# Fluent tutorials

Gabriel W¸ ecel 30th March 2009

Contents
0.1 Air heater . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.1.1 Building geometry . . . . . . . . 0.1.2 Setting boundary condition types 0.1.3 Setting Fluent parameters . . . . 0.1.4 Performing calculations . . . . . 0.1.5 Final remarks . . . . . . . . . . . Cyclone. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.2.1 Building geometry . . . . . . . . 0.2.2 Setting boundary condition types 0.2.3 Meshing geometry . . . . . . . . 0.2.4 Setting Fluent parameters . . . . 0.2.5 Performing calculations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 3 7 8 9 10 11 11 15 16 17 19

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1 Air heater This example shows how to simplify 3D geometry of the real object and perform calculation in 2D space. The width of the heater is high enough to neglect inﬂuence of the side walls (front and back) on the ﬂow in the middle part of the heater. The air stream ﬂows from left to the right. There are only two opening in the heater. First of all it needs to be symmetric as the ﬂow is symmetric. Hence we can simulate ﬂow in the heater with good accuracy assuming 2D geometry (see the heater cross section in the Figure 2. outflow air ﬂow air inlet temperature thermal input at each heater walls thermal condition 5 300 1.0. That feature require proper treatment of the mesh. we do not utilize symmetry of the cross section geometry since we want later to analyze diﬀerent cylinder alignments). inlet (left) and outlet (right). but at least at the cylinder boundaries cells alignment should follow ﬂow direction. bottom) are insulated walls. top. This is not possible in all area of the ﬂow. with stagnation zones and revers ﬂow close to the cylinders. Data of the operation of the heater are given in Table 1. heaters inlet Figure 1: Air heater. The best is to try generate fully structured mesh and if possible with cells edges aligned with the direction of the ﬂow.6 0 m/s K kW kW (isolation) Table 1: Air heater set up parameter 2 . The ﬂow patern in such conﬁguration of the heater in any cross section (aligned with ﬂow direction) is almost the same. Even for simpliﬁed geometry ﬂow over cylinders emerge to be complex. The other sides (front. Inside the heater 3 cylindrical pipes are positioned perpendicular to the ﬂow. Air heater geometry is given in Figure 1. back.

One can recognize that all faces posses 4 edges what allows to mesh them easily with Quad elements. End Angle = 45 Press Apply Enter Radius = 0. outflow 0.1 Building geometry As already mentioned we require structured mesh made of Quad type elements. In order to use Quad elements we need earlier to plan how to divide geometry in topological faces which later are easy to mesh.2 m 0.02. End Angle = 225 Press Apply 3 . Geometry → Edge → Create Edge → Arc Select method: Radius.02. Start Angle = -45. 04 m heaters insulated walls 0. See below listing of the geometry creation procedure. End Angle = 135 Press Apply Enter Radius = 0.2 m 0. Figure 3 shows proposition of topological division of the air heater geometry.1 m 1m inlet Figure 2: Air heater cross section . Start Angle = 135.0. End Angle Enter Radius = 0. Start Angle = 45. Figure 3: Air heater topological division of the geometry.1.dimensions. Start Angle.1 m 0.02.

create faces around tube Geometry → Face → Form Face → Wireframe Select with mouse (holding Shift button) created Edges (only 4 at the same time) Press Apply Repeat operation (4 times) in order to get eﬀect shown in Figure 5. Z = 0 Press Apply Enter X = 0.05.Enter Radius = 0.05.05.02. Figure 4: Edges around the tube. Y = -0. 4 .05.05. Z = 0 Press Apply Enter X = -0. Z = 0 Press Apply create edges around tube Geometry → Edge → Create Edge → Straight Select with mouse (holding Shift button) created Vertices (only 2 at the same time) Press Apply Repeat operation (8 times) in order to get eﬀect shown in Figure 4.05. Z = 0 Press Apply Enter X = -0. Y = -0. Start Angle = 225. Y = 0. Y = 0. End Angle = 315 Press Apply Geometry → Vertex → Create Vertex Enter X = 0.05.05.

