1898. [AU Bightr rerttwd.]


178, STRAHD.


of apology is needed for the numerous repetition@

in the following chapters, which are due to the fact that the chapters were written and delivered in the form of Lectures.

I cannot guarantee the exactness of every word in the translations of the cuneiform texts given in them. The meaning of
individual words may at times be more precisely defined by t h e discovery of fuller materials, even where it has been supposed that their signification has been fixed with certainty. The same fate has befallen the interpretation of the Sebrew Scriptures, and is still more likely to befall a progressive study like Assyrian.

How rapidly progressive the latter is, may be gathered from
the number of contributions to our knowledge of Babylonian religion made since the following Lectures were in the hands of

De Beteelrenis van Ea en zijii Verhouding tot Maruduk en Nabu,” has tried to
the printer. Prof. Tiele, in a Paper entitled,

show that Ea u-as originally connected with the fire ; Mr. Pinches has published a late Babylonian text in the Bahjlonian Becord, from which it appears that the ewd, or “tithe,” was paid to the temple of the Sun-god not only by individuals, biit also by towns ; and Dr. Jensen, in the Zeitschrift far Assg~iologie(ii. 1). has made it probable that the azka7.u of the hymn translated on

pp. 68, 69, was the feast of the new moon.
\\\ 2 6




Certain abbreviations are used in the following pages. TV. A. I. means the five volumes of The Cxneifomt I7tscriptiom o f JVestern Asia, published by the Trustees of the British ; D. 1’. denotes “determinative prefix ;” and the leviers D.T., I?, 31,

S. and IC, refer to tablets iiiarlred accordingly in the Ihitisli

Unnumbered” texts mean tablets which lind not

been catalogued at the time when I copied them.
is unknown.

written in capitals denote ideographs whose true pronunciation




JUWE 4tB, 18Y7.

INTRODUCTORY. Difficulties of the snbject-character and age of the materisls-Modification of earlier views-Rise of Semitic culture in the court of Sargon of Accad, B.C. 3700-His conquest of Cyprus-Intercourse with EgyptEarlier culture of pre-Semitic Chaldma-Connection between Babylonian and Hebrew religion-Two periods of Babylonian influence upon the Jews-Origin of the names of Moses, Joseph, Saul, David and Solomon-Resemblances between the Babylonian and Jewish priesthood and ritual-Babylonian temples and sabbath* Human sacrifice-Unclean meats



BEL-MERODACH OF BABYLON. Cyrus a worshipper of Bel-Merodnch-View of the priesthood about his conquest-Merodach the supreme Bel or Baal of Babylon-Comparison between him and Yahveh-Babylonian religion characterised by localisation-Temple of Bel-Doctrine of the resnrrectionMerodach originally the Sun-god of Eridu-Nebo the divine prophet of Borsippa-Assur of Assyria- His origin-His resemblance to Yahveh of Israel 85


T H E GODS OF BABYLONIA. General character of Babylonian religion-Ea the Culture-god-The pre-Semitic nionunienta of Tel-loh (B.C. 4OOO)-Early trade with India-Ea as god of the sea-The pre-Semitic deities creators, the Semitic deities fathers-Two centres of Babylonian culture, Eridu qn the coast and Nipur in the north-Mul-lil, “the lord of the ghost-world,” the god of Nipur-Mul-lil the older Bel, confused with Nerodach the younger Bel-Other gods : Adw, the Moon.god, the Sun-god, &.-The Moon-god of Harran-The goddesses of Semitic Babylonia mere reflections of the niale deities-Anu, Nergal, and the Air-god-Rimmon and Hadad-Doctrine of the origin of evil-The seven wicked spirits 130





LECTURE IV. TALIXUZ AND ISTAR ; PROMETHEUS AND TOTEMISM. The descent of Istar into Hades-Tammnz-Adonis the slain Sun-godOriginally of pi’e-Semitic Eridu-The world-tree-The tree of life and the tree 0 1 knowledge-The ammirs of Istar-Istar, primitively the goddess of the earth, identified with the evening-star--In the west, as Ashtoreth, identified with the moonOf pre-Semitic origin -The orgies of Istar-~vorship-The purer side of her worship-Istar the Arteinis mitl AphroditC of the Greeks-Answers of the oracle of Istar to Esar-hatldon-The dream of Assur-bani-pal-The Semitic gods of human form, the pre-Semitic of animal form-Early Chaldzan totems-The serpent-The Babylonian Prometheus and his transformation int.0 a bird-“ The voice of the Lord”-The power of the name-Excoiiiiiiririication : the Chaldmn fate-The Plague-godThe angel of destruction seen by David 221


LECTURE V. T H E SACRED BOOBS O F CHALDBA. The Chaldrean Rig-Veda-The magical texts-The penitential psalmsThe hymns to the Sun-god of Sippara-Relative age8 of the collections-The service-books of the temples-Accadian the sacred lanp a g e of the Semitic Babylonian priesthoocl-Shamanism-Crsdual evolution of the gods-Creation of the stnte-religion and the hierarchy of the gods-Degradation of the spirits of the earlier faith-Conscionsness of sin-Views of the future state-The mountain of the world-Hades and heaven 315


LECT~R VI. E COSMOGONIES AND ASTRO-THEOLOGY. Baiiylonian cosniological systems-Tiamat, the dragon of the deep, personifies chaos and is slain by Merodach-The creation in daysAiiticipations of Darwin-Sabsisrn and Eabyloninn astronomy-The p:iest becon~esan astrologer-Late date of the systcn-Worship 1 9 rivers and niountains-Babylonian Beth-els and the ldlars of the

.............................. Arrcsms I . ........................
,, ,, , ,



, ,

11. 111. IV. V. VI.

Nr. G. Smith’s Account of the Temple of Eel The Jlagical Tests .......... H~rniis to the Gods The Fenitential Psallms Litanies to the Gods

. . . . . . 137



. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .645

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 531 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 532 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-11

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4iP

. . . . . 411




IT was with considerable diflidence that I accepted the
invitation of the Hibbert Trustees to give a courtite of‘ Lectures on the Religion of the Ancient Babylonians. The subject itself is new; the materials for treating it are still scanty and defective; and the workers in tho field have been few. The religion of the Babylonians has, it is true, already attracted the attention of “the Father of Assyriology,” Sir Henry Rawlinson, of the brilliant and gifted Franqois Lenormant, of the eminent Dutch scholar Dr. Tiele, and of Dr. Fritz Homniel, one of the ablest of the younger band of Assyrian students; but no attempt has yet been made to trace its origin stnil history in a systematic manner. The attempt, indeed, is full of difficulty. We have to build up a fabric out of broken and half-deciphered texts, out of stray allusions and obscure keferenccs, out of monuments many of which are late and still more are of uncertain age. If, therefore, my account of Babylonian religion niay

seem to you incomplete, if I am compelled at times to break off in my story or t o have recourse t o conjecture, I must crave your indulgence and ask you t o remember the difficulties of the task. To open up new ground is never an easy matter, more especially when the field of reseakh'5s vakt; and a new discovery may at any moment overthrow the theories we have formed, or give a new complexion to received facts. I may as well confess at the outset that had I known all the difficulties I was about to meet with, I should never have had the courage to face them. It was not until I was committed beyond the power of withdrawal that I began fully to realise how great they were. Unlike those who have addressed you before in this place, I have had to work upon materials at once deficient and fragmentary. Mine has not been the pleasant labour of marsPlalling well-ascertained facts in order, or of selecting and arranging masse8 of material, the very abundance of which has alone caused embarrassment. On the contrary, T have had to make most of my bricks without straw. Here and there, indeed, parts of the subject have been lighted up in a way that left little to be desired, but elsewhere I have had to struggle on in thick darkhess or at most i&dim twilight. I have felt as in a forest where the moon shone at times through opcn spaces in .the thick foliage, but served only to make the surrounding gloom still more apparent, and whe.,.s I had t o vain for a c k e that would lead me from one interval of light to another. The sources of our information about the religion of the ancient Babylonians and their kinsfolk the Assyrians are almost wholly monumental. Beyond a few stray



notiees i n the Old Testament, and certain statements found in classical authors which are for the mast, part the offspring of Greek imagination, our knowledge cont cerning it is derived from the long-buried reoords of Bineveh and Babylon. It is from the sculpturm that lined the walls of the Assyrian palaces, from the inscriptions that ran across them, or from the clay tablets that were stored within the libraries of the great cities, that we must collect our materials and deduce our theories. !Tradition is mute, or almost so; between the old Babylonian world and our own a deep gulf yawns, across which we have to build a bridge by the help of texts that explorers have disinterred and scholars have painfully deciphered But the study of these texts is one of no ordinary difficulty. They are written in characters that were once pictorial, like the hieroglyphs of Egypt, and were intended t o express the sounds of a language wholly different from that of the Semitic Babylonians and Assyrians, from whom most of our inscriptions come. The result of these two facts was two-fold. On the one hand, every character had more than one value when used phonetically t o denote a syllable; on the other hand, evesy character could be employed ideographically t o represent an object or idea. A.nd just as simple ideas could thus be represented by single characters, so compound ideas could be represented by a combination of characters. I n the language of the primitive inhabitants of Babylonia, the world beyond the grave was known as ArBli, and was imaged as a dark subterranean region where the spirits of tho dead kept watch over hoards of unnumbered gold. But the word hBli was not written phonetically, nor was it denoted by a singlo
B 2



X .

ideograph; the old Chaldean chose rather t o represent it by three separate characters which would literally
mean “the house of the land of death.” When the Babylonians or Assyrians desired that That they wrote should be read easily, they adopted devices which enabled them to overcome the cumbersome obscurity of their system of writing. A historical inscription, for example, may be read with little difficulty; it is only our ignorance of the signification of particular words which is likely to cause us trouble in deciphering its meaning. But when we come to deal with a religious text, the case is altogether different. Religion has always loved to cloak itself in mystery, and a priesthood is notoriously averse from revealing in plain language the secrets of which it believes itself‘the possessor. To the exoteric world it speaks in parables ; the people that knoweth not the law is accursed. The priesthood of Babylonia formed no exception to the general rule. As we shall see, it was a priesthood at once powerful :md highly organised, the parallel of which can hardly bo found in the ancient world. We need not wonder, therefore, if a considerable portion of the sacred texts which it has bequeathed to us were intentionally made difficult of interpretation; if the words of which they consisted were expressed by ideographs rather than written phonetically; if characters were used with strmgc and far-fetched values, and the true pronunciation of divine names was carefully hidden from the uninititttcd multitude. But these are not all the difficulties that beset us when we endeavour to penetrate into the meaning of the religious tcxts. I have already said that the cuneiform

a language.fNTBODUCTORY. of the Semitic Babylonians and Assyrians. that it was long refused credence by the leading Orientalists of Europe who had not occupied themselves with cuneiform studies. differed very markedly from those of the Semites. so fax as we can trace them from the few monuments of the Accadian epoch that remain. and their physiological features. They had been preceded by a population which in default of a better name I shall term hccadian or Proto-Chaldeau throughout these Lectures. and notably one mho has himself achieved success in Assyrian research. which resembled in its structure the languages of the modern Finns CY Turks. it is impossible to explain the origin either of the cureiform system of writing or of that system of theology the outlines of which I have undertaken to expound. Even to-day there are scholars. but the heritage. It was to the Accadians that the beginnings of Chaldean culture and civilisattion were due. and which was in no Wise related to them. They were the teachers and masters of the Semites. b qrstem of mriting was not the invention. that is to say. The Accadians spoke an agglutinative language. . not only in the matter of writing and literature. who still refuse to believe that Babylonian civilisation was originally the creation of a race which has long since f'dlen into the rear rank of human progress. The Semites of the historical period. so contrary to preconceived ideas. But unless the fact is admitted. but in other elements of cultme as well. were not the first occupants of the valleys of the Tigris and Euphrates. those subjects of Sennacherib and Nebuchadnezzar who were so closely allied in blood and language to the Hebrews. This is a fact so startling.

What makes the task one of more than ordinary difficulty is the fact that. like Latin in the Middle Ages. what. in the present state of our knowleclge. We have to determine what texts are Accadian. the dead or dying Accadian became a sacred language among the Bemitic priesthood of a later period. then. were usually written ideographically. Unfortunately. Not only was it considered necessary t o the right performance of the ritual that genuinely old Accadian texts should be recited in their original language and with a correct pronunciation. The names by which they were addressed. what are Semitic. Rere. The Accadian element in this religion is productive a f yet another difficulty.6 LECTURE I. and yet upon the right detcrmination of the question may depend also the right determination of the development of Babylonian religion. and the reading of these uames is consequently often uncertain. it is sometimes impossible to tell to which of these two classes of texts a document belongs. but new texts were composed in the extinct idiom of Accad which bore the same linguistic relation to the older ones as the Latin compositions of the mediaeval monks bear t o the works of the Latin fathers. as well as the mixture which the meeting of these elements brought about. a large proportion of the deities of the Babylonian faith had their first origin in the beliefs of the Accadian people. are due t o a syncretic admixture of the two. not phonetically. is one of the difficulties against which the student sf Babylonian religion has to contend. finally. As we shall see. however. We have t o distinguish the Accadian and the Semitic elements which enter into it. after the fashion of the Accadian scribes. Even if a .

v. 14). sidered to be corrupt. GO. 67. ErQa. 47) has made it probable that Adrammelech represents the goddess Adar-malkat. “the begetter. L i i 54. however. and when an ordinary historical inscription can be read mith almost as much facility as a page of the Old Testament. Can there be a better illustration of the difficulties which surround the student 1 Lehxuann (De Inscrbtionibus cuneatis puoe pertinelif ad Surnauam-ukin. Adrammelech. A. would be an Aramaic and not q Babylonian form. must be con. A. commonly assigned by Assyriologists to the Assyrian war-god. is an Acoadian title of Zarpdt.” who seems to be identified with or Anunit.gloss happens to inform us of the correct reading of one of these names. and S 1720. it by no means follows that we thereby know how to read its later Semitic equivalent. 19. 43).” In this case the name of Sennacherib’s son. 31). according t o the second book of Eings (xvii. Eru. Even now. when the study of Assyrian has so far advanced that the Hebrew lexicographer is able to call in its help in determining the meaning of Hebrew words. the goddess “of births” (zcUn6. the Babylonian is Eritu. which is given in K 4195. as a name of Istar. 6. but also enters into the name of more than one Assyrian king. and to correspond to the Semitic goddess ErQa. ii. The name of Adar. but in most cases they naturally gave them a different pronunciation. I . The Semites continued to represent the names of the gods by the same ideographs that had been used by their Accadian predecessors. p. I. “the handmaidon” (W. “Adar the queen. . has little else to rest upon except the fact that Adrammelech or “king Adar” was the divinity in whose* honour the men of Sepharvaim burnt their children in the fire.1 And yet the name is one which not only constantly occurs in the Assyrian inscriptions. I n W. W. if it is E Semitic word . 2. A. we are still ignorant of the true name of one of the chief Assyrian divinities.

Oh. 22. p. and characters when used as ideographs were naturally not read phonetically. o derivative from gib. it is clear that namratsit is merely personified difficulty. and there are grounds for thinking that Mr. 23. This would be merely the phonetic reading of the three ideographs which compose the name. and can have no connection with a male Fire-god. 21. is almost equally certain. Arch. " difficult. Soc. as well as of the extent to which lic is deserted by classical tradition ? As with the name vhich we provisionally read Adar. being the feminine of the common adjective namratsu. But from 8 949. 3. 2. therefore. George Smith was right in seeing in him the prototype of the Biblical Nimrod.1 I ham not yet finished my enumeration of the difficulties and obstacles that meet the inquirer into the nature and history of Babylonian religion on the very threshold of his researches. iv. is the goddess of difficulty. Nevertheless. of Babylonian religion. " difficult. the only certain fact about his name is that it ended in the sound of r. so also is it with the name which we provisionally read Gisdhubar." The Accadian divinity. 87. the Accadian fmm of gig. where the Semitic Xarnratsit answers to the name of an Accadian divinity which niay be read Gi-isdu-par-ra or Gis-du-par-ra. Her name should probably be read Gi-ib-bir-ra. The worst has still to be mentioned. 6.' . 26. Bib. 1866. That it mas not Gisdhubar or Izdubar. and a proof of its correspond- cncc with the Semitic Nimrod. where the Sun-god is called biz namratsit. Gisdhubar was the hero of the great Chaldean cpic.. i n W. 119) believes that he ?ins found the true reading of the name. With the exception of the historical inscriptions which adorned the sculptured slabs of the Assyrian 1 Hoinmel (Proc. however.8 LECTURE I. he had been the fire-god of the Accadians before he became the solar hero of Semitic legend. Ap. I. into the eleventh book of which was woven the story of the Deluge. A.

But apart from the records of “ the banking firm” of the Egibi family. I. our documentary materials consist entirely of clay tablets covered with minute characters. the result being the disintegration of the clay in the course of centuries. which occupied one of the upper rooms in the palace of Assur-bani-pal at Kouyunjik. In the more southern climate of Babylonia. while at other times the whole brick has been Bhihivered into atoms. and the fear of fracture prevented the tablets from being of a great size. 2 For the papyrus. or ‘‘observatory. tho angles of a royal building. the tablets were baked in the kiln after b e h g inscribed . A. which carried on its business from the t. under the name of QIB-LI-KIXO-~I.INTRODUCTORY.2 The library W. the tablets were generally dried in the sun.” The bit namari. for this purpose holes were made in the clay to allow the escape of superfluous moisture. ii.l and its walls were lined with shelves. The main bulk of our collection comes from the great library of Nineveh. frequently mentioned in the colophons of b u r bani-pal’s tablets. on which were laid the clay books of Assyria or the rolls of papyrus which have long since perished. we pyssess as yet comparatively fern of the tablets that once stocked the libraries of Babylonia and must still be lying buried beneath the ground.” on the contrary. his lord.ime of Nebuchadnezzar and his predecessors to that of Darius Hystaspis. was I544 cubits. we are told. whose confitruction and dimensions are described in an interesting but unfortunately mutilated tent (S 1894). the surface of the brick being sometimes reduced to powder. was the “tower” of the temple of Istar. Its breadth. It stood within the precincts of tho temple of Nebo. 27 : “ I placed (the old tablets and papyri) in the inner chamber of the temple of Nebo. In Assyria. 9 palaces or were inscribed on clay cylinders buried at. 1% hich ie in Nineveh. 36. or ‘‘gram of guicb * - .

716) to the 22nd year of Sennacherib (B. like the L L proverbs of Solomon which the men of Hezekiah. literally “leaf. 3. 2 Nebo-zuqub-yukin.schung. 1 Prov. the son of Esar-haddon. does not seem to have quitted Calah. A. He was the first. 208. But Assur-bani-pal. and diligently copied by numerous scribes. Assyrian monarch who really cared for literature and learning. 11. I.” see my remarks in the ZeitscJwift fur h‘eilschriftfool. xxv. 684). Another ideographic name was GIS-ZU.of which the Assyrian luvu is another form. who was chief librarian from the 6th year of Sargon (E. iii. 1. the first work written under his direction had been a copy of a text of the standard work on astrology.2 but the larger portion of the collection was got together by Assur-bani-pal. copied out. and the Sardanapallos of the Greeks.IO LEOTURE L consisted for the most part of copies or editions of older works that had been brought from Babylonia. ii. So far as we know. ‘‘ The Illumination of Bel. and the Babylonian cities had been taken by storm. Rev. the Hebrew luald~. 36. 7. it was only from imitation of their more cultivated neighbours in Babylonia. with all his luxury and love of display-or perhaps by reason of it-was a genuine lover of books.”l The library had been transferred from Calah by Sennacherib towards the latter part of his reign. ii. His predecessors had been men of war. if they established librarics.C. When rebellion had been quelled in Babylonia. and a desire to remain on good terms with the powerful classes of scribes and priests. indeed me may say the only.C. the spoil that was most acceptable to the Assyrian king were the written volumes that their libraries contained. GIS-LI-KHU-61 was pronounced liz~ or Zivu in Assyrian. ing. .” which had been brought from Babylon to the library at Galah. The Assyrian name was u m . king of Judah.” R 2. 11).“ vegetable of knowledge” (W.

or to the special studies of its royal masters. it was only where the interest of the story extended beyond the frontiers of Babylonia. or for the myths and legends which enveloped the childhood of the Babylonian cities and contained no reference to things Assyrian . Even before Assur-bani-pal died.No present could be sent him which he valued mom thau some old text from Erech or Or or Babylon. that mere most sought after. or if. or where the religious texts n the ritual of tho Assyrian priesthood. to all comers. the mighty empire he had inherited was tottering to its fall. or if a legend was as popular in Assyria as it had been in Babylonia. hence. Babylonia was olamoixring for indepen- . But the literary age of Assyria was short-lived. and there re-edited by the Assyrian scribes. held a place i that it was thought worth while t o transport them to a northern home. and Assur-bani-pal did his utmost to attract ‘‘readers” t o the ‘‘inspection” and study of the books it contained. If the theology was Assyrian as well as Babylonian. a branch of study had a special attraction for Assyrian readers. too. the works embodying these subjects wcre transferred t o the library of Nineveh. The Assyrian cared little for the annalistic records of the Babylonian kings. while other sides are not represented at all . Hence it is that certain sides of the old theology are represented so fully in Assyrian literature. Egypt had been lost to it for ever. it is that the drawers of the British Museum are filled with tablets on the pseudo-science of omens which have littlo save a philological importance attaching to them. But naturally it was the works which related to Assyria. finally. it would seem. The library was open.

the tablet which was copied had been injured. until Sir A. or intended to deposit in it more than a portion of the ancient literature of Babylonia. I n the first place. Then. and was thus no longer legible throughout. and the words ‘‘ lacuna” or ‘ I recent fracture’) appear upon the tablet. dence. There they lay for more than two thousand years. and the scmi-barbarous nations of the north and east were threatening its borders. and its clay books fell in shattered confusion among the ruins below. Nineveh was taken by its enemies. however. From time t o time the text is broken off. Such indications. Hormuzd Rassam. Ere the century closed. Layard discovored the old library and revealed its contents to the world of to-day. Its founders never aimed at completeness. and the greater portion of Assur-bani-pal’s library is now in the British Museum. and its palaces sacked and destroyed. was not perfect. further. even this literature was not always copied in full.12 LECTURE f . H. The library of Kouyunjik shared in the common overthrow. covered by the friendly dust of decaying bricks. of tho faultiness of the editio princeps are a good proof that the Assyrian scribes did their best to . But the sketch I have given of its history is sufficient to show how hard such a task must necessarily be. Its papyri and leathern scrolls were burned with fire. The original text. the library of Nineveh was only one of the many libraries which once existed in the cities of Assyria and Babylonia. His excavations have been followed by those of Mr. It is out of its age-worn fragments that the story I have to tell in this course of Lectures has been mainly put together. it is clear. George Smith and Mr.

of a text has been preserved. broken and scattered in wild confusion when the city was destroyed. Where we have only fragments of a text. still remains to be told. The larger proportion of the texts we have to use are imperfwt. we come across a text which would seem to throw an important light on some department of Assyrian thought and life if only we had the clue to its meaning. not unfrequently a minute fragment. therefore. This fragmentary character of our documents. and that if they fdikd to do so it was through no fault of their own. as was the case in the latter country. Education was not in the hands of a single class. But they did fail sometimes. is not only tantalising to the student. The most serious result. in fact. The Babylonian forms of the cuneiform characters are often hard to read. but the text is broken just where that clue would have been found. it is not impossible that we may wholly misconceive their relation and meaning.reproduce it with accuracy. however. most Babylonians could read and write. Hence it is that the Assyrian copyist sometimes mistook a Babylonian character. but it may be tho cause of serious error. In other cases. which have been pieced together by the patient labour of the Assyrian scholars in the British Museum. and represented it by a wrong equivalent. and so build theories upon them which the discovery of the missing portions ' . of the fact that the library of Ninoveh mainly consisted of terra-cotta tablets. only a fragment. Many of them are made up of small fragments. Often. and there was no standard official script in Babylonia such as there was in Assyria. and consequently the forms of handwriting found upon their monuments are almost as numerous as in the modern world.

it must be remembered that the fragmentary condition of our texts makes the work of the decipherer much harder than it would otherwise be. there would be a better chance of our discovering the relative antiquity of the documents they may still con- . This is especially the case in the province of religion and mythology. however. Moreover. indeed. all interpretation must necessarily be uncertain. but we look in vain for any indication of date. the student of Babylonian religion must therefore be forgiven if the n which his materials have reached him should condition i at times lead him astray. If. me could explore the Babylonian libraries themselves. A new word or an obscure phrase is often made perfectly intelligible by the context . And yet an approsimatcly accurate chronology is absolutely indispensable for a history of religion and religious ideas. how then are we t o determine the relative ages of the rarious religious or niythological documents which are embodied in them ? It is true that we are generally told to what library of Babylonia the original text belonged. that would not be felt except by the student of Babylonian religion. the context of which must be supplied from conjecture.of the tablet would oi.erthrow. Fhere is yet another difficulty connected with our needful dependence upon the broken tablets of Assurbani-pal’s library-a difficulty. We know from experience what strange interpretations have been imposed upon passages of the Bible that have been torn from their context. but where this fails us. where it is so easy to put a false construction upon isolated passages. if not impossible. None of the tablets that are derived from it are older than the eighth century before our era.

There is only one way of meeting it. So far. 15 bin. If. I fear. It is useless to form theories which may be overthrown at any moment. and had tried to see what could be fairly deduced from the texts themselves. It was not until I had begun to test the theories hitherto put forward regarding the development of Babylonian religion. I f the picture had no other side. let it be borne in mind that the fault lies not in me but in the want of adequate materials.INTRODUCITORY. if there were little or nothing to counterbalance . by noting every indication of date. But at'present this is impossible. therefore.'that I realised how formidable it actually was. and except in a few instances we have to be omtent with the copies of the older documents which were made by the Assyrian scribes. and which fail to explain all the known facts. and calling in the help of what we have recently learnt about Babylonian history-above all. or than I should have done myself a few years ago. by following the method of nature and science in working from the known to the unknown-that it is possible to arrive at any conclusions at all. I am bound to confess that the difficulty is a very formidable one. I have done little else than lay before you a dreary catalogue of the difficulties and obstacles that meet the historian of Babylonian religion at the very outset of his inquiry. I shall seem in the course of these Lectures to speak less positively about the early development of Babylonian theology than my predecessors in t h s same field have done. whether linguistic or otherwise. by comparing our materials one with another. It is only by a process of careful and cautious induction. which a test may offer.

this is not the case.than this. and that we must be content to leave the subject where it was left by Sir H. but the initiated were provided with keys and glosses. the difficulties. Mutilated and broken as they are. have given us a clue to the interpretation of these documents which . more . Nay. we still have texts sufficient t o enable us at all events to sketch the outlines of Babylonian'theology-nay. therefore. they drew up lists of the deities and their various titles. We can penetrate into the real meaning of doeuments which to him were a sealed book. we are better off than the ordinary Babylonian himself would haw been. from time to time to fill them in as well. In some respects. The Babylonians were not content with merely editing their ritual and religious hymns or their myths about the gods and heroes .16 LECTURE 1. and the numes given by neighbouring nations to divinities which they identified with their omn are at times recorded. they dcscribed the temp2es in which their images were placed. The researches that have been made during the last half-century into the creeds and beliefs of the nations of the world both past and present. Rawlinson nearly thirty years ago. It is true that many of the sacred texts were so written as to be intelligible only to the initiated . we might as well admit that tho t h e €tn* investigating the theological conceptions of the ancient Babylonians and Assyrians had not yet come. they also compiled commentaries and explanatory text-books which gave philological and other information about the older religious literature . many of which are in our hands. and the relation of the different members of the divine hierarchy one to another. however. They even showed an interest in the gods of other countries. Fortunately.

the hero of their great epic. Until very lately. This last is the most serious difficulty of all. and can discover in him the lineaments of a soiar hero who was himself but the transformed descendant of a humbler god of fire. We. his two chief difficulties still remain : the fragmentary character of his materials and his ignorance of the true chronology of the larger portion of them. of the aids that have been provided for the modern student among the relics of the great library of Xineveh. that our conclusions on the development of Babylonian religion must be completely modified. To them. which the Babylonian? knew of only in their later form and under their traditional guise. of beliefs and myths. can penetrate beneath the myths which have grown up around his name. In spite. At the risk. was but a champion and conqueror of old time. and have so revohtionised the views into which we had comfortably settled down. Assyrian scholars had fancied that the rise and early history of Babylonia could be already . whose deeds were performed on the soil of Babylonia. since recent discoveries have so edsrged our ideas of the antiquity of Babylonian civilisation. Gisdhubar. however.LT . We can guess at the origin and primary meaning of rites and ceremonies. and of seeming to wander from tho subject upon which I have been called to speak. of making this k s t Lecture a dull and uninteresting one. and whose history was as real as that of the sovereigns of their own day.INTRODUCTORY* 17 even the initiated priests did not possess. therefore. I must enter into some details as to the early history of the population ainong whom the religious system revealed to us by the cuneiform inscriptions first originated and developed. on the contrary.

sild founded a dynasty whose ruie lasted for .C. and before long the Accadittn language itself became estinct. and the southern Sumer or Shinar. was soon brought about through the conquest of Babylonia boy I<hnmmuragas. About three thousand years before our era. and his son Naram-Sin. He made Babylon f o r the first time the capital d the country. where they founded an important library. though closely allied.” the modern Mugheir. traced in its main outlines. the northern called Accad. By combining the statements of classical authors with the data furnished by such early monuments as we possessed. About 2000 B. The whole country was at this period under the domination of the Accadians. Nom and again. the two provinces were independent of one another. The rise of Semitic supremacy was marlied by the reigns of Sargon I. dialects were spoken. The overthrow of Sargon’s dynasty. and from whence they led military espeditions as far westward as the Nediterranean Sea. the capital of which was “ Ur of the Chaldees. on the western side of the Euphrates. It was divided into two provinces. the smaller states which occupied the fertile plain of Babylonia were united into a single monarchy. remaining only as the sacred and learned language of religion and lam. who established their seat at Accad. the Accadian was gradually superseded by the Semite.. a consistent scheme seemed to have been made out. however. it was supposed. and there were even times when the smaller states comprised in them successftilly re-asserted their former freedom. though the Semitic nomad and trader were already beginning to make their appearance. in which two separate.18 LECTUCE I. near Sippara. a Kosstean from the mountains of Elam. however.

The Semites brought with them new theological conceptions. By degrees. these earlier conceptions became modified . 1 powerful priesthood. This process of religious development was assisted by the Semitic occupation of Babylonia. too. The old magical incantations. though it was afterwards adopted and transformed by their Semitic successors. all other deities being resolvable into phases or attributes of the supreme Baal. At his side stood his female double and reflection. was the supreme object of worship. gave way to hymns in honour of the new gods. Before the Kossem conquest. magical incantations the place of a ritual. matched over and directed by . however. It was originally Shamanistic. a priesthood began to establish itself. With them the Sun-god. and innumerable spirits the place of gods. like the native religions of the Siberians or Lapps. which continued more or less unaltered down to the days of Kebuchadnexzar and his successors. Tbe union of these Semitic religious conceptions with the developing creed of Accad produced a state-religion. The sorcerer took the place of the priest. and were accounted equally sacred. the Babylonian system of religion was already complete. It was this etateereligion that was carried by the Semitic Assyrians c2 . 19 seveYa1 centuries. who was found again under various names and titles at the side of every other deity. among whom the Sun-god was speciallyprominent. and as a necessary consequence some of the elemental spirits were raised to the rank of deities.INTBODUCTORY. the goddess of fertility. in his two-fold aspect of benefactor and destroyer. and these hymns came in time to form a collection similar to that of the Hindu Rig-Veda. It emanated from the primitive Accadian population.

are. since they embody monumental facts. as one of those provisional theories which science is constantly compelled to put forward in order to co-ordinate and combine the facts known at the time. as well as the general theory by which the inferences have been compacted together into R consistent whole. into their home on the banks of the Tigris. The scheme. other portions are destitute of any other foundation than the combinatory powers of modern scholars. where it underwent one or two modifications. of the whole theory. But the inferences which have been drawn from the facts presented by these cuneiform documents. have been derived from Greek and Latin writers. The dates which form the skeleton. Such has been the fate of the theory . therefore. as it were. in all essential respects. While certain portions of the scheme have been definitely acquired by science. Now there is much in this neat and self-consistent account of Babylonian religion which rests on the authority of the cuneiform documents. however. may be overthrown by the discovery of . Owing to the fragmentary nature a i the evidence. and about which therefore there is no room for dispute. must be regarded as a mere working hypothesis. I t not unfrequentlp happens that a hypothesis which has served its purpose well enough by directing yesearch into a particular channel. and which after all is patially correct.30 LECTURE I . but which must givc may to other hypotheses as new facts are diecovered which do not harmonise with the older explanations. it has been necessary to supplement the deficiencies of the record by assumptions for which there is no documentary testimony whatever. inferences and theory only. it must be remembered. I single new fact. remaining unchanged.

lived 3200 years before his own time. Nabonidos continued tho search. This ‘( foundation-stone. it was assumed. a king who vas curious about the past history of his country.C. had antiquarian tastes.” he tells us. RS 21 to the development of Babylonian religion which I have been describing above. The single fact which has shaken it to its very foundations is the discovery of the date t o which the reign of Sargon of Accad must be assigned. of Nabonidos. and attempts had been already made to find the records which. We are nom accustomed t o contemplate with equanimity the long chronology whick . The last king of of Babylonia. had becn originally erected by Naram-Sin the son of Sargon. wherc the mounds of Abu-Habba now mark its remhins. I n the opinion. accordingly. conceived ideas regarding the antiquity of the Babylonian monarchy. and busied himself not only with the restoration of the old temples of his country. had been seen by none o f his predecessors for 3200 years. he had entoinbed under its angles. and whose royal position gave him the best possible opportunities for learning all that could be known about it.RYlrBODUCCORT. or 3750 B. Naram-Sin and his father Sargon I. It mas ltnowii that the great temple of the Sun-god at Sippara. but also with the disinterment of the memorial cylinders which their builders and restorers had buried beneath their foundations. The date is so remote and so contrary to all our pro. Nabonidos. With true antiquarian zeal. like the Dean and Chapter of some modern cathedral. and did not desist until. that I may be excused if at first I oxpressed doubts as t o its accuracy. he had lighted upon u the foundation-stone” of Naram-Sin hiniself.

but we had also been accustomed to regard the history of Babylonia as beginning at the earliest in the third millennium before our era. with his usual quickness of perception. and who seems to have flourished in the time of Nabonidos. Pinches was fortunate enough t o find among some other inscriptions from Babylonia fragments of three different lists. who. George Smith. I was. We can check the accuracy of his statements in a somewhat curious way. Soon afterwards.22 LECTURE 1 . drew the materials of his chronology. Hapgily this is not the case with the principal text published by Mr. Pinches six years ago. in one of which the kings of Babylonia were arranged in dynasties. however. the Greek historian of Cbaldea. the monuments demand for the history of Pharaonic Egypt. Mr. The cylinder on which Nabonidos recounts his discovery of the foundation-stone of NaramSin was brought from the excavations of Mr. An Assyrian copy of a similar list had been already discovered by Mr. One of the two other texts brought . who consequently began with the first dynasty which made Babylon the capital of the kingdom. as well as the number of years the several dynasties lasted. It had been compiled by a native of Babylon. Hormuzd Rassam in Babylonia. and the number of years each king reigned was stated. and a starveling chronology seemed to be confirmed by the statements of Greek writers. and explained by Mr. but the copy was so mere a fragment that the chronological position of the kings mentioned upon it was a matter of dispute. Assyrian scholars had inherited the chronological prejudices of a formcr generation. saw that it must have resembled the lists from which BGrdssos. Pinches. soon forced to re-consider the reasons of my scepticism.

331 reached back for 1903 years (i.C. dynasty by dynasty. there is no reason why we should not consider the belief to have been justified. I f the Latin translation can be trusted (Simyliciutr.C. and when we remember the imperishable character of the clay literature of the country. 2290). whose reign is placed 112. years later (B. Among the monarchs mentioned upon it is Khammuragas. more than four thousand years ago. the astronomical observations sent by Kallisthenes from Dabylon to Aristotle in B.1 Of Sargon 1 As the reign of Khammuragas lasted 55 years. 2234).C. nevertheless. to B. the scribes of a later day believed that they had trustworthy chronological evidence extending back into a dim antiquity .C. 23 to light by Mr. who were changcd every year and gave their names to the year over which they presided. Pinches is a schoolboy?sexercise copy of the first two dynasties mentioned on the annalistic tablet. vhich show that the schoolboy or his master must have used some other list of the early kings than that which was employed by the compiler of the tablet. .INTRODUCTORY. and the fact that the British Museum actually contains deeds and other legal documents datcd in the reign of Khammuragas. but since most Assyrian institutions were of Babylonian origin. with one exception.C. 503 A).e. it is probable that they were. to about the year 2400 B. de Cab. agree exactly in each. There are certain variations between the two texts. an accurate chronology mas kept by means of certain officers. however. the so-called Eponyms. 2235. Now the annalistic tablet takes us back reign by reign. At all events. ad Arid. In Assyria. We have at present no positive proof that the years mere dated in the same way in Babylonia. the names and the regnal years. This curiously agrees with the date arrived at (first by von Gutschmidt) for the beginning of the Cabylonian em. its end would have been about B.

there is no trace. I n the dynasties of the annalistic tablet their names are as much absent as is the name of Sargon. The correspondence of the reign of the GBlos of kttsias with tho reign of I<hamniuragas is at least curious. v. They are rather the isolated links of a broken chain. stated that these observations began at Babylon 490 years before the Greek era of Phorbneus (B. according t o Stephanos of Cyzaiitium (s. 1229). B. while KtBsias (ap. on which are stamped the names and titles of kings who erected or repaired the temples where they have been found.). also coming from Babylonia and also first published by Mr. however. Georg. On the shelves of the British Museum you may sec huge sun-dried bricks. Though the document is imperfect - I%$ssos.C. though Epigenes made it 720 years (B. the flood of Noah was covcring the earth. \vas built 1002 years before the date (given by Hellanikos) for the siege of Troy (R. They must have belonged to an earlier period than that with which the list of thc tablet begins. which would bring us to C. 2753).2243. 2266 to 2331. But the kings who have recorded their constructive operations on the bricks arc seldom connected with one another. according to Pliny (N. But this is not all.e. not chronologically arranged. and reducing such bricks as these to their primaeval slime. as is expressly stated. Synk. and his xon Naram-Sin.) made thc reign of Belos. 2473).C. i.C. Babylon. Pinches.C. and thus presuppose a long period of time during which their reigns must have fallen.C. This conclusion is verified by anothcr document. This document contains a very long catalogue of royal names. last for 55 years from B.24 LECTURE I. H. but drawn up for a philological purpose -that of esplaining in Assyrian the Accadian and Kossaean names of the non-Semitic rulers of Babylonia. and have reigned hefore the time when. . 2231. according t o the margins of our Bibles.C. or Bel-Merodach of Babylon. v i i 57).

I n the dynastic tablet the immediate predecessor of Khammuragas is a Seinite bearing the Semitic name of Sin-muballidh. 25 it embodies about sixty names which do not occur on the annalistic tablet. is a conclusion from which the historian will needs recoil. Now it was a dynasty sprung from a Semitic settlement that acquired the supremacy in Babylonia . and may therefore be regarded as marking an Accadian revival. at other times the ruler of a city which still held out against the Semite succeeded in establishing his power over the whole country. This. then. Before the age of Khammuragas the same event may have often happened. are not of Semitic but of Accadian origin. and yet we learn from the inscriptions of Khammuragas himself that be had msde himself master of Chaldea by the overthrow .IN'~ODUCT0RY. the Accadian domination preceded the rule of the Semitic Babylonians. like the majority of those stamped on the bricks from the ancient tcmples. Sargon and. If. and must therefore be referred t o an earlier epoch than that with which the latter begins. But these names. however. the long array of sovereigns to whom they belonged must have reigned before the age of the Semitic rulers of Accad. The struggle between the older and younger population of the country was not determined by a single battle or a singlc reign. We seem compelled to acknowledge that the Semitic rule in Babylonia was not achieved once for all. Thc dynasty which followed that of Khammuragas bears for the most part Accadian names.Naram-Sin. The long space of 1800 years which intervened between thc time of Sargon and that of the dynasty of Khammuragas cannot have been wholly filled with Semitic princes who have left no monument behind them.

26 LECITRE I. The river carried me along. of an unknown 1 Sargon may be the Thilgamos of Blian. Sargon himself was a monarch whom both Accadian and Semite delighted to honour. conceived me . transmitted in R Persian dress. the princess. the mighty Iring. is RS follows : 1. Myths surrounded his infancy as they surroundcd the infancy of Kyros. Akki the irrigator in the goodness of (his) heart lifted me up. The text giving the legend of Sargon. with bitnmcn my exit (gate) she closed . whatever might have been the original character of the Semitio occupation of Babylonia. 3. 6. and the founder of a new dynasty. from the time of Sargon I. it was said. and from tho mixture sprang the peculiar civilisation of Babylonia. as published in W. 15) with B2letarQs (2 Tiglath-Pileser). 8. downwards it was of a more or less peaceable nature. (my) mother. and popular legend saw in him the hero-prince mho had been deserhed in childhood and brought up among squalid surroundings. I n the Epic of Gisdhubar the name of the gardener wooed by Istar is given as Isnllanu the gardener of Bnu. of the Accadian prince Rim-Agu. -4ceadians and Semites mingled together. she gave me to the river. Aliki the irrigator rearcd me as (his own) son .A. and the legend about him is evidently that connected by Agathias (ii. Moreover.I.7. to Aklri the irrigator it brought me. 4. . in a secret place she brought me forth . (In) the city of Azupiranu. the king of Aecad (am) I. My mother (mas) a princess. which drowned me not. iii. 2. which is built on the bank of the Euphrates. who is stated to have been the gardener of the former Iring. 4. and the peculiar type of its people. my father I knew not. she placed me in a basket of reeds. until the time came that he should declare himself in his true character and receive his rightful inheritance.l He was born. 25. 7. 5. " Sargon. 9. B6lokhos or Eeleous. the brother of my father dwells in the mountain.

15. so some god whom later tradition feared to name had wooed the mother of the founder of the first Semitic empire. 17. 14. (when) the fortress of the goddess of Hades shall bow . I (organised). (and in) my gardenership did Istar love me. When the king who comes after me in future (days) 31. 12. of Romulus and Remus exposed to the fury of the Tiber. She brought forth her first-born “ i n a secret place” by the side of the Euphrates. 20. . I (governed) the upper mountains . I n this lowly condition and among a subjugated race Akki the irrigator made me his gardener.ti-saZ-Zut (4) seems to mean “the sea-coast” of the Mediterranean. (shall ride) over the rugged mountains in chariots (of bronze). Dilmun sub(mitted) . from my city of Accad. . 18. an+ ther Accadian name of the same country (W. 10. Ti. (shall causc Dilmun t o submit) . A. 19). . I destroyed . For 45 (1) years I ruled the kingdom. and still more of Moses in his ark of bulrushes upon the Nile. 81. The Euphrates refused t o drown its future lord. The story reminds us of Perseus launched upon the sea with his mother Dana& in a boat. . and bore the child in safety to Akki ‘(the irrigator. and placed him in a basket of rushes vhich she daubed with bitumen and entrusted to the waters of the river. I (ruled) the rulers of the lower mountains. as 3fars had wooed the mother of the founder of Rome. shall govern the upper mountains (and rule) the k i n g 24. The fortress of the goddess of Hades (Dur-AN-Rigal) bowed. 13.” the representative of the Accadian peasants who tilled the land for their Semitic masters.. 23. as well as Dlii-clhi. 26. 19. 16.” . The men of the black-headed race I governed. ii. . . 22. To the sea-coast (1) three times did I advance . (to) the sea-coast (4) 25. Over rugged mountains in chariots of bronze I rode. shall advance three times ... ep. 11. I. (shall govern) the men of the black-headed racc . of the lower mountains.father . the Accadian name of Phenicia. Tit-num..

Then came the hour of his deliverance from servile employment. This was Sarganu. SOC. a word that conveyed the meaning of ( L constituted” or L i predestined’’ rcking’7 to his Accadian subjects. was not the cnly name by which the king was known t o them.” -__ -__Upon the inscription of “ Sar-ga-ni.28 LECTURE I. Sarganu has thc same origin as tlie Biblical Serug. where (with the carlier Smnerinn pronunciation tal-tal or tatul) it is a title of Ea as the god of w i s h u . tlie Icing of the city. W. and crossed the Persian Gulf to the sacred islc of Dilmun. 40 and 32. he made his may to a throne.l Sargina. the king of Accad. 48. A. and.” sec Pinches.” though its true signification was rather “ the very wise. however. a title which the Semitic scribcs afterwards explained to mean “Sargon. ’ (( . Sargon was brought up. who was addressed as ablu kinu or “ only son. p 244. deviser of constituted lam. deviser of prosperity. It was the form assumed in their mouths by the Semitic Xurru-hinu. the youthful bridegroom of Istar. Proc. like David. he rodc through subjugated countries in chariots of bronze.’’ as well as of Nebo ‘(the very son” ( a 6 h hinu) of the god Merodach. and thus reminded them of the Sun-god Tainmuz. For long years he ruled the black-headed race of Accad . Sargon was not his real title. The very name the people gave him mas a proof of his predestined rise to greatness. which a slight change of pronunciation altered into Sargina. and while engaged in this humblc work attracted the love of thc goddess Istar. Akki took compassion on the little waif.Bib. I ii. and reared him as if he had been his own son. JLUN 16SG. As he grew older he was set to till the garden and cultivate the fruit-trees. They cnlled him also DddiZ or Dddul. the king of constituted right (sur-kinti). Arch.

W. as it enshrouded the persons of Eyros. 52. Soc.INTRODUCTORY. the title was ideographically expressed b y repeating the character for “king. Arclt. iii.” One of the earliest of the monarchs whose names are found at Tel-loh is called Taltal-kur-galla. 1 (1874). and we learn that it was for the great library which he establisined in his capital city of Accad that t*hetwo standard Babylonian works on astronomy and terrestrial omens were originally compiled.” Namar-Bili. the original When applied to Sargon. Le Clercq of Paris. iii. and of other heroes of popular history. it was remembered that the god Bel himself was its traditional author. and though supplemented by numerous additions i n its passage through the hands of generations of Babylonian astronomers. and the seal of his librarian Ibni-sarru is in the hands of 116. of Charlemagne.”l and consisted of no less than seventy-two books. The British Museum actually possesses an inscribed egg of veined marble which he dedicated to the Sun-god of Sippara. Later copyists niistook the title for a proper name. A.however. What may be termed the scientific literature of the library of Nineveh makes frequent reference to him. 29 But in spite of the atmosphere of myth which came to enshroud ‘him. Sargon was a historical monarch and the founder of a really great empire. dealing with such matters as the conjunction of the sun and moon. “the wise one of tho great mountain.” in the Tr. 27). and the work is sometimes quoted as simply (‘Eel” (e.” in order to denote that he was ‘‘ the king indeed. and the appearances of comets. It mas translated in later days into Greek by the historian BGr6ssos. Bib. and accordingly referred the compilation of the work to a certain Namar-Bili.” 3 Or perhaps “ The Illumination of Bel (Mul-lil). . the phases of Venus. I. See my paper on “The Astronomy and Astrology of the Babylonians. The work on astronomy was entitled ( LThe Observations of Bel. U p to the time of BQr6ssos.g.

4 L he had neither equal nor rival.30 LECTURE I. we also know something about the civil history of his reign. From this time forward his attcntion was chiefly devoted to the West. Here on the shores of Cyprus the great conqueror erected images of himself. Next he turned to the ‘West. where he ovcrthrew the enemy and mutilated their slain. Its trustworthiness. has been curiously verified by a discovery wade by General de Cesnola in the treasure-vaults of a Kyprian temple . Tve are told. ” he crossed the Mediterranean t o the island we now call Cyprus. A copy of its annals has come down to us. strate the antiquity of Babylonian astronomy even in the remote age of Sargon himself. But besides our knowledge of Sargon’s patronage of learning. laying his yoke on Syria. at ’ ~the bounds of the setting sun. Such a glimpse into the history of what became afterwards a Grecian sea. Year aftcr year he penetrated into Syria. when as yet no Greeks had made their way to their later home. and subjugating “ the four quarters” of the world. We gather from these that he was not only successful in overthroming all opposition at home. work contained so many records of cclipses as to demon. His first campaign was against the powerful kingdom of EIaT in the East. and out of the spoil of the vanquished he built the city of Accad and gave it its name. is startling to those whose conceptions of authentic history have becn limited by the narrow horizon of the classical world. and “ i n the third ~ c a r . his hands conquered all peoples and his mouth dccrccd a single empire. howevcr. until at last. Then the rival kings of Babylon and other Chaldaean cities felt his powcr. he was also equally successful abroad. and then carried thc booty of the island to the opposite coast of Asia.

however. or the Sinaitic Peninsula. 64. or “papyrus. I. had been a prize coveted by the Egyptians over since the age of the Third Dynasty. and one of the first efforts of the rising rival power on the banks of the Euphrates was t o gain possession of the same country. Oppert.Arch. ‘ I marched to the land of Magina . was probably used from the first in an extended sense. B i b . which is constantly associated with Magan. &ph.2 The earliest Chaldmtn monuments See my paper in the Trans. Lonormant and myself have long since shown that Magan originally denoted the Sinaitic peninsula. v . A. The early date to which a knowledge of the plant went back is evidenced 1 .among the ruins of the anoient Kurion. the land of Maglina he conquered.” The land of Magdna was already known to the inhabitants of Babylonia. and overcame its king.he imperial power of Babylonia. 32. than upon further campaigns in the West. with its mines of turquoise and copper. while Mclukhkha is used for Ethiopia or Meroe by Sargon and his siiccessors. and it is not likely that he would have received divine honours nftcr the fall of the dynasty to which he belonged. 65) describes the ikpatu. was more bent on the conquest of MagLna. Assur-bani-pal transfers the name of Magan to the neighbouring land of lower Egypt. Itowever. Naram-Sin. he found one the first owner of which describes himself 4 worshipper” of l L the deified Naramas a ti servant” or ‘ Sin.” Heb. The name of Magan.”l Naram-Sin was the son and successor of Sargon. The fact that the cylinder was discovered in Cyprus seems to show that even after Sargon’s death a connection continued to exist between Cyprus and t. v. and Delattre has recently made it clear (L’A&e occidenlale) that Melukhkha. since s list of reeds (IT. Here. was the desert district ininiediately t o the south of the Wiidiel-’Arish. so runs the annalistic tablet. Naram-Sin. SOC. among other hamatite cylinders of early Babylonian origin. 2 (1877). Sinai. as the reed of Magan” (Makkan i n Assyrian).

Magan and Nelnkhkha are associated with the Eabylonian seaport of Eridu. A. I. before the time of Sargon and the rise of Semitic supremacy and civilisation. ii.” It is possible that the name of Magan or M a g h a is derived from mcdkct. M. Indeed. Some o f them go back almost to the very beginnings of Chaldaean art and cuneiform writing. ‘ I the floivering reed” (borrowed by Semitic Babylonian under the form of Z r i h ) . 51. ii. the vriting is hardly yet cuneiform. A. there is not a particle of evidence. iv. which throws light on “ t h e ships” of Rlagan and MelukhkCa mentioned in W. Ilu’om an inscription traced upon ono of the figures tells us that the stone xas brought from the land of Magan. gin‘. immediately after I‘ the ships of Dilmnn. and the wrtical direction they originally followed. the pcninsula of Sinai was not only known to tho by its having an Accadian name. iv. 17. and are now deposited in the Louvre. and in W.” Magan is described as “ the country of bronze. I.” The trading ships of Eridu would have touched first a t Dilmun. a stone so hard that even the modern workman may well despair of chiselling it into the lineaments of the human form. That Magan or NagPna was a mountainous country appears from a bilingual hymn to Adar. 1 4 ) . 38. which mentions ( I the mountain of Mag&na” (W. is still preserved. such as some scholars have dreamed of. . I. like Chinese. For a B a % p loniaii country or mountain (!) of &lagan.33 T~ECTURE r. The language and art alike are ProtoChaldtean: there is as yet no sign that the Semite was in the land. 46. de Sarzec. Already. yet discovered are those which have been excavated at “el-loh in southern Chaldaea by a Frenchman. 7. 13. while Xelukhkha is described as L‘tl~e country of turquoise. which signifies in old Egyptian I‘ the turquoise” of the Sinaitic mines. and finally at Xeluklikhn. then at Magan. therefore. I. A. the primitive pictorial forms of many of the characters are but thinly disguised. I n an early Babylonian geographical list (W. Among the monuments are seated figures carved out of stone. 6. The stone in several instances ia diorite. A. 16). 13.

341. and representing the monarch in almost the same attitude? The Babylonian work is ruder than the Egyptian work. is the same bs the standard of measurement of the Egyptian pyramidbuilders-the kings of the fourth and two followiug dynasties. See Flinders Petrie in Nutwe. The conviction grows . it is true . it is hard to resist the conviction that both belong to the same school of sculpture. like the statues of Tel-loh. carved out of green diorite. and that the standard of measurement marked upon the plan of the city.6. but blocks of stone mere transported from it to the stoneless plain of Babylonia.1 Egyptian research has independently arrived at the conclusion that the pyramid-builders were at least as old as tho fourth millennium before the Christian era. The great pyramids of Gizeh were in course of erection. Aug. Is it more than a coincidence that one of the most marvellous statues in the world. XD . 18S3. and the chief ornament of the Nuseum of Buliiq.63. 9. which one of the figures of Tel-loh holds upon his lap.upon 11s when we find that diorite is as foreign to the soil of Egypt as it is to that of Babylonia. and there made plastic under the hand of the sculptor. I have already alluded to the fact that the quarries of Sinai had been known to the Egyptians and worked by them as early as the epoch of the Third Dynasty. but if we place them side by side. and that the one is but a less skilful imitation of the other.INTRODUCl'ORY. quite different from the later Assyro-Babylonian citbit of 21. 33 inhabitants of Chaldma. tho hieroglyphic system of writing was already fully deve1 The cubit of 40. p. some 6000 years ago. is a seated figure of king Khephrh of the Fourth Dynasty.

W e shall have time enough for the slow absorption of Accadian religious ideas into the uncultured Semitic mind. in which me seem to find traces of contact between Babylonia and the Egyptians of the Old Empire. The monuments of Tel-loh carry us back to a pre- . W e can now trace in some measure the modes in which Iccadian and Semite acted and re-acted upon one another. for the gradual transformation thcy underwent. and its garrisons and miners in the Sina?cic peninsula must have been recalled to serve against enemies nearer home. loped. earlier considerably than the age of Sargon of Accad. as well as the chief periods at which the influence of the one or of the other was at its height. and for the development of those later forms of belief and pract'ice t o which the main bulk of our materials relate. Tho discoveries at Tel-loh have revealed to us a corresponding period in the history of Babylonia. according to Archbishop Usher's chronology.34 LECTURE I. Important results will follow from such a conclusion for the history of Babylonian religion. strango as it may appear to read of expeditions undertaken by Babylonian kings against Cyprus and Sinai at so remote an epoch. Egypt itself was thoroughly organised and in the enjoyment of a high culture and civilisation. If there is any truth in the arguments I have been using. accept with confidence the date assigned to Sargon of Accad by Nabonidos. at a time when. It would even seem as if the conquests of Naram-Sin in Sinai were due to the fall of the Sixth Dynasty and the overthrow of the power of the old Egyptian empire. we may now. tho world was being created. I think. For some centuries after that event Egypt is lost t o history.

The deities they commemorate are P r h Ghaldaean. throughout the land. and^ we may gather from them some idea of Proto-Chaldman religion in the heyday of its power. and each state had its own peculiar cult. The cuneiform system of writing was handed on to the Semites while still itl an incomplete state. Gradually the encroaching Semite dispossessed the older dynasties and came to form an upper class. The intercomse between the two races was already for the most part a peaceful one. The process was aided by the patronage afforded to literature in the court of Sargon. members of the same family bear sometimes Accadian. however. Before this. first of soldiers and traders. and in writing Semitic words the old ideographic usage of the Accadian script continued to be imitated. issues his edicts in both languages. at any rate. and the same king. the kingdom was founded which culminated in the brilliant reigns of Sargon of Accad and his son Naram-Sin. sometimes Semitic names. But inter-marriages must have often taken place.lNTBODUcToRY. Here Semitic and Accadian scribes vied with one another in compiling new tests and in making the old ones 02 . It was in northern Babylonia probably that he made his influence first felt. Here. and to become the serfs of their Semitic lords. Babylonia was still divided ipto a number of petty states. at times united for a while under -a single head. The great mass of the older people were contented to till the ground. whether Accadian or Semite. ' 4 5 Semitic era. New values and meanings were given t o the signs. new characters and combinations of characters mere devised. 'which were. and then of priests also. the old culture of the non-Semitio population had been fully absorbed by the Semitic intruders. to irrigate the fields.

At any rate. How far this is the case I hope to point out in a future Lecture. Rut even in northern Babylonia the Semitic element was not pure. We know that many of the gods of the later Babylonian faith have Aceadian names. we may therefore expect to find Accadian religious conceptions accommodated to those of the Semite. An artificial literary dialect sprang up. as was the case in Assyria. and Semitic conceptions so closely intertwined with Accadian beliefs as to make it impossible f o r us now to separate them. accessible to Semitic learners. The result is that the Babylonian presents us with a moral and intellectual type which is not genuinely Semitic. the Accadian texts which emanated from the literati of the court were filled with Semitic words and expressions. To convince ourselves of this fact.36 LECTURE I. the basis of which was Semitic. sometimes of Accadians who were living in an atmosphere of Semitic life and thought. it is only nccessnry to compare the . but into which Accadian words and phrases were thrown p&lemtle. By way of revenge. and that the ideas connected with them betray a non-Semitic origin . and not the people as well. The fall of the dynasty of Sargon may have brought with it a temporary revival of Accadian supremacy. What happened in the case of the language must have happened also in the case of religion. Sometimes they were the work of Semites writing in a foreign language. the Semitic element always remained strongest in northern Babylonia : in southern Babylonia it seems to me not impossible that one of the numerous dialects of the old language may have lingered down to the time of Nebuchadnezzar or Nabonidos. It mainly represented the dominant class.

a scholar rather than a trader. The Assyrian has all the characteristics of the Semite.of Babylonia-the Babylonians. The Semites . a n agriculturist rather than a soldier. the contrast of type displayed by the two nations must hare been the growth of centuries. his love of trade and his nomadic habits proclaim it on the moral side.INTRODUCTORY. The Babylonian. I f the Assyrian was the Roman of the ancient East. 31 t Babylonian with his neighbour the Assyrian. Nevertheless. His hooked nose and angular features proclaim his origin on the physical side as unmistakably as his intensity. his ferocity. must have been the heritage which the ancestors of Senntlcherib and Sardanapallos . the greater part of their literature. arid due to that absorption of one race by another of which Ireland furnishes so familiar an example. the Babylonians mere the Chinese. their religion and their lams. and it was from Babylonia that the Assyrians derived their system of writing. on the other hand. Assyrian and Babylonian differ only as two English dialects diffcr. the main bulk. It is true that some of this may have been borrowed in later times when the two kingdoms existed side by side. like the language. The intensity of religious belief which marked the Assyrian was replaced in him by superstition. or when Babylonia became the appanage of its ruder but more warlike neighboiur. as I will henceforth call them-and the Assyrians must once have been the same people. and the barbarities which the Assyrian perpetrated in the name of Amur and loved to record in hisinscriptions were foreign to his nature. &owever. and are therefore known by the common name of Assyrian. was square-built and somewhat full-faced.

they are merely unessentials which can be put aside without injury to our view of the main facts. and still exercises. The reIigions of Babylonia and Assyria must be treated together. carried vith them into their northern home.38 LECTURE r. and which had been brought into close contact with the religion and culture of Babylonia at a critical epoch in its history. we shall find. The Greeks and Romans concerned themselves so little with these Eastern barbarians as neither to read nor to preserve the only Greek history of Chaldsa which was written by a native and professed to be derived from native accounts. Still less would it appear that these old people of Babylonia and Assyria can have had any influence upon the worlck of to-day. The influence of Jewish religion upon Christianity. or have served to mould the ideas and the society of modern Europe. has . And yet a moment’s consideration might have shown that there was one nation at all events which has exercised. indeed. a considerable influence upon our own thought and life. we owe the fragments we have of it te the apologetic zeal of Christian controversialists. and have left no apparent traces of their influence upon the nations about whom we know and care most. But. it will be asked. but these particulars form no portion of theit essential character . and consequently upon the races that have been moulded by Christianity. much more an inquiry into their nature and origin? They have long since perished. Such questions may be asked. that in certain particulars the? disagree. like the people who professed them. and until lately it would have been hard to answer them. what interest can the religions of Babylonia and Assyria have for us.

their trials and disappointments.IN!CRODUCTORY. the individual in it has merged his own aspirations and sufferings into those of the whole community. It grows clearer and more catholic as the intercourse of the Jewish people with those around them becomes wider. The Assyrian was the rod of God’s anger. t o . as we are expressly told.’’ Apart. Now Jewish religion was intimately bound up with Jewish history. were the Assyrian and the Babylonian. more intimately perhaps than has been the case with any other great religion of the world. The captives who returned again to their own land came back with changed hearts and purified minds . as we shall see. Now the chosen instsuments for enforcing this lesson. it developed in unison with their struggles and successes. and the lesson is taught at last that the God of the Jews is the God also of the whole world. not individual. and which. 39 been lasting and profound. It took its colouring from the events that marked the political life of the Hebrew people. from henceformard Jerusalem was to be the unrivalled dwelling-place of ‘‘the righteous nation which keepeth the truth. Its great devotional utterance. from any influence which the old religious heliefs of Babylonia may have had upon the Greeks.* while the Babylonish exile was the bitter punishment meted out to Judah for its sins. is national. thererore. their contact with the religious conceptions of the Jewish exiles must. the Book of Psalms. The course of Jewish prophecy is equally stamped with the impress of the national fortunes. was not so wholly wanting as was formerly imagined.

The traditional view had no facts to build upon except such conclusions as it could draw from the Old Testament itself. Nay more. about the rites and ceremonies they practised. It is true that a Jew could not have understood a Babylonian. which is really an Aramaic dialect. and of late ycars. We know something nQwabout the deities whom the Babylonians worshipped. is on the whole more nearly related to Hebrew . if admitted at all. the traditional view has been that this effect exhibited itself wholly on the antagonistic side. Now and then. but it was treated generally as a paradox. but it was very easy for him to learn to understand. To-day all this is changed. it is true. some bold spirit. any more than a Welshman can understand a Breton. was considered a proof of the influence not of the Babylonians but of their Persian conquerors. have produced an effect which it is well worth our while to study. The result of this knowledge is t o show us that the Jews did not live in the midst of the Babylonians for seventy years without borrowing from them something more than the names of the months.40 LECTURE L say the least. and about the religious ideas they entertained. may have ventured to propound the paradox that the doctrine of the resurrection was first learnt by the Jews in Babylonia. Assyrian. Hitherto. but a language more closely resembling that of the exiles themselves. as well as of the beliefs and practices associated therewith. more especially Babylonian. it shows us that the language of the Babylonian conquerors was not the so-called Chaldee. the Jews carried nothing away from the land of their captivity except an intense hatred of idolatry. that is to say the language of Babylonia. like Bishop Warburton.

41 than it is t o any other member of the Semitic family of speech. The tradition is confirmed by the researches of comparative philology.INTRODUCTORY. too. that the Jew for the first time found the libraries and ancient literature of Chaldma open t o his study and use. the Phcenicians held that their ancestors had come from the Persian Gulf and the alluvial plain of Babylonia. it is said. Their first home appears t o have been in the Low-lying desert which stretches eastward of Chald- . and describe the building of the Tower of Babylon as the cause of the dispersion of mankind. Like the Israelites. and where they called the fauna and flora of the country by common names. indeed. We all remember how Abraham. but also of those earlier inhabitants of the country whom the Jews called Canaanites and the Greeks Phcenicians. But old tradition had already pointed to the valley of the Euphrates as the primseval cradle of his race. it was then. Many of the words which the Semites have in common seem to point to the neighbourhood of Babylonia as the district from which those who used them originally came. I t was then. and how the earlier chapters of Genesis make the Euphrates and Tigris two of the rivers of Paradise. Now the Hebrew language was the language not only of the Israelites. But it was not only through the Babylonian exile that the religious ideas of the Babylonian and the Jew came into contact with each other. who had long been accustomed to regard Babylonia as the home of a venerable learning and culture-were likely to make their deepest and most enduring impression. was born in Ur of the Chaldees. that the ideas of the conquering race-the actual masters of the captives.

have carried with them some of the elements of the culture they had learnt from their Accadian neighbours. And such. on the very side of the Euphrates. the Babylonian god of heaven. the Babylonian god of prophecy and literature. and eventually.l We may thus assume that there were two periods in the history of t. The names of Babylonian deities meet us again in Palestine and the adjoining Semitic lands.he Jewish people in which they came under the influence of the religious conceptions of Babylonia. the birth-place of Jeremiah . and a god who thus found liis way to southern Arabia would be equally likely t o find his way t o northern Arabia . ii the temple of Anatu. the Moon-god. Nebo. The name of Sin. The tribes which travelled northward and westward must. in fact. the modern Mugheir.42 LECTURE I. as well as to the Moabite mountain on which Moses breathed his last. is met with in an Himyaritic inscription. we find to be the case. on which stood the great city of Ur. until a time came when they began to absorb it themselves. There was the later period of the Babylonish That this is the true derivation of the name of Sinai and of the desert of Sin is plain now that we know that the district in question was possessed by Aramaic-speaking tribes whose kinsfolk spread eastward to the banks of the Euphrates. and his female consort Anatu. Anu. the Babylonian Moon-g0d. and Sinai itself is but the mountain of Sin. we should think. overawed by the higher culture of the settled Accadian race. has given his name to towns that stood within the territories of Reuben and Judah. Here they led a nomad life. and who were allied in blood to the population of Moab and Canaan. where the names of Babylonian deities were not unfrequent. indeed. a s we have seen.” and Anathoth. re-appear in Beth-Anath. to dispossess and supersede their teachers.

The parallelism exists even further than this common account of their infancy. and of the traditions or histwies embodied therein. due to the western conquests of Sargon and his successors. others will consider that the Israelites made their first acquaintance with the gods and legends of Babylonia through the Canaanites and other earlier inhabitants of Palestine. Perhaps what I have to say in my subsequent Lectures will afford some data for deciding which of these conflicting opinions is the more correct. and to him was assigned the compilation of those works on astrology and augury from which the wise men of the Chalhans subsequently . Sargon of Accad was emphatically the founder of Semitic supremacy in Babylonia.INTRODUCTORI. 43 exile. Meanwhile. Those who incline to the latter belief may doubt whether the fathers of the Canaanitish tribes brought the elements of their Babylonian beliefs with them from Chaldsea. Some will be disposed t o see in Abraham the conveyer of Babylonian ideas to the west . when the influence was strong and direct. he was the great lawgiver of Babylonian legend. I will conclude this Lecture with a few illustrations of the extent to which the study of Babylonian religion may be expected to throw light on the earlier portions of Scripture. or whether these beliefs were of later importation. there was also the earlier period. W e have already noticed the curious parallelism which exists between the legend of Sargon’s exposure in an ark of bulrushes and the similar exposure of the great Israelitish leader Moses on the waters of the Nile. when the amount of influence is more hard t o determine. Much will depend upon the view we take of the age of the Pentateuch.

Cont. and future generations quoted the books of the Bebrew Jaw under his name.” and us&. ‘(water. to draw out. in the sense that Moses was he who had been drawn out of the water.” This word. for this would not be grammatically permissible. Modern Egyptian scholars. indeed. and popular tradition merely treated him as it has treated other heroes of the past.”l But this etymology. 6 . derived their lore. on the other hand. ‘(saved from the water. Sargon was a historical personage. With them the name is always ~ l o u u ~ s . but in the sense of a leader who had drawn his people out of the house of bondage and led them through the waves of the sea. Now the nsnie of the great Ilebrcw legislator has long been a puzzle and a subject of dispute. ( ( ason. The translators of the Septuagint. by attaching to him the myths and legends that had once been told of the gods. ii. i. apart from other imperfections. 9. have had recourse to the Egyptian messu or mes. equally willing to find for it an Egyptian derivation. depends upon the change the translators of the Septuagint have themselves made in the pronunciation of the name. though Pharaoh’s‘daughter puns upon the idea (Exod. which Josephos tells us is derived from the Egyptian words mB. . it is true. 3 1 . living as they did in Egypt. In the Hebrew Old Testament it is connected with the Hebrew verb nzashdh. Moses was equally the legislator of the Israelites and the successful vindicator of Semitic independence from the exactions of Egyptian tyranny. As we havc seen. ii.44 LECTURE r. A p . endeavoured t o give the word an Egyptian form and an Egyptian etymology. lo). when occurring in proper names is usually combined with the (( -- I 1 Antip.” not.

that the daughter of the Egyptian king would assign to her adopted child the simple name of “ son.he founder of the Israelitish people would have borne a title which the Israelites did not understand. being written in the hieroglyphics Ra-messu. the Sesostris of the Greeks. though not very probable. and this has been changed into its supposed Egyptian equivalent Osar o r Osiris. for example. In this it is stated that the earlier name of Moses was Osarsiph. ‘ 6 born of the Sun-god. and that he had been priest. has been decomposed into two elementj. and which could remind them only of that hated Egyptian land wherein they had been slaves. Here it is evident that Moses and Joseph have been confounded together. It is clear that. Rameses.of Heliopolis or On. But Moses finds nc satisfactory etymology in the . Josephos has preserved an extract from the Egyptian historian Manetho. the first of which is the divine name Jeho.” It is much less conceivable that mch an Egyptian name mould be that by which a national hero would be afterwards known to his Semitic countrymen. Manetho had no doubt that that of Moses was purely Israelitish. It was not until he had become the Israelitish lawgiver and had ceased to be an Egyptian priest that Osarsiph took the name of Noses. and it is also conceivable.” But it is conceivable that we might occasionally meet with it alone. The name of Joseph. who married the daughter of the priest of On. whatever might h&e been his opinion about the name of Joseph. which relates the Egyptian version of the story of the Exodus as it was told i n the second century before our era.INTBODUCTORY. 45 name of a deity. It is difficult to believe that t.

“Moses. it is Semitic. 259. in the Zeitsclirift fCr Assyriologie.” on which sea Jensen. moreover. I need hardly say that I am referring to Assyrian. pp. when Jewish and Greek and even Christian names and ideas had penet. Now the Assyrian equivalent of the Hebrew Mosheh. It was a word of Accadian origin. and this is also t8he language of which we possess records older than those of the Hebrew Scriptures. belongs to a different division of the Semitic family of speech from that to which Hebrew belongs. If. however. Mdsu signified as nearly as possible all that we mean by the word ‘( hero. like Aaron and David. as it happens. “double. We must look to other branches of the Semitic stock for its explanation. and. it was an epithet applied to more M&u.” would be nzksu. i 3. . mdsu is a word which occurs not unfrequently in the inscriptions.rated into the heart of the Arabian peninsula. It staads alone among Hebrew proper names. but since the days of Sargon of Accad had made itself so thoroughly at home in the language of the Semitic Babylonians as to count henceforth as a genuinely Semitic term. We do not hear of any other persons who have borne the name. Arabic literature begins long after the Christian era. The Arabic language. ‘‘ hero. it must belong to an older stratum of Semitic nomenclature than that preserved t o us in the Old Testament. therefore.pages of the Hebrew lexicon. one Semitic language which has the closest affinities to Hebrew.”l As such. To compare Arabic and Hebrew together is like comparing Latin with modern German. There is only one other branch of the Semitic family whose records are earlier than those of the Hebrews.” has of course no connection with n&u. There is.

after he had accomplished his daily work in the bright world above and had descended to illuminate for a time the world below. A. In W. since the Hebrew shin corresponds with the Assyrian 8 in proper names which. was not confined to Adar. 47 than one divinity. iii. like Asshur.u is rendered by asaridu. Merodach. I may add. The character which represented (( ___--_ 260. 70. that is to say.” The title of Mdsu. inf?. sometimes Nin-ip.” was in a peculiar sense associated with the Sun-god. But it seems to have had another signification which it is difficult to bring into connection with the ideas of leadership and war. He was a form of the Sun-god. 167. “illustrious”). 171 by ellzi and ibbzr. This god was the deity sometimes called Adar by Assyrian scholars.INTI1ODUCJ!OR?. whose special function it was to guard and defend the world of the dead. Some miglit perhaps see a reference t o the other meaning of mcisu ( I ( twin”) in the close association of Moses and Aaron. there was one god more especially for whom it became a name. He thus became invested with the sterner attributes of the great luminary of day. and was known t o his worshippers as ((the warrior of the gods. the hero” or leader.. Eeems to find ite m t in the Assyrian aharu. and in words which are not proper names it always corresponds. But Nergal himself was but the sun of night. I.” . the central object of primitive Semitic worship. and was shared by him with Nergal. There is no difficulty about the equivalence of the sibilants i n the HebreTT and Assyrian words. It will thus be seen that the name of mdsu. originally denoting the scorching sun of midday. the solar deity. ‘L to send. belong to the earlier period of Hebrew interxxrse with Babylonia. but whose ordinary name among the Assyrians is still a matter of uncertainty. The mine of Aaron. “firstborn” or “leader” (in 1. however. the tutelar god of Babylon and the antagonist of the dragon of chaos. It was given also to another solar deity.

I n the remote age to which their first observations of the stars reached back."^ With the determinative of personality prefixed. It is in consequence of this fact that the constellation is evcn yet called by us Taurus. that thc first of the zodiacal signs. where mas is explained by nitidar6. the sun still entered the zodiacal constellation known ta us as Taurus at the time of the vernal equinox. the opener of the primitive Accadian year.” Hence it was that the ecliptic was termed ‘‘ the yoke of heaven.” The sun was likened by the old Accadian star-gazers to a ploughman yoking his oxen to his glittering plough. But it was in the signification of “hero” that the Assyrian mdsu made its way into astrology. The Accadians had pictured the sky as the counterpart of thc rich alluvial plain of Babylonia in which they dwelt. 48. 25.” But as in the Babylonim -. the idea of nzbsu or ‘ I hero.- See W. and the title given to Merodach the Sun-god when he passed through the twelve zodiacal signs was Gudi-bir. 26. and that twt prominent stars received the names of “Bull of Bnu” and ‘<Bull of Rimmon. it further denotes a scribe” or “librarian. was called “ the directing bull. and was thus carried wherever a knowledge of ChaldEan astrological lore was spread.” ‘‘ the bull who guides” the year. ‘(the bull of light.” It is at least remarkable that Moses tho Hebrew legislator was also the unwearied scribe to whom Hebrew tradition referred the collection of its earliest documents and the compilation of its legal code. I. A.4E LECTURE r. the bull. nay.” also represented the idea of “ a collection of book^. he was even likened t o an ox himself. ii.” bound as it were upon the neck of tho solar bull. 1 7 i h l 3-51 .

” one of whose flock he was himself held to be.$ by a secondary one.” Zu bcing an Assyrian word fur “ ox. PIO too in the plain of heavan above. and the star (‘of the shepherd of the heavenly herds. thsre mere sheep as well as oxen. what the primitive xueaiiing of tu Eust b v e been E . the hero” of the astronomers. could only have been the sun.” Tho last-mentioned star is Xegulus. became the Semitic lu-mdsi. should have done so too. <( 1 Jensen has shown that mdsi in this combination mas further used in the sense of “ twins. which are similarly religious and astrological. “ the twin oxen. however. however. than that names like Nebo and Sin.” the Accadian lzc-n. the herdsman. died on the summit of Mount Nebo in sight of thc “ moon-city” Jericho. and in his Greek name of Bobtes. It is an example of the oblitcratioii of the original Pignification of an epithe.INTBODUCTOBY. ‘ I the pure wild heifer” of the gods.”l The first of these was l ( the star of the wain.” the stars composing the “ lu-mt%i” being grouped as twins.” the symbol of the meridian sun. 49 plain below.” and among them mere reckoned the star of “ the eagle. It is not more strange that a name thus intimately associated with the religious and astrological beliefs of Babylonia should have found its vay to the west. i t will be remembered.” the hero ‘(who fights with weapons.” The ‘cseveii 211-bad. was not originally the ‘(hero. The seven planets were ‘(the seven bell-wethers. Nom Nebo. entitlcd “ the lu-n~dsi’~ or ‘( sheep of the hero.” me may see a lingering echo of the Accadian story which made its way through the hands of the Phcenicians to Greece. the star of the goddess Bahu. Mdsu. “ T h e sheep of the hero.” or “old sheep.” and by their side was another group of seven stars.” shows. Moses.

which mould connect it (as was afterwards done by Manetho) with the sacred name of the . was the prophet-god of Babylon and Borsippa.’ and ydsdplz. may receive its explanation from Babylonia. the offspring of the Sun-god Merodach. from cisdph. and there is therefore no reason why it should not have been imported into northern Arabia as well. We learn from a Himyaritic inscription that his name had been carried into southern Arabia. as we shall see. viii.50 LECTURE I. It is possible that the name of Joseph. its original meaning seems t o have been forgotten. Already at the time when the book of Genesis was written. to take away.. and pilgrims have made their way to the sanctuary long before the Israelites deinanded their “ three days’ journey into the wilderness t o sacrifice to the Lord” (Exod. and we can therefore well believe that a shrine of Sin may have existed upon it. he was accounted one of the seven (‘heroes o r nzdsu. like that c f Moses. Skai itself can scarcely signify anything else than the mountain sacred t o the Moon-god.7 7 while in the Psalms (lxxxi. Sin was the Babylonian name of the Moongod. 27). 24). He also figured among the stars. Together with the stars of Istar and Nergal. As Nebo was the interpreter of Merodach. and the patron of writing and literature. An alternative etymology is there proposed (XXY. t* which Moses conducted the children of Israel when they had first left Egypt. 23. ‘ I to add . so in the language of astrology his star was itself a nzdsu or solar hero. And we seem to meet with it in the name of the wilderness of Sin. 6) another clerivation is suggested. before they arrived at Mount Sinai.

” what if ‘‘ the house of the god” and “the house of Joseph” had in Canaanitish days been one and the same? The question may receive an answer if we turn for it to the Assyrian inscriptions. however.” The word was actually borrowed by the Aramaic of Daniel under the form of ashshdp?z. What if Beth-el had itself been the more ancient ‘‘house of Joseph. Now Beth-el. ‘‘the ‘house of God. Here we f b d as@u or a$@ used in the sense of “ a diviner. married the daughter of the priest of On. t h o God of Israel. he was also a deity worshipped by the older inhabitants of Canaan. 51 Now Joseph was not only the father of the Israelitish tribes of Ephraim and Manasseh. and became in later times one of the two great sanctuaries of the northern kingdom. Joseph. that. 2s) states that the original name of Moses was Osarsiph. cont. inscribed upon the walls of the temple of Karnak the names of the cities captured by him in Palestine.‘ . since we do not meet with it elsewhere in the Old Testament. the older name of which was Luz. Osar-siph is simply Joseph. it will be remembered.’’ and Iseph-el. By the side of nsipu we find k h .” We are therefore tempted to think that the expression ‘‘the house of Joseph” may have belonged to an earlier period than that in which it was applied to the tribes of Ephraim and Manasseh .” it was once used by the Canaanites in a ‘literal sense. Osar or Osiris bein substituted for Jeho (Jo) or Jahveh. Among them are Yaqab-el. the great Egyptian conqueror Thothmes 111. Nore than two centuries before the date assigned by Egyptologists to the Exodus.2 1 Manetho (ap. must have been borrowed. and thnt he had been a priest of Heliopolis or On.INTRODUCTORY. Joseph. i. in fact. a W e should have expected a sameeh instead of a shin. the word. like Beth-el. Ap. ‘L Joseph the God. was taken by the house of Joseph. “ Jacob the God. we are told.

we are actually told that this was the case . it had been a house of Joseph in another sense and the sanctuary of a Canaanitish oracle. therefore. were not the narncs they received in childhood. “incantation.1 But whether or not we are to look to Babylonia €or an explanation of the name of Joseph. but names subsequently applied to them and current among the people. 1 Cf Gen. xliv. it appears nevertheless probable that the name of Joseph was originally identical with the Babylonian asku. 6 . and the very phrase 6it assaputi. it is a point which cannot be proved at present. there is little doubt that the Babylonian pantheon throws light on the names of the threc first kings of Israel. Some years ago I cndeavoured to show in the pages of the Modern Review (January.” Although.” was on in “speecli” derived its vdue of is@ Accndian. A god who seems to be Bel in his character of delivering oracles through the voice of the thunder is called the hero who prophesies” or “ divines uprightly. It mas from this word that the character which denoted Xiptu. i n old Hebrcw and Phoenician.52 LECTURE I .” and that long before the Israelitish house of Joseph took possession of Luz. its form would have more nearly approached that of Joseph. Saul and David and Solomon. ‘L the house of thc oracle. The asgu or “ d i i h e r ” plays a considerable part in the religious literature of Babylonia. his original namethe name given by the Lord through Nathan-was name of a particular class of priests whose duties were confined to soothsaying. that the names by which they are known to history. 1884). (‘the god of the oracle.” is actually met with. As regards the name of Solomon.

and the Lord loved him. xii. and at the head of the thirty mighty men of David is placed Elhanan the son of Dodo of Bethlehem. which was changed into Solomon.see. Y2ur or YB’ir. 5.” has been repeated from the following line. an extract from the state-annals of the Edomites. where we have.Jedidiah.” 2 2 Sam. the name Saul. too. The verses should bo rendered : “She bare a 8on and his name was called Solomon . xxiii. 2 Sam. . 4 1 Sa=. seems to be a corruption of Jesse. since it is stated in one passage that Elhanan the son of a Bethlehemite “slew Goliath the Gittite. 24. I believe. xx.3 Saul. 19. 24.” being singularly appropriate to a king for whom. “ weavem.” and had surrounded his new capital of Jerusalem (perhaps the city of ‘(peace”) with a single wa1l. the peaceful one. As thirty names follow that of Elhanan. and being ranked with them must have been their head. The text was already corrupt before the compilation of 1 Chron. 47 . because of tho Lord.” Now there is a curious parallelism between the three first kings of Israel and the three last kings of Edom enumerated in the 36th chapter of Genesis.”2 while the feat is elsewhere ascribed to David. the staff of whose spear was like a weaver’s beam. Saul had “ vexed” the Edomites. he cannot himself have been one of the thirty.4 and David had completed the conquest. we are told. the people had “asked. but the accession of Solomon and the murder of Joab brought with them almost imme(( 1 2 Sam. u i i 9. where we should probably read ( ( Elhanan who is Dodo” or David.” when his father had peace from all his enemies. ‘(the one asked for. xiv.l That David’s first name was El-hanan (or Baal-hanan) has long been suspected. where Ya’ar6. is presumably of similarly popular origin. 95. and sent by the hand of Natlian the prophet and called his name Jedidiah. and uregim. xxi. too.

Baalhanan and Hadar-a name which must be corrected into Hadad. who had married the sister of Pharaoh’s queen. 19-25. 54. (Hadar). whose attributes caused the Assyrians to identify him with their own Rimmon . 2 . As the worship of Dionysos. we find that the three last Edomite kings mentioned in the list in Genesis were Saul.2 -1 Kings xi.her of the last king in tile list. whose name enters into those of Jerobo-ani and Rclioboam. and Hadad was followed by Samlah of Masrekah or the ((Vine-lands. 26.” in whose name we discover that of a Phcenician god recorded in a recently found inscription as well as that of the Greek Semel6. We have among thcm Hadad. Dr. Bileani or Balaam the soil of Beor.64 LECTUD I.” the supreme god of Amnion (as we have learned from the cuneiform inscriptions). 12 and Sept. xxxvi. it had long been nssumed that the name of Semel6 must be of Phccnician extraction j but it mas only i n 18S4 that a Phwnician inscription was found i n a bay to the west of the Peiraeos containing the name Pen‘Samlath (“ the face of ’Samlath”). is not mentioned. F5) inform us that Emu (E”) was the Xergd of the Sliuites on the western bank of thc Euphrates. The words with which the list of the Edomite kings i s introduced (<‘ These arc the kings that reigned in the land of Edoin before there reigned any king over the children of Israel”) are of course an addition by the Hebrcm excerptist. The kings of Edom seem to have had a predilection for assuming the names of the divinities they worshipped. ii. as we learn from the cuneiform inscriptions. An Assyrian mythological tablet (TI’. titles of the supreme Baal i n Syria. is Cela the son of Ceor. the son of Bedad (or Ben-Dad). A. See the letters of Dr. 6hile. Hadacl 11. 18E5. It mill be noticed that the fai. I . The first king of Edoin inentioned in Gen. Hadad and Dad being. as in Hndarezer for Hadadezer. “ Caal is Am(mi). had been borrowed by the Greeks from the East. that is. contrary to the almost universal practice of the Old Testament. diately the successful revolt of Edom under Hadad. the Winegod. Neubauer has shown that Bdaam is Uil-’am. Neubauer and myself in the AtJmwurn of Sept.1 In strange accordance with this.

and Mr. In Saul. and. represents the Egyptian Ka-nubti .Rehoboth of the river” Euphrates. therefore. I think we may Bee a Babylonian deity transported to Edom and perhaps also to Palestine. if the name of Saul also turns out to be that of a divinity. 19. “the servant of Hadad. so that the introduction of the name into the text of the book of Kings would be a marginal gloss.of Tahpenes the Egyptian queen. and is consequently used of Nineveh in the book of Clenesis (x.” who reigned in the fourth century at Hierapolis. accordingly. Shalmaneser speaks the names of his wife and mother-in-law are given. Coins bear the name of Abd-Hadad.and since Rehoboth means the public squares and suburbs of a capital city. as I have said. &hename of the son of Hadad. . Me-zahilb would presuppose an Egyptian Nub. whose worship extended southward from Carchemish to Edom and Palestine. Mehetab-el and Ne-zahab are apparently the Semitic substitutes of Egyptian names such as the Egyptian monuments have made us familiar with. Now one of the principal names under which the Sun-god was known at Babylon was Savul or Sawul. Hadad occupied a higher position than Saul. and is now called Tel-Dkfeneh. At Damascus he was adored under the Assyrian name of Rimmon. Tomkins is probably right in identifying Tahpenes with the name of the frontier-fortress which mas known to the Greeks as Daphne. the later successor of Carchemish. the supreme Baal or Sun-god. we must look for the Behoboth of the Euphrates in Babylon. which in Hebrew characters mould become Saul. Mr. and Zechariah (xii. 65 W e need not be surprised.INTRODUCTOBY. W e are told that Saul came from ‘. 11)alludes t o the cult of the compound Hadad-Rimmon in the dose neighbourhood of the great Canaanitish fortress of Megiddo. ll). He was. where we are told that he was married to the sister . u d e r the abbreviated form of DQda. Tomkins ingeniously suggests that Genubath. This is explained by 1 Kings xi.

” and who was called Dido by the writers of Rome. in the south it was confounded with the Semitic word which appears in Assyrian as dccdu. is the masculine corresponding to a. where I d elsewhere hkes the place of Ule Hebrcw uaw. we have it also in the David of the Old Testament. One of the most important discoveries that have been thus made is that the Israelites of the northern kingdom worshipped n Dodo or Dod by the side of Yahveh. I had little idea at the time how soon my belief would be verified. Within the last. has been subjected t o a thorough examination by the German Professors Socin and Smend. as the word ought to be rend. . with the result of correcting some of the reccived readings rnd of filling up some of the lacunae. or rather that they adsred the supreme God under the name of Dodo1 as well as under 1 Written il’ll’l in the MoaLite text. which is sometimes written Dodo with the vocalic suffix of the nominative.” This is the word which x e have in Be-dad o r Ben-Dad. in fact. Phcenician goddess whose name means L L the bclovcct one. was the consort of the Sun-god.” the father of thc Edomitc Hadad. the squeeze of the Moabite stone. whom legend confounded with Elissa. “dear little child. the foundress of the city. conceived a s Tammuz. now in the Louvre. Dido. David. (‘the beloved son. ‘(the son of Dad.56 LECTURE L of “the god DAda of Aleppo” (Khalman}.” in southern Canaan as well as in Phcenicia. The abbreviated form vas that current among the nations of the north. or Dod. I n the article I have alluded to above. under the title of ‘(the beloved one.” and was the presiding deity of Carthage. year. I expressed my conviction that the names of Dodo and David pointed to a worship of the Sun-god.

lFlTRODUOTORY. 67 that of Yahveh. like Yahveh. As the name of Nineveh was ideographically expressed by a fish within a basin of water.” was a god honoured particularly in Assyria. l). iv. therefore. xviii. calls him DBd-i. 38). Rer. IS). I . ‘(my beloved.” W e can easily understand how a name of the kind. Nesha. the Moabite king. with such a signification. S).” which he likewise ‘‘ dragged before Chemosh. which explains the statement of Ktbsias that Nineveh stood on the Euphrates (ap Diod. 1.l while the name itself was connected in popular etymology with ( L 1 The ideograph also rcpresented the name of tho goddess Nina-a word which means ‘‘ the Lady” in Sumerian-who was the daughter of Ea the god of Eridu (W. . I have suggested that Dod or Dodo was an old title of the supreme God in the Jebusite Jerusalem.” Here the are1 or altar” of Dodo is placed in parallelism with the areZs of Yahveh. 3). and it is quite clear. A. There was a city or sane tunry in Babjlonia of the sanie name (K 4629. and that hencc Isaiah (v. that Dodo. in describing the victories which his god Chemosh had enabled him to gain over his Israelitish foes. where the name of more than one famous king (Shalman-eser) was compounded witk it. Sallimmanu. was a name under which the deity was worshipped by the people of the land. That Solomon was a divine name we have the express testimony of the cuneiform inscriptions for asserting. ii. tells us that he had carried away from Ataroth “the are1 (or altar) of Dodo and dragged it before Chemosh. “the god of peace.when describing Jerusalem as the tower of the vineyard the Lord had planted in Israel. should have been transferred by popular affection from the Deity to the king of whom it is said that “all 4 Israel and Judah loved him” (1 Sam.” and from RTebo L c the a d s (or altars) of Yahveh.

66. A. ‘ 4 1 On a cylinder nom in the British Museum. in the time of Tiglath-Pileser 1 1 1 . 40). (B. see George Smith’s C h l d e a n Genesis (ed. Rev.”l So. and the references we find from time t o time in the historical inscriptions to religious rites and ceremonies give us tantalising glimpses into the service and ceremonial of the Assyro-Babylonian priesthood. fragmentary as they are. 97.” it is possible that the cult of Sallimman or Solomon in Assyria was due t o the fact that he was a fish-god. “The palace of Muses-Adar. t h e son of Sallimanu-nun-sar-ilani the scribe. the god of the city of TemenSallim (the foundation of peace). perhaps Ea himself. now Arban on the KhabBr. If a gleam of light has thus been cast by the rnents of Assyria and Babylonia upon the names of the earlier kings of Israel.” Sir A. and in the age of Shalmaneser 1 1 . . “ a fish. the name of the god could be applied t o a man. Sayee). I. H. and also that in Moab. the Assyrian nunu. are numerous among the de‘bris of Assur-bani-pal’s library. inscribed with the words. The inscription runs : The seal of Muses-Adar the scribe. it is but feeble in comparison with the illustrations they afford us of the ritual and religious practices recorded in the Old Testament. p.58 LECTURE 1 . Layard discovered winged bulls at Arbm. was named Sallimmanu-nunusar-ilani. a plain proof both that the god was known in Moab. mention is made of 6‘Sallimmanu the fish.the royal scribe at Sadikan. iii. The ritual texts. 732) the Moabite k i q was Salamanu or Solomon. too. the son of Adar-esses the scribe. as in Israel.?’ His worship was carried westward at a comparatively early period. In a list of the gods whose images stood in the numerous temples of Assyria (W. “ Solomon the fish is king of the gods.C.” For a representation of the seal.

5 3. the priest of Assur . L i. 39. A. ”and brought from Babylonia by Dr. 36. 13.” A distinction is carefully d r a m between “the king” and “the high-priest” i n the imprecation against the Vandals of the future attached to an old historical test in the Acwdian language. the son of Tiglath-Adar the appointed of Bel. I. In the far-off pro-Semitic age there were kings of Tel-loh as well as pate4is or high-priests of Tel-loh. the priest (6angu) of Assur . A. while the high-priests did not take the title of king. A. I. 12. 1 2 4 W. 62. W. . but ~ among the objects only “high-priests of A s s u ~ . Assur-ris-ilim is entitled the appointed of the divine father (Bel). Hayes Ward is a barrelshaped weight of green basalt. TV. the highpriest (pateu’i)of Merodach. 37. the priest of Assur. the beloved of Neb0. I .” ds well as the high-priest (pate&)of Assur . and the kings did not take the title of high-priest. the priest (iungu) of Assur. the supreme high-priest (pate&).5 and the poet who embodied tho Cuthsan legend of the crea- ’’ ‘‘ 8 TV. A. iii. I . he could offer sacrifice and pour out libations t o the gods. 5. i. on which we read: “the palace of Nebo-sum-esir the son of Dakur. i 53. 15.In Assyria the king himself performed many of the functions of a high-priest. Sargon is similarly “the appointed of Bel. 3. the son of Rimmon-nirari the appointed of Bel. the exalted priest (NU-ES) of Assur.”3 But the union of the two offices was by no means necessary.” while Nebuchadnezzar designates himself ‘‘the worshipper of Merodach. A. 6 W. iu. The earliest records of Assyria went back to n period when as yet there were no kings. Like Solomon of Israel.63.” 1 Assur-natsirpal calls himself ‘‘the appointed of Bel.

in the time of I<t&sias. tion izi his verses concludes by saying : ‘‘ Thou. The substitution of di (fig) forpatedi or khattdi in the penitential psalm (W. and Sargon himself may be the Akraganks whom Kt&siasmakes h r e i l i n the last king but one of Assyria. as Lotz supposed.”l Ktksias. as that of a Babylonian prince in the time of Tiglath-Pileser III. I.60 LECTURE I. which is borrowed from the Accadian sagan (W. I. The analogy of nisalzku has created sakknnsikku.” as Guyard suggested. 13). The Nebu-sum-esir mentioned in the text. p. 516).Belesgs was the Persian governor of Syria and Assyria. NU-ES. Pritesi should probably be read khattedi or IchGttedi.40). mhich appears in the inscriptions. 1. vi.2 The Semitic title of the high-priest (nisakkz or issakku) indicates that his main duOy mas to pour out libations 1 Patesi and NU-ES are rendered by thc Assyrian wisakku and issakh. 2 ArbakCs is equally the name of a Median chief mentioned by Sargon. a high-priest. but “the high-priest of Mcrodach. since the country of that name is written indifferently PA-SE-KI and PA-TE-SI-KI (W. but are merely derivatives from the verb nu. 70. 45) seems due to a blunder of the Semitic scribe. 53. ii. in the temple of ’Sulim. I have made for thee this tablet. iii. was justified in making a high-priest of his Babylonian Belesys-a name. which originated when false analogy had caused the termination nkku to be regarded as a separate suffix. therefore. 25). a man. by the way. I. the Zbgan6s of B&rGss&. Anab. who read the first character ( p a ) as dig (see v.” is a compound ideograph of Semitic invention. v i i 8. A. shepherd or any one else whom God shall call to rule the kingdom.” who lived at Babylon by the side of the king. in the city of Cutha. and Arbakes 01 Nedia (Xenophon. so that the root of nisakku was supposed to be nis or n b The old rendering of patedi by ‘‘ viceroy” rested on a mistake . the word always has reference to the worship of a god. 21. 55). A. I have inscribed for thee this record-stone.saJcu. These have nothing to do with an Accadian d s . under the form of Bnlaiu.” from salcniiu. much less with nisu and ish.” which occurs in the eleventh tablet of tlie Epic of Gisdhubar (col. vhether king. A. iv. As Schrader points out ( schriften und Gesc~ichtsforschuizg. for instance. 4 ) . was iiot the viceroy of a king. “ t o pour out a libation. 19. high-priest. . I t the man of tlie temple.

and in one of them we read the following instructions in regard to a person who is undergoing purification:z (( 1 W.INTRODUCTORY. whose title interchanges at times with that of the highpriest himself. as well as one who was entitled ‘(the strong dangu. 60. even the stone tablets and foundation-stones of a building are ordered to be cleansed in this way. The cleansing of objects by anointing them with oil was considered a matter of great importance. 26.’ By the side of the &mgu stood thep8si. The remains of the palace discovered by Layard at Arban (the ancient Sadikan) belonged. too. At Nineveh there was a ianyu attached to the harem which mas under the protection of Istar. At Babylon it was Merodach from whom the high-priest received his title. A. who was his slave and bondsman. according to the inscription on the bulls. The dangu properly signified one who was “bound?’ or attached to a particular deity or his sanctuary.w or ‘ I anointer. are those who were attached” to special places of worship. 31. W. to I\lusos-Aclar the priest” (iuup).” and who may accordingly be regarded as one of the chief priests. for example. The use of (‘pure water” for washing the hands and other parts of the body occupies a conspicuous place in the ritual texts. ‘( .” whose duty it was to purify with oil both persons and things. if the latter. and the phrases in which the word occurs show that he was attached t o the cult’ of the supreme god of the country in which he lived. I . iv. 61. A. I . 40 sg. There was the iungu. 61 in honour of the gods. ii. The name may therefore be compared with that of the Levites. at Nineveh it mas Assur. Under the high-priest several classes of subordinate priests were ranged.

and anoint the body of the man seven times. 31. A.“ thc priest of the god Nibcitu. 51.” and the nzakhkhu. W. in which Prof. See Zimmern.” are mentioned along with the is&pu. 2 Kurke”. I . note 2. which in Sumerian appears in the earlier form of Z a ~ a r . ktw-gi-in-nu. Glory have they given t o the shades of the dead. Kzirkane”. xiv.62 LECTURE I. remove the root of the saffron(?). ~ I n the epic of Gisdhubar. The ideograph translated kzctstsu (W.” from the Accadian makh. and place on the heart the fat of a crane2 which has been brought from the mountains. (to whom) Anu and Bel have given names of renown. which I must enter. 55. Bzuspsalmen. 4 The mnklilihzc must have represented a subdivision of the is$pi. g‘ the elder. and pour out the water over the man.6 they drink the bright waters. Kunznzndu. ‘‘Pure water give him to drink.Chaldee. a word borrowed by the Semites from the Accadian kal. kana&& means ‘(to keep oneself. 33. 9. ii.. 6 Kcitstiti snd kntsdti. A. who from days.” not ‘& to bow” (as Zimmern and Lyon). I. “(for me) is treasured ups a crown (among those who wear) crowns. the word is the equivalent of esscyt~. Bab. 38) is 1 3 .” Ea-bani is made to say.* “(In the house.’’ Another class of priests were the kali. or “soothsayer. of old have ruled the earth. 15. literally “ fleshless ones : ’ compare Gp7iciiwa in Is. since in W. Accadian. Delitzsch sees the mag’>or iL (Rab-)mag” of the Old Testament.” The IcaZts was also termed Zabaru.” a word again borrowed from the Accadian Zabar.” Cp. A. iv. 28. ii. kurk’yd. where Ea-bani(?) is describing the land of Hades which he is doomed to enter. or “great one. or anointer. I. L‘illustrious. their Assyrian name having been borrowed along with the religious rites over which they presided. the Zagaru and the pdsisu. 0 my friend).1 and offer pure wine and pure yeast. I may add that the kali are the Galli or eunuch-priests of the Kappadoklan gocldes.

Nimrodepos. unless we suppose the word to be borrowed from the Accadian en. 0 my friend. L‘lord.) and makes answer in her presence. dih(u) sumppd .. . dwell the soothsayer (i8zjopu) and the makhkhu. .” “The abysses” or “deeps” of the great gods is an expression mhich requires explanation. from enu. 4 . I. and were called up&. A.’’denoted a class of priests.”3 It was with these “ deeps” that thepdsiw or ‘(anointing priest. . which I must enter dwell the lord’ and the Zagaru. No. 55). The temples of Babylonia were provided with large basins filled with water and used for purificatory purposes. 19. kutstsu. I. The “sea” is ststed to have been placed “between the ears of the bull” (line 17). A. the god EtannB and the god Ner. consumption. iv. The basins doubtless stood in the open air. however. (there the Lady) of the field. which resembled L L the sea” made by Solomon for his temple at Jerusalem. . 47. are described in TV. . . 23. the Hebrew teruphina (see Neubnuer in the Academy. also rendered su~pu.In the house. ((deeps” or ‘ I abysses. (there she . wasting fever . (There dwells) the queen of the earth Nin-ki-gal. f r o m TU@ The passage reads. 30. In 19.+tu).” The ceremonies attending the construction of a bronze bull intended to support one of these mas. bows before her. 17. we must read d u p Burrut. dwell the anointing priest of the abysses of the great gods. I‘lady” (W. ‘‘an incantation” (Assyrian . Zimmern thinks that enu. “lunacy. Oct. iii. this s u p position is improbable. in the great court within which the templo itself was erected.” A synonym of katslitu is turpu (Accadian dimme. pp. As. Haupt. the scribe of the earth. “ spectre”).” whose office it was to purify and cleanse. I‘ female scribe. 1586). 1 . the Assyrians formed e d u . but this is unlikely. was specially concerned.

The cause of this departure from the usual canons of Babylonian sacred architecture has still to be discovered. the divine king of heaven and earth.” concealed by a curtain or veil from the eyes of the profane. or “holy of holies. whereas in the case of the other temples it is the corners that do so. was the holy seat. there was of course only one building. built in the form of a square. the temple bore a striking likeness to that of Solomon. This is in its orientation. parorl~eth.2 Here. that of L‘Istar and Zam$m&. the 1 See Appendis TI. Where the temple was dedicated to one divinity only. 3 Hence the name paw&&. I n one particular. Die grosse S ~ e ~ n p l a t ~ 0 n ~ n sNebukudnezura.54 LECTURE L The description of E-Sag& the temple of Bel-Merodach a t Babylon.’ybesides the great court. 37. the temple of Bel-Merodach differed from that of evcry other Babylonian temple with which we are acquainted. cJir~~ y. . and containing thc great zzjgurrat. George Smithy1states that here at least there was a second court. the spot where they assemble together (?). on the eighth and the clcrenth days. or “ tower.3 the shrine ( p a r d ) of fate. This agglomeration of sacred edifices was due to the fact that the temple of Bel was a Babylonian Pantheon where the images and cult of the manifold gods of Chaldaea were gathered together. Within the latter was another walled enclosure. Web. which has been translated by Mr. however. according to Nebuchadnezzar. Its sides face the four points of the compass. Within. the place of the gods who determine destiny. wherein on the festival of Zagmuku at the beginning of the year.” as well as the temples and chapels of a large number of deities. At the extreme end was the pal-dku. So Flemming.

ii. A. 26. where the corresponding Accadinn verb appears as ide-minia-hairen. Rassam found a marble coffer containing two stone tablets which recorded Assur-natsir-pal’s victories and the erection of the chapel. I. ? .ISTRODUCTORY. There seem to be evidence that the institution of the shewbread was known in Cnbyionia. gives us further information about the internal arrangement of the shrine. i54. a table of shewbread. 65 10x4 of the hcarcns. I. The great temple of Bcl-Merodach at Babylon was adorned in a more 1 2 W. I n n fragment of a bilingual phrase-book (K 4207) we read (lines 6. ‘‘ the foodprovider looks down upon the house of brick. 54-62. ‘<the god of dreams. T.$4. iv. with a golden table in front of it like the golden table of shewbread i n the Jcmish ternpk2 The little chapel of Makhir. which is translated LiiGta bit agzirm’ i p d l m .”l Here. see W. (ace. out of the ideographic representation of which tho Semitic scribes by an erroneous reading foriued tho word kipllai.) nadu sagiir-un-tzig-a 8-glir (11-n2211” ra-in-?a-ne. too. near Mosul. 17.A. Herodotos tells us (i. The coffer and its contents remind us forcibly of the Israelitish ark with its “two tables of stone” (1Kings Tiii. at the north-west of the chamber. Before the coffer. g). Now in W . Hormuzd Rassam at Balawat. h . 183). 13. was a golden image of the god.) I n W. i’iiriitzi is the rendering of the Accatiian Sur (KI-GAL). where another stone tablet mas disinterred similar to those in the coffer. we find ina kisal nzdi?iWi kignlku Zziraindtn. Mr. In this. ii. seats himself. Tvhile the gods of heaven and earth listen to him in fear (and) stand bowing down before him. I. A. 9). 12. The gates that led to this temple of Nakhir were coated with plates of embossed bronze. which are now in the British Nuseum.” discovered by Mr. was an altar or“ marble ascended by five steps. “ on the high altar mayest thou found a place of feeding. A.” (For a p Z .” Le. iv. 44.

while its furniture. rcsembled in form the arks. on the shores of the Persian Gulf. here also ‘Ithe ship” of the Babylonian version has bccome ‘‘an ark. had each his sacred ship. too. the religion and religious ceremonies of pre . It is somewhat curious that the Assyrian ark should have assumed this shape.66 LECTURE I. they all had special names.” The coffer of the little temple of Imgur-Bel. The name by which it went to the last was that of “ship. W e are referred back to the ancient Chaldmn city of Eridu. It.Semitic Babylonia had once spread.” But the fact that the arks of the Babylonian gods were once ships points to a period when the first who made use of them were dwellers by the sea-shore. The gods of Eridu were water-gods. was a small shrine of rectangular shape.” a proof that it was originally in the form. as we shall see hereafter. 65. carried by means of staves passed through rings at its four corners. Its cedar-work was overlaid by Nebuchad. nezzar with gold and silver. The same transforniation is observable in the Biblical account of the Deluge as compared with that of the cuneiform inscriptions . pl. or trships” as they were termed. but of a ship. or Ralawat. .l It thus gives us a fair idea of what the Israelitish ark of the covenant must have been like. not of an ark. and. from whence. costly way. like that of Solomon’s temple. 1 I n Layard‘s Monuincnts o f Niizeaeh. two men supporting one end of each plat form and two men the other. in which the gods and their symbols were carried in religious processions. was of “ massive gold. like the deities of Egypt. the images of the gods are represented as standing upon platforms (or boats?) which are eanieci on men’s shoulders. These ships occupied an important place in the Babylonian ritual.

. Merodach is the god who pronounces the good name.~TEODUCIORY. I . ‘May the ship before theo cross the canal I May the ship behind thee sail over its mouth ! Within thee may the heart rejoicing make holiday !’*’I . The god Adar fills its cabin built within. the references t o the ship of the deity &UP. Nin-gal. with pure (and) blissful hand has uttered the word of life .. the water-god of Eridu. has nothing to do with the ’ I need hardly observe that the Sumerian word F 2 W. Carrying away (its) heart is the canal.” the papakh or ark” of Merodach : (( Its helm is of cedar (1) wood Its serpent-like oar has a handle of golh Ita mast is pointed with turquoise. “side. Ita side is of cedar from its forest. is a mountain that gives rest to the heart.2 At all events. but was the son of Ea. cven Nan-gar (the lady of work). Its house.. Making glad its heart is the sunrise. for instance. 67 and were the visible abodes of the divinities to whom they belonged. The hymn was an heirloom from Sumerian Efidu. Let us listen. the bright one. its ascent. A. The ship of Ea is Destiny. to an old hymn that mas recited when a new image of the god was made in honour of ‘‘the ship of enthronement. It is written in Accadian. The goddess who benefits the house. the mighty workwoman of heaven. Seven times seven lions of the field (Eden) occupy its deck. Its awning is the palm (1) wood of Dilvun. . It had come down from the days when Merodach was not as yet the god of Babylon. and no Semitic translation is attached to it. i i 25. 9-32.” hnur (Gw&) in the northern dialect of Accad. the messenger of Ea the ruler of the earth. is the goddess whose word is life. it is even possible that some of the expressions used in the hymn had ceased to be intelligible t o the priests of E-Saggil who recited it. the princess (Dsv-kina).

68 LECTURE 1 . when a slaw was dressed in the robes of a king1 The service at the temple of Bel-Merodach which was opened by the hymn in honour of his ark. “ high-priest. 70. iv. “ commemoration-feast. (then) four hynins to h the holy god of Eridu. but was carried on the shoulders of men. 39 sg. and it was DO longer required t o sail across the sacred canals of the temples. is possibly the Sakmn feast of the classicnl miters. for five days.” Suh/cunukc/cu. The festivals at which such arks were borne in pmcession were naturally numerous in a country whcre divinities innumerable mere adored. ii.” The corresponding Accadian u&dar is day of corninenloration . 25. does not agree in the case of the two feasts.) says : “ GBrBssos in the first book of his Babylonian History states that in thc 11th nionth.” in W. helm and oar and mast had alike disappeared. 5 1. A. were no longer applicable in the Semitic age of Babylon. ‘‘ a hcap” (“ wall”). A. W. I. called L ~ o sis . xiv. 31). dur alone ie rendered isinnu. “ festival. The iizB or ((ship” of the pre-Semitic Sunierians had then become the pnpakhu or L L ark’’ of the Semites . A. one of whom is led round the house. iv. it is translated sipat. 23. was accompanied by another specially commemorating the festival itself : 2 “The clay the (image of the) god has been made. The festival of ZAG-MU-KU. probably from sc1g11. 3 Azknirc. clad i n a roynl robe. when it is the custoni that the masters should obey their servants. 14. ~ ~~ Semitic ignru. 40.” The ZogsnGs was the Accacliaii s n p z . he lias caused the holy festival3 to be fully kept.” Then follow the incantations or hymns. though the scribes of Semitic Cabylonia afterwards confounded the two words together.” I n I< 2107. I. and called ZogaiiBs. I. . Athenaos (De@n. ‘‘ head.” is a derivative. borrowed as scLX. celebrated the feast of Sakea. mentioned by Nebuchadnezzar as having beca held at Babylon at the beginning of the year. ‘‘ an incantation’’ or hymn . 1 The month.lience we read in a fragment (R 528) : “At dawn (repeat) a hymn in the presence of Mcrodach.nnzL by Semitic Eabyloriian (IT. however. 1. iii.

0 hero perfect of breast.. ( a pleasant taste) when food is uneaten and water un(drunk). the man approaches the moon in prayer. there is harm (boded to his) house. ‘ receive my prayer’ he does not say. Tho festival is the creation of tho god. bid lustre surround this image. . Bid the fe&tival be fully kept for ever . 3..” Accadian : “ Pronounce for ever the festival completed. by tlie command d the same god (who) brought (it) about. On the 12th day to the sun and moon his offerings he makes. On the 10th day.” Assyrian : I ‘ In perpetuity for ever cause (the festival) to be complcto.3 We I n the Assyrian translation. an eclipse takes place . ‘‘brilliantly. . . to the sun and moon his offerings (niizdaht) he makes.” No better idea can be formeci of the number and variety of the Babylonian feasts than by reading a hemerology of the intercalary month of Elul. To t h e moon he . On the 1lth day to the sun and moon his ogerings he makes . on earth ths god has been created ! This fcstival has been created among the hosts of heaven and earth. 1 ‘ . 69 T h o god has risen among dl lands. establish veneration. On the 14th day to the sun and moon he does not preseut his sin-offering (mukhibizti) . On the 9th day there is no going forth .INTRODUCTORY. This festival has issued forth from the forest of the cedar-trees.. adorn thyself with heroism. the work of mankind. through lthe creative message of the valiant golden god . the festival appears like gold i n heaven the god has been created. Lift up the (nimbus of) glory..a This festival is a sweet savour even when the mouth is unopened.” 8 With this hcxnerology may be compared the following liturgical fragment (K 3 i 6 5 ) : 2.. 5. On the 13th Cay to the moon his offeiings he makes. where we find that every day is dedicated to one or other of the gods. there is no going forth. 8. The moon and the sun draw near to Anu. the man (is pure) as the Sun-god. according to the command of the valiant golden god. and oertain rites and ceremonies prescribed for each. . The lightning flashes . 1 3 . 4 ..

