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AMPHIBIANS OF NORTH AMERICA
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¯Å¯ 5?EC1E5 1N FU11 CO1OR
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ÆTÄ
WÑÅËÅÅÅÆÆM
A GUIDE ÎL FAm!1!AR AmERICAM 5PEC1E5
by
HERBERT S. ÏÌN, Ph.D., Sc.D.
ond
HOBART N SMI TH, Ph.D.
Department of Environmental, Population, and Organismic Biology
University of Colorado, Boulder
I LLUSTRATED BY JAMES GORDON I RVI NG
³
UCLObM FKb55 • Mb½ ¥CKK
Western Publishing Company, Inc.
Racine, Wisconsin
FOREWORD
So many peopl e of al l ages want to know a bout
s n akes and t urtl es, fr ogs and s al amander s, t hat the
Gol den Nature Gui des woul d be i ncompl ete wi t hout
an i ntroducti on to repti l es and amphi bi ans.
The authors express t hei r grateful than ks to al l who
hel ped i n maki ng the book. Thanks are due to Charl es
M. Bogert and Bessi e M. Hecht, of t he Ameri can
Mus eum of Nat ur al Hi story; J a mes A. Ol i ver, of the
N. T. Zool ogi cal Soci ety; Carl F. Kauffel d, of the
Staten I s l and Zool ogi cal Soci ety; Roger and I s abel l e
Conant, of t he Phi l adel phi a Zool ogi cal Gar den; Robert
C. Mi l l er, Joseph R. Sl evi n, and Earl S. Heral d, of the
Cal i forni a Academy of Sci ences; L. M. Kl auber, C. B.
Per ki ns, and C. S. Shaw of the Zool ogi cal Soci ety of
San Di ego; loui s W. Ra msey, of Texas Chr i sti an Uni­
ver si ty; a n d Wi l l i a m H. Sti ckel , of t he Pat u xent Re­
search Refuge.
Speci al thanks are due t o our col l eagues at the Uni ­
ver si ty of I l l i noi s -Ph i l i p and Dorothy Smi t h, Harol d
Kerster, Donal d Hoffmei ster, and many others. Our
gr ati t ude goes al s o to J a mes Gor don I r vi n g for hi s
fi ne cooperati on and t o Grace Crowe I rvi ng; t o Rozel l a
Smi th and. Soni a Bl eeker Zi m for t hei r ass i stance; and
fi nal l y to our publ i shers for thei r unti ri ng ai d.
I n t he present revi si on, fve addi ti onal pages of i nfor­
mati on have been added, pl us a l i sti ng of sci enti fc
names. We hope readers wi l l fnd thi s ful l er and more
�ttracti ve vol ume more useful . H. S. Z.
H. M. S.
©Copyright +ÛOÜ, +ÛOÛby Western Publishing Company. Inc. All rights reserved.
including rights of reproduction and use in any form or by any means. including
the making of copies by any photo process. or by any electronic or mechanical
device, printed or written or oral. or recording for sound or visual reproduction
or for use in any knowledge retrieval system or device. unless permission in
writing is obtained from the copyright proprietor. Produced in the U.S.A. by
Western Publishing Company, Inc. Published by Golden Press. New York. NY
Library of Congress Catalog Card Number: Û+-ÜÜZ4. ISBN U-ÜU(-Z44ÛO-4
U S I N G THI S BOO K
The first step in the use of this book is to learn
the differences between reptiles and amphibians:
R E P TI L E S
Usually: four-legged (except snakes and a few
lizards); each foot with three to five clawed toes;
skin usually with horny scales, sometimes bony
plates. Most lay eggs with hard or leathery skin.
J. TURTLE5 leathery or bony shell. Four
limbs, short tail. Head can be withdrawn wholly
or partly into shell. poges J8-43
2. Ll2AR05 In the United States, mostly
small, four-legged, covered with equal-sized
horny, smooth or beaded scales. Most are egg­
laying, fast-moving land reptiles. poges4-69
3. 5MAKE5 long, legless. Scales on belly
usually larger than others. Skulls loose, mouth
large. lack ear openings.
So
me are egg-laying
;
some live-bearing. poges 70-JJ3
4.ALLIGAIOk5 ond CkOCODIL65 large,
lizard-like. Skull forming long snout. Adapted to
water life in warm regions. poges JJ4-JJ5
A MPHI B I A NS
Four- or, rarely, two-legged (except tadpoles).
Smooth or warty skin, usually moist. No visible
scales. Toes never clawed. Eggs usually in jelly­
like masses in water.
J. FROG5ondTOA05 Adults with larger
hind limbs; tadpoles limbless when young. Adults
lack tail. Most lay jelly-like eggs in water.
poges JJ8-J36
2. 5ALAMAM0ER5 Most have four limbs,
even the larvae. limbs about same size. Adults
have tails. poges J37-J53
The introduction to each section in the book
gives more details. Use illustrations for fur­
ther identifcation. Pages 8-14 explain range
maps and suggest activities. Index is on pages
158-1ó0, scientifc names on 155-157.
IUkILE
FkOÜ
3
4
REPTILES have a hi story whi ch begi ns near l y 250 mi l­
l i on years ago. The group sl owl y s pread, and fnal ly
took over t he l and. Di nosaurs i ncl uded the l argest l and
ani mals. Other repti l es took to the ai r and to the seas.
Some were swi ft, s ome were ar mored, s ome were ter­
ri bl e ki l l ers . As the cl i mate changed, nearl y al l the great
repti l es di ed of. Repti l es of today are i nteresti ng de-
scendants of magni fcent ancestors.
a
5
D
AMPHIBIANS had at l east a 50- mi l l i on-year head start
on repti l es , but t hese frst l and ani mal s n ever became
compl etel y i ndependent of water. Thei r j el l y- l i ke eggs
coul d not s urvi ve i n ai r, so amph i bi ans had to return to
swamps, ponds, or streams to breed. Ancestors of pres­
ent-day frogs and salamanders fourished in the Coal
Age swamps. Many· were clumsy giants. For more about
living American amphibians, see pp. 1 1 6- 1 53.
7
DESERT IGUANA
SEEING AND STUDYING
REPTI LES AND AMPHIBIANS
COMMON TOAD
Maps i n t hi s book s how approxi mate ranges of our
fami l i ar speci es. Where a map shows r anges of more
t han one speci es, the name of each speci es is pl aced
wi thi n or next to the col or or ki nd of hatchi ng that
s hows i ts range. Overl appi ng of col or and hatch i n­
di cates over l appi ng of r anges.
FACT AND FABL E Thi s book bri ngs together i nter­
esti ng facts and rel i abl e sci enti fi c opi ni ons. Someti mes
t he facts are stranger than fabl es; s ometi mes fabl es
you hear are exaggerati ons or di storti ons of a s mal l
truth. Because s ome peopl e have mi staken i deas about
repti l es and amphi bi ans, they destroy har ml ess s peci es.
We need not fear what we understand; s o try to un­
derstand these ani mal s .
INTEREST AND CURIOSI TY Whi l e s ome peopl e
fear repti l es, most want t o see what s nakes, l i zards,
t urtl es, and frogs are real l y l i ke. Thi s curi os i ty has been
fed partl y by the fabl es about these creatures and
partl y by thei r u nu s u al appear ance. Every gr oup of
ani mal s i ncl udes strange and unus ual ki nds and, as a
group, repti l es and amphi bi ans have the ri chest share.
Repti l es and amphi bi ans have i ri descent ski n and var­
i ed patterns of col or that few other ani mal s can equal .
They are attracti ve as wel l as i nteresti ng.
VALUES OF REPTILES Repti l es were i n thei r heyday
mi l l i ons of years ago; now they are onl y a remnant of
a once-great gr oup. Some are of di rect val ue. We use
th e s ki ns of al l i gat or s, l i z ards , and l arge s nakes for
l eat her . Turt l e meat i s a del i cacy, as i s the meat of
l arger l i zards . Turt l e eggs are eaten, and t urt l e shel l
has been used to make combs and or na ments. Even
the venom of poi sonous s nakes has uses i n medi ci ne.
I n North Amer i ca, the poi sonous snakes ar e t he onl y
repti l es consi dered very dangerous. But the deat hs from
snakebi te scarcel y total bÜ per year. Repti l es feed partl y
on rats, mi ce, gophers, i nsects, and other pests; i n turn
they are eaten by mammal s and l arge bi rds. As a group
they pl ay a vi tal rol e in the bal ance of nature, i ncreas­
i ng i n i mportance toward tropi cal regi ons. A balance of
nature without them woul d vastl y di mi ni sh our worl d of
ani mal l ife.
VALUES OF AMPHIBIANS I n evoluti on, a mphib­
i an s were t he ancestors of t he r epti l es . To us t hey are
FAßlF5
Bird Hypnotized
by Snake
10
l ess conspi cuous and probabl y l ess i mportant. �
Frogs and other amphibi ans are used in sci en-
tific experiments. We eat frogs' l egs, and frogs �����
consume quantities of insects. Sal amanders,
too, serve as food for man and other animal s,
and hel p control harmful pests. Like reptil es
,

they are a vital part of our envi ronment as wel l as cl ues
to animal l ife l ong ago.
CONSERVATION Most ki nds of repti l es and am­
phi bi ans s houl d be protected, for our own enj oyment
a nd for the fut ur e. Needl ess ki l l i ng, s o often based on
f ear and mi s understandi ng, s houl d stop. No repti l es
s houl d be ki l l ed, except poi son­
ous s nakes near human habita­
t i ons. Perhaps even more i mpor­
t ant i s t he pr es ervat i on of wi l d
areas where r epti l es, amphi b­
i ans, and other wi l d l i fe l i ve. The
cutti ng of forests, dr ai ni ng of
swamps, dammi ng of ri vers, and
even bui l di ng of roads i n wi l der­
ness areas al l have a l ong-range efect on pl ant and
a ni mal l i fe. The preservati on of uns poi l ed l and i n state
and nati onal parks and forests , t he wi l dl i fe refuges, the
wi l der ness areas, and t he l i ke is i mportant i n t he con­
servati on program. And the swamps and marshes on
far ml and are worth keepi ng too.
Many repti l es di e as an i ndi rect resul t of thei r bei ng
col d- bl ooded. Snakes often come out on roads at ni ght,
possi bl y because of the warmth of the pavement.
Turtl es are constantl y crossi ng hi ghways, too. An earl y
morni ng ri de wi l l show the tol l . taken by passi ng cars­
a tol l that coul d be reduced by more care on the part
of motori sts.
ACTIVITIES WITH REPTILES AND AMPHIBIANS
LEARN TO KNOW THEM Lear n to know repti l es
an d a mph i bi an s from books and, better, from l i fe.
Learn those i n your regi on fi rst. Be abl e to recogni ze
poi sonous snakes at a gl ance. Besi des t he zoo, make
use of museums and exhi bi ts. Become fami l i ar enough
wi th l i zards, turtl es, snakes, frogs, and sal amanders to
recogni ze common ones seen in the fi el d.
FIELD STUDIES i n your own regi on come next . I f you
can, go wi th an experi enced pers on. Hi kes wi l l make
you fami l i ar wi th pl aces where repti l es and amphi bi ans
are found. The best pl aces depend l argel y on l ocal con­
di ti ons. Go to ponds and swamps, creeks, l edges, woods
and fel ds. Thi s i s the frst step i n observi ng or col l ecti ng.
COLLECTING may s eem mor e i mportant t han i t i s .
You can l earn much wi thout col l ecti ng. Onl y for the
a dvanced a mat eur i s i t neces s ary to pi n down rare
s peci es or geographi cal s u bspeci es for study of body
scal es, head pl ates, forms of toes and other detai l s . At
that stage s ys­
temati c col l ect­
i n g i s i mpor­
tant. If you col ­
l ect h ar ml ess
s peci es , t u rn
t hem l oos e af­
ter you h ave
exami ned and
st udi ed t hem.
Hunting Frogs
with Headl i ght
Snake Stick
and Noose
1 2
COLLECTING EQUIPMENT
Snakes and l izar ds can be
car ried in mus l in bags or pil ­
l ow cas es . When the end is
tied, these are safe, and pro­
vide enough venti l ation. Cans
or j ars are fn e for a mph i bi ­
ans . Keep the container hal f
ful l of moist s phagn u m moss
Snake Collecting Bag
for your captive' s comfort. A
stout net wil l hel p you get amphibians, though
some col l ectors prefer to grab by hand. A snake
stick wil l pin down a s nake til l you can pick it
u p safel y. Some prefer to grab snakes quickl y
behind the head. Using a sti ck is safest for a
begi nner , however. Amat eurs s houl d l eave
poisonous snakes strictl y al one. Experience in
feld tr i ps wil l hel p you pl an s i mpl e but ade­
quate col l ecti ng equi pment and the proper
ways of us i ng such equi pment. Remember that
a mus l i n bag can be a death tra p for a s peci ­
men i f l eft i n the sun or in a cl osed car par ked
in the open .
Terrarium for Frogs
Cage mr Snake or lizar
CAGES AND TANKS Keep amphi bi ans i n aquari a.
Some requi re a rock or foat so t hey can cl i mb out of
t he water. Ot her s, es peci al l y t adpol es , wi l l use any
aquar i a s ui t abl e for fsh. Toads wi l l need a moi st ter­
r ari u m; l i zar ds us e a cage s i mi l ar to one for s nakes.
For s nakes an d l i zar ds that cl i mb, us e a l ar ger cage
wi th a branch set i n i t. Al l ow at l east a square foot of
fl oor space for a medi um-si zed snake, more for l arger
s peci es. Know the habi ts of the snake. Try, i n a s i mpl e
way, to du pl i cate the natural habi tat. A wooden cage
of one-i nch boards wi th a gl ass front i s good; the top
s houl d be hi nged and us ed as a doo, r. Three or four
one-i nch ( or l ar ger ) hol es at t he ends and bac k ai d
venti l ati on. These hol es shoul d be ti ghtl y covered wi th
fi ne screen. Cover the cage fl oor wi th sand or gravel .
Add a rock or t wo and a l arge enough di s h of cl ean
water so t hat you r s nake or toad can dri n k or soak. Be
s ure that the foor of your cage i s al ways dry. Fasten
your water contai ner so a movi ng s nake wi l l not turn
i t over. Repti l es kept i n wet cages often devel op ski n
i nfecti ons whi ch are di fcul t to cure. Turn such si ck
snakes l oose.
1 3
Amphibian Eggs
in Aquarium
LIFE HISTORIES of many amphi bi ans
and repti l es ar e sti l l un known. Some­
ti mes onl y t he adul ts have been de­
scri bed, and we know nothi ng of thei r
eggs or young. Eati ng habi ts , wi nter­
i ng habi ts, and mati ng habi ts of many
speci es are sti l l myster i es . A careful ,
i nformed amateur may be abl e t o make
accurate fel d observati ons and rec-
ords of sci enti fc val ue. Bi nocul ars are
often a hel p, and a notebook is essenti al . Fi el d obser­
vati on may teach you much more t han watchi ng ani ­
mal s i n a cage. For best res ul ts, combi ne both methods .
Fi rst s t udy t he ani mal s careful l y i n t he fel d. Then ob­
serve them i n capti vi ty for further detai l s . The more nat­
ural the condi ti ons, the better the observati ons.
KEEPING REPTILES AND
AMPHIBIANS AS PETS
Col l ecti ng repti l es and am­
phi bi ans to keep as pets i s
easy. Keepi ng t hem al i ve
requi res adequate cages,
l i ve food, and pat i ence.
Some are unusual , most are interesting, but al l have
their limitations. Turtles are favored. They l ive long and
are easier to feed. Species preferred as pets are noted,
but turning these animal s l oose exactl y or as near as
possibl e to where they were found, after you hove studied
them, is proper. Many species cannot l egal l y be pos­
sessed without state or federal permit. I nquire at your
state Fish and Wil dl ife Service, or equival ent, before _
attempting to col l ect or keep any reptil e or amphibian -
even common or poisonous species.
¡<
FI RST AID
FOR SNAKE BI TE
Read thi s before you begi n han­
dl i ng snakes.
Snakebi tes of any ki nd ore rare.
They ore eas i l y prevented. Wear
heavy shoes, boots, or l eggi ngs i n
country wher e poi s onous s peci es
ore found. Stay on r oods, paths,
or trai l s i f possi bl e. Step cl ear of
rocks and l ogs. When cl i mbi ng
r ocky l edges, l ook before you
grasp. Fi nal l y and most i mportant:
no amateur s houl d catch or handl e
poi sonous s nakes.
Bi tes of non- poi sonous snakes
often l eave a U- shoped pattern of
tooth marks . Treat them as si m­
pl e, mi nor wounds wi th any good
ger mi ci de. Bi tes of poi sonous
snakes us ual l y show a doubl e
puncture c aused by t he enl arged
front fangs. Other teeth marks may
be present al so. I f bi tten, try hard
to recogni z e an d i denti fy the
s nake. I f the s nake i s poi s onous,
c ompl ete qu i et wi t h prompt fi rst
ai d, and the use of seru m by a
doctor, wi l l i ns ure the possi bi l i ty
of compl ete and r api d recovery.
Phone doctor immediately.
Apply tourniquet. Loosen for
5 min. at 20·min. intervals
Make small incisions.
Suck out poison.
Keep patient quiet, warm,
and comfortable.
Scaly Skin Ploted Skin REPILES (teoth oliko)
REPTILES Though t he Age of Repti l es, whi ch fl our­
i shed for some 1 20 mi l l i on years, came to an end about
70 mi l l i on years ago, many i nterest i ng and unusual
repti l es are sti l l found today. Some nati ve repti l es
occur i n every state, t hough they are more common and
more speci es occur i n the warmer parts of thi s country.
Repti l es are cl assi fi ed i nto four maj or gr oups -t urtl es
( 45 s peci es), l i zards ( 90 speci es}, snakes ( 1 1 0 s peci es},
and al l i gators and crocodi l es {2 speci es). Repti l es are
not al ways easy to fi nd. Some are smal l , many are noc­
turnal , and most are protecti vel y col ored.
Repti l es are col d- bl ooded. A repti l e' s body tempera­
ture i s the same as the temperature of i ts s ur roundi ngs,
except as evaporati on l owers i t or i nsol at i on rai ses i t.
Onl y by behavi or i s a repti l e' s temperat ure control l ed.
Onl y on hot sand or rock does a repti l e get much warmer
t han the ai r. Desert repti l es avoi d di rect mi dday sun.
1 6
SNAKES ( 110 species)
MAMMALS (toth variable)
Some become dormant ( aesti vate) in mi ds ummer. I n
cool er regi ons repti l es hi bernate from l ate fal l to earl y
spri ng under the soi l , rocks, or water . Then they are i n­
acti ve, someti mes al most l i fel ess.
Al l repti l es , even aquat i c speci es, have l ungs and
breathe ai r. Thei r ski n i s usual l y covered wi th scal es or
pl ates . Repti l i an teeth are commonl y uni form i n shape
and si ze, l acki ng the speci al i zati on seen i n mammal s.
Most repti l es l ay eggs . I n a few, the eggs r emai n i nsi de
the mother ti l l ready to hatch. Al l you ng are a bl e to
care for t hemsel ves very soon after bi rth . Though a few
s nakes and l i zar ds are poi sonous, t he gr eat maj ority
of repti l es are har ml ess. They are often cl assed as bene­
fi ci al to man because they feed on rodents and i nsects .
Some repti l es make i nteresti ng and unus ual pets. Al l
are ani mal s whi ch deserve protecti on from needl ess
destructi on.
1 7
BOX TURTLE
TURTLES are unusual , anci ent repti l es. Thei r ancestors
fi rst appeared some 200 mi l l i on years ago, l ong be­
fore the di nosaurs . And whi l e those great beasts have
l ong been exti nct, turtl es wi th thei r odd, ungai nl y form
have managed to s urvive and have remai ned rel ati vel y
unc hanged for at l eas t 1 50 mi l l i on years. Part of the
reas on f or t hi s l o n g s u rvi val may be the turtl e' s un­
usual skel eton. The top shel l or carapace i s formed from
overgr own, wi dened r i bs. Beneath is the l ower shel l , or
pl astron. I n the course of thei r devel opment, turtl es have
become so modi f i ed t hat t hei r l egs are attached wi thi n
thei r ri bs. Thi s devel opment for protect i on has made it
necessary for t urtl es to devel op l onger necks and an un­
us ual way of getti ng ai r i n and out of t hei r l ungs . A
turtl e' s neck forms a ti ght S-s haped bend, and the
curve becomes shal l ow as the neck extends.
.
Turtl es h ave no teet h. But t hei r hor ny bi l l wi l l tear
pl ant and ani mal food. Turtl es eat i nsects, worms, grubs,
shel l fi sh, fi sh, and some pl ants. A few speci es are
l ar gel y her bi vor ous . Al l t urtl es
l ay eggs, us ual l y 6 to ¡2, and
bury t hem i n t he gr ou n d. Sea
Turt l es l ay man y mor e. Un der
the heat of t he s un these hatch
i nto you n g whi ch g r ow to ma­
t uri ty i n a bout 5 to 7 years.
Turtl es may l i ve l onger than any
other ani mal s , perhaps up to
1 50 years. Smal l s peci es have
s urvi ved l onger than 40 years i n
capti vi ty.
Mal e t urtl es are general l y
s mal l er than femal es; they often
have a l onger tai l , a concave
pl astron, and l ong nai l s on thei r
front feet. I n nort her n secti ons
of the country, turtl es hi bernate
under soi l or under mud at the
bottom of ponds. Some al so be­
come dor mant in hot, dry
weather. Several ki nds are
pri zed as tabl e del i caci es. Many
make i nteresti ng pets that are
easy to keep and feed.
Li vi ng t urtl es of North Ameri ca
and adj acent seas fi t i nto seven
f ami l i es . Si x ar e i l l u st r at ed at
the r i ght si de of the page by
representati ve speci es. The sev­
enth fa mi l y, the l and tortoi ses,
i s pi ct u r ed on p. 27. Thi s i s the
·
onl y group correctl y cal l ed "tor­
toi ses . "
MUD TURTLE
SNAPPING TURTLE
SEA TURTLES are l arger than, and di ferent from,
pond and l and speci es. The l i mbs of mari ne turtl es are
modifed i nto fi ppers-streaml i ned for swi mmi ng, cl um­
s y for use on l and. As a resul t, these turtl es sel dom
come ashore, though the femal e does so to l ay her
l arge batch of eggs i n l ate spri ng. The eggs are buri ed
i n the sand j ust past the hi gh-water mark. Sea Turtl es
are found i n warmer waters of both Atl anti c and ÎO-
cifc, and occasi onal l y of northern shores i n s ummer.
Of fve ki nds, the Leatherback i s l argest. Speci mens
20
over 8 ft. l ong, cl ose to 1 ,500 l b. , have been caught.
The r i dged, l eat her y back makes i dent i fcati on easy.
The Hawksbi l l , smal l est of the Sea Turtl es, al so i s easy
to recogni ze because of i ts over l appi ng scal es. Thi s i s
the speci es from whi ch "tortoi se shel l " comes. The
Green Turtl e, most often used for food, has four pl ates
on each si de between the top and the mar gi nal pl ates .
The Loggerhead Turt l e has fi ve pl ates on each si de and
a smal l er head t han the Green Turtl e, wi t h whi ch i t may
be confused. I t i s not as good eati ng.
2 1
MUSK TURTLES ar e aquat i c s peci es of ponds, s l ow
streams, and ri vers. They often sun themsel ves i n shal ­
l ow water, but sel dom come ashore. The f emal es do
so to l ay eggs. Note the narrow, high carapace, often
covered wi th al gae and water moss. The l ower shel l
�� �

22
( pl astron) i s narrow and short, al ­
most l i ke that of Snappi ng Turtl es .
The Mus k Turt l e has a strong
odor . Two s peci es occu r; t he com­
moner, shown above, has two l i ght
stri pes on each side of i ts head.
COMMON MUD TURTLf
MUD TURTLES, fi ve speci es of t hem, l i ve a bout the
s ame as Mus k Turt l es. They are aquat i c, feedi ng on
l arvae of water i nsects and s mal l water ani mal s.
Noti ce t hat the pl astron i s much wi der i n the Mud Tur-
tl e and i s al l scal y. Bot h ends are hi nged, so that the
Mud Turtl e can pul l the pl astron i n, �

gi vi n g head an d l i mbs mor e pro-
� ��
tecti on. Mud Turt l es have a musky �
odor, too. They ar e s mal l , rarely
over 4 i n. l ong, and are more com-

mon i n the Southeast.
23
COMMON SNAPPER and i ts gi ant rel ati ve [ see p. 25|
ar e danger ous. Thei r l ong necks, powerful j aws, and
vi ci ous tempers make them unsafe to handl e. Hol d
them wel l away from you. Snappers are aquati c, pre­
ferri ng qui et, muddy water . They eat fsh and some­

24
ti mes waterfowl . Noti ce the sharp­
l y toothed rear edge of the rough
c ar a pace, whi ch i s oft en coated
wi t h gr een al gae. The pl astron is
s mal l . Adul ts, 1 8 i n. or more,
wei gh 20 to 35 l b.
ALLIGATOR SNAPPER is the l argest fresh-water tur­
tl e, reachi ng a l ength of 30 i n . and a wei ght of cl ose
to 1 50 l b. Ent i r el y aquati c, i t l i es on the muddy bot­
tom, i ts huge mout h agape, wi ggl i ng i ts pi n k, worm­
l i ke tongue to attract an unwary fsh. I ts powerful jaws
can mai m a hand or foot. I t difers
from the Common Snapper in hav­
i ng three hi gh ri dges or keel s on i ts
back. Speci mens are reported to
have l i ved 50 to 60 years and more
in zoos.
25
SPINY SOFT-SHELLED TURTLE
SOFT-SHELLED TURTLES have, in fact, a hard shel l ,
but i t i s soft- edged and l acks hor ny scal es. Thes e tur­
tl es can pul l i n head and l i mbs for protecti on neverthe­
l ess. Of two speci es, one has smal l bumps or tubercl es
al ong the front edge of the car apace; the other does
not. Both have l ong necks, sharp
beaks, vi ci ous tempers . Handl e
them by rear of shel l . These turtl es
gr ow to a l engt h of about 1 8 i n.
and wei gh u p to 35 l b. They are
excel l ent eati ng.
TORTOI SES ÕT GOPHER TURTLES are l and turtl es
wi th bl u nt, c l u b- s haped feet very di ffer ent from the
webbed feet of aqu at i c s peci es. Thei r di et i nc l udes
much pl ant materi al as wel l as i nsects and s mal l ani ­
mal s. Our t hr ee s peci es , whi ch di ffer onl y i n mi nor
ways, are rel ated t o the Gi ant Tor­
toi ses of the Gal apagos I sl ands,
l argest and ol dest of l and turtl es.
The r el at i vel y hi gh, arc hed cara­
pace and the habi t of di ggi ng deep
burrows are characteri sti c.
27
28
SLIDERS are a common gr oup of fou r s peci es . The
car a pace i s u s u al l y s moot h and fai r l y fat , t he rear
edge roughl y toothed. The carapace of the Fl ori da and
Al abama Sl i ders arches hi gher than t he car apace of
others. The ol i ve-brown shel l s and ski ns of Sl i ders are
spl otched wi th red and yel l ow. The Elegant Sl i der has
a di st i ncti ve das h of red behi nd t he eye. The mal es,
much darker than femal es, were once mi staken for di f­
fer ent s peci es. Wi t h t he extra-l ong toenai l s on t hei r
fr ont feet t hey s ee m t o ti c kl e or gent l y s cr at ch t he
femal e' s head duri ng courts hi p. The femal e l ater di gs
a hol e near t he s hore and deposi ts a bout 1 0 eggs,
whi ch she covers wi th di rt.
Al l Sl i ders prefer the qui et waters of ri vers and
ponds. On war m days they may be found s unni ng on
l ogs or debr i s . They are one of the commonest turtl es
of the Mi ssissi ppi and i ts tri butar i es. Of al l young tur­
tl es sol d in pet shops, Sl i ders are
commonest. They make good pets,
l i ve l ong, an d grow to about 1 f.
Pai nti ng t hei r s hel l s defor ms and
may fnal l y ki l l t hem.
SAW-TOOTHED SLIDER i s al s o cal l ed t he Hi ero­
gl yphi c Turtl e because the marki ngs on i ts shel l and s ki n
r esembl e anci ent wri ti ng. I t i s a typi cal Sl i der wi th a
dar k, fattened car apace, 1 0 to 1 2 i n. l ong, marked
wi th yel l ow. The pl astron i s yel l ow wi th dark marki ngs.
30
Li ke other Sl i der s thi s one feeds on
s mal l wat er ani mal s , i ns ects, and
eve n dead f i s h; it al s o eat s s ome
water pl ants. I n the vari ous parts of
the South, Sl i ders ar e pr i zed for
thei r fl avor.
CHICKEN TURTLE i s s o cal l ed becaus e it i s l ocal l y
eaten des pi te i ts si ze ( 5 to 8 i n. | . The browni s h cara­
pace has s hal l ow fu rrows, a s mooth rear edge, and
thi n yel l ow l i nes. I t i s hi gher and narrower than that of
Sl i ders. The pl astron i s yel l ow, as are t he unders i des
of head and l i mbs, whi ch have thi n,
dar k stri pes. Chi cken Turt l es have
very l ong necks. They prefer di tches
and ponds to r i ver s. More pugna­
ci ous t han Sl i der s, they do not
make as good pets.
3 1
PAI NTED TURTLES ar e per haps t he most common
an d wi des pread of t urtl es. They ar e found wherever
th er e are ponds , s wa mps , di t ches, or s l ow streams.
These s mal l ( 5 to 6 i n . ) t urtl es spend much of t hei r ti me
i n or near water, feedi ng on water pl ants, i nsects, and
other smal l ani mal s. They are al so scavengers. I n sum­
mer, Pai nted Turtl es gather together, and i f one ap­
proaches qui etl y, they may be seen s unni ng on l ogs,
rocks, or even fl oati ng water pl ants. Mal es are si mi l ar
MISSISSIPPI PAINTED TURTLf WESTERN PAINTED TURTLE
32
to the femal es but smal l er, wi th the same l ong nai l s on
t hei r forefeet t hat Sl i ders have. Femal es l ay 6 to 1 2
whi te eggs i n a hol e t hat they have du g l abori ousl y
wi th t hei r hi nd l egs i n t he s oi l . The eggs may hatch i n
two or three mont hs, though some young do not
emerge ti l l t he fol l owi ng s pr i ng. Pai nted Turtl es may
be easi l y i dent i f i ed by t hei r br oad, dar k, f l attened,
s mooth-edged shel l s. The margin of the carapace i s
marked wi th red; so i s the yel l ow-streaked ski n, espe­
ci al l y on head and l i mbs. The pl astron i s yel l ow, some­
ti mes bei ng ti nted wi th red. I n al l four s ubs peci es of
Pai nted Turt l es the upper j aw i s notched i n front. The
notch has a s mal l proj ecti on on each si de. Mar ki ngs and
detai l s of car apace and pl astron di fer fr om s ubs pe­
ci es to s u bspeci es. Pai nted Tu rtl es
are shy and are not easil y captured.
They make good pets but must be
fed in water. You ng Pai nted Turtl es
wi l l attack fi s h i f they are put i n an
aquari u m wi th them.
33
FALSE MAP TURTLE
MAP TURTLES are aquati c turtl es often found in l arge
n u mbers i n ponds, swa mps, and qui et strea ms . They
are even more ti mi d than Painted Turtl es. Dozens may
be s unni ng on a l og, but at the l east di st ur bi ng noi se
they i nstant l y drop back i nto t he water. li ke Sl i ders,
t hese turt l es are captu red and s ol d for food. Of the
fi ve s peci es , the Fal s e Ma p Turtl e i s r eport ed better
eati ng. The young of both make fai r pets, feedi ng on
chopped meat and earthwor ms. At ful l growth they are
9 to 1 2 i n. l ong. Adul ts, havi ng strong j aws, feed on
34
s nai l s , c l ams , i nsect s, an d ot her water ani mal s . The
femal e, comi ng ashore bri efl y i n earl y s ummer to l ay
1 0 to 1 6 whi te eggs , retur ns to the water as soon as
t he eggs are bur i ed. Map t urtl es are n amed for the
fai nt, yel l ow patter n on t he car apace. The li nes are
bri ghter on the head and l i mbs. The
keel ed carapace and i ts roughl y �

toothed rear edge are i denti fi cati on �

mar ks. Mal es , s mal l er t han fe-
Commoo
mal es, may be weaker, more ti mi d. ¸_

35
BLANDING TURTLE wi th its hi nged pl astron some­
what r ese mbl es the Box Turtl e, but c an n ot cl os e i ts
shel l ti ghtl y. It has webbed feet and l acks the hooked
bi l l of the Box Turtl e. The pl astron is notched at the
back. Bl andi ng Turtl e, 7 to 8 i n. l ong, prefers water,
but it al so l ives in marshes, where
i t feeds on i nsects, wor ms, and
vari ous pl ants. Thi s shy turtl e tames
easi l y and wi l l make a good pet i f
kept i n a l ar ge, s h al l ow pan of
water.
36
TERRAPIN, often cal l ed Di amondback because of
the angul ar r i ngs on the carapace pl ate, i s the best­
known eati n g turtl e. It is r ai sed on t urt l e f ar ms, and
8- i n. s peci mens sel l for as hi gh as $1 0. Young ar e pro­
tected by l aw i n Maryl and and North Carol i na. These
t urt l es of br acki s h wat er an d t i de-
wat er streams have webbed feet.
The carapace i s dul l ol i ve, the pl as­
tron yel l ow. Marki ngs vary. Femal es
are l arger . Food: s mal l s hel l fi sh,
crabs, worms, pl ants.
37
EASTERN BOX TURTLE
BOX TURTLES are l and speci es, occasi onal l y found i n
or near water, though t hey are wel l adapted for l i fe
on l and. They prefer moi st, open woods or s wamps
an d feed on i nsect s, earth wor ms , s nai l s , f r ui ts , and
berri es. Box Turtl es have a hi nged pl astron whi ch they
pul l ti ght against the carapace for compl ete protecti on
when t hey ar e fri ghtened. The car a pace, 4 to 5 i n.
l ong, i s hi ghl y ar ched. Of the two speci es of Box Tur­
tl es, Eastern and Wester n, the for mer is di vi ded i nto
several s ubspeci es, di sti ngui shed by the s hape and
marki ngs on the shel l s and by the number of toes
EASTERN BOX TURTLE
( three or four ) on the hi nd feet. The pl astron of the fe­
mal e is us ual l y fl at; t hat of the mal e, curved i nward.
Mal es have l onger tai l s , an d t he eye of t he mal e i s
us ual l y br i g ht r ed . The fe mal e h as dar k r eddi s h or
brown eyes. I n ear l y summer the femal e buri es four or
fi ve round, whi te eggs i n a s unny spot. These hatch i n
a bout t hr ee mont hs. The young may h i ber nate soon
after, wi thout feedi ng. Young Box Turtl es grow ' / to
º/ i n. yearl y for fi ve or s i x years; t hen they grow
sl ower-about '/: i n. a year . At 5 years they mate and
l ay eggs; at 20 t hey are ful l - grown, and t hey may l i ve
to be as old as 80. Box Turtl es have been reported l i v­
i ng 25 years an d mor e i n ca pti vi ty. They make fi ne
pets and may be kept i n a fenced

out door pen or al l owed to r oam

ar ound t he hous e. I n capti vi ty,
they eat meat and a vari ety of
frui ts and greens.
ðÝ
SPOnED TURTLE is a smal l ( 3 to 5 i n. ) common turtl e
wi th round orange or yel l ow spots on i ts smooth, bl ack
carapace. The head i s col ored s i mi l arl y. li vi ng i n qui et
fresh water, t hi s t urt l e feeds on aquat i c i ns ects, tad­
pol es, and dead fi s h, but eats onl y when i n water. I t

40
makes an excel l ent, l ong-l i ved pet.
Feed i t meat, fi sh, and bi ts of
l et t u c e . Th e t ai l of t h e ma l e i s
about t wi ce as l ong as that of the
femal e.
PACIFIC TURTLE is rel ated and si mi l ar to the Eastern
Spotted Turtl e, but i s l ar ger -6 to 7 i n . The yel l ow
dots and streaks on the carapace are fai nt . The pl as­
tron, concave on the mal e, i s yel l ow wi th dark patches
at the edges. Thi s i s the onl y fresh-water turtl e of the
far West. Li vi ng i n mountai n l akes
and i n s l ow stretches of st r eams,
Paci fi c Turtl es feed on smal l water
l i fe, i ncl udi ng some pl ants. They
make good pets .
�1
MUHLENBERG TURTLE i s qui ckl
y i dent i fi ed
b
y t
he
l arge orange spot on each side of the head. The dark
carapace is short (3 to 4 in. ) and narrow, marked with
concent r i c
ri ngs
.
Thi
s t
u rt l
e is semi - aquatic
, l
i ving i n
swamps but returni ng to water when i n danger and

