Golf (from Wikipedia

Golf is a sport in which individual players or teams hit a ball into a hole using various clubs, and also is one of the few ball games that does not use a fixed standard playing area. It is defined in the Rules of Golf as "playing a ball with a club from the teeing ground into the hole by a stroke or successive strokes in accordance with the Rules." Golf is said to have originated in the Netherlands (see History below), but has been played for at least five centuries in the British Isles. Golf, in essentially the form we know today, has been played on Scotland's Musselburgh Links (today the world's oldest golf course) since 1672, while earlier versions of the game had been played in the British Isles and the low-countries of Northern Europe for several centuries before that. Although often viewed as an upperclass pastime, golf is an increasingly popular sport across all sections of society Anatomy of a golf course Golf is played on an area of land designated as the course. The course consists of a series of holes. A hole means both the hole in the ground into which the ball is played (also called the cup), as well as the total distance from the tee (a pre-determined area from where a ball is first hit) to the green (the low cut area surrounding the actual hole in the ground). Most golf courses consist of eighteen holes. Teeing ground The first stroke on each hole is done from the Tee (officially, teeing ground), where the player can use a tee (a small wooden or plastic peg), which makes the tee shot easier. Before the modern tee came into use, early golfers often used a small pyramid of sand to hold the ball. Most courses offer a range of Tee boxes to play from, making the hole longer or shorter depending on which Tees the player starts at. Often, the different Tee boxes have names associated with degree of competence (e.g., Professional and Amateur Tees), or by sex and age (Men's, Ladies', Senior, etc.). In addition to a difference in distance, the different Tees may also eliminate or reduce the danger of some hazards for the "Forward" tees, such as water hazards. Teeing grounds on most golf courses are relatively flat, in order for the golfer to have a perfect lie for the first shot on a hole. Fairway & rough After teeing off, a player hits the ball towards the green again from the position at which it came to rest, either from the fairway or from the rough. Playing the ball from the fairway is an advantage because the fairway grass is kept very short and even, allowing the player to cleanly strike the ball, while playing from the rough is a disadvantage because the grass in the rough is generally much longer. Hazards Many holes include hazards, which may be of two types: water hazards (lakes, rivers, etc.) and bunkers. Special rules apply to playing balls that come to rest in a hazard. For example, in a hazard, a player must not touch the ground with his club before playing a ball, not even for a practice swing. A ball in any type of hazard may be played as it lies without penalty. If it cannot be played from the hazard for any reason, the ball may be hit from another location, generally with a penalty of one stroke. Exactly where the ball may be played outside a hazard is governed by strict rules. Bunkers (or sand traps) are hazards from which the ball is more difficult to play than from grass. As in a water hazard, a ball in a sand trap must be played without previously touching the sand with the club. Putting green

or five. one from the tee (his "drive"). It should be noted that these distances are not absolute rules. To putt means to play a stroke. wherein the ball does not leave the ground. Putting greens are not of all the same quality. and must have a diameter of 108 mm (4. A few par six holes now exist. the ball is putted (struck with a flat faced club which makes the ball roll along the ground) towards the hole until the ball comes to rest in the cup. Other areas Some areas on the course may be designated as ground under repair. A ball coming to rest in this spot may be lifted and then played from outside such ground without penalty. The cup usually has a flag on a pole positioned in it so that it may be seen from some distance. The par of a hole is primarily. For example. or there is damage to the course. or "G. Often there is a practice range or driving range. Distance posts. the finest quality greens are well kept so that a ball will roll smoothly over the closely mowed grass. Par is the number of strokes that a skilled golfer should require to complete the hole. usually with practice greens. he/she must hit a ball from the same position the last one was. Practice facilities At most golf courses there are additional facilities that are not part of the course itself.e. and specific rules determine how a golfer may proceed when the play is impeded by these. it is possible that a 500 yard hole could be classed as a par four since the par . Par five holes are typically at between 435 and 630 m (476 and 690 yds.25 in. A golf hole is traditionally either a par three. determined by the distance from tee to green. another to the green (his "approach"). This flag and pole combination is often called the pin. A golf school is often associated with a course or club. Its position on the green is not static and may be changed from day to day. If a golfer hits the ball out of the course. called the break. The direction of growth of individual blades of grass often affects the roll of a golf ball and is called the grain. This is a part of the course where repairs are being made by greenkeepers.).". There may even be a practice course (which is often easier to play or shorter than other golf courses). and beyond them is out of bounds. The grass of the putting green (or more commonly the green) is cut very short so that a ball can roll easily over distances of several yards. that is. A typical length for a par three hole is anywhere between 91 and 224 m (100 and 250 yds. into the "out of bounds". gardens etc. ground from which a ball must not be played. a skilled golfer expects to reach the green on a par four hole in two strokes. but not exclusively. Out of bounds The borders of a course are marked as such. bunkers. Par A hole is classified by its par.). with a penalty of one stroke. for a par four. and untraditional par six holes are anything longer. Markers showing distance are usually included on a practice range to benefit the golfer.). a green is termed "slow" if a stronger stroke is required to roll the ball the required distance.Once on the green. Generally. Golfers describe a green as being "fast" if a light stroke of the ball allows it to roll a long distance. between 225 and 434 m (251 and 475 yds. The cup is always found within the green. four. Conversely. also affects the roll of the ball. usually but not always on the green.94 in.R. but will not be found on a traditional golf course. The slope of the green.U.) and a depth of at least 100 mm (3. and then roll the ball into the hole with two putts. and driving areas (where long shots can be practiced).). but not necessarily from the tee. For example.). Certain man-made objects on the course are defined as obstructions (i.