On this day his wife io pregnant. There is no going forth. A day of good luck. were included in the series. The second day (is dedicated) to the goddesses [the two Istnrs]. . The king niakes his free-will offering to the Sun the mis tress of the world. which were rendered necessary from time to time by the frequent disorder of the calendar. Heb. the shepherd of mighty nations’ (shall offer) to the moon as a free-will offering2 a gazelle without blemish . .” 8 The fact that the Sun is here a goddess shows that the hemerology has no connection with Sippara. I‘ The month of the second Elul.70 LECTURE I . . Sacrifices he offers. Hence. The Accadian equivalent is (‘the dues of the goddess. 2 Nindnbu.” 1 This title refers us to the age of Kkammuragas as the period when the work was composed. ‘receive my prayer’ he docs not say. our tablet is the seventh of the series. A lucky day. His sinoffering he does not present. as the regular Elul mas the sixth month of the year. The lifting up of his hand finds favour (mugir) with the god. nZdh&?id?i. The first day (is dedicated) to Anu and Bel. On the 15th day to tho sun and the moon he makes his offer- ings. and to the Moon the supreme god. that even the intercalary months. When during the month the moon is seen. On this day. The lifting up of his hand he presents to the god. and the Moon the supreme god. during the day he approaches the sun in prayer. he shall make his free-will offering to tho Sun the mistress of the world. . It may havc originated in Ur. ~~ ~~ 8.3 He offers sacrifices. The sun and the moon behold his offerings. Besides the festivals of the regular Elul. there were consequently the festivals of a second Elul whenever the priests deemed it needful to insert one in the calendar. learn from the colophon that it was the seventh of a series of tablets which must have furnished the Babylonian with a complete ‘< saints’ calendar” for the whole year. So careful was he not to lose an opportunity of keeping holiday in honour of his deities.

1. His clothes he must not change. He offers sacrifices.4 For making a curse it is not fit.INTRODUCTORY. The Assyrian scribe has here substituted “ASSUI~~ for the original Mul-lil of the text. ii. 71 The 3rd day (is) a fastday? (dedicated) to Merodach and Zarpsnit A lucky day.IJ see Zeitaclmift fiir X e i l s c h t $ f ~ w s c i f t f o r r r e l u n g ii. A lucky day. He must not issue royal decrees. Medicine for the sickness of his body he must not apply. The lifting up of his hand finds favour with the god. Yum AB-AB. borrowed from the Accadian nu-had. The shepherd of mighty nations must not eat flesh cooked at the fire (or) in the smoke. He offers sacrifices. During the night. During the night. . since the next line of the tablet speaks of “ the house of the dark flesh of Ea. GG incomplete. but wrongly.” Sargon laid the foundations of his new city on this day (according to his cylinder. AB-AB is stated to be equivalent to pin S 1720. The 5th day (is dedicated) to the Lord of the lower firmament and the Lady of the lower firmament.” . The lifting up of his hand finds favour with the god. He must not offer sacrifice.16. 4 Literally. the king makes his free-will offering. A lucky day. ‘I magus segroto manum 8uam ne applicato. the king makes his free-will offering to Rimmon. “ h e must not bring medicine to his disease of body . A. He offers mcrifices. the king makes his free-will offering. The lifting up of hip hand he presents to the god. I n a secret plaw the augur must not mutter. the king makes his free-will offering. pp. During the night. line 59). in the presence of Amur3 and Xin-lil. Lotz translates. During the night. g6 day of mourning. according to Assur-bani-pal. before the east wind. 2-4. The 4th day (is) the faast-day2of Nebo (the son of Merodach). in the presence of Merodach and Istar. The king (repeats) a penitential psalm and a litany. The king must not drive a chariot. (dedicated) to Merodach and Zarpanit.” W. 32. in the presence of Neb0 and Tasmit.” The Assyrian equivalent is yum idirtu. 13. I. A lucky day. During the night the king makes his free-will offering before Nuhattu. The lifting up of his hand he presents to the god. White garments he mqst not put on. A day of rest (Sabbath). A lucky day. for which Zimmern’s signification of “ cooking food” is probably correct. He offers sacrifices. The 6th day (is dedicated) to Rimmon and Nin-lil. The 7th day is a fastday. The third of the month Ab was the nubat of Mcrodach.

The king makes his vow t o Neb0 and Tasmit. A lucky day. The clothing of his body hc must not change. He offcrs sacrifices.Heb. The king makes his free-will offering to Bel and Beltis. the Iring makes his freewill offering. ii. The 12th day is the gift-day of Bel and Beltis. The 10th day (is dedicated) to the Mistress of the lower firmament and the divine Judge. The shepherd of mighty‘nations must not eat flesh cooked on the fire (or) in the smoke. He offers sacrifice. He must not offer sacrifice.I. in the presence of Adar and Gnla. . When the moon3 lifts up (its) crown of moonlight. 22. 19. The 14th day (is sacred) to Beltis and Nergal. The lifting up of his hand finds favour with the god. twelve being north and twelve south. He offers sacrifice. He must not issue royal 1 The divine judges were twenty-four stars associated with the Zodiac. He offers sacrifice. I. The lifting up of his hand he presents to the god. A lucky day. 2 & I d t i . H e must not drive a chariot. accorditlg to DioclBros (ii. 30). During the night. He offcrs sacrifice. as in Hebrew. The 13th day (is sacred) to the Moon the supreme god. The lifting up of his hand finds favour with the god. A lucky day. iii. The lifting up of his hand he presents to the god.’ A lucky day.A. 16. During the night the shepherd of mighty nations directs his hand to the saciifice of R shcop. A. minkhdh. 17. On this day assuredly the king makes his free-will offering to the Sungod the mistress of the world. There was another word manitu. in the presence of the star of the chariot and the star of the son of Istar. The lifting up of his hand finds favour with the god. See W. 23. ii. “ a couch” (W.72 LECTURE I. The lifting up of his hand finds favour with the god. the king makes his free-will offering. The 11th dag is the completion of the menl-offeringa to Tasmit and Zarpanit. A lucky day. The moon lifts up (its) crown of moonlight towards the earth. 58. Merodnch and Istar. and the Moon the supreme god. He offers sacrifice. 66. The lifting up of his hand finds favour with the god. During the night. He offers sacrifice. 57). 3 ArlcJlu. one of the few instances in which the word is used in Assyrian. A lucky day. and (its) orb rejoices. A Sabhth. White garments he must not put on. The 9th day (is dedicated) to Adar and G d a . A lucky day. the king makes his free-will offering to the moon. The Sth day (is) the feast of Nebo.

Tho 19th day (is) the whiteS day of the great goddess Gula. Lev. has the secondary meaning of “holy. taklinzu. He offers sacrifice. v. “ a stated offering” or “ korban” (Ass.~TRODUCl’OItY.” kiutu. as corrected. (A day for) making the stated offering’ to Sin the supreme god. The king prescnts his free-will offering to Samas the mistress of the worlil. which like its synonym ellu (Heb. He offers sacrifice. ‘‘offering of shewbread. The 16th day (is) a fast-day to Merodach and Zarpnnit. must not offer sacrifice. nindabu and taldirnu being alike translations of the AccadoSumerian “ dues of the goddess. 4. The 17th day (is) the fcast-day of Neb0 and Tasmit. before Nebo and Tasmit. A. A Sabbath. I ~ i I l ~ l ~ r n . (‘ a tributary offering. and Sin the supreme god. In the night. The shephed of mighty nations must not eat that what is cooked at the fire. The lifting up of his hand finds favour with the god. A lucky day. W. The king makes his free-will offering to Samas the mistress of the world. The king must not drive (his) chariot. The 15th day (is sacred) to the (Sun the) Lady of the House of Heaven. He offers sacrifice. 24). I n the night the king makes his free-will offcring to Beltis and Nergnl. A lucky day. A lucky day. Medicine for the sickness of his body he must not apply. xix. 11. 7cir6annu). For making a curse it is not fit. I n the night. hdlal. H e offers sacrifice. A lucky day. The lifting up of his hands finds favour with tho god. The 18th day (is) the festival (idinnu) of Sin and Samas. The king must not repeat a penitential psalm. The augur must not mutter (in) a secret place. The lifting up of his hands finds favour with the d. For making a curso (the day) i s ~~~ ~~ ~ Here the Accadian and 1 Nikudu. * IppC. I.” 2 Istar is here identified with Zarpanit. 73 decreea (In) a secret place the augur must not mutter. must not put on white garments.” .” Compare the I stin ‘‘dies candidus. cornp. A Iticky day. Sumerian equivalents am given of the Semitic ninduh.” and n i k d u . The lifting up of his hands finds favour with the god. He offers sacrifice. The lifting up of his hands finds favour with the god. “ a free-will offering” (nddub). the king presents his free-mill offering. before Merodach and Istaq2 the king presents his free-will offering. Medicine must not be applied to tho sickness of the body. must not change the clothing of his body. and Sin the supreme god. must not issue royal decrees.

Medicine must not be applied to the sickness of the body. The shepherd of mighty nations niust not eat flesh cooked at the fire or in the smoke. He offers sacrifice. must not issue royal decrees. The 25th day (is) the proccssinnal day2 of Bel and Beltis of Babylon. The lifting up of his hand finds favour with the god. (It is) the festival of the (Sun the) mistress of the Palace. and (Sin the supreme god). A lucky day. and Sin the supreme god. The king presents his free-will offering to Samns tho mistress of the world. The lifting up of his hand finds favour with the god. not suitable. The 26th day (is the day) of the establishinent of the enclosing mall . The lifting up of his hand finds favour with the god. The lifting up of his hand finds favour with the god. A lucky day. and Sin the supreme god. The king presents his free-will offering to Samas the niistress of the world. For making a curse (the day) is not suitable. must not put on white garments. The 21st day (is the day for) making the stated offering to Sin and Samas. The king presents his free-will offering to Salnas and Rimmon. The lifting up of his hand finds favour with the god. The king must not drive (his) chariot. -4 lucky day. must not change the clothing of his body. H e offers sacrifice. . He offers sacrifice. He offers sacrifice. At dawn the king presents his freewill offering t o Samas the mistress of the world. must not offer sacrifice. The lifting up of his hand finds favour with the god. A lucky day. The augur must not mutter (in) a secret place. The 22nd day (is the day for) malting the stated offering to (Sin and) Samas. A lucky day. The king presents his free-will offering to Adar and (hila. He offers sacrifice. 9 Probably the ideographic mode of representing zpp& 8adhak7izi. The lifting up of his hands finds fnrour with the god. Tho 24th day (is) the festival of the Lord of the Palace and the Mistress of the Palace. The king presents his free-will offering to the Lord of the Palace and the Mistress of the Palace. A Sabbath.” .’ the gift-day of Sin and Samas. A lucky day. literally ‘‘ marching. In the night the king presents his free-will offering to Eel before the star of the Foundation. The 23rd day (is) the festival of Samas and Rimmon. He offers sacrifice. and to Beltis of Babylon before the star of the Chariot.74 LECTURE r. Tho 20th day (is) a day of light. He offers sacrifice.

12 amard (SUB E-MUB. (It is) the day of the resting of Nergal. A lucky day. 76 of Es the supreme god. “ stall. where melulti is in parallelism with tarbatsi.” dgari. The lifting up of his hand finds favour with the god. He offers sacrifice. ‘$cage. The king presents his free-will offering to Sin the supreme god. 1.” see W. iii. ‘ L bed. The 30th day (is sacred) to Anu and Bel. “ cote. The lifting up of his hand finds favour with the god. H e offers sacrifice. 1 Nad. thou dost not cause the little ones to come out of the place of the ntelzdti”). 8-16.’ The king must repeat (1) a penitential psalm whatever(?) he may present. 36). Rev. “an enclosing wall. The king must not drive a chariot. The day when the spirits of heaven and earth are adored. L‘lair. park” or “chase . must not offer sacrifice. The lifting up of his hand finds favour with the god. H e must not issue royal decrees.. K 161. must not put on white garments. 82.” Buburi.’l and irsi. 7. That day at nightfall he makes a free-will offering to Ea the supreme god. A lucky day. .INTBODUCTOBY. 7. The lifting up of his hand finds favour with the god. I n the second Nul the king of the country gives a name to the temple of the god. 23. I. 15. equivalent of El-E-NE-Di-INNAKA . I.” S 526. The lifting up of his hand finds favour with the god. A lucky day. 25 (“the place of the nzclulti thou dost not plant. To Ea the supreme god (the king) presenta (his free-will offering). 2 Me-lzrl-ti. A. s 704. For making a curse (the day) is not suitable. 6. Whether he builds a shrine (or). where eaemeii is the Accadinn. The 28th day (is sacred) to E a . The 27th day (is the day) of the chase2 of Nergal (and) the festival of Zilium. B 2 . H e offers sacrifice. his heart is not good. A lucky day. nnd melulti sa Istari the Assyrian.” +rim’. if the king restores either his god or his goddess or his gods who haye been expelled. ii. like ittgar. The 2nd month of Elul from the 1st to the 30th day. A. 21 (“ they enclosed the place of melulti”) . (In)a secret place the augur must not mutter. Medicine for the sickness of the body must not be applied.” UT. Am.” Buhdli. that king has the divine colossus as his god. H e offers sacrifice. igaru. The shepherd of great nations must not eat flesh cooked at the fire or in the smoke. Rev. must not change the clothing of his body. A lucky day.. . ‘ L stable. The 29th day (is) the day of the resting of tho Moon-god. The king prosenis his free-will offering to Anu and Bel. H e offers sacrifice. i. The king presents his freewill offering to Nergal and Zikum. A Sabbath.

” in Assyrian. I . nor finding thine own ideasure. nor speaking thine own w01ds” (Is. Ex. ii. the reading sabnttuv in this passage is d l e d a “textual emendation” made by Delitzsch. ii. I n the new edition of the Enycloixzdicc Britannica. from the Accadian nu-bat. 2. however.” evidently regarded the word as derived from the Accadian su-bat. (These are) the comniartd:iients of Eel-khummu (the priest) on the first day (sacreal to Anu and 1Sd. A. A. 28. it mas W. The compiler QQ the text (W. “ t o complete. 13)-in exact conformity with the regulations of the Babylonian Sabbath.” in W. [Beginning of the next tablet of the series] :The month Tisri (h icred) to Sarnas the warrior of mankind. 32) in which sabcittuv is explained as “ a day of rest of the heart. and a vocabulary explaitis it as being “ a day of rest for the heart. 2 W. is a mistake.” like the Latin ‘‘ dies nefastus. of Assur-bani-pal. lo). I. In the second Elul the king restores the sacrifice (makhm). 16. and the published text was corrected by myself long before Delitzsch re-examined the trriginal.” It was. The E i i ~ ~ ~ ~ l ~ Britunniccr p d i t c malres another strange statement in describing the Hcbrcw Sabbath as a day “of feasting and good cheer. on the contrary.76 LECTURE I. yum 7iulcJi libhi= snbattziv. It is the reading of the original tablet. possessed the term Sabbath as well. that the Sabbath was known to the Babylonians and Assyrians. the king of Assyria. KX. iii.”2 Like the Hebrew Sabbath. 1 . i i 32.” i he One of the most interesting facts that result from this hemerology is. 53. 3 .” and he certainly had in support of his view the similar term nzrbattu. I. “an unlawful day. I. a day of rest (Gen.” which is rendered by szilum. Iviii.’ The possessior. “ heart-resting.]-Thc 8th tablet (of the series beginning) ‘ The Noon lord of tho month. or ‘‘ rest-day. A. since the term used to represent it in the text is the Accadian udu khulgal. This. A. “ the holy day” on which the Jew was forbidden to do his own pleasure-“not doing thine o1vn ways. The Assyrian verb snhntu is given as a synonym of gamwu. however. 14. [Co~o~~ios. 56. Its institution must have gone Iiack to the Accadian epoch.1 Semitic 13abylonian. the king of iiiultitudes. v.

that after suppressing the revolt in Babylonia and removing the corpses that had choked the streets of the Babylonian cities. when her foes were gathering around her. as they had been in former days. I n the closing years of the Assyrian empire. 4. . 86 s p . which they had discontinued.” to prescribe ‘(the legal solemnities (nzesari iu’inni)for a hundred days and a hundred nights. and ordered the Khal. or (‘prophet. Esarhaddon II. Assur-bani-pal tells us. Their angry gods and wrathful goddesses he soothed with supplicat’ ions and penitential psalms. A. arnong the Babylonians. “ b y the command of the augurs (z’s@pti)” he “ purified their shrines and cleansed their chief places of prayer.INTRODUCTORY. Why it should have been so I cannot pretend to say.” from the 3rd of Iyyar to the 15th of Ab. But there were two respects in which it differed from the Hebrew institution. prayed to the Sun-god that he would “remove the sin” of his people. He restored and established in pence their daily sacrifices.. “ the Sabbaths” and “the new moons” were separate from one another.1 So. 77 observed every seventh day. the last king. Consequently.’!2 The sacrifices and offerings of the Babylonians and 1 K1668. I . the 19th of the intercalary Elul was also a Sabbath. In the second place. v. they coincided in so f‘ar as the Sabbath fell on the first day of the lunar month. extraordinary days of thanksgiving or humiliation were ordained from time to time. the last week contained nine days. and was obviously connected with the seventh-day periods of the moon. 3. Among the Israelites. too.2. Besides the stated festivals and Sabbaths. since the month consisted of thirty days. W.

78 LECTURE I. however. he ‘‘ set up over them the mighty bow of Istar. In the great work on astronomy called “The Observations of Bel. i. Arur. connected with nrzirti.I. the child’s head for his head. When the effeminate Assur-bani-pal had slaughtered a batfue of caged lions. 7. 60. ii. 1 W. I.’’ in curious disregard of the . it also proves that the sacrifice of children was a Babylonian institution. presented offerings over them. a W. A.” or “peaceofferings.”l An old magical test prays that “the sick man may be purified by sacrifices of mercy and peace.”4 The offering was consequently by fire. the child’s breast for his breast.” an epithet of R i m mon. A. 18. the child’s neck for his neck. the lightning. and made a sacrifice of wine over them. Wine was poured over the victim or the altar.2 But although the Assyrian kings are fond of boasting of their exploits in massacreing or torturing their defeated enemies in honour of Amur. 2 W. such as oxen. is shown by a bilingual text (K5139) which enjoins the abgal. I. were known as far back as the Accadian era. Delitzsch renders it ‘I earthquake. 54. and ofl’erings of meal and wine.” to declare that the father must give the life of his child for the sin of his own soul. we find no allusions in the inscriptions of the historical period to human sacrifice. The text not only proves that the idea of vicarious punishment was already conceived of . 162. iii. or c‘chief prophet. Assyrians closely resembled those of the Israelites. 53. as in Phcenicin. That human sacrifices.”3 we are told that L c on the high-places the son is burnt. sheep or gnzelles. the lady of war. they were divided into sacrifices of animals. Like the latter. A.” as the translators of our Bible would have expressed it.

I n pl. however. 1. of what a Babylonian religious service wau like. Oh. there was ne character both of Rimmon and of the plain of Babylonia. JiJtdrur. 112 sq. a prayer I’ After that he shall bow down to Gula and shall speak thus : ‘0 Gula. 18.The sacrificosr were accompanied. is a ruder copy of a scene of human sacrifice depicted on an early Babylonian cylinder procured by Dr. 61. W.I. “secret wisdom” (82. establisher of law. . begetter of the black-headed race. iv. xix. tJtoriiJ&. Max Ohncfalsch-Richter in Cyprus). M. pp. 46. a prayer !’ After that he shall bow down to Nul-lil and shall speak thus : ‘0 lord exalted. sometimes by hymns or incantations.” The best idea. a prayer !’ After that he shall bow down to Nin-lil and shall speak thus : ‘ 0 Nin-lil. during the middle watch. with which Delitzsch compares the Heb.* a prayer !’ For three days at dawn and at night. 47. A. Literally. with face and mouth uplifted. mighty goddess. MOnant has painted out several instances in which a human sacrifice is represented on early Babylonian cylinders (Ccitalope de lu Collection de Qercq. a prayer !’ After that he shall bow down to Adar and shall speak thus : ‘0 Adar. No. A. the diviner (crsip) shall pour out libations. The prayers were all prescribed. may be gathered from the instructions given to the priest who watched in the temple of BelMerodach at Babylon on the night of the first day of the new year. 8 1 6 . and a large number of them haye been preserved. L iv. mother. a prayer !’ After that he shall bow down to Nusku and shall speak thus : ‘0 Nusku. Curiously enough. prince and king of thv secrets 3f the great goda. however. The published text is very incorrect. Here are some examples of them : “At dawn and in the night (the worshipper) shall bow down (ikanimid) before the Throne-bearer and shall speak as follows : ‘ 0 Thronebearer. sometimes by prayers. TV. i. 181. 23). wife of the divine Prince of Sovereignty. mighty lord of the deep places of the wells.3 Part of his duty was t o repeat a hymn. giver of prosperity. the first fourteen lines of which were alternately in Accadian and Semitic. 19 sq. The word corresponds with the Heb.

like tlie Jews. and it is mom than probable that the meaning was but little understood by the Semitic priests. “the chief watcher. he must enter into the presence of Eel. lord of the world !” 5 The preceding Accndian line reads : “ What is the lord (doing) now P the lord is resting. king of blessedness.” . 0 father (2) of lords. thee they lseliold the father of lords. This is how the text begins: I n the month Nisan. Corsippa is thy crown ! The wide heaven is the habitation of thy liver ! 0 lord. the Accadian portion had to do with god of the sanctuary. as I am unable to translate them fully. possibly from the pre-Semitic days of Babylon itself.” whose only resemblance to Bel mas that he is entitled “the lord of the world. establisher of trust . thy scoptre is Babylon.* 0 Eel. on the second day1 and the first hour ( l a s h ) of the night.’y The Accadian verses are thus evidently a heirloom from n distant past. and. light of iiianlrind. The tit13 perhaps had reference to tho nightly watch kept in the sanctuary of Merodacli in tho tower of E-Saggil. wlio in his strength has no rivnl. Bel (the lord) of the Seelting after the favour of tho great gods. I omit tho Accadian lines of the hymn. The Accadian titlo Uru-gal. thine is the revelation. E d .” is used. reckoned tlie Clay from evening to evening. ~~ 1 It must bo remembered that the Eabylonians. 4 The preceding Aecndiau line is : ‘‘ 0 lord of tlie blessed sanctuary.80 LECTURE I. putting on a robe in the presence of Bel. 0 Eel. connection between the Accadian and the Scmitic verses . ( a d ) the interprdntions of visions . who in liis glance has destroyed the strong: Bel (the lord) of Icings. the god wlro hd3s the sanctuary of man. wliile the Semitic lines were addressed to Bel-Merodach of Babylon and Borsippn.” 0 The 1~cceding Accadian line has: “The god of the sanctuary ob iiianliind. shall address t o Eel this hymn :$ * 0 Bel. the priestZ must go and take the waters of the river in his hand .

who dwellest in the temple of the Sun. 38.’ Show mercy to thy city Rnbylon. which are mutilated. surrounded by the river (dilchir ndtri). .INTRODUCTORY. the whole (gnmE) of the world is on his face. (this) shall be said : (15) 0 Mul-lil my lord (anza) in Nipur I saw thee . who is there whose mouth murmuw not of thy righteousness or speaks not of thine exaltation and celehratcs not thy glory? 0 Bel (lord) of the world. 92. I. v.” . run as follows : ‘’ (1) cf tlie cidthnu listen. . . (3) he is bright and 1 saw thee. for which see W.I they magnify (1) thee. 0 master of the strong . thy hand. he has gone to meet her (1). (6) our lacly (Irilit-ni) has come forth . they adore (P) thee. and iv. . (17) I . light of the spirits of heaven. grant the prayers of thy people the sons of Babylon !”’* 1 Or crlem.. (7) the lord of Babylon has issued forth.” zimat zirtuv. which is terit in iv. 81 thine is the glance.’ (14) 0 Bel who (art) in the shrine. 0 Bel (lord) of the world. this shall bc said : ( 5 ) ‘ Eel has come forth . (2) . purify me. (8) Zarpanit the princess has issued forth . 0 king (and) mighty prince . when thou pardonest the world (Icullat tamtsi). the king has looked for thee. (16) 0 my shepherd when I saw thee in the temple of Sin the first-born.”’ The king first three lines.. . in the house of the supreme chief (abmc&I~) I saw you my lord (amur-kunicumu). 28. cadse them to behold the light that they may tell of thy ri$iteuusness. his mouth has gone to meet I:er (?)(illaku sans pi-su). . reject not the hands that are raised to thee. (12) purify me (eZZ&z). . (and) the seeing of wisdom . and (13) fill Babylon with pure splendour. A. 0 seed-planter [placc] the seed. 4 With this text must be compared another (unmarked at the time I copied it). . 0 Nin-lil. to E-Saggil thy temple incline thy face. (10) Place the herbs in the hands of tlie goddess of Babylon. 23). show unto them mercy . 48 (where urtn is tho Accadian amma. which is interesting as &erring to the oracle established within the “slirine” or ‘ I holy of holies” ( p a m k ) of the temple of Bel : “(4) Like Bel in the shrine of the destinies the prophcey shall be uttered (ittaspu). 15. 8 . (11) 0 adfinnu (eunuch-prieiit) [place] the flute (01-IN). they look up to thee. utterer of blessings. the king has looked for me (yuqd‘u) . (9) Tasniit has issued forth. thy foot and.

-Make this prayer seven times over the thread (~zcysiti) . Seven by seven had the magic knots to be tied by the witch. may Merodach pacify thee! (Conclusion of) the spell. who that is not Ea has quieted (thee) (8. “ Incantation. 50.2 As the Sabbath of rest fell on each seventh day of the week. I. I. Erech is called the city of “ the seven zones” or ‘‘ stones” (W. like the demon messengers of Anu. In Ea rnunnu yunukh) 1 who that is not Merodach has pacified (thee)? May Ea quiet (thee).in order to teach the ansediluvian Eabylonians the arts of life. When the Chaldaean Noah escaped from the Deluge. 5. stretch (it) around his name (emu 8 u n z . Similarly we read the following prayer in 3 1 124F. W. seven fish-like men ascendeci out of the Persian Gulf. DIL-ES is interpreted Bulludh.the masi or ‘‘ double stars. TTariousspecial dresses were worn during the performance of the religious ceremonies. mere seven in number. as Lotz reminds us. ii. by sevens. the violent (sum &a). 10. and “the god of the number seven ” received peculiar honour. The deluge was said t a have lasted seven days. according to B&rBssus. 3. his first act was to build an altar and to set vessels. iv.82 LECTDIEE 1. A. 5-12. or rather into food that it was lawful and W. Along with this superstitious reverence for the sacred number. whose magic virtues had descended to the Semites from their Accadian predecessors. and ablutions in pure water were strongly insisted on. 26. 1 . I. pine-wood and thorns. 55-57) . was a sacred number.-0 strong (goddess). 6. A. the gates which led to Hades were also seven . thou bcholdest (pnpatu) the hostility of the enemy . t h e e groups of stars-the tilcpi or ‘L circles” (’?). iv. 49.‘ seven times had the body of the sick man to be anointed with the purifying oi1. each containing the third of an ephah. so the planets. and.s ~ )and ~ live (DIL-EB). Seven. the furious of breast ( w d m t a irtu). over a bed of reeds. 14. A.” and the 7u-musi or “sheep o f the hero. went a distinction of the animal world into clean and unclean.” I n 0 536.the powerful. Incantation.” were each seven in number . too.

6. at all events.” where the idea may be similar to that of the Egyptian texts in which the 7 n or “double” of the dead is described as feasting on the gods. 3.‘the flesh of a inan” is mentioned along with “the flesh of the gazelle. I n S 1720. Cp.” “ the flesh of the ass.” IC the flesh of the wild boar.2 It is true that there are indications that human flesh had once been consumed in honour of the spirits of the earth. A. K 4609. 306 8p. on the 27th of Marchesmn.1 The very mention of the kilumzir) or domestic pig. i.” “ the flcsh of the dog. as Prof. The distinction may have gone back to an age of totemism.” and “ thc flesh of the dragon” (bkbis). ii. the author expresses his contrition for having ‘‘ eaten the forbidden thing .”3 but such barJ J 1 ‘‘Das Wildschwein in den assyrisch-babylonisclien Inschriften. nor. and reptiles were accounted as unclean as they mere among the Jews. Maspero has lately shown must also have been the case in pre-historic Egypt. K (unnumbered). I may add here that circumcision mas known to the Babylonians as it was to the J e w . and if Jensen is right in seeing the mild boar in the sakilu of the texts. which is used in Hebrew and Arabic in a precisely opposite sense . dr. pp. I n one of the penitential Psalms. it prevailed as extensively among the Babylonians and Assyrians as it did among the adherents of the Mosaic Law. also an unnumbered tablet containing a hymn to the god Tutu : m p t u inu santami inu n w G 2 . all of which it was unlawful t o eat. but the ideographic equivalents of the Babylonian word (“ the shaping of the phallus”) show what its signification in Assyrian m u s t be. mention is made of “ t h e house of the dark ( D I R ) flesh of Ea. 17. is avoided in the Semitic Babylonian and Assyrian inscriptions. I. So in S 477.INTBODUCTORY 83 unlawful to eat. ii. 20. 63) it was termed urh. and a bilingual hymn still speaks of “eating the front breast of a man. the Xeb. its flesh was not allowed to be eaten on the 30th of the month Ab. . I n a magical text (W.61. like that of the ox. 17.” I‘ the flesh of the horse.” and ‘‘the flesh of the wild ass.” Zeitschrift filr As8yrioloyie.

but those who swallowed the compounds prescribed by the medical faculty were those who had already lost their faith in the old beliefs of the people. the tongues of ((black dogs” and even ordure. the flesli in abundance thou eatest.scIiulzg. including snakes.Medicine” in the ZeitsclmTt jiir b’eilacl~rifffool. the theology of ancient lhbylonia harmonised but badly with the prescriptions of its medical schoo1. - . and were never shared in by the Semites. thou art princely in the earth. The practice of medicine has often been accused of antagonism to religion.” 1 See my articles on “ A n Ancient Babylonian Work on . in the worlcl thou feerlest on mankind . the flesh of their hearts thou eatest. ‘‘ Thou art exalted in heaven . barous practices were but dimly remembered rominiscences of a barbarous past. 3 . i iI. and had substituted the rec@e of the doctor for the spells of the exorcist and the ritual of the priest.84 LECTURE 1. It is equally true that medicine laid contributions on the most unclean articles of food.l tnti nisi tnbnrri szirbnta-ma [inn]irtsith s i m REAR-MES-SUnU [talbarri siru dukJtdh6 tabnrri nttn. whatever inay be the case in these modern days.

” and ‘(all lands beheld his friend. the last independent Babylonian monarch. whom the Hebrew prophet had already hailed as the Lord’s Anointed. DEL-ME$ODACE OF BABYLON. hmm n. ‘‘ the lord of the gods. the divine patron of the imperial city. and destined him by name for the sovereignty of Chaldzea. the great lord..” Merodach sympathised with their wrongs . Cyrus. was due to the anger of Bel and the other gods.” who had accordingly rejected Nabonidos. to ‘‘ go round unto all men wherever might be their seats. and had collected them together i n the midst of Babylon. the restorer . IN an inscription upon a clay cylinder brought from Babylonia seven years ago. ‘‘ he visited the men of Sumer and Accad whom he had sworn should be his attendants. The priests maintained that the deed had aroused the indignation of Merodach. king of Elam. It was ‘‘in wrath” that the deities had “ left their shrines when Nabonidos brought thcm into Babylon.” He chose Cyrus. and had sought for a ruler after his own heart.” and had prayed Merodach. even as Saul was rejected from being king of Israel. Cyrus is made to declare that the overthrow of Nabonidos. was thus equally the favourite of the supreme Babylonian god. “ Merodach. Nabonidos had removed their images from their ancient sanctuaries.

” we are told. like a friend and a comrade he went at his side. With all the allowance that must be made for tho flattery exacted by a successful conqueror. and we may therefore infer that it mas compiled by Babylonian scribes and intended for the perusal of Babylonian readers. Yet we find the foreign conqueror described as the favourite of the national god. To his city of Babylon he summoned his march. and the fall of the house of David is attributed. to divine anger. ‘(beheld with joy the decds of his vicegerent who mas righteous in hand and heart. while the last native king is held up to reprobation as the dishonourer of the gods. It is written in the Babylonian language and in the Babylonian form of the cuneiform syllabary. of his people. and (‘without fighting or battle. His first care was to show his gratitude towards the deities who had so signally aided him. just as the Babylonian scribes saw in Cyrus the instrument of the god of Babylon. It is impossible not to compare the similar treatment experienced by Nebuchadnezzar and the native Jewish kings respectively at the hands of Jeremiah. The Jewish prophet saw in the Chaldean invader the instrument of the God of Judah.” Cyrus was led in triumph into the city of Babylon. But the cause of the indignation felt by the gods of ChaldEa against . and they themselves were restored to their ancient seats. just as much as the fall of Nabonidos. and he bade him take the road t o Babylon. Their temples were rebuilt. It is true that the reasons assigned for the divine anger are not the same in the two cases. we must confess that this is a very remarkable document.” A single battle decided the conflict: the Babylonians opened their gates.86 LECTURE If.

he seems to have raised himself to the throne by means of a revolution. hints that before making his final attack on the country. drawn up not long after the couquest of Babylonia by Cyrus. ‘‘ we trust in the Lord our God. the grossest impiety. and that even the capital. and his attempt a t ‘‘ . as it was to the Babylonian scribes. and doubtless also to many of the Jews in the time of Hezekiah. The great mass of tho people must have been discontented with Nabonidos and anxious for his overthrow. was but a oont-enient way of describing the discontent and anger of an important section of the Babylonians themselves. was to the Rab-shakeh. If ye say unto me.BEL-MEBODACH OF BABYLON. and hath said to Judah and Jerusalem. and the extremities endured by the Babylonians before they would surrender their city. the whole population a t once submitted. Nabonidos did not belong to the royal house of Ncbuchadnczzar. is not that he whose highplaces and whose altars Hezekiah hath taken away. It is at all events significant that as soon as the army of Nabonidos was defeated. prove that their surrender was not the result of cowardice or indifference to foreign rule. in fact.” he declared. 87 Nabozlidos offers a curious illustration of the words addressed by the Rab-shakeh of Sennacherib to the people of Jerusalem. threw open its gates. The revolts which took place afterwards in the reigns of Dareios and Xerxes. The anger of Merodach and the gods. the attempt to unify and centralise religious worship. the Elamite prince had been secretly aided by a party of malcontents in Chaldsea itself. An annalistic tablet. ye shall worship before this altar in Jerusalem?” The destruction of the local cults. with its almost impregnable fortifications. an act of.

while it was notorious that Babylon did not become a capital until comparatively late in Babylonian history. as well as of all those who profited in any way from the maintenance of the local cults. carried on in a particular temple in a particular way. mere alike older than Merodach of Babylon. Most of the cities which mere thus deprived of their ancestral deities were as old as Babylon. it was known that there was a more ancient Bel-Belitanas. the Moon-god of Ur.” as the Greeks wrote the word-whose worship had spread from the city of Nipur. though in the age of Nabonidos the title of Bel or “lord” had come to be applied to Merodach specially. the surest sign that the citim of Babylonia had been absorbed in the capital was that the images of the gods whose names had been associated with them from time immemorial were carried away to Babylon. and mho formed one of the supreme triad of Babylonian gods. hovever. many of them claimed to be older. implied something more than the removal of a number of images and the visible loss of local self-government or autonomy. The Sun-god of Sippara. It was no wonder. The cities lost their separate existence along with the deities who watched over their individual fortunes.88 LECTURE I L centralisation escited strong local animosities against him. and entrusted to the charge of a special body of priests. . Each image was the centre of a particular cult. that civil centralisation meant religious centralisation also. therefore. Indeed. The removal of the gods. that the high-handed proceedings of Nabonidos aroused the enmity of these numerous local priesthoods. Religion and civil government were so closely bound up together. “ t h e elder Bel.

The endeavour of Nabonidos to undermine its local cbaracter and to create a universal religion for a centralised Babylonia. he had. 89 Up to the last. Babylonian religion remained local. but absolute lord of captive or vassal deities. and the real favourite of Merodach himself. The policy of Nabonidos. therefore. over all other gods. sympathised with the wrongs of his brother gods in Babylonia and throughout the religious idea which had underlain tho empire had been the supremacy of Merodach. and explains much that would otherwise seem inconsistent and obscure. the priests and worshippers of the local divinities saw the pious adherent of the ancient forms of faith. It was this local character that gives us the key to its origin and history. and ushered in the fall of the Babylonian empire. In Cyrus. Merodach had not consented to the revolutionary policy of Nabonidos. and eventually proved fatal to its author. not prirnus inter pares. not the absorption of the deities of the subject nations into a common cult. shocked the prejudices of the Babylonian people. the politic restorer of the captive populations and their gods to their old homes.BEL-XERODACH OF BABYLON. which aimed at making Nerodach. on the contrary. the god of Babylon. and had thus desertcd his own city and the renegade monarch who ruled over it. accordingly. In all this there is a sharp contrast to the main religious conception which subsequently held sway over the Persian empire. Thc fundnment. as well as to that which was proclairned by the prophets of Judah. and in the reforms of Hezekiah and Josiah was carried out practically by the Jewish kings. The Ahura-mazda whom Daroios invokes on the . was deeply resented by both priests and people.

” ‘‘ the god of heaven and earth. he is a lord who will not brook another god by his side. xxvi. I n Judah. the king of the gods and the god of gods. the holy.90 LECTURE 1 1 . which is wholly incompatible with a belief in the exclusive supremacy of Merodach. saying. who dwell in heaven and are mighty. never attained. He was also a God who claimed dominion over the whole world.” (‘the eternal.” The destruction of the high-places and the concentration of the worship of Yahveh in Jerusalem. the lord of all things. Even Nabonidos uses language of Sin. The supreme god of the Persian monarch is as absolute as the Persian monarch himself. simply the local god of Babylon. Events had . Nebuchadnezzar may invoke Merodach as (‘the lord of the gods. in fact. and political centralisation went hand-in-hand with religious cmtralisation as well.” but he almost always couples him with other deities-Nebo.” Merodach was. and mhich found such naive expression in the words of David to Saul (1 Sam. at least as a people. was followed by the ever-increasing conviction that Yahveh was not only a jealous God who would allow none other gods besides Himself. I n the Persian empire which was organised by Dareios. the Moon-god. serve other gods. He calls him ‘ I the lord of the gods of heaven and earth. centralisation became €or the first time a recognised and undisputed fact. Sin or Gulaof whom he speaks in equally reverential terms. Go. rock of Behistun is not only the lord of the gods. Now it was precisely this conception which the Babylonians. 19): “ They have driven me out this day from abiding in the inheritance of the Lord. a theocracy was established on the ruins of the old beliefs which had connected certain localities with certain forms of divinity.

Nabonidos not only offended the priests and insulted the gods of other cities by bringing their images into Babylon. he might have effected a revolution similar to that of Hezekiah. Had he himself been free from the common belief of the Babylonian in the local character of his gods. was of itself a profanation. on their career of conquest . is one of the results of that localisation of religious worship which was characteristic . his own special city. and then of thht of a great empire. he also in one sense impaired the monopoly which the local deity of Babylon enjoyed. it was to glorify his name that he had given them victory. however.peculiar honours which were reserved for Merodach alone. it was out of place to offer him at Babylon the . then. He thus stirred up angry feelings on both sides. the superstition which frequently accompanies antiquarian instincts. which Nebuchadnezzar had made a kind of Chaldiean Pantheon. Here. It was he who had sent forth its people. he had. and their . Here they assumed a merely subordinate place they were th3 attendaota and semitors of the god of Babylon.peculiar seat. The Moongod might be worshippedat. Ur . The introduction of other deities on an equal footing with himself i n t o his own. and his endeavour to make Babylon the common gathering-place of . and ib presiding deity had shared its fortunes.BEL-XEBODACH OF BABYLON. and quite sufficient to draw upon Nabonidos his vindictive anger.1 1 I t must be remembered that the attempt of Nabonidos w a s essentially different from the mere gathering of the gods of Babylonia into the grent temple of Merodach.of Babylonia.the Babylonian divinities was dictated as much by the desire to make all of them his friends as by political design. 91 raised Babylon first to the dignity of the capital of Babylonia.

was one of the wonders of the world.” Nabonidos. to place them there on a footing of equality with hferodach. . In the Old Testament also it is as Bel that he comes before us.92 LECTURE 1 1 . the inscriptions of Nebuchadnezzar and his successors. first of all. quoting probably from an earlier aut. and is. He has the standing title of Bilu or ‘(lord. Merodach was pre-eminently ‘‘ the Baal” or ‘(lord. was a square building two furlongs every way.” like the Baalim or “ lords ” worshipped under special names and with special rites in the several cities of Canaan. describes it in the following terms : “ The temple of Zeus PAlos. as it was also called by the Greeks. When the prophet declares that ‘‘ Bel boweth down” and is “ gone into captivity. and which is the same as the Baal of the Old Testament. and so to defraud him of his privileges . The title is frequently used as a name. Now who waB this Merodach. along with their time-honoured inlages. while at the same time he removed the other deities from the bcalities where alone they could be properly adored. this patron-god of Babylon.hor. what we can learn about him from the latest of our documents. Merodach appears as the divine protector of Babylon and its inhabitants. In these. As Nebuchadnezzar himself saye. on the other hand.’) which the Greeks turned into BrjXos. I n the middle slirines and chapels were ranged humbly round his lofty tower. endeavoured to transplant the local cults of the deities. The temple or “tomb” of Bklos. To the Babylonian. they here “listened to him in reverence and stood bowing down before him. the only name under which Merodach was known to the Greeks and Romans. H&rodotos. with bronze gates which romained up to my time.” he is referring to Merodach and the overthrow of Merodach’s city. in fact. whose name I have had so often to pronounce ? Let us see. to the capital city.

It is clear from this description that the great temple of Babylon resembled a large square enclosure formed by huge walls of brick. and outside it two altars. with a golden table at its side. and a great golden table is set beside it. I n the topmost tower is a large shrine.. the smaller one of gold for special offerings.l We learn a good deal about this temple from the inscript ions of Nebuchadnezzar. 6 4 ) .” . I n this part of the temple there was still at that time a figure of a man twelve cubits high. which show that although 1 Similarly in Solomon’s temple there aero two altars. while the larger one was intended for the sacrifice of sheep as well as for the burning of iucensc. as the Chaldaeans used to say. .BEL-NERODACH OF BABYLON. and containing a great statue of Zeus [Dblos] of gold in a sitting posture. and. one for larger and the other for smaller offerings (1 Kings viii. They further say. There is also another great altar upon which full-grown sheep are sacrificed. And the ascent to thein was by an incline which wound round all the towers on the outside. But no imege is set up there. a native of the country. There is another shrine below belonging to this Babylonian temple. where those who ascend may sit and rest. within which is a large and well-appointed couch. . The pEdesta1 and chair of the statue are of gold. nor does any one pass the night there except a single woman. and upon that again another. and upon this tower another tower had beeu erected. Below the tower was a shrine or temple. whom the god selects for himself from among all the inhabitants. as is asserted by the Chaldaeans. Outside the shrine is a golden altar. and so on for eight towers. of solid gold. the gold was as much as 800 talents in weight. for upon the golden altar only sucklings are allowed to be offered. a furlong in length and breadth. within which rose a tower ia eight stages. About the middle of the incline ace a resting-place and seats. the priests of the god. Upon the larger altar also the Chaldaeans burn each year a thousand talents of frankincense at the time when they keep the festival of the god. though I cannot believe it. 93 of the temple was a tower of solid masonry. that the god himself visits the shrine and takes his rest upon the couch .

I made as brilliant as the sun. both of which mean “an enclosed place” or “lockedup shrine. 30. where. A. and 28. A.” In the list of Babylonian kings in mliich the meaning of their names is explained. 14). ii. and in S. 2250). the holy of holies of the gods of destiny. 58). I.”l Its entrance also bore the Accadian title of Ea-khilibu. ii. Hdrodotos was correct in his general description of tho building.. 52. 13. Rev. 45.C. 11. and in ii. 4. a6 well as the gate of E-Zida within E-Sagila. 26. the lord of heaven. ‘I top of the head” (W. 26. he has made mistakes in the matter of details. I n W. which is used of Solomon’s temple in 1 Kings viii. 7. 42. and the first dynasty which had made Babylon its capital. and had existed since the age of Ehammuragas (B. also sap& sa risi. “of the lofty head” (ii. Es-Guzi appears as the earlier Sumerian title of E-Saggil. The holy seats. is interpreted 6U& sa T i s i and ?as12so re8i (w. ii. I n 51242. like saggil. an Accadian name signifying “the house of the raising of the head. 30. 26. L ii.94 LECTURE 1 1 . on the eighth and the eleventh days (of the month).” In W. and ris8n elatum. . we read : “My shrine ( p u k h ) which Ea lies made . the translation should be ‘L houso of exaltation. gar sagyillffiis rendered by S i l k 7 c z i r i h andpdkhu. I. the place of the gods who determine destiny. ii. 15. which probably means ‘‘a stronghold. GMZ. 7 . 30.” He says of it: “Ea-khilibu. I. my stronghold (7) (dinanz2) which Merodach has created. listening to him with revel NaszZ sffiresi (W. 949. 3). descends. I.A.” is the equivalent of gar sag@. wherein on the great festival (Zagmuku) at the beginning of the year. The temple itself stood on the east side of Babylon. the divine king (Merodach). it is rendered by the Assyrian dindnu. A. 59) . A.” accessible only to the chief priest. which is the place of the assembly (of the gods). 4 . It bore the title of E-Sagila or E-Saggil. ~ n g g i lis rendered by the Assyrian zabal. the god of heaven and earth.. Guzi. . the gate of glory. while the gods in heaven and earth. dinnnu. the Heb. as Guyard has shown. which Nebuchadnezzar renders ‘ I the gate of glory.

2 E-Zida. 2 For a description of the great tempIe of Babylon. ‘‘ the house of the oracle. that theparakku. through a confusion of h a . see George Smith’s account of the inscription concerning it quoted i n the Appendix. for which the Semitic translator in W.” with h e . the wife of Merodach. this sanctuary of the lordship of the first-born of the gods. 15. it was only fitting that his shrine should stand within the precincts of his father’s temple.” is given as a rendering of the Accadian naingu or nagga (AN) KZLIL. It went by the name of E-Eua. asaptu. was made by the men of Babylon. 5.” was the chapel dedicated to T?ebo. was situated. ([thefirmly-established temple. ‘< the oracle of the grxi . or L‘ oracle. As Nebo was the son of Merodach. 1883). 95 rential awe and standing humbly before him. this sanctuary of the kingdom. erroneously gives ussabi. where Merodach descended at the time of the great festival at the beginning of the year. we are told in the Old Testament. ‘ I to sit. (Gottingen. I overlaid with glittering gold and rich ornament. D i e grease S t e k ~ l a t t e n i n 8 c J i ~ Nebukadnezars ~t ii. or holy of holies. perhaps to be identified with that Succothbenoth whose image. by the side of the shrine saored to his mother Zarpanit. which a former king had adorned with silver. this holy of holies. ii. Merodach. 15.”3 and probably contained the See Flemming. 3 Bit-assaputi. the god of prophecy. It was within the shrine of Nebo.” In ii. The special papakhn or sanctuary of Merodach himself was separate from that of his son.BEL-MERODACH OF BABYLON. 4. determine therein a destiny of long-ending days. A. the prince.”’ Just within the gate was the “seat” or shrine of the goddess Zarpanit. and the divine oracles were announced to the attendant priests. even the destiny of my life. and derived its name from the great temple built in honour of that deity at Borsippa. “ oracle. I .

was Merodach. or tower of eight stages. except in so far as the city of Babylon claimed to represent the whole of Babylonia. called E . it was to the Babylonian what the high-places were to the inhabitants of a mountainous country like Canaan.” Merodach was entitled Kua as ‘ I god of the oracle” whoso “prophet” and interpreter was Nebo. 62. For a s ~ p and tw& thc diviner” or “oracle-giver.” As was the case with the other towers of Babylonia and Assyria. and when therefore man did his best to rear his altars as near to them as possible. “ the house of the foundation-stone of heaven and earth.” said the settlers in Babel. golden sttatue of Bel mentioned by Htrodotos.” I n ii.gurum. which was pronounced kun when signifying “ to proclaim” (nabic) or “announce an oracle. He was not the national god of Babylonia. accordingly. He was but one Baal out of many Baalim.Temen. 41.” Kua is represented ideographically by the character RHA. It was only when a Nebuchadnezzar or a Khamniuragas was undisputed master of Babylonia that the god they adored became ‘(the prince of the gods. he was simply the god of the single city of Babylon and its inhabitants. ‘‘ Let us build us a city and a tower.” see above. who mtched over the fortunes of Babylon and the great temple there which had been erected in his honour. i n the visible sky. supreme only when his worshippers were themselves supreme. mcl Kua is cxplained to be “tho ship of Jlerodach. No temple was complete without such a tower . . 4‘ whose top may reach unto heaven. Nebuchadnezear tells us that he enrichcd its walls with (‘glittering gold. its topmost chamber was used as an observatory.” The Babylonian Bel. It takes us back to an age when the gods were believed to dwell.96 LECTURE 1 1 . 51.” Beyond it rose the stately zkyzcrat.” But the other gods maintained their ___ Kua. p.

’ Then he. and I said : ‘0 prince that art front everlasting. By thy command. my lord.”l Once more : <‘To Merodach. u H . 97 separate positions by his side. AS me have seen. and may I be satisfied with its fulnesc. for the Iring whom thou lovest. the glorious. as my own dear life do I love the height of thy court . 5 . I prayed . whom thou cailest by name. first-born of the gods. appointed a royal priest. heard my prayer and accepted my petition. As I h a m loved the fear of thy divinity and have sought after thy lordship. the first-born of the gods. and give what seemeth good unto thee. and hast entrusted to me the dominion over multitudes of men . as it seeins good unto thee thou guidest his namc aright. according to thy goodness. for I the king am the adorner (of thy shrinc). tlioii didst create me. Ir. 45-s. We can now therefore appreciate at its true value the language of Nebuchadnezzar Then he spcnks thus of his god : To Merorlach. nm the work of tlty hands . Iferodach the prince. may the temple I have built endure for ever. thou ereatest me and hast entrusted to me the sovereignty over multitncles of men. lord of all that exists. the first-born. since thou maintainest my life. the 6‘ vorcl of my heart sought him. among all mankind have I not seen a city of the earth fairer than thy city or“ Babylon. let the fear of thy divinity exist in my heart.BEL-XERODACH OF BABYLON. thou watehest over hini in the path of righteousness ! 1. the adorner of all thy fortresses. hearken to my petition. 0 Merodach. and in their o w n cities wonld have jealously resented any interference With their ancient supremacy. the merciful one. my lord.’”s . 0 lord. 2 Col. (my) lord. the mighty prince. ix. who rejoices thy heart. Nabonidos brought upon himself the anger of heaven because he carried away the gods of Xarad and Kis and other towns to swell the train of Merodach in his temple at Babylon. the prince mho obeys thee. CoL i 52-ii. which thou hast made to pass over them all. Let me love thy supreme lordship. accept the Iifting up of my hands.From the East Inilia House Inscription. I prayed and lifted up my hand : ‘ 0 Merodach. I began to him my potition .

it was only within Babylon itself that this was the case. Merodach was the intercessor between the gods and men. and was doubtless used in the religious services of E-Sagila.” is nevertheless only the first-born of the gods. just as there were cities older than Babylon. A. This fact is accentuated in an inscription of Nabonidos. belonging to the earlier part of his reign. and indicates that the Babylonians were already acquainted with a doctrine of the resurrection at an early period. I . the merciful lord who loves to raise the dead to life. 11 2 W. in which Slerodach is coupled with the Moon-god of Ur and placed on an equal footing with him. iv. Hence it was that while Nebuchadnezzar as a native of Babylon was the work of his hands. elsewhere his rule was shared with others. 29. Where the hymn first becomes legible.” It is indeed a standing epithet of the god. I . outside Babylon there were other creators and other lords. the god of wisdom. and the interpreter of the will of Ea. One of the epithets applied by Nebuchadnezzar to Merodach is that of riminu. A. or (‘merciful. The same expression occurs in another of these bilingual hymns.” The expression is a remarkable one.2 The whole hymn is addressed to Merodach. I n an old bilingual hymn he is thus addressed (‘Thou art Merodach. There mere gods older than he. He could not therefore be absolute lord of the world. Merodach’s attribute of mercy is coupled with his power to raise the dead. 1 . l. which I intend to discuss i n a future Leeture. we read : W. though (( lord of all that exists. The beginning and end are unfortunately lost. 19. it will be observed.Here Merodnch. iv. .

” * Nduni. that exist in the world. Eing of Babylon.hough in this case we should have expected the phrase to he ‘‘black-haired” rather than “ black-headed. Klzcrvv&. but himself a writer of books (see W. is uncertain. Fa.” As. The merciful one who loves to raise the dead to life.” Ivut. The four quarters of the earth wheresoever they am. which is frequent in the hymns. Dieulafoy’s excavations on the site of Susa have brought to light enamelled bricks of the Elamite period on which a black race of mankind is portrayed. All the angel-hosts of heaven and earth (Regard) thee and (lend to thee) an ear. (Thou art) the god of gods.Heb. king of heaven and earth. 1 2 H2 . or “Eve. 24.the god of the deep and of the city of Eridu. The merciful one among the gods. Y 99 (Thou art) the king of the land. king of E-makh-tilla (the enpreme house of lie). {The prince) of heaven and earth who hath no rival. The holy writingg of the mouth of the deep is thine: Mankind.” All living souls that have received a name. even the black-headed race (of Accad). Nerodach. IIealVen and earth are thine ! . I.7). “ filling heaTen and earth. 55. it may mean that the primitive Sumerian population of Chaldm was really black-skinned. perhaps the ‘ I Musaros Omnds” of BdrBssos. which proceeded as it were out of his mouth.” It is impossible to read this hymn without being struck by the general similarity of tone that exists between it Accadian. A. the lord of the world t 0 first-born of Ea. lord of Jhagila. The companion of Anu and Bel (X~il-ld). Tiw breath2 that gives life is thine. however. t. king of (all) lands.BEL-MEBODACH OF BABYLON.The circuit of heaven and earth is thine. iv. The incantation that gives life is thine. * The precise meaning of this expression. Ring of E-Zida. It may refer to the custom of wearing long black hair. omnipotent over heaven and earth1 0 mighty lord of mankind. and not only the god of wisdom and author of Babylonian culture. was the Oannds of B6rGssos.

The spirits of the earth all behold thy face. whose worship vas carried on at Babylon? 1 W A. Obv. thou art their light in the vault of the far-off sky.” . director of things above and below. the wine (of the sacrifice) Whosoever has not turned his hand to wickedness . Men far and wide behold thee and rejoice. light of the world. I . tho Sun-god also is ‘(the merciful god. The language of hosts as one word thou clirectest. that originally Merodach also was a solar deity. iv. Like Merodach. Unto thy light loolr the great gods.100 LECTURE 1 1 . the particular Sun-god. .”2 Nay we not conclude. Smiting their heads they behold the light of the midday sun. They shall eat the food (he offers. Let us hear what the latter has t o say to US:^ “0 lord. too. S947. the illuminator of darkness. Like a wife thou beharest thyself. Creator of all thy universe.. then. supporter of the wcak. A hymn to Samas thc Sun-god begins with the following words : “ 0 Sun-god. Judge unbribed. delivered by thy hands. 19. I n the broad earth thou art their illumination. 0 Sun-god. thou that opcnest the face of the sick ! Merciful god. Even thc power of Merodach of raising the dead to life is ascribed to him.. director of mankind. 2. The mighty gods have smelled a sweet savour. The holy food of heaven. . Bidding the child and offspring come forth. in fact. thou that clothest the dead with life. 3-8.. . it is to him that gods and men alikc turn their gaze. cheerful and rejoicing. planter of the lowly. shall receive the sacrifice he makes ?).” Like Merodach. king of heaven and earth.. and another hymn which is addressed to the Sun-god. Supreme is the mercy of him who is the lord over difficulty. Yea. thc Sun-god art tliou.

or speaks not of thy glory. lord of kings. p 8 0 . A. is ‘(the illuminator of darkness” whose face is beheld by the spirits of the earth. the dragon of darkness 1 W. and he raises the dead to life as the sun of spring revivifies the dead vegetation of minter. thy sceptre is Eabyloii. establisher of faith ! 0 Bel. light of mankind. see above. He is ‘(the light of the spirits of heaven. Nothing can be more explicit than the statement that E-Sagila. grant the prayers of thy people the sons of Babylon. be Eerciful to thy city Cabylon. thy crown is Borsippa. Here we read that (‘I n the month Nisan. light of the spirits of heaven. in the poems.iv. on the second day. was also the temple of the Sun. I . the lord who in his glancc has destroyed the strong. is nom fully explained. 46. We thus come to understand the atkributes that are ascribed to Merodach and the language that is used of him. to E-Sagila thy temple inclino thy face .’”l . . . lord of the world.” even as the Sun-god. the temple of Merodach. 0 lord of the world. tlic priest must come and take of the waters of the river. must onter into the presence of Bel. in the hymn I quoted just nom. The wide heaven is naturally his dwelling-place. 101 The conclusion is verified by the express testimony of the ritual belonging to Merodach’s temple E-Sagila. seeking after the favour of the great gods. must say this prayer : $ 0Bel. blessed sovereign.BEL-MERODACH OF BABYLON. that is. The part that he plays in the old mythological poems. two hours after nightfall. who is there whose mouth murmurs not of thy righteousness. reject not the hands that are raised t o thee . which embody the ancient myths and legends of Babylonia. For a fuller account of this hymn. and putting on a stole in the presence of Del. the midc heaven is the dwelling-place of thy liver. who in his strength has no equal I 0 Bel. and celebrates not thy dominion? 0 lord of the ivorlil. One of the most famous of these was the story of the combat between Merodach and Tiamat. utterer of blessings. . who dwellest in the temple of the Sun.

Another myth in which hlerodach again appears as champion of the bright powers of day in their eternal struggle against night and storm. and the war recorded in the Apocalypse between Michael and “the great dragon.102 LECTURE 11. as well as with his own peculiar weapon which hung behind his back. was left alone to face his enemies.” assailed the Moongod as he sat in his appointed seat. Tiamat opened her mouth to swallow the god. The struggle was long and terrible. but he thrust a storm-wind down her throat. with clams and wings. and horns upon the head. the Sun-god and the Evening Star whom “Bel” had enjoined t o share with him the sovereignty of the ‘‘ lower heaven” or visible sky. The combat is represented in stone in one of the Assyrian bas-reliefs now in the British Museum. fled from before the coming attack. Merodach advances to the fight armed with a club and bow which Anu had placed in his hand and which subsequently became a constellation. the Moon-god. There we can see the demon as she eppeared to the Assyrians. But . When me remember the close paraIIeIism that exists between this conflict of Merodach with Tiamat. and is the d E p q or Mere6 with which Greek mythology armed the Asiatic hero Perseus. It was shaped like a sickle. who had been created in the lower part of heaven. and the monster was burst asunder. uxid chaos. is the myth which describes in but thinly-veiled language the eclipse of the moon. the seven ministers of storm and tempest. a short tail. and Sin. His comrades. while her allies fled in terror before the victorious deity. We are there told how ‘‘ the seven wicked spirits.” it is difficult not to trace in the lineaments of Tiamat the earliest portraiture of the mediaeval devil.

who has settled the places of the Sun and the Moon in the sky. when the supreme Bel of the Semitic inhabitants of Babylonia was still the god whom the Accadians called Mul-lilla.” with a helmet of (‘light like fire” upon his head. but the older Bel of Nipur. however. One by one. from the lower world. “the lord of the lower world. as well ~ t s his local cult at Nipur. kept his memory alive. and the battle ended in his favour.’: This Bel or Mul-lilla fades into the background as the Semitic element in Babylonian religion became stronger and the influence of Babylon greater. like t. 103 *‘Bel” beheld “the eclipse” of the lord of night. in the Babylonia of Nebuchadnezzar and Nabonidos. he went forth accordingly against the powers of darkness. it was the younger gods-Nerodach. while the dreaded visitants of night. from whom Nerodach. preserved a faint memory of the spirits of which he had once been the chief. had afterwards to be distinguished. and Merodach was sent to rescue him and restore once again the light of the moon. It was almost as it was in Greece. the attributes that had formerly attached to the older Bel mere absorbed by the younger Bel of Babylon. Arrayed in glistening arrnour.hat against the dragon. before the rise of Babylon.BEL-MERODACH OF BABYLON. though the part that he played in astronomical and cosmological lore. Such was the latest result of the local character of Babylonian worship : the younger gods were the gods of the younger Babylonian (( . The Accadian original of the poem belongs to a very early epoch. the demoniac lilu and Mat or lilith. where the older gods were dethroned by their own offspring . the Bel of Babylon. is not the Babylonian Bel. Sin and 8amas-to whom vows were the most often made and prayer the most often ascended. The Bel of this legend.

Perhaps Babylon had been .104 LECTURE T I . cities. he was the first-born of Ea only. for they flowed into that Persian Gulf which the ignorance of the primitive Chaldixan imagined t o be the ocean-stream itself. Ea. and the god of Babylon. All strcams and rivers were subject to his sway. not of one p r i m m d deity. and that its god must therefore be the firstborn. both of the atmospheric deep upon which the world floats. however. The title.’> bestowed upon him by his grateful worshippers. the Okeanos of Homer. His son Merodach was the minister of his counsels. and of that watery deep. which stood in early days on the very shores of the Persian Gulf. however. “first-born of the gods” was of the same nature as the other title. According t o the earlier faith. to use the language of Gnosticism. he was the practical activity that emanates from wisdom. by whom the commands of wisdom were carried into practice. though he might be termed “the first-born of the gods. but of all the primaeval deities acknowledged in Chaldaea. Ea was god of the deep.” was in one sense the youngest of them all. which surrounds the earth like a coiled serpent. was not the god of Babylon. Merodach was thus the active side of his father Ea . and Ea was therefore lord of wisdom as well as lord of the deep. nor was his name of Semitic origin. ‘(prince of the world. He watched over the destinies of “ the holy city” of Eridu. now Abu-Shahrein. It meant little else than that Babylon stood at the head of the werld. It was from the Persian Gulf that tradition conceived the culture and civilisation of Babylonia to have come. How Merodach came to be regarded as h i s son we can only guess.

It would not be surprising. if we found that hlerodach also had once been an Accadian divinity. and identifying its gods and demons with their own Baalim. 106 a colony of Eridu. along with the oldcr culture the Semitic settlers i n Babylonia borrowed a good deal of the theology of the Accadian people. L i gate of the god. the great Bel or Baal of Babylon. modifying it in accordance with their own beliefs. differed very considerably from those of the Semitic Bel. We must be content with the fact that from time immemorial Merodach had been the firstborn of Ea. it might therefore be supposed that the deity they worshipped was Semitic also. Was Merodach himself an Accadian or a Semitic deity ? The names of the kings belonging to the first dynasty of Babylon are mostly Semitic . then. the essential characteristics of the two deities remained altogether different. In the legend of the assault of the seven evil spkih . up to the last. and perhaps also his name. and that therefore between Eridu and Babylon a very close connection must have existed in pre-historic times. As we shall see. not a Semitic. But we must remember that the foundation of Babylon went back into the dim night of the past far beyond the era of its first dynasty of Semitic kings. but an Accadian designation.BEL-XEBODACE OF BABPLOY. and that its very name was but a translation of the older Ka-dimira. though his attributes. And so undoubtedly was the Merodach of the historical age. moreover. perhaps it was from Eridu that tho culture associated with the name of Ea first made its way to Babylon. bore. Even after the Romans had identified their Saturn with the Kronos of the Greeks.” The temple of Nerodach.

benefactor of man. he is the son of Ea.106 LECTURE 1 1 . it is because he is one of the bright powers of day who benefit mankind. goes back to the pre-Semitic epoch-the god whom the Scmitic translator has identified with Merodach is called in the Accadian original Aiari-uru-due. from whom he conveys t o mankind the charms and philtres and other modes of healing and help which a belief in sorcery invented. unlike the hyinns to Merodach. Hence he receives the title of ABarinam-tila. “the heifer of day. however. It may he merely a Semitic transformation of the Accadian Uru-dug. When first we meet with it in Semitic texts. if need be. it is expressed by two ideographs. was justified only by the creed of the sorcerer. “the chief of life. I cannot say. ‘Ithe chief who does good t o man. It is in this way that he is regarded as the god of life: the spells taught him by Ea are able. On the contrary. I f it is Semitic. which read Amar-ud. its origin was already forgotten in the days when the Babylonians first began to’speculate on the derivation of their words. Whether the name Maruduk (Merodach) were Accadian or Semitic in origin. upon the Noon-a legend which. he is distinguished from the Sun-god. and if he fights against the stormdemons n-ilh his helmet of light.” in any case. not yet by the worship of the solar Bel.” He receives his title from the fact that. to recover the sick and raise even the dead to life. the ‘‘ merciful” lord. but he is himself little more than the personified agency who carries the wisdom of Ea to gods and men. like the Semitic Merodach.” The title. it has so changed its form that its etymology is no longer recognisable.” This is a punning refer- I . But there is little that is solar about him. The fire-god is his minister.

“the day. 107 ence to the old Accadim notion of the sky as a ploughed field through which the Sun drew the share in his annual journey.” A t all events. Mum. and eventually the head of the Babylonian Pantheon. merely a water-spirit rising with the dawn out of the Persian Gulf. A.” the ABari of the full title being omitted. . was addressed as ‘‘ the great spirit. to the time when he became the Semitic Sun-god Bel. It is not until 0 1 Hahhy has proposed to see in the name of Maruduk the Semitic mar-utuhi. I would propose to see in Maruduk a Scmitised form of the Accadian Xuru-dug.” but is the Accadian utuk or ‘‘spirit. 48. and takes no account of the fact that tnuru in Assyro-Babylonian mcans only “ son. ii. I. is worse than the Assyrian play upon the name. the Sun-god. 228) in seeing in Maruduk mar-Urirudug. Merodach is called ‘ I the son of Eridu” in W. I. p. and other places.” This.” The Sun-god.BEL-NERODACH OF BABYLON. 41.” is a dialectic side-form of mdu. and astrology taught that he mas one and same with each of the twelve zodiacal signs.” and that utukri contains a t and not a d.“man. “the lord of demons.of the Accadian Ea. in fact. Under this aspect. to trace the history of the patron-god of Babylon from the time when he was as yet merely the interpreter . 8. it is true. if he was lord of the other gods. however. But we have seen at the same time that up to the last he remained essentially local in character.l We have thus been able.” hence by the Accadians Gudibir. it is nut likely that we shall be more successful than they were in discovering it. But the vowel of the first syllable of Maruduk creates a difficulty.” never ‘‘lord.” If a conjectnra is permitted. 34. iv. in spite of the imperfection of our documents. A. is called Utuki. but this word has nothing to do with du. “the son of Eridu. I n W. and since the Babylonians had forgotten the origin of the name. Perhaps Dclitzsch is right (Wo Zag dccs Paradies. u he who benefits man. Maruduk ia frequently ton’mcted into Marduk. he was identified with the ancient Gudibir. ‘( when Merodach became a Sun-god. whence uru. it was only because the king of Babylon mas lord also of other cities and lands. the Sun was termed the bull of light .

the soil of the gociclcss Ebs. the foreigner from Elani. “the dawn. From this time onwards. the king by whom.” Here Aua is represented as a goddcss. Cyrus. is simply ‘ L the man of the sea” or tavtim. but of all men everywhere. ii.and the priests of Merodach even pretcnd that he had been the god’s favouritc before he came to Babylon as its master and conqueror. eitlicr tlic accusative of ’HA7 or the feminine of the corresponding adjective.108 LECTURE 1 1 . Merodach is called (1. 20) “tho offspring of tlie god who is the son of Aua” (Ab2 A m ) . the fict that Cyrus was not a Babylonian necessarily cnlargecl the old conception of Bel and gave to hiin a universal character. is phonetically impossible. Nebo is called “the son of E-Saggil. as he had been the god of Nebuchadnezzar. when the Greek kings of Asia caused inscriptions t o be written in the Babylonian language and writing. confouiidiiig her with Ea. Babylonia ccases to be an independent power that this local conception of the great Babylonian divinity tends to disappear. At Babylon. Ann is obviously the Gieek E&.” is identified with the Memnon of Homeric st0ry. the lord of 13abylon. it is only in Babylonia that Merodach is the god of Cyrus. according to Ktesias. HaIOvy.l 1 I n the cuneiform inscription of Antiokhos Sat&. Merodach takes the place of Zeus. she must correspond t o the goddess Zikuni of the early tests. it is necclless to say. Merodach was more and more the god. Illcmnbn. 139-142. mitli his double Teutzcos.c. the offspring of the god who is the son of Ana tlie quccn. has gone on to identify Ea with the Hebrew Yahvch--an identification which. and sincc her son \vas the fathcr of &rctlach. l i d been made an Rssyro-Babylonian prince. pp. the name by . the first-born of ABari the chicf ( i i d i i ) . Teiitainos. MernnBn was sent to the help of Prixn. becomes the favourite and the worshipper of 13el-&Ierodach. 1. In lines 34-36. therefore. and. From the time of IMsiils. published by Strassmaier i n the Verlinizdlunpn des fiinfteia Orielztnli~ten-Conllressc. and thc rescniblancc of tho name of Ea t o E6s may have suggested the idea of associating him with Merodach. as the grandson of Aus or EOa. Although. not of the Babylonians alone.

of course. calls him ‘‘ the prince of the gods.” a title of Rimmon. W.” but king of Sumer and Accad. with its capital Eridu.BEL-iUEPODACH OF BABYLOX. I. the very fact that the name was introduced altered the conception under which which the sca-coast of Babylonia. I. Shalmaneser 11. 1 To ‘ctal<e the hand of Eel” was equivalent to recognition as king of Babylon. and the monarchs of the second Assyrian empire.” W. i. Possibly it denoted that the person who performed the ceremony had entered the holy of holies in which the image of BelXerodach stood-an act pcrmitted only to the high-priest or the king in his office of high-priest ( S . 6). and the su7ck~aa7tuof Babylon wq R special title (thus Esarhaddon calls himself “ 6~7ikann7iuof Babylon. or else introduced into the cultivated circle of the court by the literary classes of later days. This was Assyria. 48. No.l Although. S C ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ is U T Eometinies Z U ~ C identical with the king. nothing to do with the god Au. i. invoke Merodach with the same fervour as the kings of Babylon. Certain of the Assyrian kings. I ~ ~ C U I Z U ~ ~ Z J )The . Like dungy the ~ord expressed servitude to the god. was known. 64. A. A. 109 But alrcady before tho age of Cyrus there was one portion of the Assyro-Babylonian world in which the narrower local view of Merodach had perforce disappcared. who were crowned at Babylon as the German princes were crowned at Rome. 6). 64). therefore. and the introduction of his name into a specifically Assyrian inscription is due either to the affectation of learning or to a claim to the throne of Babylon. “the wind. or at least their scribes. Merodach was necessarily among the latter. ix. sometimes clistinguished froni tho king ( e g . consider themselves placed by the act under the patronage of tho Babylonian g0d. The local gods of Babylonia had been carried into Assyria by its Semitic settlers. Aua has.” just as a pious Babylonian would have done. the earlier Assyrian kings avoid the mention of Merodach. . which forms part of thc proper name Au-nahdi (I< 344.

” When such a statement could be made in the learned court of Assur-bani-pal. stood Beltis. however. as we have seen. therefore. had his female reflex. (( . Rlerodach was regarded.” Her local name was Zarpanitu. This transformation of his nature was aided by the inevitable confusion that arose between Bel-Merodach and the older Bel. By the side of the Baal of Babylon. The Accadian triad usually consisted of male deities. that of sex. 23 (AN) Zi-ir-ba-ni-tuv.110 LECTURE 1 1 . 67. accordingly. In Assyria at least. originating perhaps in the primary astronomical triad of the Sun-god. the son of Bel. Bilat or Beltis.”l sometimes vritten Zir-panitu. however. The old Accadian cult seems to have had a fancy for trinities or triads. W. introduced a new idea. as I hope to point out in the next Lecture. that we find Assur-bani-pal describing Merodach as ‘(Bel. ‘‘creatress of =ed. Every god was provided with his female reflection. 12. with an obvious a So in M 1720. Even at Babylon. into the theology of the country. it is clear that to the ordinary Assyrian “the son of Ea” of ancient Babylonian belief had been absorbed into the solar Bel. (‘the lady” by the side of her “lord. and loosened the bonds of his connection with a particular locality. To such an extent was this confusion carried. with his wife Zarpanitu and his son Nebo. who stood to him in the relation of the wife to the husband. Baal. the supreme divinity of tho southern kingdom. A. his face” as it was termed. The Semites. Merodach did not stand alone. which a punning etymology subsequently turned into Zir-banitu. the Moon-god and the Evening Star. I. Bel-Merodach was as much a universal god as the older gods of the celestial hierarchy. He shared his divine honours. ii.

and brought the fish-god Oannes out of the Persian Gulf t o carry culture and knowledge to the inhabitants of Chaldsa. 54.” and “ the voice of the deep. the fish-god and “ lord of the deep . 37.” though “the goddess Kurnun” was identified with Tasmit (W. therefore. W. ii. It is not surprising. if Zarpanit was specially identified with the goddess Lakhamun. however. The Accadian goddess.”2 Hence she must have ranked by the side of Ea.A. I n the roar of the sea-waves. 54. 1. Other titles were “the lady of the ciiy of Kurnun. S 1720. ii. whose name was revered in the mountains of Elt~rn.” Zarpanitu mas of purely Semitic origin.” and in the title u voice” or “ incantation of the deep.~ 1 W. 55. The name is probably connected with that of the cosmogonic deities Lnkhma and Lakhama. But she was identified with an older Accadian divinity. I. ii. enp.” we may see a reference to the ideas which caused Ea to become the god of wisdom. A. She was entitled “ the lady of the deep. 59. 65. who was worshipped i n the sacred island of Dilmun.” ‘‘ the mistress of the abode of the fish. 57. in 82. ii. and Eru or Erua (W. I. 2 W. the early dwellers on the shores of the Gulf must have heard the voice of heaven. 62. I. 2). 5 1 58. 19. I. The Accadian gmam is translated mzidz2. witb the sa- .BEL-JIERODACH OF BABYLON. Gasmu. must originally have stood rather in the relation of mother than of wife to the primitive ’1Llerodach. ii. 60. ‘‘the mise one. A. the daughter of Ea. A. 39). 48. Oh. 48. or with the goddess Elagu. It is probable that she was identified with Nina the fishgoddess. and their prophets and diviners must have discovered in it a revelation of the will of the gods.”’ the fitting consort of a deity whose office it was to convey the wishes of the god of wisdom t o suffedng humanity.A. or L‘face. 816. 111 play on the word palm. I.

she was lost in the colourless throng of Ashtaroth or Baalat. E e r distinctive attributes all belong t o the pre-Semitic epoch .he city rose E-Zida. the goddesses who were called into existence by the masculine Baalim. and legends had grown up thickly around (( termination as that which we find in the name of Dilmun or Dilvun itself. had. had once been an independent town. E-Zida. she became merely the female shadow and companion of Merodach. Zarpanit.” derived its name from the great temple of Borsippa.” It had been founded. the son of DiIerodach and Zarpanitu. had been its protecting deity. Borsippa. In the middle of t. the temple of Xebo and Nana Tasmit. Zarpanit. a chapel called E-Zida within the precincts of the great temple of his father. (‘the constituted house. to whom a shrine was erected at thc entrance to his temple. by an ancient king. though never finished. In Semitic days. with its holy of holies. until restored by Nebuchadnezzar. or the prototype of Nebo. the inheritor of all these old traditions and worships. and Nebo.” and its lofty tower termed the house of the seven spheres of heaven and earth. She ceased to be the goddess of wisdom. the voice of the deep revealing thc secrets of heaven to the diviner and priest.112 LECTURE I f . as we have seen. it would seem. with the introduction of a language which rccognised gender. For long centuries it had remained a heap of ruin. fell from her high estate. however. according t o Nebuchadnezzar. the ruins of which are iiow known t o travellers as the Birs-i-NimrGd. “the supreme house of life. the suburb of Babylon. Nebo. had something to do with the prominence given to Nebo in the Babylonian cult. .

” and thus indicates the character of the god to whom it was applied.” the prophet. While Merodach was rather the god of healing. Borsippa was already its suburb. A. therefore. 19). 68. 71. which gathered round its great temple and the god who was worshipped there. Neb0 was emphatically the god of science and literature. It was known as the tuE ellu. (‘the pure” or ( I holy mound. therefore. When. was thus shared between Merodach and his son. I. But the suburb had a past life and history of its own. 14. A. He stood to Merodach in the same relation that an older mythology regarded Merodach as standing t o Ea. wliile the godd r : s s of the holy mound” W~LS 18tdr (iu. When Babylon became the centre of the Babylonian monarchy. It means the proclaimer. 113 it.” The word Neb0 is the Semitic Babylonian Nabiu o r NabQ. Nebo mas essentially the proclaimer of the mind and wishes of Merodach.” and one of the titles of Nebo accordingly was god of the holy mound. 27). which originally emanated from Ea. I n the legend of the Tower of Eabcl (K 3657.BEL-YERODACH OF BABYLON. This division was due t o the local character of Babxlonian religion which I have tried to bring into relief. 54. 68. ii. the other the knowledge which finds its expression in the art of writing. At Babylon. The communication of the gifts of wisdom.” ‘‘ The king who comes forth from the holy niound” mas one of “the three great” or secret “names of Anu” (W. I . is brought into connection with it. I. who was identified with Xergal. the culture-god of other countries was divided into two personalities. Lugal-girra.” but in ill:602. Borsippa was ab- ‘‘ 1 W. reference is r i d e to the ‘‘divine king of the holy mound. the one conveying to man the wisdom that ameliorates his condition. i i l). in accordance with his primitively solar nature. Anu was “ the king of tho holy mound. iii.

ii. its god was absorbed at the same time.” “the creator of peace. 33. I . 67). it is true. 46.?’ ‘(the intelligent. I. 34. ii. 4 W. 30 (I< 104). at the end of the documcnts his scribes had copied from their Babylonian originals. See Tiele. 60. ii. A.”4 he is also “the creator of the written tablet. 3 Corsippa is called ‘‘ the second Babylon (Din-Tir). Zag. I.”l and it is possible that the true signification of the name of his sanctuary L ’ h not the constituted house. S.” so that (( (( W.” I< 4309. he became one of the triad worshipped by the pious Babylonian. I. A.”2 Up t o the last.” the maker of writing. but he continued t o be the god of Borsippa. as it is also mrittcn. 23. and was accounted the son of the god of the larger city. 1%.” ‘(the opcner’’ and enlarger of the ear. that ‘‘ Nebo and Tasmit had given him broad ears (and) endowed (him) with seeing eyes. 66). A. sorbed into Babylon. Durand i n tlie islands of Cahrein (Jrl. it seems. The proper name of the god of Dilvun to whoin tho title was given was Pdti (I< 104). 54. But he still retained the proud title of bilu asaridu. . 1580). 54. in Babylon.” but ‘(house of the constituted” or “legitimate son. signified “ first-born” in the Innguagc of Dilvnn. De Hoofdtempel vun Babel en dit! van Bors@pa (1886). I . A.”5 Assur-bani-pal is ncver weary of telling us. whose name occurs in an illscription found by Cnpt. or Wuati (W. Nebo maintained all his local rights.” He is not only (‘the wise. and it was there that his true and original temple lifted its tomer to the sky. 60. A. xii. A. He was domesticated. 60. ii. 2.114 -LECTURE 1 1 .3 W e have only t o glance over the titles which were given to Nebo to see how thoroughly the conception of ‘L the prophet” was associated with that of (‘the writer.” “the author of the oracle. moreover. UT. “ the first-born Baal . 44. ii. Under this title he was identified with En-zag of Dilmun (W.

”2 The latter office might be explained as derived from his duties as scribe of the gods. 28. “ the scribe. or rather their stations. just as it made Merodach the presiding deity of Jupiter. a work which none of the kings mho had gone before had undertaken. but it is hard to discover what connection there could be between the first title and his association with literature. however. 31. He was also ‘(the bond of the universe.” In the literary dialect of the Semitic epoch.” and ((the overseer of the angel-hosts of heaven and earth. We know that Babylonian astronomy made him tho presiding deity of the planet Mercury. Light is thrown upon it. A. W. however. even the secrets of Nebo.” (‘ 12 . Nebo went by the Accadian name of dim-sar. 43. by the fact that the z@gurrat or tower s f his temple at Borsippa had the name of “the house of the seven bonds of heaven and earth. have once been an elemental god. i i . and each stage was painted so as to symbolise the colonrs symbolical of the several planets. or at all events a god connected with the chief of the heavenly bodies. were not the only titles that Nebo bore. Nebo must. the list of characters as many as exist. 45.” Tho seven “bonds” seem to represent the seven planets. 60.BEL-MERODSCH OF BABYLON. i i 60. the tower was in seven stages. 116 he had written.”l These. The Accadian equivalent of the first t fi-fir. “father of the bond. but it cannot have been in reference to this that the tower of his W. therefore.” and the ideograph by which he is sometimea denoted was regarded by the Semitic literati as signifying “the maker of intelligence” and ((the creator of writing.I. I. bound together and published the store of tablets. A.

It was sometimes compared t o a snake. which in the genderless Accadian meant indifferently ‘‘ lord” and “ lady. and which has been translated ‘(the maker of wisdom. The ideograph signifies nothing more than “maker” or “creator. 5.” though more usually “lady.116 LECTURE 1 1 .” and “the river of Innina. in the belief of his worshippers at Borsippa. At all events Nina waa the daughter of E $ . innniza is given as the Accad i m pronunciation of the ideograph denoting “ a goddess.” the initial syllable being only a weakening of the determinative AN. Obo.” Nina seems to have been the proiiuncintion of the word at Eridu. temple was dedicated to the seven heavenly spherew Ncbo cannot well have been one of the seven himself in the conception of its builders. sometimes to a rope.’> (( 1 W. 5-16.” the creator of writing. ii. he must rather have been the universe in which the seven spheres were set.” ‘‘ the river of the great deep.1 (1n)nina seems to be the divinity mho in later days was assumed to have given a name to Nineveh.” and points to a time when the local god of Borsippa was something more than the son of Merodach and the patron of the literary class. 45-49. Now there are traces of an old Accadian notion of the universe according to which (‘the deep” was a flowing stream which surrounded the earth like the Okeanos of Homer. A.” I n 52. Nana a t Erech. the supreme god. I.” by the Semitic scribes. and was then called ‘(the rope of the great god. the creator of the world. and the name is t o be explained as meaning (‘the god Nin. We shall thus reach the true explanation of the ideograph by which he was commonly denoted.” The spirit or deity who personified it was Innina. ‘‘ divinity. 1. He was.” Nina and Nana are merely dialectic forms of the same word. . 51. But such translations are mere glosses. where “the river of the snake” is described as being also ‘r the river of the rope of the great god.” “ the river of the sheepcote of the ghost-world.

in curious parallelism to “the golden cord” of Homer (TI. however.” as if it had once been held to stand on a b b horn” or inlet of the Persian Gulf. as the ‘‘ . 29. How the old demiurgic god of Borsippa. The prophet-god of the Accadians was Tutu. ii. like the Ea of southern Babylonia. who is said to prophesy before the king. became the prophet-god Neb0 of the Semites. is sometimes written in a punning fashion by the help of ideographs which would read in Accadian Bat-hi-aabba. 117 or ( 4 the divine lord. which attached themselves to the name of Ea show that the Accadians associated together the ideas of wisdom and of that primordial deep of which the Persian Gulf was the visible manifestation. There is apparently n o connection between them. morcomr. the symbolisation of the deep which wound like a rope round the nether world.viii. and that.’’ It will be remembered that the worship of Nana was associated with that of Nebo in h i s temple at Borsippa. he may have been f so. 19).’’ I have an explanation of his title b b the bond’’ or ‘ I rope of the universe. 62). the setting sun. It seems to be the same as I bthe bond” or L‘ropeof the world” commemorated by Accadian mythology (W.BEL-MERODACH OF BABYLOX. I. It is therefore possible that Innina may have been the primitive Neb0 of Borsippa. mhich seemed t o bind together the heavens and the earth. b b the fortress of the horn of the sea. is difficult to understand.” that ocean-stream. in fact.” c b the divine lady. which Zeus offered to let the other gods n the vain endeavour to drag hang from heaven to earth.” just as Innana means the goddess Nana. me should regarded as himself the great b b deep. A. therefore.” The legends. i him down from the upper end of it. in so far. The name of Borsippa itself.

Nuzku. 5. in opposition to the god of the h0rizon. docs not appear to have belonged originally to Borsippa. as creator of the universe he must have becn credited with a certain degrcc of wisdom. 45. however.” I n ii. 54. 19. and since the Accadians liad written upon the leaves and rind of the papyrus before they began to write on clay. “ From the horizon (the god UR) to the zenith (the god Nuzku). 1. Nuzku probably signified in Accadian ((thebrilliancc of the daybreak.” at all events hc was a solar deity. 73. the god IJR is identified with Nebo . it was employed with a certain determinative to denote the stylus or pen of the scribe. ((height of heaven. A. one of whose titles was ‘(lord of the zenith .” and was frequcntly used to represent the name of Nuzku. he might also have been considered to have bcen the author of linowledge and intelligence.55. 159. I. He is entitled thc messcngcr” or “angel of Mul-lil. that the mediation between the demiurge of Borsippa and the Semitic Ncbo was due to. Hence Kuzku. It is possible.118 LECTC’RE 11. a confusion of the latter with an entirely different god named Nuzliu.” and in the cunciform texts his naine is often used to denote the zenith. A.” as it x-as cdlcd in Assyrian. I n R 2. Nuzku is called “ t h e supreme messenger of E-Irni. or elat suine. 56. the god of the scribe’s pen. Indced.I.”2 thc older Bel. ii. The phrase is freqnent.l NOW the ideograph which denoted t. and Nuzku the Sun of midday. however. the god of the zenith.he daybreak. Nebo being the Suit of the dawn. happened also to denote a leaf. became also Khadh. primitive god of Borsippa was the deep. W. and it was only (( See TT. hence Nebo and Nuzku mill have been q y r d e d as two different phases of the Sun-god.” The amalgamation of Neb0 and Nuzku v a s no dou3t aided by tlic f x t that while Nuuku was thus the meu- . ii.

was not the Sun-god. It seems strange that N U Z ~the U . Ilu’ebo their patron went with them. a result that was further encouraged by the absorption of his city of Borsippa into the larger Babylon. but the power which bound the universe together. who as tho supreme deity of the place was worshipped by the inhabitants as the creator of the universe. therefore. but is also used of the zenith.l Wherever the literary class went. A knowledge of Babylonian letters and learning was accompanied by a knowledge of the senger of Mul-lil the older Bel. . 119 when the older Bel of Nipur became merged in the younger Bel-Merodach of Babylon. The confusion between the two Bels led necessarily to a cotfusion between their t v o ministers. Nuzku originally appears to have come from Nipur and to have been identified with Nebo when the latter came to shara with IIerodach his solar character. When the transformation was finally completed. that Nuzku followed the fortunes of his master and was himself domesticated in the city of the younger Bel. three separate deities found themselves united in the divine patron of tlie literary c1ass.” was primarily the Fire-god is expressly stated in K 170aRsv. 1 U p to the last.BEL-UERODACH OF BABYLON. which properly refers to the rising sun. the priesthood of Babylon remembered that Nebo and Nuzlru were originally different divinities. that Nebo showed a greater tendency to migration than the older and more definitely localised deities of Babylonia. should have come to reprecent the zenith.” and as such the morning-grey. It is not surprising. “ who goes on the left of the companions of the king. however. I n the great temple of Merodach there was a separate chapel for Pr‘uzku by the side of the great tower. Nebo consequently became less local in character than the other divinities of the pantheon. But originally the local god of Eorsippa. Nebo was the prophet and messenger of Merodach the younger Bel. but the same transference of meaning meets us in the Assyrian verb napakhu. That Nuzku. messengcr of “ the lord of the ghost-world. 5. A4s this was thc ocean-stream which encircled the horizon and was the home of the rising sun. it wae not difficult to confound it with tlie morning sun itself.

The Assyrian kings and scribes might be silent about the name of Merodnch.” was exchanged for the more literary one of iVe“bl. transferred the patronage of the literary class from the old god Ea to his younger rivals Nebo and Tasmit. the old name of roch. partly because our materials in regard t o them are less imperfect than is the case with many of the other gods.” The Semites of Babylonia provided Nebo with a wife. died on the peak of Mount Nebo. MOSCS. but the name of Nebo was continually in their n1ouths.” She helped to open and enlarge the ears mhich received the divine mysteries her husband’s inspiration enabled his devout servants to write down.l His name and worship passed even to the distant Semitic tribes of the west. 18. proves that the god of prophecy was adored by the leader and Canaanites and Moabites alike. Tasmitu. prophet of Israel. Nebo is called ‘‘ the messenger of Assur. I have dwelt thus long on the nature and history of the three deities who shared together the great temple of Babylon. fn Assyria. . “ the hearer. When the Israelites entered upon thcir literary era. or “ seer. The names of placcs in Palestine in which his name occurs. K 100. The revolution which transferred the learning of the Babylonians from the Accadians to the Semites. or ‘‘prophet.” who thus takes the place of Merodach of Eabylon.120 LECTURE I L Babylonian god of letters and learning. Nebo was honoured as much as he was in Babylonia itself. It is 1 In the prayer to Assur. partly because they illustrate so well the essentially local character of Babylonian religion. Rec. and cities bearing the name stood within the borders of the tribes of Reuben and Judah.

the several deities remained to the last a body of equals. just as Melkarth (Melech-kiryath) was the Baal of Tyre. and centralisation was never carried so far as to break up the local usages and cults that prevailed in them. The gods of Babylonia were like the local saints of Catholic Europe. being merely the Bel or Baal of Babylon. not like the Greek hierarchy of Olympus. The worship of Nebo was less local than that of other divinities. simply because he was the god of the imperial city. for example. ruled by the despotic nod of Zeus. I n the eyes of the people. We have seen that the rise of the prophet-god in Babylonia marks the growing importance of literature and a literary class. In so far as the worship of Nebo forms an exception to the general rule. the Moon-god of Ur would have talien the place of Bel-Merodach. The Semites of Babylonia thus closely resembled their brother Semites of Canaan in their fundamental conception of religion. He alone was the god of a class rather than of a locality. sented the particular forms of the Sun-god worshipped in each locality. among whom the god of the imperial city prosided.” the multitudinous Baalim who repre. just as the . But the parallelism extends yet further. it is an exception which bears out the old legal maxim that the exception proves the rule. Babylonian history began with scpnrate cities. If Ur had taken the place of Babylon. 121 this which gives t o it its peculiar complexion and furnishes the key to its interpretation. As the Canaanite or Phcenician had ‘‘ lords many. because he was specially worshipped by a class which existed in each of the local centres of the country.BEL-NERODSCH OF BABYLOX. so too the gods of Semitic Babylonia were equally multitudinous and local-Merodach.

We must remember. a mere imitation of Babylonian cuiture.” that (‘among all gods” there is none like unto himself. I n Babylonia.122 LECTURE 1 1 . I n his name and through his help the Assyrian kings go forth to conquer . What Israel was in this respect t o the Phcenicians. their literature vas for the most part an exotic. ASSLW is not merely primus inter pares. therefore. The Assyrians mere a nation of warriors and traders rather than of students . the towns they burn.” and to lay their yoke upon those who disbelieve in his name. merely the president of the divine assembly. the captives they take. Assyria was to Babylonia. and its growth is contemporaneous with the closer relations that grew LIP between the monarchs of Israel and Hiram of Tyre. Now the literary age of Israel was long preceded by a literary age among their Phcenician neighbours. the men they slay. with one important exception. Like the Yahveh of Israel. It is to destroy (‘the enemies of Assur. the national deity of Assyria. he claims to be “king above all gods. like Merodach. its impersonation Assur. education was widely diffused . it was confined to the learned class. that in dealing with Assyrian documents we are dealing either with a foreign importation or with the thoughts and beliefs of a small and special class. that they lead their armies into other lands. It is wholly Babylonian. beginning of a literary age in Israel is coeval with the change of the seer into the prophet. in hssyria. he is their lord and master in another and more autocratic sense. This is the class from whom wc have to gain our knowlcdgc of the form of religion prevalent in Assyria. are all his gifts. . Supreme over the old Babylonian pantheon rises the figure of a ncw god.

while recognising the supremacy of his national God. their old Babylonian titles are accorded to them . or who even razed his city to the ground. they are called upon to curse the sacrilegious in the stereotyped phrases of the ancient literature . how far they had been brought from Babylonia in early days by the people themselves. and Assur alone. in becoming Assyrian the Babylonian gods have lost both their definiteness and their rank. is clear . and Assur alone. but it is Assur. their titles are borrowed from the literature of the southern kingdom. hssur was as much a purely local divinityi . It is almost pitiable to find Bel-Merodach invoked. The invocations addressed to them lack their old genuine ring.BEL-MERODACE OF UABYLOB. The gods of Babylonia are invoked. 123 it is his decrees. I am not prepared to say. How far they owe their presence in Assyrian literature to the literary class. it is true. At the outset. in whose name he subdues the infidel. that they m i t e upon the monuments they erect in conquered countries. it is Assur. however. in phrases that once denoted his power above other deities. to whom the Assyrian monarch turns in moments of distress. and their functions are usurped by the new god Assur. One fact. in fact. Only the goddess Istar finds a place by the side of Assur. his law. thought it prudent or cultivated to offer at the same time a sort of inferior homage to the Baalim of Canaan. The Assyrian. It is not difficult to account for all this. occupied much the same position as an 'Israelite who. In passing from their native homes to Assyria. by the very kings who boast of their conquests over his people. the Babylonian deities lost that local character which was the very breath of their existence.

too. But several causes conspired to occasion him to lose this purely local character. and to assume in place of it a national character. the importation of Babylonian deities had broken the close connection which existed in thc mind of a Babylonian between the dcity and the city where he was worshipped . was shifted at the same time. Assyria. and the worship of Assur. He was the god of Assur (now Kaleh-Sherghat). ‘(righteousness. ‘(righteous. instead of remaining fixed at Assur. to the Assyrian. as was so often the case with Babylonia.134 LECTURE 1 1 . from the time it first became an independent kingdom. The capital of Assyria was shifted from Assur to Nineveh. the primitive capital of the country. the composite origin of Assur himself had something to do with the result. formed an homogeneous wholc. furthcrniore. moreover. The name of Assur is frequently represented by a character which among other ideographic values had that of ‘ I good. it was not divided into separate states. The god so denoted was one of the primEva1 deities of Babylonian cosmology who bore in Accadian the title of Ana sar (An-sar). which the traditions of the old cities of Chaldaea and the frequent conquest of the country by foreigners prevected from developing in the south. “ tho . as Bel-Merodach of Babylon. Perhaps. Bel-Mcrodach was no longer pwuliarly the patron-god of Babylon. A national feeling was consequently permitted t o grow up.” and asin%.” with a reference perhaps to their own words asz’m. Then.” But this was not the original signification either of the name or of thc character by which it was expressed. hie other attributes came instead to the front.” The name was accordingly explained by the Assyrians of the later historical age as “the good god.

and that of the city of Assur in which he was adored. and the progenitors of the three supreme gods.” produced the present world. ‘‘ . 12. The worship of these primseval divinities had been rooted in Assyria from an early period. by uniting with the female principle (Anu) Ici-sar. probably the earliest Semitic emigrants from the south found it already established there.BEL-NEBODACH OF BABYLON. or (‘water-bank. whose son was said to Be the god Ninip or Adar. phonetic (YT otherwise. ‘‘the bed (of a river). and the fact that the name of the country is often expressed by attaching the determinative affix of locality to the name of the god proves that they were not conscious of any difference. Here Anasar and Ki-sar are called ’Auuopbs and Ktamp?j. Anu. and we are told of them that they were the offspring of the primeval Lakhma and Lakhama. sometimes with s . a writer of the sixth century. however.” first corrupted by its Semitic inhabitants into Assur and then into Asur. Mul-lil and Ea.” or simply Sar. The Assyrians. the upper firmament.” It was believed that Ana sar was the male principle which.”’ 1 The attempt has been made to show that the names of the god and of the country ought to be distinguished from one another by writing the first with ss and the second with a single s. wrote both alike. It was inevitable that before long a confusion should grow up between the name of the god An-sar or Assdr. with a possible reference to the word asurra. But the city of Assur had nothing to do with the god. sometimes with ss. It was to this old elemental deity that the great temple of E-sarra was dedicated. “(the goddess of) the earth (and) the hosts of heaven. The name seems to be a corruption of the Accadian A-usar.5 god of the hosts of heaven. who had access to older materials now lost. A fragment of Babylonian cosmogomy has been preserved to us by Damascius.

” belonging to him in much the same way as the city of Babylon belonged to Bel-Merodach. like the Yahveh of Israel. however. rian teach em. Thcre was yet another respect in which Assur resembled thc Yahveh of Israel. The city of Assur was itself a god: offences against the city were offences against the god . The transference of the centre of power from Assur to Nineveh made the anthropomorphic side of Assur’s nature still more prominent. was too deeply implanted within the mind of the Semites to allow either this fact. he was also its Baal or lord.126 LECTURE 1 1 . He represented now the whole nation and the central power which governed the nation. In sur& a matter w e cannot be wiser Ban om . the national god of a race. The confusion betmeen AssBr the god and Assur the city had the effect of identifying the god vith his city more closely than could be the case with the divine patron of a Babylonian town. The instinct. A ssj. Though Amur was the personification of the city. the enemies of the city mere the enemies also of the god. But whereas Bel-Mcrodach was the Baal of a particular city only. He was thus the representative at once of the people and of the king in whose hands the government of the people was centred. or the further fact that the god himself was originally a mere elemental one. There was no goddess Assurritu by the side of Assur. Assyria became “the land of the god ASSUT. to obliterate his individual and anthropomorphic character. of regarding the dcitics they worshipped as individuals. as there was an Anatu by the betveen t h e two. Assur was.

Bilat or Beltis is sometimes addressed as the consort of Assur. a Beltis by the side of Bel. I. arising from the existence there of a great temple dedicated to her. 66. There is no indication that Assur had a “face” or reflection . like Merodach. and once his name is followed by that of Istar. and the inspiration received from him by the Assyrian kings is received from him alone. There was no national goddess to place by the side of the national god. in imitation of Babylonian usage. and never becomes a proper name (see W. it is simply a literary affectation. under which she was worshipped as “the Istar of Nineveh. W e possess a list of the deities whose images stood in the temples of Assur at Assur and Nineveh. Bilat is a Babylonian goddess.” it serves only to distinguish tho Assyrian Istar from the Istar of Arbela 2 J W. v. “the Assyrian.3 He is like the king of Assyria himself. he stands by himself. not only in the less narrowly local character that belongs to him. If Istar is sometimes called Assuritu.BELMLKODACH OF BABYLON. she is properly the wife of the older Bel. He is {‘king of all gods” in a sense in which none of the deities of Babylonia were. 127 &de of Ann. Like the title “Istar of Nineveh.2 At the head of each list the name of Assur is thrice invokeci. A. 65). The following prayer or hymn (K 100) illustrates the way in which the learned literati of Assur-bani-pal’s court sought to make g o d the . 1. it is the equally independent goddess Istar or Ashtoreth. Assur was not a Bel or Baal. iii. When a female divinity is invoked along with him. There was. a special form of Istar. but also i n his solitary nature. in fact. A.* If. not national. Assur consequently differs from the Babylonian gods. in later times identified with Zarpanit.” the adjective is alwayri a mere title.” but the form mas purely local. I.

allowing neither wife nor son t o share in the honours which he claims for himself alone. possessing the life of Assur the father of the (great) gods. (To) M a r the son of Mul-lil. . 20. 8. the first. t h e lord of the wind and tho lightning of heaven. born . .ieo of Babylonia : 1. their name and their seed. mho for delivering the message (has been appointed). (To) Aferodaeh the prince of the gods. (To) Istnr the queen of heaven and the stars.. . 12. who by the comniand of her month . . the first-born 21. . brooking no rival. . the great gods. (To) the scveii gods. . . . ruler (li) over heatveii and earth. (To) the god mho marches in front. 5. 14. thc father who has created the gods. and to connect him with thc deit.” On the obverse. . . . 7. mho to his brilliant light . (To) Xin-lil the TFife of BSSLIP. 4.” and “at the opening of their holy month” they are aslied to befriend tho kin8 “ himself. the supreme first-born (of heaven and earth). 17.. . (To) Rinimon the ministcr (pigu7) of heavcn and earth. (To) Nebo the messenger of Assur (An-sar) 19. (To) Nsrgal the lord of might (nbari) and strength (dunni). the supreme m i t t n t h mho (inclines) to counsel. 18. .128 LECTURE 1 1 . 9.” “ as many as (dwell) i n tho midst of the stone. thc lords (of heaven and earth). the sperz tacle of heaven. . the uplifter of horns. 15. little of which is left. 3. fixed a n d . . who .” . the begetter (tukht). . “A prayer to Assur the king of the gods. . the giver of the sceptre and tho throne. . the great judge of thc gods. (To) Anu the lord and prince. whosc seat (is esaltccl). . 16.. (To) tlic Sungod. 2. who causes tfl6 lightning to issuc forth. mention is made of “the image of the great gods. 10. 22. . the cres tress of heaven (and earth). his princes (iiza7i74. the intcrpreter (BAR-BAII) of the spirits of heaven and (earth). 11. 6. thc giant (gitmnlu). the warrior deities . (To) Sin the lord of conmiand. . He is deficiencies of their national god.

and a8 such sends forth his Assyrian adorers to destroy his unbelieving foes. perhaps. less near to his worshippas than they were. Wifeless. under other conditions. less kindly. childless. trace in him all the lineaments upon which.BEL-MEPODACH OF BABYLON. he is mightier than the Babylonian Baalim. K . 129 essentially a jealous god. there might have been built up as pure a faith as that of the God of Israel. but more awe-inspiring and more powerful. in fact. We can.

belonging to the cities where their cults were established as literally as the temples in which they were adored. and to point out that the Babylonian deities of the later inscriptions are only in part of purely Semitic origin. but it was only as god of Babylon that he would hear the prayer. in part adaptations of earlier Accaciian divinities. indeed. IN my last Lecture I have been obliged t o some extent to anticipate the conclusions to which a survey of the older literature of Babylonia will lead us. in Babylonia the gods are local Baalini as fully as they were in Phcenicia. due mainly to the fact that the Phccnicinn cities were never amalgamated into a single empire. by one common feature . There are tmo especially of the older gods whose names .LECTURE III. I n Assyria. be invoked elsewhere than at Babylon. What differences may have existed between the religious conceptions of the Phcenicians and Babylonians in this respect were but superficial. more analogous to that which meets us among the Israelites. I have had t o refer more than once t o the older gods of thc land. alone we find another order of things. ' THE GODS O F BABYLONIA. however. while Babylon succeeded in imposing its authority upon its sister towns. Merodach might. they are all alike local. They are characterised.

this being Oannes used to retire again into the sea. Now when the sun had set. of which B&rbssos proposes to give an account when he comes to the history of the kings. to compile laws. for he mas amphibious. These are Ea and the original Bel. a creature cndowed with reason. Ancient legends affirmed that the Persian Gulf-the entrance to the deep or oceans t r e a m h a d been the mysterious spot from whence the first elements of culture and civilisation had been brought to Chaldea. with feet also below similar to those of a man subjoined to the fish’s tail.”’ -- Zusebios (Chron. but took no food at that season. I n the first year there appeared in that part of the Erythrzean sea which borders upon Babylonia. and showed them how to collect the fruits. the Chnldaean historian-so at least his epitomiser Alexander Polyhistbr declared-had reported them as follows : “ A t Babylon there was a great resort of people of various races who inhabited Chaldm. aiicl pass the night in the deep. by name Oannes. whose whole body (according to the account of Apollodhros) was that of a fish . to found temples. and of their civil polity.). iiothing material has been added by way of improvement to his instructions. and explained to them the principles of geometrical knowledge. Moreover. Oanncs wrote concerning the generation of mankind. the third antediluvian king. He made them distinguish the seeds of the earth. in short. called K 2 . was the god not only of the deep. and he gave them an insight into letters and sciences and arts of every kind. His voice. were Ann6dotos in the time of Amillaros. too. he instructed them in everything which could tend to softeii manners and humanise their lives. Euseb. but also of wisdom. B&rbssos. as we have already seen. Cory’s translation : “The other animals like Oannb. Ea. Xai). of their different ways of life.i. After this there appeared other animals like Oannes. and language were articulate and human . and lived in a lawless manner like the beasts of the field. 6L This being was accustomed to pam the day among men. and a representation of him is preserved even to this day. Let me speak of Ea first. H e taught them to construct houses. c7~ron. From that time.! f ! H E GODS OF BABYLOXIL 131 have frequently recurred.” according to Abydenos (ap. 6. under the fish’s head he had another head.

where the Iggilluni is identified with Ea. 51. EuedSkos. the city of Anu.132 LECTURE 111. I. Eneubulos and An&mentos i n the time of Dads (? Tammuz) the shepherd.ined by nutsim.” as Jeremias supposes) is esph. according to W.’ The wicked wea-ves spells. 7. a Greek translation of “ the country of tablets” or books. ii. and OclakGn i n the time of EuedSreskhos.” in W. into the house of (his) repose the protector descended.s. I. it is probable.from Eridu. A wise people repeated his wisdom. (‘ the obedient one. the antediluvian kings come either from Larankha. n h o is made a Cabylonian. which. another Anni?dotos in the time of Daonos the shepherd.” a title given to the Accad of Sargon.” who are constantly associated together by Sargon. i. 1 Iggillzcm (which does not signify “ a cry of woe. A. With the exception of the first. v. W c may infer from this that the whole story of the antediluvian kings had its origin at Sippara. A. and not. Eneugamos.” appear in the t h e of Ammenbn the successor of Amelan. is a corrupt reading for Surippak near Sippara.e. . but the sentient one grows not old. 57-71. or from Panti-bibla. some of the successors of Oannirs appear to have been derived from the legends of Erech. like the original OannG. the Ann6dotos. 16.” is called his throne-bearer in W. I. there was need of him and he restored (his) decrees (3)”2 The exact etymology of the name which appears under AmelSn by ApollodBros. ApollodGros niakcs “the Musaros Oannh. 72. W. The unwise and the slave (literally person) the most valued of his master forgot him . Magiru. “Anu and Dagon (Dagan). “ the defender. as we learn from the Deluge-tablet. A native fragment of the legend has.” AnnCclotos seems to be a Greek compound. “given by Anu. It reads thus: ‘( J To the mters their god has returned . been accidentally preserved among a series of extracts from various Accadian works.” as Winckler) of Harran by the mill of Anu and Dagon. iii. 8. 28.A. I. ii. and who says of them that he had “written the laws (not “immunitw. and Anbdaphos i n the time of Euedbreskhos. A. fiS.” In any case. A comparison of AnSdaphos and OdakGn shows the true reading to have been AnbdakBn. in a bilingual readingbook compiled for the use of Semitic students of Accadian.

42. A. I. moreover.” . he was also the culture-god of primitive \ Babylonia.” But whether or not this is the case. to bo distiiiguished from Tud&tic. 27). like Oann&s.I‘ offspring. 5). Conversely the god Ea is represented by (AX) E. 48. declares that if “ h e speaks according to the injunction (or writing) of the god Ea. the head of a fish appearing behind that of the man.‘‘ the god of the house.” Now “the god of pure life. * W. A.represented as partly man and partly fish. sometimes the body of the man is made to terminate in the tail of a fish. An old Babylonian sermon on the duty of a prince to administer justice impartially and without bribes. as we a have seen.THE GODS OF BABYLONIA. iv.”2 Ea mas. the great gods will seat him in wisdom and the knowledgel of righteousness.” or rather 6‘ belonging to a h o ~ s e . bears an inscription stating that the figure is that of “the god of pure life. A. I. Sometimes the fish’s skin is thrown over the man’s back. 133 the Greek dress of Oannts has not yet been ascertained.” W. 55. ‘‘ Ea the fish. i i 15. “the writing of Ea” is referred to as “giving rest to the heart. on which the deity is depicted in the latter fashion. the instructor of his worshippers in arts and science. was one of the names of Ea. I. iv. which is transcribed Aos by Damascius. iv. the god of wisdom. The name Ea. 29.” 3 Ea is tmnslnted “house. ii. 7. 61. it is certain that OannCs and Ea are one and the same. A. Ea. not only had his home in the maters of the Persian Gulf.” W. Lenormant thought that it represented Ea-khan. 69. signifies “ a house. 16. ” ~ T?tdnt. A gem in the British Museum. I.” as we are expressly informed by a rubrical gloss to a hymn in honour of the demiurge Ea (Obv. I n a penitential psalm (W.

21. line lo).l and to this day the Zulus believe that the spirits of their ancestors are embodied in certain harmless snakes which frequent their homes. in nn unnumbered fragment (M. 31. 116. and who is called “ t h e overseer” or “assembler of the gods of heaven and earth” (K 4415. Ea was therefore originally the ‘(house-god”-a designation which it is difficult to reconcile with his aquatic character. 32). On the other hand. . But it was not a holy city only. possibly it belongs to a later period.” which appears in the non-Semitic texts of northern Babylonia as Eri-zkba. This seenis to be the form which has given rise to tho A-os of Damascius. 47. p. now represented by the mounds of Abu Shahrein on the eastern bank of the Euphrates. and not far to the south of Mugheir or Ur. It is often termed. the primEva1 seat of the worship of Ea was the city of Zridu. The place was thus a peculiarly holy spot. However this may be. Among thesymbols of the gods on contractstones. tho snake-god WRS Serakh. A. I n 0-annes the initial is due to the contraction of 6-u. with the same meaning. 6. 10). in iv. According to W. ii. it would seem. 17. I . when the old marine god had become the household deity of those mho received his benefits and believed him to be the source of their culture. or ‘(good city. 59.” whose name signified “the treading of corn” (v. whose sanctity was established far and wide throughout the country. ‘ ‘ a snake in thy bed” (asuncc-ki) is invoked aa a curse. the serpent occupies a prominent place. Possibly his worship goes back to a time when the inhabitants of the coast of the Persian Gulf lived in pile-dwellings like those of Switzerland or the British Islands. He was symbolised.134 LECTURE 111. 1 See above. the god of corn and “spirit of 3:-Bara. Eridu is a contracted form of the older Eri-duga. by a serpent. Bev.

If the growth of the alluvium at the mouths of the Euphrates and Tigris has always been the same as is the case at present (about sixty-six feet a year). which made it an inland instodld of a lnaritime city. and when it was the centre from which the ancient culture and civilisation of the country made its way. the city atood at the mouth of the Euphrates and on the edge of the Persian Gulf. according to 82. its power must therefore belong t o that dimly remote age of which the discoveries at Tel-loh have enabled us to obtain a few glimpses. and the sea-faring traders of Eridu would have iplaced themselves under his protection. the cult of Ea would have been established.” The decay of Eridu was probably due t o t h o increase of the delta at the head of the Persian Gulf.”l and we are told that one of its titles mas ((the land of the sovereign. and 80 destroyed ita trade. means “land of the lord. therefore.” I n historical times.C. . Eridu had . EN-KI. 816. ‘‘ the god o f Eridu.. NUX-KI.auk to the condition of a second-rate or even third-rate town. this would have been at the latest about 3000 B. the god of Eridu. pronounccd Nunp6. There must havo been a time when Eridu held a foremost rank among the cities of Babylonia. It will be noticed that the culture-myths of Babylonia. the date would more probably be about 4000 B. another title of Eridu. 136 more especially in the sacred tests. 1.2 Along with this culture went the worship of Ea. who to the closing days of the Babylonian monarchy continued to be known as Eridfiga. but as the accumulation of soil has been more rapid of late.THE GODS OF BABYLONIA. however. 21.C. Obv. Already.” At the period when the first elements of Chaldaean culture were being fostered in Eridu. ‘I the lordly city.

and the primitive pictures out of which the cuneiform characters developed. the script. He revived the old theory of a mysterious Cushite population which carried the civilisation of Egypt to the shores of Babylonia. Apart from those general analogies which we find in all early civilisations. however. there is no traceable connection. the theology and the astronomy of Egypt and Babyloni'r show no vestiges of a common source. The statues discovered by M. Was the culture of Babylonia imported from abroad. de Sarzec at Tel-loh. like the culture-myths of America.136 LECTURE 111. 1 Tntrduction t o his Nubische Gmmnintik (1880). bring the first civiliser of the country from the sea. The evidence is as startling as it is curious. . It is as a sea deity that Oannes is the culture-hero of the Chaldaeans. of foreign extraction ? The last great work published by Lepsiusl was an attempt to answer the first of these questions in the affirmative. Nevertheless. there is now sufficient evidence to prove that at the very dawn of the historic period in Babylonia. it is from the depths of the Persian Gulf that he carries to his people the treasures of art and science. and was Ea. its god of culture. maritime intercourse was being carried on between this country on the one hand and the Sinaitic Peninsula and India on the other. But to all theories of this sort there is one conclusive objection. Two questions are raised by this fact. The origin of Babylonian culture is so closely bound up with the origin of the cuneiform system of writing. that the tvo cannot be separated from each other. Between the hieroglyphics of Egypt.

