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Hangseok Choi Power Conversion Team

www.fairchildsemi.com

1. Introduction

Growing demand for higher power density and low profile in power converter has forced to increase switching frequency However, Switching Loss has been an obstacle to high frequency operation

High frequency operation

Overlap of voltage and current

Capacitive loss

Reverse recovery loss

2

1. Introduction Resonant converter: processes power in a sinusoidal manner and the switching devices are softly commutated 9 Voltage across the switch drops to zero before switch turns on (ZVS) • Remove overlap area between V and I when turning on • Capacitive loss is eliminated Series resonant converter / Parallel resonant converter 3 .

Introduction Series Resonant (SR) converter Q1 resonant network Ip Vd Lr Lm n:1 Ro + VO Cr Vin Q2 Ids2 The resonant inductor (Lr) and resonant capacitor (Cr) are in series The resonant capacitor is in series with the load 9 The resonant tank and the load act as a voltage dividerÆ DC gain is always lower than 1 (maximum gain happens at the resonant frequency) 9 The impedance of resonant tank can be changed by varying the frequency of driving voltage (Vd) 4 .1.

1. Introduction Series Resonant (SR) converter Advantages 9 Reduced switching loss and EMI through ZVS Æ Improved efficiency 9 Reduced magnetic components size by high frequency operation Drawbacks 9 Can optimize performance at one operating point. but not with wide range of input voltage and load variations 9 Can not regulate the output at no load condition 9 Pulsating rectifier current (capacitor output): limitation for high output current application 5 .

1. Introduction Parallel Resonant (PR) converter Q1 resonant network Ip Vd Llkp Cr n:1 Ro + VO - Vin Q2 Ids2 The resonant inductor (Lr) and resonant capacitor (Cr) are in series The resonant capacitor is in parallel with the load 9 The impedance of resonant tank can be changed by varying the frequency of driving voltage (Vd) 6 .

1. Introduction Parallel Resonant (PR) converter Advantages 9 No problem in output regulation at no load condition 9 Continuous rectifier current (inductor output): suitable for high output current application Drawbacks 9 The primary side current is almost independent of load condition: significant current may circulate through the resonant network. even at the no load condition 9 Circulating current increases as input voltage increases: limitation for wide range of input voltage 7 .

1. Introduction What is LLC resonant converter? 9 Topology looks almost same as the conventional LC series resonant converter 9 Magnetizing inductance (Lm) of the transformer is relatively small and involved in the resonance operation 9 Voltage gain is different from that of LC series resonant converter LC Series resonant converter Q1 LLC resonant converter resonant network Ip Vd Lr Lm n:1 Ro + VO Cr Q1 resonant network Ip Vd Lr Im Lm Cr n:1 ID Ro Io + VO - Vin Q2 Vin Q2 Ids2 Ids2 8 .

integrated transformer is used instead of discrete magnetic components 9 . Introduction Features of LLC resonant converter .1.Zero voltage switching even at no load condition .Reduced switching loss through ZVS: Improved efficiency .Narrow frequency variation range over wide load range .Typically.

Introduction Integrated transformer in LLC resonant converter 9 Two magnetic components are implemented with a single core (use the primary side leakage inductance as a resonant inductor) 9 One magnetic components (Lr) can be saved 9 Leakage inductance not only exists in the primary side but also in the secondary side 9 Need to consider the leakage inductance in the secondary side Q1 Q1 Integrated transformer Ip Vd Llkp Im Lm Cr n:1 Llks ID Ro Io + VO - Vin Vd Q2 Lr Lm Ids2 n:1 ID Ro Io + VO - Vin Q2 Cr Ids2 10 .1.

