# EINSTEIN

COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING
Sir.C.V.Raman Nagar, Tirunelveli-12

Department of Mechanical Engineering
ME57- Dynamics lab

Name Reg No Branch Year & Semester

: ……………………………………… : ……………………………………… : ……………………………………… : ………………………………………

Sub Code: ME57 Dynamics Lab

Sl.No

Date of Experiment

Name of the Experiment

Page No

Marks

Staff Initial

Remarks

1

Determination of speed and sensitivity for watt governor

2

Determination of speed and sensitivity for proell governor

3

Determination of speed and sensitivity for porter governor

4

Determination of speed and sensitivity for hardnell governor

5

Determination of moment of inertia by oscillation method

6 Cam study model

7

Determination of whirling speed of shaft

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Sub Code: ME57 Dynamics Lab 8 Balancing of rotating mass

9

Verification of gyroscopic relation

10

Study on balancing of reciprocating mass

11

Determination of natural frequency in vibrating table

12

Multi degree of freedom suspension

13

Determination of natural frequency of transverse vibration

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Sub Code: ME57 Dynamics Lab DETERMINATION OF SPEED AND SENSITIVITY FOR WATT GOVERNOR DATE: EXP NO: 1 Aim: To determine the speed and sensitivity of the Watt Governor. Apparatus Required: 1.Watt governor set up. 2.tachometer 3.dimmer Formula: 1. Speed, N = √(895/h) rpm h-sleeve lift 2. Sensitivity= N/N2-N1 N2-Maximum speed N-Mean speed Procedure: 1. The watt governor assembly is mounted over the spindle. 2. The motor is started and speed is adjusted. Speed is measured with the help of tachometer. 3. Due to this centrifugal force the sleeve will be rise, the speed and the sleeve height are noted. 4. By using the formula the speed of the governor is calculated. 5. The experiment is repeated at different speed and force. N1-Minimum speed

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no Motor speed (rpm) Sleeve lift (h) (mm) Governor speed (N) (rpm) Calculation: Page 4 of 42 ©Einstein College of Engineering .Sub Code: ME57 Dynamics Lab Tabulation: Sl.

Page 5 of 42 ©Einstein College of Engineering .Sub Code: ME57 Dynamics Lab Questions: 1) What is watt governor? 2) Difference between function of flywheel and governor? 3) What are the limitations of watt governor? 4) Explain working principle of watt governor? 5) What is height of a watt governor? Result: At different motor speed the sleeve lift are noted and corresponding governor speed and sensitivity are calculated.

Dimmer.092 kg. 3. the speed and the sleeve height are noted.Sub Code: ME57 Dynamics Lab DETERMINATION OF SPEED AND SENSITIVITY FOR PROELL GOVERNOR Date: Exp No:2 Aim: To determine the speed and sensitivity of the proell Governor. 5. Page 6 of 42 ©Einstein College of Engineering . Where. The experiment is repeated at different speed and force. h-sleeve lift Sensitivity=N/N2-N1 N2-Maximum speed N-Mean speed N1-Minimum speed Procedure: 1.57. M-mass of the sleeve assembly=2.Proell governor. 2.25kg m-mass of the ball = 0. Formula: N = √ FM/BM x (m+M/m) x 895/h. Speed is measured with the help of tachometer.Tachometer. Apparatus Required: 1. By using the formula the speed of the governor is calculated. Due to this centrifugal force the sleeve will be rise. 2. FM/BM-proell link ratio =0. 4. 3. The motor is started and speed is adjusted. The proell governor assembly is mounted over the spindle.

Sub Code: ME57 Dynamics Lab Tabulation: Sl.NO MOTOR SPEED (rpm) SLEEVE LIFT(h) (mm) GOVERNORSPEED( N) rpm Calculation: Page 7 of 42 ©Einstein College of Engineering .

Page 8 of 42 ©Einstein College of Engineering .Sub Code: ME57 Dynamics Lab Questions: 1) Explain proell governor working principle? 2) What is controlling force? 3) Explain the term “power of governor”? 4) Explain the term “Hunting of governor”? 5) Why is it that the speed ranges of a proell governor less than that of porter governor? Result: At different motor speed the sleeve lift are noted and corresponding governor speed and sensitivity are calculated.