C. Apart from the existence of teak in the ruins of --- - c 1 See above. and to a certain extent the dress.1 I n an opposite direction we may infer that Chaldaan traders had also made their way to the western coast of India. 33. it would seem that as far back as six thousand years ago stone was conveyed by sea from the quarries of Sinai to Egypt and Babylonia.. are remarkably alike. What clinches the matter is the fact obseri-ed by Mr. is the same as the unit of measurement employed by the Pyramid builders. 137 which may be roughly dated about 4000 B. The execution. indeed. the general effect. some of the Tel-loh statues are carved out of hard diorite stone.THE GODS OF BABYLONIA. p. and as the age of the fourth Egyptian Dynasty corresponds with the age which we must assign t o the statues of Tel-loh. Petrie. but the attitude. Dr. and Egyptian miners had quarried there . Egyptian garrisons had held possession of the Peninsula. Oppert and myself have long ago pointed out that originally it signified the Sinaitic Peninsula. the pose. that the unit of measurement marked on the plan of the city which one of the figures of Tel-loh carries upon its lap. the builder of the second pyramid of Gizeh. and though in later times Magan was used to denote Lower Egypt. remind every traveller who has been in Egypt of the great diorite statue of king Ehephren. Now one of the inscriptions that accompany them affirms that the stone was brought from the land of Magan. is infinitely inferior . What is more. and that a school of sculpture had already arisen in that part of the world. Ever since the epoch of the Third Dynasty. . which is now in the BGlak Museum.

Ea. however.” This intercourse with other countries. an ancient Babylonian list of clothing mentions sindhzi. same word as which is expressed by ideographs signifying literally ‘‘ vegetable cloth. 19. and it is even possible that the primitive Shamanistic worship of spirits. as we shall see hereafter. At present. sindliu is explained b bo s i p + Kurri. 20. I n W. originally characterised the religion of the Accadians. the deity with whom the introduction of such a culture is associated.” the dadin of the Old Testament. and the fact that it begins with a sibilant and not with a vowel. 28. “ a veiL” . first became a worship of the god Ea through foreign influence. The Persian Gulf. of course.138 LECTURE 1 1 1 . It therefore becomes possible that Ea. A. however. ‘‘ cloth of Iiur. v. may also have come from abroad. or ‘(muslin. I. even though it were indigenous in its origin. and the influence which a school of sculpture in the Sinaitic Peninsula appears to have exercised upon the Babylonians. where the original s would have become h in Persian m0uths.” and addu. was not merely a god of the sea. like our “ Indian. which formed the entrance to the ocean(( 1 Supposing. which. there is no proof of this.” proves that it must have come to the west by sea and not by land. That W& is merely the Indian” cloth has long been recognised. that Iranian tribes were already settled to the east of Cahylonin. the a d i v of the Greeks. though it is quite possible that some of his featurcs are foreign. Mugheir.l That sindhu is really the is shown by its Accadian equivalent. other spirits afterwards passing into gods when the example had once been set. must necessarily have had much to do with the early development of Chaldaean culture.

No. ‘‘ god of the river of the great snake. 23. was fed by the great river on which Eridu stood.” but also as ‘‘ lord of heaven and earth. Water and earth-these were the two elements out of which the old inhabitants of Eridu believed the world to have been formed.A. A. I . not only as lord of the earth. ii. and the further title. 56.” “the master of all created things. She was known as Dav-kina or Dav-ki.” and personified the earth just as Ea personified the water.” ‘‘the prince of the zenith” of heaven. 5. whose powers were co-extensive with those of Ea.”2 Ea was thus emphatically a water-god. 7V. 58.” “the ruler of all the world. A. and whose home was in the waves of the Persian Gulf.3 There is no room here for the Anu or Sky-god of northern Babylonian theology. Ea had a consort who was not at all like the Semitio goddesses we have been considering in the last Lecture. ‘ I the lady of the earth.TRE GODS OF BABYLONIA 139 stream that encircled the world. ii. I . 27. the deity wno presided over the watery element wherever it was found. 55. Out of the mixture of the two arose the conception of the encircling ocean. ii. H e was in fact addressed. no h a t or Beltis or Zarpanit. the watergod at Eridu took the place occupied by the Sky-god in other cities of Babylonia. I . (( * UT. s h e was no pale reflexion of a male divinity.” but “the king of the river”1 also. Ea accordingly was a rivergod as moll as a sea-god. but a genuine and independent deity.” I‘ the god of the universe. he is entitled not only “the king of the deep. TJT. It was the theory of Thal&s in its primitive shape. . differing from her husband only in the grammatical suffix of her name.

As god of the pure incantation may he further be invoked. . Not only. 0 god of the pure crown. Ea was the demiurge. moreover. the elements of culture and civilisation. so that they let not the doing of evil come forth against him. which was at once the home and the visible form of Ea. Lord of the pure oracle who giveth life to the dead. that ( I deep. I n places diacult of access we have smelt his good wind. . May he (determine) the courses of the stars of heaven. who knowest the hearts of the gods that move his compassion. Thus he is invoked as ‘(the god of pure life” who stretches out the bright k m a ment. the lord of hearing and obedience. the god of good winds. who hath granted forgiveness to the conspiring gods. even he the merciful one with whom is life. (( . May he command. but the created universe itself proceeded out of that watery abyss.140 LECTURE 111.” as it is called in our translation of the Book of Genesis. and a hymn exists in which he is addressed as such under each of his many titles. May he establish and never may his word be forgotten in the mouth of the black-headed race (of Sumir) whom his hands created. may he hearken to his worshippers. by whose pure spell the siege of the foe is removed. then. who brings to greatness him that is of small estate. establisher of fertility. 0 god who knowest the heart. hath laid homage and submission upon the gods his foes. For their redemption did he create mankind. who aubdues the disobedient. may all creatures that have wings and fins be strong. like a flock may he order all the gods.. before whose pure approach may the evil trouble be overthrown. he who establishes the assembly of the gods (and knows) their hearts. may he glorify. creator of the pure and the impure.

and may he speak as formerly. however. . the Igigi were denoted by the numeral 9 (Acc. irinzzr). have the name of Ea. his ways he has restored. may they be observed. and may he overthrow mischief(?) for future time. 141 May he exorcise the sea-monster of chaos. May father to son repeat and hand them down. The poet. iv. I. l). like myself. The names of the angels1 he gave unto them. may he rule triumphantly. and by Delitzsch in hie Aaryrisdie LesestCcke. however. It is difficult to follow his further combinations. Since (their) places he created. and may he communicate all my secret knowledge through the fifty names of the great gods.” The name is ideographically expressed by the detcrminative of divinity followed by ‘‘twice five. h d Ea heard.” The fracture which has destroyed the middle part of the hymn makes it difficult to connect together the earlier and latter portions of the poem. May he open the ears of both shepherd and flock. Mankind may he raise t o length of days.THE GODS OF BABYLONIA. Rahab. “ t o be powerful. perhaps from ngdgu. Wise and sentient. even father Bel. and his liver was soothed. the great divine princes”). hae shown (ZeitsclwiftfLr Aayriologie.’ His fifty names he has pronounced. her secrets may he discover (3) and destroy for evermore. 2. evidently wishes to show that the demiurge Bel of northern Babylonia is one and the same with the demiurge 1 Or ‘‘ spirits of heaven. which would connect them with the o4bu of W. 2 The text has been published by George Smith in the Tvamnctiona uf t l ~ s Society of Biblical A r c h o l o g y . and he spake thus : ‘ Since he has made his men strong by his name. 37 (expressed ideographically by AN-NUN-GAL.” Jcnsen. as well as with ru’hebu. ii. the Hob. he made strong.” called Igigi in Assyrian. 35. i. A. that whereas the Anhnaki or “spirits of earth” were denoted by the numeral 8 (Accadinn ukz). let him. lord of the world is he called by name. May he bear (to them) the bond of all my commands. he fashioned.

His connection with the water was due to the position of Eridu at the mouth of the Euphrates and on the shore of the sea. Ea was as much the local god of Eridu as Merodach was of Babylon. which the several deities bore. But it ceases t o be so when we remember the local character of Babylonian religion. too. they are created by him. or rather titles. This conception of a creating deity is one of the distinguishing feat urcs of early Babylonian religion. hence the mystic importance attached to names and the leading part they played in exorcisms and charms. the name was regarded as identical with the thing which it signified . And these patron-dcitics were regarded as creators. transferred t o him from the other L L great gods . and by whose hands the ancestors of their worshippcrs had been made. The hymn to Ea tells us that the god of Eridu was the ” . and it is by a knowledge of them that the secret wisdom of Ea is communicated to both gods and men. as well as to the maritime habits of its population. as in most primitive communities. Here Ea is accredited with no less than fifty-all. a s they are in other theologies. The task was rendered easier by the numerous mmes. or Assur of Assyria.142 LECTURE IJI. as those by whose agency the present world had come into existence. In Babylonia. In other respects h e occupied the same place as the patron-deities of the other great cities. Ea of the south. How a water-god became the demiurge seems at first sight obscure. It is one of the many attempts that were made in laker days t o harmonise and identify the various local deities of Chaldtea to whom in different localities the same attributes were assigned. Mankind are not descended from a particular divinity.

29. v. 71). It was through )) * W.” being confounded with dimme. 143 creator of the black-headed race-that ie to say. as Dr. from the verb dingi or dime. I . The earth lay upon this like a wife in the arms of her husband.” and signify the images of dead ancestors. The Acoadian word for (‘god” was dimer. fro= rappu.THE GODS OF BABYLONIA. according to Accado-Sumerian ideas. meaning ‘I weak. she is addressed in a prayer as the mother who has borne the men with the black heads.1 Istar is said to have been the mother of mankind in the story of the Deluge. It was as creators that the Accadian gods were distinguished from the host of spirits of whom I shall have to speak in another Lecture. or more properly dimma. I. from Tap2 (W. 48.”2 It was in consequence of the fact that he was a. ii. therefore.” and hence “prehistoric people. Gingira. in the southern dialect of Sumer. the origin of the universe was the watery abyss. or ‘Lshadesof the dead.” the Assyrian tarpu.’’ W. a general name for the divine hierarchy.A. There was another dimme. thl: old non-Semitic population whose primary centre and starting-point was in Eridu itself. with the same meaning. creator that Ea was. 29. and as Gula. * . and Dav-kina accordingly was adored as the wife of Ea. which. D synonym of kcttszitu. A. Now dimer or dingir is merely “the creator.” I n the cosmology of Eridu. and from this rerb came the Sumerian name of Istar. Neubauer haa pointed out. L L to create. <‘the shade of the dead. from an older d i n g h . Tarpu is the Hebrew terplzim. (‘creator. A. stood gime. gim.” by the Semites. ‘(the great goddess.” formed by the suffix r or ra. 27. Dimma. caused the ideograph which denotes “ a spirit” to acquire the (Assyrian) value of rap. By the side of dime. a dingir or u god.” A simpler form of dimer is dime. must be connected with the Rephaim. iv. which appears as dingir. 61.J. ‘( weak. dim.

”l The oracles delivered by the thunder. L by tho god Mul-lil. Hence in the theology of Eridii there was no room for a god of the sky. W e may see here an allusion to the doctrine of R watery abyss above the sky. 5 . of d h i t u .” takes the place of me. 59. the voice of heaven. At present I need only remark that he was the primzeval Merodach. Perhaps the latter title should rather be rendered “ the lady of heaven whence the oracular voice is created. Rev. heard in the voice of the waves. The visible sky was only Dav-kina in another form. “ornament. 55. I. The sky must have been looked upon as but another earth which floated on the surface of an ocean-stream just as did the nether earth itself. just as in K 4245. 1 W.144 LECTURE 111. 56. her that the oracles of Ea. 4 . .” of whom I shall have much to say in the next Lecture. A.” that is. Dav-kina is entitled ‘(the mistress of the oracular voice of thc deep. ‘(the only-begotten one. of ‘(the waters above the firmament. the Sun-god born of Ea who was called Merodach by the Babylonians was called Tammuz (Dumuzi) by the people of Eridu. We can now understand why it was that in the theology of Eridu the Sun-god was the offspring of Ea and Dav-kina. and A N me sag by SIR. sag being explained by ristk and pani. ?ne-te. Perhaps Merodach is after all nothing more than “the god from Eridu.” I n line 55. were communicated t o man. of which we read in Genesis.” and also (‘the lady who creates the oracular voice of heaven. thus became the reflex of the oracles delivered through the roaring of the sea. ii. The name that he bore there was Dumuzi or Tammuz. where ( A N ) me sag-& and me-te+ag-L follow one another.” That he came originally from Eridu we have already seen.which is usually the equivalent.

. the Assyrian has I‘ servant of the ghost” ‘I (arcat Zi[Zi]) for the Accadian kiel ddn-kcira.3 but before long Zilafzi was confounded with the Semitic Zildtu. ‘‘ the night. servant of the I$&. 30. In W. iv.”l But such an identification belongs to the later imperial age of Babylonian history. borrowed by the Semites under the form of ZilZum. and whose form was like that of a dust-cloud. A. we find it expressly stated that he is one with “ Mul-lil the strong.” but was also applied to ghosts. t:vvmq” while kid lilla is rendered by lilatu. standing in the same relation to his worshippers at Nipur that Ea stood to his at Eridu. denoting the night-demon (( 1 2 W. Originally this Zilatu represented what the Accadians termed the handmaid of the ghost” (i-el-ZilZa).2 of whom it mas said that the Zil had neither husband nor wife. ii. I n a list of the titles of Ea. I . Mul-lil signifies “the lord of the ghost-world. ii. and ZiZ therefore served to represent both male and female ghosts. Mul-lil was primitively a purely local divinity. 55. to whose age the hymn belongs. 145 Tao author of the hymn to the deminrge identifies Ea with “father Bel. It was. i W. I . t .THE GOD$ OF BABYLONIA. and to this masculine they naturally added the feminine ZiZa tu. 16. 20. A. whose food was supposed to be the dust of the earth. however. But the particular Bel with whom the poet wishes to identify him mas Mul-lil. 19-90.” Lib was an Accado-Sumerian word which properly denoted ‘‘a dust-storm” or “cloud of dust. A. 17.” A s ‘(the lord of heaven and earth. the supreme god and demiurge of Nipur (the modern Niffer).” and so became a word of terror. The Accadian language possessed no distinction of gender.” Ea was indeed a Baal or Bel to the Semites. I .

He is therefore entitled “the lord of the world.”l According to one version of the story of the Deluge. According to the Rabbis. “When Mul-lil. From the Semitic Babylonians the name and conception of Lilatu passed to the Jews.” we are told.” as well as ‘(king of all the spirits of the earth. The “lord of the ghost-world’’ extended his sway over this nether earth also. We seem to have here a mythological reminiscence of the fact that Mid-lil had originally been the god of the lower world and its hosts of spirits. but she lived on the blood of children whom she slew at night. 1 2 . In the legend of the Descent of Istar into Hades. and who designed the destruction of all mankind. and protested against this attempt of Mul-lil t o confound the innocent with the guilty. and had the form of a beautiful woman. ‘(approached and saw the ship (of Xisuthrosj. 3. W. 14) the picture of the ghastly desolation which should befall Idurntea is heightened by its ruined mounds being made the haunt of Lilith. i. the goddess is made to threaten that unless she is admitted t o the realm of the dead she will let them out in the form of vampires t o devour the living. it was he who caused the waters of the flood to descend from heaven.2 ( What soul has escaped therefrom?’ (he cried).146 LECTURE 111. 9. ‘Let no man remain alive in the great destruction. I . w h o sucked the blood of her sleeping victims. he stood still and was filled with wrath against the gods and the spirits of heaven. and that he was consequently in opposition to the gods of light and the spirits of the upper air.’ ” It was then that Ea came forward with words of wisdom. Lilith had been the first wife of Adam. and in the book of Isaiah (xxxiv. A.

This magical text. iv. Mul-lil. in fact. still adhered to him. 37. En-lil wm contracted into Illil according to W. in the same relation to Mul-lil that Tammuz does t o Ea.1 But long before this account of the Deluge was composed. ‘‘Let the (other) gods come to my altar. S). let the evil-doer bear his own iniquity. whose messengers were diseases and nightmares and the demons of night. Namtar. 5. so that Xisuthros and his companions were allowed to escape from their threatened death. even though in its present form it probably reaches back more than 2000 years before the Christian era.” In these quotations I have called the god by his old Accadian name. the rescued horo did not forget the evil intentions of Nul-lil. A. however. 1. however.. A. but let Nul-lil not come to the altar.2. since he did not act sonsiderately. I. is a good deal older than (‘ Mul-lil was also known es En-lil in one of the Accado-Sumerian dialects. which explains the “IXXLYOSof Damascius (for which we should read UIMOZ) L2 . he specially excepted the god of Nipur. and from whom came the plagues and troubles that oppressed mankind. “the queen of the mighty land” of Hades.THE GODS OF BABYLONIA. but caused a deluge and doomed my people rto destruction. His primitive attributes. He was still the god of the lower world. but when inviting the other gods to his sacrifice after his descent from the ark. is called the beloved son of Mul-1il”-standing. and in the next line Mul-lil’s wife is asserted to be Nin-ki-gal or Allat. 147 trLet the &mer alone bear his sin. In a magical text (W. v. I. the plaguedemon.” And though the wrathful god was pacified. the Accadian Mul-lil had become the Semitic Bel.

but they were superadded t o other attributes which showed him to be the supreme Sun-god of Semitic worship. his primitive attributes still clung to him. however. Baudissin.’’1 when Babylon became the imperial city. 274. and sinks at night. revealed himself to his worshippers under two aspects. his character underwent a change. or he might be t. or at all events it expresses the ideas of that earlier period. As the supreme deity of the state he waB necessarily a Baal. That supreme Sun-god. but the Semitic Baal embodied very different conceptions from those which were associated with the Accadian Mul-lil. . d i o may be a form of 3hl-lid. not in virtue of his primitive character. the time vhcn th-2 Semites adopted and transformed the deities of the Accadians. p. When the god of Nipur became Semitic. but because he had become the Semitic Bel. and whose name is mcntioned frequently in the inscriptions of Nineveh. He was distinguished from the younger Bel of Babylon. and its Bel claimed t o be the father and head of the Babylonian gods. Bel-Merodach. like a ball of glowing metal. Xtudien zzw semitisdren R ~ l i ~ i o n s ~ e s c h ii. into the darkness of the under-world. It is true that. This is the Bel tvhose cult was carried to Assyria.” This is a title which he received.148 LECTURE 111. Xecessarily it was rather under the latter aspect that the Mul-lil of Nipur became the Semitic Bel. as BcXmav& or BoXaBrjv (BbZ-bthLin): ‘L the older Baal. te.” is mentioned i n the inscrip tions of Bssyria. ‘‘ the older Bel. where among other titles he bears that of “father of the gods. A god Bel-laburu. as I have just pointed out. he might be either the beneficent god who gave life and light to the world. But the disComp.he fierce and wrathful sun of summer who scorches all nature with his heat.

h w. I.15. ‘(a library. it is clear that the two senses of ihe compound ideograph were played upon. under which she had originally been known at Nipur-was Nin-lily “the lady of the ghost-~orld. the inflexible” divinity who ceases not to deal on all sides his fatal blows. iii. I.40) Nin-ki-gal is called the wife of Nin-azu . 19.” hence used in the senses of “ white” (W. 18). Merodach is called “the lord of BAR-BAR-ti” in I (2546. which is a title of Merodach (K 100. I. and the older and younger Bel are sometimes confounded together. 11. I.THE GODS OF BABYLONIA. A.m a s . I. as might be expected. the wife of Nin-azu is termed Nin-HER-DI. a E 204. 66) as the mistress of the world. 2. 7.” in W. ii. With the latter signification it was read m a s .l Allat is interpreted ‘‘the unwearied . <and thus was undistinguished in name from Beltis of Babylon. K 48. and Rm. iv. A. “an oracle. The confusion was rendered the more easy by the fact that the Fife of the Bel of Nipur was addressed as Bilat. 48). where “ the star of Nin-azu” is idcntified with Adar. 1 . 149. A. A. A. ii. however. ~ ~ ~ + U U T O S ‘( . was not always observed. 18.” Between the tilno of Sennacherib and . 26. I .’~ It ~ is under this name that Assur-banipal addresses her (W. 48. 6 . ii. “ the outpouring of a libation. hawever-that. or Allat as she is named in the Semitic texts. Nin-ki-gal as the Accadians called her. A. Rev. A. 57. the 1 I n a magical text (TV. allattum = nu-kusu. A. A. but that Nin-azu is merely a title of Mul-lil is shown by W. I. 35.’y like the Homeric epithet of Hades. ii. ii. iv. 40. “ to reveal. Her proper title. But she was in reality. 21. 30. ii. whose habitation is the temple of the library” $e. 19. ~ As Allat. at least. and m&i. 46). iv. Since. For the meaning of burbar. ii. A. 8 W.I. Obu.” cp. 9. I.BAR is interpreted t a b b a k vinzka. 32. 21. The compound ideograph BAR . and ‘(an oracle” (W. W. I. 51. iv. 3. * k-barbar .” in S 924. I. see W. “ a hero. 4. the temple of Istar at N i n e ~ e h ) . as the reading here m u s t be s@i. The word is a re-duplicated form of bur or b d m . 59. 6. as we have seen. A. 5) or “visible” (W. 149 tinction. the queen of Hades.

who is described in the legend of the Descent of Istar as inflicting upon her sister-goddess all the pains and diseases which emanated from her demoniac satellites. in all the limbs. see above. but also t h e source from which it made its way to other parts of the country. which concerned itself with ghosts and demons and the various monsters of the under-world. . Nipur in northern Babylonia was the original home of a very different kind of worship. is ordered by Allat to smite her with maladies in the eyes. Eridu in the south and Nipur in the north would have been the two religions centres of Babylonian theology. an& Ramtar. in the head. and in the various spirits exorcised by the magician. is held up to the scorn of the lower world. in the heart. It is thus clear that. p. It was. moreover. The unfortunate Istar.150 LECTURE III. The analogy of Eridu would lead us to infer. just as Eridu in southern Babylonia was the primitive seat of the worship of the Chaldsean culture-god and of the civilisation with which his name was connected. an& about which I shall have to speak in a future Lecture. Throughout the legend Namtar appears as the messenger of the infernal queen. in short. stripped of her clothing and adornments. 9. In the pre-historic age. in the sides. in the feet. goddess of Hades. the home of that belief in magic. from whence two wholly different streams of religious thought and influence spread Assur-bani-pal. the library of Nineveh seems to have been transferred from the temple of Istar to that of Nebo . and. that it was not only the home of this belief. which left so deep an impression upon the religion of early Babylonia. in fact. the plague-demon. she was a much-dreaded and formidable figure.

or Ninep. “ to revenl”). is the case. identified him with the ‘‘ warrior” god of Nipur.g i r h himself. ‘(the mistress of the mountain. Uras is expressly stated to be the name of BIN-IP.” So close.” in whom we may see a local divinity. and the true reading still remains unknown1-played a conspicuous part in Babylonian. Adar. 34) .” and haru. I. cosmology . GO). appears far more frequently in the inscriptions of Tel-loh than we should have anticipated. indeed.” and “ mother of the gods. But Mul-lil. that the compilers of the mythological tablets. see i i 62. 36. 54. I. Adar the son of Mul-lil. where there is a play on the Assyrian baru. and The only form out of these three which is monumentally cstablished is Uras. From was the Assyrians borrowed their urusu. “the king of Eridu. 57.A. the god of Nipur.” and more especially to Bahu. 31. or Uras-for his name has been read in these various fashions. ii. ii. A. is associated with him as wife . 25. in a latter age. Uras is given as the proiiunciation of the second ideograph in the name of the god (W. indeed. Temples and statues are dedicated t o Ea. Ip and Nrx-IP were two primseval deities who in Accadiar. and its theology might therefore be expected to be more largely influenced by that of Eridu than by that of Nipur. 203-207. r t a mourning veil” (v. is the connection of the latter with Mul-lil. iii 70.THE GODS OF BABYLONIA. a goddess who occupied a conspicuous place in the cosmological legends of Eridu. The mixture formed what T may call the established religion of Chalclaea in the preSemitic period. the patron god of Tel-loh. Nin-kharmk. as “god of light” (uddant?. Tel-loh was geographically nearer to Eridu than to Nipur. 151 and eventually blended. That this conclusion is not a mere inference is shown by thr? monuments discovered at Tel-loh. ‘‘fat. And such. and N h . and in W. is made his “hero” or ‘L champion.

that is. xxxvii. A. Suidas and the Paschal Chron. As u signified “lord” in Accadian. 54. Adar had been a solar deity. and I have retained i t in the text only on account of its employment by other Assyriologists. Originally. 68). R. The reading Adar is derived from the Biblical Adrarnmelech. 16. 51. but the genderless character of the Accadian nin.”* whose scorching heats represented the fiercer side of Baalworship. cp. but i t is quite certain that it is false. Indeed. like Merodach. 51. He was regarded as emphatically the warrior and champion of the gods. on the other hand. it may be suspected that the extent to which the name of the older Bel was reverenced in Assyria was in some measure due to the favour in which his son Adar was held. I. rather than those of war. the title of ”herogod” (nzasu) is applied to him with peculiar frequency. p. I n Babylonia. “lord” or “lady. xxs. But whereas Merodach was the sun conceived of as rising from the ocean-stream. it would scem that they further identified the first syllable of U ras with the ~LZ’IL of Nin-Uras. 76 (where he is identified with Mermer). cp. 15. more especially Assyrian theology.” caused the Semites to change NIN-IP into a god and identify him with IP. 1 W. Here it was the milder and less warlike Merodach that took his place.152 LECTURE 111. who discavered a cure for drunkeaness. Adar was the sun represented the male and female principles. ii. as woll as the Thouras of Kodrhos (Hist. The arts of peace. found fmour among the Semitic population of the southern kingdom. In the inscriptions of Nineveh. Adar was by no means so favourite a divinity. Hence ‘<theAssyrian king. 52). We are distinctly told that he was ‘‘ the meridian sun. 57. and as such was naturally a favourite object of worship amongst a nation of warriors like the Assyrians. this was the characteristic upon which the Assyrian kings more particularly loved t o dwell. . “Anu who listens to prayer” (ii.” Horus of Pliny (N. 35). who is called the Assyrian Ar6s and made the son of Zames or Snmas.

I. which was written with the determinative of divinity. Adar was identified with iron. 57. when worshipped as MBtu (Nartu).’l Like all solar deities in Babylonia. 28.” Riinmon. W. ii. A. The title “lord of the pig” connects Adar with the A r b of Greek mythology. “the oracular god. A. A. W.”6 The latter title was naturally dropped in the Semitic period of Chaldean history. ii. ii.” but as Baru. 18. A. A. 6 W. ii. It is clear that the compiler of the mythological list here interpreted ham. A. I. in the sense of ‘6 a revelation” or ‘‘oracle. 52).”2 and one of his titles was ‘<the voice” or ‘Ioracle supreme. who was “ a tiller of the ground. 17. Each alike is the son and messenger of the W. A. 57. 59. the Accadised form of the Semitic khumtsiru. On the other hand. v.THE ffODS OF BABYLONIA. In E 161. i.” Under the name of Earu. ‘‘ the shining” (see W. 10. (‘a pig” (W. 30. A. ii. one of the remedies prescribed for disease of the heart is siru A N ATin-pes. 26. an oracle was attached to his shrine. ii. indica. 57.” It illustrates the same play upon the ideographic writing of tho god’s name as that which we find in BAR-BAR or YAS-MAS for Merodach. I. I‘ swine’s flesh. 57.” and read his title in Assyria not as Masu. His wife accordingly is ‘‘ the lady of the dawn. His name is explained to mean (‘the lord of the oracle. i i i 68. I. it must have been his solar character that gave rise to the two curious titles of “lord of the date”5 and ‘‘lord of the pig.39.70).^ though between the Sun-god of Nipur and the prophet-deity of Borsippa there was originally no sort of connection. since the name of rriron”was denoted in Accadian by bar. was also known as khumuntsir. I.” It was on this account that later mythologists iclentified him with neb^. 5 W. 153 who issues forth from the shades of night. 2 W. Adar bears the same relation to Nul-lil that Mkrodach bears to Ea. I. Live of the meteoric origin of the first iron worked in Bal: ylonta . I. 8. 57. while the title “lord of the date”-the chief fruit of Babylonia-reminds us of Cain. I.. “ a hero. who in the form of the mild boar slew the Sun-god Tammuz. the equivalent of uraa.

and out of whose hands there is no escape. Irkalla seems to bo a Semitic form of a Proto-Chnldann word. that his arms are directed. I. irkallurn is the rendering of the Accadian ke. Mul-nugj. 30. 57. A. and both alike represented the great orbs of heaven. It may be that he is but another form of the Moon-god. ‘ L the lord from whom there is no return.da. 68. it is against mankind. like Merodach.” while uru-gal or eri-gal.154 LECTURE 111. 17. and since the queen of Hades was known as Sin-ki-gal. A.”2 It is curious to find the mythologists identifying this (‘god of glowing fire ” with Adar . A. he is called “ the throne-bearer of Mul-lilla. 45) who “ went over mountain and plain” carrying destruation with them. v. “the great city. ii. was also the eldest son of Mul-lil. both alike were sons of Mul-lil. 191. but the error was natural .” and he would therefore seem to have been one of “the throne-bearers” of the Deluge-tablet (col. “an enclosure” (comp.”l Mul-nugi is the lord of Hades. since the Moon-god. for the father whose orders he obeys is himself the ruler of the powers of darkness. it is possible that Irlialla represents an earlier Eri-galla. iii. i. He contends not against the povers of darkness. . 56. 63) . But whereas the errands upon which Meredach is sent are errands of mercy and benevolence. 7. 29. It is thus that one of his brothers is (‘the first-born” of Mul-lil. as in the story of the Deluge. 2 W. ii. I n W. A.” was the Accadian designation of Hades or the tomb (W. But the name by which the Noon-god went at Nipur was one that Rignified ‘‘ the god of glowing fire. the errands of Adar are those that bcfit an implacable warrior. I. “ t h e lady of the great country. we are told. ii. 1. See the Deluge-tablet. the god who is called Irkalla in the legend of the Descent of Istar. col. 1. In W. 13). 16. ii. I. older god. 60. He is a solar hero who belongs t o the darkness and not to the light. I.

What seems yet more singular to the comparative mythologist is that.” The spread of the cult of Mul-lil. and of the magic which it implied. ii. the god to whom the temple was consecrated is identified with the Moon-god of Nipur. 155 The chief seat.THE GODS OF BABYLONU. It runs directly counter to the Semitic Baal-worship. A. Already in the oldest documents that have come from thence. Such a bclief could have arisen only where the Moon-god was the supreme object of worship. whose several names are recorded on a broken tablet.’ The forms under Prhich the Moon-god was worshipped in Babylonia were as numerous as the forms of the Sungod himself. therefore. To the Semite the Sun-god was the lord and father of *. an inferior god. Here stood the great temple the ruins of which were partially explored by Loftus.he gods. 56 ~ p . however. I . Each Babylonian town. But the [belief was thoroughly in harmony with a theology vhich admitted Mul-lil and his ghost-world to 1 W. It is a reversal of the usual mythological conception which makes the moon the companion or pale reflection of the sun. must have made its way as far south as Ur in a . according to the official religion of Chaldsea. . or. of the worship of the Moongod was not Nipur but Ur (the modern Mugheir). the moon was either his female consort. the Sun-god was the offspring of the Moon-god. But we have no reason for believing that the Moon-god of Ur and the Moon-god of Nipur were originally one and the same. where Semitic theology had been influenced by that of Chaldsa. 57. Already he is termed (‘the &st-born of Mul-lil. had its own local Moon-god. large and small.very remote age.

in one passagel the Moon-god is actually identified with the plague-demon Namtar. 3. Nub. Their astrology was closely allied to their magic. probably came into Asia Minor through the medium of the Hittites. he held t. I. A. the highest honours of the pantheon. S. that the Moon-god was placed at the head of the divine hierarchy. and the later softening of the plague-demon into a mere instrument of destiny. ii. 816.he same place that Mul-lil held at Nipur. Indeed. 55. 79. 2 The reading is given by 82. 10. oh. Unfortunately. Compare (Scol. 57. Steph. Nannakos was supposed to be an antediluvian king who predicted the flood (Zen. but while Mul-lil seems to have represented the dark sky of night. that the cult of the moon should occupy a foremost place in their creed. introduces us to a wholly different conception. Moreover. however. as we have seen. ’ I K ~ V L OjV the ) name. and it was from Ur that the ideas spread which caused him to be addressed as “the father of the gods.2 1 W.hros) at Hierapolis (Membij). and the lofty towers of their temples were used for the observation of the sky. I. in fact. And the moon was necessarily associated with the night. It was at Ur. Bristoph. 6. The “ Lady who decides destiny. S ) . the name of the city where this was the case is lost.156 LECTURE 111.” who is idsntified with the impersonal “ Mistress of the gods” of Seinitic worship (W. 398b the claim of the Arkadians to be ?rpouiXrpo~ .” At Ur. like the legend of the ark a t Apameia or of Sisythes (Xisut. With such a theology it was natural that the sun should be regarded as issuing forth from the darkness of night.V. Eyz. It is not wonderful. ii. or that sa the moon should be conceived as a male and not a female divinity. the Babylonians were a nation of astronomers. the Moon-god vas the luminary which shed light upon &hedarkness. A. 1. He was known at Ur as Nanak or Nannar. the messenger of the queen of hell. who was. therefore.

2 The name of Parsond6s is probably taken from the important town of Pardindu. Ekbatana (13:. is as follow : “There was a Persian of the nanie of Parsond&s.” 80 that we find Nabonidos addressing the Moon-god of Harran as ‘(thelight of heaven and earth” (nannari same u irtsitim). ‘‘ to see. and tell his own servants where he was. but the king always put the petition aside. 70). A. passed into heroes and human kings. and to take vengeance. Parsondes in the heat of the chase strayed far from the king. I. an eager huntsman. like other of the Babylonian gods. who were occupied in preparations for the king’s table. Parsondes asked for wine. who had been hunting the whole day. it need hardly be observed. In later days. who wore women’s clothes and ornaments.*in the service of the king of the Medes. and active warrior on foot and in the chariot. on the high-road tc. A t last he came upon the cooks. and Nannaros became a satrap of Babylonia under the Median monarch Artaios-a personage. One day. 69. pp. and drank 1 I quote from the English translation of Duncker’s Histoiy of Antiquity. v. H e bade them send the ass which he had captured t3 the king. and of influence with the king. Then he ate of the various kinds of food set beforo him. among the mountains of the Namri. i. 167 a name which the Semites by a popular etymology after- wards connecled with their word namaru. as handed down by Etesias. Eeing thirsty. for it could not be granted without breaking the promise which his ancestor had made to Belesys. they gave it. Nannakos was transported into Phrygia. Nannaros discoverec! the intentions of Parsondes. Parsond6s often urged the king to make him satrap of Babylon in the place of Nannaros. H e had already killed many boars and deer. unknown t o actual history. if they succeeded in seizing Parsondes and giving hiin up. 298 sq. bot.h Nanak and Nannar. The Persian legend.THE GODS OF BABYLONIA. when the pursuit of a mild ass carried him to a great distance. distinguished in council and in the fieltl. . 21. and invited him to take food-an invitation agreeable t o Parsondcs. He promised great rewards to the cooks who were in the train of the king. took care of his horse. and sought t o secure himself against them.

i58 LECTURE 1 1 1 . Parsondes had lived for seven years as a woman in Babylon. because he was more manly and more useful to the king. But . when Nannaros caused an eunuch t o be scourged and grievously maltreated. and as soon as. Nannaros asked the king’s envoy which of all the women was the most beautiful and had played best. This was done. and nothing could be heard of him. and urged him t o remain for the night. and since he could nowhere be found. and bade him shave the body of Parsondes. who on the next day returned home with tho envoy to the king in a chariot. which could never have been mine had I taken my life. the cooks bound him and brought him t o Nannaros. plait his hair after the manner of women. charging him to put Nannaros to death if he did not surrender Parsondes.’ and released Parsondes. and asked why he had not avoided such disgrace by death. Parsondes replied that he considered himself more worthy of the office. Parsondes answered. He agreed. Nannaros declared that he had never seen him. Then the king sent a message commanding Nannaros to give up Parsondes. and place him among the women who played the guitar and sang. Nannaros laughed long and said.’ The king promised him that his hope should not be deceived. and to teach him their arts. This eunuch Parsondes induced by large presents to retire to Media and tell the king the misfortune which had come upon him. and lamented for his loss. wine and love. But Nannaros swore by Eel and Nylitta that Parsondes should be softer and whiter than a woman. Nannaros reproached him with calling him an effeminate man.and when the meal was brought. while others blew the flute. called for the eunuch who was over the femalo players. he had the king to thank that the satrapy granted to his ancestors had not been taken from him. and soon Parsondes played and sang better at the table of Nannaros than any of the women. At the encl of the meal. Nannaros entertained the messenger of the king . paint his face. But they brought beautiful women to him. and seeking to obtain his satrapy . Meanwhile the king of the Medes had caused search to be made everywhere for Parsondes . ‘ I n order that I might see YOU again and by you execute vengeance on Nannaros. But thc king sent a second messenger. abundantly of the excellent wine. he believed that a lion or some other wild animal had torn him when out hunting. ‘That is the person whom you seek. he had fallen into a deep sleep. and at last asked for his horse in order to return to the king. The envoy pointed t o Parsondes. 150 women entered. put women’s clothes on him. of whom some played the guitar. and bathe and anoint him every day. overcome by hunting. The king was astonished at the sight of him. as soon as he came to Babylon.

Nannaros in gratitude threw himself at the feet of tho king . it requires an effort t o go back t o the sober facts of the old cuneiform tablets. in whose honour hymns were composed and a ritual performed similar to that carried on in honour of Merodach at Babylon. and costly robes with other gift. one of these hymns has been preserved to us in an almost complete state.”’ ‘ After this thoroughly characteristic example of the vay in which Persian euhemerism turned the mythology of their neighbours into fictitious history. if he could induce the king to fipare his life and retain him in the sstrupy of Babylonia. for the sake of gold I have been made a mockery to t h e Eabylonians. 10 talents of gold and 100 talents of silver. as he had not killed Parsondes. was originally no satrap of a Mcdian king. had maligned him. 100 golden and 300 silvcr bowls.3arsondes. however. H e was prepared to give the king 100 talents of gold. iv. The hymn runs thus :1 1 ’TV. and frequently m i h k e s the meaning of tho limes. The Accadian original is accompanied by an interlinear Semitic translation. I n terror. Nannaros hastened to MitmphernGs. I. the eunuch of greatest influence with the king. Parsondes also should receive 100 talents of silver and costly robes. Nannaros defended himself on the ground that . 10 golden arid 200 silver bowls. Oppert of this hymr. A. and sought to obtain the satrapy over Babylonia. both of which the chief scribe claims to have accurately reproduced. 9. in his Fragnmiis nw~tl~ologiqnies is full of errors. . Mitraphernb persuaded the king not to order the execution of Nannaros.but Parsondes said.TnE GODS OF BABYLONIA. 1000 talents of silver. Istar-sum-esses. The king pointed out that he bad made himself judge in his own cause. though in no way injured by him. After many entreaties. or Nannar. but the supreme god of Ur. The translation given by Dr. ‘Cursed be the man who first brought gold among men . Thanks to the piety of the chief scribe of Assur-bani-pal. and promised him the most liberal rewards. 159 when lie came there. . but t o condcmn him in the penalty which he was prepared to pay Parsondes and the king. and had imposed a punishment of a degrading character. in ten days he would pronounce judgment upon him for his conduct. Nannaros.

Father. prince of the gods ! 10. The original is : among men far and wide he erects the supreme shrine. who founds (his) illustrious seat among living crcat~res. prince of the gods ! 8.” ‘( . 16. Fathor Rannar. whose horn is powerful. 14. “ LECTURE III.” The origiiial is : “ mho gives tlie sceptre t 8 6 So in the translation. Father. Father Nannar. prince of the gods t 4 . lord of the moon. who sweeps away with a blow invincible. thy divinity like the far-off heaven fills the wide sea with fear. _________ Lord and pri ice of the gods who i n heaven and earth done is supreme ! 2. its virility is never exhausted. Father Nannar. who biddest the crowned disk to rise. lord of the firmament. lord of heaven. its eye is bent down to behold (its) adornment . prince of the gods ! 7. 2 Here again the translator has erroneously rendered “ the lord Sin. whose limbs are perfect. Its fruit is generated of itself. prince of the gals ! 6. 11. Father Nannar. Father Nannar. who causes the shrine to be founded. Who proclaims dominion. Father Nannar. whose member is full of virility .* mighty one.2 prince of the gods ! 5. On the surface of the peopled earth he bids the sanctuary be placed. lord of Ur. those whose dcstiny is fixed unto a distant day. ‘‘ long-suffering in waiting. lord of the Temple of the mighty Light. Father Nannar.6 1 The Semitic translator has mistaken the sense of tlie original and supposed that the god Anu was intended by the poet. prince of the gods ! 3.~ 13. who establishes the offering.” 3 Here the translator has completely mistaken the sense of the original and lias rendered “royalty” ! 4 Such seems to be the meaning of the Semitic translation. Merciful one. begetter of the universe. 15. long-suffering and full of forgivene~s. 12. Hence he identifies the Moon-god with AssBros (the firmament) and A m .” 5 The Accadian is literally.~ whose hand upholds the life of all mankind ! 13 Lord. prince of the gods ! 9. begetter of gods and niGn. Strong ox. who gives the sceptre. he proclaims their name. who shall fix destiny unto a distant day. whose beard is of crystal.160 1. Father Nannar. who makest the crowned disk 3 fully perfect.

28. it increases all living things. so that mankind has established law.”subat nd&. the ordainer of the laws of heaven and earth. 20. 7. 7-8. thou art supreme..” For dtu. 54. opening wide the doors of the sky. As for thee. 23. and there is none who may discover it. 30. As for thee. 27. see K 4872. 3 Rit~ u mdkitum. A s for thee. there are none who can record (it). tlie stall and the foldS are quickened. 31. illuminator of living being3 . The original Accadian is literally : I‘ they will extend (as) heaven. thy will is made known upon earth. On earth who is supreme 4 Thou alone. ‘la shepherd.” M . 21. thy will hath created law and justice. the hidden earth which no man hath known. whose heart is immensity. begetter of the universe. and the angols bow their faces. “ dust . I n heaven who is supreme? Thou alone. As for thee. As for thee. thou art supreme. 25. which are explained in 79. omnipotent. . 161 17. As for thee. Father.” Tarbatsu. thy will is done upon the earth. 19. the first syllable has been omitted in the printed text. “ the nourisher. it stretches below (as) earth. thy will is blown on high like the wind. whose command may not be (broken). the seat of a stranger and zaninu. Firm are his limbs (1) .6 . sender o f .” The order is reversed in the Semitic translation. 29. Thou holdest the rain and the lightning? defender of all living things . 24. it is a derivative from the root of rim. . and the spiiits below kiss the ground. Other renderings of U-A given in this tablet are epiru. and establishing light (in the world). 5. there is no god who hath at any time discovered thy fulness. his knees rest not .. (He is the god) mho makes the light from the horizon to tlio zenith of heaven. thy will is the far-off heaven.’ 18. thy will is mado known in heaven. thy nvill is seen in the lair* and the shepherd’s hut . Lord. First-born. and the herb grows green. As for thee.THE GODS OF BABYLOBIA. 26. 22. 1 I n the original : “his heart is far-extended : none shall describe the god. . he opens the path of the gods his brethren.

and not the Sumerian of the south. in the earth (is thy) sovereignty. 34.hern Babylonia.l and its local god accordingly became the first-born of Mul-lil. . since the Accndian of the hymn is really that artificial language which grew up in the cwrt of Xargon..] COLOPHON. This mill explain the relationship they discovered between their own supreme deity and the god of Nipur. it would seem that the priesthood and population of Ur were derived from the north. . whose divinity no god resembles. who can rival it t 33. 0 lord ! 42. a strong 1 This latter is the more probable explanation. 0 lord. Look with favour on Ur (thy city). King of kings. no man is judge. 41.. chief scribe of Assur-bani-pal. [The next three lines are too broken for translation.162 LECTURE 111.--“Like its old copy copied and published. ask rest of thee. . Ur was either a northern colony or had become incorporated in the northern kingdom. 43. who can learn thy will. As for thee. 0 lord !” [The last few lines are destroyed. chief of the penmen. 32. tho king of Assyria. Let the spirits of heaven and earth (ask rest of thee). Look with favour on thy temple ! 39. As the original language of this hymn is the Accadian of nort. and son of Nebo-zir-esir. in heaven (is thy) lordship. throughout the northern part of Chaldea. wherever the Accadian dialect of the north was spoken. 40. 0 lord. and not‘ from the geographically nearer region of which Eridu was the head.” . It is possible that the hymns of which I have just given a specimen were influenced by Semitic ideas .. the . tho king of legions. of whose . among the gods thy brethren a rival thou hnst not. Tablet of Istar-sum-esses.] 38. Let the free-born man. at all events. Let the high-born dame ask rest of thee.

iii.” and denoting the city which lay on the great highway from Chaldaea to the west. had placed the seat of the goodness of his heart. The distance between the two cities appears considerable. 20. more . A. whose ancient customs he claims to have restored. from time immemorial the Moon-god. Harran also was a city of the Moon-god. temple of the Moon-god in Harran rivalled that at U Nay.THE QODB OF BABYLONIA.” Shalmaneser 1 1 1 . above which blazed the star of the moon. I .”I and Nabonidos boasts of his restoration of “the temple of the Moon-god in Harran. such as we see depicted on the seals mid monuments of Assyria and Babylonia. Its name recurs in early BabyIonian texts. Like Ur.’’ Gems show us what the image of the god was like. and of Ur of the Casdim we are specially told that it was the birth-place of the Semitic Abraham. it will be remembered. and by the will of Anu and Dagon had written (again) its laws. Harran was as closely connected with Babylonian history and religion as was Ur itself. and Assur-bani-pal had rebuilt the temple of the Moons W. in which. and is indeed of Accadian origin. It was a simple cone of stone. and declares that he had ‘( spread his shadow over Harran. nr2 . and the r . 61. and yet there was a very real connection between them. Now Abraham. Kharran being the Accadian word for “road. Sargon couples together Assur and Harran. in northern Mesopotamia. 163 Semitic element seems to have existed in the population from an early period. migrated from Ur to Harran. the mighty lord. The mythologists of Babylonia entitled the planet Mercury “the spirit of the men of Harran .

But the leading place won by Ur at the time when its kings made themselves masters of the whole of Babylonia. It is more probable that the Moongod of Harran was originally as much a local divinity as the Moon-god of Ur. With the growth of the Semitic power in Babylonia. god there which bore the Accadian name of E-KhuIkhuI. Harran had been itself the foundation of the kings of Ur in their early campaigns to the west. Nannar was now invoked as Sina name which at first appears to have denoted the orb of the moon only1 and the name and worship of Sin spread not only in Babylonia. the influence of the Moon-god of Ur became greater and more exten-. unless. just as the rise of Babylon caused Merodach to supplant the other Sun-gods of Chaldaea.he land of Magan. At all events.164 LECTURE 1 1 1 . 1 Whether the name of Sin is of Accadian or Semitic origin must at present remain an open question.” It may be that the worship of the Babylonian Moon-god was brought to the peninsula of Sinai as far back as the days when the sculptors of Tel-loh carved into human shape tho blocks of diorite they received from t. indeed. caused the Moon-god of Ur to supplant the Moon-gods of t’he other cities of the country. the sacred mountain. His name has been found in an inscription of southern Arabia.” and neither they nor Kabonidos seem to have had any doubt that the Moon-god worshipped therein was the same as the Moon-god worshipped in Assyria and Babylonia. is nothing more than the sanctuary dedicated to Sin. sive. I cannot believe that it M a Semitic corruption of an Accadian Zu-ea . and Sinai itself. Whether this were primitively the case must remain an open question. “the house of rejoicing. but in other parts of the Semitic world.

May Nin-gal. the Moon-god of Ur. may he slay my enemies. speakof blessing.THE GOD8 OF BABYLONIA. But in Babylonia. may he extend my years. may he overcome my foes. This is the idea which underlay the religious belief of Accad. to Sin. His worshippers invoked him as the father and creator of both gods and men. as we shall see hereafter. I t was only in Babylonia and Assyria and ou the coasts of Arabia that the name of Sin was honoured. exact converse. It is thus that Nabonidos celebrates his restoration of the temple of Sin at Harran : L L May the gods who dwell in heaven and earth approach the house of Sin. the bright offspring of his heart. of the central idea of the religion of the Semites. hearken to my prayer and plead for me. elsewhere the attributes of the Moon-god were transferred to the goddess Istar. may he sweep away my opponents. May Samas and Istar. in the lifting up of his kindly eyes. the mother of the mighty gods. took primary rank among the Babylonians. Sin became inevitably the father of the gods. speak like a mother. the father who created them. may he establish my reign. was originally the evening star. the king of the gods of heaven and earth. like tho city over which he presided. His reign extended . in the presence of Sin. Nabonidos. As for me. may he lengthen my days.” The moon existed before the sun. with joy look upon me month by month at noon and sunset. the father who begat them. as it was. the completer of this temple. 166 However this may be. who. the messenger supreme. may he grant me favourable tokens. It was only where Accadian influence was strong that the Semite could-be brought in any way t o accept it. May Nuzku. her loved one. may Sin. king of Babylon.

the modern Senkereh.”l As the passage I have quoted from Nabonidos shows. 110) canilot be a proper namo. below the shrine (ccsmtn) I have made strong. t o his father Anu even to him (a[na SICMU) (he spoke) : ‘ The god . Larsa mas near Ur. speaks of ‘<theremote days of the period of the Moongod. . to the god Khir . . I. Sargon. ii. . let me construct E-Lnsu the seat of (the god . 62 of George Smith’s Chaldean Genesis. as the representative of the Babylonian kings and the adorer of Merodach. . . iii. .166 LECTURE 1 1 1 . to the beginning of history . each city had its own. over the earth that thy hand has made. .” which another inscription makes synonymous with “the birth of the land of Assur.)..” . the place (which) thou hast made exalted for ever’ ( t a n 2 i darisamn). A fragmentary tablet (quoted on p. the temple of Adar. . 11. W e read (line 6 ) : “The god Assur (AN KHI) opened his mouth and says. and its temple of the Sun had been famous from pre-Semitic times. W. Adi-Ur (!). has (appointed 1) thee over whatsoever thy hand has made. Sin was more particularly t.he father of Samas and Istar. whatever (thy hand) possesses : the city of Assur whose name thou hast given (sa tcizhra sumn-su). thou didst establish in Assur (D. though on the opposite bank of the river. . A. let me found (Zusarsid) within it his fortress. who then was the Samas who was so specially the son of the Moon-god of U r ? The answer is not very easy to give. whatever thy (hand) possesses . But mho was this Sun-god who was thus the offspring of Sin? The Sun-gods of Babylonia were as numerous as its Moon-gods. Oppert is right against George Smith and Lenormant in holding that adi X2’n in the firstquoted passage (Khors. (he speaks) : ‘above tho deep (elinu apd) the seat (of Ea). before (mikhrit) E-Sarra which I have built. and E-Lusu. Geographical considerations would lead us to think of the Sungod of Larsa. . E PAL-BATKI)the temples of the great gods . when (the god) ascends from the deep thou didst prepare a place (that mas still) unfinished . ed. 32.. E-Sarra. Tsibit Assuri. . . of the Sun-god and the goddess of the evening star. Sayce) contained a legend about the foundation of the city of Assur and its two temples.

was obscured at an early period by that of the Samas of Sippara. had been founded by Ur-Bagas. but also of those of the Sun-god at Larsa. His monuments have been met with at Mugheir. The Sun-god of Larsa. and at Zerghul. of MulEl at Nipur. and of Anu and Istar at Erech. at Niffer. 1 w. ‘(the god who makes the palace (of the setting sun). Ur necessarily stood to Larsa and Erech in the relation of a metropolis. like the Istar of Erech. at Larsa. “the Sun. ii. the first monarch of united Babylonia of whom we know. who differed but little. It was as Kur(?)-nigin-gka. I. . As the dominant state. save in the name by which he was addressed. at Warka.” He became the Baal of Larsa. The temple of Sin at Ur. A. la. the Unity of the empire found its religious Qxpression in the union of the worship of the Moon-god of Ur with that of the Sun-god of Larsa. Under his rule. 60. his special name was merged in the general title of Samsu or Samas. Sip_. and his bricks show that he was the founder-or more probably the restorer-not only of the great temple of the Moon-god at Ur. The fame of the Sarnas of Larsa. therefore. and its god thus became the progenitor of the gods of Larsa and Erech. from the other Baalim of Babylonia.” that the Sun-god of Larsa seems to have been known to his worshippers in preSemitic days. however. 167 But there is a special reason which makes it probable that the Sun-god of Larsa was the deity whose father was Sin. the ruins of which are still in existence.l But when the Accadian was superseded by the Semite.!CHE GiODS OF BABYLONIA. became accordingly the child of Nannar or Sin.

like the name of E-BAbara itself. ‘‘the house of lustre. whose city of Acoad formed a part of the double Sippara.163 LECTURE In.” One of these has been discovercd in the mounds of Abu-Habba by Mr. ‘(the two Sipparas. 19). at all events. who has brought from it a monument on which The temple of the Sun-god at Lama was also known as E-bibara (W. it is true.” in consequence of its being the seat of the library of Sargon. but also by the fact that the hero of it was ‘‘ a man of Surippak.2 I n the Old Testament. Sippara and its immediate neighbourhood had been the seat of early Semitic supremacy in Chaldaea. scpher). and it was around its shrine that Semitic sun-worship in Babylonia was chiefly centred.l had been erected in days to which tradition alone went back. It was. A. 50. .Xisuthros had written a history of all that Iiad happened before the deluge and buried the books at Sippara. its zfg!jurrat was called “ the house of the bond of heaven and earth” (ii.” the great temple of the Sun-god. para in historical times was pre-eminently the city of the Sun-god.” a small town close to Sippara. thc memory of later ages knew of Sippara only i n connection with the empire of Sargon of Accad and the Scmitie version of the story of the Deluge. i. where they were disinterred after the flood by his direction:. But in these remote days Sippara was probably an insignificant town. and we know that Samas had once been worshipped within its walls under the Accadian title of BBbara or Birra. “ a book” (Heb. That the story of tha deluge emanated in its present form from Sippara is indicated not only by the legend of the burial of the books. It was there that G-Btibara. 65. its primitive name Zimbir would show this. Sippara appears as a dual citySepharvaim. Hormuzd Rassam. 42) . I. of pre-Semitic foundation. partly on the fact that the whole district was termed “ the country of books. According to BQrbssos. The legend seems to have been based partly on a popular etyniology which connected Sippara with s+ru.

and the celebrated library he founded in Accad. It must have been from this Sippara that the Euphrates received its title. 0 wmp. Proceeding8 o f the American Oriental tShi. 9. T.”3 A popular etymology afterwards connected the name of Sippara itself with sepher. and from which the whole of northern Babylonia received its title of Accad. I .V. K 4874. though whether the name is of Semitic or non-Semitic origin cannot at present be decided. Accad (Akkadu) in the Semitic. t h . Sippara “the ancient.” since Abu-Habba is seven miles distant from the present bed of the stream. 22 (udu d-dua udu ul-dua-lil =ki-di-it-titsa-a-ti). 21. Reo. an hour’s distance from Sufeirah and the Euphrates. the modern Anbar. iv. A. v. 13. 23. 51. The fragment of a geographical tablet seems indeed to mention no less than four Sipparas-Sippara proper. The other has been found by Dr.”’ and Sippara of the Sun-god.” and the city accord1 Vl-dua rendered by tsbtu.4. Hayes Ward in the mounds of Anbar.2 but since the historical texts know of two only-Sippara of Anunit and Sippara of Samas-it is best to regard the three first names as alike denoting the same place. Hayes Ward. 14. Oat. ‘(a book. ‘‘river of Sippara. I n the close neighbourhood of this double Sippara. 28 (UDU UL-DUA-U supar p i sa Enuva SAG SAKE). 8 W . Sargon’s patronage of literature. It is called Agadhc? in the non-Semitic texts. A . and kidittu. caused the district to be known as ‘‘the region of books. 1885. Sargon built or restored the city to which he gave a name. I. Sippara of Anunit. Sippara of the desert. 24. R4171. 8 .THE GOD8 OF BA3YLONU 169 is carved a curious image of the divine solar disk.ii. 21.

vho was for his adorer at the moment of adoration the one omnipotent It is thus that--______ we read : -god. therefore. henceforward Sippara. the father and creator of the world. nor even with an Ea. but the Semites had received an Accadian education. The scribes and poets of Sargon’s court were partly Semites. A. The older Samas of Larsa was eclipsed by the new deity. or Book-town. They represent the meeting and amalgamation of Semitic and Accadian thought. 19. I . We have no longer to do with a Mul-lil. .” With the spread and fame of the empire of Sargon. but with the supreme Baal of Semitic faith. The empire and the cult were alike Semitic. and not Larsa. wherever the Semite planted himself. They are the product of an age of new ideas and aspirations.1i O (( LECTURE 111. The extent. partly Accadians. It is to Sippara i n all probability that the hymns addressed t o the Sun-god belong. with his charms and sorceries for the removal of human ills. the Sun-god was worshipped under some form and name. and the Accadians had learnt the language and imitated the style of their Semitic masters. 2. of the worship of the Sun-god of Sippara marks the extent and power of Sargon’s kingdom. iv. was the chief seat of the adoration of Samas in Babylonia. the worship of Samas spread and became famous also. Though the originals of most of the hymns are written in the old language of Accadn language that had become sacred to the Semites. ingly appears in the fragments of B&rBssosa8 PmlibibIa. and in which alone the gods allowed themselves to be addressed-the thoughts contained i n them are for the most part Semitic. a lord of ghosts and demons. __--1 W.

- 1 EN. 17. 4. Kummu. 12.1. The great gods have smelt the sweet savour (of the sacrifice). the food of the shining heaven.” in the Accadian originaL 8 I n the Semitic translation. 8. from the midst of the shining heaven is thy rising . illuminator of the darkness. when thou openest (it). simply “ the Sun-god. s 5 (K)ummi-(ku). 4 . which properly means ‘‘a palace. 2.. He who has not turned his hand to sin (thou wilt prosper). The language of hosts as one word thou directest. iv. “ they make obeisance of their head. the blessings (of the gods). 14. others. (he shall be blessed by thee).a 5. Lord.” .” l. 3. must be considerably later.l-1. which at the commencement of these Semitic texts no longer means so much ‘‘an incantation” as part of a service which must be “recited” by the priest. 171 ”To be retitcd. Men far and near behold thee and rejoice. Thou art the spectacle of the broad earth. Thou art the light in the vault of the far-off heaven.THE GODS OF BABYLONIA. 6 . I. i. who helpeth the weak. siptu.heir head they look to the light of the midday sun. 0 Sun-god. Like a wife. glad and gladdening. 13.3 7. 10. I n the enclosure of the shining heaven is the weapon of thy falchion. 7. Where in the shining heavens is thy palace (Iz~mini)?~ 5. Smiting t.” i used specially of the palace of the Sun-god into which he returns at sunset. Merciful god. art thou set. valiant hero. A. from the midst of the shining heaven is thy rising .” W. The spirits of earth all gaze upon thy face . Unto thy light look the great gods. I n the great gate of the shining heavens. Though some of the hymns may go back to the time of Sargon.*“Mighty lord. he shall eat thy food. 3. ‘‘ Head. and gazing. opener of the sickly face. 3. Hence it is denoted in Accadian by the three ideographs hole-sun-below. at all events in their present form. 9. who settetli up the fallen.e. 0 light of the midday sun.” The Awadisii original is literally.

( Worshipper. (Worsh+pw. 1 Does this refer to the first man.)-His limbs are sick. 2). (The ministers?) of the queen of the gods attend thee with rejoicing. utter thy voice at the lifting up of my 28. With a bond are they united together straitly. [The next few lines arc too imperfect to be translated. Cy thine order let his sin be pardoned. even thee. vi. . Let his sickness quit his body (‘t). receive his sacrifice. Thou in thy course directest the black-headed race (of Accad). On the day that he lives (again) may he reverence thy supremacy. even m e . 29. . “the sons of God” (Gen. 25.” in Dan. denoting the close attachment of the worshipper to his deity. . . 22. or even in the statement that Adam was “ t h e son of God” (Luke iii. like the Yima-Ksha6ta of the Zend-Avesta ‘1 The original has “ alone” ( d ) . . 30..)-Attend and learn his word.)-The lord has sent me. his transgression removed. the son of his god: has committed sin and transgres sion. 11. 38). sick and in sickness he lies. 24. i‘ a son of God. The great lord Ea has sent me. (they that) are with thee. The . (Priest. (the angels?) joyfully dram near to thee in prayer . Cast on him a ray of mercy and let it heal his sickness. But compare the expression. enjoin his command. in the highest (summits) of the shining heavens. even thee. 10.172 passest by. 21. of the hosts of the earth zealously regarc! thee. even me. for the repose of thy heart daily attend thee. and let him live. iii. 19. 8. (Priest. 27. at the head. The man. 25. 9.] 18. May he live like the king ! 32. show thyself his god. 3 So in the Semitic translation. 31. The . The divine man1 on behalf of his son attends thee. There is no connection between this idea and that embodied in the phrase. 4 I n the original : ‘i May the Sun-god look at the lifting up of mj band” . . 3 A common phrase in the bilingual poems. 26. 0 Sun-god. when thou 7. 23. 6. LECTURE 111. The (hosts) of heaven and earth attend thee.2 20.)-Eat his food. . .

iv. * Also called 3 Namtabbt?. Terrify their heart and they are filled with dejection. the light of the mighty gods. 40. Like R king may thy judgment adjudge. The word inclines towards thee. 43. 47. I humble myself(?) before thee. 12. A. 12. where &filais rendered dalili. 37.77. ii 32. 39. Me also. who inspirest the explanation8 44. ii. and was probably appended to the old hymn in the time of Assur-bani-pal. the magician. I. in the shadow of the cedar thou dwellest. do thou also direct. W. line 19.” Delitzsch (Lotz’s Tiglalh-Pileser. who destroyest men and countries 46. for thou art he who knoweth their boundaries. p. thy servant. Conclusion (of the Ayrnn). 173 33.’ 34. and abide thou.see W. 39. . direct my hands. 49. 32. 16-18. i t loves thee as a friend. Thy brilliant light illumines all men. that devote themselves to baneful sorceries.” W. 51. For &a (= saladhv sa [awJi]). i n the midst of the glittering heaven . Overthrower of all that would overthrow thee. Destroyer of the wicked. and 29. Tigiath-Pileser I . 31.” 1 K A (determinative of speech) ala klien-8ile. 0 Sun-god. 54. 52. p. and 3 8 . (t?& i s ) to be recited. 50. 74) have entirely missed the true meaning of the expression. of dreams and baneful vampires: 45. “ (female) devourers of men. I . who turnest evil into good.A. Comp the legend of the Descent of Xstar into Hades. 0 Sun-god the judge. 14.*-I have cried to thee. Purify my mouth. May the gods who have created me take my hands . ‘ I judging according to the judgment of the great gods. 2 The following incantation is in Semitic-Assyrian only. I. thy feet are set on the bright verdure of the herb. When the sun i8 up 36. With the utmost of my breath let me rejoice. calls himself dalil ili rabi ana dalali. who have practised magic and devised the binding spell. 149) and Zimmern (Busspealmen. 0 Sun-god. 35. of signs and evil omens. A. assemble the nations. 53. 41. 0 lord of the light of hosts.THE GODS OF BABYLONIA. may thy judgment adjudge. Of bright coni-stalks their images I have fashioned 4 8. 0 Sun-god. Comp.

Samas is therefore but one of the --- 1 S690. 4. when thou enterest into E-Babbara. The fear of thy divinity (overwhelms) the world. grant me favourable omens. The seat ( d i t ) of the earth (he has filled) into thy hand.-0 Sungod. the king of Babylon. after restoring the temple of the Sun-god at Sippara.” . froin the foundation of the &y thou comest forth ( t a k h k l ~ a ~ ) . 1. 3 . light of the gods his fathers. the Babylonian. the temple of thy choice. who has built thy dwelling-place supreme. and daily at noon and sunset. Nabonidos. (mighty lord) of heaven and earth.’ “Incantation. which thou hast given my hands to hold. who has done good to thy heart. From the . T h e Sun-god from the midst of heaven rises. His supreme Baal was necessarily Merodach. a god who setteth at rest his father’s heart. a god whose journeying none can (rival). . 2. receive my prayers.h joy upon me. 6.. Ea (Nu-dimmud) has enlarged for thee (thy) destiny among the gods. and listen to my supplications. when thou inhabitest thy everlasting shrine. the gods are born (2). look wit. May I be lord of the firmly-established sceptre and sword. I n the closing days of the Babylonian monarchy. addresses him in the following words : ‘‘ 0 Samas.174 LECTURE 111. the prince who has fed thee. 7. in heaven and earth. and upon my prosperous labours. for ever and ever !” Nabonidos. . 8 . could not regard Samas with the same eyes as the old poets of the city of the Sun-god. Obv. Nabonidos. 5. the peculiar protdgd of Merodach. whose original identity with Samas had long since been forgotten. and Samas of Sippara was consequently to him only the Baal of another and a subject state. off’spring of Sin and Nin-gal.

9. Makhir is a god. was made his son. that this process of absorption and identification did not take place. At times the local divinity became the son of Hamas. Thus the Eossman Sun-god Kit. I. who illuminates his divine fathers i n the higher heaven. along with other gods like Simalia and Sugamuna. “knowledge of the oraclc. 13. He was the god of revelation. as a t Babylon or Eridu or Nipur. A6 Semitic influence extended itself i n Babylonia. In the one. 58. The Semitic worshipper no doubt identified the name with his own word kitturn. he is the supreme god who brooks no equal . 175 younger gods.” W. 15. since a knowledge of the future was declared through dreams. the god of dreams. ii. the subordinate of Merodach and even of the Noon-god Sin.THE GODS OF BABYLONIA.” is interpreted suttzi pasam. Nothing can illustrate more clearly the local character of Babylonian religion than this difference between the position assigned to Samas in the hymns and in the inscription of Nabonidos. 70. 58. A. 1.l and Makhir. ‘‘ to explain a . It was only where a solar divinity was worshipped by the Semitic race under another name. 11. ii. in the other. I. He shares the power and glory of his fathers only as the son shares the authority of the father in the human family. or where the Semites had already adopted another deity as the supreme object of their worship. was termed his daughter. Hence the Accadian me-gal-mi. under the Semitised name of Kittum. as at Ur.2 W. I n v. “right. who had been introduced by the Eossman conquest. the Sun-god of Sippara came to absorb and be identified with the numerous local solar deities of the Chaldsean cities. on the contrary.A. through an error occasioned by the want of any indices of gender in Accadian.

This was the exact converse of the ideas that prevailed among the Accadians. or does. A masculine without a feminine was as inconceivable to him as the man without the woman. and kibu sakanu.” .ECTURE 111. so also in the Semitic conception of social life. l r to explain a command.176 I. and not the father. must have been a sore puzzle and difficulty to the Semite when he first began to worship the gods of his more cultured neighbours. Not only were nouns distinguished into masculines and feminines. and in the bilingual texts we find that in the Accadian original the female is always mentioned before the male. The goddesses of Accad. as in our own Indo-European family of speech . the pale reflection as it were of the man. among the Semites. 3 e r e it was the mother.for instance. Suttu pasuru may. the female being but his weaker double.” its primary meaning being “the great one. be read suywtu pusuru. the distinction was further carried into the verb. while the Semitic translator is careful to reverse the order. were independent dream” (v. the husband without the wife. Woman in Accad occupied a higher position than she did. which Accadian shared with other agglutinative languages. the male was the source of life and authority. the father without the mother. who stood at the head of the family. accordingly. signifies at once (‘ lord” and ‘‘lady. “ to establish a (divine) message” (v. however.” But the whole grammatical thought of the Semite was based upon a difference of gender. This absence of any marks to denote grammatical gender.13). The father was the head of the family. But as in Semitic grammar. ATn. 30. the supreme creator was the masculine Bel. 14). 30. in Proto-Chaldaean.

l 6 had originally been a 1 A bilingual hymn to the Sun-god. in thy setting may the bolts of the glorious heavens speak peace to thee ! may the door of the heavens be gracious to thee ! may Erlisaru.” his wife was necessarily also Bilat or Beltis. One of the Accadian solar divinities with whom the Bilat matati. guide thee ! At &Parra. waB identified. which was recited by the priests e t sunset. as it was sometimes termed. in the midst of heaven. Xoc.” in reference to the fact that the supreme Bel was their lord and master. their female deities mere simply the complement of their male consorts-little more. as we have seen in a former Lecture. We may almost say that they were created by grammatical necessity. was or f3irrida. with his (‘face” or reflection. has been translated by Mr.THE GODS OF BABYLOXIA. she was called Bilat iZi. like the gods whose equals they were. ((the lady of the gods. Pinches (Tr. (‘the lady of the world. and more especially B world. they shone by the reflected light of their consorts. than the grammatical feminines of the gods. when regarded as the wife of Samas.thy beloved wife. gladly receive the6 I 31 . “the lord of the Bel. & . The Semites gave her the general title of Bilat matati. viii. But it was quite otherwise with the Semitic Babylonians. the seat of thy lordship. thy greatness shines for& Nay . Sometimes. The Sun-god. and more especially Bilat matati.” It was the title of most of the goddesses. Arch. thy beloved messenger. too. therefore. in fact. and as the supreme god of the worshipper was i Z matati. was provided with his feminine complement. 177 beings. They were seldom deemed worthy of a name of their own. Except where they had borrowed and more or less assimilated an Accadian goddess. BibZ. 2) as follows : ‘ 4 0 Sun-god.

and sank intc a colourless representative of the female element in the divinity. Sir-da (xm-da). and among them.A. is philologically impossible. while the supposed instances of an Assyrian god Ya are all due Bo misinterpretation of ths texts. ’Sir-ga-m. The original Sumerian form of the name of was Sirrigam. ((the IigM of the sun’’ (Bir-Utu and Utu-Utu).f78 LECITRE 111. therefore. of course. 21-31. but this is a mistake. may they glorify thee ! lord of E-Parra. or Sirrida.” Pinches (Proceedings of the Society of B i b . of the country the judge. I. Oppert’s proposal to identify with Malik or Moloch finds no support in the monuments. Archtzology. according to the religious conceptions of the Semites. It was evidently originally intended for the temple of Samas at Sippara. the old Accadian god was transformed into a goddess. but this. Nov. may the course of thy path be true ! 0 Sun-god. 57. of her decisions the director art thou. 1885) would connect with Yahveh . I n W. as he was also entitled in Accadian. Neb0 being recognised as the local Sun-god of Eorsippa. gloss on line 28 reads TsabUtu instead of Bir-Utu. male divinity representing the solar disk. Sur-gb-ma.” The same hymn was also clianted in the morning.. was his female consort. thus became a Semitic goddess. ’Sir-gam with the ideograph of the sun inserted. and the name of the Edomite king A-ranimu does not prove that the Edomite deity A was identical with the Babylonian. meaning ‘(the father. ii. go the everlasting road to thy rest. From line 26 it appears that was properly a title. But the solar disk.” A. 4 & A A A . The transformation was aided A.” for the first line. make straight thy path. the face as it were of the Sun-god. and signified ‘‘warrior” (crim in Accadian) and not “ light. but came in later times to be used in the worship of Neb0 at Eorsippa. %ir-da-rn (where the ideograph of the sun has the phonetic value of d n transferred to it). ’Sir-da-m (Accndian). since tsab was Semitic. with the substitution of ’‘ 0 Sun-god. froni the glorious heaven rising. we have examples of the various ways in which it might be written : Sir-ri-gb-ma. sun-god. may thy heart take rest ! may the glory of thy godhead be established to thee 1 Warrior! hero. 0 Sun-god.

to which I have already alluded. and on the other side the Sun-god himself. fire is endowed with divine attributes. It moves and devours like a living thing . I n the Semitic rendering. ‘‘ The (bed) of the earth they took for their border. the Fire-god retained all his primaeval privileges and rank. one of the epithets applied t o might mean indifferently “lord of light” or (‘ lady of light. Thus hc is celebrated in an old hymn in the following strains :* A. 179 by the absence of gender in Accadian. Where there were no external signs of gender. One of the deities partially absorbed by the Sun-god was the ancient god of Fire. 1. The Fire-god tended therefore to become on the one side the messenger and intermediary between gods and men. W.” it was not difficult to bring it about. ir.” 1 N2 . 15. and where Nin-Gan. A. 2.2 but the god 5 appeared not. Among most primitive peoples.THE GOD8 OF BABYLOSIA. it purifies and burns up all that is foul. and we feel it in the rays of the noontide sun. But fire is itself a messenger from above. and to whom the prayers of the faithful are addressed. from the h n d a t i o n s of the earth he appeared not to mako hostility . I . He is still one of the leading gods or “creators” of the pantheon. “ ( I n the b e 4 of the earth their necks were taken. and it is through the fire upon the alttr -the representative of the fire upon the hearth-that the savour of the burnt sacrifice ascends to the gods in heaven. however. It comes to us from the sky in the lightning-fiash. It is he who controls the lower spirits of earth and heaven. I n pre-Semitic times.

21. in heaven and earth is no know ledge of them.180 LECTURE 1 1 1 .herefore. Their name in heaven and earth exists not. 14. 18. 3. t. Those seven in the mountain of the sunset were born. 12. 6. 8. 20. 23. 17. by rubbing two sticks one against the other.” Fire was produced in Babylonia. in heaven and earth they have no dwelling. 13. As for them. the first-born supreme. (to) the heaven below they extended (their path). 9 in Mazzaroth (the Zodiacal signs)3 was their office.” 2 lphtael of idu. The idea of rrfire”was expressed by two ideographs (GIS-BAR and QIS-SIR) which signified literally L L the wood __ 1 So the Semitic rendering. The Fire-god. (‘to know. They by nought are known . The Fire-god enthrones with himself the friend that he loves. 0 Fire-god. supreme enjoiner of the commands of Anu ! 7. how were they nurtured 1 11.” * In the original : I‘the match of the thirty. and to the heaven that is unseen they climbed afar. the mighty. 19. I n the hollows of the earth they have their dwelling.“ . on thc high-places of the earth their names are proclaimed. “ the heavta whicb has no exit they opened. the first-born. The fire-stick. The original has. 15. supreme on high. unto heaven they pursued and no father did he know. 0 Fire-god. whose point was ignited by the friction. those seven in the mountain of the sunrise are bound to rest. 9. as in other countries of the ancient world. I n the Star(s) of Heaven was not their ministry . 16. On the high-places of the earth they lift the neck. Among the sentient gods they are not known. how were those seven begotten. He reveals the enmity of those seven. I n the hollows of the earth they set the foot. On the work he ponders in his dwelling-place. 10. Those seven from the mountain of the sunset gallop forth. was regarded with special venetion. hidden is their name. 5.‘ 4. those seven in the mountain of the sunrise grew up.

We are told that Hadad the son of Bedad. and the name of his father Bedad is simply Ben-Dad. and show that ‘Savul of Babylon was worshipped among the mountains of Seir. identical with the Babylonian ’Savul. 181 of light. It even made its way into the far west. Sometimesit represents Gibil or Kibir. Samlah of the ‘‘ Wine-land” is the SemeM of Greek mythology. Samlah of Masrekah or the “Vine-land.” of the Phcenicians. .” another form of Hadad according to the cuneiform inscriptions. Her Phmnician origin has long been recognised.TIIE GODS OF BABYLOXIA. was the Sungod of the Syrians. ’Savul seems to have been adored more particularly in Babylon. Now Hadad. (‘the son of Dad. The names of the kings of Edom preserved in the 36th chapter of Genesis throw a curious light on Edomite mythology. and his Babylonian origin is further betrayed by the stmatematthat he came from the Euphrates. and her name has recently been met with in a masculine form in a Phcenician inscription. at all erents he was idcntified with Merodach as well as with Samas in those later ages when the cult of the Accadian firegod passed into the cult of the Semitic Sun-god. whom the Assyrians identified with their own Ramman or Rimmon. and possibly the same as the David of the Hebrevg the Dido. the mother of Dionysos the Wine-god. ‘Savullu). letter for letter. the fire-god.h by the river Euphrates. succeeded one another. the brother of Assur-banipal. and his name forms part of that of the Babylonian king ’Savulsarra-yukin or Saosdukhinos. or ‘( beloved one.” This ( ( wood of light” was exalted into a god. as we shall see. Saul of Rehoboth by the river Euphrates is. sometimes it is itself worshipped as a divinity under the name of ’Savul (in Semitic.” and Saul of Reh0bot.

and when we remember that in the 10th chapter of Genesis (v. arose the twin-city of Sippara of Anunit.182 LECTURE 111. Andna. Rehoboth means merely the “public places” of a city . ll).1 Like Inina. A n u m stands for an nuna.” and is the masculine correlative of Innixla o r Inina. ‘‘divine one. the city whose Sun-god swallowed up so many of the primiiwal deities of Accad. like the Kronos of Hellenic myth. and was consequently the local god of primitive Sippara. Anunit was identified with Istar. and subsequently worshipped for a time by the Semites.” being assimilated to that of Nina. and thus survived. it would appear. in fact. The final dental shows that Anunit was a female divinity. while her lord and master. But the name was also a general one. But it was only as a female divinity that she came from a Semitic source. who corresponded to the Nul-lil of Nipur. one of the primordial gods of ancient Accad. to whom she owed her very existence. By the side of Sippara of Samas. the “mistress” of the ghost-world. I have said. Rehoboth (’11. passed into almost entire oblivion. it seems probable that in the Rehoboth of the Euphrates me may discover the suburbs of its sister-city Babylon. She was.) is the name applied to the suburbs of Nineveh. 1 As Innina stands for an niiin: the vowel of an. and shows furthermore that she was of Semitic origin. must have been adored in Sippara in pre-Semitic days. g L the great god” . he presided over the lower world. A n h a signifies ‘(the master. who created out of his name his female consort Anunit. For this it is possible t o assign a reason. to whom I have had occasion to refer before. Let us nom turn back again to Sippara. the Semitic feminine of A n h a .

w r r a . 3 Upon the analogy of Anfinaki.” has called into existence other nouns with final -akku. 18). In one of the texts I hwe quoted.” a term which the Semites pronounced Anlinaki. 19. A. They were called the An& na-ge.THE GODS OF BABYLONIA.” from the Acc. 9).” from the Semitic root nasaku. ‘cthe masters of the under-world. Obv. “ a high-priest. Similarly the afialogy of issakku. whence the ab?ir&kof Gen. 19. ‘‘a vizier. the gods of destiny are seven and the Andna of heaven are five. Obu. Hence it is that in a bilingual hymn the Andnas of the lower world are called ‘(the great gods . Another hymn (ii.”2 Besides the five A n h a s of the heaven. the real origin of their name being forgotten. 50) declares that “the Andnas of the lower world in the hollows I cause to grope like swine.” which is a contradiction in terms. 8. as the A c m dim version shows Semitic influence. K4629.” he even speaks of the “An~inakiof heaven. like m i r r a h . 94). the latter is called “ t h e judge of the Anunnaki” (K2585. whose golden throne was placed in Hades by the side of the waters of life. “to pour out libations. sli.” I n a hymn in which the Fire-god is identified with Samas. and. like martsahz or zamku. . the Semites hare added a final gatturd to several of the words they borrowed from the Accadinns. ‘‘The Andnns of the lower world to the upper firmament return. should be read martsatw and &w. “ a bed. the Semitic translator not only renders the simple Andnas by “Andnaki. p. These Andnaki were opposed to the Igigi or angels. Rev. 183 and might be applied to any of the deities whom the Accadians regarded as specially endowed with power. the spirits of the upper air. there were the more famous Andnas of the lower world. 49. ii.” The hymn must be of Semitic origin.” borrowed by the Semites under the forln of ubl+chc (82. 816.”I while another text declares that while “the great gods are fifty in number. took the place of the older Anhm.3 1 W. I. The Accaclian abrik. 43 helped in the same direction. The adverbs in -kuof Zimmern (Ba&yZonischs Buspsalmen.

C. TTC are told in the story of the plague-demon N e r q 2 mas ‘(the seat of Anu and Istar. ii. 12). A. 10. iii. . 3 Col.” According to W. the city specially consecrated to the goddess of love.” I n calling her the lady of battle and daughter of Bel. the modern Warka. the accomplisher of the command of Bel her father. 40.I. an identification which is made even more plain a few lines further on (col. and suggesting that the first foundations of the temple went back to the time of Sargon.A.” dwelt her priests. preserved her special name and cult at Sippara. mho marches before the gods. the city of the choirs of the festival-girls and consecrated maidens of I ~ t a r . xii. “the lights (1) of heaven and earth kept the bond.184 LECTURE 111. who has made (his) omens favourable at sunrise and sunset. 11. For suniklibtu (n~k?). 42. thus identifying Accacl with Sippara of Anunit. the great temple of Ulbarl if that is the right pronunciation of the word-which had been erected by Zabu about B. Though Anunit was considered merely a local form of Istar (W. the destroyer of the wicked. xxiii. 4 sp. ((thehouse of heaven. 3 Kitsriti samkhdtu u kharimdtu sa Istar. where he makes her the sister of Samas and daughter of Sin. 18. 2340. Erech. the mistress of battle. the bearer of the bow and quiver. 61. Nabonidos identifies her with Istar. comp. from whence it passed into Rssyria. i. (h)enn& UL-BAR-MES A H u KI itkhuzz/. Deut. the temple of Ulbar was in Agadhe or Accad. the father of Naram-Sin. the sweeper away of the enemy. ” where ~ in $-Ana. Nabonidos tells us that he restored the temple for Anunit. Lev. ii. I. thc festival-makers who had devoted their manhood in order (( (( 1 The word is found i n R2. 48-51). 49. This identity of Anunit and Istar brings Sippara into close connection with Erech. ii.

p. Erech appears to have been one of the centres of Semitic influence in Babylonia from a very early period. carrying swords.” that he exercised his sovereignty. and the extent to which the worship of Istar as developed at Erech spread through the Semitic world points to its antiquity as a Semitic settlement. and Jared or Irad (Gen. However this may be. Istar itakkalac. where I further suggest that the name represented by the two varying forms of Methuselakh and Methusael should be Mutu-sa-&ti. Sa ana suplukli kaptat D. who carrying razors. was the city with whose fortunes the legend of Gisdhubar was associated.” * Erech. Unuk must be regarded as having received its earliest culture from Eridu. Sin-liqiunnhi.ii. Its earliest name was the Accadian Unu-ki or Unuk. however. stout dresses and flint-knives. P.” ‘L minister to cause reverence for the glory of Istar. It was not of Semitic foundation. I Enoch of Genesis. 404.” of which the collateral form Uruk does not seem t o have come into vogue before the Semitic f I am right in identifying Unuk with the period. 18. The names of the kings stamped upon its oldest bricks bear Semitic names. iv. and it mas here in Uruk duburi. 4. according to Gen. Erech is thus connected with the great epic of the Semitic Babylonians.T€IE GODS OF BABYLONIA. and it is probable that its author. 185 that men might adore the goddess. it was here that he slew the bull Anu had created to avenge the slight offered by him to Istar . “ in Erech the shepherd’s hut. was a native of the place. too. “the husband of the . Zeitsehrift filr Keilscliriftforschun~.3 Nas pad?& nu8 naglabi dupie u tsurri. v. the city built by Kain in commemoration of his first-born son. since Enoch was the son of Jared. 18) is the game word as Eridu. ‘L the place of the settlement.

” in curious parallelism to the fact that Tubal-Cain. he was known as the son of Xinyras. in fact. or ‘‘ harp. which ia evidently the Assyrian ( i b h . I n Kypros. Ana. 25.” Adonis-Tammuz. p. . 36. in Semitic (3. Cp. and that it was he and not his father Lamech mho had slain the “young man” (yeled. the sons of Lamech.” whose name (AN-BAR) was used ideographically to denote “iron. I n S769.” Jabal and Jubal. The local god of Erech. ii. “lord” is rendered i n the Semitic h e by gurgocrru. the ideograph preceded by AB. “ darkness” and “ shade. and whose untimely death was commemorated by the musical instruments of Jnbal. the great workman ( n a p r ) of heaven. Throughout Chaldaea. was not Ea. p. “the god of the pig. The two cosmologies are antagonistic to one another. 2. the husband of Istar. A. A. nangaru. Nugu-r is probably a dialectic fcirin of Lamga. 47. But it was not in Erech alone that the sky was considered divine. mother alike of Ea and the other gods. howbver. it was said. would correspond with the Assyrian edu and tsillu. at Erech the sky was itself the god and the creator of the visible universe.” W.” i. the sky. the Sun-god Tammuz. He had a shrine in the forest of Eridu. the god of the river and sea. Lamech would be the Semitic equivalent of Lamga.” and therefore of apiculture (see above. it may be noticed. 1. Thus whereas at Eridu the present creation was believed to have originated out of water. was the “instructor of every artificer i n brass and iron. Oppert long since pointed out). 54). while Istar mas the presiding deity of Erech. L L to bring down”). 27. iv. who was “ a shepherd” like Jabal and Abel. like Abel (as Dr. Adah and Zillah. 152). was “the lord of the date. when represented by the character which had the pronunciation of n q u r . the sky being the primsleval goddess Zikum or Zigara. Ablu refers us to “the only son” Tammuz (W.e. the wives of Lamech. but Ana. 153). was slain by Arbs in the form of a boar. Assyrian dluttu.” There ape some who would aver that the TubalCain of Genesis is but the double of Cain. and Ares was identified with the Babylonian god Adar or Uras (see above. 572). a name of the Moon-god. the son of Lamech.” (( goddess. I. a name that reminds us of the kinndr.186 LECTURE 111. Adar. ‘‘ Niia-nagur. “son” (from abulzr. I.66. a title of Tammuz). and produced manifold inconsistencies in the later syncretic age of Babylonian religion. according to ii. the sky. are merely variant forms of the same word.

hohu). that here alone he had ceased to be a subordinate the 16th century before our era.THE GODS OF BABYLONIA. calling him Beel-samin. x 1 W e must not forget that in many passages in the Proto-Chaldzean literature ana denotes simply ‘I the sky. that we make our first true acquaintance with him. or ‘‘lord of heaven. mention is made of the Palestinian town of Beth-bath.” the female double of b u . and inhabited Phmnicia. “the temple of Anat. and had become a dingir or ‘‘ creator.e. and Aii3n discovered food from tresa. towards the sin. t l e lord of heaven. We come to know him as the Semitic Baal-samaim. though the Semitic translators. What distinguished the worship of Ana at Erech was that here alone he was the chief deity of the local cult.’ . It is only when he has become the Anu o€ the Semites and has undergone considerable changes in his character and worship. for this they supposed to be the only god. within the borders of the tribe of Naphtali (Josh. mere begotten two mortal men.” the supreme Baal. Ai6n and Protogonos so called. misled by the determinative of divinity with which the word is written. Another Beth-Anath was included i x . Those begotten from these were called Genos and Genea (1 Kain).2 How early this must have been is shown by the extension of his name as far west as Palestine. and when great droughts came they stretched forth their hands to heaven. Baku. but as the whole expanse of heaven which is illuminated by the sun. Compare the Phcenician account of the creation as reported by Philo Byblius : “ Of the wind Kolpis and of his wife Baau (i. have usually supposed it to represent the god Anu. and the oldest magical texts invoke (‘the spirit of the sky” by the side of that of the earth.. In the records of the Egyptian conqueror Thothmes III. viewed no longer as the Sun-god.’’ and not a divine being at all. which is interpreted night. 187 received worship.”l Of this pre-Semitic period in the worship of Ana we know but little.

Thus Assur-natsir-pal calls himself ((the beloved of Anu and Dagon . From Harran we can trace his name and cult to Phmnicia. and by her side we hear of Anah or Anu. the son of the Horite Zibeon. ii. 2 “Ouranos. I. The Accadian da means “summit” (W. who ( L found the mules (or hot-springs) in the wilderness as he fed the asses of Zibeon his father. contracted marriage with his sister G6. and had by her four sons.” and Sargon asserts that he ‘ L had extended his protection over the city of Harran. A. 14).” the Canaanites venerated their local goddesses under the title of “Anats.” Here Dagan or Dagon is associated with Harran. 27). between the Semites of Babylonia and the Semites of the west. 6 . 68. 49). 21. That the statement is genuine is made clear by the false etymology assigned to the name. In thc Assyrian inscriptions Anu is coupled with Dagan. 7-8. see W. corn. For his wife Dalas or Salas.” But Anu did not make his way westward alone. Anah or Anat was the daughter of the Hivitc Zibeon and mother-in-law of Esau (Gen. I. who . Beth-Dagon was a city of Asher. tell us expressly that Dagon was a Phcenician god.”2 But it was (( 1 W.188 LECTURE 111. in the neighbourhood of Tyre and Zidon (Josh. the Greek translator of thc fhcenician writer Sankhuniathon. v. Dagon is identified with Mul-Id. as it were. and the fragments of PhilSn Byblios. had written down their laws. 79. from the Semitic ddgdn. and. A. 45. I. 68. 20. whose name shows us that. xix. 22. I n W. A. besides the Ashtaroth or ‘( Astartes. 110s (El). 68. iv. 16 . iii. 3s). 96. sumxding to the kingdom of his father. and gun is the participle of the substantive verb. I. according t o the ordinance of Anu and Dagon. “the exalted one. A.”’ whose femalc consort seems to h a w been Dalas or Salas.” mas a city of the priests. xxxvi. iii. I. and Anathoth. 21. the half-way house.

THE CtODS OF BABYLONIA. The old sky-god of the Accadians must have become the Semitic Anu a t a very remote period indeed. It is probable that the worship of Anu migrated westward along with the worship of Istar. I am inclined to think that this must be placed at least as early as the age of Sargon of Accad. But it was the sky-god of Erech only. 1 q. and t o have become the supreme deity of the confederate Philistine towns. but to the still earlier migrations of the Semitic population towards the west. ivae called Zeus Arotrios. gii-en to the goddess in Canaan. It does not follow that where the divine Ana. as well as of a town of Beth-Dagon. . as we shall see in a futnre Lecture. and Betylos (Bethel). m d Dagon. not to the campaigns of the early Babylonian kings. or '' sky. Kronos gave (a concubine of Ouranos) in marriage to Dagon. and Atlas. raises a presumption that this was due. 189 among the Philistines in the extreme south of Palestine that the worship of Dagon attained its chief importance. which signifies corn. the form of the name Ashtoreth. The worship of Istar found its way to all the branches of the Semitic family except the Arabic . And Dagon. Here he appears to have been exalted into a Baal. xvi. aftcr he had found out bread-corn and the plough. and." is mentioned is called Kronos." . and she was delivered and called the child DemaroBn . v.). The god and goddess of Erech could not well be dissociated from one another. .. . 21-30) and at Ashdod (1 Sam. . . and the spread of the worship of the goddess among the Semitic tribes brought with it the spread of the worship of the god also. and we gather from the account given of his image that he was represented as a nian with head and hands. We hear of his temples at Gam (Josh.

” It was to this spiritualised heaven that the spirit of Ea-bani. ascended. The original sky-god of Erech denoted the visible sky. he assumed a more spiritual character.190 LECTURE 111. There were numerous temples i n Chaldaea into whose names the name of the deified sky entered. that we may see the h u of the mythological tablets. and was consequently in most of the Chaldaean cities an inferior deity. It is only where the names have been given in Semitic times. in the Accadian texts. who ruled over the sky and the earth. above and beyond the heaven that we behold. even though the Semitic translator8 of the texts imagined that such was the case. like the monks of the Middle Ages. and from which he gazed placidly on the turmoil of the earth below. and it was from his scat therein that Anu assigned their places in the lower . He is opposed to the visible earth. But when the Accadian Ana became the Semitic A m . Henceforward ‘(the heaven of Anu” denoted the serene and changeless regions t o which the gads fled when the deluge had broken up the face of the lower heaven. the god who became the Semitio Anu is referred to. but in most cases this deified sky was not the sky-god of Erech. or where the Accadian texts are the production of Semitic literati composing in the sacred language of the priests. the friend of Gisdhubar. It was no longer the visible heaven that was represented by him. and which an Assyrian poet calls “the land of the silver sky. Without doubt the Semitic scribes have often confounded their Anu With the local sky-god of the ancient documents. subordinate to a Mul-lil. but this should only make us the more cautious in dealing with their work. but an invisible one. an Ea or a Sun-god.

and iii. the barrier of heaven and earth which cannot be changed .. But the spiritualisation of Anu did not stop here. A. as ‘(the one god” was pantheistic rather than monotheistio. the one god against whom none may rebel. god and man cannot explain (it). 54. and to resolve into him the other deities of the Babylonian pantheon. 34.” So in ii. As a Semitic Baal he had become a supreme god. we have a pantheistic system. the Moon and the Evening Star.l the barrier of the gods against which they cannot transgress.. the Sun. We read occasionally in the hymns of “the one god. system which we find i n the account of the Creation in days. the god of the hosts of heaveE and earth. 1 . I . 16. the lord and father of the universe. It was only a step further. 54.” ‘(The ban. I . 69. W. i v .1. “Lakhma is Anu.” The conception of Anu. the cord of a snare from which there is no exit which is turned against the evil. but are identified with Anu himself. 132 heaven to Samas. according to the legend of the seven wicked spirits. however. might be idenW . ii.2 It is easy t o conceive how the old deity An-sar. A . it is a snare not to be passed which is formed against the evil. 4U.THE GODS OF BABYLONIA. (‘is a barrier which none may overpass. 1 . Sin and Istar. like the Ara of Zskhylos or the divine burden of Zechariah (ix. l ) .” a poet writes. &c. ‘(the upper firmament.” with all its host of spirits. therefore. in which Lakhama and the other primeval forces of nature are not the parents of Anu. I n place of the genealogical. personifying the priestly sentence of excommunication. the ban. The cosmological deities of an older phase of faith were in the first instance resolved into him. or gnostic. to make him himself the universe.

” and the eagle-like Alala. or Sky-god. ((the hearer of prayer. but when we find Uras aIso.192 LECTURE 111. Whatever question there may be as to whether the pure and unmixed Semite is capable of originating a pantheistic form of faith. It is interesting. How long it flourished. or rather pantheistic. equally resolved into the god of Erech. made one with Anu. it is plain that we have to do with an advanced stage of pantheism. The Ana. school of faith has been supposed by Sir Henry Rawlinson to have grown up at Eridu. w0 have no means of ascertaining. to whom Gudea at Tel-loh erected a temple. the Sun-god of Nipur. This monotheistic. among the more meditative Babylonians produced a crude system of pantheism. the bridegroom of Istar and double of Tammuz. the older Bel. The difference between the Assyrian and the Babylonian was the difference between the purer Semite and one in whose veins ran a copious stream of foreign blood. however. there can be little doubt about it where the Semite is brought into close contact with an alien race. may have been the Sky-god of Erech. tified with him . as showing that the same tendency which in Assyria exalted Assur to the position of an all-powerful deity who would brook neither opposition nor unbelief. or whether it extended beyond a MTTOW group of priestly thinkers. more especially when we remember the connection that existed between Erech and Eridu on . It is possible that the extension of his cult had already begun in Accadian days. The early importance and supremacy of Erech in Semitic Babylonia caused its god to assume a place by the side of Ea of Eridu and Mul-lil. but the fact that it centres round the name of Anu points rather to Erech as its birth-place.

the lower world and the watery element.TILE GODS OF IlhBYLOXIb. or “house of heaven. Bel and Ea. and Babylonian religion remained true to its primitive tendency to dualism. and that Anu. however. it was inevitable that a cosmological colouring should be given to it. Later ages likened this cosmological trinity to the elemental trinity of the Sun. from the commencement of the Semitic period Anu appears as the first member of a triad which consisted of Anu. I The itpportation of the worship of Istar into Tel-loh. the gods of Nipur and Eridu retained the rank which their time-honoured sanctity and the general extension of their cult had long secured to them . But this secondary trinity never attracted the Babylonian mind. but the rank of Anu was derived from the city of which he was the presiding god. 193 the one hand. Once formed.” would. Bis position in the triad was due to the leading position held by Erech. as we have seen. Thc only genuine trinity that can be discovered in the religious faith of early Chaldea was that old Accadian system which conceived of a divine father and mother by the side of their son tho Sun-god. The origin of the triad was thus purely accidental . its separation of the divine world into male and female deities. however. Bel and Ea. the Moon and the Evening Star . Sin and Istar. Bel or Mul-lil. there was nothing in the religious conceptions of the Babylonians which led to its formation. f d l y account for the importation of the worship of Anu at the s a n e time. and between Tel-loh and Eridu on the ather. Sin continued to be the father of Samas and Istar. with her tew of E-ma.1 However this may be. and below the triad of A m . and Ea. should represent respectively the heaven. Up t o the last. was accordingly placed the triad of of Samas. 0 .

194 LECTURE 111. Nergal occupies a peculiar position. He was the local deity of the town called Gudua. Anat was the same as Istar.” like the wife of Bel or of Samas : she is. The Semitic Anu necessarily produced the feminine Anat. So far as she was an active power. for example. There are still two other gods of whom I niust speak before I conclude this Lecture-Nergal. and though the Rabylonialr kings. Anat never became an independent deity. but their Anathoth as well. “ the resting-place. the goddess who necessarily stood at the side of a particular god. mere buried . But we must not misunderstand the nature of the adaptation. and as necessarily Anat was identified with tho oarth as Anu was with the sky. the air-god. L i a mistress of the gods.” or a BiZat iZi. and Ramman or Rimmon. I n this way the Accadian idea of a marriage union between the earth and the sky was adapted to the newer Semitic beliefs. ‘(a mistress of the world. in all other respects she was merely the grammatical complement of A m . a mere colourless representation of t h e female principle in the universe. the god of Cutha. she had no separate existence apart from Anu. Hence it is that the Canaanites had not only their Ashtaroth. She is simply a Bilat matati. had been from the outset. like the kings of Assyria and Judah.” by the Accadians-a name changed by the Semites into Kutu or Cutha-which is now represented by the mounds of Tel-Ibrahim. as Dav-kina. For reasons unknown to us. for the Anathoth or (‘Anats” differed from the Ashtaroth or “Ashtoreths” in little else than name. the necropolis of Cutha became famous at an early time. in fact. with no attribdes that distinguish her from Anunit or Istar except the single one that she was the feminine form of Anu.

the personification of death. therefore. 2. 9. But the hero-king of the myths was one and the same with the god whom his primitive worshippers at Gudua made king of artili or Hades. ie. Like Etiina. ‘‘ the Ner of Hades. iv. the god. (‘the bright one.” which was niimrz~ in Assyrian. Nzcmru in tho A d o . I. iii. hence tho glose Irra.”2 Later legends had much to say about this ancient hero-god. his throne mas placed in Hades.” or ‘‘ hero. too. as if it had been Ne(r)-uru-gal. iv. awaiting the entrance of the dead kings of the earth. lines 27. 30. 2 W. 34. A. where he sat crowned. 32. Soc. nzcm-mir.” A punning etymology connected his name with “the great city” (uru-gal).!I!€IE GODS OF BABYLONIA.” and less accurddy nanz~u. Hence his title of the strong one. Ner is rendered namru in K 4245. a word which the Semitic scribes render by gasru. it must have been. Nerra was pronounced Ngirra . A play seems to be intended on gir (ngir). 02 . to be familiarly known a8 Nergal-Nirwal in the dialect of Accad--L6 the great Ner. great. A. He was. 36. Like the city over which he ruled.” as well as of “the desert” on See the dynastic fragment published by George Smith i r the Truns. The original name of the god of Gudua was Nerra or Ner. 37.l it is probable that many of their subjects preferred a sepulchre in the neighbourhood of Cutha. indeed.” He came. ‘I the lightning-flash. rendered by ser in W. was himself ‘‘great. 5. 4 ‘ the strong one. for it contained all the multitudes of men who had passed away from the earth. Bib. 105 in their own palaces. Rcu. 29. in fact.S e m i t i c of northern Babylonia was written in rebus fashion NUM-GIR.” the invincible god who overpowers the mightiest of mortal things. Arch. I . 13 (where “the god of the high voice” is said to be ner). The realm over which he ruled was “the great city” (uru-gal). 15.” But he was also “king of Cutha.

appears as ’Am in such Hebrew iianies as Jerobo-am and Rchobo-am. A. A. 67.” The metaphor was taken from the champion who. “ the Sun-god.” alula. ii. 3 W. A. I. 2. A. the god of (‘the falchion. the god ‘(who issues forth in might. Amini. whose borders Cutha stood and where its necropolis was probably situated . a demon. 70).” literally “ t h e strong animal.” the king who marches before Anu.” which probably has the same root as nlud.”l At Cutha he had been known in pre-Semitic days as Aria. he was known as Sar-rabu. I. “ a colossus.” ((the king Nerra.LECTURE 111. 54. one of the titles of Ea being En-gur. the god was also worshipped as “Nergal of the kl&Zhi. which. 58. Neubaucr has shown. places himself before his comrades and (( 1 W.” But the word Anu.” or L‘apparitions’’ (W. ii. 5. also seenis to have been read ’Snlim (see W. I. “ a n image. 342. Allam may be connected with alum. ‘L lord of the deep” (W.” who was afterwards identified with “ a stcer. 53). .” ala2 or ala. 61. the champion of the gods. It was as the death-dealing lord of Hades that Nergal first became “the hero of the gods. I. I n Phcenicia. iii. “lord of the p r . while the titlo “great king of the dcep” indicates a connection with Eridu. The title “king of heaven” mnst go back to days when the sky-god of Erech was a s yet unknown at Cutha.”3 and under this name he tended to become separate from Nergal. as Dr.” and amorig the Shuites on the vestern bank of the Euphrates as Emu. and (dim. like Goliath. and to be iregarded as. I. while other titles made him “king of heaven. 72.” and the mighty sovereign of the dccp. Emu is letter for letter the national god of the Ammonites. ii. As Ugur. we are told. ” which w70uld then have been confounded with sur. the god of the tomb. ‘‘ the deep” (in Sumerian). 2 Allam-ta-ea.”2 But his most frequent appellation is U-gur.” and his worshippers had called him Allamu and Almu.” “who marches in their front. L L the founder. I n later tiincs tho name may have been divided into U-gur. like the Sun-god Adar. ii. A. ‘‘ the great king. 73).

Her name survived as the local divinity of Cutha. strictly speaking. and as such the destroyer of the wicked. the throne-bearers went over mountain and plain.” a personification of the thunder-cloud and lightning. Marad is declared to be his city. he was made the son of Mul-lil. Even Nergal himself as the lord of Hades belongs rather to the Accadian than to the Semitic period. who cometh forth as the strong one.!l’HE GODS OF BABYLONIA.” or perhaps ‘‘valiant king. and he had become It was in this capacity also that he appears as Nerra. and Nebo and the Wind-god went in front . whose adventures forxncct the subject of a long poem. . 197 challenges the enemy to combat. Of Laz. when the flood of rain and destruction is described as coming upon the guilty world : “ Rimmon in the midst of (heaven) thundered. begins with the words : ‘‘ Let Nergal be glor%ed. Among the Semites he was the hero and champion of the gods.” I n the same hymn. but it is evident from the hymn that he had been identified with the death-dealing god of Cutha. we know little or nothing. Lugal-ttida. the hero of the gods. rather than the king of death who slays alike the wicked and the good. Adar goes in front and casteth ~ O W I L ” ~ As lord of Hades. the colophon of which tells us that it was composed in Cutha. the son of Mul-lil. Kergal the mighty removes the wicked. . “the royal offspring. was. however. A hymn ( I (52681. the wife of Nergal. too. but her office and attributes were taken by Allat. from which we may infer that Marad vas near Cutha. the plagucdemon (misread Lubara by George Smith). The sovereignty of Hades had passed out of his hands. Its protecting divinity. I t is thus that we read in the story of the Deluge.

therefore. One of the earliest titles of the Babylonian kings was ‘‘ shepherd. which embalmed the beliefs and ideas of a half-forgotten age. were looked upon as the sheep whom their ruler shepherded.” and in the Epic of Gisdhubar the sovereign city of Erech is termed the dzdur. In the hymns and other poetical effusions. a curious reininisccncc of his primitive character lasted down to late times. Oh. whom he fed and slaughtered in sacrifice to the g0ds.198 LECTURE 111.” I have already dramn attention to the agricultural nature of early Chaldaxn civilisation. we not unfrequently come across the phrase. the reptiles (nam?nasse”) [whom] thy [governance] has overlooked’’ (K 2836. or “shepherd’s hut. in fact. mniiliind are called “the people of the black heads. however. the cattle of the god Ner.l But apart from phrases of this kind. but the human inhabitants of the earth were themselves likened to the cattle they pastured and fed.” reminding us of the Homeric r r o ~ p j vXaGv. and the influence that agriculture had upon the modes of thought and expression of the population. the living assembly (pukhar nupisti). Nergal of Cutha was a decaying godhead. mankind. 1113). Eis power waned with (( * So in a fragmentary hymn composed by order of Assur-bani-pal on the occasion of an eclipse of the moon.” Just as the subjects of the king. the companion of the solar Adar and the warrior of tbe goas of heaven. and the heavenly bodies transformed into the herds and flocks that fed there. Not only was the sky regarded as the counterpart of the Babylonian plain. Under his old name of Ner. the cattle (pul) of the god Ner. . so too mankind in general were regarded as the cattle slain by the god of death. “shepherd of nations. his herd. They were.

The fist. which devoured tlie living. 1 . 4‘ a baleful wind. 14. was the sword (or lightning) of rain .” But their power caused them to be dreaded. had been the creation of Anu.62). for they came forth from the sky. A. ( ( a violent tempest which (blows) against god and king. and he saw in the storm and tempest. He beheld in them spirits of good and evil. They. 21.ii.” the second.” They were the demons “who had been created in the lower part of heaven. XIII. ‘(a vampire . too. in the freezing blasts of winter and the hot wind that blew from the burning desert. . 199 the rise and growth of Semitic influence in Babylonia. 22. but corresponded rather to one of tho creatures iucntioned in Is. the god (( Uwntgdh. 19. we are told. H e thus formed a strong contrast to the god of the air and wind. It was remembered that they were not essentially evil. the sixth.” and the seventh. We read of them that ere the great combat began. The primitive inhabitant of Babylonia paid a special worship t o the winds. “ a serpent.” and who warred against the Moon-god when he suffered eclipse. whose cult belongs essentially to the Semitic period.” In the war of the gods against the dragon af chaos. ’ I the third. They were likeneq to all that was most noxious to man.THE GODS OF BABYLONIA.” It denoted a fabulous beast which “ devourad the corpseg of the dead” (W. and they were venerated accordingly. expressed by ideographs that signify ‘‘the solitary monster. He prayed for the good wind” which cooled tlie heats of L4ummer and brought moisture to the parched earth. “ a leopard. and was therefore not exactly a vampire. they had been the allies of Merodach. xxxiv.” the fourth. ‘‘the seven e l 4 spirits. (‘a watch-dog” (?). and all seven were ‘(the messengers of Anu their king.” the flfth.

” were stili worshipped in Assyria (W. iii. the seven winds.” Down to the closing days of the Assyrian empire. ((the gods of Xipur. and her heart was sickened and her mouth distorted.2 and abub i n Semitic.” the memory of that terrible event rose again in the Baby1 The word means literally “ the cord of a snare. called i n a h in Accadian. 26).200 LECTURE III. is mentioned as a separate divinity in the story of the Deluge. the four winds. Rev. . It was the tempest which had been once sent by Bel to drown guilty mankind in the waters of a deluge. “created the evil wind. since in the name of the god who afterwards came to correspond t o the Semitic Ramman. But we know from another character which ha3 the same value that the Ram8 word could assumc in different dialects or periods of Accadian the varying forms of mal.” but the sculptures show that a boomerang is meant. the first syllable is represented by the character which usually has the value of mar. with its ‘(curse of rain. but (the god) made the evil wind descend so that she could not close her lips. I t is prw bably a contraction of Martu. This was the tempest. the whirlwind.” Zimmern there. the four winds. ‘(the evil wind that seizes behind shoved its face. As each year brought with it the month of Sebat or January. Among the winds there was one whose name awakened feelings of dread in the mind of every Babylonian. 66. fore thinks of “net. 2 The word is written with the determinative of water A. and whose return as the minister of divine vengeance was therefore ever feared. the hostile wind.A. the Wind-god. the unceasing wind. and Sam. the tempest.’¶ When Merodach had slung forth his boomerang1 and hit the dragon. mar a i d md. And Tiamat (the dragon of the sea) opened her mouth to swallow it.I. the storm. with the force of the winds Be filled her stomach.

2 Mltu. (‘the lord of the mountain” (mub naursamma-lil). Mltu was a god whose favour had to be conciliated.”l Like the clouds. t V. “ the lady of the mountain. but it is also possible that the gods Mlh were primarily adored in Eridu. and whose name accordingly appears on numbers of early cylinders. 41. It is at least noticeable that the immortal home of the translated Xisuthros was beyond the mouth of the Euphrates. 56.” Dav-kina. iv. Nebo and Nana-in short. was the original city of the Chaldsean Noah. .THE GODS OF BABYLONIA. I n a penitential psalm. they were children of the sea. I. It is possible that this genealogy was due to the systematising labours of a later day. If Eridu were the birth-place of M$tu. 21. A. ‘‘ the sovereign of heaven and earth and sovereign of Eridu. A. Merodach. 201 Ionian mind. and mere thus included in the family of Ea. and that Eridu.” is mentioned on the monuments of Tel-loh. Zarpanit. who were therefore spoken of as (‘the gods Nltu. it was not forgotten that he was but one of several storm-gods. near which Eridu was built. whose wife. L ii. and not Surippak. it would explain why the god of the tempest was also the god of the western wind. But though Natu was thus specially identified with the great tempest which formed an era in Babylonian history. a westerly breeze could still come t o Eridu across the water. along I _ _ 1 W. when the northern portion of the Persian Gulf had not as yet been filled up with miles of alluvial deposit. But in those remote days. 42. Ea. 2. Elsewhere in Babylonia. is invoked along with his consort Gubarra. the western mind blew from across the desert and brought heat with it rather than rain.

we have seen. His Accadian name was Meri. more especially the atmosphere when lighted up by the rays of the sun. “the thunderer. with the gods of Eridu and the kindred deities of Babylon.” The Hebrem Masoretes started yet another false etymology.202 LECTURE I I I . which the Semites. L c the very glorious. “the hinder country.” His worship was carried by Aramt-ean tribes across the desert t o Syria and Damascus. This other deity was the god of the town of Muru. But whether or not Eridu were really the first home of the cult of a god (or gods) MBtu. rendered by Akharru. however. and it is the cradle and starting-point of the name which we are now seeking tc discover.” His Accadian name was literally translated into Semitic BS Ramlnu. that more than one Matu was worshipped in primitive days. Titnim.” He represented what the Semitic Babylonians termed the samru.” which later generations connected witha root signifying “to thunder. or ‘‘ shining firmament. the old Accadian name of the land of Canaan. it was with the west that he came to be chiefly identified. a change had taken place in the character of M$tu himself. He had ceased t o be Accadian and had been transformed into a Semitic god. became the Land of Mhtu.” known also as Mer-mer. who represented the air. who faced the rising sun in their prayers. but of the eastern mountains of Elam. absorbing into himself at the same time the name and attributes of another deity. But before this happened. They identified the word with rinzmon. ‘ ‘ a . It is true that the Mltu of this psalm is not the Mltu of the west.” and so wrote Rammanu (for Ramimann). ‘(the exalted one. “the exalted” or “glorious.

is the form which I shall employ in these Lectures. . the allpowerful Baal of the northern Syrian tribes. and Hadad-Rimmon is but a compound form which expresses the identity of Rimmon and Hadad. which represents the Samas (Sawas)-Ramman of tha monuments. As.1 Now Rimmon. Thus we read t>f a North-Arabian prince called Bir-Ditda. and the BenHadad of Scripture appears as Dadi-idri. in which mention is made of a Syriah’ named Bin-Addu-natanu or Ben-Hadad-nathan.” and punctuated it accordingly in tho passages in which it occurs in the Old Testament. Rimmon. pp. and not Raman or Ramman. as variant copies of the texts inform us. He was there identified with the Sun-god Hadad. 203 pomegranate. the Biblical 1 The name of Ramman is preserved in the Sbsrmos of K@sias. Guide to the Nfmroud Central galoon. i n spite of its ctymological incorrectness. but pronouneed.B sufficient indication of the way in which the god’s name was pro. 9 3 . nounced in Assyris. “ the son of Hadad has given. 11.THE GOD8 OF BABYLONIA. it is best to adhere to the Hebraised form of the god’s name. as we learn from the books of Kings. Not only has Mr. Pinches%brought to light a series of four documents belonging to the beginning of the reign of Nabonidos. The same fact is made known to us by the Assyrian inscriptions. as Dadda or Dadi. however. As far south as the plain of Jezreel. thercfore. according to Zechariah xii. while Ramman is of strange sound. 92. the worship of Hadad-Rimmon was celebrated. the form Rimmon has thus become familiar to English ears.” we find also the names of Aramsean ohieftains written with the ideographs which denote the Assyrian Rimmon. was the supreme god of thc Syrians of Damascus.