The idea of resting the ball in the hole in as few strokes as possible may be impeded by various hazards. A hole of golf consists of hitting a ball from a tee on the teeing box (a marked area designated for the first shot of a hole. Once the ball is on the green (an area of finely cut grass) the ball is usually putted (hit along the ground) into the hole. Scores for each hole can be described as follows: Term on a scoreboard -4 -3 -2 -1 +0 +1 +2 +3 Specific term condor eagle birdie par bogey double bogey triple bogey Definition four strokes under par two strokes under par one stroke under par strokes equal to par one stroke more than par two strokes over par three strokes over par albatross or double-eagle three strokes under par . Penalty strokes are not actually strokes but penalty points that are added to the score for violations of rules or utilizing relief procedures. On a nine-hole course.for a hole is determined by its 'effective playing length. When all players of a group have completed the hole. Each player acts as marker for one other player in the group. In many countries courses are classified by a course rating in addition to the course's par. he or she records the score on a score card. such as bunkers and water hazards. a tee shot). This rating describes the difficulty of a course and may be used to calculate a golfer's playing handicap for that individual course (see golf handicap). though other combinations exist and are not less worthy than courses of par 72. a standard round consists of two successive nine-hole rounds. and once the ball comes to rest. Play of the game Every game of golf is based on playing a number of holes in a given order.' If tee to green on a hole is predominantly downhill. and four par-five holes. it will play shorter than its physical length and may be given a lower par. Many major championships are contested on courses playing to a par of 70 or 71. or four. Scoring In every form of play. ten par-four. the right to tee off first on the next tee. the goal is to play as few shots per round as possible. the player or team whose ball is the farthest from the hole is next to play. that is. three. When all individual players or teams have brought a ball into play. In stroke play (see below). except that in the mode of play called foursomes two teams of two players compete. Players walk (or drive in motorized carts) over the course. sometimes accompanied by caddies who carry and manage the players' equipment and give them advice. either singly or in groups of two. and it's not rare to find a worthy test (especially in the British Isles) playing to a par of 69 or lower. striking it again. Each player plays a ball from the tee to the hole. that is. A round typically consists of 18 holes that are played in the order determined by the course layout. the score consists of the number of strokes played plus any penalty strokes incurred. and the members of each team alternate shots using only one ball until the ball is holed out. the player or team with the best score on that hole has the honor. This process is repeated until the ball is in the cup. In some team events a player whose ball is farther from the hole may ask his partner to play first. Many 18-hole courses have approximately four par-three.

+4 quadruple bogey four strokes over par The two basic forms of playing golf are match play and stroke play. if one party already has a lead of six holes. These private golf clubs also have green fees. a tournament that uses Modified Stableford scoring. but in order to play. • There are many variations of these basic principles. and the green fee. A tees off on the first hole. Another variant of stroke play. and only five holes remain to be played on the course. the match is said to be "dormie". and thereupon immediately wins by one hole. The party with the lower score wins that hole. there is usually a fee to use them. and so on. awards points on each hole in relation to par and then adds the points over a round. A variant of stroke play is Stableford scoring. one generally must be invited by a member of the club. Many golf courses are not open to the public. which is for the practice range. then A plays the second shot. For nearly all courses. and the fewer shots taken. There are two different fees. Discounts on fees may be offered for players starting their round late (on some courses. where a number of points (two for the target score) are given for each hole. two players (or two teams) play every hole as a separate contest against each other. At any given point. the more points obtained. On the second hole. or until the match ends in a tie. Fees One must pay certain fees to play on a golf course. and so on until the hole is finished. For example. up to that of several hundred dollars for public courses. The game is won by the party that wins more holes than the other. and the player with the lowest score wins. foursome and fourball games. if the lead is equal to the number of holes remaining. When the game is tied after the predetermined number of holes have been played. On some courses. in which each team has only one ball and players alternate playing it. if players A and B form a team. the Modified Stableford method. Team play A foursome (defined in Rule 29) is played between two teams of two players each. for more details on this method. the match is over. so the aim is to have as many points as possible. what the cart fee is. the match is deemed to be won by the party in the lead. It is wise to ask if the green fee includes a cart. as well as whether a cart is required. If the course has golf carts. walking is prohibited. The green fee may vary from the equivalent of a few dollars for communal courses in many countries. every player (or team) counts the number of shots taken for the whole round or tournament to produce the total score. In the case that one team or player has taken a lead that cannot be overcome in the number of holes remaining to be played. . • In match play. In stroke play. the range fee is not a prerequisite to play the course. Foursomes can be played as match play or stroke play. and if not. or if the scores of both players or teams are equal the hole is "halved" (drawn). and the remainder of the holes are not played. B will tee off (regardless who played the last putt on the first hole). A the third. For example. and the cart fee is often included with the green fee. thereby winning the match. the range fee. which allows play on the course itself. unusually early) in the day. B will play the second shot. "Official" forms of play are. it may be continued until one side takes a one-hole lead. see the article on The INTERNATIONAL. and is continued until the leader increases the lead by one hole. some of which are explicitly described in the "Rules of Golf" and are therefore regarded "official". among others.

and still is . but every player plays his own ball and for each team. Professional golfers typically score several strokes below par for a round thus have a handicap of 0 subtracting 0 from their round score. motivated and ambitious high handicap players strive to lower their handicaps and thus the current official one they show on their cards might not be their real current level. Four-balls can be played as match play or stroke play. but the lowest score of all the players on the team counts as the team's score. The match play formula is a game during which two players play against each other. In other words. and then pick the best shot as in a scramble. or ambrose. both players tee off. In best ball. the length of the course. . The 2 main formulas used in the game are stroke play (also known as brutto or medal) and match play. player 1's round score: 90 handicap: 20 / the course's par: 70 / Player 2's round score: 100 handicap: 30 overall (par): 70. In the contrary. If P2 would like to mention the status of the score. In a greensome. Handicap systems are not used in professional golf. This formula was . Swiss handicap rules include the difficulty of the course the golfer is player on by taking into consideration factors such as the number of bunkers. each player in a team tees off on each hole. allowing for all players to start and end their round at the same time. a players handicap determines the quality of their game making a player with a lower handicap better than one with a higher handicap. the match play rule will allow the player to approach the course in a more aggressive manner in order to win the hole against his opponent. There is also a form of starting called "shotgun. and so on. The difference between your number of strokes and the par determines your handicap. A "shotgun" start consists of groups starting at different tees. In a scramble. P1 plays 4 and P2 plays 5: P1 wins the hole and current score on the tee number 2 would be '1 up'.g. he would say: '1 down' (each player announces his position towards the game). Handicaps are complicated. your score per hole depends on the other player's score." which is mainly used for tournament play.A four-ball (Rules 30 and 31) is also played between two teams of two players each. and the players decide which shot was best. the difficulty and slopes of the greens. Good Ones handicap is subtracted from their round score thus making a game even between two players.g.very much appreciated by golfers as the state of mind is totally different from a stroke play game. The so-called "net" score is a formula commonly preferred by players from different proficiency to play against each other on equal terms. the width of the fairways. each player plays the hole as normal. The Stroke play formula is an individual way of playing the game as you are competing against the par of the course by striking the ball the closest to the it. e. during which the golfer has to 'secure' each and single of his shots in order to play the lower score (number of strokes) possible over 18 holes. also called modified alternate shot. There are also popular unofficial variations on team play. e. which consequently might put them in a favourable position when playing 'net' formula games. However. The play then alternates as in a foursome. but essentially are the average over par of a number of previous rounds. Legislations regarding the calculation of handicaps differs among countries and sometimes becomes so complicated that a golfer's handicap might not always mirror his real level of play. Handicap system A handicap is a numerical measure of an amateur golfer's ability to play golf over 18 holes. The player who did not shoot the best first shot plays the second shot. and the procedure is repeated until the hole is finished. the lower score on each hole is counted. The Stroke play formula is simply the sum of strokes player shoot over 18 holes and compares it to the par (or the sum of a theoretical number of strokes per hole added up over 18 holes). Every player then plays his second shot from where the best ball has come to rest. adjusted for course difficulty. For example. in practice.

