WR_002_E1 WCDMA Basic Theory

WCDMA Radio Theory
V0507
ZTE University
3G Course Team

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ZTE University

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Course Objectives


Understand Features of Radio propagation
Master radio mechanism of WCDMA

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ZTE University

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Agenda

•Features of Radio propagation
•Radio mechanism of WCDMA

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ZTE University

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Multi-path characteristics of radio channel

Radio wave propagation  reflection, refraction, diffraction, scattering

Signal fading:  long-term fading  short-term fading

Short term fading:  Rayleigh fading (non-line-of-sight (NLOS) )  Ricean fading (LOS paths)

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ZTE University

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Any kind of disclosing without permission is prohibited.cn . ZTE University univ.com.zte.Multipath Propagation Transmit Strength Received Signal 0 Time The information contained in the file is solely property of ZTE corporation.

com.zte. ZTE University univ.cn .Agenda •Features of Radio propagation •Radio mechanism of WCDMA The information contained in the file is solely property of ZTE corporation. Any kind of disclosing without permission is prohibited.

84 Mcps.com. Any kind of disclosing without permission is prohibited.  WCDMA uses the DS-CDMA multiple access method. ZTE University univ.cn .What is WCDMA?  WCDMA:  WCDMA is a wideband code division multiple access communication mode based on direct spreading. The information contained in the file is solely property of ZTE corporation.zte. with a chip rate of 3.

zte. ZTE University univ.com.FDD Mode Principle D D D D D D D U The information contained in the file is solely property of ZTE corporation. Any kind of disclosing without permission is prohibited.cn .

Any kind of disclosing without permission is prohibited. ZTE University univ.TDD Mode Principle D U D D D D D D The information contained in the file is solely property of ZTE corporation.cn .com.zte.

ZTE University univ.cn . TDD  FDD Option allows continuous transmission in both directions  Requires a paired frequency band  Suited for symmetric bandwidth needs  TDD Option same carrier frequency is utilized for uplink/downlink transmission (using time division)  Works with unpaired frequency band  Suited for asymmetric applications  Easier to obtain spectrum The information contained in the file is solely property of ZTE corporation.com. Any kind of disclosing without permission is prohibited.zte.FDD vs.

cn .com.zte.WCDMA data transmission Procedure UE Data Encoding & Interleaving Spreading Modulation RF Transmission Despreading Demodulation RF Receiving Decoding & Deinteleaving ZTE University UE Data The information contained in the file is solely property of ZTE corporation. univ. Any kind of disclosing without permission is prohibited.

cn .zte.com.Channel encoding  Purpose:  Inserting redundant information into data stream to make the detect and correction of transmission error possible. Any kind of disclosing without permission is prohibited. ZTE University univ. Non-coding: BER<10-1 ~ 10-2 Convolutional coding: BER<10-3 Turbo coding: BER<10-6 Unusable Voice services Data services The information contained in the file is solely property of ZTE corporation.

Convolutional encoding and Turbo encoding(1/2. Correct incontinuous error. Increase noneffective load and transmission time.cn . ZTE University univ.com.Principle of channel encoding  Inserting redundant information into original data to make correction. Any kind of disclosing without permission is prohibited.    WCDMA TURBO W W C C D D M MAA T T UURRBBOO S S P P E E AA K K W ?C C D D M M A A T T U ?R R B B O O S S P P E E A ?K K SPEAK The information contained in the file is solely property of ZTE corporation.1/3).zte.

com. Disadvantage:  Bring additional transmission time.cn .g: Input Data A = (x1 x2 x3 x4 x5 … x25) x1 x6 x11 x16 x21 x2 x7 x3 x8 x4 x9 x5 x10 … … … … x22 x23 x24 x25 Output data A’= (x1 x6 x11 x16… x25) The information contained in the file is solely property of ZTE corporation.zte. ZTE University univ.   May transform continuous error into random error. e. Any kind of disclosing without permission is prohibited.Interleaving  Purpose:  Break original data alignment and realign according to new rule to decrease influence of short term fading.

com. ZTE University univ.Encoding and Interleaving WCDMA TURBO WTSWTS Interleaving Encoding W W C C D D M MAA T T UURRBBOO S S P P E E AA K K CUPCUP SPEAK DREDRE MBAMBA AOKAOK Decoding W ? ? C D D M M AA T ? ?URRBBOO S ? ?PEEAA KK WTS??? Deinterleaving ? ? ?CUP DREDRE MBAMBA AOKAOK The information contained in the file is solely property of ZTE corporation. Any kind of disclosing without permission is prohibited.zte.cn .

cn .WCDMA data transmission Procedure UE Data Encoding & Interleaving Spreading Modulation RF Transmission Despreading Demodulation RF Receiving Decoding & Deinteleaving ZTE University UE Data The information contained in the file is solely property of ZTE corporation. Any kind of disclosing without permission is prohibited. univ.zte.com.

