SUMAIRA YOUSUF Registration Number: 2025-BBA/FMS/F07 E-mail ID: sam_9_20@hotmail.

com Assignment: TRANSFORMATION OF DATA INTO VIABLE INFORMATION Course: STATISTICAL INTEFERENCE Course Title: QNT-401

INTERNATIONAL ISLAMIC UNIVERSITY, ISLAMABAD

ACNOWLEDGEMENT
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Firstly, I would like to thank whole-heartedly to ALLAH, THE ALMIGHTY. Who gave me courage, knowledge and confidence to carry out & complete this project. I am also thankful to our respected Sir, Mr. Khushnoor, who gave the useful information and guidance to complete this project. I would also like to thank my PARENTS who are there to motivate me and build my confidence which helps me in walk of my life.

Scenario
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Data has been gathered to find the impact of various educational factors on CGPA of Students. We have taken a sample of 38 students, 19 males and 19 females, of fourth semester doing BBA (HONS) in International Islamic University.

Relationship of dependent variable (CGPA) has been made with various Impendent variables (Inter pct, Medium of Instruction, Institute, Quantitative Subjects (Principles of Accounting1, Principles of Accounting2 and Cost Accounting) and Verbal Subjects (Functional English1, Functional English 2 and Oral Communication)) using the software SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Sciences).

First we used Scatter Matrix, Correlations Matrix and then Mean mutually for all students Secondly, we split the results according to gender, and separately observed Scatter Matrix, Correlation Matrix and Mean.

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CONTENTS
A Brief Introduction to SPSS..........................................................................................................5 VARIABLE VIEW....................................................................................................................11 Variable Name.......................................................................................................................12 Variable Types......................................................................................................................13 Variable Width and Decimal places.............................................................................................13 Variable Labels......................................................................................................................14 Value Labels.........................................................................................................................15 Data Display.........................................................................................................................17 Measurement Scale of Variables.................................................................................................18 DATA VIEW...........................................................................................................................20 Computing Variables..................................................................................................................22 Modifying Variables...................................................................................................................24 Again Recoding values into a new variable.......................................................................................28 Creating charts - drawing a scatter plot............................................................................................31 SCATTER MATRIX..................................................................................................................34 RESULTS and INTERPRETATIONS..........................................................................................37 CORRELATIONS.....................................................................................................................39 RESULTS and INTERPRETATIONS..........................................................................................41 Mean and Standard Deviation........................................................................................................44 RESULTS and INTERPRETATIONS..........................................................................................45 Measurements According to Gender................................................................................................46 SCATTER MATRIX for Males.....................................................................................................48 RESULTS and INTERPRETATIONS..........................................................................................48 SCATTER MATRIX for Females..................................................................................................50 RESULTS and INTERPRETATIONS..........................................................................................51 CORRELATION According to Gender............................................................................................52 RESULTS and INTERPRETATIONS for Males.............................................................................54 RESULTS and INTERPRETATIONS for Females..........................................................................57 MEAN AND Standard Deviation According to Gender........................................................................59

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RESULTS and INTERPRETATIONS for Females..........................................................................60

A Brief Introduction to SPSS
SPSS provides facilities for analyzing and displaying information using a variety of techniques. This document uses version 15 of SPSS for Windows. It looks a lot like Microsoft excel as they are both spread sheets. However there are at least two features of SPSS which distinguish from excel which makes it particularly useful for employment in social sciences.

Prerequisites
Basic familiarity with Windows and at least an elementary knowledge of simple statistics (statistical theory is not explained).

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DATA VIEW

IMPACT OF VARIOUS EDUCATIONAL FACTORS ON CGPA of Students
VARIABLE VIEW Questionnaire

ABSTRAT

We are conducting a survey on how do various educational factors effect the CGPA of students.

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All questions contained in the questionnaire are highly confidential and will be used only for research purposes.

Gender:

Male 

Female

1. What is your current CGPA? 2. What percentage you obtained in intermediate? 3. What was medium of Instruction in intermediate? 4. Was the institute Public or Private? 5. What grades did you obtain in Quantitative Subjects of first three semesters of BBA (HONS): Principles of Account 1, Principles of Accounting 2, and Cost Accounting? 6. What grades did you obtain in Verbal Subjects of first three semesters of BBA (HONS): Functional English 1, Functional English 2, and Oral Communication?

