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A Major Project Submitted to the Graduate College of Bowling Green State University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF EDUCATION May 2008 Committee: Terry L. Herman, Advisor Donna K. Trautman Elainie Lillios
© 2008 Christopher Pappas
Christopher Pappas dedicates this project to his grandparents Georgia and Christoforos Lithopoulos, along with the rest of his family.
Donna Kae Trautman and Elainie Lillios. Michael Kudela. Furthermore. and Terence Armentano for their critical feedback and creative ideas. I would like to thank Kim Strickland for always being positive and willing to answer all my questions. I offer many thanks to Nikoleta and George who have always been completely awesome siblings. I would like to thank Carolyn Matzinger. for their support during this process. Also. Thanks to Katerina Cheilari for being supportive and helping me throughout this process. Thank you! . I would also like to thank the other members of my committee. I would not be able to complete my project. Without Donna’s creativity and Elainie’s kindheartedness. Another person I would like to thank is Jason Mellen for helping me with Moodle troubleshootings. and Eline Teixeira for being good friends along with being supportive. I would also like to thank my mom and dad along with the rest of my family for their support and love while trying to complete this degree.iv ACKNOWLDEGEMENTS I would like to thank Terry Herman for being the chair for my committee. She was an outstanding committee chair. I would like to thank Angela Garner for her technical assistance with this document. and I am thankful for her support and guidance. Melanie Alt. I had many insightful conversations during the development of this project. I extend thanks to Dean Kennell and Professor Vassiliadis for always motivating me to continue my studies. Maggie Verburg. I would also like to thank Todd Pavlack. Christopher Pittman. Laura Elder. Lastly. With Terry.
. At last. face-to-face course that College of Musical Arts of Bowling Green State University offers to undergraduate and graduate students. and John Dewey’s education progressivism were applied to the web-based course. Moodle Learning Management System was used. Also. However. Flash player. the proposed format of the Music Technology II course is the hybrid format. YouTube. into an online format. and evaluate the conversion of Music Technology II. To achieve the best possible interactivity and effectiveness in the Music Technology II.v ABSTRACT Music is probably the last subject one would encounter in a distance education course. The purpose of this study is to research. In addition. web-based course. some progressive music teachers have introduced distance music education courses in all levels of education. Robert Gagne’s nine events of instruction. design. the analysis revealed that distance music courses are effective when they have been carefully planned and are student-centered. develop. Open source software such as Jing. and SlideShare were used.
40 SECTION IV: RESULTS/EVALUATION/RECOMMENDATIONS .................................................................................................................3 Significance of the Study ....................................................3 Proposed Objectives...............................................................................................................................................................41 Survey Results ..........................................................................................................................................5 Identification and Description of Resources ...................................................................13 SECTION II: PROCEDURES .........................................................................................................................................................................................................................17 Development Procedures.............................................................................................................................................................1 Context of the Problem .........................................................9 Effectiveness for Students .........................................................................................................................................................41 ....................................................................................................................5 Definition of Terms......................................................8 The Role of the Music Teachers .........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................5 Delimitations .......................................................................................................................................5 Limitations.............................................................23 Summary of Section III ...........vi TABLE OF CONTENTS SECTION I: INTRODUCTION....................................................................................................................................................7 Implementation for Education Today ................6 Review of the Literature........................................................................................................................................17 Timeline.............................1 Statement of the Problem ..............................................6 Definition and Its Methods ..........................................................22 Actual Development Procedures .....................................4 Assumptions ................................................
.................................................................57 Appendix B: Weekly timetable and assignments ..............82 .53 REFERENCES ...............................................................................................................................................................vii Project Summary........... Spring 2007 .............................................................................................................................47 Project Recommendations....................62 Appendix D: Changes after alpha test............52 Researcher Recommendations...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................54 Appendix A: Syllabus...............................................................................61 Appendix C: Beta test survey results .......................
...............................................28 TABLE II: Online final exam grading.......................................................................................................37 TABLE IV: Hybrid course grading ....................................37 ..................................................29 TABLE III: Color code system ..............................................................................................viii LIST OF TABLES TABLE I: Online midterm exam grading ............................
.... 10..................43 FIGURE 4: Response to survey design aesthetics................. 2.... 35.. 11............ 13...41 FIGURE 2: Response to survey site design. 31...... 34............................... question 25............. 12.ix LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE 1: Response to survey course design...... 20....... 32....................... questions 21.... 9............................... 27............42 FIGURE 3: Response to survey navigation..... question 40.44 FIGURE 5: Response to survey general feedback........ question 37.............46 FIGURE 7: Response to survey.......... question 14.............................. 30..45 FIGURE 6: Response to survey general feedback................... 8........... questions 1... 26.....49 ....................... 23....... and 36………………………………………………………………………………………................. question 39..
more and more universities around the world introduced not only distance education courses but also distance education degrees. significance. can now be taught successfully with technology support. which in the past relied heavily on piano performance in the classroom. 1995). face-to-face instruction has been the preferred method. Certain courses. a list of defined terms and a review of literature relevant to the conversion of a faceto-face course into an online format can be found. Nowadays. However. like email. some progressive music teachers have introduced distance music education courses in both elementary and high school education as well as in higher education. music teachers are no longer tied to traditional methods of presenting music materials to students. and asynchronous. at all levels of music. Also. One could think that music is probably the last subject that one would encounter in a distance education course. like Internet relay chats (IRC). problem. The methods of distance education can be both synchronous. In 1982. music teachers began replacing vinyl records and magnetic audiotapes that had been introduced in the1960s with compact discs (CDs). In the 1990s. Furthermore. and main objectives of the study. A definition of distance education is. Context of the Problem Distance education is not new.1 SECTION I: INTRODUCTION This section will cover the context. we can say that technology has changed the teaching methods and consequently the role of the music teachers. the formal educational process in which the majority of the instruction occurs when the student and instructor are not in the same place (Steiner. universities have introduced distance education courses. From the middle of the 20th century. music teachers began replacing videotapes that had been introduced in the 1970s with videodiscs . With the help of technology.
One way to promote this comfort level is self-instruction. A second way is outside assistance. music teachers should follow the technology process as it changes day after day if they want to select the appropriate technology for their lessons. With the evolution of technology. the variety of music software was so vast and their use was so prevalent that music teachers were obligated to know how to teach with them. Thus. For example. Furthermore. and a third way is the training courses that music technology companies provide to inform music teachers about new products. music classrooms became concert halls. musical instrument digital interface (MIDI) was introduced. Nowadays. it is important to note that distance music education is effective only when the distance courses or programs have been carefully planned and are focused on students’ needs (“Music education in a digital world. They have begun to use this powerful communication tool in teaching and learning (Marowitz. the Internet was introduced in education. In the 1990s. In addition to the above. being a distance music teacher requires much time because distance music education is more like teaching students privately than teaching all the students at once. music teachers understood that they should explore possibilities for utilizing this resource to help students learn (“Music education in a digital world. MIDI has incredible teaching possibilities but music teachers must know how to develop that software and also how to teach with it (Feldstein. .” 2000). 2006). 2001). As the Internet became ubiquitous.” 2000).2 (DVDs). At the same time. such as through university courses. Moreover. many music teachers develop websites and website communities because they want better communication and venue for information dissemination. it is an arduous task for music teachers to conform with the new technologies. In the middle of the 1980s.
the technology development provides students with the opportunity to enhance their knowledge and their quality of education by connecting and communicating globally with other learners. “Continuation of study into the principles and techniques of music technology and electroacoustic music. According to the BGSU website catalog description (2007). the students get to know their online teacher better than those in the traditional classrooms (Shaw. 2002).3 because of all the individual attention that the students receive. Statement of the Problem The problem of the study was to research.. The students of such a course would gain skills that would be useful to them in the future as distance education continues to grow on a global scale.” Significance of the Study The benefits of this project could be considerable. We cannot say that the benefits always guarantee success for every student (Shaw. design. et al. develop. As discussed above. 1999). The course that will be converted is Music Technology II. The concepts of online learning and . 2001). the online class discussion and the Internet-based assignments that have been introduced in many distance courses are effective for the students because they allow them to learn from their classmates (Bauer and Daugherty. the students who are not used to modern technology have the same needs. Introverted students may have a greater level of difficulty in the distance courses and need extra encouragement from their teacher (Knee. a 3-credit course that College of Musical Arts (CMA) of Bowling Green State University (BGSU) offers to undergraduate and graduate students (MUCT 445/545). Course materials are practiced during individual studio lab times. Also. 1999). Furthermore. and evaluate the conversion of a face-to-face music course into an online format.
