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HANDBOOK ON PRACTICUM IN BA THIRD YEAR
Discipline of Psychology School of Social Sciences Indira Gandhi National Open University Maidan Garhi, New Delhi- 110068
Prof. Vimala Veeraraghavan Emeritus Professor, Psychology SOSS, IGNOU, New Delhi
Dr. Swati Patra Dr. Suhas Shetgovekar Dr. Monika Misra Dr. Smita Gupta Dr. Bhagwanti Jadwati
Mr. Manjit Singh Section Officer (Publication) SOSS, IGNOU, New Delhi
August, 2012 © Indira Gandhi Naitonal Open University, 2012 All rights reserved. No part of this work may be reproduced in any form, by mimeograph or any other means, without permission in writing from the copyright holder. Further information on the Indira Gandhi National Open University courses may be obtained from the University’s office at Maidan Garhi, New Delhi-110 068 or the official website of IGNOU at www.ignou.ac.in Printed and published on behalf of Indira Gandhi National Open University, New Delhi by Director, SOSS, IGNOU. Laser Composed by : Tessa Media & Computers, C-206, A.F.E-II, Jamia Nagar, Okhla, New Delhi
Certificate 5 5 6 7 8 8 26 27 3 .0 Introduction Practicum in BA Third Year ( 4 Credits) Procedure to be followed by the Academic Counsellor Format for Practicum Evaluation A brief description of practicals Conduction of term end examination in BPCE 022 Appendix.0 7.0 4.0 6.0 2.0 3.0 5.CONTENTS Page No. 1.
the learners can new opt for practicum in clinical psychology or counseling or industrial and organizational psychology.1. The procedure and format are similar to the ones followed in BA part II. the learner opting BPCE 015 (Introduction to Counselling Psychology) will have practicum in Counselling and the learner opting for BPCE 017 (Industrial and Organizational Psychology) will have practicum in Industrial and Organizational Psychology. and have an idea about how to conduct experiments and administer psychological tests. a learner opting for BPCE 014 (Psychopathology) will have practicum in Clinical Psychology.0 PRACTICUM IN BA THIRD YEAR BPCE 022 (4 CREDITS) This course is compulsory for BA (Major) in Psychology. they will now be exposed to certain psychological tests based on the theory course BPCE 014/ BPCE 015/ BPCE 017 opted by them. practicals in Clinical Psychology or practicals in Counsellling or practicals in Industrial and Organizational Psychology. The learner has to conduct practicals from any one of the three categories namely. Thus. 2. In BA part III. A) PRACTICUM IN CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY • • • • • Mental Status Examination Clinical Interviewing PGI General Well-Being Scale Medico-Psychological Questionnaire Draw a Person Test Or B) PRACTICUM IN COUNSELLING • • • • • • Counselling and Clinical Assessment Adjustment Inventory for School Students Adjustment Inventory for College Students Differential Aptitude Test Interest Inventory Family Relationship Questionnaire Or (4 Credits) (4 Credits) 5 .0 INTRODUCTION TO PRACTICUM IN PSYCHOLOGY The learners have conducted practicum BPCL 007 and BPCL 008 in BA part II. Thus. The practicum option from the three categories (Clinical Psychology/ Counselling / Industrial and Organizational Psychology) should be chosen on the basis of the theory course BPCE 014/ BPCE 015/ BPCE 017 opted by the learner.
Taking the answer sheet from the subject after completion of the test. The subject takes the test. precautions) Taking informed consent for undergoing the test and informing the subject that the test findings will remain confidential. keeping the test material (test booklet. 6 . of items. making the subject feel comfortable Explaining the test ( procedure. validity) Administration Scoring Interpretation 4) After the introduction of the test. . Taking permission to record the session. Clearing all doubts in the mind of the subject about the test administration. for instance.0 PROCEDURE TO BE FOLLOWED BY THE ACADEMIC COUNSELLOR FOR BPCE 022 1) Go though the manual of the test thoroughly. Establishing rapport with the subject. 6) Explain the scoring procedure (as given in the test manual) to the learners. answer sheet. wherever applicable. Reading the instructions for test administration from the manual and showing it to learners as to from where they have to read the instructions. 5) The demonstration of administration will include the following: a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) Preparation for the test. demonstrate to the learners how to administer the test. time limit. 3) Introduce the test in terms of: • • • • • • • History of the Test Author Development of the test Features of the test (e.g. 2) Explain the test in detail to the learners in the class.PRACTICUM IN INDUSTRIAL AND ORGANIZATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY (4 Credits) • • • • • The Big Five Factor Scale Emotional Intelligence Scale Achievement Motivation Scale Authentic Leadership Scale Job Stress Survey 3. dimensions. reliability. stopwatch) ready. 7) Explain how to interpret the data. no.
Instructions: Instructions as give in the test manual are included here. Precautions: Precautions. to be considered while administering the test are mentioned under this sub heading. like author of the test. eraser. in case of Adjustment Inventory for College Students. no. is noted down in first person. score and interpret. like. of items. the background of Adjustment Inventory for College Students is described. For example. answer sheet. Introspective Report: After completion of the test by the subject. • • Title: This heading will contain the ‘title’ or ‘name’ of the practical e. the background of the test is mentioned. test booklet. Rapport: The learner has to mention that rapport was created with the subject and that the subject was well informed about the details of the test. For example. the subject’s feeling and constraints faced by him/her while undergoing the test/ experiment. validity. the details with regard to the test are mentioned. reliability. Introduction: Here. basic purpose of the test. like. stopwatch are kept ready. scoring. Materials Required: The materials required for the administration of the test are mentioned. if they are performing a test on ‘djustment Inventory for College Students’ then the basic objective of the test will be: ‘To assess the personality of the subject using Adjustment Inventory for College Students’. Description of the Test: Under this. in case of Adjustment Inventory for College Students. The concept is defined and discussed. 10) The learners will have to write a report of the test in the practicum note book which will be evaluated by the academic counsellors. educational qualification and occupation. answer sheet. For example. scoring key. the test booklet.8) Ask learners to administer the test on each other in pairs and monitor the same. pencil. Procedure and administration: The following sub headings are included here Preparation: The material required for conduction of the test. time limit.g: Adjustment Inventory for College Students. an introspective report is to be taken of the subject. 9) The learners will now administer. apparatus or instrument. dimensions/ factors. age. Aims/ Objectives: This will basically consist of the main objectives or purpose of the practical.0 FORMAT FOR PRACTICUM The academic counsellor introduces the following format to the learners which they have to follow while preparing their practicum notebook. Subject’s Profile: This will contain of all the detailed information about the subject. The concept of personality is defined and the theories related to it are discussed. • • • • • 7 . name of the subject (optional). if any. 4. that is. gender.