The experiment is repeated at different speed and force.Sub Code: ME57 Dynamics Lab DETERMINATION OF SPEED AND SENSITIVITY FOR PORTER GOVERNOR Date: Exp No:3 Aim: To determine the speed and sensitivity of the porter governor. 3. 3. Sensitivity= N/N2-N1 N-Mean speed N1-Minimum speed Procedure: 1. Formula: 1. 2. Due to this centrifugal force the sleeve will be rise. 4. Dimmer. Tachometer. M-mass of the sleeve assembly =2.25 kg m-mass of the each ball=0. Apparatus required: 1. 2. The motor is started and speed is adjusted. Speed is measured with the help of tachometer.225 kg 2. N2-Maximum speed h-sleeve lift Page 9 of 42 ©Einstein College of Engineering . By using the formula the speed of the governor is calculated. the speed and the sleeve height are noted. Governor speed n = √ (m+M/m) * (895/h) rpm. The porter governor assembly is mounted over the spindle. Porter governor. 5.

Sub Code: ME57 Dynamics Lab Tabulation: S.No Motor Speed (rpm) (mm) (rpm) Sleeve Lift (h) Governor speed (N) Calculation: Page 10 of 42 ©Einstein College of Engineering .

Sub Code: ME57 Dynamics Lab Question: 1) Explain working principle of porter governor? 2) Explain the terms stable and unstable of governor? 3) What is spring controlled governor? 4) Define power of porter governor? 5) What is effort of porter governor? Result: At different motor speed the sleeve lift are noted and corresponding governor speed and sensitivity are calculated. Page 11 of 42 ©Einstein College of Engineering .

Sensitivity= N/N2-N1 N-Mean speed N1-Minimum speed N2-Maximum speed Procedure: 1. Due to this centrifugal force the sleeve will be rise. The experiment is repeated at different speed and force. Formula: 1. The porter governor assembly is mounted over the spindle. the speed and the sleeve height are noted. The motor is started and speed is adjusted. Apparatus Required: 1. Hart Nell governor 2. M-mass of the sleeve assembly =2. 5. 3. By using the formula the speed of the governor is calculated. Tachometer.225 kg h-sleeve lift 2. Dimmer.Sub Code: ME57 Dynamics Lab DETERMINATION OF SPEED AND SENSITIVITY FOR HART NELL GOVERNOR Date: Exp No:4 Aim: To determine the speed and sensitivity of the Hart Nell governor.25 kg m-mass of the each ball=0. 3. 2. 4. Speed is measured with the help of tachometer. Governor speed n = √ (m+M/m) * (895/h) rpm. Page 12 of 42 ©Einstein College of Engineering .

No Motor Speed (rpm) Sleeve Lift (h) (mm) Governor speed (N) (rpm) Calculation: Page 13 of 42 ©Einstein College of Engineering .Sub Code: ME57 Dynamics Lab Tabulation: Sl.

Sub Code: ME57 Dynamics Lab Question: 1) Compare gravity-controlled and spring controlled governor? 2) Working principle of hartnell governor? 3) What is sensitiveness of a governor? 4) Types of spring controlled governor? 5) Define centrifugal governor? Result: At different motor speed the sleeve lift are noted and corresponding governor speed and sensitivity are calculated. Page 14 of 42 ©Einstein College of Engineering .

Connecting rod. 2.Sub Code: ME57 Dynamics Lab DETERMINATION OF MOMENT OF INERTIA BY OSCILATION Date: Exp No:5 Aim: To determine the moment of inertia by oscillation method. 4. Chucks Formula Used: 1.79x1011 l-Length of the connecting rod 3. Polar moment of inertia (J) = /32xd4 m4 d-dia of the connecting rod ends 2. The connecting rod for which the moment of inertia is to be found is fixed the inner diameter of the rod is measured by various points. Torsional Rigidity (q) =GJ/l N-M G-Modulus of rigidity of material=0. 3. 5. The mean diameter is taken as the diameter of the rod. The same experiment is repeated for various lengths and at different diameter the experiment is done by adding the weight of flywheel and the reading are noted down. kg-m2 Page 15 of 42 ©Einstein College of Engineering . The time taken for the 5 oscillation is noted in the tabular column. Fly wheel 2. The rod is fixed at both at the top of the chuck and the flywheel and the length between two points is measured then a small twist is given to the flywheel and is released. Apparatus Required: 1. Main Frame 4. 2 3. Moment of Inertia (I) =4q/ 2f2 =4qt2p/ Procedure: 1.

