MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT THAPAR UNIVERSITY

EXPERIMENT No. 3: ELECTRICAL COMPARATOR

OBJECT:
Study and use of an electrical (LVDT) comparator for inspecting the given specimens.

APPARATUS:
Electrical Comparator (LVDT), Slip Gauges/Master Component.

DESCRIPTION
Electrical comparator converts mechanical displacement into electrical signal and the electrical signal back to mechanical displacement. Linear variable differential transformer (LVDT) is the most popular electro- mechanical device used to convert mechanical distance into electrical signal. It, in effect, is a transformer consisting of three symmetrical spaced coils carefully wound on an insulated bobbin. It works on mutual inductance principle and consists of a primary coil wound on an insulating form (bobbin) and two identical secondaries connected externally in a series opposition circuit. Electrical comparators are also known as electro-mechanical measuring system as they employ an electro-mechanical device which converts a mechanical displacement into electrical signal. Linear variable differential transformer (LVDT) is the most popular electro-mechanical device used to convert mechanical displacement into electrical signal. It, in effect, is a transformer consisting of three symmetrically spaced coils carefully wound on an insulated bobbin. It works on mutual inductance principle and consists of a primary coil wound on an insulating form (bobbin) and two identical secondaries symmetrically spaced from the primary. AC carrier excitation is applied to the primary and two secondaries are connected externally in a series opposition circuit. The lead wires exit through an opening in the outer shield, usually in the end-cover washers. A cylindrical shield of ferromagnetic material is spun over the metallic end-washer after the windings have been vacuum-impregnated with a potting compound suitable for the application environment. The finished transformer thereafter becomes quite impervious to humidity or ordinary magnetic influences.

2 Phase referenced output voltage of LVDT . 1 Schematic Arrangement of LVDT (core shown in the middle position) Core-on extreme leftside Null Position Fig. 3 Absolute value of output voltage of LVDT Fig.Fig.

Fig.5 Exploded View of LVDT . 4 Electrical Comparator Secondary Coil 1 Primary Coil Secondary Coil 2 Fig.

3. Now the specimen is kept on the anvil. Also the tolerance is set on the instrument (as per the tolerance allowed on the component to be inspected). For off center displacements within linear range of operation. There is a non-contacting magnetic core. Work piece surface should not be touched by hands. 4. Stylus should be properly placed on master work piece/slip gauges. There should be proper zero setting of the apparatus. and the net output will be zero.It also becomes extremely rugged and reliable. If the core is centered in the middle of the two secondary windings. and a differential voltage will appear across the secondaries in series. PROCEDURE: First of all. then voltage induced in each secondary winding will be identical and 1800 out-of-phase. 2. which determines the voltage induced from the primary to each secondary. the specimen should be accepted. If the core is moved off the middle position. the output is essentially a linear function of core displacement from null position. The plunger is brought in contact with the specimen to take the readings. made from a uniformly dense cylinder of nickel-iron alloy. It moves in the centre of these coils wound on the insulating form and motion of this core varies the mutual inductance of each secondary to the primary. the comparator is standardized (using slip gauges or master component). If the indicator/pointer remains with the tolerance limits set on the instrument. Work should be at room temperature before calibration. PRECAUTIONS: 1. then the mutual inductance of the primary with the secondary will be greater than the other. otherwise it is put in quarantine. carefully annealed to improve and homogenize its magnetic permeability. .

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful