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Vol 1 Impact of Islamic Civilization on The Modern World: General

Vol 1 Impact of Islamic Civilization on The Modern World: General

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PURCHASE of this presentation is intended to support similar projects including plans to produce a multi-part documentary film on the themes of intellectual heritage of the mankind in areas like Islamic legacy about which very little is known. Film, when ready, shall be released for free. Scribd.com does not allow for a donations option, therefore, to raise funds for this project the only availabe sale option is being used in addition to dissemination of free information. High price of this document suggests the urgent needs of this project and your purchase represents your interest in its success. No direct benefit is likely to accrue to you other than the advanced awareness about the subject matter covered in this presentation. We appreciate your desire to support this effort to promote knowledge about the Islamic civilization's profound contribution in creation of the modern world as eloquently emphasized by HRH Prince Charles at Oxford University and President Obama in his Cairo Speech. Most of the material from the everal volumes of this series is free to public. Enjoy the presentations and please encourage others to visit this site to help raise funds for the free film. Purchase prices of the doucments range from $ 19.99 to $1999.99 offering a wide range of affordability. Whichever document you purchase it benefits the entire project. Thank you!
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DISCLAIMER:
All presentations are work in progress, therefore, only full viewership is allowed even after payment. Downloading is not allowed for version control reasons. Once the presentations will be finalized, it will be available at full price. Those who have already paid at heavily discounted price may be able to download if Scribd downloading policy is applicable at that point whenever higher price becomes applicable for sale. The author/publisher of this document has no financial relationship/ownership with Scribd other than the a portion of sale going to Scribd according to its policy. But author/publisher has chosen to make some documents sale-able to enhance the income for Scribd and non-for-profit/charity activities. Scribd to its credit offers this service free which is very easy to upload for instant document publishing and searchable availability on the internet.

ABOUT THE PRESENTATION:

This presentation reminds us of the profound impact of Classical Islamic Civilization and Culture in the making of the Modern World. Islam brought about an intellectual revolution in the East and expanded it to the West, - enveloping the entire globe today. Islam introduced reason in both the secular and the religious aspects of the human affairs. In the wave after wave of refreshing thinking and creativity over various periods, Islamic ideas in maths, algebra, calculus, trigonometry, geometry, philosophy, theology, sociology, anthropology and experimental sciences from astrophysics, chemistry, medicine, pharmacology, physics, aviation and maritime sciences, -flooded the European continent, Indian subcontinent, Central Asia and Middle East during various stages of their intellectual development. Through the Scholastic Period (1200s), Renaissance (1400s-1600s) and the Age of Enlightenment (1600s-1700s); Islamic scholarship, science and innovation changed the secular and the religious domains of the Western world. This well-documented and easily traceable impact is felt every day in every walk of life from mundane to sublime, though often we are not aware of it nor most people ever acknowledge it, - and that's both as Muslims and non-Muslim!

DISCLAIMER:

There is an overarching intent of good faith here in the presentations, to show that the contemporary world we live in today is the product of constructive and meaningful interaction of generations of profound Muslim thinkers and ungrudging acceptance by non-Muslims of those Muslim ideas that were universally applicable. Since the r
PURCHASE of this presentation is intended to support similar projects including plans to produce a multi-part documentary film on the themes of intellectual heritage of the mankind in areas like Islamic legacy about which very little is known. Film, when ready, shall be released for free. Scribd.com does not allow for a donations option, therefore, to raise funds for this project the only availabe sale option is being used in addition to dissemination of free information. High price of this document suggests the urgent needs of this project and your purchase represents your interest in its success. No direct benefit is likely to accrue to you other than the advanced awareness about the subject matter covered in this presentation. We appreciate your desire to support this effort to promote knowledge about the Islamic civilization's profound contribution in creation of the modern world as eloquently emphasized by HRH Prince Charles at Oxford University and President Obama in his Cairo Speech. Most of the material from the everal volumes of this series is free to public. Enjoy the presentations and please encourage others to visit this site to help raise funds for the free film. Purchase prices of the doucments range from $ 19.99 to $1999.99 offering a wide range of affordability. Whichever document you purchase it benefits the entire project. Thank you!
--------------------------------------------------------------------------

DISCLAIMER:
All presentations are work in progress, therefore, only full viewership is allowed even after payment. Downloading is not allowed for version control reasons. Once the presentations will be finalized, it will be available at full price. Those who have already paid at heavily discounted price may be able to download if Scribd downloading policy is applicable at that point whenever higher price becomes applicable for sale. The author/publisher of this document has no financial relationship/ownership with Scribd other than the a portion of sale going to Scribd according to its policy. But author/publisher has chosen to make some documents sale-able to enhance the income for Scribd and non-for-profit/charity activities. Scribd to its credit offers this service free which is very easy to upload for instant document publishing and searchable availability on the internet.

ABOUT THE PRESENTATION:

This presentation reminds us of the profound impact of Classical Islamic Civilization and Culture in the making of the Modern World. Islam brought about an intellectual revolution in the East and expanded it to the West, - enveloping the entire globe today. Islam introduced reason in both the secular and the religious aspects of the human affairs. In the wave after wave of refreshing thinking and creativity over various periods, Islamic ideas in maths, algebra, calculus, trigonometry, geometry, philosophy, theology, sociology, anthropology and experimental sciences from astrophysics, chemistry, medicine, pharmacology, physics, aviation and maritime sciences, -flooded the European continent, Indian subcontinent, Central Asia and Middle East during various stages of their intellectual development. Through the Scholastic Period (1200s), Renaissance (1400s-1600s) and the Age of Enlightenment (1600s-1700s); Islamic scholarship, science and innovation changed the secular and the religious domains of the Western world. This well-documented and easily traceable impact is felt every day in every walk of life from mundane to sublime, though often we are not aware of it nor most people ever acknowledge it, - and that's both as Muslims and non-Muslim!

DISCLAIMER:

There is an overarching intent of good faith here in the presentations, to show that the contemporary world we live in today is the product of constructive and meaningful interaction of generations of profound Muslim thinkers and ungrudging acceptance by non-Muslims of those Muslim ideas that were universally applicable. Since the r

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Algorithm to Zenith: Impact of Classical Islamic Civilization on The Modern World

Dr. Wow Ali Ibn-Sina Nation Builders & Civilization Movers

Algorithm to Zenith: Introduction
"If there is much misunderstanding in the West about the nature of Islam, there is also much ignorance about the debt our own culture and civilization owe to the Islamic world. The medieval Islamic world, «was a world where scholars and men of learning flourished. But because we have tended to see Islam as the enemy of the West, as an alien culture, society, and system of belief, we have tended to ignore or erase its great relevance to our own history« Islam is part of our past and our present, in all fields of human endeavour. It has helped to create modern Europe. " - Prince Charles at Oxford University, 1993

Algorithm to Zenith: Introduction

A to Z: Periods of Islamic Impact Pre-Renaissance
Phase I: Carolingian Renaissance (800s-900s AD) ‡ Charlemagne or Charles The Great, the king of France, considered Father of Europe adopted the high culture of Islamic Spain via extensive contacts with the sophisticated neighbors on the west & thru his contacts with legendary Caliph Harun Rashid of Baghdad. Many Emirs e.g. that of Barcelona formed military alliances with Charlemagne infusing Islamic cultural influence into France. ‡ Cultural influence of Islamic Spain, Baghdad on French life styles such architecture e.g. µGothic¶, croissant (crescent bread) and use of silk would impact entire Western and central Europe as countries like England and Germany became part Carolingian empire. ‡ Scriptoria were established by Charlemagne to copy and translate Islamic literature. ‡ Promotion of monasteries to engage in teaching non-Christian subjects i.e. Islamic learning. ‡ Establishment of Collegiate/s eventually e.g. University of Paris/College de Sorbonne in mid 11th century that catered to higher learning also for English, German and northern regions. Phase II: Scholastic Period (1200s-1400s AD) ‡ Period named after a widespread movement in West to translate Islamic books into Latin by monks in Western Europe & England. Islamic literature and philosophy would be taught in Monasteries and Cloisters starting with Toledo, Paris, Oxford & Bologna in Italy. ‡ Establishment of Collegiates/Colleges or Universities to impart western students the universals of Islamic knowledge. This period laid the foundation for Renaissance.

A to Z: Periods of Islamic Impact
Carolingian Renaissance
Cordoba Mosque, 750s. Famous for Crescent double arches which set the for architectural design in Europe. Charlemagne's Chapel, 805. Aachen, Germany (now ). Compare chapel arches with characteristic Cardoba Mosque¶s.

A to Z: Periods of Islamic Impact
Carolingian (French) Renaissance
Charlemagne received a water-clock from Caliph Harun Rashid. Contemporary legendary kings with extensive documented contact shown here in the painting by Julius Köckert,1864, Munich. Culture of Caliph Harun Rashid¶s court influenced Carolingian art and architecture (later art depiction).

A to Z: Periods of Islamic Impact Renaissance
Phase III: Italian Renaissance (1500s-1600s AD) ‡ King Fredrick of Sicily is considered the first µRenaissance man¶. He was raised and educated by Muslims. Half of his court was Muslims. The Arab Palace in Palermo originally built by Muslims in 9th Century was added on by Normans and that influenced Oxford and late Tudor architecture. Sicily was Islamic state for several hundred years. ‡ This laid the foundation of Italian Renaissance. Latin Americas IV: (1500s -1700AD) ‡ Building and construction of Latin Americas and many south-western American states by Muslims (called Mudejares/Moriscoes) as evidenced by names like California (Calif-Harun-ia), Medina, Alhambra given by the descendants of Muslims artisans sent to build Americas by Spanish Inquisitadores.

A to Z: Periods of Islamic Impact
Italian Renaissance from Islamic Sicily
Built by Arabs in 9th Century Islamic Emirate of Sicily, this Palace became The Cradle of Italian Renaissance. Islamic Palace painted inside with Christian images from 1200s used as µPalatine Chapel¶. Palermo, Italy.

A to Z: Periods of Islamic Impact
From Renaissance to Enlightenment
Palace of Arabs or Normans? - 9th Century, Palermo, Italy

A to Z: Periods of Islamic Impact
Italian Renaissance from Arabic Sicily
The Emperor Frederick II, Palermo, Sicily, continued the fruitful contacts with Muslim scholars initiated by his father, Roger II. He financed translations of Arabic works into Latin in 12th Century.

A to Z: Periods of Islamic Impact
Italian Renaissance from Arabic Sicily
Cuba Palace in Palermo, built in 1180 by William II of Sicily. It shows strong Fatimid art influences, as it was designed and decorated by Arabs still living in Palermo after the Norman conquest of Italian-Islamic state in 1072. This cube shaped (µcube¶ from µcaba¶) building invokes Mecca. Cube is a popular Islamic core structure as also seen in Taj Mahal.

A to Z: Periods of Islamic Impact
From Renaissance to Enlightenment
Arab or Norman Castle in 11th Century? Chepstow Castle, Wales, UK. Crescent arches, pointed arches throughout the castle.

A to Z: Periods of Islamic Impact
From Renaissance to Enlightenment
Norman Chapel, 11th Century in the White Tower, London, UK. Crescent arches & vaults compare with Cordoba Mosque of 8th Century.

A to Z: Periods of Islamic Impact
From Renaissance to Enlightenment
Arab or Norman? White Tower of London in 11th Century England:
Crescent arches, pointed domes, and cube shape, clear Islamic influence.

A to Z: Periods of Islamic Impact
From Renaissance to Enlightenment
Coins of Arabs or Normans? - Use of both Arabic & Latin and Date Palms in 12th Century Sicilian Coins:

A to Z: Periods of Islamic Impact
Age of Enlightenment
Phase V: Age of Enlightenment (1600s-1700s AD) ‡ Marked by translation of Islamic literature into popular languages of the common people like French, Italian, German and English in contrast to Scholastic Period when translations were made for a few educated elites who could read and understand Latin or Greek. Popular language use was due to advent of printing press. Ibne Tufayl¶s µThe Living Son of Light¶ or µPhlosophus Autodidactus¶ became the subject of intense philosophical interest and discussion in 17th century salons and gave the name to this period which laid the foundation for Industrial Revolution. Omar Khayyam (tr. in 1600s by Hyde) known as µthe philosopher of the world¶ was another popular figure in this period. Islamic Civilization reached zenith of architectural excellence in building of Taj Mahal in India!

A to Z: Age of Enlightenment
Purity of Spirit in Marble
As Europe was studying Islamic literature at an ever wider scale in the languages of common folks e.g. Italian, English and French (vs Latin and Greek which were the languages of the educated elites), in this periodof 17th century, Indian Muslims were building Taj Mahal (1632-48)!

A to Z: Periods of Islamic Impact
n Modern Twentieth Century
Berlin Cathedral built and rebuilt, finally completed in 1993. This self described µneoRenaissance¶ structure largely built in 20th Century. It major features and overall design parallels with the Islamic monument on right. Sadat Ali Khan¶s Tomb, Lucknow, India built in 18th Century in typical style of Muslim monuments. Notice the parallels in Berlin Cathedral: Ribbed domes, arches, middle canopy and parapet. Dominant feature is the central dome!

An Islamic Monument
Or an Italian Basilica?
Both buildings present ornate facades of multistoried arches Great Imam Bara, Lucknow, India. Basilica of San Marc, Venice, Italy.

A to Z: Intellectual Heritage
Humanities & Literature:
1. Literature 2. Philosophy 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Poetry Sociology Anthropology Theology Arts Maritime 1. Ibne Tufail (Avempace) 2. Ibn Rushd (Averroes), Ibne Sina (Avicenna), 3. Rumi, Hafiz 4. Ibne Khaldun ± µMuqqadima¶ 5. Al-Biruni e.g. On India 6. Ibn Rushd & Ghazali 7. Miniature Painting e.g. Mughal 8. Navigation ± µNew World¶

A to Z: Intellectual Heritage
Higher Education
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Medicine Music - Musiqi Algebra Calculus Chemistry - Chemiya Physics - Optics Robotics Astrophysics Architecture

College or University
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Ibne Sina or Avicenna Al-Kindi, Ibne Arabi Al Khwarizmi Ibne Haytham Lab Experiments Ibne Haytham Al-Jaziri¶s Ingenius Devices Ibne Shatir, Tusi Domes,Vaults, Archs, Minarets, Moorish towers

A to Z: Islamic Impact
Higher Education
‡ Colleyate (10th Century) ‡ Universals ‡ Andalusia (Spain/Portugal/France) ‡ Al-Azhar, Cairo, 975 AD ‡ The model for Oxford µArabesque¶ =The Eternal and Infinite Creativity of God = Ivy growing in µIvy League¶ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Collegiate\College University Toledo\Paris\Bologna Oxford Cambridge Harvard

Profound, Deep & Lasting. Un-acknowledged at popular level in West.

A to Z: Islamic College
Model for Modern University
‡ Al-Azhar was established as an institution of higher learning, the so called µColleyate¶ - where µuniversal principles¶ of a given subject were taught. The word µCollegiate¶ is a Latinized mispronunciation of the word which entered into English language in 1350s. Its truncated version is µCollege¶. An Islamic Colleyate (Universal ) or Jamiate (Comprehensive) as an institution of higher learning had to have standardized curricula and dedicated faculty. Entrance to Al-Azhar, Painting by Lane, 1825

‡

‡

A to Z: Islamic College
Model for Modern University
Fatima Al-Zahra Colleyate (Latin distortion Collegiate/College), was founded circa 970, as an institution dedicated to higher learning, later known as Al-Azhar University. Institution like this became models of earliest Colleges at Oxford. We take colleges for granted these days. But an early College had to have the following elements: 1. A dedicated paid faculty 2. Students having completed their basic education 3. Stay of students in dormitories during course of instruction 4. Standardized syllabus

A to Z: Islamic College
Model of a Modern University
‡ Al Quarwyn University in Fez, Morocco, founded in 859 AD by Fatima Fihri, is the oldest continuing University in the world according to Guinness. ‡ It competes in claim for oldest surviving institution of higher learning with Fatima al Zahra or Al-Azhar University of Cairo that was built circa 970s (various dates given, 971, 975 etc).

A to Z: Revolution in Astrophysics!
Ibn al-Shatir, b. 1304, Syria, gave the astrophysical model which was adapted by Copernicus into a heliocentric.
Revolution in Science! µIbn al-Shatir¶s theory of lunar motion was very similar to that attributed to Copernicus some 150 years later.¶ Astronomers at work, in this contemporary miniature painting depicting an experimental observatory of its time.

A to Z: Astrophysics & Mathematics
Omar Khayyam contributed to geometric algebra, quadrilateral & binomial theorem. Below his manuscript on ³Cubic equation and intersection of conic sections.´ Omar Khayyam, b.1048, in Balkh, Afghanistan. Astronomer and mathematician gave the most accurate solar calendar, adopted in Iranian regions in 1079 and 503 years later by Pope Gregory in 1582. He gave a physical demonstration to prove that earth moved on its axis based on his astronomical observations. Khayyam¶s statue in Bucharest, Romania.

