were serving in the United Nations Peacekeeping Forces in the Middle East? A. Jim. so I don’t think he’ll get a good report from his superiors. A. C. C. there were C. should to C. there had been B.. elija la alternativa A. As soon as I opened the door and looked inside. A.the most highest D. Will . How often . hard enough D.them D.been drunk 52.the high B. I noticed that ______________ a party the night before because there were dirty plates and glasses and empty bottles all over the place. before leaving B. during . since . Bob : José: __________ you ever _________ Drambuie. satisfactory 53. How much 56.your friends A short course in english for adult students 283 . along . consigne su elección en su HOJA DE RESPUESTAS. John. it was 55. o D. She has studied very hard ______________ this semester. How many times – theirs C. José? No. que llene el o los espacios en blanco en forma correcta y. What a few B How interesting C.your family B. READING PART Instrucciones para las preguntas 51 – 80. She´ll surely get one of ____________ marks in the final examination.drunk A. How long .

doesn’t have to be C. very heavy B. a year D. had been taking – should D. John and his friends seldom_____________ when they´re at work because their boss is always keeping an eye on them.will produce C. Consequently. by the year C. has slept – already D. who never was able to be will never be 64.had to C. too much heavy C. Don’t you think I should go and see if she is all right? A. as B. had been sleeping – yet 62. Mr Morrison __________ the children to the park that morning. in order to 284 A short course in english for adult students . slept – also B. are decreasing B. was sleeping – still C. talk 69.will be producing 63. had taken – must B.mustn´t be B. so that D. don´t talk D. whose . would take . The manager told the secretary to use the computer ________ have the work done before midday.produce . A. He must be _________ having lunch ________attending a meeting at the Conference Hall. give the letter to her . so to C. both nor and 67. have been decreasing . for the year 66.see her C. I’ m sure the strict regulations the Ministry of Transport imposed two years ago ___________ the effects everyone expected. Grandmother ____________ when I went out to do the shopping about two hours ago and she is __________ asleep. Mrs Brown takes her children to the dentist once or twice________ A. but he remembered that he _________ go and see a friend who was in hospital. which . A. are decreased . in a year B.have talked C. was going to take .. A. A. whom D. I can’t move this box by myself because it’s ____________ A. either as or C. he _________ considered a full member of our modern society. neither D. Mr Smith isn’t in the office at the moment. give her the letter . give to her the letter .was allowed 61. A. I´m going to ______________ as soon as I ____________ this afternoon.am going to see her 65. has decreased D. for to B. not heavy enough 68.are talking B. too heavy D. An illiterate person is a person _______ can’t read or write.can see her . A. give the letter her D. A. The number of accidents caused by careless drivers_____________ during the last two years.will see her B.are producing .60.

otherwise you’ll be too busy tomorrow . A. had played C. Do you know ___________ when the fire began. A. At this time tomorrow. enough B.will be C. why was sleeping the old man D. don’t contradict C. at all B. right now D. When I was your age. have been flying 73. we______________ over the Atlantic near the coast of Africa. what time was it exactly 72. had to C. some nowhere anywhere 78. Sir. can B. You _________ do it right now. A. Had I had some extra money. I think. went 74. would have had C. would better B. seldom use 77. don’t you contradict D. If a superior tells you that you aren’t doing the job correctly. do contradict 75.Tom. A. yet . are going to fly B. had better D. I ____________ football almost every afternoon. where did the people go B. too much everywhere somewhere C. Your taxi hasn’t arrived _______. any D. 80. A. are flying C. ___________ him. was playing B. It __________ here in a few minutes A. have been prevented 71. do - would havecan have A short course in english for adult students 285 . could have been prevented C. used to play D.should be . He needed the answer urgently. suddenly 76. must have prevented B. did D. are using C. you don’t contradict B. If they had taken all the necessary precautions. still B. were allowed to use D. Miss Jones? A. have used B. would rather 79. I would have visited some other places too. already must to be going to be B: I’d buy a car. A: What ________ you do if you __________ a lot of money? A. will be flying D. I didn’t have___________ extra money.Their laptop is being checked by a technician at moment. the accident _____________. A. all the same D. He may get angry and reprimand you. except to the places which were listed in the brochure. so I could go ___________ else. For the time being. at once C. so I sent him an email __________ A. could be prevented D.70. A. they _________ the old computer. what the young man was doing C.