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This dataset has 38 observations and 11 variables. The data is in fixed column format; each measurement forms a column and the values in each column make up a variable. MOIM represents Medium of Instruction A1 represents Principles of Account 1 A2 represents Principles of Accounting 2 A3 represents Cost Accounting E1 represents Functional English 1 E2 represents Functional English 2 E3 represents Oral Communication
NOTE that blanks indicate missing values. Each of the items recorded – Gender, CGPA and so on - are data values. All the information about a single person makes up one observation.

Gend er

CGP A

Inte rpct

MOI M

Institu A1 te

A2

A3

E1

E2

E3

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

M M M M M M M

3.9 3.4 3.9 3.3 3.08 3.0 2.70

78 70 82 70 80 73 56

E E E U E E E

Pvt Pub Pub Pub Pub Pvt Pub

A A A B B C C

A B+ A C B C+ B

A B+ A C C+ C C

B+ B+ A A C+ B C+

B+ B+ B+ B+ B B+ C

A B+ A A B+ B+ B+

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8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23

M M M M M M M M M M M M F F F F

3.54 3.87 2.23 3.01 3.45 3.41 3.5 3.35 3.50 2.96 2.5 3.83 3.4 3.6 3.66 3.5

81 85 68 71 76 80 83 60 70 75 64 78 75 78 68 80

E E E E E U E E E E E E E E E U

Pvt Pub Pvt Pub Pvt Pvt Pvt Pub Pvt Pub Pub Pvt Pub Pub Pvt Pvt

A A B+ A C A A A A C+ C A A A A A

A B+ C B C C+ C+ B B C C C+ A B+ B+ B+

A B+ B+ B+ B+ B+ B+ B+ B C C+ A C+ B+

B+ B+ B C B+ B+ B+ B+ B+ B+ B+ A A A A

B+ B+ A B B+ B+ B+ C+ C+ C+ C C+ A C C C+

A B+ B+ B+ B+ A B+ A A B B A A B+

B+

C+

B+

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24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38

F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F Table

3.4 3.77 3.25 3.69 3.36 2.89 2.9 2.83 2.9 3.42 2.8 2.67 3.16 3.04 2.6

82 74 70 76 79 63 62 70 67 75 70 70 68 73 75

E E E E E E E E E U U E E U E

Pub Pub Pub Pub Pub Pub Pub Pub Pub Pub Pub Pub Pub Pub Pub

B+ A B+ A B C+ C C B B+ C+ B C C+ C+

B+ B+ B+ A B C+ B+ C C+ C+ C C+ B B+ B

B+ A B A B+ F C C F A B+ C C+ C+ F

B A B B+ A A B+ B+ B B+ B+ B+ C+ B B

C+ B+ C+ C+ B C+ C C B+ B B C+ B+ B B+

B+ A B+ B+ A B+ B A B+ B+ B+ B+ A B+ B+

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VARIABLE VIEW

Columns: (We have description of the variables)

Rows: No. of Variables

We will not enter data directly in the Data View; rather it is more preferable to first give the name and other features of the variable going into the variable view.

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Variable View has total 10 Columns:

Name, Type, Width, Decimals, Label, Values, Missing, Columns, Align and Measure.

Variable Name

The rules for names are: ➢ The name must begin with a letter. The remaining characters can be any letter, any digit, a period, or the symbols @, #, _, or $; ➢ Variable names cannot end with a period; ➢ Variable names that end with an underscore should be avoided; ➢ The length of the name cannot exceed 64 bytes. Sixty-four bytes typically means 64 characters in single-byte languages (eg, English, French, German) and 32 characters in double-byte languages (eg, Japanese, Chinese, Korean); 3

➢ Spaces and special characters (eg !, ?, ', and *) cannot be used; ➢ Each variable name must be unique; duplication is not allowed;

Point and click on the cell in row 1 and column 1. Type Gender in this cell. Use the down arrow to move to row 2, column 1.

Type CGPA in this cell. Use the down arrow to move to row 3, column 1.

Continue with this process until all 12 variable names given in the Table 2

Variable Types

The Type column is showing Numeric for all rows. This means that numeric

(number) values will be expected in the dataset relating to these variables. This is correct for all the variables.

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Variable Width and Decimal places
The next column is headed Width and deals with the maximum number of characters that will be displayed for a particular variable in all output relating to this variable. It does not control the display in the Data View window, which is determined by Columns - see later. For a numeric variable it needs to be considered alongside the next column labeled Decimals. The value in this column indicates the number of decimal places that will be displayed in all output relating to this variable. By default the Width value is set to 8 and Decimals to 2.