Sub Code: ME57 Dynamics Lab Tabulation: Length of rod (mm) Diameter of rod (mm) Moment of inertia Kg-m2 Sl.no End position N T (sec) tp = t/n Calculation: Page 16 of 42 ©Einstein College of Engineering .

Page 17 of 42 ©Einstein College of Engineering .Sub Code: ME57 Dynamics Lab Questions: 1) What is polar moment of inertia? 2) What is big end & small end? 3) What is the function of connecting rod? 4) What is “co-efficient of fluctuation of speed”? 5) What is mass moment of inertia? Result: Thus the moment of inertia of the given rod is calculated and tabulated.

Fit graph paper on drum. 4. APPARATUS REQUIRED: 1) Experimental setup 2) Flat.Taka a paper of size 40cm x 15cm. set ‘0’ as a starting point to lift.Compare solution obtained by graphical. 3. 2.Take height of lift as10cm. 5. Roller. use scale for x-axis as 1cm = 10 of rotation of cam.Sub Code: ME57 Dynamics Lab CAM STUDY MODEL Date: Exp No:6 AIM: To draw the displacement diagram for various cam profile and various followers.Give gradual rotation to complot displacement diagram on graph. Knife edge follower 3) Cams PROCEDURE: 1. Do this for other cam profile and follower. 6. Page 18 of 42 ©Einstein College of Engineering . Plot displacement diagram for given cam profile.

Sub Code: ME57 Dynamics Lab Tabulation: Roller follower Degree Displacement Mushroom follower Degree Displacement Knife edge follower Degree Displacement Calculation: Page 19 of 42 ©Einstein College of Engineering .

Sub Code: ME57 Dynamics Lab Question: 1) Classification of cams and followers? 2) Types of follower motion? 3) Explain cam function? 4) Define pressure angle? 5) Explain the term “maximum fluctuation of energy”? RESULT: Thus the displacement diagrams are drawn for the given follower and various cams. Page 20 of 42 ©Einstein College of Engineering .

Whirling speed=1/2 √g/ rpm g-gravity 9. Vernier caliper Formula Used: 1. Whirling shaft apparatus 3. First fixing the arrangement. h2-maximum deflection 2. Apparatus required: 1. Tachometer 2. 4. Same procedure repeated using various diameter (4. 5. The shafts are fixed firmly on the suitable bearing and tighten it. Steel rule 4. 3. Various support and bearings. The modes of shaft vibration are noted. Page 21 of 42 ©Einstein College of Engineering . 5. 2. Then the motor is switched on and speed of the motor is increased.81 Procedure: 1. By using the formula the frequency at various vibrations calculated. are selected.6 and 8mm) of shaft. Deflection =h2-h1 cm h1-minimum deflection.Sub Code: ME57 Dynamics Lab DETERMINATION OF WHIRLING SPEED OF THE SHAFT Date: Exp No:7 Aim: To determine the whirling speed of a shaft at various supporting condition.

No Diameter of shaft (mm) Length of shaft (cm) Speed (N) rpm Weight of the shaft per unit length (w) h1 (cm) h2 (cm) δ (cm) Whirling speed (rpm) Calcultion: Page 22 of 42 ©Einstein College of Engineering .Sub Code: ME57 Dynamics Lab Tabulation: Sl.

Page 23 of 42 ©Einstein College of Engineering .Sub Code: ME57 Dynamics Lab Questions: 1) What is whirling speed? 2) Define amplitude? 3) Define resonance? 4) What is Damper & types of damper? 5) Define degree of freedom? Result: Thus the whirling speed of the various shaft at various end condition are calculated.