make 2 copies of mesh around the tubes Geometry → Face → Move/Copy/Align Select with mouse all faces Select Copy and enter 2 (this is number of copies) Select Operation → Translate Enter X = 0.001 Select Spacing and enter Interval count = 20 Select Option Mesh Press Apply mesh faces around tube Mesh → Face → Mesh Faces Select with mouse (holding Shift button) all 4 faces Select Scheme Select Elements → Quad Select Type → Map Press Apply The mesh generated should have similar form of that shown in Figure 6. Y = 0.001 Select Option Mesh Press Apply set distribution of the nodes on the edges radially connected with tube Select with mouse (holding Shift button) radial edges Select Grading Select Type First Length and enter Length = 0.Face 1 Face 4 Face 3 Figure 5: Faces around the tube. Z = 0 5 Face 2 .1. however number of elements is diﬀerent. mesh faces around tube. ﬁrst set distribution of the nodes on the edges Mesh → Edge → Mesh Edges Select with mouse (holding Shift button) edges creating tube Deselect Grading Select Spacing and enter Interval size = 0.

Remaining part of the mesh is generated by simply creating rectangular faces. 6 . If we did not set them as interfaces Fluent will treat them as walls (no ﬂow between these part of mesh). Since procedure is very simple only picture showing consequent steps is given in Figure 8. Geometry → Edge → Connect Edges Select with mouse all double faces (lying at the same position) Select Real Press Apply As the result the double edges will be connected and one of them be deleted. Press Apply The eﬀect of operation is shown in Figure 7. Figure 7: Copied mesh around the tubes. Coping of the faces in the way presented above result in double Edges lying at the same position between copied meshes. (number of elements is diﬀerent). Simple solution to this problem is connecting this edges.Figure 6: Mesh around the tube.

Zones → Specify Boundary Types Check (Add) Enter. 0.2 Setting boundary condition types The last step in Gambit is setting boundary condition types.Figure 8: Steps of creating air heater geometry.1. edge representing inlet to the cyclone. see Figure 2 press Apply Zones → Specify Boundary Types Check (Add) Enter. edge representing outlet from the cyclone. edges creating top and bottom wall of the heater press Apply Zones → Specify Boundary Types Check (Add) 7 . Name: sides Select Type → WALL Pick Entity : Edges. Name: inlet Select Type → VELOCITY INLET Pick Entity : Edges. Name: outlet Select Type → OUTFLOW Pick Entity : Edges. see Figure 2 press Apply Zones → Specify Boundary Types Check (Add) Enter.

boundary conditions and solver parameters required to simulate operation of heater.msh Check (Export 2d Mesh) press Apply 0. The procedure listed below shows mainly these settings which needs to be changed.. edge creating second pipe of the heater press Apply Zones → Specify Boundary Types Check (Add) Enter. Name: heater 01 Select Type → WALL Pick Entity : Edges.... edge creating ﬁrst pipe of the heater press Apply Zones → Specify Boundary Types Check (Add) Enter.Enter. Select k − Standard turbulence model with option Standard Wall Function Deﬁne material properties Deﬁne → Materials. File → Read → Case. Name: heater 02 Select Type → WALL Pick Entity : Edges.43 8 .1..3 Setting Fluent parameters After reading mesh generated with Gambit we have to deﬁne all the models.225 Enter Cp (j/kgK) equal to 1006.. Most of the parameter in Fluent can be left as default. Deﬁne → Models → Solver. Name: heater 03 Select Type → WALL Pick Entity : Edges. Set turbulence modell Deﬁne → Models → Viscous. Check material properties for air Enter Density (kg/m3) equal to 1. Deﬁne solver settings as default... edge creating third pipe of the heater press Apply export generated mesh into the ﬁle File → Export → Mesh. material properties. Enter File Name: heater. Read mesh ﬁle (mesh ﬁles have extension msh) ˙ created in previous section...