42
sometimes to feed. The male has
a l onger tai l . Once popul ar as an
excel l ent pet s peci es, i t i s now
federal l y protected throughout its
range; state regul ati ons al so l i mi t
possessi on without a permi t.
WOOD T URTLE i s recog ni zed easi l y by i ts br i ght,
orange- red ski n and its heavy, keel ed carapace with
deep concentri c grooves. Adults are ¯ to 9 i n. l ong.
They prefer moist woods, though they move i nto open
l and to feed and, when it i s dry, to swamps and i nto
ponds and sl ow streams. They make �
��
fi ne pets (check state regul ations),
-
`
¯
¯:··-----Þ..

and wi l l take fruit, berries and bits

of meat from your hand. Mal e has
heavi er, l onger cl aws, and l arger
´* -..æ
pl ates on its forel i mbs.
43
44
LI ZARDS are more l ike anci ent
repti l es than ei ther s nakes or
al l i gators are. Bones of fossi l
l i zards have been found i n rocks
formed duri ng the peri od when
the di nosaurs were common.
Li zar ds are found mai nl y i n the
warmer parts of the worl d, though a few s peci es l i ve as
far north as Canada and Fi nl and. Over 2, 500 speci es
are known. Thes e h ave been gr ouped i nto a bout 20
fa mi l i es, 9 of whi ch occur i n the Uni ted States . About
350 speci es are found i n North Ameri ca; 90 of these
occur wi thi n the boundari es of the Uni ted States.
A few speci es of l i zards ( pp. 67- 68) are snake-l i ke
i n appearance; they have l ong bodi es and have l ost
al l traces of l egs. In al l other characteri sti cs, however,
they resembl e other normal l i zards, and cl ose observa­
ti on easi l y di sti ngui shes them from s nakes. Li zards are
typi cal l y four-l egged, wi th five toes on each foot. They
have scal y ski ns. On the undersi de the scal es form sev­
eral or many rows, i n contrast to s nakes, whi ch have
onl y a si ngl e row of scal es.
Sal amanders ( pp. 1 37- 1 53) are someti mes mi staken
for l i zar ds. Sal amanders have smooth ski ns, l i ve i n
moi st pl aces, have l ess than five toes on the front feet.
Li zar ds us ual l y have movabl e eyel ids ( s nakes have
not) and an ear openi ng on the si de of t he head. Most
Bel l y Scales-LIZARDS Belly Scales-SNAKES
l ay eggs , t hough i n
a few cases the eggs
devel op i ns i de the
mother ' s body and
the you ng are born
al i ve. The mal es and
femal es are al i ke i n many speci es; i n other speci es
they are di ferent i n si ze and col or. Many l i zards
feed on i nsects and other smal l ani mal s , such as
those i l l ustrated on t hi s page, but a few s peci es
feed on pl ant materi al . They recogni ze thei r prey
by i ts movement and gr asp i t wi th l i ghtni ng- l i ke
speed. li zards can run rapi dl y-the fastest has
been cl ocked at about 1 5 mi l es per hour . Most can
swi m. Some desert speci es move through the sand
j ust bel ow the s urface wi th a swi mmi ng movement.
li zards are not easi l y caught, but those that are
make reasonabl y good pets . They can be kept i n
terrar i a or wi re cages. Cover the bottom of the
cage wi th a heavy l ayer of sand; set a di sh of
water and a few rocks i n i t. Feed l i zards meal ­
worms, fi es, smal l earthworms, or other l i ve food.
Anol es and Horned li zards ar e common pets;
others may eat better, however. leave the vena-
CENTIPEDE
mous Gi l a-monster ( p. 69) al one, even though it
may not be so dangerous as poi sonous snakes.
FLY
GECKO5 are unusually attractive lizards, recognized
by their large, often lidless eyes with vertical pupils.
The skin, usually covered with fine, beaded scales, is
almost transparent. Most have enlarged, padded toes.
Geckos live around houses or on trees, feeding on
small insects. They are nocturnal. Geckos lay two to
three or more small white ·eggs with brittle shells dur­
ing summer. Some tropical species have become nat­
uralized in Florida. Geckos are docile and rarely bite.
Their tails break off easily. Tubercular and Ground
Geckos are our only native species. The Least Gecko
probably came to Florida from the West Indies, while
the Turkish Gecko originally came from North Africa.
GROUND GECKOS ( 2 si mi l ar speci es) are western
l i zards [4 to 5 i n. l ong). Tai l s are about hal f the body
l ength but have us ual l y br oken and regrown s horter.
Gr ound Geckos l i ve i n r ocky or s andy des erts and
l ower mountai n sl opes. They come out at ni ght to feed
on s mal l i nsects and, i n tu�n, are �
9
eaten by snakes and l arger l i zards.


They hi ber nate from Oct. to May

but are common other months.
Other
They never bi te, tame qui ckl y and | ·�uod ..

do wel l i n capti vi ty.
'���
47
ANOLE MË AMERICAN CHAMELEON, common and
attracti ve, can change col or, often matchi ng i ts back­
gr ound of l eaves or br anches, where i t feasts on i n­
sects. Thi s i s the "cha mel eon " s ol d at fai rs and ci r­
cuses. Kept as a pet, it needs l i ve food. Anol es wi l l l ap
48
up water spri nkl ed on pl ants. Mal es
have a fl ap of s ki n on t hei

throat.
E g g s ( t wo or t hr ee) , l a i d i n s u m­
mer.u n der moi s t debr i s , h at ch i n
about s i x weeks. True chamel eons
are Ol d Wor l d l i zards.
CHUCKWALLA ( 1 6 i n. l ong) i s, next to the Gi l a­
monster ( p. 69) , our l argest l i zard. I t feeds on fl owers
and frui t of cactus and t ender parts of desert pl ants,
an d u s u al l y eats wel l i n ca pti vi ty. Chuc kwal l as s un
themsel ves on rocks but, when di sturbed, dart i nto
crevi ces, where t hey i nf l ate t hei r

bodi es and are di ffi cul t to remove. �,,,
,

I ndi ans used to eat them. The

you n g h ave ban ds ac r os s body
and tai l ; t he adul ts have tai l bands
onl y.
49
DE5ERT lGUAMA MË CRE5T£D Ll2ARD,a handsome·
spotted species of open deserts, lives in burrows under
sparse shrubs. Entirely vegetarian, it feeds on tender
desert plants. Desert Iguana is fairly large [1 2 to 1 5
in. ), but its tail is almost twice its body length. It runs

rapidly, is wary and hard to catch.
¿¿
¿

Each has its own territory for feed-

ing; here the female lays her eggs.
50
Males have a reddish patch on
each side of the tail.
5PlMY OHO TRUElGUAMA,representing two groups
of large American lizards, are not found in the United
States, but come to within 1 00 miles of our border. They
are often seen in zoos. About 1 0 or 1 1 species of Spiny
or False Iguana ( 1 to 4ft. long) live on the ground in
lower California, Mexico, and farther south into Cen­
tral America. The True Iguana (4 to 6ft. long) lives in
tropical trees. Both are favorite foods of the Indians.
Both Spiny and True Iguanas are herbivorous. Other
Iguanas live in the Galapagos Islands and West Indies.
5 1
COLLARED and LEOPARD LIZARD The bl ack col ­
l ar mar ks the Col l ared Li zard; s o does i ts l ong t ai l ,
pl ump body, t hi n neck, and rel ati vel y l arge head.
Mal es are more bri ghtl y col ored, wi th a ti nge of
or ange and yel l ow. The body i s 4 to 5 i n . l ong; the
tail twice that. Col l ared Lizards, fai r l y common i n
rocky areas, feed on i nsects and smal l l i zards. Wary,
they can run swi ftl y on thei r hi nd l egs. Col l ared Li zards
bi te when captured and do not l i ve wel l when caged.
A s peci es of t he l ower Ri o Gr ande val l ey, n ot wel l
known, l acks the bl ack col l ar . The Leopard Li zard,
52
s omewhat l i ke the Col l ared Li zard i n form and si ze, i s
more spotted and has a narrower head and body. I t
pr efers fl at, s an dy ar eas wi th s ome veget ati on . As
food i t ta kes i ns ects an d l i zar ds , and often eats i ts
own ki nd. Oddl y, femal es devel op a deep sal mon col or
on thei r undersi des at the cl ose of
the breedi ng season. They l ay 2 to
4 eggs, whi ch hatch in a month or
so. Because Leopard Li zards are
vi ci ous, they do not make sati sfac­
tory pets.
53
CLIMBING and GROUND UTAS are rel ated groups.
The former prefer trees and rocks, where thei r dul l col ­
or gi ves protecti on. Thei r i r regu l ar- si zed scal es are a
fi el d characteri sti c. Mal es are pal e bl ue on the under­
s i de near the back l egs ; fe mal es l ack t hi s col or . The
adul ts are s mal l (5 to 6 i n . ). Gr ound Utas are s mal l
stri ped or speckl ed l i zards l i vi ng i n rocky pl aces and
feedi ng on s mal l i nsects. These very common l i zards
vary somewhat wi th thei r s urroundi ngs. Both Cl i mbi ng
and Ground Utas are rel ati vel y easy to catch at ni ght,
when they are l ess acti ve than i n the dayti me.
EARLESS SAND LIZARD
SAND LIZARDS i ncl ude fi ve medi u m- si zed (6 to 8
i n . ) l i zards al l prefer r i n g s an dy terrai n . Two of t he
s peci es i l l ustrated are at t hei r best i n t he sand d unes
of the Cal i for ni a and Ari zona deserts. Al l have a ski n
fol d across the undersi de, i n front of t he forel egs.
Legs and toes are l ong. Tai l s a re
a bout body l ength an d are often
marked wi th bl ack bars u nder­
neath. Sand Li zards are acti ve and
not easi l y caught . They al l feed on
s mal l i nsects .
�¡
�¿¸
_¸ "

to|led

~
ëo·less

.
55
SWIFTS for m a l ar ge gr oup of c ommon l i zar ds, in­
cl u di n g Fence, Spi ny, an d Scal y l i zar ds . Some 30
forms [ species and subs pecies | l ive in the United States,
al most t hree ti mes as many farther south. The l argest
have bodies about 5 i n. l ong, tai l s sl i ghtl y l onger. Al l
are acti ve i n dayl i ght, s pendi ng the ni ght i n cr acks,
crevices, or on br anches. Some s pecies l ay eggs;
ot her s bear 6 to ¡¯ you n g al i ve. Head, body, and
l i mb forms are guides to the entire Swift gr oup, once
you l earn them. These l izards l ack the ski n fol d across
56
the throat that Sand lizar ds ( p. 55) and s i mil ar s pe­
ci es have. Some Swi fts are bl ue or bl ue- patched on
the undersi des; t hi s is more pronounced in mal es. De­
tai l ed i dentification may be di fficul t. Swifts, good
cl imbers, are often found in trees, on boul ders, among
rocks. True to thei r name, they are �

hard to catch. Their food is mainl y
��
s mal l i nsects . They do wel l in cap-

tivity if given live food but are not
es peci al l y good pets .
57
DESERT HORNED LIZARD
HORMED Ll2ARD5 are unique. These odd, flattened
creatures are found only in the West and in Mexico.
The only other lizard like them is one in Australia.
Most have various-sized spines on the head which give
the group its name. Eight species are found in dry,
sandy areas, where they lie on rocks or half buried in
the sand. When an insect appears, a quick snap of
the lizard's tongue takes care of it. Some species lay
20 to 30 eggs; in others up to a dozen young are
born alive. In one species eggs hatch in only a few
hours; others take several weeks. These unusual liz·
58
TEXAS HORNED LIZARD
ards may squirt a thin stream of blood from the corn­
ers of their eyes when frightened. Some puff up when
angered; others flatten themselves out even more.
They are easily captured, can be safely handled, and
become tame. In captivity they will do well if given
live insects and moist leaves from
�.
which they can lap up the water
they need. Ants are among their
favorite foods. These lizards must
be kept warm {at least 70 degrees)
or they will not eat.
59
OIANn NIGHT LIZAID
60

NIGHT LIZARDS are mottl ed, medi um-sized l i zards.
Both body and tail ar e about 3 i n. l ong. They live in
areas of granite, behind the l oose-scal ed fl akes of
rock or under fal l en stal ks of yucca. Note the vertical
pupi l i n the eye and l ack of eye-l ids . Horizontal rows of
pl ates cross t he bel l y. The four
ki nds are noct ur nal , s pending the
day in s hel tered crocks . Young
( two or t hree at a ti me) or e born
ol ive. The food i s beetles and other
smal l i nsects.
SKINKS Some 20
speci es of Ski nks
are found i n the
United States; no
other l i zards have
so wi de a range.
They are the onl y l i zards
North have ever seen. Al l are smal l to moderate
s i ze. The body l ength i s not usual l y mor e than 5 i n
t he tai l not much over 6 i n . Most Ski nks ar e s mal l er.
Ski nks can be recogni zed by thei r s mooth, fl at scal es,
whi ch produce a gl ossy, s i l ky appearance. Most have
s hort l egs, and i n one ( p. 64) the l egs are degenerate,
but most are swi ft r unner s. Al l burrow occasi onal l y, for
Ski n ks, i n gener al , are gr ound l i zards . Acti ve duri ng
war m days, Ski n ks feed mai n l y on i nsects, s pi ders,
worms, and perhaps s mal l vertebrates. They hi bernate
al l wi nter i n the gr ound or under l ogs. The most com­
mon Ski nk mates dur i ng May. Eggs, 6 to 1 8, are l ai d
about s i x weeks l ater. The mother spends the next si x
or seven weeks br oodi n g her eggs ti l l t hey h at ch,
s ometh i n g u n us ual for l i z ards . The you n g ar e on l y
about an i nch l ong.
Ski nks can be roughl y i denti fi ed by the marki ngs on
thei r backs . Most c ommon i n t he East ar e t he fi ve­
l i ned Ski nks , whi ch have fi ve l i ght l i nes from head to
tai l . Li nes are cl earer i n younger ani mal s. I n the West,
four- l i ned Ski nks are common. Other Ski nks have ei ght
l i n es , two l i n es, or no l i nes at al l .
They are not eas i l y caught but wi l l
do wel l i n c apti vi ty i f l i ve food­
meal wor ms, a nt l arvae, or beetl e
gr ubs-are avai l abl e. Keep i n a
terrari u m wi t h r ocks under whi ch
they can hi de.
6 1
GREATER FIVE-LINED SKINK
BROWN and SAND SKINKS are si mi l ar to the other
ski nks j ust noted. The Brown Ski nk (2 i n. l ong, wi th
l onger tai l ) has a transparent di s k i n the eyel i d. Notabl e
al so are the s mooth, fl at scal es and the broad, brown
bands down t he si des. Thi s s ki n k prefers wooded moi st
pl aces; it l ays i ts eggs i n hu mu s or rotted wood. It i s
an acti ve l i zard, most commonl y found on the ground,
often hi di ng under l eaves. The Sand Ski nk i s a burrow­
i ng l i zard about 2 i n. l ong, with l egs smal l and degen­
erate, especi al l y the forel egs. No other l i zard has l egs
qui te l i ke i t . I t i s found i n pi ne woods, i n dry or sandy
soi l s.

óA
SAND SKINK
SIX-LINED WHIPTAIL LIZARD
WHIPTAIL LIZARDS or Racer unners, a very di verse
group, gi ve the experts troubl e. One of the most com­
mon and wi des pread i s the 6-l i ned speci es, somewhat
s ki nk- l i ke i n appear ance. I ts body l ength i s about 3 i n. ;
tai l at l east twi ce as l ong. These l i zar ds are found i n
many dry l ocal i ti es, feedi ng duri ng
the day on i nsects, worms, and
s nai l s . Other Whi ptai l s ar e check­
ered or spotted. They are more
common i n the West.
ALLIGATOR LIZARDS, named for thei r s hape and
heavy scal es, are sl ow, dul l -col or ed, sol i tary, wi th a
banded or s peckl ed back. They ar e fai r l y l ar ge [1 0
i n. ) . Some speci es l ay eggs; i n others the 2 to 1 5 young
are born al i ve. They feed on i nsects and spi ders and,
i n turn, are the food of l arger rep­
ti l es, mammal s, and bi r ds. Al l i ga­
t or li zards do wel l i n capti vi ty, but
t hey fi g ht when sever al ar e i n a
cage together . Mal es may bi te
pai nful l y.
GLASS-SNAKE LIZARDS are of three cl osel y s i mi l ar
s peci es -l i mbl ess, somewhat snakel i ke, 2 to 3 ft. l ong.
Ear openi ngs , eyel i ds, and many rows of bel l y scal es
procl ai m t hem to be true l i zar ds. The very l ong tai l
breaks of mor e eas i l y t han that of other l i zards. I t may
break of when t he ani mal i s cap­
tured or roughl y handl ed. The tai l ,
of course, cannot rej oi n t he body,
but a new, shorter tai l grows i n i ts
pl ace. These l i zards feed on i nsects .
They may bi te when handl ed.
67
WORM and FOOTLESS LIZARDS ar e two s mal l bur­
rowi ng speci es. The former ( up to ¡Û i n. l ong, onl y '/: i n.
thi ck) , found i n sandy s oi l of pi n e woods , h as di sti nct
ri ngs whi ch make it l ook much l i ke a l arge earthworm.
I t i s l i mbl ess, earl ess, and bl i nd. The Footl ess li zard of


ess
..
68
Cal i forni a, whi ch i s even s mal l er
( 6 i n. ) , has s mal l eyes but i s ear ­
l ess and l i mbl ess. Two forms occur,
one of whi ch i s s i l ver y , t he other
bl ac k. Thes e l i zar ds depend on
s mal l i nsects for thei r food.
GILA-MONSTER, our onl y poi sonous l i zard, grows up
t o 2 ft. l ong. The poi son, from modi fi ed sal i vary gl ands
i n the l ower j aw, i s not i nj ected and may n ot enter the
wound when the l i zard bi tes . Us ual l y sl ow and cl umsy,
Gi l a- monsters c an twi st t hei r heads , bi te s wi ftl y, a nd
h a n g on st r on gl y. Leave t h e m to �

t he expert s . Gi l a- monst er s l i ve




under rocks and i n burrows by day.