For finer control of your output, you can alter values as necessary. For the example dataset, it would be better to choose: ➢ Width 1, Decimals 0 for variables Gender, MOIM, Institute, A1, A2, A3, E1, E2, E3 ➢ Width 2, Decimals 0 for variable inter pct. ➢ Width 3, Decimals 2 for variable GPA

Variable Labels
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The next column is headed Label and is used to inform SPSS about the details associated with each variable name. The maximum length of any label is 256 characters and there are no restrictions on what may appear. Spaces are entered just as typed. If you want to specify where a new line appears in a label, type \n within the text and SPSS will wrap the label at this point.

Moving to the first row, fifth column, click on the cell and type in the words: ‘Gender of the student’, the width of the column will expand to allow for the number of characters in the label.

➢ Continue entering the labels for all the other variables as given in the earlier table. ➢ To correct any existing labels, double-click on the entry and edit as you would in a word processor. ➢ Gender: Gender of the student ➢ CGPA: CGPA obtained by the respondents ➢ Inter pct: Inter percentage students ➢ MOIM: Medium Communication ➢ Institute: Institution respondents ➢ A1: Principles of Accounting 1 ➢ A2: Principles of Accounting 2 ➢ A3: Cost Accounting ➢ E1: Functional English 1 ➢ E2: Functional English 2 ➢ E3: Oral Communication

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Value Labels

The next task is to enter Value Labels for each variable if appropriate. These will appear in the Values column. For Gender you can indicate that M is male and F is female.

Move to row 1 column 6 and click in the cell. A dropdown menu appears so you can provide Value Label information

In the box by the word Value type M. In the box by the word Label type Male. 3

Click on Add and watch the value and its label move to the bottom box. In the box by the word Value now type F and the word Female in the Label box. Click on Add. Click OK

Click on row 4 column 6. Enter the value 0 and label E in the dropdown menu box and click Add. Enter the Value 1 and Label U and click on Add. Click OK.

Click on row 5 column 6. Enter the value 1 and label Pub in the dropdown menu box and click Add. Enter the Value 2 and Label Pvt and click on Add. Click OK.

Finally for the variables A1, A2, A3, E1, E2 and E3 you will need to provide six value labels for each. Use the basic method to enter this information for the variable A1

➢ Value 1 has the label Fail ➢ Value 2 has the label C ➢ Value 3 has the label C+ 1

➢ Value 4 has the label B ➢ Value 5 has the label B+ ➢ Value 6 has the label A

Now, copy and paste for the other five variables A2, A3, E1, E2 and E3.

Data Display

The next two columns (Columns and Align) are concerned with the display of data in the Data View window. For the purposes of this example dataset, the default values of a column 8 characters wide and the values right aligned are fine. When you have entered your data as instructed below, return to the Variable View window and change one or more of these values. Then flip to the Data View window and see the effect your choice has made.

Measurement Scale of Variables

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The final column is concerned with the measurement scale properties of your variable. In statistics certain procedures are only appropriate for variables measured on specific scales of measurement. The measure characteristics recognized by SPSS are as follows:

scale

to represent a numeric variable that can take discrete or continuous

values along a range ordinal to represent values that, although numeric, only represent an ordered

listing of such values nominal to represent values that are simply names

You should be able to recognize that in the example dataset, there are:

➢ 3 nominal measures – Gender, MOIM and Institute ➢ 6 ordinal measures – A1, A2, A3, E1, E2, E3 ➢ 2 scale measures - CGPA and Inter pct

Starting with Gender in row 1, column 10, click on the cell and choose the appropriate measure. (You should not have to change this from the default).

We have now defined all the information that SPSS needs to know about the characteristics of your specific dataset.

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We may return to the Variable View window at any time if further changes are needed.

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DATA VIEW

Columns: Questions, Item

Rows: Cases/Respondents

The Data View pane of the Data Editor window is used to enter the data.

Displayed initially is an empty spreadsheet with the variable names you have defined appearing as the column headings.

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To enter the first respondent’s data, click the first cell of Gender. Type 0. Press the <Tab> key or right arrow once and the heavy outline moves to the next column. Type in 3.90 and press the <Tab> key. Type in 78 and press the <Tab> key. Type in 0 and press the <Tab> key.

Follow the same procedure along the first row until all eleven data values are entered.

Move back to row 2, column 1 and start to enter the values for interview 2. Press the <Tab> key twice to skip over a column.

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Some people find it easier to enter data by column rather than by row. The method is similar except that you use the down arrow key instead of the <Tab> key.

