This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
A Major Project Submitted to the Graduate College of Bowling Green State University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF EDUCATION May 2008 Committee: Terry L. Herman, Advisor Donna K. Trautman Elainie Lillios
© 2008 Christopher Pappas
Christopher Pappas dedicates this project to his grandparents Georgia and Christoforos Lithopoulos, along with the rest of his family.
Maggie Verburg. I would like to thank Carolyn Matzinger. I would not be able to complete my project. I would like to thank Kim Strickland for always being positive and willing to answer all my questions. and Eline Teixeira for being good friends along with being supportive. for their support during this process. I would also like to thank my mom and dad along with the rest of my family for their support and love while trying to complete this degree. With Terry. Also. and I am thankful for her support and guidance. Thank you! . Laura Elder. I had many insightful conversations during the development of this project. Another person I would like to thank is Jason Mellen for helping me with Moodle troubleshootings. Without Donna’s creativity and Elainie’s kindheartedness. Melanie Alt. I extend thanks to Dean Kennell and Professor Vassiliadis for always motivating me to continue my studies. Thanks to Katerina Cheilari for being supportive and helping me throughout this process. I offer many thanks to Nikoleta and George who have always been completely awesome siblings. Furthermore. and Terence Armentano for their critical feedback and creative ideas. Christopher Pittman. I would also like to thank Todd Pavlack. I would also like to thank the other members of my committee. She was an outstanding committee chair. Lastly.iv ACKNOWLDEGEMENTS I would like to thank Terry Herman for being the chair for my committee. Donna Kae Trautman and Elainie Lillios. Michael Kudela. I would like to thank Angela Garner for her technical assistance with this document.
Open source software such as Jing. In addition. the analysis revealed that distance music courses are effective when they have been carefully planned and are student-centered. face-to-face course that College of Musical Arts of Bowling Green State University offers to undergraduate and graduate students. web-based course. into an online format. However. Moodle Learning Management System was used. At last. YouTube. and John Dewey’s education progressivism were applied to the web-based course. and SlideShare were used. the proposed format of the Music Technology II course is the hybrid format.v ABSTRACT Music is probably the last subject one would encounter in a distance education course. Flash player. . Also. design. To achieve the best possible interactivity and effectiveness in the Music Technology II. develop. and evaluate the conversion of Music Technology II. The purpose of this study is to research. Robert Gagne’s nine events of instruction. some progressive music teachers have introduced distance music education courses in all levels of education.
................................5 Definition of Terms......................................vi TABLE OF CONTENTS SECTION I: INTRODUCTION...........................................5 Limitations................................................................23 Summary of Section III ...................................22 Actual Development Procedures ...................................................................................................................6 Definition and Its Methods ................................................................................6 Review of the Literature.........1 Context of the Problem .............................................................................................................................................................................................41 .........................................................................................................................3 Proposed Objectives.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................40 SECTION IV: RESULTS/EVALUATION/RECOMMENDATIONS ......................................................5 Identification and Description of Resources .............................................................................................................5 Delimitations ...................17 Timeline................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................17 Development Procedures.9 Effectiveness for Students ..................................................13 SECTION II: PROCEDURES ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................7 Implementation for Education Today .....................................................................................................41 Survey Results ............1 Statement of the Problem ..........................................................................................................8 The Role of the Music Teachers ...........................................................................3 Significance of the Study .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................4 Assumptions ........
..........................53 REFERENCES ........................82 ..................................................................................47 Project Recommendations.................57 Appendix B: Weekly timetable and assignments .........61 Appendix C: Beta test survey results ....................................... Spring 2007 ...................................52 Researcher Recommendations.......................................................62 Appendix D: Changes after alpha test........................54 Appendix A: Syllabus......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................vii Project Summary...................................
............................................................................................................................................................37 TABLE IV: Hybrid course grading ............viii LIST OF TABLES TABLE I: Online midterm exam grading ...........................................37 ..........................28 TABLE II: Online final exam grading................................................................................................29 TABLE III: Color code system .........................
...49 .... 2........... questions 21.44 FIGURE 5: Response to survey general feedback.... 13............. question 40............................45 FIGURE 6: Response to survey general feedback..................41 FIGURE 2: Response to survey site design.................43 FIGURE 4: Response to survey design aesthetics.......... 31.... 12.......... 23......... 27. question 39............... question 14.......... 34.......... 20.......................... 26..... 35.........ix LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE 1: Response to survey course design............... questions 1....42 FIGURE 3: Response to survey navigation.... question 37............ question 25..46 FIGURE 7: Response to survey............ and 36………………………………………………………………………………………. 9.............. 11..................... 30.................. 8.............. 32............... 10...........
The methods of distance education can be both synchronous. In the 1990s. problem. Context of the Problem Distance education is not new. A definition of distance education is.1 SECTION I: INTRODUCTION This section will cover the context. However. at all levels of music. One could think that music is probably the last subject that one would encounter in a distance education course. some progressive music teachers have introduced distance music education courses in both elementary and high school education as well as in higher education. more and more universities around the world introduced not only distance education courses but also distance education degrees. like email. In 1982. Furthermore. From the middle of the 20th century. music teachers began replacing videotapes that had been introduced in the 1970s with videodiscs . Nowadays. With the help of technology. 1995). music teachers began replacing vinyl records and magnetic audiotapes that had been introduced in the1960s with compact discs (CDs). and asynchronous. music teachers are no longer tied to traditional methods of presenting music materials to students. universities have introduced distance education courses. a list of defined terms and a review of literature relevant to the conversion of a faceto-face course into an online format can be found. the formal educational process in which the majority of the instruction occurs when the student and instructor are not in the same place (Steiner. we can say that technology has changed the teaching methods and consequently the role of the music teachers. Also. like Internet relay chats (IRC). and main objectives of the study. can now be taught successfully with technology support. Certain courses. face-to-face instruction has been the preferred method. significance. which in the past relied heavily on piano performance in the classroom.
In the 1990s.” 2000). it is an arduous task for music teachers to conform with the new technologies. In addition to the above. such as through university courses. musical instrument digital interface (MIDI) was introduced. 2006). music classrooms became concert halls. Moreover. As the Internet became ubiquitous. the Internet was introduced in education. music teachers should follow the technology process as it changes day after day if they want to select the appropriate technology for their lessons. Nowadays. At the same time. With the evolution of technology. Thus. Furthermore.2 (DVDs). A second way is outside assistance. In the middle of the 1980s. many music teachers develop websites and website communities because they want better communication and venue for information dissemination. For example. music teachers understood that they should explore possibilities for utilizing this resource to help students learn (“Music education in a digital world.” 2000). . and a third way is the training courses that music technology companies provide to inform music teachers about new products. 2001). MIDI has incredible teaching possibilities but music teachers must know how to develop that software and also how to teach with it (Feldstein. They have begun to use this powerful communication tool in teaching and learning (Marowitz. One way to promote this comfort level is self-instruction. it is important to note that distance music education is effective only when the distance courses or programs have been carefully planned and are focused on students’ needs (“Music education in a digital world. being a distance music teacher requires much time because distance music education is more like teaching students privately than teaching all the students at once. the variety of music software was so vast and their use was so prevalent that music teachers were obligated to know how to teach with them.
The course that will be converted is Music Technology II. 1999).. the students get to know their online teacher better than those in the traditional classrooms (Shaw. the students who are not used to modern technology have the same needs. and evaluate the conversion of a face-to-face music course into an online format. 2002). the online class discussion and the Internet-based assignments that have been introduced in many distance courses are effective for the students because they allow them to learn from their classmates (Bauer and Daugherty. develop. “Continuation of study into the principles and techniques of music technology and electroacoustic music. 1999).” Significance of the Study The benefits of this project could be considerable. Statement of the Problem The problem of the study was to research. the technology development provides students with the opportunity to enhance their knowledge and their quality of education by connecting and communicating globally with other learners. The concepts of online learning and . The students of such a course would gain skills that would be useful to them in the future as distance education continues to grow on a global scale. design. Also. We cannot say that the benefits always guarantee success for every student (Shaw. a 3-credit course that College of Musical Arts (CMA) of Bowling Green State University (BGSU) offers to undergraduate and graduate students (MUCT 445/545). 2001). Furthermore. As discussed above. Introverted students may have a greater level of difficulty in the distance courses and need extra encouragement from their teacher (Knee. Course materials are practiced during individual studio lab times.3 because of all the individual attention that the students receive. According to the BGSU website catalog description (2007). et al.