A to Z: Mathematics: µHoly Toledo¶!
Use of Arabic Numerals replacing Roman numerals revolutionized the efficiency of calculations. Here is the earliest extant record of Arabic numerals in a Western manuscript from µCodex Vigilanus¶ from 976, Toledo, Spain. Notice the numbers are written from Right to Left as in Arabic even though the Latin text from Left to Right. Muslims gave the humanity two systems of mathematics, - Algebra and Calculus! Mosque built in Toledo in 11th century that was converted into a synagogue then into a church. Now it has been converted back into a µSynagogue of Santa Maria¶. Toledo was declared the City of three cutures, Islamic, Christian and Jewish in 1986!

Toledo reached its zenith in the e . To download and display this picture. Historian P. Following depiction of Toledo in µCodex Vigilanus¶ in 976 which also contains an account of Mohammad. de Gayangos writes: The Muslim scientists of this age were unrivaled in the world. PowerPoint prevented this external picture from being automatically downloaded. A to Z: Sciences: µHoly Toledo¶! ‡ ‡ Toledo reached its zenith in the era of Islamic Caliphate in Spain. click Options in the Message Bar.To help protect your privacy. Perhaps among their greatest feats were the famous water-clocks of Toledo. and then click Enable external content.

A to Z: Architecture: µHoly Toledo¶!
This Mosque in Toledo was converted in a Cathedral, - all the elements of the Islamic architecture are self-evident in detail of this master-piece standing in full glory for a thousand year (last repair in 13th century). This kind of architecture came to be known as gothic architecture (from µVisigothic¶ for µSpain¶).

Imam Ali Ibn Rushd aka Averroes: µSpiritual Father of Modern Europe¶!*
(*Alain de Libera, 'Averroès et l'averroïsme', PUF, 1991, p.121)

Imam Ali Ibn Rushd aka Averroes: As A Renaissance Man!
Averroes representing self-confident philosophical maturity in µThree Philosophers¶ (1410) by high-renaissance artist Giorgione from Venice. Old man representing the philosophy of middle ages and younger man the renaissance thought.

Imam Ali Ibn Rushd aka Averroes: As A Renaissance Man!
Averroes is the most recent among 20 other major philosophers in Raphael¶s famous painting µSchool of Athens¶(1510-11), the very second fresco painted in Vatican. Averroes is shown leaning with Pythagoras. This painting was done a year after µMona Lisa¶ by Da Vinci. Artist Da-Vinci himself is used as a model for Plato in this painting.

A to Z: Averroes:µReason & Faith¶!
Ali Ibn Rushd¶s greatest impact was thru his book µKitab al Fasl al Maqal¶ or µOn Harmony Between Faith and Reason¶

Averroes in 14th Century painting by Andrea di Bonaiuto, Florence.

Averroes: µCreation of Secular Space¶!
Ibn Rushd is credited with creating the secular space in Europe. Imagined here as debating with 3rd century philosopher Porphyry as painted by Monfredo de Monte Imperiali in 14th Century. In Muslim world Phorphyry¶s µIsagoge¶ was the primer for study of
philosophy. Ibn Rushd is supposed to have revived the Greek in Europe thru his extensive treatises from Porphyry to Plato and Aristotle.

Imam Ali Ibn Rushd aka Averroes: As A Heroic Renaissance Man!
In µAllegory of Navigation with a Cross-Staff: Averroës¶ by Paoli Caliari Veronese (1557). Cross-staff was used to measure the position of stars to navigate on the seas. Allegory here is the use of the analytical reasoning or logic to navigate thru the life¶s complexities.

A to Z: Aviation
Earliest Model for Air Planes
‡ Abbas ibn Firnas, b. 810, used a glider to fly from this Tower of Cordoba Mosque, in Islamic Spain (see pic). He was inspired by a parachute jump by Armen Firman as a child. He inspired other attempts in Europe and Leonardo da Vinci¶s untested flight designs 700 years later in 1500s, Ahmed Celebi¶s glider flight in 1638 in Turkey, and finally, Wright brothers in 1903.

A to Z: Aviation
Earliest Model for Air Planes
Even 1100 years back, Firnas¶ contribution was considered historic enough to have a lunar landmark named after him. He was a polymath: engineer, optic physicist and astronomer all rolled into one. µIbn Firnas¶ crater on the moon. Muslim astronomers had a tradition of naming heavenly bodies or landmarks on the moon after historic figures e.g. µMamun¶ crater on the moon named after the Caliph who had a Royal College of Knowledge built in Baghdad, circa 819.

A to Z: Aviation
Earliest Model for Air Planes
³Ibn Firnas was the first man in history to make a scientific attempt at flying.´
- Philip Khuri Hitti, Professor of History

µFirnas for the First Flight«¶ An artist¶s reconstruction.

A to Z: Aviation
Earliest Model for Air Planes
Celebrating a 100 years of Aviation? How about a 1000 years of Aviation?

A to Z: Arts & Graphics
µEscher, Gödel, Bach¶
Escher, the legendary German graphic artist of 20th century was inspired by Alhambra in Spain. Tessellations at Alhambra Palace (14th Century) influenced Escher. He spent considerable time studying geometric art of Islamic Spain.

A to Z: Calligraphy & Writing
Writing on Everything
‡ Inspired by a Quranic verse named µThe Pen¶ Muslims launched an unprecedented culture of writing. 900 years before printing press Muslim calligraphers developed standardized scripts. Writing on paper and every possible material and object including on the walls of buildings. Paper-mills were established in Iraq as early as 7th century. Extensive reproduction of manuscripts that were standardized via a validation process. Extensive illustration and illumination of manuscripts was a feature of Islamic publishing.
Letter with Seal of Prophet Mohammad, circa 630, Saudi Arabia.

‡

‡ ‡

‡

A to Z: Calligraphy & Illumination
Writing as Decorative Art & Illustration
‡ Inspired by a Quranic verse named µThe Pen¶ Muslims launched an unprecedented culture of writing. 900 years before printing press Muslim calligraphers developed standardized scripts. Writing on paper and every possible material and object including on the walls of buildings. Paper-mills were established in Iraq as early as 7th century. Extensive reproduction of manuscripts that were standardized via a validation process. Extensive illustration and illumination of manuscripts was a feature of Islamic publishing.
µBlue Quran¶ folio from 9th -10th Century, Egypt.

‡

‡ ‡

‡

A to Z: Painting & Manuscripts
Mughal Painting
Shahjahan Album, 1645 , Mir Ali, India.

‡ ‡

‡

The cover of Shahjahan¶s Album with its intricacy in design and brocaded pattern in miniature. Mughals as patrons of art and architecture had the most decisive influence on Indian art. Starting with the dynasty¶s founder Baber who expressed dissatisfaction in contemporaneous Indian culture. Mughal paintings and Taj Mahal are renowned as epitome of high culture in Mughal courts that lasted three centuries with succeeding kings trying to outshine their predecessors.

A to Z: Painting & Manuscripts
Mughal Painting
Shahjahan on the globe , c. 1730s, India.

‡ The picture depicts the vision of Mughal empire in which the tiger and lamb sleep next to each other. ‡ Earth was already known to be a globe. Notice the halo of enlightenment around the head and angels blessing with some practical implements.

A to Z: Painting & Manuscripts
Mughal Painting
Babarnama, 1400s , India.

‡ µBabar-nama¶ in 15th century, was perhaps the first autobiography ever written. ‡ Mughals as patrons of art and architecture had the most decisive influence on Indian art. Starting with the dynasty¶s founder Baber who expressed dissatisfaction in contemporaneous Indian culture. ‡ The best Mughal painting was supposed to have been done six generations later during Aurangzeb¶s reign.

A to Z: Painting & Manuscripts
Mughal Painting
Babarnama, 1400s , India.

‡ Muslims gave the world the concept of illustrated books whether the scientific treatises or biographical details or fairy tales. ‡ Mughal court was illustrating books like Babarnama before Mona Lisa was painted by Leaonardo da Vinci. ‡ The best Mughal painting was supposed to have been done six generations later during Aurangzeb¶s reign.

A to Z: Painting & Manuscripts
Mughal Painting
Babarnama, 1400s , India.

‡ The first autobiography written in 15th Century. ‡ Mughals as patrons of art and architecture had the most decisive influence on Indian art. Starting with the dynasty¶s founder Baber who expressed dissatisfaction in contemporaneous Indian culture. ‡ The brush used in paintings were made of squirrel tails. ‡ Muslims painted in every medium, - paper, cloth, china, glass and metal.

A to Z: Painting & Manuscripts
Illustration of Manuscripts
‡ This classic illustration is in the same period as European Renaissance but it is an edition of a book written more than 400 earlier. ‡ The illustration of books lead to portrait paintings in which Persian and Mughal school attained great fame. ‡ Attar inspired European poets like Goethe and Chaucer.
Conference of the Birds, Farid-uddin Attar 11421220, Iran. Illustrated by Habib-Allah in 1600s.