.. press Set From Thermal tab for Thermal Conditions select Heat Flux Enter Heat Flux (W/m2) equal to 16000 Accept settings pressing OK Press Copy from Boundary Condition panel Under From Zone select heater 01 Under To Zone select heater 02.4 Performing calculations Herewith we assume that Fluent is open and case ﬁle with heater is read.0242 Enter Viscosity (kg/ms) equal to 1...4 Accept settings pressing OK Select Zone → heater 01. enter ﬁle name and accept settings pressing OK 0... (this command executes 100 iterations) Observe in Fluent result window residuals of the solved equations 9 .cas) File → Write → Case. Under Option select Plot For Residual → continuity → Convergence Criterion enter value equal to 10e-9 Accept settings pressing OK save Fluent settings parameter in case ﬁle (case ﬁles have extension .. Select Zone → inlet. Press Init and close Solution Initialization panel Set solution monitoring option Solve → Monitors → Residual. Type in Fluent command window it 100.7894e-5 Conﬁrm changes pressing Change Create Close Material panel pressing Close Deﬁne boundary condition Deﬁne → Boundary Conditions.. assume all default settings Initialize solution Solve → Initialize → Initialize..1..Enter Thermal Conductivity (W/mK) equal to 0. heater 03 Press Copy Accept selection pressing OK Close Copy BCs panel pressing Close Close Boundary Conditions panel pressing Close set up solver parameters Solve → Controls → Solution. press Set Enter Velocity Magnitude (m/s) equal to 5 Enter Temperature (K) equal to 300 Select Turbulence Speciﬁcation Method → Intensity and Hydraulic Diameter Enter Turbulence Intensity (%) equal to 10 Enter Hydraulic Diameter (m) equal to 0..

From Type select Rake. additionally Line extract values from the closes volume cell center. The result window can be zoomed in and out in order to observe particular regions of the ﬂow.5 Final remarks Experienced user can realize that presented here case is not trivial one. Displayed variable scale can be adjusted to arbitral ranges.1. First of all turbulence model used here is not always suitable for such a ﬂows since Reynolds number is at the very low level of 11 000.. x0(m) = 0. Solution variables can be displayed as follow. but that strongly depend on the problem solved.. we suggest at least 20. print or write to a ﬁle solution variables placed on the deﬁned by rake positions. → Static Pressure Press Display Repeating procedure above one can display all solution variables. x1(m) = 0.. Additionally proﬁles of these variables can be created at arbitral position inside computational domain.1.2 For New Surface Name enter desired name of the rake and press Create Close Line/Rake Surface panel pressing Close Created Rake can be used from Plot → XY Plot.. Select Display → Contours.. select Pressure. y1(m) = 0. Surface → Line/Rake. advantage of using Rake instead of Line is that we predeﬁne number of points at which values are plotted or printed. when Rake interpolate values from closes volume cells and calculate it for position at which point of a rake is placed. Creating proﬁle line for extracting data Herewith we will create line cutting the cross section of the domain at the position 0. From Option select Filled static pressure will be displayed From Contours of.. variable printed and position of the Rake From Points enter. Line will be aligned vertically and perpendicular to the ﬂow direction... 0.Post processing All calculated variable can be displayed in the Fluent result window in the form of colored ﬁeld. panel in order to plot.5 m from the inlet to the heater.5 y0(m) = 0. There is completely neglected 10 . in case of using Line number of points for dense meshes can be large. For Number of Point enter required value.