Books: Anastasi. A. (1984).• Scoring and Interpretation: After the subject completes the test. Organizational Dynamics.3. (2005).mcb. In: Garg. 13. Total marks for practical examination will be 100 marks (Internal 50 marks and External 50 marks).2011) • • • • • • • 5. References: The books.al.uk/apmforum (accessed on 2. The Term End Practical Examination including Viva Voce (External Assessment) carries 50% Weightage. New Delhi: Viva Books. Journal Article: Dennision. The scores can then be mentioned and interpreted under this heading. It may be further analyzed in the light of the introspective report. the answer sheet is to be scored with the help of the scoring key and the data is to be interpreted with the help of the norms given in the manual. 22-24. Discussion: Here. et. These should be alphabetically listed. Internal Attendance Conduction Interpretation Practical notebook Total Weightage 10% 10% 10% 20% 50% Marks 10 10 10 20 50 Total 50% 50 External Conduction Answer sheet Viva Voce Weightage 10% 20% 20% Marks 10 20 20 8 . the findings are to be analyzed and mentioned here.(Eds. For experiments. Bringing corporate culture to the bottomline. Psychological Testing. Conclusion: Under this heading. the learner has to conclude the findings of the test. Websties http://www. S. websites and the manual referred to by the learner are mentioned in American Psychological Association (APA) format. B. Distance education for development. the subject has to discuss the result based on the interpretation. (1968).W.) Open and distance education in global environment: Opportunities for collaboration.0 EVALUATION Actual Conduction of Practicals and reporting it in the practical note book in the prescribed format (internal assessment) carries 50% weightage. Book Chapter: Khan. London: MacMillan Company. A.co.
mathematical ability. The cognitive functions that are measured during the MSE include the person’s sense of time. MSE can also be given repeatedly to monitor or document changes in a patient’s condition. they remain primarily subjective measures that begin the moment the patient enters the psychologist’s room. speech. for example. and personal identity. The history and Mental Status Examination (MSE) are the most important diagnostic tools to make an accurate diagnosis. Description: Given below is the description of all aspects of MSE to be conducted. The MSE cannot be given to a patient who • • • cannot pay attention to the examiner. appearance. general intellectual level. and reasoning or problem-solving ability. and speech and thought patterns at the time of evaluation. Whether the patient is accompanied by someone (this helps to determine if the patient has social support). The purpose of a MSE is to assess the presence and extent of a person’s mental impairment. The MSE is an important part of the differential diagnosis of dementia and other psychiatric symptoms or disorders. insight or judgment. Patient’s personal appearance. It is one part of a full neurologic (nervous system) examination and includes the examiner’s observations about the patient’s attitude and cooperativeness as well as the patient’s answers to specific questions. as a result of being in a coma or being unconscious.0 A BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF PRACTICALS IN BPCE 022 A brief description of practicals under BPCE 022 are as follows: A) PRACTICUM IN CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY • MENTAL STATUS EXAMINATION A Mental Status Examination (MSE) is an assessment of a patient’s level of cognitive (knowledge-related) ability. these important tools have been standardized in their own right.6. 9 . sense of place. The MSE results may suggest specific areas for further testing or specific types of required tests. Steps to be followed are given here: Step 1: The psychologist must pay close attention to the following regarding the patient: • • • • Patient’s presentation. or is not fluent in the language of the examiner. emotional mood. Patient’s social interaction with office staff and others in the waiting area. memory. Although. or is completely unable to speak (aphasic).
c) the length of answers to questions. Note things as obvious as hygiene. d) the appropriateness of the answers. Speak directly to the patient during this introduction. 3) Affect. then immediately attempt to ease the situation by offering small talk or even a cup of water. coordination. This reflects an image of genuine concern to patients and may make the interview process much more relaxing for them. and overall appearance. A complete MSE is more comprehensive and evaluates the following ten areas of functioning: 1) Appearance. pay close attention to the following: • • • • • • • Note the personal grooming. 5) Speech. e) clarity of the answers and similar characteristics.) Note if patient is talking to himself or herself in the waiting area Note if the patient is pacing up and down outside the office door. 10 . and similar behaviors. These features are significant because poor personal hygiene or grooming may reflect a loss of interest in self care or physical inability to bathe or dress oneself. 2) Movement and behavior. posture. Affect refers to a person’s outwardly observable emotional reactions. happy mood.The above few observations can provide important information about the patient that may not otherwise be revealed through interviewing or one-on-one conversation. The examiner assesses what the patient is saying for indications of the following which are indicative of certain typical disorders. angry mood etc. 4) Mood. The psychologist notes the person’s age. Note if patients appear uneasy as they enter the office. It may include either a lack of emotional response to an event or an overreaction. Problems with walking or coordination may reflect a disorder of the central nervous system. The psychologist evaluates the following a) the volume of the person’s voice. Note things such as whether the patient is dressed appropriately according to the season. 6) Thought content. facial expressions. Whether the person is in a sad mood. civil status. eye contact. Many people feel more at ease if they can have something in their hands. Step 3: Establish rapport The next step for the psychologist is to establish adequate rapport with the patient by introducing himself or herself. Step 2: When patients enter the office. The psychologist observes the person’s gait (manner of walking). Each of the following will have to be checked by the psychologist trainee. Mental notes such as these may aid in guiding the interview later. Record all observations. Mood refers to the underlying emotional “atmosphere” or tone of the person’s answers. pay attention to whether the patient is maintaining eye contact. (These types of observations are important and may offer insight into the patient’s illness. b) the rate or speed of speech. sex.