That Hadad vas adored even in Edom is shown by the names of the Edomite kings. which stands for Ben-Dad.” the feminine correlative of which is found in the familiar Dido. while Dadi was a ruler of Khubuskia. The name made its way to the non-Semitic tribes of the Taurus. He will thus have shared the fate of his son and successor. and Hadad the adversary of Solomon. by the piety of later ages. Like Hadad of Edom. the foundress of the city. Dido was the goddess of Carthage. Jerusalem. whose true name Jedidiah was changed into Solomon-the name of the old Semitic (‘god of peace7’-when David sat at rest within the walls of his nev capital. the city of (‘peace. to the south-west of Armenia. if so. we meet with the same shortened form of the name as that which we find in the Assyrian inscriptions. in the records of Shalmanesor 1 1 . that it was confused with another title of the Sun-god in Canaan. “ the beloved one.. Hadad the son of Bedad. It is possible. David of Israel will thus have borne a name which the people about him applied to their sovereign god. not unnaturally confounded.201 ’ LECTURE I I I . David will have been a popular titlc derived from a popular appellation of the Deity. It may be that those scholars are right who believe that the real name of the sweet psalmist of Israel was El-hanan or Baal-hanan. and Dalilu was a Kaskian or Kolkhian king iu the time of Tiglath-Pileser 1 1 1 .” and had rest from his enemies on every sidc. In Bedad. A Komagenian sovereign bears the name of Kigiri-Dada. p. Hadad-ezer. which appears also under the abbreviated form of GiriDadi. 57. therefore. Dad or David. .l f -~ - See above. with Elissa. the exact equivalent of Ben-Hadad.

and yet more in Semitic Assyria. By degrees. however. Ramman is one of the least local of Babylonian gods. was sometimes addressed as Barqu or Barak. 205 Hadad. He continued t o grow at their expense. and while the beneficent side of their operation attached itself to Ramman.THE GODS OF BABYLOXIh. He began as the amalgamation of two distinct deities. Addu or Dadda. his aid was constantly invoked. H e grew continuously in popular favour. The spirits of the winds and storms sank lower and lower. In Semitic Babylonia. The divino powers he worshipped had once been alike the creators of good and the creators of evil .h. and remained foreign to the last. and the extension of his cult was marked by the absorption into his person of the various deities of the winds adored by the older fait. while the instruments of their vengeance and the inflictors of suffering and misery .” and it is possible that antiquarian zeal may have also sometimes imposed on him the Accadian title of Meru. there remained to them only that side which mas harmful and demoniac. like Anu. and. Ramlnu. the two aspects of their character came to be separated. This was due in great measure to the nature of his origin. The higher gods came to be looked upon as the hearers . like the powers of nature which they represented. The evolution illustrates the way in which the Babylonian sought to solve the mystery of evil. Bel and Ea.of prayer and the bestowers of all good gifts. never superseded the native name of Ramhnu (Ramman) in Babylonia and Assyria. they had been at once beneficent and malevolent. ‘(the lightning. the wind-god and the air-god. he tended as time went on to become more and more national in character.

206 LECTURE 111. which probably emanated from Eridu and applied originally to the “ M&tu gods :” . did not wholly pass away. in themselves neither good nor evil. and either driven. Merodach summons thc wind” itself to his assistance. while at the same time the ideas of pain and injustice were dissociated from him. €or instance. which derived both good and evil from the same source. But the old conception. or reduced to the condition of ministers of divine wrath. The supreme Baal thus preserved his omnipotence. smites the people of Babylonia on account of their sins by the command of the gods. If we would realise how widely removed is this conception of them as the instruments of divine anger from that earlier view in which they are mere elemental powers. we cannot do better than compare these legendary compositions of the Semitic period with the old Accadian hymns that relate to the seven. like the angel with the drawn sword whom David saw standing over Jerusalem at the thrcshing-floor of Araunah. Let us listen to one.harmfu1 spirits. the god of plague and destruction. beyond the bounds of the created world. they are nevertheless called L L the messengers of Anu their king. upon man were the inferior spirits of the lower sphere. like Tiamat. In his combat with the dragon of chaos. and in the legend of the assault of the seven wicked spirits upon the Moon. The powers of darkness are degraded from their ancient position of independence. it was rather the necessary complement and minister of good.” Nerra. Evil never came to be regmded as the antagonist of good. and in the story of the Deluge it is because of the wickedness of mankind that the flood is brought upon the earth.

In the hollow of the deep i n a palace grew they up ! (In the original. The seven are gods of the wide-spread heaven. Wife they possess not. From tha horse of the mountain came they forth. who marches in front are they ! 4. 1. Evil are they. 3069) 88 follows : 1. (In) the glory of heaven. the travelled ones (1) are they 1 7. seven are they ! 4. The seven are gods of the (four) Goned.THE GOD9 OF BABYLONIA. seven are they ! 3 . iv. a later portion of it being quoted further on (2. Seven evil gods are they ! 13. 8. The hymn is interrupted by a magical text. 26.” ‘Tv. 2u7 3 “They a r F u the destructipe reptiles. Seven are they. “from the hollow . mven am they. The throne-bearers of the gods are €hey. do they appear ! 3. 9. as an evil wind. in earth are they seven !”s Another poet of Eridu. female they are not ! 6. 11. .I. Seven evil denions are they ! 14. child is unborn to them. came they forth”). evil are they ! 15. They are the dust-storm. 10. A. as an evil reptile.’ 12. in a hymn to the Fire-god. seven are they ! 3. They hearken not to prayer and supplication. as an evil wind. speaks of the seven spirits in similar language : 1 The Semitic translator misrenders : “gods of the hosts (of the firmament). monstrous sons are they I 5. . seven doubly said are they!” . Seven evil consuming spirits are they 15. Children monstrous (gitmaEuttc). Male they are not. 5. Xessengers of the pest-demon are they ! 6. 13 To trouble the canal in the street are they s e t 34. ‘‘Seven are they. v. The seven are gods of the wide-spread earth. as an evil reptile. ii. 65-iii. 12. 11. . The sevcn are gods seven in number. The whirlwind (mdtu) which is poured upon the land are they ! 8. I n heaven are they seven. Throne-bearers oE the goddess of Hades are they ! 7. 10. I n the hollow of the deep. Of Ea are they the foes. 9.. even the winds that create evil ! 2. Order and kindliness know they not.

was. how grew they up ? Those seven i n the mountain of the sunset were born .” the Anbna-ge or ‘‘ spirits of the lower world. “how were those seven bogotter.” therefore. and though the word which I have rendered (‘evil. In their gradual development into the Semite Rimmon.” after the example of the Semitic translators. . GaTlu was a loan-word from the Sumerian @la. 12.” Throughout they are regarded as elemental powers. those seven in the mountain of the suiirisc grew up. compiled for Sargon of Accad. MBtu. “the sky. I n the 22nd book of the great work on Astronomy.208 LECTURE 1 1 1 . like his kindred wind-gods of Eridn.” was naturally associated with the sky. ‘‘ 0 god of Fire. Rimmon. who united in himsclf 3IBtu and Meri and other local gods of wind and weather as well. they are termed i( the seven great spirits” or gaZZi. they are already the products of night and darkness . It is possible that there was another cause working 1 W. the offspring of Ea. their birth-place is the mountain behind which the sun sinks into the gloomy lower world. ‘(the shining firmament. A. means rather ‘(injurious” than ‘(evil” in our sense of the word. But the home of the wind is rather the sky than the decp. But it will be noticed that they already belong t o the harmful side of nature. was made his son. iii. as we have seen. became the Semitic Anu. When Ana. the spirits of the air undcrwent a change of parentage.” of the cult of Nipur.” he asks. 62. azullu in Accadian. I . m d their true character as destructive winds and tempests is but thinly veiled by a cloak of poetic imagery. and Meri.l and it is therefore possible that they had already been identified with the “seven gods of destiny.

”3 The elements. I. A.” in W. A. A. who bound its several parts together. ii.TBE CfODS OF BABYLONIA. I. 30. and to pour his refreshing streams into a thirsty land. P . I. out of which Rimmon could have been tramformed into a solar deity. the binder of law. among the Babylonians and Assyrians. I. of storm and rain. he is the inundator who is called upon to cover the fields of the i$pious and unjust with water. . In Syria. nothing more is meant than that the god Mermer had come to represent the storm. 60. W. (Ithe most glorious?-' was a title of the meridian Sun. ii. Rimmon. as well as among the Arameans. 209 towards the same result. accordingly. that R i m o n was the god who had gone under the Accadiaii appellation of Utu-edina-griba. moreover. 46. Rimmoii was identified with Hadad the Sun-god. His wife werit by the Accadiaii W.” is also identified with “the god Mermer” in W. 37. he could easily pass into a solar divinity. 11. 35. When merrner is explained by rnekh2. but this was in refer. As Meri (or Illem). 49. more especially as the re-duplicated Mer-mer. ‘‘the everglowing sun of the desert. 48. “storm. is the god of winds and cloud. therefore. A. and there are indications that in parts of Babylonia also he had at one time a solar character.l while it was also the name of Rimmon himself as adored in one of the smaller towns of Chaldaea.2 We are told. enee tQNebo’s original character as the god of the visible universe. existed among the Babylonians. v. ii. ‘‘ Nebo. 76. It is 311 illustration of the caution needed i n dsaling with tho statements of the s w a l l e d lexical lists. who was identified in later days with Adar of Nipur. of thunder and lightning. 57. W. it was only the stronger nonSemitic influence which caused them to be displaced by the associations and conceptions that confined his sphere to the air. I ii. A.

12). Sala is stated to be “ t h e wife of Mul-lil in the ghost-world.”2 to whom Gudea had built a temple at Tel-loh. she was more strictly the consort of the Sun-god of Eridu. and a mythological tablet speaks accordingly of a Sa13 of the mountains. and not t o Sala. I As her husband had been identified with (‘the lord of the mountain. It is thus that she is called the wife of Duzu or Taminuz (ii. and couficqnently her connection with llsinnian must have been the result of his amalgamation with Mer or hlermer. 67. must once have been one and the same divinity. ‘ I heart. The name seems to be interpreted “the goddess of reptiles” (naZYi and nains~). 67.”3 It is t o Zarpmit. 33. A.” so she too was identified with ((the lady of the mountain. A.210 LECTURE 111. iv. 41. A. the word is apparently written phonetically. I. the ideographic mode of writing gum. more especially those of the north. if so. the character DIL has the meaning of “place. “ merciful.” which i t has in Amardian or ‘‘ Protomedic. The name of the goddess might then be explained as ‘I woman. (( ‘‘ (( * The Accadim equivalent of Timind. “extending” (W. giving the idea of “long-suffering. again. name of Snla. 57. i i 57. therefore. She was. 9. the temple of the lady of the mountain. ‘’ filling. were I‘ the land of gold” 2 W. as suplil-da. for the exalted goddess. iv. A .” sala having this meaning in Aceadian. I. that Nebuchadnezzar refers. the wife of Merodach. 19. ‘( a throne”). when he tell9 us how he built in Babylon the House Supreme.” and dud or du. the merciful” ( ? ) . &c. A. 33 (where. 57. the wife of Merodach.” la1 or la. I n W. the mother who had borne” him. as well as I‘ the lady of the place of gold. 34. Sala and Zarpanit.).” But this seems to refer only to hlul-lil as the Scniitic Bel. 8 In W.” is written with the ideographs sag or sa. originally the goddess of the Sun. a Sun-god who rules amorig the shades below. in fact.” howevcr. by the way. A. But the finid character is probably a determinative only. I. As “lady of the mountain.” i n which case we should read sala instead of saladu. 27.I.” and in GIB-DIL-TE. 34) like (ii. ii. I l i e mountains.” in W. I. W G must read saglal instead of sala. iii.

The Sun-god Savitnr is called “ t h e goldenhanded” in the Veda.A. where she is named. “the lord of the mountain. the goddess lof Erech. GubAra.No. W. a term explained in later Sanskrit literature by the statement that the hand of the god had been cut nt a sacrifice and 1 5 ~ I P2 .” and associated s with Nbtu (Mato).”’ A &he other deities invoked along with her are Ea and Dav-kina. as “the ever-glowing sun o f the desert-land. Neb0 and Tasmit. who became identified on the one side with the “lady of the mountain.2. ii.I. while the whole psalm is dedicated to Nana. Merodach and Zarpanit. A. but the evening and morning star. 21I Sala was.21. see in the primitive Sala the female consort of the Sun-god of Eridu-the original.” It is under this title that she is addressed in a penitential psalm. 57. over whose heights Venus aroso and set. as the goddess of the copper h a d 2 Other mythologies have stories of W. We may. the ‘‘ bright firmament” of the starry sky. 35.” and on the d h e r with the wife of Meri. and makes it probable that she was not tho moon-which does not seem to have been regarded as a goddess in any part of Babylonia-nor the dawn. it is clear that the psalm is the composition of a worshipper of Nma and native of Erech. Her name. therefore. but Gulhra. of $he Babylonian Zarpanit. furthermore. the “lady (or exalted lady) of the desert”-a title which brings to one’s recollection the similar title of Rimmon. I. i n fact. or. whose gods were the gods of Eridu and those mho claimed kindred with them. ‘‘ the fire-flame.iv. or as the mistress o f wisdom and hidden treasure. again. points to her solar connection. This will explain why it is that she was known as the goddess of the mountains.THE GODS OF BABYLONIA. not Sala.

The adoption of Accadinn forms of worship by the Semites m‘as accompanied by a process of generalisation and systematisation. A. 1 UT. The Sun-god assumed a new and impor~ replaced by a golden one.l and we know that Tammuz.2 was the spouse of &tar. I. A. and it is in the light of such stories that the epithet must be explained. ii. 56. then. 34. their worship gradually extcndcd itself chicfly through the influence of the cities that worshipped thcm. and absorbed at the same time the local cults that came in their may. of those mho in the struggle for existence outdistanced their compeers. and was transformed accordingly. 31. the evening star. We are expressly told that Sala of the copper hand m7as the wife of Tammuz. The Teutonic Tyr is similarly one-handed. W e have almost completed now our survey of the principal deities of Babylonia. ii. and in thc official inscriptions of Assyria and later Babylonia appear at the head of the divine hierarchy. W. Purely local in their origin. The religion of Accad was adapted to the religious ideas of the Semites. the Babylonian Tammuz.312 LECTURE 1 1 1 . 1. 57. as the untimely death of his double. a solar hero whose hand has been cut off and replaced by one of gold and bronze. whose untimely death was mourned in the plain of Jezreel. that hcr later husband Rimrnon should have become the Sun-god of the Syrians. the son of the River-god Ea. What wonder. the beautiful Sun-god of Eridu. and the Keltic Nuad with the silver hand offers a close parallel to the Chaldzan goddess with the copper hand. . was mourned by the womcn of Phomicia and Jerusalem ? I must reserve the story of Tammuz and Istar f o r another Lecture. The Baalim of the Semite took the place of the dingiyene or (‘creators” of the Accadian.

of Semitic conquerors filling their courts with Aceadian scribes and patronising the study of Accadian literature. which . The Semitic invaders of Egypt soon submitted to the spell of the higher culture in the midst of which they found themselves.THE GODS OF BABYLONIA. Whercver the Semite vas wholly triumphant. trading and intermarrying. wherever he succeeded in founding an empire. Wherever the older population maintained its ground. where Accadian and Semitic influences seem to have long struggled for the mastery. But the process of transformation was long. They borrowed the titles of the Pharaohs . and it ineeded many centuries before it was complete. the old sky-god remained indeed in name. still continued to hold their own. they patronised tho learning of their Egyptian subjects . but was changed into a Semitic Baal. the older deities. they yet identified him with the Egyptian Set and adopted the divinities of the Egyptian pantheon. fighting. offers a close parallel t o the court of a Sargon of Accad. The learned court of an Apepi Ea-aa-user. and of Accadian dynasties rising at times in Semitic states. leavened and transformed though they may havc been by Semitic thought. as a t Sippara and Babylon. which produced one of the two treatises on Egyptian geometry that havc survived to us. as at Nipur or Eridu. the Sun-god acquired undisputed sway. W e have glimpses out of the distant past of a time whec thc two populations lived side by side in peace or var. and while assertins the supremacy of their own Baal Sutekh. Babylonia in those days must have afforded a close parallel to Egypt during the centuries of Hyksos dominion. 213 tant place. I n places like Erech.

The Semite had come into ChaldEa not only as a marrior. in driving the Semitic stranger from the northern land hc had made his own. In Genesis we see h’imrod. a i t h whom the history of the city of Babylon begins. witnessed the compilation of the standard Babylonian works on astrology and terrestrial omens. the primal home of Chaldt. With the help of Nubian allies. Nay.” a sign that the Moon-god of Ur was even .ean culture. but as a tradcr as well. and the monarchs of Babylonia assumed the imperial title of“ kings of Accad and Sumcr. But all this happened long before the age of Khammuragas. already in the remote age of Sargon of Accsd there are indications that the process of assimilation and absorption had long been at work. after five hundred years of submission.1bylonia of Nabonidos. He had planted himself to@ firmly in the cities of the north to be ever expelled. The older gopulation of southern Babylonia was never so fortunate. “the beloved of the Moon-god. The religious system of the country is already fully formed.214 LECTURE I n . And a time came when Calneh ceased to be the only state of Sumer which acknowledgcd the supremacy of the foreigner. The Babylonia of Khammuragas differs but little from the B. not only in Babel and Erech and Accacl. the sacred city of an immemorial past. the representative of Semitic domination. establishing his kingdom. niore. The son and successor of Sargon mas Naram-Sin. became Semitic. But there was one important difference between Egypt and Babylonia. Eridu itself. but also in Calneh or Kulunu in Shinar (Sumer) of the south. the Egyptians of the south succccded.

and the nonSemitic element in the population. At the head of the pantheon stood the trinity of Anu. it must have been among the priestly Ziterati of Sargon that the union of Accadian and Semitic religious belief took definite shape. The gods became a family. resuscitated in after times in the Gnostio doctrine of emanations. I n fact. the tendency of Semitic religious thought would have been to resolve the gods of the popular faith into one supreme Baal. that they all belong t o that later period when northern and southern Babylonia had long forme2 an united monarchy. and their tcmples palaces in which attendant spirits ministered to their wants. which obtained most favour. It is more probable. Bel of Nipur and Ea. may go back to this early date. But the cities of Babylonia had too venerable a history to allow their local deities to be thus confounded and lost. The order in which they mere ranked indicates the relative periods at which the three gods and the cities which originally worshipped them became the property of the Semitic race. however. brought with it the displacement of . placed a check upon it. hovever. though less and less represented in official documents. The rise of Babylon.THE GODS OF BABYLOXIA. This tendency actually found expression in certain cases. It was the genealogical theory. It marked the union of the Accadian and Semitic elements in the population under Semitic rule. Unchecked. by the side of whom was throned his colourless double or wife. 215 i~owin favour in the court of Accad. I t is possible that some of the mythological tablets in which an attempt is made to liarmonise the deities of the various local cults and t o bring them into genealogical order.

Besides the numberless minor deities of the towns and villages. W. finally. 19. 18. A. ii.. the older Bcl of Nipur.2 When we remember how thc background of this vast pantheon was filled with the obscure deities and spirits of the ancient Accadian cult.” and ‘(the giver of water for (purifying) the halld. or Lagamar of Susa. while the air above was occupicd by the (‘300 spirits of heaven. i i 56. mas deified under the name of “ What does my lord eat ?” and the spirit of k-Sagil was known as ‘LWhntdoes my lord drink?”l while the divine porters of thc temple were termed respectively the binder of the waters of the god of the sea. A. whose names survived in magical charms and exorcisms. As if this goodly host were not enough.” and though we may doubt whether the Assyrian king was not indulging in a little royal exaggeration. causing endless confusion to the Babylonian mythologists. . it is certain that the task of enumerating them all would have exhausted the most indefatigable of priestly scribcs. He was forced to yield to his younger rival Bel Merodach. there were the divine titles out of which new gods had been evolved .000 great gods of hearen and earth. the temple of Merodach at Babylon. f o r instance. Around the three chief gods were grouped the multitudinous deities which Accadian superstition or Semitic piety had invented and dreamed of. E-Sagil. I. 16. 17. phrases from the ritual of tho temples were elcvated to the rank of gods. 56. foreign gods like Kittum and Sumaliya of the Kossaeans. divinities which owed their csisteiice t o the linguistic or literary errors of the Semites . Assur-natsir-pal declares that there were ( I 65.” and the earth A 1 W.. I . and.216 LECTURE III.

As long. with two exceptions it is only to deities like Sin and Samas. that he erected shrines. “The lady of the house of heaven” and ‘‘ the divine son of the house” are the only divinities whom he mentions that bear unaccustomed names. and they are doubtless merely titles of Beltis and Adar or Nergal. when the Assyrian kings made a triumphal march through Babylonia. ‘ 6 To the god that is known and that is unknown. Rimmon and Gula. It would bo useless to waste our time over deities who never obtained a prominent place in the official hierarchy of the gods. It is only from local documents like contracts and boundary-stones that we can expect to learn anything about such deities as Supu of D&r. as these multitudinous deities were believed to exist. Hence come such expressions as those which meet us in the Penitential Psalms. of Subulu. ‘ L the lord of ~ O S ~ S . and me hear of Latarak the son of Anu.” we begin to realisc the force of the expression which made the supreme gods rulers of the legions” of earth and sky. and what we learn will seldom throw much light on Babylonian religion as a whole. to the goddess . and Tug of Kiu with the dragon’s face. When Nebuchadnezzar gathered the gods of Babylonia into his capital in token that the god of Babylon was henceforth lord of all the ChaldEan gods. they sacrificed to the gods of the cities through which they passed. Biz kissat.TIIE GODS OF BABTLOSIS. and of whom we know little beyond the names. 21. however. Nowand again.was ” a phrase full of significance to the believing Babylonian. so long was it also believed that they could injure or assist. or of Utsur-amat-fia. but they probably knew as little about them as we do. below by (‘the 600 spirits of earth.

and betook themselves to the temple (haikal) of the Sun.” since homage paid to the master mas paid t o the subjects as well. The image of the sun stood. too. then those of Jupiter. next those of Mars.” The details are probably borrowed from the great temple of pre-Mohammedan Mecca. Hence. “The images (of the gods). after them the images of Mercury.’’ Hence.218 LECTUILIC 111. sets before us a curious picture of the temple of Tammuz in Babylon. they say. next of Venus. like the Capitol at Rome. and counterparts on the earth of ‘(the assembly of the gods” in heaven.” it tells us. That curious product of Mandaite imagination. Thereupon the image of the sun began to bewail Tammuz and the idols to wccp. Then the idols flew away. finally. do I lift my prayer. the care with which the supreme Baal was invoked as ‘‘ lord of the hosts of heaven and earth. that is known and that is unknown. to the great golden image that is suspended between heaven and earth in particular. the ( L Book of Nabathean Agriculture. but they correspond very faithfully with what we now know thc interior of one of . returning ta their own countries. then those of the moon. and last of all. of Saturn. and the image of the sun uttered a lament over Tammuz and narrated his history. Nest t o it stood the images of the sun in all countries.” which was translated into Arabic by Ibn Wahshiya in the 10th century. “congregated from all parts of the world to the temple of el-Ask61 (6-Sagil) in Babylon. became gatlieringplaces for the inferior divinities. whilst the idols all wept from the setting of thc sun till its rising at the end of that night. in the midst of the temple. the fact that the temples of the higher gods. surrounded by all the images of the world.

and the statues of ministering deities stood slave-like in front.l and whose names were invoked by the visitor t o the shrine. would have continued to sharc with Merodach the highest honours of the official cult. 66. Among them are the names of foreign divinities. we cannot say. The democratic polytheism of an earlier day had become imperial. Bel was the counterpart of his vicegerent the Babylonian king. to whom the catholic spirit of Babylonian religion granted a place in tho national panthcon when once the conquest of the towns and countries over which they presided had proved their submission to the Babylonian and Assyrian gods . 7. was a fitting image of Babylonian religion. Fragments have been preserved to us of a tablet which enumerated the names of the minor deities whose images stood in the prir. the hierarchy of the gods still acknowledged more than one head. attending like servants upon the supreme god. the god of Ararat. . The spectacle of such a temple.T€IE GODS OF BABYLOBIA. I . with this difference. but they had become the jealously-defined officials of nn autocratic court. even Khaldis.Rev. How long Anu and Ea. A. while the shrines of his wife and offspring were grouped around him. and delivering his oracles from within the hidden chamber of that holy of holies. or Sarnns and Sin. with the statue or symbol of the supreme Baal rising majestically in the innermost cell. that whereas Babylonia had been fused into an united monarchy. iii.cipiil temples of Assyria. 219 tho chief temples of Babylonia and Assyria to have been like. 1 W. figures among those who dwelt in one of the chief temples of Assyria. ‘‘ The gods many and lords many” of an older creed still survived.

Merodach remained a supreme Baal-the cylinder inscription of Cyrus proves 80 much-but he never became the one supreme god.ul of an empire.the process of degradation had already begun d e Babylonia ceased to be an independent kingdom and Babylon the capit. ~ .

has survived to us only i n a Semitic form. in darkness they dwell. 5. to the keeper’ of the gate addresses the word : 14. yea. Istar herself. to the house from whose entrance there is no exit. they are clad like birds in a garment of feathers. slain by the cruel hand of night and Tinter. . Istar.LECTURE I T . 3. open thy gate? 15. Istar. to the house of darkness. 10. 9. 13. the young and beautiful Sun-god. to the house from whose visitors the light is excluded. though doubtless based on Accadian materials. It recounts the descent of the goddess Istar into Hades in search of the healing waters which should restore to life her bridegroom Tammuz. on arriving at the gate of Hades. 11. the seat of the god Irkalla. Over the door and the bolt the dust is scattered. the daughter of Sin. 6. the region of (darkness). 7. TaMllilCUZ AND ISTAR. the daughter of Sin. ‘Opener (keeper) of the waters. “To the land whence none return. The light they behold not. Anrowo the mythological poems bequeathed to us by ancient Babylonia is one which. Open thy gate that I may enter ! 1 Literally ‘(opener” (pie2 or muselzi). the place where dust is their bread (and) their food is mud. (inclined) her ear. 12. to the road from whose passage there is no return. PROMETHEUS AND TOTEMISM.’ 8. The poem is as follows : 1. inclined (her) ear 4 . 2.

27.” . keeper (nevertheless). 20. 30. above the living the dead shall exceed in number. the queen of Hades. let me weep for thc handmaids whom from the bosom of their htisbands (thou hast taken). ‘<lip. ‘Like a cut-off herb has (Istar) descended (into Hades). “cutting off . 1886) reads sabut. let the palace of Hades rejoice before thee. the water thy sister Istar (is come to seek). The keeper opened his mouth and speaks. for the little child let me weep whom thou hast taken ere his days are come.’ 25. I will sniite the door. he says to the princess Istar : 23.’ 21. 2 Literally. 38. let Cutha be glad (at thee). 19. T h a t matters to me her wish ‘ 32. ii. ii. 41.’ 28. the bolt I will shatter. 15.hat I may enter.” Jeremias (Die Hiillenful~rt der Istar. This is preferable to my old reading up$sj ‘‘hemitch. When Allat (heard) this (she opened her mouth and says :) 29. 8. Let me go and declare thy name to Nin-ki-gal.” but he ha5 misunderstood the reference of lines 29. 16. I will raise up the dead to devour the living. 0 lady. like the lip of a drooping reed‘ she has prayed for (the waters of life). ‘Stay. I will smite the threshold and pass through the portale. I. like’food would I eat. let me weep for the heroes who have left (their) wives. see W. 22. trying (bafpirlu)the mighty bars (she has threatened to break open the doors) (P). 29. A. thou must not break it down ! 2 4. (When she says :) this water with (my bridegroom) 33.222 LECTURE I Y . ’Enter. The keeper we&. 36. he opened for her (his) gate : 40. Instead of sopat. StripS her also according to the ancient rules. open for her (thy) gate j 38.’ See W.’ 39. ‘0 goddess. 30. The keeper descended and declares (her name to Nin-ki-gal [Allat]) : 26. 35. 37. I f thou openest not the gate t. I. 17. Go. 22. 0 lady. “What has her heart brought me? what has her liver (brought me) ? ” Cppidh. A. like beer would I drink : 34. Iwhat (matters to me) her anger!$ 31.

88. 223 42. b threw down the miglity crown of her head. hast thou thrown away the precioue stones of my neck(1ace) 0’ bo. 0 lady. ‘Enter. The fifth gate he made her enter and closed.’ 60. time. The seventh gate he made her enter and closed.’ 57. he throw away the bracelets of her hands and her feet. 0 lady. ‘Enter. ‘Wherefore. liast thou thrown away the cincture of my body 1’ 62. away the earrings of her e 46. Oilady. ‘Enter. 0 keeper. hnst thou thrown away the bracelets of my hands and my feet 9’ 59. ‘Enter. The second gate he made her entor and he shut. 52. ‘Wherefore. 43. he threw away the cincture of her body. 49. ‘Wherefor?. After that Istar had descended into the land of Hade4 64. ‘Enter. The sixth gate he made her enter and closed. (for) thus are the Mden of Ailat. he threw away the precious stones of her neck(laoe). 55.” Mateil means ‘(to shut. 0 lady. Tho first gate he made her enter.” as Jeremias. 61. (tor) thus are the orders of Allat. ‘Wherefore. (for) thus are the orders of Allat. 1 Not “unclothe. 0 keeper. haet thou thrown down the mighty cmwn of my head 1’ 44.’ 48. ‘Wherefore.! 63. (for) tliiis are the orders of Allat. 0 keeper. 0 lady. (for) thus are the orders of Allat. 0 keeper. (for) thus are the orders of Allat. ‘ Enter.’ 45. hest thou throwri away the gemmed girdle of my waist 1’ 56. 0 keeper. hast thou thrown away the ornaments of my breast 1’ 63.TAiUXUZ AND ISTAR. he threw away the ornaments uf her breast. Why. (for) thus are the orders of Allab. The fourth gate he made her enter and closed.’ 54.’ 51. he threw away the gemnied girdle of her waist. Allat beheld her and wa5 haughty before her. The third gate he made her enter and he closed. and shut1 (it). 0 keeper.” ‘‘discon= . 0 keeper. ‘Wherefore. ‘Enter. he threw a r s . 0 lady. hast thou thrown away the earring6 of my ears?’ 47. 0 lady.

‘Istar descended to the earth and has not re-ascended. 73. “clothed in a dress of mourning. (the handmaid ceased to give her gift?). she besought her with oaths. her messenger. with the cow the bull will not unite.’ 90. Allat opened her mouth and says. the handmaid in the street will not approach the freeman.’ 82. the word she utters : 68.‘ 66. The Sun-god went . 85. 76. Pap-sukal. 71. (take Istar from) me. Istar took not counsel.* ’79. the presence G f Sin his father he (stood). the freeman has ceased to give his order.” hardly be the sense of the shaphel of bd.’ 75. 65. “she threw herself on her. 86. the ass will not approach the femitle. the disease of the feet into her (feet) . in the presence of Ea the king (his) tears flowed down : 84. Froin the time that Istar has descended to the land of Hades. “ t o come. it would be difficult to account for the omission of the words of Pap-sukal. if we read labis. sixty times (strike) Istar (with disease) : * 69. 77. with the cow the bull would not unite (tho ass would r. 72. the disease of the heart into (her heart) . and into (each limb strike 6 s ease). 70. 88. 4 S o Jeremias. Ea in the wisdom of his heart formed (a man) .” 3 Xaplis. the disease of the head strike (into her head) . to Namtar (the plague-demon). 83.” But in this case. 89. ‘There is woe below: (for all things) are full of destruction (nadi). the handmaid has ceased to give her (gift ‘I). the messenger of the niighty gods. . lead her out . with Jeremias. the disease of the side (into) her (side) .” 2 Perhaps better wilh Jeremias : “ slept while giving. 74. Namtar. and 69. could 1 Jeremias. the disease of the eyes (into) her (eyes). however.4 This. 67.224 LECTURE IV. we must translate. After that the lady Istar (into Hades had descended). ‘Go. into her. 80. the frcenian ceased (to give his order). bowed his face before (the Sun-god) : 81. 87. even the whole of her.ot approach the female). the handmaid (in the street would not approach the freeman).

A.Sukhul. A. from daklialu. when her heart is at rest and her liver is appeased. 99. 26. 2 . 94 . Xay the vessels of the daughters5 of the city be thy drink ! 105. I.May drought and fanline strike thine offspring !’ 108. According to George Smith.” but this would require the form Uddus-namari (or nameri). ‘‘ to reach. Le. May the darkness of tho dungeon be thy habitation 1 106. A. ii. Namtar. the home of the pure one. one of the Galli.I 92. ‘Go. When Allat heard this 100. ii. the waters in the midst let her drink. ‘‘a festival. 111. 22. Go. “ the man” or “creature of Istar” is called kalu. and in W. 9 . May tho threshold be thy seat ! ‘107. let the seven gates of Hades be opened before thee . ‘Thou hast asked of me a request none should request ! loa.) No. i. May the garbage of the sen-ers of the city be thy food ! 104. “Rising. I. bid the spirits of earth (Andnaki) come forth and seat them on a throne of gold .TAMMUZ AND ISTAR. A. Ccnjnre her also by the names of the great gods. Su7~l~uEu is a synonym of sadakhu. I. shatter the thresholds (which) bear up the stones of light . towards the gate of Hades set thy face . W. I. however. cause to ehine” (Shaphael imperative). A. to the resting-place2 of the stormy wind set thine ear . Dr. 20. he created Atsu-su-namir (‘ His rising is seon’). v. 27. 98. the aSSinnu appears as the eunuch-priest of Bel armed with a flute. 1 A$$innu explained as the female man” or “ creature in W. strike open the firmly-built palace. Turn thy heads . ‘‘ (Say.” since the tablet in which it appears seems to enumerate various classes of priests . Atsusu-namir may be also read Atsu-sunamir.” See W.” 3 Jeremias.11. 81. i ’ i 10. I n an unnumbered text given above (p. ‘ Go. “ renewal of light. the androgyne . and K 16 1.3 0 See.a the restingplace of the stormy wind. to Namtar her messenger the word she addresses : 110. I. 225 91. let Allat see thee and rejoice at thy presence. Atsu-sa-namir. 95. 36. 58. ii. Allat opened her mouth and says. she bit her thumb : 101. 112. 93. 32. 22. she struck her girdle. . for which see W. Oppert reads Uddusu-namir. Q . Zimmern is probably right in connecting the word with iciirm. note 2). let me injure thee with a great injury !* 103. Atsu-su-namir. 40. let them prepare (?). my lady. 109.

Clothe him with n purple robe.” 4 Nore literally. 124.” Jeremias reads ili7~i2. and gab& in K 4223.’ Gibu is not to be rend ideographically. she broke the jewels4 (which she had taken). 129. .LECTURE IV. 128. 227. 113. and restored to her the bracelets of her hands and her feet. I. Linahn. the word is explained by passuges in the legends of the shepherd ENNUN-KA-TI (IC 2546. The seventh gate he made her pass. p. he shattered the throsholds (which) bear up the stones of light. ‘ If she (i. 120. the verb ikrimu is used of the violent “carrying below” of a hero by “the handmaid of n Iilii” or demon.e. see W. 50. The fifth gate be made her pass. in W. IJcrim. the eye-stones also (which) were unbroken . the gcddess Tillili had heard of the deaths of her brother (Tammuz) . gihd in Strassmaiey. v. 114. (ann lcharran sarri halnhsu gab$ In iZlik).. and restored to her the mighty crown of her head. 62. 115.57). (anoint him) with precious oil. the text I have quoted above. 115. The first gate he passed her out of and restored to her the cincture of her body .. The second gate he macle her pass. 123. however. 1 l). 45.A. Let Samkhat (the goddess of joy) enter2 the liver . Obv.“ cry of woe. iii. and restored to her the gemmed girdle of her waist. notc 2. Tho sixth gate he made her pass. A. I. a ring(P)1 of crystal let him strike upon (the hand). 116. col. -~~ over Istar pour the maters of life and bring her before ma* Namtar went (and) smote the firmly-built palace. and restored to her the earrings of her e m . he bade the spirits of earth come forth. and of Atarpi (col. 122. 119. Allat) has not given thee that for which the ransom is paid her. 117. See. and restored t o her the ornaments of her breasts. The fourth gate he made her pass. v. ii. 127. and restored to her the jewels of her necklace. comp. over Istar he poured the waters of life and brought her along. Pour over him the pure waters. The third gate he made her pass. (Before this) the goddess Tillili had taken her jewels. on a throne of gold did he seat (them). “jewelled circlet” (sutarlum). 131. 126. 121. 125. 130. ‘( . 132. as is supposed by Jeremias (who has misunderstood lines 135-137) . p. 6. 47. 81. turn back to her again for Tammuz the bridegroom of (thy) youth.

TAMMUZ AND I8TAR. do not destroy me. we now know who was that Tarnmu in whose honour Ezekiel saw the women of Jerusalem weeping at the gate of the Lord’s house. bind (them) on the funeral pyre. ll). by the plain of Jezreel. In the day that Tammuz bound on me a ring (9) of crystal and B bracelet of turquoise. (crying) ‘0 my brother. Like Tammuz. it is clear that the Tammuz and Istar of the Babylonian legend are the Adbnis and Aphrodite of Greek mythology.’’ the cry with which the worshippers of the stricken Sun-god mourned his untimely descent into the lower world. The property of Assur-bani-pal. king of Assyria. king of multitudes. 227 133. but eveutually ransomed from Hades by the prayers of the goddess. the Kyprian goddess of love and war.he Phoenician Adbni. came to Hellas from Phcenicia. while hard by Amos heard the men of a Ezek. is slain by the boar’s tusk of winter.” The poem throws light upon certain passages both i n t. a2 . I t has long been recognised that AphroditC. 134.’ 135. “my lord. Adbnis. and in turn receives light from them. On the one hand. at that time he bound (thom) on me. the beloved one of AphroditC.”l On the other hand. and smell the sweet savour.he Old Testament and in classical authors. Let the wailing men and wailing women 137. even the eye-stones which mere full of tho face (of light P). each year witnessed ‘‘the mourning for Hadad-Rimmon” (Zech. xii. In the valley of Megiddo. viii.’ COLOPHON. 136. The cry was familiar throughout the land of Palestine. whether or not we agree with Dr. Adbnis is t. at that time he bound (them) on me. Hommel in seeing in her name a mere etymological perversion of the Phcenician Ashtoreth. the only one. 14.

Adonis. viii. however. Each year. and ah me. when . tlie Kahr Ibrahim of to-day. and ah me. she cries. Here. like the women of Judah and Phcmicia. eight miles to the north of Beyrfit. and brought from early days tlie invading armies of Babylonia and Assyria t o the coasts and cities of Canaan. which rolled through a rocky gorge into the sea. Israel mourning for ((the only son” (Am. Like the refrain quoted by Jeremiah. and find their counterpart in the closing lines of t’he old Babylonian poem I have translated above. my brother. ailinma I woc. Cry ailinon. When Tillili commences her mail over the dead Tammuz. Linos !” Linos.the rains and melting snows of spring stained its waters with the red marl of the mountains. xxii. above all.228 LECTURE IV. had no existence except in a popular etymology. his lady !” (Jer. the Grcelr ailinos is in reality the Phcenieian ai-Zdnu. the only one !” It was. the ancient military road led from eastern Asia to the shores of the Mediterranean. woe !” says the Greek poet of Athens. in the Phamician town of Gebal or Byblos t%at thc death of Ad8nis was conimemorated. lo). IS). The words mere carried across the western sea t o men of an alien race and language. Hard by was the river of Adonis. and the prophet of Judah gives the very words of the refrain: “ A h me. the words eventually go back to Babylonia. my sister ! Ah me. the people of Gebd (( I _- .l and alrcady in Homeric days2 the dirge was attributed to a mythic Linos whose magic fate was commcrnorated in its opening words : “ 0 Linos. (‘alas for us !” with which the lamentations for the death of the divine Ad6nis were wont to begin. (‘0 my brother.

pots filled with earth and cut herbs. was slain and withered by the hot blasts of the summer. the young. which soon withered away in the fierce heat of the summer sun-fitting emblems of the lost Adonis himself. that the funeralfestival of the god was held. too. Their cry of lamentation went up t o Heaven mingled with that of the Galli. the bright sun of the springtide.” as they were called. they disfigured the face. There were some who said that he shared half the year with the goddess of death. the beloved of Ashtoreth. so. I n later times. the streets and gates of the temples were filled with throngs of mailing women. For seven days it lasted. the beautiful. Meanwhile. indeed. As the Sun-god Osiris had been slain and had risen again from the dead. Gardens of Adonis.ThMlymZ BND ISTAB. Egyptian beliefs and customs made their way into Phcmicia along with Egyptian political influence. and the story of Adonis was identified with that of the Egyptian Osiris. It was then. How long. in token of the agony of their grief. and the other half only with the goddess of love. they cut the breast with sharp knives. the emasculated priests of Ashtoreth. in the month of Tammuz or June. the cult of Adonis at Gebal entered upon a new phase. were planted. had the Phcenician Adonis descended into Hades and been rescued again from its grasp. who shared with them their festival of woe over her murdered bridegroom. he had remained in the world below was a matter of doubt. 229 behdd in it the blood of the slaughtered Sun-god. They tore their hair. Adonis. after the revolt of Egypt from the Assyrian king and the rise of the 26th Dynasty. there were others who declared that his year was divided into three(( . was dead. like the verdure of nature which he had called into life.

the death of Adonis was followed by the announcement of his resurrection. Adonis and Osiris should be looked upon as the same god. But all agreed that the Sun-god of spring was not compelled to live for ever in the gloomy under-world. A head of papyrus came from Egypt over the waves. a time came when he and nature would alike revive. four months was he condemned to dwell in Hades.” began again to blow. which the Accadians called ‘(the prospering one.230 LECTURE IV. therefore. four months he was free to live where he might choose. It is clear that the Babylonian poet who sang of the descent of Istar into Hades had no conception of a festival of joy that followed immediately upon a festival of mourning. the days of mourning were succeeded by days of rejoicing . not with words of woe. while. therefore. and that it was to Ashtoreth that he devoted his months of freedom. Nevertheless. when the northern wind. And so it came about that a new feature was added to the festival of Adonis. But it could have been only when the fierce heats of the summer were past . and when the Sun-god regained . on the other hand. It was inevitable. that in the days of Egyptianising fashion. an Alexandrian legend told how the mourning Isis had found again at Gebal the chest in which the dismembered limbs of Osiris were laid. but with joy and rejoicing. and that the festival of Adonis at Gebal should be assimilated t o that of Osiris in Egypt. there must have been a season when the name of Tammuz was commemorated. the whole burden of his poem is the successful journey of the goddess into the under-world for the sake of the precious waters which should restore her beloved one to life. while the other four were passed in the companionship of Ashtoreth. Even in Babylonia.

Tammuz was the Sun-god of spring. his foe was the summer heat. it was 1 Saturn. In Babylonia.” after the ingathering of the harvest and before the beginning of the new year. his death was mourned in the month of June.TAXMUZ AND IS!CAR. but also with those of other Semitio forms of the Sun-god. 231 onoe more the vigour of his spring-tide youth. When Maorobius states that Adad nieant ‘‘ the only one ” in Syrian. The resurrection of Tammua had once been commemorated as well as his death. of Hadad and of Rimmon. his return to the upper world being his “victory over the first six zodiacal signs. he found the festival of Adonis being celebrated “according to ancient usage. We learn from Ammianus that when Julian arrived at Antioch in the Iate autumn.” We can dram but one conclusion from all this.” Nay. and the festivals had been identified. Macrobiusl even tells us that the Syrian worshippers of Adonis in his time explained the boar’s tusk which had slain the god as the cold and darkness of winter. I t must have been in the autumn. to which Zechariah alludes. i 21. along with the lengthening daylight. That thero had once been a festival of this kind is indicated by the fact that the lamentations for his death did not take place in all parts of Syria at the same time. he implies that Adad or Hadad-the Sun-god whose festival fell after the harvests of autumn-was identical with Tammuz. If there was another feast in which grief gave place to joy at his restoration to life. in Tisri OB October. not only with that of the Egyptian Osiris. as at Gebal. . that the feast of Hadad-Rimmon was observed. and Ezekiel saw the Women weeping for Tammuz in “the sixth month. too.

itself contracted from Duwuzu.’’ 1 W. E e ceased to be the Sun-god of spring. but Duzu. 36. separate from that which celebrated his death. I n the highlands of Syria the summer was not the dangerous foe it was in Babylonia. ‘(the son of the spirit of the deep. in the form in which we know it. however much it may owe. The Semites did not agree about the precise form which it should assume. his festivals were merged into theirs. it was. 54. I n its transplantation to the west. The story of Tammuz was not of Semitic invention. ‘(the son of life. the Assyro-Babylonian form is not Tammuz. on the contrary. and it is probable that the form (Tammuz) which prevailed in the west was due to a “ popular etymology. ii. The month of Tammuz was called in the Accadian calendar ‘‘the month of the errand of Istar.” “ the only son.” a clear proof that the legend of the Descent of the goddess into Hades was already known. the anniversary of his death was shifted to the fall of the year. He was identified with other forms of the solar deity. A. Winter.”1 but it may be merely a shortened form of tho name Dumu-zi-apzu. I .’) At all events. Nor is the name of Tammuz itself of Semitic origin. and not summer. and became the Sun-god of summer. was the enemy who had slain the god. and. . a kindly friend. the cult of Tammuz‘Adonis underwent a change. and m u d have taken place at a different time of the year. where a natural phenomenon prevented the alteration. however. except in places like Gebal. and a fair representative of the original Accadian Dumu-zi or Duwu-zi. to Semitic imagination. whose heats quickened and fostered the golden grain.232 LECWRE IV.” The word was interpreted by the Semites as meaning the ‘‘ offspring.

At all events. 54. both the wife of the Sun-god of Sippara. . which probably grew up in the court of Sargon of Accad.I. Rev.9.inz-izi). The name was translated by the Semites “Timmuz (or Dimmuz) of the flood” (W. 47. I. as is expressly stated in a mythological tablet. notably that of the Fire-god Gibil. W e are carried back to the first dawn of Chaldsean religious belief. Tim-ki. The tablet in which the name is explained is a commentary on an old astrological text.”* 1 2 W.” who is but Ea under another title. 1 6 . A.A. It is thus that a mythological tablet gives ‘ I the River-god.’ where Dumu-ai-apzu is given as the name of one of his six sons. giving explanations of the rare words and ideographs contained in the text. 1. A. proves that already the name had lost its last element. and the solar character of the deity mas indicated by writing his name with ideographs that signified ‘‘the maker of fire” (t.” are called the wives of Duzu in W. As in several other cases. ii. ii.TAMMUZ AND IfZAR. or Dim-izi.S where the name has assumed its contracted Semitic form.” ‘‘ the only son” of the god Ea. the two elements of the name are transposed in writing (Izi-tim instead of Tim-izi). and Sala. 56.2 But this very mode of writing :the name. the male Dum and the female a. 57. I. 29). thc two primordial principles. ‘(of the mountain of gold. 816. 3 W. but as a spirit only. is a good example of what Halkvy has termed the rebus.I. 34. and is written with ideographs that mean ‘‘the heart of life. 31. A. is shown by the fact that Ea appears in it as not yet a god. i i 56. Izi is given as the pronunciation of the Accadian word for ‘‘fire” in 82. The “son of the spirit of the deep” had become “the son of life. a single son Duzi. 8.1. ii. 233 The spirit of the deep” is of course Ea. It is possible that in W. The text may have emanated from the court of Sargon at Accad. 12. we ought to read Duzu and Dam j if so.A. The spelling may hnve originated at Accad. ii. How early the designation must be.33-38.

had it been so. and it was accordingly as Tammuz (or Timmue) that the name passed to the west. as has been suggested. could we have explained thc early prevalence of the cult of Adonis in Phcenicia and Cyprus. perhaps preserved a recollection of the name of Tammuz. the worship of Tammuz could not have been introduced into Palestine by the Assyrian conquests.l and the traces that it left even upon Homeric Greece. had such been the case. It is probable that the intermediaries were those Aramzean tribes who stretched across the desert from the borders of Babylonia t o the fields of Syria.234 LLCPURlE IV. . The medial labial became a semi-vowel. At any rate. was different in other portions of the Semitic world. It is called Tametsi by Esar-haddon. the city in whose neighbourhood mere the Lmous copper-mines of the island. Here there was no Accadian population to prevent the Semitised form from holding full sway. Nor again. The name of Tamassos. and were known in after days under the comprehensive title of Nabathaeans. The name and story of Tammuz must have come to Phcenicia in those remote times when it was whispered that ‘LJKronos”or Za had ~~ ~ Dazu. never succeeded in expelling the pronunciation which their Accadian neighbours had made familiar to the Semites of Babylonia. But it never found its way into the language and literature of the country. and the attempt t o give a Semitic colouring to the word by hardening the initial consonant. will be here identified with Anu (and Anat). the name of the god would have had a different form. We have just seen that the pronunciation Timmuz was once known to the Babylonian scribes. The case. however. What makes this the more likely is that a few lines further Alala and Tillili are also identified with Aiiu and Anat.

Myrina and Ephesoswhose foundation was ascribed to Amazonian heroines. 14. 91. “only one. he was also king of Assyria and father of Adonis and his sister Myrrha or Smyra. It was she who. In the Kyprian myth the name of Theias is transformed into Einyras. and who was in origin the Istar of Babylonia modified a little by Hittite influence. comparo the Biblical name Miriam. see Apollod. took the place of Istar and AphroditC.TAMMU2 AND W A R .” Philo Bybl. he is the father of Adonis by his daughter Myrrha. “daughter. which succeeded to the religious fame and beliefs of the ancient Hittite city of Assyrian edu. whom the Greeks called the Artemis of Ephesos. p.” or the Assyrian martu. 44. Theias or Thoass was not only the Lemnirtn husband of Myrina aud the king of the Teuric Ehersonese who immolated strangers on the altars of Artemis. a name famous in the legendary annals of Asia Minor. Kym6. 4 The Aramaic rnmthd. At Hierapolis. 4 . Mgrrha is the invention of a popular etymology. it was said. was an Amazonian queen. iii. the Assyrian king.2 Greek mythology itself knew the name of Tammuz as well as that of Adonis. like Theias. so the goddess with whom he was associated was Istar. Myrina or Smyrna. For Theias. but. 1 8 . ad Lykoph.* his ((only begotten son.” may have assisted the etymology. But the Amazons were really the warrior priestesses of the great Asiatic goddess. Thou is practically identical witshtho Ssabian Ta’uz. TZelZe8.’’ and arraying him in royal robes had sacrificed him on an altar in a season of distress. 235 taken Yedid. and her name is connected with the four cities of the western coast-Smyrna. i n the Asianic cult of Attys or Hadad. “mistrcss.* the true form of the name was Smyrna or Myrinzl. for just as Attys himself was Tammuz.

xiv. I . the name under which the goddess went seems to have been Semiramis.2 Here it is difficult not t o recognize the old Accadian equivalent of Irjtar. ‘ L the son.” which is said to have been used in the worship of Adonis. 33. and who follow Dr. 174. However this may be. or L L cither. But its real origin seems t o be indicated by the name of Gingras which Adonis himself bore. See above.A. Carchemish. the god of Nipur. may be inclined t o make them the Adar and Tammuz of Chaldean faith. 48. 39. Athen. Adar. Oppert in explaining the name of Abel by the Babylonian ablu. 29. the god of Eridu. ii. 618. 7 (AN-9i-d). . 1 9 8 4 Lucian. and the Semitic abhorrence of the animal may have used it to symbolise the ancient rivalry between the Sun-god of Nipur and the Sun-god of E r i d ~ . Rev. ‘(the creatress.” slightly transformed by a popular etymology. p. ~ Those who would see in the Cain and Abel of Scripture the representatives of elemental deities. was called the “lord of the swine” in the Accadian period. iv.236 LECTURE IV. as we have seen. He must have been the primitive Sun-god of Eridu. that Adar stood to Mid-lil. W.”3 The fact that Tammuz was the son of Ea points unmistakably to the source both of his name and of his worship. It is even possible that the boar whose tusk proved fatal t o Adonis may originally have been Adar himself. Gingira or Gingiri. 153.l and it is possible that Semiramis and Smyrna are but varying forms of the same word. De Dea Syria. K 170. in the Eyprian Kinyras who takes the place of Theias we have a play upon the Phcenician kinndr. standing in the same relation to Ea.

&. in the highest chamber of tha ziygurut. like that of Bel-Merodach at Babylon. and that the wife of Samas of Accad should become the goddess whom mythology represented as at once the wife and the mother of Tammuz. ii. or ’Sirdul-a word in which I believe we may Bee the Assyrian &Urdu. ’Sirrigal or ‘Sirrig&. A. I t was then that the Sun-god of Eridu and the Hun-god of Accad would naturally be identified together.”~ it would seem that the worship of Tammuz had been transported from Eridu to the capital of Sargon at the time when the culture of southerc Babylonia made its way to the north.2 in the different dialects of pre-Semitic Chaldsa. BIR-UT-KAN and BIR-UT-AX must each be read ‘Sirdam (or ‘Sirudam). A. and the empire of Sargon was fusing the civilisation and religion of the country into a single whole. 237 As mother of Tammuz.” mas.” from whence observations of tho slrp could be made. L ii. l l . was a title of A%. .I. where it was known by the double name of “ the tower of mighty bulk” and “the shrine of obser~ation. But the primitive home of Tammuz had been in that 1 W. 22. and pronounced ’Sirgam. the wife of Ea. 178.” Now it will be remembered that ’Sirrida. 1 0 . Dav-kina. It would appear from this that the pard. I. 3 W. 59. “ a falcon. 26. or Lc shrine. e W.TAMMU2 AND ISTAR. I n lines 30. also written ’Sirdam. She is called Tsirdu. 23. ii. As we are told that a temple of Tammuz existed at Accad. we may conclude that the compiler of the mythological list regarded her as equally the mother and the wife of Tammuz. 31. ’Surg& and Nirda. the wife of the Sun-god of Sippara or Accad. or ‘I tower. 24. I n line 26 the name of A is also written phonetically by means of the ideograph for father ( d ) . A. p.9. 21. See above.had a special name. 57. As she seem to be identified with Istar in the same paesage. 50. 11.

its foliage (1) was the couch of Zikum (the primaevd) mother.” The description reminds us of the famous Ygg-drasil Hence his mother (and wife) is called “the lady of Edin” (W. A. 59. 59) with the determinative prefix .8). A. 4. 10. its root ([sur]sum) was of white crystal which stretched towards the deep . but Eskanu. as he reads. or Eden.” But the Semitic rendering is not ukkanu. 10. 406) very ingeniously reads tho “QI-tree” as gi.” &I ( = Zamma) tur is the Assyrian epitdtu. ii. 41. 11. ii. W e are reminded of the old story of Jack and the Bean-stalk as well as of the Polynesian tree which enables the climber to ascend into the heavenly land. I. (In) the midst of it was Tammuz. A.1.S 4 . The Sumerian equivalent of ‘‘ earth” is SI-NAD.” 3 The original seems to be literally. in a holy place did it become green . p. “ a small stalk” (W. 11).from which he derives the Assyrian mdukkanu or mdiikaunu. its seat was the (central) place4 of the earth.” 4 This appears to be the meaning of the line. 38.22 (u-QI gesdin). ii. 59. which must be read m a -2 (W. Eridu was richly fertile. 56). (before) Ea was its course in Eridu. Into the heart of its holy house which spread its shade like a forest hath no man entered. ii. U-QI is also explained as n’tu sitehu. (There is the home) of the mighty mother who passes across the sky. and Adar was “lord of the date. which begins in the following way : 1 . in Accadian muus-kin.1 The fragment of an old bilingual hymn has been preserved. “a growing slip” (W. “ the stalk of a grape. I. Hommel (Die Semitiszlien Volke?. “while (before Ea) it went ( = grew). The mother of Tammuz mas called ‘‘ the (mistress) of the vine” (W. 8. v. which Babyloniah tradition placed in the immediate vicinity of Eridu. the site of the tree being regarded as. See K 165. “ a palm. from the Accadian giskiia The palm was the sacred tree of Babylonia. 3.s-kin. I. A.s of the earth. teeming with ferti1ity.238 LEmm I v . 5. I. ‘‘garden” of Edin. (There is the shrine?) of the two (gods). 7. 2. like Delphi among the Greeks. 6. the 6p+aX. 58. A. “(In) Eridu a stalk2 grew over-shadowing. I .

the translator of the NaW?mnn Ap’cdture of Kuthhmi into Arabie. while its branches rise into Asgard. in which the images of the gods from all the countries of the world gathered themselves together to weep for Tammuz. whose roots stretched downwards into the abysmal deep. nourishing the earth with the springs and streams that forced their way upwards from it to the surface of the ground. in his calendar of the Ssabian festival@. above.” and of Tammuz her son. where Ea presided.” Within it. which stood midway between the deep below and Zikum. the heaven of the gods.” AbEi Sayid Wahb ibn Ibrahim. “the great mother. Its seat was the earth itself.1 What the tree or (‘stalk” was which sprang 1 Ibn Wahshfyah. in which the legend of Tammuz was narrated in full . a temple too sacred and far hidden in the reeesses of the earth for mortal man to enter. where we are told of the temple of the sun in Babylon. until at last he died . Tammuz coming to life again after each time. It is perhaps a reminiscence of this myst. 239 of Norse mythology. the world-tree whose roots descend into the world of death. was the holy house of Davkina. and behold. adds that he had “lit upon another Nabathaan book.ictemple that we find in the curious work on Nabathaan Agriculture. The Babylonian poet evidently imagined his tree also to be a world-tree. which is identical with Ta’uz. i lfestival held in honour . how he summoned a king to worship the seven (planets) and the twelve (signs of the Zodiac). and how the king put him to death. the primordial heavens. and how he still lived after being killed.” composed in the fourth or fifth century by a Mandaite of Chaldaea.TAMMUZ AI?D ISFAR. who rested as it were upon the overshadowing branches of the mighty ( t stem. it was identical with the legend of St. it would seem. says under the month Tammuz: “On the 15th of this month is the festival of tho weeping women. so that he had to put him to death several times in a cruel manner. George that is current among the Christians.

” and then. vetches. may slill be maintained. ii. and scattered them to the minds . 59. which mas subsequently displaced by the palm . there were two sacred trees in the girden of Eden. iv. upon whose cure the name of Ea is recorded. but only soaked wheat. to invoke the aid of the Fire-god to expel the demons. i n W. and ground his bones in R mill. Rev. therefore. The women weep over him. On the other hand. A. I. ii. and the parallel. up like the bean-stalk of our old nursery tale. the mystic virtues of t h e cedar were still remembered. I t is the cedar. the tree that shatters the power of the incubus. He is first to go to ((the cedartree. therefore. with the help of “ a good masal” or phylactery which is placed on the sick man’s head as he lies in bed at night. . raisins and the like” (Chwolson’s Die Ssabiw. Ea describes to Merodach the means whereby he is to cure a man who is possessed of the seven evil spirits. A tablet which describes of the god Ta’uz. I t is clear from this that the sacred tree mas also conceived of as tlie vine. it will be remembered. which played the same part in Babylonian magic as the rowan ash of northern Europe. 1013. and they eat nothing that has been ground in a mill. 10. ?-I). between the ash Ygg-drasil of Norse mythology and the world-tree of the poet of Eridu becomes even closer than before. is indicated in the magical text to which the fragment about it has been appended. and which was believed to be under the special protection of Ea.240 LECTURE I V . (telling) how his lord slew him. According to the Old Testament.l I n this. so that Homniel’s view. It is pretty clear from the sculptures that the sacred tree of the Babylonians was the cedar. 1 W. I. Long after the days when the hymns and magical texts of Eridu werc composed. Rev. “ the divine Lady of Eden” is called ‘(the goddess of the tree of life” in the Accadian of north Babylonia. ‘‘the goddess of the vine” in the Sumerian of south Babylonia. which sees a palm in ‘(the stalk” of Eridu. 15. A. p. dates.

the delivering of the oracle of heaven and earth. as we havc seen. the instructed one. It is possible that. No. It was employed. But the cedar mas something more than a world-tree.” and the prototype and original of those conventional trees of Iife with which the walls of the Assyrian palaces were adorned. 3. as well as the figures of the two cherubs which kneel or stand before it on either side. OBv. the tablets of the gods. A. who keeps the oracle of the great gods :” he is made t o descend into an art“ificia1 imitation of the lower world. as time went on. 2-4. and the cedar-tree. Bel and Ea. L i i 58. and states how he mud be of pure lineage.”l It was possibly the fragrance of the wood when lighted for sacrificial purposes that gave the tree its sacred character. It .TAMMUZ AND ISTAB. 241 the initiation of an augur. At times they are purely human. A fragment of a duplicate of thia text ir published in W. Those who bave visited the Assyrian collection of the British Museum will remember the curious form which it generally assumes. unblemished in hand and foot. another tree became ( L K 2486. It was thus essentially (‘ a tree of life. and there beholds “the altars amid the waters. the beloved of the great gods.” speaks thus of the vision which is revealed to him before he is initiated and instructed in the presence of Samas and Rimmon in the use of the book and stylus’’ by “the scribe. which their hand has caused to grow. at other times they have the head of a hawk and hold a cone-the fruit of the cedar-over the tree by whoso side they stand. the treasures of Anu. in incantations and magic rites which were intended to restore strength and life t o the human frame.

consequently. the cedar. W e can trace the first steps by which the name and worship of Tammuz made their way from Eridu northwards. which the priesthood of Babylonia and the gods they worshipped kept jealously guarded. The text which describes the initiation of a soothsayer associates the cedar with ‘(the treasures of Anu. the other was originally the sacred tree of some other locality of ChalclEa. the wine made from it made “glad the heart of man. too. that in later Babylonian belief the tree of life and the tree of knowledge were one and the same. the god of wisdom. with its strange conventional form. the cedar and the palm. that the later Babylonian tree of life. was inscribed.” It was upon the heart or core of the cedar. a few miles only . Bel and Ea. And it was wisdom rather than life. but in the religious and magical ceremonies of Babylonia as well. What gives some colour t o this last suggestion is. the tablets of the gods. and while its fruit seemed to be the stay and support of life. was primarily the sacred tree of Eridu. The palm was from the earliest period characteristic of Babylonia . the delivering of the oracle of heaven and earth. I n this respect. was an amalgamation of two actual trees. the knowledge of the secrets of heaven and the magical arts that benefit or injure. that the name of Ea. therefore. Only the initiated were allowed to taste of its fruit. In the same part of Babylonia. not only in Babylonian medicine. there was a marked difference between the belief of the Babylonians and the account which we find i n the earlier chapters of Genesis. It is not at all improbable.” Date-wine was largely used. confounded with the original tree of life.242 LECTURE IV. It is even possible that while one of them.

TAMMUZ AND ISTAR. and in the inscription of Sulcal-duggina (?) he is brought into association with the god of Nipur and entitled “the valiant warrior of Mul-lil. a W.” Nin-girh was. breaks out into these words:2 “0 Merodach. of Tel-loh. I . After the establishment of the worship of Tammuz in Sippara. ’ which xas probsbly the compilation of a bilingual Semite. 57.” the headdress morn by the Babylonian kings. When the cult of Mul-lil found its way to Gtirgu. I. the god of Gidu uecessarily entered into relation with him. Tammuz came to bo addressed there as Mul-Merii or En-Mer&. 6. in whose justification. which rea& akula instead of nliltli in line 17 (W. M i d i is found in on unnum- B2 . and as ‘(the lord of Giriu” seems to have been a Sun-god. in fact. the Semitic scribes of Sargon and his successors seem t o have interpreted the title as if it meant ‘( lord of the horned crown. iv. and the introduction of the divinities of southern Babylonia into the north. “ the lord of GirSu. A broken text. completed from S 1208. go. more might have been said. it is probable. * 243 to the north.” the native name. 27. 57). A . I . my i W.l In Accad. A. I n forgetfulness of the real origin of the name. ii. A.that the god of Tel-loh was Nin-girhu. an earlier identification had been discovered. he took the place of Adar and became “ the valiant warrior of Mullil. probably. however. It was in honour of Nin-girSu that the kings who reigned at ‘Sirgulla built and adorned their chief temples . which have yielded to French enterprize the earliest monuments of Chaldaean art we as yet possess. 74. lie the mounds of Tel-loh. the Accadian or North-Chaldaean form of Nin-giriu.” It was on this account that the mythologists subsequently identified Adar and Nin-gir4u. We learn from them .

ii 59. I _ _ _ bered bilingual fragment belonging to the series IC( Obv. assist the man .” It represents that close relationship which was supposed to exist between the Babylonian and the god he worshipped. the pious Babylonian. The worship of the Sun-god of Eridu had embodied other elements before it reached northern Babylonia.. But whereas the pantheistic Egyptian believed in his absorption into the divinity. in the ---. -. and it was from the story of his untimely death that he came to be the Nergal of southern Chaldaea. son. (‘on the bank of the Euphrates. 4. take the hand of the white offspring of Mul-MerAi (Tammuz).” the Accadian. For Mul-mer& see XT. At all events. “put tho man into the hand. the offspring of his heart whom thou hast taken away and the strong food of the man restore (to him). S. the Accadian mc-iv-h’ 9u id uD-gIp-NuN-gI-LI‘Y-)nn is rendered by the Semitic 6 m gir& sa Pzlvafti.” . 6) : bit sa midi. the Sun-god of winter and night who rules.” “ The white offspring of Mul-Mersi ” is perhaps an equivalent of a common phrase i n these old texts : ‘(the man the son of his god.A. besides those which resulted in the identification of Tammuz and Nin-Girs’u. it was as Nin-girdu that he was adored as the son of Ea the river-god.I. change his heart . called himself their son. grant the spell of’ Ea. lull the plague of the sick man t o rest. It was probably as Nin-Girs’u that’ he became the patron and lord of the green marshplants which flourished in the neighbonrhood of Tel-loh .244 LECTURE IV. 3. Obv.” 1 The Somitic is literally. and which the Egyptian symbolised by the assumption of an identity between himself and the divine being. like Rhadamanthos. in S 1366. ‘‘ takc t h e hand of the man. who regarded his gods a s creators and generators. Girs‘useems to mean the “bank” of a river. rather than of Ea the god of the deep.

e. 33. 27. Taminuz in Babylonia was accounted a shepherd. 24. i i 38. borrowed from the Accadian rut (more correctly r d h .TAMMU2 AND ISTAR. I. Thus in the Accadian we have &hbn for &ba. shepherd and lord. their monarchs were addressed as ‘< shepherds . A I. 16. 6 The Accadian is Seniitised and the Semitic is Accadised.I the green corna which in the meadows has not drunk the water.6 It may have been one of the dirges chanted in commemoration of the death of Tammuz. or perish1 * Comp. A. lS). A. k I . the Semitic. lord of Hades. iv. This is how an old Accadian hymn speaks of him (W. ‘12. 21. and gu from the Semitic qu . or the tree from beneath whose roots the soft soil of the canal slips away. 8. No.” 9 Aram. For en’szr. bridegroom of Istar the lady of heaven. the shepherd who was cut off like the unwatered corn.’’ 4 0 . W. W. “ shepherd. the grain5 which in the meadow has not drunk the water. 2.J K. 245 lomor world. the acacia ( 1 ) tree which in the canal is planted not: the acacia (P) tree whose foundation is taken away . The CbaldEans were a people of agriculturists and herdsmen. “tel” or r L mound. muduul*e*.” The poem is written in the artificial dialect which sprang up in the court of Sargon. too. But he was more than this. b8na. ii. There were other cities of Babylonia which knew of a hapless Sun-god cut off in the prime of his life. 1): *‘ 0 Tammuz. 6 .” the Semitic tul. compared with v. a derivative from the Accadian s’cir. ii. ‘ I grass. I. v. and it probably emanated from the city of Accad. 5 Tul.”and just as Abel in the Old Testament is ‘ < a keeper of sheep. its progemy in the desert is not green of leaf. and gu instead of pu. Jensen.” sce TV. lord of the shepherds’ cot. 7. The story of Tammuz of Eridu did not stand alone.” r d i . “ t o be planted. 73.

'' For the favour of Gisdhubar the princess Istar lifted the eyes. ing through love of a heartless goddess. 21. I --- 1 3 '#ubi. Gisdhuber. and be thou u y bridegroom ! 3. (in thy realm are) corpses and corruption (?). . (in the stables) let the mule seek (its) burden. But in these legends. 13. (Gisdhubar) opened his mouth and speaks. . Haupt reads inbi. disease and famine. 9. (he says thus) t o the princess Istar : 19. and this was the interpretation put there upon the name of the Accadian month of the Errand of Istar. 30. 8. 5. 4. ' (I will leave) to thyself thy possession. When thou enterest our house IO. The wind and the blast hold open the back-door (of thy palam) 30. I . . 3 4. 1. it was she who had herself lured her lover to his destruction.] 29. The palace is the destroyer of heroes. the goddess herself was the cause of the hero's death. This was the light in which Istar was represented at Erech. ' (Look up). iv. The fate of the suitors of Istar is glanced at in the sixth book of the Epic of Gisdhubar. whose pole is of gold and its horns are of glass.246 LECIWRE I v .' . let (thine ox) in the yoke have no rival.' thou art its bond . The tribute of the mountain and the plain let them bring theo as an offering. let (the river) Euphrates kiss thy feet.-- 7. I am thy vine. be thou niy husband and I mill be thy wife. that thou mayst yoke (thereto) each day the mighty coursers.' 17. 1s. 6. so far from venturing into the glooms of Hades for the sake of her youthful bridegroom. 42. A. 16. I mill give thee a chariot of crystal and gold. (In the folds?) let thy flocks bring forth twins. it would appear. Let kings. let thy (horse) in the chariot be strong in galloping. [The next seven lines are too mutilated to be translated. 20. 11. 15." Elmesu. 44. . Enter our house in the gloom of the cedar. and i i . IS. lords (and) princes (bow) beneath thee ! 12. 2. . see W. " fruit.

50. 41. 39. to his mother the goddess ’Silili with tears didst thou approach. A girdle of dark cloth are its columns. 64. Every day had he made bright thy dish. iii 68. of those into whoso hands thou puttest no ransom. 36. “he who makes green the living things. 47. 61. 55. To Tammuz the bridegroom (of thy youth) thou didst look. A deceitfnl(2) mouth are its hidden recessen 32. thou didst strike him and break his wings . 60. let us eat thine abundant store. he submitted himself. Alala. Thou didst love also the shepherd Tabulu. thox didst love Isullanul the gardener of thy father. and let me tell (the story) of thy enslavementa 40. he begged for his winge. Isullanu is called by his Accadian name of 8i-eigAig or Si-Aimdim. his own sheepcote drove him away 58. A. year after year with weeping dillst thou cling to him. Every day was he slaughtering for thee the victims. ‘Asfor me. in his trouble and thint didst thou cling to him : 63. 37. And thou didst love a horse glorious in battle . a lion perfect in might . 33. 54. 49. come. with spur and whip didst thou cling to him . 35.TAMMUZ A N D ISTAR. 62. 53. ‘0 my Isullanu. and bring out thy hand and dismiss all fear of U’ 65. and his own dogs tore his wounds.” . 34. 48. 59. 42. who was ever raising for thee costly trees. 0 my mother. scven leagues didst thou cling to him galloping . A destructive (5) portent are i t s columns. Go. 23. seven by seven didst thou tear out his teeth. thou cookest not (and) I eat not . seven by seven. 56. Thou didst take from him (his) eye and didst mock him : 63. I. 46. 45. Moreover. also didst thou love . 43. too. 57. 51. thou didst bring him forth and into a hyena didst change him . Isullanu says to thee : 66. who continually poured out for thee the smoke (of sacrifice). Never may R god make thee joyous. Thou didst love. he remained in the forest . 247 31. Of white stone is the construction (mwah)of the stone fortress. ’tis the mouth of the land of the enemy. A devouring flame (1) is its lord. the eagle. 44. Never may I be (thy) brideomom for ever I 38. As for me. what dost thou ask of me ? 67. 1 I n W.

to bondage thou didst (assign him). With Gisdhubar and the divine bull of Anu. 74. however.” and that AlBla. Even Sin-liqi-unnini. The next mentioned is Al&la. the prison of the hurricane is (thy) hidden recess. before Anu she went and she (says) : 79. Anu accordingly created a divine bull of monstrous size . ‘ 0 my father. 81. but without much result. Gisdhubar has counted my garlands.’ ’ 7 0 . 72. I will not ascend the height . Noreovei Istar went before Anu (her father). could find but little in the story of Tammuz which could throw discredit on the goddess. 68. 77. 76. What concerns us just now is the list given by Gisdhubar of the unhappy victims of Istar’s coquetry. Istar mas enraged and (mounted up) to heaven. When Istar (heard) this.”’ Like Potiphar’s wife. the food I have eaten are garlands and girdlea. 78. Gisdhubar has kept watch on me. Tammuz.’ 75.248 LECTURE IV. and yet thon lovest me that thou (mayest make) me as they are. thou didst strike him. 71. 73. 80.’’ Now the eagle is stated to be ((the symbol (tsalanz) of the noon-tide sun. Of the first. and thou madest him sit in the midst of (a lonib?). but enough remains to show that she eventually persuaded him to punish the hero. my garlands and my girdles. I mill not descend to the (depth} .Thou didst listen and (didst impose) punishment . 69. Istar thus accuses Gisdhubar of doins the exact contrary of what he really had done. we are not at present interested. the author of the Epic of Gisdhubar. (‘the eagle. as Gisdhubar and his friend Ea-bani succeeded in destroying the animal and dragging its body in triumph through the streets of Erech. whose name is of Sccadian origin signifying the great Spirit. is indicated not only by the fact that his (( . The portion of the tablet which contained the conversation between her and Anu is broken.” has solar connections. there is but little said.

” ‘(The god of the Foundation” (h) is mentioned in 79. T. 54. 7-8. i. A. I. I n the shepherd Tabulu..TAMYUZ AND ISTAR.). 17-20. ii. I . Bev. I n W. 34). 6s. and that on either side of the eastern gate of the building he placed I ‘ two Lulihmu gods mho sweep away my foes. 6) among the gods whose images stood in the temple of Anu at Assur. W A . 15. 64. 66. iii. we have ( A N ) Sam-su (AN) d a m . 12. he was resolved into Anu by the monotheistic school. however. but also from the compound title Aldla alanz. 66. when describing tho rebuilding of the teniple of the Moon-god at Harran. 249 consort Tillili is the sister of Tammuz in the legend of the Descent of Istar. torn by his own dogs through the anger of W. Rarran was the home of Laban. A.” as Latrille) of the god Laban (‘t). According to Genesis. ii. iii. “ the gods mho are immanent in the heaven and in the earth. This was the horizon of heaven as opposed to the zenith or N e b 1 * 2 .2 and a text associates both him and Tillili with the cosmogonic deities Lukhma and Lakhama. A. 53). the lord of foundations and brick-work” (Zibnhti.I.”’ In one of the local cosmogonies of Chaldsa. v. I. <‘Altila of the image.” Eaban is mentioned (W. His fate recalls that of the hunter Akhebn. comp. he and his consort took the place of Assoros and Kissar. 11.”3 Who the lion and the horse were me do not yet know. the primordial heavens and earth. we hear of “ a god of lions” (W. 26. 11. and one of the Assyrian names of the month Sebat mas ‘(the month of ’Silili” (K 104. however. iii. 66. 122.A. 20. 54. more especially when we remember that it is but a tlphel formation-so common in Assyrian-from the simpler abalu. Laban(?)-same. and it is probable that he was of foreign importation. 18. * D. The name would mean (‘the white one. says that lie set about i t by the commission (not “ work. I. The name reminds us of Abel and Tubal-Kain. (‘the brick foundation of heaven” is also mentioned in the same text. we have the double of the shepherd Tammuz himself. I. W. Like them. A. Nabonidos.

It was this feature of the story which caused it to find its way into the literature of another people. No children were born. is probably the mythic prototype of the historical Sargon of Accad. the Asianic representative of the Babylonian Istar. no eggs even could be procured for food. and to survive the days when the clay tablets of Assyria and Babylon could still be read. and how his petition was granted. whom later legend turned into a gardener beloved by the goddess Istar. she was to the Babylonian or Assyrian of later days. it is possible that Isullanu had been the representative of Tammuz at Accad before the cult of the god of Eridu had been introduced there from the south. But society quickly fell into a state of anarchy. as well as among the gods of heaven.260 LECTURE IV. and the rabbi was at length fain t o confess that his prayer had been a mistaken one. while another regarded her as the most faithless and cruel of coquettes? I have already spoken of her as the goddess of love. all this while. whom one legend made the faithful wife enduring even death for her husband's sake. As it was upon the famous king of Accad that the old myth was fastened. the gardener of Anu. I n the story of her descent into Hades. Artemis. and such. We are there told how a pious rabbi once prayed that the demon of lust should be bound. We find it serving to point a moral in the pages of the Talmud. Isullanu. and to ask that the demon should again be free. But who. her residence in the lower world is marked by all cessation of intercourse between male and female in the animal creation. indeed. was the goddess. But though a moral signification thus came to be read into the old Babylonian myth. it was a signification that .

will not explain what she became in those later ages of Babylonian history to which our monuments belong. This alone will explain the persistent element in the myth as it made its way to the Greeks. Her origin faded more and more into the hackground. i i 1. Istar. which shall cause the Sun-god and all nature with him to rise again from their sleep of death.l The spirits of earth. however. and the bride of Tammuz at Eridu must accordingly have been his mother Dav-kina. It is the earth who loses her adornments. and she absorbed the attributes and functions of numberless local divinities. Dav-kina. 495 sp. new elements entered into her character. Tielc has clearly shown that the legend of Istar’s descent into Hades is but a thinly-veiled description of the earthgoddess seeking below for the hidden waters of life. must primitively have been the goddess of the earth. Prof. Istar. one by one. then. What Istar was primitively. The Istar of Assur-bani-pal or Nabonidos was the inheritress of cults -~ Actes du s i x i h Cotigris iniernationalc des Orkntalisttv. . and it is the earth who is once more gladdened at spring-time with the returning love of the youthful Sun-god. and not until they are led forth and placed on their golden throne can their precious treasure be secured. 251 waa originally entirely foreign to it. watch over the waters. at all events. the gnomes that guard its treasures below. pp. as she passes slowly downward into the palace-prison of the infernal goddess.TAMMU2 AND ISTAR. was the primordial earth. We have just seen that Tillili. according to which the mother of Tammuz mas also his sister. were all but different names and forms of the same divinity. Tillili.

good reason why they should be so. The Istar of the historical period is essentially Semitic. it is unprovided with that grammatical sign of the feminine-the dental suffix-which marks the names of other genuinely Semitic goddesses. without that term& . Tasmit. The name itsell bears evidence to its non-Semitic origin. We find it in its earliest form in Babylonia. on the southern coast of Arabia. Anat. What is Semitic in her nature is an after-growth. and here. all show by their termination their source and meaning . It is only where the Semite had come into contact with the Accadian that we find the name and worship of Istar at all. Zarpanit. But let me not be misunderstood. among the descendants of those who parted from their Semitic brethren of the north before they mere affected by the culture of primaeval Babylonia. It is only thus that we can explain both the name of Istar and the striking difference that exists in regard to her character between the Semites of Babylonia and those of the west. but we find there also the name of the Babylonian Moon-god Sin. and Istar. though it denotes the name of a female goddess. We look in vain for it among the Arabs of central Arabia. it is true. All attempts to discover a Semitic etymology for the name have been unavailing. The Semitic superstructure presupposes a non-Somitic basis. and beliefs which had grown up in different localities and had gathered round the persons of other deities. Inland. Istar remained unknown. And there is a. Belit.252 LECTURE IT. We find the name of Aththor. and other traces of the influence which Babylonian h i d e could not fail to exert in comparatively late days. which cannot be explained unless we assume that it has grown out of non-Semitic elements.

” ---.” the SemitM feminine su6x was attached to it.” the word employed for male being a curiously artificial coinage. when Istar became the representative of all other female divinities. it retained also its ancient genderless appearance.A. shows equally plainly what its source must be. “to Istar who is the god Kemosh. and the name passed into a common term signifying ‘ L a goddess. .” and an astronomical tablet1 informs us that Dilbat. 3039. On the Moabite Stone. In fact. and Istar was transformed into the Ashtoreth of the Old Testament and the Phceniciae monuments.TAMMUZ AND ISTAR. and thus ‘(a male and the offspring (of a male). she was also the rising Sun-god himself. the Astart6 of the Greeks. Mesha declares that he dedicated Nebo of Israel to Istar-Kemosh. the tablet goes on to add that Venus was not only a male by reason of her identification with the morning star. Even in Babylonia and Assyria. is a female at sunset and a male at sunrise. iii 53. whenever it still retained its ancient sense and denoted a specific deity. in spite of its meaning.“ 253 ntttion. 1 W. away from its old associations with Chaldaa. no longer as a proper name. As a foreign name. We can thus understand why it was that the Semites sometimes changed the old Chaldmn goddess into a male divinity. I. it continued to the last a stranger in the province of Semitic grammar. the planet Venus. but as one of the words of the Semitic dictionary . was the primitive Istar. the grammatical instincts of the Semites could no longer be held in check. as we shall see. such as ‘(maless” would be in English. As the name travelled further to the west. which. But the suffix was attached to it only when it was thus used.

” The doubt as to whether Istar were male or female was the same as that which was felt by the Semites in regard to other Accadian deities. A. we are told that ‘ I Venus at sunrise is Istar of Accad by name. another name of Istar (ii. however.l Where there was no grammatical indication. the king of Plmnician K r M . I. 14 . 35.” while at sunset she is “Istar of Erech by name . 18.” led him at times to transform the god Adar into a goddess. 7 ) .g When. we arc told that the god Tiskhu was “ Tstnr of Erech. where the same word might mean “master” or “mistress” according t o the context. which signified at once ‘L1ord”and ‘(lady. we come to look closely into this character. the zealous but half-educated Semitic neophyte might well be forgiven the mistakes he sometimes made in his adoption and adaptation of the older divinities.” Gut it must be remembered that the Semites were doubtful about the sex of Adar. while at sunset she was the god Adar. K 4195. we shall find here also clear traces of a non1 In W. 57. 9 That the Phcmicians also knew of a male Istar is perhaps inclicated by the Greek myth which made EurBpe the wife of Asterios.254 LECTURE IV. ii. It was thus that the ambiguity of the Accadian nin. Iskhara. and I have already pointed out in an earlier Lecture how in like manner the god A became the wife of the Sun. 35. 3901). But that a similar doubt should hang over the sex of Istar proves more plainly than anything else the non-Semitic origin of her name and character. Tiskhu appears as the equivalent of Adar as “god of libations.” at sunrise she is ‘‘Istar of the stars. is said to be a male deity whose wife mas Almanu or (A1)manLti (Strassmaier. and thus “an androgyne and the offspring (of an androgyne).” After this.” and yet i n ii. ‘(the mistress of the gods.” a t sunset M a t iZi. 49. On the other hand.

She holds equal rank with the Sun-god Baal . I n the first place. she is there as a goddess who masquerades in the garb of a god. the character. she is placed on an equal footing with the male deities of the pantheon. and to the purely Semitic conception of the divine government of the world. but in flagrant violation of the contrary practice of the Semitic race. By the side of the Baalim stood the Ashtaroth-those goddesses whose sole right to exist was the necossity of providing the male divinity with a oon- . in short. and treats her as if she were a god. in fact. indeed. We may even say that she takes rank before him. 266 %mi$ic descent. makes her his sister. from being the double and shadow of the god. Istar is distinguished from the other goddesses of the Semitic world by her independent nature.TAMMUZ AND ISTAR. it mas only for the sake of Istar that his name mas held in honour. just as Baal became the common designation of the male deity. Away from Accadian influences. I n this respect she stands in marked contrast to the goddesses of the pure Semitic faith. Istar. like the name. of the goddess was more closely accommodated to Semitio ideas. in the Phamician lands of the west. at all events in early times. Tammuz himself is but ‘‘ the bridegroom” of Istar. Ashtoreth was the common designation of the female. Istar had become Ashtorcth. like Anat or Beltis or Zarpanit . Hence it was that. So far. is an anomaly in the Semitic pantheon. She is not the mere reflexion of the male divinity. in conformity with the old Accadian custom of setting the woman before the man. and Ashtoreth had put on the colourless character of the Semitic goddess. Istar is rather the divinity who gives life and substance to her divine lovers. in so far as she is Istar. Babylonian mythology.

whether in Harran in the north or in. Istar and the moon were separate one from another. and the moon accordingly remained the pale mirror and double of the mightier Baal. alone retained some of the independence of the Babylonian Istar. Ash$rah.” and Greek legend described the wandering Astart&. and the Moon-god Sin was never confounded with the goddess Istar. Istar was not. not as a goddess. sort. To whose bright image nightly by the moon Sidonian virgiiis paid their vows and soigs. in conformity with pre-Semitic ideas.l “ Ashtoreth of the double horn . But the worship never made its way to Canaan. In Babylonia and Assyria. 1 Gen xiv. I n the second place. It was in the west alone that Astart&was ‘‘ Quceu of heaven with crescent horns . where the word is wrongly punctuated ‘‘ Ashteroth” . Yemen and the Sinaitic desert in the south. crossing the celestial sea on the bull that Anu had created for her so long before to punish the disdainful Gisdhubar. however. the southern Canaanitish goddess of fertility. The moon was conceived of as a god. 5. Ashtoreth was the goddess of the moon.256 LECTURE IV. there ia a very important difference between the Istar of Babylonia and the Ashtoretb of Phaenicia.” It was in the west alone that the shrine was erected to Ashtoreth Karnaim.nndcr the name of EurBpa. It must have been the same wherever the worship of Sin extended. The Semites of Phaenicia were too distant from the cultured kingdoms of the Euphrates t o allow their religious instincts to be overridden and transformed. Sin failed to establish himself there. The name and cult of Istar were indeed introduced among them.

to rule the vault of heaven. the god of light. before Sin. The suffix -ra or -T is common in Pmto-Chaldsan. Md-lil. where Mordechai. is a derivative from Mer& bkt a new interpretation was given to both. 8 . darted upon the vault of heaven. Its true etymology was buried in the night of antiquity. Istar appears as Esther in the book of Gther. “along with Anu. dwh. points to its having originally been as. which by the way. 257 Istar sank to the level and took the place of the older goddesses of the Canaanitish faith. Then those seven. those gods his children. it may be noted. like that of the first syllable of A m . To the three of them. does not occur in m y of theAccadian texts that we p0ssess. he had entrusted the night and the day. had given them to share the lordship of the hosts of heaven. the wicked gods. But its earliest application appears to have been to the evening star. and it is therefore quite useless for us t o speculate on the subject. Perhaps you will ask me what is the meaning of the h i s .l The legend of the assault of the seven wicked spirits upon the moon tells us pretty clearly who the goddess Istar was primarily supposed t o be. &-tar and Is-khara being alike compounds of is. it may be noticed. The Babylonians of the historical age do not seem to have known what was its origin.” and. that they cease not their work he urged them. Samas the hero and Rimmon tho 1 From which we may infer that the name originated in one OE the smaller cities of the country. is a question which I name of Istar? T cannot answer. however. It is possibly a side-form of Iskhaix. This is the oldest signification that we can assign to the word. it is said.TAMMUZ AND IBTAB. and the Semitic spelling of the first syllable (with ’ah). J ( had appointed Sin. Samas and Istar. they came in fierce attack.

A. A. though it is easy to see what the story means. ii. 33. ‘‘ the hero who issues forth at daybreak.”2 given her as “the wife (( W. before the days of Sargon of Accad and the compilation of the great Babylonian work on astronomy? it had been discovered that the evening and morning stars were one and the same. who found no visible sign of gender in the name of the divinity he had adopted. 20. should sometimes have regarded Istar as the masculine form of Ashtoreth. Cornparepes.”l Thus once more the mythologist gives the goddess an unfavourable character. I. As the morning star. which is rendered by naamlu (W. 69. though the title of Lady of Rising. 31.” was both a god and the morning star. she became also the morning star.’’ Hence George Smith seems to have been right in 1 2 . I. and denoted in Assyrian ”a sea-monster. apparently. iv. “ a pig. since Dun-khud-e.65) and raithbu (ii.” Rahhbu is the Hebrew rahab.35). 21. Istar sct tip a glittcring throne by the side ofAnu the king. and seems t o meditate ruling the night alone. Istar was a god and the successor of a god.66). warrior turned and fled. it shines with increased brilliancy.LECTURE IY. in company only with the heaven itself. the evening star has no longer any rival in the sky. 35. W. When the moon is eclipsed. 60-79. of bis or pes. a synonym of allallu (ii. therefore. 54. Not only. a re-duplicated form. iv. therefore. “the crocodile” as a symbol of Egypt. I . the companion of the moon. was Istar the evening star. Already. and plotted for the sovercignty of heaven. A. so that it is not wonderful if the bewildered Semite. Some of the early Accadian titles of Istar belong to her as the star of the morning. the companion and herald of the sun. It was thus that she assumed the attributes and titles of a male deity. As “Lady of the damn” she was called Bisbizi. 5 .

her connection with the Moon-god seems to have been the mom popular view in Semitic times. I n muking her tho wife of the Sky-god. or “Ann~uncer.’~One of the smaller cities of Babylonia had the same name. of the Sky.. 32. It is obvious that the name must have been originally applied not to the evening but to the morning star. Morc usually. 4 . she was the daughter. ii. ii. It was only as the announcer of day and the herald of the sun that Venus could be the Accadian representative of tho Semitic Nebo. since is bis-bis is interpreted tzirbulitu (W.” according to ii. At any rate. again. however. The other mesidentifying tho bis-his or ‘c dragon” Tiamat with Rahab. while that which made her the daughter of Anu emanated from Erech. that which made her the daughter of Sin having its origin in Ur.A.I. “the temple of the Sky. A. the Moon-god being here the larger body which begets the smallcr star.15). ’ 62 . 259 of hnu” (W. As a planct. rather than thc wife. ‘‘ the locust-swarm of the sea. 5. the mythologists WCTC only cxpressing in another way what the poet of the lcgcnnd of the sewn evil spirits had denoted by saying that Istar set up her throne by the side of Anu. 54. shc is called the daughter of the Moon-god. the relation between Istar and Anu was rcgardcd 8s a genetic one. Istar’s ordinary name was the Accadian Dilbat. would apply equally to the cvcr.l At times.TAMMUZ AND ISTAR. Both at Erech and Tel-loh her temple was called E .ing star. I. and was probably the chief seat of the worship of the goddess under this particular form.h a . It is possible that these Merent views about hcr descent arc dcrived from different centres of worship. Q ) .

sengers of the gods merc male: and iu Semitic times the fact that there had oncc bceii it female mcssengcr vas forgotten. went too. As NBna. by Nebo. the word Istar is never found in them. “the lady. Wherever the worship of Anu had gone. but Erech. I f so. was not Dilbat. At all events the common title of the goddess in the Accadian texts is NAna. but only as the name of a star . I n the days when Erech had been a leading state. the starting-point from which it was handed on to the Semites and becemc overlaid with Semitic beliefs and practices. remaincd. the compound character wm called In-NQnqfor An-Nfina (see above. the cult of Istar also had been carried with it.260 LECTURE J. when the cult of the Sky-god had been carried by its people to other parts of the Eastern world.l ‘(thelady. however. the worship of Istar.” a title which does not appear to have been replaced by the name of Istar until after the beginning of the Semitic period.” she continued to be known at Erech down to the most recent times.V. and the centto from which it first spread. The name of Dilbat. But the Istar of Erech was originally known by a different name. She was N h .. the daughter of Anu. The real source and centre of the worship of Istar at thc dawn of the historical period. thc place of Istar as the herald of the Sun-god was taken. at Babylon at :t11 evcnts. 116). it was littlc more than the primal home of the goddess’s name. It was the famous image of Nana that the Elamite 1 As the name is always written in combination with the prefix of divinity. it is true. It is possible that the records of ihc city of Dilbat. if ever they are recovered. . will show us that this was thc primal home of the name of Istar itsclf. p.

and was consequently identified with Adar by the mythologists (W. K3464. A. Tho divine names in this tablet follow in this order : Istar of Babylon. I ( thc g ( ~ c l who d~~ quickcns thc body. ’Sakin of E-Ana. ‘ His is the . why dost thou not take thy seat in Borsippa 1 In E-Zida is set thy dwelling-place. for instance. contains part of a hymn which had to be recited in the presence of Bcl-Merodach when he had seated himself (iliuasbu)in the house of sacrifice (akiiuum)in the beginning of Nisan. 3 Zarnama (in Sumerian Zagaga) was the Sun-god of Xis (W.7 . l’asmetu. Rimmon. ‘ 0 Nebo. Gula. 13. ‘0 Zamama. 0 Bel. Nebo. Kani-surra. Nana. casy to identify a goddess who bore so general a iiaine as that of 4 L tho lady” with any other fcmalc divinity. Zamama. At Borsippa. 57.” A text copied for Assur-bani-pal from a tablet originally written at Babylon. in fact.” Thc lattcr portion reads as follows : ‘‘(0 Bel. Istar the queen. and Zarpanit ’has not cricd to thee. the god of Kibib. 0 Bel. 261 ’ invader Eudur-nankhundi had carricd off 1635 years before the gcncrds of hssur-bani-pal recovered it in thc sack of Shushun.TAMPUZ AND ISTAB. I am here. which is said to be “the image of the southern sun 1 2 4 .’ they have not said to thee . A. K 220. 61.’ they have not said to thee. I. Samas. Nana the goddess who quickens the body has not cried to thee. Kana was madc onc with an othcrwisc unknown deity ’Sutitil (?).3 why dost thou not take thy seat 1’ . Sala. why) dost thou not take thy scat in Babylon 1 In ESaggil is set thy dwcllin. why dost thou not take thy seat in Kis? In EDubba (the house of libation) is set thy dwellingplace.”‘ and an augural tablet is curcful to distinguish between Nana and ‘‘ Istar the quccn” (n~ilkalu). I. 60. Obv.52). and late texts draw a distinction between Nana and Istar. Nergal (Ugur). Mul-lil. On a contract-stone he is symbolized by an eagle. 18. ii. . Thus in a tttblct of cxorcisms.~ I t WDR.7-place. . Nana and Kasb&. 70). ii. 4. the patient is told to addrcss (‘Istar.

i. 6049. from which we may infer that the ordinary population even of Cutha had forgotten the special namo of their ancient goddess. the great mother ((deep” which was the home of the seven evil spiritsJ3and represented the waters of the abyss in their original chaotic state before they were reduced to order by the creator Ea. ‘ 0 Nergal (Ugur). 30. Laz tbe gods must obeydisappeared almost entirely from the pantheon of later Babylonia. A. iv. a few lines are quoted by Strassmaicr.’ they have not cried &to thee. I. 48.” We gather also from W. ii. Baliu probably was thc Gurrn of Eridu. and was remembered only by antiquarians. 27).”l It will be noticed that in this hymn. W. If the king 01 Telloh whose name reads Ur-Bahu is to be identified with the wellknown Chaldean monarch Ur-Bagas or Ur-Zikum.2 but the namc of Bahu remained better known. she is ranked with Bahu of Kis and Laz and Mamit-that terrible ((Ban” which even who presided over Cutha. the Baau of the Phaaician of Kis. 1 Unnumbered. has not cried to thee. “the spirit of Gdra. A. Gen. “the men of Cuth” are said t o have “ made Nergal” only. except perhaps in Cutha itself. but was borrowed by the Accadiaiis at an early period . Zigarum or Zikdra stands for Zi-Gdra. 5. ii. A. 15. while Nana has ceased to be the special goddess of Erech and has becomc the goddess of Borsippa. Zikum and Zigarum or Zikdra are the names of Gurra when regarded as the whole body of chaos out of which the heaven and the earth were formed (W.” Cp. the identity of Bahu znd Zikum mould be certain. 57. that he was symbolised (like Aldla) by the eagle. ‘ 0 niy pure one. 53. why dost thou not take thy scat 1’ Laz and the goddess Naniit have not said unto theo. I. 2. 0 Ccl.I . Bahu. why dost thou not take thy seat in Cutha? I n E-‘Suliin [SIT-LAM] is set thy dwellingplace. Cahu is of Semitic origin.* She seems t o have been the Bohu of Genesis. 26.2C2 LECTUIZE IV. the queen of Kis. 2 Yet in 2 Kings xvii.

and. was no deity. that the recollection of what Bahu had primitively been should have faded out of the memories of the Semitic Babylonians.” “lady of life and death. though carefully distinguished from both Bahu and Nana in the earlier texts.” and is called Rubat. I. she is invoked as ‘‘the mother who has begotten the black-headed race (of Accadians). 263 S.znchuniathon. ended in the Semitic period by becoming confounded with both. iii.” “lady of the house of death. when he was identified with the Sun-god of Nipur. however. 67. She became the wife of the Sun-god of Kis (W. “the great goddess.l and had the titles of “lady of the evening. the word signified merely emptiness.” who.” In one of the prayers n the temple of Merodach at prescribed for recitation i Babylon. A. ‘(the watery deep. whose Greek interpreter identifics her with the night and makes her the mother of the first mortal men. As the gods of the Accadians had become Baalim. so Bahu. like the other goddesses of primsval Chaldzea. 63). She was originally the local goddess of Niiin. In fact. the Assyrian equivalent of the Accadian Gula.” and was thus a quite unsuitable rendering of the old Accadian Gurra.” There is little reason for monder. 68.” She thus takes the place that is occupied by Istar in the story of the Deluge. it is pretty clear from the local titles of Gula that she must once have been the evening star . 31. The Semitic Bohu. of Adar also (K 133. She thus passed into Gula. 21). k I . therefore. who is there made to declare that ‘(1 have begotten my people. and we can therefore under- ‘‘ 1 W. .3 . much less a goddess .TAYXUZ AND ISTAR. was swept into the common vortex of Ashtaroth.

but a goddess of t’he earth.” and Gula is but the Accadian original of Rubat. is but a popular perversion of Gingras. as Hommel thinks.” 1 and on the other hand is made the consort of Adar by the mythologists. v. the sky of the evening which was ruled by the evening star.i.A. slightly changed in pronunciation so as to remind the speaker of the Phenician Tcinndr. Sala.” just as KenkhrGis. the wife of Kinyras. the Semitic Istar. Bahu. and we can thus trace to its primitive home those forms of the myth of A d h i s which made his mother his sister as well. his own mother.264 LECTURE IV. stand why it is that on the one hand she is termed (‘the wife of the southern sun. 31. At Eridu. is again but Gingras in an Hellenised A. Kinyras. the Phamicians called him Gingras. In Cyprus. I f so. not the Istar of the evening star.I. A. But it is also quite possible that. The bride of Tammuz of Eridu was not the Istar of Erech. the Istar of the Semitic period inherited the attributes of Dav-kina. ‘‘ the great one . However that may be. whose assimilation t o Istar would have been assisted by the close relation existing between Anu and Nana.70.point of the various local deities of Chaldaea who were connected with the Sun-god. I. f W. In this way we may explain the statement that Gula is “ the heaven” (W. however. all alike are Gula. this might well have been Gula. one of the elements which went to make up the character of the later Istar was a goddess of the sky who corresponded to the Sky-god of Erech. and declare& that Kinyras was his father’s name.4. the goddess of the earth. the goddess of the earth was Dav-kina.A . “ the zither. 58). She forms the common meeting .

The fact r e m a k that from henceforth Istar became a Semitic goddess. . p. The mode of writing the name proved very COILvenient for the Semites. we have no means of determining. who employed it to denote the name of their own goddess ‘ S a r i (instead of ‘Saris). 29. Perhaps therefore we should look to Eridu as the source of the name. 48. where Ea and Davkina would be grouped together as ‘‘ the gods Sar-sar. therefore. 40. gave a welcome to its own Istar. 143. like dingir. or whether it had already been received at Erech. Each city had its own Gingira. Whether the Semitic colouring which the worship of I s h r received was given to it now for the first time at Accad.’ Gingiri. the words explained in the portion of the text which gives the gloss Gingira seem to belong to a document that emanated from the court of Sargon of Accad. which we are told was the Accadian name of Istar. When the empire of Sargon had transported the deities of southern Chaldsea t o Accad. I. 54. see 11.” each city. ii.and the astronomical notices. or ‘( creatress . 47. signified “creator. Now the title of Gingras seems to bear the marks of its origin upon its face. The identification of Istar and Gingira simplified the process whereby the worship of the goddess spread through Babylonia. according to ii. 265 form. However. In the early Accadian inscriptions Gingira has the more correct form Gingiri (written G I N G I . The ideographs of which it is a gloss read Sar-sar.TAMMUZ AND ISTAR. however. meant nothing more specific than L L goddess. Istar naturally accompanied her bridegroom Tammuz. A. as well as for the people of Van in after times. her cult was almost 1 W. or Gingira. I t is the old Accadian Gingiri. 55.” It was the feminine equivalent of the masculine dingir. See also above.’’ The “ great” goddess of southern Babylonia was thus the creator of the world just as much as the god who stood by her side.” corresponding to the An-sar and Ki-sar of another system of cosmogony. a name of Ea. and.~ ~ ) . who rcgarded it as expressing their Ista-ri (instead of Istar or Istaru).

the femininc development of the life-giving Sun-god. Prostitution became a religious duty. whose wages were consecrated to the goddess of love. and that her festivals were scenes of consecrated orgies. The fierce passions excited by an Eastern sun found their expression in it. The worshipper who would serve her truly had to share with her her pains and pleasures. and be.266 LECTURE IV. aided by the Semitic conception of the female side of the divinity. teeming with fertility. the revolting’ features connected with it spread at the same time. united with the deity. Her worship was a reflexion of that worship of nature which underlay the Semitic conception of Baalism. the patroness of love. purely Semitic in character. the Greek writers stand aghast at the violations of social decency enjoined as religious duties on the adorers of the oriental Aphrodith. and Lucian himself --if Lucian indeed be the author of the treatise-& . She was now the fruitful goddess of the earth. as it were. had ceased to be the “pure” goddess of the evening star. She was served by eunuchs and by trains of men and boys who dressed like women and gave thcmselves up to women’s pursuits. and the two p e a t centres of her worship were the Semitic cities of Erech and Accad. Only thus could he live the diirine life. The other elements in her hybrid character had come t o the front. It was on this account that the women wept with Istar each year over the fatal wound of Tammuz. it was on this account that her temples mere filled with the victims of sexual passion and religious frenzy. The prophets of Israel n honour of Ashdenounce the abominations committed i toreth and Baal within the sacred malls of Jerusalem itself. Istar. in fact. As the worship of the goddess spread westward.

the cult. who sought and found beneath the superstitions of their countrymen a purer religion and a more abiding form of faith. produced alternate outbursts of frenzied self-torture and frenzied lust. which required from the believer a sympathetic participation in the suffcrings and pleasures of his deities. goddess Ma was ministered to by GO00 eunuch-priests. but it produced cultivated scribes and thinkers. 267 shocked at the self-mutilation practised before the altar of the Syrian goddess of Hierapolis. and who cared for their welfare with a mother’s love. Istar was to them a divine “mother. and the Galli of Phrygia rivalled the priests of Baal and Ashtoreth in cutting their arms with knives. at once life-giving and deathdealing. Babylonia does not seem to have produced any class of men like the Israelitish prophets. like that of At@Adonis. could not but exercise a humanising influence. the. made its way. At Komana in Kappadokia. The worship of the fierce powers of nature.TAMMU2 AND TSTAR. in scourging their backs. But there were many whose higher and finer natures were affected only by the humanising influence and not by the popular faith. From Syria.” the goddess who had begotten mankind. to the populations beyond the Taurus. The cult of a goddess tirho watched over the family bond and whose help was ever assured to the faithful in his trouble. however. with all its rites. and in piercing their flesh with darts. There was. It i s tme that they seem to have preferred addressing her by some other name than that which was polluted by the Galli and their female corn- . a gentler side to the worship of Istar. however much that influence may have been sullied by the excesses of the popular religion.

who blazeth like the fire. or Italy may to-day regard his local Virgins as distinct each one from the other . that the priest of Bel was told to pray. and that Gula and Nana and Milkat were but various names under which thc samc dcity was adored. 0 goddess (istaritum). but no more.268 LECTURE I?. adorn the heaven ! Thou who art set as the jewelled circlet of moonstone1 adorn the heaven ! 1 SUM. A. 40. I. cvcn as the peasant of Spain. 59). it is true. thou who art strong as the earth ! Thee. art thou.from the Accadian subu. in fact. 3he people. they would havc said that thc goddess to whom their petitions and praiscs wcrc addressed was indeed Istar. 58. adorn the heaven ! 0 virgin Istar.” The Suba was the name of a god (ii. But if questioned. 0 virgin. the path of justice approaches thee when thou enterest into the house of man. he did not scruple to translate by the common name of Istar the several names under which the chief goddess of Babylonia went in the old Accadian hymns. ( ( the goddess. who stalks in the midst. the educated Babylonian knew them to be but one-divers forms of the godhead. and thc translators of the penitential psalms turn the Nana ( I m n a ) of the Accadian original into istaritu. the Assyrian equivalent of which was ( a h ) yarakhu (W. . It is thus that we rcad in one of these : “The light of heaven. it was to Gula. A hysna. when thou fixest thy dwelling-place in the earth . may havc rcgardcd the goddesses of Babylonia as separate divinities. art thou I A lion. 227) the sutartum or “jewelled circlet” belongs to Tillili. who springs to seize the lamb.46). art thou ! By day. radea. and is composed of “eye-stones. ii. I n the legend of the Descent of Istar (p. rather than to Istar or Rubat." instcad of Istar.