Located in coastal areas." [4] It was historically suitable primarily for grazing sheep. such as The Old Course at St. or unplayable (Rule 28). popular in Australia. lost (Rule 27-1). Heathland – a more open. There are strict regulations regarding the amateur status of golfers [3]." land that was once underwater. which was founded 1754 and the United States Golf Association (USGA). Desert courses: a rather recent invention. As stated on the back cover of the official rule book: "play the ball as it lies". In addition to the officially printed rules. The player may always substitute balls between the play of two holes. Architecture and design While no two courses are alike. but generally follows the lead of the two larger bodies in the rules of golf continue to evolve. Though there are no penalties for breach of etiquette rules. Examples include Woodhall Spa in England and Gleneagles in Scotland. players generally follow the rules of golf etiquette in an effort to improve everyone's playing experience. do what is fair". however. By agreement with the R&A. The Decisions on the Rules of Golf are based on formal case decisions by the R&A and USGA and are revised and updated every other year. less-manicured inland course often featuring gorse and heather and typically less wooded than “parkland” courses. "play the course as you find it". leading to concerns about • • • . Non-cash prizes won in a competition may be accepted within the limits established by the Rules of Amateur Status. of which some centuries-old examples have survived in the British isles. with lawnlike fairways and many trees.Rules and regulations The rules of golf [1] [2] are internationally standardised and are jointly governed by the Royal and Ancient Golf Club of St Andrews (R&A). fairness. amended versions of the rule book are usually published and made effective in a four year cycle. or at some other time permitted by the Rules. parts of the USA and in the Middle East. except in some cases defined in the rules a ball may only be replaced by another during play of a hole if it is destroyed (Rule 5-3). often resembling traditional British parks. and a player's obligation to contribute to the care of the course. are built on "land reclaimed from the sea. and "if you can't do either. Linksland is sometimes said to "link" the beach to the arable land. many can be classified into one of the following broad categories: • Links courses: the most traditional type of golf course. golfers also abide by a set of guidelines called golf etiquette. everybody who has ever received payment or compensation for giving instruction or played golf for money is not considered an amateur and may not participate in competitions limited solely to amateurs. Andrews or Machrihanish. the more likely etymology is from the Middle English for "hill. Traditional links courses. The underlying principle of the rules is fairness. on sandy soil. Etiquette guidelines cover matters such as safety. USGA jurisdiction on the enforcement and interpretation of the rules is limited to the United States and Mexico. Desert courses require heavy irrigation for maintenance of the turf. Some rules state that: • • • • every player is entitled and obliged to play the ball from the position where it has come to rest after a stroke. easiness and pace of play. Essentially. unless a rule allows or demands otherwise (Rule 13-1) a player must not accept assistance in making a stroke (Rule 14-2) the condition of the ground or other parts of the course may not be altered to gain an advantage. with few artificial water hazards and few if any trees. Parkland courses: typical inland courses. often amid dunes. Canada has the separate Royal Canadian Golf Association.

The world's highest course of any type is a 9-hole browns course in Leh. the green and the central fairway may be grass. Many golf shots make the ball travel through the air (carry) and roll out for some more distance (roll). It is at 11. designed to cater to the fast-paced. Can be played in Arctic or subarctic regions during winter. Every shot is a compromise between length and precision. and are for the casual golfer. A fairway shot is similar to a drive when done with a fairway wood. Obviously. Nevertheless. irons are usually played from the fairway. the club is swung at the motionless ball on the ground (or wherever it has come to rest) from a side stance. but the tee and rough would be brown. • . It is often made with a driver (that is. Being beyond the Great Himalaya in an extension of the arid Tibetan Plateau.600 feet. typically with an orange colored or another brightly colored ball. where a course complete with waterfalls was created in the desert. executive lifestyle. holes are less 'involved' than browns courses (see above). Traditionally a tee shot will ideally have a rather shallow flight and long roll of the ball.. a skilled golfer must assess the quality of his or her shots in a particular situation in order to judge whether the possible benefits of aggressive play are worth the risks. Therefore. the players play on sand. or comes to rest on difficult ground. However newer research is swaying the opinion of most golf professionals to be the contrary of that belief. a longer shot may result in a better score if it helps reduce the total number of strokes for a given hole. which was created with a minimal amount of earth moving resulting in an affordable daily green fee and a more natural experience. [edit] Types of shots • A tee shot is the first shot played from a teeing ground.g. Recent improvements in golf equipment and ball technology has changed the optimum launch conditions to a higher launch angle and lower spin rate. Mixed courses that have both brown and green holes are called 'browns-greens' courses. Par 3 courses: The course consists entirely of holes with Par 3. Rustic Canyon outside of Los Angeles. Sand courses: instead of a heavily irrigated 'green'. or with an iron on shorter holes. Hitting a golf ball To hit the ball. to give firmness and support and ensure a consistent bounce/roll. with courses such as the entirely artificial Shadow Creek in Las Vegas. Common in arid parts of the Indian Subcontinent. Ladakh (J&K). but the benefit may be more than outweighed by additional strokes or penalties if a ball is lost. golf being played on snow.• • • • • the ecological consequences of excessive water consumption. Browns courses: Akin to sand courses (see below). out of bounds. Irons or wedges are often used when playing from the rough. maintained by the Indian Army. a 1wood) off a tee for long holes. e. and on the other end of the spectrum. These are considered a good test of iron shot precision and short game. many players enjoy the unique experience of playing golf in the desert. which would make a greens course impossible to water. Executive courses: A course which generally is smaller than the typical 18-hole course. Snow courses: another rather recent invention. In the United States design varies widely. If accuracy and distance control are required. as long shots are generally less precise than short ones. while tee shots on short holes are flighted higher and are expected to stop quickly. A tee may not be used once the ball has been brought into play. the region lies in a rain shadow. as the driver is rarely used. A desert course also violates the widely accepted principle of golf course architecture that an aesthetically pleasing course should require minimal alteration of the existing landscape. but much more involved in terms of using layers of tar and gravel below the sandy surface layer.