A to Z: Painting & Manuscripts
Mughal Painting
‡ Realism of natural subjects as in this painting of tulips. ‡ Mughals as patrons of art and architecture had the most decisive influence on Indian art. Starting with the dynasty¶s founder Baber who expressed dissatisfaction in contemporaneous Indian culture. ‡ The brush used in paintings were made of squirrel tails. ‡ Muslims painted in every medium, - paper, cloth, china, glass and metal.
Ustad Mansur µs Tulips, d.1621 , India.

A to Z: Robotics
Hydraulic Technology
‡ A page from Al-Jaziri¶s µManual of Robotics¶ (1206) ± a page from 14th century edition (Figures depicted in picture are robotic dolls not of men. The water tubes connected to the robots use hydraulics as power). ‡ A first, in concept and design in human history. ‡ Devices such as these were popular in 10th Century Andalusia, Baghdad, Cairo & Damascus.

A to Z: Robotics
Prototype of an Automobile
‡ Al-Jaziri¶s µManual of Robotics¶ (1206) ± This 14th century edition depicts robotic dolls and toy animals used as a mobile Watch Tower. Conceivably this is earliest prototype of an automobile that worked. ‡ A combination of art, physics and engineering. ‡ Industrial scale in automation not attained until 18th century and Robotics until 20th Century.

A to Z: Robotics
Earliest Prototype of a Computer
Clockwork Turk: Chess-Robot

‡ Inspired by Al-Jaziri¶s µManual of Robotics¶ (1206 ) ± also called µBook of Automatic Devices¶, - this 17th Century machine with clockwork mechanisms played chess. The figure of a chess-player calculated and made moves to defeat the best players. This is a 300 year old version of IBM¶s µDeep Blue¶ in concept and actual use. ‡ Examples of earliest computers from Iran are still extant in museums. ‡ A combination of art, physics and engineering.

A to Z: Astrolabe Astronomy & Maritime
‡ Sindbad or µSinbad¶ the legendary Iranian sailor navigated the seas around the world with the help of an instrument like this. ‡ Notice the Arabic notations. ‡ Necessity of finding Qibla, the orientation to Mecca. ‡ It was the most sophisticated scientific instrument known at that time. Earliest known Astrolabe, 927, Iraq.

A to Z: Origins of Time Clocks
Astrolabe Clock by Johann Bommel, inspired by one on Right of 650 years earlier c.1686, Nuremberg, Germany. Clock-Calendar by Mohammad Abu Bakr. Oldest Surviving Gear Mechanism. 1221, Isfahan, Iran

A to Z: Perfecting Metal
Metallurgy: Zinc & Brass
Astrolabe by Allah-dad, Lahore, Pakistan, 1570 Zinc with Brass inlay, circa, 1670, India.

A to Z: Precision & Intricacy:
Astrolabes and Globes
Globe Astrolabe by Musa, 1480, Iran Globe Gold Case, Mughal, 1500s, India

Averroes: µCollege of Medicine¶!
A well known example of origins of Latin word µCollege¶ from Arabic Colleyate is from Averroes¶ book on medicine µColleyate fi al Tibb¶ first translated in Latin as µCollegiate of Medicine¶ in 13th Century!

A to Z: Medicine
‡ ‡ Al-Razi aka Rhazes, 864-925 A.D Al-Hawi, was the largest medical encyclopedia ever written and used for nearly a 1000 years! He explained the nature of various infectious diseases. He described smallpox and chicken-pox. He tested treatments scientifically, first on animals to evaluate in their effects and side effects. He was the first to introduce the use of alcohol for medical purposes. He was also an expert surgeon and was the first to use opium for anesthesia. Al-Razi thought diet was important to health. He also emphasized the importance of psychological factors on health.

Al-Razi on Cambridge University Medical School¶s glass-window, UK

‡

‡

‡

A to Z: Medicine
µLiber ad Al-Mansorem¶
One of the works fundamental to the organization of medieval medicine was written by Ab Bakr Mu ammad ibn Zakar y ¶ al-R z (d. 925), known to Europeans as Rhazes or Rasis. His Book of Medicine for Mansur (Kit b alMansur f al- ibb) was dedicated in 903 to a local Iranian prince named Ab Salih al-Mansur ibn Is q, governor of the town of Rayy near Tehran. This short general textbook, comprising nine chapters, but it was very influential throughout the Islamic world as well as in Europe. The treatise translated into Latin in Toledo by Gerard of Cremona (d. 1187 AD) and was known as Liber ad Almansorem. One of the most widely read medieval medical manuals in Europe. In the Renaissance many editions of it were printed with commentaries by the prominent physicians of the day, such as Andreas Vesalius.
The colophon of the copy of R z 's Book on Medicine for Mansur, finished by the scribe Hak m Muhammad Rid ibn Muhammad, known as Hamd n , in 1667 or 1668 .

A to Z: Medicine
µCanon of Medicine¶
A 15th Century Manuscript, Iran. ‡ Ali Ibne Sina (d. 1037) or Avicenna¶s classic The Textbook of Medicine was taught from 11th century to 17th century Medical Schools in Europe. Longest running text book of Medicine on any subject. The word, µcanon¶ meaning µa universal principle¶ in English comes from the title of this book µQanun al Tibb¶ or µThe Principles of Medicine¶. Born in Balkh, Afghanistan, Ibne Sina also gave the scientific method of clinical trials, a thousand years back.

‡

‡

A to Z: Medicine
µCanon of Medicine¶
An undated Latin (?) translation.

‡ Ibne Sina gave the scientific method in medical research. ‡ Ibne Sina is also considered to have given the method of clinical trials. ‡ He is equally well known for his commentaries on Greek philosophy. ‡ First Latin translation in 12th century.

A to Z: Medicine
µKitab al Hawi al Tibb¶
Al Razi¶s 1094 Manuscript, Iran.

‡ The final page of the Hawi by Ab Bakr Mu ammad ibn Zakar y ¶ al-R z or Rhazes (d. 925)), with the colophon in which the unnamed scribe gives the date he completed the copy as Friday, the 19th of Dhu al-Qaµdah in the year 487 [= 30 November 1094]. ‡ It is the oldest volume in the National Library of Medicine (USA) and the third oldest Arabic medical manuscript known to be preserved today.

A to Z: Medicine
µPharmacopoeia Persia¶
A 1781 Translation of Mohammad Husayni¶s ‡ Frontpage of Pharmacopoeia Persica ex idiomate Persica in Latinum conversa, published in Paris in 1681. The treatise consists of a Latin translation, with comments, made by Father Angelus de Sanctu Josepho [Joseph Labrosse] of a Persian book on compound remedies by Muzaffar ibn Muhammad al-Husayni. French priest Joseph Labrosse learnt Arabic in Rome from 1662-1664 and then Persian in Isfahan to study materia medica Iran of 17th Century. Pharmacopoea, Paris, France.

‡

A to Z: Al-Gafequi: Ophthalmology
µFrom 800 to 1300 Islam produced more than 60 Ophthalmologists, authors of textbooks and monographs. Meanwhile in Europe, prior to 12th Century, an Ophalmologist was unheard of.¶ Quote from Prof. Hirschberg, famous Ophthalmologist, address to American Medical Association in 1905. Commemorative bust of Mohamed Al-Gafequi (d. 1265, 67 years after Ibn Rushd) in front of Cordoba Hospital, Spain. Renowned as author of µRight Guide in Ophthalmology¶.

A to Z: Chemistry from al-Chemey
Al-Jildaki¶s 1342 treatise on Chemistry, a 19th century copy from Morocco.

‡ An illuminated opening from the alchemical treatise The Proof Regarding Secrets of the Science of the Balance (Kitab al-Burhan fi asrar 'ilm al-mizan) by 'Izz al-Din Aydamir al-Jildaki (d. 743 H/1342 CE). Undated copy made in Morocco in the late 19th century, held in the National Library of Medicine (Bethesda, Maryland)

A to Z: Chemistry from al-Chemey
‡ The laboratory equipments like glass beakers, distillers and alembics (Arabic) were invented and used for hundreds of years by Muslims before rest of the world had any concept of what experimental chemistry was.

‡ ‡ ‡ . pre-1285.A to Z: Object¶s de Arts µGod is the light of heavens and earth!¶ ‡ Glass Lamp was favorite objet de art for Muslims because of Quranic verse µThe Light¶ which describes µGod as the light of the heaven and earth¶ and uses metaphor of lamp. Belgium learnt crystal and diamond cutting techniques also from its Ottoman contacts. Lamp of Blown Glass Mamluk. Muslims became the master craftsmen of glass using it in chandeliers (from Arabic µcandeel¶ from which English µcandle¶ is derived). Venice became famous 300 years later. Murano glass from. Egypt. Venice learnt blow-glass techniques from Ottoman craftsmen and Murano glass became a classic.