That which glows in the clouds of heaven. is my glory. My father Nannaru has appointed me . 12). My glory extinguishes the heaven. c‘ the unique monster” ( w g a t ) . Istar the divinity of the dawn am I.” “ unique” (as here. My glory sweeps6 away the mountains altogether.” Mistranslated in the Assyrian. where the Accadian equivalent aignifies “going alone”).” and means “sole.” is derived f r o m the secondary sense of gitmalu as ‘( monstrous” or ‘‘gigantic. alone am I appointed. adorn the heaven ! <ToCILUSO enlightenment to prevail‘ am I appointed. “ tho gift of light. In the beginning WBJ I a goddess (istuvitum) who marched on high. 50. I n the resplendent heaven to cause enlightenment to prevail am I appointed. AE the god Suba is stated to be a form of the Sungod. he is doubtless to be identified with Tammuz m “ god of the Moon-stone. that gitmalu is the Accadian sar. alone’ am I appuintcd. whose name is renowned in the world. “ big. which has wrongly construed the Accadian postpositions. As queen5 of heaven above and below may my glory be addressed. i n the beginning was my glory. iv. alone am I appointed.” 9 Gitmalu.“ In the original. alone am I appointed. the spoiler of the earth is my glory. By the side of my brother the Sun-god to cause enlightenment to pitwail am I appointed. and of a river which was consecrated to Tammuz (ii. 269 Companion of th0 Sun-god. Istar the opcner of the bolts of the bright heaven is my (name of) glory.” 1 In the Accadian. to cause enlightenment to prevail am I appointed. it spoils the mrth. Istar4 the divinity of the evening sky am I. 69. ‘(mistress of the sky. By the side of my father the hfoon-gods to cause enlightenment to prevail am I appointed. ((tofinish.TANMUZ AND ISTAR. like Ilba. The Aesyrian trdation misrenders : ‘‘I sweep away. The statement in W. 76. I n the original Accadian. I. The word has no connection with gam&. In the beginning was my glory. A. The extinguisher of the heaven.” .

lady of heaven. lady of the temple of the pasturage of mankind. also called icapar d i . (CoLoPHoN. may thy liver be tranquil. lady of the land of Erech. lady of E-Ana. 0 mistress. 0 mistress. 12. 0 mistress. and is of the age when Erech and Babylon were the leading cities of Chaldaea. thou art their mighty bolt. 4 Kharsag-lralama. or ’Sabu (v.” The concluding litany probably belongs to a later period than the rest of the hymn. ii. I. may thy heart be at rest. 0 lord (Eel). the name of a temple at ICis (W. to which it has been attached. The Syrian goddess who migrated westward was a warThe Assyrian mistranslates : “ I am. ” the village of the warrior” Tammuz (ii 62.15). 50. may thy liver bo tranquil. may thy lieart be at rest. 3 ‘‘The city of Sula. 0 mistress. may thy liver bo tranquil.” But Istar was not merely the goddess of love. By the side of the amorous goddess there was also a warlike one.’ May thy heart rest. lady of Babylon. lady of spirits. may thy liver be tranquil. 0 goddess (istariturn). may thy heart bo at rest. 0 my glory. 1 2 . A. lady of hcaven. Thou art1 the mighty fortress of the mountaim. “the village of the shepherd. 12. may thy liver be tranquil. 0 mistress. may thy heart be at rest. ii. A. lady of tho land of the city of precious stoues? may thy heart be at rest. 49. 66.)-Tearful supplication of the heart to Istar.2 0 lord (Bcl) Anu the mighty one. 0 lady of the temple. may thy liver be tranquil. lady of the name of Nana. 67).” or kayur garradi. 61.4 may thy liver Le tranquil. 0 mistress.270 LECTURE IV. I. Like its old copy written and published. 0 mistress. lady of the mountain of mankind. Palace of Assur-banipal. may thy heart be at rest. 0 mistress.” “The river of Sula” is called “the river of Tammuz” or of Suba in W. 50). the mighty mountain Mul-lil. king of Assyria.

her lineal descendant. as was natural i n the case of a military nation. had once been united in the Istar of ChaldEa.rior as well as a bride. That she should have had no famous temple i n . The Artemis of Ephesos. The goddess of the Hittitcs and of Asia Minor preserved mainly her fiercer side. however. but in making their way to Greece thcy had become separated and diverse. was separated by a wide gulf from the Aphroditk of Cyprus. The warrior-queen of Assyria. with its two centres of her tvorship at Erech and Accad. The dove into which Semiramis was changed was the bird sacred to Istar. Among the Hittites and their disciples in Asia Minor. Her passion for her son Ninyas. For Semiramis is but Istar in another guise. in fact. Both sides. While the gentler-mannered Babylonians preferred to dwell upon the softer side of Istar. for Tammuz the Sungod. as Semiramis deserts MenBn for Ninos or Nineveh. Both Artemis and Aphrodite were alike the offspring of the same Babylonian deity. was the great Babylonian goddess in her martial character. but by Amazons-warrior priestesses -as well. Like Babylonia. the goddess of Phcenician Cyprus her gentler side. ((the Ninevite. the Assyrians. so did Istar desert her old haunts for her later temple at Nineveh. the Dav-kina of Eridu. Assyria also had its two great sanctuaries of Istar at Nineveh and krbela.” whom another version of the myth names Zames or Samas. As Istar was called ((queen” by the Assyrians. The Greek myths which recounted tho story of Semiramis recorded the fact. she was served not only by Galli. so is Semiramis the queen of Assyria. saw in her mainly the goddess of war and battle. is an echo of the passion of Istar.

which the natives of the Babylonian cities possessed. we can trace its progress through the historical inscriptions until it culminates in the reign of Assur-bani-pal. 86. “Assyrian. The Assyrians were an essentially Semitic people.” 2 Tiglath-Pileser 111. Doubtless the earliest inhabitants of the Assyrian cities had brought with them the name and worship of Istar.” not ‘LAssurito. Assur.” who sat as a queenly shdow by the side of Bel. once mentions Seruhs apparently as the con. but it could only have been long afterwards that it attained its final celebrity. vi.2 Except Istar. 1 6 ) . supported as it was by tho (( 1 Tiglath-Pileser I. like Zarpanit at Babylon or even 8 at Accad. the mistress of the gods. “the old Bel” (Col. speaks of building one there along with temples of Martu and of Bel-labaru. shows clearly the comparatively late development of her cult. sort of Assur (Lay.l the old capital of the kingdom. Indeed. 87). Their supreme goddess accordingly was that vague and colourless Bilit ili. They had none of those associations with the older Accadian goddesses. There was a particular cause for this gradual development which was connected with the warlike attributes of the Assyrian Istar. with their specific names and functions. He gives Istar the title of Asmriti. the Assyrian pantheon was destitute of a goddess who could assert her equality with the gods. the evening star. therefore. there was no goddess among them who could claim a more independent position than that of a Bilit ili. But the name of Istar. 17. apart from Istar. but this i s in connection with his occup& tion of Babylonia .272 LECTURE IV. Assur himself had no special consort.

invoking her only at the end of their list of gods . became transferred to the Assyrian Istar..Assur-natsirpal and his son Shalmaneser II. the Bilat ili. had already paved the way.’’ Even Sargon and Sennacherib are chary of their references to her. the strengthener of battle. the bearer of the bow of war.i n Babylonia sacrifices to Nana of Erech T A I . Rimmon-nirari I.. sufiiced to keep dive a recollection of the fact that such female divinities had once been recognised. 2’73 traditions. ’ and her identification with in Semitic Accad.” (‘the chieftainess of heaven and earth who makes perfect the face of the warriors. pay her but slight attention. it was necessary that she should be a goddess of war. therefore. on the other hand she absorbed their attributes into herself. Accordingly. It was thus that the fiercer aspect of the Sun-god as a warrior.TAYMUZ AND ISTAR. The ancient myths which had made her the bride of Tammuz and Alala. while Istar on the one hand tended to be merged into the vague and general Bilat ili. took upon herself all the offices and attributes of Beltis. f i s t reflected on his consort. Istar. I f the Assyrians were to have a goddess at all. while TiglathPileser 1 1 1 .. the sacred tenchiug and the literature the Assyrians had brought from Babylonia. and when they address her. a deity with an independent character and position of her own. it is as “ the lady of onset.Tiglath-Pileser I.” “ the lady of battle and war. and the rise of Nineveh as the capital of the country. while still preserving her individuality. the second process went on rapidly. With the increasing fame of her shrines at Nineveh and hrbela. The earlier kings of Assyria. the wife of the Sun-god. Istar of Arbela ww primarily a militant deity.

king of Assyria.’’ 4 ‘ 1 Twticlcs. (and) behind his feet.’ and Shalmaneser 1 1 . the Lady of Erech Nana. the Lady of Life. and Nergal. “ solicitude.4 thy nurse and (thy guardian) am I. “ the wife of Bel. akin to khardatu.” But with Esar-haddon all is changed Oracles of encourage ment and prophecies of victory pour in for him from the priestesses and priests of the temple of Istar at Arbela. 0 king. like the crown of my head. “ strong beams of wood. in Arbela.” Another oracle is even more explicit : ‘‘ I am Istar of Arbela. Fear not. the mother of the (great) gods. I will cause the light which clings to it to shine before the face of Esar-haddon. I have spoken with thee. For long days and everlasting years thy throne I have established in earth and heaven the mighty.A. 2 Literally.” according .” 3 Akharidi. shall protect thee. “I am thy strong Baal. in Assur. the god Kasdinnam. the Sun-god on thy left. 0 Esar-haddon.” is the prophecy delivered through the mouth of the priestess Bay$. in (Nineveh). 31-33) speaks of “the Sun-god of Laria. for thou hast given me power.I. long days and everlasting years will I give to Esar-haddon my king. rather than to Istar. I have not withheld myself ( 1 ) 1 Similarly Senmcherib (W.” She promises to give his foes into his hand: ‘LFearnot. I devise the might2 of thy heart: I am jealous3 as thy mother. i n Kasdinnam we may see an A r a m a n form d the Biblical Kasdim. ( Lwho will do battle with the enemies before (his) feet. .” Kassitu probably means “ the Kassite” or Kossaean goddess . For my veil of gold in the midst of heaven I am jealous. the goddess Utsura-amatia. i. my strong ones.274 LEmrJBE IV. the goddess Kassitu. Istar declares herself to be his Haupt. 43. I am the lover of thy limbs. the sixty great gods. king of Assyria . the Lady o f Rub-esi (?). 0 Esar-haddon. the Moon-god shall be on thy right hand. distinguishes between the military goddess Istar and Beltis (Nin-lil). in Galah.

and as he rested. the great (goddess). appearance of the star of the Bow. however. 0 Gar-haddon. It was the name of the part ofthe palace set apart for the royal harem. that his attention was more particularly bestowed. and. in the assembly of his forces... I obeyed not the command of his rebellious mouth.” .. 35.” and it ww ‘‘by the command of Assur and Istar” that his wars were undertaken. I looked to Istar who looks on me. I w i l l -use thee to cross. the chosen city of her heart. When Teumman of Elam threatened the empire with invasion. T2 . w i t h my hands do I make an end of thy foes. It was. I stayed in Arbela.TAMMUZ AND IBTAR. (‘ the queen of Kidmur. (Thus did) the Moon-god (give) me his command. 1 Also written Ridimwi. 275 (from thee). . upon Istar of Nineveh.. O f the invasion . K 11. in the month Tammue. (Thy) foeman shall to be. and laid before her the scornful message of the Elamite king. an eclipse during the morning watch obscured the lord of light and the sun was darkened . so too did I rest for three days. the month of the which may not be altered. . and by their help that they were crowned with suceess. I surrendered not the fugitives (he had demanded). ‘‘ When Teumman. The whole passage in which Assurbani-pal describes hie wnduct at this moment of danger is a striking parallel to what we read in the Old Testament concerning the Jewish monarch. I n the month Ab.” says Amur-bani-pal. Teumman devised evil. knelt there at the feet of his deity. he went into the temple of t h ~ goddess.the festival of the glorious queen the daughter of Bel (Md-lil).”l rather than upon Istar of Arbela. Nineveh was for him ‘‘the supreme city of Istar. that the regnal years of the king of Elam might beended and his country deRtroyed. like Hegekiah when he received the letter of Sennacherib. as well as her care and protection. Amur-bani-pal inherited his father’s devotion to Istar. The river. in despite of opposition. the faithful son. (and) the Moon-god devised for him omens of evil . “ strongthaned himself in Elam. son of Beltis. in order to worship her.

she caused me to overflow with (joy of) heart : ‘For the lifting up of thy hands which thou hast lifted up. . the creation of thy hands (and the creation of Assur). they reported to me as follows : ‘Teumman says thus and thus of Istar. has made ready for war.’and they reported the tenor of his message that he would not depart until he had gone against Assarbani-pal to make war. do thou that art the archer of the gods. has asked his soldiers to march to Assyria. who marched godlessly. the father who created thee. (and) she came with favour to me.. and now he. whom (thou hsst desired) to give rest to the heart of Assur and (Merodach). I go to worship (thy divinity) . she drew a heavy falchion to make war . . when I have gone. this . Istar. Assur-bani-pal. and smite him as a tempest of evil wind. I seek after thy courts. that I might restore the shrines of Assyria and complete the fortresses of Accad.276 LECTURE IV... . I am coming !’ Thou shalt answer her thus : To the place to which thou goest with thee let me go ! The lady of ladies even she declares to thee thus : I will defend thee that thou mayest dwell in the sacred precincts of Nebo : eat food. appoints thee this message : ‘ Thou entreatest to gain victory.’ she said. . 29. I prayed to the exalted one. the exalted of the gods. of the Elamite. her countenance was wrathful. The library of Kouyunjik seem intended. . the lady of war. . a certain seer slept. to make glad the heart of Assur and to give rest to the liver of Merodach. who has sinned (grievously) against Assur (the king of the gods). I. glorify my divinity . . has come up to (make war). In the he hath desired me. Teumman.. 1 See W. king of Elam. and ‘Fear not. for thine eyes (that) are filled with tears. I did honour to her divinity. As for Teumman. the terror of conflict..18. . ‘ 0 lady of Arbela.’ I n that very hour of the night when I prayed to her. he has gathered his army. On account of this threat which Teumman had uttered. tho father that created thee. utterest blessings. A revelation during the night Istar revealed to him (which) he repeated to me thus : ‘Istar who dwells in Arbela entered. drink wine. She held a bow in her hand . . Like a fond mother she speaks with thee. ‘I am Assur-bani-pal. the place lies before thee . strike him down like a weight in the midst of the battle. ii.. I have compassion. the father that created thee. and he dreams a prophetic (9) dream. king of Elam.’ My lamentable supplication did Istar hear. Thou art the lady of ladies...who in the presenoe of Assur. the queen of the gods. . I wept before her. . . who values not the gods. . and against Merodach thy brother and conipanion and (against) me.’ I prayed. I bowed beneath her. Istar . she cries to thee. . and right and left was a quiver uplifted. . A. keep festival.

is the ordinary fashion in which Assyrian art portrayed the warlike goddess. In the midst of battle.were the brood of chaos. the deities of the popular faith were all represented in human shape. which were depicted in sacred art. the friend of Gisdhubar. half men and half birds. personification of anarchy and chaos. the dragon . of the gods of heaven over the Titanic monsters of an extinct ‘‘ * On an early cylinder in the British Museum. were suckled by Tiamat. I will cause the desire of thy heart to prevail . pp. 1 G. and even then the skin is but thrown over his back like a priestly cloak. not of the present order of the world. of which that of Assyria was but a modification. But Assyrian art was not peculiar in thus depicting the goddess of love and war. in his character of god of life. or as composite figures partly human and partly bestial. 27 7 message shall be accomplished.”l Istar is here represented in human form. in fact. thy face shall not grow pale. Their disappearance marked the victory of light over darkness.TAMMUZ IWD ISTAR. in her kindly womb she embosoms thee and embraces thee on every side. Before her a fire is kindled (fiercely) to overcome thy foes.”2 is given the fish’s skin. The legend of the creation preserved by the priests of Cutha declares that the creatures. or mythical personages like Ea-bani. The oldest cylinders of Semitic Chaldaea agree in this respect with the bas-reliefs of the palaces of Nineveh. The composite monsters. thy feet shall not stumble. with a quiver on either shoulder and a bow in the hand. whose forms B&rBssossaw painted on the walls of the temple of B&los. . In the older art of Babylonia. Smith’s Amur-bani-pal. who are portrayed a8 animals. This. Ea alone. thy beauty (1) shall not fade. It is only the demons and inferior spirits.

It is true that the Kassite sovereign Agu-kak-rim6 (cir. A. and harmonised with the Semitic belief that made the deity the father of the human race. and allowed his ancient deities of light and life to take permanently upon them the human shape. 1 . A. the title of god. but Agu-kak-rim2 wm neither a Semite nor a Sumerian. who had created man in his own image. gives Naram-Sin. 4). human in character and human in form. The deities of Babylonia were emphatically human . Even in pre-Semitic days.) the divine title is prefixed to the royal name. 33. They stood in marked contrast to the animal-headed gods of Egypt. found by Gen. 1630) claims to be descended from the god Sugarnuria (W. Chaldaean art had already followed the same line of thought.1 For there are many indications that it had not always beenso. and that it never took firm hold of the religious faith of the people. a t any rate as regards the earlier period of Semitic Babylonia. i. A hamatite cylinder. v. B. and had depicted its divinities in the likeness of men. xix. and on the bricks of Amar-Agu or Buru-Sin of U r (W.C. I. it was not until the Accadian came in contact with the Semite that he felt the full force of the Semitic conception. age. It is significant that this deification of the monarch is coeval with the rise of Semitic supremacy. proves pretty clearly that the Babylonians had once seen nothing derogatory to the divine nature in such a mode of representation. 1 The fact that the gods of Babylonia were represented in human form leads us to expect to find also the converse fact. the apotheosis of men. The very fact that the divine beings who in the Semitic era were relegated to the realms of chaos o r the inferior world of subordinate spirits. i. d i Cesnola in Cyprus. but in pre-Semitic days this was a tendency only. I.278 LECTURE IV. the invader of the island. and to claim descent from a god is not the wme 23 claiming to be a god oneself. At all events. were t o the last represented as partly bestial in form. there is no trace of it from the time of Khammuragas downwards. 5. the son of Sargon. Our expectation is fulfilled.

When the gods had become human. We are taken back to an epoch of totemism. or sacred animal. or Ea. but also of the homo and the lion. and. he sank each night into the watsrs . when the tribes and cities of Chaldea had each its totem. whose names are not given to us. popular tradition has preserved a recollection of the time when the gods of Babylonia were still regarded as eagles and horses and lions. or the eagle-headed cherubs who knelt on either side of the sacred tree. is not borne by art alone. and who eventually became its creator-god. it was ever remembered. where in the infancy of Assyrian research they were supposed to represent the Zodiacal signs. however. That they were originally something more than mere symbols is expreasly indicated in the myths about the goddess of love. Not less clear is the legend of tho first introduction of culture into the valley of the Euphrates. were survivals of a time when ‘‘ the great gods of heaven and earth” were themselves imaged and adored in similar formi The same evidence is borne by the animals on whose backs the anthropomorphic deities are depicted as standing in later art. like a fish. Oannes. had the body of B fish. like the Sun-god of Eis. It is these symbols which appear on the Babylonian boundary-stones. 279 The winged bulls who guarded the approach t o the temple and protected it from the invasion of evil spirits. to whom it offered divine worship. the eagle. at any rate. Gisdhubar taunts her with her treatment. there was no other place left for the mimala with whom they had once been so intimately connected.PROMETHEUS ANI) !IQTEMISN. Here. The evidence. The written texts aver that the gods were symbolised by animals. whose “image” or symbol was the eagle. not only of &&la.

” and is a tiphel forniation from the Assyrian verb ardkhu.he case further north. 3 9 .” We should.”2 and the ship” or ark of Ea in which his image was carried at festivals was entitled ‘(the ship of the divine antelope of the deep. “to run quickly. i i 02. I.280 LECTURE IV. I. p. where the contact with Semitic thought was less strong and abiding than was t. 55. of the Persian Gulf when the day was closed which he had spent among his favoured disciples of Eridu. at all events from southern Babylonia. indeed.” thc antelope the prince. The name of Ea himself affords us an example of what me may find. 8 W. turakhu in Assyrian. and the fact that it is not so points to the conclusion that the culture-god of southern Babylonia was an amalgamation of two earlier deities. 51). f W.” ( L the antelope the creator. one the divine (( (( 1 Turakhu is the Arabic arkhu. embodying the beliefs of a period which had long passed away at the date of the earliest monuments that have come down to us. i.” The word has no connection with the Accadian d a m Friedrich Delitzsch long ago suggested that it represented the Biblical Terah (Assyrische Studien. havo expected that the animal of Ea would have been the 6sh rather than the antelope. We can learn a good deal about this totemism from the old ideographic representations of the names of the chief deities. whence perhaps the Biblical name of Terah). ii. They are like fossils.l Thus we arc told that Ea was called ‘L the antelope of the deep. “an antelope. A. from which we may infer how long it was before totemism disappeared. The culture-god himself had once been a totem. A. 27-30.” “the lusty antelope. . It is sometimes expressed by an ideograph which signifies literally an antelope” (clam in Accadian.

1. and the goddess Innina on the other. but. It was not only called the river of the great deep”a term which implied t h t it was a prolongation of the Persian Gulf and the encircling ocean. the shepherd’s hut the of the lillu” or trspirit. 281 antelope. as Hommel has already pointed out (VwsemitiscileKuZhreu. A. 360). Nina. ii. Oppert may accordingly be right in thus reading the name of the goddess as she appears on the monuments of Tel-loh. In-nlina ia mentioned along with Nina. I . 45-49. and Dr. This was the serpent. There was yet another animal with which the name of Ea had been associated.PROMETHEUS AND TOTEMISM. I. 33. 38. it was further named the river of the duhr ZiZZi. is both the fish-goddess and the divinity whose name is interchanged with that of the make2 Now Nina was the daughter of Ea.” (‘the river of Innina. her eldest (( (( W. therefore. The Euphrates in its southern course bore names in the early inscriptions which distinctly connect the serpent with Ea on the one hand. iv. 51.”l In-nina is but another form of Inn6na or N h a . A.Among the chief deities reverenced by the rulers of Tel-loh was one whose name is expressed by the ideographs of fish” and enclosure. that the pronunciation of Nina was attached to it . the mention of In-niina belonging to the later portion of the text. 9 In W. It seems clear. and the other the divine fish.” and ((the river of the girdle of the great god. consequently. Perhaps it was originally as the god of the river that Ea had been adored under the form of the wild beast of the Eden or desert. this magical text includes older and newer elements. and we may see in her at once the Istar of Eridu and the female correlative of hh.p.” ‘( river of the snake.” which served in later days to denote the name of Nina or Nineveh. 1 .

ii. 19. as god of the deep he was Oannes the fish. His daughter was denoted by a compound ideograph which represented her birth from the residence of the fish-god. it is pretty clear that Nina. (‘the lady. the fish and the serpent. In fact. “more subtil than any beast of the field” which had been created in the land of Edina. After comparing it with ‘<thefish of seven fins.” Here the serpent is regarded as essenW. my weapon of fifty heads (I bear). . which like the great serpent of seven heads is yoked with seven heads. 1118. though she was herself one of the poisonous reptiles that swarmed in the marshes at the mouth of the Euphrates. where Dungi built her a temple which he called ‘‘the house of the jewelled circlet” (sut~rtu). After this.’ he goes on to say : (‘The tempest (mdtu) of battle. Ea was the antelope as god of the river. I . at Eridu. daughter being described in a text of Tel-loh as ‘L the lady of the city of Mar.. which like the strong serpent of the sea (sweeps away) the foe. and whose title was but a dialectic variation of that of Nana given to her a t Erech.“33 LECTURE IV.This latter epithet recalls to us the Tillili of the Tammuz legend as well as the Istar of later Babylonia. A.” the modern Tel Id. It is now possible to explain the allusions in an old Accadian poem.” must have been that primi‘ tive Istar of Eridu and its neighbourhood who mourned like Tillili the death of Tammuz. according to Hommel. in which Merodach (3) is made to describe his weapon of war. It was in this way that the serpent became connected with the god of wisdom. it is not difficult to disentangle the primitive relation that existed between the totems of the antelope.

69. and Tiamat is herself the deep” in a Semitic dress. A. ii. 10. I. after all.Assyrian (W. I .’j2 and it is probable that the imagination of a later time confounded this serpent of darkness with the dragon Tiamat. ia Accadisn. But this early serpentworship faded away with the transformation of the totem into an anthropomorphic deity. It was a curious process of development which eventually transformed the old serpent . W. ii. but. The goddess Nina ceased to retain her serpentile attributes. At times Ea was regarded 88 a gazelles rather than (( W. I . I. Doubtless the serpent-god of the primitive Siunerian was morally of a negative nature. 17. 5.” “the serpent of darkness . ii. like the spirits of the earth. and the mythical fish which may be tho totem of the fish-god is provided with seven fins.7. A. 19. ditanu in.goddess. 12. Nina had sprung &om the fish-god of the deep. the incarnation of wickedness and guile. the lady Nina. or else regarded as injuring only his enemies. and after the era of the monuments of Tel-loh passed almost entirely out of memory.” into the embodiment of all that was hostile to the powers of heaven. what indeed he always seems to have been in genuine Semitic belief. A.l The destructive character of the great serpent is naturally insisted on.PROIKETHEUB AND TOTEIIZISX. 283 tially a serpent of the sea. Elin. 65. The ‘‘evil spirits” were seven in number also. while he did good to those who propitiated him. The ‘( evil serpent” is called “the monetrous (rmsSra) serpent of the sea” in W. . the leader of the powers of night and chaos. while the serpent became. 6. We read in the bilingual lists of “the evil serpent. and in its seven heads we mag see the primitive conception of its divine power. 24. ii. A. 19.

69. as an antelope. Merodach is apparently identified with the god Tutu. A.I. shows what species of animal must be meant. We find it repeatedly on the early Chald m n cylinders. It was thus that he was entitled “tho princely gazelle. 31-33). corresponds to the sign of Capricornus and was dedicated to Pap-sukal. declares that he is “As’arielim. and the representative of its god of the under-world. who was specially called “ the gazellegod. accordingly. indeed. the mighty prince. there was a deity called U Z .” We may infer.” Comp. ii.I. A. however.” seems to be a re-duplicated form of the same word. ii. I n line 10. “ king. the tenth month.” 1 K 2854. W. and as such was exalted into the Zodiacal sign of Capricornus. which was also sacred. i i 48.” A hymn which celebrates Merodach under a number of his archaic names. 55. 6. it is possible that Pap-sukal. that the gazelle had once been the totem of Nipur. sometimes simply standing at his side as a symbol.”l The gazelle.” (‘the gazelle who gives the earth” (W. I. Since Tebet. the archaic Babylonian form of the aharacter . iv. “the mighty one of the gazelle-god. 5 . 59. It was. Bel (Mul-lil) (and Ea). Lulim. 5. and a iv. 70. Both Zulim and elim are said to be equivalent to sarru.” was himself the goat-god. a peculiarly sacred animal. A. “ a stag. 55. was more correctly appropriated to Mul-lil of Nipur. In the first line he is called Aiari.A. It frequently takes the place of the goat. At any rate. the director of the laws of Anu. The position of the name in the list of animals (W. a In W. I . I C nourisher ( 9 ) of the black-headed race. 6. I. ~ the Accadian word for a goat.284 LECTURE IV.” the lusty gazelle. 5 5 . ii. W. TO. the light (of the gods). A. 55). “ the messenger of the gods. sometimes being offered in sacrifice to a deity. of whom it is said that “ h e confronts their life” (BA-AN-TE ana napisti-sunu). and Merodac5 as his son is termed ABari-elim. ii. sabis zalmat kakkadi. 7). 34.

60. iv. 01 “light-coloured. 2. Rassam in the temple of the Sun-god at Sippara describes ‘ I Sin. 30. ii.” of the eyes. 11). 24.PRONETHEUS AND TOTEMISM.” as being ‘ I set as companions at the approach to the deep in sight of the god UZ. “chain. watching the revolution of the solar disk. ‘‘a goat. 28. which is placed upon a table and slowly turned by means of a rope. 284. “ t o make like. I. The species of goat u r (Semitised into s u m ) in Accadian (W. 1 W. compared with 21. I.’’~The ‘‘crown of the Sun-god” is further said to be the uz. A.” was a title of the Sun-god of Sippara.” from emu. With a play upon the resemblance of the Semitic word uzzu. 32. I. 3. we may infer that Uz.” or birtu. ‘‘ a citadel. the sacred dress of the Babylonian priests. 4 Not ‘‘ the shepherd T a m m q ” which would require the convem order of worda .” rendered banu. u the long-horned. “ t o see. ~ ~~ Uz is glossed by Utuki. I. Tim. 285 curious piece of sculpture on a stone tablet found by Mr. “the goat. thus we read in a hymn :2 ‘‘The milk of a light-colonred5 goat which in B pure feeding-place the shepherd of Tammuz4 has reared. iv.” 9 W. and is clad in a robe of goats’ skin. Samas and Istar. He holds in his hand a ring and bolt.” The common word birit has nothing to do with either birit. was called z 285. The milk *of the goat appears in the liturgical texts alon8 with other offerings to the gods. ii. A.” The god Uz himself is depicted as sitting on a throne. “glory.” but is from b a d . A. It reminds us of “the skins of the kids of the goats” which Rebekah put upon Isaac in order that he might receive his father’s blessing.I.” in W. A. As the document or documents upon which this tablet is a commentary seem to have been a product of the court of Sargon at Accad. v. 3 Asudu. 41). here means cc companions. or I‘ glory.” to the Accndian uz. The mythical “goat with six h e d s ” is referred to in a bilingual text (W. Accadian s’ig-giga.A. 6. iv. 11.” and explained to be synonymous with the Sun-god. ‘‘ the (great) spirit.

” 2 ‘‘ The god of far-reaching purity” or perhaps “the distant gleam”(?). the milk of the goat let the shepherd give thee with his pure hands. 13.” and in S 2073. was also deified. that she was ‘(the lady of the rising waters (a-khad) of Ea. A. 68. . ‘I May Nin-akha-kudda seize upon his body and rest upon his head !” and i n Haupt’s Keilschrifttmte.” I n K 4195. 4 sp. 0 Nin-akha-k~ida. 58. Merodach the son of Eridii has given the charm . Ohv. A. is called the milch-kid of Mul-lil. however. 5) we read of “the wool (or hair) of a QAR-US yet unborn. 26. Adar “ the first-born of Mul-lil. Mingle (it) in the middle of the skin of a suckling‘ yet unborn. “he-goat.2 the supreme goat of Mul-lil. I. I n &I 192.however.” Samas “ the lord of crowns. 662. an invocation is addressed to “ Nin-akha-kuddu. and in D. in a liturgical fragment (S 712. I.” “the god who prospers all above and below.” I n W. and Nin-zadini. iii. Let the god Az@a-iLiga. I . make the worshipper pure and bright !” Here the divine goat is associated with Nul-El. with his pure hands cause (it) to be eaten. R 9. Nin-kurra. I. ii. and in 6.” I n W. Azaga-hga (eud). . A.~ lady of the purely-gleaming water. Nin-akha-kuddu is identified with Iskhara or Istar.286 LECTURE I T ’ . it is said of the sick man. 1 UniJci. [En-nu-]gi the son of Nin-si-nagar-bu. I. 12. the wife of Rimmon. 40. Accadian QAR-US .” Similarly in 1266. 57. 37. 12-14. 15. mention is made of “the flesh of the QAR. The inference is not certain. 3 NIn-akha-kdda is invoked in other magic formulae : so in W.T.5. “ the purelygleaming water” (sunqu in Assyrinn). iii. 6S.sepa. we have I‘ the spell of Ea and Merodach. may represent digcc. and the names of its two shepherds are given in lines 36. ii.” Nin-akha-kuddu. Nin karratim and Istar. *S.” The following line shows that Agubba.” “ the divine king of the gods and the queen (of the gods).” where the goddess is associated with Ea and the deep. ligga is written Sippa. A. the spell of Damu and Gula. ii. iv. I n W. the spell of Nin-akha-kudda. and perhaps we may therefore conclude that it was specially adored at Nipur. 39. 12. we read of “the pure water of Ea. she is mentioned along with Bahu and Gula. the purely-gleaming water of Ninakha-kudda. the decider of (destiny). 14-16. ‘ I the horned one.ziga.” ‘ Merodach. and rendered by the Assyrian atudu. 48. Ea “the king of the deep. A. 4. “ the daily food” is enumerated of Mul-lil. Nin-akha-kudda means “ the lady who divides the rising (fresh) water” as appears from the statement in W. 49.. the water of the pure hand. of the pure deep.

”(2) Musetsu limnuti. p. The names are (1) Epar tallik epus nabakha. and even in Babylonia. . In Assyria. tsir QIRTAB nammas(tuv) 22 nin Eimnu tsitit lihbi tdbit (mmri). I have already alluded to the fact that the Sun-god of Nipur was connected with the pig. 2 See the illustration of a “Terra-cotta Tablet from Babylon. 687. it is not until we come to the time of Assur-bani-pal that we find the dog represented in the bas-reliefs.. there was a time when the Baby1 UB-KU K (unnumbered). We have a proof of this i n a prayer against the powers of evil. now in the British Museum. buanu Iimnu bwnu naptm s a sepa . the fetter which injures the feet. The dog is avoided by the earlier art of Assyria. almost the only representation of the animal that is known is on a terra-cotta plaque of the Sassanian period. the dog. belong t o the same monarch. In Semitic times the dog was as distasteful to the Babylonians as he was. may Merodach preserve US). and is. Adar was ‘‘lord of the swine.” and‘the swine would therefore seem to have once been a totem of the city in which he was worshipped..” in Layard‘s Nineveh and Babylon. the snake. .PROME!M€EUS AND T O T E M M I B Y . and the conclusion is supported by the large place occupied by the dog in what I may call the zoological mythology of Chaldaea. where a particular and much-esteemed breed existed. “ He ran and barked . to the Semitic inhabitants of other parts of the world."^ . ‘I the producer . Nothing could show more clearly that Babylonian totemism belongs to the preSemitic history of the country. tho reptile. 19-21. the possession of the heart. representing an Indian dog. the possession (of the body. with their names inscribed upon them. in which we read : “(From) the baleful fetter. The five clay figures of dogs. 287 as the text belongs to that later period when the cities and deities of Babylonia had been brought into union with one another.2 Nevertheless. the scorpion. and whatsoever is baleful. .

(‘the devourer.” 9 R2. 56. “to be violent. “ the seizer o f enemies. The beneficent god of later Babylonian religion owned four divine hounds. At all evcnts. An expedition they are gone. An incantation begins with the words : ‘‘0 Merodach. 7. seize them from behind and lay them domn. 3 K 2546.” it is said to him .”2 where perhaps we have a tradition of the age when Merodach was not as yet the god who raises the dead to life. V.” Akkulu. Rev. SOC. “the seizer.he great dogs” assault thee. Iltebu may be derived from ldtbu.288 LECTURE I T . “the biter of his foes . “the judge of his companions. 153. “watch of the mouth of life. pierce (&hi) their breast.” . 11. Bib.” (4) Munasiku gari-su. the lord of death. thy hand establishes the house of light. ( I the capturer. (Ea) has heard thee. A. I. ii.”1 We may suspect that the dogs were not always sent on errands of mercy.”(3) Dayan rits-su.” See Houghton on “ The Mammalia of the Assyrian Sculptures” in the [Tmns. Hold them and overcome them. lonian dog was otherwise regarded. The name is written ENNUN-KA-TI.”(5) Kasid Sbi. Strike their head. “when t. 8.” Iksuda.” and Iltebu. but the god of death only. never may they return! With the wind of mischief . the shepherd’s heart is told to rejoice because of the message sent h i m by Ea through the lips of Merodach. 1. 22-25. 1 W. shepherd of the flock. the hounds appear in no favourable character in the fragment of a legend which related to the shepherd Matsarat-pi-haladhi After a reference to Rimmon. namedukkumu. ‘(thepursuer. Nerodach and the dog were brought into connection with one another. Arch. then ‘(Matsarat-pi-baladhi. and that originally they had been devastating winds who followed in the track of a death-dealing god.

was primarily a goat. the lord of wisdom.“before the god b a g . Ea and his wife had each two divine I Cbulls” attached to them. Unlike the dog. ii. U . 51. by the command of Merodach. 59-63.T. I.l and that this was to be sought in southern Babylonia is indicated by the name of the Uknu. however. and was ordered to be followed by the triple repetition of a prayer . the river of ‘‘crystal. the ox remained in honour among the Babylonians. Seize their mouth. and what divinity he has is of a demoniac charactcr. the lord of revelation ” (bar-bar-ti). 13. A.”2 These bull-gods must be distinguished from the colossal figures. those of Ea being named “the god of the field of Eden” and “the god of the house of Eden. as we have seen. ” This god.PRONETEEUS AND TOTENISN. - 1 W. the dog has become a hateful creature. like the service. by the command of Ea.g-aphical list calls Dapara. 56. transports us to Semitic days. by the command of the Sun-god. seize their mouth. The recitation of this curious begend formed part of a religious ceremony. “ the mountain of the Bull-god. account that a portion of an old poem about a shepherd who had driven away the dogs from his flock was introduced into the service. and make them ascend.h g a .A. The poem. seize their weapons ! Seize their teeth (sui). the lord of all that is above.” There is some evidence that the primitive Bull-god was Merodach himself. A n early ge0. 289 may they go. with the storm ab01e it ! Take their road and cut off their going. ii.” the country of crysta1. and the mythologists accordingly did not wholly forget that one at least of ((the great gods” had once been identified with this animal. and it was no doubt on t.

” but such was never their name among either Babylonians OF Assyrians. but not bulls. at all events to the Semitic Babylonian. with the suffix d(a).” from ala. the gods or genii of the household.” The sky. The last word seems t o have been borrowed from the Accadian lummu i n its primitive form (lamas). The human head showed that the creature was endowed with humanity as much as Ea-bani. therefore. The bull-like body of the divine guardians of the household symbolised strength. in fact.” The winged bulls and the divine bulls of Eridu mere not one and the same. makes us inclined to connect the Bull-god of Dapara very closely indeed with the city of Eridu. Alad is “the spirit. c c the bull of light. that guarded the entrance to a temple. at finding Merodach entitled in early astronomical literature Gudi-bir. as we have seen. the winged bulls. in Assyrian.” The pole-star was called.* W e may speak of the latter as “Assyrian bulls. ulad and lamma. over which the sun ploughed his way along the ecliptic or (‘furrow of heaven. whose body terminated in the legs of a goat. The fact that the two great deities of Eridu were thus attended by a body-guard of divine bulls. . was regarded as a second Babylonian plain. sgdu.” when used as a proper name. but who was nevertheless in all respects a man. who. by words that denoted “hero” and strong one.290 LECTUI!E IT. the friend of Gisdhubar. b z c l k h and Eamu44u. persistently paraphrased the Accadian word for “ bull. however much tho imagination of a later day may have tended t G confound them together. Tha face was wanting which was needed to transform the colossus into an image of the animal. (( 1 I n Accadian. We need not be astonished. To them they represented divine beings.

including a table of contents. was known as Lubat-Gudibir. 19. We know that Sargon’s patronage of science produced the great standard Babylonian work on astronomy and astrology. 291 its “yoke. like the patient ox who dragged the plough through the fields below. was himself the ploughman of the celestial fields. that Merodach. Now the explanation of the name of Gudibir as Merodach. and large portions of it. perhaps. are given as dialectical forms of the Accadian word for “yoko” (w. in seventy-two books. marginal glosses had crept into the text. therefore. 18. ao. a Dracuiais being at the time the pole-star. 16). u2 . I t mas as the Sun-god. 18. ‘(the wether ” or ‘Lplanetof the Bull of Light. gidici. which tho Semitic astronomers paraphrased by “the star of Anu. In the course of centuries it had undergone a largo amount of interpolation and addition . comes from a tablet which seems to have been a philological commentary on the astronomical works compiled for the court of Snrgon of Accad. was known by this particular name. I.A.” Gi6ru and g‘iirara. 17. the nearest of the planets to the ecliptic. ai. 15. ii. the Sun-god.~s). I t was translated into Greek by the Chaldaan historian BCrbssos.”’ and Jnpiter. which went under the name of the “Observations of Bel. I. the Sun-god who trod his steady path through the heavenly signs. giddilla and gunirra. (‘yoke of the enclosure. The Accadian (or rather Sumerian) is probably to bc read gz&r b a a . and more literally “ t h e yoke of heaven” (v. 47.’. are among tho tablets found on the site of the library of Eouyunjik. tho constellation of Draco generally.” The Buil of Light. The star (or constellation) ws called MU-BU-KHIR-DA in Accadian. and new paragraphs had been inserted recording the observations that had been made 1 Or rather. v. moving through the twelve Zodiacal signs of the year. A. it is asserted.PROMETHEUS AND TOTEMIISM. the arbiter (mumit) of heaven” (W. 24).

The whole pre-Semitic nomenclature of the Zodiacal signs.292 LECTURE I F . These records and observations had for the most part been written in Accadian. I n the form. as we know it. but into Taurus. therefore. But the original work vas itself a compilation of records and observations that had been made during an untold number of previous years. it was very different from the original work thst had been composed by the orders of Sargon. when Aries first became the starting-point of the Zodiacal signs. and the months of the year that correspond to them. The system must therefore have come into existence later than the 26th century before the Christian era. the result being that. This astronomical system is based upon the assumption that the sun enters the first point of the constellation Aries at the time of the vernal equinox. and the path of the sun through them was mapped out. although the astronomy of the Chaldaxns. in which it was edited for the library of Ninewh. is purely Semitic in form and character. by the asfronomers and astrologers of Babylonia during the whole length of the historical period. many of its technical terms are non-Semitic. as well as the names of the celestial bodies. and the enlargements introduced into it had probably nearly doubled its original size. rests on the supposition that the Zodiacal bull ushers in the vernal year. when the vernal equinos still coincided with the sun’s entrance. Hence it is that me find a remarkable inconsistency between certain facts reported by the astronomical tablets and the astronomical system which they set before us. Its Accadian name was ((the directing Bull.” the bull that directs . not into 9ries. But the signs themselves mere named. Old and new matter had been mixed up in it.

he was “ t h e fish of Ea” or Piscca “Tlie Bull of heaven” (Gud-anaj ia mentioned in iii 53. in fact. I n Nisan. 293 the course of the year. the celestial bull who ploughed the the great furrow of the sky. The Semitic Babylonians identified it with their Zu. in others the reverse process took place. We can nom understand why the Sun-god Merodach. whom even the astronomers of the historical period continued to identify with the typical constellations of the t. was correspondingly termed the star ic that is opposite to the foundation’’ of the year. It was thus that ‘(the divine storm-bird” of the ancient Accadian faith passed into the god Zu of the Semitic epoch. partly because 221 signified a 1 W. iii. 67. “ the hero of the rising d a m . The Sun-god cventually became the monster slain by a solar hero. as). ” or Mercury. 2. 53. I n Adar. Such are the results of time working upon the half-fora gotten beliefs and tales of an earlier age. the first month. While in some instances the old totemistic conceptions werc evaded by the degeneration of a god into a mere animal. in consequence of the cult that was carried on there. He was. A. the last month. We may see i n him the prototype of that famous bull of later legend whom Anu created in order to avenge upon Gisdhubar the slight offered by the latter to Istar. he nTas accorcliiigly identified with Dun-kun-e. who darted OR its spoil and devoured the flesh. L ( The divine storm-bird” was a ravenous bird of prcy.welve months of the year. of large size and sharp beak.l should have been entitled (‘the Bull of Light” in the primitive astronomical records. who is elsewhere called “ t h e prince of the men of Halmn” (iii. I. the bestial element being eliminated from the nature of the god. and the sign which faced it.PBOXETHEUS AXD TOTEYIYX\I. 56 . the Scorpion of a later age. and from whom the first sign of the Zodiac borrowed its name.

” “The divine storm-bird” was known as Lugal-banda. and the robin redbrcast. with its wings ten thousand fathoms in width.” partly because a species of vulture was called by the same name. Like Prom&theus. while in Chinese folk-lore the storm-bird is “ a bird which in flying obscures the sun and of whose quills are made water-tuns. He had stolen their trcasures and secret wisdom. the woodpecker. the firc of heaven. as in Greece. Even a poet of to-day instinctively speaks of the curlews as “dreary gleams about the moorland flying over Locksley Hall. and had communicated them to mankind. giving them at once the knowledge of fire and the power of reading the future in the flashes of the storm. It is in the nest of the.” The roc of the Arabian Nights. near Sippara. He brought the lightning. is but an echo of the Chinese storm-bird. from the gods to men. But the conception of the tempest as a bird which rushes on its prey is common to many mythologies. and though man has bcen allowed to retain them. storm-bird that the ternpest is brewed. The knowledge and the artificial warmth man has gained are not the free gifts of the gods. ‘(the lusty king. ~ stormy wind.” and was the patron deity of the city of Marad. and its egg which it was a sin in Aladdin to wish to take from the place where it hung. and the lightning itself is but the gleam of his flight.294 ‘I LECTURE IV. the divine benefactor of primitive humanity was doomed t o suffer. it swoops upon the earth with the rush of his wings. therefore. they have been wrenched from them by guile. In Babylonia. I n Aryan mythology the stormcloud appears under the varying forms of the eagle. his divine friend and . he was an outcast from the gods. the sacred bird of Thor.

PROMETHEUS ANI) TOTEMISM. but whereas the fish-god of Eridu is the ‘willing and unhindered communicator of civilisation. 1. are clad jn animal form. No father inhabits it and (associates) with him. the son of Zu. I. I t was only in the later syncretic age. both. The culturegod of totemistic Marad is thus a very different being from the culture-god of Eridu. H i s wife uplifts the neck3 The wife of Zu. when these uglier facts of the earlier mythology were glossed over or forgotten. iv. Kaly “the gallus. 15.I. becomes a god of light and healing. or part of a poem. A.see W. It begins thus : Lugal-tudda (fled) to the mountain a place remota I n the hill of ’Sabu he (dwelt). He who (changed) not the resolution. The Semitic yemion baa aqw. A. Into the likeness of a bird was ho transformed. Merodach.priest” in the Accadian. into the likeness of Z u the divine storm-bird was he transformed. that the divino ‘( bull ” was described as ‘‘the offspring of the god Zu” (W. 1 9 * . :and wresting from them by craft man’s future knowledge of good and evil. No priest2 who knows him (assista him).” Assyrian tu(ZZe) . 14. L iv. may he cause them to dwell in a cagey W. the bird-god of Marad is a pariah among his . 23. iv. 41.No. even the resolution of his heart. No mother inhabits it and (cares for him).divine brethren. which recounted the flight of Zu to the mountain lof ‘Sabu or Kis. The scribes of Assur-bani-pal have preserved for us the mutilated copy of a bilingual poem. 19). in hi8 own heart (he kept) his resolution. 295 benefactor is condemned to punishment.A. indeed. ‘(noble. whose succcssor. hunted out of heaven by the great gods.

her thighso were bathed in silver and gold.” not to pour out. but according to W. Namzitum is also found in K 161. as it would seem. It has become a transformation voluntarily undergone by the deity. I.” . ii. (‘ . The Assyrian mazu is the Hebrew . even the god of the river-reeds (Enna) and the goddess the lady of the basket of river-reeds (Gu-enna). 30). Nin-ka-Bi. the eldest being ‘&rig. A. iii.’’ “the god of the palate of the fat mouth.53. 25-32.” and “ t h e god who is not powerful. . as a woman fashioned2 for a mother made beantifu1. 56. 11). A. on his head he set a coronal (when) he came from the nest of the god Zu. The Accadian seems t o bo 6 Comp. iii. 4 (where it signifies “a bowl”). The old faith of totemism is 1 Nin-Gu-enna was resolved into the Semitic Bilat-ili (W.” as Zimmern supposcs. she was peculiarly the. A. 67.” 4 I n the Accadian original. or guardian of the river. [lU?FZ-ii-jdi. I. 1. means “ t o suck.” . and R 358.55. It will be seen that the identity of the god Zu with a bird is explained in accordance with the ideas of a modern time. 175. [Here follow many mutilated lines. W.” The Gu-enna.] On (his) head he placed a circlet . ii. I. and 41.B the goddess of plants: as a woman fashioned for a mother mad0 beautiful. 2 Not ‘‘clever. . Her nine sons are enumerated in W. ut&.” Xin-ka-Bi should probably be read Nin-gu-Biga.. for the sake.’’ herself! Among the others are “ t h e god of the pure tongue.” ‘(the god of the beautiful tongue. (In a place) unknown in the mountain he made his tomb. 68. . of” securing a beautiful bride. “ the goddess of plants. Her paps5 were of white crystal .” as Lyon.. ~ T Band 5 Accadian kakkul.296 LECTURE IV.” &‘thegod of the strong tongue. was the title of an officer (K 177. or “spirit of the temple of Mu . 24. I..l From his mountain he brought (her). “ lady o f the full mouth. A. iii. 8 I n the Semitic translation : “ a mother who has been appointed for beauty.

he delivered the oracles. (Then) Zu fled away and sought his mountains. . The tablets of destiny (Zu) seized with his hand . Anu was the first t o speak.PROMETHEUS AND TOTENIS& 297 t h s cshanging into a fairy-tale. ‘‘ the father and councillor ” of the gods. He raised a tempest. But there were other stories which remembered that the transformation of the god was not the voluntary act it i s here represented to have been. A long but broken text explains why it was that he had to take refuge in the mountain of ’Sabu under the guise of a bird of prey. going round to each in turn. and the laws of all the gods let me establish (Zukhmum). We learn that Zu gazed upon the work and duties of Mul-lil. and (among all) men let the destroyer pursue him (?). even to. yea. consulted his brother divinities. his crown was placed on the throne. let me seize the oracles. the bond of heaven and earth. When Bel pours out the pure waters. the tablets of destiny. He “opened his mouth. stripped from (his head).’ (To Rimmon) the first. let me urge on t. the strong. he sees the father of the gods. and Zu himself. the attributes of Bel he took. at the entrance to the forest where he was gazing he waited with his head (intent) during the day. and he sees also the father of the gods. Anu declares (his) command. “ h e sees the crown of his majesty.’ So his heart devised opposition.” Then Mul-lil. the clothing of his divinity. he says to the gods his sons: ‘(Whoever will. The desire to be Bel (Mul-lil) is taken in his heart. the bond of heaven and earth . born. even the spirits of heaven. let my throne be set up. making (a storm).) let him subjugate Zu. he speaks.the desire to be Bel is taken in his heart : ‘ Let me seize the tablets of destiny of the gods.he whole of all of them.

. him : 0 Rimmon. he delivered the oracles . to a mountain none hast seen mayest thou assign (him) . . protector (?). (Zu) has fled away and has sought his mountains. protector (?). (Among) the gods thy brethren (may it destroy) the rival. to a mountain) none has seen inayest thou assign (him) . (never may) Zu play the thief (again) among the gods thy sons . and may thy name be mighty ? ’ (Rimmon) answered the command. and may shrines be built! (In) the four (zones) may they establish thy strongholds.. Then A m turns to Nebo : “ (To Nebo). which is accordingly laid upon another god. (Anu declares his will) and addresses him : . (May khy name) be magnified in the assembly of the great gods. but with like result. ‘ . May (thy name) be magnified in the assembly of the great gods ! Among the gods thy brethren (may it destroy) the rival ! May incensk (?)be offered and may shrines be built! In the four zones may thy strongholds be established! May they magnify thy stronghold that it become a fane of power in the presence of the gods. and may thy name be mighty !’ Nebo answered the command : ‘ 0 my father. . the strong one. (the tablets of destiny) his hand has taken. May incense (?) (etarsi) be offered.may thy power of fighting never fail ! (Slay) Zu with thy weapon. ‘ 0 Nebo. (to Anu) his father he utters the word : ‘ (0 my father.298 LECTTJRE IV. May they magnify thy fortress that it become a fane of power in the presence of the gods. (the attributes of Bel) he seized.’” Rimmon goes on t o decline the task. never may Zu play the thief (again) among the gods thy sons ! The tablets of destiny his hand has taken. never may thy power of fighting fail! (Slay) Zu with thy weapon. the eldest son of Istar. the attributes of .

and discovereth the forests.. yea. .” In the Talmud. while the second species was closely allied to the belief that in the thunder men heard the voice of the gods. the consequence being. The &st species was but a branch of the general pseudo-science which discovered coming events from the observation of animals and their actions. the Lord The voice of the brcnketh the cedars of Lebanon.” however. the Lord is upon many waters. 1 P s . as we have seen. the Lord shaketh the wilderness of Kadesh.” says the Psalmist . Nebo also refused to hunt down and slay his brother god. . the voice of the Lord is full of majesty. Lord shaketh the wilderness .’ ” Like Rimmon. The voice of the Lord maketh the hinds to calve. The (‘divine storm-bird. served to unite the two species of augury which read the future in the flight of birds and the flash of the lightning.1 and nothing can show more clearly what must once have been the Canaanitish faith than the poetic imagery of another Psalm (xxix.lxxvii. 18. he has delivered the oracles. The voice of the Lord breaketh the cedars. The voice of the Lord is powerful. 6 L The voice of thy thunder was in the whirlwind.): “ T h e voice of the Lord is upon the waters . and had to live an exile from heaven for the rest of time. The old belief marked its impress upon Hebrew as well as upon Assyro-Babylonim thought. . that Zu escaped with his 120. Zu is fled away and (has sought) his mountains. who invested himself by stealth with the attributes of Mul-lil.PROYETHEUS A N D TOTEMISM. “ the voice of the Lord” has become the 6akh q8Z. but was changed into a bird. and carried the knowledge of futurity to mankind. the God of glory thundereth . 299 I301 he has seized.

but of subterranean noises as well. stood Mul-me-sarra (Wul-mo-shra).” it is stated. and this perhaps was the oraclc through which Oannes had spoken to men. 1886. in fact. nine . 117. 118. ‘ 4ih7icaZ Ardmology. Ap.1 This prophetic voice of heaven was heard in the thunder by the Accadians as well as by the Semites. In the rival city of northern Babylonia. S. On the reverse. It is thus that he is addressed in a hymn. was the author.” a supernatural message from heaven which sometimes proceeded from the Holy of Holies. however. and not over the waters of the sea. 6. At Eridu it was more especially the roar of the sea in which the Sumerian priest listened to the revelations of his deities. assumed the form of an intuition directing the recipient as to his course in life. “there are fifteeir hymns (to be said! on the north and east sides. 2 K 48. OD the west. which is almost entirely destroyed. not older than the Semitic period : 1 See Dr.300 or LECTURE IV. pp. “Altogether. and hence. mention is macle of “ six hymns” to Samas. where the supreme god presided over the realm of the dead. Louis in the Proceedings o f t7~eSociety 0 . but embodies earlier ideas. and a hymn or hynine to Kusku on the east side of it. “ daughter of the voice.:> Mul-me-sarra. By the side of Nullil. sometimes. from which the initiated could derive a knowledge of the future. I have already noticed that the Accadians believed the sounds of nature to be divine voices. Merodach and Anu. besides other hymns to Merodach which had to bo recited on the north side of the altar. There is no Accadian text attached to it. the divine voice came to men in the thunder. not only of the thunder. was but Mul-lil himself in another form. It is probably quite late. which is. ‘‘the lord of the voice of the firmament. as lord of Hades. the lord of the ghost-world. like the h p 6 v ~ o vof Socrates.

111. Mul-me-sarra. Obv. by thy comniand iet the foundation-stone of this place last long before thee at all like the seat of thy lordship let it be a judgmentrhall on earth. mighty lord. the Lady of cattle.” hymns to Assur. 801 -0 lord of the voice of the firmament. ordainer of the laws of the earth. “all the cardinal points” (IM-KAK-A-BI). perhaps. in whose absence Nin-$&u will not direct in garden and canal. prince of Hades. offer food and oil. lord of the place1 and the mountain from whence none returns. the bright one. Upon i t may Anu.’’ and as such was identified with the constellation of the Scorpion . Laz(P). R2. the sword (or lightning) of Istar. K4195.” and of whom it is said: ‘rMay he give thee rest with kindly hand (rittzc). (and) the Lady of the pur0 mound. and the Herogod (Dun) who quiets the heart. lord of the fetter (tmnsi). who in his might rules the earth. will not create the crop (appuna) . lay reeds which have been cut up. lord of the earth. Offer sacrifices. Bel and Ea firmly establish the throne. giving sceptre and reign to Anu and Mul-lil.4 and the hand of the goddess Bunene is entitled (‘the inundator of the lightning.” that of the Elamite god Lagamar being ‘‘ the inundator of the earth. the food of $be god of revelations (BAR-BAR). * ‘ . Istar herself was called (‘the sword” or “ lightning of heaven.” Perhaps Mul-me-sarra is also the deity who is addressed in another hymn3 as “the warrior-god (Erimmu). 9 Or. even the mountain of the spirits of earth. the mighty bond of heaven and edrth. holding the bolts of the lower world. 150. let the hand of the prince take honey and butter. strengthening the broad (earth). Bel of cattle. and recite the following. 8-10.’’ 1 Ami. Bel of the pure mound (Birs-i-Nimrud). I‘ destruction.” here. may he rain life and tranquillity upon thee with his hand !” Under the name of Iskhara.PBOXETHEUS AND TOTEIILISY. possibly for asari. the Sun of midday.

and. was the personality. " I The voices heard by the Babylonian in nature. and tho Babylonian would have sympathised with the feeling which made the Roman change Maleventum into Beneventum. Injury could be done to a person by using his name in a spell. or has caused the Cape of Storms to become the Cape of Good Hope. however. . Names. the secret names of the gods-many of them heirlooms from a primzwal age. were in themselves of good and evil omen. aud that of the god of impurity "the inundator of the crown ( ? ) . Whether this superstition about flames was of purely Semitic origin. whose actual meaning was forgotten-were not only especially holy.among the ancient Egyptians. we have no means of determining at present . As . the ChaldEans confounded the person and the name by which he was known. were not a whit more sacred to him than the inarticulate voice which found expression in the name. it was deeply imprinted upon the Semitic mind. similarly. and whatever happened to tho name would happen equally to the personality.302 LECTURE IV. but also especially efficacious. Rev. or whether it was shared in by the Accadians. however. Like all primitive peoples. like the persons or things they represented. in fact. ( I K 220. in a corresponding stage of social development would lead us to infer that the superstition was the independent possession of Accadians and Semites alike. The sacredness attached to the name of the God of Israel I I . consequently. the analogy of other races. At all events. to pronounce the name of a deity compelled him to attend to the wishes of the priest or exorcist. The name.

Pul and UlulQ adopted those of the two famous monarchs of the older Assyrian dynasty. It must have been for a similar reason that Esar-haddon’s name. Three successive usurpers of the throne of Assyria-Pul. who claimed to be lord of Babylonia as well as of Assyria. There were names of good fortune and names of evil fortune. 27. . 9 X i TuAu.” ‘cfor affection’s sake. where the names they had adopted were associated with ideas of hostility and invasion. Possibly the change of name wna occasioned by the death o f an elder brother. iii. identified himself with the past glories of the ancient kingdom by taking the name of Sargon of Accad. I. I . bear witness to tho fact.l and special significance was attached t o a change of name. A.”2 though the prince preferred to retain his earlier appellation of Esar-haddon or Assur-akhW. was changed to that of Assur-etil-yukinabla. V. UlulQ or Ilulaios. and the frequent employmont of: the name for the person of the Lord. The adoption of these time-honoured names of itself conferred legitimacy upon the new claimants of the throne. Tiglath-Pileser and Shalmaneser. 49-52. 16. 303 among the later Jews. it was prefaced by what was henceforth to be the sacred and national name of their God. while Sargon. along With the name they inherited the title and the claim to veneration of those who had borne them.PRONETHEUS AND TOTEMISM. 3. and the father of Sennacherib-all discarded their old names on the successful accomplishment of their usurpation. W. A. When Moses was ordained to his mission of leading his people out of Egypt and forming them into a nation. retaining their original designations only in Babylonia. according to Sennacherib. “Assur the hero has established the son.

Terrible curses are denounced against those who should destroy or injure “the writing of their names. whatsoever be their name. and it is possible that the scrupulous care with which the names of foreign potentates are recorded in the Assyrian annals. as well as the interest shown by both Babylonians and Assyrians in the languages of their neighbours. On the other hand. had to do with the peculiar respect they paid to the name. I n the ancient hymns.’’ after his accession to the throne. a vague and general expression of the kind would avoid the difficulty of enumerating by its own name each division of the human race. in which the patient is allowed his choice of a practitioner’s receipt or ‘‘ .” and substitute their own names instead. 3-14). iddina.304 LECTURE IV.” Even captured cities have their names altered in token of conquest.” or to guide their names aright. “mankind. when the author of a penitential psalm speaks of a god or goddess whom he ((knewnot.” is of frequent occurrence. The preservation of their names was a matter about which the kings of Babylonia and Assyria mere especially anxious. 1101. So. We are reminded of the records of the Jews.” it is probable that he is thereby deprecating the wrath of some offended deity with whose name he is unacquainted.l A hymn t o the creator calls upon him I A fragment from the p e a t medical work (M. and the Pharaoh of ggypt ‘(turned the name” of Eliakim into Jehoiakim. Assur has given the hother. the gods are invoked to allow the names of the kings to last “ for ever. from which we learn that Jedidiah became the Solomon of later history. the phrase. and seems t o signify that as the special favours of the gods could be showered only on those whose names were recited. too. Oh.

306 under his various names to direct the laws of the world. offer beer. it was a spell which even the gods were powerless to resist. a species of grebe. it is said.”l As I‘ the great gods” were fifty in number. the flesh of the daslum. according to Houghton). When they lost their names. x . to raise the dead to life. In Assyrian it a charm. to overthrow the wicked and hostile. and the golden kakis of the sheep (kakis lunurn khuratsi. p. continue drinking (it) for three days. all the bonds of my laws may he carry (to them). like long-drawn brandings (M sadduti) he has loved my ganni. Once uttered with the appropriate ceremonies. whoever he is. whoever he is. and repeat a spell seven times to the heart :) drink the mixture in wine . the tongue of a dog. all my secret wisdom may he bear away. the plant that grows in the plain. K4629.’ (which) repeat in addition : ‘The god. and puts into the mouth of Ea the following words : “ Since his name has made his offspring strong.2 the ascription of their fifty names to the creator was equivalent to identifying him with all of them.” After this. who like a road has determined the path. The whole passage m s : ‘‘Cut up some eyebright (?). and compound these six ingredients: (or make a khuteuitiya of herbs. through the fifty names of the great gods. (This is) the spell : ‘ Thou. they lost their individual personality as well. makes this pretty clear. the slice of a bird. who like a road has determind the path. Closely connected with the mystical importance thus assigned to names was the awe and dread with which the curse or excommunicationwasregarded. the binding of knots and the invocation of divine names.’ ” 1 See above. 141. let his name be Ea even as mine is. his hearers ‘‘ pronounced his fifty names and wrote down his precepts. and on the fourth day your health will be restored. Rev. and t o guide the stars of heaven.PROXETHEUS AND TOTEMIISX.

” like the Levites. the plague-demon. I. “ Mami the queen. her operations were usually conceived of as evil. T. the goddess Mammetu.” I n K 220. “ t o bind. ‘(she has established death and life. 10. was also the personification of doom and destiny. and not life. is called ‘(the maker of fate” who (‘has fixed the destinies” of mankind. 1 In Sumerian. was the real sphere of her work. .l and was iiaturally considered to be divine.’’ it is in no friendly guise that the manzit is presented to us in the magical texts. assumed the Semitic feminine termination. ii. Y . from an earlier Sunqua. “the lady of the abyss. 51.” Haupt. death. p. ‘‘attached. took their name from Sunga.” whence the Semitic Saiiuqu. as her name is there spelt. perhaps connected with Sunyu. Hence the mamit was known among the Accadians as the (nam-) erima or ‘‘ hostile doom. might as the pole-star be called c the wanzit of heaven. Nami had been a goddess . Babyloni. 66. Like At&. t o particular sanctuaries. A. Ob. it was only because the term of life is fixed by death. so too Mamit mas emphatically the concrete curse. in Accadian the &aabba. 87. the borrowed Assyrian deity. ‘‘ along with” the spirits of the earth .308 LECTCRE IV.” “The river of Mami the queen” seem t o have been near Cutha. A. 55. therefore. It was. ‘‘a bond. In the tenth book of the Epic of Gisdhubar. as we have seen.sche Nimrodepos. I n Accadian. Just as Namtar. was called the mamit. I f she established life as well as death.” and though Anu. Sagga. the goddess Mhmiti is mentioned immediately before Nin-gur. The Accadian equivalents of the maker of fate” are given in W. 9.” A special class of priests. since both it and I‘ the river of the companion of Manii” come between “the river of the fortress of Nergal” and “ the river of the place of ascent of Laz. but the days of death are unknown”3 Mamit thus bore a striking resemblance to the Fate of the Romans and tho At6 of the Greeks. 2 W.

turning his face to the rising sun. “the reed of doom” in Accadian (W.” 6 W. 2. prisoners and bound as they were.2 and TiglathPileser I. A. ii.I. Thus we read: ‘‘ The river-god is bright like the digger of the ground. conjure it !The formula for undoing the curse when the water of the river surrounds 9 man.”5 ~ Called gilgillum in Assyrian. in the presence of the Sun-god (his) lord.” W. iv. 3).1. 807 in fact. 16) the worshipper is ordered to come into the presence of Ea. May the sun at his rising remove the darkness. states that after his conquesb of the kings of Nahri he (‘freed them. and made them swear to be his servants from henceforth and for ever. Let &hemumit come forth that I may see the light.PB03IETIFEUS AND TOTEMISN. like the power of excommunication in the Middle Ages. I.4 All the land glows like the height of the sunset-horizon. and. the most terrible weapon that could be used by the priestly exorcist. I . 0 spirit of earth. May the curse go forth to the desert. conjure the curse. and may there never be gloom in the honse. All that was needed mas the performance of certain rites and the repetition of certain words. the implemenb of the sons of the people. 14. mder pain of the curse (mamit) of (his) great gods.l he could lay the terrible excommunication on the head of his enemy. W. the implements (unut) of the gods as many as exist. 1 x2 . A.No. 24. and cause it to issue forth from the body of his friend. to ‘‘ place the point (OIR)of the reed of the freewill offerhip and the reed of the priest8 (quia nindubi qan uruguZZli).” is one of the petitions we meet with in the tablets. 0 spirit of heaven. Armed with the magic wand. (6 the monstrous beast. 2.”3 In the hymns the mumit occupies a conspicuous place.A.h. v. 13.A. Col. 4 In the Accadian. For the power of invoking the aid of the goddess Mamit by pronouncing the curse was completely in his hands. 7. i. 1216. its cry (is) like that of a demon. t o a pure place. 7. The curse (flies) before him. I n a ritual text (1266.

or an evil ah. Whether an evil utuk. A snare not to be passed through. may the lasso of Nirba bind it! Against the limitation (of the curse) it has transgressed. or an evil gallu. the boundary that none can pass ! The limit of tho gods (themselves) against which they may not transgress f The limit of heaven and earth which altereth not ! The unique god against ahom none may sin!’ Neither god nor man can undo (it). who into threshold and hinge has crept.I. (The limitation of the great) gods it reverences not. may they twist his neck !”4 This is a fair sample of the incantations by means of which the Babylonians believed that they could free 1 The Assyrian plays upon another meaning of the Accadian word.iv. A. .16. or a labafm. or a disease-bringing asnkku. 16. or the maid of a Zilu. like a quarry-stone may they break him to pieces ! As for him who has passed across the beam. Another hymn begins in the following way: 6‘ 0 curse. depart from it. Never may (the limitation) of the gods. a place invisible.l. in the door and bolts may they bind him with bonds from which there is no release ! As for him who has blown (1) into the threshold and socket. like a cup may they shatter him. “thy weapon is the great monster [usumgaZZu] which from its mouth spits out the breath” or “drips blood”). or an akhkharu.A. or a lilu. to another place. which has set its head towards the dropping2 water of Ea. “ drips upon.” 4 W. and renders.No. or an evil god.’may the snare of Ea seize it ! which has stretched its head against3 the wisps of Nirba (the Corn-god). 2 “Tidal” seems to be meant. In W. “ spits out.” as a rendering of biz-biz-em (alternate renderings being. may they bring him ! As for him who has turned into the gate of the house. 6 Assyrian. like water may they pour him out. curse. I. or the evil plague-demon. or a bad siclmess. or a labartu. or dt lilat. which is set for evil.308 LECTURE IV.” Jensen is mistaken in considering the Assyrian word to stand for musepilu. the gate of a place from whence there is no exit may they cause him t o enter ! As for him who has stationed himself in the door and bolts. 3.or an evil ekimmu. 15. iv. izarnim is interchanged with inattztku. “ whom none may humble. or an evil incubus. his wings may they cut ! As for him who has thrust his neck i n t o the chamber. May (the lasso of) the great gods bind it ! May the great gods curse it ! Nay they send back (the demon) to (his) home! The home of (his) habitation may they cause him to enter ! As for him who has turned to another place. the limitation of heaven and earth.

‘II n the Accndian original the order is reversed : “great and smalL” 8 Udannis. . “ he weakens. T o the place of supplication of their god they hastened and raised high the voice. SO9 themselves from the demoniac agencies that surrounded them.. . Freeman and handmaid it bound. A. and the mamit was aocordingly invoked to protect the mortal from the demons of plague and sickness. I t eickened the men of the city. . .” Zimmern misreada &a:mw. They received his mighty (aid) and like a garment it concealed (them). Such is the view taken in the following fragment. 9.inn kdri u sakparim ramuni udannis. The Babylonian. it tortured their bodies. The doom des(ccnded) from the midst of the heaven. which1 once compared with the Biblical account of the destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah. The power of the mailzit was such that the gods themselves could not transgress it. No. (they embraced) his feet. cf. at all events in early times. did pot 1 W. [The next line is completely destroyed]. 1.I. *with scourges and in expiation I beat myself. Perhaps the doom of Sennachcrib’s host may furnish a closer parallel :1 ‘‘ “ A darkness came from the middle of the deep. with mailing it f i l l e d (them). S 949.17. . him and the poison (was expelledf).” . I n heaven and earth like a storm-cloud it rained . small and greata (alike) it (smote). They . I n city and land it caused lamentation.PROMETHEUS AND TOTE3IISX. his body was tried. . . Towards the four winds the flash (went) overthrowing like fire.R e v . (In lamentation) he smitesS his breast. .” . . it made a prey. The sword (mowed down) the earth like grass . But the plague itself might be regarded as a mamii or doom” inflicted by heaven upon the guilty earth. iv.

the plague-demon. the same theory was held by the authors of the penitential psalms in respect of maladies that attacked some single individual only . and until he could be expelled there was no chance of recovery. It was believed to be an instrument in their hands for punishing the sins and shortcomingsof mankind. Like the seven evil spirits. on the other hand. On the one hand. who was the minister of the gods of the lower world and the arbiter of human fate. and had under his command not only the (‘seven gods. like the storm or the deluge. 1 . . all sickness was ascribed to demoniacat possession. o r drunk with the water. Under the older one he was Namtar. a pestilence. or breathed in with the air. I n Semitic times the minister of divine anger approached more nearly the Jewish conception of the angel of death.”l Isum was represented by the colossi which. which swept over a whole country. where the word traverser” is repreeentod by nagir. But this plague-god could be viewed under two aspects. ‘(the streettraverser. Isum was regarded aa having the ‘ I form of a whirlwind. also in W. 23. The plague consequently was held to be a divine being who was sent by the gods. hold a very consistent theory about the origin of disease. Huggins . was regarded with t h e same feelings of awe-struck veneration as the greater gods themselves. but it was the general persuasion when a wide-reaching calamity like a plague afflicted the country. an epidemic. 24.. and the Accadian name of Isum-’Sig-sagga. As we shall see. A. 2. Isum or Itak.310 LECTURE IV. 1 On a cylinder in the possession of Dr.” but also a special messenger. to take vengeance on men for their misdeeds. iv. But. He was himself a god. the demon had been eaten with the food. ‘‘ the head of destruction”--ifo given.

. “since the inhabitants of the country have seditiously broken their bond .. first brought to light by Mr. . the sword. “ Anu had heard” the report of the seven gods who had. They begin thus: (1). as we have seen. and let thy hands go !”4 Babylon is one of the first cities to feel the destroying sword of the Chaldeean angel of death. was one and the same as Nergal. 31 1 dood at the approad to a tsmple. 10. and at last saying in (‘ his heart :” “ Nema is crouching at his great gate among the corpses of the noble and the slave : Kerra is crouching nt the g t e . Mul-lil is repreeented as looking on. Nerra. may thy weapons be their sword of destruction.?BOYETHEUS AND ToTEbLIS?J.” a Vbld-va lihh-ka ana scckan k a w w i . he cried out. It is besieged by its foes. perhaps.5 arid thou art W. the famine and the plague are let loose in its streets. Zalmat-7cuMcadi ana sumutti tagqtcd p u p A N Ner . Their foes have besieged the men of Babylon. Karnarri is not snare’’ bere. . George Smith. thou hast set his seat (there). K i sa nisi dadqne Muulnir-&na KA-UA irnkhatdsu. . . ii. the god of the dead. lu kakki-ka i s am-ti-sunu-valilliiku idcika. (3) . apparently in consequence of their evil-doing. 50. . 6 The same siege of Babylon may possibly have been referred to in a tablet (S 2037)..3 thou shalt strike the people of the black heads unto death with the desolation (3) of the god Xer. Akcordingly he summoned Nerra .2 and I have set thy heart to cause desolation. appears in an old legend. . as bringing death and desolation upon the states of Babylonia. “ h e lamented.” as he is termed. I . who. (4). Rabylon is taken. ‘‘ the warrior of the gods. seize me. been sent to investigate what was going on upon the earth.1 his m a s t e r ’ s name was Nerra (Nera).” he said. and during the siege. of which the ends clnly of a few lines remain. A. ‘(Let thy hands march. . ( 2 ) .

shalt reverence none . Thou didst leave one and go forth against another.”1 Merodach mourned over the doom pronounced against his city. when he urged on his troops to take the spoil of the enemy. who “cried and was troubled over the city of Erech. I n the city to which I shall send thee thou shalt fear no man. Thou diclst bind them with chains (‘ti and didst fix the doom (1). however. ther and entered into the city. the Elamite against the Elamite. the Kurd against the h‘urd. 0 warrior Nerra.” for the nomad ’Suti of the desert had combined against their state. The form of a dog dost thou assume and enterest into tho palace. small and great slay together. like the waters of the storm shalt thou give their corpses to the open places of the city . for after a good many broken and lost lines. .” Eventually. the tablet goes on to describe the seat the despatch of the terrible plague-god to Erech. the city of the choirs of the festivalmakers and consecrated maidens of Istar. the people of the king which is gathered toge. house against house. man against - - 1 N55. The heart of the high-priest. auxiharies who have transgressed against Anu and Dagon . country against country. Nerra was quieted” by ‘‘ Isum his councillor. 4-26.” who (‘dreaded death. the illustrious god who goes before him. <‘ of Anu and Istar. The eunuch-priests were now compelled to bow the face before another deity than the peaceful Istar. thou shalt open their treesurea (!) and bid the river carry them away.” ‘(and the warrior Nerra spake thus : Sea\ land against sea-land. shaking the how and setting up the spear. thou shalt set up their weapons .512 LECTURE IV.COL 1. the Assyrian against the Assyrian. and apparently with some effect . before the people he has done wickedness. the Kosspean against the Kosspean. their curse. the Lullubite against the Lullubite. and leave not the youngest of the evil race. The people saw thee . is full of valour . their weapons were broken. the avenger of Babylon. Thou shalt spoil the first that come to Eabylon. ’Sumasti against ‘Sumasti.



man, brother against brother, let them destroy one another, and afterwards let the Accadian come and slay them all, and fall upon their breasts.” The warrior Nerra (further) addresses a speech to Isum, who goes before him : ‘ Go, Isum, incline all thy heart to the word thou hast spoken.’ (Then) Isum sets his face towardsthe land of the west; the seven warrior gods, unequalled, sweep (all things) away behind him. At the land of Phcenicia, at the mountains, the warrior arrived; he lifted up the hand, he laid it on the mountain; the mountain of Phoenicia he counted as his own soil.” I n thus marching to the west, the minister of the Babylonian god of death approaches the country in which another angel of pestilence was seen by the king of Israel. ‘‘By the threshing-floor of Araunah the Jebusite,” David had beheld the angel of the Lord “ stretching out his hand upon Jerusalem to destroy it.” As in Babylon, so too in Israel, the plague had been a visitation for the sins of man. It was the instrument of God’s anger wielded by the hands of his angel-minister. That same angel-minister had once before stood before Balaam, and with a drawn sword in his hand had threatened the Syrian prophet with death. He was not a demon from the lower world, like the old Chaldaan plague-spirit Namtar ; he was not the inexorable law of destiny, before whom even the gods had to submit their wills; but a member of the celestial hierarchy, the messenger of a beneficent God. He came to destroy, but it was t o destroy the guilty. The sins of man, and not the malevolence or passionless law of a supernaturd being, brought death




Comp. Is. xix. 2 4 ,



and suffering intc the world. The Babylonian legend of Nerra, like the records of the Old Testament, tells tho same tale as the Babylonian story of the Deluge. So remarkable an agreement, on the one hand, between the religious conceptions of Semitic Babylonia and Israel, and, on the other, their equally remarkable contrast to the older Abcadian doctrines embodied in the plaguedemon Namtar and Mamit the goddess of fate, can be explained in only one way. Even if the fact stood alone, and we had no knowledge of the earlier history of Chaldaea, we should be forced to conclude that while tho later population of Babylonia belonged to the same race as that which inhabited Palestine, it was essentially different from the race which had formulated the oldei beliefs. The Semitic belief, in fact, stands out in striking contrast to beliefs which betrayed no consciousness of human sin, and the necessity of finding in this an cxplanation of malevolent action on the part of the gods above. The difference between the plague-god of Cutha and the agencies which had once been imagined to work evil to mankind, is a difference that cannot be bridged over by any theory of development ;it is necessarily due to a difference of race,



To Franqois Lenormant, whose untimely death was an irreparable loss to the progress of Assyrian research, helongs the merit of first describing and defining the sacred books of ancient Babylonia. With the keenness of perception that characterised him, he pointed out two main collections of Babylonian sacred texts ; one containing magic incantations and exorcisms; the other, hymns to the gods. The magical texts obviously belong to an earlier and less advanced stage of religious belief than the hymns ;they presuppose, in fact, a sort of Shamanism, according to which each object and power of nature has its zi or “spirit,” which can be propitiated only by a sorcerer-priest and certain magical -rites ; while the hymns, on the other hand, introduce us to a world of gods, and their language from time to time approaches a high level of spiritual expression. The collection of hymns Lenormant very happily named the Chaldean Rig-Veda, and to them he subsequently added a third collection, conakting of penitential psalms which in many respects resemble the psalms of the Old Testament. All three collections are generally composed in both Accadian and Semitic Babylonian, the Semitic Babylonian being a tramlation of the presumably older Accadian text which



V .

is written line by line above it. It was natural to suppose that what has happened in the case of other sacred books happened also in Babylonia ; that the magical texts were first collected together, the collection subsequently acquiring a sacred character; and that a similar process took place in the case of the hymns. The whole work would have been complete before the culture and literature of the Accailians were handed on t o the Semites: in this way the preservation of the Accadian originals would be accounted for, the very words of the primitive documents and their correct pronunciation having come t o be looked upon as sacred and inspired; while the Semitic interlinear translation served, like the Aramaic Targums of the Old Testament, to assist the priests in understanding the object of their rccitations. As time went on, the religious beliefs which underlay the inagical texts became so far removed from those of a later age that the texts themselves gradually passed into the background, the collection of hymns taking more and more their place as pre-eminently the Babylonian Bible. The theory as thus stated is at once simple and probable. But although in its main outlines it is no doubt correct, further research has shown that its simplicity is due to the imperfection of the materials upon which Lenormant had to work, and that it will have to be very considerably modified before all the facts now known to us are accounted for. I n the first place, there are numerous magical texts which are later, and not older, than many of the hymns. Nothing is more common than to find a magical text breaking off into a hymn or a fragment of a hymn the recitatiorj of which forms part of the spell or ceremony.



-4 large number of the hymns that have come down to us are thus embedded in the magical documents of which they form an integral part. The hymn to the seven evil spirits, for instance, quoted in a former Lecture, is really a portion of one of the most famous of the magica1 texts. I n such instances there can be no question that the hymn is older than the text in which it is found. Moreover, it is difficult to distinguish the hymns when used in this way from similar poetical addresses to divine beings, which, so far from being especially sacred, were employed as spells in medical practice. Thus in a great work on Babylonian medicine, fragments of which I have published and explained,’ receipts for the cure of diseases, which scarcely differ from those that would be prescribed to-day, are mingled with charms and spells for driving away the demons of sickness. The sick man, in fact, was given his choice between a scientific treatment and a recourse to the old system of the primitive ‘Lmedicine-man;”and it was left to his faith or superstition to determine whether he would employ t.he regular practitioner or his spiritual predecessor the exorcist-priest. Thus in the middle of a list of various medicines, carefully prepared from different ingredients and mixed with date-wine or water, we find an alternative spell, which the patient was instructed to “place on the big toe of the left foot,” and there cause it to remain. The spell was as follows :

‘‘ 0 wind, my mother, mind, mind, ruler of the gods art thou, wind
among the storm-gods !



V .

Yea, thou makest the mater to stream down (tutsitsn), and wit& the gods thy brothers liftest up the streani (etsits) of thy

Now these two verses are introduced by a word which
was read en in Accadian, s+tu in Assyrian, and had the meaning of spell” or ii incantation.’? The same word introduces also a certain number of the hymns to the gods, and thus throws light on the object of their quotation and use. They were, in fact, spells, and the sacred-

ness with which they were invested mas due to the fact that they were SO.^ We now have an explanation of two further facts which would otherwise be puzzling. On the one hand, by the side of the hymns to the gods there exist texts which agree with the hymns in form and character, but differ from them in being addressed, like the medical spell I have just quoted, to an inferior order of supernatural beings. On the other hand, the place of a hymn may be taken by a legendary poem or a portion of a legendary poem. The transformation of the god Zu into it bird, which I cited in the last Lecture, is an example of khis. If‘the legendary poem had to do with the divine powers who were to be invoked or whose wrath had to be deprecated, its use as a spell was as efficacious as that of a hymn. Our own folk-lore shows that nothing comes amiss t o the inventor of popular spells; the Lord’s Prayer or a verse from the Bible are as serviceable in



the urine,” which indicates the object of the spell.

._ 2 The hymns to the Sun-god of Sippara, composed by Semitic priests,
form, however, an exception to this rule. The introductory word siptu with them merely means “ t o be recited,” its old signification havinp come in time to take this meaning upon itself.



curing disearrd or in removing the curse of a witch as the most time-honoured combination of unintelligible words. The relation between the magical texts and the hymns of ancient Babylonia is now, therefore, clear. In many cases, at least, the hymns formed part of the magical texts; they were the mystical incantations around the recitation of which the rites prescribed in the texts were intended to revolve. The magical text was not complete without the repetitiou of a form of words as well as a direct appeal t o the names of certain supernatural beings; and the form of words w a si n many instances furnished B o y hymns to the gods or analogous kinds of composition. It is not only the magical texts, however, in which we find the hymns embedded and prefaced by the significant word sZptu, ‘‘ incantation.” They are still more numeTOUS in the ritual texts--in the texts, that is to say, which describe the religious ceremonies the Babylonian was called upon to perform. These ceremonies had for the most part the same end and object as the magical texts; they were not so much a communion with the deities of heaven, as an attempt to compel them by particular rites and words ta relieve the worshipper from trouble, or to bestow upon him some benefit. Divine worship, in short, was a performance rather than an act of devotion, and upon the correctness of the performance depended entirely its efficacy. The mispronunciation of a single word, the omission to tie a knot at the right moment, would invalidate the whole ceremony and render its repetition necessary. The ritual, therefore, was a sort of acted magic, and it is consequently not surprising that the hymns should play the same part in it 8s they did in the incantations of the magical texts.



It follows from all this that many of the magical texts
are, like the ritual texts, later than many of the hymns. The fact must necessarily introduce some modification into Lenormant’s theory of the origin of the sacred books of ChaldEa. I n the second place, not only the hymns, but even the magical texts are at times composed in Semitic Babylonian only. There is no trace of an Accadian original of auy kind whatever. And not only is this the case, but these purely Semitic hymns occasionally glide into what is neither more nor less than unadulterated magic. Here is a specimen of one, which begins with an address to the Sun-god full of deep feeling and exalted thought, and finally passes into an incantation equally full of dull bathos and debasing superstition :

Sun-god, king of heaven and earth, director of things ebovs and below, 0 Sun-god, thou that clothest the dead with life, delivered by thy hands, Judge unbribed, director of mankind, the mercy is supreme of him who is the lord over difficulty (bil namratsit), bidding son and offspring to come forth, light of the world, creator of all bhy universe, the Sun-god art thou ! 0 Sun-god, when the ban (mamit) for many days is bound behind me and there is no deliverer, expulsion of the evil and of tho sickness of the flesh is brought about (by thee) ; among mankind, the flock of the god Ner, whatever be their names, he selects me :

1 S 949, Obv. The upper part of the tablet is lost. All that remains of it are tlle two last lines : “ H e clothes with life, and to the blessed hands of n1y god and my goddess for grace and life entrust me.” Then comes a line of separation, and the hymn to Samas is introduced by the word st@%.



aftel tnmble fill me with rest, and day and night I will stand undarkened. I n the anguish of my heart and the sickness of my ffesh I was bowed down. 0 father supreme, I am debased and walk to and fro. With scourges’ and in expiation I beat myself. My littleness (1) I know not, the sin I have committed I kuew not, I am small and he is great ; The walls of my god may I pass. 0 bird, stand still and hear the hound ! 0 Sun-god, stand still and hear me ! Overpower the name of the evil ban that has been created, . whether the ban of my father, or the ban of my begetter, o r the ban of the seven branches of the house of my father, or the ban of my family and my slaves, or the ban of my free-born women and concubines, or the ban of the dead and living, or the ban of the adult (1) and the suckling, or the ban of my father and of him who is not my father, For father and mother I pronounce the spell ; and for brother and child I prononnce the spell. For friend and neighbour I pronounce the spell, and for labourer and workman I pronounce the spelL For the field thou hast made and thy pasturage I pronounce the spell. May the name of my god be a father where there is no justice. To mankind, the flock of the god Ner, whatever be their names, who are in field and city, speak, 0 Sun-god, mighty lord, and let the evil ban be at mt.”
1 Kdri ; so in W. A. I. iv. 7,4 : ‘ I the incantation is laid as a scourge (i%ru) upon his back.” The Accadian equivalent was ldba (sometimes written with the determinative prefix AL, W. A. I. Y . 16. 24, 25), which is also translated by the Assyrian sidictum (Heb. sh6dh). Sadi WBS another Accado-Sumerian equivalent (iv. 1,42). The word is expressed ideographically (“ cord-hand-cutting,” and ‘(cutting cord”) in v. 14. 64, 55, where we also find mention of “the scourge,” sa ina tatqirfl m d d , “which is used in penal examination” (Heb. bipporefh). The itleographic equivalent of the latter is “ rope-length ($Urdu)-making.” Huppu is further tho Assyrian rendering of tho ideographic compounds I ( rope-skin-cutting” and Lc rope-hand-cutting” (v. 14. 57, 58).




Here the hymn to the Sun-god is made a vehicIe for removing the ban or (‘curse” that has fallen on the sick man. The beliefs which produced the magical texts must still have been active, although the hymn belongs to a late period of Babylonian history; the old doctrine of an inexorable fate, even if degraded into a belief i n the witch’s art, still existed along with the worship of a god who restored the dead to life and was ii supreme in mercy to those that were in trouble.” We have only to - turn to our modern newspapers to discover how slowly such primeval beliefs die out, and how long they may linger among the uneducated and superstitious by the side of the most exalted faiths and the mightiest triumphs of inductive science. The fact that one text is magical, while another contains a hymn to the deity, does not of itself prove the relative ages of the two documents. Then, thirdly, it has become increasingly manifest that a good many of the so-called Accadian texts are not Accadian in their origin. As I pointed out several years ago,l the old Accado-Sumerian language was learned by the Semitic Babylonians as Latin was learned by the medieval monks, and for much the same reasons. It was the language of the oldest sacred texts; it was also the early language of law; and both priests and lawyers were accordingly interested in its preservation and use. What happened to Latin in the Middle Ages had already happened to Accadian in Babylonia. The monks spoke and wrote in a language which was Latin indeed, but which had lost its classical purity; monkish Latin was full of modern words and idioms, and its p m a r was not

Babylonian Literature, pp. 64, 71, 72.



alwap scrupulously accurate. On the other haud, it contributed multitudes of words, and even forms of expression, to the languages of every-day life that were spoken around it, and the words were frequently modified to suit the pronunciation and genius of the languages that borrowed them, just as the modern words which mo&& Latin had itself adopted were furnished with classical terminations and construed in a classical fashion. The case was precisely the same in ancient Chaldma. Here, too, there was a monkish Accadian, both spoken and written, some of which would have shocked the Accadian speakers of an earlier age. The Ziterati of the c o d of Sargon of Accad had been partly Accadian, partly Semitic; the Accadian scribes wrote and spoke Semitic, the Semitic scribes wrote and spoke Accadian. '*The result waa necessarily it large amount of lending and borrowing upon both sides, and the growth of an rrrtificial literary language which maintained its ground for centuries. The way for the rise of this artificial dialect had already been prepared by the long contact there had been between the two chief languages of prim& tive Chaldma. When two languages thus exist side hy side-like Welsh, for example, by the side of EngWthey will borrow one from another, the language of sdperior ltulture and organieation being that which exerfs the greatest influence. The pupils Will imitate the speech of their mashrs in art and science even if, as i n the owe of Greece and Rome, the masters in art and science are the subjects in political power. From a very early epoch, therefore, possibly before the separation of the Semitic family, the old agglutinative dialects of W d a e a had been influencing their LJemitio T2

a work that was carried on under Semitic patronage and supremacy. It was the work of cultivated men. neighbours. with the necessary result that in the new artificial language the influence of Semitic thought and speech upon the decaying speech of preSemitic Accad tended constantly t o become greater. to determine whether the Semitic text were a translation of an older Accadian one. moreover. and subsequently handed down through generations of Semitic copyists. which were first composed by Semitic scribes. Even now. It was as yet impossible to separate classical from monkish Accadian . could not fail to show their origin and history plainly stamped upon their face. But it was distinguished from the older process in two ways. The Accadian texts. working upon literary models with a definite object in view. or whether the Accadian was a literary rendering of a Semitic original.324 LECTURE V. it is not always easy to decide the question. It was. The words may have been introduced by copyists. while what we imagine to be Semitic idioms may really be imitations of earlier Accadian modes of speech. with all the progress that has been made during the last few years in our knowledge of the pre-Semitic dialects of Chaldea. Apart from the monuments of Babylonia . borrowed when the ancestors of the Semitic family still lived together in their tents by the western banks of the Euphrates. And such is actually the case as regards a good many of the texts which in the early days of Accadian study could not be distinguished from the genuine productions of Accadian writers. The work carried on at the court of Sargon was accordingly but a continuation of an older process. It is not enough to show that the Accadian text contains Semitic words or idioms.

after all. Texts which refer to Semitic deities or to Semitic sanctuaries disclose at once their real age and source. It is always possible that words and forms of expression which we believe to be distinctively Semitic may. were still spoken within the limits of a single community.THE SACRED BOOES OF CHALD?EA. The only question is. and must have lent many words. 32s and Assyria.1 Enough now. to their neighbourn . if not idioms. or are in accord with the Semitic conceptions of the divine government of the world. and to subject the non-Semitic language in which they are written to a searching examination. to how Arabic is of little assistance in settling the question. it will be necessary to exhume mor0 monuments which. It is equally impossible to refer to an early date compositions which breathe a philosophical spirit. however.have no records of Semitic speech which reach back even approximately to that remote epoch when the dialects which afterwards became the languages of Assyria. of h a m and of Phmnicia. and when that community was still leading the life of the Bedouin of to-day. is known about the characteristic features of pure and unadulterated Accado-Sumerian to enable us to assign most of the hymns and magical texts to their true origih. Not unfrequently the conclusions which have been arrived at on philological grounds are confirmed by the contents of the texts. belong to the pre-Semitic era. and to determine whether their parentage is Semitic or Accadian. Aramacan tribes have lived in immediate proximity to the original speakers of Arabic from very early times. since our knowledge of it is so recent that it is impossible to say in many cases whether the lexical and idiomatic points of agreement between it and the North Semitic languages may iiot be due to borrowing. have had an Accadian origin. before this can be settled. we. like those of Tel-loh.

as I believe. whether. is found again in the sixth book of the Epic. abounds with passages which are plainly borrowed from other poems. a product of the age of Assur-bani-pal. The great Epic of Gisdhubar is little more in its present form than a redaction of earlier poems relating to the H&rakl&s of Erech. while its concluding lines have little connection with . our difficulties are by no means over. which bears so curious a resemblance to the first chapter of Genesis. late a period such compositions belong. a comparison of the two passages goes to shorn that the authors of both have alike copied the description from an earlier source. It is full of episodes like that of the Deluge. and whose richly poetical language stands out in marked contrast t o the dull and prosaic character of their setting . The Descent of Istar into Hades. indeed. The Descent of Istar. goes back to the epoch of Ehammuragas. with a few slight differences of expression. again. which. in the other to Bel (Mul-lil). And the episode itself may be pieced together out of more than one earlier poem. which hare no very close connection with the main subject of the work.326 LECTURE V. in one of which the catastrophe was ascribed to the Sun-god. or is. An ancient literature like that of Babylonia must necessarily contain comparatively little that is original. begins with a description of the infernal world. Thus the story of the Deluge shows clear traces of having been compounded out of at least two older narratives. But even when we have determined the relative date and origin of a particular composition. the account of the Creation in days. Most of the works that have come down to us are based on older literary productions. and are often mere centos of earlier compositions. for example.

like certain of the Old Testament psalms. indeed. we have older fragments incorporated into later texts. The authors of the penitential psalms nre fond of adding to their productions a litany of varying Zengtb. In its main outlines. This fact remains unshaken. Here. it is only in its details that it needs correction and improvement.” But it was not a spirit in .THE SACRED BOOKS QF CHALDBA. but whole passages as well. The world about him was peopled by supernatural powers. nevertheless. each of which was to him a zi or L( spirit. It is the same with the magical texts. Tho inhabitant of Babylonia was as yet in the purely Shamanistic stage of religious development. and t o what an extent the first theory about their origin and history must require modification. They reach back to a period when the Semitic conception of a supreme Baal was utterly unknown-when. Even t-he hymns are sometimes put together out of older materials. and had been handed down from an early period. 327 what precedes them. not only do the same phrases and lines recur. there was no definite conception of a god at all. It will be seen from this how much remains to be done before the sacred books of ancient Babylonia can be made fully to tell their tale. The magical texts formed the earliest sacred literature af Chaldea. in which the names of certain divinities are invoked . and are obviously an extract from LL fieparate work. The L L creating” deity of later Accadian belief had not yet emerged €rom the religious consciousness of the Chaldaan. too. we have repetitions and borrowing . the litany was a common possession whicth existed in an independent form. the theory first sketched by the brilliant insight of Lenormant still continues true.

it must be by other means than appeals to their love. not a priesthood. but their benefits and injuries seem altogether capricious and accidental. Shamanism accordingly implies. nor in the sense in which the term was used by the Semitic scribes of a later day. or seemed to move. In this phase of faith the moral element mas wholly wanting. If their invisible spirits are t o be influenced. life. was endowed with life. determined by blind chance. Everything that moved. The spirits were as innumerable as the objects and forces which surrounded the ChaldEan. all seems . our sense of the word. The zi was simply that which manifested life. entirely independent of the actions and thoughts of man. the fire which scorches to death will also cook the food to sustain life. the fire that blazed up from the ground devouring all that fell in its way. The visible things of nature may benefit or injure. but . but they have no passions. had all alike their spirits. for only i n this way could primitive man explain the fact. and the test of the manifestation of life was movement. Hence the objects and forces of nature were all assigned a ai or spirit. the heavenly bodies that moved across the sky. and as mysterious and invisible as his own spirit or life. I n each event. The arrow that flew through the air. the stone that struck and injured. The same stone which has killed a man to-day may help to build his son’s house to-morrow. their anger. and eaten of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil. was the cause of movement. The Chaldsean had not yet entered the Garden of Eden. the spirits of nature may live and move. their jealousy or their pride.328 LECTURE V . therefore. He himself moved and acted because he had life . no emotions.

Shamanism. fop . Animism controlled and regulated by a body of exorcists who take the place of the priesthood of a higher cult. in fact. or whether the profession were open to all alike. by the Ispirit of the stone or metal.” or exorcists. It was doubtless the existence of disease which first called this body of exorcists into being. There is no evidence to show that the exorcists of Chaldea ever professed to extract pieces of actual stone or metal from the body of the sick. like the medicine-men of Australia or America. Tylor has termed simple Animism. as possession by a malevolent spirit. is. but they claimed by their spells to expel the spirits which enabled these pieces of sto2e and metal to afllict and injure. 329 a body of ‘( medicine-men. Whether the medicine-men of primeval Chaldaa had to undergo any initiatory course of training. The prevention and cure of disease is the main object of the magical texts and incantations. the magical texts being merely survivals which in their present form belong to a later time. which distinguishes the early Shamanism of Chaldrea from what Dr. Disease was looked upon.THE SACRED BOOES OF CHALDiEA. however. who h o w the spells whereby the spirits of nature can be compelled either to cease from injuring or to ill-treat the foe. organised Animism . Listen. we do not know. so it was inferred an internal malady must be caused by an invisible agent of a similar kind-that is. Just as an external wound might be caused by a piece of stone or metal. as it still is in many parts of the uncivilized world. our records do not reach back to the remote period of pure Shamanism. It is this class of exorcisbs. The same means that were adapted for getting rid of the visible stone and metal would be suitable for getting rid of their invisible spirits.

the plague unremovable.-conjure. the plague-demon who leaves not (the body). painful sickness which cannot be removed. however. the evil tongue. 0 spirit of earth ! . 0 spirit of earth ! The painful plague. . the assaulting wind which strips off the clothing of the body like an evil demon. . the demon of the tomb. that which is racked (with pain). the evil demon. 0 spirit of earth ! Him who is the possessor of the likeness of another. the baleful plague. 0 spirit of heaven ! conjure. the evil spirit. the demon of the sea. the evil face. difficult miction. is diseascd. the passions were those of the wicked. a broken muscle. there existed the . disease.-conjure. the baleful fever. the demon of the mountain. a sick heart. with the growing belief in the malevolence of the spirits of nature. the fever-demon who leaves not (the body). the demon of the field. an injured muscle. The worship of the spirits of nature thus tended to become a religion of fear. the virulent plague. headache. violent vomiting. That which is misformed. a dream of ill omen. 0 spirit of heaven ! conjure. 0 spirit of heaven ! conjure. 0 spirit of heaven ! conjure. In so far as human passions could be ascribed to them. 0 spirit of heaven ! conjure. . the evil mouth. But the moral element was wholly on the dark side. the fever which quits not a man.330 LECTURE V. the evil eye. not of the good. The spirits of disease were essentially evil and malevolent. 0 spirit of earth !” The exorcisms for driving away the spirits of disease gradually introduced a moral element into the character of the old spirits of nature. faintness of the heart. 0 spirit of earth ! The sickness of the entrails. that which. . instance. Side by side. disease of the kidneys. the fever unremovable. a broken bloodvessel (?). a constricted muscle. a painful muscle.-conjure. an aching muscle. the virulent fever. even a diseased muscle. the dazzling fiend.-conjure. the evil breath. . to the opening words of the great collection of Chaldaean magical texts : “The evil god. the evil l i p . 0 spirit of earth ! . the plague which quits not a man. -conjure. the evil wind. . The painful fever. 0 spirit of heaven ! conjure. -conjure. a swollen muscle. disease of the bile.

also brought to them the elements of culture and civilisation. . ‘‘ Conjure. The Babylonian began to generalise and to sum up his individual impressions of outward phenomena in wider and more abstract ideas. Animals. 331 totemism of which I have spoken in the last Lecture. protected his worshipper from the attacks of evil. became the supreme powers whose spirits dominated over all others and demanded the reverence of man. 0 spirit of earth !” The earth out of whose bosom the agriculturist received the bounties of life. is. and the spells he used tended to recognise the distinction between good and evil in the world of spirits as well as i n the world of men. It was at this point that cosmogonic speculations first exercised an influence upon the religion of the Challaean states. as we have just heard. whose labours benefited mankind. In this way the Shamanism of earlier and ruder times began to pass into a higher form of creed. and these spirits naturally shared the feelings and passiom which moved the animals to which they belonged. the spirits of these separate phenomena were subordinated to the spirits of the earth and the sky. The stereotyped conclusion of the old Accadian exorcism. and the rays of the sun warmed all nature into activity. The sacared animals were regarded as moral agenk.THE SACRED BOOKS O F CHALDBA. the heavens from which the fertilising rain and dew dropped upon the ground. 0 spirit of heaven ? conjure. the ox. as well as other objects. Earth and heaven took the place of the individual objects and forces whose sphere of action was in the one or the other. while the f i s h which supplied the inhabitants of Eridu with food. like men. had each their spedd spirit. the exorcist approximated more and more to the priest.

and the superiority of the good to the evil. for the most part. The old medicine-man was fast becoming a priest.s terrible spirits of disease. The introduction of cosmological ideas and speculations into Chaldaean religion brought with it two results. who loved the darkness of night and the solitary places of the wilderness. It was an immense step in advance. The earliest portions of the latter belong to the age when the crude Shamanism of the past bad been tempered and modified by the first beginnings of a theory of the world. the great cosmogonic powers of earth and heaven. The supernatural beings he worshipped were now divided. Unlike the malevolent spirits of disease. the moral conceptions of Chaldsean faith were enlarged by the belief in the existence of good as well as of evil spirits. Light and darkness now stood opposed to one another i n the sphitual as well as in the physical world. and it correspondswith the time when the religious literature of Babylonia first commences with the oldest surviving magical texts. First of all. the great cosmogonic spirits were essentially beneficent. On the one side stood the demoas of disease and nightmare. there grew out of it the conception of creating gods. on the other. We have already had occasion to observe the essential distinction that existed between the Accadian pnd Semitic conceptions of the universe: with the one.332 LECTURE V. It is true that th. The struggle between good and evil had already begun in the mind of the Chaldaan thinker. . into two hostile camps. but the moment was not far off when such would be the case. were not yet consciously conceived as demons. From this point onward we can trace the further development of the older creed.

THE B A m D BOOKS OF CEALDBA. of Ana and Mul51. The return of light and sunshine. the heavens and the earth were carved out of a pre-existent chaos . Just They were. marks the victory gained over the encroaching forces of the lower world. the darkening eclipse. of bright skies and germinating seeds. The spirit of the earth and the spirit of the heaven thus developed into creating gods. however. in fact. At the outset. confounded with the old t as the heavenly bodies. o t e m s . of heaven and hell. the h t gods. which seemed t o move of their . But it was before the old habits of thought and expression could be quite eradicated from the Chaldsean mind. The Semitic Baal mas a father . they were begotten. The earth and the sky became the first creators. When the gods took upon them human shape. these spirits were regarded as similar to the spirits of individual men. It is they who create all the good things which man enjoys below. According to the Semite. With the other. there was a spirit of Ea and Dav-kina. according t o the Accadian. the heavens and the earth were themselves primordial powers. maintaining an eternal struggle with the chaos of darkness and anarchy. it was with the animal and not with the human world that the new gods were associated. including man himself. the devastating tempest. The spirits which had developed into gods were themselves provided w i t h spirits . and the functions and attributes of the human spirit were reflected upon the spirits of the gods. 533 all things were made . the Accadian divinity a creator. as well as of water and earth. The tempprary triumph of chaos means the irruption of anarchy into the fair order of nature-the destructive hurricane.

but the god was abstracted from the visible moon itself. The spirit of the moon. Over against them are the malevolent spirits of disease. The new god orb which manifested itself i might in turn be abstracted from the creative force.own accord like living beings. in . of water and air. We have now reached the culminating point of the old Accadian religion. the deification of the spirits of earth and heaven necessarily brought with it the deification of other spirits which resembled them in character and power. and the spirit that moved him was that of the brute. to whom a creative power had been given. and identified with the creative force of the lunar n motion. ' In the second place. while beside them are other spirits which still retain d i f f erence. The gods represent the order and law of the universe embodied by the sa6bcc. or '' fate. in no way differing. from the spirit that 'was believed to reside in man.this case the creative force would become his spirit. the god or spirit. it will be seen. of chaos and of darkness. The god was a beast before he became a man. so too the spirits of earth and heaven. were similarly identified with them. this power now became itself the supernatural being. Spirits innumerable still exist." to which even the g d 3 themselves must submit. for example. developed into a god. were identified with the sacred animals. neither their primitive character of moral h . but they are controlled and overawed by creative gods. The test of supernaturalism-of the existence of a spirit-was the power of movement possessed by an object or a force of nature. more especially if he were assimilated to the sacred steer.

frequently have a sort o f litany attached te them. Indeed. seleatinns h m w h i c h were taken by the authors of tihe p m h and added to their “ I . A beneficent god required another kind of worship than that1 which was appropriate to the non-moral spirits of f3hanihism. and the worshippers who entered them required something else than that the priest. But gods a d dpkits alike were amenable to the spelts and exorcisms used by the sorcerer-priest. he had lost much of’ his old character. aid of wrtain deities under their presemitic names or titles.mere magic. the very conception of a creative deity necessarily brought with it a service of praise and adoration and the formation of a k e d ritual.THE SACRED BOOR8 OF CHALDBA. I n his hands and on his lips was the power of the terrible sabba. ?E35 good nof bad. though some might a p p x h a t d m m m the good and others to the bad. of which I &all speak further on. Among the spells he employed were hymns which imply a more advanced cult than that of . The Penitential Psalms. for a priest he had now become. But. The sorcerer was still the intermediary between mankind and the spiritual world. written in Accadian only. or bewitch the person and the property of his enemy. When the spirit of heaven became Anu. and invoking the. By his magical words he could remove the sickness which was caused by demoniac possession. and enter on the era of the hymns. which even the gods were forced to obey. should “conjure” the object of his cult. The litany was an old heirloom. as I have just said. temples were raised in his honour. We leave the era which witnessed the rise of the magical texts. he could campel the gods to listen to his petition and to perform his commands.

may my supplication address thee ! 0 Mato (Mhtui).’) (‘Asa mother wlio has borne children. may my prayer address thee ! 0 Gnbarra. It is written in the Accadian dialect of north Babylonia. compositions.fu The litany belongs to a period considerably Iater than that which witnessed the rise and first collection of the magical texts. the lord of prayer. One of those translated by Dt Zimmern’ concludes as follows : ‘(0 my god.’) (May it say to thee : ‘Let tby liver be quieted. the lady of supplication. and further shows traces of contact with a Semitic language. wlio binds the hostile (1) mouth). . lord of Eridu. let it be gladdened’).’ May it say to thee : ‘(Turn thy face kindly to me). first-born of) Uras(l).’) (May it say to thee : ‘Let thy heart. (the princely offspring (‘I) of heaven and) earth. pp. may my supplication address thee ! 0 (lady. which exhibits the old Sumerian of the south in an advanced stage of decay. lady of Eden.336 LECTURE 9. be gladdened. may my sup. as a father mho has begof. may my prayer address thee ! 0 wifo of him. may my supplication address thee ! 0 (messenger of the spirit) of the god who proclaims (the good name). ten a child. may my prayer address thee ! 0 lord of heaven and earth. my lady Nana). may my prayer address thee ! 0 (exalted one. The deities e - f From Haupt’s Akkadische Keilschrifttexte. may my prayer address thee ! 0 (bride. like the heart of a mother who has borne children.‘ (May it say to thee : ‘Let thy heart rest. the great goddess.. 116 sp. lord of Tin-tir (Babylon). plication address thee ! May it say to thee : ‘(Direct thine eye kindly unto me). may my supplication address thee ! 0 Merodach (Asar-mulu-duga). may my prayer address thee ! 0 my goddess.” . the lord of the mountain.

but on the faithful petitions of the worshipper himself.” We are still. still referred to under its old Accadian name of Din-Tir. . The difference. still survives. the queen of Erech. the deities must be influenced by the spoken word of their worshipper. There is no allusion to either city or to the divinities they adored. Its efficacy depends no longer on the exorcisms of a medicineman. They have become gods.THE SACRED BOOKS OF CHALDBA. Though Nerodach has already migrated from Eridu to Babylon. But the spoken word has ceased to be the spell or incantation. 5f . lingering on the verge of the pre-Semitic epoch. 337 whose names are invoked belong to different parts of Babylonia. it is true. Nana herself. therefore. between the religious ideas of the litany and those which inspired the old magical texts is immense. Nevertheless. is not yet known as Istar. and point to ’a time when not only the separate states of Chaldcea had begun to recognise a common pantheon. The Semite may be in the land. And along with this change in the nature of the cult has gone a corresponding change in the divine beings to whom the cult is dedicated. A whole age of religious development lie8 between them. the Sun-god of Sippara and Accad is altogether unknown. it has become a prayer and supplication. like the brotherhood of the cities over whose fortunes they preside. bound together in a common brotherhood. but when northern and southern Babylonia had already been united into a single empire. The fundamental conception of the preceding period. however. and the Tasmit of a later day is ‘(the bridal goddess. the litany is earlier than the age of Sargon of Accad and the supremacy of the Semitic population. but the official religion does not as yet recognise him. the first-born of Uras.

an Olympus. It was. Although the sorcerer maintained his ground among the uneducated multitude. and not because they any longer expressed the religious feelings of the day. as well. which in course of time came to receive as much reverence as the more ancient collection. therefore. it possesses a pantheon. like the witch i n modern times. only among the more cultivated classes that this newer and higher conception of the divine government of the world wa8 likely to be found. but this was on account of their antiquity. The formation of magical texts. still clung to their old superstitions. The litany at the end of the peniten- . exorcisms and incantations continued to be written. indeed. The old collections of magical texts. never ceased. Far down into Semitic times. the spells were left to the ignorant and superstitious. They even entered largely into the ritual of the temples. Other texts of a similar character were composed. and to receive the imp& rnatur of the official priesthood.338 IlwR?BE v. But the sanctity attached t o them became fainter and fainter as years went on. the spells with which he served himself were simply m e m for curing the bite of a scorpion. Babylonia possesses not only gods. and such-like necessities of popular medicine. The older tests continued to be interpolated until their antiquity at last threw such a halo of holiness around them that it was considered impious to tamper with their words. doubtless. remained among the sacred books of the nation. The masses. Even in medicine the cultivated Babylonian gentlemen preferred to employ the drugs prescribed by scientific practitioners. their old Shamanism. They were dissociated from the worship of the gods and degraded t o vulgar uses. of course.

firstly. Most of them.” These latter hymns emanate for the most part from Eridu and its neighbourhood. we may as confidently asaribe it to a later date. If the latter is one of those e2 . I t is of importance. Hommel has pointed out that the hymns fall into two main classes. secondly. I n the first case.“ kcantation. In the other w e . or that it was selected as a spell.7’ merely indicatea that the hymn is of sufficiently early date to be imorporated in a magical text. we may confidently assign it to the period when Eridu was still the religious capital of ChaldEea. But the division must not be pressed too far. and. Dr. or whether it w a s originally altogether independent of the use t o which it has been put.THE SACRED BOOKS OF CHALD2EA. This era is represented by the hymns to the gods. the hymns which show no trace of contact with the magical texts. $39 tin1 psalms marks the beginning of a new era in religious thought. other hymns which are either partly magical in character or else are introduced by the significant word en ( ~ Q t u ) . There are. and the faith of the people was only emerging out of its earlier Shamanistic phase. Its precise age will depend upon that of the text in which it is embodied. L‘incantati~n. like that to the Fire-god which I have quoted in n former Lecture. like Gibil the fire-god. were eclipsed by the more humnn deities of the later cult. and bring Merodaoh before us as carrying out the behests of his father Ea for the good of man. moreover. to observe whether the hymn is of a semi-magical character. are dedicated $0 those older divinities who. like the Lord’s Prayer or the fragments of Latin which have served the same object in modern times. The introductory en. where the hymn itself is free from all taint of magic and Bhamanistic superstition. however.

But it is equally true that the Accadian text is really a translation of ths Semitic.340 LECTURE v. therefore. which is followed. and it is possible that they had been revised and altered more than once before they were put together as a single whole. The hymns t o the Sun-god of Sippara afford a fixed point of departure for settling the relative antiquity of the hymns. To determine its age more exactly. by the Semitic rendering. and were a centre and focus of Semitic influence. that they had been collected for liturgical use. . Sometimes these may point to an early epoch. They all belong to the epoch when Sippara and Accad were ruled by Semitic princes. and were part of the daily service performed by the priests in the temple of Samas. line by line. and more probably was made. as is the case with the other bilingual texts of early date. late survivals which proved how deeply rooted the belief in magic and witchcraft was among the lower strata of the population. at other times to a comparatively recent one. But whatever may have been the respective ages of the individual hymns. The individual hymns had doubtless been composed on different occasions and at different times. It is true that the hymns are provided with an Accadian test. we must have recourse to the language in which it is written and the other indications of date it may contain. They form a separate class by themselves. it may have been made. There were hymns that had to be recited at sunrise and sunset. the hymn or fragment of the hymn which is incorporated in it may be of almost any period. It may have been made by Accadian scribes. they were all alike of Semitic origin. It is plain. o r on the special festivals held in honour of the god. and had been invested with a sacred character.

accordingly. the older incantations. There is only one period in the history of Sippara. S41 4 3 7 Elemitic scribes. Like the monk of the Middle Ages. thinks it no sin to publish hymns to Neb0 and Samas in Semitic only. The pre-Semitic epoch of northyrn Babylonia was but just passing away. but the form in which it must be clothed before it could be acceptable to the divinity was Accadian. Though the ancient Sun-god of Sippara had become the Semitic Samas. The LJemitic words and idioms it contains bear witness to its secondary character. and the invocations addressed to the gods by Nebuchadnezzar and his successors are in the same Semitic language as the . the priest s f Samas addressed his god in the older and more sacred Itongue. of which we know. like the Accadian texts which emamted from the library of Assur-bani-pal. were all in the agglutinative language of the first inhabitants of the country. but hymns also. In a later age there was no longer the same strong motive for assimilating the hymns to the Sun-god to &hose addressed to the more purely Accadian deities of Babylonia. The sentiment. to which such a work is attributable. without any endeavour to render them into the obsolete Accadian.THE SACRED BOOKS OF CHbLDBA. The Semitic language became first literary and then a fit vehicle of devotion. Not only were magical texts written in it. but it is not original. This is the age of $argon and his son Naram-Sin. it was natural t o suppose that he would be better pleased with the language i n which the spirits and deities of Chaldsea had been addressed than with the vulgar speech of every-day Me. who composed his prayers and hymns in Latin. antiquarian as he was. the expression. the hymns t o the gods. might be Semitic. Assur-banipal. the sacred texts.

rest of their inscriptions. but it is probable that the majority of them are quite as early as those of the north. and the hymns belong to the sanctuaries of northern Babylonia. and when Accadian was still believed to be the language of the gods. and in the larger number of them the Accadian text is the original. and t. We know. Jn some instances we can show that they have been modified and interpolated. Where this is the case. indeed. If. as Lenormant conjectured. How far they have come down to us in their original condition and form it is hard to say. the same conclusion cannot be drawn in regard to the hymns employed there.hus constituted a sort of Babylonian Rig-Veda. and analogy would lead us to suppose that such was generally the case. The translation of the hymns to Samas into Accadian presupposes a time when the Accadian influence was still powerful. that this was the case as regards the hymns addressed to Bel-Merodach of Babylon.343 LEcrmRE V . that the unification of the country brought with . With few exceptions they are bilingual. It is very probable.then. Like the hymns to Samas. we must suppose them to have belonged to different collections employed liturgically in the chief temples of Chaldsea. it becomes more e&y t o find an approximate date for the hymns to the other great gods of Babylonia. Nor is it possible to determine at present whether the collections of sacred hymns used in the different temples of Babylonia were formed into a single whole. we can assign the hymns to Samas of Sippaira to the age of Sargon of Accad. in Accadian and Semitic. we may consider them older than the age of Sargon. however. As the ancient language of the country continued to be spoken in southern Babylonia long after his time.

perhaps imply the existence of a sacred volume which was in common use among the priestly schools of Babylonia. But whether or not such an authorised collection of hymns existed for the whole of Chaldaea. of hymns-which are incorporated in the magical texts. Rev. confederated together. The matter is. but from a common hymn-book in which the special collections had been grouped together. if such a common hymn-book ever existed. K6268. and that the other “great gods” had been assigned their places in a common pantheon. and h t the copieB of the hymns we possess were not made by the scribes of Assur-bani-pal from the hymn-books of different eanctuaries. for instance. Mul-lil and Ea. One of the few hymns to Nergal. the hymns-or more usually the fragments. as it a unification of the sacred books used in ita several temples. On the other hand. This is a poi& which it must be left to future research to decide. was. indeed. 12. it is certain that a considerable number of the hymns were composed when the chief cities of Babylonia and their presiding deities had been. copied from the service-book of Cutha. however. complicated by our ignorance of the extent to which the hymns have been altered and interpolated before their present text was finally fixed. on the whole. we are told. At the same time. had already been linked together in a divine brotherhood. which we possess.l and this is by no means an isolated example of the kind. it seems pretty evident that Ana. it must have contained selections only from the hymn-books of the individual sanctuaries. .

and Merodach is no longer “the bull of light.344 llEaTURE Y .” but an anthropomorphic god. must have been deliberately built up. they must belong to an artificial system. The whole family system. The gods become human. The last vestiges of primitive totemism fade away. has taken the place of a system of mere eo-ordination. A distinct advance had thus been made beyond the religious conceptions of the litany of the penitential psalms. they become fathers and children. but they are now connected together in the bonds of a single family. Now the family system implies an entire change in the conception of the gods themselves. where these relationships are found existing among divinities. standing in the same relation to Ea that 8 human son stands to his human father. Religion: in the hands of its official representatives i n Chaldaea. The family system. Along with this change necessarily goes another. They cease to be creators.” the son of ‘‘ the antelope of the deep. the introduction of the family relation completed the work. however. and be the product of intentional arrangement. Family relationships may grow up naturally among the divinities worshipped in the same locality or in the colonies sent out by a mother-state. The work. Babylonian religion had long been tending to regard the gods as supernatural men. in which the deities of different states are each given a definite position. not only are the gods of different cities invoked side by side. in its final form bears clear marks of artificiality. originally independent and each adored as supreme in its own primitive seat of worship. had . in fact. before a considerable proportion of the hymns had been ‘composed.