ZTE University univ.WCDMA Is a Spread-Spectrum System SPREAD-SPECTRUM SYSTEM Wideband Signal Slow Information Sent TX RX Slow Information Recovered Fast Spreading Sequence Fast Spreading Sequence The information contained in the file is solely property of ZTE corporation.zte. Any kind of disclosing without permission is prohibited.com.cn .

Extend wideband spread De-spread radio channel Noise Transmitter Receiver  User information bits are spread over a wide bandwidth by multiplying high speed spread code(chip) Spreading signal bandwidth wider than original signal bandwidth W=3.zte.cn .84Mchip/s、 Rvoice=12kbit/s  The information contained in the file is solely property of ZTE corporation. Any kind of disclosing without permission is prohibited.com. ZTE University univ.

C is capacity of channel. W N is average power for noise. b/s B is signal bandwidth. W It is the basic principle and theory for spread spectrum communications.zte.cn The information contained in the file is solely property of ZTE corporation. .com. Hz S is average power for signal.Spread Spectrum Principles SHANON Formula C = Blog2(1+S/N) Where. ZTE University univ. Any kind of disclosing without permission is prohibited.

Spread Spectrum Principles Power is “Spread” Over a Larger Bandwidth 30 KHz 5MHz The information contained in the file is solely property of ZTE corporation.zte. Any kind of disclosing without permission is prohibited. ZTE University univ.cn .com.

com. Any kind of disclosing without permission is prohibited.zte.Spread Spectrum Flow S(f) Signal S(f) Signal f0 f f0 f Signal spectrum before spreading Signal spectrum after spreading S(f) Noise S(f) Signal Noise Signal f0 f f0 f Signal spectrum before dispreading Signal spectrum after dispreading Signal Pulse noise noise The information contained in the file is solely property of ZTE corporation. ZTE University univ.cn .

Spreading and Despreading Symbol Data = 010010 Chip 1 -1 Spreading code = 1 -1 -1 1 -1 1 1 -1 ( SF = 8 ) Spread signal = Data × code Spreading 1 -1 1 -1 Despreading Spreading code Data = Spread signal × code 1 -1 1 -1 The information contained in the file is solely property of ZTE corporation. Any kind of disclosing without permission is prohibited. ZTE University univ.cn .com.zte.

zte. ZTE University univ.cn .Spread Spectrum Principles Many code channels are individually “spread” and then added together to create a “composite signal” The information contained in the file is solely property of ZTE corporation. Any kind of disclosing without permission is prohibited.com.

ZTE University univ. Any kind of disclosing without permission is prohibited.zte.cn .com.Spread Spectrum Principles Using the “right” mathematical sequences any Code Channel can be extracted from the received composite signal PG Eb/No UNWANTED POWER FROM OTHER SOURCES The information contained in the file is solely property of ZTE corporation.

De-spreading procedure De-spreading Input signal Ts and output (*)dt 0 Judge Integral Local PN code The information contained in the file is solely property of ZTE corporation. ZTE University univ. Any kind of disclosing without permission is prohibited.zte.com.cn .

zte.com. ZTE University univ.cn .Direct Sequence Code Spreading The information contained in the file is solely property of ZTE corporation. Any kind of disclosing without permission is prohibited.

com.84Mchips/s)  Transmitter/receiver obtain gain after spread/despread  Energy for transmitting signal can be lower than interference and noise  The narrower original signal bandwidth. ZTE University univ.zte.the better The information contained in the file is solely property of ZTE corporation. Any kind of disclosing without permission is prohibited.Spread Gain(process gain) P Processing Gain Despreading W W Processing Gain  R b Rb f  Pg=W/R (W=3.cn . the larger Pg.

Any kind of disclosing without permission is prohibited.cn The information contained in the file is solely property of ZTE corporation.Spread communication procedure in SW Received signal De-spreading Sn iWr i W Filter Sn iWr S: signal i: interference iWr: remained interference PG (Process Gain): PG=Wc/R,Wc: Chip rate,R: data Rate。 The higher the PG. ZTE University univ. . the more anti-interference capability system has.zte.com.

C1.C2.cn .orthogonal [S1xC1+S2xC2]xC2 =S2 The information contained in the file is solely property of ZTE corporation. ZTE University univ. Any kind of disclosing without permission is prohibited.com.Direct spread technique S1 S1xC1 spread W S2XC2 S2 Air-IF air interface S N [S1xC1+S2xC2]xC1 =S1 De-spread (S1xC1)+(S2xC2) S/N > Eb/No Eb/No different For different services and environment C1xC2=0.zte.

