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MICROBIOLOGY EXAM I STUDY GUIDE 1. Define: microbiology, virology, mycology, parasitology, protozoology, phycology, immunology, epidemiology, etiology, pathology.

2. List several reasons the study of microbiology is important. 3. List early microbiologists and briefly describe their contributions to the development of the field of microbiology. 4. Describe/explain each of the differences between eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells. Give examples of each type. 5. Name the 6 kingdoms of classification. List the general characteristics and examples of microorganisms in each kingdom. In which kingdoms are the eukaryotic and prokaryotic microorganisms classified? In which kingdom are viruses classified? 6. Describe scientific nomenclature. How should a scientific name be properly written? What type characteristics can a scientific name indicate about an organism? 7. What is a bacterial colony? How does the appearance of bacterial colonies produced by different bacteria vary? 8. In what unit are bacteria measured? What is the average cell size of bacteria? 9. Describe three cell shapes. How does each cell shape and their arrangement vary? 10. Structure of the bacterial cell: identify parts of the cell from a drawing, describe function each part, describe chemical composition each part. 11. Describe/explain the chemical structure of murein and how the structure relates to its function. Describe the differences in the structure of the cell walls of Gram positive bacteria, Gram negative bacteria and acid fast bacteria. 12. Describe the structure/properties of phospholipids. Describe the bilayered structure of the cell membrane and how the structure relates to its function. How do nutrients/wastes move across the cell membrane? 13. How do bacteria reproduce? Is this process asexual or sexual? Describe this process (in detail). Define generation time. What is average bacterial generation time? 14. How is bacterial growth expressed? Draw the bacterial growth curve. How is it derived? Identify the phases. Describe ( in detail) the activities in each phase. Why study the growth curve?

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compounds that enter this pathway. pathway.. Where might you find these organisms growing? 16. Define: photoautotrophs. H+ removed and transferred to ________. end products produced. Temperature requirements: How does temperature affect bacterial growth? Define optimum. saprophytes. named? 25. photoheterotrophs. Describe the characteristics of proteins. Where is the energy stored in this molecule? How is it released/replaced? 27. 26. two pathways: 2 . H + transferred to ?. chemoheterotrophs. anaerobes. 23. anabolism. net gain ATP. coenzymes. Where might you find these organisms growing? How does excess acid or alkaline pH affect the rate of bacterial growth? 17. acidophile. 20. lipids. Aerobic respiration: oxygen requirements. ATP produced. Oxygen requirements: define aerobes. oxygen requirements. What is enzyme specificity? What determines their specific action? How are they classified. catabolism. chemoautotrophs. cofactors. Briefly describe the two metabolic pathways: photosynthesis and chemosynthesis. psychrophiles. Define: exoenzymes. Why is oxygen required for growth? 18. 19. microaerophilic. radiation) affect bacterial growth? Do any bacteria require light for growth? Describe a practical application involving the use of UV light/radiation. Describe pH requirements for bacterial growth: optimum pH. how much ATP produced. 22. List basic nutritional requirements of bacteria. 29. Define: metabolism. Fermentation: oxygen requirements. 28. neutrophile. heterotrophs. Why is H2O required for growth? How does an increase in osmolarity affect bacterial growth? Of what practical use is this? Define halophiles. Define mesophiles. how much ATP required. Energy: how is it produced (define oxidation-reduction)? How is it stored? Describe the structure of ATP. 24. How does light (UV. alkalinophiles. How do bacteria obtain their nutrients? Define: autotrophs.1/01 15. facultative. 21. endoenzymes. Describe their importance. parasites. Embden Meyerhoff pathway: compound metabolized in this pathway. carbohydrates. Describe/explain each of the characteristics (properties) of enzymes. end products produced. thermophiles.

Describe the genetic code (language) in DNA. Briefly describe: genetic engineering. ATP produced. allosteric enzyme. 36. 31. The molecule twists to form a ______ ______. the operon and how it functions. What is a practical application of each? 42. What publication is the authority on bacterial taxonomy? According to this authority. Define: mutations. Describe DNA’s antiparallel structure. 41. Describe structure of the 3 types of RNA. What do these methods of DNA transfer have in common? 40. DNA (electrophoresis) fingerprinting. polymerase chain reaction. H+ ions removed → coenzymes → electron transport chain. What criteria is used for bacterial classification and identification? The kingdom Prokaryotae is currently divided into _____________ and ______________ kingdoms/subkingdoms. 32. spontaneous mutations.1/01 A. 3 . Describe how DNA replicates. compounds that enter this pathway. bacteria are classified in Kingdom ______. gene therapy. Briefly describe feedback inhibition. 35. Electron transport: types of reactions. What is a triplet. ATP produced. a nucleotide. the discontinuous strand. conjugation. Into what groups are the bacteria subdivided in this kingdom (according to Bergey’s). Describe the function of each type RNA. semiconservative replication? What is the significance of this process? 33. How are carbohydrates utilized (in addition to energy production) by bacterial cells? How may CHO be stored? Briefly describe the metabolism of triglycerides. 38. B. 37. translation. Briefly describe: transformation. compounds that enter this pathway. of proteins. induced mutations. Protein synthesis (enzyme production): define transcription. What is the continuous strand. transduction. List 4 changes in bacteria that can occur as a result of mutation/ DNA transfer. end products produced. Draw an example of DNA. What is total # ATP's produced as a result of aerobic respiration? How much ATP is produced (net gain) if a 6 carbon sugar is aerobically metabolized to CO 2 and H2O? 30. 39. Krebs cycle (citric acid cycle): series of cyclic reactions. Describe/explain the differences in structure between DNA and RNA. Controls of enzyme synthesis/enzyme activity: define constitutive enzymes. Describe the structure of DNA: list substances in DNA. inducible enzyme. a gene? 34. See study questions accompanying DNA exercise. Describe process of protein synthesis (in general). human genome project. List four types changes in DNA that result in mutations.