9th Century. ‡ Abbasid.A to Z: Object¶s de Arts Ceramics ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Symmetry Balance Proportion Geometric & Spatial Perfection attained in Architecture.g. Iraq . in early Centuries of Islam characterized the Islamic civilization e.

g. Late 16th Century . ‡ Ottoman.A to Z: Object¶s de Arts Ceramics ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Symmetry Balance Proportion Geometric & Spatial Perfection attained in Architecture. in early Centuries of Islam characterized the Islamic civilization e.

in early Centuries of Islam characterized the Islamic civilization th Century. Iran. . ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Symmetry Balance Proportion Geometric & Spatial Perfection attained in Architecture.A to Z: Object¶s de Arts Ceramics17 Safavid.

A to Z: Object¶s de Arts Gold Jewelry ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Symmetry Balance Proportion Geometric & Spatial Perfection attained in Architecture. Mamluk Dynasty. in early Centuries of Islam characterized the Islamic civilization. . Gold. circa 1150s.

Bronze with copper. 7th Century.A to Z: Metallics Technology Umayyad Period. ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Symmetry Balance Proportion Geometric & Spatial Perfection attained in early Centuries of Islam characterized the Islamic civilization .

Egypt. 1250s. .A to Z: Metallurgy Alloys ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Symmetry Balance Proportion Geometric & Spatial Perfection attained in early Centuries of Islam characterized the Islamic civilization. Brazier used for Grill or Heater. Mamluk Period.

Seljuk Period. .A to Z: Metallurgy Fine use of alloys ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Symmetry Balance Proportion Geometric & Spatial Perfection attained in early Centuries of Islam characterized the Islamic civilization. Circa 12th Century. Egypt. ‡ Bronze inlaid with copper.

A to Z: Architecture Design & Engineering Zenith in Architecture: ‡ Qutub Minar. Spain and Afghanistan in the same century. . ‡ Eiffel made of iron. not stone built only in 20th Century. No match for last 800 years except with towers built in Morocco. World¶s Tallest Tower in Stone. Completed in 12th Century.

‡ ‡ . outlasting wars and earthquakes that hit Delhi for next several centuries until today. Carved by hand. Qutub Minar. New Delhi. The tower contains all the Completed 12th Century. India. While Eiffel Tower was planned only for 20 years Qutub Tower was built to last which it has. World¶s Tallest Stone Tower. classic features of Islamic design and graphic in all intricacy and complexity.A to Z: Architecture Design & Carving Techniques ‡ ‡ Standing tall for last 800 years. the masterpiece displays the dexterity and skill of craftsmen and design of architects.

India. ‡ Arabesque design ‡ Calligraphy as hallmark of the Islamic architectural details.A to Z: Architecture Design & Carving Techniques ‡ Details of complex carvings on Qutub Minar. Completed 12th Century. ‡ Lattice work in marble is in one piece. ‡ Carvings on Qutub Minar. World¶s Tallest Stone Tower till today. ‡ Multiplicity of motifs in various styles. New Delhi. .

‡ Pointed arch became such a typical feature of all the Gothic cathedrals in Europe but particularly France.A to Z: Architecture Pointed Arch ‡ Pointed arch is the essential feature in all mosques throughout the Muslim world across the centuries. Afghanistan. ‡ Mehrab or Alcove Exterior. 1100s. . Blue Mosque. ‡ Elegance in use of very modern looking shades of deep-blue as in modern day Obama blue used by White House is noteworthy.

‡ Elegance in use of very modern looking shades of deep-blue as in modern day Obama blue used by White House is noteworthy. ‡ Blue Mosque. Afghanistan. . 1100s. ‡ Pointed arch became such a typical feature of all the Gothic cathedrals in Europe but particularly France.A to Z: Architecture Pointed Arch ‡ Pointed arch is the essential feature in all mosques throughout the Muslim world across the centuries.

A to Z: Architecture Pointed Arch ‡ Pointed arch is the essential feature of all mosques throughout the Muslim world across the centuries. ‡ Mosaic Monochrome. . ‡ Pointed arch became such a typical feature of all the Gothic cathedrals in Europe but particularly France. ‡ Elegance in use of very modern looking shades of deep-blue as in modern day Obama blue used by White House is noteworthy. Mehrab or Alcove in the mosque. mid 14th century.

g. circa 1550s AD . ‡ Geometric & Spatial Perfection attained in Architecture. ‡ Mughal. ‡ Compare the lattice work in Qutub Minar from 12th century to the lattice work from Mughal period some 400 years later.A to Z: Architecture Lattice-work Intricacy ‡ Consistency in design and artform over hundreds of years. Lattice work. in early Centuries of Islam characterized the Islamic civilization e.

Lattice work.g. ‡ Compare the lattice work in Qutub Minar from 12th century to the lattice work from Mughal period some 400 years later. in early Centuries of Islam characterized the Islamic civilization e. ‡ Geometric & Spatial Perfection attained in Architecture.A to Z: Architecture Lattice-work Intricacy ‡ Consistency in design and artform over hundreds of years. circa 17th Century. ‡ Mosque of Sidi Sahab. .

. Pakistan. ‡ Pointed arch became such a typical feature of all the Gothic cathedrals in Europe but particularly France.A to Z: Architecture Mehrab or Central Arch ‡ Pointed arch is the essential feature of all mosques throughout the Muslim world across the centuries. Emperor's Mosque. built in 1673 by Aurangzeb. Lahore.

A to Z: Architecture Pointed Arch in Central Facade ‡ Pointed arch is the essential feature of all mosques throughout the Muslim world across the centuries. Emperor's Mosque. Lahore. ‡ Pointed arch became such a typical feature of all the Gothic cathedrals in Europe but particularly France. built in 1673 by Aurangzeb. . Pakistan.

. Pakistan. built in 1673 by Aurangzeb. ‡ Pointed arch is the essential feature of all mosques throughout the Muslim world across the centuries. Lahore.A to Z: Architecture Mehrab or Central Alcove Emperor's Mosque. ‡ Pointed arch became such a typical feature of all the Gothic cathedrals in Europe but particularly in Spain and France.

Isfahan. Iran ‡ Pointed arch is the essential feature of all mosques throughout the Muslim world across the centuries. 1611. ‡ Pointed arch became such a typical feature of all the Gothic cathedrals in Europe but particularly in Spain and France.Zenith in Design & Engineering Arches & Vaults Imam Mosque Arches. .

. then ruler of Spain from 1333. 1333.A to Z: Architecture Zenith in Design & Engineering Court of Lions. Islamic Spain ‡ Geometric & Spatial Perfection attained in Architecture. Alhambra Palace. in early Centuries of Islam characterized the Islamic civilization. ‡ Alhambra Palace built by Yusuf.

Seville. 1200s.A to Z: Architecture Zenith in Design & Engineering Alcazar Palace. . Islamic Spain ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Symmetry Balance Proportion Geometric & Spatial Perfection attained in Architecture in early Centuries of Islam characterized the Islamic civilization as it reached its world impacting Zenith.

India ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Symmetry Balance Proportion Geometric & Spatial Perfection attained in Architecture in early Centuries of Islam characterized the Islamic civilization as it reached its world impacting Zenith.A to Z: Architecture Zenith in Design & Engineering Red Fort. 1648. . New Delhi. Shahjahan.

1648. India ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Symmetry Balance Proportion Geometric & Spatial Perfection attained in Architecture in early Centuries of Islam characterized the Islamic civilization as it reached its world impacting Zenith. New Delhi. Shahjahan.A to Z: Architecture Zenith in Design & Engineering Red Fort. .

.A to Z: Architecture Zenith in Design & Engineering Intricacy in Carving. 1648. India ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Symmetry Balance Proportion Geometric & Spatial Perfection attained in Architecture in early Centuries of Islam characterized the Islamic civilization as it reached its world impacting Zenith. Agra. Taj Mahal.

1611. Imam Mosque Vaults.A to Z: Architecture Zenith in Design & Engineering ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Symmetry Balance Proportion Geometric & Spatial Perfection attained in Architecture in early Centuries of Islam characterized the Islamic civilization as it reached its world impacting Zenith. Iran . Isfahan.

1648. Taj Mahal. India ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Symmetry Balance Proportion Geometric & Spatial Perfection attained in Architecture in early Centuries of Islam characterized the Islamic civilization as it reached its world impacting Zenith. . Agra.A to Z: Architecture Zenith in Design & Engineering Intricacy in Inlay.

A to Z: Architecture Heavenly Vaults Akbar¶s Tomb. 1613. . Agra. India ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Symmetry Balance Proportion Geometric & Spatial Perfection attained in Architecture in early Centuries of Islam characterized the Islamic civilization as it reached its world impacting Zenith.