felt. Thought process refers to the logical connections between thoughts and their relevance to the main thread of conversation. To test for delusions the questions to be asked are • • • • Do you sometimes feel that people are after you? Do you sometimes feel that people are talking about you? Do you sometimes feel that your phone is tapped? Do you sometimes feel people are overhearing your conversation? Dissociation: Dissociation refers to the splitting off of certain memories or mental processes from conscious awareness. and confusion about one’s identity. interrupted thinking (thought blocking). The evaluation assesses the person’s 8) 11 . illogical connections between thoughts. and even smelled or tasted. These can be noted by the psychologist and recorded as and when these occur. Dissociative symptoms include feelings of unreality. depersonalization. Cognition. and may be seen. repeated words and phrases. The questions to be asked would include: • • • • What is your name? Who are you? What work do you do? Do you sometimes feel that you do not know who you are? Obsessions: a persistent unwanted idea or impulse that cannot be eliminated by reasoning. and loose. heard. To test for hallucination the question to be asked is: • • • Do you sometimes hear some voice telling you to do something or not to do something? Do you sometimes hear some voice when no one is present? Do you feel that someone is talking about you and loudly saying whatever you are doing? Delusions: A delusion is an unshakable belief in something untrue. Irrelevant detail. These irrational beliefs defy normal reasoning. may be signs of a thought disorder. Cognition refers to the act or condition of knowing. and remain firm even when overwhelming proof is presented to dispute them. These sensory impressions are generated by the mind rather than by any external stimuli.Hallucinations: Hallucinations are false or distorted sensory experiences that appear to be real perceptions. To find out about the obsessions. the questions to be asked include the following: • • • 7) Do you feel that a particular thought keep coming to your mind again and again despite your not wanting it? Do you feel sometimes a strange idea or feeling which you think is not correct and however much you try the thought does not go? Do you find sometimes an impulse to keep washing your hands or other things at home even though you know it is unwarranted? Thought process.
or other organic brain disorders may require fifteen or twenty minutes. 12 . Insight refers to a person’s ability to recognize a problem and understand its nature and severity (do you think you are ill? If the person says he or she is not ill and that the family member who has brought him or her is ill.• • • • Orientation (ability to locate himself or herself) with regard to time (ask the person what time is it now?) Orientation to place (ask the person where are you now?) Orientation to personal identity (ask who are you and what your name is?) Long.term memory and short-term memory (ask the person what he had for breakfast. or similar questions) Ability to think abstractly (explaining a proverb) Ability to name specified objects and read or write complete sentences (Show some objects and ask the person to name the same. To test long term memory. Patients with speech problems or intellectual impairments. The examiner may choose to spend more time on certain portions of the MSE and less time on others. Then take up the interview with the family member or members who have accompanied the patient. Or ask the person what he would do if he or she finds a sealed envelope on the road).) Ability to distinguish between right and left (touch the person’s left hand and ask what hand is it? Repeat the same thing with the right hand). After the Mental Status Examination is over. depending on the patient’s condition and answers. • • • • • • • 9) Judgment. It may take as little as five minutes to examine a healthy person. dementia. The examiner asks the person what he or she would do about a commonsense problem.) Ability to understand and perform a task (showing the examiner how to comb one’s hair or throw a ball ) Ability to draw a simple map or copy a design or geometrical figure 9 draw a design like square or a triangle and ask the person to draw it after you. 10) Insight. that shows lack of insight) Note: The length of time required for a Mental Status Examination depends on the patient’s condition. Show simple sentences and ask the person to read or write the same.) Ability to perform simple arithmetic (counting backward by threes or sevens) General intellectual level or fund of knowledge (identifying the last five Presidents. such as running out of a prescription medication. record the entire thing in detail. tell me the name of the school in which you studied.
details of previous episodes of illness. marital history. In this section of the practicum. details about children.• CLINICAL INTERVIEWING Interviewing is one of the most important skills in practicum. sexual history. education. religion. medical or any other treatment or help sought by the subject. Case history covers personal information like name. leisure and forensic history. details of previous treatment are also to be noted down with details about current problem and psychiatric issues. adolescence. previous psychiatric admissions/treatment. socio economic status etc. occupation. A sample of Case History Format is given as follows: • Personal details: These are mainly for the identification of the subject and to understand his/ her basic details. 13 • . school. social relations and self-care. habits. Further. income. interval functioning (what is the subject like between episodes/when “well”). History of Present Illness: These are details of problems experienced by the subject. job if any. the learner should have an understanding about how to take case history. Mental Health Status (MHS) can also be included in clinical interviewing. medical complaints. menstrual history. gender.: Gender: Male/ Female Age: Marital status: Occupation: Referred by: Main/ Present/ Chief Complaint: • Personal History/Development: This can cover various aspects like early development. comment on the impact of the illness on the subjects life. social network. suicide attempts/drug and alcohol abuse. As it is not only useful to create rapport with the subject before the psychological tests are administered but they also help gain information about various details about the subject. CASE HISTORY: It is necessary to take case history of a subject so as to understand his/ her back ground. A particular format may be followed by psychologists in order to take case history of a subject. This will be followed by certain other details about the subject. They may be: Name: Address: Contact No. This covers common psychiatric symptoms . work. age. It further covers information about family. childhood.