They feed on eggs, mi ce, and other
l i zar ds . The 6 to 1 2 eggs hatch i n '
about a month .
69
70
Skull of Non-pisonous Snake­
Eastern Racer
Skull of Poisonous Snake­
Cottonmouth
SNAKES ar e t he best- known repti l es. Of s ome 250
speci es and s ubs peci es found i n the U. S. , 36 produce
poi son whi ch can harm man. I n few pl aces are poi son­
ous s nakes common, and deat h from s nake bi te i s a
rari ty. Al l snakes except Bl i nd Snakes have l arge scal es
across the bel l y. Besi des l acki ng l i mbs, they al so l ack
ear openi ngs and eyel i ds that move. Each si de of the
snake' s l ower j aw moves separatel y, enabl i ng i t to swal ­
l ow prey l arger than i ts nor mal mouth s i ze. Teeth are
smal l and hooked. The l arger fangs of poi sonous s peci es
are grooved or hol l ow.
The s nake' s l ong, forked tongue i s har ml ess. I t
serves as a s i mpl e ki n d of feel er and "s mel l er . " The
tongue can not smel l but does bri ng odorous parti cl es
i nto the mouth and i nto contact wi th smel l - sensi ti ve
or gans there. These
s uppl ement the sensa­
ti ons the s nake recei ves
Head of Scarlet King
Snake (showing tongue
attachment and teeth)
Copperhead at Birth
Eggs of Red Ki ng Snake
through its nostri l s. Snakes do not hear as
we do; thei r enti re body pi cks u p vi bra­
ti ons through the ground. The eyesi ght of
snakes is fai rl y good, though thei r eyes
are not as wel l adj usted for di stance as
ours. Some can see very wel l at ni ght.
Snakes feed on l i ve ani mal s: i nsects, worms,
frogs, mi ce, rats, and r abbi ts - mostl y ani mal s
harmful to man. Some s nakes l ay eggs; the young
of others are born al i ve. Snakes may have about
a dozen young at a ti me and occasi onal l y as many
as 99. The mother gi ves t hem no care after bi rth;
the young fend for t hemsel ves and grow rapi dl y.
Most of them doubl e thei r si ze i n one year and are
ful l grown i n two or three years. I n growi ng,
s nakes shed thei r ski ns at l east once and often
several ti mes a year.
Al though snakes are kept as pets by some
peopl e, they are not very i ntel l i gent. They are
unusual , attracti ve-even beauti ful . Some s pe­
ci es are easy to tame and never attempt to bi te.
Onl y a few wi l l eat wel l i n capti vi ty. li ve food i s
usual l y needed.
71
72
BLIND SNAKES, someti mes cal l ed Worm Snakes be­
caus e of t hei r col or an d s i ze ( 8 to 1 2 i n . ), ar e t rul y
bl i nd. They may come to t he su rface at ni ght. Most are
found under stones or i n di ggi ng. They eat worms and
i ns ect l arvae. Capti ve s peci mens never bi te. They bur­
r ow ra pi dl y when s an d or s oi l is
put i n the cage. The three si mi l ar
s peci es ar e t he on l y Amer i can
s na kes wi thout l ar ge bel l y s cal es.
Bl i nd Snakes l ay eggs. They are
rel ati ves of the Boas .
BOAS ar e not al l l arge tropi cal s nakes. Two s peci es
l i ve north of Mexi co. The Rosy or Cal i for ni a Boa, an
attracti ve, doci l e, smal l -scal ed constri ctor, makes a fi ne
pet. I t l i ves i n dry, rocky foothi l l s, feedi ng mai nl y on
rodents . The grayi sh Rubber Boa, al so heavy-bodi ed,
has a short, bl unt tai l whi ch i t di s­
pl ays l i ke a head whi l e i ts real
head i s protected by the coi l s of i ts
body. I t grows up to 2 ft. l ong; the
Rosy Boa i s l arger ( 3 ft. ) . Both bear
l i ve young.




73
74
RAINBOW SNAKE i s a handsome s peci es. Stri pes
vary from orange to red. The under si de i s red wi th a
doubl e row of bl ack s pots . Thi s s nake of swampy re­
gi ons often burrows an d i s not commonl y s een . It i s
s mal l er ( 40 i n . ) t han t he cl os el y r el ated Mud Snake
( p. 75) and l i ke it has a sharp
" s pi ne" at the end of i ts tai l . li ttle
is known of i ts l i fe hi story and feed­
i n g habi ts. The f emal e l ays 20 or
more eggs , whi ch hat ch i n a bout
60 days.
MUD SNAKES ( two s i mi l ar for ms) are the s ubj ect of
many s upersti ti ons . The s pi ke or sti nger on the tai l i s
s ai d to be poi s onous . Thi s s n ake, al s o c al l ed Hoop
Snake, i s s u pposed to gr as p i ts tai l i n i ts mouth and
rol l down the road. Such tal es about the har ml ess, at­
tracti ve, smal l -headed Mud Snakes
are untrue. These burrowi ng swamp
snakes feed on fi sh and frogs, espe­
ci al l y on Si r ens and Congo-eel s
( pp. 1 39- 1 40) . Length, 4 to 6 ft. ;
l ays 20 to 80 or more eggs.
75
` . ' �¯
� ª ´

·
Æ
¢
"
#
Northern Southern Mississi ppi Pra
RING-NECKED SNAKES ( three speci es) are smal l ( 1 2
to 1 8 i n. ), common, attracti ve snakes l i vi ng in moi st
woods u nder r ocks or fal l en l ogs, wher e t hey feed on
s mal l i nsects and worms. They l ay eggs whi ch hatch i n
about two mont hs. Recogni ze these snakes by t hei r sl ate­
gray col or and the yel l ow-to-orange
ri ng behi nd the head. The undersi de
i s yel l ow, orange, or red, someti mes
s potted. They may secrete a s mel l y
fui d when captured, but soon tame.
Capti ves eat poorl y.
GREEN SNAKES, sl ender and harml ess, l i ve in green­
ery where they are har d to see. The s mal l er s peci es
( 1 5 to 1 8 i n . ) wi th s mooth scal es prefers open grassy
pl aces . The other, whi ch gr ows twi ce as l ong, has a
rough appearance due to a ri dge or keel on each scal e.
Often found i n bushes and vi nes, �
th i s one feeds on i nsects. Eggs of
both speci es hatch i nto dark young
whi ch gradual l y turn green . Green
Snakes are doci l e, but as nei t her


eats wel l , they l angui sh in capti vi ty.
77
CONE-NOSED SNAKE
( Text OH page 80)
78
BLACK SWAMP SNAKE




STRIPED SWAMP SNAKE
( Text OH page 80)

� Soo·p-

to|led
Stt|ped
Swomp
SMALLER, LESS COMMON, HARMLESS SNAKES
( I l l ustrati ons on Pages 78 and 79)
CONE-NOSED SNAKES ( 1 0 to 1 2 i n. ) are two wood­
l and s peci es al s o cal l ed Gr ound Snakes . Br owni s h or
gray a bove; s ome with s mal l bl ack dots. Food: smal l
i nsects and wor ms. Young are bor n al i ve.
SHORT-TAILED SNAKE ( 1 8 to 24 i n. ) i s l i ke a smal l
Red Ki ng Snake. An aggressi ve, burrowi ng, upl and
snake, i t ki l l s smal l prey, often other s nakes, by con­
stri cti on. Tai l i s very short.
GROUND SNAKES ( 1 0 to 1 5 i n. ) are two s mal l banded
s peci es of vari abl e col or and pattern, s i mi l ar but · not
rel ated to Sharp-tai l ed. Food: i nsects, s pi ders, etc.
SHOVEL- NOSED SNAKE ( 1 2 to 1 Ó i n . ) i s a ground
snake ( two speci es) sl i ghtl y l arger t han Grou nd Snakes
and rel ated to them. Snout proj ecti ng but fattened. A
yel l owi sh, egg- l ayi ng sand burrower.
BLACK SWAMP SNAKE ( 1 2 to ¡ Ó i n . ) i s thi ck­
bodi ed, red-bel l i ed, swamp- l ovi ng. Bl ack bar on each
bel l y scal e. Young born al i ve. Food: probabl y fi sh, frogs.
STRIPED SWAMP SNAKE ( 1 8 to 24 i n . ) i s aquati c,
l i vi ng i n hol es and t unnel s al ong di tches and i n swamps.
Food: mai nl y crayfi sh and frogs . Young are born al i ve.
SHARP-TAILED SNAKE ( 1 2 to 1 6 i n . ) i s somewhat
stout. Li ttl e i s known of i ts habi ts. Note t he l i ght yel ­
l ow stri pe on si des, bl ack bands on yel l ow bel l y scal es.
SAND SNAKE |1 0 to 1 4 i n. ) i s a bu rrower i n desert
sands. Crawl s j ust bel ow the s urface, ai ded by a broad,
heavy s nout. Yel l ow to red, wi th dar k bands al most
enci rcl i ng body. Scal es s mal l an d s hi ny. Li fe hi story
l argel y unknown. Sai d to eat ant l arvae.
80
HOG-NOSED SNAKE is uni que
a nd amus i ng. When mol ested, i t
hi sses, s preads, and stri kes, as
t hough to appear danger ous, but
i t never bi tes. I f threats fai l , i t rol l s
over and pl ays dead. Becaus e of
its feroci ous puffi ng, t hi s har ml ess snake is someti mes
cal l ed Puff Adder . The hard, t ur ned- up nose hel ps i n
burrowi ng after toads, whi ch are t he preferred food of
these snakes, often maki ng up thei r enti re di et. The
Hog- nosed Snake l ays about two dozen eggs in s um­
mer . They are gent l e s nakes and
do wel l i n capti vi ty, i f toads are
avai l abl e as food. Three si mi l ar
speci es, al l heavi l y bui l t. Common
Hog-nosed Snake, 2 to 3 ft. l ong,
i s the l argest.
Ü ¡
FANGED NIGHT SNAKE

·







¸


weste·o
¬oos-oosed
vae
oj

ßlocs-
j ( Text OH
Page 84)
�ted
82
BLACK­
STRIPED
SNAKE
� Jexos
( Text OH Page 84)
o ose

83
84
OTHER LESS COMMON SNAKES
( I l l ustrations on Pages 82-83)
VINE SNAKE * ( to < ft. or mor e) i s a
bush-dwel l er of semi - ar i d r egi ons, very
sl ender . Longer, narrower head t han other
Amer i can snakes. Reddi s h- br own; whi te
l i ne down bel l y. Food: l i zards.
WESTERN HOOK-NOSED SNAKE i s a
bl otched, egg- l ayi ng burrower resembl i ng a
mi ni ature Hog- nosed Snake ( 1 0 to 1 2 i n . ) but i s not ki n.
FANGED NIGHT SNAKE * ( to 30 i n . ) , wi de- headed,
s l ender, i s an egg- l ayer. I t feeds on both i nvertebrates
and smal l vertebrates. Often found i n trees and bushes.
FLAT-HEADED SNAKES* ( 1 2 to 1 4 i n . ) are a l arge
group of secreti ve or burrowi ng, egg- l ayi ng s peci es.
Al l but one have a bl ack head cap.
YELLOW-LIPPED SNAKE ( 1 2 t o 1 6 i n. ) has a yel l ow
upper l i p. Back reddi sh- brown, bel l y yel l ow. An egg­
l ayer of swamps, found under l ogs and debr i s. Food:
frogs, toads, i nsects.
TEXAS HOOK-NOSED SNAKE ( 1 0 to 1 2 i n. ) , re­
l ated to the Western, is sub-tropi cal , wi th a l arger
s hovel - snout than the Western but wi th s i mi l ar habi ts.
Ashy gray wi th gray and bl ack cross bands.
WORM SNAKE ( 1 0 to 1 3 i n. ), wi del y occurri ng, i s a
burrower, rarel y seen. Shi ny, smooth scal es. An egg­
l ayer; feeds on earthworms. Found i n woods.
BLACK-STRIPED SNAKE* ( 1 6 to 20 i n . ) i s a ni ght
s nake. Feeds on frogs, toads, l i zar ds . An egg- l ayer
and ground-dwel l er. Rare; more common i n tropi cal
Ameri ca.
¯ Species with weak venom and smal l , fxed, grooved fangs i n rear of
upper jaw.
RACERS are aggressi ve and graceful . Easter n forms,
averagi ng 4 ft . , are s mooth, bl ue-bl ack, wi th whi te chi n
and throat. Wester n form, s mal l er, i s greeni s h or yel ­
l owi sh brown, bel l y and chi n l i ghter. Both are very ac­
ti ve, at home i n bushes and trees. Food: s mal l mam­
mal s, bi r ds, i nsects, frogs, l i zards, other snakes. Tropi c
Racer, speckl ed, occurs onl y i n southern t i p of Texas.
.
_

bl ue
~.
c|ocs
85
COACHWHIP and WHIPSNAKES are cl osel y re­
l ated to the Racers, but thi nner and l onger. Those i l l us­
trated represent two grou ps-one typi cal of the East,
on e of t he West . The for mer ar e a var i abl e br own
( some are red or pi nki sh) , darker at the head, becom­
i ng l i ghter toward the tai l . Coachwhi p i s the l argest of
the group; some over 7 ft. l ong have been r eported.
Western speci es are usual l y 4 to 5 ft. l ong. These are
typi cal l y stri ped wi t h yel l ow on t he s i des agai nst a
dark back; the bel l y is usual l y l i ghter. Several of these
are desert forms, but al l are acti ve duri ng the day.
86
Al l are al ert and fast. They feed on mi ce, l i zards, and
s mal l s nakes, movi ng r api dl y over sand or through
brush after thei r prey. They do not ki l l by constri cti on,
as
·
some peopl e bel i eve. Too swi ft to be caught easi l y,
when they are caught these s nakes wi l l stri ke and wi l l
th rash thei r t hi n, l ong tai l s r api dl y. �

They never tame enough to make


g ood pets. E i ght t o 1 2 eggs are �
oses

l ai d i n earl y s u mmer, each about 1
by ¡ '/ i n. Four s peci es of these
s nakes l i ve i n t hi s cou ntry.
87
88
PATCH-NOSED SNAKES, rel ati ves ( three speci es) of
Racer s ( p. 85) , are as fast and active. On the move day
or ni ght, t hey l i ke any terrai n. The bl unt s hi el d over
the nose pl us the yel l ow and brown str i pes down the
s nake ' s back gi ve positi ve i dentifi cati on. Adul ts are
about 3 ft. l ong. li zards and other
smal l desert l i fe are eaten. Femal es
l ay eggs. The nose may hel p i n
burrowi ng i n s and. Rear t eet h are
enl arged but venom seems absent.
LEAF-NOSED SNAKES, s mal l rel ati ves of t he Patch­
n oses, have an even more exaggerat ed nos epi ece.
Once consi dered very rare, they are fai rl y common i n
the deserts at ni ght. The two s peci es are mar ked by
dark bl otches. Both are moderatel y stout, 1 2 to 1 5 i n.
l ong. They are pugnaci ous, coi l i ng
and stri ki ng when caught, but are
�-
harml ess. They are egg- l ayers, and
are r eported to feed on desert l i z­
ar ds or l i zard eggs .
89
RAT SNAKES i ncl ude five l arge speci es, common and
wi del y di stri buted i n t he East and Mi ddl e West. The
col ors di fer from s pecies to speci es, maki ng i denti fca­
ti on easi er . Al l are fast, acti ve snakes. When caught
t hey may bi te fr eel y and excrete a fou l - s mel l i n g fui d
from gl ands at the base of the tai l . They tend to tame
down i n ca pti vi ty and make fai r pets . Al l rat s nakes
a re constri ctors. Members of thi s group have been
known by di verse common names whi ch are often mi s­
l eadi ng. Names used here are truer to the s nakes.
The Bl ac k Rat Sn ake, al s o known as the Pi l ot Bl ack
Snake, may be mi staken for t he Bl ack Racer ( p. 85) .
The Bl ack Rat Snake has some scal es ti pped wi th whi te
-remai ns of a pattern of bl otches seen more cl earl y
i n the young of al l members of thi s group. The scal es
are s l i ghtl y keel ed; those of the Bl ack Racer are not.
The Gray Rat Snake, a more southern form, has
bl otches of gray or brown agai nst a l i ghter background.
The Yel l ow Rat Snake ( Stri ped Chi cken Snake) av­
erages 4 to 5 ft. l ong and may someti mes reach 7 f.
I t is dul l -r ol i ve yel l ow wi th four bl ack l i nes down its
back. Often found ar ound bar ns and stabl es, it is l ook­
i ng for rats more often than for fowl .
91
CORN and FOX SNAKES are more col orful members
of the rat snake group. Corn Snake ( often found i n corn
fi el ds) i s better known as Red Rat Snake because of the
reddi sh-brown or cr i mson bl otches agai nst the l i ghter
background. A very si mi l ar western form l acks the red
col or. Red Rat Snake does not grow as l arge as Yel ­
l ow Rat Snake but i t exhi bi ts (as do the others) a pat­
ter n of hi ssi ng and vi brati ng i ts sharp tai l when cor­
nered or mol ested. The Fox Snake has the same bui l d
as the other rat snakes but i s somewhat heavi er. I t av-
92
erages 3 to 4 ft. l ong, wi th browni sh bl otches agai nst
a straw-yel l ow base col or. Found i n woods and open
cou ntry, i t i s l ess of a cl i mber t han other rat s nakes.
Al l rat snakes l ay eggs, often i n rotted l ogs or stumps.
The you n g, bl otc hed i n col or, may di ffer mu c h from
adul ts . Red
Rat Snak
e and Fox