Q1 and Q2 with alternating 50% duty cycle for each switch.2. Llks. Rectifier network: produces DC voltage by rectifying AC current Ip Im Square wave generator Q1 resonant network Ip Vd Llkp Im Lm Cr n:1 Llks Rectifier network ID Ro Io + VO - Ids2 Vin Q2 ID Vd (Vds2) Vgs1 Vgs2 Vin Ids2 11 . Lm and Cr. The current lags the voltage applied to the resonant network which allows the MOSFET’s to be turned on with zero voltage. Operation principle and Fundamental Approximation Square wave generator: produces a square wave voltage. Resonant network: consists of Llkp. Vd by driving switches.

essentially only sinusoidal current is allowed to flow through the resonant network even though a square wave voltage (Vd) is applied to the resonant network. Thus. Fundamental approximation: assumes that only the fundamental component of the square-wave voltage input to the resonant network contributes to the power transfer to the output.2. Operation principle and Fundamental Approximation The resonant network filters the higher harmonic currents. The square wave voltage can be replaced by its fundamental component I p Vd Resonant net w or k I sec I p Vd Resonant net w or k I sec 12 .

2. The primary side circuit is replaced by a sinusoidal current source (Iac) and a square wave of voltage (VRI) appears at the input to the rectifier. the equivalent load resistance is different from actual load resistance. Operation principle and Fundamental Approximation Because the rectifier circuit in the secondary side acts as an impedance transformer. The equivalent load resistance is obtained as Iac I ac pk Io + + VRI Ro VO - Rac = 8 Vo 8 VRI VRI = = = Ro 2 2 F π Io π I ac I ac F F Iac VRIF VRI Vo I ac = π ⋅ Io 2 sin( wt ) VRI F = 4Vo π sin( wt ) 13 .

ωp = Lr Cr Lp = Lm + Llkp .Lr is measured in primary side with secondary winding short circuited .2.Lp is measured in primary side with secondary winding open circuited 14 . Operation principle and Fundamental Approximation AC equivalent circuit (L-L-L-C) Vd + Cr Llkp Llks + Lm VRI Ro + Vin VO sin(ωt ) VRO 2n ⋅ Vo n ⋅ VRI π M= F = = = F 4 Vin Vd Vd Vin sin(ωt ) π 2 F F 4n ⋅ Vo n:1 = Rac = 8n 2 ω2 ω2 2 jω ⋅ (1 − 2 ) ⋅ ( Lm + n Llks ) + Rac (1 − 2 ) ωo ωp 8n 2 ω 2 Lm Rac Cr π2 Ro n2Llks Rac = Rac π2 Ro 1 L p Cr Cr Llkp Lm VdF VROF ωo = 1 . Lr = Llkp + Lm //(n 2 Llks ) .

Operation principle and Fundamental Approximation Simplified AC equivalent circuit (L-L-C) Vd + Cr Llkp Llks + Lm n:1 2 + Assuming Llkp=n2Llks M= 2n ⋅ VO = Vin Vin VO Ro - VRI - ω2 k ( 2) ωp k +1 ω ω2 ω2 (k + 1) 2 j ( ) ⋅ (1 − 2 ) ⋅ Q + (1 − 2 ) ωo ωo ωp 2k + 1 Lr = Llkp + Lm //(n Llks ) = Llkp + Lm // Llkp L p = Llkp + Lm Cr Lr Lp-Lr 1: Lp L p − Lr Q= Lr / Cr Rac k= Lm Llkp Expressing in terms of Lp and Lr Rac VROF VinF M= .2.Lr is measured in primary side with secondary winding short circuited .Lp is measured in primary side with secondary winding open circuited 2n ⋅ VO = Vin ω 2 Lp − Lr ( 2) Lp ωp Lp ω ω2 ω2 + (1 − 2 ) j ( ) ⋅ (1 − 2 ) ⋅ Q Lr ωo ωo ωp 15 .

peak gain frequency moves to fo and the peak gain drops 1. 6 40 50 60 70 80 90 f r eq ( kH z) 100 110 120 130 140 16 . 2 9 Peak gain frequency exists between fo and fp 9 As Q decreases (as load decreases). 2 1. 8 Q = 0. 9 As Q increases (as load increases). 4 Q = 0. Operation principle and Fundamental Approximation Gain characteristics 9 Two resonant frequencies (fo and fp) exist 9 The gain is fixed at resonant frequency (fo) regardless of the load variation k +1 = k 2. 0 Q=1 M= k +1 = k Lp Lp − Lr 0. 6 1. 8 1. the peak gain frequency moves to fp and higher peak gain is obtained. 8 0.2 Q= Lr / Cr Rac Q= 1 Q = 0. 4 Q = 0. 0 fp LLC r esonant C onver t er fo Q=0.2. 6 G ai n M @ω =ωo = Lp Lp − Lr 1.