To introduce students to learning music online by defining and demonstrating the concepts and expectations of distance education through an orientation module. Identify the best interactive asynchronous and synchronous instructional design system for the learners. and evaluate the conversion of three specific components of the face-to-face Music Technology II course into an online format. they would need only an introduction to the software itself and not to the entire concept of online learning. develop. and more specifically the CMA. navigation. Furthermore. To establish the expectations and identify the important factors in setting these expectations for the music technology II web-based course. This could present opportunities for the CMA to pursue greater revenue and greater prestige as a Music College. design. Proposed Objectives The goal of this project was to research. to identify the key elements of a music technology II web-based syllabus (Appendix A and B). especially music courses in higher education. this project could potentially increase the students who want to enroll in Music Technology II while also increasing collaboration on an international level. and to understand the challenges that a student of a music course will face in accessing and interacting with the type of instruction found in music technology II web-based class. 2. As a result if students are required to use Blackboard or another software for online coursework. . For the purpose of this study the following objectives have been identified: 1. 4. To research best LMS practices to ensure an effective way for presenting learning materials in terms of content. 3.4 distance education are similar in the Learning Management Systems (LMS). To research distance education courses. site design and design aesthetics. 5. At BGSU.
assignments. The computers for development were a Macintosh MacBook Pro OS X and Microsoft Window XP. Lillios in Music Technology II. web-based course. Identification and Description of Resources Hardware and software for developing the web-based course were available through the College of Technology and College of Musical Arts. These components were developed into three interactive modules including lecture materials. Delimitations Three specific components of the Music Technology II course were converted from faceto-face delivery to an online delivery method. but no limited to.5 Assumptions For this study. and possess basic computer skills. and QuickTime. . a web-based course. Audacity. students have access and know how to use studio facilities. Lillios and used. Garage Band. have already succeeded on Music Technology I. Also. • • Moodle will be the LMS. Arcadia. • The software that was used includes. it was assumed that the undergraduate and graduate students who will attend in Music Technology II. a face-to-face course. Furthermore. activities. it was assumed that the same target audiences will have access to a computer. the students that want to enroll in Music Technology II. Snapz Pro X. Limitations The content used in this project was based on the course materials used by Dr. and/or quizzes. As a result. Camtasia. to the Internet. should fulfill the pre-requisites (Appendix A). Relevant course material from the face-to-face course Music Technology II will be identified by Dr.
student to instructor. Content or Courseware Management System” (CMS) is a web-based application used for coursework. the University of Chicago established the first department of . the University of London was the first university to offer distance-learning degrees (“Key facts. General speaking we can say that the difference between a traditional class and the social constructionist philosophy is the difference between a lecture and a discussion (“Philosophy: social constructionist pedagogy. In 1858. Moodle is a Learning Management System (LMS). Definition of Terms For the purpose of this study. instructor to student(s).6 • Instructional design experts from various BGSU offices will be invited to review the modules for validation. 1). the following terms were operationally defined: • Distance Education: the definition of distance education encompasses teaching and learning. a free open source software package based on social constructionist pedagogy (Rice. also known as “Course. By the 1900s. • Social Constructionist Pedagogy: The main principle of social constructionist pedagogy is that people learn best by interacting with each other. and student-to-student(s). p. where learning occurs in a different place from teaching (Steiner.” 2007.” 2007). 2006). 1998). Review of the Literature Introduction In 1840. Sir Isaac Pitman. the English inventor of shorthand. • Moodle: Moodle is an acronym for Modular Object-Oriented Dynamic Learning Environment. • Learning Management System: “Learning Manage System or Software” (LMS). was the first man to have the idea of delivering instruction to a limitless audience via mail (Phillips. 1995).
with the help of technological advantages. and the student pattern him. Definition and Its Methods Distance education comes in many forms and phrases such as “distance education. the Ferm University in Hager. which is something more than reading about music or listening. the Open University in United Kingdom was founded.” and “online education” which can be confusing. 2005). The University of South Africa was offering correspondence education courses since 1946. where learning occurs in a different place from teaching (Steiner. In these courses the main principle of learning is the process of making music. face-to-face instruction in music education has been the norm at all levels (Sherbon. ear training. The appropriate method of learning in the performance courses is to have the instructor perform face-to-face. Germany. According to Clark and Verduin (1989). Music courses can be separated in two general categories. for example an instrument. in the last decades. The definition of distance education encompasses teaching and learning. 1995). More than 20 years later another pioneering institution. Still. comprise some of the characteristics of this process. As a result. In addition. Because of the success of these universities by the late 1900s. which has become the largest distance education university. music theory and history.7 correspondence teaching in the United States of America (Matthews. Music performance courses such as instruments and voice encourage an active learning environment. and educational institutes have introduced distance music education. 1999). schools. more and more universities. Music is probably the last subject one would contemplate teaching online because it has been considered to be less suited to distance education.” 2007). was the sixth university to offer distance courses (“Distance Education. such as composition.” “distance learning. distance . less performance courses.” “e-learning. music performance courses and academic research courses that do not focus on performance.
2002. Moreover. and online discussion groups. emails. p. Because more and more students expressed the desire to take home instruments and have access to guided lessons. and interactive TV. 2002). tutor or educational agency. For example. the web-based course was developed. the students did not have the opportunity for mastery of a musical instrument. Distance education can include both synchronous (real-time) and asynchronous instruction (time delay). uses educational media to unite the teacher and learner and carry course content.S. Internet relay chats (IRC). It was a cooperative project that is funded in part by a technology challenge grant from the U. Ariza. Thus. with technical . Implementation for Education Today The Internet has become a gateway for information. a music teacher called Ms. more and more teachers in elementary and in high school have introduced online music courses. has allowed many universities to offer distance music education courses and degrees. 1).8 education separates the teacher and learner during a majority of each instructional process. The significance of this idea was that this online course was introduced to elementary students because music instruction was previously limited to one half-hour weekly. Examples of synchronous distance education methods include videoconferencing. and as such. & Long.. Furthermore. Jolene Long introduced an online course (Knee. and learner. Florida. Examples of asynchronous distance education methods include self-paced courses taken via the Internet or CD-ROMs. A solution to the above problem was the use of simple implements like a recorder and web-based courses (Knee. Department of Education. and provides twoway communication between the teacher. the first large scale project to create Internet-based courses at the precollege level was the Virtual High School (VHS). Something that was impossible a few years ago now is becoming a viable option. in Sandpiper Elementary School in Broward Country. et al.
The instructor inspired interaction among students by encouraging them to communicate with each other and share ideas and knowledge using the website of the virtual class (Shaw. a nonprofit group in Concord. 1999). 2). p. 2). p. Moreover. we can understand that the quality of education had little to do with the geographical location and more to do with using technology to connect people. From this example. One of the instructors in a high school. Bruce Droste.9 support from the Concord Consortium. Amy Taylor. introduced his students to music theory (Shaw. 1). In the early 18th century. 1999. the principal of VHS. the students improved their writing skills because so much attention was placed on the written word. In addition. 1999. VHS has provided students with opportunities that they would not ordinarily have. In that virtual class the unusual thing was that the students had never met each other. Massachusetts. Many music educators find it beneficial to review past challenges in order to understand present accomplishments (“Music education in a digital world. without having to wait for slower pace of the average classroom. In Jost’s class each student was able to restudy any difficult course material (Shaw. 1). The Role of the Music Teachers The evolution of technology has changed teaching methods. wanted to major in music at college.” 2000). 1999. and to bring new opportunities to students everywhere (Shaw. David Jost. An advantage was that distance education allows students to progress at a personal speed and intensity. music teachers who would like to teach or to give their students the opportunity to listen to a music piece would play an . 1999. This student attended Jost’s class and she gained the necessary knowledge that enabled her to perform in the Texas AllState Orchestra. claims that students feel more comfortable to express themselves in web-based courses (Shaw. a student from Texas. but her school did not offer music courses. Also. p. p.
music software was so numerous and their use multiplied. In 1982. if the students wanted to see or listen to their favorite performers or orchestras. With the recording techniques. That offered a better sound quality. p 2). music educators replaced vinyl records and magnetic audiotapes with compact discs (CDs). Music educators began to use vinyl records and magnetic audiotapes to illustrate class material. and TRS-80 (“Music education in a digital world. they should attend live concerts. Technology was the basic tool of education in the hands of music teachers. as well as programs related to music listening. For many years this was the only method. Videotapes were introduced in the 1970s. Commodore 64. history. music students were able to critique their own work. Also.” 2000).” 2000. and they were replaced in the early 1990s by digital videodiscs (DVDs) with high-resolution sound and images. From 1978 to the middle 1980s. Furthermore. . p.” 2000. The students were able to listen and watch performers and orchestras that used to be miles away. and rhythmic skills. With the visual tools. probably the piano. With the evolution of technology. in the late 1970s computer users and instructors became familiar with the first music software written for systems such as Apple II. 1). appreciation. It was not until the late 1960s that other opportunities manifested. and fundamentals” (“Music education in a digital world. and a systematic locating track that saved class time. “These software included drill-and-practice programs covering the full range of melodic. music teachers were able to provide historical biographies of composers (“Music education in a digital world. harmonic. music classrooms became concert halls.10 instrument.