Concept of orthogonal code Code1 Code2 +1-1+1+1-1+1-1-1 -1+1+1-1-1+1+1-1 Mul Sum -1-1+1-1+1+1-1+1 0 Orthogonal Orthogonal— the result of multiplying and sum is 0 Code1 Code2 Mul Sum +1-1+1-1-1+1-1-1 +1+1-1+1-1-1+1-1 +1-1-1-1+1-1-1+1 -2 Non-orthogonal The information contained in the file is solely property of ZTE corporation. ZTE University univ. Any kind of disclosing without permission is prohibited.cn .zte.com.

ZTE University univ.84Mcps Chip rate 3.Spreading process of WCDMA Orthogonal Variable Spreading Factor (OVSF) ---Channelization code Scrambling code DATA Symbol rate Chip rate 3. . R: Rate.zte. Any kind of disclosing without permission is prohibited.com.cn The information contained in the file is solely property of ZTE corporation.84Mcps SF( Spreading factor )=Wc /R,Wc: Chip rate.

cn .com.84Mchips/s  scrambling:scramble code  Have no effect on signal bandwidth , downlink for identifier cell , uplink identifier terminal The information contained in the file is solely property of ZTE corporation.Spread code/scramble code cch1 Air interface cch 2 cscrambling Modulation cch 3  spread:spread code  Relative to service rate,extended to 3. Any kind of disclosing without permission is prohibited. ZTE University univ.zte.

com. code resources are mainly divided into channelization codes and scrambling codes. ZTE University univ.  Channelization code:  Channelization codes are based on the orthogonal variable spreading factor (OVSF) technology.zte. which will not change the signal bandwidth. Transmission from a single source are separated by channelization codes.Code Resource Allocation In WCDMA. The information contained in the file is solely property of ZTE corporation.  Scrambling code:  Scrambling codes are used after spreading. Any kind of disclosing without permission is prohibited.cn . They are only used to differentiate different UEs or Node Bs.

does not affect transmission bandwidth Scrambling code Uplink: Separation of terminal Downlink: Separation of sectors (cells) The information contained in the file is solely property of ZTE corporation.com. Any kind of disclosing without permission is prohibited.cn . Downlink: Separation of downlink connections to different users within one cell.zte. Number of codes Number of codes under one scrambling code=spreading factor Code family Orthogonal Variable Spreading Factor Uplink: Several millions Downlink: 512 Long 10ms code: Gold code Short code: Extended S(2) code Spreading Yes.Functionality of the code Channelization code Usage Uplink: Separation of physical data (DPDCH) and control channels (DPCCH) from same terminals. ZTE University univ. increases transmission bandwidth No.

ZTE University univ.com.cn .Code Resource The information contained in the file is solely property of ZTE corporation.zte. Any kind of disclosing without permission is prohibited.

describe channelization code.1.0 = (1.k.4.Channelization Code  Adopt OVSF code  Definition: C ch. . .4.com.-1) C ch.1) C ch.2.SF.1) SF = 1 SF = 2 SF = 4 The information contained in the file is solely property of ZTE corporation.zte.2. ZTE University univ.3 = (1.1) C ch. . 0 < k<SF-1 C ch.cn . .1.1.1.1. .0 =(1.4. Any kind of disclosing without permission is prohibited.2 = (1.1) C ch.0 = (1) C ch.4.1 = (1.1 = (1.1.1.1. .1) C ch.1. SF:spread , k:code number.

ZTE University univ.com. Any kind of disclosing without permission is prohibited.zte.cn .Characteristic of channelization code  Premise of code allocation:  ensure not occupied for the code in the root direction and downwards subtree  Result of code allocation:  block all low rate SC in subtree and high rate in upwards root direction SF=8 SF=16 SF=32 The information contained in the file is solely property of ZTE corporation.

zte.cn .com.Example of Code allocation SF = 4 SF = 8 SF = 16 SF = 32 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Red stand for allocated Green represents those high speed SF codes blocked due to low speed SF codes are allocated Blue represents those low speed SF codes blocked due to high speed SF codes are allocated SF = 4 SF = 8 SF = 16 SF = 32 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 Yellow represents those codes optimum allocated according to SF Principle of code allocation reuse:reduce the blocked code because of code allocation complexity:reduce the number of allocated code ZTE University Select one from three choice The information contained in the file is solely property of ZTE corporation. Any kind of disclosing without permission is prohibited. univ.

cn . Any kind of disclosing without permission is prohibited. The information contained in the file is solely property of ZTE corporation. and physical channels are separated by code  Codes  Channelization codes for separation of physical channels in the uplink an separation of users in the downlink  Scrambling codes for separation of users/terminals in the uplink and cells/sectors in the downlink.Principles of WCDMA  Principle of WCDMA  All users are simultaneously transmitting in the same frequency bands  Each user interferes with each other  Adjacent cells use the same frequencies  Cell.zte.com. ZTE University univ. users (terminals).

com.zte.cn . Any kind of disclosing without permission is prohibited. ZTE University univ.Thanks for your Attention! The information contained in the file is solely property of ZTE corporation.

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