The girl wasn’t old enough to get a driving licence. D. Mrs Scott quickly got used to living in the Middle East. fills C. It’s too cold. and neither did Bill. How often D. C. I think the children would rather stay at home today. wasn’t very old D. so he walked home. almost D. have to be B. need to remain 85. The lieutenant reported to the general right away. 91. got tired of B. and so did Bill. was too very young 87. and Bill didn’t. somewhere else C. became sick of C. The boy usually gets sick when he drinks milk. from a distant place. Cada una de las siguientes oraciones tiene una parte subrayada. A. got afraid of D. ought to stay D. 81. very often B.95. A. No escriba en este cuadernillo. would like to stay 84. How many times a week do you practise tennis? A. There wasn’t anyone else in the house. B. dislikes to read 83. o D. My grandfather seldom goes out for walks in the evening. Mr Smith is quite fond of reading fiction novels. and Bill didn’t either. so the little boy had to spend the day all by himself. hates reading C. 89. A. B. without anything to eat. How long B. obtains C. doesn’t enjoy reading D. was too young C. B. D. A. C. Registre su elección en su HOJA DE RESPUESTAS. hardly ever 286 A short course in english for adult students C. but Bill didn’t also. John didn’t come to class today. too. simply . prefers to read B. A. A. punctually 90. How frequent 86. What time C. in the right way B. didn’t want to C. The old man wasn’t able to get on the bus. completely alone D. begins D. A. simply couldn’t D. at once C. A. quietly and secretly. A.Instrucciones para las preguntas 81 . was much too old B. wasn’t allowed to B. Elija la alternativa A. becomes B. A. refused to 88. que exprese lo mismo o casi lo mismo que la parte subrayada. became accustomed to 82.

The girl had never done baby sitting before. from time to time B. o D. It’s on the table.” “He was looking at the television. C. so you should not have any trouble.What time do you think they will get there? A. he’s four years old. She’s fast asleep!” 96. Why was the girl told that she would have no trouble with the boy? A. D. They went to visit some friends. Because the boy was not in good health.92. Because the girl could not hear the television very well. “Make yourself comfortable. Why was Mrs Soames so worried? A. No escriba en este cuadernillo. A. Anyway. “I’ve prepared a tray of food for you. B. only a few times 95. Enseguida deberá contestar las preguntas eligiendo la alternativa A. of course. 98. A. B. He´ll go back to sleep at once. Instrucciones para las preguntas 96 – 105. leave out D. D. C. D. They invited a baby-sitter to their house. A light was still on in the living-room.” Mrs Soames said. underline B. many times. at present. B. Because there wasn´t much food for the baby-sitter. Lea cuidadosamente el siguiente trozo de lectura. “Where’s Carol?” Mr Soames asked. “What was he doing there?” Mr Soames exclaimed. Because the boy would be sleeping most of the time. be in that town B. but don’t have it too loud because you might wake our little boy. What did the Soames do that evening? A. Before she left. go to his room and stay there for a few minutes. Registre la alternativa correcta en su HOJA DE RESPUESTAS. Because the boy was a newly born baby. If the boy wakes up. They had some trouble with their baby. B.” Mr and Mrs Soames returned rather later than they had expected. get a place D. I won’t be able to attend the reception. que estime Ud. Because she had left a tray of food in case he felt hungry. obtain a room C. a young girl of seventeen. because it’s a nice city. and the television could just be heard. D. He’s told me the same thing over and over. C. because the weather’s good there. report 94. A short course in english for adult students 287 .” Mrs Soames said. B. “He’s wide awake. Mrs Soames went to the living-room right away and came out again a moment later holding the boy. es la más adecuada en cada caso. Because the boy was going with them as well. and Mrs Soames was a little worried. Because the girl had never done that kind of job before. Mrs Soames gave last minute instructions to the baby-sitter. 93. Carol. with some exaggeration D. actually C. Please cross out my name. He is too old and is losing his memory. leave the city C. 97. You can. consider C. listen to the radio or watch television. They saw a program on television. They are living in Los Angeles for the time being. A. My husband and I will be back at about eleven o’clock. “She’s still in the living-room. C.

D. The boy was in the living-room and Carol was in the bed-room. Get a sofa and watch TV or listen to the radio if you like. tie D. careful C. could A. worse A. The boy was awake and the girl was asleep. quickly A. No escriba en este Cuadernillo. It was just before eleven. shirt A. 112. Ubique en cada serie el término excluido y regístrelo en su HOJA DE RESPUESTAS. among B. D. D. 100. wide D. obviously D. along E. mine A. rice A. What is the best synonym for “expected”’. promised D. sun E. 109. cheaper B. He will feel sleepy. waking up (line 7) C. C. hour A short course in english for adult students .99. fast D. ought D. 105. of course.would B. high E. his C. well E. sight C. It was only a few minutes past eleven. He will fall asleep again. 101. behind A.neck B. He will go to his bed. En cada una de las series de palabras hay una que no corresponde a ella. 102. sock C. B. It wasn´t very late. nephew D. clever C. happier E. 104. B.butter B. however (line 5) (line 3) 103. across D. They were both in the living-room. her D.? A. day D. 107 108. En esta sección hay cinco alternativas A. What is the meaning of the expression “of course” (line 3) A. C. left (line 8) C. 111.our B. looking for D. by no means B. aunt C. 114. century E. 113. decided B. What’s the best synonym for “make yourself comfortable” A. meat C. should E. C. narrow A. Carol was downstairs and the baby was upstairs. age C. What is the meaning of “holding” A. 106. D. 288 A. B. B. D. Don´t worry about anything. glove E.deep B. 115. cousin A. carrying Instrucciones para las preguntas 106 -120. looking at B. cotton E. weak B.niece B. o E. planned. throw C. Where were Carol and the baby when the Soames returned home? A. He will go to his bedroom again. juice D. Be careful with the neighbours. slowly B. (término excluido). month C. You can lie down on our bed if you feel tired. B. What does the expression “He’ll go back to sleep” mean? A. 110. C. their E. faster D. C. What time was it when the Soames arrived? A. perhaps C. It was almost midnight.