The <Home> and <End> keys take the cursor to the first or last column of a particular case. <Ctrl + Home> will take you to row 1, column 1, and <Ctrl + End> to the last used cell.

Computing Variables
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To gather up all quantitative in one and verbal subjects in another variable:

You can create a new variable to hold the new recoded values and preserve the original values:

In the Data Editor window click Transform. From the Transform menu click Compute. A dialog box opens up. Enter Quant in Target Variable Function group click All Functions and transferable groups click Mean Press In Numeric expression, this would appear MEAN (?,?) From source list enter A1, A2, A3 separating by commas.

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To gather all the verbal subjects, follow the same procedure by putting ‘Verbal’ in Target Variable Function group click All Functions and transferable groups click Mean Press In Numeric expression, this would appear MEAN (?,?) From source list enter E1, E2, E3 separating by commas.

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Two more columns would be added in Data View: QUANT and Verbal

At this point the DATA would give us an inappropriate result because of the wrong assigning of values in A1, A2, A3, E1, E2 and E3

Modifying Variables
Transform  Recode into different variables

From the Source View, send A1 to Numeric view Enter A11 in Output Variable Press Change

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Press Old and new values and change the written values:

In Old Values enter 2 and in New Values enter 6 and press enter

In the same way substitute:

➢ 5 with 2 ➢ 4 with 3 ➢ 3 with 4 ➢ 2 with 5 ➢ 1 with 6

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Click Continue

Apply the same procedure to produce

➢ A22 from A2 ➢ A33 from A3 ➢ E11 from E1 ➢ E22 from E2 ➢ E33 from E3

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Again Recoding values into a new variable

Use A11, A22, and A33 to make a new variable: QUANT1

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Use E11, E22 and E33 to make another variable: Verbal1

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Two more columns would be added in Data View: QUANT1 and Verbal1

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Creating charts - drawing a scatter plot
A scatter plot graphs one variable against another, and often gives an idea of any associations in the data.

Graph  Legacy Dialogues  Scatter plot  Matrix Scatter

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Enter CGPA, Inter pct, MOIM, Institute, QUANT1 and Verbal1 in Matrix Variables Gender in Set Markers by Press OK

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SCATTER MATRIX
Gender

CGPA

Male Female

Verbal1 CGPA

QUANT1

Instiute

MOIM

Intercept

Intercept

MOIM

Instiute

QUANT1

Verbal1

➢ Double click on the GRAPH to open Chat Editor

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➢ In Chart Editor, click on the icon of fit line

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➢ Click Close

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Gender
M ale Fem ale Fit line for Total

Verbal1 CGPA Intercept M OIM

QUANT1

Instiute

MOIM

Intercept

CGPA

Instiute QUANT1 Verbal1

RESULTS and INTERPRETATIONS
A2: Result (Conclusion) There is a positive correlation between CGPA and Intercept. Interpretation (Discussion) When Inter pct increases, CGPA also increases.

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A3: Result (Conclusion) There is a slightly negative relationship between CGPA and Urdu Medium of Instruction. Interpretation (Discussion) When the ratio of Urdu medium intermediate pass-outs increases, CGPA decreases.

A4: Result (Conclusion) There is a positive correlation between CGPA and Public Institutions. Interpretation (Discussion) When the ratio of Public Institution pass outs increases, CGPA increases.

A5: Result (Conclusion) There is a positive correlation between CGPA and Quantitative Results. Interpretation (Discussion) When marks obtained by students in quantitative subjects increase, CGPA also increases.

A6: Result (Conclusion) There is a positive correlation between CGPA and Verbal Results. Interpretation (Discussion) When marks obtained by students in verbal subjects increase, CGPA also increases.

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CORRELATIONS
The correlations procedure calculates the (Pearson parametric) correlation between variables and is used to measure the strength of linear association between 2variables.

To obtain the Pearson correlation coefficients of CGPA, Inter pct, MOIM, Institute, QUANT and Verbal

Select Analyze  Correlate  Bivariate

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First enter the dependent variable: CGPA Then Independent Variables: Inter pct, MOIM, Institute, QUANT1, Verbal1 Click OK