satisfaction with life’s experiences and one’s role in the world of work. dissatisfaction or worry. contentment. General well being can be associated with a state of psychological healthy being. but this healthy being is not necessarily the absence of psychological ill being. The measure is reported as unaffected by variables like socio-economic status (-. Each item is to be 14 .98 (by Kuder Richardson formula) and test retest reliability was . The administration and scoring takes 5-6 minutes per subject. 1986). family history of psychiatric illness (incl. (for example ‘Not easily tired feeling useful wanted being in good health’) which the person taking test has to answer by putting [√] in the square if the statement is applicable for him/her for the past month.’ Verma has defined General Wellbeing ‘as the subjective feeling of contentment. a measure of psychotherapy’ (Fazio 1977: 12). belongingness. ‘absence of psychological ill-being does not necessarily mean the presence of psychological well being. The questionnaire consists of 50 items selected from various instruments available for measuring neurosis. Verma (1978) is a modified version of General Wellbeing schedule by H Dupuy (1970.happiness. This number constitutes the well being score. For scoring. a mental health status appraisal. Family History: Parents and siblings.86 for Hindi version. Bharath Raj. and no distress. nature of the relationships between family members.91 for English version and .Psychological Questionnaire is one of the tools that can be used for this purpose. etc’. J. The person taking the test reports about his/her state of being by responding to 20 simple statements. happiness. lack of distress could present a challenge for measurement.39 correlation) and education (. including behaviour at work or in school or during social gatherings is to be noted down.12) but it showed significant correlation with age (. • • PGI GENERAL WELL-BEING SCALE PGI General Wellbeing measure developed by S.K. The scale was initially developed in English and the Hindi version was later developed by Moudgil et al (1986). Social History: The social interactions of the subject.• • Medical History: The details of medical treatment that the subject has undergone or is undergoing has to be noted down. number of tick marks is counted. This measure can be self-administered and can be given orally also. The components mentioned in the definition . The scale was reported to be ‘useful in a variety of research and applied settings such as quality of life index. The scale consists of 20 items in the form of short statements. drug/alcohol abuse. This questionnaire was developed by Dr. USA). utility. Reliability of the measure was found to be . How to objectively measure these life size components? The developers of this test prefer to go rather for a subjective measure than an objective one. sense of achievement. any family tensions and stresses and family models of coping. is to be noted down. Test procedure is very simple. suicide attempts). writes S K Verma (1988). • MEDICO-PSYCHOLOGICAL QUESTIONNAIRE One of the significant issues in the filed of clinical psychology is the measurement of neuroticism.52) (Moudgil et al. Medico.
This requires the counselor to understand the client. This test may be administered to a single child or a group of 20 children. the readings on draw-a-man test must be supplemented by some other tests. neurasthenia. No other instructions are given. In order to gain an understanding of the client’s problem. The scoring mainly depends on the various parts of the body drawn by the child and their details. • DRAW A PERSON TEST This test was developed by Goodenough-Harris. It helps to measure the cognitive development of children. Draw-a. however the subject is asked to draw a whole person each time and not certain body parts or face alone. likes. a woman. For critical individual study. It enables the client to take appropriate decisions. individual administration is advised if the test is administered to a preschool child or child under clinical study. reactive depression and obsession compulsion. abilities. Calculation of IQ is possible by using the age-norms table provided in the manual. values and goals etc. ? or ‘No. but objective judgemnet is needed. personality. The total score on the test is the sum of the above two. The questions 15 . Administrative procedure of this test involves the administrator asking the subject to complete three separate drawings on separate paper. An informal method should be used to interview the client so that the client does not feel intimidated. The number of ‘Yes’ answers are counted and this total has to be multiplied by 2. The counselor needs to be skilled in conducting this initial interview a it has significance in terms of getting to know the client.man test developed by Pramila Pathak may also be used. making the client feel accepted and understood and develop confidence in the counselor. Initial interview helps the counselor to build up rapport with the client. The total score may then be interpreted with the help of the norms available in the test manual. his problems and his situation in a proper perspective. B) PRACTICUM IN COUNSELLING • COUNSELLING AND CLINICAL ASSESSMENT Counselling is a process where the counselor helps the client to understand himself and his situation and accordingly make intelligent choices. and himself/ herself. Hence correct identification of the client’s problem is a crucial part of the counselling process. The questionnaire can also be used to make diagnosis with regard to the sub categories of neurosis namely.’After the subject finishes answering all the 50 items. All these information are collected through an interview which is called History ‘Taking’ or ‘Initial Interview’. anxiety neurosis. interests. Draw-a-man test is based on one single performance which hardly takes more than ten minutes. The subject is free to draw the way he/she wishes to. The drawing can be evaluated with the help of various scoring scales. The total number of doubtful (?) answers are calculated and this total is multiplied by 1. There is no time limit. Subject is asked to draw a man.answered by the subject by encircling ‘Yes’. plans and adjustments. The scoring of the picture drawn is covered in detail in the manual provided with the test. However. the questionnaire may be scored. hysteria. It is a quick measure of intelligence and hence is appropriate to use when a quick. the counselor needs to first develop an understanding about the client – his needs. Material required for the test is just sheets of paper and a pencil.