tailor C. often B. nose B. belt E. A. sometimes D. bought B. 119. elbow C. seldom A.customer B. tired D. shut E. put E. 120. always E. 117. seen B. broke C. forgot D. grocer A.116. shoulder A. come THIS IS THE END OF THE ASSESSMENT TEST 1 A short course in english for adult students 289 . arm D. butcher E. barber D. made A. brought C. real C. 118.

Bl 290 .

BASIC ENGLISH GRAMMAR STRUCTURES AND VOCABULARY A SHORT COURSE IN ENGLISH FOR ADULT STUDENTS ASSESSMENT TEST 1 ANSWER SHEET (Hoja de respuestas) Student_s Name _______________________Date: _____________ Score: _______ % A. 10. 21. A A A A A A A A A A B B B B B B B B B B C C C C C C C C C C D D D D D D D D D D 61. 58. 55. 31. 69. 53. A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D B. 63 64. A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D 26. 22. 5. 30. 16. 7. 54. 9. 19. 37. 57. 59. 17. 2. 14. 48. 45. 70. 65. 44. 41. 60. 67. 8. 23. 18. 56. 12. A A A A A A A A A A B B B B B B B B B B C C C C C C C C C C D D D D D D D D D D 291 A short course in english for adult students . 11. 3. 39. 33. 6. READING PART (Time limit : 35 minutes) 51. 13. 15. 34. 42. 25. 36. 50. 47. 68. 24. 43. 38. 62. 32. 52. 35. 20. 49. 29. 40. 46. 27. LISTENING PART 1. 4. 28. 66.

83. 102. 103. 107. 86. 79. 88. 85. 73. 99. 118. 97. 104. 77. 110. 105. 92. 94. 100. 111. 78.71. 93. 114. 119. 80. 112. 81. 120. 109. 76. A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E 292 A short course in english for adult students . 74. 75. 115. A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D 96. 91. 101. 116. 106. 98. 82. 113. 89. 87. 72. 84. 117. 95. 108. 90.

30. Jack.The young captain did not make up his mind quickly.It’s usually cold and it rains quite a lot during the year in that part of the country. B. I think you __________ I had so many things to do at the office that I decided to go _________ John.45 that evening but they did not go in because it was too early and they did not feel hungry at that moment. Después de cada oración Ud. you ________ I would certainly send her a post card from Edinburgh if I ____________ As soon as I entered the office this morning. No escriba en este cuadernillo 1. I noticed that the computer ________ Although the old man knows how to do the job well.Robert told Jim to come to his office right away.BASIC ENGLISH GRAMMAR STRUCTURES AND VOCABULARY A SHORT COURSE IN ENGLISH FOR ADULT STUDENTS ASSESSMENT TEST 1 EXAMINER´S TEXT (Texto para el Examinador) A. I ___________ Instrucciones para las preguntas 16 . 2. He is only ten at present. you are going to get there late if you go by bus. Bill will have to work overtime if he wants to finish the job before the end of this month. but they like living in that small town because all the shops are near. Question: Why are they so happy to be living there? 24. He thought he’d rather be near his wife and children than be travelling all the time. No escriba en este cuadernillo. oirá una pregunta y deberá elegir la alternativa A. deberá consignarla. en su HOJA DE RESPUESTAS. Ud. en su HOJA DE RESPUESTAS. 14. Question: Why can’t we ask Robert to talk about Jane’s personality? 22. Mary? I think somebody _____________ The traffic is too heavy at this time of day. Question: How old are Jack and Tom? 27. Question: What did John do that morning? 25. Question: Why did he refuse to accept the job offer? 20. que la conteste en mejor forma. LISTENING PART Instrucciones para las preguntas 1 .John is fond of visiting people and usually entertains friends at his home. I think you __________ If you don’t put on your glasses. They went to the club instead.John didn’t accept the job offer because he would have to be away from home too often. but he remembered he had to go and meet a friend at the airport. 4. I’m absolutely sure that these are the books for children ___________What’s that noise. deberá elegir la alternativa A.Tom knows Jane better because they’ve been friends for years since they were at school together. 0 D. 3. I’m not happy with him because ________ There was a big noise outside the building and the lights went out while we __________ When the shop assistant told my wife the price of the watch. 12. marcando una X sobre la letra correspondiente. Question: When did Robert want to see Jim? 17. 9. whereas Robert only met her a couple of days ago. That’s why he can’t tell us much about her. she exclaimed __________ Robert Smith is planning to go somewhere and do something interesting because he feels ________ The little boy won’t be able to answer all the questions correctly because they are _______ Tom. Question: What kind of a person is John? 21. Question: What will the secretary do after lunch today? 23.The secretary could not get in touch with the customers this morning. En cada caso Ud. 15. Una vez elegida la alternativa correcta. Ud. 16. so she will have to call them again this afternoon. but Bill is two years younger. 10. Question: How did Jack spend the day yesterday? 18. so he left the job for the following weekend. you ___________ As soon as the manager comes back to the office this afternoon. the traffic is never so heavy and there are no factories nearby. C.Jack didn’t go out yesterday because he had to read some reports and write some letters. oirá oraciones incompletas.John was going to work in the garden that morning. 5. o D. oirá oraciones completas esta vez. John. Mr Jackson and his friends met outside the restaurant at about 7. Question: What does the expression “didn’t make up his mind” mean in this sentence? 19. Question: What did A short course in english for adult students 293 . que complete en mejor forma la oración leída por el examinador. 13. If you take a taxi.15. you really don’t look well this morning. Ud. 8. C. 6. 11. Question: What must he do in order to complete the job in good time? 26. B.Jack and Tom are the same age. marcando una X sobre la letra correspondiente. una vez elegida la alternativa correcta deberá consignarla. 7.