2006). 2001.11 In the 1980s. 1).” 2000. it became feasible for directors. MIDI became an incredible teaching tool (Feldstein. It became easy for the learning community to find resources about a specific music topic (“Music education in a digital world. 2006. According to Feldstein (2001) “With MIDI a specific digital signal would be understood to mean the same thing no matter what instrument was receiving it” (p. We can say that a website is a powerful communication tool that can give us information from many different sources such as images. not only to record but also to compose music. Furthermore. music teachers understood that they should explore all the possibilities for utilizing this resource in order to help students learn. Websites “transported” music programs to every place and country helping individuals to learn from each other (Marowitz. p. With the contribution of websites. 3). As the Internet became ubiquitous. The biggest revolution came in the early 1990s when the Internet brought a new host of changes to schools. 2001). booster groups and learners to use music programs from other schools located in other countries. the computer companies developed software that gave opportunities to users with simple musical skills. and the second is strong group image (Marowitz. 3). The new teaching and learning tools made access to knowledge timeless and global (Bauer & Daugherty. 5). numerous teachers developed websites and website communities. . biographies. Moreover. and pieces of music that we are able to listen to via the websites. musical instrument digital interface (MIDI) was introduced. Moreover. p. The use of the Internet broadens educators’ and students’ horizons. the first one is better communication and information dissemination. p. faculty. music teachers have two basic benefits.
Music teachers should continually update their knowledge of developing Technology. in website communities. the parents could easily be informed about the latest music educational methods and the significance of learning music for their children. “The teachers were able to share their ideas with other teachers and interact with the authors” (Feldstein. In this type of community. students should practice every day. and to have access to the newest research. One way is by self-instruction. Some others prefer outside assistance. 3). It is true to say that technological advantages have provided music educators with new ways of teaching music. to learn more about music. many music technology companies provide training to the teachers. students will continue to use them. When learning about music technology. some teachers feel comfortable teaching themselves. Learning should be a constant procedure (“Music education in a digital world. an example of a website community like that was the http://www. In fact. children could.12 Moreover. music teachers and students around the world are able to exchanges ideas. so they attend formal university courses or workshops. on their own. the process of learning music technology is similar to learning an instrument. p. etc.com/. According to Feldstein (2001). Educators should also focus on . web-based communities. Moreover.yamahaadvantage. However. The challenge for music teachers is to feel comfortable using the new technologies. as they want to inform them about the new products. 4). Also. Indeed.” 2000. download their favorite songs as well as additional material related to specific technical or music problems (p. 2001. this is not enough. Ways in which music teachers could keep themselves informed include Internet chat groups. p 3). Since the new methods create numerous chances for music performance and learning. national conferences.
4-5). teachers should choose a fair grading system based on set expectations or comparisons among students in the same course (p.13 these methods and try to adopt them and use them as an effective teaching tool (Feldstein. Effectiveness for Students The first consideration about the effectiveness of distance education is the necessary equipment and also. p. That means that some of the students that used to receive A in their schools may receive a different grade in the distance course. we can say that distance music education requires a significant investment of the time of music teachers. 5). In addition to the above. In a distance course. p. the on-site support. we should remember that we use technological advantages in order to help students learn how to learn by creating and performing music (“Music education in a digital world. to respond to emails. With the help of technology. 2).” 2000. 1999. . Music teachers should spend the necessary time to keep a course site updated. a music teacher interacts with students from many different educational systems (Shaw. future education will be based on the interaction between learners. 4). 2001). the music teachers are leaders who guide students to understand music (“Music education in a digital world. All the students who choose to participate in a distance education course should have the necessary equipment such as high-speed Internet connections. 2001. It is obvious that distance music education is more like teaching students privately than teaching all the students at once. As a result.” 2000. One more difference that distance music teachers have to face is the system of grades. Technology is and will be used to assist students and teachers. On the other hand. p. 2). to teach and evaluate the courses (Feldstein. p.
. they became familiar with the new technology. He found that online courses were more demanding since they necessitated more studying and were more self-directed. out of the twenty students that had been selected to participate in the online course. The most significant result was that the students were encouraged to help each other and solve their problems together. however. appeared (Knee. the music teacher Ms. The benefits. In the same setting one boy. and they used the computers only during class time (Knee. access to technical assistance. 2002). and they quickly replaced his position after he abandoned the online course (p. his classmates from the face-to. felt rejected in the online course and preferred to revert to the traditional class. et al. The entire class felt comfortable with the course materials. each student succeeded in learning the course materials (Knee. 2). . The elementary student who had never participated in a distance course before would quickly overcome the difficulties. 2).face course had a different opinion. For example. such as the loss of Internet connection or chat room freezing.. The teachers determine the speed and effectiveness of the assistance. and as a result. and most importantly. do not always guarantee success for every student. With that method.14 modern computers. In time. At the beginning. when the students encounter problems they just raise their hands and the teacher helps them. Florida.. 2002. p. Long let the students play their instruments at their homes. et al. and they asked for the teacher’s help only when technical problems. In the traditional classrooms. in Sandpiper Elementary School in Broward County. some students will need special assistance. et al. 2002. In the beginning of a distance course. Long was able to observe problems and help the students. p. On the other hand. students needed the guidance of their teacher in order to learn how to work with the computer. 2). Ms.
Graduate students in history and philosophy of music education were able through collaboration to enhance their experiences and their perceptions. the Internet-based assignments helped them to better understand the content of the course. Amy Taylor from Texas attended distance music theory course of David Jost’s music class because her school did not offer any music courses. Students from both universities felt that participating in the on-line class discussions allowed them to learn from their classmates. Writing skills are particularly important in distance education courses because students have to not only correctly express their ideas but also their questions (p. 1999). a lot of distance courses provide opportunities for on-line discussions and collaboration.15 Generally speaking. distance courses are based on written skills. Furthermore. Likewise. For example. the students are more focused when they write. 2001). p. students seem to know their online teachers better than the traditional classroom teachers (Shaw. Ball State University and the University of Kansas collaborated in learning projects via Internet-based technologies. in distance education. Appropriate technology can only be selected once these elements are thoroughly understood. 1999. This could not have been achieved in a . As we mentioned above. we can say that distance music education is effective when the distance music education courses or programs begin with careful planning and a focused understanding of course requirements and students’ needs. she was able to perform in the Texas AllState Orchestra (Shaw. Moreover. For example. With the knowledge that she gained from the distance music theory courses. as a result. The project was determined to be very effective. 2). Furthermore. 2). even though these classmates were from different universities. students feel that they are being privately taught. some of the students voiced no complaints about impersonal online instruction nor the time spent on the computer to complete the task (Bauer and Daugherty. Because of all that individual attention.
it seems that the students who are not self-starters have a great deal of difficulties in the distance courses. distance courses seem to be less effective (Shaw. 2). some others have speaking skills but not writing skills. In addition to the above example. Furthermore. 1999). For those students. Technology based on avant-garde learning theories could attribute towards this goal (p. a lot of students feel more comfortable expressing themselves face-to-face.16 traditional graduate music education classroom. Also. distance learning may not be as effective. and for these students. .
Research about Instructional Design This project employed Robert Gagne’s instructional design model. implementation of alpha-testing and expert panel. Provide learner guidance.17 SECTION II: PROCEDURES This section will cover the procedure of the course’s development. Present stimulus material. analysis of data. timeline of the completion of the project. Stimulate recall of prior knowledge. implementation of beta-testing and expert panel. Inform learner of objectives. develop. 2. research about instructional design. and evaluate the conversion of a face-to-face music course into an online format. use of the survey tool. Development Procedures 1. This procedure presumes restatement of the problem. revision of the web-based course. . V. revision of the web-based course. Restatement of the Problem The problem of the study was to research. Elicit performance. and references. a 3-credit course that CMA of BGSU offers to undergraduate and graduate students (MUCT 445/545). which is best known as the nine events of instruction: I. The course components that were converted are from Music Technology II. Gain attention. design. IV. VI. development of the web-based course. III. which will be an iterative process resulting in the conversion of Music Technology II into an online format. II.