A severe hook is commonly called a Duck-Hook or a Snap hook. It is usually played with a sand wedge or a lob wedge. . the number and variety of poor shots is larger than they would like. a shorter iron may be used. The ball rolls on the ground. the absolute effect of a deviation will increase with a longer shot compared with a short one. It resembles a pitch and is played with a "sand wedge". Flop: an even higher approach shot that stops shortly after it hits the ground. Consequently. A clean downward strike is required to "pinch" the ball against the turf in order to get the ball airborne. such as poor alignment of the club. Many of these troubles are aggravated with the "longer" clubs and higher speed of swing. soft landing shot with little roll or a low running shot attempting to keep the ball in the air as much as possible. The bunker shot differs from other golf shots in that the ball is not touched by the clubhead. firmness of fairway and green and/or contour of the green) a skilled player may hit a high. usually over an intermediate or short distance. while fat shots occur when the club strikes the turf behind the ball. and off-center hits where the clubhead rotates around the ball at impact. this shot may roll out. but if needed. Types of approach shots are: • Pitch: an approach shot from anywhere between 30m and 90m from the green that flies the ball onto or near the green. also known as "chunks". Mis-hits from the fairway include thin shots. For many people who play golf.Hence. • • An approach shot is played into the green from outside the green. wrong direction of swing. Chips are made with a less lofted club than the "pitch" shot or "lob" shot in order to produce the desired flatter trajectory. 4 or 5 iron). and fat shots. also known as "skulls". Some of the more common terms for the poor shots are explained below: • Hook : The ball flight curves sharply to the left for a right-handed player (to the right for lefthanded players). but is lifted together with an amount of sand. Depending upon the way the ball is struck. playing from the fairway may be more difficult depending on how the ball lies. Furthermore. It is used when a player must play over an obstacle to the green. stop or even spin backwards towards the player. Pitch shots are usually hit with any club from a six iron to a lob wedge. The sand wedge is designed with a wider base allowing the club to skid in the sand. many words have been found to describe the shots--some of them are quite colorful. • A bunker shot is played when the ball is in a bunker (sand trap). many. On the green. Chip: a low approach shot where the ball makes a shallow flight and then rolls out on the green. never becoming airborne. Punch/Knockdown/Stinger: a low shot that carries through the air in order to clear a low hanging tree branch or sometimes high winds. with the face laid wide open. Depending upon conditions (wind. a putter is used to putt the ball. Thin shots are characterized by striking the middle of the ball. This shot has been glorified and mastered by golfer Phil Mickelson. This shot is usually played with a long iron (3. • • [edit] Poor shots There are several possible causes of poor shots.

Open by 5 shots on Sunday. This occurs most frequently when teeing the ball up too high. A Pull-Hook indicates that the ball started out left of target and curved even further to the left. This occurs most often in chipping or pitching. This is commonly referred to as a T. essentially "burning up worms" or hitting groundhogs as it speeds along. named for the Taiwanese golfer who lead the 1985 U.• Slice : The ball curves sharply to the right for a right-handed player (to the left for left-handed players). Push : The opposite of a Pull. wherein he double-hit a chip on the fifth hole and made an eight. A PushSlice indicates that the ball started out right of target and curved even further to the right. Hood : Somewhere during the swing the clubface becomes more perpendicular to the ground. Top : The topside of the ball is struck with the blade of the club. For beginning golfers this is the typical outcome of most shots. or angled more toward the golfer.S. A large divot is usually produced along with a clubface covered in the divot. Chen. The resulting flight of the ball is that the target is overshot by 10 or more yards and the ball does not stop as quickly on the green. This may damage the surface of a golf ball with a soft cover material. Groundhog Killer or Sally Gunnel : The ball is hit extremely low to the ground. Double-Hit : Hitting the ball twice in one swing. and may result in a stinging sensation in one's hands on a cold day. Flyer : This type of shot usually occurs when playing from deep rough. The top side of the club strikes the bottom side of the ball and forces the ball higher into the air than desired. costing him the championship.C. or bounces rapidly across the ground. A Pull-Slice means the ball starts out left then curves back to the right. This results in the ball flying lower to the ground than intended and usually resulting in a Pull as well. A true sky ball occurs when the ball travels farther vertically than it does horizontally. and is extremely rare in any other kind of shot. though sometimes a Sky Ball will occur when the ball is sitting on top of long blades of grass and the club has space to pass under the ball. The ball flies to the right of the intended target for right-handed players (to the left for left-handed players). Fat : A fat shot occurs when the club strikes the ground before the ball. A severe slice is commonly referred to as a Banana-Slice or a Banana-Ball. Shank : The ball is struck by the hosel or the outer edge of the club rather than the clubface and shoots sharply to the right for a right-handed player. preventing the grooves of the club from imparting maximum backspin on the ball. A PushHook means the ball starts out right then curves back to the left. • • • • • • • • • • • . The result usually consists of the ball rolling forward on the ground with much topspin. Sky Ball or Pop-Up : The opposite of a Top. The clubface may strike the ground first or get caught up in heavy rough. This loss of lift from backspin will typically cause a lower. where the ball is 'pushed' away from the body. longer shot than a cleanly contacted shot. Grass blades come between the club face and the ball. Worm burner. Thin or Blade or Skull : The ball is struck with the bottom edge of the club and not its face. Pull : For a right-handed player the ball is 'pulled' across the body and flies to the left of the intended target without curvature (the ball flies to the right for left-handed players).