Instrucciones para las preguntas 41 -50.The Browns hardly ever go to their parents´ farm in the south because it is too far and it takes them more than ten hours to drive there. Escuche atentamente.” he thought. It hardly ever snows in that region. Question: Why didn’t Mr Clark go home by bus? 30. “Look. B. Una vez que haya elegido la alternativa correcta. “A holiday abroad? Yes. years before.” she said. Where did the travel agent suggest Mrs Green should go on holiday next summer? 48. What did the travel agent think Mrs Green was planning to do next summer? 47. Then they started to take their holidays in France . They used to repair cars in those days. he booked a family hotel for them. She did everything right away.. Una vez que haya elegido la alternativa correcta deberá consignarla en su HOJA DE RESPUESTAS. In those days.” He showed Mrs Green a brochure. o D. Green want to take the package tour the travel agent recommended her? THIS IS THE END OF THE LISTENING PART OF THE TEST 294 A short course in english for adult students . que ten-ga el significado más parecido a la oración leída por el examinador. “Have you any particular place in mind?” he asked. the previous autumn. “ Mrs Green shook her head. Where did the Greens spend their summer holidays when the children were small? 44. Mary got in touch with him as soon as she got there.” She waved it at him. meals and guides.” Mrs Green went on. 33. However. Later. when their children grew up. C. en cada caso. “As a matter of fact. He knew her well. He’d rather stay at home all day today. at her age. oirá oraciones completas y. El examinador leerá una historia.. C. 32. Why did they start going to Italy or Spain? 45. “How about Portugal. “How about a two-week tour. Why was the travel agent so surprised? 49. He got used to living in this house after a few months.” “India …” he said. “Well. only a few months after her husband’s death. Paul isn´t old enough to travel abroad by himself.and food is cheap too.They had a good time there because. deberá elegir la alternativa A.” The travel agent smiled at the old lady across the counter. of course. “Well.. “I was thinking of India!” India! For a moment. He could not attend the reception at the embassy that day because he was too busy. You’ll see the really important places . “I’ve got a guidebook of India here. No escriba en este cuadernillo. Why did Mrs Green visit the travel agent that morning? 42. deberá consignarla en su HOJA DE RESPUESTAS. o D. they ‘discovered’ Italy and Spain. There are plenty of cheap hotels . Enseguida oirá preguntas relativas al texto leído. back in his office asking about holidays abroad. Why did the travel agent smile when he saw her in his office? 43. But then. deberá elegir la alternativa A.Mr Clark walked home from the office that evening because all the buses were full at that time and he didn’t have enough money to take a taxi. 31. En cada caso. He bought their air tickets or found cheap holidays for them. 40. Question: How often do they go there during the year? Instrucciones para las preguntas 31-40. They ate their meal in a hurry because it was too cold inside the restaurant.. friendly place.” said Mrs Green. but then he thought: “Of course! Lots of people want to go to India these days. yes. Mrs Green.and you won’t have to think about a thing!” “Thank you. 37. So all I need is a cheap air ticket! Can you get me one or not?” 41. I’m sure we can fix up something for you. 35. no more holidays abroad for Mrs Green. 38. It’s all these programmes and films on TV. for instance? A nice. 34. “That’s exactly what I don’t want. with good weather. for example? Complete with air ticket. she and her husband used to go to Brighton every summer.” The travel agent looked puzzled. the travel agent was surprised.and he got them their boat tickets. B. hotels. Question: Why did they enjoy their holidays so much? 29. although the weather was not fine. que responda en mejor forma la pregunta. 36. 39. Why did the travel agent offer her the two-week package tour of India? 50. Why didn’t Mrs. At one time.they do after all of them had arrived? 28. “It says you can go everywhere by bus or train. No escriba en este cuadernillo. What happened a few months ago? 46. they had the chance of making friends and visiting places. Mr Green died. I’m sure we can arrange something for you. “She’ll probably start going to Brighton again!” But he was wrong! Here she was. Ud. Robert telephoned them that evening in order to give them the news.