Further. recreational does the client take up? c) What is the nature of his present educational and vocational situation? 4) Family Setting a) Age. it gives data about the educational and occupational status of the client. In addition to collecting. the present behavior of the client. The process of initial interview or history taking usually starts with collecting standard information data or identification data such as name. education. The client has to be assured of the security and confidentiality of all the information he will be providing during the counselling session and that no information will be disclosed without the client’s consent. behavioral problems and adjustments and goals in life. An outline of the initial interview is given below. address. 16 . religious. 1) Identification Data: a) Name. relationship of each parent with the client and with other siblings. Address and Telephone. emotions and motivations. relationship of the client with the grandparents etc. The most important thing before the interview is the assurance of confidentiality to the client. education and occupation of father and mother b) How are the personalities of the father and mother? c) How is the relationship between the father and mother. Information about the address will give an idea of the locality/area in which the client stays. sex. education. etc. occupation and marital status. The following can be asked to the client: a) Does the problem interfere with the client’s day-to-day activities? To what extent? b) What are the thoughts. his/her interactions and relationships. various information through questioning. This provides information about whether the client is a minor or mature enough to provide the counselor with reliable information. The physical appearance. occupation. 2) Information related to the problem: Whatever information the client gives about his problem should be recorded as it is. b) Age. the body language of the client convey a lot about the client which the counselor needs to consider to get a comprehensive picture about the client. the counselor needs to pay attention to the client’s non-verbal behavior also.should be such to provide a wide understanding of the client’s life. age. This will help in addressing the client in the first person and contacting the client whenever necessary. feelings and behavior associated with the problem? c) Since when has the problem begun? How frequently does it occur? d) What pattern of events usually lead to the problem? When does it occur? With whom? What happens before and after the problem occurs? e) What made the client seek counselling? 3) Client’s present life situation: a) How is a typical day or week in the client’s life? b) What type of activities related to social.
age . nail biting. the self concept of the client. c) Body language. d) Language: fluency. eye contact. etc. a) Temperament: warm and friendly. how many times parents have changed jobs. aloofness. How was the client in his academic career including his talents. energetic. nature and duration of jobs. 5) Personal History: a) Educational history: academic progress and achievement from nursery to high school and post high school. tone of voice. degree of motivation and interest shown during counselling. active. facial expressions. This will also help in deciding what type of counselling approach/strategy will be helpful for the client. hobbies. c) Medical history: any major illness/injury/surgery since childhood to present d) Marital history: relationship with the opposite sex/partner/spouse. 7) Summary: At the end of the interview the counselor needs to analyze all the information obtained and see how the different information provided by the client may be linked to the problem that the client has presented in the beginning. weaknesses and competencies all should be noted and recorded. postures and gestures. education. their name. occupation and marital status e) Is there any history of long physical or mental illness/disturbances in the family? f) Family mobility: How many places family has lived in. This helps the counselor put the problem in a proper perspective. any significant experience/achievement during work. etc. peer relationship and relationship with the teachers? b) Work experience: has the client held part time/full time jobs. coherence. sex.d) Number of siblings. How open was the client. b) Behaviors/mannerisms: fidgeting. As part of your practical you will need to practice the interview skill by role playing in the class. 17 . disruptive/hyperactive behavior. client’s strengths. logical. and to what extent? g) Does the client have any personal or career goals in life? What are they? 6) Description of the client during the interview: It is very crucial to note down the client’s appearance and behavior during the counselling interview. under the supervision of the academic counsellor. This information will provide insight into the stability of the family and the kind of socio-cultural exposure the client has had. lethargic. etc. relationship with the coworkers etc. involvements in different activities. birth order. reasons for previous relationships breaking down e) Is there any previous experience with counselling? f) Is the client currently using drugs/alcohol or has used in the past. The counselor must also take into account the social and cultural background of the client to understand the problem and provide appropriate and effective counselling. Observation and noting down of each and every aspect of client’s behavior and personality is crucial. etc. any present or previous emotional involvements.
High scores in the area of emotion indicate unstable emotional adjustment. It is helpful in screening the poorly adjusted students who may further need counseling and therapy. aptitude can be termed as a special ability or cluster of special abilities required to do a job or perform a task. health. A low score means emotionally stable subject. if a person does not have an aptitude for music. It has 102 items. home. Whereas achievement refers to what the individual has been able to learn/achieve. It is a self-administering inventory that seeks to segregate normal from poorly adjusted college students in five areas of adjustment. low scores indicate satisfactory health adjustment. are indicative of unsatisfactory adjustment towards home surroundings. what the individual can achieve with necessary training input given. Assessment of aptitude along with other aspects of behavior such as interest.P. Thus. Thus. This means he has the potential for music.g. High scores in the health area refer to unsatisfactory health adjustment. namely. High scores in social area refer to poor adaptation in the society. Scores are obtained by using scoring keys. Aptitude tests came into existence as a result of the increasing need for career guidance and counselling. high scores refer to poor adjustment with curricular and co-curricular activities. Aptitude is concerned with future performance. On the scale of educational adjustment. while as low scores indicate satisfactory adjustment.Sinha (Pt. Every item requires the subject to response in either of the two alternatives. Low scores indicate socially adaptable and dominant nature of the subject.• ADJUSTMENT INVENTORY FOR COLLEGE STUDENTS The adjustment inventory for college students has been constructed by Prof. On the other hand.P. Area Home Health Social Emotional Educational 15 19 31 21 Number of Items 16 • DIFFERENTIAL APTITUDE TEST Aptitude has great relevance in educational and vocational guidance and counselling. Ability refers to what the individual is capable of achieving in the present situation. ability is concerned with the present whereas achievement depends on past experience and training.A. R.. he has aptitude for music. emotional and educational.Singh (Patna University). Aptitude refers to the potential that the individual has. while as. High scores in the area of home. The inventory has been prepared in Hindi as well as in English language. abilities. with suitable training he will be able to develop this ability. Subject scoring low scores is highly adaptable with his/her school activities. It’ll be useful to distinguish the terms aptitude. It indicates the probability of success in a particular area of work. achievement and personality will provide useful information to arrive at a better understanding of the individual.K. e. Raipur) & Prof.Ravi Shankar Shukla University. There is difference 18 . social. Yes/No. ability and achievement here. no amount of training can help him develop musical talent.