Open source. 1). Enhance retention and transfer (Kruse. According to constructivism pedagogy. which extends the ideas of constructivism (people actively construct new knowledge as they interact with their environment) and constructionism (learning is particularly effective when constructing something for others to experience) into a social . Interactive features. people learn best by interacting with each other (“Constructivism and online education. Assess performance. p. Camtasia. educational progressivism as described by John Dewey will be applied in the web-based course. software such as. Furthermore. QuickTime. but not limited to. The main principle of educational progressivism is that humans are social animals who learn best in real-time activities with other people (“Educational progressivism. Social constructionist pedagogy. The design and development of Moodle is based on social constructionist pedagogy.” 2007. and Winamp were used.18 VII. There are three main reasons for using Moodle: I. Robert Gagne’s nine events of instruction and John Dewey’s educational progressivism will be applied to the frame of constructivism pedagogy. n. and IX. 1). VIII.).d. Provide feedback. Development of the Web-based Course In developing the Music Technology II web-based course. The most important software is Moodle LMS. II. For instance shared meanings are the extension of an idea into a social group constructing ideas from one another. p.” 1999. and III. Audacity. 3.
Survey. Assignment. III. Moodle offers eleven interactive course features. 1). learning becomes more effective when people are mutually active with the learning materials. Based on social constructionist pedagogy. VII. Lesson. I. IV. enhance their learning abilities. web-based course. Workshop. IX. Forum. Journal. Quiz. The developer used most of the above interactive features of Moodle in order to achieve the best possible interactivity and effectiveness in the Music Technology II. In other words. The first six refer to the interaction between learner and instructor and the remaining five refer to the interaction between student(s) and student. Glossary. Wiki.19 group constructing things for one another (“Philosophy: social constructionist pedagogy. VIII. V.” 2007. VI. . II. and XI. X. Choice. People. Chat. by manufacturing innovative materials for other users and by communicating with them about these new materials. p.
2007). multiple choice. General speaking. quiz questions can be used after each lecture based on the lecture objectives. For instance giving a student 20 to 30 seconds to answer each question mitigates the concern students will look up answers to questions to which they do not know the answer. each attempt is automatically marked. 1999). Survey Tool The survey adopted for this project was based on a Participant Evaluation Form from a previous study (Herman. short answer. Furthermore. The teacher can create quizzes with different question types and randomly generate quizzes and test (Cole. and the teacher can give feedback or show the correct answers (Cole. Several quiz strategies can be implemented though Moodle’s online quiz feature. that means each student will have a different quiz. Also. Cheating). Moreover. These different kinds of questions are kept in the course question bank and can be reused several times. essay. true or false. Also. Moodle is open source software. making it extremely popular with learners and educators around the world. This issue was addressed with the effective use of the quiz feature. 4. and drag and drop. learners can attempt the quiz or test multiple times. The quiz feature is a flexible tool for monitoring and diagnosing student performance with a variety of question types such as matching. Students who have to complete a quiz will not cheat in a timed fashion (Appendix A. we can say that in an academic course one of the most important aspects is the ethics. 2007). In practical terms. Moodle is free to integrate all the best open source software such as MediaWiki. One of the most effective strategies is restricting the time learners have to answer each question.20 Furthermore. one of the greatest concerns in the development of Music Technology II webbased course was the conversion of the face-to-face exam into an online format. The survey addressed effectiveness of each module in four .
which makes it easy for even non-technical people to create surveys and export-collected data” (p. 7. “SurveyMonkey is an easy-to-use tool for the creation of online surveys. According to Westin (2005). usability. content/course materials. Implementation of Beta Testing and Expert Panel After the revision of the web-based course based on the experts’ suggestions for improvement. but not limited to. Implementation of Alpha Testing and Expert Panel There was an Alpha test conducted for the Music Technology II web-based course that was hosted on the servers of the College of Technology. The expert panel evaluation survey will be taken at the conclusion of the Alpha and Beta test phases. 6. 5. The feedback formed the basis for revisions to the online course. Subject matter experts familiar with music technology. and instructional design strategies will form the expert panel and participate in the alpha test survey. The survey was administered through SurveyMonkey. The . Revision of the Web-based Course At the conclusion of the Alpha testing. The survey (Appendix C) had both qualitative (short answer) and quantitative (summative) questions on topics such as. Its primary strength is its intuitive Web interface. interface design. a survey to evaluate the web-based course was accessible through the web. a Beta test was be conducted for the web-based Music Technology II course. the survey was tailored to evaluate if the web-based course meets that goal. Their placement allowed better access for Alpha test takers. Navigation. 1).21 areas: Course and Site Design. Forasmuch as the goal of this project was to convert three components of a face-to-face music course into an online format. and Design Aesthetics. as well as online learning. accessibility. and instructional design standards. audience analysis.
22 Music technology II course was again available on the web for the same expert panel to conduct the Beta testing. Timeline August – October 2007 November 2007 November 2007 November 2007 November – December 2007 January 2008 February 2008 February 2008 March 2008 March 2008 March 2008 April 2008 Proposal Development Proposal Defense Proposal Defense Approval (major project topic) Begin project development Continue the Development of Project Alpha Testing on Project Revision from Alpha Test Beta Testing on Project Analyze Data/Write Sections III and IV Revise Web-based Course Defense of Major Project Final Document/Product . The course was revised. Revision of the Web-based Course Revisions to the course will be iterative. after the alpha and beta test. The web-based course was revised based on the analysis of the survey data from the testing cycles. After the revisions. 9. the instructor will be able to implement this pilot course in 2009. based on expert panel feedback. the subject matter experts took the survey and their feedback was then used to further improve the course. 8. Analysis of Data At the conclusion of the Beta testing.
design. and evaluate the conversion of a face-to-face music course into a online format. For example. and as a result. Restatement of the Problem The problem of the study was to research. Actual Development Procedures The following is a list of the actual development procedures that were used to execute the study. I. multimedia such as video. in several sections of the course. .23 SECTION III: DESCRIPTION/METHODOLOGY/DEVELOPMENT This section covers the actual development procedures utilized in the study. a 3-credit course that CMA of BGSU offers to undergraduate and graduate students. develop. which is best known as the nine events of instruction was selected and used. Robert Gagne’s instructional design model. and it supports the internal processes of learning. and audio were used to capture the attention of students. Gain attention • Capture the attention of those learning. 1. This instructional design model was chosen for three reasons: it is related to the learning process. it leads to various learning outcomes. Research about Instructional Design After a review of several instructional design models. it includes the final product of the Music Technology II web-based course. 2. Several of the proposed development procedures were changed during the development stage. The course components that will be converted are from Music Technology II (MUCT 445/545). The following pages explain how the nine events of instruction are demonstrated in the web-based course.
with the color choices which appealed and made the content easy to read. and quizzes. was clearly displayed with the clear and consistent site navigation. italics) and size which made the text readable. previous concepts. The new content of the web-based course was chunked. relevant knowledge. III. • New content. a hybrid course. the web-based course. Several concepts such as journals. of Music Technology II. online journals. Students were informed from the very beginning about the objectives of the course. are similar to Music Technology I. the face-to-face course. with the font styles (bold. have already succeeded in Music Technology I. the researcher created an orientation module. For instance.24 II. Furthermore. Inform learner of objectives • Level of expectation for learning. and online discussions. The researcher recalled student’s existing and relevant knowledge with the use of activities such as glossaries. • Previous experience. and with the appropriate use of upper and lower case characters. IV. The undergraduate and graduate students who will attend Music Technology II. Brief explanations were labeled on each . discussions. Stimulate recall of prior knowledge • Recall of existing. Present stimulus material • Display the content. web-based course. each module that was created or converted into an online format has a list of learning objectives. The online content of Music Technology II. and demonstrated. • List of learning objectives. games. including the expectations of distance education. explained. projects.
25 activity for the better understanding of the learners. Several examples such as glossaries, and games were given to support learners’ understanding of the content. • Multimedia. Audio, video, and graphics were used in order to present stimulus materials. V. Provide learner guidance • Guidance on the new content. Through concise descriptions as well as clear and appropriate objectives that were part of the syllabus and each learning module, the researcher guides students in the contents. • Assist learners in order to encode information for long-term storage. With the help of online assignments and activities like glossaries, games, discussions, and quizzes, the researcher assisted learners to encode information for long-term storage. • Guidance strategies. The guidance strategies included examples, mnemonics, videos, audios, and graphics. VI. Elicit performance • Practice. The students of such a course would gain new skills that would be useful to them in the future as distance education continue to grow on a global scale. The concepts of online learning and distance education are similar in the LMS, and as a result, if students are required to use another software for online coursework, they would need only an introduction to the software itself and not to the entire concept of online learning. The orientation module was created in order to support the above objectives.