10. 19. 49. 38. READING PART (Time limit : 35 minutes) 51. 69. 44. 58. 14. 18. 70. 22. 17. A A A A A A A A A A B B B B B B B B B B C C C C C C C C C C D D D D D D D D D D 295 A short course in english for adult students . 31. 57. 64. 32. 66. 20. 63. 11. 29. 25. 3. 15. 35. 47. 52. 56. 55. 27. 13. 30. 46. 40. 42. 23. 9. 5. 7. 54. A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D B. 65. 50. 36. 6. 53. 37. 62. 4. 24. 39. 28. 34. 60. 16. 33. 45. 2. A A A A A A A A A A B B B B B B B B B B C C C C C C C C C C D D D D D D D D D D 61. 21. 12. LISTENING PART 1. 59. 48. 68. 67. A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A KEY TO ANSWERS (Clave de respuestas) B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D 26. 43.BASIC ENGLISH GRAMMAR STRUCTURES AND VOCABULARY A SHORT COURSE IN ENGLISH FOR ADULT STUDENTS ASSESSMENT TEST 1 A. 41. 8.

104. 78. 117. 73. 110. 94. 106. 93. 92. A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E 296 A short course in english for adult students . 87. 119. 112. 84. 74. 103. 95. 80. 101. 102. 97. 98. 77. 111.71. 109. 120. 116. 89. 82. 75. 76. 86. 88. 79. 118. 85. 83. 115. 108. 72. 81. 90. 113. 100. 91. A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D 96. 114. 99. 107. 105.

APENDICE 1 CHART 1. (Yo habré estado escribiendo cartas por más de dos horas cuando vengas al mediodía. (Yo habré escrito varias cartas cuando vengas a verme esta tarde) PERFECT CONTINUOUS (S + WILL HAVE BEEN + ING ) I will have been writing letters for more than two hours when you come at midday. (Yo voy a escribir una carta a John mañana ) c) I am writing a letter to John in a few minutes (Estoy escribiendo una carta a Juan dentro de unos pocos minutos) CONTINUOUS (S + WILL BE + ING ) I will be writing letters when you come to see me this evening. (Yo estaré escribiendo cartas cuando tú vengas a verme esta tarde) PERFECT (S + WILL HAVE + PAST PART) I will have written several letters when you come to see me this evening.) A short course in english for adult students 297 . (Yo ya había escrito tres cartas cuando John llegó al las 8:45 esta tarde) PERFECT CONTINUOUS (S + HAD BEEN + ING) I had been writing letters for about two hours when John arrived at 8:45 this evening (Yo había estado escribiendo cartas por cerca de dos horas cuando John llegó a las 8:45 esta tarde) FUTURE SIMPLE A) B) C) (S + WILL + INFINITIVE) (S +AM / IS / ARE + GOING TO + INF) (S + AM / IS / ARE + ING) a) I will write a letter to John tomorrow (Yo escribiré una carta a Juan mañana) b) I am going to w rite a letter to John tomorrow. (Yo estoy ecribiendo una carta ahora) PERFECT (S + HAVE / HAS + PAST PARTICIPLE) I have written several letters today. (Yo estaba escribiendo una carta cuando John llegó a las 8:45 esta tarde) PERFECT (S + HAD + PAST PARTICIPLE) I had already written three letters when John arrived at 8:45 this evening. BASIC VERB TENSES PRESENT SIMPLE (S + DO / DOES + INFINITIVE) I write (= I do write) a letter every day (Yo escribo una carta todos los días. (Yo he escrito varias cartas hoy) PERFECT CONTINUOUS (S + HAVE / HAS BEEN + ING) I have been writing letters since 8:30 this morning (Yo he estado escribiendo cartas desde las 8:30 de la mañana) PAST SIMPLE (S + DID + INFINITIVE ) I wrote (= I did write) a letter yesterday. (Yo escribí una carta ayer) CONTINUOUS (S + WAS / WERE + ING) I was writing a letter when John arrived at 8:45 this evening . (Mary escribe una carta todos los días) CONTINUOUS (S + AM / IS / ARE + ING) I am writing a letter now.) Mary writes (= Mary does write) a letter every day.

