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ABAP Unicode Enable

ABAP Unicode Enable

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ABAP Unicode Enable
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LCM262 Making Programs Unicode Enabled

Contributing Speaker(s) Markus Eble NW Foundation Internationalization, SAP AG Martin Schmidt NW Foundation Internationalization, SAP AG

SAP AG 2007, SAP TechEd ’07 / LCM262 / 2

Learning Objectives As a result of this workshop, you will be able to:
Do the Unicode enabling for your own ABAP programs Understand how to adapt your file and RFC interfaces

SAP AG 2007, SAP TechEd ’07 / LCM262 / 3

Overview ABAP Language Enhancements File Interfaces Communication via RFC Unicode enabling tools

Unicode, one Code Page for all Scripts
Japanese Hebrew Greek Taiwanese Russian Ukrainian And more languages can be supported easily without the need for new code pages or other new methods

Chinese Korean

English
Thai Croatian Czech Hungarian Polish Rumanian Slovakian Slovene

Danish Dutch, German Finnish French, Italian Norwegian Portuguese Spanish Swedish Turkish

SAP AG 2007, SAP TechEd ’07 / LCM262 / 5

Icela

ndic

g.000.000 characters (e.000 characters Hangul Compatibility Surrogate Area Additional 1. SAP TechEd ’07 / LCM262 / 6 .Unicode characters ASCII General Scripts Symbols CJK Ideographs 65. Hong Kong Chinese) SAP AG 2007.

1 character = 2 bytes (surrogate pairs = 2 + 2 bytes) Platform dependent byte order UTF-8 – Unicode Transformation Format. 16 bit encoding Fixed length.4 bytes Platform independent 7 bit US ASCII compatible Character Unicode scalar value U+0061 U+00E4 U+03B1 U+3479 U+2007B SAP AG 2007.. 8 bit encoding Variable length. 1 character = 1. SAP TechEd ’07 / LCM262 / 7 UTF-16 big endian 00 61 00 E4 03 B1 34 79 DA00 DC7B UTF-16 little endian 61 00 E4 00 B1 03 79 34 00DA7BDC UTF-8 61 C3 A4 CE B1 E3 91 B9 F0A081BB a ä ..Representation of Unicode Characters UTF-16 – Unicode Transformation Format.

SAP TechEd ’07 / LCM262 / 8 .Representation of Unicode characters in ABAP Keep existing coding as far as possible Use existing character type for Unicode data Use UTF-16 to keep buffer sizes SAP AG 2007.

T. SAP TechEd ’07 / LCM262 / 9 . N.Transparent Unicode Enabling of R/3 Character Expansion Model Separate Unicode and non-Unicode versions of R/3 1 character = 1 byte (types C. STRING) Non-Unicode kernel Non-Unicode database ABAP ABAP source source NonUnicode R/3 Unicode R/3 1 character = 2 bytes (UTF16). STRING) Unicode kernel Unicode database No explicit Unicode data type in ABAP Single ABAP source for Unicode and non-Unicode systems SAP AG 2007. D. D. T. (types C. N.

ABAP Unicode Enabling – Golden Rule Distinguish character and byte based data 1 Character 1 Byte SAP AG 2007. SAP TechEd ’07 / LCM262 / 10 .

Overview ABAP Language Enhancements File Interfaces Communication via RFC Unicode enabling tools .

SAP TechEd ’07 / LCM262 / 12 .Program Attribute „Unicode checks active“ SAP AG 2007.

Unicode-Enabled ABAP Programs Program attribute „Unicode checks active“ Required to run on a Unicode system Non-Unicode system Attribute set (Unicode enabled) Attribute not set (not Unicode enabled) ok Unicode system ok ok not allowed If attribute is set. additional restrictions: – apply at compile and at run time – apply in Unicode systems and in non-Unicode systems – ensure that program will run on non-Unicode and Unicode systems with (almost) identical behavior SAP AG 2007. SAP TechEd ’07 / LCM262 / 13 .