Balancing rotary system 2. 4.Now switch on the motor.Fix the masses to the calculated angular displacement using angular scale.Add by changing the mass with different radil and find out the angular displacement among the mass for balancing the system Page 24 of 42 ©Einstein College of Engineering . 5.Sub Code: ME57 Dynamics Lab BALANCING OF ROTATING MASS Date: Exp No:8 Aim: To verify the balancing using the rotating machine element. Masses.Then the mass should be fixed in one side of the stud and its angle to be adjusted with the help of angular scale and its radil can be corrected with the help of vernier caliper. check it out for vibration for running 7.Angular displacement between the masses Is calculated by force diagram through known value of mass and radil.By changing the sped of the motor.To order of the basic operation involved with respect to static balancing as following 2. Procedure: 1. 3. Apparatus required: 1. 6.

No Plane A B C D Mass Radius θ Calculation: Page 25 of 42 ©Einstein College of Engineering .Sub Code: ME57 Dynamics Lab Tabulation: Sl.

Sub Code: ME57 Dynamics Lab Question: 1) What is meant by balancing? 2) What are the types of balancing? 3) What is reference plane? 4) What is turning moment diagram? 5) What is swaying couple? Result: Thus the Balancing Of Rotating Machine Was Verified. Page 26 of 42 ©Einstein College of Engineering .

I = mr2/2 Kg-m2.Weight of the rotor = 7kg.Rotor diameter (d) = 30 cm. Precision ratio (wp) = 2 n/60 rad/ sec.Sub Code: ME57 Dynamics Lab VERIFICATION OF GYROSCOPIC RELATION Date: Exp No:9 Aim: To analysis the gyroscopic effect using the test setup and verify the gyroscopic rules of plane disc.ωP 4. m-mass of the rotor kg 6. Weight 3. 4.Distance of weight pan bolt centre to disc center (l) = 260 mm. Page 27 of 42 ©Einstein College of Engineering . t = wxr Where. Apparatus Required: 1.Rotor thickness (t) = 8cm. 2. Formula Used: 1.ω. Angular velocity (w)=dØ/dt X /180 rad/sec dØ-change in degree dt-time taken in sec 3. 3. r = distance between weight pan centre to disc centre. Tachometer Technical Data: 1. Percentage of error = (T-C)/T X 100. 5. 2. Gyroscopic effect (c) = I. Torque. 2. Gyroscopic setup. w = weight of the rotor.

Take the reading n different load.Switch on the supply. 7. 3.Sub Code: ME57 Dynamics Lab Procedure: 1.Loose the lock screw. Tabulation: Speed Of Disc (rpm) Added weight (gm) dθ (degree) dt (sec) Angular velocity rad/sec (ω) Applied couple on tachometer (Tact) Precision ratio (ωp) rad/sec Gyroscopic Effect c N-m Page 28 of 42 ©Einstein College of Engineering . 8. 5. start the stop watch and note down.Repeat the equipment maintaining load as constant and varying the speed.Angle of precision d i. 9.Watch the particular interval and time.e.Do the calculation. 6. 1kg etc.Add the load as ½ kg. Measured. 2.Set the require speed of the regulator as constant. 4.

Sub Code: ME57 Dynamics Lab Calculation: Page 29 of 42 ©Einstein College of Engineering .

Sub Code: ME57 Dynamics Lab Question: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) Define gyroscopic couple? What is gyroscopic torque? Define Axis of precession & Axis of spinning Explain gyroscopic Effect on naval ship? Explain gyroscopic effect on aero plane? Result: Thus the Gyroscopic relation was verified. Page 30 of 42 ©Einstein College of Engineering .

Combination of both the above cases. Page 31 of 42 ©Einstein College of Engineering . Now the speed is increased and the vibrations are all so noted down. The weights may be added either eccentrically (or) coaxially. 2. Apparatus required: Balancing of reciprocating mass system masses. 4. The speed of the motor is increased due to the unbalanced masses. are observed at the tested speed. diameter at which the weights are added are noted down at different case. the vibration will be created.Some weights are added in opposites direction of crank and the engine run and the vibration. The vibration Is observed. Now the motor is started the vibrations are observed at the tested speed noted in the previous case. Result: The vibrations due the unbalanced forces in the reciprocating masses are studied.Sub Code: ME57 Dynamics Lab STUDY ON BALANCING OF RECIPROCATING MASS Date: Exp No:10 Aim: To study the behavior of vibration due to the unbalanced mass in reciprocating parts. The weights may be added on the piston top. One of the following has to be done to eliminate the unbalance forces 3. The speeds. If still the vibration are observed.The speed is noted down.Initially all weights and bolts are removed then the motor is started. The motor is switched off then some weights added on the piston top. the weight added on piston. Procedure: 1.