Bl 298 .

. at the moment. At. Sir. Peter: Detective: Peter: Detective: Peter: A short course in english for adult students 299 . But I thought Billy was watching TV upstairs. EJEMPLOS: John is speaking with the manager now John is not / isn´t speaking with the manager now Is John speaking with the manager now? EJEMPLOS: John was speaking to the manager when I saw him yesterday. momento determinado en el pasado momento determinado en el futuro ESTRUCTURA: S + AM / IS / ARE+ ING ESTRUCTURA: S+WAS / WERE +ING ESTRUCTURA: S+WILL BE+ ING S + AM / IS / ARE + GOING TO BE + ING EXPRESIONES DE TIEMPO: Now... a las 8:30 esta tarde? SAMPLE DIALOG: Sam: Hi Bob! What are you doing? Are you watching the news? Bob: No. PREGUNTA HABITUAL: What are you doing (now)? / wót a:r iu: dúi# náu / ¿Qué esta haciendo Ud. Bob: Will you go on a sightseeing tour on Sunday? Jack: Of course not! We will be working all day on Sunday. etc. John was not / wasn´t speaking to the manager when I saw him yesterday Was John speaking to the manager when I saw him yesterday? EJEMPLOS: John will be speaking with the manager at this time tomorrow. she wasn´t. I was washing the car.o´clock yesterday / last Monday. SAMPLE DIALOG: Bob: What will you be doing at this time next Saturday? Jack: I´ll be flying to London. Is she at home? Bob: Yes. She´s reading the paper in the garden. Did you hear any noise in the house? Yes. She was attending a conference at the Arts Museum. haciendo a esa hora? PREGUNTA HABITUAL: What will you be doing (at 8:30 this evening) ? / wót wil iu: bí: dú:i# at eit "é:rti !is ívni# / ¿Qué estará haciendo Ud. I have my term test tomorrow. at this time. I´m sorry I interrupted you. Bob. Was your wife with you? No. But I was in the garage. I did. Will John be speaking with the manager at this time tomorrow. Bob: What time will you be landing at Heathrow? Jack: At about 8:15 in the evening. EXPRESIONES DE TIEMPO: When + S + Present + tomorrow / next week. she is. And what are you doing here? Sam: I´m looking for Mary. Bob: Don´t worry. etc..APENDICE 2 CHART 2. ahora? PREGUNTA HABITUAL: What were you doing (at that time)? / wót wer iu: dúi# at !æt táim / ¿Qué estaba Ud. at present EXPRESIONES DE TIEMPO: When + S + Past + yesterday / last Monday. etc. BASIC VERB TENSES: STRUCTURE AND USAGE A. It´s all right Detective: SAMPLE DIALOG: Were you at home at the time the men broke into the house.At. We won´t be arriving at the hotel before 9:30.etc . I´m not. We must have everything ready for the World Peace Talks which start on Monday. CONTINUOUS (OR PROGRESSIVE) TENSES PRESENT USO: PAST USO: FUTURE USO: Describe una acción que se está realizando Describe una acción que se estaba Describe una acción que se estará o está ocurriendo en este momento y que realizando o estaba ocurriendo en un realizando o estará ocurriendo en un aún no han concluido. For the time being. Sam: Thanks. I´m studying history. Mr Smith? Yes. I think. John will not / won´t be speaking with the manager at this time tomorrow.o´clock tomorrow / next Monday.