motivation. Aptitude test scores must be used along with previous achievement data. David’s Battery of Differential Aptitude (DBDA). Mechanical Reasoning. so combination of subtests can be used as per requirement. work preferences. playing hockey or tennis for the sake of it is intrinsic interest. For example. Spatial Reasoning. Language Usage. However. in order to effectively guide the person. Abstract Reasoning. e. etc. Manifest or Observed Interests: These are the interests which we observe in a person by seeing that person involve in some or the other activity. also contribute a lot. present interests. Interest is an integral part of our personality. many of our interests get stabilized by the age of adolescence and young adulthood. 19 3) . developed by Bennett. This means you have more liking for playing football compared to reading. Combination of these abilities is required for success in different occupations. Numerical Reasoning. Differential Aptitude Test (DAT). If a child is exposed to a family environment where everybody talks about music then there is more likelihood that the child will develop interest in music. Interest may be intrinsic or extrinsic. a person may like to sing (an interest). it indicates your natural inclination or natural desire to undertake one activity in place of another. Aptitudes are assessed by administering Aptitude Tests. Thus extrinsic interests are connected with the pursuit of different activities which give rise to satisfaction or pleasure. hard work. but may not have any musical potential to sing well (aptitude). These must be taken into account before reaching a conclusion. You may like to play football more than reading a story. These tests usually consist of a number of subtests. consists of eight subtests. and Spelling and Grammar. the observation has to be on a long term basis and across different occasions to arrive at an accurate data Measured or Tested Interests: These refer to interests found by assessing/testing the individual by using different types of Interest Inventories.g. This reflects your interests. It may be noted that aptitude data provide only clues/suggestions to help in educational and career planning. • INTEREST INVENTORY Interest refers to one’s likings and preferences. Interests change depending on one’s motives. The most commonly used Aptitude tests are Differential Aptitude Test (DAT). Super (1990) has classified interests into three groups: 1) 2) Expressed Interests: These are the interest expressed or told by the individual. intrinsic interests are those related to the pursuit of the activity itself. However. Clerical Speed & Accuracy. These reflect the subjective opinion of the individual. an interest is a tendency to become absorbed in an experience and to continue it and to enjoy it. it may continue long term or it may even change also.between aptitude and interest too. It does not mean that you’ll not be able to do well in reading. These are Verbal Reasoning. The development of interests depends on our environment. Administration of the whole battery may be time consuming. experiences.. Seashore and Wesman (1984). exposures and emotional responses. Once an interest is developed. Thus. It does not explicitly establish a fit between the individual and the job. whereas playing it for earning money is extrinsic interest. However. General Aptitude Test Battery (GATB) etc. general mental ability etc. Other factors such as interest. Interest refers to one’s preferences whereas aptitude refers to potential.
P. There are different types of Interest Inventories. It may be described in terms of ways that family members interact and relate with each other. In other words. it can be said that interests can be assessed formally as well as informally. any type of Interest Inventories may be used. It can be used for intermediate students. and another as her third choice. The SVIB helps to reveal the client’s interest patterns by asking the subjects to indicate their preference in terms of Like (L). The subject has to select one of the three choices as her first choice. Strong Jr. 1995) developed on the lines of Holland’s theory are also frequently used to assess interest. 20 . measures preferences of the individual for specific activities. Fritzsche. An example is given below: • • • Build birdhouses Write articles about birds Draw sketches of birds This particular item aims to assess three types of interests such as mechanical. As part of your practical course work. Each item contains three choices. The relationship amongst family members is very crucial and is a determinant of their behaviour and overall development. Assessment of interest provides useful information about the individual which is important for providing educational and vocational guidance and counselling.P. 1994) and the Unisex Edition of the ACT Interest Inventory (UNIACT) (Swaney. Important ones are Kuder’s Preference Record (KPR) and Strong’s Vocational Interest Blank (SVIB). • FAMILY RELATIONSHIP QUESTIONNAIRE Family is a basic unit of society and has major influence on its members. formal assessment techniques make use of interest inventories. The first two types of interest represent informal assessment whereas the third one involves formal assessment. On the other hand. In contrast to SVIB. Informal assessment techniques include client’s expression of interests and observation. It consists of 150 items that measures acceptance. There are also R.Thus. Sherry and J. The Family Relationship Inventory by G. Indifferent (I) or Dislike (D). you can interview the client and collect information regarding the client’s interests. avoidance and concentration scores of adolescents towards their parents. even though she may not like any of these. Powell. this is eliciting information at an informal level. It uses a category response type of assessment. The first systematic assessment of vocational interests was the development of Strong Vocational Interest Blank by Edward K. Kuder Preference Record (KPR) developed by G. Measurement of family relationship can provide counsellor vital information about a particular family and an intervention then can be suitably developed. Singh Interest Record and Chatterjee’s Non-language Preference Record. when you ask somebody about her interest. The SVIB is designed to find out the extent to which the interest of an individual corresponds to those of people who are successful in a given occupation. the KPR uses a forced choice pattern type of assessment where the individual is forced to say which one of the three activities she likes best and which one she likes least. C. Frederic Kuder. literary and artistic interest. Some other tools like Self Directed Search (SDS) (Holland. Sinha may be used by the learners to measure family relationship. As a guidance counselor. The Inventory is available in both Hindi and English.
