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Pastarus Presentation Mine Backfilling Estonian Oil Shale Mining Mining Department

Pastarus Presentation Mine Backfilling Estonian Oil Shale Mining Mining Department

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Published by Mäeinstituut
International OIL SHALE SYMPOSIUMTallinn, Estonia, June 8-11, 2009
Introduction
85 % of oil shale is consumed by power plants, which produce 98 % of Estonian electricity and great part of thermal power
Current mining system (room-and-pillar) is characterized by high loss of oil shale in pillars, safety and environmental problems
Large amount of neutral (limestone), hazardous (ash) waste and greenhouse gases is generated by oil shale and electric energy industry
Management of waste from extractive industries (Directive 2006/21/EC)
Landfill of waste (Directive 1999/31/EC)
Complex approach is needed
Estonian oil shale industry
Worldwide experience
Backfilling materials – combustion and mining by-products (Directive 2006/21/EC)
World experience – Poland, France, Finland, Germany, Belgium, Ireland and etc.
Polish experience – over half of coal ash is used as backfilling materials in open casts and mines
Transport – hydro, conveyor, track, railway
International OIL SHALE SYMPOSIUMTallinn, Estonia, June 8-11, 2009
Introduction
85 % of oil shale is consumed by power plants, which produce 98 % of Estonian electricity and great part of thermal power
Current mining system (room-and-pillar) is characterized by high loss of oil shale in pillars, safety and environmental problems
Large amount of neutral (limestone), hazardous (ash) waste and greenhouse gases is generated by oil shale and electric energy industry
Management of waste from extractive industries (Directive 2006/21/EC)
Landfill of waste (Directive 1999/31/EC)
Complex approach is needed
Estonian oil shale industry
Worldwide experience
Backfilling materials – combustion and mining by-products (Directive 2006/21/EC)
World experience – Poland, France, Finland, Germany, Belgium, Ireland and etc.
Polish experience – over half of coal ash is used as backfilling materials in open casts and mines
Transport – hydro, conveyor, track, railway

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07/12/2009

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International

OIL SHALE SYMPOSIUM
Tallinn, Estonia, June 8-11, 2009

Backfilling and Waste Management in Estonian Oil Shale Industry
Jyri-Rivaldo Pastarus Department of Mining Tallinn University of Technology, ESTONIA Erik Väli, Tarmo Tohver Eesti Energia Kaevandused AS ESTONIA mi.ttu.ee

Introduction
• 85 % of oil shale is consumed by power plants, which produce 98 % of Estonian electricity and great part of thermal power • Current mining system (room-and-pillar) is characterized by high loss of oil shale in pillars, safety and environmental problems • Large amount of neutral (limestone), hazardous (ash) waste and greenhouse gases is generated by oil shale and electric energy industry • Management of waste from extractive industries (Directive 2006/21/EC) • Landfill of waste (Directive 1999/31/EC) • Complex approach is needed
mi.ttu.ee

Estonian oil shale industry

mi.ttu.ee

Worldwide experience
• Backfilling materials – combustion and mining byproducts (Directive 2006/21/EC) • World experience – Poland, France, Finland, Germany, Belgium, Ireland and etc. • Polish experience – over half of coal ash is used as backfilling materials in open casts and mines • Transport – hydro, conveyor, track, railway

mi.ttu.ee

Scheme of pulp preparation plant

By Jan Palarski, Poland

mi.ttu.ee

Longwall mining with backfill

By Jan Palarski, Poland

mi.ttu.ee

Estonian experience
• From 1980 investigation were made • Participants – Department of Mining, Tallinn Technical University; Eesti Põlevkivi Ltd.; Skotchinsky Institute of Mining • Results – it was filled 30 000 cube m openings (mine Kiviõli) and got 3 certificates of inventions and 1 patent. Experience gave excellent results.

mi.ttu.ee

Current room-and-pillar mining

Eesti Energia Kaevandused AS

mi.ttu.ee

Failed pillar in the mine Estonia

Photos: Dr. Oleg Nikitin

mi.ttu.ee

Oil shale production
Oil shale production, thousand t (www.ep.ee)
Mines and open casts 01.04.200531.03.2006 Output Mine Estonia Mine Viru Total Open cast Narva Open cast Aidu Total 4 748 1 939 6 687 4 867 2 198 7 065 Share, % 35 14 49 35 16 51 01.04.200631.03.2007 Output 4 651 1 794 6 445 4 582 1 868 6 450 Share, % 36 14 50 36 14 50 01.04.200731.03.2008 Output 5 282 2 138 7 420 6 038 2 856 8 894 Share, % 32 13 45 37 18 55

Total

13 752

100

12 895

100

16 314

100
mi.ttu.ee

85 % of oil shale is consumed by power plants

Joint Stock Company Narva Power Plants
1 t oil shale combustion gives: 0.84-0.89 t (84-89 %) of CO2 5-8 kg (0.5-0.8 %) of SO2 0.43-0.44 t (43-44 %) of ash 11.74 Mt oil shale give: (01.04.2006- 31.03.2007) 10.1 Mt * 0.07 Mt ** 5.17 Mt ***

*13 % of carbon dioxide can be bound (Prof. R. Kuusik) **sulphur dioxide can be completely bound (Prof. R. Kuusik) ***hazardous ash (as binding material), neutralized with carbon and sulphur dioxides. Mineral sequestration is possible (Prof. R. Kuusik)

mi.ttu.ee

Amount of the backfilling materials
(01.04.2006-31.03.2007)

1. Mines Estonia and Viru: Oil shale production, Mt Limestone production, Mt Total, Mt Volume, Mm3 2. Joint Stock Company Narva Power Plants: Oil shale consumption, Mt Ash (43-44 % of oil shale), Mt 3. Filling materials: Ash and limestone, Mt Volume, Mm3

6.45 6.45 12.9 6.45 11.74 5.17 11.62 5.81

mi.ttu.ee

Scheme of backfill technology

Power plant CO2 SO2 H2O FM H2O

OSh Oil shale combustion T CO2, SO2 binding T Preparation of filling materials T Mines Open casts

OSh - oil shale; FM - fill material (limestone); T- transport of materials

mi.ttu.ee

Mining with backfill

1 – backfill 2 – pipeline 3 – drift 4 – backfilling process 5 – side barricade 6 - barricade

mi.ttu.ee

Room-and-pillar mining with backfill

1 – room 2 – collection drift 3 – tail drift 4 – pipeline 5 – backfilling process 6 – pillar 7 – backfill

mi.ttu.ee

Conclusions and recommendations
• Use of oil shale combustion and mining by-products as backfill materials: a) reduces the volume and area required for surface disposal b) decreases the amount of greenhouse gases and landfill dangerous wastes (mineral sequestration) c) and consequently the environmental taxes The use of oil shale ash and limestone as backfilling materials decreases the emission of greenhouse gases and landfill dangerous wastes The mining systems with backfill increase the efficiency of mining work and stability of ground surface The worldwide experience has shown that backfilling technology is applicable in Estonian oil shale mines For working out new technologies it is necessary to perform supplementary investigations and to give economic analysis

• • • •

mi.ttu.ee

THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION

mi.ttu.ee

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