this project could potentially increase the students who want to enroll in Music Technology II while also increasing collaboration on an international level. To research distance education courses. 2. For the purpose of this study the following objectives have been identified: 1. Identify the best interactive asynchronous and synchronous instructional design system for the learners. to identify the key elements of a music technology II web-based syllabus (Appendix A and B). design. and to understand the challenges that a student of a music course will face in accessing and interacting with the type of instruction found in music technology II web-based class. navigation. To establish the expectations and identify the important factors in setting these expectations for the music technology II web-based course. 3. develop. 5.4 distance education are similar in the Learning Management Systems (LMS). they would need only an introduction to the software itself and not to the entire concept of online learning. To introduce students to learning music online by defining and demonstrating the concepts and expectations of distance education through an orientation module. and evaluate the conversion of three specific components of the face-to-face Music Technology II course into an online format. Furthermore. This could present opportunities for the CMA to pursue greater revenue and greater prestige as a Music College. To research best LMS practices to ensure an effective way for presenting learning materials in terms of content. and more specifically the CMA. site design and design aesthetics. As a result if students are required to use Blackboard or another software for online coursework. especially music courses in higher education. At BGSU. . 4. Proposed Objectives The goal of this project was to research.
a face-to-face course. to the Internet. should fulfill the pre-requisites (Appendix A). and possess basic computer skills. students have access and know how to use studio facilities. Lillios and used. Relevant course material from the face-to-face course Music Technology II will be identified by Dr. As a result. Identification and Description of Resources Hardware and software for developing the web-based course were available through the College of Technology and College of Musical Arts. assignments. and QuickTime. These components were developed into three interactive modules including lecture materials. and/or quizzes. activities. a web-based course. Arcadia. • • Moodle will be the LMS. it was assumed that the same target audiences will have access to a computer. Limitations The content used in this project was based on the course materials used by Dr. Furthermore. Also. The computers for development were a Macintosh MacBook Pro OS X and Microsoft Window XP. but no limited to. Camtasia. .5 Assumptions For this study. web-based course. Snapz Pro X. Lillios in Music Technology II. have already succeeded on Music Technology I. the students that want to enroll in Music Technology II. Audacity. it was assumed that the undergraduate and graduate students who will attend in Music Technology II. Delimitations Three specific components of the Music Technology II course were converted from faceto-face delivery to an online delivery method. • The software that was used includes. Garage Band.
• Learning Management System: “Learning Manage System or Software” (LMS). also known as “Course. Moodle is a Learning Management System (LMS). 1). the University of London was the first university to offer distance-learning degrees (“Key facts. • Moodle: Moodle is an acronym for Modular Object-Oriented Dynamic Learning Environment. the following terms were operationally defined: • Distance Education: the definition of distance education encompasses teaching and learning.” 2007. the English inventor of shorthand. Definition of Terms For the purpose of this study. where learning occurs in a different place from teaching (Steiner. and student-to-student(s). 2006). General speaking we can say that the difference between a traditional class and the social constructionist philosophy is the difference between a lecture and a discussion (“Philosophy: social constructionist pedagogy. was the first man to have the idea of delivering instruction to a limitless audience via mail (Phillips. Review of the Literature Introduction In 1840. • Social Constructionist Pedagogy: The main principle of social constructionist pedagogy is that people learn best by interacting with each other. a free open source software package based on social constructionist pedagogy (Rice.6 • Instructional design experts from various BGSU offices will be invited to review the modules for validation. Content or Courseware Management System” (CMS) is a web-based application used for coursework. student to instructor. p. 1995). By the 1900s.” 2007). 1998). Sir Isaac Pitman. the University of Chicago established the first department of . instructor to student(s). In 1858.
and the student pattern him. The definition of distance education encompasses teaching and learning. Music performance courses such as instruments and voice encourage an active learning environment. The University of South Africa was offering correspondence education courses since 1946.7 correspondence teaching in the United States of America (Matthews. Music is probably the last subject one would contemplate teaching online because it has been considered to be less suited to distance education. such as composition. the Open University in United Kingdom was founded.” and “online education” which can be confusing.” “distance learning. 1995). for example an instrument. music theory and history. Because of the success of these universities by the late 1900s. Germany. Definition and Its Methods Distance education comes in many forms and phrases such as “distance education. The appropriate method of learning in the performance courses is to have the instructor perform face-to-face. where learning occurs in a different place from teaching (Steiner. As a result. less performance courses. ear training. music performance courses and academic research courses that do not focus on performance. which has become the largest distance education university. and educational institutes have introduced distance music education. 2005). in the last decades. Still. comprise some of the characteristics of this process.” 2007). the Ferm University in Hager. In these courses the main principle of learning is the process of making music. face-to-face instruction in music education has been the norm at all levels (Sherbon. 1999). schools. Music courses can be separated in two general categories.” “e-learning. More than 20 years later another pioneering institution. In addition. was the sixth university to offer distance courses (“Distance Education. According to Clark and Verduin (1989). with the help of technological advantages. distance . which is something more than reading about music or listening. more and more universities.
S. in Sandpiper Elementary School in Broward Country. and as such. the first large scale project to create Internet-based courses at the precollege level was the Virtual High School (VHS). and learner. 2002). a music teacher called Ms. has allowed many universities to offer distance music education courses and degrees. Department of Education. Something that was impossible a few years ago now is becoming a viable option. tutor or educational agency. A solution to the above problem was the use of simple implements like a recorder and web-based courses (Knee. Implementation for Education Today The Internet has become a gateway for information. Thus. and provides twoway communication between the teacher. the students did not have the opportunity for mastery of a musical instrument. Examples of asynchronous distance education methods include self-paced courses taken via the Internet or CD-ROMs.. It was a cooperative project that is funded in part by a technology challenge grant from the U. the web-based course was developed. & Long. Moreover. Florida. The significance of this idea was that this online course was introduced to elementary students because music instruction was previously limited to one half-hour weekly. and online discussion groups. Because more and more students expressed the desire to take home instruments and have access to guided lessons. p. 2002. Ariza.8 education separates the teacher and learner during a majority of each instructional process. with technical . For example. and interactive TV. Distance education can include both synchronous (real-time) and asynchronous instruction (time delay). Internet relay chats (IRC). Jolene Long introduced an online course (Knee. more and more teachers in elementary and in high school have introduced online music courses. emails. Examples of synchronous distance education methods include videoconferencing. 1). et al. uses educational media to unite the teacher and learner and carry course content. Furthermore.