First we create and move in the right position volume primitives presented in Figure 10. See below listing of the geometry creation procedure.3. However main purpose of this tutorial is to show how to relatively easy create structured mesh for the geometry which automatic mesh generator are not able to handle such meshes.2. 0.1 Building geometry Procedure of building the cyclone geometry is very simple. particle diameter max.001 1 300 150 2. mesh it. and run Fluent simulations. With this tutorial we build simple cyclone geometry. Geometry → Volume → Create Volume → Cylinder Enter Height = 0. Easiest and most commonly used method of separation takes advantage of gravitation forces. and temperature proﬁle at the outlet of the heater.8 2100 m3 n /s 0 C kg/s µm µm µm kg/m3 Table 2: Cyclone running parameter Figure 9 shows cyclone dimensions. 0. Radius 1 = 0.2 Cyclone. Device which work on this basis is a cyclone. Instead of ﬂue gases we will use air stream polluted with ash. removal of ﬂying ash from ﬂue gases in industrial coal ﬁred boilers). Geometry of the cyclone is build in Gambit using volume primitives. Next boolean summation and subtraction is used to unite all primitives in order to create one volume representing a cyclone. One can try to build geometry with diﬀerent heater alignments and observe how that inﬂuence. the ﬂow.3 press Apply 11 . Radius 2 = 0.27 50 0. Data for boundary conditions are given in Table 2.discussion of the near wall treatment and simply standard wall approach is utilized. air ﬂow air ﬂow temperature ash mass ﬂux min. In many industrial processes emerge a need of cleaning gases from dispersed inert particles suspended within gas (eg.5. Listing shows order of operations to be carried out in Gambit. Figure 10 shows all volumes used to build the cyclone which are connected using boolean operations. pressure drop. particle diameter mean particle diameter spread parameter ash density 0.

Radius 3 = 0.2 m 0.8 m 0.0.0.1.0 m 0. Geometry → Volume → Create Volume → Frustum Enter Height = 1.7 m 0. Y = 0. Radius 2 = 0.2 m 0.2 m 1.6 m 0.2 m 0. Z = 0.05 m .3.4 m 0.2 m 0.1 press Apply Geometry → Volume → Move/Copy/Align Select with the mouse created frustum: Pick Volume 2 Check Move.5 press Apply Geometry → Volume → Create Volume → Cylinder Enter Height = 0. Radius 1 = 0.05.3. Translate Enter X = 0. Radius 1 = 0. Radius 2 = 0.2 m 0.5 m Figure 9: Cyclone dimensions.1 12 0.

2 m 0.2 m 0.2 m 0. press Apply Geometry → Volume → Move/Copy/Align Select with the mouse created cylinder: Pick Volume 3 Check Move.2.5 m 0.2 m 0.8 m 0.6 m 0.7 m 0.2 m 0. Y = 0.6 m 0. Translate Enter X = 0.0 m .0.2 press Apply Geometry → Volume → Move/Copy/Align Select with the mouse created cylinder: Pick Volume 4 13 0.15.4 m Figure 10: Volume primitives for Cyclone.5 press Apply Geometry → Volume → Create Volume → Cylinder Enter Height = 0.2 m 1. Z = 1. Radius 1 = 0. Radius 2 = 0.05 m 0.

Volume 2. Translate Enter X = 0. Not connected faces will be by default treated as wall.Volume 4.1 press Apply Geometry → Volume → Move/Copy/Align Select with the mouse created cylinder: Pick Volume 5 Check Move. Radius 1 = 0. In our case. see ﬁgure 11.Volume 3.Volume 5 press Apply Geometry → Volume → Boolean Operations → Subtract Select with the mouse the volumes which is result of last operation: Volume Volume 1 Select with the mouse remaining volume: Subtract Volume Volume 5 Check Retain under Subtract Volume press Apply Geometry → Face → Connect/Disconnect Faces → Connect Select with the mouse faces aligned between volumes. Y = 0. Height = 0. Z = 1.2.35. It results in deleting one of the face which are aligned at the same position. Z = -0. press Apply after making selection 14 . Radius 2 = 0. Translate Enter X = 0.2 press Apply Geometry → Volume → Move/Copy/Align Select with the mouse created cylinder: Pick Volume 6 Check Move.55 press Apply Geometry → Volume → Create Volume → Cylinder Enter: Height = 0.7.Check Move. only this which are at the cover of small cylinder. side cylinder face of the Volume 5 will be a wall. Y = 0. This operation is needed to force continuum between volumes.8.2 press Apply Geometry → Volume → Create Volume → Brick Enter Width = 0.1. Y = 0. After operation two volumes are linked by one face forcing later the same mesh to be generated for both volumes at that face. Translate Enter X = 0.2. Depth = 0.1 press Apply Geometry → Volume → Boolean Operations → Unite Select with the mouse all the volumes except last created (Volume 6): Pick Volume 1. Z = 0.