0 Peak Gain k=1.4 0.2 1.2.4 2.75 1.2 2.4 1.8 1 1.6 k=2 k=2.2 1 Q 17 .5 1.2 0.5 1.4 k=3 k=4 k=5 k=7 k=9 0. Operation principle and Fundamental Approximation Peak gain (attainable maximum gain) versus Q for different k values 2.8 k=1.6 0.

DC link capacitor of PFC output: 100uF PFC Q1 DC/DC ID Ip Vd Q2 Llkp Im Lm Ids2 Cr Np:Ns Llks VO + Ro VDL CDL 18 .Output: 24V/5A (120W) .Input voltage: 380Vdc (output of PFC stage) .Holdup time requirement: 17ms . Design procedure Design example .3.

Design procedure [STEP-1] Define the system specifications 9 Estimated efficiency (Eff) 9 Input voltage range: hold up time should be considered for minimum input voltage Vin min = VO.3. PFC 2 − 2 PinTHU CDL 19 .

1~1.3. which results in a gain of 1.it is typical to set k to be 5~10.36 for Vinmin Mmin 1.14 k fo fs 20 .14 for Vinmax M= k +1 = 1. Design procedure [STEP-2] Determine the maximum and minimum voltage gains of the resonant network by choosing k ( k = Lm / Llkp ) .2 at fo M min VRO Lm + n 2 Llks Lm + Llkp k + 1 = max = = = Vin Lm Lm k 2 Gain (M) Peak gain (available maximum gain) M max Vin max min = min M Vin Mmax 1.

3. Design procedure [STEP-3] Determine the transformer turns ratio (n=Np/Ns) Vin max n= = ⋅ M min N s 2 (Vo + VF ) Np [STEP-4] Calculate the equivalent load resistance (Rac) 8n 2 Vo 2 Rac = 2 π Po 21 .

With k chosen in STEP-2. read proper Q from gain curves k = 7 . M max = 1.36 peak gain = 1.36 × 110% = 1.3.5 22 . Design procedure [STEP-5] Design the resonant network .

Design procedure [STEP-6] Design the transformer .Plot the gain curve and read the minimum switching frequency. Then.3. the minimum number of turns for the transformer primary side is obtained as N p min = n(Vo + VF ) 2 f s min ⋅ ΔB ⋅ Ae 23 .

3.Gap length of the core does not affect Lr much . Design procedure [STEP-7] Transformer Construction .Since LLC converter design results in relatively large Lr. Lp=998uH 24 .# of turns and winding configuration are the major factors determining Lr . usually sectional bobbin is typically used .Lp can be easily controlled with gap length Np=52T Ns1=Ns2=6T Bifilar Design value: Lr=234uH.

3. Design procedure [STEP-8] Select the resonant capacitor I Cr RMS n(V + 2 ⋅ VF ) 2 ≅ [ ] +[ o ] 2 2n 4 2 f o Lm 2 π Io VCr max Vin max 2 ⋅ I Cr RMS ≅ + 2 2 ⋅ π ⋅ f o ⋅ Cr 25 .

gain equation has been derived Leakage inductance in the secondary side is also considered (L-L-L-C model) for gain equation L-L-L-C equivalent circuit has been simplified as a conventional L-L-C equivalent circuit Practical design consideration has been presented 26 .4. Conclusion Using a fundamental approximation.

Over Current Protection (OCP).Appendix . Internal Thermal Shutdown (TSD) 27 . Abnormal Over Current Protection (AOCP).FSFR-series Variable frequency control with 50% duty cycle for half-bridge resonant converter topology High efficiency through zero voltage switching (ZVS) Internal Super-FETs with Fast Recovery Type Body Diode (trr=120ns) Fixed dead time (350ns) Up to 300kHz operating frequency Pulse skipping for Frequency limit (programmable) at light load condition Simple remote ON/OFF control Various Protection functions: Over Voltage Protection (OVP).

FSFR-series demo board 28 .Appendix .

FSFR-series demo board 29 .Appendix .

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