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Chapter 12 : Economics, Global EC, and Other EC Issues

Chapter 12 : Economics, Global EC, and Other EC Issues

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Published by Kamran Shabbir
Chapter 12 : Economics, Global EC, and Other EC Issues


Kamran Shabbir
MBA ( Banking & Finance ) 36 Credits
SZABIST
Karachi

Marketing of SZABMS
Chapter 12 : Economics, Global EC, and Other EC Issues


Kamran Shabbir
MBA ( Banking & Finance ) 36 Credits
SZABIST
Karachi

Marketing of SZABMS

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Categories:Types, Business/Law
Published by: Kamran Shabbir on Aug 29, 2013
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07/20/2014

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Chapter 12

Economics, Global EC, and Other EC Issues
www.prestonians.webnode.com

1

The Components of Digital Electronics
Digital Products The Consumers The Sellers The Infrastructure companies The Intermediaries The Support services Content creaters
www.prestonians.webnode.com 2

Competition in Marketspace
Lower buyers’ search cost. Speedy comparisons. Differentiation. Lower prices. Customer services. Other competitive factors to consider are:

The size of the firm may not be a significant competitive advantage. Geographical distance from consumer may play an insignificant role. Some language barriers may be easily removed. Digital products lack normal wear and tear.
www.prestonians.webnode.com 3

Some Issues in Digital Economy and Success Factors
The need for a critical mass of buyer

www.prestonians.webnode.com

4

Virtual Communities
The Internet Virtual Communities
The Web is being transformed into a social Web of communities. Four major types:
Communities of transactions Communities of interest Communities of relations (practice) Communities of fantasy

www.prestonians.webnode.com

5

Virtual Communities (cont.)
Communities of transactions
Facilitate buying and selling Evineyard.com
Sells wine Provides expert information on wines Provides chat room

Communities of interest
Place for people to interact with each other on a specific topic Motley fool (fool.Com)
Forum for individual investors

www.prestonians.webnode.com

6

Virtual Communities (cont.)
Communities of relations (practice)
Be organized around certain life experiences Plasticsnet.com used by thousands of engineers in the plastics industry

Communities of fantasy
Place for participants to create imaginary environments ESPNet participants create competing teams and “play” with Michael Jordan

www.prestonians.webnode.com

7

Virtual Communities (cont.)
Ways to transform a community site into a commerce site:
Understand a particular niche industry
Its information needs Use a step-by-step process by which it does the research needed to do business

Build a site that provides valuable information
Through partnerships with existing publishers and information providers By gathering it independently
www.prestonians.webnode.com 8

Virtual Communities (cont.)
Set up the site to mirror the steps a user goes through in the information-gathering and decision-making process Build a community that relies on the site for decision support Start selling products and services, such as sample chips to engineers, that fit into the decision-support process

www.prestonians.webnode.com

9

Virtual Communities (cont.)
The Expected Payback
Customer loyalty increases Increased sales Customer participation and feedback increases Increased repeat traffic to site Drive new traffic to the site
www.prestonians.webnode.com 10

Virtual Communities (cont.)
Creating economic value
Members input useful information in the form of comments, feedback, elaborating their attitudes and beliefs, and information needs of the community The community brings together consumers of specific demographic and interest Communities charge members content fees for downloading certain articles, music, or pictures
www.prestonians.webnode.com 11

Virtual Communities (cont.)
Financial viability of communities
Based on sponsorship and advertisement Expenses are very high because of the need to provide:
Fresh content Free services Free membership

This model did not work well, many companies sustained heavy losses in 2000-2001; too few members, too few purchases
www.prestonians.webnode.com 12

Global Electronic Commerce
While geographical market boundaries may be falling, global interest-based communities will spring up Mainly in support of business-to-business financial and other repetitive, standard transactions, e.g. EFT & EDI The emergence of the Internet and the extranets resulted in an inexpensive and flexible infrastructure that can greatly facilitate global trade
www.prestonians.webnode.com 13

Barriers to Global Electronic Commerce
Legal Issues
Uncoordinated actions must be avoided and an international policy of cooperation should be encouraged

Market Access Issues
Companies starting e-commerce need to evaluate bandwidth needs by analyzing the data required, time constraints, access demands, and user technology limitations
www.prestonians.webnode.com 14

Barriers to Global Electronic Commerce (cont.)
Financial Issues
Customs and taxation Electronic payment systems

Other Issues
Identification of buyers and sellers Trust Security (for example, viruses)

www.prestonians.webnode.com

15

Barriers to Global Electronic Commerce (cont.)
Other Issues (cont.)
Cultural diversity International agreements (multi-lateral agreements) Role of government Purchasing in local currencies Language and translation Purchasing in different currencies
16

www.prestonians.webnode.com

The U.S. Policy Regarding Global Electronic Commerce
The private sector should lead Governments should avoid undue restrictions on electronic commerce Where government involvement is needed, its aim should be to support and enforce a predictable minimalistic, consistent and simple legal environment for commerce

www.prestonians.webnode.com

17

The U.S. Policy Regarding Global Electronic Commerce (cont.)
Governments should recognize the unique qualities of the Internet Electronic commerce on the Internet should be facilitated on a global basis Global marketspace erases national borders and gives small companies worldwide reach