Snake are reported to tame better,

to feed better i n ca pti vi ty, and to


make better pets than other mem-
bers of the gr oup.
� �
93
INDIGO SNAKES 8 ft. l on g h ave been r eport ed.
Thus t hey are among t he l argest North Ameri can
s nakes. Rel ated South Ameri can forms are even l arger.
Thi s heavy, handsome, shi ny, mi dni ght- bl ue, fast racer
feeds on s mal l mammal s and other snakes. I t i s often
94
fo u n d i n bu r r ows of go ph er s or
r abbi t s. The I ndi go Sn a ke ta mes
easi l y i n capti vi ty, and does wel l i f
i t can be made to eat. Thi s i s the
har ml ess s nake that "s nake charm­
ers" at t he ci r cus often handl e.
GLOSSY MË FADED SNAKE i s rel ated and s omewhat
si mi l ar to the Bul l Snakes ( p. 96) . I t has smooth scal es,
whi l e Bul l Snakes are keel ed. These smooth, shi ny
scal es are respons i bl e for the Gl ossy Snake' s common
name. Bl otched, spotted, and gray-brown, these snakes
are sl ender, wi th narrow heads. �
-
They are c onst r i ct or s, f eedi n g on
l i zar ds , rodent s , a n d ot h er s mal l
ani mal s . They l ay eggs and are
noctu rnal . Adul ts average 30 to 36
i n. l ong.
95
PINE SNAKE
BULL SNAKES are found from coast to coast. These
l ar ge, heavy s nakes average 5 ft. l ong and grow up
t o 7 ft. They are the most common constri ctors, wi del y
known as destroyers of r odent s. Bul l Snakes have a
heavy nose pl ate, adapted for burrowi ng. Al l hi ss very
l oudl y when anger ed and wi l l str i ke to defend them­
sel ves. But they tame down when captured ( especi al l y
the western forms), and some make excel l ent pets . The
Pi ne Snake i s an eastern for m of the Bul l Snake, named
for i ts favori te habi tat-southern pi ne woods . I t i s rel a­
t i vel y l i ght-col ored wi t h l ar ge bl ack patches on the
back. I ts food i s s mal l r abbi ts, s qui rrel s, rats, and mi ce.
Fart her west , t he Bu l l Sn ake i s more c ommon . It i s
more yel l owi sh t han the Pi ne Snake and has a l arger
n umber of dark bl otches. Ì loften enters burrows to ki l l
and feed on pocket gopher s and gr ound s qui rrel s . The
Paci fi c Coast forms, known as Gopher Snakes are si mi -
l ar to the B u l l Sn a k e but s mal l er
� ¯ ¬ ~ �

and wi th more bl otches. Al l s nakes

i n t hi s grou p s houl d be pr otected
�o
agai nst wanton ki l l i ng. There i s no
doubt of thei r val ue as one agent H
rodent control .
º7
KING SNAKES are a group of medi u m-si zed snakes
of normal proporti ons. They i ncl ude some seven speci es,
r angi ng from southern Canada through much of the
U. S. Al l are constri ctors and some are at l east partial l y

i mmune to the poi son of our venom-
¯ " " *¬ª¬º* ¤.
ous s nakes. Ki n g Snakes feed on
98
ot h er s n akes, but al so eat many
ki nds of r odent s. Red Ki n g or Mi l k
Snake ( 30 i n. ) i s a common eastern
Ki ng Snake wi th red spl otches bor-
dered wi t bl ack; the bel l y is pal e, wi th bl ack patches.
I t feeds mai nl y on rodents and not, as fabl es tel l , by
mi l ki ng cows. Common Ki ng Snake i s a shi ny bl ack
wi th bands of yel l ow cross i ng i n a chai nl i ke pattern. I t
i s l arger ( 3V2 to 4 ft. ) t han Red Ki ng Snake and i s more
common i n open country. The s mal l Scarl et Ki ng Snake
( 1 8 i n. ) may be confused wi th Coral Snake (p. 1 08) ,
but not e that each yel l ow band i s bordered by bl ack.
Cal i forni a Ki ng Snake ( 3 ft. ) i s bl ack wi th whi te bands;
some have a whi te stri pe down the back. Another mi d­
western form i s peppered wi th yel l ow or whi te dots on
most of i ts scal es.
5CAkLM5NAK£,unfortunatel y rare, is attracti ve and
doci l e. I t i s a burrower, 1 6 to 24 i n. , occasi onal l y
found under rotti ng l ogs or on the ground at ni ght. Its
food appears to be s mal l l i zards and mi ce, whi ch are
ki l l ed by constri cti on. Eggs are l ai d. The marki ngs have

much of the same pattern as on the


Scarl et Ki ng Snake-yel l ow bands

bordered by narrow bl ack bands.
But the bands do not enci rcl e the
~. bel l y. Coral Snake ( p. 1 08) has
bl ack bands bordered by yel l ow.
1 00
LONG-NOSED SNAKE ( 2 to 3 ft. ) does not have a
l ong nose. Probabl y a bu rrower, it may be ai ded by
its smal l , narrow head. Most have been caught at
ni ght. It is sai d to feed on l i zar ds, snakes, and s mal l
mammal s . Dar k pat ches on t he back are br oken by
ban ds of r ed, wh i t e, or yel l ow.
General l y speckl ed, the col or i s
var i abl e; bel l y l i g hter wi th a few
dark spots. Thi s i s the onl y harm­
l ess snake wi th a s i ngl e row of
scal es under the tai l .
1 01
WATER SNAKES are chi efy eastern s peci es ( ni ne) of
l akes an d ri vers . They s how l i ttl e exter nal adaptati on
to water l i fe but are act ual l y fi ne s u rface a n d u n der­
water swi mmers. They seek water when mol ested and
t here fi nd t hei r food, mai nl y fi s h and frogs . Heavi l y
bui l t, wi th s hort, narrow tai l s , they are har ml ess and
s houl d not be conf used wi th t he venomous sout hern
Cottonmout h. However, Water Snakes ar e us ual l y
vi ci ous; they do not ta me or become good pets . The
r ear of the c ommon Wat er Snake ( 3 0 i n . ) i s cr oss­
banded, wi th reddi sh- brown . Toward the head these
1 02
DIAMOND-BACKED
WATER SNAKE
bands become l arge bl otches. Di amond-backed Water
Snake i s l arger ( 31h to 5 ft. ) and darker. Its dark
bl otches are reduced to di amonds over the backbone.
Pai nted Water Snake ( 3 to 51h ft. ) i s dark above, wi th
a yel l ow or reddi s h bel l y. Green Water Snake (3 to
51h ft. ) i s a dul l ol i ve green wi th a �
vague, barred patter n. Col or and
*
* *

patt er n are cl earest i n young
ommo
Water Snakes. Al l speci es get
dar ker as t hey gr ow ol der . As

-_ Qioe·
many as 99 young are born al i ve.
1 03
PLAINS GARTER SNAKE
GARTER SNAKES and thei r ki n are perhaps more
common and better known than any other snake.
These 1 1 s mal l [1 8 to 44 i n. ) , stri ped s peci es wi th
keel ed scal es, rel ated to Water Snakes, have si mi l ar
habi t s. li ke Wat er Sna kes t hey ej ect an u n pl eas ant
1 04
, fl ui d from vent gl ands when cap­
tured . Garter Sna kes feed on
frogs , toads , earthwor ms . Young
are bor n al i ve i n s u mme r -20 or
mor e at a ti me. Mos t Garter
Snakes, fai r l y doci l e, do wel l i n capti vi ty. Common
Garter Snake, more aggressi ve than others, i s marked
by three yel l owi sh stri pes; the dark area between is
s potted. Some Garter Snakes have onl y two stri pes.
The cent er st r i pe of Pl ai ns Garter Snake i s often a r i ch
orange; the bel l y i s darker than i n common Garter
Snake. The western speci es, wi th central stri pe bri ghter
than t he si de ones, i s darker, but wi t h l i ght scal es near
the mout h. Ri bbon Snake i s t hi n ner, s mal l er, wi t h yel ­
l ow or red stri pes agai nst br own scal es . I ts tai l i s
near l y a thi r d of the body l ength
SMALL STRIPED SNAKES ar e c ommon but i n con­
spi cuous. Li ned Snake ( 1 2 t o 20 i n. ) i s a mi ni ature
Garter Snake wi th a yel l ow stri pe down i ts back, bl ack
dots on t he bel l y. The next two are rel ated to Water
Snakes . DeKay Snake ( 1 0 to 1 6 i n . ) i s a br owni sh,
secreti ve, burrowi ng speci es, com-
¯
_
_ _ ¸ ¸ _ _ ¸_+ -- -+
mon even near ci ti es. The bel l y i s
--+* �
yel l ow to pi nk, wi th bl ack dots at
'-
, ,
si des. Red-bel l i ed Snake ( 1 0 to 1 4
i n . ) i s s i mi l ar, but wi t h r ed bel l y
0eK

o
/
' and yel l ow spots at back of head.
1 06
FANGLESS NIGHT SNAKE and LYRE SNAKE are
mi l dl y poi s on ou s . The for mer ( 1 5 i n . ) h as enl ar ged
teeth i n t he r ear of i ts j aws , not t r ue fangs . When i t
bi tes l i zar ds , i ts s al i va seems poi sonous . Lyre Snake
( 3 ft. ) is a rear-fanged poi sonous s nake ( three speci es)
wi th grooved fangs. I ts poi son seems �

h ar ml ess to man . The rel ati vel y ¯ ¯ ¯ * **¬* *�

l arge head an d t hi n neck are char-
|ooj|essH| jot
acteri sti c of t hi s s nake. Lyre Snakes |y·e
typi cal l y frequent rocky ar eas and � �
feed CI l i zar ds
.

1 07
CORAL SNAKES, rel ated to Cobras, are hi ghl y
poi sonous. Our t wo s peci es have red, yel l ow, and
bl ack ri ngs , t he l atter bor der ed by yel l ow. Common
Coral Sn ake ( 3 0 t o 39 i n . ) h as bl ac k, yel l ow, and
bl ack from nose to back of head. Secreti ve and bur-
rowi ng, it feeds mai nl y on l i zards
an d other s nakes. Western Coral
Snake, s mal l er ( 1 8 i n. ) , of l i mi ted
r ange but s i mi l ar habi ts, has bl ack,
yel l ow, and red s uccessi vel y on
head and neck.
COPPERHEAD and COTTONMOUTH, poi sonous pi t
vi pers, di ffer l i ttl e from rattl ers. Pi ts between eye and
nostri l , sensi ti ve to heat, hel p t hem f i nd and stri ke at
warm- bl ooded pr ey. Copper heads ( 30 to 50 i n . ) are
upl and s nakes, wi th coppery head and "hour gl ass"
body pat ches . Cott on mout h or
Water Moccasi n ( 40 to 58 i n. ) ,
l ar ger, heavi er, and mor e vi ci ous,
i s a swa mp s nake feedi ng on fi sh
and frogs . I t i s dar k, not strongl y
mar ked. Bot h bear l i ve young.
1 09
MASSASAUGA and PIGMY RATTLERS, very si mi ­
l ar to t hei r l arger rel at i ves, do not have s mal l scal es
on the t op of the head. They are s mal l , hence rel a­
ti vel y l ess dangerous. The Massasauga ( 2 to óYz ft. ) , a
swamp Rattl er, does not stri ke unl ess much annoyed.
1 1 0
The southern Pi gmy Rattl ers, al so
¨ ¯ : · ·---·-Þ
cal l ed Ground Rattl ers, are smal l er
( 1 8 to 24 i n . ) and prefer upl and
Vossox o
.
P
.
t erram. Though s mal l er , t hey are
| gmy
� or||et not mi l d-tempered, but ratt l e and
stri ke when approached.
Cross Section
of RaHie
Button Young Older Adult Old Adult
RATTLESNAKES Rattl er s ( 1 3 speci es) are t ypi cal l y
Ameri can. Most ki nds are found i n the West, two i n the
East. Ti mber Rattl er ( 3 12 to 6 ft . ) i s a woodl and s pe­
ci es, yel l owi s h wi th dar k, ¥-s haped bands and dark
tai l . Eastern Di amondback, or Fl or i da Rattl er, named
for t he dorsal pattern, i s our l argest poi sonous s nake,
averagi ng 5 ft. ( record near l y 9 ft. ) . Westward i s
Pr ai r i e Rattl er, varyi ng i n s i ze ( 2 12 to 5 ft . ) an d col or,
typi cal l y gr eeni sh yel l ow wi th darker bl otches . West­
ern Di amondback, or Texas Rattl er, smal l er [ 4'/ to
ll2 ft. ) , of rocky hi l l si des a nd open deserts, i s brown
wi th a l i ghter bor der , general col or bei ng gray. Red
Rattl er, s i mi l ar to Texas, has reddi sh ground col or.
i n . ) , wi th er ect, hor ny scal es over

¯
¯ " "*¬ª � ¿¹
h I k I d I
Praorie att e
Strongest i s Si dewi nder ( 1 8 to 30 �
t e eyes, str ong y ee e sea es,
and a rapi d, si dewi se moti on over
r
Ti mber
s and. The Rattl er ' s rattl e, a horny ��
Rattler
struct ur e, gai ns a s egment each �
ti me t he s nake s heds; i t hel ps tel l �

age.
Rattl ers are nerv
ous, aggre
s
-

¯ *
" ª ª
* »"
��

si ve, l i ve poorl y i n capti vi ty. Food:

rabbi ts, gophers, rats, mi ce, other
s mal l ma mmal s . You n g are born
Re
° ¸y stern
East f
al i ve; l i tters of 1 2 are common
.
1 1 1
PRAIRIE RATLER
( Text OH Page 1 1 1 )
1 1 2
RED RATLER
( Text OH Page 1 1 1 )
1 1 3
ALLIGATORS and CROCODILES form a di sti nct
group of repti l es of anci ent l i neage. Once common i n
southern swamps, al l i gators have been reduced i n
number and range by hunters. Large speci mens, 1 0 H.
a nd over, are now rare
.
They are not especi al l y l ong­
l i ved; a 1 0-footer i s 20 or 25 years ol d. Al l i gators are
not usual l y dangerous. Reports of "man-eaters " usual l y
refer to crocodi l es of Afri ca or southern Asi a. Young
al l i gators, hard to feed, do not make good pets.
Ameri can Crocodi l e is smal l er, thi nner, more agi l e than
1 1 4
t he al l i gator; i ts snout is poi nted, narrower. Some of
t he teeth protr ude, bul l dog-fashi on, from the s i des of
i ts j aw. Al l i gators and crocodi l es feed on fi sh, t urtl es,
bi r ds, cr ayfi s h, cr abs , an d other water l i fe. Both l ay
eggs, hatched by heat of the s un and of decayi ng
vegetati on . Crocodi l es prefer sal t �
·
mars hes a nd even s wi m out i nto
" º
¿ ¿ ¿