26 • Demonstrating learning. With several activities such as online journals, online discussions, online games, online forums, online presentations, online glossaries, and online quizzes, students will have the chance to demonstrate what they have learned. VII. Provide feedback • Specific, immediate feedback on learner’s performance. Since students did not participate in this project, we were not able to give immediate and specific feedback on learner’s performance. VIII. Assess performance. • Post-test, final assessment. The online glossaries and the online games will prepare students for the post-test (midterm quiz) and final assessment (final quiz). IX. Enhance retention and transfer • Determine whether or not the skills were learned. Through midterm and final exam quizzes, online journals, and online discussions, the students will apply the skills they learned. Furthermore, the researcher developed all the activities described above with the principle that humans are social animals who learn best in real-time synchronous activities such as online quizzes, online discussions, and online journals, and take it one step further by interacting with each other in asynchronous environments such as online journals, and online discussions. 3. Development of the Web-based Course
27 In developing the Music Technology II web-based course, open source software such as Jing, YouTube, Flash player, and SlideShare were used. Jing was used to create video tutorials. Flash player was used for audio and YouTube for video. SlideShare was used for the conversion of PowerPoint presentations into flash slide shows. Furthermore, the most important software was Moodle LMS (for the reasons that Moodle was used, please see Section II Number 3). The researcher used six interactive course features in order to achieve the best possible interactivity and effectiveness in the Music Technology II, web-based course. The first four refer to the interaction between learner and instructor and the remaining two refer to the interaction between student(s) and student. The six features include: I. Assignments Four assignments have been created for the course. One type of assignment asks students to upload a single file. Students should upload a Word file to the course for each of the four sonic journals. II. Quizzes, • Midterm Exam The midterm exam consists of four types of questions (multiple choice, short answer, True/False, and essay). 44% of the midterm exam is based on the first three types of questions, and score be awarded immediately after students complete the quiz. 56% of the midterm exam is based on essay questions, and it will be awarded in the next face-to-face class. See Table I for an explanation of this break down.
In response to a question. Essay. d. • Final Exam The final exam will consist of three types of questions (matching. and scores will be awarded after students complete the quiz. 58% of the final exam is based on essay questions. the respondent selects from two options: True or False. and essay). See Table II for an explanation of this break down. the respondent types a word or phrase. . True/False. c. In these types of questions.28 Table I: Online Midterm Exam Grading Type Essay Definition Multiple Choice Short Answer True or False Number 12 9 9 16 Percent 56% 18% 10% 16% a. In response to a question (that may include an image) the respondent writes an answer in essay format. and it will be awarded in the next class. there will be only one correct answer. Short Answer. Multiple Choice (single answer). In response to a question. b. the respondent chooses the correct answer among multiple answers. True/False. In response to a question. 42% of the final exam is based on the first two types of questions.
along with a list of answers. A list of sub questions is provided. IV. The respondent must "match" the correct answers with each question. VI. The essay and True or False will follow the format of the midterm exam. the next three for Module 1. V. b.29 Table II: Online Final Exam Grading Type Essay Definition Matching True or False Number 6 1 10 Percent 58% 19% 23% a. . and the remaining four for Module 2. Glossaries. Games Two hangman games have been created to review the student’s knowledge of the two glossaries. Forums – Online Discussions Ten forums have been created for the course. and the remaining five for Module 2. Books are multi-page resources with a book-like format. Matching. III. Books Thirteen books have been created for the course. the next two for Module I. The first five books have been created for the Orientation Module. The first four have been created for the Orientation Module.
In week three. Week 1 . Video Virtual Tour of the Course Recommended Software Concepts of Distance Education Expectations of Distance Education Moodle Introduction News and Announcements Forum Questions and Comments Forum Activity a. 4. Virtual Cafe II. the topic “Digital Process Filtering/EQ. In week one the orientation module. 2. Orientation 1. included: Orientation Module I. 3. Course Description B. Also. Welcome A.” 2. 6.” and a third module was created based on alpha feedback recommendations. The goal of the glossaries is to prepare class members for the mid and final exams by defining 68 and 75 terms respectively. In week thirteen. 3. 5.30 Two glossaries have been created. 7. the two specific components that have been converted from face-to-face delivery to an online delivery method are: 1. Objectives C. 8. the topic “History and Aesthetics of Electroacoustic music.
Course Discussions I 1. syllabus. Digital Processes-Filtering/EQ B.31 A. 5. Course Topic II 1. studio regulations B. Course Information 1. Sonic Journal Series I 1. 4. PowerPoint Presentation I 1. 3. Hildegard Westerkamp notes Kits Beach Soundwalk Course Discussions: Westerkamp Question 1 D. Course intro. 2. Module 1 I. Week 3 A. 3. Course Topic I 1. Syllabus Weekly Schedule Required Books Studio Regulations Studio Times C. 3. 2. 2. 4. Filters Journal Series I Journal Series I pieces Questions for Sonic Journal Series I Answers to Sonic Journal I .
Journal Series III pieces 3. Week 5 C. Answers to Sonic Journal II III. History and Aesthetics of Electroacoustic (EA) Music Part I . Game H. Course Discussion III 1. Questions for Sonic Journal Series III 4. Course Topic IIIa 1. Course Discussion II 1.32 II. Journal Series III 2. Journal Series II pieces 3. Sonic Journal Series II 1. Week 8 F. Answers to Sonic Journal III Module 2 I. Exam Forum I G. Glossary I D. Course Discussions: Westerkamp Question 3 I. Journal Series II 2. Week13 A. Sonic Journal Series III 1. Course Discussions: Westerkamp Question 2 E. Questions for Sonic Journal Series II 4.
Path of Iron 3. Course Discussion IVa 1. Course Disucssions: Kim – Discussion Question III. Journal Series IV notes 2. Course Discussions: Alicyn Warren – Discussion Question F. Questions for Sonic Journal Series IV 4. Week 16 . Glossary II 1. EA History C. Glossary II for Final Exam II. Alicyn Warren notes 2. Course Discussion IVb 1. PowerPoint Presentation II 1. Journal Series IV pieces 3. Week 15 A. Course Topic IIIb 1. Week 14 A. Midong 3.33 B. Sonic Journal Series IV 1. History and Aesthetics of Electroacoustic Music Part II E. Answers Sonic Journal IV D. Sun-Jun Kim notes 2. Exam Forum II IV.
Course Discussions:Westerkamp Question 3 4. Course Discussion: • • Glossaries 1. Based on Glossary I (Midterm Exam) 2. Based on Glossary II (Final Exam) Warren Kim . Final Exam Games 1. Course Topics 1. Midterm Exam 2. Final Exam See the following course outline for an explanation of what was developed.34 A. History and Aesthetics of Electroacoustic Music (Part I & II) Video Tutorials 1. syllabus. Game V. SMT cont'd. Course intro. Course Discussions:Westerkamp Question 2 3. Course Discussions:Westerkamp Question 1 2. Video Virtual Tour of the Course Online Discussions 1. studio regulations 2. Week 17 A. Digital Processes–Filtering/EQ 3.