www.prestonians.webnode.com

18

The Opportunities for Small Businesses
Inexpensive
Source of information Way of advertising Way of conducting market research Way to build (or rent) a storefront Way of providing catalogs Way to reach worldwide customers

www.prestonians.webnode.com

19

The Opportunities for Small Businesses (cont.)
Lower transaction cost Niche market, specialty products (cigars, wines, sauces) are the best place to be Image and public recognition can be accumulated fast

www.prestonians.webnode.com

20

Risks and Disadvantages for Small Businesses
Inability to use EDI, unless it is EDI/Internet Lack of resources to fully exploit the Web Lack of expertise in legal issues, advertisement Less risk tolerance than a large company

www.prestonians.webnode.com

21

Risks and Disadvantages for Small Businesses (cont.)
Disadvantage when a commodity is the product (for example, CDs) No more personal contact, which is a strong point of a small business No advantage to being in a local community

www.prestonians.webnode.com

22

Success Factors for Small Businesses
Niche products
Low volume Not carried by regular retail stores

International products
Not easily available to off-line customers

Information
GartnerGroup provides access to online research material by subscription Smaller companies may provide specialized information (home and gardening)
23

Small volume
E.g., special books
Old technical

www.prestonians.webnode.com

Success Factors for Small Businesses (cont.)
Capital investment must be small Inventory should be minimal or non-existent Electronic payments schema exist Payment methods must be flexible Logistical services must be quick and reliable

www.prestonians.webnode.com

24

Success Factors for Small Businesses (cont.)
The Web site should be submitted to directory-based search engine services like Yahoo, in a correct way Join an online service or mall and do banner exchange Design a Web site that is functional and provides all needed services to consumers
www.prestonians.webnode.com 25

Success Factors for Small Businesses (cont.)
Monitor your:
Competition Technology Marketplace changes

Keep growth slow and steady Delegate Develop good internal communications

www.prestonians.webnode.com

26

Research in EC
Behavioral Issues

Consumer behavior Building consumers behavioral profiles and identify ways to utilize them Seller’s behavior and motivation Issue-oriented research (e.g., trust, intermediaries) Internet usage pattern and willingness to buy Mental model of consumer product search process, comparison process, and negotiation How to build trust in the e-marketspace
www.prestonians.webnode.com 27

Research in EC (cont.)
Technical Issues
Methods that help customers find what they want Models for extranet design and management Natural language processing and automatic language translation Matching smart card technology with payment mechanisms

www.prestonians.webnode.com

28

Research in EC (cont.)
Technical Issues (cont.)
Integrating EC with existing corporate information systems, databases, etc. Retrieval of information from an electronic industry directory Establishing standards for international trade Building a mobile Internet distribution command system
29

www.prestonians.webnode.com

Managerial Research Issues
Advertisement
Measuring the effectiveness, integration and coordination

Applications
Creating a methodology of finding EC business applications

www.prestonians.webnode.com

30

Managerial Research Issues (cont.)
Strategy
Designing strategic advantage strategy for EC Initiating “where to market” strategy Finding way to integrate EC into organizations

Impacts
Identify the necessary organization structure and culture Integration with ERP and SCM
www.prestonians.webnode.com 31

The Future of Electronic Commerce
Opportunities for buying
Increase rapidly

Internet usage
Increase exponentially Access via cell phones!

M-commerce
No need for a computer brings more people to the web
www.prestonians.webnode.com 32

The Future of Electronic Commerce (cont.)
Purchasing incentives
Increase buyers’ advantages

Increased security and trust
Significant improvement is expected

Efficient information handing
Accessible from anywhere

Innovative organizations
Restructured and reengineered
www.prestonians.webnode.com 33

The Future of Electronic Commerce (cont.)
Virtual Communities
Spreading rapidly

Payment systems
Ability to use e-cash cards and make micropayments is getting close to reality

Business-to-business
Continues to grow rapidly

www.prestonians.webnode.com

34

The Future of Electronic Commerce (cont.)
B2B exchanges
Provide infrastructure

Auctions
Increasing rapidly

Going global
Most appealing benefit of EC

www.prestonians.webnode.com

35

The Future of Electronic Commerce (cont.)
E-government--comprehensive
Government-to-consumers (G2C) Government-to-government (G2G) Government-to-business (G2B) Government-to-employees (G2E)

Intrabusiness EC
Improving internal supply chain
36

www.prestonians.webnode.com

The Future of Electronic Commerce (cont.)
Technology trends
Clients
Thin client and embedded client Servers Windows NT

Networks
XDSL and wireless communication

www.prestonians.webnode.com

37

The Future of Electronic Commerce (cont.)
Technology Trends
EC software and services
Availability of all types of EC software Companies support auctions and multiple types of certifications

EC knowledge
The quantity and quality of EC knowledge is increasing rapidly

Networked economy
www.prestonians.webnode.com 38

Managerial Issues
Finding a community that matches your business Going global
Threats—difficult to accomplish, especially on large scale Opportunities—create collaborative projects with partners in other countries (last a long time)

www.prestonians.webnode.com

39

Managerial Issues (cont.)
Small can be beautiful
Competing on commodities with the big guys is very difficult (especially in cyberspace) Finding niche markets is advisable More opportunities in providing support services than in trading

Restructuring is likely; should be investigated The future of EC is very bright, but planning is a must
www.prestonians.webnode.com 40

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