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Chemistry is a Physical Science pp. 3-5

What Is Chemistry?
 The study of:  the composition, structure and properties of matter  the processes that matter undergoes  the energy changes that accompany these processes.

6 Branches of Chemistry
 Organic—study of most carboncontaining compounds  Inorganic—study of non-organic substances  Physical—study of properties and changes of matter and their relation to energy

6 Branches of Chemistry
 Analytical—identification of the components and composition of materials  Biochemistry—study of substances and processes occurring in living things  Theoretical—use of math and computers to understand chemical behavior

Take the Post-it provided and write down a career having to do with chemistry –NOT CHEMISTRY TEACHER. Then place it under the appropriate branch of chemistry. Don’t fret—branches don’t have clear cut distinctions so you will most likely get it right!!

Basic Research
 Research done for the sake of increasing knowledge

Applied Research
 Research done in order to solve a problem.

Basic vs. Applied Research

Technological Development
 Involves the production and use of products that improve our quality of life.


SECTION REVIEW p. 5 General Chemistry 1-3 Honors Chemistry 1-4

Matter and Its Properties pp 6-14

Matter has 2 requirements— it must have volume it must have mass

So what are volume and mass?

Building Blocks of Matter
Atom—smallest unit of an element that maintains the identity of the element Element—a pure substance that cannot be broken down into simpler, stable substances and is made of one type of atom
Compound—a substance that can be broken down into simple substances and is made from the atoms of two or more elements

Types of Properties

Extensive Amount of matter in a substance Ex. Size, mass, length, shape and volume

Can be observed changed or measured without changing the identity Used to observe and describe matter

Intensive Does not depend on the amount of matter in a substance

Ex. Color, smell, density, boiling and melting points

Types of Properties
 Physical- characteristics that can be observed or measured without changing the identity of a substance  Ex. melting point, boiling pt  Chemical- relates to a substances ability to undergo changes that transform it into a different substance  Easiest to see when a chemical is reacting

Physical Changes in Matter
 change in a substance that doesn’t change the identity of the substance  Ex. grinding, cutting, melting, boiling  Includes all changes of state (physical changes of a substance from one state to another)

 definite volume  definite shape  atoms are packed together in fixed positions  strong attractive forces between atoms  only vibrate in place

 definite volume  indefinite shape  atoms are close together  atoms can overcome attractive forces to flow

 indefinite volume  indefinite shape  atoms move very quickly  atoms are far apart  pretty weak attractive forces

Changes of State

 high temperature state in which atoms lose their electrons  Ex. the sun

Bose-Einstein Condensate
Honors Only

A Bose–Einstein condensate (BEC) is a state of matter of a dilute gas of bosons cooled to temperatures very close to absolute zero (that is, very near 0 K or −273.15 °C).

Quark-Gluon Plasma
Honors Only

 A quark–gluon plasma or quark soup is a (possible) phase of quantum chromodynamics (QCD) which exists at extremely high temperature and/or density. This phase consists of asymptotically free quarks and gluons, which are several of the basic building blocks of matter.

Chemical Changes in Matter
 a change in which a substance is converted into a different substance  same as chemical reaction  doesn’t change the amount of matter present  reactants- substances that react  products- substances that form

Evidence of a Chemical Change

Energy Changes in Matter
 when any change occurs, energy is always involved  energy can be in different forms (light, heat, etc.)  energy is never destroyed or created (law of conservation of energy)

Classifying Matter
 Matter can be classified in two broad categories:
 Mixture  Pure Substances  The deciding factor is “can it be separated?”  A mixture is a blend of two or more kinds of matter, each of which retains its own identity and properties.

Classifying Matter
 A pure substance has a fixed composition and differs from a mixture in the following ways:
 Every sample of a given pure substance has exactly the same characteristics.  Every sample of a give pure substance has exactly the same composition.

Classifying Mixtures

Also called solutions

Separation Techniques
 Filtration- solid part is trapped by filter paper and the liquid part runs through the paper  Vaporization- where the liquid portion is evaporated off to leave solid

Separation Techniques
 Decanting- when liquid is poured off after solid has settled to bottom  Centrifuge- machine that spins a sample very quickly so that components with different densities will separate

Separation Techniques
 Paper Chromatography- used to separate mixtures because different parts move quicker on paper than other

1.3 Elements

 elements are pure substances  organized by properties on periodic table  each square shows the name and letter symbol for each element  usually the symbols relate to the English names but some come from older names (usually Latin)  Ex: gold’s symbol is Au from aurum  Ex: iron’s symbol is Fe from ferrum

Periodic Table
 Groups
    also called families vertical columns numbered 118 have similar chemical properties

 Periods
 horizontal rows  properties changes consistently across a period

Periodic Table

Periodic Table
 two rows below the periodic table are the lanthanide and actinide series  these rows fit after #57 and #89  they are only at the bottom to keep the width of the chart smaller

Types of Elements
 Metals
 an element that is a good conductor of electricity  at room temperature, most are solids  malleable- can be rolled or hammered into sheets  ductile- can be made into wire  high tensile strength- can resist breakage when pulled  most have silvery or grayish white luster

Types of Elements
 Nonmetals
 an element that is a poor conductor of heat and electricity  many are gases at room temperature  some are solids: usually brittle, not malleable

Types of Elements
 Metalloids
 an element that has some characteristics of metals and nonmetals  appear along staricase line  B, Si, Ge, As, Sb, Te  all are solids at room temperature  less malleable that metals but less brittle than nonmetals  are semiconductors

Types of Elements
 Noble Gases
 generally unreactive gases  in far right column of periodic table

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Chemistry 12. Solid 24. Metal Chemical 13. Liquid 25. Nonmetal Mass 14. Gas 26. Metalloid Matter 15. Plasma Atom 16. Chemical property HONORS ONLY Element 17. Chemical change 1. Bose-Einstein condensate Compound 18. Chemical reaction 2. Quark Gluon Extensive 19. Reactant Plasma property 20. Product 9. Intensive property21. Group 10. Physical property 22. Family 11. Change of state 23. Period