Responses to subsets of items are summed to yield scores on separate scales or factors within the inventory’ (Hilgard and Atkinson 2003: 459). Personality Research Form (PRF) (both based on Murray’s need press theory of personality) and Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) (based on Carl Jung’s theory of personality types).. NEO-PI-R assesses all the domains of Five Factor Model. The NEO-PI has been the most heavily researched tools during the last decade. Some examples of theory guided inventories are Edward Personal Preference Schedule (EPPS). factor-analytic approaches contribute in developing theories based on the initial test findings. There are a number of theories that explain and describe the concept of personality.PRACTICUM IN INDUSTRIAL AND ORGANIZATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY • THE BIG FIVE FACTOR SCALE Personality refers to organized. Personality inventories are questionnaires that assess personality.Costa & McCrae. Cattell has identified 16 personality factors using factor analysis. Hans Eysenck (1953) arrived at two personality factors: introversion – extraversion and emotional instability – stability (neuroticism). consistent and general pattern of behaviour of a person across situations which help understand his/her behaviour as an individual.E. disagree. the name. neutral. Personality inventories are questionnaires on which individuals report their reactions or feelings in certain situations. The subject rates each of the 240 statements on a five-point rating scale (strongly disagree.hence. With factor analysis. Costa et al. The original version of the instrument assessed only three of the five factors (N.Psychoticism. There are two main trends in the area of personality assessment: use of unstructured projective techniques (for example. Each domain has six specific facets or subscalespersonality traits that represent various aspects of each domain. Revised NEO-PI(NEO-PI-R.2002) and factor analytical findings. The third dimension added later was. agree and strongly disagree). Several personality inventories are based on preexisting theories. The work on NEO-PI-R started in 1970’s. This was done to address a potential acquiesance(or nay-saying) bias.and Openness(O).Personality Inventory is a multipurpose inventory for predicting interests. Extraversion (E). Rorschach test) and structured approaches such as self report inventories and behaviour ratings. It includes a thorough understanding of the client’s strengths and weaknesses. Neo. It is based on NEO personality theory (Five Factor Model of Personality.1992). health and illness behaviour. Apart from theory based inventories.O). It is also very helpful in identifying therapeutic interventions that maybe effective. consists of 240 items(8 items for each of 130 facets . namely. psychologists identify personality dimensions that can define personality. or 48 items for each of the five domains). Neuroticism(N). that is lower scores are more indicative of the trait in question. 21 . NEO-PI-R provides a broad-based assessment of individual’s personality. psychological well-being and characteristic coping styles of the person. Agrreeableness(A)and Conscientiousness(C). Half of the NEO-PI-R items are reverse scored. The authors of NEO-PI have identified three broad categories.
The growing trend has been to emphasize the non-cognitive aspects of intelligence. aesthetics(appreciation of art and beauty). impulsiveness(tendency to act on cravings and urges rather than reining them in and delaying gratification). feelings(openness to inner feelings and emotions). The six facets included in this domain are competence(belief in own self-efficacy). assertiveness(self-expression). achievement striving(need for personal achievement and sense of direction). and vulnerability(general susceptibility to stress). All these require people to be smart about feelings. use. angry hostility(tendency to experience anger and related states such as frustration and bitterness). and values(readiness to re-examine own values and those of authority figures). sadness. persistence. Emotional Intelligence (EI) is the ability to use emotions effectively and productively. In simple terms emotional intelligence is about knowing our own emotions and managing them. however it was 22 . The six facets included in this domain are. gregariosness (preference for the company of others). The six facets included in this domain are trust (belief in sincerity and good intentions of others). altruism(active concern for the welfare of others).depression(tendency to experience feelings of guilt. activity(pace of living). order(personal organization). The traditional view of intelligence has undergone change to consider the impact of emotional aspects on our personal and social life.excitement seeking(need for environmental stimulation). some people are great in motivating oneself and others. modesty(tendency to play down own achievements and be humble). Emotional intelligence has been defined as a learned ability to understand. straightforwardness(frankness in expression). warmth(interest in and friendliness towards others). Conscientiousness(C): degree of organization. The six facets included in this domain are. The six facets included in this domain are fantasy(receptivity to the inner world of imagination). and positive emotion(tendency to experience positive emotions). ideas(intellectual curiosity). Openness to Experience(O): the active seeking and appreciation of experiences for their own sake. selfdiscipline(capacity to begin tasks and follow through to completion despite boredom or distractions). • EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE SCALE In our interaction with people around us. and tender-mindedness(attitude of sympathy for others). Agreeableness (A): the kinds of interactions an individual prefers from compassion to tough mindedness. This ability to be intelligent about one’s feelings and emotions is called emotional intelligence. despondency and loneliness). and knowing others’ emotions and learning how to handle them. anxiety(level of free floating anxiety). and some are able to wait for the satisfaction of their desires. we see that some people are more confident and know how to get along with others. The term Emotional Intelligence was first proposed by Salovey and Mayer. and express human emotions in healthy and productive ways. compliance(response to interpersonal conflict). dutifulness(emphasis place on importance of fulfilling moral obligations). control and motivation in goal directed behaviour. self-consciousness(shyness or social anxiety).Description of the domain and facet scales Neuroticism(N): identifies individuals who are prone to psychological stress. and deliberation(tendency to think things through before acting or speaking).actions(openness to new experiences on a practical level). Extraversion(E): quantity and intensity of energy directed outwards into the social world.