Course Discussions: Westerkamp Question 2 6. Electroacoustic History Quiz 1. Course Discussions: Westerkamp Question 3 8. Journal Series One 2. Course Discussions: Westerkamp Question 1 5. Filters 2. Questions and Comments Forum 3. Course Discussions: Alicyn Warren – Discussion Question 9.Discussion Question 10. Journal Series Four PowerPoint Presentations 1. Virtual Café Forum 4. Course Discussions: Kim . Final Exam Forum . Journal Series Two 3. News and Announcements Forum 2.35 Online Journals 1. Midterm Exam Forum 7. Journal Series Three 4. Midterm Exam 2. Final Exam Forums 1.
the researcher has created a color code system for the convenience of the students. . Module 1 3. Hildegard Westerkamp notes 5. Orientation Module 2. and glossaries.36 Books 1. With the color code system. online discussions. Journal Series I 6. students will identify specific types of activities such as modules. Moodle introduction 4. you will be informed about the color codes. History and Aesthetics of Electroacoustic Music Part II 12. Concepts of Distance Education 2. Suk-Jun Kim notes Modules 1. Journal Series II 8. Journal Series IV 11. Digital Processes – Filtering/EQ 7. online forums. On the following table (III). Module 2 In addition to the above. History and Aesthetics of Electroacoustic Music Part I 10. Journal Series III 9. Alicy Warren notes 13. Expectations of Distance Education 3.
the amount of classroom seat-time is reduced. the proposed format of the Music Technology II course is the hybrid format. The Music Technology II course is a blend of face-to-face instruction with online learning components.37 Table III: Color Code System At last. a significant part of the course learning is online. See Table IV for an explanation of this break down. and as a result. In this type of course. To be more specific 60% of the final grade will be based on the online instruction and 40% on the face-to-face instruction. Table IV: Hybrid Course Grading Category Online Sonic Journals Online Discussions Online Games Online Glossaries Online Participation in Forums Online Midterm Exam Percentage 10% 10% 2% 2% 1% 15% .
the web-based course. The Music Technology II web-based course was uploaded to Visual Communication Technology server http://vctserver. Navigation. two open-ended questions were added on the survey under the general feedback section. The survey was administered through SurveyMonkey. and Design Aesthetics. They were asked to voluntarily go through the course as well as the survey.php?id=22 where it was tested by a total of six faculty and administrators representing the College of Technology (CT). a web-based course.edu/moodle/course/view. . New Media and Emerging Technology (NMET).bgsu. College of Musical Arts (CMA). At the midpoint of the survey a reminder email was send. Written feedback was received through the Survey Tool. Also. was sent through email to ten faculty and administrators at BGSU. Survey Tool The survey for the Music Technology II. Each of the faculty and administrators was sent an email with the study details. link to the website and a link to the online survey. and Interactive Distance Education for all Learners (IDEAL). Implementation of Alpha Testing and Expert Panel The alpha testing for Music Technology II. was developed in order to address effectiveness of each module in four areas: Course Design. 5.38 Online Final Exam 20% Category Projects Final Project Percentage 20% 20% 4. Site Design.
the web-based course. minor changes to the online modules were made. minor changes to the tutorial were made. They were asked to voluntarily go through the course as well as the survey.39 6. the instructor was able to implement this pilot course. Each of the faculty and administrators was sent an email with a link to the website and a link to the online survey. Revision of the Web-based Course Based on the results of the Beta test. . and IDEAL. was tested by a total of six faculty and administrators representing the CT. based on the results of the Alpha test. After this final revision. The changes that were made are reflected in Appendix D. 7. the web-based course. The changes that were made are reflected in Appendix D. Implementation of Beta Testing and Expert Panel The beta testing for Music Technology II. Revision of the Web-based Course At the conclusion of the alpha testing phase. each of the faculty and administrators took a survey to evaluate the web-based course. CMA. Analysis of Data The analysis of survey data will be presented in Section IV. At the midpoint of the survey a reminder email was send. was sent through email to six faculty and administrators at BGSU. 8. NMET. and some others were created to better measure if the proposed five objectives of the study have been identified. Furthermore. Written feedback was received through the Survey Tool. 9. The Music Technology II. some questions were revised. Based on the Alpha test.
Both the outcomes of the study and the suggestions for future research are presented in Section IV. .40 Summary of Section III The previous section refers to the progress of the procedures and the changes that needed to be done during the preparation of the project.
and answered all of the questions. and how these results were measured in the study. of the testing expert panel completed the survey.41 SECTION IV: RESULTS/EVALUATION/RECOMMENDATIONS This section contains the beta survey results. “Do you believe that the overall Course Design is successful?” All of the 6 members answered “Agree” or “Strongly Agree” to this (Figure 1). The study can be improved based on the recommendations that are located at the end of this section. Course Design In response to course design. question 14 . the objectives of the study. question 14 asked. Survey Results All the members. Response to survey course design. Figure 1.
question 21 Navigation In response to navigation. “Do you believe that the site navigation is clear and consistent?” All of the 6 members answered “Agree” or “Strongly Agree” to this (Figure 3). . Response to survey site design. Figure 2.42 Site Design In response to site design. question 25 asked. question 21 asked. “Do you believe that the overall Site Design is successful?” All of the 6 members answered “Agree” or “Strongly Agree” to this (Figure 2).
Response to survey navigation. question 25 Design Aesthetics In response to design aesthetics.43 Figure 3. . “Do you believe that the overall Design Aesthetics are successful?” All of the 6 members answered “Agree” or “Strongly Agree” to this (Figure 4). question 37 asked.
good intro.” . “The orientation module was really well done. “Orientation Module . I also liked that you provided links to download. Response to survey design aesthetics. I thought the video virtual tour was the most critical addition to the course.” 2. “Which of the three modules (orientation module.” 3. question 37 General Feedback The following is a list of explanations requested in response to general feedback question 38. module number one or module number two) do you like the most and why?” 1. other than the size of the video. which helped set the expectations and clarify the navigation for the course. This asked.44 Figure 4. “The orientation was very helpful.it was comprehensive and provided the needed direction .
45 4.” In response to general feedback. “Do you believe that the orientation module successfully introduced students to learning music online by defining and demonstrating the concepts and expectations of distance education?” 5 of the members answered “Agree” or “Strongly Agree” to this (Figure 5).” 6. “I think all three worked well. Response to survey general feedback. question 39 asked. each serves it appropriate purpose. They all seemed well thought out. One member disagreed with the statement. “Module number one.” 5. “I like them all. It looked good and was really intuitive. question 39 . Figure 5.
Response to survey general feedback. navigation. question 40 . Figure 6. “Do you believe that the researcher used the best LMS practices to ensure an effective way for presenting learning materials in terms of content. site design and design aesthetics?” All of the 6 members answered “Agree” or “Strongly Agree” to this (Figure 6). question 40 asked.46 In response to general feedback.
the key elements of Music Technology II webbased syllabus were identified through the objectives that were part of the syllabus and each . Based on the expert panel feedback. to identify the key elements of the music technology II web-based syllabus. the role of music teachers. Furthermore. The analysis revealed that distance music courses are effective when they have been carefully planned and are student-centered. the web-based course. Objective 2: To establish the expectations and identify the important factors in setting these expectations for the Music Technology II web-based course. Furthermore. one section of the orientation module addresses concepts of distance education. Through this section.47 Project Summary The following pages contain a review and an analysis of the objectives for the Music Technology II. and the effectiveness of this medium for students. students were introduced to learning music online by defining and demonstrating the concepts of distance education. and to understand the challenges that a student of a music course will face in accessing and interacting with the type of instruction found in music technology II web-based class. Furthermore. The literature review included the definition and methods of distance education. it can be stated that the researcher established the expectations and identified the important factors in setting these expectations for the Music Technology II web-base course. implementation for education today. especially music courses in higher education. The objective was achieved through a review of the literature on distance music education. Objective 1: To research distance education courses.
26. Objective 3: Identify the best interactive asynchronous and synchronous instructional design system for the learners. was selected and used. 32. 8. 20. it can be stated that the best interactive asynchronous and synchronous instructional design system was effectively used in the Music Technology II web-based course. All of the 6 members answered “Agree” or “Strongly Agree” to this (Figure 7) .48 learning module. 35. 2. 31. 27. Robert Gagne’s instructional design model. based on the expert panel feedback. 23. The researcher identified the instructional design model based on three reasons: it should be related to the learning process. it should lead to various learning outcomes. 13. 11. 34. The above statement was documented in the results of questions 1. 92% agreed on the implementation of Music Technology II web-based course. Furthermore. and it should support the internal processes of learning. 30. 10. These questions included: • • Are the objectives part of the syllabus and each learning module? Does the orientation module successfully introduce students to learning music online by defining and demonstrating the concepts and expectations of distance education? Based on the results of the experts’ panel survey. The above statement was documented in the results of survey questions 2 and 39. 9. which is best known as the nine events of instruction. and 36 of the survey. Therefore. 12.
questions 1. 30. 35. 31. 26. and 36.49 Figure 7. Stimulate recall of prior knowledge . 32. 8. 12. 10. These questions included: I. 20. 23. 13. 27. 2. 11. 9. Gain attention • • • • Is the visual design clean and appealing? Is the look of the site invites users to spend time at the site? Are Media load quickly? Are Graphics clear and crisp? II. Response to survey. 34. Inform learner of objectives • • Are the course objectives clear and appropriate? Are the objectives part of the syllabus and each learning module? III.
resources) useful and appropriate? Are assignments aligned with the course objectives in content and purpose? Based on the results of the experts’ panel survey. Enhance retention and transfer • • Is supporting content (glossary. . Provide feedback VIII. Elicit performance • • Are assignments requiring students to use relevant tools of Moodle? Are assignments providing ample opportunities to practice the use of Moodle and its tools? VII.50 • Is content provides thorough information about the subject (examples. help. 100% agreed or strongly agreed on the implementation of Music Technology II web-based course. explanations. Provide learner guidance • • Is the goal of the site clear? Are external links relevant to the course? VI. italics) and sizes making text readable? Are color choices appealing and making the content easy to read? Is appropriate the use of upper and lower case characters? Are the graphics supports the content of the course? V. Present stimulus material • • • • Are font styles (bold. Assess performance IX. etc)? • Is content relevant to target user needs? IV.