String operations are only allowed for character-like operands – ABAP types C. N.. T) – X and XSTRING are no longer considered character-like types Byte Processing CONCATENATE xf1 xf2 TO xf3 IN BYTE MODE.. IF cf1 CS cf2. N.Unicode Restrictions – String Processing Character Processing CONCATENATE cf1 cf2 TO cf3.. D.. and T. . IF xf1 BYTE-CS xf2. . D. STRING – Structures consisting only of characters (C. Variants of string operations for byte processing – Addition „IN BYTE MODE“ for statements – Prefix „BYTE-“ for comparison operations Only operands of type X or XSTRING allowed SAP AG 2007. SAP TechEd ’07 / LCM262 / 14 .

. DESCRIBE FIELD fld LENGTH fldlen IN CHARACTER MODE...LENGTH. WRITE: / fld(3). Example FORM write3 USING fld TYPE c. ENDIF. IN (BYTE | CHARACTER) MODE DESCRIBE DISTANCE BETWEEN ...... ENDFORM. IN (BYTE | CHARACTER) MODE.. DATA: fldlen TYPE i.Unicode Restrictions – Length and Distance Determining the Length and Distance Counted in bytes or in characters? Specify! DESCRIBE FIELD. SAP TechEd ’07 / LCM262 / 15 . AND . INTO .. IF fldlen >= 3. SAP AG 2007.

Unicode Restrictions – Access with Offset or Length Access To Structures With Offset/Length Structure must begin with characters Offset/length counted in characters Access only allowed within the character type prefix of a structure N(6) +off(len) C(4) X(3) C(5) ASSIGN fld+off(len) TO . Access must not exceed field boundaries If ASSIGN fails. field-symbol is set to „unassigned“ New ... SAP TechEd ’07 / LCM262 / 16 ... RANGE addition allows the permissible boundaries to be expanded SAP AG 2007.

INCLUDE TYPE t_key as key. INCLUDE TYPE t_rest as rest. SAP TechEd ’07 / LCM262 / 17 . srest = stru+4(20). WRITE: stru-r2. k2(2) TYPE c. r1(10) TYPE c. END OF t_key. TYPES: BEGIN OF t_rest. DATA: skey TYPE t_key. srest = stru-rest. k1(2) TYPE x. k1 k2 key r1 r2 rest Unicode enabled with group names skey = stru-key. Pre-Unicode skey = stru(4).New ABAP Features – Includes with Group Names Symbolic Access to Includes of Structures TYPES: BEGIN OF t_key. WRITE: stru-r2. stru DATA: BEGIN OF stru. DATA: END OF stru. r2(10) TYPE c. srest TYPE t_rest. END OF t_rest. SAP AG 2007.

SAP TechEd ’07 / LCM262 / 18 .New ABAP Features – Golden Rule Think in types Think in semantics Tell the system what you want to do SAP AG 2007.

SAP TechEd ’07 / LCM262 / 19 DATA: BEGIN OF xstru.MOVE MOVE Between Incompatible Structures Matching data layout („fragment views“) required struc1 C(6) N(4) X(3) N(4) I P(8) struc2 C(4) C(3) C(10) C(3) X(3) X(3) C(4) C(4) I I P(8) fragments Example DATA: BEGIN OF cstru. tab(1) TYPE x VALUE '09'. first(10) TYPE c. cstru = xstru. SAP AG 2007. last(10) TYPE c. tab(1) TYPE c. END OF xstru. "Unicode error! . last(10) TYPE c.Unicode Restrictions . first(10) TYPE c. END OF cstru.

New ABAP Features – Import/Export Data Buffer Using fields of type xstring as data containers Writing data to an xstring. DATA: my_buffer TYPE xstring. IMPORT id = fld2 FROM DATA BUFFER buffer.. EXPORT id = data1 TO DATA BUFFER my_buffer. DATA: fld2 TYPE some_type. SAP TechEd ’07 / LCM262 / 20 .. – Data is stored in a platform-independent format – Contents of xstring can be exchanged with any other 6. . . data1 TYPE some_type. ENDFORM..10-system (Unicode and non-Unicode) Reading data from an xstring FORM read_buffer USING buffer TYPE xstring. – Automatic conversion of data during import SAP AG 2007..