In that virtual class the unusual thing was that the students had never met each other. introduced his students to music theory (Shaw. a student from Texas. Amy Taylor. Massachusetts. 1). a nonprofit group in Concord. In Jost’s class each student was able to restudy any difficult course material (Shaw. music teachers who would like to teach or to give their students the opportunity to listen to a music piece would play an . but her school did not offer music courses. From this example. p. An advantage was that distance education allows students to progress at a personal speed and intensity. David Jost.” 2000). p. Many music educators find it beneficial to review past challenges in order to understand present accomplishments (“Music education in a digital world. 1999. In addition. p. the principal of VHS. 2). 1999. This student attended Jost’s class and she gained the necessary knowledge that enabled her to perform in the Texas AllState Orchestra. the students improved their writing skills because so much attention was placed on the written word. claims that students feel more comfortable to express themselves in web-based courses (Shaw. Also. The instructor inspired interaction among students by encouraging them to communicate with each other and share ideas and knowledge using the website of the virtual class (Shaw. p. 1). 1999. In the early 18th century.9 support from the Concord Consortium. VHS has provided students with opportunities that they would not ordinarily have. 1999). The Role of the Music Teachers The evolution of technology has changed teaching methods. Bruce Droste. wanted to major in music at college. 2). Moreover. 1999. One of the instructors in a high school. and to bring new opportunities to students everywhere (Shaw. without having to wait for slower pace of the average classroom. we can understand that the quality of education had little to do with the geographical location and more to do with using technology to connect people.
p. as well as programs related to music listening. In 1982. music students were able to critique their own work. It was not until the late 1960s that other opportunities manifested. 1). music classrooms became concert halls. . and rhythmic skills. probably the piano. p 2). For many years this was the only method. Commodore 64. “These software included drill-and-practice programs covering the full range of melodic. Music educators began to use vinyl records and magnetic audiotapes to illustrate class material. history. The students were able to listen and watch performers and orchestras that used to be miles away. harmonic.10 instrument. With the evolution of technology. Also. if the students wanted to see or listen to their favorite performers or orchestras. they should attend live concerts. and fundamentals” (“Music education in a digital world. Videotapes were introduced in the 1970s. and TRS-80 (“Music education in a digital world. music educators replaced vinyl records and magnetic audiotapes with compact discs (CDs). With the recording techniques. and they were replaced in the early 1990s by digital videodiscs (DVDs) with high-resolution sound and images.” 2000). With the visual tools. Technology was the basic tool of education in the hands of music teachers.” 2000. From 1978 to the middle 1980s. Furthermore. in the late 1970s computer users and instructors became familiar with the first music software written for systems such as Apple II. appreciation.” 2000. and a systematic locating track that saved class time. music software was so numerous and their use multiplied. That offered a better sound quality. music teachers were able to provide historical biographies of composers (“Music education in a digital world.
numerous teachers developed websites and website communities. The use of the Internet broadens educators’ and students’ horizons. the computer companies developed software that gave opportunities to users with simple musical skills. p. p. 2001. booster groups and learners to use music programs from other schools located in other countries. 2001).” 2000. musical instrument digital interface (MIDI) was introduced. music teachers understood that they should explore all the possibilities for utilizing this resource in order to help students learn. Moreover. The new teaching and learning tools made access to knowledge timeless and global (Bauer & Daugherty. According to Feldstein (2001) “With MIDI a specific digital signal would be understood to mean the same thing no matter what instrument was receiving it” (p. 3). 1). music teachers have two basic benefits. MIDI became an incredible teaching tool (Feldstein. With the contribution of websites. It became easy for the learning community to find resources about a specific music topic (“Music education in a digital world. biographies. We can say that a website is a powerful communication tool that can give us information from many different sources such as images. faculty. Websites “transported” music programs to every place and country helping individuals to learn from each other (Marowitz. As the Internet became ubiquitous. p. Moreover. and pieces of music that we are able to listen to via the websites.11 In the 1980s. 3). and the second is strong group image (Marowitz. . 5). it became feasible for directors. not only to record but also to compose music. the first one is better communication and information dissemination. Furthermore. 2006). 2006. The biggest revolution came in the early 1990s when the Internet brought a new host of changes to schools.
When learning about music technology. Also. and to have access to the newest research. this is not enough. p 3). The challenge for music teachers is to feel comfortable using the new technologies. Since the new methods create numerous chances for music performance and learning.” 2000. Ways in which music teachers could keep themselves informed include Internet chat groups. Indeed. web-based communities. children could. Music teachers should continually update their knowledge of developing Technology.yamahaadvantage. many music technology companies provide training to the teachers. as they want to inform them about the new products. “The teachers were able to share their ideas with other teachers and interact with the authors” (Feldstein. the process of learning music technology is similar to learning an instrument. In this type of community. One way is by self-instruction. in website communities. national conferences. According to Feldstein (2001). etc. Moreover. an example of a website community like that was the http://www. so they attend formal university courses or workshops. p. In fact. some teachers feel comfortable teaching themselves.12 Moreover. However. students will continue to use them. on their own. Learning should be a constant procedure (“Music education in a digital world. 4). 2001. to learn more about music. download their favorite songs as well as additional material related to specific technical or music problems (p. Some others prefer outside assistance. 3). It is true to say that technological advantages have provided music educators with new ways of teaching music. students should practice every day.com/. music teachers and students around the world are able to exchanges ideas. the parents could easily be informed about the latest music educational methods and the significance of learning music for their children. Educators should also focus on .
4-5). All the students who choose to participate in a distance education course should have the necessary equipment such as high-speed Internet connections. we can say that distance music education requires a significant investment of the time of music teachers. 2001. future education will be based on the interaction between learners. It is obvious that distance music education is more like teaching students privately than teaching all the students at once. Effectiveness for Students The first consideration about the effectiveness of distance education is the necessary equipment and also. p. 2). Music teachers should spend the necessary time to keep a course site updated. With the help of technology. 2001). Technology is and will be used to assist students and teachers. 1999. we should remember that we use technological advantages in order to help students learn how to learn by creating and performing music (“Music education in a digital world. In addition to the above. p.13 these methods and try to adopt them and use them as an effective teaching tool (Feldstein. the on-site support.” 2000. p. One more difference that distance music teachers have to face is the system of grades. a music teacher interacts with students from many different educational systems (Shaw. teachers should choose a fair grading system based on set expectations or comparisons among students in the same course (p. As a result. to respond to emails. p. That means that some of the students that used to receive A in their schools may receive a different grade in the distance course. 4).” 2000. to teach and evaluate the courses (Feldstein. . the music teachers are leaders who guide students to understand music (“Music education in a digital world. On the other hand. 2). In a distance course. 5).
and they used the computers only during class time (Knee. et al. et al. In the same setting one boy. appeared (Knee. the music teacher Ms. 2). in Sandpiper Elementary School in Broward County. however. Florida. and they quickly replaced his position after he abandoned the online course (p. 2002). when the students encounter problems they just raise their hands and the teacher helps them. p. Ms.face course had a different opinion. and they asked for the teacher’s help only when technical problems. do not always guarantee success for every student. In the beginning of a distance course. With that method. At the beginning. such as the loss of Internet connection or chat room freezing. 2). The entire class felt comfortable with the course materials. Long let the students play their instruments at their homes. For example. each student succeeded in learning the course materials (Knee.. In the traditional classrooms. The teachers determine the speed and effectiveness of the assistance. students needed the guidance of their teacher in order to learn how to work with the computer.14 modern computers.. and as a result. The most significant result was that the students were encouraged to help each other and solve their problems together. 2). 2002.. some students will need special assistance. The elementary student who had never participated in a distance course before would quickly overcome the difficulties. 2002. out of the twenty students that had been selected to participate in the online course. access to technical assistance. On the other hand. The benefits. his classmates from the face-to. felt rejected in the online course and preferred to revert to the traditional class. He found that online courses were more demanding since they necessitated more studying and were more self-directed. and most importantly. . et al. Long was able to observe problems and help the students. In time. they became familiar with the new technology. p.
2). Because of all that individual attention. even though these classmates were from different universities. Ball State University and the University of Kansas collaborated in learning projects via Internet-based technologies. For example.15 Generally speaking. Furthermore. Appropriate technology can only be selected once these elements are thoroughly understood. Furthermore. students feel that they are being privately taught. Likewise. the Internet-based assignments helped them to better understand the content of the course. 2001). 1999). Moreover. Students from both universities felt that participating in the on-line class discussions allowed them to learn from their classmates. she was able to perform in the Texas AllState Orchestra (Shaw. Writing skills are particularly important in distance education courses because students have to not only correctly express their ideas but also their questions (p. With the knowledge that she gained from the distance music theory courses. some of the students voiced no complaints about impersonal online instruction nor the time spent on the computer to complete the task (Bauer and Daugherty. the students are more focused when they write. The project was determined to be very effective. This could not have been achieved in a . distance courses are based on written skills. in distance education. 2). 1999. students seem to know their online teachers better than the traditional classroom teachers (Shaw. we can say that distance music education is effective when the distance music education courses or programs begin with careful planning and a focused understanding of course requirements and students’ needs. a lot of distance courses provide opportunities for on-line discussions and collaboration. For example. p. Amy Taylor from Texas attended distance music theory course of David Jost’s music class because her school did not offer any music courses. As we mentioned above. Graduate students in history and philosophy of music education were able through collaboration to enhance their experiences and their perceptions. as a result.