(For the LMS practices that were used see Section III Number 3). Moreover. and a Moodle introduction. Possible questions related to the orientation module will be posted to the Questions and Comments forum. site design. students should complete the orientation module designed to introduce students to learning music online by defining and demonstrating the concepts and expectations of distance education. Moodle.51 Objective 4: To introduce students to learning music online by defining and demonstrating the concepts and expectations of distance education through an orientation module. The above statement is documented in the results of question 40 of the survey. site design and design aesthetics. there are three key topics of the orientation module: the concepts of distance education. Objective 5: To research best LMS practices to ensure an effective way for presenting learning materials in terms of content. and design aesthetics. This question includes: • Does the researcher uses the best Learning Management System practices to ensure an effective way for presenting learning materials in terms of content. Furthermore. Based on the experts’ panel feedback. and design aesthetics? . a Learning Management System will be presented through a brief introduction. Before beginning the Music Technology II web-based course. navigation. Also. navigation. the expectations of distance education. site design. a recommended software resource was created to inform students about the free software that they will need for the web-based course Music Technology. navigation. A Virtual Video Tour of the Course was created to present the course environment. it can be stated that the research effectively used the best LMS practice for presenting learning materials in terms of content.
” . 13. but there has to be a how to make it bigger by default.” 3.52 Based on the results of the experts’ panel survey. the following recommendations were identified for another version of the Music Technology II web-based course. “The only think I think can be improved on is the Virtual Video Tour of the Course. you spelled your name incorrectly. which reads. in your intro forum video.” 1.” 5. “I have none”. Can the larger movie be made as a new window so others do not make the same mistake?” 2. “After watching the introductory movie. 4. “Please use the space below for recommendations or suggestions for improving any aspect of the web-based course. I accidentally hit the ‘close’ button on the window and closed the course. 100% agreed or strongly agreed on the implementation of Music Technology II web-based course. “In week 8. “References spelled incorrectly. ‘software’ instead of ‘softwares’. The following is a list of explanations requested in response to general feedback question 41. Project Recommendations Based on this study and the feedback given from the expert panel. Double check the entire site for other spelling issues. and 16 you say the words ‘final great’ instead of ‘final grade’. I know there is a link that say Click Here.
in a hierarchical order. The researcher recognizes the importance of instructor resources for format maintenance. instructors may find an online resource and format maintenance module helpful. . The researcher believes that a concept map would be useful to better visually represent an overview of the Music Technology II. with more specific details in lower levels. Furthermore.53 Researcher Recommendations Based on this study. at the top of the map. Although it is outside the scope of this project. the concept map would represent. a hybrid course. the most general concepts of the Music Technology II. hybrid course. 2. the following recommendations were identified for future course research and development: 1.
2007. Teaching Music. 335-346.worldwidelearn. 9. from Wikipedia http://en. (1989).bgsu. 11. from the 1999 Online Conference on Teaching Online in Higher Education http://edpsychserver. (5).ed. S.54 REFERENCES Bauer. Retrieved October 16. (1). Retrieved November 27. (3).org/wiki/Educational_progressivism Feldstein.php Curran.wikipedia. J. Clark. (2007). I.edu/workshops/tohe1999/pedagogy.com Educational progressivism. W. past. F. (2007). from The Directory of Online Degree Programs. Teaching Music. Journal of Music Teacher Education. 9. 12. 12. T. . ODL and traditional universities: Dichotomy or convergence? European Journal of Education. (2001). J. and Training Website: http://www. from Wikipedia http://en. 24-27. Lifelong Learning. & Verduin. (1997). Distance education: Its effectiveness and potential use in lifelong learning. 32. Retrieved October 25. (2007). Teaching Music. (2001). & Daugherty.org/wiki/Distance_education Distance education: On-line music education. and future. Music education and technology. present. (2001). Courses. from BGSU website http://webapps.. 2007. (1). (1999). Distance Education. 87.. (2005).wikipedia. 26-30. (4). Constructivism and online education: Constructivism pedagogy. 2007.vt. 27-32.edu/courses/result. Distance education for music educators. (4). C.html Course Descriptions. 2007. Retrieved October 16. Using the Internet to enhance music teacher education. 59-61.
The origins of distance education and its use in the United States. Retrieved November 10. 86. E.com /articles/14278 Music education in a digital world. 2007 from the Moodle Docs http://docs.e-learningguru. (n. from the Technological Horizons in Education Website: http://www. Retrieved October 21.moodle. 2007.. Nation's Business. (1999). P. 2007 from the http://www. 24-31. (2000). R. Ohio. Kahler II. D. 31. (1). Using Moodle.org/en/Philosophy . and student to identify and model copyright law and fair use provisions as they apply to the Internet.com Key facts. 14. (2007).moodle.org/en/Quiz Kruse. Philosophy: Social constructionist pedagogy.ac.shtml Knee. V. THE Journal.55 Herman. (2007). K.). from Moodle Docs http://docs. Teaching Music. Ariza. Retrieved October 25. Pittsburgh.. 2007. Teaching Music. Why your music program needs a website. real education. from the University of London http://www. T.uk/about_us/facts. Carlow College. Kole. (1999). R. Learning and Leading with Technology 29. Bowling Green. Master’s Thesis. 5457. Virtual classrooms.thejournal. (2). & Long J.com/articles/art3_3. Retrieved October 12. Gagne’s nine events of instruction: an introduction. (2007). staff. J. (2003). (2006). (2002) The sound of music—from a distance using WebCT to teach an online music course. (1998).d. Pa. Research and design of a World Wide Web site for Bowling Green State University faculty. (5). 22-27. D. 8.htm Marowitz. Phillips.londonexternal. THE Journal. Maintaining the integrity of a web-based music course.thejournal. 41-44. N. Matthews. E. from the Technological Horizons in Education Website: http://www. (1). 31 (1). Bowling Green State University. (6).
What is distance education? Retrieved January 10.org/library/dl/whatis. 92. Birmingham. Distance learning and the music teacher. Curriculum Administrator. Classrooms without walls.html. Retrieved November 27. 35. W.. D.56 Rice. (2). J. (1999). Sherbon. & Kish D. V. 2007 from the Digital web magazine http://www. 36-41.com/articles/survey_monkey/ . 40-43. Westin K.digital-web. (2005). (1995). Survey monkey. W. 2004 from the http://www. (2005). Moodle: e-learning course development. Shaw. UK: Packt Publishing Ltd.dlrn. Steiner. (2). H. Music Educators Journal. (2006).
Elainie Lillios Office: MMAC 2139 Email: lillios@bgnet. creating short compositions and one longer final project. OBJECTIVES: Students enrolled in Music Technology 2 will focus on composition. as well as the basics of audio production. 2002. ISBN 1-59200-128-9 REQUIRED SUPPLEMENTAL MATERIAL: CD-Rs or DVD-Rs (may be CDRWs) for backing up your work ADDITIONAL MATERIALS: Supplemental handouts and listening assignments will be provided via the Blackboard course. New York: Routledge. completing short assignments. Spring 2007 Instructor: Dr.414. via email and/or phone.edu REQUIRED TEXTS: Ballora. Mark. history. Software manuals are available for studio use only–readings may be assigned from them. ISBN 0-13-093747-9 Holmes.8425 Email: sborden@bgnet. Students will demonstrate their understanding of the course material by completing reading and listening assignments. Orren.372.9482 AIM: drlillios Teaching Assistant: Stacy Borden Studio Help Sessions: Mondays 10-11am. In the case of serious illness. Essentials of Music Technology. and completing mid-term and final exams. 2d ed. Thom. GRADING: Student grades will be determined as follows: Category Sonic journal. New Jersey: Prentice Hall. Students who must miss class for any reason should contact the instructor 24 hours prior to class when possible. as successful assimilation of the material is fairly difficult to accomplish without consistent attendance and participation. aesthetics. course assignments and readings may be made up with a doctor’s . and technical aspects of electroacoustics.bgsu. synthesis.57 Appendix A Syllabus. final project proposal and small assignments Two medium-sized semester projects/compositions Midterm Exam Final Project Comprehensive final exam Attending required concert events/course attendance/participation Percentage 10% 20% 15% 20% 20% 15% ATTENDANCE POLICY Students are expected to attend the course on a regular basis. attending required concert events. Electronic and Experimental Music.edu Office Hour: Tuesday 2:30-3:30 or by appointment Phone: 419.bgsu. keeping a written journal. Thursdays 2:30-3:30pm Phone: 260. 2003. Logic 7 Power! Boston: Muska & Lipman. ISBN 0-415-936446 Merton. 2004.