Correlations
CGPA CGPA Pearson Correlation Sig. (2-tailed) Intercept N Pearson Correlation Sig. (2-tailed) N MOIM Pearson Correlation Sig. (2-tailed) N Instiute Pearson Correlation Sig. (2-tailed) N QUANT1 Pearson Correlation Sig. (2-tailed) N Verbal1 Pearson Correlation Sig. (2-tailed) 38 .593(**) .000 38 -.010 .955 38 .489(**) .002 38 .791(**) .000 38 .419(**) .009 38 .037 .825 38 .422(**) .008 38 .505(**) .001 38 .334(*) .040 38 -.030 .859 38 -.086 .609 38 .228 .168 38 .309 .059 38 .147 .379 38 .309 .059 1 Intercept .593(**) .000 38 1 MOIM -.010 .955 38 .037 .825 38 1 Instiute .489(**) .002 38 .422(**) .008 38 -.030 .859 38 1 QUANT1 .791(**) .000 38 .505(**) .001 38 -.086 .609 38 .309 .059 38 1 Verbal1 .419(**) .009 38 .334(*) .040 38 .228 .168 38 .147 .379 38 .309 .059 38 1

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38 38 ** Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed). * Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (2-tailed)

N

38

38

38

38

VALIDITY COFFICIENTS

RESULTS and INTERPRETATIONS
Result (Conclusion)

rci (38) = .593 ; p<.01
Interpretation (Discussion)

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As ρ<α , we reject Ho, results are highly statistically significant i.e. at 1% level of significance. The sample data supports the alternative hypothesis (HA). I.e. population correlation coefficient is significantly different from zero. (The relationship between the variables in the sample also holds for same variables in the population). To put it in other words we can generalize the sample results for the whole population. In the current situation, the correlation between the CGPA and intermediate percentage for students is .635 which holds for the sample as well for the whole population of students.

Result (Conclusion)

rcm (38) = -.010 ; p>.05
Interpretation (Discussion)

As ρ>α , o we do not reject Ho, the results are not statistically significant at 5% level of significance. The sample data does not support the alternative hypothesis (HA). I.e. the population correlation coefficient is not significantly different from zero. (The relationship between the variables in the sample does not hold for same variables in the population). To put it in other words we cannot generalize the sample results for the whole population. In the current situation, the correlation between the CGPA and Institution for students is -0.10 which only holds for the sample and not for the whole population of students.

Result (Conclusion)

rci (38) = .489; p<.01
Interpretation (Discussion)

As ρ<α , we reject Ho, results are highly statistically significant i.e. at 1% level of significance. The sample data supports the alternative hypothesis (HA). I.e. population correlation coefficient is 2

significantly different from zero. (The relationship between the variables in the sample also holds for same variables in the population). To put it in other words we can generalize the sample results for the whole population. In the current situation, the correlation between the CGPA and intermediate percentage for students is .489 which holds for the sample as well for the whole population of students. Result (Conclusion)

rcq (38) = .791; p<.01
Interpretation (Discussion)

As ρ<α , we reject Ho, results are highly statistically significant i.e. at 1% level of significance. The sample data supports the alternative hypothesis (HA). I.e. population correlation coefficient is significantly different from zero. (The relationship between the variables in the sample also holds for same variables in the population). To put it in other words we can generalize the sample results for the whole population. In the current situation, the correlation between the CGPA and intermediate percentage for students is .791 which holds for the sample as well for the whole population of students.

Result (Conclusion)

rcv (38) = .419; p<.01
Interpretation (Discussion)

As ρ<α , we reject Ho, results are highly statistically significant i.e. at 1% level of significance. The sample data supports the alternative hypothesis (HA). I.e. population correlation coefficient is significantly different from zero. (The relationship between the variables in the sample also holds for same variables in the population). To put it in other words we can generalize the sample results for the whole population. In the current situation, the correlation between the CGPA and intermediate percentage for students is .419 which holds for the sample as well for the whole population of students.

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Mean and Standard Deviation
Select Analyze  Correlate  Bivariate  Options  Means and Standard Deviations  Continue

Descriptive Statistics

Mean

Std. Deviation

N

CGPA

3.2439

.41850

38

Intercept

73.03

6.780

38

MOIM

.11

.311

38

Institute

1.29

.460

38

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QUANT1

4.1535

1.29817

38

Verbal1

4.6316

.68790

38

RESULTS and INTERPRETATIONS
A2: Result (Conclusion) When mean of Intercept is 73.04, mean CGPA is 3.2439. Interpretation (Discussion) As mean intercept increases, CGPA increases.

A3: Result (Conclusion) When mean of MOIM is .11, mean CGPA is 3.2439. Interpretation (Discussion)

As mean of Urdu MOIM increases, CGPA decreases.

A4: Result (Conclusion) When mean of Public is 1.29, mean CGPA is 3.2439. Interpretation (Discussion) As mean of Urdu MOIM increases, CGPA decreases.