t he ocean . Al l i gators pr efer fresh

water. Both al l i gators an d croco-
d
.
1 d b I
Al l •gator
l es are now protecte y aw.
,
1 1 5
AMPHI B IANS wer e t he an i mal s whi c h, eons
ago, fi rst vent ur ed out of wat er to l i ve on l and.
Those t hat survi ve today are sti l l poorl y adapted
to terresti al l i fe. Most s pend at l east part of thei r
l i ves i n wat er or i n moi st sur roundi ngs . Amphi b­
i ans var y c ons i der abl y i n appear ance, but al l
di ffer from repti l es i n never havi ng cl awed feet
or true scal y ski ns. Of three groups, two are com­
mon. The s al amanders and thei r ki n are tai l ed amphi b­
i ans . The frogs and toads are tai l l ess when mat ur e and
often have hi nd l egs better devel oped.
Amphi bi ans l ay j el l y-covered eggs si ngl y, i n cl umps,
or i n stri ngs i n qui et water or on moi st l eaf mol d. These
eggs hatch i nto l arvae or tadpol es, whi ch us ual l y
br eat he by means of gi l l s and spend much or al l of
thei r l i fe in water. Tadpol es feed on mi croscopi c pl ants
an d have mout h and di gesti ve parts adapted for thi s
di et. Larvae become ai r - breathi ng adul ts whi ch may
l i ve i n water, or whi ch l ater ret ur n to the water to mate
and l ay eggs . Ad ul t s feed l ar gel y on i nsect s. I n the
1 1 6
Forefoot
North they hi bernate duri ng wi nter under ground
or in mud at t he bottom of ponds.
Frogs are di vi ded i nto fve maj or groups, as
i l l ustrated on page 6. The Tai l ed Toads ( p. 1 20)
represent the frst. The Fi re-bel l i ed Toads occur
i n Mexi co and South Ameri ca. The Spadefoots
( p. 1 21 ) are t he next group, fol l owed by a l arge
diverse group ( pp. 1 22- 1 31 ) whi ch i ncl udes toads,
Tree Frogs, and Chorus, Robber, and Whi st l i ng Frogs.
True Frogs and Narrow- mouthed Frogs ( pp. 1 32- 1 36)
bel ong to the l ast group, whi ch i s al most as l arge as the
toad group.
The fi ve maj or groups of sal amanders are redi vi ded
into ei ght fami l i es, of which seven occur i n the Uni ted
States . The gr oup represented by the Sl i my Sal aman­
ders and newts i ncl udes by far the l argest nu mber of
speci es. The Tiger Sal amanders and ki n ( pp. 1 44- 1 45)
are t he onl y others that spend ti me on l and. The Cae­
cil i ans-tropi cal , bur rowing speci es-are l i vi ng fossi l s,
more cl osel y rel ated to s al amanders t han to frogs .
Toad Cal l i ng
Toad Extends Tongue
Z
Toad Catches Fly
FROGS and TOADS
cannot
be cl earl y di sti ngui s hed,
t hough toads us ual l y hove
rough or warty s ki ns and l i ve
mai nl y on l an d. Fr ogs have
s moother s ki ns and l i ve i n
water or wet pl aces . Toads
are pl ump, broad, and l ess
streaml i ned t han frogs. They
are sl ower and cannot j ump
as wel l . Thei r eyes are l arg­
er, t oo. Some frogs hove
s uch vari ed mar ki ngs that
i denti fi cati on i s di ffi c ul t.
Added to t hi s, the s ki n col or
and mar ki ngs of s ome s pe­
ci es change wi th thei r sur­
r oundi ngs . Most mol e frogs
an d toads can i nfl ate a sac
i n t hei r throat when t hey
make thei r char acteri sti c
s ounds . There are a bout 99
s peci es and s u bs peci es of
tai l l ess amphi bi ans i n thi s
cou ntry. These fi t i nto seven
fami l i es, the l ar gest of whi ch
are t he t ree frogs , t he t r ue
toads, and the frogs.
TADPOLES ar e the
i mmatu re or l arval
stage of frogs and
toads. The Robber
Frogs ( p. 1 30) are
the onl y nati ve frogs
whi ch do not have
free- swi mmi n g tad­
pol es. Tadpol es are
di ffi cul t to i denti fy.
The pi ctures may
hel p you name some
s peci es. ( See p. 1 33
for the Bul l frog tad­
pol e. ) Col l ect frogs'
eggs or smal l tad­
pol es al ong the
shores of ponds and
di tches i n spr i ng;
pl ace t hem i n an
aquar i um contai ni ng
pond water and
water pl ants. Do not
overstock. As tad­
pol es hatch and be­
gi n to grow they wi l l
feed off bi ts of l et­
tuce, whi ch partl y
rots i n the water. As
y o u r t a d p o l e s
change i nto frogs,
provi de a wooden
fl oat on whi ch t hey
can cl i mb and rest.
TAILED MË BELL TOAD is pri mi ti ve. The mal e has a
di st i nct "tai l . " After breedi ng i n l ate s pri n g or earl y
s u mmer, stri ngs of l ar ge eggs ar e found attached to
rocks i n mountai n streams. Tadpol es cl i ng to the rocks
by means of a l ar ge sucki ng di sc ar ound t he mouth.
1 20
These smal l toads, 1 to 2 i n . l ong,
var y great l y i n col or, from gr ay
and bl ack to pi nk and brown. Note
the webbed feet and t he s hort,
wi de head wi th a l i ght l i ne s ome­
t i mes across i t.
SPADEFOOT TOADS ( four speci es) have fes hy,
webbed feet wi th l arge, horny, spade- l i ke warts. In bur­
rowi ng, t he toad cor kscrews backward and downward
i nt o t he s oi l . It is found under l ogs or r ocks, i n s hal l ow
hol es, comi ng out at ni ght or after heavy rai ns to feed.
Medi u m- si zed ( 1 7z to 3 i n. l ong) , i t
has rel ati vel y smooth ski n. Eyes are
l arge , wi th verti cal pupi l s. Breedi ng
is i n l ate s pr i ng and ear l y s ummer.
Eggs are att ached to pl ants at the
water ' s edge.
1 2 1
TOADS, a much- mal i gned gr oup of amphi bi ans, were
once credi ted with causi ng worts . Though cl u msy, they
ore wel l adopted to l i fe on l and, feedi ng mai nl y on i n­
sects and sl ugs. They protect themsel ves by burrowi ng,
pl ayi ng dead, i nfl ati n g thei r bodi es, and exudi ng
through thei r ski n a whi te f l ui d whi ch, i n contact wi th
eyes or mouth, i s very poi sonous.
I n breedi ng season and especi al l y
when i t i s rai ni ng, mol es make a
very characteri sti c tri l l i ng cal l .
Toads t ame eas i l y an d make un­
usual pets; feed t hem meol worms.
The Ameri can Toad [l J speci es i n U. S. ) i s the common
easter n s peci es, 2 to 4 i n. l ong. Mal es have a darker
t hroat. Fowl er ' s Toad ( the eastern race of Woodhouse
Toads ) i s more greeni s h a nd s mal l er , us ual l y wi th
s mal l er, more nu mer ous warts and wi th a whi te l i ne
down the back. The Western Toad ( 2 to 5 i n. ) is very
warty; the bel l y i s mottl ed and the
head more poi nted than i n eastern
toads. The Great Pl ai ns Toad, com­
mon al ong i r r i gati on di tches and
strea ms, i s gr ay or browni s h and
somewhat vari ed i n pattern.
CHORUS FROGS are seven speci es of s mal l a mphi b­
i ans us ual l y l ess t han 2 i n. l ong. They are l ocal l y cal l ed
Tree Frogs ( though they rarel y cl i mb) and Cri cket Frogs
-names whi ch cause confusi on. Al l Chorus Frogs have
s l ender bodi es and poi nted s nout s. They breed earl y
i n s pri ng, attac hi ng s mal l mas s es of eggs t o l eaves
and stems i n water. They are common at thi s t i me but
l ater seem to di s appear enti rel y, so t hei r habi ts are
n ot wel l known. They s el dom c l i mb more t han a few
i nches a bove t he gr ou n d; s ome can not cl i mb at al l .
The Stri ped Chorus Fr ogs ar e s mal l ( 3. t o l7z i n. ) ,
browni sh or ol i ve-col ored, wi t h di sti nct dark stri pes on
ORNAT CHORUS FROG
t he bock. The cl osel y rel ated Swamp Chor us F rog i s
common i n southern di tches and swamps . I t i s sl end�r,
ol i ve green, wi th on even, gr anul ar ski n. Spots on the
bock ore i r regul ar . The Or nate Chor us Fr og, C smal l
edi t i on of t he Wood Fr og ( p. 1 35) , compl et el y l ocks
toe pods. I t i s chestnut br own wi th a d ar k mask and
wi t h dark s pots on the si des; l ength
1 to 1 1/4 i n. Strecker Chor us Frog,
fou n d fart her west, i s a more
stocky speci es ( 1 to 3/4 i n. ), usual ly
gray or greeni sh wi th darker spots
a nd bl otches on bock an d l i mbs.
�HORUS FROG

CANYON TREE FROG PI NE TREE FRO
(Text OH Page 1 28)
SPRING PEEPER
( Text OH Page 1 28)
WHISTLI NG TREE FROG


,

c| hc

w- | | oj
..
l 27
SPRING
PEEPER
TREE FROGS MË HYLAS, a l arge
fami l y of amphi bi ans, ar e rel ated to
the toads but smal l er ( most ar e 3. to
2 i n. ) . Li ghtl y bui l t, they l i ve i n tr ees
and s hr ubs, c l i ngi ng wi t h t he sti cky
pads on thei r toes. The ski n, often
s l i ght l y warty or rough , is us ual l y
brown or greeni sh. The cal l , heard i n
ear l y spr i ng, i s l oud, cl ear, mus i cal .
The frogs var y much i n col or and pat­
tern, and can to a degree change col ­
or wi th thei r s urroundi ngs.
Common Tree Fr og, wi t h orange or
brown thi ghs, back spotted or mottl ed
gray or brown, s ki n s l i ght l y r ough, i s
hear d i n mi ds u mmer i n woods near
water . Green Tree Frog, most attrac­
ti ve, l '/ to 2'/ i n. , wi th s mooth green
ski n, sl ender and l ong- l egged, has a
penetrati ng honki ng cal l . Canyon Tree
Frog can change i ts col or from brown or bl ack to pal e
pi nki sh gray. The ski n i s rough. Eggs are l ai d si ngl y, i n
water . Pi ne Tree Frog, l egs browni s h wi th s mal l orange
s pots, i r r egul ar cross on back, r anges from gr eeni sh
gray t o reddi sh brown; found onl y i n pi ne woods. Squi r­
r el Tree Fr og, green to br own, us ual l y s potted, s ki n
s mooth, has l i ght str i pe f r om eye t o forel egs. Paci fi c
Tree Frog i s gray, brown, or green; attracti ve; back
someti mes spotted; brown V between eyes; ! to 2 i n.
Spri ng Peeper, best-known eastern Tree Fr og, 3/. t o 1 1/.
i n. , common i n woodl and swa mps, i s l i ght brown or
gray wi th dark di agonal cross on back. Whi stl i ng Tree
Frog, dusky-col ored, wi th gr eeni s h t hi gh and three
rows of s pots or a cross on back, utters a uni que
whi stl e.
! 28
CRICKET FROGS are real l y s mal l ( 3/. to 1 11 i n . ) tree
frogs wi thout toe pads. Hence they cannot cl i mb. Col or
var i es fr om br own to gr ay a n d g r een, wi th dar ker
mar ki ngs t hat may be br own or even reddi s h. A dar k
tri angl e i s us ual l y pr es ent atop t he head. The s ki n i s
s l i ghtl y rough. Cri cket Fr ogs , com- �
mon t hroughout the East, get thei r


name from t hei r cal l -a s har p,

ra pi d metal l i c cl i cki n g. E ggs a re ¸
l ai d s i n gl y, att ached to pl a nts in ´*- ___
ponds and pool s. Two speci es.
1 29
ROBBER FROGS, someti mes cal l ed Barki ng Frogs, are
West I ndi an speci es, i ntroduced and becomi ng com­
mon i n the Sout h, al ong the Gul f and i n Fl or i da. Our
si ngl e native speci es l i ves i n l i mestone l edges or caves.
Eggs ar e l ai d i n moi sture-fi l l ed crevi ces. The tadpol es
do not hatch but remai n wi thi n t he egg ti l l they have
d evel oped i nto ti ny frogs . Robber Fr ogs a re s h ort,
squat, wi th wi de, fl at heads. The ti ny Fl ori da speci es i s
onl y Ys to l 7s i n. l ong. The l arger Texas speci es (2 to
3'/ i n. ) has a cal l l i ke a barki ng dog. Al l three speci es
are us ual l y dark i n col or.
l 30
Tadpole in Egg
( magnified
3 times)
WHITE-LIPPED and WHISTLING FROGS are real l y
Mexi can speci es. The fi rst i s a medi um- si zed, s mooth­
s ki nned frog ( 1 7z to 2 i n . ) , marked as i ts n ame i ndi ­
cat es . I t l ays e ggs i n a fr ot hy mass at t he e dge of
ponds. Whi stl i ng Fr og ( two s peci es) i s smal l er, wi t h more
poi nted

ose and gr anul a

ski n . Its ¸ �
eggs, l ai d on l and, hatch mto l eg-

ged frogs . There are no free-swi m-

mi ng tadpol es. T
_
hi s dul
.
l g

ay-gr

en

frog makes a famt whi stl mg chi rp.
_ ��
1 3 1
GOPHER and RED- LEGGED FROGS i ntrodvce the
" tr ue" frog grou p-1 6 common speci es that have
s mooth, narrow bodi es and l ong hi nd l egs. The Gopher
Frog ( 21/ to 41/ i n. ) , gray wi th smal l bl ack spots, l i ves
in the bu rrows of Gopher Turtl es or crayfi s h. Though
fai r l y c o m mo n , t h ey ar e r ar el y
seen. The l ar ge Red- l egged Fr og
of the West ( 2 to 5 i n. ) is an even
dar k br own or ol i ve a bove, a nd
col or ed bel ow as i t s n a me i n di ­
cates. I t i s a frog of moi st forests,
breedi ng in J u ne or J ul y.
BULLFROG OHO GREEN FROG The Bul l frog i s l arg­
est of our frogs ( 4 to Z'/ i n. ) . The mal e has very l arge
" ear s" ( tympani ) behi nd t he eyes; t he femal e' s ears
are smal l er. The col or i s usual l y drab green. I n the
North, the l ar ge tadpol e does not mat ure ti l l the sec­
ond year. The Green Frog i s smal l er [2 to 4 i n. ), wi th
a yel l owi s h th r oat, es peci al l y i n

t he mal es . Both of these common
frogs l i ve i n ponds and s wa mps.
Bot h are s ol i t ar y, l ayi n g eggs i n
s pr eadi ng s urface masses.
PICKEREL and LEOPARD FROGS are common, at­
tracti ve, and someti mes confus i ng. The for mer has
s quare or rectangul ar s pots on the back and reddi sh
si des; l egs are or ange or reddi sh. Leopard or Meadow
F rog has more rounded spots and greeni sh s i des; l egs
1 34
are g reeni s h. It al so has a pai r of
l i ght l i nes r unni ng from the eye
back al ong the si des. Both frogs
a re sl ender, s mooth- ski nned, and
about 2 to 4 i n. l ong. Both are often
found in moi st, g rassy meadows .
WOOD and SPOTTED FROGS The fi rst is one of
the most attracti ve common frogs: i ts fawn-brown ski n
i s set off by a dar k mas k over the eyes . I t prefers moi st
woods, breeds from May to J ul y i n woodl and pool s.
Eggs ar e l ai d near s hore i n rounded mass, 2 to 4 i n.
acr oss, cont ai ni ng 2000 t o 3000 i ndi vi dual eggs .
lengt h: 1 7z to 3 i n. The Spotted
Frog ( 3 to 4 i n. ) is a western spe­
ci es typi cal of mountai n areas. I t i s
dar k brown, someti mes s potted
wi th s ki n s l i ghtl y roughened. A
l i ght strea k mar ks t he edge of the
u pper j aw.
NARROW-MOUTHED FROGS have s mal l , wedge­
s haped heads wi th a fol d of ski n cros s i ng the head j ust
back of the eyes. They are dark or mottl ed; undersi des
l i ghter. Nocturnal frogs wi th ti ny voi ces, t hey often
hi de under l ogs and rocks . The Sheep Frog, a rel ated

��
o oe
´
8beep
1 36
s peci es , h as . nar r ow head but
l oose, dar k s ki n, wi th a narrow
yel l ow or or ange stri pe down the
back. I t breeds ( March- September)
i n s hal l ow ponds or l ar ge rai n­
water pool s.
SALAMANDERS are tai l ed amphi bi ans . About l 35
ki nds, i n seven fami l i es, are found in thi s country. They
di ffer from l i zar ds ( pp. 4.-.5) i n l acki ng a scal y ski n
and cl aws . Sal amanders never have mor e t han four
t oes on the fr ont feet; l i zards usual l y have fi ve. Many
sal amanders are noct ur nal ; al l avoi d di rect sun. Duri ng
t he breedi ng season they move about mor e and hence
a re mor e l i kel y to be s een. Some s pend t hei r ent i re
l i ves i n water; others l i ve on moi st l and, ret ur ni ng to
wat er onl y to mate an d l ay eggs . The eggs, wi t h a
j el l y- l i ke coati n g, are l ai d s i ngl y or i n s mal l c l u mps.
Some terrestri al s al amander s have no
l arval stage. Sal amanders may be kept
i n t er r ar i a l i ke f r ogs an d t oads . F eed
t hem meal wor ms or other l i ve i nsects.
Most s peci es a r e too s mal l an d u n at­
tracti ve for pets.
Eggs of
Eggs of
Four-tod Salamander Spotted Salamander
Eggs of
Hellbender
MUDPUPPY ÕÏ WATERDOG ( 1 2 i n. ) is a l arge
aquati c sal amander of ri vers and l akes. The col or vari es
-often dark brown above, pal er on bel l y wi t h dark
s pots . A l arva t hrou ghout l i fe, it has bus hy red gi l l s .
Eggs ar e l ai d i n l ate s pr i ng attached to roc ks u nder
� .
water. The eggs hatch in 40to ó0
days. Hatchl i ngs , stri ped on t hei r
back and si des, are about an i nch
l ong; they mat ure i n a bout fi ve
year s. Three s peci es occur i n the
Uni ted States.
/

l J8
CONGO- EEL and HELLBEND.ER are l arge aquati c
sal amander s. The former ( two speci es) , s mooth and eel ­
l i ke, grows 30 to 36 i n. l ong, wi th four t i ny, usel ess,
one- to three-toed feet. I t i s often found i n di tches, i n
burrows, or under debr i s . The femal e l ays a mass of
eggs under mud or rotted l eaves . She may r emai n near
to guard them. The Hel l bender ( 1 6 to 20 i n. ) i s shorter
and broader, and l i ves farther �

north. I ts wr i nkl ed ski n makes i den-


t i fi c ati on eas y. Th e c ol or var i es �
f d I I h d d
Hel l bender
rom s potte ye owi s to re an
brown. Eggs are l ai d under rocks

`~ ,¸_¸ ._
\
i n s hal l ow water.
SIRENS and MUD SIRENS are southern sal amanders
of ri vers, swamps, and ponds. Both have external gi l l s
and both have onl y front l egs . The Si rens are l arger
( about 30 i n. ) , gray, ol i ve green or bl acki sh wi th spots
and bl otches. The Mud Si rens ( two
speci es) , 5 to 8 i n. l ong, have smal l er
gi l l s an d l egs . They occ u r i n s out hern
streams and waterways. li ght stri pes
down the back and si des are a char­
acteri sti c mar ki ng. Both feed on i nsects,
wor ms, l arvae, and other s mal l water
ani mal s .
MUD SIREN
OLYMPIC SALAMANDER
GIANT and OLYMPIC SALAMANDERS ar e t wo
northwestern speci es. The fi rst, the l argest western
s al amander (9 to 1 2 i n . ) , i s our l argest l and s peci es.
I t i s found on moi st sl opes u nder rocks and l ogs. larvae
l i ve i n near by strea ms. The back col or var i es-us ual l y
mottl ed; l egs dar ker . Ol ympi c �¸ �
Sal ama
n
der,
smal l er [ ¶v,
i n. ) , pre-

·

·
o, �
_;
*O' y¬p. c
fers the h u mi d coastal coni ferous
O I _ Ì LÎ
forests, where i t i s us ual l y fou nd ' ·edï
i n or al ong cl ear streams.
`
1 4 1
NEWTS are attracti ve, i nteresti ng sal amanders. Of the
fi ve speci es, the eastern (3 i n. l ong) i s perhaps the
bes t k n own . I ts eggs , l ai d i n s pri n g, on st e ms a nd
l eaves of water pl ants, hatch i nto l arvae. After 3 or 4
months i n the water these usual l y l eave to spend Z or
3 years on l an d as an u n u s u al for m, known as the
Red Eft. When the Efts ret ur n per manent l y to water,
they change col or and devel op a broad swi mmi ng tai l .
Some newts ski p t he eft stage. Newts feed on worms,
i nsect l arvae and smal l aquati c ani mal s. They are per-
¡ 4Z
haps the best sal amanders to keep as pets . Red Efts,
fed on l i ve i nsects, do wel l in terrari a. Adul ts thri ve in
aquari a, feedi ng on s mal l bi ts of l i ver or other meat.
The Western Newt i s about twi ce the si ze of the east-
ern s peci es and di ffers in appearance too. Adul ts are
l and- dwel l er s , retur ni ng to water
onl y to breed. They are reddi sh or
dark brown, bel l y much l i ghter yel ­
l ow or orange. Found i n moi st
woods and mountai n ponds.
SPOTTED SALAMANDER
[ 7i n . ) has l arge, round, yel ­
l ow, or or a n g e s pots on a
bl ack s ki n. Li ke others i n thi s
group ( 1 1 speci es) i t has ver-
t i cal grooves on i ts si des. It i s
found i n moi st woods; breeds i n ponds and t emporary
pool s . Adul ts mi grate consi der abl y, retur ni n g to water
to breed. They feed on worms, gru bs, and i nsects.
TIGER SALAMANDER [8 i n. ) i s l i ke t he Spotted, but
the s pots, when pr esent, are l ar ger, mor e i rr egul ar,
and extend down the si des and onto t he bel l y. Some
l arvae do not devel op i nto the l and form; t hey s pend
thei r enti re l i fe i n water, where they event ual l y breed.
Ti ger Sal amanders are known to l i ve over 1 0 years.
MARBLED SALAMANDER [4 i n. ) i s s mal l er than
others i n thi s group, but l i ke most i s a stout, t hi ck-set
creatu re. Var i abl e marki ngs on the bl ack s ki n, whi te on
mal es , gr ayi s h on femal es, i n i rregul ar fused bands.
The l arvae ore a mottl ed brown.
I 44
� � bpCtteU
1| ger
1e
JEFFERSON SALAMANDER i s
• s l ender ( 6 12 i n . ) ; al s o cal l ed Bl ue­
s potted, for the mar ki ngs on i ts
br owni s h s ki n . I t l i ves i n woods
al ong swamps and streams . Tr unk
and tai l have verti cal grooves.
TEXAS SALAMANDER ( S 12 i n. )
i s found i n varyi n g h abi tats from
swampy l owl ands to upl and woods.
I t i s a burrower beneath l ogs and
rocks near streams . The col or i s a
f ai nt l y bl ot c h e d s l a t e g r a y or
brown, l i ghter beneat h.
DUSKY SALAMANDERS compri se ni ne s peci es of
average-si zed ( 31h i n. ) , i nconspi cuous sal amanders wi th
hi ghl y vari abl e col or and patter n. Thei r dar k, mottl ed
s ki ns bl end wi t h rocks and moss al ong str eams where
they l i ve. The si des are grooved verti cal l y. Note a smal l
1 46
l i ght bar from eye to j aw. The AI -


l egheny Mountai n and Shovel -nosed
speci es di fer from the common east­
er n i n havi n g a l i ght, i r regul arl y
--
spotted band down the back.
RED-BACKED and SLI MY SALAMA NDERS are
l an d s peci es of our l ar gest grou p ( 1 9 s peci es ) . Often
f ound i n l eaf mol d and under rotted l ogs , both breed
on l an d an d l ay eggs i n moi st nests i n rott ed bar k or
l ogs. Red- backed ( 3 i n. l ong) has two col or phases; onl y
one has t he r ed
stri pe down the
� ¿
e
e
back. Sl i my Sal amander, l arger (6
¿
� ��
¯

i n. ) , has bl ue- bl ack s ki n wi th smal l ,
sec. es
i r r eg ul ar l i ght s pots on back, and
gr ayi sh bel l y.