face representing inlet to the cyclone. Additionally ash hopper has to be marked as separate wall.2 Setting boundary condition types In order to indicate inlet and outlet of the cyclone we need to specify boundary condition types in Gambit. see Figure 12 press Apply Zones → Specify Boundary Types Check (Add) Enter. face representing outlet from the cyclone. 0.Figure 11: Faces to be selected for Face Connect oparation. this is required for dispersed phase modelling. See listing of boundary types setting below.2. Name: in Select Type VELOCITY INLET Pick Entity : Faces. Zones → Specify Boundary Types Check (Add) Enter. see Figure 12 press Apply 15 . Name: out Select Type OUTFLOW Pick Entity : Faces.

faces creating ash hopper.3 Meshing geometry Generation of appropriate mesh for cyclone geometry is not a trivial task. Name: ash Select Type WALL Pick Entity : Faces.Zones → Specify Boundary Types Check (Add) Enter. 0. The ﬂow inside a cyclone is fully 3 dimensional and complex. It is advised never to use shown here mesh for simulations of real object.2. See below 16 . Proper simulation of such ﬂow require careful treatment of the mesh. Since this exercise is only to show possibilities of Fluent and we rather would like to show general procedure of simulating cyclone operation automatic mesh generator will be used. see Figure 12 press Apply outlet velocity inlet ash hopper Figure 12: Boundary condition types.

The last task to perform in Gambit is to export generated mesh to the ﬁle. Deﬁne solver settings as default.. Press Accept 0.... Diameter (m) equal to 300e-6 17 .. select all the faces Select Elements: Tri Select Type: Pave Check Spacing: Apply Enter Interval size 0.. File → Export → Mesh Press Browse to select destination folder. Set turbulence modell Deﬁne → Models → Viscous.001 Enter Min. Read mesh ﬁle (mesh ﬁles have extension msh) ˙ created in previous section. Enter name of the ﬁle. Select k − RNG turbulence model with option Swirl Dominated Flow In the Discrete Phase Model panel change Maximum Number of Steps to 10000 Set Injections Select Injection Type → surface Select Release From Surfaces → in (inis an inlet face) Select Material → ash Select Diameter Distribution → rosin-rammler-logarithmic Select tab Point Properties Enter Total Flow Rate (kg/s) equal to 0. Mesh → Face Pick Faces.05 Press Apply Mesh → Volume Pick Volumes. File → Read → Case. Diameter (m) equal to 1e-6 Enter Max. extension will be given by default.procedure for meshing cyclone geometry.4 Setting Fluent parameters Herewith procedure of setting up cyclone simulations in Fluent.2. select all the volumes Select Elements: Tet/Hybrid Select Type: Tgrid Uncheck Spacing: Apply Press Apply Final mesh should contain around 20 000 cells. Deﬁne → Models → Solver.