. EXPRESIONES DE TIEMPO: Yesterday. Will I speak with the manager. todos los días) PREGUNTA HABITUAL: What did you do (yesterday)? / wót did iu: dú: iésterdei / ¿Que hizo Ud... it se agrega s / es al infinitivo). Did I speak with the manager. Am I speaking with ..etc.. often.. Do I speak with the manager .... ayer? PREGUNTA HABITUAL: a) What will you do (tomorrow) ? / wot wil iú dú: tumórou / ¿Qué hará Ud..... I did not speak with the manager...? EJEMPLOS: I spoke (= I did speak) with the manager yesterday.... ten months ago. etc. sometimes. determinada en el pasado. EXPRESIONES DE TIEMPO: Tomorrow. el sábado pasado..etc.. como ayer.B. next Sunday.. several times a year. I do not speak with the manager. En las negaciones e interrogaciones se usa do / does + infinitive (Ver Ejemplos) ESTRUCTURA: S+DID+INFINITIVE* *En la forma afirmativa se usa S + Past... plan) c) S+AM / IS / ARE+ING (Actividad ..? EJEMPLOS: a) I will speak with the manager tomorrow. SIMPLE TENSES PRESENT USO: PAST USO: FUTURE USO: Describe una acción que se realizará o sucederá en una hora o fecha determinada en el futuro. Once a day. last week.. last night. next week.? b) I´m going to speak with the manager tomorrow...? c) What are you doing (tomorrow)? / wót a:r iu: dúi# tumórou / ¡Que tiene previsto hacer. 1997.? 300 A short course in english for adult students .. Two days ago.... Jane does not speak with the . every week.. seldom.? PREGUNTA HABITUAL: What do you do (every day) ? / wót diu: dú: évri déi / (¿Qué hace Ud.. twice a week. el próximo sábado. I ´m not speaking with . last Sunday. Does Jane speak with the manager. Describe una acción que se realiza o Describe una acción que se realizó sucede en forma habitual. I´m not going to speak with . etc..? c) I´m speaking with the manager tomorrow. etc... como todos o sucedió en una fecha u hora los días.... next month..... En las negaciones e interrogaciones se usa did + infinitive (Ver Ejemplos) ESTRUCTURA: a) S+WILL+INFINITIVE (Decisión) b) S+AM / IS / ARE+GOING TO + INF (Intención. on May 4.. every month. I will not speak with the manager. Am I going to speak with.. That day... usually. etc.. in 1986... etc..prevista o acordada con aticipación) EXPRESIONES DE TIEMPO: Every day. she.... ESTRUCTURA: S+DO / DOES+INFINITIVE* *En la forma afirmativa se usa solamente S + Infinitive. EJEMPLOS: I speak (= I do speak) with the manager every day.. como mañana. (con He..? Jane speaks (= Jane does speak) with the manager every day. siempre. etc Always. mañana?) b) What are you going to do (tomorrow)? / wót a:r iu: gói# tu dú: tomórou / ¿Qué va a hacer .

Bob: Jack: Bob: Jack: PAST SAMPLE DIALOG: What did you do last week-end? I went to the beach. Bob: Ann: Bob: Ann: FUTURE SAMPLE DIALOG: What will you do in the summer?. What did you do on Saturday? In the afternoon we went swimming and in the evening we went to a disco. We really had a great time there. Nancy? Nancy: I live on Clark Street. Bob: How do you get here every day? Nancy: I generally take the bus. we´re going to make reservations for the last two weeks in July. Bob: Are you just going to visit Cancún? Ann: I don´t know yet. Bob: Does your husband take the bus too? Nancy: No he doesn´t . I didn´t.PRESENT SAMPLE DIALOG: Bob: Where do you live. It doesn´t take him more than 5 minutes to get to the office. My friends and I are meeting this evening to discuss our plans. Bob: That sounds great! Bob: Jack: Bob: Jack: A short course in english for adult students 301 . We will go to Cancun again. I went with some friends. He usually walks. When are you going to leave? Well. Did you go alone? No. Where did you stay? We rented a small house.

Sir Peter has been in Chicago twice... They will have gone by the time Peter arrives this evening PREGUNTA HABITUAL: What have you done (since you arrived this morning)? / wot av iu: dán sins iu: arráivd ! is mó:rni# / ¿Que ha hecho Ud. it wasn´t I had been in New York a couple of times before. I think they will have finished building it before the end of this week. Just. never. Jackson has never travelled abroad. ESTRUCTURA: S + HAVE / HAS + PAST PARTICIPLE ESTRUCTURA: S + HAD + PAST PARTICIPLE ESTRUCTURA: S + WILL HAVE + PAST PARTICIPLE EXPRESIONES DE TIEMPO: For. She had never been in Paris before. PERFECT TENSES PRESENT USO: PAST USO: FUTURE USO: Describe una acción que se habrá realizado o completado antes que otra ocurra otra acción en el futuro...etc. we will have had lunch already. twice. c) una acción que se ha realizado varias veces en el pasado. Once. antes que Peter llegara ayer? PREGUNTA HABITUAL: What will you have done (by the end of this month)? / wot wil iu: hav dán bai ! i énd ov ! is mán" / ¿Qué habrá hecho ud. I must say Central Park is beautiful at this time of the year. Bob: Why didn´t Jack go with you? Jane: He couldn´t afford the trip. etc. hacia fines de este mes? SAMPLE DIALOG: Officer: Is this the first time you came to the United States? Peter: No. He says it´s spectacular.. Mrs.. y que ha continuado hasta este momento. EJEMPLOS: When Peter gets here today.. But I had never visited it in the spring. antes de una fecha futura Describe a) una acción que comenzó a Describe una acción que se realizó u realizarse en una fecha u hora en el pasado ocurrió antes que otra ocurriera. since. SAMPLE DIALOG: John: Have they finished building the bridge yet? Peter: No they haven´t.. EJEMPLOS: I have lived in Santiago for ten years I have lived in Santiago since 1992. Your train has just left.before EXPRESIONES DE TIEMPO: When + S+ Present + tomorrow / next Monday. already . not. lately.etc By this time tomorrow / next month.. Officer: Have you ever been to the Grand Canyon? Peter: No.. never... By the end of this month / year.. Officer: I´m sure you will enjoy the visit SAMPLE DIALOG: Bob: Was that your first visit to New York? Jane: No. He had not saved enough money for the tickets. many times Ever? EXPRESIONES DE TIEMPO: When + S + Past By the time + S + Past Several times before.. Sir. before. We had had dinner by the time they arrived last night. many times before... But one of my brothers has visited it several times. desde que llegó esta mañana? PREGUNTA HABITUAL: What had you done (before Peter arrived yesterday)? / wot had iu: dán bifó:r pí:ter arráivd iésterdei / ¿Que había hecho ud. Have you ever drunk tequila? EJEMPLOS: The train had already left when we got to the station. He had worked in the Army for about 30 years when he retired. But they will have built several important roads and our economy will have grown considerably. John: I hope your dreams come true 302 A short course in english for adult students ...yet. John: How many bridges will they have built by the end of this decade? Peter: I don´t know. I´ve come here three or four times.C. I have never been there.Several times. three times. b) una acción que acaba de ocurrir.