3) Then repeat the procedure for different length of beam. Formula Used: Natural Frequency fn=N/T Hz N-No of oscillation T=Time period of 5 oscillations in sec Procedure: Free Vibration: 1) Remove the damper from the experimental setup. mass damper in proper position note down the spring stiffness. Forced Vibration: 1) Fit the spring. Page 32 of 42 ©Einstein College of Engineering . mass of the beam.Sub Code: ME57 Dynamics Lab DETERMINATION OF NATURAL FREQUENCY USING VIBRATING TABLE Date: Exp No:11 Aim: To find natural frequency of free vibration and forced vibration using vibration table. Apparatus Required: 1) Spring 2) mass 3) damper 4) stopwatch 5) steel rule. 2) Then strike the beam by taken 5 oscillation time required. using stop watch note down 5 oscillation time for small jerk. 2) The electrical motor is switched ON. length of the beam from one tunion point and measure the exciter mass. 3) Repeat the procedure for different length of beam to adjust the beam set up.

Sub Code: ME57 Dynamics Lab Tabulation: Free vibration: Time required to complete one set of oscillation (sec) Sl.No Vibration Exciter position No of oscillation Frequency (Hz) Speed (rpm) Page 33 of 42 ©Einstein College of Engineering .No Vibration Exciter position No of oscillation Time period ’T’ Frequency (Hz) Forced Vibration: Time period(T) (sec) S.

Sub Code: ME57 Dynamics Lab Calculation: Page 34 of 42 ©Einstein College of Engineering .

Sub Code: ME57 Dynamics Lab Question: 1) What are different types of vibrating motions? 2) Define free vibration& forced vibration? 3) What is damping? 4) Define D’Alemberts principle? 5) Define critical speed? Result: Thus the natural frequency of free and forced vibration using vibrating tale was found. Page 35 of 42 ©Einstein College of Engineering .

81) Page 36 of 42 ©Einstein College of Engineering .ab/l 3) Moment of Inertia I=mk2 kg-m2 Where.r2/l 2) Moment of inertia I=mk2 kg-m2 Where. N-No of oscillation Fn-Natural Frequency in Hz ab-Distance between two nodes l-length of the thread T-Time taken for 5 oscillations in sec k-Radius of gyration M-mass of the bifiller plate Trifiller: 1) Radius of gyration k=1/2 fnx√g. r-Radius of the Trifiller m-mass of the trifiller g-Gravity (9. Apparatus required: 1) Bifilar and trifler setup 3) Different weight of cycle 2) stopwatch 4) steel rule Formula Used: Bifiller: 1) Natural Frequency fn=N/T Hz 2) Radius of Gyration k=1/2 fnx√g.Sub Code: ME57 Dynamics Lab MULTI DEGREE OF FREEDOM SUSPENSON Date: Exp No:12 Aim: To find out the mass moment of inertia of any irregular section.

5) Repeat the experiment by adding weight and checking length.NO Types of Suspensio n Self weight (kg) No. 4) Give small horizontal twist at the same time start the stop watch and note down time required for five (or) ten oscillation. of oscilla tion Time Taken sec weight added (gm) Natural frequency (fn) Hz Page 37 of 42 ©Einstein College of Engineering . 3) Adjust the length of spring to descry the value (or) measure length on it. 2) With the help of spring chucks lighter at tops.Sub Code: ME57 Dynamics Lab Procedure: 1) Select either of bifilar (or) trifler plates. Tabulation: Radius of gyration K (m) Moment of Inertia I (Kg-m2) S.

Sub Code: ME57 Dynamics Lab Calculation: Page 38 of 42 ©Einstein College of Engineering .

Page 39 of 42 ©Einstein College of Engineering .Sub Code: ME57 Dynamics Lab Questions: 1) Explain laws of motion? 2) What is free body diagram? 3) What is static& dynamic force Analysis? 4) Define simple harmonic motion? 5) Define crank pin effort & piston effort? Result: Thus the MI of irregular section find out.