press Set Select tab DPM Under Discrete Phase Reﬂection Condition select Normal → constant Enter value equal to 0. Select Gravity Enter gravitation acceleration Z (m/s2) equal to 9.. press Set Enter Velocity Magnitude (m/s) equal to 7.094 Conﬁrm changes pressing Change Create Change density for inert-particle ash Enter Density (kg/m3) equal to 2100 Conﬁrm changes pressing Change Create Deﬁne operating condition Deﬁne → Operating Conditions... From Discretization select Momentum → Second Order Upwind From Discretization select Turbulent Kinetic Energy → Second Order Upwind From Discretization select Turbulent Dissipation Rate → Second Order Upwind Accept settings pressing OK Initialize solution Solve → Initialize→ Initialize.8 Under Discrete Phase Reﬂection Condition select Tangent → constant Enter value equal to 0. Type → trap Accept settings pressing OK Select Zone → wall.81 Accept settings pressing OK Deﬁne boundary condition Deﬁne → Boundary Conditions. Press Init and close Solution Initialization panel Set solution monitoring option Solve → Monitors → Residual. Under Option select Plot For Residual → continuity → Convergence Criterion enter value equal to 10e-9 18 . Change density for air Enter Density (kg/m3) equal to 1.8 Enter Number of Diameters equal to 15 Select tab Turbulent Dispersion From Stochastic Tracking select Discrete Random Walk Model Enter Number of Tries equal to 5 Accept settings pressing OK Deﬁne material properties Deﬁne → Materials.... Select Zone → in..98 Select Turbulence Speciﬁcation Method → Intensity and Hydraulic Diameter Enter Hydraulic Diameter (m) equal to 0.2 Accept settings pressing OK Select Zone → ash.Enter Mean Diameter (m) equal to 150e-6 Enter Spread Parameter equal to 2...8 Accept settings pressing OK Close Boundary Condition panel set up solver parameters Solve → Controls → Solution.... press Set Select tab DPM Under Discrete Phase Model Condition select Boundary Cond.

x1(m) = 0. From Option select Filled From Contours of select Grid → X-coordinate From Surfaces select wall Press Display Observe in Fluent result window boundary of the domain colored by X cartesian coordinate Repeat operation for Contours of → Y-coordinate and Z-coordinate The cyclone axis is aligned with Z axis and crossing X = 0 and Y = 0 cartesian coordinates. z1(m) = 0. Select Display → Contours. The best of the ﬂow visualization is to look at variables (velocity. In order to access variable inside the domain internal lines or planes needs to be created. x0(m) = 1. From Points enter. pressure ﬁeld) on the plane inside the domain. y2(m) = 0 z0(m) = 0. z2(m) = 1 (exact coordinates are not important. y1(m) = 0. points can not be aligned. From the number of methods of deﬁning planes position available in Fluent we suggest to use 3 points method described below.2.. Using Fluent post processing tools we can display only variables on the external boundary of the domain. Select Surface → Plane. x2(m) = 0 y0(m) = 0. Planes can be placed at arbitral position selected by the user.. (this command executes 100 iterations) Observe in Fluent result window residuals of the solved equations Creating planes for extracting calculated variables Running simulations on 3D domain we do not have direct access to solved variable inside the domain. and in our case all y variables must be equal to 0) 19 .cas) File → Write → Case. Just in case we do not remember size of the domain geometry and its placement in the cartesian system we can display cartesian coordinates on the external boundaries of the domain geometry (see listing below).... Type in Fluent command window it 100. Now we create plane crossing cyclone for Y = 0.Accept settings pressing OK save Fluent settings parameter in case ﬁle (case ﬁles have extension .5 Performing calculations Herewith we assume that Fluent is open and case ﬁle with cyclone is read. enter ﬁle name and accept settings pressing OK 0...

From Option select Filled From Contours of. when displaying contours of variables simultaneously domain boundary wireframe will be displayed From Contours of. Select Display → Grid.. Select All from Edge Type From Surface select name of the creates palne Press Display Displaying Fluent variables on created planes Fluent provide extremely powerful post processing tool. → Velocity Magnitude Press Display Observe in Fluent result window plane colored by velocity magnitude ﬁeld.. without considerable error. From Option select Draw Grid panel Grid Display pop ups From Edge Type select Feature. It means that ﬁrst we simulate ﬂuid ﬂow of a gas phase. now. and from Surfaces select domain boundary you want to display Press Display.. Here we show general procedure of displaying variables on created planes.. traced within a gas phase in the frame of postprocessing. and the boundary of the domain Simulating ash ﬂying inside a cyclone .. one can see that the boundary of the domain are not visible. If heat transfer between phases in not involved particle can be. You can see created planes by displaying them in the Fluent result window.. It allows to display on the screen all calculated variables and number of predeﬁned derivatives of these variables.particle tracking In most of the cases mass load of the inert particles is small comparing to transport gas.. → Static Pressure From Surfaces select plane created in previous step Press Display Observe in Fluent result window plane colored by static pressure ﬁeld. select Pressure.. Select Display → Contours. When convergence for continues phase is reached inert particle representing ash are traced employing 20 .For New Surface Name enter desired name of the surface and press Create Close Plane Surface panel pressing Close You can repeat procedure above to create more planes in the arbitral positions inside analyzed domain. select Velocity.