A to Z: Islamic Architecture
Religious: Pointed Arch in Church
Monastery from 12th Century France has pointed arches that became such a defining motif of all French church architecture, later called µGothic¶ and µTudor¶ in UK. Pointed Arches in Ibne Tulun Mosque, Cairo, built in 879, over 300 years before the Cloisters on left, one of oldest in Egypt.

A to Z: Islamic Architecture
Secular: Oxford
‡ Oxford University, 1170s, imitating Islamic architecture of the period, domes, arches, towers & minaret like spires from Cordoba and Islamic Sicily of 400 earlier. Cordoba Mosque, 750s. The most civilized, prosperous and advanced city in Europe, Cordoba, influenced Oxford architects four hundred years later in 12th century.

A to Z: Islamic Architecture
Secular: Harvard
Harvard Law School, founded 1817, imitating Crescent Arch & Ornamental Pillars of Cordoba Mosque on right. Madina Alzahra (Arabic for µThe Cityof Light¶), Cordoba, 940, Islamic Spain, inspires Europe & Americas until today.

A to Z: Islamic Architecture
Secular: Stanford
Stanford University, built 1885, design inspired by 700 year older Alhambra. Alhambra Palace, built 1333s, by Yusuf in Islamic Spain.

A to Z: Islamic Architecture
Religious: Crescent Arch in Church
Monastery from 12th Century Spain with the crescent arches inspired by the kind on right. Alcazar Palace, Seville, 1400s, in Islamic Spain in full glory of Islamic architectural detail.

A to Z: Islamic Architecture
Religious: Mosque or a Domed Church?
Annunciation Cathedral in Tataristan, 16th Century, built in Kazan Khanate Mosque style set the Muscovite standard for churches in Russia.

A to Z: Islamic Architecture Religious: Onion Domes
Church inside Kremlin Palace in Moscow, the Russian capital city derives its name from the Mosque. Russian architecture during Tsarist period heavily inspired by central Asian Islamic architecture. Onion domes atop a cylindrical base are a common feature of mosque minarets as seen here in Charminar Hyderabad, India. The onion dome has become a classic motif of all Greek and Russian orthodox churches.

A to Z: Islamic Architecture
Religious: Moscow from Mosque
Like St. Basil¶s Cathedral built in 16th Century, all Russian churches adopted the design of Mosques after the Tsar Ivan, the Terrible¶s invasion of the Islamic µKhanate of Kazan¶. These distinctive Mosque like monuments symbolizing Moscow, the city that derives its name from the word µMosque¶. Onion domes atop the cylindrical base are a common feature of mosque minarets as seen here in Mecca Mosque, 1616, Hyderabad, India. This became a prominent feature of mosque look-alike Russian and Greek orthodox churches.

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A to Z: An Islamic Monument
Or a French Basilica?
Both buildings present a set of elongated domes.
Mursi Mosque,13th Century, Alexandria, Egypt. Basilica of Sacre Couer, 20th Century, Paris, France.

Venice: An Islamic City, - architecturally? µThe Most Enlightened City of its times in Europe¶
‡ ‡ µDrawing Room of Europe¶ as it was called, because of its architectural refinement. Richest city in Europe as it became by trading with Muslims World particularly in 1400s. Entire city is unabashedly influenced by Islamic architectural patterns like arches and domes and has the aura of a Muslim city. During its trading days with Muslims it often imported mosaics and parts of buildings on returning ships to be installed in its monuments. Venice was disseminating heavy Islamic influence throughout Europe via distribution of imported goods from Islamic world thru 15001600s.

San Marco Square & Doge¶s Palace, Venice.

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‡

.! . churches.Inspiring since 691« Palestinian Al-Aqsa Mosque¶s Golden Dome in its multifarious manifestations would be the central feature in the state capitals. colleges and major buildings all over the world thru ages.

. ! ..Inspiring since 691« The vault & skylights inside Al-Aqsa Mosque¶s Golden Dome in Palestine would be the key features in major monuments all over the world thru ages.

Tunisa (Islamo-Moorish Tower: Oldest model used in clock-towers.) . like Giralda Tower of Seville Mosque.«to 7th Century« Tower of Light or Minar of Uqba Great Mosque. colleges and church steeples through out the world after its introduction in the mosques of Islamic Spain.

« to th 7 Century« Uqba Great Mosque. Tunisia . Kairouan.

Palestine .«to 705« Vault inside the dome of Al-Aqsa Mosque.

Damascus.«to 715« Umayyad Mosque. vaults. Syria .

Damascus.« to 715 « Umayyad Mosque. vaults. Syria .

Iraq .«to 749« Tower of Samarra Mosque.

Isfahan. Iran .« to 771« Friday Mosque.

Iraq (One of the oldest surviving arches ± prototype for later µGothic¶ entrance) . Baghdad.«to 836« Abbasid Palace.

«to 850s« No Gumbad Mosque. Afghanistan (One of the oldest arches in a mosque ± notable surviving details) . Balkh.

Cairo. .« to 876 « Ibn Tulun Mosque. Egypt.

. Cairo. Egypt.«to 876« Ibn Tulun Mosque. vault inside the dome.

« to 784 « Great Mosque of Cardoba. Imam¶s Vault. Islamic Spain .

Spain. Toledo. (1/10 surviving mosques turned into a Christian chapel in 1186 by Alfonso VII) .«999« Mosque of Light of Christ.

«to 961« Islamo-Moorish Tower: Great Mosque of Cardoba. Islamic Spain .

Central Vault. Islamic Spain .«to 8th-10th Century« Great Mosque of Cordoba.

Iran (Tallest Pure Brick Building in the World for a 1000 Year) . Golistan.« to 1006« Gumabad-e-Qabus Tower.

« to 1050s« Al Jafaria Palace. Taifa of Zaragoza. . Islamic Spain.

Islamic Spain. .«to 1050s« Al Jafaria Palace. Taifa of Zaragoza.

Taifa of Zaragoza.«to 1050s« Al Jafaria Palace. . Islamic Spain.

«to 11th Century« Mudejar Tower. Islamic Spain. . Taifa of Zaragoza.

Isfahan.«to 11th Century« Ibne Sina¶s Jameh Mosque. Iran. (11th century dome on 8th Century walls.) .

«to 1133« Lady Ruqaya¶s Mausoleum. Egypt . Cairo.

One of the three. . Morocco. Marrakesh.«to 1190s« Islamo-Moorish Tower. the architect of Giralda Tower. by Jabir.

One of the three. by Jabir. Morocco. the architect of Giralda Tower. .«to 1190s« Islamo-Moorish Tower: Rabat.

Clock Towers. Spain. (It became the model for towers in Churches.«to 1190s« Islamo-Moorish Towers: Giralda Tower by Jabir. Seville. College Steeples and skyscrapers over around the world thru the 20th century) .

«to 1194« Minaret of Jam. Afghanistan.) .according to some. (Inspired Qutub Minar in India .

India. . New Delhi.«to 1190s-1386« Qutub Minar.

(12the century Muslim Spain became the µBeacon of Learning¶ to entire northern Europe.«to 12th Century« Islamic Tower. Spain.) . Toledo.

Mashhad. Iran. .«to th 12 Century« Imam Raza¶s Mausoleum.

.«to 1244« Islamo-Moorish Towers: Salahiya Madarsa. Egypt. Cairo.

. Cairo. Egypt.«to 1250s« Islamo-Moorish Towers: Sultaniya Mausoleum.

.«to 1250s« Ribbed Dome: Sultaniya Mausoleum. Cairo. Egypt.

Syria.«to th 13 century« Khalid ibn Walid Mosque. . Homs.

Toledo. .«to th 13 Century« Jesus atop an Islamo-Moorish Tower inviting the world to Islam. Islamic Spain.

North Yorkshire. UK (Crescent Arches and Moorish Tower in the biggest Church/Monastery of its time) .«to 13-15th Century« Fountain Abbey.

UK (Crescent arches in Cardoba style adopted by French order in so called Burgundy µGothic¶.) .«to 13-15th Century« Fountain Abbey. North Yorkshire.

UK. North Yorkshire. (Cordoba Mosque pattern of a forest of columns and arches in Christian Churches) .«to 13-15th Century« Fountain Abbey.

Cairo. .«to 1304« Islamo-Moorish Towers: Madarsa of al-Nasir Mohammad. Egypt.

« to 1307 « Abbas al-Mursi Mosque. Alexandria. Egypt. Palestine. Notice domes covered with the pattern inside the vault of Dome of Rock. .

(Notice octagonal shape of the vault inspired by Dome of Rock.) . Palestine. Egypt. Alexandria.« to 1307 « Abbas al-Mursi Mosque.

« to 1307 « Abbas al-Mursi Mosque. Alexandria. Egypt. .