Casting to User Defined Types Look at the contents of a field as a value of another type FIELD-SYMBOLS: <f> TYPE any. CREATE CREATE CREATE CREATE DATA DATA DATA DATA dref dref dref dref TYPE TYPE TYPE TYPE sometype. SAP TechEd ’07 / LCM262 / 21 .New ABAP Features – Dynamic Programming Support Creating Data Objects Dynamically Creating and accessing data objects on the heap DATA: dref TYPE REF TO data. STANDARD TABLE OF (typename) "access data object ASSIGN dref->* TO <f>. fld must provide sufficient alignment and length for the given type SAP AG 2007. c LENGTH len. (typename). ASSIGN fld TO <f> CASTING TYPE sometype. ASSIGN fld TO <f> CASTING TYPE (typename).

N.T) (C.T) X X XSTRING XSTRING II F F P P SAP AG 2007.D.D.Generic Types New generic types for parameters and field-symbols Eliminate untyped parameters or field-symbols for improved security and performance SIMPLE SIMPLE CLIKE CLIKE CSEQUENCE CSEQUENCE XSEQUENCE XSEQUENCE NUMERIC NUMERIC C C STRING STRING N N D D T T character-like character-like structures structures (C. SAP TechEd ’07 / LCM262 / 22 .New ABAP Features .N.

g.character like – Can be enhanced – character and numerical type – Can be arbitrarily enhanced Additional checks are done on your ABAP programs (SLIN) and show possible problems in allowed enhancement situations SAP AG 2007.New ABAP Features – Enhancement categorization If you are writing software for others you may have the following Problem Enhancements on structures or tables may affect your coding: – Syntax-/runtime errors – Changed behavior (e. SAP TechEd ’07 / LCM262 / 23 . damaged or changed data) Solution Maintaining the enhancement category in the DDIC: SE11 (Extras -> Enhancement Category) – Can not be enhanced – Can be enhanced .

New ABAP Features – ABAP list programming ABAP lists: Difference between memory and display length ’ ’ Character units in the memory Display columns Non-Unicode Unicode 2 1 1 Display Column 2 2 1 Character SAP AG 2007. SAP TechEd ’07 / LCM262 / 24 .

SAP TechEd ’07 / LCM262 / 25 .New ABAP Features – Different list types Half width (Default) Dynamic Full width SAP AG 2007.

SAP TechEd ’07 / LCM262 / 26 .ABAP list programming – Golden Rules Use ALV Grid and ALV List Explicitely define display length class CL_ABAP_LIST_UTILITIES helps in complex cases SAP AG 2007.

REPLACE cl_abap_char_utilites=>horizontal_tab WITH space INTO text. SAP TechEd ’07 / LCM262 / 27 . U+FFFD in Unicode systems Example CLASS cl_abap_char_utilities DEFINITION LOAD.New ABAP Features – Character Utilities Class CL_ABAP_CHAR_UTILITIES Constant attributes with system specific values charsize length of 1 character in bytes newline cr_lf form_feed horizontal_tab vertical_tab backspace minchar X’00‘ in non-Unicode systems. SAP AG 2007. U+0000 in Unicode systems maxchar X‘FF‘ in non-Unicode systems. DATA: text TYPE string.

SAP TechEd ’07 / LCM262 / 28 .New ABAP Features – Conversion Classes Conversion classes Code page conversion – Unicode / non-Unicode code pages Endian conversion – little endian / big endian byte order Character conversion – Unicode codepoint / ABAP character ABAP Class CL_ABAP_CONV_IN_CE CL_ABAP_CONV_OUT_CE CL_ABAP_CONV_X2X_CE Conversion any code page system code page any code page any code page system code page any code page SAP AG 2007.

Overview ABAP Language Enhancements File Interfaces Communication via RFC Unicode enabling tools .

SAP TechEd ’07 / LCM262 / 30 .File transfer – Golden Rule Know the code page used by the other side or ask the user SAP AG 2007.

SAP TechEd ’07 / LCM262 / 31 .File transfer: Application server Pattern for writing/reading files on the application server: OPEN DATASET IN <mode> MODE TRANSFER/READ CLOSE DATASET SAP AG 2007.

SAP TechEd ’07 / LCM262 / 32 .File transfer: TEXT MODE ENCODING NON-UNICODE TEXT MODE ENCODING NON-UNICODE Allowed types character like Behavior convert text data between system code page and non-Unicode encoding matching to current system language (sy-langu) Usage backward compatible exchange of text data with systems that cannot support UTF-8 SAP AG 2007.