1999). For those students. and for these students. Furthermore. some others have speaking skills but not writing skills. a lot of students feel more comfortable expressing themselves face-to-face. In addition to the above example.16 traditional graduate music education classroom. it seems that the students who are not self-starters have a great deal of difficulties in the distance courses. Also. distance courses seem to be less effective (Shaw. distance learning may not be as effective. . 2). Technology based on avant-garde learning theories could attribute towards this goal (p.
IV. Restatement of the Problem The problem of the study was to research. and evaluate the conversion of a face-to-face music course into an online format. analysis of data.17 SECTION II: PROCEDURES This section will cover the procedure of the course’s development. . design. V. development of the web-based course. use of the survey tool. Gain attention. revision of the web-based course. timeline of the completion of the project. VI. a 3-credit course that CMA of BGSU offers to undergraduate and graduate students (MUCT 445/545). II. The course components that were converted are from Music Technology II. Present stimulus material. and references. develop. This procedure presumes restatement of the problem. Elicit performance. research about instructional design. which is best known as the nine events of instruction: I. Inform learner of objectives. implementation of beta-testing and expert panel. 2. III. revision of the web-based course. Provide learner guidance. Research about Instructional Design This project employed Robert Gagne’s instructional design model. Stimulate recall of prior knowledge. which will be an iterative process resulting in the conversion of Music Technology II into an online format. Development Procedures 1. implementation of alpha-testing and expert panel.
The main principle of educational progressivism is that humans are social animals who learn best in real-time activities with other people (“Educational progressivism. Enhance retention and transfer (Kruse. Provide feedback. Audacity. Open source. 3. The design and development of Moodle is based on social constructionist pedagogy. Furthermore. II.). and IX. 1). software such as. p. There are three main reasons for using Moodle: I. educational progressivism as described by John Dewey will be applied in the web-based course. and Winamp were used. Robert Gagne’s nine events of instruction and John Dewey’s educational progressivism will be applied to the frame of constructivism pedagogy. but not limited to. p. Assess performance. and III.18 VII. 1). VIII. n. For instance shared meanings are the extension of an idea into a social group constructing ideas from one another. Interactive features. Development of the Web-based Course In developing the Music Technology II web-based course.d. According to constructivism pedagogy. QuickTime. Social constructionist pedagogy. people learn best by interacting with each other (“Constructivism and online education. which extends the ideas of constructivism (people actively construct new knowledge as they interact with their environment) and constructionism (learning is particularly effective when constructing something for others to experience) into a social . The most important software is Moodle LMS. Camtasia.” 1999.” 2007.
IX. Glossary. IV. web-based course. Quiz. The developer used most of the above interactive features of Moodle in order to achieve the best possible interactivity and effectiveness in the Music Technology II. . by manufacturing innovative materials for other users and by communicating with them about these new materials. learning becomes more effective when people are mutually active with the learning materials. Moodle offers eleven interactive course features. Forum. Wiki. Lesson. Journal. The first six refer to the interaction between learner and instructor and the remaining five refer to the interaction between student(s) and student. VII. Choice. and XI. People.” 2007. Survey. enhance their learning abilities. I. II. Workshop. VI. VIII. In other words. X.19 group constructing things for one another (“Philosophy: social constructionist pedagogy. Based on social constructionist pedagogy. 1). III. V. Assignment. Chat. p.
quiz questions can be used after each lecture based on the lecture objectives. Several quiz strategies can be implemented though Moodle’s online quiz feature. Furthermore. The teacher can create quizzes with different question types and randomly generate quizzes and test (Cole. one of the greatest concerns in the development of Music Technology II webbased course was the conversion of the face-to-face exam into an online format. The quiz feature is a flexible tool for monitoring and diagnosing student performance with a variety of question types such as matching. learners can attempt the quiz or test multiple times. The survey addressed effectiveness of each module in four . Moodle is free to integrate all the best open source software such as MediaWiki. essay. true or false. In practical terms. Cheating). 1999). Survey Tool The survey adopted for this project was based on a Participant Evaluation Form from a previous study (Herman. General speaking. 2007). One of the most effective strategies is restricting the time learners have to answer each question. each attempt is automatically marked.20 Furthermore. Moreover. short answer. For instance giving a student 20 to 30 seconds to answer each question mitigates the concern students will look up answers to questions to which they do not know the answer. and the teacher can give feedback or show the correct answers (Cole. Also. 4. Also. we can say that in an academic course one of the most important aspects is the ethics. that means each student will have a different quiz. Moodle is open source software. making it extremely popular with learners and educators around the world. These different kinds of questions are kept in the course question bank and can be reused several times. and drag and drop. multiple choice. 2007). Students who have to complete a quiz will not cheat in a timed fashion (Appendix A. This issue was addressed with the effective use of the quiz feature.
and Design Aesthetics. According to Westin (2005). accessibility. as well as online learning. Its primary strength is its intuitive Web interface. Implementation of Beta Testing and Expert Panel After the revision of the web-based course based on the experts’ suggestions for improvement. Their placement allowed better access for Alpha test takers. interface design. 1). and instructional design strategies will form the expert panel and participate in the alpha test survey. The survey was administered through SurveyMonkey. audience analysis. “SurveyMonkey is an easy-to-use tool for the creation of online surveys. The feedback formed the basis for revisions to the online course. which makes it easy for even non-technical people to create surveys and export-collected data” (p. Implementation of Alpha Testing and Expert Panel There was an Alpha test conducted for the Music Technology II web-based course that was hosted on the servers of the College of Technology. but not limited to. The . 5. Forasmuch as the goal of this project was to convert three components of a face-to-face music course into an online format.21 areas: Course and Site Design. The survey (Appendix C) had both qualitative (short answer) and quantitative (summative) questions on topics such as. content/course materials. Revision of the Web-based Course At the conclusion of the Alpha testing. the survey was tailored to evaluate if the web-based course meets that goal. a Beta test was be conducted for the web-based Music Technology II course. a survey to evaluate the web-based course was accessible through the web. Navigation. The expert panel evaluation survey will be taken at the conclusion of the Alpha and Beta test phases. and instructional design standards. Subject matter experts familiar with music technology. 6. 7. usability.
After the revisions. after the alpha and beta test. 8. Analysis of Data At the conclusion of the Beta testing. The web-based course was revised based on the analysis of the survey data from the testing cycles. 9. the subject matter experts took the survey and their feedback was then used to further improve the course. The course was revised.22 Music technology II course was again available on the web for the same expert panel to conduct the Beta testing. Timeline August – October 2007 November 2007 November 2007 November 2007 November – December 2007 January 2008 February 2008 February 2008 March 2008 March 2008 March 2008 April 2008 Proposal Development Proposal Defense Proposal Defense Approval (major project topic) Begin project development Continue the Development of Project Alpha Testing on Project Revision from Alpha Test Beta Testing on Project Analyze Data/Write Sections III and IV Revise Web-based Course Defense of Major Project Final Document/Product . Revision of the Web-based Course Revisions to the course will be iterative. the instructor will be able to implement this pilot course in 2009. based on expert panel feedback.
I. Restatement of the Problem The problem of the study was to research. multimedia such as video. which is best known as the nine events of instruction was selected and used. Gain attention • Capture the attention of those learning. 1. For example. design. it leads to various learning outcomes. 2. The course components that will be converted are from Music Technology II (MUCT 445/545). The following pages explain how the nine events of instruction are demonstrated in the web-based course. in several sections of the course. and as a result. and evaluate the conversion of a face-to-face music course into a online format. and it supports the internal processes of learning. .23 SECTION III: DESCRIPTION/METHODOLOGY/DEVELOPMENT This section covers the actual development procedures utilized in the study. develop. Robert Gagne’s instructional design model. Actual Development Procedures The following is a list of the actual development procedures that were used to execute the study. Several of the proposed development procedures were changed during the development stage. it includes the final product of the Music Technology II web-based course. a 3-credit course that CMA of BGSU offers to undergraduate and graduate students. and audio were used to capture the attention of students. Research about Instructional Design After a review of several instructional design models. This instructional design model was chosen for three reasons: it is related to the learning process.
• New content. the face-to-face course. Students were informed from the very beginning about the objectives of the course. IV. the researcher created an orientation module. with the font styles (bold. and quizzes. Several concepts such as journals. with the color choices which appealed and made the content easy to read. • List of learning objectives. • Previous experience. Stimulate recall of prior knowledge • Recall of existing. and demonstrated. including the expectations of distance education. and online discussions. online journals. of Music Technology II. Furthermore. The new content of the web-based course was chunked. projects. each module that was created or converted into an online format has a list of learning objectives. Inform learner of objectives • Level of expectation for learning. Brief explanations were labeled on each . III. explained. was clearly displayed with the clear and consistent site navigation. The researcher recalled student’s existing and relevant knowledge with the use of activities such as glossaries. The online content of Music Technology II. discussions. relevant knowledge. the web-based course. The undergraduate and graduate students who will attend Music Technology II. games. previous concepts. web-based course. Present stimulus material • Display the content. and with the appropriate use of upper and lower case characters. have already succeeded in Music Technology I. italics) and size which made the text readable. are similar to Music Technology I. For instance.24 II. a hybrid course.
25 activity for the better understanding of the learners. Several examples such as glossaries, and games were given to support learners’ understanding of the content. • Multimedia. Audio, video, and graphics were used in order to present stimulus materials. V. Provide learner guidance • Guidance on the new content. Through concise descriptions as well as clear and appropriate objectives that were part of the syllabus and each learning module, the researcher guides students in the contents. • Assist learners in order to encode information for long-term storage. With the help of online assignments and activities like glossaries, games, discussions, and quizzes, the researcher assisted learners to encode information for long-term storage. • Guidance strategies. The guidance strategies included examples, mnemonics, videos, audios, and graphics. VI. Elicit performance • Practice. The students of such a course would gain new skills that would be useful to them in the future as distance education continue to grow on a global scale. The concepts of online learning and distance education are similar in the LMS, and as a result, if students are required to use another software for online coursework, they would need only an introduction to the software itself and not to the entire concept of online learning. The orientation module was created in order to support the above objectives.
26 • Demonstrating learning. With several activities such as online journals, online discussions, online games, online forums, online presentations, online glossaries, and online quizzes, students will have the chance to demonstrate what they have learned. VII. Provide feedback • Specific, immediate feedback on learner’s performance. Since students did not participate in this project, we were not able to give immediate and specific feedback on learner’s performance. VIII. Assess performance. • Post-test, final assessment. The online glossaries and the online games will prepare students for the post-test (midterm quiz) and final assessment (final quiz). IX. Enhance retention and transfer • Determine whether or not the skills were learned. Through midterm and final exam quizzes, online journals, and online discussions, the students will apply the skills they learned. Furthermore, the researcher developed all the activities described above with the principle that humans are social animals who learn best in real-time synchronous activities such as online quizzes, online discussions, and online journals, and take it one step further by interacting with each other in asynchronous environments such as online journals, and online discussions. 3. Development of the Web-based Course
27 In developing the Music Technology II web-based course, open source software such as Jing, YouTube, Flash player, and SlideShare were used. Jing was used to create video tutorials. Flash player was used for audio and YouTube for video. SlideShare was used for the conversion of PowerPoint presentations into flash slide shows. Furthermore, the most important software was Moodle LMS (for the reasons that Moodle was used, please see Section II Number 3). The researcher used six interactive course features in order to achieve the best possible interactivity and effectiveness in the Music Technology II, web-based course. The first four refer to the interaction between learner and instructor and the remaining two refer to the interaction between student(s) and student. The six features include: I. Assignments Four assignments have been created for the course. One type of assignment asks students to upload a single file. Students should upload a Word file to the course for each of the four sonic journals. II. Quizzes, • Midterm Exam The midterm exam consists of four types of questions (multiple choice, short answer, True/False, and essay). 44% of the midterm exam is based on the first three types of questions, and score be awarded immediately after students complete the quiz. 56% of the midterm exam is based on essay questions, and it will be awarded in the next face-to-face class. See Table I for an explanation of this break down.
b. 58% of the final exam is based on essay questions. Short Answer. the respondent chooses the correct answer among multiple answers. there will be only one correct answer. • Final Exam The final exam will consist of three types of questions (matching. d. See Table II for an explanation of this break down. c. . the respondent types a word or phrase. True/False. In these types of questions. In response to a question (that may include an image) the respondent writes an answer in essay format. In response to a question. and essay). and scores will be awarded after students complete the quiz. True/False. the respondent selects from two options: True or False. Essay.28 Table I: Online Midterm Exam Grading Type Essay Definition Multiple Choice Short Answer True or False Number 12 9 9 16 Percent 56% 18% 10% 16% a. In response to a question. In response to a question. and it will be awarded in the next class. Multiple Choice (single answer). 42% of the final exam is based on the first two types of questions.
Glossaries. The essay and True or False will follow the format of the midterm exam. the next two for Module I. Books Thirteen books have been created for the course. The first four have been created for the Orientation Module. III.29 Table II: Online Final Exam Grading Type Essay Definition Matching True or False Number 6 1 10 Percent 58% 19% 23% a. A list of sub questions is provided. b. Games Two hangman games have been created to review the student’s knowledge of the two glossaries. VI. IV. Forums – Online Discussions Ten forums have been created for the course. Matching. The first five books have been created for the Orientation Module. along with a list of answers. and the remaining five for Module 2. V. and the remaining four for Module 2. the next three for Module 1. Books are multi-page resources with a book-like format. The respondent must "match" the correct answers with each question. .
The goal of the glossaries is to prepare class members for the mid and final exams by defining 68 and 75 terms respectively.” and a third module was created based on alpha feedback recommendations. In week three. the topic “History and Aesthetics of Electroacoustic music. In week one the orientation module. 2. 8. Course Description B.” 2. the topic “Digital Process Filtering/EQ. Also. Objectives C. Virtual Cafe II. Welcome A.30 Two glossaries have been created. Video Virtual Tour of the Course Recommended Software Concepts of Distance Education Expectations of Distance Education Moodle Introduction News and Announcements Forum Questions and Comments Forum Activity a. 6. 7. 3. included: Orientation Module I. In week thirteen. Orientation 1. the two specific components that have been converted from face-to-face delivery to an online delivery method are: 1. 3. Week 1 . 4. 5.
Filters Journal Series I Journal Series I pieces Questions for Sonic Journal Series I Answers to Sonic Journal I . 2. 2. Course intro. Module 1 I. 2. 4. Sonic Journal Series I 1. PowerPoint Presentation I 1. Hildegard Westerkamp notes Kits Beach Soundwalk Course Discussions: Westerkamp Question 1 D. syllabus.31 A. 4. 3. studio regulations B. Syllabus Weekly Schedule Required Books Studio Regulations Studio Times C. Course Discussions I 1. Course Topic I 1. 5. 3. Digital Processes-Filtering/EQ B. Course Information 1. Week 3 A. Course Topic II 1. 3.
Course Discussions: Westerkamp Question 3 I. Journal Series II 2. Journal Series II pieces 3. Sonic Journal Series III 1. Exam Forum I G. Journal Series III pieces 3. Game H. Questions for Sonic Journal Series III 4.32 II. Questions for Sonic Journal Series II 4. Sonic Journal Series II 1. Course Discussion III 1. Course Topic IIIa 1. Journal Series III 2. Course Discussion II 1. Answers to Sonic Journal III Module 2 I. Glossary I D. Answers to Sonic Journal II III. History and Aesthetics of Electroacoustic (EA) Music Part I . Week13 A. Week 5 C. Week 8 F. Course Discussions: Westerkamp Question 2 E.