After the ball is hit. Shots that go ¾ distance in this manner are usually referred to as a 'Gunnell'. Iron Hooker: Holding the club too far forward causing a flicking action which results in a major hook. The expression originated in England. hips and knees somewhat flexed. and the clubs are more readily purchased from mail-order .e. followed by another shot. highly complex motion and notoriously difficult to learn. The backswing is a rotation to the right. One can also purchase or use a new golf simulator that can cost upwards of $50.000. Sometimes referred to as a Chunk. occurs when the ball is hit off the hosel resulting in a shot that travels more laterally than forward. Foot Wedge : An illegal act of literally kicking one's ball to a better location. The full golf swing is an unnatural. more manufacturers provide left-handed versions of their club lines. the player stands with the left shoulder and hip pointing in the intended direction of ball flight. • • • • • • Golf swing Putts and short chips are ideally played without much movement of the body.• Chili Dip : A common miscue while chipping where the ball is flubbed only a few feet forward. the clubhead resting on the ground behind the ball. a downswing to the left (in which the ball is hit). It is usually very difficult to acquire a stable and successful swing without professional instruction and even highly skilled golfers may continue to take golf lessons for many years. this may have been due to the difficulty of finding left-handed golf clubs. the follow-through stage consists of a continued rotation to the left. a turning of the pelvis and shoulders. The character Judge Smails uses this technique In the movie Caddyshack. the weight has shifted almost entirely to the left foot. A small crater. This is more commonly known as "plugged". The downswing is roughly a backswing reversed.. or 'A runner. it consists of a backswing to the right. swing back to the left and forward to the right). At the end of the backswing the hands are above the right shoulder. but not a looker'. Usually results in a form of embarrassment. consisting of a shifting of the player's body weight to the right side. Whiff: Missing the ball completely after stepping up to hit counts as a stroke. and is a reference to former Olympic sprinter Sally Gunnell Lateral: also known as a shank. For a right-handed golfer. The club is held with both hands (right below left for right-handed players). Today. and a follow through. the body is fully turned to the left and the hands are above the left shoulder with the club hanging down over the players' back. with the ball before the feet. with even players who are strongly left-handed in their daily life preferring the right-handed golf swing. Fried Egg: This situation occurs when the ball lands in a sand bunker and does not move from its landing spot. with the club pointing more or less in the intended direction of ball flight. At address. and the arms hanging from the shoulders. A full swing is a complex rotation of the body aimed at accelerating the club head to a great speed. The full golf swing itself is used in tee and fairway shots. Gunnell: A Gunnell is a low shot where the club face makes contact with the top of the ball. lifting of the arms and flexing of the elbows and wrists. but most other golf shots are played using variants of the full golf swing. In the past. It is not uncommon for beginners to spend several months practising the very basics before playing their first ball on a course. May be referred to as Practice Swing. At the end of the swing. Relatively few golfers play left-handed (i. encircles the "egg" (golf ball). and makes the next shot a difficult one. or frying pan.

three-. trajectory. Golf balls The minimum allowed diameter of a golf ball is 42. Hybrids are also used by players who have a difficult time getting the ball airborne with long irons. Golf clubs A player usually carries several clubs during the game (but no more than fourteen. this pressure exists at all levels of play. Equipments Below is a summary of the main features of golf equipment. There are three major types of clubs. and to the right a fade (for right-handed players). Harder materials. or four-piece covers. and occasionally rough. which allow golfers to locate errant shots easily using a handheld homing device.93g. Sidespin makes the ball curve left or right: a curve to the left is a draw. irons. balls may take an undesirable trajectory. A ball with little backspin will usually roll out for a few yards/meters while a ball with more backspin may not roll at all. and hit a stationary object. Accomplished golfers purposely use sidespin to steer their ball around obstacles or towards the safe side of fairways and greens. Generally four-piece golf balls tend to be the most expensive. Woods are played for long shots from the tee or fairway.. Wedges are irons used to play shorter shots.and Internet catalogues. A golf ball acquires spin when it is hit. Knowledge of this creates a great deal of psychological pressure on the golfer. not each other directly. or four-layer design constructed from various synthetic materials. three-. Wedges are played from difficult ground such as sand or the rough and for approach shots to the green. This means that there is never anyone to blame but oneself for a bad result. A "hybrid" is often used for long shots from difficult rough. but can also be useful when playing from bunkers or for some approach shots. or slice to the right (for right-handed players). such as Balata. such as getting the "yips" (an infamous affliction of Bernhard Langer) a severe putting disorder caused by uncontrolled muscle spasms of the arms. or having collapses of their full swing (as with Ian Baker-Finch). a back-spinning ball therefore experiences an upward force which makes it fly higher and longer than a ball without spin. such as Surlyn.67mm and its mass may not exceed 45. while irons are for precision shots from fairways as well as from the rough. angle between the clubface and a vertical plane). The method of construction and materials used greatly affect the ball's playing characteristics such as distance. A spinning ball deforms the flow of air around it [5] similar to an airplane wing. such as hook to the left. the limit defined by the rules). Sidespin occurs when the clubface is not aligned perpendicularly to the plane of swing. It is difficult to obtain the same consistency and power with this arrangement as is possible with conventional technique. more "feel" and greater stopping potential. though price is no assurance of quality. and putters. Besides the physical part. while softer covers. and in most competitive formats there are no teammates to directly help one out. Golf balls are separated into three groups depending on their construction: two-.e. Golfers play against the course. The surface usually has a pattern of 300-400 dimples designed to improve the ball's aerodynamics. As of 2006 there are golf balls that utilize RFID technology. as well as golf stores. . even backwards. Putters are mostly played on the green. Backspin is imparted for almost every shot due to the golf club's loft (i. Even the best professional golfers sometimes succumb to this pressure. tend to generate higher spin. A golfer who plays right-handed. resulting in a jerking motion during the follow through of the putt causing the ball to go much farther than desired. Modern golf balls have a two-. The amount of backspin also influences the behavior of a ball when it impacts the ground. A new type of wood known as a "hybrid" combines the straight-hitting characteristics of irons with the easy-to-hit-in-the-air characteristics of higher-lofted woods. spin and feel. known as woods. usually result in the ball's traveling longer distances. but holds the club lefthand-below-right is said to be "cack-handed". But because it's sometimes difficult to control or predict the amount of sidespin. the mental aspect contributes to the difficulty of the golf swing. not one put into motion by an opponent.

This. Any strong and light material may be used to make the golf shaft. The origin of golf is open to debate among Chinese. which the point cut off. the ball may be picked up to be cleaned or if it is in the way of an opponent's putting line. Scores are recorded on a score card during the round. however is not always necessary. but all the other club shafts must be straight. loosening the compacted turf to allow rapid regrowth of grass. won. A ball mark repair tool (or pitchfork) is used to repair a ball mark (depression in the green where a ball has hit the ground). Dutch and Scottish. Timeline of golf history 1945-1999 and Timeline of golf (2000-present). The Scots however regard golf to be a Scottish invention. one pushes the tool under the mark. and then flattens the ballmark with the golf shoe. for pure convenience when on the green. as at the end of all clubs lies a grip. Golf was mentioned on February 26 in the year 1297 for the first time in the Netherlands in a city called Loenen aan de Vecht. Some tees contain such a tool at the end.the shaft can be smoothly tapered or it can be tapered in steps. this is only allowed for the first stroke (tee shot or drive) of each hole (There is also a variation of the tee which rsembles the egular form. allowing the golfer to drag his or her bag around the course. Clubs and other equipment are carried in golf bags. A tee is an object (wooden or plastic) that is pushed into the ground to rest a ball on top of for an easier shot. Almost all shafts today are made of either graphite or tempered steel. Golf tees resemble nails with a small cup on the head and are usually made of wood or plastic. rather than carrying it on their back. Scholars. They point out that a game of putting a small ball in a hole in the ground using golf clubs was played in 17th- . Here the Dutch played a game with a stick and leather ball. The tapering of the shaft is important to some players . This is used when teeing off with irons). Other equipments Sometimes transport is by special golf carts. Timeline of golf history 1851-1945. however. Whoever hit the ball in a target several hundreds of meters away the least number of times. or to modern field hockey rather than golf. its position must then be marked using a ball marker (usually a flat. and lifts upwards gently. however. The rules of golf allow the shaft of the putter to be bent in some specific ways. which is designed to do the same thing. Golfers also often wear gloves that help grip the club and prevent blistering. although other materials either have been used (the first shafts were made from hickory wood) or have been tried (like titanium and aluminum). Golfers wear special shoes with exchangeable spikes (or small plastic claws termed soft spikes) attached to the soles. Golf buggies are trolley-like items designed to carry such a bag.[edit] Golf shafts Golf shafts are used between the grip and the club head. round piece of plastic or a coin). as the game was supposedly mentioned in two 15th-century laws prohibiting the playing of the game of "gowf". To repair a ball mark. When on the green. suggest that this refers to another game which is much akin to shinty or hurling. History See also Timeline of golf history 1353-1850. designed to increase grip on greens or in general wet conditions. The profile of the golf shaft is circlular in shape and is usually thicker at the grip end than at the club head end.

feature public courses which strive to be affordable for the average golfer. The course that emerged featured eleven holes.[7] Dongxuan Records (Chinese:東軒錄) from the Song Dynasty describe a game called chuiwan (捶丸) and also include drawings. Often. including prestigious universities such as Stanford University. Recent evidence unearthed by Prof. The major changes in equipment since the 19th century have been better mowers. The PGA of America. It is often said that board meetings merely confirm decisions that are actually made on the golf course. 500 years before golf was first mentioned in Scotland. and three-wood. As early as the 15th century. green fees tend to be lower in areas of inexpensive real estate. Most regions of the U. but golf as we know it today. [6] The oldest playing golf course in the world is The Old Links at Musselburgh. for a total of 22 holes. [edit] Cost to play The cost of an average round of golf in the United States is USD $36 [13].[8] It was played with 10 clubs including a cuanbang. Excepting public courses subsidized by local governments ("municipal courses"). better golf ball designs. several of the holes were deemed too short. and were therefore combined. One played the holes out. this is where wagers are tallied and paid out. have started both undergraduate and graduate-level courses that teach "business golf". various schools.century Netherlands rather than Scotland. Clubs were inlaid with jade and gold. laid out end to end from the clubhouse to the far end of the property. said "Stick and ball games have been around for many centuries. In January 2006. clearly originated in Scotland. an organization separate from the PGA Tour. using rubber and man-made materials since about 1900. the successful conduct of business golf (which extends beyond merely knowing the game) is considered a useful business skill. and played the holes in. Queen of Scots reputedly played there in 1567. . Also in the 1930s the wooden golf tee was invented. The St Andrews Links occupy a narrow strip of land along the sea. This is backed up by the fact that the term golf is an alteration of Dutch "kolf" meaning "stick. turned around. and the introduction of the metal shaft beginning in the 1930s. especially for the greens. which are comparable to a driver. one of the oldest Scotland golf organization. and shafts made of graphite composite materials were introduced in the 1980s. Ling Hongling of Lanzhou University suggests that a game similar to modern-day golf was played in China since Southern Tang Dynasty. Golf courses have not always had eighteen holes. Evidence has shown that golf was played on Musselburgh Links in 1672 although Mary. For this reason.S. suggesting golf was for the wealthy. new evidence re-invigorated the debate concerning the origins of golf.[10] A spokesman for the Royal and Ancient Golf Club of St. so that a complete round of the links comprised 18 holes. two-wood. Chinese archive includes references to a Southern Tang official who asked his daughter to dig holes as a target. golfers at St. golf is the unofficial sport of the business world. played over 18 holes. playing to holes whose locations were dictated by topography. and the sport is regularly enjoyed by over 26 million Americans and many more world-wide. The 19th Hole is a common reference to having a drink in the clubhouse following a round of golf. Andrews. Andrews established a customary route through the undulating terrain. and shaobang. In 1764.[9] Ling suggested golf was exported to Europe and then Scotland by Mongolian travellers in the late Middle Ages. pubang." [11] [12] Special aspects of the golf In the United States. "club" and "bat". helps to sponsor these programs at universities nationwide. In the 1970s the use of metal to replace wood heads began. The number was thereby reduced from 11 to nine.

not to mention the high prices and wealthy clientele that can afford to pay to join elite country clubs. as long as a basketball has enough air to bounce evenly. Despite golf's popularity in densely populated East Asian countries such as South Korea and Japan. By comparison. many children will play baseball. contribute to the perception that golf is expensive. but is less prevalent as a business sport remains the standard). fairway. Playing golf requires paying greens fees to enter a golf course. (Hunting may be on par. Hunting is common in the American north and midwest. Michigan has more courses open to the public than any other U. Yet. evaluate each other. Buying or even renting an entire set of golf clubs immediately becomes more expensive. Similarly. but golf is still pervasive in the south. and generally talk/negotiate. and the equipment is provided (often for a registration fee that has been subsidized or sponsored privately). One racquet for a racquet sport (tennis. in order to be outfitted with the latest golf equipment. By comparison. squash.S. Also. there is no other single sport that might be compared to golf as a sport for affluent people. few high schools or youth programs offer a golf program where kids can be exposed to and learn the game at a relatively cheaper price. not just any crew or any equipment . Exposure to golf is also not as accessible as other sports. But. and registration at a racquet club or even a local YMCA for a month can be cheaper than one day at the golf course. as well as bunkers. playing soccer or touch-football or basketball at a school field or public playground is free of cost. By contrast. kids can borrow an old racquet and hit a ball against a school wall for free. the citizen of average means is limited to hitting balls on driving ranges as play on an actual course requires memberships priced at several times the average worker's annual salary. American football or soccer in school or youth programs. 22 people can share one soccer ball and 10 people can share one basketball. water hazards. sometimes dramatically so. Comparing golf to other individual (rather than team) sports. so to speak. its brand name and condition are mostly irrelevant. [edit] Cost of maintenance The maintenance and upkeep of a golf course demands significant expense. hockey. To compare golf against other sports is to quantify what makes it more expensive: • • • Golf is not a game in which equipment can be comfortably shared. green. The fact that golf tends to be a sport associated with wealthy businesspeople and professionals (doctors playing golf on Wednesdays. green fees are more expensive. etc). Few will notice or care the condition of a baseball glove as long as it can catch a baseball adequately. etc. state [14]. as the sport of business in the American south. including rather expensive clothing. golf is still more expensive. Those that do usually provide access to a golf course with unlimited access. corporate golf days. However. one can end up spending quite a sum. It is difficult for a golfer to practice hitting shots longer than short pitch shots unless one pays to play golf or pays to practice at a driving range or indoor golf training facility. By contrast. racquetball) is still much cheaper than a set of clubs. Moreover. shoes and gloves. the game presents opportunties from which commerce emerges through the development of personal relationships. For example. • Further. Because golf has become the platform through which business people interact.especially the American South and Midwest. 75 acres) demands no small amount of crew and equipment.specialized groundskeepers and specialized equipment must be used to maintain a stimulating and beautiful tee. The sheer size of a golf course (on average. the social status of better (and usually more expensive) equipment cannot be overlooked. in more urban areas with high real estate values. greens fees at some of the more picturesque and prestigious courses can be quite sizeable. .