They became Baalim. . the civilisation and the religion of a subsequent era. The old goddeseerr. The Semite sat at the feet of his Accadian Gamaliel when the crude Shamanism of the latter had passed into a higher phase of religion. The amalgamation o. but at the same time he adapted them to his own notions concerning the divine government of the world. At first they were content to be pupils. it had become organised and reflectivea subject t o be discussed and analysed. and who exhibits himself to us i n the solar energy. there seems to me to be an almost impassable gulf. t o be arranged and methodised. Can all this have been the natural and uninterrupted development of the old pre-Semitic Shamanism ? With Franqois Lenormant. What this element must have been we know already. BCrBssos expressly notes that Babylonia was the home of different races . he might have added that it was the home also of different faiths.€ the two races produced the Babylonian population of later times. The Semitic nomads of the western desert in the days of their barbarism had come into contact with the cultured kingdoms and people of the valley of the Euphrates. which can be bridged over only by the assumption of an intrusive foreign element. He adopted the gods. eventually they became masters themselves. so many manifestations of the supreme deity whose ohildren we are. 845 not only passed out of the sphere of simple and spontaneous belief. Between the religion of the magical texts. of the earlier semi-magical hymns and of the litanies on the one side. and along with it the history. I think not.THE SACRED BOOK8 OF CHBLDEA. and the religion of the later hymns on the other. and the creator-gods had been evolved out of the spirits of the earlier creed.

to be beaten back once more into the outer darkness. might at times invade the realms of the Baalim. which was assimilated and adapted by the Semites as best they could. The rest of the supernatural world. the adversary. found it difficult to conceive of a deity which was not masculine and feminine too. which. only. . however. The rise of Sun-worship at Sippara. of light and darkness. sank to the rank of Ashtaroth and “mistresses of the gods. All that stood outside the family were servants and slaves-the hosts of heaven and earth who performed the behests of their masters. himself was but an angel and minister of the Lord. like the gods of foreign nations. was really a btranger to genuine Semitic belief. however. it was a legacy left by the Accadians. Satan. was relegated to the domain of the enemy. they must first conform to the requirements of his religious conceptions. Now. at the head of which stood ‘(father Bel. if such existed. and allow themselves to be grouped together as members of a single family. and the supreme god was the creator alike of good and evil. as I have already tried to point out.with the exception of Istar. the prominence given to the solar element in Babylonian religion gene. The divine hierarchy was necessarily regarded as a family. Where the Semitic faith existed in its full purity. it comprised the empire of chaos and night.” mere companions and doubles of the male divinity. the keystone of Semitic belief was the generative character of the deity.” If the gods of Accad were to be worshipped by the Semite. The empire of chaos. and carried the messages of Baal t o all parts of the universe. A language which divided nouns into masculines and feminines.

It was the necessity the Semite was under of accommodating his beliefs to the doctrine of an empire of chaos that turned them into veritable demons. it is a sudden change. is the degradation of the spirits of the primitive faith into demons. and even of the sorcerer and the medicineman. the great gods. the obliteration of the older gods whose a t t r h t e s could not be harmonised with those of a Sun-god. and the identification of deity after deity with the solar BaaI. the supreme .’ 1 Nothing can be more striking than the following expression in a prayer to “Ea. the lord of the ghostworld. while others of them were invested w i t h a distinctly malevolent character. Perhaps the most striking traneformation ever undergone by any object of religious faith was the conversion of Mul-lil. Such a transformation could not have been produced nahrally. was again the result of the introduction of Semitic ideas i n t o the religion of Chaldsa. We have traced the process whereby certain of these spirits developed into deities. Persian dualism was no new thing in Babylonia. into a Bel or Baal. except by calling in the aid of a foreign religious element. working for evil against the gods in a world of evil of their own. the god of light and life. the gods of good and the spirits of evil had been struggling there one against the other since the remote days of Sargon of Accad. but they are not yet demons.d y . and therefore hostile t o the gods of light . The evil spirits who brought disease or oaused eclipse might be the brood of chaos. Samas and Merodach. n o t a development. it needed the grafting of new religious conceptions upon an older cult. Equally hard to explain.but they were all the subjects of Mul-El.

Hommel is perfectly right in calling the Accadian of the north neo-Sumerian. It was the religion of the upper classes. The magical texts and hymns were not the only sacred books possessed by the Babylonians. like the magical texts and the majority of the hymns. is not written. of course. . The litany frequently attached to them belongs. been describing only the official religion of Babylonia. like the legends of the gods which formed the subject-matter of popular poetry. from darkness I stepped forth and (became) the soldier of Samas” (ultu edhuti efsauvo &ab Samas [usmlrin]). . though it has been altered from time to time in later ages.348 LECTURE V. in the Sumerian dialect of the south.”--“ the sins of my father and my mother I saw not ([salabi--yau urnmi-ya khidati ul amrd) . 7-9. of the priesthood and of khe court. . as it is known to us from the sacred literature of the country. however. we can only guess. The differences that exist to-day between the creed of a Spanish peasant and that of a scientific savant are not greater khan those which existed in Babylonia of old between the religion of the multitude and that of the school which resolved the divinities of the popular theology into forms of the one supreme god. as we have seen. and how far they may have participated in the official cult. to the preSemitic epoch.R 278. Obv. Dr. The litany. There was yet a third class of sacred literature-those penitential psalms to which I have so often alluded. it represents the Sumerian of the early texts in an advanced stage of powers who estahlish the ban. Kn what precedes I have.. but in the Accadian d the north. What the mass of the people may have believed. The later magical texts and incantations were condescensions to their necessities and superstitions.

which indicates its antiquity. The Semites established themselves i n the northern part of the country long before they settled in the south. There were several dialects of the Accadian or pre-Semitic language of Chaldtea. . 61 84. ‘‘ return to its place. * Literally.” The author of the psalm is uncertain 89 to the particular god who hm paniahed him. or that it is the direct descendant of the latter dialect. Zimmern’s Bzmpsalmen. for example. therefore.” 3 The Assyrian translation here has Istar instead of Istarit. may it be appeased !* Nay the god whom I know not be appeased ! May the goddess3 whom I know not be appeased ! May the god I know and (the god) I know not be appeased ! 1 W.THE SACRED BOOKS OF CHALDBA. which has been preBerved to us in a fairly complete condition : “The heart of my lord is wroth. I. which lend to them a striking resemblance to the Psalms of the Old Testament. borrowing at the same time Semitic words and modes of expression. It is in this Accadian of the north that the penitential psalms are written. Let us take one. They belong neither to the same age nor to the same city. A. pp. But they are all distinguished by the same characteristics. What hastened the decay of the northern dialect was its eontact with Semitic. 10. The kingdom of Sargon rose and waned at Accad more than a thousand years before Sumerian dynasties ceased to rule in the southern cities. 349 decay. The expression ‘‘ whom I know not” m e w L c whose name I know not. if the Accadian of the north decayed long before its sister dialect of Eridu. one of these gave rise t o the Accadian of northern Babylonia at a time when the Sumerian dialect in the south still preserved its pristine purity. But this does not prove that it was spoken at a later period than the Sumerian of the south. 4. It is not strange.

0 lord. my silts are many. p.” . God in the fierceness of his heart has revealed himself to me. The goddess whom I know and whom I know not has inflicted trouble. May the goddess I know and (the god-) I know not be a p peased ! May the heart of my god be appeased ! May the heart of my goddess be appeased ! May the god and the goddess I know and I know not be appeased ! May the god who (has been violent against me) be appeased) ! May the goddess (who has been violent against me be appeased) ! The sin that (I sinned I) knew not. as Mr. my sins are many. A name of blessing (may the goddess I know and know not) pronounce upon me). The cursed-thing that I ate I knew not. A name of blessing (may the god I know and know not) record for me. The cursed thing1 of my god unknowingly did I eat . my sins are many. The cursed thing of my goddess unknowingly did I trample on. is borrowed from the Accadian iwgiba. Pinches has pointed out. ’ Clear water I have (not) drunk.350 LECTURE f. my transgressions are great ! 0 goddess whom I know and whom I know not. she has committed the cursed thing. ‘‘ the Iiandmaid eateth the cursed thing. The sin (that I committed I knew not). The transgression I committed I knew not. ‘‘ what is harmful. my transgressions are great ! The pin that I sinned I knew not. my sins are many. ‘‘in the day that thou eatest thereof thou shalt surely die.” W e may compare the words of G e a ii.” Zimmern quotes Haupt’s Text8. my sins are many. 1 The Assyrian iklcib. 119 (6 sp. (Pure) food I have (not) eaten. The lord in the wrath of his heart has regarded me . A name of blessing (may my god pronounce upon me). my transgressions are great ! 0 my goddess. The cursed thing that I trampled on I knew not. 17. my transgressions are great ! 0 god whom I know and whom I know not. The god whom I know and whom I know not has distressed me.). The goddess has been violent against me and has put me to grief. my transgressions are great ! 0 my god.

In W. scven times seven are my transgressions . 0 god whom I know and know not. 0 lord. accept my prayer !) 0 god whom I know (and whom I know not. Mankind. forgive my sins ! 0 goddess whom I know and whom I know not. the merciful one. seven times seven am my trsnsgressionej forgive my sins ! 0 god whom I know and whom I know not. accept my prayer !) 0 goddess whom I know (and whom I know not. 0 lord. 0 goddess whom I know and know not. ii. I m p t and none stood at my side . 20.”thus in 1 . forgive my sins I 0 my goddem. seven times seven are my transgressions . I turn myself. 55. KA-TAR (perhaps pronounced kus) is “spoken judgment. forgive my sins ! Forgive my sins . 45. what do they know ’ I Whether he shall have good or ill. A. shall thy heart in its hostility be [not] appeased 2 Xankind is made to wander and there is none that knoweth. The sins I have sinned turn to a blessing. (shall thy face be turned from me 1) How long. v. may thy ban be remcwed. 32. shall the fierceness (of thy heart continuef) How long. 12. 0 goddess. I iv. look upon (mo . 0 my god. (shall I suffer 0) How long. I utter my prayqrb The feet of my goddess I kiss and water with team1 To the god whom I know and whom I know not I utter my prayer. as many as pronounce a name. 0 god. 24. 53.” l1 excommunicatiou . The transgressions I have committed may the wind carry away. 33. I oried aloud and there waa none that heard me. look upon (me . Strip off my manifold wickednesses as a garment. I dare not look up.2 See W. se\-en times seven are my transgressions . there is none that knoweth. 19. S am in trouble and hiding . accept my prayer !) How long. I.‘c sought for help and none took my hand . Zimmern haa mistaken the meaning of this passage. A. ea-mun~illal~l is rendered unukkatu. 21. receive my prayer !) 0 goddess.35-38. deatroy not thy servant ! When cast into the mater of the ocean (1) take his hand. To my god.

and belongs t o the age that saw the rise of poems like that on the Deluge. is the equivalent of the Accadian U B (for which see ii. 1. As a mother who has borne childrcn. This is the conclusion of the original Accadian colophon. A. as a father who has begotten them. moreover.-Psalm of 65 lines . may it be appeased ! CoLomoN. a tablet for every god.” It is only necessary t o read the psalm to see in it distinct traces of contact on the part of the Accadians with Semitic thought. Ciri = taizitta. and was added by the scribes of b u r .363 LECTURE V . the word of thy heart. 2. It was due to the action of malevolent spirits or the decrees of inexorable fate rather than to the wickedness of man. Hitherto the evil that existed in the world had not been given a moral significance. W e have ina KA-GA-ka lu-td(KU)-ludh KA-TAR-ZU KA Zibbi-ka luscvi. dalali. “ exaltation” (not “subject”). Bev. the goddess necessarily stands at his side.b a w pal. king of legions. At most. king of Assyria. I t s repetition ensures my peace. May thy heart be appeased as the heart of a mother who has borne children. may I honour thy commandment. The god cannot be addressed alone. 35.2 Like its original copied and published : palace of Assur-bani-pal. “ by thy word may I live . which the psalm reveals is hardly reconcilable with the religious conceptions presupposed by the magical texts and the earlier hymns. I. and it was removed by spells and ceremonies which occasioned the interference of the god of wisdom and his son Merodach. The consciousness of sin is a new feature in Chaldaean religion. The AeXt line is in Assyrian. . 16-18. The introspection. 29.” I n W. “ exaltation ”). it was considered a punishment for offences against the divine order of the 1253. which ascribed the sufferings of mankind t o their wrong-doing. iv. 36.

again. In fear lest the deity he has offended should not be named at all. If he alludes to mankind. It is a doctrine that lies at the root of the institution of sacrifice. the ancient superstition about words shows itself plainly. the psalm bears equally clear evidence of its Accadian origin. or else be named incorrectly. Along with these indications of Semitic influence. that mystical number which was so closely connected with the spirits of earth. He has eaten what has been cursed by heaven. and it marks the high tide of Accadian faith before the Semite appeared upon the stage. he does not venture to enumerate the gods. or else has unwittingly trampled on the forbidden thing. he falls into the language of the old magical texts. is still strong upon him. it 2A .THE SACRED BOOKS OF CHALDBA. but classes them under the comprehensive title of the divinities with whose names he is acquainted and those of whose names he is ignorant. The belief in the mpsterious power of names. Here. It is the same when he refers to the human race. he has touched what is tabooed. like the punishments inflicted by human judges for disobedience t o the laws. In the language of the Polynesians. moreover. Unassisted by intercourse v i t h Semitic belief. Accadian religion never advanced *beyond the idea of vicarious punishment. however. which grew Dut of the doctrine of primitive society that demands an eye for an eye and a tooth for a tooth. and the curse of heaven accordingly falls upon him. Even when he speaks of his transgressions. The consciousness of sin is still but rudimentary f the psalmist knows that one of the gods is angry with him because he is suffering pain. 353 world. his sins are seven times seven.

This agrees well with the language and contents of the psalms themselves. Zimmern. forms of expression were borrowed from the semi-magical hymns of Eridu. too. then. But just as the sacred hymns were constantly added to. would entitle a psalm. but at a time when the Accadian population was already profoundly influenced by Semitic ideas. but which Dr. the number of the penitential psalms was increased from time to time. for example. so.” as many. At first the additions were in Accadim. ! b e tablet which contains it is . We must.354 LECTURE V . is to ‘L mankind as many as pronounce a name. the character of the psalm being at the same time considerably changed. is a fragment which I have elsewhere termed a prayer after a bad dream. new hymns being introduced into the ancient collections perhaps as late as the time of Assur-bani-pal. ‘(Vain repetitions ” were avoided. more especially to Erech and Wipur. Here. as have names which may be pronounced. They all belong to northern Babylonia. regard the penitential psalms as originating in the Accadian epoch. that is. It would therefore seem that they mount back to an earlier date than the rise of the city of Accad. no trace of acquaintanceship with the empire of Sargon. afterwards they were written in Semitic only. perhaps more correctly. and may consequently be placed midway between the older hymns and those which were composed in honour of the Sun-god. But there is no reference in them to Sippara and its Sun-god. and a stronger element of superstition gradually entered into the composition of it. on the other hand. and the psalm was more and more assimilated in form to a prayer.

0 my goddess. (may thy liver be quicted). it mill be seen.A. Let the yoke be unbound. May the fish carry away my trouhle. Make me shine like a mask of gold.' 1' 0 my god who art violent (against me).66. May Makhir the god of dreams rest upon my hsad." l'he psalm or prayer. to prosperkg hands. By day. Accopt my prayer. May the seven winds carry away my groaning. we m3y read (with Zimmern) ~ i t s u t . may the dream that I dream be established. interpret (the vision). Let me p a s from my evil. Padhi. look upon me and accept my prayer. may my transgression be cleansed. May I strip off my evil so that the bird bear (it) up to heaven. 0 my lord. entrnst me. To Merodach. May I be precious in thy sight as a goblet (1) of glass. Enlighten me and let me dream a favourable dream. may the river bear (it) along. and probably formed part of t. long-suffering (and) merciful.2. knit togetherS my life .THE SACRED BOOKS OF CHALDBA. the merciful. 0 my goddess. the palace of the gods.N0. accept (my prayer). Let the men of my city honour thy mighty deeda. directing unto death that which destroys me? 0 my god. let me enter into E-Sagil. thou who art fierce (towards me). Yea. Burn up (4 ' ) my evil. may the waters of the river cleanse me as they flow. Kwtstizur." protact. Let me exalt thy greatness. and let me be kept with thee. (may thy heart be appeased). 365 Lzoken. to blessedness.I. May my sin be forgiven. the beginning and end of the prayer or psalm being consequently lost. May the reptile of the field receive (it) from me . the temple of life.iv.he 'W." * 2 A 2 . receive (my supplication). mas composed by a native of Babylon. bind together thy altar that I may set up thine image. Nay the dream that I dream be favourable . let me magnify thy divinity. the chain be loosed. Tarn the dream that I dream into a blessing.

-_a W. dtual used in the service of the great temple of Merodach. I w. he “pacified the angry gods and wrathful goddesses with a public prayer (takribti) and a penitential psalm. which had been discontinued. it is possible that on the occasion in question a psalm was selected from the ancient collection. -4s B man may lie live and be at peace. names abundant and long. a strong weapon. I . v. In any case it could hardly have been included in the old collection of penitential psalms. iii. -- . Rev. Over kings and princes may h e exercise wide empire. These were written in Accadian. but it is also possible that a new psalm wa8 eomposed specially for the event. production of enlightenment ~(sukullimtu). May he come to a hoar old age.” As the word for penitential psalm i s expressed by the compound ideograph which served to denote it i n Accadian. first-born who ahall be rulers. the hymn reads as follows : u Joy of heart. Where the text first becomes legible. and it is not probable that any were admitted among them whose language showed plainly their more recent date. 88 sq. 9. a reign hereafter. _-_- -. long days and years unending. That such special compositions were not unusual among t h e Assyrians of Assur-bani-pal’s days. is proved by a ‘hymn or prayer on behalf of the king which the compiler of a list of the gods in the chief temples of Assyria has added to his catalogue. the viceroy of Babylonia. It seems to have been intended for use in one of them. Assur-bani-pal informs us1 that afier putting down the rebellion of his brother. 4.3 . 5 8 LECTURE V. Habitations ( 1 ) many and far-extended adjudge t o his people (T). reveal t o the city of AsJur . Fcr che _ _ . 6 q. as they were in former days. I. the explanation of what is revealed and concealed (?). restoring and establishing in peace $heir festivals. A. adjudge to the king my lord who lias given all this to his (gods. 66. production of purity.

1 We may compare with this expression a phrase in a small fragment. ‘‘ divine fire. be their food.THE SACRED BOOKS OF CIIALDEA. at noon (AX-IZI) the presence of tho supreme god. 55. 50. and a good noontide* their light. where we read.. to avoid evil here and to live happily. a passage from the world of light an& life to the darkness and the night. iv. 47. we have the four periods of the day enumerated : ‘‘ On the nineteenth day enter in the morning the presence of Bahu.. I . in the afternoon the presence of Rimmon and in the evening the presence of Isfar. Health to my body and prosperity is my prayer to the gods who dwe!! in the land of Assyria.” a Kiriru.” in W.’ oik nnceasing and the mine of blewedness. “full day. (R 558) which runs : “At dawn a hymn ( KB IR ) before Sauias . 19. like that of the Buddhist. I. The incantations and exorcisms. ii. A.” .” This prayer introduces us to a subject without a discussion of which no description of a religion can be complete. rendered AN-IZI. 15. A. or did they look forward to a world beyond the grave. saw in the future nothing but a dreary existence in a~ sunless w-odd. folic hymns to Ea the pure god of the land of the (silver I) sky. allied to kararu. AN-IZI is translated urru. The spirits. . What were the views about a future life entertained by the Babylonians and Assyrians? Was their religion intended for this world only.. 367 men who pronounce these prayers may the land of the silver sky. But this conclusion would not be in accordance with the testimony of the older texts. “in the noon-tides of day and night ” (iethe dead of night). the semi-magical hymns of Eridu. with joys and miseries of its own? The reference to “the land of the silver sky” in the prayer I have just cited would seem to show that Assyrian religion was neither a faith which. nor yet a faith which. .” and in iii. 49. I n W. as Jensen points out. 18. . like that of the Greeks of old. (beginning with) the incantation : The pure seat. 61. limit the horizon of their view to the present life. hoped for the annihilation of ‘consciousness.

it is true. Merodach. When the cult . is described as raising thc dead t o life. a lord of the ghost-world. Whatever might have been the sense afterwards attached to the expression. the bencfactor of the human race. The pains man seeks to rcmove. the blessings he asks for. I do not deny that the primitive ChaldEan may have believed in the continuation of existence after death. presupposes this. But I can find no traces of ancestorworship in the emly literature of Chaldaea which has survived to us. was erected. The ghost-world of Nipur lay beneath the earth. but of the objects of nature. he could equally effect the other. it was a subterranean region. but the life to which they are raised is the life of the present world. I n the hymns. Whatever views the ChalclEan may have entertaioed about the ghost-world. and were all the subjects of Nul-lil. The recovery of the sick was considered in no way more wonderful than a recovery frorr: ii state of trance or from death itself. with whom they people the universe are to be dreaded or praiscd by the living only. hard by the waters of life which they were appointed to guard. in the early hymns it means nothing more than a belief in the power of spells to restore the dead to life. The belief in a Mul-lil. if the god of wisdom and magic could effect the one. They mere typified by the spirits of earth.358 LECTURE V . all cease Tvith death. The lost friends who returned to him in his dreams would haxe assured him that they had not vanished utterly. It was here that the golden throne of the Andnas. the spirits of earth. they were vague and shadowy. inhabited for the most part by spirits who were not the spirits of the dead. There is little or no trace of any thought of a world beyond.

Here accordingly was placed the home of the Andnas. 62. “The ship of the river Datilla is the ship of khe Lady of life and death. Mul-lil was elevated to the world above. A. for their gods were gods of the sea whose waters washed $heir shore.” Tho story here preserves a feature of the original myth. &hisunderground region was necessarily connected with $he great ocean-stream which encircled the earth. . however. 359 of N i p and the cult of Eridu were united into one. I. and it became the entrance to the realm of Hades. 50. has admitted a contradiction into h i narrative.I and Xisuthros. identified the Euphrates and the Persian Gulf with the ocean-stream. the river of death . As primitive Accadian geography. I n the ‘time of the composition of the poem. was translated to dwell among the gods beyond the mouth of the Euphratesq2 This was the land set apart for the immortal deities in the belief of the people of Eridu. tho seat of the gods was regerdcd as being in heaven. and was in fact the passago into it. ii. The unification of the creeds of Nipur and Eridu thus brought with it an identification of the ghostworld with the world of Ea. so that the author of the Gisdhubar epic. But this upper world of the gods was immediately above the world of the ghosts. The world of the ghosts and the world of the gods were accordingly confounded together.THE SACRED BOOKS OF CHALDAU. the hero of the Deluge. the distinction between them being that whereas the ghosts were still left in their subterranean abodes. there to dwell with Ea and his son Merodach. of the empire of Mul-lil with the deep over which Ea ruled. the god of light. This theological geography is perfectly incompatible - W. Sin-liqiannini. the approach t o Hades passed into Datilla.

with the mountain on which the ark of the Chaldaean 1 Khors. which placed it on the summit of Kharsag-kurkdra. 11. A. in the extremities of the north.seo LECTURE 7. i.” as me11 as of the Greek legend of the griffins who guarded the hidden gold in the distant north.2 a statement. 51. 117-122. the mountain of Arallu. with another theory of the abode of the gods. See Delitzsch. Wo Zag &is Paradies.” This mountain of the world is declared by Sargon to be the mount& of Arallu or Hades : (‘The gods Ea. I will ascend above the heights of the clouds. I will sit also upon the mount of the assembly (of the gods). d d a r ancl their august wives. W. 13). ax). its summit was hidden by the clouds. We find an allusion to the Babylonian myth in the 14th chapter of Isaiah (ver. There the Babylonian monarch is described as having said in his heart : “ I will ascend into heaven. It is possible that it was identified. 155 sq. (‘ Out of the north cometh gold. Samas.” Here. An old geographical table tells us that Arallu was the land or mountain of gold. and the starry firmament seemed to rest upon it. Sin. Rimmon. I. and its site was sought in the mountainous region of the north-west. the gods were imagined to have been born and to have their seats. . pp.. who mere truly born in the midst of the temple of Kharsag-kurkdra. I will be like the Most nigh. at any rate in later times.”l Famous temples vere named after it. ‘‘the niountain of the world. in this ChaldEan Olympos. which reminds us of the words of Job (xxxvii. have excellently founded glistering sanctuaries ancl mellwrought shrines in the city of Dur-Sargon. I will exalt my throne above the stars of El. in Assyria at all events.

361 Noah rested. and their distance from the sea. have lived after the Babylonians had become acquaint03 with Palestine. and the Babylonian might well believe a n .” Here the sun is distinctly regarded as rising and setting behind a mountain. ‘(the mountain of mankind. and ‘‘ the mour?tdn of the sunwt’ may therefore Ee the mountainous land of Dhidhi or Yhreriicia . that its peak had never been ascended by mortal m I f Xisuthros had touched the sacred soil with his ship. Perhaps their nearer proximity to the great mountainous chains of the north-west.” “The mountain of the world” was peculiarly sacred among the Assyrians. and since there were no mountains on the western side of the Babylonian plain.” and to have grown up ‘‘in the mountain of the sunrise. he was qualified by the very fact to take his place amid ‘(the assembly of the gods. He may. Rowandk towers high above its fellows i n the Kurdish ranges. had made them more ready to adopt the belief which placed the home of the gods in the mountains of the north than beside the waters of the Persian Gulf. the mountain of Nizir.” the modern Rowandiz. however. is the same as ‘(the mountain of the world. we must consider the poet to have looked upon the mountain behind which the sun rose and set as one and the same. It is difficult to tell in what part of Babylonia the belief first arose. I f Kharsag-kalama. It will be remembered that in the hymn to the Fire-god the seven spirits of earth are declared to have been born in ‘‘the mountain of the sunset.” the name given to the tower of the chief temple of Kis.THE SACKED BOOKS OF CHALDAU.1 During the hours of darkness the Sun-god must have 1 I have assumed that the poet’s horizon was bounded by the plain of Babylonia.” we might discover its cradle in the neighbourhood of Babylon.

by the side of a belief in a subterranean Hades and a paradise of the gods beyond the mouth of the Euphrates. there was also a belief i n a Hades and a paradise which were established on the loftiest of the mountains of the north. The mighty mother Nin-lilli (the lady of the ghost-world). 27. h . 1 2 . the sides of the earth. A . the reverencee of E-SQra(the temple of the hosts of heaven). can be connected with the mountain of the world. has made way for a world-mountain. the realms of Hades on his way. A bilingual Babylonian hymn.” I cannot say. Like the star of heaven that proclailus (the day) it is full of glib tering rays.he Semitic 2 1 1 ’ u . No. and its feet planted upon the deep. I n any case. the adornment of EGiguna (the tetnple of the city of darkness). whose head rivals the heavens . 1 . The female and male organs of generation are referred to.363 LECTURE V . It is thus that it begins :1 ‘* 0 mighty mountain of Mul-lil. 2. the heart of E-ICi-gusdw (the temple of the land of light). which appears to have been connected with X p u r relates to the latter belief. As the conception of the world-tree belonged t o Sumir or southern W . Its horns glistcn like the splendour of the Sun-god. as it were. the pure deep has been laid as its foundation. the text must either belong to the Semitic period or have been revised hy Semitic copyists. which thus fringed. been supposed to have journeyed underneath the earth. Whether this mountain. traversing. As the word for “shame” or “reverence” in the Accadian text is t. whose roots were planted in the deep. with its head reaching unto heaven like the tower of Babel. Among the mountains it lies like a strong wild bull. the glory2 of E-Kdra (the temple of the hosts of earth). it may be.’’ In this hymn the world-tree of Eridu. Im-lrharsag (the mountain sky).

scorpion-men guard its gate. Their places were taken by the god Irkalla and the goddess Allat. below their footing reached to (Icasdnt) Hades. At the rising of the sun and the setting of the sun they guard the Sun-god.” . the greatness of their splendour overthrows the forests. The world of the gods was separated from the abode of the dead. but now distinguished from the Bo1 and Beltis into whom Mul-lil and Bin-lil had been transformed. 1-6. it is expressly termed the mountain of Mul-lil. originally mere forms of Mul-lil and Xin-lil. the lord of the ghost-world. A. Can “the molintain of the stream” have any reference to Gen. 10 1 This mountain of the sun is described in the second column of the ninth tablet of the Epic of Gisdhubar (Haupt. more especially when we find that Mul-lil. the “reverence of E-SAra. I v. ii. so the conccption of the world-mountain belongs to &cad or northern Babylonia. while the gods who had once presided there ascended to the upper world. where day by day they guard the rising (and setting of the sun). 51. Babylowischc Nimrodepos) : “When he arrived at the twin (mdsi) mountains. and is identified with Nin-lil. the latter remained below. few and dread took possession of his face.isdhubar BBW l b m .THE SACRED BOOKS OF CHALDZW. their crown (toucherl) the massy vault of heaven.” The introduction of an Olympos into Babylonian mythology must necessarily have modified the conception of the Chaldaan Hades. and when G.” “from the mountain of the stream. The Olympos became a ladder 1 W.” whoso son was the Sun-god Adar. 363 Babylonk. It is at least noticeable that one of the hymns to the Sun-god which originated at Sippara begins by declaring that he ‘L roBe from the mighty mountain. The addition of the sky-god of Erech to the common pantheon of Babylonia still further tended to divide the two worlds. whose terribleness is dread and their appearanco death. mas himself associatcd with it.” “the place of the destinies.

Hades is a land of forgetfulness and of darkness. But side by side with this pitiful picture of the world beyond the grave. each guarded by its porter. rising up only to greet the coming among them of one like unto themselves. with dust and mud for their food and drink.3ti4 LECTURE V. where the good and evil deeds of this life are remembered no more .” Thifi is the point at which the religious development of Babylonian belief had arrived when the majority of the legendary poemsor at least the older portions of them-were composed.a state of future rewards and punishments is as yet undreamed of . to the heavens in which the visible deities of lightSamas. and from whence they escape at times t o feed on the blood of the living. while the other gods dwelt in a yet more remote region of the universe. and its occupants are mere shadows of the men who once existed. Here the shadesof the great heroes of old sit each on his throne. heroes and plebeians. Good and bad. but never allowing him to pass through them again t o the upper world. ‘‘ the heaven of Anu. where the spirits of the dead flit about in darkness. The passage to these subterranean abodes is through the seven gates of the world. are alike condemned t o this dreary lot . who admits the dead. stripping him of his apparel. Hades is still the gloomy realm beneath the earth. The Hades of the Babylonian legends closely resembles the Hades of the Homeric poems. and whose consciousness is like the consciousness of the spectral figures in a fleeting dream. Sin and Istar-ruled over the visible firmament. crowned and terrible. there were the beginnings of higher and nobler ideas. I n the Epic of Gisdhubnr. the ghost of . moral responsibility ends with death.

as the conception of the gods and their dwelling-place became spiritualized. Ner and E t h . f while E-bani and Gisdhubar were was half divine. H hie head. and E t h a seems to be the Titan of BerSssos who made war against Kronos or Ea. He who is slain i s father and his mother (support) i n battle. “ the mountain of the world” passing first. The doctrine of the immortality ofthe conscious soul began to dawn upon the Babylonian mind. thou seest and I see. into the sky and then into the invisible heaven of Anu. But when the semi-human heroes o f epic song had thus been permitted to enter heaven. and along with it necessarily went the doctrine of rewards and punisbments for the actions committed in the flesh.THE SACRED BOOK8 OF CHALDI&IL. Little by little. gazing on the deeds that are done below.. was half a god. I thus permitted to ‘‘live and lie reclined On the hills. 1 ‘ On a couch he reclines and pure water he drinks. like gods together. thou seest and I see.” the other heroes of ancient renown. who seems to be associatcd with him in his future lot. it could not be long before a similar permission was extended to heroes who were wholly human. Gisdhubar. the conception of the future condition of mankind became spiritualised also. too. the prince of the infernal world. The Babylonian was already familiar with the idea of sacrificc for sin and of vicarious punishment. the food which is thrown into t h e street he eats. The food at the edge of the tomb is bewitched (!I .” Ea-bani. careless of mankind. 565 Ea-bani is described as rising like a dust-cloud from the earth and mounting up to heaven. His ghost in the earth is uncovered . his wife addresses the corpse. of his ghost he has no overnight . it was because Ner had once been Nergal. however. thou seest and I see. all that . where he lives among the gods. His body in the field (is placod) .. were relegated to the shades below.

and to extend his belief in the divine awards for piety and sin to the life beyond the grave. The prayer I quoted just \low from the compiler of the list of the gods in the Assyrian temples. may he live to old age. proves that some at least of the AssyroBabylonian people asked their deities for something more than merely temporal blessings.” The worldmountain had followed the fate of the world-tree. above and beyond them all was the true home of the gods and the spirits of the blest. a home towards which the smoke of the altar might ascend. but into whose mysteries none could penetrate till death and the grace of Baal had freed him from the shackles of the flesh. 1216.remained was to enlarge the horizon of his faith. The stereotyped form of addressing the monarch accordingly was. the Semitic Assyrians made 100 their standard number. even the invisible ‘< heaven of A m i ’ ’ itself had vanished into the deep blue of the visible firmament. 13-16). and been consigned to the mythologists and the mythologising poets . They might pray that their monarch should live ‘‘ a hundred years. K 538. 1 While 60 was the numerical unit of Accadian literature. “A hundred years to the king my lord.”l but they prayed also that they themselves might live (‘for ever’? hereafter in “the land of the silver sky. . inay offspring be multiplied to the king my lord 1’’ (K 501.

In an early age these speoulations naturally s the elements themselves assumed a theological form. which saw in the elements inert matter created. Broadly speaking. schools of philosophy arose which sought to find in matter the original cause of all things. but they represented and symbolised divine beings whose actions produced the existing order of nature. or at any rate as possessed of a divine spirit. A were regarded as divine. e COSNOGONIES AND ASTRO-THEOLO&Y. though they veiled the materialism of their views under a mythological symbolism. gr else they had been so formed by other and superior powers. MORE than once I have had to allude to the speculations n regarding the origin of the the Babylonians indulged i world. begotten or moulded by the gods. They were deities who had formed themselves into their present order and appearanw. The mythological conception in turn gave way to another.L~cr~a VT. the w d d . According to Amaditan idaas. In course of time this theological conception became mythological. The elements themselves ceased to be divine. their source and shaping must have been divine also. including even the gods. Lastly. the genealogical and the creative. the oosrnological theories of Chaldaea divide themselves into two main classes.

and by the assumption of a chaos which had exieted from ‘(the beginning. We learn from a tablet. that which describes the creation of the world i n a series of days. the Semite saw in it rather a birth or emanation. while the belief in the birth of the elements one out of the other was at the same time stoutly maintained. The form taken by the combination of the two ideas will be best seen in the latest product of AssyroBabylonian cosmogonical systems. that semipiscine being who rose out of the waters of the Persian Gulf to instruct the people of Chaldaea in the arts and sciences of life. expressly inform us that Ea was not only the god of wisdom.?’ and the further assumption that ((thegreat gods” had created the cbjectcts we see about us. namely Bel. let us read the account given by B$rdssos of the creation of the world. was created by the gods. the great gods will establish him in good . The Chaldaean system of astronomy which B6rbssos translated into Greek was likewise asserted by him to have been composed by a god. inasmuch as the work bears the title of the Observations of Bel. when the two sets of ideas were harmonised. however. It is pretty certain that B6r8ssos had access to documents which purported to come from the hand of Oannes or Ea. “with warnings to kings against injustice. and consequently to deal with events which preceded the appearance of man on the earth. First of all. and professed by him to be derived from the writings of Oannes. and the fragments of the original work which we now possess show that his assertion was correct. but himself an author.368 LECTURE TI.” that if the king ‘Ldecreesaccording to tho writing of Ea. it is true. room was left for the creative hypothesis. moreover. A time came. The inscriptions.

there were creatures in which were combined the limbs of every species of animal. 7. Bulls likewise wcre bred there with the heads of men. men.” I have translated sitilti (for sitidti). with other monstrous animals.” on the strength of W. but according to the most true interpretation it is equivalent to the Moon. I n short. A. therefore. 47. no reason to doubt the statement of BMssos that the account of the creation which he gives was extracted from a document that professed to have been inscribed by the god of Eridu himself. with the heads and bodies of horses and the tails of fishes. which were produced by a twofold principle. All this was an allegorical description of nature. resembling in shape the hippocentaurs.:’l There is. COlos came and cut the woman asunder. v . Other human figuses were to be seen with the legs and horns of a goat . 55. there were fishes.” 2 B . horses also with the heads of dogs. and with two faces. they mere likewise in their several organs both male and female.COSUOGOSIES AND ASTRO-THEOLOGY. and dogs with four-fold bodies. some of whom wero furnished with two wings. reptiles. S&0r is literally “ a message. For. some had horses’ feet. (‘The following is the purport of what he said : There was a time in which there existed nothing but darkness and an abyss of waters. 911 things being in this situation. too. but two heads. Of all which were preserved delineations in the temple of BBlos a t Babylon. I.‘good report. ”but it may signify “ study. The person who waa supposed to have presided over them was a woman named Omoroka. and at the same time destroyed the aniiuals within her (in the abyss). and the meaning of its icleopaphio eqaivalent. . others with four. it signifies “ a letter” or ‘( writing. A. which assumed each other’s shape and countenance. the wholo W. the other of a woman. serpents. iv. which in the Chaldmm language is Thahtth (read Thavatth). wherein resided most hideous beings. 17. 369 reuort and the knowledge of justice. which in Greek is interpreted Thalassa (the sea) .” but as tho messagc mas in later times a sritten one. and other animals. I. There appeared men. 8. ‘‘ fatherliness . I n addition to these. terminated in their extremitios with the tails of fishes . and of the other half the heavens. while others united the hindquarters of a horse with the body of D man. They had one body. the one that of a man. and of ono half of her he formed the earth.

and separated the heavens from the earth. forming the heavens out of one portion of her body. by whom they signify Zeus. who was a slave at Rome for a short period in the time of aulla. though by nature fruitful. and the earth out of the other. and partake of divine knowledge. . upon which the other gods mixed the blood. the monsters of chaos perished through the creation of light. as it gushed out. a native of Asia Minor. universe cons2sting of moisture. commanded one of the gods to take off his head. whether the whole of the quotation was originally \nitten by BkrBssos himself. which should be capable of bearing the light. the deity above-mentioned (BBlos) cut off his own head . It is not quite certain. and to mix the blood with the earth. therefore. with the earth. In one of them. But the recently-created animals. which have been awkwardly fitted on t o one another. and aniinals being continually geneeated therein. and from Polyhistor it has been ernbodied in the works of the Christian writers Eus6bios and George the Synkellos. it evidently includes two inconsistent accounts of the creation of the world. divided the darkness. not being able to bear the light.370 LECTURE VI. i 4. were represented as being destroyed by Bel when he cut Thavatth asunder. In the second version. presided. and from thence t o form other men and animals.”’ The account of the cosmological theories of the Babylonians thus given by B&rBssoshas not come to us immediately from his hand. This BFlos. It was first copied from his book by Alexander Polyhistor. the Tiamat or Tiavat of the inscriptions. At all events. the composite creatures who filled the watery chaos. and reduced the universe to order. 13810s upon this. seeing a vast space unoccupied. and from thence men were formed. On this account it is that they ilre rational. died. Otr’n. and their places were taken by the animals and men produced by the -- - - 1 Euseb. over which Thavatth. CBlos forined also the stais and the sun and the moon and the five planets.

and the curious monsters depicted on the walls. imperfect first attempts of nature. and it is consequently no more astonishing to find Anaximander declaring that men had developed out of the fish o f the sea. as we might be tempted to think. It was. 571 mhture of the earth with the blood of Bel. as it were. than to find his predecessor Thalbs agreeing with the priests of Babylonia in holding that all things have originated from a watery abyss. but also in the curious statement that this chaos was peopled with sti-ange creatures. the Babylonian theory on the subject must have been the source of the similar theory propounded by the Ionic philosopher Anaximander in tho sixth century before our era. What this blood meant may be gathered from the Phcenician myth which told how the blood of the sky. The fact that Anaximander already knew of the 3abylonian doctrine shows that it could not have been suggested to Bhrdssos himself.COSJIOGOXLIGS AXD ASTnO-THEOLOGY. And we are now able to carry the belief back to a period very much earlier than that of Anaximander. At any rate. 2B2 . The philosophical systems of the early Greek thinkers of Asia Minor came to them from Babylonia through the hands of the Phcenicians. by the colossal bulls that guarded the gates. fell upon the earth in drops of rain and filled the springs and rivers. Both versions of the genesis of the universe reported by BQbssos agree not only in the representation of u chaos that existed before the present order of things. I n these chaatic beginnings of animal life we may see a sort of anticipation of the Darwinian hypo$hesis. mutilated by his son Eronos or Baal. of the temple of Bel. the fertilising rain. to form the animal creation of the present world. i n fact.

the shepherd who grants no favour t o his p e ~ p l e . In the ground did the gods create their city. 19G. in the temple of ‘Sulim. . v. ‘(offering”). ” ~ We are first told how the armies of chaos came into existence. v. the plague-god. 71 (for NAN-BA = liistu. cf. Rev.i inzlsi mzitu mmtcw arur-8u : ‘‘ What have I left for (my) reign S I am a king who gives not peace t o his land. and there was none whom I approached.ed as sending out the hosts of the ancient brood of chaos to their destruction. whom God shall proclaim to govern the Iring<nm. .” Buti ineans “ thickets” or “jungle. according to its concluding lines. 48. bufi is opposed to &biri. and a shepherd who gives not peace to his people . the terrible I C king who gives not peace to his country. who smites them with pestilence. . 56. men with the faces of ravens. see GIS-BA dag and GIS-B. none disclosed. 9 sq.]P. Their pro1 CC:. the wliole of the land and the men I have cursctl with night. and no bodies or brushwood were produced in the land. have I left it for thee. since I have made corpses and produced jungle.” 2 Ana pa16 mind ezib analcu scirru la musallimu nzuti-su zi G u m la n~usallimu 71mmnnu-su 7ci ustddatn pagri ic bati uaetsi sa1um mati 47is. 41. ii. ‘l’iamat (the dragon of chaos) suckled them.” and corresponds nvitli the Accadian drrg . who is represent. in the city of Cutha. I n 82. did the great gods create. 5--28. 11.” . priest-ruler.A-PAL = hzltum. 4 4 On a tablet none wrote. NergaI is identified with Nerra.. 20. was originally writtcn for the great temple of Nergal at Cutha. . iv. 29. for thee have I written the record-stone . TO. 3. o r rather with Ner. a’ciy = bgtunt (“ thiclrncss”). U-GUR ezibakkn : ’‘ Thou. or whatever thon art. v. death and pestilence. 11. dag = bfituaz.372 LECTUBE VI. king. for thee have I made this tablet.l The words of the text are put in the mouth of Nergal the destroyer. The library of Nineveh contained the copy of a tablet which.)nu p a r a k [ ~ u ~ D. also yistri.A. shepherd.I. W. 8. Warriors with the body of a bird of the valley. Atta surru pate& rium 1u nit8 summa sa ilu inambu (u) sarruta tebua dup suatu eha-ka nard ctsdhzir-ka ina ali GU-DU-A-KI ina bit SU-LIN (. “pasture-lancls. in the sanctuary of Xergal.

Istar. appeared and begat children.COSYOG39IES &YD ASTRO-TLIEOLOGY. however much it may differ in details.” It was the subjects and the offspring of these semi-human heroes whom the god Ner was deputed to destroy. Perhaps we may see in this an allusion to the fact that the Babylonian histories of the ’ pre-human period were supposed to have been composed by the gods.” are all referred to in it. but also of the celebrity of the Semitic god of Borsippa. sis thousand i n number mere their peoples. the whole brood is exterminated by the gods of light. I n both alike. Seven kings. the reference to the pat& . 3i3 geny (sasur) the mistress of the gods created. even Neb0 and ‘ I Samas the warrior. and the circle of “the great gods” mas complete. In both alike. and therefore cannot belong to the pre-Semitic age. and these beings are of a composite nature. Zamamzt.deities of Babylonia had already taken place. It behngs. The inscription is in Semitic only. and the nurselings of Tiamat or Chaos. The date to which the legend in its prescnt form may be assigned is difFicult to determine. like the other creation-tablets. It is clear that the legend of Cutha agrees with Bkrbs80s in the main facts. moreover. Anunit. Ea. we have a first creation of living ‘beings. their mother mas the queen Melili. On the other hand. to an epoch when the unification of tho . A eurious point in connectiou mith the legend is the descrip$ion of chaos as a time when writing was as yet unknown and records unkept. The god Banini their father was king. In the midst of the mountains they grew up and became heroes and increased in number. brethren. We must therefore place its composition after the rise not only of the hymns of Sippara.



or priest-king in the concluding lines seems t o prevent us from assigning too late a date to the poem. Perhaps we shall not be far wrong in ascribing it to the era of Khammuragas. Tiamat or Tiavat, the Thavatth of B$r8ssos, is the t ’ h h or ii deep ” of the Old Testament, and the vord is used in Assyrian, in the contracted form tamtzc, to denote iL the deep sea.,’ It was upon the fwe of the t ’ 1 h o r “ deep ” that i‘ the breath of Elohim” brooded, according to the first chapter of Genesis. The word is not only Semitic, but, in its cosmological signification, of Semitic origin. It has, however, an Accadian descent. The belief that the watery abyss was the source of all things went back to the worshippers of the sea-god Ea at Eridu. But with them the deep was termed apm, which 8 pnnning etymology afterwards read ab-zu, u the house of knowledge,” wherein Ea, the god of wisdom, was imagined to dwell. The Sumerian a6zu was borrowed by the Semites under the form of apdu. The Sumerians had endowed it with 5 spirit, in accordance with the Shananistic faith of early days, and as such had made it the mother of Ea and of the other gods. But I have already pointed out in a previous Lecture that the a b m , os deep, of which Ea was lord, was not only the ocean-stream that surrounded the earth, and upon which the earth floated, like D$los in Greek myth; it was also the deep which rolled above the firmament of heaven, through) whose windows its waters descended in the days of the deluge. Consequently the mother of Ea mas usually known by another name than that of Apzu. She was 0 1Z i g a m , ic the hearen” ( I V . A. I. ii. 48, 26 ; , 50, 2 7 f , whom a mythological list describes as “ t h e



mothei that has begotten heaven and earth” (W. A. I. ii. 54, 18). In the same passage she is declared to be (‘the handmaid of the spirit of E-kura,” the lower firmament or earth; and with this agrees the statement that Zikura, a dialectic form of Zigarum,l is the earth itself (W. A. I. ii. 48, 27). But it was not the existing earth or the existing heaven that was represented by Zikum ; she was rather the primordial abyss out of which both earth and heaven were produced. Possibly an old myth may have related that she mas torn asunder when the present world was made, the upper half of her becoming the sky and the lower half the earth. This at least is what we may gather from the story given by Bbr6ssos. As far back as the days of the priest-kings of Tel-loh, Zikum was honoured in southern Babylonia under the name of Bahu.2 She was ‘(the daughter of heaven,” to whom they had erected a temple at Zerghul. Like Gula, she was ((the great mother,” and in the era of totemism was known as “ the pure heifer.” Bau, or Bahu, is the bohu of the Old Testament, tile Baau of Phmnician mythology, of whom PhilOn Byblios informs us that “ of the wind Kolpia and of his wife Baau, which is interpreted ‘ night,’ were begotten two mortal men, Ai611 and Pro1 Zi-kurn, Zi-garum, Zi-kura, are all compounds of Z i ,(‘a spirit,” and are explained by Zi-(E-)kura, “ the spirit of the lower firmament.” It is possible that Zi-kum was originally “ t h e spirit of the earth” alone, Ea being the spirit of the deep. Zi-kura and Zi-garum niay have different etymologies, since garum seems to be connected with gzw, a Snnierian synomym of ccpzu. I n V. A. I. iv. 15, 5, &gw-ru is rendered by the Assyria? updu. There seems to have been a confusion between 2-kdra and E-gdra.

e See Hornmel, Vorsemitische Iiulturen, p. 380. I do not feel quite oBTtBin, however, about the identification,



togonos.”l According to the book of Genesis, the earth created by God in the beginning was without form and ~ o i d , ”the word translated ‘ivoid” being bohu or “ chaos.” The wind or spirit which the Phcenicians associated with Baau is the Sumerian spirit of the deep, the Zi Zihum invoked in the magical texts.2 An allusion to the creation of the heavens out of thc watery abyss, and the subsequent formation of the earth, is found in a mythological document, where we read: The heaven was made from the waters ; the god and the goddess create the earth.”3 The god and the goddess must of course mean the heaven and the deep, and thus presuppose a cosmological theory inconsistent with that of the rulers of Tel-loh, who entitle Bahu the daughter of the sky. We may gather from this that Bahu and Zikum were not originally the same divinities, anci that it was only through a belief that the ocean-stream was fed from heaven that Bahu became identified with it. The Semites, therefore, could not have come into contact with the cosmogony of the Sumerians until after the age of the pate.% of Zerghul. But whatever form the old cosmogony may have assumed, the fundamental element in it remained vuchanged. The watery abyss was always the primal source of the universe. Whether it was the heaven which first rose out of the deep, and then in combination with the deep produced the earth, or whether the deep
Euseb. Pmp. Evzng. i. 10. So in TV. A. I. iv. 1. ii. 36. * R 170, Obu. 6, 7. The word “goddess” is phonetically written in Accadian DIN-gi-Ti, which settles the reading of the form D I X Q I - ~ on ~ the early bricks



itself der-eloped into the heavens and the earth, the deep, f and the deep alone, was the first of things to exist. I Bahu, therefore, was ever identified with the deep in the mind of the southern Babylonian, it must have been when the deep had ceased to be the watery abyss of chaos and had become the home of the creator Ea, deriving its waters from the heavens above. But it is more probable that the identification was due to a total misconception of the true character of Bahu. In the Phoenician mythology as in Genesis, Bohu is simply chaos,’’ but it is the chaos which existed on earth, not within the waters of the abyss. It represents that pre-human age which, according to the legend of Cutha, witnessed the creation of the monsters of Tiamat. These monsters had their home, their ‘‘city,” in the ground ;” there was therefore already an earth by the side of the deep. But this earth was the abode of chaos, of Bahu, and had originated, like the sky, out of the waters of the abyss. There were thus two representatives of chaos, the primeval Apzu, the Tiamat of the Semitic epoch, and the secondary Bahu who presided over the chaos of the earth. Later ages failed to distinguish bet,ween the two, and Apzu and Bahu thus became one and the same. But a new distinction now took the place of the older one. Bahu was no longer distinguished from Apzu; she was distinguished, on the other hand, from Tiamat. Bahu became one of the great gods, while Tiamat was left to personate chaos and all the anarchy and evil that proceeded out of chaos. The spirits of earth were transformed into the seven evil demons who had their dwelling in the deep, and the cosmological sundering of the body




of Zikum took a mythological shape. It appears in the Iegendary poems as the struggle between Merodach and the dragon Tiamat, which ended in the rout of Tiamat and her allies, and the tearing asunder of the body of the fiend. The poems are all of the Semitic age ; and though the materials upon which they are based doubtless go back to a pre-Semitic era, wc have no means at present rf determining how much in them belongs t o primitive L’haldaea, and how much is the invention of Semitic imagination. That Merodach appears in them as the champion of the gods, proves only that the legends they embody originated in either Eridu or Babylon. Nothing can show more plainly the wide gulf that lies between the religions of pre-Semitic and Semitic Chaldsea, than the contrast betreen the Zikum of Eridu, the mother of gods and men, and the wicked Tiamat of the legends, with her misshapen body and malignant mind. I n tho watery abyss in which the first philosophers of Eridu Baw the origin of all things, there was nothing unholy, nothing abhorrent. On the contrary, it was the homo and mother of the great god Ea, the primal source of his wisdom and his benevolence towards man. It was from its waters that Oannes had ascended, bringing the light of knowledge and art t o the human race. But ther watery abyss personified by the Tiamat of the poems belongs altogether to another category. It represents all that is opposed to the present orderly course of the universe; it stands outside and in opposition to the gods of heaven, and is thus essentially evil. Not only has the problem of the origin of evil presented itself t o the Babylonian; he has found a solution of it in his dragon of



chaos. It is thus that the great fight between Bel and the dragon is described :1
“He (Anu 1) estahlished for him (Merodach 2) also the shrine of the mighty, before his fathers for (his) kingdom he founded (it).* Yea, thou art glorions among the p e a t gods, thy destiny has no rival, thy gift-day is Anu; from that day unchanged is thy command ; high and low entreat thy hand ; may the word that goes forth from thy mouth be established, the unending decision of thy gift-day. None among the gods surpasses thy power;s as an adornment has (thy hand) founded the shrine of the gods; may the place of their gathering (P)4 become thy home. 0 Merodach, thou art he that avenges us ; we give thee the sovereignty, (we) the multitudes of the universe ; thou possessest (it), and in the assembly (of the gods) may thy word be exalted ! Never may they break thy weapons, may thine enemies tremble ! 0 lord, be gracious to the soul of him who putteth his trust in thee, and destroy (liteidly, pour out) the soul of the god who has hold of evil.’


Fragments of an Assyrian copy of the text from the library of &sur-bani-pal at Nineveh were discovered by Mr. George Smith, a i d published by him in the Transactions of the Society of Biblical ArclmoZogy, iv. 2, a revised edition of them being subsequently published by Prof. Fr. Delitzsch in his Assyrische Leseutueke. They have since been suppleniented by a tablet brought by Mr. Hormuzd Rassam from Babylonia, which gives the beginning and end of the text, and show-s that i t belonged t o the fourth tablet of the Creation series. This important tablet has been copied by Mr. Eudge, who has been kind enough to allow me the use of his copy. Hc gave an account of it in the Proceedings of the Society of Biblical Archaology, Nov. 6th, 1883, reserving a complete paper on the subject for the Transactions of the same Society. These are thc last two lines of the third tablet of the Creatiou series. Literally, “passes by thy hand.” 4 ‘Sagi, whiA occurs also in IC 2584, 10 ( M i l Sasi-suns).




’Then they placed in their midst by itself hb p h ; 1 they spoke to Merodach their first-born : ‘.May thy destiny, 0 lord, go before the gods, and may they confirm the destruction and the creation of all that is s a i d Set thy mouth, may it destroy his plan; turn, s p ~ unto k him and let, him produce again his plan.’% H e spalce a r d with his mouth destroyed his plan ; he turned, he spake to him and his plan \vas re-created. Like the word that issues froin his mouth, the gods his fathers belielJ (it) ; they rejoiced, they approached Neyodach the king ; they bestoned upon him the sceptre (and) throne and reign, they gave liiin a wcnpon unrivalled, consuming the hostile : ‘Go’ (they said) ‘and cut o f f the life of Tiamat ; let the winds carry her blood to secret places.’ They showed liis path and they bade liim listen and take the road. There was too the bow, his weapon (which) he used ; he made the club swing, he fixed its seat ; then he lifted up his weapon, (which) he caused his right hand to hold ; t h e bow and the quiver he hung at his side ;S h e set the lightning before him ; with a glance of swiftness he filled his body. He made also a snare to enclose the dragon of the sea.

-1 Or “ word.” It is impossible in a translation to preserve the play upon words in the original. The god of evil (Kingu, the husband of Tininat) is representccl as having uttered a n-ord which becomes a plan or p h t : it is this which Merodach is ctlllcd upon to destroy and re-create. 2 Litcrally, “lift up his word.” 3 The arming of Merotlacli with the bow of Anu i n “the assembly q t f the gods,” was the subject of a special poem, of which a fragment is preserved. One of thc constellations was named “ the Star of the Cow ;” and according to the story of the Deluge (Col. iii. 51, 5 2 ) , when Xisuthros had left the ark and offered his sacrifice on the peak of Mount Nizir, “Istar (the great goddess) at (her) coming lifted up the mighty shafts (namzaE.i) which Anu had made.’’ That the bow is here referred t o seems evident from a pnssage in n hymn (W. A. I. ii. 19. 7, 8), where allusion is made to “the how of the deluge,”in Accadian gisme (QIS-BAM) 37Btu. The word “bow” is here translated, not by the ordinary Assyrian midpaizu, hut by qnstu, the Heb. yeslzetk. Comp. Gen. ix. 1316.



He scizeil the four wint1.i that they might not issue forth from her, the south wind, the north wind, the east wind (and) the west wind. His hand brought the snare near unto the bow of his father A n u 130 created the evil wind, the hostile wind, the storm, the tempest, the four winds, the seven winds, the whirlwind, the unending wind; he caused the winds he had created to issue forth, seven in all, confounding the dragon Tiamat, as they swept after him. Then Gel lifted up the hurricane (deluge), his mighty weaponH e rode in a chariot of destiny that fears not a rival.I He stood firm and hung the four reins at its side. unsparing, inundating her covering. their teeth carry poison. , , they sweep away the learned (i). might and battle. On theleft they open fear . With lustre and (terror) he covered his head. He directed also (his way), he macle his path descend; Humbly he set the . before him. By (his) command he kept back t h e . His finger holds the . On that day they exalted him, the gods exalted him, the gods h i s fathers exalted him, the gods exalted him. Then Bel approached ; he catches Tiamat by her waist; he seeks the huge bulk (1) of Kingu her husband, she looks also for his counsel. Then the rebellious one appointed him the destroyer of the cam maads (of Bel). And the gods his helpers who marched beside him beheld (how Merodach) the first-born holds their yoke. He laid judgment on Tiamat, but she turned ngt her neck. With her hostile lips she declared opposition : . . . 0 lord, the gods swept after thee. Thcy gathered their (forces) topther to where thou wasti Eel (launched) the deluge, his mighty weapon ; (against) Tiamat who had raised herself (2) thus he sent it.


. . . . . . . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . .


. .


. ..

. .



If Delitzsch's copy is correct, it is possiblo to extract Rense out of the line only by supposing that the negative is misplaced, and t.hat n e ~houldread mnkhri la galidta. I n W. A. I. iii 12, 32, gcilitti is aaod sf the '' ebbing" s a



(Against) the gods my fathers thy enmity hast thou directed Thou harnesser of thy companions, may thy weapons pierce their bodies. Stand up, and I and thou will fight together.' Wkan Tiamat heard this, she uttered her former spells, she repeated her command. Tiamat also cried out violently with a high voice. From its roots she strengthened (her) seat completely. She recites an incantation, she casts a spell, and the gods of battle demand for themselves their arma Then Tiamat attacked Merodach the prince of the gods ; in combat they joined ; they engaged in battle. Then Bel opened his snare and enclosed her ; the evil mind that seizes from bchind he sent before him. Tiamat opened her nioath to swallow it ; he made the evil wind to enter so that she could not close her lip& The violence of the winds tortured her stomach, and her heart was prostrated and 'her mouth was twisted. He swung the club ; he shattered her stomach ; h e cut out her entrails ; he mastered her heart ; he bound her and ended her life. He threw clown her corpse ; he stood upon it. When Tianiat who marched before (them) was conquered, he dispersed her forces, her host was overthrown, and the gods her allies who marched beside her trembled (and) feared (and) turned their back. They escaped and saved their lives. They clung to one another fleeing strengthlessly. He followed them and broke their arms. H e cast his snare and they are caught in his net. They recognise the spot (?),they are filled with grief; they bear their sin, they are kept in bondage, and the elevenfold offspring are troubled through fear. The brilliancy (of Bel) the spirits as they niarch clearly perceived His hand lays darlrness (upon their host). A t the same time their opposition (fails) from under them, and the god K i n g who had (marshalled) their (forces) he bound hiin also with the god of the tablets (of destiny in) his right hand ; and he took from him the tablets of destiny (that were) with him;



with thc string of the stylus’ he sealed (them) and held the (cover f) of the tablet. From the time he had bound and laid the yoke on his foes he led the illustrious enemy captive like an ox; the victory of the Firmament (an-gar) he laid fully upon (his)
antagonists ; Merodach tho warrior has overcome the lamentation of Ea the lord of the world. Over the gods in bondage hc strengthened his watch, and Tiatnat whom he had bound he first turned backward; so Bel trampled on the foundatioqs of Tiamat. With his club unswung (la madddi) he sm3tc (her) sknll, h e broke (it) and caused her blood to flow ; t h e north wind bore (it) away to secret places. Then his father beheld, he rejoiced at the savour, he bade the spirits (2) bring pcace to himself; And Bel rested, hio body he fed. He strengthened his mind (‘i), he formed a clever plan, and he stripped her like a fish of (her) skin according to his p l m ; h e described her likeness and (with it) Overshadowed tho heavens ; h e stretched out the skin, he kept a watch, he urged on her waters that were not issuing forth ; he lit up the sky, the sanctuary rejoiced, and he presented himself before the deep the seat of Ea Then Bel measured the offspring of the deep, the mighty master established the Upper Firmament (J%Sarra) as his image. The mighty master caused Anu, Bel (Mul-lil) and Ea to inhabit the Upper Firmament which he lied created, even the heavens, their strongholds. [First line of the 6th tablet] :He prepared the stations of the great gods. [Co~ornou]:-One hundred and forty-six lines of the 4th tablet (of the series beginning) : ‘When on high unproclaimed.’ According to the papyri of the tablet whosc writing had been injured.2

KiSibu, sec W. A. I. v. 33, 53. Tabllapu. A fragmentary prayer to Merodach (R 601, Rm. 12), in which mention is made of the man who “forsakes (is&) the command of Merodach” and of how ‘‘ Merodach will purify thy sin” @.ilkti1



Copied for Nebo his lord by Nahid-Merodach, the son of the irrigator, for the preservation of his life and the life of all his house. He wrote and placed (it) in k-Zida.”P

The legend of the great battle between light and darkness thus took the form of a poem addressed to Nerodach, and constituted the fourth tablet or book of the story of the creation in days. This story, which bears a curious resemblance to the account of the creation in the first chapter of Genesis, was first brought to light by Mr. George Smith. The first tablet of the series to which it belongs opens as follows :

‘‘ At that time the heaven above had not yet announced,
or the earth beneath recorded, a name ; the unopened2 deep was their generator, Muminu-Tiamat (the chaos of the sea) was the mother of them all Their waters were embosomed as one: and the corn.field* was unharvested, the pasture was ungrown. At that time the gods had not appeared acy of them,

7ci AIcmiduk izakkd), ends with the colophon : (Bab-)ilikima muatiildfr
fsullzipi, “ (copy of) Babylon ; like one who causes an injured text to be written. 1 This copy seems to have been made in the Persian age, and the text does not appear to be always correct. This would be explained by the statement that the original mas injured. Of much older date is D short incantation (M 1246, 3, 4) which concludes with the words : ‘‘ 0 lord exalted (and) great, destrcy (upnl) Tiamat, strike (pudhzir) the unpitying (Zu edheru) evil one.” 2 Lnpatzi ; Delitzsch reads, ristzi, “ the first-born.” 3 S 1140, 8, shows that this is the meaning of istenis. 4 For gipcira, see W. A. I. v. 1, 4s-50 : D. P. Nirbn 7&n gusakhapu ~I~ICLIY 4ipphti L s?tmlnzdJmii~lrzi, (‘the corn-god continuously causcd the corii-field to grow, the papyri were gladclened with fruit ;”and S799, 2, i i i m gipbri eltu eiribbi (Aecadian, mi-pnru-lii cizciggci ii,zma-d~n-tzctie), The word has nothing to do ‘5 to the holy corn-field he went down.” with ‘‘ clouds” or h k n c s s , ” as 1x1s bein supposed.



by no name were they recorded, no destiny (had they fixed). Then the (great) gods were created, Lakhmu and Lakhamu issued forth (the first), until they grew up (when) An-sar and Ki-sar were created. Long were the days, extended (wasthe time, and) the gods Anu, (Bel and Ea were born). An-sar and Ki-sar (gave them birth).”


The cosmogomy here presented to us bears evident marks of its late date. The gods of the popular religion not only have their places in the universe fixed, the period and manner of their origin even is described. The elementary spirits of the ancient Accadian faith have passed into the great gods of Semitic belief, and been finally resolved into mere symbolical representatives of the primordial elements of the world. Under a thin disguise of theological nomenclature, the Babylonian theory of the universe has become a philosophic materialism. The gods themselves come and go like mortal men; they are the offspring of the everlasting elements of the heaven and earth, and of that watery abyss out of which mythology had created a demon of evil, but which the philosopher knew to be the mother and source of all things. The Tiamat of the first tablet of the Creation story is a very different being from the Tiamat of the fourth. The old Semitic confusion between names and things was, however, as potent as ever. Heaven and earth existed not in the beginning because no name had been pronounced in them, and they themselves were nameless. It was the same with the gods. The gods, too, came into being only when they received names. The day on which the ngmes of Lakhmu and Lakhamu were first heard was the day on which they first ‘‘issued forth.” 20



I doubt much whether the story ir. its present form is older than the time of Assur-bani-pal. It is true that a
copy of the fourth tablet, originally deposited in the te3iple of Nebo at Borsippa, is now in the British Xuseum, but this cannot be earlier than the reign of Nebuchadneazar ; and although the last two words of the first line of the story are quoted in it in an Accadian form, this proves but little. The scribes of Assur-bani-pal’s court frequently amused themselves by composing in the old language of Chaldaea, and the introduction of Accadiarm words into their texts gave them a flavour of antiquity. However this may be, the cosmogony of the poem eventually found its way into the pages of a Greek writer. Damaskios, an author of the sixth century, has presierved an account of the cosmological system of the Babylonians, which he probably borrowed from some older work.1 The Babylonians,” he tellsus, ‘(like the rest of the barbarians, pass over in silence the one principle of the universe, and they constitute two, TavthB and Apash, I making Apasdn the husband of Tavthk, and denominating, her the mother of the gods.’ And from these proceeds an only-begotten son, Mumis, which, I conceive, is ncr other than the intelligible world proceeding from the two principles. From them also another progeny is derived, Lakh& and Lakhos;2 and again a third, Kissare and AssBros; from which last three others proceed, Anos and’ Illinos and Aos. And of Aos and DavkB is born a son called BGlos, who, they say, is the fabricator of the


1 ~)e Pp+irn.Princip.



125, p. 384, ea. Kopp. must read, in place of the Dakk4 and Dakhos of the MSH.



There is ouly one point in which the account of Damnskios differs from that of the cuneiform text. Humis or Mummu becomes in it the only son of Tavthi! and ApasBn, that is t o say, of Tiamat and ApSu, ( ( the deep,” instead of being identified with Tiamat. He takes the place of the heaven and the earth, which the Assyrian poet represents as born of ApBu and Mummu-Tiamat. The alteration seems to be due to a later Babylonian striving to reconcile the Assyrian cosmological system with the belief that Bel-Merodach was the creator of the visible world. The birth of the gods is thus thrown back beyond the creation of the heavens and the earth; whereas in the Assyrian poem, as in the first chapter of Genesis, the creation of the heavens and the earth is placed in t,he forefront. Between the cosmogony we have just been considering and the Babylonian cosmogony reported by BGrBssos, no reconciliation is possible. In the one, Tiamat is already the teeming mother of strange creatures before Bel Merodach creates the light, and by tearing her asunder forms the heaven and the earth. In the other, Tiamat is the mummu, or “ chaos,” which, in combination with A p h , ‘‘the deep,” produces Lakhmu and Lakhamu, from whom Ansar and Eisar, l Cthe hosts of heaven” and “ the hosts of earth,” are begotten; and then after long ages the gods come into existence, t o whom, with Merodach the son of Ea, the origin of all living things is ascribed. The names of Ansar and Kisar have, however, wandered far from their primitive signification. They have come to represent the firmament above and the earth below-not only tho visible sky and the visible earth, but also the 2c2



invisible heaven oi Anu” and the underground world of Hades. Like Lakhmu and Lakhamu, they were resolved into i forms of Anu and his female counterpart Anat by the monotheistic, or rather pantheistic, school to whom I have alluded in a former Lecture. It was to this pantheistic school that the materialistic school of the cosmogonists was most sharply opposed. I n the lists in which the views of the pantheistic school find expression, Lakhmu and Lakhamu appear as Lakhma, or Lukhma, and Lakhama, an indication that the names are of non-Semitic origin. It is possible that they denote the element of “purity” presupposed by the creation of the world out of the watery abyss. At all events, they are placed in one of the lists between Du-eri and Da-eri, ‘(the children of the state,’, and E-kur and E-sarra, ‘(the temples of earth and heaven.” Like so many of the Babylonian deities, their names and worship were probably carried t o Canaan. Lakhmi seems t o be the name of a Philistine in 2 Chron. xx. 5 , and Beth-lehem is best explained as ((thehouse of Lelchem,” like Beth-Dagon, the house of Dagon,” or Beth-Anoth, the house of Anat.”l It is unfortunate that the Assyrian cosmological poem has reached us only in a fragmentary state. The latter pait of the first tablet is lost, and the second and third tablets have not yet been recovered. The first half of the fifth tablet, howcver, is complete; and as it describes
(( ((

i Lakhmu is mentioned but rarely i n the inscriptions. His name, however, occurs in 1’. 2866, 18, between those of Giila and Rimmon. Perhaps it is connected etymologically with Lakhamun, the name of Zarpnnit in Dilvua,



the creation of the heavenly bodies, we may compare it with the work of the fourth day according to Genesis, more especially as the Assyrian poet assigns to the fourth tablet the overthrow of Tiamat and her hosts. It begins thus :

(Anu) prepared the (seven) mansions of the great gods; he fixed the stars, even the twin-stars, to correspond to them ; he ordained the year, appointing the signs of the Zodiac’ over it ; for each of the twelve months he fixed three stars, from the day when the year issues forth to the close. H e founded the mansion of the god of the ferry-boat (the Sun-god) that they might know their bonds, that they might not err, that they might not go astray in any way. H e established the mansion of Mul-lil and E3 along with himself. H e opened also the great gates on either side, the bolts he strengthened on the left hand and on the right, and in their midst he made a staircase. He illuminated the Moon-god that he might watch over the night, and ordained for him the ending of the night that the day may be ’ known, (saying) : ‘ Month by month, without break, keep watch (1) i n thy disk ; a t the beginning of the month kindle the night, announcing (thy) horns that the heaven may know. On the seventh day, (filling thy) disk, thou shalt open indeed (its) narrow contraction.2 A t that time the sun (will be) on the horizon of heaven at thy (rising).”’

The rest of the text is in too mutilated a condition to offer a connected sense, and we may therefore pass on to another fragment which perhaps belongs to the seventh tablet. At all events it records the creation of the animals. At that time,” it declares,


Miwdta yummdr. Oppert and Schrader have misunderstood the expression. Mim&ta is the mazz&rdtlt of Job xxxviii. 32. Sutkhwat mepkhir(rdti #apu-)u.

Its history forms a close parallcl to the history of the Babylonian pantheon. then. In each case the watery abyss is the primary source of all things. Like the pantheon. and the creep ing things of the (field) . they caused t. (and) adorned (the dwelling-p!aces of) the cattle and creeping things of the city. it is essentially local in character. (they fixed their habitations) for the living creatures (of the field. they made perfect the mighty (monsters) ..” Here. it will be seen. Local. and the crude conceptions of an earlier day have been worked into the philosophical system of the later cosmology.300 LECTURE VI. How far these common features are due to the comparatirc lateness of the documents from which we derive o m . but the local elements have been combined eventually so as to form that great epic of the Creation whose fragments have come t o us from the library of Nineveh.” The lines that follow are too much broken for translation. therefore. howevx. there seems to be a clear reference to the monstrous brood of chaos which the ancient cosmogony of Cutha regarded as the offspring of Tiamat. is neitlier simple nor uniform. in each case the present creation has been preceded by another. (They made strong) the multitude of crceping things. the cattle of the field.he living creatures of the (field) to come forth. as these elements mere in their origin. the mild beasta of the field. they all agree in cortain main particulars. all the offspring (of the earth). ‘‘ The gods in their assembly created (the bcasta) . The Babylonian Genesis. The place of Tiamat has been taken by the cosmological principle Lakhama. the only matter of remark which they contain is a statement put into the mouth of some deity that he had ‘( destroyed the seed of Lakhama.

the chaotic hosts of which it speaks having been the progeny of the mountains and not of khe deep. If this view was not generally taken. 391 information we cannot say. Ea. was primarily a water-god. his mother was the watery abyss.COSMOUONIES t L h D ASTRO-THEOLOGY. hard by the Persian Gulf. whatever might be the locality in which they were taught. We shall not go far wrong if we trace the fundamental doctrine of Chaldsean cosmology . The Babylonian of the historical period was f i r m l y persuaded that in the ocean-stream that encircled the world lay the germs of the whole universe. Oannos who rose out of the Persian Gulf. No doubt the two conceptions could be reconciled by those Tho undertook the trouble. This belief stands in marked contrast to that prehistoric belief in a ‘‘ mountain of the world” which survived only in mythology. it was possible to hold that this mountain of the world was not the central shaft around which the earth and beavens were built. the world-mountain was allowed to drop out of sight. the cosmologies of Babylonia. it must have been because the ideas associated with it did not readily combine with the cosmological theories of a later day. but merely the centre of the existing morld. But in its present form it agrees with all the sther Babylonian cosmogonies that have been preserved. At any rate.of the Sumerian culture-god. I suspect that the legend of Cutha originally knew nothing of the sea-serpent Tiamat. the god of Eridu. if in Babylonia. This assumption agrees strikingly with the character . His home was in the deep. were all based an the assumption that the watery abyss was the first of things. For my own part. in making Tiamat their mother and nurse.

and darkness was upon the face of the deep. De Prim.hores of the Mediterranean. These composite creatures were really the offspring of totemism and the attempts of a later age to explain the figures which totemism had bequeathed t o art and mytho1 Euseb. the god of culture. Oannes. was actually one of them. as the inscriptions term him. At Eridu the deep was not the representative of chaos and confusion. the gcd of wisdom . Kopp. quite the contrary. Eridu did not communicate to the rest of Babylonia only the seeds of culture or the adoration of Ea. in the existence of composite animals who perished when the present world came into being. with the tail of a fish.392 LECTUILE VI. the god of pure life. and originated that view of the origin of the world which found its western prophet in the first of Hellenic philosophers. ed. Damaskios.I and even the Hebrew writer tells us that ‘(in the beginning.” “the earth had been waste and void. it was a venerable divinity. moreover. 361. i. It was he who is described in the fragment of B&rBssosas half-human. however. Phceniciaa cosmology also began with an abyss of waters in which the seeds of all things were begotten. . t o Eridu and its worship of the deities of the deep. A‘mp. So far. it was carried westward to the r. can have emanated from Eridu. 10. it impressed upon all the cosmogonies of Babylonia the stamp of its own.” It does not seem. Prah@. 123* p. that the belief in a provisional creation. the mother of Ea himself.” before Elohim ‘ I carved out the heavens and the earth. from the composite animals of Dythology being subjects of abhorrence. Like so much else that had its primal home in Shinar. Euang.


The birth of the gods of light necessarily brought with it the creation of the light itself. i n which the creation of the firmament of heaven was described. Unlike the Biblical narrative. However this may be.” or Ansar and Eisar. In spite of the fragmentary condition in which it has come down t o us. its spirit is unmistak-’ ably materialistic. it will be remembered. The legend of Cutha declares that when the earth was peopled by them.” while the earth does not emerge above the surface of the deep until the third day. the fourth tablet recorded the great struggle between Merodach and Tiamat. The fist tablet or book was occupied with the cosmogony proper and the creation of the gods. befits the requirements of poetry. of which no trace appears i n the book .” before that c‘ the god and goddess. A mythological tablet. states that (‘the heaven was created from the waters. Here. in place of the vegetable creation of the third day. It is therefore probable that the third tablet of the Assyro-Babylonian epic recounted the formation of the earth. it is possible to guess a t the order of its arrangement by comparing it with the first chapter of Genesis.304 LECTURE VI. dividing 4 c the waters which were under the firmament from the waters which were above the firmament. however. The gods needed a habitation. and this was provided by the firmament of the sky. created the earth. too.” neither the animal nor the vegetable world of to-day. This would have been followed by a second tablet.” in exact agreement with the account inGenesis. it would seem to have interpolated here the appearance of the brood of chaos. the firmament of the heaven is created out of the waters of the deep on the second day. there were as yet neither I‘ bodies nor brushwood.

that old serpent.” while a well-known and shall be shut up i passage in the Apocalypse (xii. 36. 1. and secondly. In Isaiah xxiv. it is said of the seven evil fipirits : “ t h e woman from the loins of tho man they bring forth. I. iv. and prevailed not. A. therefore. and the kings of the earth upon the earth. and Satan. and the seventh that of animals and mankind.” in conformity with the Semitic belief which derived the woman from the man.COSNOGONIES AND A 3TI10-TEIEOLOGY 395 of Genesis. the epic would have differed from the Biblical account : firstly. called the Devil. n prison. the sixth probably related the creation of vegetables. 7-9) tells how “there was war in heaven : Michael and his angels fought against the dragon.” The fifth tablet. though we seem to have allusions to a similar conflict in the spiritual world in other parts of the Bible. in the interpolation of the appearance of the monsters of chaos and of the combat between Merodach and the dragon. as we have seen. Its cosmogony was indeed known to Da8s A passage in one of tlie magical texts indicates that a similar view to the crcation of the woman from the man prevailed in Babylonia. 1 . to khat which we read of in the book of Genesis. 21. 37.l In two respects. And the great dragon was cast out. in making the seventh day a day sfwork and not of rest. we read “that the Lord shall visit the host of the high ones that are on high. and the dragon fought and his angels. as prisoners are gathered in the pit. was concerned with the appointment of the heavenly bodies. This part cf the magior! text. the work of the fourth day in Genesis . at all evants. And they shall be gathered together. m u s t belong to th9 Bemitic period. neither was their place found any more in heaven. The epic never succeeded wholly in supplanting what me may regard as the local legend of the Creation current at Babylon. 22. I n W. birds and fish. i.

and the reference to it in the book of Job was eagerly seized upon as an evidence of the antiquity of the book. Dupuis resolved all human forms of faith into Zodiacal symbols. The contents of the fifth tablet introduce us to a side of Babylonian religion which occupied an important and prominent position. who collected the materials of his narrative from the priests of Bel-Merodach at Babylon. The plains of Shinar were held to be the earliest home of this Sabaism or star-worship. he preferred to give their own versior! of the creation of the world. and the small cylinders brought by . was regarded by high authorities as an incontrovertible fact. and scholars were inclined to see in the Chaldaean shepherds’’ the first observers of the heavens. and doubtless suited the philosophic conceptions of the Graeco-Roman age far better than the older creation-stories of Babylonia. Star-worship was imagined to be the most primitive phase of Oriental religion. At the beginning of the present century. maskios. That the first gods of the heathen were the planets and stars of heaven. and Sir William Drummond went far i n the same direction. 13). The astronomy and astrology of Babylonia had been celebrated even by Greek and Latin authors. xlvii. As one of their order himself. are enumerated in the Old Testament (Is. but it is ignored by BQBssos. rather than a version which ww less peculiarly Babylonian. The astrologers.396 LECTURE VI. writers upon the ancient East were fond of enlarging upon a Sabaistio system of faith which they supposed had once been the dominant form of religion in Western Asia. at all events in the official cult. the star-gazers. the monthly prognosticators” of Babylon. however consonant the latter might be with the opinions of his Greek readers.

I t was thus that the Zodiac first came into existence. directing thereby the course of the year. and of the months of thirty days which corresponded t o its several signs. the leading groups of stars had been named. The last sign but one was (‘the fish of Ea. presiding over the month whose name was derived from its “ facing the foundation” or “ beginning” of the year. the first constellation. was that of ‘‘ the directing bull. but they also go back t o the totemistic age of Accadian faith.COSMOCtONIES AND ABTBO-THEOLOGY. The fact that the year thus began with Taurus proves the antiquity of the Chaldaean Zodiac. seemed to leave no doubt that the deities of Babylonia were in truth the heavenly bodies.C. and each section had been distinguished by its chief constellation or star. From about B. the precession’ of ‘( ‘‘ 1 . after all. Long before the lofty zk~urrdti or towers” of the temples were reared. and the eclipses of the sun and moon had been noted and recorded. where the royal astronomers had their stations and from whence they sent their reports t o the king. was the great star of the Scorpion. The names given to its constellations are not only Accadian. The decipherment of the cuneiform inscriptions has shown that the belief in Babylonian Sabaism” was.” while midway between the two. The first sign. The annual path of the sun through the sky had been divided into twelve sections. 397 travellers from Bagdad. like the twelve kasbu or double hours of the day. 2500 and onwards.’: so named from the solar bull who at the vernal equinox began to plough his straight furrow through the sky. Babylonia was reell y the cradle of astronomical observations. not altogether a chimera. with their frequent representations of a star or sun. a calendar had been formed.

It was not so much a treatise on astronomy. if a war with Elam had followed an eclipse of the sun on a particular day. the equinoxes caused Aries. The Zodiacal circle may therefore have been invented nearly a thousand pears before Sargon of Accad was born. the period when Taurus ushered in the year reached back from that date to about B. This is explained by the nature of the work. 4700.398 LECTURE VI.C. The Chaldmrr priests had grasped but imperfectly the idea of causation . But the edition of the work which we possess presupposes a much later date. their fundamental assumption was L L post hoc. ergo proptey hoc. and not Taurus. the fir& was the cause of the second. to be the asterism into which the sun entered at spring-time. With. some of which are probably not much older than the age of Assur-bani-pal. however. I n this way a science of . the Semitic domination of Sargon of Accad. Aries. and not Taurus.” and afterwards translated into Greek by BhSssos. it was assumed that a recurrence of th] eclipse on the same day would be followed by a recurrence of a war with Elam. as on the pseudo-science that had been evolved out of the observations of astronomy. Babylonian astronomy entercd upon a new phase. marks the beginning of the year. and that it was invented at an early epoch is demonstrated by its close connection with the Accadian calendar. and the text contains references to political and geographical facts.” when two events had been noticed to happen on(\ after the other. To him. tradition ascribed the compilation of the standard work on Babylonian astronomy and astrology called the L L Observations of Bel. Hence their anxiety to record the phenomena of the heavens and the occurrences that took place after each .

I. It is obvious that a work whose object was to connect astronomical observations with current events must have been constantly undergoing alteration and growth. therefore. where it is shown that a later scribe h a interpolated i l series of fabricated observations i n the middle of an oIder and genuine record. pp. Bosanquet and myself in the Monthly Notices o f the Royal Astrmaomical Society.1 In their present form. 572. 578. x l . though belonging to very different periods. and the attitude of mind presupposed by the magical texts and Shamanistio cult of Sumerian Chaldsea. shows that even in its earliest form it was a product of the Semitic epoch. and can be controlled by the spells and exorcisms of the sorcerer. 63). the ‘( Observations of Bel” have to be used with caution if we would argue from them to the beliefs and practices of early Babylonia. or pseudo-mience. 9. . A. According t o the latter. there lies an impassable gulf. New observations would from time to time be introduced into it. There are instances i n which we can detect the presence of observdtions placed side by side.COSMOGONIES AND ASTIZO-THEOLOGY 399 astrology mas created whose students could foretel the ‘future by observing the s i p of the sky. But the astrological science. which underlies the whole work. by Mr. according to the astrologer of Sargon’s court. they are natural occurrences. sometimes causing confusion or even omissions in the text. events are brought about by the agency of the innumerable spirits of earth and air. iii. or of older records which have been supplemented by the calculations of a later age. Between the attitude of mind presupposed by this pseudo-science. caused and determined by other natural occurrences 1 See the examination of the Venus-tablet (W.


Nergal. As the astronomy of Babylonia became more developed. Its starting-point was the prominence given to the worship of the evening and morning stars in the ancient religion. The adoration of the stars._- 1 W. moreover. Totemism. and that primitive Chaldaa was no exception to this rule has been already pointed out.__. and the planets were sheep. The other planets were already divine . M the heavens were mapped out into groups of constel. for example. too.l It is not difficult to discover how this curious theological system arose. and the sacredAess attached to them would naturally have been reflected upon the other heavenly bodies with which they were associated. The stars in it became the symbols of the official deities. 57. that the sun and moon and evening star were objects of worship from a remote epoch. the moon was a steer.A. implies a worship of the stars. and their subsequent transformation into the Semitic Istar. the sun was an ox. Here.. their automatic motions being apparently explicable by no other theory. is it that we can hardly believe it to have been known beyond the circle of the learned classes.COSXOGONIES AND ASTRO-THEOLOGT. We find that primitive peoples confound them with animals. indeed. and their identification with specific deities of the official cult followed as a matter of course. the stars were accounted divine. under his two names of Sar-nema and 'Sulim-ta-ea. must have been a feature of the religion of primEva1 S b r . iii. But this primsval adoration was something very different from the elaborate astro-theology of a later day. So elaborate.1. too. 213 . like the adoration of the sun and moon. 52. was identified with Jupiter and 3Xars. We have seen. 401 cuneiform syllabary assumed the shape in which we know it.

As Mars became Nergd.devised ” system of theology. like the knowledge of astrology itself.402 LECTURE VI. the ancient cult of the stars-not as manifestations or symbols of the official gods. lations. I.l Towards the 7V. states that the tenth day was sacred to the Lady of the Lower Firmament (Bilat-Ekur) and the divine judges of the starry sky. This astro-theology had been a purely artificial system. The priest had succeeded the old Sumerian sorcerer. so Orion became Tammuz. enumerating the feasts and fasts of the month and the religious services to be performed on each. iv. was confined to the learned classes. and was now transforming himself into an astrologer. the god of Babylon. while the leading single stars were similarly distinguished and named.-72. but the last echo of the priestly astro-theology of Babylonia. . but its completion cannot be earlier than the age of Khammuragas. but as divine beings themselves-maintained itself not only among the multitude. each of which received a definite name. To this cause we must trace the rise of Babylonian astrotheology and the deification of the stars of heaven. I n no other way can we explain the prominence given in it to Merodacli. the knowledge of which. See above. 34. But side by side with this ‘‘ cunningly. The Sabianism of the people of Harran in the early centuries of the Christian era was no survival of a primitive faith. and that offerings and sacrifices should be made during the night of it to two particular stars. p. A. It first grev up in the court of Sargon of Accad. the stars and constellations followed the lead of the planets. 47--50. but among the higher orders as well. The hemerology of the intercalary Elul.

Hence it was that.”3 and a Serni!ic hymn. I .’. and “ the curse of rain” that descended on the land during the winter months made the rivers also curses instead of blessings. in whom the people of Eridu had fieen the features of Ea. the god of Assyria. and Merodach. I. A. completed by Strssemaier. 8 W. 2D2 . by the side of the cult paid to the streams. addresses the river (Euphrates ?) in words of adoration and respect :4 -- TI‘. A. 26. before Assur. 30-33. the god of Babylon. I. 403 close of the Assyrian empire. ii. iii. iii. me find an Assyrian scribe eimilarly laying down that the king should offer mcriflcee “before the stars. 1 4 S 1704. we should naturally expect to find traces of river-worship. Rev. an old Accadian text declares that ‘(the name of the man shall perish who destroys the body of a river . be it noticed. (( incantation.” and other g0ds. Rev. 66.” but their destructive floods needed curbing by dams and canals. which prevented the cult from attaining its full development. like the Nile. the bringers of unmixed good. And such indeed is the case. there was a feeling of dread and fear. A. 12 sq. They might indeed be termed “the bearers of fertility. But the rivers of Babylonia were not. here take the first place. before Merodach. which is prefaced by the word sZptu.* In a country which owed so much to its great rivers as Babylonia. 66. TT’. and more especially to the supreme river-god. the divine Euphrates. and hold the same rank as the colossal bulls and sacred rivers mentioned by the same author as objects of veneration. 17. Nevertheless. even before Assur.l The stars. Obv.QOSMOQONIEB AND AHFRO-THEOLOGY.

from which i t appears that the tablet contains charms against the bites of serpents. may it pass over my life. river supreme of limb. Nay I exalt (ZudZuZ) (thy) spring en^).” The last line shows that we have here to do with a product of the school of Sippara. . I Here several lines are lost. even to the ~ h a n n e l . The lines which are legible read as follows : ‘‘Save me (wzibuniizni) from the venom of these serpents. . (Purify) my sin that I may live. Myself and my house never may it destroy. has created blessings in thy heart. The (impurity) which is in my body to thy channel carry it. might. May I glorify (that which the god) has created. never may it overcome me. H e has presented his deluge before thee. Samas and Merodach. I have made thee !l A t the time I dug thee. bear it down into thy stream. ~ (Take) it. 0 lord. (Deliver) me. be far from my body. May (the serpents). “Thou. [Lacuna] pouring their poison into my body like the star-coloured bird (tawi). pouring forth the zikki of its mission. The text becomes legible again in the fourth line of the obverse. brilliance (and) terribleness have Ea and Merodach presented unto thee. . ndru. never may it approach . the great gods (were) on thy bank.2 Grant me (to bathe in) the straight course of thy waters. ndru tsiriti rnesrdti. Let me exalt (Zudlzd) the making of your god. 0 Ea. Ea. May it mount to heaven like an arrow. Sa ine zumri-yu bud (KI-PUR = ) kibir-ki nri-su kibir-ki.404 LECTURE VI. Fire. ebusu kasunz. as the name of Sanias is interpolated between the old god of healing spells and his ministering son. never may it poison. may it cross the river. Judgment ( 1 ) hast thou given mankind. . Di(?)nitenisdti tadin atti ndru rubiti."^ Side by side with this primitive worship of rivers and ~ ~- 1 2 3 Atti. and it shall not come nigh my altar. 0 mighty river. 0 river. the king of the deep. and let me glorify your LUL-OIR. May they depart .

71). “ the mountain of mankind. A. lo). 54. now represented b y the Birs-i-Nimrud. we 6nd traces of a worship of the m o u n t a i n s . 68. The sacred mountains of the plain were the mounds which marked the sites of ancient temples. or temple . ii. where the rescued hero of the legend built his altar and poured out his offerings. to whom the great temple of Rorsippa waa dedicated. I.COSXOGOXIES A h 3 ASTRO-THEOLOGY.tower. and its traces are a survival. however. is called its god (W. assisted perhaps by the conquest of the country in the historical epoch by the Kosssan highlanders. iii.” an artificial mound near Kis. was Kharsak-kalama. A. (‘the mountain of the world” was the name given to a temple at Calah. 405 gprings. The most famous of these sacred tels or mounds. <‘ the illustrious mound.the fact that the Accadian prototype of Nebo was once the universe itself. In the story of the Deluge. in reference to . Conversely. One of “the three great” or secret (‘namea of Anu” was that of L L the lord who issues forth from the illustrious mound” (W. is called a ziggurrat. the mountain peak of Nizir. or the towers which rose within them in order that the priest might continue on their summits that close communion with heaven which he had once enjoyed on the high places of the mountaintops. When thc uld god of Borsippa had . I. in Babylonia itself the primitive cult of the mountains could be carried on only artificially.” at Borsippa. At any rate. in which the seven spheres of light were set. to which the god Zu took his flight. and around which the ocean-stream wound like a rope or serpent. and the mountain of ‘Sabu. Nebo. was the famous Mu ellu. But this worship belonged rather to the days when the early colonists of Chaldsa had not as yet descended from the mountains of the East.

”l The very word that the Hahqy writer uses in order tol explain the origin of the name . in h i s (fury) he set his face to mingle (their) designs. the Babylonian version of the building of the tower of Babel. he gave the command(?). which gives us.” It would seem.” is here employed of those who ‘‘ mingled together?’ the mound.” when “he was hurrying to seize Babylon.’x Here we @retold of the leader of the rebellion that when “the thought of his k a r t was hostile” and he ‘‘had! wronged the father of all the gods. therefore. the attributes mhich had formerly connected him with the firmament of heaven were transferred t o Anu. the sky-god of the official cult. Boscawen in the Transactiow o f the Siciety o f Biblicd Archreology. Anu Lifted up (his hand) in front”’ and prayed “ t o his father the lord of the firmament. and whose designs were afterwards t. was ‘‘ the month of the illustrious mound.hemselves ‘ mingled”’ by the god of heaven. The month which corresponded to the Semitic Tasrit or Tisri.of Babylon. as I believe.” ‘(the divine king of the illustrious mound” intervened. “The illustrious mound’’ was known as far back as the time when the months of the Accadian year were named. passed into the Semitic Nebo.’” “All day long he troubled” them.406 LECMJRE VL. 1 . I . expressly identifies it with ‘‘ the illustrious mound. ‘‘as they lamented on their couch he ended not” their l‘ distress. and our September. he made strange their plan. v. and which the Authorised Version translates ponfound. that legend had referred the attempt to build the tower whose 1 The text has been published by MY.” In his wrath he overthrows (their) secret counsel. A fragmentary tablet.’’ and ‘‘ small and great were mingling the mound.

They had in this way become veritable hillstumuli. but was already in a state of ruin when the Accadian calendar was first drawn up. in fact. A. and the worship of sacred stones was widely spread through the Semitic world. God is compared to a rock in the Old Testament (Deut. or ‘‘mountain. or “mountain. appear to have been the sites of older structures which had long fallen into decay. 15. 407 head should reach to heaven to the autumnal equinox. and around which fancy and tradition were allowed to play freely. as we should term them in our modern archseological vocabulary-and as such deserved the venerable title of 8adu. iv. And. El Shaddai. like the mountains. The sacred m m & of Babylonia. xviii. I n the list of Babylonian kings in which the meaning of their names is explained. 6‘ fi-saggil is our mountain. 16. They mere rather. like the mountains of the eastern frontier. It is possible that Prof. but this did not imply a recollection that the sacred mounds had once been temples themselves.” W. sndd rabd in Semitic. and in V.COSJIOGOSIES A N D ASTRO-THEOLOGY. 41. 18. the visible habitations of the spirits of the air. “the great mountain. 23.1 At all events. on whose summits worship oould most fittingly be paid to the deities of heaven. xxxii. they were something more than altars. Friedrich Delitzsch is right in proposing to see in the Assyrian acsdu. the Accodian E-Guzi-kharmg-men is interpreted k-saggil-sajdu-ni. at any rate. “ t h e god Kur-gal” is rendered by Bel. they were themselves divine.” New temples like that of ‘‘the mountain of the world” could be named after them. Mul-lilis called Icurgal. the everlasting altars of the gods.” . 2).” the explanation of the Hebrew title of the Deity. I. 44. 30. Ps. like the Gilgals of Palestine. it is clear that the mound of Barsippa E ‘ not only in existcnce.

Mr.” Within the last few years. Above one of them is an inscription which shows that the stone was the symbol or habitation of the god Auda (or Aera): “This is the place of prayer which Seruh the son of Tukn has erected to Auda of Bostra. at Medain-Saleh. the great god. according to Mr. however. did not stand alone. Doughty. the burial-place of the ancient kingdom of the Nabathaeans. Doughty has discovered niches in the rock containing sacred stones. The famous black stone of the Eaaba at Mecca is a standing witness of the fact. or the priest who was consecrated to its service. So ibmly rooted was the belief in its divine character among the Arabs of Mohammed’sday that he was unable to eradicate it. termed Anxab. though more sacred than any others. Between the sacred mounds of Babylonia. Its sanctity v-as not inherent. at the gates of the city.” no habitation of a mere spirit. and the sacred stones of Semitic faith. All around Mecca there were similar stones. three of which may still be seen. l’he sacred stone was a Beth-el. where they go by the names of Hobbal. Northward of Mecca.408 LECTGBE VI. bas-reliefs have been found in Sicily and Tunisia representing persons in the act of (( . The black stone. it was sacred because it had been transformed into an altar by the oil that was poured out upon it in libation. there was a wide difference. The worship of these sacred stones was common to all the branches of the Semitic family. but was forced to make a compromise with the old faith by attaching to the stone the traditions of the Old Testament. or house of god . answering to a difference in the minds of the two races to whom these separate cults belonged. in the month Nisan of the first year of king Malkhos. but the dwelling-place of deity itself. Lata and Uzza.

2 : “ Simulacrum dem non eBisfe humana. and the god of heaven was further declared to have invented the Baityli.l Bethuel is connected with Aram in the Old Testament (Gen. ii. Heaven and Earth were said to have had four sons. coutinuw orbia &tiore initio tenuem in ambitum mela modo exsurgens. the isolated monuments were the cones of stone or the bare tree-trunks which symbolised Asherah. i 10. and we may gain some idea as to what the latter were like from the pictures we have on coins and gems of the famous conical stone that stood withip the holy of holies in the temple of the Paphian Aphrodit6.’’ In Palestine. Dagon and Atlas. and called the name of that place Beth-el. and were accordingly honoured by the Phaenicians. and set it up for a pillar. 400 adoration before a small triad of stone. rather than singly.COGNOGIONIEB AND AsTBO-THEOLOGY. saying. L classical writers should speak of the B U ~ T U ~ the meteoric stones which had fallen from heaven like “the image’’ of Artemis at Ephesos. xxii. the goddess of fertility. We are here on Phcenician territory. 110s or El. the Beth-els were arranged in a circle or ailgal. Hal6vy’s arpmenta against the identification of Baitylos and the Beth-el amount t o very JitWeHist. Betylos or Beth-el. and Baal the Sun-god. making of them living st0nes. The sun-pillars and the ashhim meet with frequent mention in the Biblical records. however.“ . P r q . and poured oil upon the top of it. as well as from the description given of it by Tacitus. and it is not strange therefore that or O Beth-els. on his way t o Haran. ‘ I Surely the Lord is in this place. Jacob awakened out of sleep. 21’22). and we all remember how. Evang.2 On a gem 1 Euseb.’’ and ‘Ltookthe stone that he had put for his pillows. In the mythology of Byblos.

having thus secured the goodwill of heaven for his 1indertaking. which consisted of a n upright post op column. set on either side of the porch (1 Kings vii. 21). one of which still remains in situ.” is reprosented by a stone of the same shape surmounted by a star.” and after taking an animal for sacrifice. and his sickness had been carried away by the waters of the sea. 44). like the two columns of gold Rnd emerald glass which Herodotos saw in the temple of Melkarth at Tyre (Herodt.” and represented the altar. of different forms. I. was excavated. in the BritishMuseurn. “poured orer it a homer” in libation. 52. iv. there were two columns of stone. built as it was by Phcenician workmen. sometimes with an extinguisher-like top. He then commenced his homeward voyage up the Zuphrates. in Phccnicia and in Syria. the god of Harran. Kiiallu is a word borrowed from tlie Accadian ki-zal. There is a curious reference to the consecration of a Beth-el in the Epic of Gisdhubar. Sin. planted in the ground. “place of oil” or ‘‘ anointing.410 LECTUHE VI. The sacred stones which were thus worshipped in Arabia. The stones or adi6rim which had lhus been consecrated by oil being poured over them.” so often depicted on Assyrian gems and bas-reliefs. ii. A. will bo seen on 8 Pheni- . When the hero had been dismissed by the Chaldaean Noah. When the Phcenician temple in the island of Gozo.l 1 W. vi. 51. Boaz and Yakin. 1-4. v. whose ruins are known as the Temple of the Giants. We cannot forget that even in Solomon’s temple. two such columns of stone were found. we are told that ‘(he bound together heavy stones. were worshipped also among the Semites of Babylonia. The “ pillars of the Sun” were also stones of a like form. A good representat’iorr of three of thesc co1uims. are frequently mentioned in the Babylonian and Assyrian inscriptions under the name of kiialli.

I am only too well aware . Apart from its general interest in illustrating the history of religion among one of the few races of mankind who have been the pioneers of civilisation. or symbols of the godtlesa Asherah. it has a special interest from its bearing on the faiths of Western Asia. . 411 The homeward voyage of the Chaldaean hero iSr a reminder that we. 156.but the main outlines of the picture are clear and distinct. or between the gods of Eridu and the gods of Babylon . I have undertaken to treat of Babylonian religion only. have hished our survey of Babylonian religion.008MOC. too. so far 8s our present knowledge of it will allow. its essentially local charmter.+ We cannot understand even its most elementary featurea unless we bear in mind that it is the product of different r w s and different political systems. indeed. and published by him in the Amerietln Journal o f Archreoloyj) June 1886. and any attempt to obliterate 01forget them will lead only to confusion and error. even an imperfect sketoh has its merits and value. it may not always be easy to distinguish between Accadian and Semitic. and more especially on that of the people of Israel. In detail. They correspond to the ‘‘ sun-pillars” and ashgrim. Hayes Ward at Bagdad. That the materials are still wanting for a complete history 0-f the rise and development of Babylonian religion. and its hybrid origin. but where completeness ier unattainable.ONIES AND A8TRO~THEOLOGY. For such cian gem procured by Dr. Two facts i n regard t o it stand prominently forth. I f 1 have not mwe frequently drawn attention to the latter. not of Semitic religion in general. And the importance of Babylonian religion to the student of theology need not be pointed out. it has been due to my desire to keep faithfully to the subject of my Lectures. p. 80 frequently alluded to in the Old Testament.

and by honest labour therein to accumulate the facts which others more fortunate than he may hereafter combine and utilise.412 LECTUFtE VI. and more than enough. . and he must be content to confine himself to his own subject. who have devoted their lives to the study of one or more of these better-known Semitic tongues. and famous scholars and thinkers will arise to reap the harvest that me have sown. My own studies have of late years lain more and more in the ever-widening circle of Assyrian research. a task there are others far more competent than myself. It is for others. and to discover in them. whose studies have taken a wider range. This is the day of specialists . to fill the whole time and absorb the whole energies of the worker . Neanwhile I claim only to be one of the humble labourers of our own busy age. here there is enough. The time may come again-nay. if they can. so far as they bear upon the religion of the ancient Babylonians. guides and beacons towards a purer form of faith than that which can be found in the official creeds of our modcrn world. great Arabic or Syriac or Hebrew scholars. who have done my best to set before you the facts and theories we may glean from the broken sherds of Nineveh. to make use of the materials I have endeavoured to collect. will come again-when once more the everflowing stream of discovery will be checked. the increased application of the scientific method and the rapid progress of discovery have made it difficult to do more than note and put together the facts that are constantly crowding one upon the other in a special branch of research.
























The importance of this temple is well known. the centre of the national worship. and its consisting of eight stages or towers one above another. First. .principally the cubit. must be rejected. The height given by Strabo for the tower of the Temple of Belua has already been considered very questionable (see Rawlinson's Ancient Monarchies. now that we have the dimensions of the building. (3. Feb. I have prepared a short account for your readers. 515). giving a remarkable account of the Temple of Belus at Babylon .' ' ( 1 HAVE discovered a Babylonian text. or 20 feet English.peat temples. and retained its fame even down to Roman times. and it is fortunate that the one described was the most famous in the valley of the Euphrates. Additional interest attaches to this inscription from the fact that it is the first time any detailed description of a temple has been found in the cuneiform texts. the former representing the principal building as one stade in length and breadth. it WBS the grandest religious edifice in the country.and as my approaching departure for Nineveh does not allow me time to make a full translation of the document.MB. Herodotus and Strabo have given us accounts of the Temple of Belus. a stade being supposed to equal about 600 English feet. cqual to 12 cubits. SMITH'8 AUOOZTNT OF THE TEMPLE OF BEL. forming a pyramid. Babylon. 19t4 1876.' vol. the highest stage being the sanctuary. Strabo states that this building was n stade in height. but there is mother series of numbers used in memuring. This templo was founded centuries before Babylon became the chief city i n the state. giving the principal points in the arrangement and dimensions of the buildings. I must remark on the Babylonian measures used. p. consisting apparently of * Athenaeum. equal to about 1 foot 8 inches English j and the gar or sa. and. ii. it thus supplies the first information as to the dimensions of the . that they m. and one of the wonders of the capital.

but the value of the ku is uncertain. 2. which consists of 11 x 3600 + 33 x 60 + 20 barleycorns. or 1155 teet. about 1156 feet) and 9. the gate of the colossi.600 barleycorns. 4. The next division is the space or platform apparently walled. There is a calculation as to the area of this court. It is uncertain if this was paved. the southern gate . the gate of the rising sun (east) . the principal being the shrines devoted to the god Nebo and Tasmit his wife. There is again here a calculation of area. the gate of the rising sun (east). 5. Inside stood some building or enclosure. 70 or 60 cubits long and 40 cubits broad (117 or 133 feet by 67 feet). numbers of barleycorns arranged in sixties . one devoted to the god Qt. the northern gate. There were. called the ‘Grand Court. in all 41. the gate of the canal. which was the inner and crowning edifice of the group. which I pass over. three ku in length and three Xu in breadth.thus the first number is a length of 11. connected with the great Ziggurat or tower. the name of which is damaged. the gate of the setting sun (west) .’ This space is reckoned as 10. called the ‘ Court of Tshtar and Zamama. On the eastern side stood a sanctuary or temple. The temple of Ea was 85 cubits long and 30 broad (142 feet by 50 feet).33. 7 icchzs. On the northern side stood two temples. Round the court were six gates admitting to the temples. and that of Nusku mas a sqzlare. and its extent is also uncertain. There were four gates. The barleycorn was the standard unit of measure among the Babylonians. and 6. 2.438 APPENDIX 1 1 . with sixteen shrines. 3. which I omit. 3. the grand gate . The four walls faced the cardinal points. and called a ki-gal& sur. all the buildings having their sides west. It was 10 gar long and 10 gar broad (200 feet by 200). 35 cubiis each way (58 feet by 68 feet\ .20. in this agreeing with the other parts. north and south. Sound the base of the Ziggurat or t o m r were ranged the chapels or temples of the principal gods. tho great deity of the temple. and come to the next court. 1. or birut.30 (450 feet) in breadth. and for this reason was used sometimes in measures of length without the other terms. It is stated as a square. one in the centre of each side of this division : 1. 900 feet). on its four sides. First in kh8 tableb we have the m e w m of the outer mu&. the other t o Nusku. the great gate.33.20 in length (1056 feet) and 4. in breadth (that is. 4.’ which is given as 11-33-20 in length (that is. and facing the cardinal points. the gate of the tower-view. Nebo was considered the eldest son of Bel.

built in stages. 20 feet high). The bottom or first stage was a square in plan. The couch is stated to have been 9 cubits long and 4 cubits broad (15feet by 6 feet. The building at the back was 125 cubits long and 30 cubits broad (208 feet by 60 feet). I do not properly comprehend the ditposition of the buildings on this side. and the throne of gold mentioned by Herodotus. and 1 gur in height (140 feet square. In the centre of theee groups of buildings stood the grandest portion of the whole pile. which was the upper temple or sanctuary of the god Bel. and my description of the position of the western temples must be taken aa conjectural. 20 feet high). On the western side were the principal buildings. being 13 gar in leiigth and breadth. consisting of a huble house. On this was raised the seventh stage. or temple-tower. the great Ziggurah. and the space between them was 35 cubits wide (58 feet). This etage appears to have been indented or ornamented with buttresses. It was 10 gar in length and breadth. On the other side the wing was 100 cubits long and 65 cubits broad (166 feet by 108 feet). besides other furniture of great value. This stage must have been 59 gar in length and breadth.THE TEMPLE OF BEL. and 1 gar in height (110feet square. it had probably sloping sides. The third stage differs widely from the lower ones. a gods. 15 gar in length and breadth. 20 feet high). the dimensions of the sixth stage of the tower are omitted in the inscription. 110feet high). with a court between the two wings. its sides facing the cardinal points. and commences R regular progressive series of stages. The fourth stage was 8& gur in length and breadth. . and 3 gar in height (260 feet square. 439 On the muthem side stvod a single temple dedicated to the two great This was 70 cubits long and 30 eubits broad (117 feet by 50 feet). The epithet applied to this stage is obscure . On the one side the wing was 200 cubita long and 20 cubits broad (166 feet by 34 feet). and 1 gar in height (200 feet square. The fifth stage was 7 gur in length and breadth. 8 inches). The next or second stage of the tower was also square. but they can be easily restored in accordance with the others. all of equal height. This building had a length of 4 gar. Anu and Bel. and 1 gar in height (170 feet square. 20 feet high). and 5& gar in height (300 feet square. Probably by accident. I n these westein chambers stood the couch of the god. 60 feet high).

breadth of 34 gar. exactly equal to the breadth of the base . The only ruin now existing at or near Babylon which can be supposed to represent the temple of Belus is the mound and enclosure of Babil. also consisting of ail enclosure. On the other side of the Euphrates stands a ruin. the niins corresponding fairy with the account of these structures in the Greek authors and in the inscription. The mound of Babil. face the cardinal points. Birs Nimroud. the remains of the two sides of the enclosure now existing indicate a circumference about equal to the Greek measurement. The sides of the building face the cardinal points. and there are different opinions even as to the length of the Greek stade. and as the foundation was most probably raised above the level of the ground. consists now of the lower stage of the tower and the ruins of the buildiugs round it. and a temple-tower .’’ . while not a single one of its known dimensions agrees with the corresponding paint in the inscription. Thus the whole height of this tower above its foundation was lbgar.he inscription.:ive a height of over 300 feet above the plain for this grandest of BnhyIonian temples. while the present remains of the wall require careful measurement to determine more exactly their length and the dimensions they indicate. but it must be remembered that the exact length of the Babylonian measures is not known. 70 feet broad. or 300 feet. it wolild . instead of its sides. like those iu the inscription . which is already identified by the best authorities with the temple of Beius. various temples. but this represents the site of the temple of Nebo at Borsippa. and 50 feet high). and a height of 2&gar (80 feet long. and its angles.440 APPENDIX 1 1 . and slightly in excess of that in t.

i i . that which is racked. 13. Akkadisolbe una Sumische KdZsch&ftte&e. the sacred prostitute of heaven (Ass. conjure. The (possessing) demon which seizes a man. 0 spirit of earth 1 18. 7.I. the demon (ekiqmw) which seizes a man. 12. the evil spirit (sedu.w e e b bliihed). 0 spirit of heaven 1 conjure. even (L diseased m d e . Also Sumerian text only in R 612. 19. 14.A. the sacred prostitute of the oracle (?). the evil demon. 3. 82 8q. 17. who lets not the hand fall. W. which strips off the clothing of the body as an evil demon. 18. Heb. 16 the hostile one who smites the head of the mountain. 4. the assaulting wind. 0 spirit of heaven ! conjufe. 0 spirit of earth I 11. that which ia unlucky (Am. 0 spirit of earth I 8. cmjure. Incantation (&.) Col i 1. 1 8 . shQd). Anu) who rests not. Snm. the evil demon (utuk). the unburied in the earth. the demon of the sea. tho (seizing) demon which works mischief. the demon of the tomb. galla). 6. Sumerian with Seniitic translation in parallel columns. 9. the evil wind. tho demon of the field. pp.the dazzling fiend (du. the embryo of the beginning G? im kxomplete month. I. who turns not the breast. . conjure. m e t which is mieformed. the demon of the mountain. ii. 0 spirit of heaven ! conjure. 10. The sacred prostitute whom heart ia mck. . The evil (hostile) god. (Eaupt.tu). 17. 5. 2.THE MAGICAL TEXTS.

sickness.11. the evil breath. 21.r.8. 2 1 conjure. 2 Ivvtu. s a m u yd etd-su & a h yd khru. 0 spirit of earth 1 15. 40. 20. 31. Sickness of the entrails. 21. 36. the nurse whose breast is bitter. painful sickness which cannot be removed. 46. seeWJ. 34. 26. disease 3f the bile. a broken blood-vessel (?). the fever-demon who departs not. may food not goforth from it. Him who is the possessor of the images of a man. and Deluge Tablet. a painful muscle. The painful fever. 44.’ a swollen muscle. faintness of the heart. the evil eye. 33. 39. the nurse whose breast is sweet.4 the evil fever. difficult miction. 28. the evil mouth. 48. 0 spirit of heaven ! conjure. a sick neart. the pregnant woman whose womb is struck. 43. 0 spirit of earth ! __ -~ 1 Mm’kadu.2 conjure. iv. 0 spirit of earth I The nurse. disease of the kidneys. &II evil vomit. shrieking) muscle. khavvdh. a const. the evil tongue. 0 spirit of earth ! ~ ~ 23. the evil face. a broken muscle. 28. the evil lip.en ! conjure. 0 spirit of earth 1 30. of.442 APPENDIX 1 1 1 . 21. 27. 25.” 4 6 ‘ Unassailing” i n the Assyrian tmndatim . ‘‘may its (the field‘s) womb rebel. conjure. iv. 38. an aching (Zit. the nurse whose breast is wounded. 0 spirit of heaven ! conjure. v. 35.14. the nurso who has died through a wound of the breast. the pregnant woman whose wonib is loosed. 0 spirit of heawn ! conjure. 41. 47. 49): Eipalkit k i r k . 42. not ‘(poison. conjure. the fever which quits not a man. 0 spirit of heaven ! coiijure. 0 spirit of hea. 16. 49. 6. the fever unremovable. ii. the pregnmt woman whose wombS is opened. 29.1.a . Heb. a dream of ill omen.” a Kirimma. headache. the Atarpi-legend (iii. an evil muscle. 37.ricted muscle. the potent fever. conjure. the pregrant woman whose womb is unprosperous. may bread not be produced. 32.