numbering and naming each sound in order. The only excused absence for these concerts is class conflict. which closes at 1:05pm on the due date. STUDENT ASSISTANCE TIMES Stacy Borden holds open tutoring sessions each week Monday 10:00-11:00am and Thursday 2:30-3:30pm.e. long. The instructor will assign all required journal entries and provide questions to guide you through listening and writing activities. This provides ample time for you to make necessary arrangements in your work schedule. ASSIGNMENT TURNIN POLICY Journal assignments will be submitted via the Blackboard Course “Assignments” section. Additional studio time will be available. Students will submit an accompanying list. etc. some industrial sounds. CONCERT ATTENDANCE (one or two other events TBA in 2007) Students will be required to attend specific concerts pertaining to music technology during the spring semester. Investigating sounds from various sources and locations (i. No assignment or journal will be accepted after the due date/time.e. This assignment will be assessed using the following criteria: 1. * Students that cannot have access on the CMA studio lab see the pre-requisites. No extensions will be given and no extra credit provided for missed assignments. Students missing three classes or greater will be docked accordingly. STUDIO LAB TIME ATTENDANCE * Students will be given three hours of studio time per week. 3 minutes) and graduate students no less than 50 MB (i. creative selection of pre-composed music. along with a one paragraph explanation citing original sound materials used and processes employed. Any student needing assistance should attend.132. COMPOSITION ASSIGNMENT 1 (Sound Creation) Students will create a palette of sound events varying in length and content -. 05 Feb TIME 8:00pm LOCATION Bryan Hall Please note that work commitments do not constitute an excused absence for these concerts! The date you receive this syllabus is Tuesday 09 January 2007. 5 minutes) of processed sounds. short medium.23) drop box. SONIC JOURNAL Students are required to keep a sonic journal. high. CHOICE OF ORIGINAL MATERIAL(25 points)–Deliberate and creative selection of a wide variety of source material. The studio is closed to general use during these times. Other items to be contained in the journal will be discussed in class.) .e. which will be turned in four times during the semester for evaluation. but the three-hour time slot is a mandatory studio time and should be treated like course attendance. In addition to answering the question(s). Sounds should demonstrate student's facility with sound processing applications and theories discussed in class. instrumental or vocal sounds. Other assignments will be submitted via my server account (129. Students missing eight classes will fail the course. and are due at the beginning of class on the due date. Undergraduate students will create no less than 30 MB (i.1. some in each of the frequency ranges.58 note. Frequent tardiness or failure to keep studio lab times may result in a lowered grade.some of each length. medium. some environmental sounds. and some reverberant sounds. Please plan ahead to be certain that you will be in attendance at the following concert events: EVENT Music at the Forefront: Craig Hultgren DATE Monday. entries on pieces may include your impressions and personal remarks. some dry sounds. low.
samples are given names and ordered in a way that illustrates the student's understanding of the possible cohesion between successive sounds. 2. adaptation of the "electroacoustic art" genre.putting together materials in a logical way.Clearly using applications discussed in class to manipulate sounds. overall creativity. good balance.general use of materials. employing foreground. PROCESSING (25 points) . not standard form. lack of clipping. types of processing employed. overall creativity.59 2. Putting a certain amount of processed sounds into the composition.Clearly using applications discussed in class to manipulate sounds. using proper volume curves to avoid clicks. and any other information pertinent . 4. Deliberate selection of interesting sounds that compliment each other and create a cohesive sonic unit. Students may share raw footage! Students may expand the first composition project into a longer piece. using them creatively. lack of clipping. etc. clearly using processes discussed in class. appropriateness of selected materials with regard to class discussion and listening assignments. PROCESSING/CREATIVITY (35 points)-Intuitive use of processes to augment sounds in a creative way. What the piece does and where it goes over time. typed material accompanying sounds is formatted neatly. Students must use their own sampled material (from CDs. sensitivity to the idea of space. 3. The proposal must include proposed source materials. creative use of sound. FINAL COMPOSITION PROJECT PROPOSAL Students are required to submit a written proposal regarding their intended final project. digital distortion. processing. lack of noise in samples. TECHNICAL ACCOMPLISHMENT (25 points)-Tasteful and logical use of normalization.general use of materials. using proper volume curves to avoid clicks. Incorporating appropriately processed sounds into the composition. middleground. Students are required to use recorded audio only on this project – no synthesized or synthetic sound materials permitted. appropriateness of selected materials with regard to class discussion and listening assignments. development over five minute time frame.). creative use of sound.quality and clarity of samples. digital distortion. creating some sort of sonic environment or progression which allows the piece to succeed within the context of the “short form” idea.). General creativity with sound material. recorded via microphone. analog distortion. lack of clipping and/or digital distortion. form (if pre-determined). and any other relevant information. development of material. FORM/STRUCTURE (25 points) . 4. and using processed sounds in a creative way.quality and clarity of samples. COMPOSITION ASSIGNMENT 2 (Electroclip) Undergraduate students will compose a one-minute and graduate students a three-minute electroclip. TECHNICAL (25 points) . or other noise elements not purposely made a part of the composition. TECHNICAL (25 points) . Compositions will be assessed using the following criteria: 1. but may also use found sounds and other sounds provided by the professor. Projects will be assessed using the following criteria: 1. PRESENTATION (15 points)-Samples are listed clearly and numbered according to appearance. FORM/STRUCTURE (25 points) . and background events. illustrating an understanding of electroacoustic art music. or create a completely new composition. PROCESSING (20 points) . Students will be expected to use processing techniques covered in class to create a coherent. CONTENT/CREATIVITY (30 points) .combining materials in a logical way. multiple layers with logical connections Stylistic ingenuity (not techno. Appropriate envelopes applied to beginnings and ends of sounds. CONTENT/CREATIVITY (25 points) . lack of noise in samples. analog distortion. 2. panning. illustrating understanding of processes by making sounds that capitalize on the inherent sonic properties of the original material. 3. FINAL COMPOSITION ASSIGNMENT Undergraduate students will compose a piece of no less than 5:00 but no greater than 5:30 in duration. explaining sounds where necessary and including a short paragraph regarding samples chosen. Graduate students will compose a piece of no less than 7:00 but no greater than 7:30 in duration. or other noise elements not purposely made a part of the composition. 3. short composition. 4.
the removal of the student from the course. CHEATING Cheating of any type will not be tolerated in this course and will result in an automatic grade of “F” in the course. Student may incorporate a timeline graph or other representative drawings as part of the proposal. If you have an established disability as defined in the Americans with Disabilities Act and would like to request accommodation. My office hours and office number are shown on this syllabus. and immediate reporting of the student’s actions to the Office of the Dean of Students and to the Office of the Dean of the College of Musical Arts. looking at another student’s examination answers. or the requesting or passing of information during an examination. use of such notes during an examination. unauthorized preparation of notes for examinations. including regular homework assignments and preparation of case materials for submission. BRYAN HALL . Students may use home equipment for this project. Cheating includes collaboration on any outside assignments that might be made on an individual basis for a grade. This document should be at least one full page typed. please see me as soon as possible. **Plagiarism also includes appropriating sounds or portions of pieces belonging to other composers. AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT The College of Musical Arts complies with the Americans with Disabilities Act in making reasonable accommodation for qualified students with disability. allowing another student to look at your own examination answers. but must include detailed information in the proposal if they intend to do so.60 to the project. classroom ⇒ FINAL PROJECTS DUE: MONDAY April 30–BY NOON onto the server ⇒ FINAL CLASS CONCERT: THURSDAY MAY 3–7:00pm. It also includes plagiarism. ⇒ FINAL EXAMINATION: WEDNESDAY May 2–1:15-3:15pm.
61 Appendix B Weekly timetable and assignments .
62 Appendix C Beta test survey results .
82 Appendix D Changes after alpha test .
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.