A5: Result (Conclusion) When mean of Quantitative subjects is 4.15, mean CGPA is 3.2439. 1

Interpretation (Discussion) As mean of Quantitative subjects increases, CGPA increases.

A6: Result (Conclusion) When mean of Verbal subjects is 4.63, mean of CGPA is 3.2439. Interpretation (Discussion) As mean of verbal subjects’ increases, CGPA increases.

Measurements According to Gender
Data  Split File  Compare Groups

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Select Gender from source list Press Click OK

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SCATTER MATRIX for Males
Graph  Legacy Dialogues  Scatter plot  Matrix Scatter

Gender: Male

CGPA

Gender
Male Fit line for Total

Verbal1 CGPA

QUANT1

Instiute

MOIM

Intercept

Intercept

MOIM

Instiute

QUANT1

Verbal1

RESULTS and INTERPRETATIONS

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 A2: Result (Conclusion) There is a positive correlation between CGPA and Intercept.  Interpretation (Discussion) When Inter pct of male students increases, CGPA also increases.

 A3: Result (Conclusion) There is a slightly negative relationship between CGPA and Urdu Medium of Instruction.  Interpretation (Discussion) When the ratio of Urdu medium intermediate pass-outs of males increases, CGPA decreases.

 A4: Result (Conclusion) There is a positive correlation between CGPA and Public Institutions.  Interpretation (Discussion) When the ratio of Public Institution pass outs of males increases, CGPA increases.

 A5: Result (Conclusion) There is a positive correlation between CGPA and Quantitative Results.  Interpretation (Discussion) When marks obtained by male students in quantitative subjects increase, CGPA also increases.

 A6: Result (Conclusion) There is a positive correlation between CGPA and Verbal Results.  Interpretation (Discussion) When marks obtained by male students in verbal subjects increase, CGPA also increases.

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SCATTER MATRIX for Females

Gender: Female

CGPA

Gender
Female Fit line for Total

Verbal1 CGPA

QUANT1

Instiute

MOIM

Intercept

Intercept

MOIM

Instiute QUANT1 Verbal1

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RESULTS and INTERPRETATIONS
 A2: Result (Conclusion) There is a positive correlation between CGPA and Intercept.  Interpretation (Discussion) When Inter pct of female students increases, CGPA also increases.

 A3: Result (Conclusion) There is a negative relationship between CGPA and Urdu Medium of Instruction.  Interpretation (Discussion) When the ratio of Urdu medium intermediate pass-outs of females increases, CGPA decreases.

 A4: Result (Conclusion) There is a positive correlation between CGPA and Public Institutions.  Interpretation (Discussion) When the ratio of Public Institution pass outs of females increases, CGPA increases.

 A5: Result (Conclusion) There is a positive correlation between CGPA and Quantitative Results.  Interpretation (Discussion) When marks obtained by female students in quantitative subjects increase, CGPA also increases.

 A6: Result (Conclusion) There is a positive correlation between CGPA and Verbal Results.  Interpretation (Discussion) 3

When marks obtained by female students in verbal subjects increase, CGPA also increases.

CORRELATION According to Gender
Correlations
Gender CGPA Intercept MOIM Institute QUANT1 Verbal1

Male

CGPA

Pearson Correlation

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.635(**)

.052

.558(*)

.675(**)

.598(**)

Sig. (2-tailed)

.003

.833

.013

.002

.007

N

19

19

19

19

19

19

Intercept

Pearson Correlation

.635(**)

1

.058

.557(*)

.448

.505(*)

Sig. (2-tailed)

.003

.812

.013

.054

.027

N

19

19

19

19

19

19

MOIM

Pearson Correlation

.052

.058

1

.018

-.154

.400

Sig. (2-tailed)

.833

.812

.941

.530

.089

N

19

19

19

19

19

19

Institute

Pearson Correlation

.558(*)

.557(*)

.018

1

.282

.398

Sig. (2-tailed)

.013

.013

.941

.242

.091

N

19

19

19

19

19

19

1

QUANT1

Pearson Correlation

.675(**)

.448

-.154

.282

1

.486(*)

Sig. (2-tailed)

.002

.054

.530

.242

.035

N

19

19

19

19

19

19

Verbal1

Pearson Correlation

.598(**)

.505(*)

.400

.398

.486(*)

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Sig. (2-tailed)

.007

.027

.089

.091

.035

N Female CGPA Pearson Correlation Sig. (2-tailed) N Intercept Pearson Correlation Sig. (2-tailed) N MOIM Pearson Correlation Sig. (2-tailed) N Institute Pearson Correlation Sig. (2-tailed) N QUANT1 Pearson Correlation Sig. (2-tailed) N Verbal1 Pearson Correlation Sig. (2-tailed) N ** Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed). * Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (2-tailed).