18. 0 spirit of heaven ! conjure. the sipped (water) which is returned f r o m the body. the disease unremovable. the evil diseasa. W. the disease of the form.? 61. the plaguedemon who departs not. the plague unremovable. 53. conjure. 57. 0 spirit of earth f 55. The cincture which is buried (etm*t)in the ground. a Narup. The spittle and breath which are foully formed in the mouth. ~d&. 51. the cloth which ie severed from a man’s body. A. 4 Arlu. Heb.13. 54.50. comp. 2. xxxviii. the water which in drinking is spued out. 47. the expectorations of the spittle which is foully enclosed (in the mouth) [s. the shaving of the privy parta. the curse upon the head (which) strikes (3) the earth. wKih among the ignorant leads the hand of the man astray. the evil plague. I . The corresponding ideographs mean (i the shaping of the phallus. 0 spirit of hewen I conjure. 58. 69. v. 0 spirit of earth ! 60. even the wind of the desert that departs not. 0 spirit of heayen ! conjure. kqd 80 iJ% hw UT ipti. the potent plagAe. 68. C o l . 0 spirit of earth I 72. the food which is excreted from the body of a man. 52.” That circumcision was practised in early Chaldsea is indicated by the primitive form of the character which denoted a phallus (Amiaud and Bfdchineau: L‘Tablean cornpar8 des Ecritures Babylonienne et &pieme. 69. the @having of the body. the cutting of the nails. 11. conjure. 6 Mrxlzc. 71. The painful plague. Heb. Heb. 66. the Heb. dWim. The disease of the appearance whioh indicates disease. Comp. 67. 1. ’ur&Z.*ZZi8]. the plague which quit.” and the Latin in@kar6.. the food which is returned in eating. 1 Kats&. . u Spittle” is &. circumcision: a rag: 64. 63. the baleful breath which hides not tho dust. 62. ‘(the link of the chain f n m the penis he nnloosed.-. 56.’’ No. 9 --. 74). The Assyrian translates. 70. a broken chain: 65. the disease which departs not. an old ring. (‘the product of the mouth and evil breath? amam in Assyrian. not a man. where the word has the reverse sense to that which the A c d a n text shows it to have had in Assyrian. ii.Jer. 73. the disease of the ehrudow: (of a man). conjure.

14. conjure. 16. 20. 25. 8. the handmaid of a liZu over whom death has no power. 23. him whose name is remembered. 4. him whosc name is not remembered. the destroying one who is unconcealed. atta riaplih giZiitktm. so in 79 7-8. that I may satisfy myself during the day. 23. the fear’ of the coming of death (which. the baleful thirst (which . the ZiZu himself who has no wife. That I may eat duririg the day. 28. deliver 0 spirit of heaven. 0 spirit of e d h i 21. 0 spirit of heaven ! conjure. (and) conjure. 13.” 1 . .). that I may drink during the day. 10. 19. 34. Him who dies from hunger and watching. 0 spirit of heaven ! conjure. 18. 11.158. rrdo thou look on (our) fear. him who rises not from satisfying his hunger. May the divine attendant of Pap-sukal. whose head is unconccaled (in) the dust. conjure. 32. 8 (in) a grave concealed or unconcealed.. 30. --_--___- - Cilittam. the son of the king who is buried in the desert or in the palmice. 31. 27. 99. him who dies in the desert or in the marsh. 0 spirit of heaven ! conjure.). has destroyed so that his name perishes. Rw.. 12. 0 spirit of earth f . 3 . the feaster who in his feasting 24. his crumbs has not collected.444 . him whom tho flood of a river 26. APPENDIX 1 1 1 . . IIim who is placed in the ground (or laid in) the field.. 7. the noxious breast (of a nurse) at the beginning of an incomplete month. 38. conjure. 6. 5. conjure. 0 spirit of earth ! 37. the vampire who lies in wait continually. 17. him who the Air-god has drowned in the field. with his phallus Cpurrud) uncut. 36. 0 spirit of earth1 15. the mighty one who has been slain by a weapon. the creator of the life of the man. that I may sleep during the day. him who dies from thirst and watching. 35. 33. 9.

0 spirit of heaven ! conjure.39. the M z c .” in W.159. set on the little finger of his right hand : conjure. which has been brought from his country. the black cloth. 70. 30. 48. ‘‘a spirit.” Acc. for the satisfaction (riAuni)2of his eyes. 60. ‘‘ to fold. 40. iii. A. the evil demon (ekimmu). 332.A. Conjure. 51. the handmaid of the lilu. The Accadian sur(ra) is rendered by darnd and kapalu. (‘ creative spirit” Labatm. 25. 55. 52.” seems to show that kammeda must mean “ cloud-like” or ‘‘ unsubstantial. “ a fold. 46. which Zimmern reads itspa from etsepu. ‘L bright. The pure figure of gossamer (?)l which is placed in the hand of the god of pure eating. 44. CO~OSSOS (lamaddu). the evil gallu. with which ululu. d i m m g w .the M a t . Over his life never may they cease (to watch). literally “the seizer. A. A. 49. The evil demon. 29). Ace. that he may rest his eyes upon it. The combination of k a m m with dim in the ideographic representation of dimm. the cloth which is folded double: 56. I. the evil fiend ( a h ) . 8 The Assyrian damd. It is here represented by izkhad (as in W. 43. 8 Lamm’ttu. ACC. stmd in tbe presence of the Sun-god.” is bon-owed from the Accadian tabba. 47. cf.35). “ghost” or “€emale CO~OSSUR. 66. 50.” is rendered (W.” 3 Bihni (as in line 47. amur rikani) is akin to rikdtu. iv. a pure stone. “head” (sabba).” see W. 0 spirit of earth ! The white cloth. A. May the divine spirit (sedu) and the divine the givers of blessings. W. . 15. dimma (“that which comes of the dimme?. 6. I. dimme. by which BAR. alight upon his head. 59. l Kammeda. is probably the same as dimma. 0 spirit of earth 45. the cloth which is folded double. 42.I. Ikhkhazu. 57. 41. bind it to his right hand : the ring of reverential fear. ii.” is connected. 19. the evil god.GL (6 u. cloth of kammeda. bind both to the side and to the frame4 of his couch. bind upon his left hand. “feebleneq” W.I. For damu=kdallan. 61. 4 In the Accarlim. I. the female colossug5 the spectre: the vampire: 62. I. 2. the evil incubus. ii. 28. 53. “double. v. 44. dim rendered by makutu. 58. Cf. v. A.” W. 54. 0 spirit of heaven ! conjure. rendered by ulalu.

unriddle the curse and all that is baleful : 20. 4. pure water. May the evil incubus depart . in the Acc. 3. * In the Assyrian relickring. 0 spirit of heaven ! conjure. the first-born son of Ea (“ the lord of the earth”). into the house of another’s ringed fence never may they enter. 2. never may they turn !s 72. may the propitious spirit (sidu) (and) the propitious colossus 12. the gallu is the Semitic translation of the Accadian (north Babylonian) 1 2 irvi and libirra. the evil gallu attacks his hand .” 3 We learn from a fragment (S 1140) what were the different parts of the body upon which the several kinds of evil spirit were supposed to act : “The evil ~7cimnm attacks his breast . conjure. 7. 0 spirit of earth ! 21. i i i 1. never may he enter. to another place may he betake himself. 0 spirit of earth ! 14. their head against his head. Biud this man with wisps of straw . 66. 71. 24. 10. 69. with wisps of straw which the wind has dried. his body in another place like consuming fire they (burn). “ t h e mighty royal steer ”). the sickness. 8. 22.4 into the house of the living (9) never may they enter. 0 spirit of heaven ! conjum.” In the Acc. never may they set. 9. the evil god attacks his foot . 23. into the hollow of a yoke never may they enter.” In S 1366.ispu. 1 2 Into the house never may they enter . resplendent water. (‘ evil breath.” . their foot against his foot. 65. 0 spirit of earth! Col.l the breathing. may he make resplendent. the sickly constitution. “breath of knowledge. 2. 0 spirit of heaven ! conjure.2 the breaking of wid.446 APPENDIX 1 1 1 . 64. the sorcery. 15. 67. 70. Conjure. 19. 10. holy water. 63. those seven have seized (the man) together (istenis) . The god Adari-elim-nha (Merodach. K. rest upon his body. their hand against his hand. glittering water. bind the gate of the court on the right hand and on tho left : 18. 17. 11. 6. 68. 5 . Conjure. may he make pure. 16. 13. the water twice seven times may he bring.

after his goddess never may they enter .” instead of the Sumerian sagga. into the hollow of the tomb never may they enter . 48.) of the tomb never may they enter j 29. however. into the body’ of a man who g o a out never may they enter. and that it probably goea back to an early period. and not of the literary class. into the cup (1) of the libation-bowl never may they enter. “ a cage” or “fetter. into (the.. 33. . into (tho. As lines 49 and 50. into (the. i i g g u 4 . . into the ravines of the mountain never may they enter. into the vaults of the house never may they enter ..) of the well(?) never may they enter. into the body of a sick man never may they enter. A. in fact. If gisal. into the shadow of a man’s step never may they enter. into (the place that is un)illuminakd never may they enter. into the doorposts of the house never may they enter. 31. been confounded by the Zitterati of Sargon’s court with the Semitic &am. but the change in the pronunciation shows that the borrowing was on the part of the people. . .) of the son of the Sun-god the glowing (wpl&) never mag they enter .) of the furnace(?) never may they enter. 49. into the darkness never may they enter .25. into the valley never may they enter . 3 The Accadian saklcul has been borrowed from the Semitic si&r. ‘‘a ravine” (iii. 32. 26. showing the extent to which this originally Sumerian text has been interpolated by the Accadian scribes of northern Babylonia. into the vaults of the tomb never may they enter. 18. 42. 27.. ‘Sigp is the Sumerian form of which &ma was the A c d i S n equivalent: in col. 47. 34. 50. P. with his goddess$ never may they enter . 28. into (the . 66. . Lines 36 and 37. into the shaduw never may they enter . on the contrary. 43. 1 -- . 38. into the gate of the house never may they enter. . I n line 51 the Sumerian Sigar has. . we had the Accadian sabba. . 41. ‘‘with the traveller may he never descend:’ 2 Accadian D. into the cup (1) never may they enter . . 45. “ head. . 30. is Semitic. ii. it is probable that line 50 is an interpolation.. 29). 35.” the Accadian form being iimar (W. 36.I. repeat the same statement. 40. The Assyrian renders. into the ravines never may they enter . 46. into the bolt of the house never may they enter .) of the p h o n (P) never may they enter. 37. as uaual. iv. into (the .. it will be an example of a Semitic word foisted into the text by the acribes of Accad. into the fastening3 of the house never may they enter. are mere amplifications of the original line 38. 39. 36). into the door of the house never may they enter. 44.

" *T s i r r i . . . (the lord) of the demons (PLtuki) . 3. . 58. 55. conjure. (the offspring) of Ea the mighty. 24. against (those who dare) not face (her) . J . In the original Accadian. 15. . the son of heaven. 9. the chosen place of the Moon-god 71. Merodach. the hero of heaven and earth. iv. may the prince. (the minister 1 ) of the great gods . Conjure. doubtless by the literary class. .. 0 spirit of heaven ! conjure.&L iv. into the latch of the house never may they enter . tie.. over his life may he never cease (to watch) . 0 spirit of earth I 69. the glorious spirit (alitu) among mankind. 56. see W.borrowed (by the people) from the Accadian zara. the goddess Innin(a). 47. . €ran the Accadian nu-lcusu. mho declarest4 the name of the gods. in the Assyrian version. 10. into the border (tuppat) of the house never may they enter. into the siclo of the house never may they enter .448 51. APPENDIX X I I . (reveal) an omen of life. 7.. . into the lower hinge never may they enter j into the upper hole for the hinge2 never may they enter. May the fire-god (Kibirra) the son of the earth 12. 66. 5. 0 spirit of heaven ! conjure. the daughter of Anu? 60. 57. the first-born of Ea. conjure. 0 spirit of heaven ! conjure. (6eZ8t9. Destroyed.. 52. . 0 spirit of earth 1 59. 0 spirit of earth 1 Col. 65.." 4 " Understands. the heroine (itillat) 62. " the unresting. the prince. 54. 53. 64.. . 6. 8. into the lower hole for the hinge never may they enter 1 conjure. .. may he alight on the man's head. The Semitic nulcusu has been borrowed. 0 spirit of earth I . 13. 0 spirit of heaven ! conjure." kha(S&). 61. 63. 73. . . 4. . 2. (the companion ?)of tho hero Adar ___ 11. 0 female colossus. the female colossus supreme in might 67. 72. the binder of the sickening fever. into the upper hinge1 (of the door) never may they enter . " The dimme. 14. 48. (Against) the evil (demons) mho return. 1. among the (divine) mistresses.

33. 24. 0 spirit of heaven ! conjure. ~ supreme incubus 48. 3 1 . 36. (rsveal) an omen for the life (of the man). 2. May Nin-alrha-kudda. a Isum was the minister of Nerra. adagur.A. “like the head-god” ( d i l ~ gsa-ug-gu).’ 38. 294). the spell of Eridu utter with pure mouth . i~ Idguruti. the plague-god. may Baho the great mother. send into his body. the mistress of spells. ii. 43. may the baleful demon (utuk) depart. 0 spirit of earth ! 47. 46. 37. 22. the mountain of the centre. Comp.” in the story of the Deluge. 47. the high-tide. the mountain of the night. 54. 19. 18.) 38. 27. 42. the sickness of the head. like the god who made him3 49. 26. conjure. 22. 449 16. 0 spirit of heaven ! conjure. ness of the heart. the sickness of the mouth. conjure. 20. settle in the man’s body . or idgurti (W. the ebbing sea. 0 spirit of earth I 40. may they turn back their breast . 15. 39. 35. 15. May Nin-ki-gal. the mighty lieutenant ( n ~ g i r u )the . 44. May the god Isum. In the Accadian text.I. the sickness of the entrails.TIIE XAGICAL TEXIS. of the gods. 30.and the AccadiaJl dil. 17. the rising se4 34. conjure. 1 ‘‘ the hollow of a cup. 28. 0 spirit of heaven ! conjure. the water of the Euphrates. 25. means 2 (34 . “ a cup. the generatress of mankind. over his life may he never cease (to watch) . rest upon his liead . 46. 29. may the propitious spirit (&u) (and) the propitious colossus. the water which the air has warmed. the wife of Nin-am. 41. v. iii. 26. set her face towards the place of another. may he betake himself to another spot . 23. the water of the Tigris. the flood. the sick. restore the blessing of health to the body .” the Sumerian equivalent being gd. 0 spirit of earth I _____- 21. the mountain of the sunrise. (the sickness of the eye. may he alight upon his head. may Gula with quieting hand the consecrated water.

Xw’ub is rendered by the Assyrian eiipu and u’up. A. the Semitic version has limmasis. 55.” and. v. Comp. 2). 1 ) . 1. I. 0 spirit of earth ! 53. 54. Zimmeni is doubtless right in holJing that the collection of Magical Texts was known to the Assyrian scribes under the title of surpu in consequence of the first tablet of the series having begun with this WOK$ 6 See next page. A.450 APPENDIX 111. The Semitic version reverses this order. conjure. 3 Tutug-gubbi.) kamas. 57.” The Accadian equivalent signifies “ one whu is gone to his rest. suSubbi lalugh. See Ziinmern. a3 Zimmern shows. shtd. (COLOPIION. For sw’zibbi. Buss psulmn. 0 spirit of etirthl May the sick man by offerings of mercy (and) peace like copper’ shine brilliantly.yhu-lil.”gnarcled the entrance to a palace or temple.6 the tormentor of all! things. Instead of sw‘ubbi lalaghgha-lil. “skinlessness”).” K 61. 38. or I‘ divine colossns. i. P. or “ warrior spirit. 50. seddhe is translated kutstsu. I. Assyrian zuhunu. “ Incantation. rJphC2im. 26. pp. “may he be polished. Stdu is also the Semitic equivalent of the Accadian alud.2 To this man may the Sun-god give life.) (The next tablet begins :) Spirit of the legions of earth and of the legions of h e a ~ e n . The Semitic version reverses the order of these two words.” 11. a literary loan-word from the Accadian (D. 30. I?roni this the Semites would have borrowed their sddu (Heb. Khassi. iv. 51. Conjure. eSipati ekili. 42. The 5th tablet of the collection of the Magical Texts (W. 58. iv. over his life never may he cease (to watch).A.I. A. it means ‘ I weakness. 16.-The storm-like-ghost. 43. iv. A. (‘a girdle. 52.” Comp. giving. 56. 2 . 5. ‘(the harvest (1) oi the field. W.” B e e W. for which no satisfactory Semitic etymology can be fonnd.I. iv.” Heb. ‘‘ to be weak. Jensen is wrong in making it “ fever. the king o f AsSyria. 441). the blessing and the dazzling glorys are thine ! 59.” was a literary loan-word in place of the native Semitic dumm. I. is probably to be read seddhe or sdde (in W. 27. 0 spirit of heaven ! conjurc. 38. 60.” 5 Surupp$ from rap1. In the Accadian. 1. 4. <‘girdle”a “loins.” In W. 0 Merodach (“ tlie great princely steer”). g Col. ‘(spirit of (An-)sar and Ki-sar. 16. the king of multitudes. see above. ~ The property of Assur-bani-pal. first-born son of the deep.” which iilong with the lummu. 15. 0 spirit of heaven ! conjure. and su’libu.

(is) towards thc =an which is an equivalent of m m p .I. 6-8 : <‘ (The gall. iv. of the dog. he has opened my knees and the child (has been born)? 2e2 . 27 . and of the wild ass. 4. which Dr.and in S 477. 15.” in K 3938. the bitter breath of the gods are they. v. the child from the knees of the man they cause to issue. 8. 16. 6.udda-khul is ‘‘ poison.35). the plague-demon (nomtam) the beloved son of Mul-lil. 41.A.’’ Perhaps the udda was a species of serpent. I. As for them. ii 11. v. is the synonym of nmmassu. of the boar. 54. the door restrains them not. A. the mention of “ the flesh of the u~?-da” followa that of the flesh of the gazelle. They are the scourging voice which they bind to the man’s back. Nenbauer has already connected with the root Taplu2.13. The great worms2 who have been let loose from heaven am they! 10. The freeman from the house of his fecundity they call forth. the broad beam they encircle like a crown. Ud-gal: the Ud-gallu is conjoined with the UT-bat. of man.THE MAGICAL TEXTS.urn@. sons who have come forth from the earth ! [In the Assyrian werawn : who disturb the disturbers of Anu. From house to house they make their way. 21. of the a s s . Strass. The woman from the loins of the man they bring forth. 18. 451 2. as the denion was called “son” ( m r u ) in the preceding line.) has opened my loins and my wife (hss issued forth) . even they 1 7 . 14. 5.A. 40. below they peep . Into the door like a snake they glide.I. the begetter1 of Nin-kigal (the goddess of Hades). into the socket like a wind they blow. t&dphirn.” 8 Compare S 1366. At all events. The mighty ones ( k h d .6. 6 .A.] 12. Oh. W. 6 Munassir. ‘’reptile. 13. hereby getting into a difficulty. From the root rapt ww formed the Assyrian tuyutu (W. ii 37.I. 38. 3440) whose roar is in the city . in W. 16. 17. 0 shepherd who lookest after the sheepcote. 3. who cast down the mater of heaven. children of the wife of the earth are they. The lofty beam. In R 149. The god of the man. 1 Here the Assyrian translator has used the feminine alidti. 9. Above they roar. the bolt turns them not back. They are the creation of Hades. above destroy like consumption (kutstm) and below cut down. in the Atarpi legend {iii. of the horse. The worship of the twUphim indicates an early ancestor-worship among the Semites. 11. or “beast of death.* 19. 56) the Airgod is said to have “ruined” ( i s s u ~the ) field. the Heb. see W. 20. and the ilcnon (dukh)who disturbs the disturbers of Ann.

v. . 5. in the story of the Deluge. The latter is translated ipru. . by wearing a veil on his head became proof against all evil spells. “ a veil” (ii. 25. A. v. whether it be the incubus (‘16tUk) . 4. whether it be the day. ‘(a veil” (W. ii. “the veil of the goddess. as in the case of Gisdhubar. conjures thee. 39. 28.” is sulcu Innana. 39.. whether it be the handmaid (of the incubus). ii. 15 (XIS)LIB-SA-AN-TUK-A (sup?. may I drink water. 6. 68). . The fever which has approached has confronted the sick man. 2. Whether it be the spirit of the divine lord of the earths. The determinative shows it to be an article of dress. 36. 3. whereby a man placed himself under the protection of the deity. whether I am insect-bitten (?). . 29. I. “clothing”). whether it be the milk that has descended or the milk that ha8 not descended(?). 68-72).” in reference to the sacri$ice of their virginity by the women of Babylonia in honour of Istar. I. APPENDIX 111. Hence “ a dark veil” is vaguely rendered Simtu. 24.hirsty. In the Sumerian. ‘(gods. . and.’ Whether it be a ghost (Jinzme). it is stated to have been worn on “ the head of a female slave. whether it be a spectre (dimmea). . 32. may the spirit of earth conjure. whehher it be a vampire.A.-tqga)is rendered by birdla. 1 .. Baleful is the fever. whether it be the lord of sickness. The reference in the text is to a sort of monastic row. Compare epartum == mkhlaptu.452 32. “ ornament. s&ba in line 53 being nalbasu. tells his wife to “fold up (e@) the veil” of Gisdhubar an6 place it on Lis head. let me anoint myself with oil. . 58. The fever. [The next six lines are too much broken for translation. 67. whether it be the nurse. 26.A. . The fever may the spirit of heaven conjure. t7. 31. rendering the Sumerian (KU) suku. 23. whom his god’ has carried away to the veil. the ciirse of the spirits of earth. whether it be the side. whether I am hungry: may I eat food. In K 4207. tho curse of the spirits of earth conjures thee. 16. . whether I am t. whether it be the man .” Kurummati. 50. 17. I. whether it be the tear. Xisuthros. .” in W. let me put clothing round my loins. .. and in W. 1.” the Accadian equivalent d sulcu being soba (11. 35. whether I am stripped (sedde-tagga). The ideographic equivalent of nindabu. ‘Lafree-will offering. . Col. .] 34. 33. ’ 30. . 7.




8. whether it be the spirit of the divine lady of the earths; 9. whether it be the spirit of the divine lord of the stars ; 10. whether i t be the spirit of the divine lady of the stars; 11. whether it be the spirit of the divine lord of seeds ; 12. whethcr it be the spirit of the divine lady of seeds ; 13. whether it be the spirit of the god Mul-Da-uhma 14. whether it be the spirit of the goddess Nin-Da-nhrna; 15. whether it be the spirit of the divine lord of the illustrioue mound (Birs-i-Nimrcd) ; 16. whether it be the spirit of the divine lady of the illnstrious mound ; 17. whether it bo the spirit of the divine lord of the dayspring of life ; 18. whether it be the spirit of the divine lady of the dayspring of life ; 19. whether it be the spirit of the divine lord of the voice of tho firmament ; 20. whether it be the spirit of the divine lady of the voice of the firmament ; 21. 0 spirit, divine lord of the father and mother of ilIul-lil, conjure! 22. 0 spirit, divine lady of the father and mother of Mul-LI, conjure ! 23. 0 spirit of the Moon-god whose ship crosses the girdle (1) of its ’ river, conjure ! 24. 0 spirit of the Sun-god, king and judge of the gods, conjure I ‘25. 0 spirit of Istar, who to the command of the spirits of earth alone turns not the head, conjure !2 26. 0 spirit of Zikum, mother of E a , conjure ! 27. 0 spirit of Nina, daughter of Ea, conjure I 28. 0 spirit of the divine lord (Aceadialz, lady) of growth, shepherd of the pastures, conjure ! 29. 0 spirit of the fire-god, that makest pure (1) thy head towards the earth, conjure !

The printed text has, falsely, Dazarmu The three l i e s 2325 are evidently an interpolation. They interrupt the context, as the father and mother of the primitive god of N p u r muat imtnrlly have been followed by the mother of the primitive god of Eriduthe Moon-god, the Sun-god and Istar, belonging to a wholly difl‘erent and later t.heologica1 system-while the alliteration in the Semitic version of the 25th line shows that it must be the original of which the Accadian is a translation. It contains a play upon the name of Istar: “iiis Istari en RIIO lribiti sa Anfmalci iSt4rcv la %arn (istm).”



30. 0 siirit of the lady of the magic wand,’ throne-bearer of the earth, conjure ! 31. 0 spirit of the seven doors of the earth, conjure ! 32. 0 spirit of the seven bolts of the earth, conjure ! 33. 0 spirit of the opening fire-god, opaner of the earth, conjure ! 34. 0 spirit of the strong goddess with the cup of blessing (?), wife of the plague-demon, conjure ! 35. 0 spirit of the pure cloud-spirit, the daughter of the deep, conjure ! 36. The man, the son of his god, 37. when’ he is augry,S or when he is violent, or when 38. he eats food, or when he drinks water, 39. the cup (1) of the €ather above thee, even Mul-12, thy hand places ; 40. (when) the water of the sea, the waters of the marsh-lands (Merathaim), the water of theTigris, the water of the Euphrates, 41. the water of the pool, (and) the water of the river fail, 43. to the god he betakes himself, his sceptre he grasps, 43. a seat he sets, he sits down ; he establishes thee . . 44. the mau, the son of his god, confronts (them, and) they return. 45. Conclusion (of the spell regarding) the evil incubus.


46. Incantation.-Destructive reptiles, baleful winds are they ! Col. iii. 1. As a baleful reptile, as a baleful wind do they appear; 2. as a baleful reptile, (or) a baleful wind do they march in front ; 3. monstrous children, monstrous sons are they; 4. the messengers of the plague-demon are they ! 5. the throne-bearers of Nin-ki-gal (queen of Hades) are they; 6. a deluge which has been collected npon the land are they; 7. (they are) the seven gods of the wide-spread heaven, 8. the seven gods of the broad earth, 9. the seven gods confederatcd t ~ g e t h e r . ~
_1 cis Zida, “ the eternal wood.” In W. k I. iv. 25, 12, it seems to mean “ a mast.” The Lady of the hfagic Wand was Allnt, the queen of Hades. 2 Enm, to be distinguished from (m)enna, which in R204, Oh.7, is rendered by lilt. 3 Bu-ran-tnrin. In K 4874, Oh. 19, ne-tam% seems to correspond with tsirikhum; cf. khe-nib-tad-ne,rendered ligaxzim, W. A. I. iv. 16, 65. 4 The Accadian d~-&rri, a8 in K 4874, REV. 9, where AB-KHAL dr-hi-ens is rendered by yarrwra tam&$,‘ I he bound the spell together.” Cf.W.&L iv. 11,45? mu-nib-ar-arri= imtamYaT.



!O. The amen are gods seven in number: 11. seven evil gods are they ! 12. Seven evil demons (lamaetuv) are they I 13. Seven evil consuming spirits (Zubaisi) are they! 14. I n heaven are they seven, in earth are they seven I 25. The evil incubus (utuk), the evil ulu,the evil maskirn, the evil gallu, the evil god, the evil succubus, 16. 0 spirit of heaven, conjure ! 0 spirit of earth, conjure ! 17. 0 spirit of Nul-lil, king2 of the world, conjure I 18. 0 spirit of Nil-lil, lady of the wnrld, conjure ! 19. 0 spirit of Uras (Adar), son of k-sarra (the temple of the hosts of the .firmament), conjure ! 20. 0 spirit of Innana (Istar), lady of the world, i l l u m i n a t o r of the night, conjure ! 21. when the body of the man, the son of his god, 22. eats food (or) drinks water.

-23. Incantation.-The plague (numtur), the fevers which will carry
the people away,

24. the sickness, the consumption (diZibti) which w i l l trouble mankind, 25. harmful to the flesh, injurious to the body, 26. the evil incubus, the evil alu, the evil maskim, 27. the evil man, the evil eye, the evil mouth, the evil tongue, 28. from the flesh of the man, the son of his god, may they be expelled, from his body may they be driven forth 29. Against my body never may they come ; .30. my eye never may they injure ; -32. against my back never may they go; 32. into my house never may they enter ; 33. over the beams of my (house) never may they paw; 34. into the house of my seat never may they descend ! .35. 0 spirit of heaven, conjure ! 0 spirit of earth, coqure I 36. 0 spirit of Nul-lil, king of the world, conjure ! .37. 0 spirit of Kin-lil, mistress of the world, conjure 1 38. 0 spirit of Uras, mighty warrior of Mul-lil, conjure ! 39. 0 spirit of Nusku, supreme mwsenger of Md-lil, conjure 1
In the Samitic tramhation, “the seven are gods of multitudes.” In the Semitic version, M,“ lord.” 3 Asakka, an asaYr;an loan-word from the Accadian a-sig, ‘‘Strengthleatroying.”



40. 0 spirit. of Mul-zu-na (the Moon-god), first-born son of bful-li?,
conjure ! 41. 0 spirit of Innana (Istar), lady of the people (ummuni), conjure 1 Col. iv. 1. 0 spirit of Rimmon, the king’ whose shout is good, conjure ! 2. 0 spirit of the Sun-god, the Iring’ of judgment, conjure I 3. 0 spirit of the Andnas,3 the great gods, conjure !3

4. Conclusion (of the spell regarding) the evil incubus.
5: Incantation.-The waster of heaven and earth, the warrior-spirit (s8du) waster of the earth, 6. the warrior-spirit, waster of the earth, whose power is exalted,* 7 . whose power is exalted, whose step is exalted ; 8. the gallu, madly-rushing bull, the bull supreme? 9. the bull who rims through the houses, 10. the gallic mho has no member, are those seven. 11. Mistress they know not. 12. The land like husks they devour. 13. Compitssion they know not. 14. Against mankind they rage. 15. The flesh they devour, the seed they sicken, the blood they drink, 16. . . the image of the gods are they. 17. In the bouse of the god of the holy mound,‘J on the fhit of the god of corn, are they fattened. 18. Demons (gullu) are they, filled with ~ i c k e d n e s s . ~ 19. Devourers of blood, unceasing are they. 80. Cut off from them (their power of) sorcery, and to highland and lowland never may they return. 21. 0 spirits of heaven, conjure ! 0 spirits of earth, conjure !

. .

BiZi, L‘lord,”in the Semitic version. In the Semitic version, Anunnnki, ( L the spirits of the lower world.” Lines 41-iv. 2 are interpolations, the ori,&al exorcism having ema. natecl from Nipur, and being, therefore, concerned only with Mul-lil an3 his attendant deities. 4 S w a m , ‘ l of heavenly power,” in -4ccadian, whence the literary name ob Babylon, Su-ana-n, LL place of heavenly power.” 5 Paraphrased in the Assyrian rendering by (<great ekirnmu.” ti The tempie of Neb0 at Eorsippa. We may infer f r o m this that the incantation in lines 5-21 emanated from Babylon. I n the Accadian, ‘(filling tlie froxt with witchcraft.”


22. Conclusion (of the spell regarding) the evil incubus.


23. Incantation.-The apparition, the apparition, which treads down all things whatever their name ; 24. the troublers of the earth, the troublers of the heaven; 25. like the heaven not receiving. [The rest of this incantation is destroyed.] 40. Incantation.-The warriors. are they. Col. v. 1. Troublers unique are they,’ troublers of heaven have they been bema 2. They are whirlwind-like ghosts ; travellers are they. 3. Wife they possess not; child they beget not. 4. Lusty offspring they know not. 5. Horses which have come fortha f r o m the mountain are they. 6. Unto Ea are they hostile. 7. The throne-bearem of the gods are they. .8. To trouble the canal4 in the street are they set. 9. Before Nergal the mighty warrior do they go to and f r o . 10. 0 Rpirit of heaven, conjure ! 0 spirit of earth, conjure 1 11. 0 spirit of the Moon-god, lord over difficulty,5 conjure I 12. 0 spirit of Isum,B traverser (nu@?) of the street), drinker up of the water, conjure I 13. To the body of the man come not nor return; 14. before him depart, behind him depart I


. ..

15. Conclusion (of the spell regarding) the evil incubus,
16. 17. 18. 19. 20. Incantation.-Seven are they, seven are they, in the hollow of the deep seven they are ; gleams of the sky are those seven. I n the hollow of the deep, in a palace, they grew up. Male they are not, female they are not.


1 The Semitic translator has made nonsense of this line, rendering it, whose troublers are unique.” In the Semitic rendering, ‘‘troublers of Anu have they been created.” a In the Semitic version, “ descended.” * Accadian &ma, perhaps borrowed from the Semitic isam, ‘(to be Btraight,” 88 conversely the Assyrian S U Z u is a loan-word from the Accadian &, “ 8 cutting” or cccanal.” As in Holland, “canal” and “street” were synonymous terms. 6 ZMnrateit. In the Accadian, “god of the throne of light,” e Accadian Jig-s-saqga,‘‘head-destroying.

4 58
21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27.


They are whirlwind-like ghost8 ; travellers are they. Wife they possess not, child they beget not. Compassion1 and kindness know they not. Prayer and supplication hear they not. Horses whkh are bred in the mountains are they. Unto Ea are they hostile. The throne-bearers of the gods are they. 25. To trouble the canal in the street are they set. 29. Evil2 are they, evil are they ! 30. Seven arc they, seven are they, seven twice again are they I 31. 0 spirit of heaven, conjure ! 0 spirit of earth, conjure ! 32. Conclusion (of the spell regarding) the evil incubw.

Col. vi. 1. .

. . the evil incubus (uluk) is violent ;s 2. (that which) is unnamed has begotten him. 3. that which has not issued forth from a body has begotten him 4 . His hand one sculptnred,4 and made his hand ; 5. his foot one sculptured, and made his foot ; 6. h i s head one sculptured, and made his head. 7. For his destiny the meadow of gold (was prepared). [Three lines lost.] IO. The (evil) incubus, . . may he never enter the house 11. May the evil incubus remove his seat to another place. 12. May the prospering incubus (and) the colossus of the land go to and fro f



13. Conclusion (of the spell regarding) the evil incubue.
14. Incantation.-The evil incubus, tbe incubus of the mountain ravine. [The first line of the next tablet.] 15. Fifth tablet of (the series concerning) the evil incubi.”

1 1 1 . Incantation against madness (W. A. I. iv. 3, 4 ) . Col. i. 1. Incantation.-The disease of the head coih (like a serpent)
in the desert, like a wind it blows.

2. Like tho lightning it lightens ; above and below it has wrought
destruction. Edhira7 from sdbru7 “to spare.” Accadian Sissi. I t a m , iphteal of arasu, “ t o be strong,” connected with ursanu. It ie doubtful whether the corresponding Accadian IUS i s borrowed from o~1y181(OT

warn from TIM.

Assyrian “cut,” Accadian ‘‘took.”

3 . Unfearing its god, like a reed has it cut (the man) OR 4. Ita cord ( b w a i ) like a snare1 has it wound around (him). 5. It destrogs the body of him who has not mother Istar

bis guardian. 6. Like a star of the heavens it shoots (itsamr), like water i t traverses the night. 7. Against the sick man i t turns its front, and like the day it overpowers9 him. 8. This man it smites, and 9. tlie man, like one who i s faint at heart, staggers ; 10. like one whose heart is taken from him, he passes away. 11. Like one who is fallen in the fire, he quivers ; 12. like a wild ass inflamed with love, his eyes are filled with mist, 13. With his life it devours the man: to death it binds him. 14. The madness is as a heavy storm whose path there is none that knoweth. 15. Its perfect bewitchment,’ its bond, there is none that knoweth. 16. Merodach I substance of myself ! go, my son !5 17. With the plant that gladden8 life6 which grows in the dasert before him, 18. like the Sun-god when he enters his house, cover the clothing of thy head. 19. With the plant that gladdens life surround it like 8 covering.’ 20. At dawn,a when the sun has not yet risen,
&%nu, $om the Accadian gddwczl (also written SA-khan). In W . &I . ii 35,6,we are told that Gikhan (&khan) was a synonym of the Euphrates, which explains the Gihon of Gen. i i 13, where the word has been amidlated to the Heb. gtkhdn, ‘‘a spring.” 9 In the Semitic vereion ikhm, ‘(scotches”(1). * Accadian urn. Ittv, ‘(sign,” ‘( omen?” Fragments of Accadian f r o m the words put into the mouth of E a in other magical texts inserted here by way of a chanu Accadian khul-til-gillan (for gilla, “to Sive,” see W. A I. iv. 23, ti), whence the Semitic khiltdti (ii. 28. 1 6 ) , though the latter word may be read ailpalti, and compared with the Aramaic khilpd? ‘(sedge.” It w a sa platit that grew on the mountains (ii. 28. 16, 17). ? The Semitic translator, in his word-for-word rendering, has here produced an extraordmary violation of Sem2tic grammar : (with) the plant that gladdens life cover like [as it were] an6 enclose” ( !). Ag~h-ziga in Accadian, literally (‘the hour of the fresh breeze.” Thus we have the following hymn 0. T. 57, Bm.) : (1) “At dawn (ogucaiga) the bird proclaims not the fresh breeze (siga); (2) the waters of the deep mwa) h i niouth Srings not; (3) the lord of ntrength is iinwtinfied (mga wh,

22. 23. 24. 25. 26.


21. pluck it from its place.
Seize its stem.’ Take the skin of a suckling that is still ungrown, and bind (with it) the head of the sick man, bind also the neck of the sick man. Nay (the sickness) of the man’s head which is produced in the street2 be removed ; 27. (which) the curse of the wind has borne to him, never may it return to its place ! 28. 0 spirit of heaven, conjure ! 0 spirit of earth, conjure !

[The first 19 lines of the next spell are destroyed; then we read :] Col. ii. 1. On cries of woe he feasts daily. 2. Merodach ! substance of myself ! go, my son ! 3. Take the skin of a suckling that is still nngrown ; 4. let the wise woman bind (it) to the right hand and double it on the left. 5. Eind the knot twice seven times ; 6. lay (upon it) the spell of Eridu ; 7. bind the head of the sick man ; 8. bind the neck of the sick man * 9. bind his life ; 10. hind firmly his limbs; 11. approach his bed; 12. pour over him the magical waters ;s 13. may the disease of the head, like the eye when it rests itself, ascend to hearen. 14. Like the waters of an ebbing (flood), to the earth may it descend. 15. May the word of Ea issue fmth. 16. May Dav-kina direct. 17. 0 Merodach, first-born of the deep, thou canst make pure and prosperous ! 18. Incantation.-The disease of the head is fallen on the man; Ass. la isba) ; (4)take the green corn (are sunni, Ass. binu) as food (c innus, Ass. patatan).” 1 Accadian ana, connected with anu, “an ear of corn.” The ideograph denotes “what grows long.’’ The Semitic rendering Surut is connected with the Heb. Jar, ‘‘ a vine-shoot.” 9 Or perhaps we should read sa {nu z m u r (ame)li b a d , ccmliichia in the body of the man.” 0 Literally, “ the waters of the spell.”



19. madness, ewn the disease of the mmcle of the neck, has fallen
on the man.

20. The disease of the head like a crown coils (around him) ; 2 1 . the disease of tho head, from the rising of the sun t o the setting of the sun, 25. unto the disease of the head answers in thunder.
I n the sea and the broad earth the little crown is the crown that has departed, the crown gigantic (is) its crown. Make broad the ears, 0 (Merodach) son of Ea I 27. the disease of the head, like an ox, walks with rolling gait. 28. To his father (Merodach) approached and (his) decision’ reported : 29. ‘ 0 niy father, the disease of the head is fallen on the man ; 30. like a ~ v d 1 . it is laid upon him. 31. (As with) a weapon . . . let me cut off his eicknesa’ 33. (Ea unto his son Merodach) made reply : [Several lines lost :] 39. The sickneas of the head, (like) a dove to (its) nest, 40. like a raven to the sky, Col. iii. 1. like a bird iuto broad space, let it fly away. 2. To the prospering hands of his god let him be confided.
23. 24. 2 5. 26.



3. Incantation.-The madness is bound in heaven, from the earth it is driven away. 4. The power of the freeman, the master of power, is opened

5. The hand of the fruitful handmaid returns not?
6. which is laid on the body of the sick. 7. As for Istar, who rejoices in quietude, one that exists not8 causes her train* t o descend from the mountain. 8 . To the form of the sick man they approach ;5 9. she raises a cry of lamentation over the man : IO. ‘Who takes (it) a m y , who gives (him) health ?‘J

Accadian gu-kud, elsewhew written K A @ u ) - ~ ~ . In the Accadian, ((theblessed handmaid turns not back her hand.” * In translating “one that exists not” (literally, “none is”),the Semitic scribe has mistaken the meaning of the Accadian mulu nu-tilla, “the exnuch.” 4 Ulmnu, connected with alamu, a synonym of sadadu, t o &awP “He approaches” in the Semitic text. * In the Accadian, “takes away.”

4 63
11. 12. 13. 14. 15.


Even Istar, the daughter of Sin;
the mighty father,’ the son of Mul-lil; (and) Merodach, the son of Eridu. May they give health to the body of the sick man’ The god who adorns the gate(l), mho (issues?) the command, has bound his (body). On the bntter which is brought from a pure stall, the milk which is brought from a pure sbeep-cote, the pure butter of the pure stall lay a spell. May the man, the son of his god, recover;2 may the man be bright and pur0 as the butter; may he be white as this milk ; like refined (tsztn.zp,i) silver mag his firm flesh3 glisten, like copper may it shine as a polished vessel. To the Sun-god, the first-borr?. of the gods, confide his body. May the Sun-god, the first-born of the gods, to the prospering hands of his god confide hi~ii.-Incantation.~

16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21.

23. 24. 25.

26. 1acantation.-Seizing the face, the middle of the head, of the man who is strengthless and ignorant, 27. like the covering (1) of a man (the disease) conceals ; 28. it directs the path of the man who has no god. 29. H e carves an image, but encloses not the enclosure. 30. Like a water-snake, like a water-snake the roof of the yard 31. by day casts not a shadow, by night casts not a shadow. 32. Merodach looks on; ‘ Substance of mine art thou’ (says Ea), go, my son ! 33. The slice of a snake, sisi, siman, abi, 34. human flesh, k h n ~ k h a medicine ~, of the m o ~ n t a i n s , ~ 35. the seed of the male organ, the herb of Adar, his mouth, 36. the breath of the god of the river of the quarryman: the body of the god of the river of the quarryman, 37. his strong food, 38. mix together and rub into oil,
,.-. Literally, “be turned.” 2%p-sim-nun-hada,a title of Adar. Accadian muhi, for the older Sumerian gubbu. 4 The references to Istar, Nul-lil and Samas, as well as the linguistic forms, show that this incantation is of very much later date than those o€ the obverse of the tablet. It probably emanated from Sippara. 5 These are all medicines used both by the exorcists and by the medica? practitioners. 6 .h r (.ording to W. A I. ii. G2, 40, this deity w a s “ the river-god,” Ea.


39. rub on the body with pure hand.


D e following lines are too much broken for translation, like the last incantation of the tablet : then comes the colophon :] col. iv. 35. The 9th tablet (of the series beginning :) A spell for diseases of the head : thoroughly complete. 36. The palace of Assur-bani-pal, the king of legions, king of Assyria, 37. who puts his tiust in Assur and Sin-lil.”

m. The 16th tablet concerning evil epirits (W.A.I. iv. 5, 6).
Col. i. 1. “The reptiles that creep round and round, the evil gods are they
2. The warrior spirits (s6du) that spare not, who were created in the cloudy vault of heaven, are they. 3. They are they who produce disease. 4, Enlarging (their) evil heads, . . . . to lay the yoke (upon it they march). 5. Among those seven, the first is a scorpion of rain, 6. The second is a monster (whose) mouth (no) one (can bridle). 7. The third is the lightning-flash, the strong son o f . 8. The fourth is a serpent . . 9. The fifth is a watch-dog which (rages) against (his foes). 10. The sixth is a rushing (tempest) which to god and king (submite not). 11. The seventh, like a messenger, is the evil wind which (Anu made 2). 12. Those seven are the messengers of Anu their king. 13. I n city after city do they cause the rainy wind. 14. The storm that is in heaven they bind together strongly. 15. The fleecy clouds that are in heaven making the rainy wind are they. 16. The rushing blast of the wind which produces darkness on a clear day are they. 17. With baleful wind, with evil wind, they darted forth. 18. The deluge of Rimmon, mighty whirlwinds are they, 19. at the right hand of Rimmon they march. 20. On the horizon of heaven like the lightning (they flash) 21. To impose the yoke they march in front. 22. In the wide heaveu, the seat of Anu the king, they set themselves with evil purpose and had no rival. 23, On that day Mul-lid heard of this matter and carried tho word


.. .

to his heart.

proving that the Semitic version is the older. like the wind on tho land they swooped. The evil gods. 23. 32. 21.464 APPENDTX TIT. On that day thoso seven. here. in the cloudy region of heaven darted forth. the evil gods.” has been adopted i n the Accadian version. enlarging (their) evil heads. From the midst of heaven. the gods his children. 30.’ and 25. . (Sin) was troubled and sat in grief. Mul-lil beheld the darknesa of the hero Sin in heaven. 24. - Imtalik means ‘(he was king. “adviser.8 27. he had divided the night and the day. ii. pointing (like the mention of Sin. and over the kingdom of heaven is exalted. The Accadian text reads. 26. 22. Col. the supreme adviser of the gods. he was king. (night and) dag in darkness. the messengers of Anu their king. to Ea in the deep he went with the message. had appointed Sin. Along with Anu he had divided among them the sovereignty of the hosts of heaven. Ndsku exalted the word of his lord . I n front of Nannar2 violently they beset the hfoon-god. 25. . 29. that they cease not (their work) he urged them. Sarnas and Istar to direct the cloudy region of heaven. 28. on the throne of his dominion seated not. . [The first 19 lines are destroyed.’ 3 1 . 30. The Semitic pari’u. . as is shown by its equivalent in the Accadian text (d-gbgd). 27. 32. 29. to Ea in the deep convey. With Ea. 31. Saiiias and Istar) to the composition of the poem in the Semitic era.” not “he tonk counsel. who is grievously darkened in heayen. 26.] 20. Evil they plotted together. ‘(at the beginning they beset with violence the festival of the Moon-god. the news of niy son the Moon-god. my messenger. The hero Sanias and Rimmon the warrior returned to their quarters . Among the three of them.” The Accadisn imitates the Semitic idiom in this sentence. The lord (Eel) says to his messenger Ndsku : 28. 24. Istar set (her) holy seat with Anu the king. assisted (one another).. carry my word to the deep . ‘ 0 Ndsku.

. iv. the son of his god. completes the life of the land : 34. Ea in the deep listened to the tale.] Col.4 45. swoop upon the world like a storm. .. 21. . . I n the gate of the palace the inask (fold) doubly. 42. 35. he bit his lip. . . Grievous is the eclipse of the son of the festival. 6 The Semitic samZin (Heb.” In the Accadian. 31. To the divine prince. (Istar plants her holy seat with Anu the king.” 4 Lines %-44 have been published by Haupt in his AMdische und Sumerischc KeReiEschriftteste. 33. my son Merodach ! 39. 48. Bind (the magic knots) round t. the resplendent. his head upholds favour.4). the evil gnllu: .. .he hands and feet of the king.. . . the Moon-god. the lord. . who swoop (tehuni) like the deluge. (the evil (gnd). the Noon-god. The genuine Accadlian equivalent was rik (W. upon the world like a atom they awoop. pp. &mZdh) has been introduced into the Bccadian text.] 46. iii. the king. those seven. 37.2 who Lave no feu. Ndsku conveyed the word of his lard on the other si&. A. . . 41.. make hie . 38. the eril gods. and 36. make supplication. who is grievously eclipsed in beaven.s 44. the sovereign of the world. . the evil incubus (marrkim). ‘‘ the son of the prince Nanner. (( 2H . 34. 44. I n a cloak5 of many colours. ‘ Go. like Nannar...’ 40. like Nannar.THF MAGICAL . ‘‘men of death. ii. .” ThB text published by Haupt has. Ea addressed his son Mcrodach and roars out (ku7d~lihats) the word : 38.” 8 In Haupt’s text. the evil spirit (utzck). I.’ [Many lines are loat here. pure and brilliant. . the counsellor supreme. Those seven. the son of his god . with outcry he filled his mouth. . who. they seek the land. the evil gods. the serpents of death. Before Xannar. his eclipse in heaven is proceeding. 43.TESTY.and Rimmon the warrior (return) to their quarters . 76. 32. ~ ----I _ I I - *- 1 The Semitic version is different here : “the news is that of my son the Moon-god. the Noon-god violently (they beset) . 47. the skin of a suckling still ungrown the skin of an ungrom calf. and over the kingdom of heaven is exalted).466 33. 77. [Maay lines lost. the hero Sam.

Conclusion (of the spell) of the light-coloured goat-skin which is . 49. 1. 51. 52. 16. iv. evil is that man. conjure ! (0 spirit of earth. in which “the @rib of Mul-lil” is invoked and the spell of Ea” named. never may they approach (the doors) of the palace . 5. I lay a foundation of bitumen below in the centre of the gab. 0 spirit orheaven. v. 0 spirit of heaven. 43. 41. . containing another incantation against the evil spirits. (never approach) the king. the evil (god). never may they approach the king ! 3. rendered “to curse” in W. When I deliver the pure incantation.] Col. .-The huge reed of gold.466 APPENDIX 1x1. 37. uever may they approach (the chamber) of the king . 46. May the god of the house dwell in the house ! 44. 42. . [Col iv. the pure dish of the gods. 39. 38.’ 40. 36. “to shatter” i niv. 9 The divining cup is referred to . that man among men is evil. the reed of the double white cup which determines favonr. 6. the evil gall% and the evil (alu). Never may they enter (the house) .39. Conclusion (of the spell) cursing the evil gods. . Coiiclasion (of the spell) for cursing' the evil gods accursed.. 47. A. 1 Turruda. That man among men lays a mare misleadingly to ewnnre (others). never may they surround the. conjurb I) 48. conjure I 4.] Col. Incantation. 41. never may they enter t h e .I. May the evil utuk. 50.-Evil is the evil man. 53. 6. 2. in the bed of a man ho places a snake. Never may they enter the palace . [The beginning of the next incantation is lost. is too mutilated for translation. the pure reed of the marsh. May the propitious spirit (utuk) and the propitious god en& the house ! 45. . vi. the messenger of Merodach am I.. conjure ! 0 spirit of earth. -. the evil ekimmu. 7.. . that man is evil. 8 . Incantation.

Reor. 29. light of the king of the gods ! 33. -- Comp. whatever is bad. In S 1896. . which is in the body of such and such a man. Palace of Assur-bani-pal. is. 31. .57. 1 9 . Ob.” V. 131.W. the king of legions. shall write. 2 2 . there was none who undertook this business . to his place may he never return. may (the evil . ii. to whom Nebo and Tasmit 23. The place of hie sicktlass the evil creeps into. 10.13. Like a dove may he ascend‘ spirits) never come.Thine is the kingdom. 3%. 5. 28. 2H2 . 4. 0 Assur. . may Assur and Nin-lil mighty and violently 35. Whatever is evil. rmised by Jensen in the Zkibchrift fiir Ke~~8ck&ffmschung. his heart it outs (in two). 37. for the inspection of my readers 31. Conclusion (of the spell) cursing the evil gods. [The following lines are too mutilated for translation. ~ l i k e I &wehe ascends to the heaven of Am!’ a bf~’&i. I connected together. 6. The Sun-god . and 30.] 51. the hidden wisdom of Nebo.’ 20.. on tablets I wrote. 2.THE MAGFICAL TEXTS. the store of written tablets. ---1 . . we have r a b h mditi.5.. ‘‘never may they npproach his hands. D.T. 320. The fear of him is the herald of his cry . have given broad ears. Ema tawi etilli a m saw sa A X Anum. T. who has put his trust in b u r and Nin-Id. [Lost.] 97. the son of his god. 321. 4. as regards which. 9. the king of Assyria. 3 . The 16th tablet (of the series beginning) ‘the evil spirits.ii. 1. 24. the brenth of the man destroys. pp. 36. I placed within my palace. that he might have seeing eyes . Against such and such a man. the lines of characters as many as singly exist. I published.A.. . 967 4. Whoever carries (them) away and his name with my name 34. 2. overthrow hitn and destroy his name (and) his seed in the land. Incantation. like the water [perspiration] of his body and the purificstiom (?)* of his hands. among the kings that have gone before me.

14. I burn. though the god and the goddess are angry. deliver from his bond. on the torch I have kindled 10. 24. may they promise life to such and such a man. the messenger of Merodach am I. May (the god of herbs). 16. Jeliver from his bond. the son of such and such a man.-The directress ascends. Like its old copy.468 7. (The coal I have kindled). Jncantation. and on this day may they grant him pace. I am great and glorious. the fire I have quieted. I have quieted Ihe bird : 23. and may the river carry to the bottom of its bed. and I light the fire. 21. 5. May the est blishers of the fortresses of the great gods station themselves here. I am great and glorious. The coal (which) the great gods have polished. I have increased food . the assembler of god and man. The curse. may he strip APPENDIX XI. 11. the assembler of the gods of heaven and earth. May the gods. produce a flame. the offspring of the house of the life of the prince. Incantation. off.-The milk of a light-coloured goat I prepare in plenty. like the fire I have burned. I increase . written and published. 27. conjure? 9. Tablet of A4dar-suni-tir-suthe Z6ganb ( w p ~ )the . . May Ea and Nerodach never have (wrath). 22. 25. 29. the assembler of god and man. May his god and his goddess remain here.” . and may he be saved. The libation pure and mhite of Ea. conjure ! 0 spirit of earth. the corn-god I have offered . 0 spirit of heaven. 20. I burn the whole offering. 15. I offer the corn-god. 17. like the corn-god I have offered. the son of his god. 19. and 12. librarian : his uttcmnce. 25. as many as I have invoked. Deliver such and such a man the son of his god. 18. The coal I place. Like n coal I have blazed. 13. 26. May the god of herbs.

6. As for them. 179. On the work he ponders in his dwelling-place. in the watch of the thirty (~tars)3 was their office. 4 . Called Alari in the Accadian tad. Amma. Col. and no father did he know.I. hidden is their namo. - 1 ’ In the original Accadian. for tho earlier Sum& clp~# A copyist has substituted la for nu. 8. To Merodach5 approach. N a g i d text from Eridu (W. 22. those seven in the mountain of the sunrise grew up . The fire-god enthrones with himself the friend that he loves. unto heaven they pursued.” in the Semitic version. Their name in heaven and earth exists not. the first-born. 0 Fire-god. 1. Among the star(s) of heaven was not their ministry (knowledge). Among the sentient gods they are not known. supreme.A. ‘19. The Fire-god. on the high-places of the earth their names are proclaimed. 9.” in the Accadim text. 4. and this word may he say to thee : 24.I . 13. ‘May he give thee the messageG for those evil ones. in heaven aud earth they have no dwelling. 15. He reveals the enmity of those seven. See p. 23. 12. I n the hollows of the earth they have their dwelling. supreme on high.69 VI. in heaven and earth is no knowledge of them. ‘‘Heaven” in the Accadian. 17. In the hollows of the earth they set the foot . 20. 5.I 2. 16.“not. i. Those seven from the mountain of the sunset gallop forth . the mighty. “The (bed) of the earth was taken for their border. supreme enjoiner of the commands of Anu !4 7.* 4 . 15). and to the heaven that is unseen they climbed afar. “the heaven that has no exit they opened. 18. 21. but the god appeared not . IO. They by nought are known . the seven. how were those mven begotten. those seven in the mountain of the sunrise are bound to rest. how were they nurtured T 11. 0 Fire-god. he appeared not on the horizon of the earth.TIIE MdaCCAL TEXTS. 14. “the Zodia2al signs. as mauy as go straight before thee . making hostility . Those seven in the mountain of the sunset werc born. 3. the first-born. Mutstsa~dti. (to) the htaven below they extended (their path). iv. on the high-places of the earth they lift the neck.

1 ‘6 Anu” in the Semitic version. 15). In the present p u e the Accadian elzege is probably the older form of m.” or something similar.” a 4 . the supreme judge of hesven. at noon and midnight on his head let it lie. 12. iv. Ea answered his son Mcrodach : 33. to his father Ea he descends into the house and says : 29. which the Accadian equivalent shows must mean “lay a spell upon. my son Merodach ! 5. 6. 11. I. 28. Let the fire of the cedar-tree. the Fire-god flames up at the rising of the sura and their hidingplace approaches. 21. 3. 0 son of Eridu!’ 32. ii. those seven from the earth have issued forth. “to roof and foundation. The warrior sends (the message) to his friend : 14. i n various places. on whose core the name of Ea is recorded. ’ May the Fire-god seize that incubus. Go. 25. comp.29). iv. Col. in the canopy of the bed a t night h e hears this word. To tread down the sides of the deep have they approached. and this word he speaks to thee . 8. iphteal permansive. and to the sick man never may those seven approach.I. Enlarge the ears. 9.” 6 Literally. the spell of Eridu. In the Semitic version. those seven in the earth were born . 1. 7. 6‘ cause to recline.3 31. 2. to foundation and roof 4 let (its fire) ascend. the tree that destroys the wickeclness of the incubus.” 6 Lunasi.A. those seven in the earth grew up. with the spell supreme.ib (I word” or “ command. italzasa (W. In the night let him place on the couch a sentence (mas&) from a good book on the sick man’s head. “he turns his head in front” (W. ‘0my father. 4. by night let him charm ( 9 1 6 the canal and the street. In the Accadian. The Fire-god to Merodach approaches. 27. 30. 7. * Siteh.’l 26. and by day with his hand. 34. (and) of purity. those seven dwell in the earth . and he seeks! their quarters. A.470 APPENDlX 111. which is nonsense. The paths of those seven he knows.’ 13. ‘ My son. Like a wide snare in a wide place outspread5 the hand : 10. lie the commtind of whose mouth is favanrable.

35.’ the leader (nugir) of the hcubus supreme among the gods. ii 1 . may 6 e c&rry them away and drive (them) from the man’s body. The sixth tablet of the series concerning ‘‘the weakening disease. (In) Eridu* a stalk (palm-tree 1) grew overshadowing. 4. . CoL i. 1. The original text is Sumerian and of an early date. “ Incantation. 18. pronounce the spell of the deep and of Eridu supreme. VII. 30. By night and day to the prospering hands of Samas may he consign him.-The on the man. which spread 3 s shade like a forest. hath no man entered. 26. (In) the midst of it was Tammue. Into the heart of its holy house. the power supreme.. 28. and rest upon his head. ’ . the wife of Nin-arSu-& establish his face to be with good fortune (1).’ 21. Its root was of white crystal.471 15. translated by Jensen. “ t o grow” or “flame up but it haa been modified and interpolated by Accadian and Semitic copyists. May Xin-ki-gal. 17. Its seat was the (central) place of the earth. Keilsehriftfiir K k k c h ~ f t forrrchurag. rest upon his head. k ’ Lep. May his madness (and his) faintness . 29. May the Fire-god. .” . who have introduced words like amma and E a . iv. those saven. 7. (There is the shrine?) of the two (gods). as is shown by forms like digga. and lines like the ooncluding one ( c d ii ea). The evil ones. evil curse liko a demon (gullu)has fahen Accadian Kun-n-sagqs. A. 31. vanish away. (8r)kit-su. 34. 19. i. reatore his foundation. 22. 24. 27. (Before) Ea was its course in Eridu. 23. teeming with fertility. which stretahed towarde the deep. 33. May Isum.8) . Incantation. Its foliage8 waa the couch of Zikum the (primseval) mother.” (W. . a s . I. Such (is) the speech of Nin-&ha-kdda. 33. 25. (There is the home) of the mighty mother who passes acmw the sky.. 16: By day smite the incubus unrestingly (1). aiid in the night protect him. 20. in a holy place did it become green. (such is) t h e spell of Eridn . May Nin-akha-kdda take possession of his body.

7. Merodmh has regarded him.' 30. 25. conjure L 31. from sakasu. 18. 24. the giver of counsel. The evil curse has cut the throat of this man like a sheep. To his father Ea into the house he descends and says : 11. conjure ! 0 spirit of earth. Incantation. 3. p. Go. the evil curse. The voice as a scourge has fallen upon him. APPENDIX III. ' 0 my son. 9. 0 spirit of heaven. (Ea) to his son Merodach made answer : 16. or the curse of the destruction2 of a man (which) he knows not. like garlic be peeled off. What I know.' 12. the burning flame shall consumo (it) . 23. 29. has stationed herself without. in pool or canal it shall not be placed. 8. 22. like a date be cut off. 26. His gocldcss. and 20.472. 21. what dost thou not know ? what shall I add to thy (knowledge) 1 17. 28. what dost thou not know 1 what shall I tell p u more ? 16. "to deotroy. 0 Merodach. The ban. what will give him rest ?' 14. thou too knowest. the evil that troubles his body. ' 0 my father. witched (1)' him. like a branch be torn away. or the curse of his elder brother. 4. in the gardep it shall not be planted. The scourging voice like a garment has covered him and be. 2. the ban (marnit). or the curse of his mother. Take tho man to the house of pure sprinkling. 470. the evil curse like a denlon (gallu) has fallen 011 the man. 5. '(What) this man should do I know not. His god has gone far from his body. and (says): 13. r: * Sakkastunz. The voice ill-boding has fallen upon him. my son. whether it be the curse of his father. 34. 33. 10." . 32. its root shall not take the earth j 1 See note 6. Merodach ! 19.-Like this garlic which is peeled and cast into the fire. 6. 36. the madness. Twice did he speak to him. remove his ban and expel his ban. May the ban by the spell of Ea 97.

THE MAGICAL !C%XTS. its stem shall not grow.BB . the backsliding. the burning flame shall consume (it. .-Like this date which is cut and cast into the fire. whence turtcwlu. of the torturing disease. the disease which exists in my body. and 26. 21. my flesh (and) my muscles. 10. and 16. (so) may the guardian-priest cauee the ban to depart from him (and) unloose the bond 13. May the ban depart that I may see the light. its leaves to the trunk shall not’ return . 12. for the work of dyeing it shall not be used. Incantation. on this day may the burping flanie consume (it). 19. the sin. 27. 25. the wickedness. Col. on this day may the burning flame consume. and shall not see the sun. Incantation. on this day may the burning flame consume (it). and 6 . Like this date may it be cut. the wickedness. 5. used. 22. the burning flame shall consume (it). the disease which exists in my body. of the torturing disease. the sin. 473 36. 11. 9.-Like this branch which is torn away and cast into the fire. the backsliding. 17. the sinning. 24. I. the sin. ii. the sinning. May the ban depart that I may see the light. the backsliding. the disease which exists in my body.). to its stalk he who plucks (it) shall not restore (it). 29. 8. 30. A. (So) may the guardian-priest cause the ban to depart from him (and) unloose the bond 23. Like this garlic may it be peeled off. of the torturing disease. for the dish of the king it shall not be used. 4. 14. Incantation. ii 31. “oommander-in-chiefi)’ cf.Tu&> a 28. to the back of its sheep it shall not return . (So) may the guardian-priest’ cause the ban to depart from him (and) unloose the bond 3. my flesh (and) my muscles. 18. 3 0 . 7. the sinning. May the ban depart that I may see the light. 15. my flesh (and) my muscles. for the food of god and king it shall not 2. W. Like this branch may it be torn away. may the burning flame consume (it) . 1. t h wickedness.-Like this wool which is torn and cast into the fire.

34. Col. 1. for the clothing of god and king it shall not be used. for the work of dyeing it shall not be used. the burning flame shall consume (it). for the clothing of god and king it shall not be used. of the torturing disease. 35. the sin. the wickedness. 41. the wickedness. the backsliding. (speaking) thus : (May) a flame that (ceases) not (consume thee). 57. May the ban depart that I may see the light. 2. expressed ideographically by ‘‘husk-like plant of the mountain” (KU-KUB-LIL). my flesh (and) my muscles. 47. iii. into the fire. . 48. to the back of its goat it shall not return. on this day may the burning flame consume (it). Incantation. (So) niay the guardian-priest cause the ban to depart from him (and) unloose the bond 33. the backsliding. 51. (This) seed of the pea (‘I)’ (I east into the fiw). 53. the sin. (So) may the guardian-priest cause the ban to depart from him (and) unloose the bond 43. 52.-Like this dyed thread (which) is torn and cast 49. 56. the backsliding. the wickedness. M a y the ban depait that I may see the light. my flesh (and) my muscles. 55. the disease which exists in my body. 32. 42.474 APPENDlX ILZ. 50. the evil which exists i n my body. and 36. on this day may the burning flame consume (it). the weaver into a garment shall not weave (it). 45. the sinning. the sinning. 38. Incantation. 54. 37. which is torn and cast into the fire. the sin. and on this day may the burning flame consume (it). 44. Like this dyed thread niay it be torn. May the ban depart that I may see the light. 40. (So) may the guardian-priest cause the ban to depart from him (and) unloose the bond of the torturing disease. the sinning. of the torturing disease. the disease which exists in my body. Like this wool may it be torn.-Like this goat’s hair. Like this goat’s hair may it be torn. and 46. 1 So Halevy (from the Talmudic). my flesh (and) my muscles. T h e Assyrian word is upnti. 39. 31. the burning flame shall consume (it).

the torturing disease. (and) unloose the bond of the ban.-On her maiden (Isbr) has laid the command (p). the son of the gardener shall not plant (it) in the field. Incantation. (the disease which is in my body). 22. 13. (The torturing disease.’ the the pain? the foul spittle . the (sinning). 26. 6. 16. 12. the wickedness. 29. the malady of the flesh that (is in my body). a huge snare. 21. 17. the sin. ideographically breath of violence.” Bukh21. like the seed of this pea{?) it shall (be consumed) with fire. Istar* has directed (her maiden). the sin. a snare that removes the ban. the bewitchment. a varicoloured snare. 19. 24. 27.) the malediction of the gods. 10. the malady of the heart. p i n n m rusl is interpreted “ &e demon mho injurea the womb.“ A. a great snare. with white thread (and) black thread the rod has folded a snare double upon the distaff. ~ 475 3 . I . the backsliding. 39. 28. 15. never may (the pain) seize the root of my heart ( = aq&a gectwis) . in pool or canal it shall not be laid. (the sinning). the snare that removes the ban (the man) binds about (his head). 14. 8. never may (the destruction) seize the spine. its roob shall not take the ground. (against. 6. ideographically “breath of casting down” 965). the wickedness. The maiden has settled (the man in her bed?). on (this day may) the burning flame (consume it). ’ (L (a .ideographically “ evil breath. may the guardian-priest (cause the ban to depart from it) anti unloose the bond. BwM1. my flesh and (my) muacles. and) 20. 11. (Against) the curse of the evil ban of mankind. r~3ay the guardian-priest cause the (evil) ban to depart from him 4. 25. 7.” 4 Nin-lil in the Accatiian text. his hande and his feet Khp. In W. Never may the bewitchment be produced in my heart.THE PAOICAIJ TEXTS. ii 99. 9. (like this seed of the pea may it be destroyed. 18. its stalk shall not rise on high nor see the sun. the) backsliding. May the ban depart that I may see the light.34. 23.

&faythe god of herbs. With thee may the heart of my god and my goddess who are angry rest ! 20. 42. the messenger of bferodach am I. the daughter of the (great) gods ! 18. Nerodach. with his pure hands breaks (it) .-I uplift a vessel large and stately and kindle the fire. I will lull to rest j 6. APPENDIX 111. 15. From the h o t of the heart may the god and goddess of EOand-so. 8. and may the ban depart from my body ! 23. 1. The coal I have kindled (and) I lull to rest. 32. the asseniblcr of god and man. May they forgive liim. 41. Like the coal I have kindled. 2. On this clay may the heart of my god and my goddess unlJjose the knot. May the evil ban settle elsewhere. With thee may the heart of the god of my city and the goddess of my city who are angry rest ! 21. r u ~ y they deliver him ! Incantation. the son of Eridu. unloose the knot he h m knotted. I kindle the coal. 4. Incantation. 0 Fire-god the warrior ! Along with thee lnny the mountains (and) rivers rest I With thee may the Tigris and (Euphrates) rest ! With thee may the sea (and) the seas rest ! With thee may the road (khlarraiz) rest. 31. a pure place. The fire have I lighted (and) I increase. May this man be pure and resplendent ! 35. I will glorify. 14. 16. 5. 11.478 . Nay his backsliding be outpoured on this day. iv. 7. With thee may the plant of the high-place rest.-Rest. deliver him. the son of so-and-so. 17. 34. the growth of the height ( d i ) ! 19. I burn the whole offering. Since thou (enlightenest) the judge with thy light. (like) the whole offering I have offered. 33. The pure pourer of libations to Ea. (like) the fire I have lighted. 3 . the prince. Gol. 12. . To the prospering hands of his god may he be entrusted 1 4 0 . 10. 9. may he send the ban of that snare to the desert. The whole offering I have offered (and) I glorify. Conclusion (of the spell) for breaking the ban. 22. I will increase . 13.

Incantation. The pure mouth of Ea purifies them. I n the presence of your father Ea.‘ The sons of the deep are those seven. pp. 11. . a i d (&xitest) thy protection to the arbitrator. 10. may he be pure. though he hath neither hands nor feet. 1. 1.” . king of legions. The plague-demon in the desert like a cloud of dust mikes his way. 3.-Wherefore has the locust issued forth from (the heaven) 1 27.-Before a vessel of pure water repeat the prayer thrice. 4. 8. The plague-demon like the feTer (usakku) attacks the man.” IX. 25. . cornfragment runs : ‘‘(The demons) burn up the land like water (!). “ accadiennes. In S 1425. 5.. 2. I. 77-79.). against mankind they rush. may he shine. published by Lenormant. Incantation. ii. .-The pure waters . Aklcuclische und Sumerische Keilschrifttexte. . The plague-demon. Conclusion of the spell. -The river-god is fresh and bright like a wrestler (9. the ideograph is rendered by iqumm. The plague-demon like a flame consumes the man. &des 239 84..) king (of Assyria). Magical formuls published by Haupt. 5.-The evil plague-demon burns up1 the land like fire. 2. 2. . 28.” VIII. Property of (Assur-bani-pal. 26. 7. The waters glisten purely. The water which in the deep is firmly established. the waters are bright. 1. 24. The waters of the Euphrates whose place is 3.. The (sixth) tablet of the mrpu (consdmption) series. even goes round and round. (Like its) copy (written and published). ii. . [First line of the next tablet :] Incantation. . K 1284. 6. 4 . May the evil tongue depart elsewhere. . The 1 Ikhimu. The cry of the ban before him is like (that of) a demon (ale. pp- 7. judge my judgmcnt. 12. decide my decision ! 477 - .. . Oh. 9. . 39. . the waters shine. passion they know not. The plague-demon like destruction cuts clown the sick man. ‘‘ Incantation. 6.ri. may he be bright.THE MAGICAX TEXTEI. The plague-demon like a foe takes captivc the man.

.-0 Fire-god. . Like the midst of heaven may he shine ! 17. 13. be bright I 14. 0 Fire-god. . 1 3 . Like the heaven may he be pure ! 15. May the evil tongue (depart) elsewhere! 18.” . 5. 3. the unique. . lady : f the world.. . 14. All the earth it eplases like the height of the firmament (simetun).-For undoing the ban when w i t h the water of the river-god thou assistest him (tukattarm). Conclusion of the spell. “of silver and gold.. In the Seinitic version. . the lord. conjure ! 0 spirit of earth. . 1.. . . the mouth. . 0 spirit of heaven. Conclusion of the spell for undoing the ban . 11. 0 spirit of Nusku . of bronze and lead thou art the mingler (i... (conjure I) 9. in thy holy fire. land . the mouth. 2. Like the earth niny he be bright ! 16. .. conjure! 3. the son of the deep. Of gold and silver’ thou art the prosperer. (conjure !) 13. the warrior. 0 spirit of Nin-lil.. Of Nin-u-$r thou art the companion. 0 spirit of heaven. 6. 12. 4. Incantation. the ! b & lord.. the lord.. melter). the unique. the . in the house of darkness thou settest the light. king of Cutha. the lord. the son of his god. Rew. 5.” . May the limbs of the man. king of the world. . ’10. . 0 spirit of Mul-lil. the lord. (conjure !) 11. .. -_--- 2. the mouth. son of E-sarra.478 APPENDIX 111. and 9. Rev. The ban. 7. 1. B504. 7. May the ban depart to the desert (to) a pure place. 0 spirit a€the Sun-god. of the lord. thine. the unique.e. 0 spirit of Nergal. (conjure !) 10. 6. May the Sun-god at his rising banish its durlmess. unique (among) men . conjure ! $ . (conjure !) 12. 0 spirit of Adar. the unique. king of Lada. thine. who art exalted in the land. thine.-Land land. the sentient chief who art exalted in the land. (is) the mouth. 4. Thou art he who turns the breast of the foe at night. 8. Incantation. and never may there be night in the house. Of all that is called by a name thou fixest the destiny.

9. At the festival they establish him joyfully in his seat. 2. 10). 1% The time is the weapon of my lord. making (ita poison) to turn away from the hn&. the fear of thy shadow inclines towards the world. 11. even on his seat.l the mighty eerpent of the god. The son of the nurse. the unmting. in the mountbin am his ears. . ii. has caused it to turn i n t o itself. ‘0Zord. He is the rival of Anu and Mul-lil. Adar. 16. the son of Md-lil..’ . 18. 5. Bahu supplicates him with a prayer for the king. . the king. the light which &one mer the mercy-eeat. - - Not “lion. thy command changes not . 13. is a brilliant light2 when he lights it up. 6. 10.HYMNS TO THE GODS 1 : Hymn to A h (Haupt. He assembles his people in strength to invade the hostile country. 0 Adar. the a n of Mul-lil. the son of his father. The sting of the scorpion (laai). has made them turn the face against distant lands. He is the warrior whose laaso overthrows the foe. he maketh the \vine to be . Adar.. 17. Akkadhdw und S u n z e 6 7 ~ ~eilucfid~e. The god who binds the hosts of the firmament speaks to the lord. the warrior who knows not fear. 3. Ada*. 3 . to Adar ! 14. (has dtiven away) the pest. i s the determiner of destiny. a station on high (is thy habitation) 15. 1. h& (suckled) the m n c e of milk.” 3 Compare the Shekinah of the Hebrew wxitem. good. 4. Anu the lord has created the earth. On the thmne of the shrine supreme. the king. No. . Adar the lord.. 8 . thou removeat. 0 Adar.

before whom the foe exists not. and since the Semitic qarradu has been ktrodnced into the Accadian text. the strong stone. That from whose hanJ the mountain escapes not. like a bull. (I bear).’ 29. may& ‘hou strengthen the side.” . and the word yisme. 4. 0 lord. “bow. Obv. Adar. 24.” see W. like a great mild bull. the strong ( d a m ) hero. the bow (qmh) of the deluge (abubi)? (I bear).” is Bccadian ( g i S 7 e mdtu). the Heb. 28. 21. manly exalter. has driven tie cbaxiot over the mountain. (I bear).” 8 Is this an allusion to the “bow” of Gea ix. uru-sag eri bnb-iiy-iig. 27. the snakestone and the mountain-stone. Hymn to Xerodach. their city. A. the long shaft of battle. and one of the constellations was nanied “the stas of the bow.2 (I bear). the smiter of the mouii tain. ((theblade of my divinity. A. has he lifted up his horns. [For the pronunciation of UIS-BAM. Tn their midst. “the bow of the deluge. ii. 30: To their hand.” carried t a In the original Accadian.1 A fragmentary text gives an account of the arming of Meroddl with ‘‘the bow of Ann” in ‘(the assembly of the gods” before hie combat with Tiamat. 39. 31. 19.480 APPENDIX IV. I. the falchion. who makes joyful his side. W. 0 warrior. 2.” is rendered not by the usual Assyrian midpunu. the offspring that knows not a father. but by q&u. the warrior-the fire-stone too-their warrior carries away to the cities. qesketk. (‘bow. 3. I. 2. 22. 26. the lasso o i battle.” 11. The Su stone. (Men) altogether have proclaimed his name daily for sovereignty over them. 20. agar) of the hero. the precious stone. 25. I . The strap which is bound fast to the man. has scattered wide the seed. it must be regarded as an interpolation. the blade that proclaims me Anu. ii. ‘‘ The smiter of the neck. ((the hero has o the city. ~ This line is evidently corrupt. The lord mho (grants) parcton to his city (and) action to his mother. The spear (Sum. 13-16? At any rate the original phrase. No. The line must originally have run. 19. 23. The tooth of the worm (kuh) that comes forth from the mountain he binds. their god and their land he brings it back.

the terror of whose splendour (overwhelms) the earth.’ 5.. who binds the hand... ( I bear). . I fill my hand.” The original Accadian text is literally. Against the terror of my splendour. 11. the translator having punned upon the resemblance of the Semitic s&i. 8. I. the god who ministers to life. 1 This is the Semitic paraphrase.” * Literally. The deluge of battle. the god of the eastern mountain.. That which like the monstrous snake bears the yoke on ita seven heada (I bear). I n my right hand the god who binds the hosts of the firmament I bear. (which) is set for the view (of mankind).” 21 . (and) with gold and crystal (is covered). my hand. I n my left hand the god who slays the hosts of the firmament I bear. With a mountaim of diamond (t). LO. &. “stone of light. 481 5. the overthrower of mighty battle. the bow and the arrow (IEababa) (I bear). ‘13. 9. That which like the strong serpent of tho sea (drives 1) the foe before it. the god whose hand haa no foe. 9. . Destroying the temples of the foe. The establisher of heaven and earth. (I bear).z of turquoise and of crystal. . May their habitation be pure ! 3. I am lord of the tower-like mountains. . aa high as the winds they look. That whose light gleams forth like the day. battles against the hostile l a n d . the weapon of fifty hoads. prevailing over heaven and earth. 14.. The weapon (which like). I n the mountain. 7 . the weapon of (fifty) heads. 6. ( I bear). “the hosts o f the firmament. a . 8. The weapou. which is glorious as Anu. Like a bird 2. 1. (I bear). which in my right hand mightily is made to go. 8. 15.EYNNS TO THE GODS. to the hand of my supreme warriorship. ” to the Accsdian sarra. ( I bear). 7 . who can stand 1 4. 12. The spirits of the earth like a swine grope in the hollows. “ w i n d s . (I bear). the weapon of fifty heads. “which to the dwelling-place of the hosts of the firmament turn the head.

. ii.. To the lord Adar he addresses words of peace. 14. who has identified the Semitic s&m. return to the winds.I. The offspring of battle. 13. is due to bad etyologising on the part of the translator. The terror of thy splendour like a . 11. The hero who destroys the moun. (He establishes) his path by the command of Mul-El. 14. This is the Semitic ‘‘ translation. urgu him on (P). thou makest wmlike deeds perfect (sukZuZuat). 2. W. 3 . The subduer (n:zuaknis) of the mouLtain. . “ Below in the deep a loud voice is heard (Zit. The lord like the deluge descends. descends like the deluge. ~ It is probable that the places of the obverse and reverse ought to be Interchanged. . heaven and earth are its face. . iv. the falchion which proclaims me M Anu. Obv. Literally. thou makest warlike deeds (purradat) perfect. ‘ 0 my king. 1. the supreme messenger of Nul-lil. 1.482 APPENDIX IV. receives him in the temple (E-kur). I bear. To the lifting up of thy hands is the shadow turned. the hostelries in the precinct (1) of heaven 7. ‘‘opens the clouds. 3. 1. I bear. . 6.ain. 19. Adar. the destroyer of the fortress of the hostile land. Rev. taken) . destroying the temple. 10. k I. 23. the great gods.s . 4. to thyself give ear. . 3. the great gods. Nuzku.” iptah. which like a monster (usumgalli) devours the corpses (of the dead). l’hy cliariot is the voice of its thunderkg (apa rigim rimente-aa). the glorious weapon of Am. I bear. Compared with R 126 (Hymn to Adar). I bear.. 11. The weapon.” which. to thyself give ear. No. 9. The spirits of the earth. for which see W. 1 J . The hero of the gods who sweeps away the land. The Sun-god of fifty faces. I hear.”l 111.. I n thy marching. 12. the fish with seven fins.. the flail of the koetile land.A. 8. 10. 4. 15. 13.2 5. the terror of the splendour of Anu in the midst of heaven is the extension of his path. 0 my king. the Sun-god who lifts not up the offering. The spirits of the earth. To Nippur from afar (nidis) he draws not near. The destroyer of the mountain. 11. however. 12. I bear.

’” k V. A mighty king is Anu. . May Mul-lil present thee with 8 gift in the hands of! thy warriorship.” and nam-tar. R117. Thou who destroyeat (mnpalli) the life of the evil one. 1V. thy city which thou lovest. Thou who Tainest fire and stones’ upon the enemy. 2. Oh. xix. 12.3 . May thy father present thee with a gift in the hands of thy warriorship. the one god will not urge on. 11. The spirits of the earth on the seat of the height of tho amembly thou bindest not. the first-born of the gods. he took and u t t w the prayer : 11. . 5. 1. 13. may thy heart be exalted ! 4 . destiny. (Thou art) the warrior of the inountain who sabjugatest. in joy descend.” with the Awdian sama. Speak to her f r o m thy heart. The creation (sdtkin)of hl-jfl. 9. who carriest away the land of the disobedient. ‘‘ stones and fire.. the seat of the goodness of thy heart.” and tam. who lifbest up the torch (dipari). speak (to her) from thy liver. may thy heart be exalted !” 1. 4. ‘ 0 lord. in thy city (which) thou loveat may thy heart 6.”’ . 10. “For the lord.” 1 In the Semitic translation. Declare (in) the land the goodness of . “the hosts of the firmament. K5001. (in the house which) thou lovest may thy heart be at rest ! Rev..” Conqiare the account of the destruction of the cities of the plain in Gen. 7. The (handmaid) of thy wife is the servaut of Bin-lil. “ “wind.. the creation of the life of kkur. 24: “The Lord rained upon Sodom and upon Gomorrdi brimstone nnd fire. ‘(to =turn. Thy father on his seat thou fearest n o t . .. 0 lord. 3. Into the house of prayer and jistening. who pnrsuest swiftly ( m W m m e d h ) the foe.” 212 . 0 lord M a r . 10. .the king unto distant wgione. 8. ‘‘as far as the hosta of the firmament determine destiny. at rest ! 12. Mul-lil on his seat thou fearest not. (may thy heart be at rest I) 2.” The Accadian orio@al is mlly. may thy heart be exalted ! 3. I n the temple of Nippur.

20. 6 In $-Zida is the house of the supreme temple of life. His heart is. The incantation (in Sippara) is evil.’2 29.A. “trembles. He c$ed in the house (es) of Nipur : 4. 19. I . 7 . His god with the reed of weeping. 28.. In Babylon was he hostile : 8. 3. $-Saggil is the house of the temple of the resting-place of the world. In the distance one far off he (sees).’ 9. His lord behind him delivered not the orach 15. (On) a throne of pain he seats himself. Obi1 1. 17. 25. The house of the temple of BabBra is evil. 11. His lord sits not down. 1 In the Semitic version.. iv. 18. His lord comes forth from the corn-field.‘ 13. The fox is tied by his tail. a l l the world was troubled.. 14. U1-lilli (Mul-lil) descended to the ghosts. cc (The chief shepherd [damgum]) became hostile ({ttukhup) . The anointer-priest speaks not. I n Sippam he was hostile : 6. (( . VI. (On) his mound a fire (he kindled P). 2. His mistress shouted and rode to the mountain. 24. his mistress sits not down. I n Borsippa did he become hostile : 10. The incantation in Babylon is evil. 21. 16. 6. . . The temple of Babhra is the house of the judge of the world. His lord sets the offering. 8. I n E-kur is the dwelling of the hero of the house of life. (The lord) of the chief shepherd became hostile. His lord shouted and rode upon the mountain. 26.’ 12. The anointer comes forth from the (place of) anointiug ( h z b i ) . The incantation in &-Sag@ is eviL . Rev. The gallos-priest says not : When shall thy heart @e pacified) 0’ 22. 11. 9. W. the (temple) of the foundations of heaven and earth ie the house of the temple of the antelope of heaven. 27.’ 5. With tears he weeps and mourns.484 APPENDIX IV.” Tomecl round” in the Semitic version. 23. aI1 the world was troubled. Lifting up his voice with the many-coloured bird he answer& 30.’ 7 . The gallu-priest comes forth from his (place of) supplication.

. . In the temple of Mul-lil (L) the temple of completion. to the hands of my warriorship mightily I (commit it ?). . 26.” .. among the flocks thou art set. 2. and write the tablet of his blwdness. The incantation in I%-Zidais evil. like the skin (thou art smooth?) 11. On the execution of a stone image of Adar.. He has caused the river to carry away (the people). ..’ 25. 22. In the temple of the foundations of heaven and earth it b evil. What is that which is in the heart of my lord0 16. a place of drinking (and eating). W. 9. . which in my battle (the bow contains). From the mountain of Magan (Sinai) may it be brought down 10. 4. the world he completes. 12. What is there in his ear? 17. I n the temple of the antelope of heaven it is evil. 21. (To the queen) the divine lady of Nipur he utters the q. like a glorious eye (is seen).. . 16. I. The incantation in Bowippa is eviL 11. LO.. the son of Md-(lil.. 1%.. 31. 33. 14.. His image is resplendent unto future days. words he addresses to him : 23. 1. during the night thou completest. 30. he cries out. 15. No. The god has wrought destruction (sukilluqtu). . VII. 6. I am lord. . Thy hand thou raisest not 6. . 20.. . . who can rival (theo) P 8. Oh. the lord. 33. iv. who can rival thee 1) 3.. 14.EYJIXS M TEE GODS. for beauty (constructed). 13. . the lord. 13... ‘ 0 (Mu1)-lil and wife (of thee) Xin-lil! 24. . The strong stone (d). The (hair ‘ I ) of the head has been sown as seed in the field. ‘‘ (The god) Adax. 19. .. . I. . night by night a watch thou establishest.. In the supreme temple of life it i8 eci. I n sovereignty the lord is alone (supreme). the lady of the temple of. . 7..(I am) the king who establishes his name for a life of long days. 13. the son of Mul-lil. . Thou art (as) strong bronze. . . 29. thou restorest.A. He has caused (the gimoom 1) of sickness (pz1Bti) to oome forth from the desert. His (spouse). What has he perceived with his holy earl 18. 0 Adar. .. . From the lofty mountains of Elam may it be fetched.

For his body has he made its stonework. The mountain-stone (it is) which in the hostile land utters strongly (7) (its) cry to you. mayest thou. I. 4 . Adar. he . hymn must be of some antiquity. 18. and establish it in exaltation. To its strength he gives answer. I n peace with thee have I walked uprightly. May one purify the land happily for thee. P Rabbut. the lifting up of the light of whose eyes is upon other lands. see W. f . In the slaughter of the weapon the warrior whom thou shyest is utterly destroyed. the son of Mul-lil. the son of Mul-lil.4g$ APPENDIX IV. 5. I n the land of the foe. My king has taken the mountain-stone for a stone. . (He is) the hero exalted. 20. My king has taken the stone of the papyrus for a stone. 15. 19. 24. 26. Like a judge direct the world aright. On the altar supreme mayest thou lay the table of shewbread (birutu) ! 7. 16. 8.’ 21. overshadow. 11. The stone which when it is harmful (1) to me. 17. May he who knows thee bring thee back to the watem 25. cuts it not. the SOE of Mul-lil. and according to the message is wrought. 13. At the foot of thy men thou didst pour out the. the lord. May thy might2 be hard upon him that is made small. 2. 14. the lord has made good the stone. when thou ragest like a wild boar.. 27. which for my battle the bow holds (ta[mikhl).. mayest thou send terror. 3. He who knows the comrnad. 6. in all the world together.. 1. Adar. cuts it not. May the command of the Sun-god be a command unto thee I 17. whatever be his name. 16. to its smallest parts it is made perfect. 18. It is laid. 23. Accadian guma. The opening (of) the ear thou makest holy (tunais). 12. With the strong I was not weak (utladhd). 20. that stone. v. (drives away!) the cume of rain. Reir. A. 10. 9. 23. . the lord. The. My command in thy body let it guide aright. . mayest thou proclaim my name. Adar the lord. A woman (4) did not fall (P) into my hand. since stone arrow-heade are here referred to.

and never may there be gloom in the house ! Rev. 5. May the king. 1. 0 spirit of heaven. The Sun-god at his rising scatters its darkness. have made the waters resplendent. 8. conjure ! 0 spirit of earth. 9. may it be resplendent. End of the incantation. 12. 7. thou dost surround (tukultur). mho is high in the earth. a pure place ! 2. 13. 2. those seven. In a pure vessel drink pure water. Thy hand is clean. the son of the deep. may their hands be white ! 3 . 2. 0 Fire-god.. 4. (( . give ear to thee for j u d p m t ( = a t the judgment-seat). in the house of darkness thou makest light. On a pure dish eat pure food. in the presence of your mother Dav-kina. it binds all the world like the zenith of the dawn.-The pure waters . the son of his god.” 4 1 6 7 VIIL W. may the hands of the gods that accompany thee be dean.” in the Semitic versiop . 13. 7. 6. 0 river-god. have made the waters shine.” 1. Conclusion of the incantation for exorcising the evil spell. be closed. Incantation. iv. 14.. May the evil mouth.-The fire-god (is) the prince (vizier) who is high in the earth.A. W. The curse.HYMN8 TO TIue Q C D n 19. . 1. may it be white. I . &peat it three times.. No. 6 . 4. Incantation. (( E. A. ’ Literally. Tho earth. 3 . to the command may he guide thee. thy band is white . the pure mouth of E a has made resplendent. iv. 4.. The waters which are for ever collected together’ in the deep. In the presence of your father Ea.-The curse is before him j its cry is like that of a demon . have made the waters white. by thy pure fire. 6. 14. using pure water. 11.. 10. May the curse depart to the desert. may it shine. conjuro ! 3 . 2. The waters of tho Euphrates which in a place 3. Incantation. I. 5. No. The sons of the deep. Oh. (‘fumly satablished. the warrior. unresting.

” but the Semitic ~IUII&~OX has mistaken the plural for a singular. Mayest thou enlighten the limbs of the man the son of his god. No. W. 14. Like heaven may he be pure I Like the midst of heaven may he shine IJJ 12.A. “To Nebo the supreme messenger. 3. the director of the world. The lifter up of the stylus supreme. at the gate of the deep he built the house he loves. “perpetud. Of bronze and lead thou art the mingler. No. 3. A. 7.” a Comp. W. the traverser of strange (lands). hear the prayer. ‘‘ (The god who dwells?) in Babylon has proclaimed its name for ever. 8. 5. Of gold and silver1 thou art the benedictor. (0 Eel) and Zarpanit. .4 2. 10. The possessor of the reed of augury. . 9. (The men) of the city he fills with joy and gladness. ~ 5. I. xi. 4 The order is reversed in the Semitic version. 11. 13. ----_-- 1 ’ The Semitic version seems to have “wisdom. Its head like heaven he r a i ~ e d . 4 . 4 In the Accadian. . 6. for the glory of his godhead he made it march. 18.” The Accadian has “the gods without him. thy holy shrine he founds.. Hymn to Nebo. the fructifier of the corn. . the opener of the wells. 1. 1 . the scribe of all that has a name. X. APPENDIX IV. 15.488 8. iv. 14. from xida. who binds all things together. 1. zides. 0 mighty hero. Thou art the companion of the god Nin-guii. iv. for thy purity2 (ascribe) the lordship. 2. the glorious lord who pours out the oil of anointing and the unguent. the god without whom3 the irrigated land (ilcu) and the canal are un(watered). 6. Hymn on the building of &-Sag$. Thou art he that turnest (to flight) the breast of the evil man at night. At the gate of the deep founding the house (with) fear and mercy. 4 . 3. XI. Gen. Thon determinest the destiny of all that is called by a name.I. 9.

(say to thee) : ‘When (milt thou rest) 1’ 8. the supreme powers of A m . 1. The scenery of Babylon.”’ . A. May the gods of heaven and earth say unto thee : ‘0 lord. 3. 18. probably Tamxnuz. thy feeder. W. look down upon thy city. i . 11. the mighty mother of Mul-lil. 1 “ Night . May Anu. iv. (th9 mistress) of the house. the temple of thy lordship. May thy city speak to thee of a resting-place : (it is) thy house. 1. is thy house. 4.. I. the enclosure of &Saggil. He caused (hie guardian priests 1) to inhabit the Beat of abundance. may he restore to their place ! 4. XII. No. mny he nourish the seed of men unto everlasting days 1 7. (In the oracle) a favourable destiny he determines (burnu). 10. Give life to Ansar (Assurj2 thy shepherd... the brickwork of $-Zida. say to thee : ‘When (wilt thou) rest 1’ 6. “On the seat of the holy of holies of the oracle. Lay well the foundations of the throne of his sovereignty. 8. be at rest !’ 6. (The men of the city joy and) gladness established. Look down upon thy temple. May Babylon speak to thee of a resting-place : (it is) thy house. 2. who M called “the divine son” in the Accadian text. (say to thee) : ‘When (wilt thou rest) 1’ 7. (say to thee) : ‘ When (wilt thou rest) 1’ of rest! 2. . the chief. The lifting up of the hand to Xerodach. hear his pr?yer ! 6. ’An Assyrian scribe seems to have introduced the name of the old capital and day” in the Semitic version. 6-Saggi1. May the (spirits of the earth) of Mul-W. Oh.. Fragment of a hymn to Merodach. . . 0 lord XIII. W. 9. the father of Mul-m. 18. 3. The. for ita midst he opened. . the father of the gods. 489 7. 5. 1 . A.” Rev. I. . Look down upon Babylon and $-Sa& 0 lord of rest ! 3. May the great mountah (sudu rubu). May Zikum. .HYMNB To THE GODS. city of Amur iuto the line in place o i some deity. No. ‘‘The resting-place of the lord of the supreme temple of life is thy house. the goddess (satisfies) the heart with sounds of music day and night. iv. 2.

the lofty falchion which has been fitted for the hands of sovereignty. 21. Honey.” In W. 2. ii. made for the hand to grasp (suta&khar). 22.490 APPENDIX IV. I n the holy forest of the wood of the locust (P). Accadian sudam. the forceful flash. 3 . 20.&I. 8 Amtawma. even the offering of. there is none who faces. the turquoise.. . glass completely doubled? 23. the great stones that are made beautiful with rejoicing. rest upon his body I . stone images are meant. thy prospering colossos of the lordship and sovereignty of the land. and the word he takes : 17.. 26. 24. “Flesh” in the Assyrian version.I.. The garden of fruit which bears the offering. 19. the crystal. 13. In his left hand may the Moon-god be (carried 1). 7. milk and itbundance of (corn. the porous stone (klwlal) of the eyes. that are fitted to become the body1 of the gods. to be set on the pure breast of the man for an adornment. . iv. explained in W. the great stones. The mountain which bears the offering. the porous-stone. 12. 20. give to him). 10.. 11.. 8. (and) gold must be taken. 14. 5. Elmemc. Ea.-The weapon which scatters rays of brilliance. . the king of the deep. 16. the chief handmaid of A m . even the offering of.. by Ssuppumi sa libbi. Of course.. the porous stone of the snake’s sting. Conclusion of the spell for a storm (1).. May thy prospering spirit (s2du). d the shepherd (place in) his hand.. Incantation. 38. a staff of cryatd for. the precious stone. great handmaid of Anu ! 18. even the offering of . ‘<folding ‘of the heart. . 6. 1 9 . A. . answered Nin-gur (f). Nin-gur (?). In the right hand of the king the shepherd of his country may the Sun-god be (carried 1). its supinp stone. . that’ is made beautiful for kingship. (It is) for the land of the enemy to sweep away the attacking foe. the 3ubsu stone. 9. 4 .6. it is the equivalent of the Assyrian aarikhu. The desert (and) the field which bear the offering. ‘Go. 15.

(which are) the flesh of the gods. in heaven thou art supreme !” ’ XVI. 21. 30.HYXN’S !lXl THE Q.ODS. No. 28. fromwhose mouth the breath pours not out (iaattuku). W. . Thy command is unchangeable like the heavens. Obv. W. “ A t the liftiiig up of your2 hands. a . the holy (stones) which are full of beauty and rejoicing. the great stones of hoaonr.m?. Thyweapon is the unique monster (Uszcmgullu).” . the fragment of crystal. 0 Sun-god.A. XV. simply “ Nebo. The pnm gad who is exalted afar. with a dark blue dress (tsubatu) I cover myself. 0 lord. * The Semitic version mistranslates ‘‘their. the great stones. (the fragment) of crystal. thou plantest the foot of mankind. 27. even the @szl (stone). The doors of heaven thou openest ! 4. Eymn to the Sun-god.I. thou coverest the earth with the bright firmament of heaven 1 6. . The pure bolts of heaven thou openest ! 3. thou liftest up thy head to the trorld ! 5. 8. “0 Sun-god. 26. iv. 20. the blood drips not (izu?. 29. No. 1. The cattle of the god (Ner thou enlightenest). 1.. that are fitted to be gazed upon. Thou settest the ear to (the prayers) of mankind. 7. There is no temple that can compare with thy temple k-Zida ! 6.u). iv.A. Thou createst ( 3 ) the power. 1. very brilliant are they. 0 Sun-god.. 3. May the evil prince depart to another place. the eye-stone of Melukhkha and the porous stone !” XIV. 31.I. on the horizon of heaven thou dawnest ! 2. 0 lord. (‘ 0 lord of Borsippa ! 2. 9. No. who givest the name to Borsippa? there is no power that can compare with thy power ! 6. 20. there is no power that can compare with thy power ! 4. There is no place that can compare with thy place Babylon ! 8. There is no city that can compare with thy city Borsippa ! 7. W. A. Hymn to Nebo. . The n e a t stones. 491 26. iv. the supreme bull of Mal-lil purifies and enlightens. 1.” In the Semitic rendering. 0 son of &-Saggil! 3.” .I. 2.

Like a god he concealed (t) the face of the seven images on (his) hand. 12.. . 4 . 8. The barrier I have completely drawn. 15... 18.. To expel all that is evil (set) him who' shatters the offspring of evil in front of its gate. Before them (his) foot was stationary.. 3 . ye are a watch that no evil (happen). 13. the saptstsi. the curse of the gods I have brought for you. 1. 9. (Set) the image of Narudu. 2. (Set) the image of Nergal (Lugal-nerra) who has no rival on the enclosure of the house. the children of Ea. . 5. with clean hands the suyatstsi (destroyers 1 ) I have brought for you. (Set) the twin fighters who bind the hand on the threshold of the gate on the right hand and on the left. . Eat what is good. Rev. " he.492 APPENDIX IV. (Set) the image of the watcher of Ea and Merodach in the midst of the gate on the right hand and on the left.. A robe (sadinnu) of many colours I placu in your hands. . . of the corn god. (Set) the image of 'Sulim-ta-e who has no rival.. . 1 Here the Semitic translator. and to ihe prwence of the seven images . has introduced the Semitic relative pronoun sa into the Accadian text. 14. . A spell! a spell! He laid on him the curse like the going down of cattle and the coming up of cattle. . The whole text has evidently undergone ate* alterations . .. 17. drink honey mater. . of the image with two-fold knotting8 of the image.. (Set) the image of the baleful gallu-demon on the head of the sick man on the right hand and the left. a cedartree whose heart is strong . who in the previous line has transferred the Accadian nu-td into the Semitic text. 16. Complete the. 4 . (This?) is the spell of Aiari (Merodach) who dwells in tho image. below on the bed. . in the midst of the gate. 2. 11. (Set) the twin fighters. 3 .. 1 0 . . who (performs) the commands of the great gods. . Ye are the offspring of the pure deep. . Against all evil that cannot be faced {set) the Honey-god and Latarak in the gate (of the house).

11. the protector of the oracle of Mul-1% 11. 10.A. ‘(the destroyer. . 8.. 3. ..I. he divides like nn ox.the tree of the eupreme spirit. W. 25. evil. . Lifting up the body he seizes the. 1. 27. .” XVII. The. The sickness of night and day is he. May he lift up the muscle as he hurries (it) along.’ 4. 24. 9.. 7. He has not overshadowed the . who turns the b r e d of the evil one. 2. (((The demon) from k k u r has cOme forth. e 20. . the gods seven. 28. “the atu of the desert. His face is that of the god of destruction.. 12. 5. He slaughters (the cows) and makes not their oxen.” .’ 14.HYMNS TO TILE QODS. . the falchion which overwhelms the plague. the dragon (mamlu) which shines brightly. 9 . the very strong ( n t x y d h m ) . 6. His hand is the sbrm-demon (dG). 21. The female spirit devours with a snake’s mouth. The ox he slaughters and the wild bull he tames not He . The ribs like an old ship he shattera The very heart like a double frame he seizea The locust he makes lie down like water-cresa The. 22. 22.” 3 In Accadian. (Tho god) who makes perfect the barrier of hciaven and earth. His eye is filled with the shadow of tho forest. 13. 8. 23. and nakes not perfect his horns. simply paaidhtuu. his side i s the deluge.sole (nluzzulu) of his foot is the lullub tree.” In the Semitic version.’ 10. He makes (all) creatures hurry (in fear). 29. 44 is favoumble. Incantation. he slaughhrs and the ox he spares not. 493 6. From the temple of Nipur he has come forth. 15. 12. . 26. iv. the destroyers of hostility. In the Accadian. the fire-god who swsep away the foe.-The slaughterer of the hostile incubus. the presenter of life. of the cedar (and) of the weapons which they lifted up 7. .he has not made good the .’’ here described as ‘. I The side like a brick he breaks in piecea The breasj like a snare he tears in two.. 1. The. obv. . N o .

” showing that this text belongs to the Semitic epoch. No. . my son Merodach ! 6. 2. I. 10.. . May Dav-kina direct (it) ! 19. Rev. . c‘a vision. . and like a cloud o f . His sick (neck) was not quiet in the ypke. . be light and happiness’ unto thee !” . The questioner (of the oracle) at the altar (~nzissakka) did not open for him the eye. and 36. ‘6 Merodach thine enkindler (1) (dali) 2. 30. 11. 14. revealing (it) in a vision. Bind the bond upon his head.’ 35. locusts sweeps along together. 12. Ea answered his son Merodach : 2. 5. And in a dream he sent unto him a warning (gipilutuv) j 4 . 17. 32. . in the day he was troubled. XVIII. Merodach beholds him. . 1. Take the of the vault and 7. 0 my father. iv. The ideograph used i n the Accadian test for birm. W. Go. at the mouth of the twin rivers take the waters. 23. 6. I n the broad street place (him). . “ produce. . 13. Let him be fed abundantly. lay thy holy spell on their waters. to his father Ea into the house he entered and says : 34. 3. Purify (them) with thy pure charm. with pure means did not soothe him. May the malady of the head which has descended (kitmuru) like the rain (zunni) of the night l e driven away. in the night he was in grief.. May the word of Ea issue forth like the dawn ! 18.l he did not direct him.. and 8. the eldest son of the deep. Let the madness of his head be removed (from him).. what the man may do he knows not. what knowest thou not. 5. and 33. . 15. A. 9. 1. May Merodach. Like a bow made ready ( b a m e ) he W s all that has a qame. 16. . The. What I know. or how he may be at rest. Merodach. The cattle of the field he slaughters. Sprinkle the . .494 APPENDIX IV... what can I teach thee? 4. what knowest thou not. ‘My son. Twice did he address him.” k the representative of bimc. At the dayspring give the command. 31. the demon of madness has gone forth from hkur. of the man the son of his god. 7. thou too knowest. wllat can I teach thee? 3..

In thiy text. Like an ox (in) the wa8 he. 7. - . the offspring of the god 20. it may denote t h e ‘6 cover” of “the sea” rather than its “rim” . S I X . the supreme bull. and iv. On a reed whose head is cut thou shalt press a good reed. a rim of copper I Sound. - 15.8.. and beautifying the field. . Horn long. i. are too mutilated for translation. 9. 14.. 0 mighty mountain.. 0 shepherd tha’t determinest destiny. of the bull is made. For ever is the Lady of the eternal tree thy comrade. . 20. who establish (mm’m)the laws of heaven aud earth. How long. . Twelve are the sons of copper. No. ii. . iv. “ Seven are the gods the sons of Bel who is the voice of the firmament . May the rim be watched over. . The great bull. 1 Lit&% means the metal band which was laid over a door. my pure hands has he purified before thee 1 13.A. - 9. 23. wus he confounded. and 10. 8. on the heart of the rim they lay the copper. . 1. therefore. 12. The bull. 19. . Like a lamb (among) the bricks. the r i m ’ 23. father of Mul-1% who art a shade 1 25. who art a shade. who treada down the pure pasturage. . 6 . I . like the metal bands that bound together and ran acrosa the gates of BalawrZt. At thy command 8m I carrying the psila for t b m 17.. shall the shade be a cover 1 24. planting the corn.. “he peat (gods?). 10. iii. . they heap up the thou ! 16. how long! Col. and to Bel may he present (ZiqdJ~aisj. il. 21. of copper I found. at the mouth of the camp (was he) laidn . spreading wide (its) fertility. 22. The rim of the copper is dqrk (tekd).. has opened the heart (of it). 0 lord of shade. Col. who determine the boundaries. The mouth of the deep (‘the sea’) which is between the earn of the bull is made j on the right is it made .. .on the left hand it is made. 18. W.

I. who threshes out oppositica1” XXI. The libation (and) the outpouring he treads down . W. 4. the mighty deluge. the poison of the scorpion which cannot be expelled from t. 0 gallos-spirit (Zibir) of the divine master of the dawn. 8. 0 mighty ruler (am). The handinaid whose hand is unclean he looks down on. (he disturbs 2) the canal in his march . the snare which i3 set at the edge of the forest. (he troubles 2) the public square (~ibitu) when he seeks it . A. that sweepest away the hostile land I 6. 1. No.” XXII. 1. 0 lord of the temple of ’Sulim. that sweepest away the hostile land ! 7. . 12. iv. the uplifter of the weapon. iv.hc man. 5.496 APPENDIX IT’ Last line : At the time when thou bringest the bull to the: emple of‘ Mummu (Chaos). (‘The poison of the snake which infects fhe sheepcote. that sweepest away the hostile land ! 3 . 10. No. The work of the gallos-priest” XX. illustrious (nema) lord. 26. (he troubles?) the canal (and) the street in his march. 26. the mighty deluge. 3. who has no rival. 0 god that comest forth from ’Sulim. that sweepest away the hostile land ! 8. 6. that sweepest away the hostile land ! 9. that sweepest away the hostile land ! 5. (‘(He traverses) the canal in his march . 0 lord of Cutha. A. ‘‘ 0 warrior. The woman whose hand is unpropitious does he receive. that sweepest m a y the hostile land ! 2. The woman of impurity he embraces. 26. Fi. 2. 2. 0 warrior of the great city of Hades. W. in the waters that run not straight he plants the foot. I. 3. the poisonous water which descends in the dead of night. 1. 4 . W. 0 warrior of the god Supulu. 7. the outspread net which is stretched unto the sea. A. that sweepest away the hostile land ! 4. The waters of an unclean hand does he give. Hymn to Nergal. iv. I. 2. 1. 5. 3.

‘6 The lord who giveth resi 2. rendered the Fire-god” in the Semitic version. .” XXIV. 3. counsellor of the coucselsl of the great gods . whose clothing ( ‘ I is )splendour .2 the exalted male. the uplifter of the torch.HYlfXS TO THE OODa 497 6. the forceful Fire-god (Mubarra).” XXIII. I. band. pieces of broken (1) cane. 1. (god) of Nipur. I. (and) the water of a pool which the hand has not drawn. W. W. Nuzku. Accsdian (north Babylonian) form of the Smerian Gubarra. the exalter of the mountainpeaks. ‘I. horned sugar (1) (&hula) (and) drops of beer. 2. the enlightener of the darkness. 26. A. iv. I. the flame of heaven. a Literally. A. counsellor of the counsels of the gods . and with a rag (1) which is useless for the body. 7. and the sea dreads it. I t turns to the channel8 of the Euphrates. 0 lord. 5. who giveth rest to the heart. 3. the chief Mubarra. cup that is bound with a cord. who giveth rest to the heart. place in it green corn.. 6. who giveth rest to the heart.A. fill LI . Bo. 1 . thou art Eupreme ! who is there that rivals thee t 8. 5. 3. - - Malikmilki. It turns to the sea. and the marsh mourna 6 . W.” 2E . 26. from whose meshes no fish can escape. 1 . It turns to the marsh. Thy word is the supreme mare which is stretched towarde heaven and earth. 7. 4. counsellor of the counsels of the gods . 7. Who can escape from thy message (piridi or pdi)1 2. and lay it upon a double ring. counsellor of the counsels of the gods . and give the man pure water to drink. 26. No. b the heart. wise prince. iv. 8. 3 . 4. No. 4. iv. Hymn to Nueku (as the Fire god). 0 Merodach. the word of Merodach disturbs its bed. among the gods as many as have a name thou art Le that coverest them !” XXV. and 6. who hurls down terror. 4.

8) : (‘ m d k a tempest.. compound tho pure wine and pure sugar (1) . .” I n the Accadian text. W. . S. lo). . 5. . 5.. .. 0 Mul-lil. 1 3 In the Accadian text. . I. wbo protcctest the day. the lord of Nipur. 3. ‘(hero of the earth. the lasso that overthrows the hostile land. 9. 5. destiny supreme. it made the swallow fly from his nest. 9. the great lord (and) warrior. 2.3 4. . country to country ran together. Yo. The word occurs again in the fragment of a bilingual poem. mighty is the power. the life of the land. the house that exalts itself. the freeman it made to depart from the house of her trade. arid 7. . 0 lord. who castest abroad (thy) majesty. . “the man of ghost(s). they took the fortresses.” . . 27. .. . It drove tho son from the house of his father . even of thee.. iv. 1. the god of ghosts (Lillum)’ was the father and mother that begat him.. . I . the lamb it slaughtered. .”2 --- XXVII.. the doves in their cotes it concealed him. .. seven times anoint (therewith) the body of the maan XXVI.. It made the handmaid asceud her chamber (2) . 6. mighty is (his) power . 4 . . 10.. 8. who hurlest abroad (thy) majesty. Hymn to il~ul-lil. the waters seized the corpses. The bird on its wing it caused to ascend. . . 7 . of her cbamber (antalci) they took. which destroys the wicked sorcerer. . the fat of a crane which has been brought from the monntains place in it. (it overthrew?) them like a cup Qf outpoured wine. A. 4. in the park of 3 . and 10. . mighty (is thy) power. mighty (is his) power. 7. .. 1 . they took the clulckani. W.” An(u)taki. the hero (llzn96u) of heaven and carth. & c . . . Of thee. lord of the morning-star.. remove the womb of R crane. 9. Pour the water over him. of which only the ends of the lines are preserved (S 704. who upliftest the terror of (thy) splendour.. No. 27. mighty (is) the power. The ox it slaughtered. and which they seems to refer to the deluge. A. . The fragment is as follows (1. “ (Of thee).. . and 8. Perhaps a poem on tha Ihluge.. 2. istar they took. the lord of the gods received. iv...496 6. like (a fisherman 1) they caught the fish of the deep. . 3. 6.

1 1602). remove ita heart j 4. 7 . Balum. 16.were their hwbmen. Bind a wisp of straw round the man. the pitiful one who (dimtest) tho world I 3. the e d demon (ekimmu). . his food. 0 lord of the living creation. . . iv. The street of the land (she crossed) n o t . 27. 9 (c€ 2K2 . place it in the hand of the man. I Berilered by the Assyrian lcdutu. let him be made bright I 8. A. . 2. the great se-pents. 28. With Anu and Mul-lil . 15. XXVIII. the phantom (and) the vampire I”’ -__-- XXIX. I. expol. W. Until the day when he shall live. and 10. tho (supreme) judge of the world art thou ! 2. make him bright ! 7. ” 11. pour out.v. the evil a h .” in 82. 1. iv. which burns as fire.. . 2. $. 1 En-mi~Si in the Accadian text. . make to lie down in front of the sick man .. “a burning. conjure 11. . 499 . of the land. Undo his curse ! 9. Like the cup of the Zoganes... The mountain like a cnp that is bound with a cord . the mistreas of the supreme ones. during the day. . 12. the evil incubus (ut&).’* 9. 6. Ycepeat the spell of Eridu : 6. 1. I.. W. the sypremacy l2c. which Tammuz’ (feeds).HYMN Ipo TEE GODS. The foot to the earth (she set) not. 0 Sun-god. 12.. the avil spirits (utukkzc). No.. Ohv. 1. Thou art eternal righteousness in the heaven I 4. They LO. Like the copper of a polished tablet. 5. A. Hymn to the Sun-god. repeat the spell of Eridu : ‘ 0 spirit of the great gods. cleanse him ! 6. 14. No. Direct the law of the multitudes of mankind I 3. 13. (‘The lamb. on this day purify and illumine the king the son of his god ! Let all that is wrought of evil which is in his body be removed elsewhere ! 5. Like a cup of ghee. ‘ The offspring of his heart thou hast taken away. . the mountain of the bond. . turn back the food the man has swallowed . ‘‘ 0 Sun-god. 1. 3 . In the brickwork of the foundations.