File transfer: TEXT MODE ENCODING NON-UNICODE Example: TEXT MODE NON-UNICODE TEXT MODE NON-UNICODE SY-LANGU 1100 8000 TEXT MODE NON-UNICODE R/3 Enterprise TEXT MODE NON-UNICODE SY-LANGU 1100 8000 R/3 TEXT MODE NON-UNICODE ISO8859-1 SJIS Only part of UC charset supported (possible data loss in the file) Structured data as a whole SAP AG 2007. SAP TechEd ’07 / LCM262 / 33 write field by field = .

File transfer: ENCODING UTF-8 TEXT MODE ENCODING UTF-8 Allowed types character like Behavior convert text data between system code page and UTF-8 encoding Usage loss free exchange of text data SAP AG 2007. SAP TechEd ’07 / LCM262 / 34 .

SAP TechEd ’07 / LCM262 / 35 write field by field = .File transfer: TEXT MODE ENCODING UTF-8 Example: TEXT MODE UTF-8 TEXT MODE UTF-8 TEXT MODE UTF-8 SY-LANGU R/3 Enterprise TEXT MODE UTF-8 TEXT MODE UTF-8 SY-LANGU R/3 ISO8859-1 SJIS Full charset supported (no data loss in the file) Structured data as a whole SAP AG 2007.

SAP TechEd ’07 / LCM262 / 36 . copy bytes between memory and file Usage fix format with defined encoding.File transfer: BINARY MODE BINARY MODE Allowed types binary and character like Behavior no conversion. endian and data structure SAP AG 2007.

Structure information (no layout / alignment problems) UTF-8 based (no data loss) Transport in binary form SAP AG 2007. SAP TechEd ’07 / LCM262 / 37 .File transfer: Using XML Using XML as transport format Use CALL TRANSFORMATION with target data type XSTRING to create an UTF-8 based XML representation of your data.

File transfer: BINARY + Using XML Example: UTF-8 based XML + BINARY MODE CALL TRANSFORMATION + BINARY MODE BINARY MODE + CALL TRANSFORMATION SY-LANGU R/3 Enterprise BINARY MODE + CALL TRANSFORMATION CALL TRANSFORMATION + BINARY MODE SY-LANGU R/3 ISO8859-1 SJIS Full charset supported (no data loss in the file) Structured data SAP AG 2007. SAP TechEd ’07 / LCM262 / 38 .

File transfer: LEGACY MODE LEGACY TEXT/BINARY MODE Allowed types binary and character like Behavior Produce in Unicode system format of non-Unicode convert text data to non-Unicode read/transfer binary data as is Usage backward compatibility with systems that mix binary and character data within a file Difference between TEXT and BINARY LEGACY TEXT MODE adds end of line marker SAP AG 2007. SAP TechEd ’07 / LCM262 / 39 .

Overview ABAP Language Enhancements File Interfaces Communication via RFC Unicode enabling tools .

RFC – Golden Rule Everything Unicode or ensure data fit to receiver SAP AG 2007. SAP TechEd ’07 / LCM262 / 41 .

• UTF-16 big endian • UTF-16 little endian = SAP code page 4102 = SAP code page 4103 Information about the destination is maintained in SM59 special options character width in target system • 1 Byte = non-Unicode • 2 Byte = Unicode SAP AG 2007. SAP TechEd ’07 / LCM262 / 42 .RFC Unicode Unicode R/3 Enterprise R/3 Enterprise In case of an Unicode Unicode combination RFC passes all character data without code page conversion or merely with adaption of the endianness.

RFC passes all character data with code page conversion between Unicode and the old code page. As Unicode is a true superset of any old standard codepage not all Unicode characters can be transfered to the non-Unicode system: Ä ß Ä ß # # # # SAP AG 2007.6C ISO8859-1 In case of an Unicode non-Unicode single code page combination. SAP TechEd ’07 / LCM262 / 43 .RFC Unicode non-Unicode single code page R/3 Enterprise R/3 4.