19 1 19 .505(*) .027 19 -.088 .719 19 .363 .127 19 .952(**) .000 19 .184 .451 19

19 .505(*) .027 19 1 19 .008 .973 19 .104 .671 19 .597(**) .007 19 .085 .730 19

19 -.088 .719 19 .008 .973 19 1 19 -.118 .631 19 -.017 .946 19 .062 .800 19

19 .363 .127 19 .104 .671 19 -.118 .631 19 1 19 .368 .121 19 -.360 .130 19

19 .952(**) .000 19 .597(**) .007 19 -.017 .946 19 .368 .121 19 1 19 .118 .630 19

19 .184 .451 19 .085 .730 19 .062 .800 19 -.360 .130 19 .118 .630 19 1 19

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VALIDITY COFFICIENTS

RESULTS and INTERPRETATIONS for Males
Result (Conclusion)

rci (19) = .635 ; p<.01

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Interpretation (Discussion) As ρ<α , we reject Ho, results are highly statistically significant i.e. at 1% level of significance. The sample data supports the alternative hypothesis (HA). I.e. population correlation coefficient is significantly different from zero. (The relationship between the variables in the sample also holds for same variables in the population). To put it in other words we can generalize the sample results for the whole population. In the current situation, the correlation between the CGPA and intermediate percentage for male students is .635 which holds for the sample as well for the whole population of male students.

Result (Conclusion)

rcm (19) = .052; p>.05

Interpretation (Discussion) As ρ>α , o we do not reject Ho, the results are not statistically significant at 5% level of significance. The sample data does not support the alternative hypothesis (HA). I.e. the population correlation coefficient is not significantly different from zero. (The relationship between the variables in the sample does not hold for same variables in the population). To put it in other words we cannot generalize the sample results for the whole population. In the current situation, the correlation between the CGPA and Institution for male students is 0.5 which only holds for the sample and not for the whole population of male students.

Result (Conclusion)

rci (19) = .558 ; p<.05

3

Interpretation (Discussion) As ρ<α , we reject Ho, results are statistically significant i.e. at 5% level of significance. The sample data supports the alternative hypothesis (HA). I.e. population correlation coefficient is significantly different from zero. (The relationship between the variables in the sample also holds for same variables in the population). To put it in other words we can generalize the sample results for the whole population. In the current situation, the correlation between the CGPA and intermediate percentage for male students is .558 which holds for the sample as well for the whole population of male students.

Result (Conclusion)

rcq (19) = .675; p<.01

Interpretation (Discussion) As ρ<α , we reject Ho, results are highly statistically significant i.e. at 1% level of significance. The sample data supports the alternative hypothesis (HA). I.e. population correlation coefficient is significantly different from zero. (The relationship between the variables in the sample also holds for same variables in the population). To put it in other words we can generalize the sample results for the whole population. In the current situation, the correlation between the CGPA and intermediate percentage for male students is .675 which holds for the sample as well for the whole population of male students.

Result (Conclusion)

rcv (19) = .598; p<.01

Interpretation (Discussion) As ρ<α , we reject Ho, results are highly statistically significant i.e. at 1% level of significance. The sample data supports the alternative hypothesis (HA). I.e. population correlation coefficient is significantly different from zero. (The relationship between the variables in the sample also holds for 1

same variables in the population). To put it in other words we can generalize the sample results for the whole population. In the current situation, the correlation between the CGPA and intermediate percentage for male students is .598 which holds for the sample as well for the whole population of male students.

2

RESULTS and INTERPRETATIONS for Females
Result (Conclusion)

rci (19) = .505 ; p<.05

Interpretation (Discussion) As ρ<α , we reject Ho, results are statistically significant i.e. at 5% level of significance. The sample data supports the alternative hypothesis (HA). I.e. population correlation coefficient is significantly different from zero. (The relationship between the variables in the sample also holds for same variables in the population). To put it in other words we can generalize the sample results for the whole population. In the current situation, the correlation between the CGPA and intermediate percentage for female students is .505 which holds for the sample as well for the whole population of female students.