desde que llegó esta mañana? Ud. I will have been working on this project for more than three months by the time this term ends. John: And why were the neighbors so angry? Jim: They had been trying to sleep. A short course in english for adult students 303 . we simply have to be patient and wait. Al igual que el Presente Perfecto describe Describe una acción que se había estado una acción que comenzó a realizarse realizando en forma ininterrumpida antes en una fecha u hora en el pasado y que que otra ocurriera. And they had also been sitting and talking by the fire... since.. ESTRUCTURA: S + HAVE / HAS+BEEN + ING ESTRUCTURA: S + HAD + BEEN + ING ESTRUCTURA: S+WILL HAVE + BEEN + ING EXPRESIONES DE TIEMPO: For.. and I have been studying for the final exams. when S + Past Since. ha continuado en forma ininterrumpida hasta este momento.D. PREGUNTA HABITUAL: What have you been doing since you arrived here this morning? / wot av iu: bí:n dú:i# sins iu: arráivd híar ! is mó:rni# / ¡Qué ha estado haciendo Ud... Are they still discussing the project to build the new bridge across the Potomac? B...... and you´ll get your degree at last!! SAMPLE DIALOG: John: What had your friends been doing that evening? Jim: They´d been celebrating Mary´s birthday. EXPRESIONES DE TIEMPO: Since. Peter: Yes... Peter: You really look tired. In the meantime. They will have been discussing it for fifteen months next week and they haven´t yet decided whether it should or shouldn´t be built. / for... by the time + S + Present EJEMPLOS: I have been working on this project since March this year They have been waiting for the bus for about twenty minutes so far.. Mary: Yes.. I haven´t been sleeping well since this term started in March.. but hadn´t been able to do so because of the noise!!! SAMPLE DIALOG: A.. I hope they take a stand and vote for it.. It´s a shame! Well... It will all be over before the end of this month. PREGUNTA HABITUAL: What had you been doing before Peter arrived yesterday? / wot had iu: bí:n dú:i# bifó:r pí:ter arráivd iésterdei / ¿Qué había estado haciendo PREGUNTA HABITUAL: What will you have been doing by the end of this month? / wót wil iu: hav bí:n dú:i# bai !i énd ov !is mán" / ¿Qué habrá estado haciendo Ud.... . by the time + S + Past EXPRESIONES DE TIEMPO: For. It had been raining hard for about two hours that morning. Anyway. antes que Peter llegara ayer? hacia fines de este mes? SAMPLE DIALOG: Peter: What have you been doing since you got up this morning? Mary: I´ve been doing lots of things.. / for. EJEMPLOS: Peter will have been living in this country for five years by the end of this month... Yes. They´d been dancing and singing.. A..... I´ve been working on my thesis. After all we have been using the ferry for years and have become used to it. antes de una fecha futura.. EJEMPLOS: John had been working in his office since 8:30 that morning. PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSES PRESENT USO: PAST USO: FUTURE USO: Describe una acción que se habrá estado realizándo en forma ininterrumpida antes que otra ocurra otra acción en el futuro.

Bl 304 .

DEPARTAMENTO COMUNICACIONAL DEL EJÉRCITO .

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful

Master Your Semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Special offer for students: Only $4.99/month.

Master Your Semester with a Special Offer from Scribd & The New York Times

Cancel anytime.