Journal Series IV pieces 3. PowerPoint Presentation II 1. Course Discussion IVa 1. Sonic Journal Series IV 1. Journal Series IV notes 2. Sun-Jun Kim notes 2. Course Topic IIIb 1. History and Aesthetics of Electroacoustic Music Part II E. Course Discussion IVb 1. Questions for Sonic Journal Series IV 4. Answers Sonic Journal IV D. Midong 3.33 B. Week 15 A. Course Discussions: Alicyn Warren – Discussion Question F. Course Disucssions: Kim – Discussion Question III. EA History C. Glossary II for Final Exam II. Alicyn Warren notes 2. Week 14 A. Week 16 . Path of Iron 3. Glossary II 1. Exam Forum II IV.
Course Discussion: • • Glossaries 1. Based on Glossary I (Midterm Exam) 2. Course Discussions:Westerkamp Question 1 2. Based on Glossary II (Final Exam) Warren Kim . Final Exam See the following course outline for an explanation of what was developed. Video Virtual Tour of the Course Online Discussions 1. Course intro. Course Topics 1. SMT cont'd. History and Aesthetics of Electroacoustic Music (Part I & II) Video Tutorials 1. Final Exam Games 1. Course Discussions:Westerkamp Question 2 3. studio regulations 2. syllabus. Week 17 A. Midterm Exam 2. Digital Processes–Filtering/EQ 3. Course Discussions:Westerkamp Question 3 4.34 A. Game V.
Virtual Café Forum 4. Questions and Comments Forum 3. News and Announcements Forum 2.35 Online Journals 1. Course Discussions: Westerkamp Question 1 5. Course Discussions: Westerkamp Question 3 8. Course Discussions: Alicyn Warren – Discussion Question 9. Final Exam Forum . Midterm Exam 2. Midterm Exam Forum 7. Journal Series Three 4. Filters 2. Journal Series Two 3. Course Discussions: Kim . Electroacoustic History Quiz 1. Course Discussions: Westerkamp Question 2 6. Final Exam Forums 1. Journal Series Four PowerPoint Presentations 1. Journal Series One 2.Discussion Question 10.
History and Aesthetics of Electroacoustic Music Part I 10. you will be informed about the color codes. Journal Series II 8. With the color code system. students will identify specific types of activities such as modules. Hildegard Westerkamp notes 5. online forums. Concepts of Distance Education 2. History and Aesthetics of Electroacoustic Music Part II 12.36 Books 1. Expectations of Distance Education 3. Suk-Jun Kim notes Modules 1. Module 2 In addition to the above. . Journal Series III 9. and glossaries. Alicy Warren notes 13. online discussions. Journal Series I 6. Digital Processes – Filtering/EQ 7. On the following table (III). Moodle introduction 4. Orientation Module 2. Module 1 3. the researcher has created a color code system for the convenience of the students. Journal Series IV 11.
The Music Technology II course is a blend of face-to-face instruction with online learning components. the proposed format of the Music Technology II course is the hybrid format. the amount of classroom seat-time is reduced. Table IV: Hybrid Course Grading Category Online Sonic Journals Online Discussions Online Games Online Glossaries Online Participation in Forums Online Midterm Exam Percentage 10% 10% 2% 2% 1% 15% . In this type of course. a significant part of the course learning is online.37 Table III: Color Code System At last. To be more specific 60% of the final grade will be based on the online instruction and 40% on the face-to-face instruction. See Table IV for an explanation of this break down. and as a result.
Also. Each of the faculty and administrators was sent an email with the study details. was developed in order to address effectiveness of each module in four areas: Course Design. 5. the web-based course. and Design Aesthetics. College of Musical Arts (CMA). link to the website and a link to the online survey. New Media and Emerging Technology (NMET). and Interactive Distance Education for all Learners (IDEAL). was sent through email to ten faculty and administrators at BGSU. The survey was administered through SurveyMonkey. Written feedback was received through the Survey Tool. Navigation.38 Online Final Exam 20% Category Projects Final Project Percentage 20% 20% 4. a web-based course. Implementation of Alpha Testing and Expert Panel The alpha testing for Music Technology II. The Music Technology II web-based course was uploaded to Visual Communication Technology server http://vctserver. They were asked to voluntarily go through the course as well as the survey.php?id=22 where it was tested by a total of six faculty and administrators representing the College of Technology (CT). At the midpoint of the survey a reminder email was send. Survey Tool The survey for the Music Technology II. Site Design. .edu/moodle/course/view. two open-ended questions were added on the survey under the general feedback section.bgsu.
the instructor was able to implement this pilot course. Based on the Alpha test. The changes that were made are reflected in Appendix D. was sent through email to six faculty and administrators at BGSU. At the midpoint of the survey a reminder email was send. Each of the faculty and administrators was sent an email with a link to the website and a link to the online survey. Implementation of Beta Testing and Expert Panel The beta testing for Music Technology II. each of the faculty and administrators took a survey to evaluate the web-based course. 7. Furthermore. 9. Revision of the Web-based Course At the conclusion of the alpha testing phase. minor changes to the tutorial were made. They were asked to voluntarily go through the course as well as the survey. Written feedback was received through the Survey Tool. NMET. the web-based course.39 6. 8. Analysis of Data The analysis of survey data will be presented in Section IV. CMA. was tested by a total of six faculty and administrators representing the CT. and IDEAL. The Music Technology II. Revision of the Web-based Course Based on the results of the Beta test. minor changes to the online modules were made. some questions were revised. and some others were created to better measure if the proposed five objectives of the study have been identified. based on the results of the Alpha test. the web-based course. The changes that were made are reflected in Appendix D. After this final revision. .
40 Summary of Section III The previous section refers to the progress of the procedures and the changes that needed to be done during the preparation of the project. . Both the outcomes of the study and the suggestions for future research are presented in Section IV.
Course Design In response to course design. and how these results were measured in the study. Figure 1. of the testing expert panel completed the survey. question 14 asked. “Do you believe that the overall Course Design is successful?” All of the 6 members answered “Agree” or “Strongly Agree” to this (Figure 1). and answered all of the questions. The study can be improved based on the recommendations that are located at the end of this section. Response to survey course design. the objectives of the study. question 14 .41 SECTION IV: RESULTS/EVALUATION/RECOMMENDATIONS This section contains the beta survey results. Survey Results All the members.
question 21 asked. “Do you believe that the overall Site Design is successful?” All of the 6 members answered “Agree” or “Strongly Agree” to this (Figure 2). question 25 asked. question 21 Navigation In response to navigation.42 Site Design In response to site design. Response to survey site design. . Figure 2. “Do you believe that the site navigation is clear and consistent?” All of the 6 members answered “Agree” or “Strongly Agree” to this (Figure 3).
question 25 Design Aesthetics In response to design aesthetics. . question 37 asked.43 Figure 3. Response to survey navigation. “Do you believe that the overall Design Aesthetics are successful?” All of the 6 members answered “Agree” or “Strongly Agree” to this (Figure 4).
“Orientation Module . Response to survey design aesthetics.good intro. “The orientation module was really well done. which helped set the expectations and clarify the navigation for the course. This asked.” 3.44 Figure 4.” . module number one or module number two) do you like the most and why?” 1. “Which of the three modules (orientation module. question 37 General Feedback The following is a list of explanations requested in response to general feedback question 38. other than the size of the video.it was comprehensive and provided the needed direction . I also liked that you provided links to download. I thought the video virtual tour was the most critical addition to the course. “The orientation was very helpful.” 2.
Response to survey general feedback.” In response to general feedback. “I think all three worked well. “Do you believe that the orientation module successfully introduced students to learning music online by defining and demonstrating the concepts and expectations of distance education?” 5 of the members answered “Agree” or “Strongly Agree” to this (Figure 5). It looked good and was really intuitive. question 39 .” 5. Figure 5.” 6. One member disagreed with the statement. question 39 asked.45 4. “Module number one. “I like them all. each serves it appropriate purpose. They all seemed well thought out.
Figure 6. site design and design aesthetics?” All of the 6 members answered “Agree” or “Strongly Agree” to this (Figure 6).46 In response to general feedback. navigation. Response to survey general feedback. question 40 . “Do you believe that the researcher used the best LMS practices to ensure an effective way for presenting learning materials in terms of content. question 40 asked.