Alexandria.) . Palestine.« to 1307 « Abbas al-Mursi Mosque. (Notice octagonal shape of the vault inspired by Dome of Rock. Egypt.

.« to 1351 « Weramin Jame Mosque. Tehran. Iran.

Dome & Vault. Uzbekistan.« to 1371« Shahrukh¶s Mosque. .

« to 1375« Ribbed Dome: Timurid Mausoleum. Uzbekistan. Samarqand. .

Cairo. Egypt . vault.« to 1448 « Qaitbay Mosque.

vault in prayer chamber.« to 1477« Qaitbay Citadel. Alexandria. Egypt .

(Modeled after Giralda Tower in Seville Mosque) . Spain.«to 15th Century« Islamo-Moorish Towers: Carmona.

«to 15th Century« Islamo-Moorish Tower: New Church. Amsterdam .

Germany . Landshut.« to 1500« Islamo-Moorish Tower: St. Martin¶s Church.

Avignon. France (Avignon was the seat of Papacy instead if Rome.«to th-15th« 14 Papal Palace. from 1309-1377) .

«to 1505« Wakalat el Ghouri Arts Center. Egypt . Cairo.

«to 1521« Khayrbak Mosque. Cairo. Egypt .

Moorish towers. onion domes and crescent arches) .«to 1521« Cathedral of Our Lady.g. Antwerp. Belgium. (Multiple Islamic features e.

Turkey .« to 1548 « Prince¶s Mosque. Istanbul.

Turkey .« to 1557 « Sulemaniye Mosque. Istanbul.

New Delhi. India .« to 1571 « Emperor Humayun Mausoleum.

Central Vault. India . New Delhi.«to 1571« Emperor Humayun Mausoleum.

Westonzoyland. Mary¶s Church. UK .« to 1600s« Islamo-Moorish Towers: St.

Istanbul.« to 1616 « Blue Mosque. Turkey .

« to 1618 « Lutfullah Mosque. Isfahan. Iran (Notice similar pattern of graphics as inside Al Aqsa Mosque) .

Vatican City.«to 1626« St Peter¶s Basilica. . Rome.

Tunisia.« to 1629 « Mosque of Sidi Sahab. . Kairouan.

«to 1631« Islamo-Moorish Towers: Westoren. Amsterdam. Holland .

Spain .« to 1635 « Cathedral of Cadiz.

Isfahan. Iran. .« to 1637 « Royal Mosque.

. Uzbekistan. Samarqand.« to 1646« Tilya Kori Mosque.

. Uzbekistan.« to 1646« Tilya Kori Madarsa. Samarqand.

« to 1648 « Everlasting Love of Shahjahan. Agra. . India.

« to 1648 « The vault inside Taj Mahal's Mosque. India. Agra. (Notice similar pattern of graphics as inside Dome of Rock in Al-Aqsa Mosque) .

« to 1669 « Hasht Baheshti Palace. Iran. Isfahan. .

« to 1669 « A Kaleidoscopic vault inside the Hasht Baheshti Palace. Iran. Isfahan. .

Paul¶s Cathedral. . London. UK.«to 1708« St.

Syria. Damascus. .« to 1750 « Azm Palace.

India. . New Delhi.«to 1754« Safdar Jang¶s Tomb.

«to 1792« Palestinian Golden Dome and Central Vault with Sky-lights become the defining features in the major buildings all over the world thru the ages« New Jersey State Capitol and Vault inside the Golden Dome! .

«to 1798« Palestinian Golden Dome and Central Vault with Sky-lights become the defining features in the major buildings all over the world thru the ages« « Massachusetts State Capitol and Vault inside the Golden Dome! .

Qandahar. .« to 18th Century « Ahmad Shah Khan¶s Mausoleum. Kabul.

« to 1814 « Sadat Ali Khan¶s Mausoleum. . Lucknow. India.

« to 1826 « Sultan Mosque or Imam Khomeini Mosque. Iran. .

.« to 1826 « Sultan Mosque or Imam Khomeini Mosque. Iran.

Cambridge. .« to 1826« Islamo-Moorish Towers: Harvard Divinity School.

« to 1848 « Mohammad Ali Mosque. Cairo. vault and arches. . Egypt.

. alcoves and tables«¶ . Harvard University. light vaults that hung over quiet book laden galleries.« to 1841« Gore Hall.William James. USA µ«looked up into the high. Cambridge.

vault and arches.«to 1848« Mohammad Ali Mosque. Cairo. Egypt. .

Egypt. Cairo. vault and arches.« to 1848 « Mohammad Ali Mosque. .

USA. .«to 1864« United States Capitol. Washington DC.

Los Angeles.« to 1874 « California Capitol. USA (California derived from Calif Harun Ref: TB Irving¶s studies of Latin American History) .

« to 1878« Al-Aqsa Mosque¶s Golden Dome and Vault with Sky-lights become the key Islamic features in the major buildings all over the world thru ages« Connecticut State Capitol and Vault inside the Golden Dome! Pattern inside the dome reminiscent of Palestinian Dome. .

UK (Third Tallest Clock Tower) . London.« to 1887 « Islamo-Moorish Big Ben.

Bolton.«1871« Islamo-Moorish Towers: Bolton Le Moors. UK .

«to 1877« Islamo-Moorish Tower: Harvard University.¶ ± William James) . Cambridge. (Memorial Tower: µIt sprang majestic in the winter air.

Shiraz. Iran .« to 1888 « Nasir ul Mulk Mosque.

Shiraz. Iran .« to 1888 « Nasir ul Mulk Mosque.

Shiraz. Iran .« to 1888 « Nasir ul Mulk Mosque.

« to 1888 « Nasir ul Mulk Mosque. Iran . Shiraz.

« to 1888 « Nasir ul Mulk Mosque. Shiraz. Iran .

France. Paris. (Tapering Minaret like structure with a dome-top is considered archetypically Islamic) .«to 1889« Eiffel Tower.

Steel frame gives Eiffel it elusive but distinctive modern look.«to 1889« Crescent arches and 4 aspects of the Eiffel Tower with Arabesque lattice work are Islamic motifs in design. .

Port au Prince.«to 1889« Iron Market (French Built). . Haiti. Islamic outlines of the structure built by French at the same time as Eiffel Tower.

«to 1894« Al-Aqsa Mosque¶s Golden Dome and Vault with Sky-lights become the key Islamic features in the major buildings all over the world thru the ages« Colorado State Capital and Vault inside the Golden Dome! .

.« to 1894 « Christian Science Mother Church. Boston. Notice similarities between Palestinian Al-Aqsa Mosque¶s Golden Dome and Vault & Sky-lights in this church. USA.

. San Francisco.«to 1898« Islamo-Moorish Tower in Ferry Building.

Amsterdam. Nicholas Church. .« to th 19 Century« neo-Islamic Minarets & Dome of St.

New York. (Highest in The World until Chrysler Building came up in 1930s) .«to 1909« Islamo-Moorish Towers: Metropolitan Life.

«to 1919« Basilica of Sacred Heart. Paris .

.«to 1923« Islamo-Moorish Towers: Country Club Plaza. Kansas City.

«to 1890-1924« Islamo-Moorish Towers: Madison Square Garden II. (Second tallest building in New York City when it existed) . New York.

«to 1931« President¶s Palace. India . New Delhi.

«to 1931« Islamo-Moorish Towers: Chrysler Building. New York. (Highest Building until Empire State came up 11 months later) .

«to 1931« Islamo-Moorish Towers: Empire State Building. New York. (Highest Building until 1967 when Oklahoma TV Tower came up) .

Cambridge.« to 1930s « Islamo-Moorish Towers: Harvard University. .

. Cambridge.« to 1930s « Islamo-Moorish Towers: Harvard University.

Poland (Highest Building in Europe until 1957) . Warsaw.« to 1955 « Islamo-Moorish Towers: Palace of Culture & Science.

Brussels.«to 1971« neo-Islamic Koekelberg Basilica. Belgium .

Brussels. Belgium .«to 1971« neo-Islamic Koekelberg Basilica.

«to 1986« Islamo-Moorish Towers: King Hassan II Mosque in the age-old tradition of Jabir having gone around the world and back to Morocco! .

Syria . Damascus.« to 1990« Neo-Islamic Sayyidah Zaynab Mosque.

« to 1993« neo-Islamic Ribbed Dome: Berlin Cathedral. Germany .

Germany .«to 1993« neo-Islamic Central Vault: Berlin Cathedral.

Malaysia (World¶s Tallest when built) .« to 1998 « Minarets of Light: Petronas Towers. Kualampur.

«to Today« Prophet¶s Mosque. Saudi Arabia. Medina. .

Rocketing to A Spiritual Heaven« Prophet¶s Mosque. . Saudi Arabia. Medina.

Ever since 622¶s Ever-Green Revolution! .