Zone 4 Escaped . escaped and incomplete streams which is meaningless in assessing cyclone operation. Number of Steps for particle tracking.509e+000 3. trapped = 2362.130e+000 3.000e+000 0.Lagrangian model.897e-008 9.080e+000 1.4 for changing Max. in order to make this faster and be able to see particle paths on the screen we select this option → particle will be send only from one face at the inlet) Press Display. The regular report provide only the number of trapped. It can help in assessing eﬃciency of cyclone which is calculated as ratio of the ash mass ﬂux collected inside ash hopper to the ash mass ﬂux entering a cyclone.) Useful option in particle tracking procedure is summary report.418e-001 3. Sometimes even 21 . escaped.Zone 5 Initial ---------2..2. Aborted are not traced by the solver due to numerical error.646e-001 7.562e-007 Change ---------0.Zone 5 Number -----519 2362 419 Min ---------5.Incomplete are these for which Max. Trapped and Escaped particle streams. Within Particle Trucks panel.425e-001 5. Report shows how many particles have been traced.530e+000 1. See below for executing tracing procedure. See procedure below for activating summary report. Number of Steps was not enough to complete tracing. From Option activate Draw Grid in order to see boundary of the domain (see section above for explanation) From Release from Injections select injection-0. aborted and incomplete. Index Min Max --------------------------------------injection-0 0 injection-0 515 injection-0 424 injection-0 203 injection-0 48 injection-0 275 Std Dev ---------3.826e-001 3. evaporated = 0.562e-007 Mass Flow (kg/s) Final ---------2. escaped = 419.897e-008 9. (particle steams will not be displayed in results window) See below example of summary report: number tracked = 3300.003e+000 Injection.000e+000 0. incomplete = 519 Fate ---Incomplete Trapped . trapped and escaped particle stream. (Fluent starts tracing procedure.Zone 4 Escaped . General report shows only number of incomplete. Select Display → Particle Tracks. (number of particle traced usually exceed thousands and tracking procedure in lengthly even on fast computers. Escaped are these which left the cyclone through the outlet.000e+000 The most interesting is Mass Transfer Summary which shows mass ﬂuxes of Incomplete. (name can be diﬀerent) Select Track Single Particle Stream.. select Summary from Report Type Deselect Track Single Particle Stream Press Track. See section 0. Trapped are particle collected in the ash hopper.647e-001 (*).996e-004 3.996e-004 3.792e-001 Elapsed Time (s) Max Avg ------------------4. aborted = 0.770e+000 1. after ﬁnishing displays particle paths in results window. evaporated for inert particle is meaningless.Mass Transfer Summary -(*) Fate ---Incomplete Trapped . trapped. It also informs of the mass ﬂux of incomplete traces. In the main Fluent window report of the tracing procedure is printed.

Hence in order to asses cyclone eﬃciency mass ﬂuxes of trapped and escaped particle streams needs to be compared.large number of escaped particle streams not impose low cyclone eﬃciency. Number of Steps under Discrete Phase Model panel opened from Deﬁne menu. because these streams could be low diameter particle streams. 22 . If number and mass ﬂux of incomplete stream is large we need to increase Max. There are neither trapped nor escaped and traced has been ﬁnished inside domain. Escaped particle stream number indicate how many trace of the particle streams has not been completed.

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