Objective 2: To establish the expectations and identify the important factors in setting these expectations for the Music Technology II web-based course. especially music courses in higher education. to identify the key elements of the music technology II web-based syllabus. Objective 1: To research distance education courses. the key elements of Music Technology II webbased syllabus were identified through the objectives that were part of the syllabus and each . one section of the orientation module addresses concepts of distance education. The analysis revealed that distance music courses are effective when they have been carefully planned and are student-centered.47 Project Summary The following pages contain a review and an analysis of the objectives for the Music Technology II. Furthermore. Based on the expert panel feedback. The literature review included the definition and methods of distance education. The objective was achieved through a review of the literature on distance music education. it can be stated that the researcher established the expectations and identified the important factors in setting these expectations for the Music Technology II web-base course. and to understand the challenges that a student of a music course will face in accessing and interacting with the type of instruction found in music technology II web-based class. the web-based course. Furthermore. implementation for education today. the role of music teachers. students were introduced to learning music online by defining and demonstrating the concepts of distance education. Through this section. Furthermore. and the effectiveness of this medium for students.
The above statement was documented in the results of questions 1. was selected and used. 34. 12. These questions included: • • Are the objectives part of the syllabus and each learning module? Does the orientation module successfully introduce students to learning music online by defining and demonstrating the concepts and expectations of distance education? Based on the results of the experts’ panel survey. 26. 11. 13. The researcher identified the instructional design model based on three reasons: it should be related to the learning process. 9. 23. Objective 3: Identify the best interactive asynchronous and synchronous instructional design system for the learners. and 36 of the survey. which is best known as the nine events of instruction. The above statement was documented in the results of survey questions 2 and 39. 2. 27. 8. Robert Gagne’s instructional design model. 20. Therefore. Furthermore. 10. 35. 92% agreed on the implementation of Music Technology II web-based course. based on the expert panel feedback. and it should support the internal processes of learning. 32. All of the 6 members answered “Agree” or “Strongly Agree” to this (Figure 7) . it can be stated that the best interactive asynchronous and synchronous instructional design system was effectively used in the Music Technology II web-based course.48 learning module. 31. it should lead to various learning outcomes. 30.
30. 12. 13. These questions included: I. 26. and 36. questions 1. Inform learner of objectives • • Are the course objectives clear and appropriate? Are the objectives part of the syllabus and each learning module? III. 10. 32. 8. Stimulate recall of prior knowledge .49 Figure 7. 11. 2. 34. 23. 31. 35. Response to survey. Gain attention • • • • Is the visual design clean and appealing? Is the look of the site invites users to spend time at the site? Are Media load quickly? Are Graphics clear and crisp? II. 20. 9. 27.
Present stimulus material • • • • Are font styles (bold. . Enhance retention and transfer • • Is supporting content (glossary. etc)? • Is content relevant to target user needs? IV. explanations. help. Assess performance IX. Elicit performance • • Are assignments requiring students to use relevant tools of Moodle? Are assignments providing ample opportunities to practice the use of Moodle and its tools? VII. Provide feedback VIII. 100% agreed or strongly agreed on the implementation of Music Technology II web-based course. italics) and sizes making text readable? Are color choices appealing and making the content easy to read? Is appropriate the use of upper and lower case characters? Are the graphics supports the content of the course? V. resources) useful and appropriate? Are assignments aligned with the course objectives in content and purpose? Based on the results of the experts’ panel survey.50 • Is content provides thorough information about the subject (examples. Provide learner guidance • • Is the goal of the site clear? Are external links relevant to the course? VI.
a recommended software resource was created to inform students about the free software that they will need for the web-based course Music Technology. a Learning Management System will be presented through a brief introduction. (For the LMS practices that were used see Section III Number 3).51 Objective 4: To introduce students to learning music online by defining and demonstrating the concepts and expectations of distance education through an orientation module. there are three key topics of the orientation module: the concepts of distance education. navigation. Based on the experts’ panel feedback. and design aesthetics? . site design. Possible questions related to the orientation module will be posted to the Questions and Comments forum. Furthermore. Objective 5: To research best LMS practices to ensure an effective way for presenting learning materials in terms of content. the expectations of distance education. students should complete the orientation module designed to introduce students to learning music online by defining and demonstrating the concepts and expectations of distance education. Moreover. Moodle. and a Moodle introduction. navigation. site design. The above statement is documented in the results of question 40 of the survey. This question includes: • Does the researcher uses the best Learning Management System practices to ensure an effective way for presenting learning materials in terms of content. site design and design aesthetics. A Virtual Video Tour of the Course was created to present the course environment. it can be stated that the research effectively used the best LMS practice for presenting learning materials in terms of content. Before beginning the Music Technology II web-based course. navigation. Also. and design aesthetics.
“After watching the introductory movie. in your intro forum video. which reads.” 5. you spelled your name incorrectly. 13. 100% agreed or strongly agreed on the implementation of Music Technology II web-based course. I accidentally hit the ‘close’ button on the window and closed the course. “The only think I think can be improved on is the Virtual Video Tour of the Course. Double check the entire site for other spelling issues. “In week 8. ‘software’ instead of ‘softwares’.52 Based on the results of the experts’ panel survey. The following is a list of explanations requested in response to general feedback question 41. and 16 you say the words ‘final great’ instead of ‘final grade’. the following recommendations were identified for another version of the Music Technology II web-based course. I know there is a link that say Click Here. Can the larger movie be made as a new window so others do not make the same mistake?” 2. 4. “Please use the space below for recommendations or suggestions for improving any aspect of the web-based course. “I have none”.” .” 3.” 1. “References spelled incorrectly. but there has to be a how to make it bigger by default. Project Recommendations Based on this study and the feedback given from the expert panel.
The researcher recognizes the importance of instructor resources for format maintenance. instructors may find an online resource and format maintenance module helpful. 2. The researcher believes that a concept map would be useful to better visually represent an overview of the Music Technology II. hybrid course. the most general concepts of the Music Technology II. the following recommendations were identified for future course research and development: 1. in a hierarchical order. . the concept map would represent. at the top of the map. Although it is outside the scope of this project. Furthermore.53 Researcher Recommendations Based on this study. a hybrid course. with more specific details in lower levels.
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edu Office Hour: Tuesday 2:30-3:30 or by appointment Phone: 419. and technical aspects of electroacoustics.8425 Email: sborden@bgnet. as successful assimilation of the material is fairly difficult to accomplish without consistent attendance and participation. Students will demonstrate their understanding of the course material by completing reading and listening assignments. OBJECTIVES: Students enrolled in Music Technology 2 will focus on composition. Thom. GRADING: Student grades will be determined as follows: Category Sonic journal. New York: Routledge. synthesis. creating short compositions and one longer final project. final project proposal and small assignments Two medium-sized semester projects/compositions Midterm Exam Final Project Comprehensive final exam Attending required concert events/course attendance/participation Percentage 10% 20% 15% 20% 20% 15% ATTENDANCE POLICY Students are expected to attend the course on a regular basis. completing short assignments.372. 2d ed. ISBN 0-13-093747-9 Holmes. Logic 7 Power! Boston: Muska & Lipman. Thursdays 2:30-3:30pm Phone: 260. course assignments and readings may be made up with a doctor’s . ISBN 1-59200-128-9 REQUIRED SUPPLEMENTAL MATERIAL: CD-Rs or DVD-Rs (may be CDRWs) for backing up your work ADDITIONAL MATERIALS: Supplemental handouts and listening assignments will be provided via the Blackboard course. Software manuals are available for studio use only–readings may be assigned from them. Spring 2007 Instructor: Dr. attending required concert events. Mark.edu REQUIRED TEXTS: Ballora. as well as the basics of audio production. via email and/or phone. Elainie Lillios Office: MMAC 2139 Email: lillios@bgnet. history. 2004. and completing mid-term and final exams.bgsu.57 Appendix A Syllabus.414. 2003. New Jersey: Prentice Hall. aesthetics. Students who must miss class for any reason should contact the instructor 24 hours prior to class when possible. Essentials of Music Technology. Orren.bgsu. 2002. Electronic and Experimental Music. ISBN 0-415-936446 Merton. keeping a written journal. In the case of serious illness.9482 AIM: drlillios Teaching Assistant: Stacy Borden Studio Help Sessions: Mondays 10-11am.