SAP TechEd ’07 / LCM262 / 44 . Which of the MDMP code pages is chosen depends on the language: Ä ß DE DE JA JA This mechanism is only available for flat tables with language key Ä ß SAP AG 2007.6C ISO8859-1 SJIS In case of an Unicode non-Unicode MDMP combination RFC passes all character data with code page conversion between Unicode and the different old code pages.RFC Unicode non-Unicode MDMP (table with lang key) R/3 Enterprise R/3 4.

Overview ABAP Language Enhancements File Interfaces Communication via RFC Unicode enabling tools .

SAP TechEd ’07 / LCM262 / 46 .Migrating to Unicode Enabled ABAP Step 1 In non-Unicode system Adapt all ABAP programs to Unicode syntax and runtime restrictions Set attribute "Unicode enabled" for all programs Step 2 Set up a Unicode system – Unicode kernel + Unicode database – Only ABAP programs with the Unicode attribute are executable Do runtime tests in Unicode system – Check for runtime errors – Look for sematic errors – Check ABAP list layout with former double byte characters SAP AG 2007.

SAP TechEd ’07 / LCM262 / 47 .Transaction UCCHECK SAP AG 2007.

Step 1 – Unicode Enabling with UCCHECK Use UCCHECK to analyze your applications: Remove errors Inspect statically not analyzable places (optional) – Untyped field symbols – Offset with variable length – Generic access to database tables Set unicode program attribute using UCCHECK or SE38 / SE24 / .g.. Do additional checks with SLIN (e. SAP TechEd ’07 / LCM262 / 48 . matching of actual and formal parameters in function modules) SAP AG 2007..

SAP TechEd ’07 / LCM262 / 49 .UCCHECK – Setting Unicode Flag SAP AG 2007.

Do Runtime tests SAP AG 2007.UCCHECK – Statically Non-Analyzable Places What to do with the places that can only be checked at runtime? Reduce their number – In many cases you can specify the type of parameters and field-symbols – Use generic ABAP types where neccessary – Mark those places that really need untyped parameters due to some kind of generic programming with “#EC * as OK after you did revise them. SAP TechEd ’07 / LCM262 / 50 .

. SAP TechEd ’07 / LCM262 / 51 .Step 2 – Testing Your Application Final tests in the Unicode system Runtime tests. byte or character length) – ABAP list layout can be checked only manually Monitoring of runtime tests: Having test plans is good. – Because the amount of warnings due to statically not analyzable places may be very large.. you cannot type everything. In this case you have to rely on run-time tests. . Runtime tests. knowing the coverage of the test is better: Use the ABAP Coverage Analyzer to monitor runtime tests SAP AG 2007.g. Runtime tests. – Some semantic problems may be seen only in the Unicode system (e.

tell the system what you want Define code page for each communication You can start ABAP Unicode enabling today SAP AG 2007.Summary Distinguish characters and bytes Distinguish characters and display cells Think in types. SAP TechEd ’07 / LCM262 / 52 . think in semantics.

sdn.com/unicode@sap Related SAP Education and Certification Opportunities http://www. Conversion of MDMP Systems to Unicode. Conversion of Single Code Page Systems to Unicode.com/education/ Related Workshops/Lectures at SAP TechEd 2007 LCM211.Further Information SAP Public Web: SAP Developer Network (SDN): www.sap. SAP TechEd ’07 / LCM262 / 53 . Lecture SAP AG 2007.sap.service.sap. Lecture LCM212.com SAP Service Marketplace: www.

develop and test Standard software maintenance Online sessions from SAP TechEd Access to SAP Enterprise Services Workplace for testing Premium presence in forums Purchase the SAP NetWeaver. Development Subscription for individual developers. SAP TechEd ’07 / LCM262 / 54 .SDN Subscriptions Program The SDN Subscriptions Program introduces the SAP NetWeaver. or online at https://www.sdn. Development Subscription today at the SAP Community Clubhouse.sap. patches. Subscription gives you one year access to … SAP NetWeaver platform software. Available for purchase in Germany and the United States.com/irj/sdn/devsub Visit us at the Community Clubhouse. show us you are a subscriber. and updates Development license for SAP NetWeaver to evaluate. and get a gift! SAP AG 2007.

SAP TechEd ’07 / LCM262 / 55 .Q&A THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION ! QUESTIONS – SUGGESTIONS – DISCUSSION SAP AG 2007.