PAINTED and WORM SALAMANDERS are western
speci es. The s i ngl e speci es of Pai nted vari es from bl ack
to red, usual l y wi th red or yel l ow orange bl otches.
These medi u m-si zed s al amanders (4 to 5 i n . ) occur i n
the mount ai ns, i n oak and evergreen forests . They ex­
hi bi t an unusual and compl ex courtshi p pattern. The
Worm Sal amander (4 i n. ) i s, as i ts name i mpl i es, thi n
and wor ml i ke, wi th a very l ong tai l . The col or i s dark,
often s potted or streaked. The sal amander i s found un­
der rotted l ogs or l eaves where i t l ays i ts eggs, from
whi ch t i ny mi n i atu res of the adul ts emer ge.
WORM SALAMANDER
! 48
GREEN and TRE E SALAMANDERS, 4 i n . l ong ( fve
s peci es) , l i ve on opposi t e s i des of t he cou ntry. Green
Sal amander i s found on the rocky hi l l si des of the Appa­
l achi ans, u nder l ogs or i n crevi ces of rocks. I t i s dark,
wi th greeni sh bl otches. The Tree Sal amander of the
Paci fi c Coast frequentl y l i ves i n water-soaked cavi ti es
of trees. Somet i mes a whol e col ony i s found i n one of
these hol es , where eggs are l ai d, al so. Tree Sal aman­
der s al s o l i ve on t he gr ound, under l ogs, rocks, and
bark. Thei r col or i s l i ght brown, pal er bel ow wi t h few i f
any marki ngs.

O·eeo
e
~ . ¯
GREEN SALAMANDER
1 49
BLIND SALAMANDERS ar e un us ual ani mal s found
onl y i n deep wel l s and underground streams of caves.
They are a pal e yel l owi sh i n col or, wi th eyes reduced
in si ze or compl etel y undevel oped. The l arvae of the
Ozark Bl i nd Sal amander ( adul ts 3³/+ i n . ) , found in open
1 50
streams, have dark-col ored ski ns


and nor mal eyes . The you ng of the

Texas speci es ( adul ts 4 i n . ) resem-
Ozo·s
bl e the pal e adul ts. Another rare
��
Bl i nd Sal a mander has been f ound

i n Georgi a.
PURPLE and RED SALAMANDERS often bel i e thei r
names. The Pur pl e ( 5 i n. l ong; three speci es) i s actual l y
browni sh or reddi s h brown, wi th vague spots or bl otches.
You ng ad ul ts, newl y t ransfor med from l arvae, ore
bri ght er red. Thi s i s al s o t r ue of t he Red Sal amander
( 5 i n . ;
_
t wo s pe

i es ) . Young adu lts �
-

are bnght red w1 th smal l dark spots;

*

*

ol der ones , d u l l a nd dar ker . Both
of these s al amanders are common-
est i n hi l l y or mountai n areas al ong
" .. �
streams or near ponds.

1 5 1
TWO-LINED, LONG-TAILED and CAVE SALA­
MANDERS represent a common but i ncons pi cuous
gr oup ( ei g ht s peci es ) . Two- l i ned ( 3 i n . ) i s s o mar ked,
wi th a broken row of dark dots between the l i nes on its
si des. long-tai l ed ( about 5 i n. ) is thi n, yel l ow to orange,
mott l ed or s potted. Both prefer moi st s i tes under l ogs
and rocks , t hough the Two-l i ned al s o prefers brook-
.
, si des. The Cave Sal amander ( 5 i n. )
_ _ _ _ _ _ __ • �,� -.+~ -
is seen near the entrances of caves
and under moi st, over hangi ng
c-..


rocks. Col or i s var i abl e, usual l y
-,·- .+@
yel l ow to or ange wi th scattered

bl ack s pots .
1 52
FOUR-TOED SALAMANDER is so cal l ed because
both front and hi nd feet are fou r-toed. I t i s one of the
s mal l est s al amanders ( 2 V2 i n . ) , fai r l y common i n
wooded areas, swamps, and bogs. The dul l red-brown
back i s mottl ed with darker patches; the bel l y is l i ght­
er, wi th brown s pots . Mal es are s mal l er t han femal es
and have l onger tai l s . The femal e l ays her eggs i n a
mossy cavi ty and stays wi th t hem ¸

ti l l they hatch, i n about two m

nth

.


The l arvae l eave the water H st x
o oed
weeks to compl ete t hei r devel op-
Vo·j| �od¸
ment on l and. They mat ure i n
- ¯wo·l
-
|oc·'ed
about two years.
`
1 53
BOOKS FOR FURTHER STUDY
Bi shop, Sherman C. , HANDBOOK OF SALAMANDERS, Comstock Pub. Co. ,
I thaca, N. Y. , l ºó7. An excel l ent reference and a compani on t a the
vol umes by Carr and Smi th, l i sted bel ow.
Carr, Archi e, HANDBOOK OF TURTLES, Comstock Pub. Ca. , I thaca, N. Y. ,
l º52. The best and most compl ete gui de to Ameri can turtl es, wi th
ampl e data on l i fe hi stori es and i denti fcati on.
Di t mars, Raymond, REPTI LES OF NoRTH AME RI CA, Doubl eday and Co. ,
Gar den Ci ty, N. Y. , ! º4º. A general , nan-techni cal reference t o the
maj or North Ameri can speci es. I l l ustrated wi th photogr aphs.
Pope, Cl i ford H. , SNAKES AliVE AND How THEY li VE, Vi ki ng Press, New
York, l º37. A very readabl e account of snakes and t hei r habits, by
a tap authori ty.
Schmi dt, Karl P. , and Davi s, D. D. , fi ELD BOOK OF SNAKES OF THE U. S.
AND CANADA, G. P. Putnam' s Sons , New York, ! º4 ! . A compact,
detai l ed gui de ta i denti fcati on of speci es and s ubspeci es. Of s peci al
val ue to the mare advanced amateur.
Smi th, Hobart M. , HANDBOOK OF LI ZARDS, Comstock Pub. Co. , I thaca,
N. Y. , l º4ó. A defi ni ti ve reference to the most common repti l es,
wi th ful l i nformati on on i denti ficati on and how they l i ve.
Wri ght, A. , and Wri ght, A. , A HANDBOOK OF fROGS AND TOADS, Com­
stock Pub. Co. , I thaca, N. Y. , l º4º. An excel l ent, detai l ed fel d gui de
to these amphi bi ans; non-techni cal and wel l i l l ustrated.
ZOOS, MUSEUMS, AND STUDY COLLECTIONS
Here are some wel l -known pl aces where repti l es and amphi bi ans
can be studi ed al ive or as part of permanent exhi bi ts or col l ecti ons:
Was hi ngton, D. C. : U. S. Nati onal Museum, Nati onal Zool ogi cal Park
New York Ci ty: Ameri can Museum of Natural Hi story, Staten I sl and
Zoo, Bronx Park Zoo
Chi cago, I l l . : Natural Hi story Museum, Brookfel d Zaa, li ncol n Park Zoo
Boston, Mass. : Harvard Museum of Comparati ve Zool ogy
Phi l adel phi a, Pa. : Phi l adel phi a Zaal agi cal Park
las Angel es, Cal i f. : las Angel es County Museum
Ann Arbor, Mi ch . : Uni v. of Mi ch. Museum of Zool ogy
San Antoni a, Texas: San Antoni o Zoo
San Di ego, Cal i f. : Zool ogi cal Park
Si l ver Spri ngs, Fl a. : Ross Al l en' s Repti l e I nsti tute
Mi ami , Fl a. : Serpentari um.
Berkel ey, Cal i f. : Uni v. of Cal i f. Mus. of Vert. Zool ogy
l 54
SCIENTIFIC NAMES
The scientific names af i l l ustrated repti l es and amphi bi ans fol l ow.
Heavy type i ndicates pages where they appear. The genus name i s fi rst,
then the species. A thi rd name is the subspecies. If the genus name
i s abbrevi ated, i t i s the same as the genus name given [ ust before i t.
20 leatherback: Dermochel ys cori-
a ceo.
Hawksbi l l : Eretmochel ys i mbri -
cota.
2I loggerhead: Caretta caretta.
Green: Chel oni a mydos.
22 Sternotherus odoratus.
23 Common: Ki nosternon subrubrum
subrubrum.
Yel l ow-necked: K. fl avescens.
24 Chel ydro serpenti ne.
25 Mocrocl emys temmi ncki .
26 Amyda ferox.
27 Gopherus pol yphemus.
28-29 Pseudemys scri pta el egans.
30 Pseudemys fori da no hi erogl yph-
i ca.
3I Oei rochel ys reti cul a ri a.
32 Eastern: Chrysemys pi cta picta.
Mi ssi ssi ppi : C. picto dorsal i s.
Western: C. pi cta bel l i .
33 Chrysemys pi cta margi nate.
34 Graptemys pseudogeographi ca
kohni .
35 Graptemys geographi ca.
36 Emydoidea bl andi ngi .
37 Mol acl emys terrapi n.
38 Eastern: Terrapene carol i na.
Western: T. ornata.
40 Cl emmys guttate.
4I Cl emmys marmorate.
42 Cl emmys muhl enbergi .
43 Cl emmys i nscul pta.
46 Tubercul ar: Phyl l odactyl us tuber-
cul atus.
Least: Sphoerodactyl us ci nereus.
Turki sh: Hemi dactyl us turci cus.
47 Col eonyx vari egatus.
48 Anol e: Anol i s carol i nensi s.
Chamel eon: Chomel eo vul gari s.
49
50
5I
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
6I
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
Sauromal us obesus.
Di psosaurus dorsal i s.
True: I guana i guana r hi nol opha
( j uv. )
Spi ny: Ctenosaura pecti nato ( j uv. )
Crotaphytus col l ari s.
Gambel i a wi sl i zeni .
Cl i mbi ng: Urosaurus ornatus.
Ground: Uta stansburi ana.
Earl ess: Hol brooki a macul ate.
Zebra-tai l ed: Cal l i saurus draco-
noi des.
Fri nge-footed: Uma notate.
Texas Spiny: Scel oporus ol ivaceus.
Western fence: S. occi dental i s.
Ground: S. graci osus.
Desert Scal y: S. poi nsetti.
Desert Spiny: S. magi ster.
Scel oporus undul atus.
Desert: Phrynosomo pl atyrhi nos.
Short-horned: P. dougl assi .
Phrynosoma cornutum.
Grani te: Xantusi a henshawi .
Ari zona: X. ari zonae.
Eumeces obsol etus.
Gr. Five-l i ned: Eumeces l ati ceps.
Common Western: E. ski l tonianus.
Greater Western: E. gi l berti .
Sonoran: E. obsol etus.
Eumeces fasci atus.
Brown: Sci ncel l a l ateral e.
Sand: Neoseps reynol dsi .
Si x-l i ned: Cnemi dophorus sexl i n-
eatus.
Ti ger: C. ti gri s.
Texas: Gerrhonotus l i ocephal us.
Western: El gari a mul ti cari natus.
Ophi saurus ventral i s.
Worm: Rhi neura fori da no.
Footl ess: Anni el l a pul chra.
Ì bb
SCl£N7lflC NAM£S [ Conrinuedj
o9 Hel oderma suspectum.
72 leptotyphl ops.
73 Rubber: Chari na bottae.
Rosy: Li chonura roseofusca.
74 Abastor erythrogrmmus.
75 Faranda abacura.
7o Eastern, Di adophi s punctatus.
Western: D. a mobi l i s.
77 Keel ed, Opheodrys aesti vus.
Smooth-scal ed, L. vernal i s.
78 Cone-nosed: Vi rgi ni a striatulo.
Ground: Sonora semi annulata.
Short-tai l ed, Sti l osama extenu­
atum.
Shovel -nosed: Chi onactis occi pi ­
tal i s.
79 Bl ack Swamp, Semi natri x pygaea.
Stri ped Swamp' li odytes al i eni .
Sharp·lai l ed, Conli a tenui s.
Sand: Chi l omeni scus ci nctus.
80 Chi l omeni scus ci nctus.
8I Western: Heterodon nasi cus.
Common, H. platyrhi nos.
82 Vi ne' Oxybel i s aeneus.
Western Hook-nosed, Gyal api an
canum.
Fanged Ni ght, leptodei ra annu·
l ata septentri onol i s.
83 Fl at-headed, Tanti l l o coronale.
Yel l ow·l o pped, Rhadi naea favi­
lata.
Texas Hook-nosed: Fi ci mi o streck­
eri .
Worm: Carphophi s amoena.
Bl ack-stri ped, Coni ophanes i m·
peri ol i s.
85 Eastern: Col uber constrictor con
:
stridor.
Western: C. constrictor mormon.
8o Masti cophi s fagel l um fl agel l um.
87 Mosti cophi s toeni atus taeni atus.
88 Sal vadore l i neata.
89 Phyl l orhynchus browni .
90 Gray' El aphe obsol ete spi l oi des.
Yel l ow' E. obsol ete quadri vittata.
9I El aphe obsolete obsol ete.
1 56
92 El aphe guttate guttate.
93 El aphe vul pi ne.
94 Drymarchon corai s.
95 Ari zona el egans.
9o Pi tuophi s mel anol eucus mel ano­
l eucus.
97 Pi tuophi s mel anol eucus sayi .
98 Scarl et, lampropel ti s tri angul um
el apsoi des.
Red: L. tri angul um tri angul um.
Common' l. getul us getul us.
99 Speckl ed, lampropel ti s getul us
hol brooki .
Cal i f. , l. getul us cal i forni ae.
I 00 Cemophora dol i ala.
I 0I Rhi nochei l us l econtei .
I 02 Common: Natri x si pedon si pe·
don.
Pai nted, N. erythrogaster ery·
throgaster.
I 03 Green, Natri x cycl opi on.
Di amond·backed, N. rhombi ­
fera.
I 04 Pl ai ns, Thamnophi s radi x.
Western' T. el egans.
I 05 Ri bbon' Thamnophi s sauritus.
Common: T. ordi natus.
I 0o Li ned: Tropi docl oni on l i neatum.
DeKay, Storeri a dekayi .
Red·bel l i ed, S. occi pi tomacul ata.
I 07 Fang l ess Ni ght, Hypsi gl ena och·
rorhyncha.
lyre, Tri morphodon l ambda.
I 08 Common: Mi crurus ful vi us.
Western: Mi cruroi des euryxan·
thus.
I 09 Copperhead, Agki strodon con·
tortrix.
Cotonmouth: A. piscivorus.
I t0 Pi gmy: Si strurus mi l i ori us.
Mossasougo: S. cotenotus.
I I 2 Ti mber, Crotal us horri d us.
Eastern Di amondback, C. ada·
manteus .
Prai ri e: C. vi ri di s.
SC|£N7|f|C NAM£S [ Conrinuedj
I I 3 Si dewi nder: Crotal us cerastes.
Western Di amondback: C. atrox.
Red: C. ruber.
I I 4 Al l i gator mi ssi ssi ppi ensi s.
II 5 Crocodi l us acutus.
I I 8 Bufo ameri can us.
I 20 Ascaphus truei .
I 2I Western: Spea hammondi .
Eastern: Scaphi opus hol brooki .
I 22 American: Bufo omeri canus.
Fowler ' s: B. woodhousei fowleri .
I 23 Western: Bufo boreas.
Great Pl ai ns: B. cognatus.
I 24 Swamp: Pseudacri s ni gri ta ni ­
gri ta.
Stri ped: P. ni grita tri seri ata.
I 25 Ornate: Pseudacri s ornata.
Strecker: P. streckeri .
I 26 Common: Hyl a versi col or.
Green: H. ci nerea.
Canyon: H. areni col or.
Pi ne: H. femoral i s.
I 27 Squi rrel : Hyl a squi rel l a.
Paci fi c: H. regi l l a.
Spr i ng Peeper: H. cruci fer.
Whi stl i ng: H. avi voca.
I 29 Acri s crepi tans.
I 30 Texas: El eutherodactyl us latrans.
Ri card: E. ri cordi pl ani rostri s.
I 3I Whi te-l i pped: leptodoctyl us l ab­
i ol i s.
Whi stl i ng: Syrrhophus marnocki .
I 32 Gopher: Rona areol ota.
Red-legged: R. aurora.
I 33 Green: Rona cl ami tans.
Bul lfrog: R. catesbei ana.
I 34 Pi ckerel : Rona pal ustri s.
leopard: R. pi pi ens.
I 35 Wood: Rona syl vati ca.
Spotted: R. preti osa.
I 36 Western: Microhyla ol ivacea.
Eastern: M. carol i nensi s.
Sheep: Hypopachus cuneus.
I 38 Necturus macul osus.
I 39 Congo-eel : Amphi uma means.
Hel l bender: Cryptobranchus al ­
l eghani ensi s.
I 40 Si ren: Si ren l acerti no.
Mud Si ren: Pseudobranchus stri ­
atus .
I 4I Gi ant : Di camptodon ensatus.
Ol ympi c: Rhyacotri ton ol ympi ­
cus.
I 42 Notophthal mus vi ri descens vi ri ­
descens.
I 43 Eastern: Notophthal mus vi ri des­
cens vi ri descens.
Western: Tari cha torose.
I 45 Spotted: Ambystomo macul a-
tum.
Ti ger: A. ti gri num.
Marbl ed: A. opacum.
Jeferson: A. j efersoni anum.
Texas: A. texanum.
I 46 Common: Desmognathus fuscus .
Al l egheny: D. ochrophaeus.
I 47 Red-backed: Pl ethodon ci nereus
ci nereus .
Sl i my: P. gl uti nosus.
I 48 Pai nted: a. Ensati na eschscholtzi
eschschol tzi .
b. E. eschschol tzi kl auberi .
Worm: Batrachoseps ottenuatus.
I 49 Tree: Anei des l ugubri s.
Green: A. aeneus.
I 50 Ozark: Typhl otri ton spel aeus.
Texas: Typhl omol ge rathbuni .
I 5I Red: Pseudotriton ruber.
Purpl e: Gyri nophi l us porphyri ti ­
cus.
I 52 Two-l i ned: Eurycea bi sl i neata.
long-tai l ed: E. l ongi cauda.
Cave: E. l uci fuga.
I 53 Hemi dactyl i um scutatum.
1 DÏ
INDEX
Î
An asteri sk ( * ) desi gnates pages that are i l l ustrated;
bold t§gB denotes pages contai ni ng more extensi ve
i nformati on.
Ñ
Al l i gator, * 1 1 4- 1 1 5
Al l i gator li zards, *66
Al l igator Snapper, *25
Amer i can Toad, * 1 1 9
(tadpol e), * 1 22- 1 23
Amphi bi ans, 1 1 6-1 53
as pets, 1 4
fami l y tree, *6-*7
. general , * 1 1 6- * 1 1 7
º ¶ Anol e, *48
.
�Barki ng Frog, * 1 30
� Bel l Toad, * 1 20
º V Bl ack-stri ped Snake, * 83,

84
4 Bl ack Swamp Snoke, *79,
:
80
¬ � Bl andi ng Turtl e, *36
� Bl i nd Sal amanders, * 1 50
� Bl i nd Snakes, *72
_ Bl ue-spotted Sal amander,
<
z
1 44-* 1 45
= Boas, *73
� Books, reference, 1 54

Box Turtl es, * 1 8, * 38-
.
*39
� Bul l frog, * 1 33
;; Bul l Snakes , 96-*97:
¯
, jCages and tanks, * 1 2-* 1 3
Î
ª Carapace, 1 8
Cave Sal amander, * 1 52
Chamel eons, * 48
Chi cken Turtle, * 3 1
Chorus frogs, * 1 1 9
(tadpol e), * 1 24-
* 1 25
Chuckwal l a, *49
Cl i mbi ng Uta, *54
Coachwhi p Snake, *86-87
Col l ared Li zard, * 52-53
Col l ecti ng, 1 1 - 1 4
Common Snapper, *24
Cone-nosed Snake, * 78,
80
Congo-eel , * 1 39
Copperhead, * 1 09
l 58
Coral Snakes, * 1 08
Corn Snake, *92-93
Cottonmouth, * 1 09
Crested li zard, •50
Cricket Frogs, * 1 1 9
(tadpol e), * 1 29
Crocodi l e, 1 1 4- * 1 1 5
DeKay Snake, * 1 06
Desert I guana, *50
Dusky Sal amanders, * 1 46
Efts, * 1 42- 1 43
Faded Snake, * 95
Fal se I guana, * 5 1
Fi rst ai d, snakebite, * 1 5
Fl at-headed Snake, *83,
84
Footl ess Li zard, *68
Four-toed Sal amander,
* 1 37 ( eggs) , * 1
5
3
Fowl er" s Toad, ' 1 22- 1 23
Fox Snake, VZ- •93
Frogs, * 1 1 6- * 1 1 9 ( gen-
eral ) , 1 1 6- 1 36
Barki ng, * 1 30
Bul lfrog, * 1 33
Chorus, * 1 1 9 (tadpol e),
* 1 24- 1 25
Cri cket, * 1 1 9 (tadpol e),
* 1 29
Gopher, * 1 32
Green, * 1 1 9 (tadpol e),
* 1 33
Leopard, * 1 1 6, * 1 1 9,
* 1 34
Meadow, * 1 34
Narrow-mouthed, * 1 36
Pi ckerel , * 1 1 9 (tad-
pole), * 1 34
Red-l egged, * 1 32
Robber, * 1 30
Sheep, * 1 36
Spotted, * 1 35
Frogs ( cont. ) :
Spri ng Peeper, * 1 1 9
(tadpol e) , * 1 27,
* 1 28
tadpol es, * 1 1 9
Tree ( Hyl as) , * 1 26-
* 1 27, 1 28
Whi stl i ng, * 1 3 1
White-l i pped, * 1 3 1
Wood, * 1 1 9 (tadpol e),
* 1 35
Garter Snakes, * 1 04-
* 1 05
Geckos, *46- *47
Gi ant Sal amander, * 1 4 1
Gi ant Tortoi ses, 27
Gi l a-monster, *69
Gl ass-snake Li zard, *67
Gl ossy Snoke, *95
Gopher Frog, *1 32
Gopher Snake, 97
Gopher Turtl es, *27
Great Pl ai ns Toad, * 1 23
Green Frog, * 1 1 9 (tad-
pol e), * 1 33
Green Sal amander, * 1 49
Green Snakes, * 77
Green Turtl e, * 1 9, * 21
Ground Geckos,

47
Ground Snoke, *78, 80
Ground Uta,

54
Hawksbi l l Turtl e, * 20-2 1
Hel l bender, * 1 37 ( eggs) ,
* 1 39
Hi bernati on, 1 6- 1 7, 1 9,
39, 6 1
Hi erogl yphi c Turtl e, * 30
Hog-nosed Snake,

8 1
Hook-nosed Snakes, * 82-
*83, 84
Hoop Snake, * 75
Horned li zards, •58· * 59
Hyl as, * 1 26-* 1 27, 1 28
I guanas, * 50-* 5 1
I ndi go Snake, *94
ÎMÜLÁ [ Cont| noed|
Jeferson Sal amander,
1 44-* 1 45
Ki ng Snakes, *98- *99
Leaf-nosed Snakes, *89
Narrow-mouthed Frogs,
* 1 36
Newts, * 1 42-* 1 43
Ni ght li zards, *60
Ni ght Snakes, *82, 84,
* 1 07
Leat
herback
Turtl e, * 1 9,
Ol ympi c Sal amander,
*20- 21
* 1 4 1
Leopard Frog, * 1 1 6,
* 1 1 9 * 1 34
Leopard Li �ard, 52-* 53
Li ned Snake, *1 06
Li zards, *44-*45 ( gen-
eral ) , 44-69
Al l i gator, *66
Anole, *48
Chamel eon, •48
Chuckwal l a, * 49
Col l ared, *52-53
Crested, *50
Footless, *68
Geckos, •46- •47
Gi l a-monster, *69
Gl ass-snake, *67
Horned, *58-* 59
I guanas, *50- *5 1
Leopard, 52-* 53
Ni ght, *60
Rocerunners, *65
Sand, *55
Ski nks, * 61 - *64
Swifts, * 56-*57
Utas, *54
Whi ptai l s, *65
Worm, *68
Loggerhead Turtl e, * 21
Long-nosed Snake, * 1 01
Long-toi l ed Sal amander,
* 1 52
Lyre Snake, * 1 07
Map Turtles, * 1 9, *34-
*35
Marbl ed Sal amander,
1 44-* 1 45
Mossasouga, * 1 1 0
Meadow Frog, * 1 34
Mi l k Snake, *98-99
Moccasi n, Water, * 1 09
Mudpuppy, * 1 38
Mud Si ren, * 1 40
Mud Snoke, *75
Mud Turtl es, * 1 9, * 23
Muhl enberg Turtle, *42
Musk Turtl es, *22
Paci fc Turtl e, *41
Pai nted Sal a manders,
* 1 48
Pai nted Turtles, *32- *33
Patch-nosed Snake, *88
Pi ckerel Frog, * 1 1 9, * 1 34
Pi l ot Bl ack Snake, *90-
* 91
Pi ne Snake, *96-97
Puf Adder, 8 1
Purpl e Sal amander, * 1 51
Racers, *85
Rocerunners, *65
Rai nbow Snake, *7 4
Rat Snakes, *90-*93
Rattl esnakes, * 1 1 0- * 1 1 3
Red-backed Sal amander,
* 1 47
Red-bel l i ed Snake, * 1 06
Red Eft, * 1 42- 1 43
Red-legged Frog, �1 32
Red Sal amander, * 1 5 1
Reference books, 1 54
Repti l es, 1 6- 1 1 5
as pet, 1 4
fami l y tree, *4-*5
general , * 1 6- * 1 7
Ri bbon Snake, * 1 05
Ring-necked Snakes, *76
Robber Frogs, * 1 30
Sal amanders, * 1 37 ( gen-
eral ) , 1 37- 1 53
Bl i nd, * 1 50
Bl ue-spotted, 1 44-* 1 45
Cave, * 1 52
Congo-eel , * 1 39
Dusky, * 1 46
Four-toed, * 1 37, * 1 53
Gi ant, * 1 41
Green, " 1 49
Hel l bender, *
1 37
(eggs), ' Ì Jv
Jeferson, 1 44-* 1 45
Sal amanders (cont. ) :
Long-tai l ed, * 1 52
Marbl ed, 1 44- * 1 45
Mudpuppy, * 1 38
Mud Si rens, * 1 40
Newts, * 1 42-* 1 43
Ol ympi c, * 1 41
Poi nted, " 1 48
Purpl e, * 1 51
Red, * 1 5 1
Red-backed, * 1 47
Red Eft, * 1 42- 1 43
Si rens, * 1 40
Sl i my, * 1 47
Spotted, * 1 37 ( eggs) ,
1 44-* 1 45
Texas, 1 44-* 1 45
Ti ger, * 1 1 7 ( eggs) ,
1 44-* 1 45
Tree, * 1 49
Two-l i ned, * 1 52
Waterdog, * 1 38
Worm, * 1 48
Sand Li zards, *55
Sand Snake, *79, 80
Saw-toothed Sl i der, *30
Scarl et Snake, *1 00
Sea Turtl es, *20- *2 1
Sharp-tai l ed Snake, * 79,
80
Sheep Frog, *1 36
Short-tai l ed Snake, *78,
80
Shovel -nosed Snoke, * 78,
80
Si dewi nder, 1 1 1 , * 1 1 3
Si rens, * 1 40
Ski nks, 6 1 ( general )
Brown, *64
Common Western, *62
Fi ve-l i ned, 61 ¿ •63
Greater Fi ve-l i ned, *62
Greater Western, *62
Sand, *64
Sonoran, * 62
Sl i ders, * 1 ö, *28-* 30
Sl i my Sal amander, * 1 47
Snake bite, * 1 5
Snakes, * 70- * 71 ( gen-
eral ) , 70- 1 1 3
Bl ack-stri ped, *83, 84
Bl ack Swamp, *79, 80
Bl i nd, *72
Boas, *73
Bul l , 96-*97
Coachwhi p, *86-87
1 59
ÎMÜLÁ [ Conrinued|
" Snakes (cont. ) ,
Cone-nosed, *78, 80
Copperhead, *1 09
Coral, * 1 08
Corn, *92-93
Cottonmouth, *1 09
DeKay, * 1 06
Faded, *95
Fanged Ni ght, *82, 84
Fangl ess Ni ght, *1 07
. Fl at-headed, *83, 84
Fox, 92- *93
Garter, *1 04- * 1 05
Gl ossy, *95
Gopher, 97
Green, *77
Ground, * 78, 80
Hog-nosed, • 81
� Hoop, *75
¯ how to hol d, * 1 4
,� I ndi go, *94
Ki ng, *98-*99
U
leaf-nosed, *89
� li ned, * 1 06
� long-nosed, * 1 01
@ lyre, * 1 07
Mi l k, *98-99
þ Mud, *75
� Patch-nosed, *88
.
Pi l ot bl ack, *90-9 1
~
_ Pi ne, *96-97
Racers, * 85
; Rai nbow, *74
§ Rat, *90- *93
Rattlesnakes, * 1 1 0-
* i 1 3
Red-bel l i ed, * 1 06
Ri bbon, * 1 05
Ri ng-necked, *76
Sand, *79, 80
Scarl et, * 1 00
Sharp-tai l ed, *79, 80
Short-tai l ed, *78, 80
Shovel -nosed, *78, 80
Si dewi nder, 1 1 1 , * 1 1 3
Striped Chi cken, *90-
91
Striped Swamp, *79,
80
Texas Hook-nosed,
*82, 84
Vi ne, *82, 84
Water, * 1 02- * 1 03
1 60
Snakes (cont. ) ,
Water Moccasi n, *1 09
Western Hook-nosed,
*82, 84
Whi p·, 86- *87
Worm, *72, *83-84
Yel l ow-li pped, *83-84
Snappi ng Turtles, * 1 9,
* 24- * 25
Soft-shel l ed Turtl es, * 1 9,
* 26
Spodefoot Toads, * 1 2 1
(tadpole), * 1 1 9
Spi ny I guano, •5 1
Spotted Frog, * 1 35
Spotted Sal amander,
* 1 37, 1 44- * 1 45
Spotted Turtle, *40
Spri ng Peeper, * 1 1 9,
* 1 27 * 1 28
Stri ped s=omp Snoke,
*79, 80
Swifts, •56- * 57
Tadpol es, * 1 1 9
Tai l ed Toad, * 1 20
Terrapi n, * 37
Terrari um, 1 3, * 1 4
Texas Rattler, * 1 1 1
Texas Sal amander, 1 44-
* 1 45
Ti ger Sal amander, * 1 1 7
( eggs) , 1 44· * 1 45
Ti mber Rattler, 1 1 1 , * 1 1 2
Toads, * 1 1 6- * 1 1 9 ( gen­
eral ), 1 1 6- 1 23
Ameri can, * I 1 9 (tad-
pole), * 1 22- 1 23
Bel l , * 1 20
Fowler, * 1 22- 1 23
Great Pl ai ns, * 1 23
Spadefoot, * 1 1 9 (tad-
pol e), * 1 2 1
tadpol es, * 1 1 9
Toi l ed, * 1 20
Western, * 1 23
Tortoise, " 27
Tortoise shel l , 21
Tree Frogs, * 1 26-* 1 27,
1 28
Tree Sal amander, * 1 4 9
True I guana, * 51
Turtles, 1 8-43
Al l i gator Snapper, *25
Turtles (cont. ) ,
Bl andi ng, •36
Box, * 1 8, *38- *39
Chi cken, *3 1
Di amondback, *37
Gopher, *27
Green, * 1 9, * 21
MOwkão| | | , ¯2Û· 2 Ï
Hi erogl yphi c, * 30
leatherback, * 1 9, *20·
2 1
loggerhead, *2 1
Mop, * 1 9, *34- *35
Mud, * 1 9, * 23
Muhl enberg, •42
Musk, *22
Paci fc, *4 1
Poi nted, *32- *33
Sea, * 20- * 21
Sl i ders, * 1 8, *28- *30
Snappers, * 1 9, * 24-
*25
Soft-shel l ed, * 1 9, *26
Spotted, *40
Terrapi n, *37
Tortoi se, * 27
Wood, *43
Two-l �n_¸
2
Sal amander,
Utas, *54
Vi ne Snake, *82, 84
Waterdog, * 1 38
Water Moccasi n, * 1 09
Water Snakes, * 1 02-* 1 Ûd
Western Toad, * 1 23
Whi psnake, 86- *87
Whi ptoi l li zards, *65
Whi stl i ng Frog, *1 3 1
White-l i pped Frog, * 1 31
Wood Frog, * 1 1 9 (tad·
pol e), * 1 35
Wood Turtle, *43
Worm Li zard, *68
Worm Sal amander, * 1 48
Worm Snoke, *72, * 83-
84
Yel l ow-l i pped Snake, *83,
84
V VV XX YY ZZ
kLF1I IL5 ANUAMFHI bI AN5
Å LLLUtN LUlUt
*
HLKbLKT 5. Zl%, Ph. D. , Sc. D. , an ori gi nator and for­
mer edi tor of the Gol den Gui de Seri es, was al so an
author for many years. Author of some ni nety books
and edi tor of about as many, he is now Adj unct Pro­
fessor at the Uni versi ty of Mi ami and Educati onal
Consul tant to the Ameri can Fri ends Servi ce Commit­
tee and other organ i zati ons. He works on educa­
ti onal , popu l ati on and envi ronmental probl ems.
HLbAKT %. 5%lTH, Ph. D. , of the Uni versi ty of Col o­
rado, at Boul der, i s a past presi dent of the Herpetol o­
gi sts' League and the author of Amphibians of North
America, a Gol den Fi el d Gui de. He is one of the worl d' s
l eadi ng authori ti es on rept i l es and amphi bi ans.
jA%L5 LLKULN l KVl NL has exh i bi ted pai nti ngs at
the Amer i can Museum of Natural Hi story and the
Nati onal Audubon Soci ety. I n the Gol den Gui de
Ser i es he has i l l ustrated Mammals, Birds, Insects, Rep­
tiles and Amphibians, Stars, Fishes, and Gamebirds.
LLLULN FKL55 • NLW YLKK
2449b-1
Å ÖLLÜtN ÖUÌ Üt
³
KÎÍÌ ÌÎ3ÅNÜ
ÅÎHÌ bÎN3
REPTI LES AND AMPHI BI ANS, a gui de t o the most
fami l iar American speci es, separates fact from fable,
di ferentiates between repl i les and amphi bi ans, ai ds
i n the identification of ZT Z species, and acquai nts the
reader with the pl aces where they may be found. I l l us­
trated in ful l col or; maps show approximate ranges.
Û
| ÛÜN Û·ÛU¯-Z44ÛO··4

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