which closes at 1:05pm on the due date. ASSIGNMENT TURNIN POLICY Journal assignments will be submitted via the Blackboard Course “Assignments” section. COMPOSITION ASSIGNMENT 1 (Sound Creation) Students will create a palette of sound events varying in length and content -. low. Other items to be contained in the journal will be discussed in class.132. short medium. STUDIO LAB TIME ATTENDANCE * Students will be given three hours of studio time per week. No extensions will be given and no extra credit provided for missed assignments. 3 minutes) and graduate students no less than 50 MB (i. 05 Feb TIME 8:00pm LOCATION Bryan Hall Please note that work commitments do not constitute an excused absence for these concerts! The date you receive this syllabus is Tuesday 09 January 2007. Other assignments will be submitted via my server account (129. creative selection of pre-composed music. Students missing eight classes will fail the course.e. In addition to answering the question(s). This assignment will be assessed using the following criteria: 1. some dry sounds. etc. Students missing three classes or greater will be docked accordingly. some environmental sounds. Sounds should demonstrate student's facility with sound processing applications and theories discussed in class.e. instrumental or vocal sounds. STUDENT ASSISTANCE TIMES Stacy Borden holds open tutoring sessions each week Monday 10:00-11:00am and Thursday 2:30-3:30pm. This provides ample time for you to make necessary arrangements in your work schedule.) .23) drop box. The instructor will assign all required journal entries and provide questions to guide you through listening and writing activities.58 note. and some reverberant sounds. numbering and naming each sound in order. high. Undergraduate students will create no less than 30 MB (i. but the three-hour time slot is a mandatory studio time and should be treated like course attendance.e. along with a one paragraph explanation citing original sound materials used and processes employed. Additional studio time will be available. some in each of the frequency ranges.1. entries on pieces may include your impressions and personal remarks. CONCERT ATTENDANCE (one or two other events TBA in 2007) Students will be required to attend specific concerts pertaining to music technology during the spring semester. No assignment or journal will be accepted after the due date/time. CHOICE OF ORIGINAL MATERIAL(25 points)–Deliberate and creative selection of a wide variety of source material. Any student needing assistance should attend. The studio is closed to general use during these times. which will be turned in four times during the semester for evaluation. The only excused absence for these concerts is class conflict. and are due at the beginning of class on the due date. Investigating sounds from various sources and locations (i. Students will submit an accompanying list. Frequent tardiness or failure to keep studio lab times may result in a lowered grade. Please plan ahead to be certain that you will be in attendance at the following concert events: EVENT Music at the Forefront: Craig Hultgren DATE Monday. SONIC JOURNAL Students are required to keep a sonic journal. some industrial sounds. * Students that cannot have access on the CMA studio lab see the pre-requisites. long. 5 minutes) of processed sounds. medium.some of each length.
digital distortion. Incorporating appropriately processed sounds into the composition. 4. FINAL COMPOSITION PROJECT PROPOSAL Students are required to submit a written proposal regarding their intended final project.general use of materials. development of material. Students will be expected to use processing techniques covered in class to create a coherent.59 2. PROCESSING (25 points) . The proposal must include proposed source materials. etc.combining materials in a logical way. using them creatively. creative use of sound. development over five minute time frame. form (if pre-determined). not standard form. TECHNICAL ACCOMPLISHMENT (25 points)-Tasteful and logical use of normalization.putting together materials in a logical way. clearly using processes discussed in class. lack of clipping. or other noise elements not purposely made a part of the composition. illustrating understanding of processes by making sounds that capitalize on the inherent sonic properties of the original material. and any other information pertinent . PROCESSING (20 points) . 4. panning. General creativity with sound material. but may also use found sounds and other sounds provided by the professor. middleground. explaining sounds where necessary and including a short paragraph regarding samples chosen.Clearly using applications discussed in class to manipulate sounds. short composition. sensitivity to the idea of space.). PRESENTATION (15 points)-Samples are listed clearly and numbered according to appearance. using proper volume curves to avoid clicks. Students may share raw footage! Students may expand the first composition project into a longer piece. PROCESSING/CREATIVITY (35 points)-Intuitive use of processes to augment sounds in a creative way. lack of noise in samples. adaptation of the "electroacoustic art" genre.Clearly using applications discussed in class to manipulate sounds.). or create a completely new composition. 4. and using processed sounds in a creative way. Graduate students will compose a piece of no less than 7:00 but no greater than 7:30 in duration. or other noise elements not purposely made a part of the composition. overall creativity. TECHNICAL (25 points) . 2. COMPOSITION ASSIGNMENT 2 (Electroclip) Undergraduate students will compose a one-minute and graduate students a three-minute electroclip. FORM/STRUCTURE (25 points) . lack of clipping. recorded via microphone. lack of clipping and/or digital distortion. What the piece does and where it goes over time. CONTENT/CREATIVITY (30 points) . good balance. Appropriate envelopes applied to beginnings and ends of sounds. analog distortion. appropriateness of selected materials with regard to class discussion and listening assignments. 2. Putting a certain amount of processed sounds into the composition. types of processing employed. employing foreground. Projects will be assessed using the following criteria: 1. lack of noise in samples. creative use of sound.quality and clarity of samples. CONTENT/CREATIVITY (25 points) . using proper volume curves to avoid clicks. processing. digital distortion. and any other relevant information. 3. appropriateness of selected materials with regard to class discussion and listening assignments. TECHNICAL (25 points) . analog distortion. Compositions will be assessed using the following criteria: 1. overall creativity. samples are given names and ordered in a way that illustrates the student's understanding of the possible cohesion between successive sounds. illustrating an understanding of electroacoustic art music. FINAL COMPOSITION ASSIGNMENT Undergraduate students will compose a piece of no less than 5:00 but no greater than 5:30 in duration.quality and clarity of samples. Students must use their own sampled material (from CDs. FORM/STRUCTURE (25 points) . and background events. 3. multiple layers with logical connections Stylistic ingenuity (not techno.general use of materials. Deliberate selection of interesting sounds that compliment each other and create a cohesive sonic unit. Students are required to use recorded audio only on this project – no synthesized or synthetic sound materials permitted. typed material accompanying sounds is formatted neatly. 3. creating some sort of sonic environment or progression which allows the piece to succeed within the context of the “short form” idea.
but must include detailed information in the proposal if they intend to do so. CHEATING Cheating of any type will not be tolerated in this course and will result in an automatic grade of “F” in the course. This document should be at least one full page typed. including regular homework assignments and preparation of case materials for submission. allowing another student to look at your own examination answers. classroom ⇒ FINAL PROJECTS DUE: MONDAY April 30–BY NOON onto the server ⇒ FINAL CLASS CONCERT: THURSDAY MAY 3–7:00pm. It also includes plagiarism. My office hours and office number are shown on this syllabus. **Plagiarism also includes appropriating sounds or portions of pieces belonging to other composers. or the requesting or passing of information during an examination. ⇒ FINAL EXAMINATION: WEDNESDAY May 2–1:15-3:15pm. Students may use home equipment for this project. BRYAN HALL . Student may incorporate a timeline graph or other representative drawings as part of the proposal. AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT The College of Musical Arts complies with the Americans with Disabilities Act in making reasonable accommodation for qualified students with disability.60 to the project. the removal of the student from the course. use of such notes during an examination. Cheating includes collaboration on any outside assignments that might be made on an individual basis for a grade. please see me as soon as possible. and immediate reporting of the student’s actions to the Office of the Dean of Students and to the Office of the Dean of the College of Musical Arts. unauthorized preparation of notes for examinations. looking at another student’s examination answers. If you have an established disability as defined in the Americans with Disabilities Act and would like to request accommodation.
61 Appendix B Weekly timetable and assignments .
62 Appendix C Beta test survey results .
82 Appendix D Changes after alpha test .
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