soils. There are several senior tours for men 50 and older. A small elite of professional golfers are "tournament pros" who compete full time on international "tours". families of local fauna must be kept in check. For example the first golf course in the People's Republic of China only opened in the mid-1980s. and most professional golfers never achieve it. [15] The countries with most golf courses in relation to population. which attracts a substantial number of top golfers from outside North America. each run by a PGA or an independent tour organisation. and England (countries with fewer than 500. The most widely known tour is the PGA TOUR (officially rendered in all caps). and only compete in local competitions. grass on a golf court continues to grow.S. Sweden. Wales. Golf is unique in having lucrative competition for older players. approximately half of them in the United States. trees. Scandinavian and other Western European countries have produced leading players on a regular basis. but since World War I. Golf tours There are at least twenty professional golf tours. The last decade or so has seen a marked increase in specialised golfing vacations or holidays worldwide. finding sponsors. Canada. Since around the 1970s. flora. unlike a tennis or basketball court. Typically a tour has "members" who are entitled to compete in all of its events.000.000 people were excluded). Professional golf Golf is played professionally in many different countries.Public outdoor tennis courts also require fees which are allocated in part to maintenance and upkeep. skunks and raccoons can't be permitted to take up residence. which must be continually and regularly trimmed and kept in order to maintain a clean course. New Zealand. which attracts the best golfers from all the other men's tours. The number of countries with high-class professionals continues to increase steadily. The European Tour. but the number of courses in new territories is increasing rapidly. The majority of professional golfers work as club or teaching professionals. Northern Ireland. The professional sport was initially dominated by British golfers. and regulating the tour. and also invites non-members to compete in some of them.000 golf courses in the world. Also. Apart from Sweden all of these countries have English as the official language. . because while squirrels and foxes can make for picturesque scenes. Some top professionals from outside North America play enough tournaments to maintain membership on both the PGA TOUR and European Tour. World popularity In 2005 Golf Digest calculated that there were nearly 32. as do weeds. but by 2005 there were 200 courses in that country. United States. and a high degree of ever-changing technology requires that a golf club can't really "go cheap" and expect to remain profitable. There are several other men's tours around the world. Japan. ranks second to the PGA TOUR in worldwide prestige. especially in East Asia. South Korea is notably strong in women's golf. Gaining membership of an elite tour is highly competitive. This is due mostly to the fact that most PGA TOUR events have a first prize of at least USD 800. which is responsible for arranging events. Other Commonwealth countries such as Australia and South Africa are also traditional powers in the sport. America has produced the greatest quantity of leading professionals. Republic of Ireland. starting with the best endowed were: Scotland.-based Champions Tour. the best known of which is the U. Quality grasses. However. etc. This demand for travel which is centered around golf has lead to the development of many luxury resorts which cater to golfers and feature integrated golf courses. Australia.

Tiger Woods.S. the U. has won twelve professional majors (15 total if his three U. The number of major championships a player accumulates in his career has a very large impact on his stature in the sport.. However. who may be the only golfer likely to challenge Nicklaus's record. Open and PGA Championship are played at various courses around the United States. largely because he has won a record 18 professional majors. has changed several times over the years. Women's Open LPGA Championship Women's British Open Only the last of these is also recognized by the Ladies European Tour. which is not considered a major by the LPGA (but is co-sanctioned as a regular LPGA event).) LPGA[17] currently has four majors: • • • • Kraft Nabisco Championship U. or 20 majors in total if his two U. the Open Championship.S. Open The Open Championship (referred to in North America as the British Open) PGA Championship The fields for these events include the top several dozen golfers from all over the world. [edit] Men's major championships Main article: Men's major golf championships The major championships are the four most prestigious men's tournaments of the year. These are the four that Bobby Jones won in 1930 to become the only player ever to have earned a Grand Slam. Open. while The Open Championship is played at various courses in the UK. Amateurs at the same age. [edit] Women's majors Main article: Women's major golf championships Women's golf does not have a globally agreed set of majors.S. The Masters has been played at Augusta National Golf Club in Augusta. with the last change in 2001. Prior to the advent of the PGA Championship and The Masters.S.S. Jack Nicklaus is widely regarded as the greatest golfer of all time.S. The U. the LPGA Tour in the U. Nicklaus had won eight professional majors and two U.S. Georgia since its inception in 1934. In current (2006) chronological order they are: • • • • The Masters U.S.S-based LPGA Tour. and PGA Championship. Like the PGA TOUR. Amateurs are included). the (U. Open Championship.S. The other event that it recognizes as a major is the Evian Masters. the four Majors were the U.) Woods also came closest to winning all four current majors in one season (known as a Grand Slam completed first by Bobby Jones) when he won them consecutively across two seasons: the 2000 U. This feat has been frequently called the Tiger Slam. The most prestigious of these is the U. as the LPGA is far more dominant in .There are five principal tours for women.S. Open. and the British Amateur. It is the only major championship that is played at the same course each year. The list of majors recognized by the dominant women's tour. the significance of this is limited. (To put this total in perspective.S. Amateur. all before the age of thirty-one. Amateurs are included. and the 2001 Masters. each based in a different country or continent.