Result (Conclusion)

rcm (19) = -.088 ; p>0.5

Interpretation (Discussion) As ρ>α , o we do not reject Ho, the results are not statistically significant at 5% level of significance. The sample data does not support the alternative hypothesis (HA). I.e. the population correlation coefficient is not significantly different from zero. (The relationship between the variables in the sample does not hold for same variables in the population). To put it in other words we cannot generalize the sample results for the whole population. In the current situation, the correlation between the CGPA and Institution for female students is -.088 which only holds for the sample and not for the whole population of female students.

1

Result (Conclusion)

rci (19) = .363 ; p>.05

Interpretation (Discussion) As ρ>α , o we do not reject Ho, the results are not statistically significant at 5% level of significance. The sample data does not support the alternative hypothesis (HA). I.e. the population correlation coefficient is not significantly different from zero. (The relationship between the variables in the sample does not hold for same variables in the population). To put it in other words we cannot generalize the sample results for the whole population. In the current situation, the correlation between the CGPA and Institution for female students is .363 which only holds for the sample and not for the whole population of female students.

Result (Conclusion)

rcq (19) = .952; p<.01

Interpretation (Discussion) As ρ<α , we reject Ho, results are statistically significant i.e. at 1% level of significance. The sample data supports the alternative hypothesis (HA). I.e. population correlation coefficient is significantly different from zero. (The relationship between the variables in the sample also holds for same variables in the population). To put it in other words we can generalize the sample results for the whole population. In the current situation, the correlation between the CGPA and intermediate percentage for female students is .952 which holds for the sample as well for the whole population of female students.

Result (Conclusion)

rcv (19) =.184; p>.05

1

Interpretation (Discussion) As ρ>α , o we do not reject Ho, the results are not statistically significant at 5% level of significance. The sample data does not support the alternative hypothesis (HA). I.e. the population correlation coefficient is not significantly different from zero. (The relationship between the variables in the sample does not hold for same variables in the population). To put it in other words we cannot generalize the sample results for the whole population. In the current situation, the correlation between the CGPA and Institution for female students is .184 which only holds for the sample and not for the whole population of female students.

MEAN AND Standard Deviation According to Gender
Descriptive Statistics Gender Male Mean 3.2858 73.68 .11 1.47 4.2456 4.7193 3.2021 72.37 .11 1.11 4.0614 4.5439 Std. Deviation .47080 7.945 .315 .513 1.32796 .68730 .36698 5.520 .315 .315 1.29721 .69576 N 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19

CGPA Intercept MOIM Institute QUANT1 Verbal1

Female

CGPA Intercept MOIM Institute QUANT1 Verbal1

RESULTS and INTERPRETATIONS for Males

 A2: Result (Conclusion) When mean of Intercept is 73.68, mean CGPA is 3.2858
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 Interpretation (Discussion) As mean intercept increases, CGPA increases.

 A3: Result (Conclusion) When mean of MOIM is .11, mean CGPA is 3.2858  Interpretation (Discussion) As mean Urdu MOIM increases, CGPA decreases.

 A4: Result (Conclusion) When mean of Institution is 1.47, mean of CGPA is 3.2858  Interpretation (Discussion) As mean of Urdu MOIM increases, CGPA decreases.  A5: Result (Conclusion) When mean of Quantitative subjects is 4.24, mean CGPA is 3.2858  Interpretation (Discussion) As mean of Quantitative subjects increases, CGPA increases

 A6: Result (Conclusion) When mean of Verbal subjects is 4.63, mean of CGPA is 3.2858  Interpretation (Discussion) As mean of verbal subjects’ increases, CGPA increases

RESULTS and INTERPRETATIONS for Females
 A2: Result (Conclusion)
1

When mean of Intercept is 72.47, mean CGPA is 3.202  Interpretation (Discussion) As mean intercept increases, CGPA increases.

 A3: Result (Conclusion) When mean of MOIM is .11, mean of CGPA is 3.202  Interpretation (Discussion) As mean of MOIM increases, CGPA decreases.  A4: Result (Conclusion) When mean of Public is 1.11, mean of CGPA is 3.202  Interpretation (Discussion) As mean of Urdu MOIM increases, CGPA decreases.  A5: Result (Conclusion) When mean of Quantitative subjects is 4.06, mean of CGPA is 3.202  Interpretation (Discussion) As mean of Quantitative subjects increases, CGPA increases

 A6: Result (Conclusion) When mean of Verbal subjects is 4.54, mean of CGPA is 3.202  Interpretation (Discussion) As mean of verbal subjects increase, CGPA increases

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