SAP TechEd ’07 / LCM262 / 56 .Exercises SAP AG 2007.

Feedback Please complete your session evaluation. Be courteous — deposit your trash. Thank You ! SAP AG 2007. SAP TechEd ’07 / LCM262 / 57 . and do not take the handouts for the following session.

SAP assumes no responsibility for errors or omissions in this document. or noninfringement. This document is provided without a warranty of any kind.” SAP AG 2007. SAP has no obligation to pursue any course of business outlined in this presentation or to develop or release any functionality mentioned in this presentation. This presentation and SAP's strategy and possible future developments are subject to change and may be changed by SAP at any time for any reason without notice. either express or implied. except if such damages were caused by SAP intentionally or grossly negligent. the implied warranties of merchantability. This presentation is not subject to your license agreement or any other agreement with SAP. fitness for a particular purpose. SAP TechEd ’07 / LCM262 / 58 . including but not limited to.Disclaimer “This presentation outlines our general product direction and should not be relied on in making a purchase decision.

MetaFrame. All Rights Reserved No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or for any purpose without the express permission of SAP AG. Massachusetts Institute of Technology. WebSphere. POWER5. either express or implied. the Adobe logo. Acrobat. or other items contained within this material. System x. Inc. R/3. xSeries. MVS/ESA. POWER5+. Some software products marketed by SAP AG and its distributors contain proprietary software components of other software vendors. OS/390. AIX. IBM. Tivoli. XML. System p. xApp. Microsoft. indirect. Informix. Sweden. S/390. Inc. pSeries. World Wide Web Consortium. SAP assumes no responsibility for errors or omissions in this document. and MultiWin are trademarks or registered trademarks of Citrix Systems. AS/400. product strategy. xApps. Excel. and functionalities of the SAP® product and is not intended to be binding upon SAP to any particular course of business. The statutory liability for personal injury and defective products is not affected. Parallel Sysplex. SAP shall have no liability for damages of any kind including without limitation direct. VideoFrame. This document contains only intended strategies. SAP AG 2007. DB2 Universal Database. copied. i5/OS. and other SAP products and services mentioned herein as well as their respective logos are trademarks or registered trademarks of SAP AG in Germany and in several other countries all over the world. X/Open. including but not limited to the implied warranties of merchantability.. used under license for technology invented and implemented by Netscape. SAP. and PowerPoint are registered trademarks of Microsoft Corporation. SAP NetWeaver. z/OS. OS/400. Windows. System i. System p5. This document is provided without a warranty of any kind. All other product and service names mentioned are the trademarks of their respective companies. ICA. iSeries. SAP has no control over the information that you may access through the use of hot links contained in these materials and does not endorse your use of third-party Web pages nor provide any warranty whatsoever relating to third-party Web pages. DB2. Netfinity. or transmitted in any form or for any purpose without the express prior written permission of SAP AG. mySAP. OSF/1. This limitation shall not apply in cases of intent or gross negligence. Outlook. and Motif are registered trademarks of the Open Group. or non-infringement. Program Neighborhood. HTML. special. Intelligent Miner. fitness for a particular purpose. text. Please note that this document is subject to change and may be changed by SAP at any time without notice. No part of this document may be reproduced. UNIX. MaxDB is a trademark of MySQL AB. PostScript. POWER. The information contained herein may be changed without prior notice. OS/2. System i5. mySAP. XHTML and W3C are trademarks or registered trademarks of W3C ®. Adobe. zSeries. SAP TechEd ’07 / LCM262 / 59 . Data contained in this document serves informational purposes only. Java is a registered trademark of Sun Microsystems. graphics. System z. SAP does not warrant the accuracy or completeness of the information. and/or development. developments. OpenPower and PowerPC are trademarks or registered trademarks of IBM Corporation. or consequential damages that may result from the use of these materials. AFP. National product specifications may vary. and Reader are either trademarks or registered trademarks of Adobe Systems Incorporated in the United States and/or other countries. JavaScript is a registered trademark of Sun Microsystems. links. This document is a preliminary version and not subject to your license agreement or any other agreement with SAP.Copyright 2007 SAP AG. Citrix. Inc.com. System z9. Oracle is a registered trademark of Oracle Corporation. WinFrame. The information in this document is proprietary to SAP.

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