reached the relevant age. Wildlife is sometimes seen on golf courses. The turf on golf courses is an excellent filter for water and has been used in many communities to cleanse grey . the LPGA of Japan Tour. The Champions Tour now recognizes five majors: • • • • • Senior PGA Championship U. as well as the destruction of wetlands and other environmentally important areas during construction. but is not encouraged due to damage it causes to the course. along with health and cost concerns. have led to significant research into more environmentally sound practices and turf grasses.650 tournaments across the United States each year.S.S. The Senior British Open was not recognized as a major by the Champions Tour until 2003. This has led to reductions in the amount of chemicals and water used on courses. the BBC has been known to use the U. For example.S. The other events all date from the 1980s. LPGA or European majors. but always by expansion. 13-15. and 16-18 give young golfers the chance to compete amongst the best golfers of their respective age group.S. definition of "women's majors" without qualifying it. no senior major has lost its status. unlike the situation with the LPGA. the Senior PGA is by far the oldest. does not recognize any of the U. [edit] Senior majors Main article: Senior major golf championships Like women's golf. However. These. when senior golf became a commercial success as the first golf stars of the television era. the Ladies European Tour tacitly acknowledges the dominance of the LPGA Tour by not scheduling any of its own events to conflict with the three LPGA majors played in the U. Also. The European Seniors Tour recognizes only the Senior PGA and the two Senior Opens as majors.women's golf than the PGA Tour is in mainstream men's golf. The Tour also helps teach young golfers the etiquette of the game and give them a grasp on the rules of golf. LPGA is in global women's golf. The second-richest women's tour. Specific concerns include the amount of water and chemical pesticides and fertilizers used for maintenance. such as Arnold Palmer and Gary Player.S. The junior PGA is split into 41 sections with more than 1. It has its own set of three majors. these events attract little notice outside Japan. The list of senior majors on the U. Senior Open Senior British Open The Tradition Senior Players Championship Of the five events. having been founded in 1937. Junior professional golf tour The Professional Golf tour began a program for young children to compete at a high level in 1996. the Champions Tour is arguably more dominant in global senior golf than the U.-based Champions Tour has changed over the years. However. Age divisions ranging from 12 and under. The modern golf course superintendent is well trained in the uses of these practices and grasses. senior (50-and-over) men's golf does not have a globally agreed set of majors. Environmental impact Environmental concerns over the use of land for golf courses have grown over the past 50 years.S.

This has led to a ten percent increase in the amount of area that is required for golf courses today.) Golf courses are built on many different types of land. there are others who feel that they are beneficial for the community and the environment as they provide corridors for migrating animals and sanctuaries for birds and other wildlife. from the Kelani Valley railway. You carry a small piece of astroturf from which you tee. abandoned farms. (Sources include the National Golf Foundation and the Golf Course Superintendents Association of America [GCSAA]. In Saudi Arabia. In New Zealand it is not uncommon for rural courses to have greens fenced off and sheep graze the fairways. golf courses have been constructed on nothing more than oil-covered sand. A major result of modern equipment is that today's players can hit the ball much further than previously. In some parts of the world. Golf balls have changed from feather-filled leather sacs to complex composites. in some cities such as Dhahran. Technology in golf Equipment As golf has grown more competitive. diesel and oil and not a blade of grass or a tree to be seen. especially in the Philippines and Indonesia. Athletes today are now able to play at an older age. including sandy areas along coasts. modern golf course architects have had to lengthen and widen their design envelope. recover more quickly from injuries. run through the course at the 6th hole. Golf clubs have changed from wooden shafts and club heads to carbon fiber shafts and precisely engineered club heads. In Coober Pedy. Many golf courses have been displaced by urban planning practices. While most modern 18-hole golf courses occupy as much as 60 ha (150 acres) of land. athletic potential has increased. the average course has 30 ha (75 acres) of maintained turf. deserts and forests. Many Western countries have instituted significant environmental restrictions on where and how courses can be built [citation needed]. Australia. Resisting golf tourism and golf's expansion has become an objective of some land-reform movements. attempts to build courses and resorts have led to significant protests along with vandalism and violence by both sides. Many things that displace golf courses range from neighborhoods to shopping malls. water restrictions placed by many communities have forced many courses to limit the amount of maintained turf grass. it has symbolic importance as it is a sport normally associated with the wealthier Westernized population. Health As sports nutrition has increased. Instruction . players have wanted equipment that performs better. Although golf is a relatively minor issue compared to other landethics questions. While many people continue to oppose golf courses for environmental reasons. grass golf courses have been built recently. and the culture of colonization and globalization of non-native land ethics. there is a famous golf course that consists of nine holes dug into mounds of sand. treatment of injuries improved and knowledge of the human body grown. and train more effectively than in previous generations. At the 125-year-old Royal Colombo Golf Club in Sri Lanka steam trains. At the same time. In a concern for safety. However.water. modern. strip mines and quarries.

get involved!) This article has been tagged since December 2006.R. (help. measure club head speed and even how the body moves during the golf swing. Systems have been developed that measure the speed and spin of golf balls after they are hit. John McEnroe asked rhetorically." It is also noted that J. making the expression more likely to be a backronym Golf humor This section does not cite its references or sources. Video capture devices allow body position and angles to be determined at different points of the swing. Mark Twain's definition of golf was "a good walk spoiled". measuring position. orientations. Motion capture devices allow for most information to be gathered at one time. This is almost certainly false as acronyms being used as words is a fairly modern phenomenon. Tools such as launch monitors are able to measure club head speed as well as golf ball speed and spin. Tolkien said that golf originated from hobbits. as well as velocities at many points of the swing. During a stand up comedy act. is better than the best day at work. Ladies Forbidden". Please help improve this article by introducing appropriate citations. Etymology The word golf was first mentioned in writing in 1457 on a Scottish statute on forbidden games as gouf. projecting the most likely flight path of the ball.Golf has often been in the forefront of technological advances in sport. Video motion capture has played a large role in measuring aspects of golf that are difficult if not impossible to measure and understand with the human eye. Robin Williams did an entire set related to the invention of the sport by drunk Scots. Many jokes revolve around the game of golf. "I thought a sport was where you had to run or something.R. angles. "The worst day on the golf course. which are cheaper to store data on than high speed video and are more precise. meaning "bat. The benefit of motion capture devices is that they utilize computers." Many business people like to say. sending it down a rabbit hole thus winning the battle and inventing golf at the same time. . This word may. either as a setting for an otherwise generic punchline or as the target of a barb. be related to the Dutch word kolf. after Bullroarer Took knocked the goblin king Golfimbul's head off with a wooden club." and the Dutch sport of the same name. in reference to whether golf is a sport." or "club. possibly derived from the Scottish word goulf (variously spelled) meaning "to strike or cuff". There is a persistent urban legend claiming that the term derives from an acronym "Gentlemen Only. in turn.