(Haupt. A. The young girl says : ‘Where is my father 1’ 11.” .so0 APPENDIX IV. into the zenith of heaven they make their way.I. The city whose corn is cut.. 14. 9. The Accadian of this line is : “Justice in heaven. The handmaid says : ‘Where is my brother?’ 9. 13.. iv. 17. No. Thou knowest right. (From) Nipur the mean man comes forth. the great man comes forth (to destroy).. 28. I n the city the mother who bears children says : ‘Where ie my son P’ 10. (Rimmon in) his anger has bound for him the heaven. The son of the lad says : ‘Where is my son P’ 8.” * ‘‘ s e c k ” in the Accatlinn text. the great man come8 forth. The mighty mountain. A. 2. 28. righteousness has lifted up its foot !e 7.. has let food be seen where there was no food. 14.. in baskets (is carried?). XXXI. thou hast overwhelnied it. the gods of heaven ascend to the sky. . berati. at his roaring. 0 Sun-god. 4. of the deluge. the god. p. In W. 8. 12. the lord. 0 Sun-god. Birit.” an illustration of the artificial character of the language of the hymns to the Sun-god. the same ideograph SI-GAL is rendered by 6‘ well. . Rimmon in his strength has shaken for him the earth. a bond on earth art thou. the minister of Anu and Mul-lil art thou ! 9. 4. 2. iv. “Of Babylon the digging up. art justioe. . mol. No. 9. Of NiBin the digging up . He who resides in the street has driven (them) along. W. 12. W. Of the city the digging up . Hymn to Rimmon. 15. 4. 182.) Obv. Into the horizon of heaven they enter. . . 0 Sun-god. Keilschrifttexte. the judge supreme of heaven and earth art thou! XXX. The mean man comes forth. 13.. 5. 0 Sun-god. thou knowest wickedness ! 6. At his anger. 3. . wickedness has beer cut as with a knife 1 S. 11. She whose husband is a lad says : ‘Where is my husband 3’ 7. 16. the gods of earth descend to the earth.A. even the bond’ of the ears of the world t 5. 1. I. at his strength. at his thundering.L iv. 10. . 6.

he made perfect the dog.. The spell that giveth life is thine ! 14. On the foundations of the temple in the city of her holy border she stood not. 8. . from the temple came not forth. . 13.n h she sat not. . The holy writing of the mouth of the deep is W 1 16. 11.. The merciful one who loveth to give life to the dead I 8. Rev. XXXII. 19. (From) Babylon the mean man comes forth.. 29. (0 king) of the land. (0 king). I. . lord of e-makh-tila (‘the supreme &owe of life ’) ! 11. . (From) NiGn the mean man comes forth. . mighty lord of mankind. he rearedthe watch-dog (nadhiru)..... The temple of Lads has done. King of &-Zids. 19.. strength. the god . Heaven and earth are thine 1 12. . god of gods ! 4. (Prince) of heaven and earth. . 15.. . king of the world. W. powerful (over) heaven and earth ! 3 . . To the pure ear of her city she speaks. . of the cities none exist. . 16. The merciful one among the gods ! 7. 17. To Babylon the evil-doer she speaks : 18. 17. he filled the dust-cloud. lord of the world ! 2.. lord of E-Saggil ! 20. 1 . . On the hill of the city of the goddess K u r . .. ho made perfect the h y s n a 18.’” . The mistress looked not towards her temple. 16. Merodach. 10. first-born of Ea. 32. . the great man comes forth. . The companion of Anu and Mul-lil ! 6. the house of my life. ‘ My house. 14.. even the black-headed race. Hymn to Merodach.1. iv. The mistress looked not towards her city. .. King of Babylon.A. 15. The goddess of the city of Kur-nlina. ‘The she knows. . who has no rival ! 5.HYMNS TO THE 80DS. . Xankind. king of heaveqand earth ! 9. All round heaven and earth is thine t 13. has suffered evil.I. the p e a t man comes forth. Tho breath that giveth life is thine ! 16. No. 601 14. 9. not returning to his place. On the mounds of the temple of her commands she prayed. Oh. from the temple came not forth...

6. 3. the evil ekimmu. 2. the evil succubus. 0 glorious one who. 20.. all that there are.502 APPEM)IX IV. No. 6. A. No. 30. who art strong as the heaven 1 2.” XXXIV. and the painful sicknese. art exalted ! 4. 9.I. Thou art the (god) who givest life (to the dead). 1. Merodach. . 14. the evil god. 29. 12. Thou art the (good) colossos. The evil a h agaihst the breast.I. 5. 15. let them magnify and exalt thee ! 10. 5. the four zones. Let the gods exalt the memory of thy name.. Thy name I celebrate. iring of heaven and earth together. the angels of the hosts of heaven and earth. 2. 7. the fever. W. the evil incubus (zituk). on the day when thou marchest against the land of the enemy ! 5. the merciful one among the gods. 4 . who art firm as the earth ! 3. Rev. . the fever. W. ’ 1. The evil ekimmu against the waist. Oh. The plague. like the heaven and the earth. Thou art the. 4 . the sprain (P). A. The evil utuk against the neck. 1. “Incantation. The evil plague against the life. the phantom (and) the vampire. 1. (along with all) that worketh evil. 15.. iv. 16. 3. 13. ‘‘ 0 glorious one.-The injurious fever (rages) against the head. 0 warrior. Lilith (and) the handmaid of the ghost (ZiZu). thy majesty I declare. (all worship) thee and (lend to thee their) ears. Thou art the (god) who makest (the sick) whole. May he expel (Ziittatstsi) the sickness of the sick man 1 11. . the evil a h . in difficulty (from Thich) there seem no exit. 18. the merciful one who loveth to restore the dead to life. the living creatures as many as pronormce a name and exkt in the earth. whatever be their number. 19. (the evil) gallu. Who. . the evil (plague). The evil gullu against tho hand. iv. 2. Mighty warrior.” XXXIII. S. 17.

. 16.. a cutting off of t h e .A. along with the weapon. 4. 4. . Thou dost not say : ‘ Let me seize on the house I’ 11. 9. depart to distant places ! 14. 2. W. . in the fastening of the gate h e . 2. 0 evil aZu. what is there which thou dost not overcome f 7. What is there in the geaa (which) drown (yumaZZu’lupu) below ? 8 . . The goat with six heads in the mountain contrives death. tliou dost not make the pilgrimage. 0 evil utulc. the cloak of splendour. 2... The goat and its offspring he slaughtwa . In the shrine of Eathou dost not stand. 10... Thy resting-placo (n~nmid) is established in the stream. 3. 4 .. . The weak man is among thy weak ones. iv. 503 6. Reit. (With) the knife ( k i n d ) like a lamb (he cut) the strings (1) of thy heart. 1. The lofty stone thou destroyest on the day when in strength its foices thou smitest. . 5. 30. binding the goat 2. The gods thou slaughterest with destruction.A. Thou dost not say : ‘Let me seize on the (shrine) I’ 13.I. . I n the body of the man (the son) of his god. . descend into the stream ! 15.. The gods of earth gather themselves together before thea 3. 10. . Thou dost not say : ‘Let me seize on tho ascent !’ 12. what is there in the ravine. The goat and i t a offspring (tda) he binds. On the ascent of the temple thou dost not stand. W. the evil nlu 7. No. (S 2148) 1. The evil..HYMN8 TO TBE UODS. with S 2148...’ The spirits of the earth prostrate their faces before thee.. Obv. thou dost not make the pilgrimage. The (evil) utuk.. 3. 8. . 9. - . . the dark cloak. the a h . The cow and its youngling he slaughtem 6. 6.I. iv.. 3. 30. ..” . Fragment of a text about the Deluge. . The gods of heaven have set thee to battle. . XSXVI. 5. . No. Thy station (mnnzaz) is a place hemmed in. The cow and its youngling @pat) he binds. I . “With dark clothing which is the terror of the vampire (akhklmzu).” m V . The storm in the mountain is a destroying sword decreod to it. he has covered (ywnkhlip) the pure body.

(W. it is carried away (1). 17. the living (Tammuz). 8. the lord of the bond. spread the dead over the earth.A. . 15. His manhood from the storm he (brought out ‘I). .. 30. When shall that grow up which was boundV 16. the lord of the gull% 6. The flood of the brother of the mother of the male god. the hero of the corn-field has gone forth. My bond has gone forth. the god Damu. The flood of the brother of the mother of the male god. for the enclosure of his seat. 5. . and I went as a hero who retnrna not to rest.. 3. The Sun-god caused the earth to see the dead... 10. . I n a month imperfect year by year. 9. . . 8. The flood of the man of Kharran (the planet Mercury). 3. The flood of the warrior-god U-a(zu).) Obu. 11. the hero (descended) to the distant earth which had not been seen. The flood of the son my lord. In the Accadian text. Thou didst smite(?) (tukG). 1. 12. 7. The flood of my hwo. from the city my bond has gone forth . 1. from the house of the corn-field it has gone forth.r) 4. . 7.504 APPENDIX 1V. 6.. ‘‘How long shall the hand be bound 1 how long mhall the haud be bound 1” 1 . the lord of the bond. The flood of the man of Kharran 8. The flood of the spirit (Zibi~).. 2. The flood of the god Nangar (the moon). His youth from the sailing ship he (brought out?). 14. iv. The Accadian text has simply. The flood of the god Gudi 5... His age from the scattering of the corn he (brought out?).. It came. He was full of lamentation on the day he slaughtered the leader of the ranks. it descended upon the breast of the earth.I. 12. . The flood of the god Gudi . as the flood of my hero the god Damu. Rev.. that pacifies mankind.” . The flood of the gallos-spirit (Zibi.. . 7. 4 . to a road that benefits men. 6. 9. 18. The flood of the p e a t unique mother-goddess . 19. The flood of the great unique mother (Zikum). . The flood of the god Nangar. The flood of the (god) 2. ‘(the day of destruction” (a siibbll). . . . 1C. 13. As the flood of the warrior-god U-azu (the lord of medicine).’ 11.

26. 58. 52. 8 Perhaps. ‘Take him to captivity.” .. 54. A. 30. they let not the light in the prison-house be seen.bit mni.” but d u . 51. 34. ‘‘toforget. His bitterness (wickedness) the freeman has left.HYJZNS TO THE GOD& 605 XXXVII. 44..’ the goddess has departeda (from. He has poured out the blood of his companions. He has attacked the property of his companions. . has raised his family.Col.. 52. 9 Idm. A prayer against sin& 0%. (along with) the mother (her) daughter they cut off. He has. they pity not the bondage . i. 48. 36. 32. 24. Heb.’ they have said. m4sh. 59. he knows not (his) transgression (ennit)against the god and the goddess. 50. .him). The rod (zibanit) of injustice has taken {itshat) (thee) 15. along with the brother his brother they cut off. They cease not to capture. 28. H e has entered the house of his companions. . (yet) the god has smitten.I. The doubled cord of injustice has seized thee . the son has established (what should be removed). 29. 46. . (his) family (pinna) and household (puWlariu). 33. 66. (along with) the bride the bridesmaids they cut off. M. He has stripped his companions of their clothing. 53. against his goddess is his iniquity (khablut). 31.” Imtes. 47 I n a confederacy of injustico he has confederated thee. “(Along with the father his) son they cut of€ 23. The freeman. 25.) 38. . (The goddees) has departed (from him) j against the great lady (nin-gal) has he acted shamefully. 35. Against his god is his sin. He has laid on the yoke and taken up the landmark 49.. along with the friend his associate they cut off. (along with) the bridesmaids the bride they cut off. iv. for (right and) justice he has not formed a league. (There are) smitings (for the sinner 1 ) : there are zirdti for the guardian-priest (umgal. “battles. (along with) the son (his) father they cut off. not from naast2. akin to dazdti. 37. the workman. (along with) the daughter {her) mother they cut off. He knows not (his) sin against the god.’ 6‘ lord of sin. and bind him in bondage. The son has removed (ittdakh) what is established. 27. along with the neighbour his neighbour they cut off..

. see W.'2 (for) he knew not and was forsworn. Literally. With the gift he had given he was forsworn. by the words of the god and the goddess ho has forgotten. He stands in the congregation.. . 4 . He broke through and was forsworn. he has drawn back. he has purified himself and inclined to the lifting UP of the hand.. 25. 2.. To the divine colossos his finger he raised. by the assembly he has overthrown. his god and his goddess feed along with him. by the gathered troops he has broken through.. He directs his mouth. . '(may (the Sun-god) Jelivw!" . 1 0 . 24. 1. . 27. He sets down the dish according to rule . . He has wrought wiclreduess . (but) his heart is unfaithful 58. I n the divine colossos he has (found) father and mother. . she who bears not children has done (the deed). 23. ii. he has spoken contritely. The faithful man he has pursued (1) 3. 14. 13. 33. May I be pardoned.. he has manifested fear. he consecrates himself. He has driven away purity . The divine colossos (has restored to him) god and companion. . 28. 56. Col. 29. . To the chariii and the sorcery he has put his hand. A. Be plants himself where there is no opening. Sipari. 20. he laments. 57. 35. . .39... by the gift (and) the name of his god which he has forgotten. 12.. 17. The suffering a of (his) city. 31. 35. 11. ii.506 APPENDIX IV. . 15. His speech (qdbi) he has uttered. at the side the sorceress passes through . 10.. He seized and was forsmorii. a i s mouth is sin. 19.. 23.I. his heart is . 34. The divine colossos (has become to him) the urugul and the ningat. By the painful sickness (from the food) he has eaten. . 16. 9.' and utters the prayer : 26. I n life he was forsworn. by the multitude of sins he has committed. 21. The divine colossos (has restored to him) friend and comrade. 30. 32. The witch comes behind. 15. by the promises he has macle in his heart and his niouth and has not performed.

Ask at the side of the foundation ! 61. Ask when thou comest out of the city and Then thou enterest into the house ! 70. . (ask I ) 45. Ask at the dish ! 52. Ask among the sanctuaries of the lord and the lady (Baal and Beltis) ! 67. Ask at the giving of the goblet 1 53. at the helm and at the pmm ! 64. Deliver. . deliver I 74. Ask in the street ! 71. the judge. by the goblet thou swearest by. 75. 44. (ask !) 47. Ask at the bank of the river ! 63.. 0 Sun-god. Ask by the side of the ship.807 40. Ask among the gods of heaven (and) the sanctuaries of earth ! 66. by the throne thou swearest by. by the dish thou swearest by.. Ask at the side of the tarno beast 1 59. Ask a t the fire ! 55. swearing before . lord of all that is above and below. father (of mankind)! 76. . king of the world.. By thy command let justice be accomplished ! 77. Ask at the side of the wild beast I 60. Ask at the kindling of the fire ! 54. . . May he direct his people (tet2iset-e~) before him I .. The cutting off (1) of his city 42. Ask when thou comest out of the city and when thou goest into the city ! 68. Ask on the couch I 50. Ask. Ask in tho temple ! 72. Ask when it is aglow ! 56. May the Sun-gad. Ask at the rising of the sun and the setting of the sun ! 65. director of the gods. (ask 1) 48.. . . by the rod of affliction thou swear& by. The word of (his) city 41. ask! 49.. . Ask on the road ! 73. At the command thou swearest 43. Ask from the tablet and the stylus of the tablot I 57. Ask on the seat ! 51. . Ask of the bond and the fetter ! 58. (ask !) 46. Ask when thou comest out of tha city-gate and when thou enterest the city-gate ! 69. Ask at the edge of the marsh I 62.

May they deliver when (as&) thine eye weeps in trouble and the god is not. . 78. May the god Yabni and the god Khum(tsi)ru (the swine god) deliver. 105. Deliver. . of the north. the seat of the great gods I 98. (Deliver).. .50s APPENDIX IV. May the god who pronounces blessings deliver. May the divine judge deliver. (May) Baal and Eeltis (stretch forth) the hand ! 86. 83. the god (Aferodach) ! 79.. May Istar deliver in Erech. 0 divine lord of the house. the throne-bearer of &-Saggil! 101.. May Mul-lil deliver. May Merodach deliver. of the east and of the west. the illustrious gods ! 106. the city o f . May the fortress of heaven and earth ard the house of the mighty bond of the world deliver ! 103.. 84. Dcliver. . . May Anunit deliver in Accad. deliver. .. 0 (Ea) I 80. May Tasmit deliver. the queer1 of E-Saggil ! 97. may the divine lady of the firmament deliver ! 92. May Kin-lil deliver. . May Neho and Nana deliver in E-Zida ! 99. Alay E-Saggil and Babylon deliver. 0 fire son of (the Fire-)god ! 85. 0 hero (masu) of the gods. May Zarpanit deliver. the king who has created (thee) I 88. the habitation of wisdom ! 91. . . 0 great gods . the king of t. May Anu and Anat (stretch forth) the hand ! 87. . Deliver.he angels ! 86. (Daliver). the mighty bride ! 100. . May the divine lord of the firmament deliver.. may the house of the deep deliver! 95. . 90. Deliver. . May the deep deliver. the king of the deep ! 93. the secret abode of. who causes good fortune to enter ! 102. the shepherd's hyt ! 108. May Ea deliver. deliver. (like) winds blow away the name and inscribe its CUWG (mumit)! 107. May Eridu deliver. the robe (02' her glory 1 ) ! 109. May the stars of the south. May the great god and the goddess Dirituv deliver ! 104. 0 Suqamuna and Sima(1iya) ! 83. the queen of &-(kur)! 89. compassionate lord. May the Lady of k a n a (Nana) deliver in EAna. may the divine lady of the earth deliver ! 91. . Nay the divine lord of the earth deliver. 0 god who art lord . May the temple of K i .

A woman with unlucky hand has approached (him). A handmaid with an unclean hand (has washed him . . my (son) Merodach. 6. May the divine kitig of the desert (Eden). . 11. 13.--‘ Every curse which has seized upon the king the son of his god. 1. On this day may they (deliver) ! . . . A man of an unlucky hand has approached (him).’ T h e second tablet of the suqm (‘ fever’) series.. and the god Xarudu deliver ! 9. and Irumeriya deliver ! 8.. Col. The limpid water (ugubb-6) which makes the house of tho gods resplendent..’ 14. . what thou knowest not ( I know). May Arzad deliver. to his father Ea (the word he addresses) : 4. 12. May Iskhara deliver. 10. 1. iv. the house o f . . Rev. May Sagittarius and the star of stars (Iku) and Sirius and the god .. 2... A woman who inspires terror has seized (him). ) 9 9. May Siduri deliver. Oh. Latarak and ‘Sarralrhu deliver ! 6. I n water that flows not straight (he has bathed 1). . .... 1 in 5924. 9.. Nergal and Nergalgd deliver ! 4.. A man of an unclean hand has (washed him?). 7-8. .pentary lines which are not The lines are not provided with a Semitic translation. May Nerra. .HYNINS TO THE GODS. . . 65. S 924. ‘0 my father. XXXVITI. . 7. COLOPBON: Incantation. 509 0 110.” . The second text here interpolates two fra.. May Dun and Xisuthros and their monster (naamlw)deliver ! 7. Go. . May all the gods and goddesses whose names (are recorded deliver) ! 11. May Tibul and Sakkut and . What wilt thou do4 as for m e . the Istar of wisdom. 8. the outpouring of the libation. I n the water of the unclean hand he (washes?). 1 : kt He whose body is not directed aright. the living colossos ! 3. the outpouring he has dcviscd . May the divine chief of the dawn and Arcturus and the god Na (deliver) ! 10. I U they are in the second text. 79. A man whose body is not directed aright has seized (him). . Xerodach (comes) . the mistress of mankind ( d a d m ) I 2. May Laz and Khani and Mulu-duga-nes deliver ! 5. Ea (answered) his son Merodach : 15. .l 6.

8. Nay the Firegod consunie (Zikabbib) them. lias been angry with me. 7. him who bewitches me and her who bewitches me (mustepisti). the goddess A thus 9... the spell (td) of whosoever i t be who (knows) Merodach.. (but) I know not. Obv. : 2. even the god of fire. of him who bewitches me and of her who beuiitclxa s i 3 (md) d t i 3 dPstroyer (~B7ihi). 9. . has purifiec! the house of the land . may the Firegod receive their bodies ! 17. 3. 8. 11. the limpid water which cleanses (the begetter 3) . may the Firegod enclosing enclose them.-The water of judgment (NAH-DI). the enchantment and the image of their breath. Of the exorciser 30. . . . the director (of mankind). 8. . The Fire-god who illumines the gloom (rrlrli) of darkness . K2585. The Fire-god is wrathful like watcr.0 Sun-god. 3. 13. 5. 7. the mesenger of earth. (or) not thus knows. May the Sun-god melt (1) (Zissu71) their image.. May the Fire-god (carry them) to the land whence none return ! 2. may he destroying (rakhi) 12.6!lO APPESDIX IV. .” . The Sun-god is he who inspires the breath of those who act (3). 10. breaking their womb (rdi). the waters of the oracle. XL.14. “Incantation.. . even the god of fire who causes (destruction) ! 18. 9. 0 Sun-god. the linipid water (which makes) the temple of the gods (to shine). lrnows. him who enchants me (kamip). In the house of the kindling of the altar-flame (21“7i1~~uk721c~~zi). . ‘‘ May the Lord of justice and righteousness. . 6. pass over them so that he may be over them and not . along with the god and goddess. The Fire-god (turns 1) to the plaguegod (Nanztaru). the Sungo: of the mighty mouth.” XXXIX. the judge of the spirits of earth. Rev. the living one. 4.. 1. . s497.. . The god who is king of the dead and living (2j ( B A D u NUN). 16. may the Fire-god thy companion destroy (them) ! 15. the Sun-god.. the son of (Ea).

thou enterest not the temple of beer. ii.. . . the son of Eridu.) may it be. 68. 10. he is good of mouth for exaltation. Incantation. 0 lord. in thy heart may it be 1 4. reclining with evil intent. . 15. Among the sheep the. . . . may the g d 13. 12. in thy liver may it be. Merodach. 4 .-0 altar son of heaven. The place where the bond (e9m) is fixed thou enterest not. 17. . 5 . Oh. thou bringest not out. The small child (mura) who knows the bond thou bringest not out. may he make bright my foot ! 7.. May the evil tongue depart to another place 1” . . ‘ 6 ( J h the . in thy liver . . its corn (Zati) thou dost not destroy. K 4874. the offering (kurbanna) thou dost not kiss. 79. . until future days. Her. . The clothing (bzlrcrumtu)of the place of the oracle thou gathemst not together. may he cut off (1) 16. 7. . May he make pure lpy mouth. 7-8. may it be ! 3 . 2. thou seatest not.. 8. 18. may the son of Ea. the park of Istar thou establishest not. 6.) may it be. the place of sovereignty (situlti) thou entorest not. .. XLI. . Hymn to Nergal. . 11. may he injure. . their life . Col. . “ ( 0 hero whose) pomer is over the hosts af heaven and earth 2.. . The little ones thou leadest not out of the park of Istar. To the sheep the strong sheep thou .” .. . like 14. their endhantment in the place o E thy temple likg a branch of wood 12. overwhelm them like a goblet. Among the fat oxen thou enterest not on this side.. even the servant who knows the word of the oracle. thou dost not remove.. . 13. 9. 0 lord. a . purify niy hand ! 6. (( . (In the. XLIII. The. in thy heart may it be. 0 lord. 14.1. 16. . .” - XLIL S 536. in the place of his lord(?) thou dost not smite. thou entarest not on this side.bringest not out. 5 .11.. against these (sorcerers) may they behold.

the man who utters good words. . . of the great (gods) am I. . . and he bound together (em&) their confederacy. . .. 5. 2. . 19. .. 15. . Rev.. he has doubled the might of former kings. . the mountain. 6. . 21.. . ..512 APPENI)IX Iv. . 20.. . . . . 8. .) else where. .. 6. . . .... may he be quieted whoever he be. . .. the man whomsoever he has not taken. . Mul-lil who exhorts ( 1 ) the gods.. . (The man whom) he exalts he leads forth to headship.. 4 . . . . . the divine hero of justice has established (ittan‘. his . . 8.. .. multitudes submitted to him. . Directing the . 11.. . . 5. Samas and Rimmon. his wife he binds (yu~rzwu) with oaths (tam&’).. . the prince. . .. .. . . even to future ages. . . to future ages. . (he is) the faithful one who establishes the foundation of the land. . 12. his fortress they entered. . he uplifts not his gift (kadaru). . . the .. the proclaimer of the cry(?) (tsirilchzm). .. . . he magnifies the command of his heart. . . . the name they behold and his destruction (saladh). casting down fear.. in evcry fortress he establishes the WJ sacrifice.. 14. Directing the in every fortress he establishes the daily sacrifice.. . (spreading) splendour and glory. . .. . he grants the offering. he has reared the cedar. Hs urges cn ([yurncnl~hulru) the ending of the deluge. he beholds (ikl~adh)the ‘ confederacy. . . 10.. 13. . men regard ihe observation of his token (itto.. . . . 3. . IS. 4. . 1. . . . . . and his lordship.. 7. . he founds the shrine. he has established justice great and pure. 23. . . . 11. (if) he is angry.. .. .” . . 17. 9. the divine judges.. he swoops (over) the world. .. . . his fortress did his onset capture (idhmddu).. her counsel she repeated. . 1% . 22. 7. he answered and the wicked woman writes. . 13. . . . . lifting up the face my storm. . . . (He is) the . . . 9.. . 3. 10. 16. . . . . . . of the goddess Uban-same (the finger of heavm) the companion of AssBros.

” * Omitted in the Assyrian version. iii.3 the wife whom thou lovest. O h . like the offspring of a gazelle ! 6. 18. May the gate of heaven be thy bond !2 4. march along the path fixed for thy pavement (durus). Raise the cry of the oracle (ecrkri) (at) the dawning of day. 2L . A. R 2. may it direct thy course ! ZL Direct thy road. In E-EabBra. May the directing god. Like the herdsman of the reposing ox. “May the gates of heaven approach thee!” 8 In the Accadian. 0 lord of &Eabha. i. Sp. may sleep (2) overtake (1) thee ! 9 . The Assyrian version has simply. may the enclosure of the pure howen speak to thee of pcace ! 3. the messenger who loves thee. ‘ Meli-g. 2. Hear me and (help me). I. . from mli or meri. KO-NIR-DA. 2. mayest thou be at rest (Idnikhdtn).the shining one. 1.5 as thou marchest. 1. 7. in the midst of heaven. May the glory of thy divinity be established for thee ! 9. “ may they exalt thee. may it exalt thee in strength !4 I O . direct thy way. iii. in the Accadian. “fitrengtll” (TV. 12. 0 Sun-god. Hymn to the Sun. the director of its laws art thou ! The remainder of the tablet is too mutilated for translation. 0 lord of thy mother. 613 XLIV. May A. may the good prayer soothe thee ! 3 . The find Xilea are: “when the sun sets thou shalt say thus to the Sun-god: like a father thou wilt draw me to the earth. thou marchest and turnest for thyself thy marching. 3. May thy heart take rest ! 8. 8. the seat of thy sovereignty. 4. 0 the waters of a pool (yarldi). Revue d’Assyriologie. ‘‘0 warrior-god (Erimmu). Like the waters of a marsh. May thc prayer rain life and quietude upon thee ! 4 . judge of the world. Bertin. 6. mayest thou be placid (Mtakizdtu). 1 9 ) . iv. the sword of Xamr in strength (umi) which accepts not prayer. warrior hero.” In the Assyrian version.HYMNS TO THE UODS. 150. 6. 0 stalwart king ! 10. ‘ ‘ 0Sun-god. a t thy setting. come before thee with joy! 7. Hayest thou spread (7utsaZldtu) (thy) shadow (over me) I ” 1 XLV. thy supremacy rises like the dawn.

Obv. 18. Conclusion of the spell : When the Sun-god may be the setting sun. . . 15. 14. 3. 5. assist the prince to his sovereignty ! Basamu means properly. to write (it). Texts in the Babylonian Wedge-zuding. . even its vast temples.. XLVI. LL to make suitable” or ( I prepare . those who behold (his) mercy and power celebrate (9)B his .. 7. Babylon (BabiZu). 11. copied aud published. . Tablet of Nebo-damiq.] 0 Sun-god that risest i n the bright sky ! 16. Rev. 14. To those that bring (1) ( a m * h i )his nourishers may he grant life and goodness of heart ! 10. 17. May the fame (zikir) o f . 12. a prayer.the city of multitudes. . Pinches. has no connection with the root. ((white. The enchanter after the strengthening (1) of his mother. (in) the month ( 2 ) (arnkh) of life and the festivals of sacrifice may glad music be sounded. Nebo-baladhsu-iqhi. has caused Nebo-bani-akhi. has he completed as his mighty fortress .” . Monthly (ndchu) and yearly may the prince of e-Saggil t h e supreme assist. Alliterative Hymn. [First line of the next hymn.514 APPENDIX IV. May Zirpanit the princess. perhaps connected with pilib.” . and has placed (it) in l?-Zida. . p. son of ha-ili-bur . restoring the shrine. . 8.” Baamu.” hence ‘‘ n seat. Iprlu. let the four (urbalz) zones behold his countenance I 9. Like its original. t h e son of tho man of E-Saggil. Founding (basimul) the enceinte of tho sanctuary. the strongholds (nrsubb6) of Merodach and its brickwork may the king assist . the daily sacrifices that had been discontinued ( b a t h t i ) he has established as of yore . 19. for the preservation of his life. mount upon wings ! 4.. 13. 13. (its) property (basdti) has he restored. 6. a species of large serpent (the wumqal). 20. 15. the supreme. . For Neb0 his lord. the son of the man o f E -Saggil.

and may he achieve its exaltation ! 12. bind. ‘‘those who issue forth fium its stronghold.. 6 . be distinguished from tsamaru (itsmur). f r o m the holy mound: the place of the destinies. 15. . (The spirits obedient 1) to (thy) command stand before thee.perhaps. is thy rising. . The exits ( ~ u p b t i of ) ~its stronghold may he nourish mith the primest oil ! 13. . . Within Babylon the prosperous exultantly may he establish joy! 11.HYMBS TO THE GODS. 7. I‘ Incantation. “to quit.. & . The secret chambers (httumme) of its temples may he fill with unnumbered goods and treasure ! 14. ‘‘music. 5. A. 2 I b t w m i ~to . Within (Icirbi) its temples may the women walk and accomplish his commands ! 10.” ln W. 27. i 1 .” Perhap8 we should read izzamir. . May the blessings ( k i ~ dof ) happiness and obedience wait upon him daily I 8. As for (. from the horizon (thou risest). 3. Nay trouble (kim) never be to him ! may he overcome his woes (niznaut)! 7. . f r o m the great mountain is thy rising . (Men?). v.” * Or.I. May his seed ( z h ) increase and may hia progeny (nunnub) be 6. Hymn to the Sun-god. 51. (‘to wind. d u . “ a pamge” (from et+). . 8 . . .up-) their deeds . “ from the mountain” simply. . 4.“ t o consider. May its sides (mtuqut)’ be adorned2 with Zakkal wood.--0 Sun-god. - .Col.” XLVIL W. I . . allied to the Heb cimdh. Sutaqutu must be distinguished from sutupu. The great gods (bowing) the face stand before thee. rukdzc (1) Wluratsu.” In the Semitic rendering. From equ.” and gmuwu. The name (wm) of the king. nurneimw ! 615 6 .9..” liru. behold thee. e q u is B synonym of ammu. from the great mounhin. their. v. 2. . 50. is thy rising . the mountain of the ravine. of his four fect.A. 1 “to ’ 2L3 . T o be with heaven and earth (is thy) appearance . Gardens ( kim’t) of peace and joy of heart may he make for the midst of Babylon ! 9.

30. . the freedman whom the handmaid of the . (he whom) the akhkhazu has consumed. the lord of heaven and earth art thou ! 12. 18. The wicked man and the injurious (mgsa).Mu has embraced fatally (ikrimre). he whom the plague has seized.. (he whom) the evil eye has ruined (ikyimu) utterly. he who has sworn an oath in ignorance. he upon whom the mighty gdlu has laid the yoke. has taken. 16. . Wickedness (and) evil-dealing (thou destroyest). 28. (Thy)hands bring back to thee the spirits of all men. CoL ii.616 APPENDIX I T . . he whom the evil ekimmu has cast down at night. he whom an evil portent has cut off. he upon whom the evil incubus (utuk) has settled. has been poured out for him. river-flood.. Whatsoever exists in the heart is uttered by (thy) mouth. . thine own counsellor art thou ! 11. 33. he whom the fever has bound. . returned t o the great waters. (he whom) the stranger has fettered. 23. 0 Sun-god. 13. he whose limbs the evil god has snared (ispuru). 32. Justice and righteousness thou bringest to pass. 25.40. he. . . 27. 27. Incantation. where is the home (of the fish). 38. 17. - 9. . 32.. he upon whom the handmaid of the lilu has cast the eye. are directed towards thee. 21. 30. 37. 26. I n the sea.. has cast down. the curse has (cut men off) like a green herb in the desert. . (he whom) the. 15. 19. 29. 0 Sun-god.. 34. . 39. I n their midst the fire burns. 35. 33. (he whom the) . .-The fever-demon has overwhelmed like a 28. he whom the evil alu has concealed in his bed. 14. their fish (the fever-demon) coiisumes. . he whom the ban has bound. 34. 20. may (all) of them be with thee ! . (he) whose . hero supreme. 36. 29. the clothing of whose body the evil succubus has torn away. he whom the evil mouth has devoted to destruction. he who has offered what he h a (not) seen. who knowest ( d lthings). 10. . 31. . the fever has cast its shadow (tadiZlat) like a garment The . (he whom) the evil tongue has cursed..

16. He purifies their border (sanctuary). 27. .. The waters of prophecy . . creating the glory of sovereignty.. may Ea make thee glad ! 18. Enclose in the ground the image thou hast founded for hi. Priest” in the Accadian test. 12. the great overseer8 of the spirits o f heaven. .. iii. The divine lord of the pontiff ( u b g d ) of mercy. May Dav-kina. . is the white one of Eridu. 16. purify themselves. . He slaughters the cattle of the god Ner in the pasture.. exalt thy head ! 20. 23. is the white one of Eridu. 25.H’iXIBS TO ! l ! E E UODS. The goat. 14. The spirits of earth. 617 3 4 . Before the 8un-god take his hand I 45. The exalted gods of heaven and earth establish him. 36. 17. The oil of the cedar which (grows) in tha mountains . the pure one. . the queen of the deep. Col. In the great shrines of heaven and earth they establish him. 37. .-The king who is pure in faithfulness of heart. 40. the bird of heaven he inundates like the etorm..’ Rev. the great gods. of kingship. substance of mine’ (Ea ssys).. . 38. my son ! 42. The antelope by its head and its horns is taken. Renewing the green fruit. . and 3 6 . of EQ has confirmed their deeds for ever ( ‘ I in ) the place where they are established... the chamois of the mountains. The furious (demon) overwhelms the man in his own house. when thou enbrast into the house of libations. enlighten thee with her sheen ! 19. 21. he makes it whito j In his waters the pure are white. . their own young chamois. 24. Cause to the king to walk over it I 44. The great messenger. The waters of his head (pour upon him) ! 47.T o heaven his snare he spreads. 41.. ‘0Merodach. Repeat the spell of the pure hymn !1 46. 22. . 26. The divine lady of the pontiff of mercy.q support ! 43.. 13. May Merodach. - 1 O r‘ 6 writing” (ntdaru). (The fever-demon) bows the neck of the gazelle (pugmu) of the desert. is taken. Incantation. 39. ‘go. .

21. . the mistress of tho deep . The divine prince. When thou approachest the house of libations. divine lady of the star ! 5. (may) the utulc be propitious and the divine colossos propitious. 25. 48. When thou leavest the house of libatione. "the proclaimer.. Zikuni. 44. (be propitious). By his spell of life . 36. By the commands2 of the Sun-god. 52. may the propitious utuk and the propitious colossos turn to thee in peace. ladx of Da-uhma ! In the Seinitic version." In the Accadian text. grant thee long life and goodness of heart.3 26.518 APPENDIX IV. 34. 33. in the waters (1) of Merodach of the deep. the countenance. May the spirits (of earth). . 27. (Though) the alcimmu be hostile. 32. . . 45. When thou comest out of the house of libations. may the . and the alu hostile. divine lord of the star. . 47. asipu. . of the Sun-god enlighten thee 1 37. The king is the heifer of a pure cow. mayihe spirits (of the earth). I. Col. iv. the great gods. i. W. the great gods." . . He mho is the pure mouth1 of the deep fully accomplishes 29. . 31. 35. 30. (' augur. (0 lorcl' of Da-)uhma. Col. . . ' O h . . '' extend (khen-dab-Sigiibos) the retorning of the 1 hand. 28. connected with gudea.. the great lord of heaven and earth. 24. Accadian gudu. The fish. the lord of prophesying. . May the (robe) of royalty clothe him ! . I n the house of libations before the king Ea they establish him. bo thy helper on the field of battle. " (0 lord) of heaven and earth. 28... the mighty warrior of Nul-lil. A. May Adar. With the bent sacrificial reed (suduk) (make) libatiom with the hand. long may he extend to him life and goodness of heart ! 33. . He who is clothed with the linen stuffs of Eridu fully accomplished." * Kihdti for pibdti. 46. v. May the Sun-god utter words of blessing unto thee 1" XLVIII. 22. the bird. the glory of the marsh. 4 .

Divine lord of the living day. Nother of the Corn-god (Serakh). Glorious image supreme. 0 lady of the temple of Dim-riri. Lamentation of the heart to the divine lady of life and death . may thy heart be still ! 10. tears I bore. 0 my lady. divine lady of the mountain (khalaagga) ! 90. . . divine lady of the holy mound ! 7. . 0 Bahu. the incubus of 4-sarra ! 18. divine lord of e-sarra ! 9. wife of Sin ! 21.. 0 lady who takes away life.. Mul-lil of life ! 22. tho lady of 15. lady of heaven. 0 concubine and mother. 0 supreme judge may thy heart be still ! 5. may thy liver have rest ! 4. Bahu. Serpenbgod (Serakh). The propitious colossos (lamdsz. “white sold . mother of the seven gods I 12. lady of Nipur ! 14. 0 lady of the mighty temple supreme. 3 . 2. . may thy heart be still ! 7. in the Assyrian version zir. (May thy heart) be still. the incubus of fbkur 1 16. lord of the dish ! 11. may thy head be still 1 32. Nannaru the Moon-god ! 20. The god whose law is supreme. my goddess Bahu. may thy heart be still ! 13.) whose splendour is exalted ! 19.. (0 lady) of the temple of Dim-riri. 619 . . Mother of the house. iv. Nappdi.HYMN8 TO THE aODS. may thy heart be still ! 9. . ‘Sa-dara-nuna (‘ the bond of the princely antelope’) ! 17. Mother of Nin-lilyfather of Mul-lil ! 8. Divine beast of the Moon-god. Lord of the white image1 of the spirit of Sid. Divine lord and high-priest of Nipur. 6. . son of &Sabrt! . may thy heart be still ! 8. a word related to aariru. . propitious white image. . may thy hear$ bbstill ! 1 1 . . (Divine lord) of the holy mound. Nunw. may thy heart be still! 14. who traverses the sides of the house ! 23. Prophetess (‘I) divine .. may thy heart be still I 6. mighty lord of Kipur I 13. 0 namer of the evil name. Sul-kun-ea (Mercury). and who is there that gives me rest t . Son of the mighty prince. Concubine of the spirit of heaven. lamentation of the heart to the male (divinity) who has created the white image. 0 lady of NiBin. Col.

the pontiff (ubkaZZu).)” . 30. and) 32. 27. look with joy upon this chamber. the establishment of the seat of the throne of his royalty. grant (his) prayer . the king of Assyria. 17. the overseer of the hostR of heaven and earth. the perfecting of his seed. 21. the king of Assyria. 28. the lengthener of the day. 25. 19. Assur-bani-pal the prince. 15. the establisher of their daily sacrifices. (For the pleasure of Nebo. 29. . . the establisher of life for men in trouble. A . the length of his days.520 APPENDIX IV. 18. (in the inner chamber of E-Zida. 24. the great lord of births (eri). the temple of Neho. the taker of the stylus of the tablets of destiny. the shepherd who feeds the sanctuaries of the great gods. the holder of the papyrus scrolls. the servant of Assur. Sixth tablet (of the series beginning) : ‘The ma10 (divinity) who has created the white image :’ quite complete. To Nebo the mighty (gitmalu) son. [First line of next tahlet. (decree his life that he may exalt thy great divinity. 23. and 31. (he who knows the purity of Ea. published). 33. the copies of Assyria and) $wad. who is in Nineveh. 32. the restorer of the dead to life. the obedient to his glory and his honour. (on tablets I have written. (support by day the head of Assur-bani-pal.] Of the evil deluge. my lord. the worshipper of ) thy divinity . I placed). (according to the tablets. the grandson of Sennacherib (the king) of hosts. Bel and Nebo. 20. the son of Essar-haddon (the king of hosts). the king of the hosts of heaven and earth. 32. for the preservation of his life. The seizer of the name . 16. connected together. the gallos-priest of secret treasure). 26. the presentation of his prayers that the disobedient to him may be given into his hands. (who has been made to walk that he may give rest to the heart of the great gods).

iii. whose forgiveness is ready. ‘HOW long shall my (heart be wroth) 4’ and let thy liver be quieted. 2. 2 . 4 . 7. . Zimmern. 29. Akkadiscl~t3urd Sumerkche Keilsclu$f&xle. W.. 5. he calls upon thee ! 8. Compassionate one. and the man lives. he weeps -tears..]0 god and mother goddess that are angry with him. Oh. (he utters) a cry. the point of the sword.hou that performest) the commands of Bel (Mul-lil). iv.v. 6. 5. Zimmern.l 4 . 6L thou plankst deep in him. 3. 0 6 ~ 1. Ever look upon me and accept my prayer. who accepts the prayer. -~ 1 . iii. shall thy countenance be turned in pardon 0 6 .. J. ~- Zimmern has misunderstood thia paseage. 0 my mistress. Turn (thy face) towards him and take his hand 1 R e v . Above thee. and the verb for the noun. Tgmcgsu is literally. Say. IL Haupt. Keilschrifttexte. (I)thy servant ask (thee) for rest. 15 . have I no director. TEE PENITENTIAL PSALMB. (‘ (T. taking the nom for the verb. [PRIEST. I. mistress of mankind I 6.” . 0 god. No. 1. No.e Bilsspsalmen. When. Baby2onisch. (thou that strengthenest 1) the limbs. 1.] (From)woe and lamentation is (his) liver rested. Haupt. Thou lookest on the man. on sighs do I feast myself. [PRIEST. 7. 3. “(Accept) the prostration of the face of the living creature 2. To the heart of him who haa sinned thou utterest words of b1essing. .A. Like a dove I mourn. 0 potentate of the world.” . ii. i. No. 14 ..

weeping has been my veil. 1.he mountain. (‘the sky. 9. 8. . gus becoming m u (mu) as in mu from the primitive gus. exalted lady. may the prayer address thee ! 12. bitterly I mourn. (I . creatress of the world. the wife of M h . lift up my countenance ! 5.” Gus. 3 . like a hero I have not walked. establish for me a place of rest ! 4. (My transgressions?) are many. 39). 0 my mistress. 0 Dam-kina.. waa subsequently identified with Sala. 0 (Ea). lord of t. 0 my mistress. A prayer let ma ntter. (Food) I have not eaten . my liver is full of anguish. “henven. 0 Merodach (lord of Babylon). 12. ( N y heart has rejoiced not) . . the wife of Rimmon. (0 messenger of life). the lord of prayer. may the supplication address thee ! 7.. 11. from the day when I was little much am I yoked unto evil. mistress of mankind. iv. The ideographic mode of writing the word “ fire. the royal bond of heaven) and earth. ruler of Eridu. 5 . .’ lady of the border of Eden. may the prayer address thee ! 10. I‘ the yellow metal” (gold). ruler of heaven and earth. thou that creatcst the gods.522 APPENDIX V. may the prayer address thee ! 6. creatress of all that has a form. mother goddess (destroyer 01’ evil). may the supplication address thee ! 11. 13. (Water I have not drunk) . cause me to know what I have done. shows that the original form must have been gusbarra. my liver has not been enlightened. His (spouse. the god (whose good name)is pronounced. thou that producest the herbs. whose hand no god attacks. 6. 26. 0 my god. A. may the s u p plicatiou address thee ! 13. probably have the same root as gus. .” Dialectal forms of Gubarra are Kibirra and Gib& Oubarra. 10. may the prayer address thee ! 8. 3 . Absolve my sin. mother of the house supreme. tears have been my drink. whose command is mighty ! 8. the mistress of supplication. the Fire-god” (W. the female Gubarra dropped out of sight. may the supplication address thee ! 9 . may the prayer address thee ! .’’ GIB-BAR.. 1 (fubarra is the Sumerian (and older) form of the Accadian Mubarra. 7 .” and gus-qin. 0 my goddess. I . let her do uim me slut seems good to her. ‘rfire. and as Kibirra and Cibil wcre regarded aa go&. Reu. 0 MAtu. 0 Gubarra (‘the fire-flame’). 4 . that performest the commands of (Bel).

my mistress. . which for) tears is not lifted up. the huebatid of thy love. speak pardon to thy servant . 0 my mistress. 19 . may the supplication address thee I 0 . My goddess has uttered a prayer unto thee. No.] ‘((Over his face. return to its place !) 21.. 1. accept his supplication I 9. yet I embmce. Haupt.’ may it say to thee !) 28. Over his breast. 3. 3. the hero Samas. [PEBITENT. .] 0 my mistress. slay the prayer address thee ! 16.THE PENITENTUL PSALNS. my hands are bound. (0 mistress of him who binds the mouth of the d q ) .. may it return to its place !). (May thy heart. fauS the tear.’ may it say to thee I) 19. 0 my mistress. (‘Regard me with favour. Gula. god of heaven.. 2. may the supplication address thee ! 7 . (Over his hand. may the prayer address thee ! 8. Zimmern.’ may it say to thee !I 20. (As a mother who has borne children. falls the tear. 4 . My god has made supplication unto thee .) which from weakness is at rest. To thy servant mho suffers pain. (0 exalted one. may the prayer address thee ! 6. 3. grant a pledge that I may walk before thee with a life of long days. as the heart of a mother who has borne children. may the supplication addrew thee ! 15. (‘Turn thy face towards me.thee. first-born of IP)A. let thy heart be at rest ! 7. 1. in the trouble of my heart 1 mise in trouble the cry to thee . falls the tear. say : ‘ How long (shall my heart be wroth) ‘1’ 6.~padnlen.” LII. Bt~. . (0 bride. 5. Turn thy neck uiito him. which like a flute pipes forth in cries. 0 god of uprightness. may thy liver be quieted ! 6 . 623 14. even tho &odd688Nan4 may the supplication address thee 1’) 17. iii N o . 0 hero. Be at peace with thy servant with whorn. the husband of thy love. (6 May thy liver be quieted. (Over his feet. Akkudische und rS4lrnerkde Keilechm~ttexte. [PRIEST.. the ptentate of k-Babara.tbou art angry I R e v . . (0 Sun-god).0 thy g d u supreme. 2. on) which fetters are laid. grant mercy ! 8. M a father who has begotten (them). may thy heart be at rest ! 4. To the warrior. f a the tear.

3. No message have I received . 8. 3. 6. on my hand has laid the fetter. as the heart of a mother who has borne children.’) may he say unto thee I (‘ Turn thy face to me. my heart he fills with depression (and) lamentation. 7. May thy heart be quieted. ‘‘ The lord. No. whose heart above rests not. whose heart below resta not. may thy heart be pacified !” . yupaddid and yupatti. 8.’) may he say unto thee I (‘ Let thy liver be quieted. 4.’) may he say unto thee ! (‘ Let thy heart be pacified. iv. APPENDIX Y . 0 my mistress. No. 9. 12. 11. 9.’) may he say unto thee ! (May thy heart. it is probable that the Semitic version is the ori0haL . I. myself have I not understood. I n ~ J L . No. 21. 10. In thy chief city Erech has famine come. bow myself before thee. 6. A. 19. 15. 0 my mistress. iv. like a solitary reed. No. He who has bowed me down (and) cut me of21 11. Like a field. thy servant. has cut me down.B A R . The iris of my eyes he fills with tears.584 10.. 0 my mistress. I. as a father who haa begotten. (Psalm to) the goddess A” IV. (‘ Turn thine eye upon me. 10. W. may thy liver be appeased1 12. thou hast surrounded me and hast appointed me to pain. lamentation . 7. may the prayer address him. 13. 12. On all thy lands has he laid the fire... the lord. 5. Zimmern. I. May his pure heart rest.) return to its place ! 14. and like snioke has outpoured (it). 1. A. 14. is blood poured out like mater. may his heart rest in quietude ! As there is a play here upon the assonance of the two Semitic worcia. above and below it rests not.the house of thy oracle. on my body has placed the chain. 11. The strong enemy. Zimmorn. ‘‘ How long. day and night do I mourn. (As a mother who has borne. a V. 16. shall the powerful stranger (consume thy lend) ? 2. greatly am I yoked to evil. 2. W. 5. 13. 9.) may it return to its plye ! 15.

May thy heart. 0 Gubarra. 2 ‘I J J B period . may the prayer (address thee) ! 13. 0 Merodach. turn thyself !’ let it be said to him. Dam-kinaJ may the lamentation (come before thee) ! 8. 0 heart. ‘ 0 heart. lady of Nipur. may the lamentation (come before thee) ! 12. turn thyself. 19. the mighty priest. (Look favourably upon me I’ may he say to thee. the daughter of the god IP-A. 0 mother of the house mpreme. or exorcising. 0 wife of him. 0 MLtu. may the lamentation (come before thee) ! 10. May thy liver be quieted !’ may he say to thee. royal bond of heaven and earth.’ 21. His god has borne away the supplication :let the prayer (address him) I 3. 624 17. 13. May the heart of his lordship rest in quietitde ! 18. as a father mho has begotten (them). 16. The description of hlerodacli as “lord of Babylon indicates subseqnent to the rise of Babylon under Khanmuragas.” To Ann” in the Semitic version. lord of the mountain. lord of Babylon: may the prayer (address thee) ! 9. rest. may the prayer (address thee) ! 5.THE PENITENTIAL PSALNS. return to its place ! 19. (Turn thy face toward me !’ may he say to thee.1. Quieting. 0 bride. may thy heart be stilled I 4. 18. 0 thou that speakest. May the spirita of earth who work trouble in heavenB(establish him when he prays) ! 2. the cry of anguish. may the prayer (address thee) ! 7. may the lamentation (come befare thee) I t X 0 divine ruler of heaven and earth. For the quieting of his heart m y the spirits of earth establish (him) when he prays. the god who proclaims the good name. ruler of Eridu. 17. may the prayer (address thee) ! 11. rest !’ let it be said to him. like the heart of a mother who has borne children. (May thy heart be at rest !’ may he say to thee. 0 lord. (Adnr) the lord of the guZZi. 20. As a mother who has borne children. lady of the field. may it return to its place l ( In the Accadian. “who judges grace. a@. may the lamentation (come before thee) ! 14. 0 messenger of life (Nebo). He grants much to h i heart who passes judgment on himself.

[PHIEST. 6 . “Sickness.” VI. 1.‘ he holds not back.A. He weeps. my word which cannot be repeated. he causes (his) tears to rain like a thunder-cloud . No.] ‘‘ I n lamentation is he seated. (and) wasting press heavily on him . W. 27. weak is (his) groaning .I. in cries of anguish (and) trouble of heart. 10. Let me repeat my word. 9. No. He has addressed thee in prayer j may the writing of E a give reat to thy heaI t ! . 7 Before his god he prostrates his face in prayer. 7. copied and published. 3 . 11. 0 my god. W.I. 10. Like its original. his liver is darkened . [PEXITENT.] Let me declare my doing. 3.] Many indeed are my sins 1have sinned in all : may this (curse) pass away (and) depart to a placc inaccessible! 13. 61. Like doves does he mourn bitterly night and day. 7. evil. Zimmern. What can my lord‘s servant say and devise? May he open his mouth (for that) which I know not. my doing which cannot be declared. forty-five lines in number. . 1. Like a shrieking bird he utters troublous cries : he declares his misery (dulib) with crying. 2. At the gate of his sin his hands are bound . he hastens to thee. 8. _ _ _ _ So Zimmern. VII. 4 . 8. iv. Penitential psalm. the tablet of Mnl-51 21. Zimmern. my doing which cannot be declared. he lies prostrate (1). No. To his merciful god like a heifer he roars. 14. and causes (his) eyelids to weep. [PRIEST. a stroke. ~ --- _ __I I . No. He is taken . the covering of his month and (eyes 1 ) has come upon him . 15. darkness of the face is his daylight (1) . A. 20. He has sinned. .526 APPENDIX V. 26. fear and oppression have bowed him down (and) stilled his lamentations. and in anguish (martsatus)he weeps unto thee .” . iv. 9. 3. let me declare my doing. [PENITEXT. in evil weeping. 11. . smiting. he is overpowered. if ‘he shall deliver thee’ he has no knowledge.] Sin has been laid (upon him). Painful lamentation does he raise. 5. 8. 12. in evil lamentation. 6. ha has drawn near. No.

. Accept his gift.Col. Ritual Text.A. (‘ he cast away.. upon thy servant who is full of grief. Le. Its serpent-like oar has a golden hand. See W. .’Behold his painful suffering. “ Ib helm is of the wood of. 18. Nay he pacify thy heavy anger j strike off his bonds . . Hay he offer thee2 the odours (1) of cedar. let him exalt thy warlike deeds. (Loosen) his chain. i i 29. let him Sreathe freely I 3. A. let thy heart rest and grant unto him mercy.” hence “ a door” is called miSar t a v a . I. . undo his bonds ! declare his judgment ! 4. 14. A.. Ob.” 3 Zmm. receive his ransom . Its side is of cedar from the forest. Give life to thy servant.I. pity. Th0 god Kudur fills its cabin built within. i s Z 2 2 . pity his life I . remove the madness and the wasting that is on him. Take his hand. “ cast before thee” (ZiSdZi-h. undo his fetter : enlighten (his face) . w I. 11. ) comp. Z m r u is (‘tocome forth . 10.. address him favourably. Look down.THE PENITENTIAL PBALHL 627 16. 9.(witli) groaning and casting down (he says :) ‘When shall thy heart (be pacified) 1’ 17. l e t thy w. May the food of thy temple continue (for ever) I 25. i.entrust him to his god who created him. ~ 12. may all mankind (magnify) thy greatness ! 22. the fatness of wheat ! R & I . Seven times even lions of Eden occupy its deck. 51. in a land of peace may he walk before thee ! 23. May he pour out the oil of thy courts like water . . forgive his sin. . Literally. Its maat is pointed with t u r q ~ o i s e . 17. (Loosen) his fetter. 25. W. 0 lord. I. the finest of incense.nd blow and forthwith3 deliver him ! CP. May his earnest supplication find favour with thee above . 5. 91. . 13.l and let thy majesty bathe his disease in the river. . Set thy servant in thy favonrable mouth. the oil may he rain on thy threshold abundantly ! 26. iv. and aanzaru is used of the ”growing” of plants and the ((rbing”of stan. 19. 51). With overflowing fulness let him feed thy sanctuary ! 24. LI bar to exit” (W. 20.

4. p8fiqyd . offer the sacrificial goblet. rejoicing its heart is the rising sun. . v. . 80. pure water (in) the temple of the lower ground. [Recent lacuna. I have not made (him). 24. 11. l i e heaps up the herbs and the dress j he offers the sacrificial goblet. 2. the bright one. Set it down . 19. 17. h a m . 21.. (and) a fillet . 15. 3.] The green corn his hand must cut. and the robe of a herald . and with a band (1) he covers (his) seat. is a mountain that gives rest to the lieart. a second time the herbs and a mountain (1) dress 13. [Recent Zacunu.’ And the workman who has made the great wooden tablet. 22. . on his left hand thou must bind a bum& dress.1. May the heart within thee rejoicing make holiday(1) 1’1 Col. white cloth 15. (Make) prostration towards the gate of the setting (sun) 5. 16. the god who created him goes a second time. 1 a 1x1 R 204 (K 2061). who verily has made the man that has been purified. 8.. 6. and . 17. [Recent lacuna. May the ship behind thee sail over its mouth ! 27. the god inclines over the seat. The god who benefits the house makes it go in Eridu 23. [&cent lacuna. 9.] Stretch the linen and tie it about the round (Saklbkharu) cup. 16. . the lusty one.. Carrying away the heart is the canal. 19.A. Merodach is the god who pronounces (its) good name. heap up (and) cut (on) the altar.5% APPENDIX P . with the pure and blissful hand has pronounced the word of life: 25. on the left side of the man that is purified thou must bind with dark cloth. 14. LO. ‘ May the ship before thee cross the canal ! 26. Nin-nangar.. the Accadian mli is interpreted by r u t t m Pw’ikku (w. (it is) Ea. 18. .. 18. the mighty workman of heaven.. binds. ii. lijs hand the gossamer ( P ) cloth. its ascent. The ship of the god of Eridu is deshiny. . the white cloth (and) the fillet* 7. Its house.] (When) they have ended. Pour out on the sixth day. Its awning is of the palm-wood of Dilvun. [Recent lacuna.] The man that is made pure. Dav-kina is the goddess who promises (it) life. From the temple of Borsippa take (thy) departure.1 5 ) . 20.] Dipping (his hand in water) he says: ‘0 god of gold. . 12. 1 4 .

a strong reed. This festival is the creation of the god. be glorious I’ Three victims to B Merodach.THF: PENITENTIAL PSALNS. Samas and 29. (with) honey and butter thou must place (saying) : e l . See W.’ At sunset the garden 23. to Ea. 22. Incantation. Dates (and) cones (1)’ which thou hast gathered. The debrminative KU denotes “the husk of a aeed’’ (Awyrian kernzc). The lightning flashes ! the festival appears like gold. on earth the god has been created I 10. In heaven the god has been created. on the bank of the river. says : ‘ 0 Kin-igi-nangwhir. establish vencration ! 8. E. Bid lustre surround this image. 27. lifting (it) up . not set (tukm) the great round cup. This festival has issued forth from the forest of the cedar-trees. and dipping (the hands therein) must say : 4 . (it is) Ea who verily has made the workman. dipping his hand in the water of the god. One victim to this god thou must sacrifice. This festival hss been created among the hosts of heaven and earth. 529 20. 1. the Sunpod and Merodach. which thou hast set before the god. 6 . One knot to this god thou must knot. the cream of abundant butter and good oil thou must place. 23). herbs. 2. 23. 13. thou must raise also towards a low place. fragments of a small trunk. I have not made (him). Lift up the (nimbus of) glory. ii. Thou must offer the sacrificial goblet. (thou must enter. 28. 6. 3. thou must sacrifice.A. 9. cedar. 25. 24. but 31.-The day the image of the god has been made. . 42. A t sunrise. The god has risen among all lands. CoL iii. 2lkt . he has caused the holy festival to bc fully kept.1. adorn thyself with heroism. and lifting) the hand to Bel must oovm his throne with lirien.A.I. The great wooden tablet thou must set up in the garden. 11. A-rIa-tk-arupu. 30. Three knots 26. 0 hero perfect of breast ! 7. a p n spot. Be strong. the work of mankind. thou must draw up pure water. Tiyam is “the cedar’’ (W. green corn. 21. thou must knot. Limpid water. 19. and upon the great round cup 32.

S803. 4 . lady of battle ! 8. 1 . 8. 6. He has opened thy mouth in prophecy. the judge ! descend. 9. 2. 1. Like the god.. . 8. 0 Iskhara. to a place of purity has he carried thee. 1. Spoil. (and) Rimmon. 3. 6. Descend. A. 14. . the judge. but he may not capture. (wearing) a mountain(?) dress. . the divine antelope has carried thee to a place of purity. 2. This festival is a sweet Bavour even when the mouth is unopened. mighty plant of Anu ! 3. (to) Samas and Rimmon (he shall) speak thua 3 .5SO APPENDIX V. iv. seven cedar-trees before you. Descend. ‘‘. 7. He has laid the waters of prophecy on thy mouth. according to the command of the lusty golden god! 15. lord of wells ! 6. Dram up ( z i k q ) the waters of prophesying at his back. turning back the reed. . (a pleasant taste) when food is uneaten and water un(drunk). 7. . 0 Istar.Cut the husk of the oorn-ears (over) the gate (and) the mum. 13. ‘ 0 Sun-god. iv. 10. 0 evil tongue !” 1 1 . W. .. 0 Rimmon. 4. lady of judgment I . 0 Sungod. With his lustrous hands has he carried thee. With his pure hands he has established thee. He has brought the pure waters within it. Col. In the night injure the master (1) of the house in the atmet. 5. the top of his head he turns (1) towards the fountains (1) of tte land. No. the rancid oil . 4. . 0 Moon-god. lord of the crown I descend. like the place (of the god).I. ‘‘ His fist ( P ) he (shakes 1) towards the four streeta. like the heart of the god. Evil is his face. 13. He prays. 0 goddess of plants. 5. Descend. the lord of wells (bin7 I 5. Ea. 0 N e r d lord of the weapon ! 7. 0 pure one. 3. With honey and butter has he carried thee. 3. . spoil the acid wine !” m. 16. Descend. Bid the festival be fully kept for ever.

the su$&d%at of the great gods. . 10. .. He prays 7. I n my mouth his name is celebrated (MU) in whatsoever he has done . Deacend. 0 lady of the great goda. ' (0 Sun-god). the beloved of Anu ! descend. taking) the cedar. lord of welts I 115. in whatsoever they have done I will pray continually : (let thcre be justice !). daughter of Anu 1 17. 6. (lord of wolls) 1' 8.. 4. 16. . (0 Istar). . 0 mistress of the desert. . (He prays. . and I will pray continually (tumid) : let there be justice I' 13. 9 9. the judge ! 0 Rimmon. a . . . He bas directed the unction in 9.! C H E PENI[TEI?!CIAL PSALMS.L2. " he Sun-god and Rimmon make small (1) (izmznnu) and 6. supreme mistress. bowed down (dtdtkupi)in a mountain (3) dress. ' 0 Sun-god. He has been vieible on the right hsnd and on &e Lft. '.. the judges !' B 718. 14..' . 631 . (0 gods). the judge 1 0 Rirnmon.. . I approach you in prayer. 11.

(To) the seven gods and the twin gods I have uttered the spell. 19. and yet I bear the sin. To the Sun-god I have uttered the spell. (To). To the four streets I have uttered the spell. and yet I bear the sin. (To) the god mhom I know not I have uttered the spell. may my sin be forgiven !" The rest is too mutilated for translation. and yet I bear the sin. 16. To Neb0 I have uttered the spell. To Nuzku. and yet I bear the sin. 5. '' What have I done that I should bear the sin 1' 4 . and yet I bear the sin. To the god of my city I have uttered the spell. 3. and yet 1 bear the sin. 17. To the light I have uttered the spell (atma). and y d I bear the sin. 22. . I have uttered the spell. 10. and yet I bear the sin. To the god and goddess of my city I have uttered the spell. 9. 8. khuya I have uttered the spell. aiid yet I bear the sin. (To) Sumaliya I have uttered the spell. . 20. . 13. (To) Suqamuna I have uttered the spell. To the great god and the great goddess I have uttered the spell. To Merodach I have uttered the spell. and yet I bear the sin. 159. the supreme messenger of fi-kur. and yet I bear the sin. 14. To Rimmon I have uttered the spell. To my god I have uttered tile spell. and yet I bear the sin. 18. 6. and yet I bear the sin. 15. arid yet I hear the sin. To Ea I have uttered the spell. To my goddess I have uttered the spell. To the Moon-god I have uttered the spell. i. I. Obv.LITANIES TO THE GODS. 21. and yet I bear the sin. and yet I bear the sin. 7.. and yet I bear the sin. and yet I bear the sin. 12. 11. R 2.

(0 divine) great chief.. (the lord) of lords. Oh. 9.. iv.. 0 fifty.S IUD-DU-NE. 3. .. . .. 0 establish (RI) the temple of Nul-lil ! 13. (0lord [ m d u ] ) of sacrifice. .. hero supreme.. :etillum ea@: bclurn mpd MU-)^ mmu ‘ I Libitti. (0 Elim)mg lord of the temple of the supreme heart 1” 111. 28. (0Eiim)ma... NO. establish (the temple of) Mul-la! 19. ’ . lord of the god IP-A ! 7.. . 0 Elimma (Mul-lil). “0 hero. corresponding to the Accadian a-ae-ip. . (0 Elim)ma.. . A. fill (it) with drops4 of rain 1 22. A. the brickwork of E-kur ! 12. COLOPHON. . . the light (?) 2. He fills the land with weeping. 52.I. “ (From) the hand of Di 2.LTTANIES M TEE GODS. .) Obv. Unnumbered fragment. 27. establish the templo of Mul-lil 1 17..rendered by tsikhati in W. the lord who cometh forth as leader !l . $2. .. .. 633 11. .. Mul-lil ! 6.. the illuminator of men. He has sought his place o f . . .. 0 ruler of life. master of &-sar(ra)! 9. . I . . 7-8. 2. 0 hero. (0)great chief.. .. . 0 messenger o f . 0 Moon-god. 0 supreme. lord supreme ! 5. establish (it) I 21.... lord of the ghost-world 1 8 .. (Bless 1) the brickworks of &-kur. May he have peace !” . (1) NER-QAL rnulu UD-DU-NIP : mdu zu UD-DU-NE : NER-QAL K ~ J . A stranger has seized the house of the oracle (biri8ti). 0 Elimma (the chamois-god). . the hero who illuminates men as man ! 4 .. may the prayer address thee !* 10. (0 lord) of prayer. . in the eponymy o f .. . 24. 79.. establish the temple of Mul-lil ! 15. 1. 3. la . may the prayer address thee ! 11. 0 establish the temple of Nin-lil ! I 16. establish (it) ! 20.. establish the temple of Nin-lil ! 14. Isis. 0 (thou) that comest forth (from) the gate of the temple of Erech. 0 rising Sun-god. .. (W. .23.. V. (2) etillum Widhnisi (bil) hili nu(m a).. ... 1. lord of the horn. and toiiChtm in v . 23. establish the temple of Mul-lil ! 18.

” IV. the prison of weeping he has. “he sits” (ittasab) and I‘he lies” (irtabits). expressed by an ideograph whictt is translated egd..10-12). a . Like a house of sickness that is destroyed. v. I. 1.” preceded.” Balaggu is a loan-word from the Accadian bahg. 27. appeased ! 9. “ to bind” (W. .2Diidiilt. Balaggi. 7 .25.” and amamu. (In) this temple the beer (sikarz~) is not presented.. tigga (‘<a ring.. . by the determinative of “ vessel” or I‘ copper” as well as by the Accadiaa blab (written balag-lab. caused her t o direct” (balag bikiti usteseru-si) .. The lamentation seizes the land like a cloud. they have the exit (zamur) of the lordship. but the Assyrian version offers the alternative wnderings. I ‘ . I‘ a ring of copper. The lamentation he causes to rain like a cloud in the land.well will he establish weeping for her.A.” we read ( l S). hero of the gods. “. .. . what has happenect to me? 5. they go out. (‘a ring. . Like a house of sickness that is destroyed. 62-65. muna-durrunes). . v. . they leave. . 8. The mighty shbpherd’s tent is (full of) sorrow and painfuk weeping. .I. (0) Elirnma. Immanzi. Rev.. in the Accadian text al-surra. His (horse) supreme submits to the yoke. . is not outpoured? ita hod* 9. from the pure ring (uppi). . 3. So in the Accadian text . Its broad plain is desolated (1). . and then ( l l .5 4 . (0 lord of the gods) who inhabit thy .. i e. . he sits2 in tears. (may thy liver be. appeased) ! In the Accadian text written MU-TUK-IN.. preceded by the same determinative). 2. 8.” and is represented by kamkammat Siparri. . ‘ . settle the prison (balaggu). 5 . 4. I n a frammentarybilingual psalm (S 2054). and they leave the exit of the prison.the pure bar (Zilisz]. .” 6 I-za-anz-mu-(m). . I n the Assyrian version. . His chariot supreme mounts the height. warrior. “the pure food. 32.6 6.” and kamkammat ubani. . K4620.lO). . referring to one ‘‘who knew not the Sun-god. . . the Accadian text munnan-tq-(a). the chain (khalkhallati) and the guard-room (mandhur) o f the pure prison they leave. “ to surround.A. IC a finger-ring. .. 7 . 6. may thy liver be. In W. .” from egli) is a synonym of khalkhallatzl (“a chain”) and unqu. (in) lamentation they seat her (napaliickhu-si. . The wine’ is outpoured and the lamentrttion is outpoumd.

and the fear of the palace governs (ywdlidh) the people.46. 52. 64. 2. when the openings and closings (of day) and night recoid their decree. His people end himaelf am oiwumoised (gullubha) unto god. I. 55. I. Thou hnarest the prayer. v.44. ALL. he exalts (itsanzmur) and brightens (it. See W. I Ceunuchs . (and) the daylight thou (grantest). perhaps.' 65.LlThBIES TO THE GODS. 57. where (( the openings and $huttingd' are erylthed to be " day and night. lord of $-sar(ra. N o . 48. ii 24. Ob. the goodness of my heart. and rejoicing blese (dummz'q1) with blessing I 51. 68. 62. H e has caused (his) men to take hold of the name of Istar and call upon it. That which has lived and died at evening (Cta a n ~ u t )does . ' . How cau one learn the course of the god of glory (1) 1 60. 635 10. 56. The prayer of tho king is this : his happinew BO. mighty mother of the gods. A. 49.I. 0 Istar . The counsel of the divine lord of spirits who can understand (ikhukkim)'1 59. By day the worship of (thy) divinity. (thou) beholdest my face. (0 sovereign) supreme. Verily he knows that along with the god thou favourest theee prayers." Through '' want of food. the darkness thou wilt not bring back. 4. iv. 47. Tswr. The exaltation of the king ehe has made like ( p m u u d ) that of 8 god. A.A. 47. When the face is brought low. v. I. 4?. may thy liver be appeased) ! 11. (0)mighty chief. 64. When the head is uplifted in honour. I. W. Or rather. Mul-(lil) ! 12. As for what is kept back in his heart for his god (and) his godde~s. A t the opening of the Iight (piciidi).* See W. I melt like honey."Bee W. ie there any (du) who can learn tho will of the gods in heaven ? 58. mighty mountain.gO. 45. 53. he brings all high-mindedness to shame (ikhtapur).) 63. He has troubled me and has troubled (my)body. iv. Pfayora. 61." according to W. 22. (may thy livcr be appeased) I" V. he' renew. (0 Nin-lil). 67.

13. God has not helped." synonym a 4 &wtu. my extremities and my sides. 3. 60. I' distress" (tabastanu). . has not taken my hand. upon the . That I die not. 12. honey and butter. 0 my prince ! 17. the queen has conjured my tears. . 4.636 APPENDIX VI. 2. 6. he . . . 20. from cibasu.' 3. 1. 2. Or." . A11 day long like a tyrant he pursues (me) . W..1. My limbs. Cerernonies and Prayers.I Ob. 5. TTtawi for uttassi. 14.. All my people have said that (I am) an evil-doer. His rod (klzacZli~*u) has destined me. perhaps. 16. VI. 15. 1. Set up a vessel containing the third of an ephah. sending a messenger but not approaching the man. A. 21. I bleated (ubtallil) like a sheep in my shame. 18. .3 10. heap up inwards (qurbi) and corn j place green herbs by twos.iv. 47. He prophesies and rivals their divinity. Pile up dates and cones. 11. " to bind . The scribe has torn away my aching muscle . belong to another. The diviner (~rsipu) honours not the fact of my sickness. and the lamb has heard my rejoicing before him. The following ceremony must be observed. his liver is bright. from w u . A fetter has he laid upon me and no bracelet. in the hour of night he lets me not breathe freely. v. 4. pouring out oil. Thy hand has inclined towards the opening of the face (kimaZCJ~klii). 66. and thc augur removes4 my laws. . H e will bring good news (yubassiru). . and the augur has not given a command to my prayer. has not grasped my palms. I n my lying down I roared like an o x 9. '' are strange. 22. . has their divinity had mercy. 64. and place (there) water..-In the night set up 8 green branch which has grown in a distant spot before Iferodach. a cruel (dannat) goad (ziqyatu). 19. Istar has not pitied me.* 8.A. ." See TV. 1 Literally. Rev. " For an evil sickness thou must bring a of medicine to the mound of the gallos-priest. 7. I n the work of service my bonds are unloosed. during the day of all my family .

With the dust of plants(1) in a great sacrificial cup which the god.. On the mound of the gallospriest is the god of the gods of joy. roast ('I) flesh. fatty (1) flesh. Place consecrated (1) flesh. four bits of gold. '( make-leaf (kudu-rir). . who (subjugates) hostility. perhaps. and four seals (cylinders) prepare.. 31.. 19. renewer of the herb. 31. 6.. Four fire-stones. clean herbs. . 23. whose view (pa&) is (extended over the world). ... and lay in the midst of the oil. The fire-stone. the cedars and the palms. and on the middle of this oil 9. . 537 5. forceful. compound together (istenis). . . the d h h r of the spirits of heaven. prince. . . Offer the cup of sacrificial beer. . .. the slice of a snake? SISI and SIMAN. . unique. 32. 24. divine son of the holy mound the deluge of the weapon his hand (directs). . incense (1) pieces of pure food. creator of the wheat and the barley. hero (tiqaru) supreme. four crystals. art thou ! The dragon ( w m g c d ) of the spirits of earth.. 22. thou art the lord. . Take oil with wood.. 15.. In oil of the sherbin of Phcenicia and in the wood of. king of Merodach. . . 18.-0 Merodach.. 16. .. . . 13. Offer sacrifices.. . . . . I n front of the garden ( P ) among the. 30. Incantation. place the cloth. pure IM-PAR. thorn wood. their. gladdener (khdda)of the corn and the . 20. . creator of the work of the god and the goddess. JJ . . . . . 17. the gold.LITANIES TO THE UODS. 7. wood of the tall tree. . vision and seership (3) the glorious one... trees.. mighty (gitmalu) . lay (it)... and like a crown hast thou made tbe tabIets of the (destinies). Take the sick man's hand and thrice repeat this incantation (to Merodach). the omniscient lord of heaven and earth. 13. the crystal and the seal-stone (must be) between the gods of joy. lord of the world . strong one. . the creator of the law (terit) of the universe.. . 33. . . 11. 8. Lay (there) the herbs of the garden and the fruit of the garden. . O r . 10. Plant (sakak) 24.. Spread out (sudd) over (it) a strong carpet. .. 21. .

May the lifting up of the hand and the invocation of the great gods 11. ( be guided aright ! 7. 0 strong one. Thou also like the Sun-god (removest) the darkness . Like tho earth. May it cast the evil curse and the unpropitious mouth into another place ! 08. Never may evil dreams. May the medicines and the rites ( P ) which are established before thee put away (Zipdudu) all that is harmful to my image ! 8. Never may the breath of those who work charms among men approach me ! 64. signs and poitcnts from heaven and earth approach me ! 65. May the bondage of wickedness and sin explain to the man the curse (mumit) ! 10. 67. play the herb of Venus absolve me . The medicine of the god of joy on my neck has fettered (yudinn i p ) all the baleful things that do me harm. Never may the evil portent of city or country befall me ! 65. Like a scal may my troubles be sent far away ! 5.538 APPESDXX VI. may I be pure when enchantments befall me I 13. 0 my god and my goddess. may I make the multitude of my evils to fear ! 15. ask for the command ! 12. may my land 3. May the cup of pure water of Merodach confer a blessing ! 17. . be blessed like gold in the mouth of men ! 4 . May the twofold fire of the Fire-god and the Sun-god enlighten me ! . 62. . and never may I suffer distress ! Rev. By the command of thy mouth niay there nevcr approach me the . I n thy sight may my namG and my double ) i . never niay it fetter (me) ! 6. may it grant mercy I 2... Like the heavens. Against the evil mouth and the evil tongue among men may thine eye preserve me (Zuslim)! 60. may I be bright in the time of evil witchciaft ! 14. who judge me. 34. 1. . in thy sight.. 61. . of bewitching and bewitchment ! 63. Never may the evil and unpropitious curse approach me. Like the midst of heaven. My god and my goddess have taken me before the judge. May thy life make my life like a crystal. may I shine. May my light shine like a fire-stone. May the green corn purify me . Never may the strength and anger of the god draw nigh to me ! 9. may the tree-trunk take away my sin ! 16.

together with the plant of the god of joy j over the middle of it say : 36. the hero of the gods (give thee tranquillity) ! 20. . may I e x d t (thy bead 3) 1 23. W. 38. 65.--Thou. Offer beer and wine. Incantation. 25. Set up a green branch. pure water. A. the son of such and such an one. extol the work of thy god ! . may Merodach. No.LITANIEB lQ:w GODS. art the weapon of Ea and Merodacli ! 3 7 . 26 End of spell ai the uplifting of the hand to Merodach. .. The fire on the hearth and the water of the river-god t~heumust uplift. 2. (hear 3) 0 god and goddess of mankind !” . b?. Surround (tetsen) the entrance with gabszr stone. a t the lifting up of my hand may thy heart have rest. Present a sheep. the writer. iv. Twice place hclbs (on it). I . Oh. 0 my goddess. A Religious Ceremony. . and must take hold (twtulrhnz) of a feather. Behold the enchantment and the witchcraft that has been devised (1) . May the word of Ea be exalted. VII. Sacrifice R white lamb.. 34. fatty (1) flesh and roast (3) flesh. may I 22. 35. thy servant. 24. 32. 66..-Before the pure god place the foot. (Take) the plant of the god of: joy which grows from Km. the oil of the palm-stalk and the top of a palm-stalk . 3~ &e commapd of Ea. the king of the deep. May I thy servant. may thy heart speak (blessings unto me). the god (of wisdom).. live . 33. Bring forth those stones. 54. Repeat thia action three times. May I see niy god. 639 18. place (them) together in oil of the sherbin of Phcenicia and with a green root . 0 god of joy. and may I. Thou must present (tudnkhkha) consccrated (1) flesh. (then) anoint the man. “The following ceremony should be performed.. and raise the form of the god of joy. such and such a n One.. Lay a pavement of brickwork aslope. May I see thy sun. some grains of corn and a layer of reeds.. 62. 19. an3 may the queen Dav-kina (be praised) ! 21.

the PAL grass and saffron ( 0 ) thou must heap up (and) offer beer and wine.540 APPENDIX VI.. the prince. May his gods that were angry be at peace with him ! On the day he prevails like a hero he marches. scented reed.’ (This is) the end of the spell. thou must repeat before Istar : ‘ H e has effected all that his (heart) conceived. wood. 59. may the god. 1 I e shall sweep away (his enemies). 6‘3. The impure man and the impure woman he shall never . the king. prickly grass. . She will hear the prayer. 4 s for this man. (visit) and go straight unto his house. sherbin. This spell three times 60. the . 58. C&WOO~. the lord. 61. of the gate of the palace be at peace with him ! 62. shall possess the land and decree that stability be with himself. This man doubly shall the fire 64. . Like a feather is one’s marching perfect.

ge (A). E . 81. barbar ( A . asundu.). abed (A. cpiru. edbuti. 56. 280. gasru. 245. 259. 68. aqm. 128. . dimer (S. umari (A. bisbis (A. 208. aru. 362. 166. ala. gillati. eliuu. 181. gilgillum.67. 286. 153. 76. abaru. 404. 348. 71. ludlul.). gibh. 166. tabarri. arkaru.). 62. 82. gallu. 285. Anfins (A. atudu. 352. 111. 287. 232. m a (A. elim (A. I arkho. 83. abari.138.284. Baru. 352. dadil (A. dinknu.). arur. 94. 0. 81. epn.). dadu. Aua. 10. ) .).). 381. 196. adit. 183. 195. dalil. 280. euitu.). agagu. 143.196.). 84. bar. banu.” 255. edn. epilltu. 372. asiru. 124. 81. Erua. 134. a p b b a fa).). abub. 305.188. allattum. 196. ) . asip. arakhu. 285.‘ _ _ I _ - AB-dlg 7i. dibiri. DIL-ES. el!u.). losspi. bhu. 179. edheru. 285. bhti. gabh. akharidi. 283. ea (A). allallu. 78.178. amma ( A . 226.). 161. 9 6 .). asrata. 108. asurra.). 348. 111. barbarti. edu. 404. alad (A. 186. 81. akitum. birit. 290. gamli. Barqu.). buhidu. 288. 308. 128. 238. 73. 149. dime. ubrik. 141. ~iddu. 01-BU. 52. 125. buanu. ndari (A. 185. erisu. biz-biz-ene (A). elle. a abalu (ablu). epar. 225. 301. dukhdhu. emepu.INDEX OF WORDS TO TIIE LECTURES. 248. Dilbat (A. 286. batqirtu. amd. 295. ema. B-gur (S.).). slim (A. 307. 245. ami. 7 5 . 116. 285. 226. 290. galitti.). asaridu. 182. 301. 78. en (A. 64. ‘305. 236. 47. 183. 384. 2C5. 249. 184. elruesu. etaita. 289. 443.163. 383. 261. 374. 186. 63. 4 7 . birutu. da (A. a-khad (A. cL only. 287. 173. dagan (A. ari (A. 72. 318. gauni. 372. 166. ittsspu. alfila (A. 63. 143. ditanu. ) . 79. Bpi. B . gssam (A. dupie. 149. etami. akkulu. ap una. arurti. 200. erim.8 1 . 288.). 8 4 . erima ( A . e m .196. arsnputu. dalali. 298. 269. n&iuuu. daalnm. 166.). diinni. dara (A. dim-sar (A. alam (A.). 286. 183. D . abzu (S. emu. 133.). 2 8 . 83.). gari. 151.). 253. 283. 81. 216. 61. w m e n (A). aria (A. 22% bennfl. 82.). dimma. Dnmu-zi. arlu.). 188. 306. 274. gan (A.

77. magir. iindabut. Lasdat. k i h . 290. 128. oamga. 389. M%tu(A. 224.). 164. 270. gugal. Nabkiturn. 383. gitmalu. iikah. 58. iubattu. 32. 128. R. Dedi (A). kakis. 95. 135. kB. 221.). meskhirr$ti. me-sag 141. 291. iisskku. kihittu. iiu (A.!. masal. 194. mekhu. 258. 350. mermer (A. Bibatu. 60. me-te (A. maliki. livu.). lunum.).). 238.290. 196. nadu. mesari. 281.296. 207. maniti. 210. 62.). ivat. 62. 68. makhkhu. 76.). kurke.188. 226. ikkib. 209. luliru. naglabi. 308. 154. Ter (A.). 77.). 144. 99.). 73. Nangar. 128. 82. 240. kapar. maai. 310. mustaldir. gihra (A. kesda (A. innana. 75.162. P . 291. 49. matsh. mursamma (A. aqqud. 245. ma&. 82. 306. nagir. 225. 62. inufna (A). oamd. 404. 211. katsati.254. mikhrit. 70. 67. 11. kamadu. 10. 173. 161. issakku. 82.62. 351. 166. irb. kue (A. 196. 284. 184. 62. mabdi. adhri. . 185. 75. 209.48. 77. 305. gipara. Lamga. mad (A. musalh. 103. 64. 269. 64. kamarri. irriri.). 387. 73. kiel (A. 244. kiskanu. 201. 62. kummu. 305. 62. . kua ( A. 351. 235. 149. Gudi-bir (A. kikibu. gurum (A. 119. 82.).).). 185. 195. 79. LUL-GIR. N .).61. 356. 62. K A -T AR . namari. gizi (A.). men. 320. 9. 296. isimu (A. 9. nadrata. 148. 257. lama&u.). kirbannu. 75. 95. lagaru.176. oamzabi. 306.). lamma (A). 116. lil. katsati. L M. 32. 68.). 261. isipputi.). 146. 67.). mesreti. ikrim. 207. 71.). 59. 176. Tun@. 223. 141. 404. 68. 113. inaha. nagga (A. bgaru. 202. 287. masu. iaptsu. gu-enna. 238. 404. liu. istaritu. 8. 372. guzi (S. 214. gur (S. 309. 411. 64. Nabiu. 226. 128. 180. 73. ikinnu. 94. kasum. 357. 128. mudaru. Yannar. iltebu. giskin (A. 94. lilu. kun8. 75. kigallu. 103. L. 46. 145. gitmaluto. 384. 384. 71. ikkil. 321. gumazzir. 233. 288. 296. 380. kibn. OubBra (A. Laban (libnAti).). namzitum. 72. irkallum. 321. li. 107. mueab. nattuqu. 141. me-lul-ti. 210. 146. . 404. gu6ir (A. tanidi. 62. 73. misrhta. rum. gurgurru. 182. 291. kibir. 173. unakkaru. 296. Lilith. 290. Qudua (A. 7. iapsiti. 70. 286. iggillum. gisme (A. kiriru. 132. 185. iapakhu. 198. 260. 59. 268. mi-para-ki (A. 380. Iskbara. 82. Mat. izi (A. mukhibilti. martu. 288. girt%. rihi. 175. OlS-BAR. ( a ) . Iabar. mamlu. makhru. 287. oalsi. 383. muttallu. Kana (A. 69. oamratsit. luba (A. Igigi.). 183. 389. me-gal-eu (A. 305.542 INDEX OF WORDS TO THE LECTURES. mamit. 02. nsgsr. 73. 166. munaeiku. kistu. 226. 389.). Italu. gingiri (A. namru. 238. 200. nadi. papakha. 311. oammasd. kurkane. 247. kikallu. 99. 249. 116. 375. kitsriti. 281.). kuri. 49. takhkhar. 238. isippu. mummu.). mas. 96. GIS-LI-KHW-81. 265. lu-masi. 69. 171. namtsbM. 167. kutstsur. 384. 311. idirtu. ippu. kakkul (A.). milkatu.). 169. pallas. nahakha. 363.). 186.

184. 94. uniki. tarhatau.). I sidbtum. 245. 151. 145. d i (A. 60. tamtai. terit. suplulih.281. 372. 269. parakku. 306. ruha. 311.k h (A. 321. rits. tabpirti. teraphim.). rimka. 75. 173. sukalimtu. usum-gilu. 356. ealadhu. sabstu. nknu. 60. 96. turakhu. nitilti. sagan (A. 238. sedu. enna.). qaatu. 161. rappu. pasaru. urtum. 311. tarri. t d t u . 81. bila. nz (A. ri’i. 245. 306. 75. tilu. 63. tsillu. banaqu. 245. nssabi. bukkurutu. 172. diba ( A .68. ) . u d a . 258. sipar. sipat. dipptu. sng (Dilvur). 309. 289. 369. uppidh. 259. z . 303. bxr (A. 286. bag (A). w u . 374. lusarsid. 83. subf. 138. sararu. 107. ritu.” “horiron”h &is. sigaru. 94. 288. 175. sa-mun-billalil (A. qistu. 249. 149. sindhu. 59. 95. sad& 407. 285. 2 7 . taltal (A. 81. 872. 301. 188. aats (A. 163. takribti. 83. UA.). Ugur (A. 258. 82. 63. yukhur. UN-dog (k). tsab. 144. 384. durdu. 245. lukhal. bimha. pate6i (A. 321. 288. 6 1 . 81. 128. dabba ( A . sunqu.). Titnum. sakparim. e B . Ti-ti-sal-I&. tsibit.). Ripru. surpu. 76. 286. sasur. u m u . 174. 82. 166. dbu. 75.149. 61. 286. timi. samrata. 67. 2 8 7 . 81. sulum. 81. E 199. tarpu.171.). 389. lurbat. 143. 141. d u m . a h t t n . 268. Saggil (A. 306. Ilsmkhhtu. 143. 151. 166. 8 4 . 75. 268. 59. d i t . pul. itakkalu. 246. sumutti. 301. rahhbu. nm-galli. 306. dagi. 401 ‘& udauuis. ) . Uru-gal (A.). kbi. 60. big-digga ( A . bikbir. 81. sadakhu. u b (A.). nnut. 285. utuk. 94. 125.318. 290. 4 0 6 .). 68. Y . 184. 268. UL-DUA. aadhakhu. 141.j. 118.). tabhak. 284. 76. qn.114 E a N . 321. 68.). taullupu. TU~BU. 380. 543 qan. 28. 248. 168. 237. 198. 225. 851. 286. 222. usurn (A). suttu. guqh. rittu. 106. turbultu. sitehu. 94. tudat. 222. 63.). yarakhu. 284. pasisu. sakhu. tul. sutartum.281. nut. bukullu. W t a . 321. 210. QAR. usar (A. 64. tsurri. 81. 185. puqu. tamtu. 379. taklimn. 305. 27. 309. Sur (A. 383. d t u . tsalam. umasi. rimini. 373. sadduti. 355. tikpi.269. tanitti. 173. pasdhi. 225.198. 227. 186. mar (A. takkat. surbata. 16P. UL-BAB. 196. pes (A. limrrtu. 362. 64. 80. 202. sakkanakku. Urn. 133. 149. 133. ukkumu. 369. 352. 270. 82. jmkhu. uru. 288. U . 161.). kheu-&le (A). 358. 289. sursum. 73. 96. 169. tudhtu. 202. siptu. ) . 134.WORM pnqata. Ts. UB (“girdle. 143. 8.161. 237. uri. 161.186. 404.283. 238. 270. 210. Gnllimmauu. serskh (A.IXDEX OF .306. 348.). &a ( S . 76. qarradi.109.). 306. rutkhurat. bangu. 185. rammanu. M) !l!EE LEWBES. 238. 7 4 . 198. 372. 185. 280. usugal ( k ) . 63. 31. uddane. ) . buhuru.). 175.

384. zigarum. izakkh.). &mat. Zir-banitu. zaniuu. zikhi. 404. 164. 311. khidati. 384. 161. khilibu. 100.). khutesitiya. 308. izarruru. 297. 153. I zur (A. 81. w. 94. .). 306. khubur. khulkhul (A. 294. khumuntsir (A. ziggurrat. 83. 285. khtsir. yueakhnapu.544 INDEX OF WOBDS TO TBE LECTFBEb. 237. 348. lukhmum. 374. aikum.

248-9. 326 . the Chaldatan Olympos. Abode of the gods . Allnvinm at the mouths of the Euphratw and Tigris . Adar. Accadian notion of the universe and the deep likened to Homer’s Okeanw. philosophical ideas.occurs in the name of a god of Sepharprim brought to Samana b the colonists . 862-3 . strug& with the &mites and varying fortunes. Adar. “the mountain of the world f’ its situation. on Khamag-knrk6ra. large basins filled with water for pnrification. Abraham’s removal to Harran. 6 3 and Itotu. also in the namea of wveral Amyrian kings and one of LJennncherib’s sons. 236.beyond theBaphrates. where a temple of the Moon-god rivalled that of Ur. resembling the “eea” in the outer court of Solomon’s temple. philological concluniona often verified by the texts. 1 9 . Alkla and Al& abm explained. the local god of Erech. change in the language of the hymns embotlying new ideas and aspirations. perhaps from A ~ r i m Aham. Aocsdo-Sumerian. 7 . bccadian religion a t first Shamanbun. famous temples named after it. who inherited their cult and civiliasbion. 5. to send. Ninep or Ursa. 163. the sky-god of Erech added t o the pantheon. Aasyria and the coasts of Arabia . 12.” aa Innana signifies “the goddess Nana the latter associated with Nebo a t Borsippa. Acheaedian rnle the earliest. 326.INDEX. 165. or references to Bemitic deities. 171-4. world-tree and world-mountain in relation to deities. sional mistaLes in atpying. bilingual hymn recited a t wnset. and his relation to Mul-lil . originally a male Accadian deity representing the solar disk. according to Oppert. the world of the gods separated from the abode of the dead . bilingual hymn refers it to Nipur. 18. or. Aaron. 883-4. rate of inasaaae and e x h t prove the long cult of Be. tba Q 2N . also was champion of the gda. the converae of t h e Semitic . 177-8. 153-4. ‘ I Abysses” or ‘‘ deeps” of the great gods. aM1 ita resemblance to the first chapter of &mesh. the father and creator of the world. 185. the personified deity Innina assumed to have afterwards given tbe name to Nineveh-meaning ‘I the god Nin. Accadian belief that the moon existed before the BUU. its connection with northern Babylonia . 176-9 and notes. the oneornqipotent god . the proud boast of the Babylonian king. northem Babylonia called Amad from the city. diffusion of the cult of Samaa a t Sippara in a Semitised form e c l i p d that of Lam. two cnrions titles explained. became his consort. t h e founder of itscelebrated library. the pro&ond rending of the name of the h ~ a war-god n . the dates of others inferred from the matter and style of the oompositions. the name of Sin moat honoured i n Babylonia. with 000. reference to the words of Job and Qreek legends. Accuracy of wribes i n geneml. and conceptions of thedivinegovernment. name of. Ana the sky. the attributes of the Momgod transferred to Istctr. shorn the true origin and parentage of m o s t of the hymns and magical texts. motes. 859-62. 116-7. hymns. and originally a sofar deity .. mi implacable warnor. h or Sirrida. the idea of Hades modified. Agadhd built or reatored by Sargon. their h m g e and features different from the Semites. acopmt of the creation in days.pure and unadulterated.-47. peculiar LIBLIBtits and &e. note. worship of the supreme Baal. 26. Ahel. accordfig to another m o u n t . Accadians the inventors of cuneiform writing.

or “lord. note. ssyriaus a nation of warriors and traders rather than students . Beltis and Bel. Antiquity of Sin. where the spirit of Ea-bani ascended. also the sister of Samas and daughter of Sin. like Anatu and Anu. confusion of Accadhn Ana an( Semitic Anu. 190-1 . he is supreme. h ~ 8 the r god and Assur the capital confounded and then identified . the same. indebted to the Babylonians for literature. the A n h a s and the great gods. their literature an exotic. its early date. Antinit considered a local form of Istar in the temple of Ulbar. 187-5 worship of the Semitic Anu carriec westward about the time of Saxgon 189. 67-8. religion and laws .and belief i n the thnnder as the sky itself the god and creator of th visible universe . connected with Mul-lil . one of the primordial gods of Accad . containing ’he symbols of the gods. 191-2. 126-7. all acts of sovereignty and conquest are done i n the name of Assur. and king above all gods. Lssur-bani-pal defeats his brother’s rebellion. “the father of the gods” smordlng to Sargon and one of the inscriptions. u. the sky considered divin throughout Chaldrea. Istar invoked with him a4 an independent goddess. like Yahveh in Israel.546 INDEX. Archaic names and attrihutea applied to Merodach in an A c d i a n hymn. con. Aiai.” resemblance t o Yahveh in Israel. a purely local divinity a t the primitive capital. 3. Anunit. 30. as Mul-lil and Baal or Eel. meaning of the mascnline and feminine namw. hut had lost their definiteness . 157. Arteios. the world beyond the grave. a national deity . 284. 184. bearer of the bow. 108. ugurj. 186. and the daughter of Bel . the name of the god and the country. 182-3 and notes. and he a a s a t once the personification of the city and its Baal. the same as Ziknm. carried on men’s ~houlders. whilst Istar plotted for the sovereignty of heaven. the name Assur and its meanings. the elder and younger Bel sometimes confounded. the new capital of a more compact kingdom than Bahylonia. 4. Pdec tine towns mentioned in the conquest of Thothnies 111. Antiquity of Babylonian aetronomy. no Assaritu by his side. 125. his heaven exaltec. Assur looked to i n peril and dibtress . 256 dssault of the seven wicked spirits upon the moon. causes of the difference . the conception rather p@ntheisticthan monotheistic. advance of pantheism andinflnence oE aliensonSemiticbelief. special names. dewribed . note. hence tbe city itself became divine. hymn in honour of the god when a new image was enthroned . Babylonian deities invoked under old titles. 122. Ash6rah the Canaanite goddess and the Babylonian Istar. 249. their place in Hades. Annunski opposed to angels. forces identified with him. 356. and all offences against each were considered alike. the primordial heavens and earth. changed poei tion when his worship aasumed a mort spiritual character . 166-7.-8. who was addressed by Nabonidos as the mistress of battle. 124-5.point to the earlier home on the shores of the Persian Gulf and the city of Eridu. different from that ( Eridu and inconsistent with the late belief. Ashteroth Karnaim and the Greek legend of Astart6 under the nameEur6pa. id6ntity of the sacred ships of Eridn and Eaypt . flight of Samas and Rimmon.the daughter of a Hivit chief was called Anah or Anath . 148-9. 189-90 . the Sumerian ship changed roto an ark by the Semites. his worsbip became national . 25. lssyrian religion wholly Babylonian with the sole exception of Assur as the head of the pantheon . hut becani a dingir or creator a t Erech. ant a Horite prince Anah or Anu. Greek and Roman indifference to Chaldrean history. meming of the legend. founded with Ea by HalAvy. A r b in the form of ships. 186-7 his cult changed by the Semites. but when removed to Nineveh. and Ana invoke in the oldest magical texts. the goddess. and the refuge of the gods during tht Deluge. the Semitio feminine of A n h a . a mythical personage. and restores the sacred festivalq 354. and a mere imitation of Babylonian culture. and whence Ann assigned their places to Samas. and to destroy his enemies. meaning of the name. . ttributes of deities changed by the Semites to embody different conceptlons. still the god‘s individuality and elemental character were retained. wh regarded him as Baal-Samaim . identified with Istar. further spiritualisation and changas . Syrians compared physically and mertally with the Babylonians. Sin and Istar. called by Nabonidos the fakher of Samas and Istarj his temple a t Ur founded by Ur-Bagas. called Beth-Anatl and Anathoth . lssoros and Kiasar6. 37-8.

the Bath bol of the Talmud. the creeds and beliefs of ancient nations Bible n a m a and their variant forms exd o r d clearer ideas of their origin than plained. and primarily a gost. “ emptiness. matarials for ita hiagoddewas. the to conced the mystaries of their worBohu of Genesis and the Baau of Phceship. 262-5. 184-6. those of the neighbowing mmtries. inscriptions originally pictorial. data . *hose of the deep i m p r e d on all the cwdynasty lasted several centnries. tory aeanty and imperfeat. the 881-2. BollvDeB of Babylon. 3 . hymn to Mal-lil the world and contained the germs of aa lord of Hades. a common Semitic title of Babylonian religion . mogonies. British of the deities by the Semites. ab13. variations in the hymns. 177. 18-9. contraat of pre-historic belief in a “mountain of the world. sort of Adar by mythologists.647 Babylonian religions cunceptioarr ebnvepd westward illustrate the Scriptures. bub have myths and legends natural and prophetio meslagen . 801-2. the monumenbr. the former intelligible .Book of Nabathmn agriculture. and the Greek Classics. 264. now and intended to expreas a language dift h e Bimi-Nimrod. were possessedbythe Babyloniam them. wnmption that the watery abyss was 289. striking agreement with the character of the S w e r i a n culture-god . Bel of Nipar. work on asrbwomy and astrology. 9. its deme1 . Babylonian awmologies all based on the B a g . m d clay tablets the only reliable inscription of Cyrns. 43-4. 4. Itawlinson. myths. lists of deities nnd their titlas . Bahu. made the conthe libraries still buried in the mounds. and could be used phonetically chadnezzar . oolourecl to represent the planets. aote. although the Bit-namri. Bilaam and Balaarn connected by sacred texts provided with keys and Dr. the minor and foreign deitiesin the naticnal sculptures and inscriptions on the palace pantheon . 220. commentaries a d testolder and later faitb. system of writing invented by nieia . worship of the deities of the country by Khatumuragw. the tower of seven stagec m d ideographically. Neubauer with the chief god of glosses. and modern researohem into 64. mrbed the Babylonian Bel. all alike Gula. 177. no systematic investigation has scription of the temple of Tammua i n heen previously attempted. bbylon. Bunme and the universe. a l a . city of. Iakmra. Tiele and Hom. rdos d the gobs Canaanite faith in on the utterthe Iatter left ita impances of the Hebrawn in t h e Psabrni. 103-4. 115. books . ABsgrian. probable murce of the information . ” topica . “the Babylonian clay tablets merely sun-dried . Bil-matati. an unsuitahle rendering of Gurra. picture of religion . 29. Hommel‘s view Babylonian cuneiform more diffiault than of her chanrrcter. his titles Babylonian literature consisted of ritual. also Jeroboam and Rehohmm. Lenormant. a god. parallel of 63agon and Masea. Old Tesdetails2 fragmimnts of a tab!et of the tament. A. diana believed thnt the s o h of nature Bahyhuians of the hietomcal period believed that the ocaan atream encircled were divine voices . the grest bulk that once stocked valent of Gulr. cylinder walls. watery deep.” Lagamrr.Bilat-ili. 218. the Accadim bful-lil. contained the grent ferent from the Semitic Babylonian and temple of Nebo m n d Tsgmit . values. lstter purposely obsoure by the priests Bahu probably the Gurra of Erecb. Bomippa once en independent town.5. the Babylonian and Assyrian modes of writmme general terms used by the Hebrew ing different on ordinary and religious wtiter respecting ‘‘ the beginning. super- 2N2 . selves. Bel the traditional author of the great descriptions of temples and images. the tower of the temple oE subject has attraoted the attention of Istnr. mte. A m attached to them. there being no ofticial script. and their meanings. both historial. note.Sals. the first. and cnrried to the west. relation and rank of the deikks. 299 -301 .” changes and confusion Amyrian baked in a k i l n .b u g . first made the capital Ea and Oannes . 9. the Semitic Bohu. 16-7. pomession . a title of the wife of Bel. Rubat the Amyrian equiveh . epibhets of Mul-me-am.” the Aocndians or proto-Chaldaeans. the house Assyrian : every character had several of the seven spherea restored by Nebu. BS Bahu Museum aolleotion chiefly from Nineand Nana. also aote. many of the latter now in our Ammon .

the conqueror showed his gratiflesh of the wild-boar and ox. Composite animals of mythology. but the majority were malignant. as Jeremiah had treated Nebuchadner102-3.” “ eagle. “Bull of Anu” and “Bull of Rimmon. Elam. 143-4. nomy. Chaldsem early a r t found a t Tel-loh. muslin . 60. antiquity of being king . the city. the human head and its import. details compared with the Bible. 136. futed by the connection of Babyloniam standing or kneeling . teak. and no and sometimes hawk-headed. 392-3. and suppo8ed deserted shrines in Sumer and Dapam . note. or En-Mersi. the god of culture and “ a pure lie.” described an half-man with the tail of B fish .’ Damuzi or Tamruuz. Cubit. the Cushite on the walls of the Assyrian palaces. and against whom spells were used by the exorcist priest. NabouiAccadian ideograph for muslin. 394-6. Merodach a primitive bull-god . the northern border threatened by semi-barbarow nations. 242-3. from the god afterwards from inscription on clay cylinder. to the sovereignty of Chaldsea. great want of. after the worship anger of Bel and other gods as declared of Tammuz in Sippara he was addressed by the priests had been roused against as Mul-mersi. and reparallel of Michael and the great dragon. king of Circumcision known to the Babylonians. probably refers the struggle. era of a single monarchy ruled by the and sympathised with the people’s Accadians. 241.” “the goddess Babu. the body-guard of the two great deities of Eridu. but confounded in later times. and the curse spread of the worship of Tammua northa t the end. 290-1. slightly different. the divine bulls of Ea and his wife named “the god of the field of Eden” and “the god of the house of Eden <’ the winged bulls that guarded the entrance of a temple represented the genii or gods of the household . and reptiles restoring their temples. 86 . turn flattered and held him up as the Combat between Merodach and Tiamat. and before the centnry closed. 290 . Nin -girsu. theory of population conclusively recurious figures of cherubim on each side. 83. 33. name explained on it tablet. Nineveh sacked and ita palaces Canaanite Ashtaroth and Anathoth. note.548 INDEX. planets regarded as sheep . with Ur as the capital. Babylonians and Jews. and regarded as the plonghman of the celestial fields or zodiacal signs. him for having bronght their images Cbaldrean trade with India . like Saul. Egypt lost . ward.” and “the shepherd.the star of the “ wain. holding a traces of Egyptian theology and astrocone in one band. variations of. allusion to “ t h e firmament. a single battle decided ful and unlawful food.” the last the prototype of the Greek BoOtes. sometimes human culture and cuneiform writing. from the ancient sanctuaries. Captivity of the Jews in Babylon and its Culture myths of Babylonia and America effects. . depicted tiou . 137-8. the priests in accounted unclean. and had chosen Cyrus. 393. 39-40. Cosmology of Eridu. wrongs. but unmistakably materialistic. 17-8. distinction common to gates for his triumphant entry into the Aseyrians. t h e identified with Adar. as Oannes. Creation epic and ita varying legends harmonised. sometimes beneficent being. or distinction of lawJewish prophet . as he had been previously hailed by the Clean and unclean. Merodach called Gudi-bir in early astronomical literature. only destroyed. their nature and uses. 83. had been rejected from Chronology. zar and the Jewish kings.” names of stars. and Babylon opened ita to totemism.annalistio Cornparinon of the Babylonian triad who tablet explains why nearly the wholo Bull-go& highly honoured . Composite creatures the offspring of totemism . dos. 48-9. 120-1. the watery abyss. when tude by restoring the gods who had forbidden. mention of the domestic pig aided him to their ancient seats and avoided in the inscriptions. Merodach bad visited t h e Babylonian civilisation. proached Nabonidos in the Same way struggle with the powers of darkness. favourite of the national gods. as in Ea-bani.local chander of the religion. in relation to their primitive civilisaCedar ementially a tree of life. 194. Ea and Dav-kina. the winged divine bulls of Eridu distinct. questions raised . tbe native name of Tel-loh was C y ~ u son the overthrow of Nabonidos. a h m d the great temple . 11-2. as by the Jews. Critical state of the empire before Assurbani-pal’sdeath . Babylonia clarnouring for independence. Cutha legend of creation.

Indian dog represented on terra-cotta tableta . worshipped in Phmnicia. 259. a mythological poem . on the primxival divinities Ana-Seir. explanation of particulars. Dog disliked by the Semites.” Istar became a Semitic goddess. Mul-lil and Ea. and Greece . late texts distinguish Naua and Istar . Babylonian dog 88teemed in later times. Date of the pyramid-builders . the name Accadian Dum-zi and its rneauings . Lakhama. and correspondence to Neho as the Announcer. their disappearance marked the victory of light over darkness. origin of the story. aa elemental deities. Descent of Istar into Hades. h h d d and Beth-dagon. 131-2 . David or Dod. early connection with Babylon.kius or Dav-ki. and the god regarded 38 a solar deity. 227-8 . 264-5. a minister of vengeance sent hy the gods on account of sin. and expulsion necassary hefore recovery. antumnal festival i n honour of Tammuz. the brood of chaos . the same theory found in some of the penitential psalms. centralisation. Phoenicia and southern Philistia. and their different dates. based on Accadian maten a b . worship of the supreme god ouder the name of Dodo and Yahveh . 56-7. and naturally accompanied her bridegroom Tammuz. death of Tammar (Adonis) aommemorated at 649 Qebal or Byblos every yen?. the source of Babylonian civilisation. the god of the deep and the atmosphere . common title Naua. Dilbst the same as ’Suttil at Borsippa. Dav. Damascius. Deities of the popular faith represented in human shape. Adonis andOsiria the same. civil and religious. 6. the name of Istar. corroboration by Swin and Smend. 288-9. 221-7 . development of hieroglyphics . or “creatreea. generally avoided in ewlyart. the goddew of the earth a t Erech. 104-5 . and the gods of heaven over Titanic monsters. 139. 259 and notes. influence of Rgyptian custom and belief. and in return receives light from them. lord of all rivers and the supp o d ocean-stream. 87-8. near the mouth of the Euphrates. and the god Ea personified water. pestilence and epidemics regarded with awe as a punishment from the gods. partly human and bestial . 230. legends from BBrBssos and Polyhiator. 4.ZNDEX. the feminine of Din$?*. Ki-sar. Lakhma. cult changed in the west. Dilhat the planetary name of Istar. both the mother and sister of Adonis called Qingras in Cyprus. etymology of name uncertain . 277. 188-9. Ea has only a fish‘s skin thrown aver his shoulders like a cloak . Disease usually ascribed to demoniacal possession. the real c a u ~ eof s Nabonidos’ disaster and downfal. name not Semitic. curiously illustrates the Old Testament and classic authors. and the creatures suckled hy Tiamat. the creation-legend of Cutha. the monsters seen by BrBesos painted on the temple walls of Belos. the river of death. note. Ea’s identity with Oannes . personified earth. her temple a t Tel-loh called E-Ana. “my beloved . and its connection with Dido. Gingiri or Gingra. Lenormauts conjecture . her home the city of Dilbat. extract fromlegend. population submitted at onoe . creator. 264-5 and notes. Dagan or Dagon. theory of Thales. attributes. only demons and inferior spirits or mythical personages portrayed aa composite creaturee. beyond which Xisut h m waa translated to dwell among the god% 359.h o w . although the Bahylouians had a fine breed. D&l-i. tbe god of Eridu ouce on the shores OC the Persian Gulf. 309-10. his worship derived from the E a t . Difficulties in studying the religion from the mixed languages of the text. Alexandrian legend of Isis and Osiris. Divine names. t m e pronunciation carefully concealed from the uninitiated. each Babylonian city had ita own Gingira. descent. Dionysos the wine-god. Cyprus. temples ab Gam. E a . 125. 33-4. and classed among the powers of evil . Anu. hut Erech the real centre of her worship in historical times. cult modified by the Hittites. Datillu. high culture and civilisation of the period. Merodach had four divine hounds not always employed onerramdsofmemy. her image reoovared at the sack of Shushan.” the epitbet shows how national affection transferred the name of the deity to the king. extract from. five of Assur-bani-pal’s dogs inscribed on the baa-reliefs now i n the British Museum. the consort of Ea. and a wide-spread calamity like the plague w3s held to be. 54. 231-6. 287-8. worshipped in Harmn. the warlike Istar with quiver on each shoulder and bow in hand . Ere& and A c d great centres of her worship.

346-7. the first gods and spirits. Euphrates valley the early home of the Jewish race. 284. Saul (‘Savul). 334-5. invocation . the birthplace of Abraham . the ziggurat. Egibi banking records carefully preserved from the time of Nebuchadnezzar to Darius Hystaspis. his attributes. 150-1. B. and how represented . E-Kua.not only a holy city. foliage. chaos. an angel of the Lord. gods from visible objects and areathe foroe. and where the hero slew the bull created by Anu to avenge the slight of Istar . privileges and rank . hence the totem of the city and god of the under-world . evolution and growth of the Babylonian religion. E-Zida. Ea the demiurge addressed by many titles. the chapel of Nebo. and when carried out produced an artificial system of religion more reflective than sponts neous. 140-3. the work of the augur and his initiation. 184-5. gazelle a peculiarly sacred animal. Ur. 54. night and foreign gods considered hostile. 62-3. Ea-bani’s descent into Hades. Early expeditions against Cyprus and Sinai. 95-6. hymn to him. I3host-world of Nipur. innumerable spirits controlled by creative gods representing the Sabba. cause of furtherchanges. name transcribed Aos by Damawius. the fire-stick and its ideographs. where the Antnas. and became a sign of the Zodiac. duties. 180-1. Gibil or Kibir. 237 and mtess. or “tower. $din or Eden. Fire-god partly absorbed by the Sun-god. shown 00 a gem in the British Museum. but all amenable to spells or exorcisms. Efisential distinction between Accadian and Semitic ideas of creation and descent . 41. note. who was specially called the gazelle-god . his symbol a serpent. Eridu and Nipur contrasted. or when he had become a houschold deity. 3000. Eritu and Eru. represented on Chaldean cylinders both as a sacrifice and a symbol . opposed by the spirits of disease. frequently assumed the form of a goat. resemblance of the gods to human beings who had been previously associated with animals and confounded with the old totems.” according to Eabylonian tradition near Eridu. 34. inferences from geographical position. the city. but anciently one of the foremost rank. had a “holy of holies” concealed by a curtain. bilingual hymn describing its wondrous tree.C. 64 and notes. compared with Zulu belief. Erha. the same name as Enoch built by Cain. on a golden throne.” and chapels intended to bring together the images and worship of Chaldaea . absorption of the deities into Baalim and Ashtaroth. 133-4. in pure Semitic faith. 240-1. 7. deification and supernaturalism . Babylonian worldtree . the special sanctuary of Merodach. mystic virtues of the cedar . 135. a11 outside were the servants and slaves who carried the messages of Baal everywhere. Family ideas of the gods made them human and destroyed totemism. where oracles were delivered to the priests a t the great festivals. on the shores of the Peisian Gulf. 179-80. and may refer to the time when the inhabitants lived in piledwellings on the shores of the Persian Gulf. its worship of Ea continued till the close of the Babylonian monarchy . chaos and darkness. and first called Unu-ki or Unuk. “ garden of. nomad irruptions and amalgamation of the two races also modified both religion and civilisation . supposed to have contained the golden statue of Bel. outer courts and walled enclosure. the temple of Bel-Merodach . abstraction of the . their different religious systems blended . Edomite mythology illnstTated by the names of the kings. Gazelle appropriated to Mul-lil of Nipur. and shrine of the two (gods). Erech the seat of Anu and Istar. E-Saggil. beneath the earth. and others.afterwards considered the same asMerodach and Samas. the city of the choirs of festival-girls. Edomite proper names derived from deities. action and re-action of the two race8 in forming the Babylonian religion. 181-2. partial resemblance to the NorseYgg-drasil. the priests and the ministering attendants. the first abode of the Canaanites and Phoenicians proved by comparative philology. Hadad and Samlab. and connected with Gisdhobar. Satan. creator of the black-headed race. orientation of the great temple.550 INDEX. name on oldest bricks. and worship as Savul . like Solomon’s temple. Eridu or Eriduga and Eri-z&ba. the gods of Accad transformed into the Semitic family. 333-4. the Tower of Babel and the