«2010! Allah-goes-rhythmic to Zenith« .

«2010! Spiritual Spiral to µThe Tree of Light¶! .

Dubai ± Inaugural Fireworks on Jan 4th.«2010! «Minar: µThe Tower of Light¶! (Burj Khalifa. 2010) .

stepwise solution to a problem ‡ Algebra ‡ Avicenna ‡ Canon of Medicine ‡ Zenith ISLAMIC ‡ Al-Khwarizmi .mathematician from Al-Khwarizmi in Central Asia ‡ Al-Jabr (µto balance¶) ‡ Ibne-Sina ‡ Qanun al Tibb ‡ Zeenat .A to Z: Islamic Impact Science & Mathematics WESTERN ‡ Algorithm (Algoritmi) .

A to Z: Islamic Impact Theology & Political Theory WESTERN Thomas Aquinas¶s µSummum Theologicum¶ Moses Maimonides¶s µGuide to Perplexed¶ John Locke/Rousseau¶s µSocial Contract¶ vs Hobbes¶ µLeviathan¶ Immanuel Kant Daniel Dafoe¶s Treasure Island ISLAMIC Ghazali (Algazel) (1055-1111 AD) Ibne Rushd (Averroes) (1126-1198 AD) Ibne Tufail (Avempace) (1110-1185 AD) µHayye Ibn Yaqzan¶ (The Son of Living Light) Best-seller during µAge of Enlightenment¶ .

A to Z: Collegiate of Islam: Culture of Compassion ‡ Compassion for Creation ‡ Egalitarianism in Rights ‡ Accountability in µState Power Structure¶ balanced by µFreedom of Speech & Conscience¶ ‡ Objectivity in Science ‡ Justice in Society ‡ Love in Umma ‡ Ilm in Individual ‡ Balance in Architecture ‡ Symmetry in Art .

‡ Harmony with Time Punctuality ‡ Peace through Justice . all are Equal in Value & Unique: µWhadat-ul Wajud¶ or Unity of Creation: Egalitarianism! ‡ Compassion for All Creation coz Allah is Kind ‡ Balance & Proportion ‡ Symmetry & Precision. Allah is One! Therefore.A to Z: Colleyiate of Islam: Equality & Liberty ‡ Creator God.

Inspired by Algebbar 1/99 names of Allah ‡ Symbol of Islamic Science .Islamic Mathematics .A to Z: Collegiate of Islam: Balance & Symmetry Balance as a Symbol: ‡ Symbol of Algebra .Precision in Measurement ‡ Symbol of Symmetry in Art ‡ Symbol of Proportionality in Islamic Justice ‡ Symbol of Islamic World View .

A to Z: Collegiate of Islam: Foundation of Excellence Pilgrim¶s Progress: ISLAM => IMAN => IHSAN (Belief => Conviction => Beauty) From Arabic root word = µHSN¶ IHSAN = HASAN = HUSSAIN = BEAUTY GRACE EXCELLENCE .

Right to Property 4.A to Z: Islamic Bill of Rights 1. Haq al Qaul .Right to Conscience & Belief 5. Haq al Hayat .Right to Information 6.Right to Individual Dignity 7. Haq al Karamat . Haq al Ilm . Haq al Nasl .Right to Progeny 3.Right to Life 2. Haq al Maal .Right of Self Determination or Democracy . Haq al Hurriyat .

Alupka Palace. Famous as venue for Yalta Conference. Ukraine (Obvious and deliberate adaptation of Islamic architectural motifs) The facade of Vorontsov (Alupka) Palace. Crimea. 1846. Overall design unmistakably Islamic but unacknowledged. .Fairy Tale Castles of 19th Century Alupka Palace. stylized domes and minarets of neoIslamic architecture credited by its English architect as µneo-Moorish¶. inescapably Islamic architectural motifs.

inspired by Istanbul & Alhambra .Fairy Tale Castles of 19th Century Neuschwanstein. Germany. 1890.

Istanbul.Fairy Tale Castles of 19th Century Inspired by Blue Mosque. . Turkey. 1616.

(Inspired by Taj Mahal & Prophet¶s Mosque) . Abu Dhabi.Fairy Tale Mosques of 21st Century Shaikh Zayed Mosque. UAE.

Abu Dhabi.Fairy Tale Mosques of 21st Century Shaikh Zayed Mosque. . UAE.

Fairy Tale Mosques of 21st Century Shaikh Zayed Mosque. UAE. Abu Dhabi. .

.Fairy Tale Mosques of 21st Century Shaikh Zayed Mosque. UAE. Abu Dhabi.

Fairy Tale Mosques of 21st Century Zayed Mosque. Abu Dhabi. UAE. .

Fairy Tale Mosques of st 21 Century Shaikh Zayed Mosque. . UAE. Abu Dhabi.

Abu Dhabi. UAE.Fairy Tale Mosques of st 21 Century Zayed Mosque. .

UAE.Fairy Tale Mosques of 21st Century Zayed Mosque. Abu Dhabi. .

Abu Dhabi.Fairy Tale Mosques of 21st Century Mosque. UAE. .

UAE. .Fairy Tale Mosques of 21st Century Zayed Mosque. Abu Dhabi.

Malaysia.Fairy Tale Mosques of st 21 Century Tengku Zaharah Mosque. 1995. .

.Fairy Tale Mosque of st 21 Century Shaikh Zayed Mosque. Abu Dhabi. UAE.

000 people participated in the festivities. Destroyed in 1500s by Ivan the Terrible.Fairy Tale of 21st Century Qul Sharif Mosque. Kazan celebrated its millennial anniversary recently with the opening of this mosque as 40 countries and 17.rebuilt in 2005! The largest mosque in Europe. . today: Moscow¶s symbol St. Russia. . Basil Cathedral is inspired by the original Qul Sharif Mosque. Kazan.

rebuilt in 2005! Fairy tale panorama of the Khanate of Kazan with the largest mosque in Europe in the middle of the cityscape! . . The Tatar Mosque: Destroyed in 1500s by Ivan the Terrible.Fairy Tale of 21st Century Qul Sharif.

Disclaimer
1. 2. This presentation is work in progress. Accuracy of every detail, every fact and every assumption can not be guaranteed as the graphics and facts are obtained from publically available informational sources which may be inaccurate in some instances. This presentation offers an informed analysis to foster discussion. Its uniqueness is in providing a perspective on heterogeneous data of multifarious origins over hundreds of years. Therefore, some subjective bias may be assumed, though that is not the intent of the author. Any profits earned from the nominal payments made here shall be used for development of not-for-profit educational materials for public awareness and electronic media presentations or to promote the objectives enunciated in Obama's Speech to the Muslim World. Any payments made might remain valid for the next versions of this presentations as long as 'Scribd, Inc' payment policy allows. Graphics used under "Fair use" exception to United States copyright law that allows for the reproduction of limited portions of copyrighted works for limited purposes such as criticism, commentary, parody, news reporting, research and teaching. However, such shall be removed within reasonable time if the owner of any such material so demands, - upon proving their copyright ownership. All dates are as provided on public sources using current international calendar which is a derivative of the Omar Khayyam¶s solar calendar adopted later by Pope Gregory of which we are in year 2010.

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References
1. Gene W. Heck, µChalemagne, Muhammed and Arab roots of Capitalism¶ (Walter de Guyter, 2006) 2. Rom Landau, µThe Arab Heritage of Western Civilization¶ (University Press of the Pacific, 2003) 3. Maria Rosa Menocal, µOrnament of the World¶ (Little Brown & Co, 2002) 4. Philip K. Hitti, µThe Arabs: A Short History¶ (Regnery Publishing, 1996) 5. Seyyed Hossein Nasr, µScience and Civilization in Islam¶ (Kazi Publications, 1996) 6. Toby Huff, µThe Rise of Early Modern Science: Islam, China and the West¶ (Cambridge University Press, 1993) 7. Richard Hodges & David White House, µMohammed, Charlemagne and the Origin of Europe¶ (Cornell University Press, 1983) 8. John Hayes, ed, µThe Genius of Arab Civilization: Source of Renaissance¶ (MIT Press, 1983) 9. Ali Abdullah al-Daffa, µThe Muslim Contribution to Mathematics¶ (Prometheus Books, 1977) 10. Sir Thomas Arnold and Alfred Guillaume, eds, µThe Legacy of Islam¶ (Oxford University Press, 1968)

Acknowledgments
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. Oxford University, UK Museum of Fine Arts, New York, USA Louvre Museum, Paris, France Vatican City, Rome, Italy. Cloisters Museum, New York, USA Islamic Manuscripts, National Library of Medicine, USA All those who built those monuments and objects throughout the world All the unknown photographers who put their picture for public service World Wide Web for collaboration and dissemination of information Google Search & Archiving Microsoft Disney Scribd

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