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Sprinkler __irrigation __system __analysis __using __EPANET __2.0 By Gilberto E. Urroz, March 2012 Sprinklers are commonly used to irrigate house yards, parks, or agricultural plots. The network mapped below represents a sprinkler irrigation system for a small park.

The pipes in this network have the following length, diameters, and Hazen-Williams coefficients: ------------------- -------------------Pipe L(ft) D(in) Pipe L(ft) D(in) ------------------- -------------------P1 1000 4 P8 400 2 P2 300 4 P9 400 2 P10 500 4 P3 400 2 P4 400 2 P11 400 2 P5 500 4 P12 400 2 P13 500 4 P6 400 2 P7 400 2 P14 500 4 ------------------- -------------------The pump curve is defined by the following curve: ---------------Q(cfs) hP(ft) ---------------0.00 170 0.67 135 1.00 100 ----------------

All nodes are at zero elevation, while the reservoir R1 has a total head (water surface elevation) of 10 ft. The sprinkler heads located at junctions J6, J7, J8, J9, J10, J11, J12, J13, J14, and J16 have emitter coefficients of 0.04 cfs/(psi)^0.5, except for those at J13 and J14, whose emitter coefficients are 0.05 cfs/(psi)^0.5 Sprinkler heads are represented by junctions, some of which are terminal junctions (e.g., J7, J8, J10, J12, J13, J14, and J15). The discharge, Q, produced by a sprinkler head is related to the local pressure, p, by: Q C E p

In entering data for this network, we select CFS (cubic feet per second) as the default unit of discharge, and H-W (Hazen-Williams) as the friction loss equation to use. The emitter coefficients are entered in the node properties in the proper units, i.e., in this case, in CFS/(ft)^0.5. Irrigation systems are typically operated under steady-state conditions for a given period of time. Thus, for the present case a steady-state solution suffices. The figure below shows the hydraulic grade line elevations at nodes and flow discharges in the pipes for the steady state solution.

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Notice that the suction side of the pump, J1, shows a negative pressure, as expected, whereas the discharge side, J2, shows a positive pressure. Since all elevations are set at the same level (zero), the pressure difference across the pump is related to the pump head as follows: p p J2 J1 hP where is the specific weight of water. Taking this case, is: hP 27.09 psi 62.4 lbf/ft^3, the pump head, in

24.4483 psi , i.e., hP 118.9345 ft , while the lbf 62.4 3 ft pump supplies a total of 0.83 cfs to the irrigation system network. The pressures at the sprinklers vary from 1.25 psi (J10, J12) to 9.08 psi (J7,J8). The following figure shows the node demands, which, in this case, basically represent the sprinkler discharges. The figure also shows the discharge directions in the pipes.

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In most cases, sprinkler irrigation system discharges are given in GPM (gallons per minute) rather than in CFS (cubic feet per second). For practice, you should repeat this exercise using GPS for the default discharge units. The network properties are basically the same except for the emitter coefficient values which should be given in gpm/(psi)^0.5. Thus, the values to use are: 3 ft gal cfs gpm s min 0.04 cfs 1 2 psi 17.9532 gpm 1 2 psi 0.05 cfs 1 2 psi 22.4416 gpm 1 2 psi

Also, the pump curve needs to have the discharges, Q, converted from CFS to GPM: 0.67 cfs 300.7169 gpm 1.00 cfs 448.8311 gpm

Thus, the resulting pump curve is: ---------------Q(gpm) hP(ft) ---------------0.0 170 300.7 135 448.8 100 ---------------__pump Booster Since all the sprinklers are set at a zero elevation and the source reservoir, R1, is at a higher elevation, theoretically a pump is not needed to supply water to the system. However, in this case, an elevation of 10 ft will produce much smaller pressures at the sprinkler heads if the pump were not present. The following figure shows the pressures and flows for the case in which the pump is removed:

The pump, in this case, is referred to as a booster pump because it "boosts" the discharge delivered to the system.

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Calculating __prinkler's __emitter __coefficient Manufacturers provide data detailing the discharge characteristics of sprinkler heads. For example, the figure below shows performance data for different nozzle sizes fora particular model.

The emitter coefficient can be calculated from the discharge and pressure data listed in the table above. For example, for the 1/8" nozzle size, the p and Q data ar 25 30 35 (psi) 40 45 50 The following code calculates the emitter coefficients: 2.26 2.48 0.452 n length p 2.68 (gpm) 0.4528 for k 1 .. n 2.86 gpm 0.453 Q k C 3.03 C E 0.4522 ps E 3.20 p k k 0.4517 0.4525 An average value for the emitter coefficient for this case is n C C E_ave k= 1 n E k => C E_ave 0.4524 gpm psi or 0.4524 gpm psi 0.001 cfs psi

NOTE: __ __Modeling __free-discharging __pipelines __in __EPANET Consider the following example shown in page 103 of the Spring 2012 CEE 35100 Reader:

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The solution for Q found using SMath Studio was Q = 1.38 cfs. To solve such a system in EPANET, point (2) should be represented as a node with a very large emitter coefficient. Since the pressure at that point should be zero (or very close to zero in the EPANET solution), then a very large emitter coefficient will ensure that the demand at that node has a reasonable value. In addition, to account for the velocity head at the free-discharging node (2), a loss coefficient of 1.0 must be included in the pipe connecting reservoir (1) with outlet (2). In the problem statement it is indicated that minor losses (in this case, reservoir entrance losses only) are to be ignored. However, the loss coefficient of 1.0 is necessary for a complete solutio In setting up the EPANET model we created the following map (here showing the pressures and the flow discharge after running the mode

We use a total head of 60 ft for R1, and an elevation of 55 ft for J1. Pipe P1 has a length of 100 ft, a diameter of 6 inches, a Hazen-Williams coefficient of 110, and a (minor) loss coefficient of 1.0. Node J1 uses a emitter coefficient of 1000 cfs/psi^0.5. After running the program you get a warning that negative pressures were detected in the system. Ignore this message and check the final result, Q = 1.39 cfs, very close to the value found using SMath Studio (Q = 1.385 cf

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