social and career. Chandigarh) to assess the level of achievement motivation within an individual or a group (25-30 people). It benefits both children as well as adults. • ACHIEVEMENT MOTIVATION SCALE Deo-Mohan achievement test was developed by Prof. Asha Mohan (Reader. Emotional Intelligence Test by N. good student behavior. Research also indicates that emotional intelligence and related non-traditional measures of human performance may be as or more predictive of academic and career success than IQ or other tested measures of scholastic aptitude and achievement. Pratibha Deo (former Head & Professor. Goleman. and helps improve peer relationship and positive behavior. The mode of response to each item is in the form of ‘yes’ or ‘no’. 25 items in each area. Research findings indicate that emotional intelligence skills are important factors contributing to student achievement and retention. get along and work well with others in achieving positive results. and has implications in the educational. Chadda. Punjab University. college. Mangal and Mrs. as a learned ability. Inter-personal Awareness (knowing about others’ emotions). There are various tests which assess emotional intelligence such as Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT). Thus emotional intelligence as a concept has widespread implications in each aspect of our life ranging from academic to personal. and to reflectively regulate emotions so as to promote emotional and intellectual growth. It helps improve the interpersonal skills. Intra personal Management (managing one’s own emotions) and Inter personal Management (managing others emotions). Salovey and Mayer (1997) point out that emotional intelligence is the ability to perceive emotions. is an essential component for enhancing academic. social and organizational sectors. Shubhra Mangal. and reduce risk behaviours. K. to access and generate emotions so as to assist thought.popularized by Daniel Goleman with the publication of his book: ‘Emotional Intelligence: Why it can matter more than IQ?’ in the year1995. Pethe and Dhar. The Bar-On Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQ-i). 23 . Mumbai) and Dr. It assesses EI in the four areas of emotional intelligence such as Intra-personal Awareness ( knowing about one’s own emotions). to understand emotions and emotional knowledge. the pioneer in the field of emotional intelligence describes emotional intelligence as consisting of five components: • • • • • Self awareness : knowing our own emotions Self regulation : managing our own emotions Motivation : motivating ourselves Empathy : recognizing the emotions of others Social skills : handling relationships Emotional intelligence. Emotional intelligence helps in establishing and maintaining healthy and productive relationships in the workplace. and career success. We’ll describe here Mangal Emotional Intelligence Inventory by Dr. The score yields a total score for EI as well as scores for each component. The test consists of a total of 100 items. and effectively manage the demands and pressures of daily life and work. S.K. Bombay University. Emotional Intelligence Test by Hyde. Thus EI has implications for academic as well as social achievement. The scale consists of 50 items out of which 13 are negative and 37 are positive items or statements.
. and experience of the leader. Research work done in the 19th century showed that leadership was inherited. Such a leadership style. • AUTHENTIC LEADERSHIP SCALE Leadership can be explained as a process of social influence with the help of which one person (the leader) takes the assistance and support of others in the accomplishment of a common task. By now. not developed. personality. fine arts and so on.The items related to this field tries to assess the potentials of the group or individual in the degree of need of achieving a target. painting. intensity of facing academic challenges and so on. this trait-based perspective dominated empirical and theoretical work in leadership. Factors of general field interest. They can win the cooperation of their group and can motivate them effectively and positively. etc. leadership was no longer characterized as an enduring individual trait. you might have got an idea that the leaders follow different styles. The approach explained that leadership is rooted in characteristics of the leader. The items of the scale are rated on a five point likert type rating scale. Participative or democratic style: The leaders following this style of leadership takes decision with the consent of the group. The scoring is done with the help of the stencil given. Subsequently. In the late 1940s and early 1950s. situational and contingency theories. It is the result of the philosophy.behavioral and style theories. but not in others. 24 . transactional and transformational theories. leadership style refers to a leader’s behavior. they can very strongly motivate the followers (employees. Evidences suggested that persons who are leaders in one situation may not necessarily be leaders in other situations. permits quick decision-making.These items are related basically to 3 major areasi) Academic factors. a series of qualitative reviews of these studies showed a different view of the driving forces behind leadership. This approach to the leadership was called as trait based approach. music. For decades. These evidences were later on revisited and several theories like. This approach dominated much of the leadership theory and research for the next few decades. ii) iii) Factors of Social interest. in an organizational context).The items are concerned with extra curricular activities like dancing. leaders were born. The method of the scoring and interpretation is provided in the manual of the test. Some of the leadership styles can be explained as follows: Autocratic or authoritarian style: The leaders who follow this style are more dictators. as only one person decides for the whole group and keeps each decision to him/ herself until he/she feels it needs to be shared with the rest of the group. Different situations call for different leadership styles. in order to get the work done or achieve the common goal. They do not entertain any suggestions or initiatives from subordinates. Basically. as situational approaches which says that individuals can be effective in certain situations. came up in order to explain the leadership style in different ways. however. work methods. But.The items related to this field assess the level of interest of the subject in organizing and participating social activities. More or less it is a process with the help of which a leader manages and organizes a group of people to achieve a common goal. In other words.
The job stress survey to helps in finding out the reasons which lead to a stressful environment for the employees and help the organization to find out ways to manage stress. Avolio. limitations. how others see him or her and how the leader impacts others? Transparency: To what degree does the leader reinforce a level of openness with others that provides them with an opportunity to be forthcoming with their ideas. It consists of four scales (which comprises authentic leadership) which assesses the following criteria: • • • • Self Awareness: To what degree is the leader aware of his or her strengths. • JOB STRESS SURVEY There are different scales or questionnaires which can be administered on different level of employees of the organization. An authentic leader is a person who can stand alone. The scoring and interpretation is done with the help of the available manual of the scale/questionire being used. The basic purpose of these scales is to assess the extent to which an employee is facing stress or pressure at his or her work place. Walumbwa. William L. Authentic leadership: Authentic leadership is quite a big buzzword in the alternative business community. so that they can fulfill the limited promises that they make. The scoring and interpretation is provided in the manual.Laissez-faire or free rein style: A free-rein leader does not lead. live fearlessly. they are given a free hand in deciding their own policies and methods. challenges and opinions? Ethical/Moral: To what degree does the leader set a high standard for moral and ethical conduct? Balanced Processing: To what degree does the leader solicit sufficient opinions and viewpoints prior to making important decisions? The scale may be used on a single subject or a group. The leaders following this kind of leadership do not commit more. Authentic leadership relies on persuasion and persuasion relies on trust. The Authentic Leadership Questionnaire (ALQ) is a theorydriven leadership survey instrument designed to measure the components that have been conceptualized as comprising authentic leadership. Such a leader allows maximum freedom to subordinates. but leaves the group entirely to itself. take unconditional responsibility for oneself and at all the times see things impersonally. Gardner & Fred O. Assessment of Authentic Leadership: One of the methods of assessing the authentic leadership is Authentic Leadership Questionnaire for Researchers by Bruce J. 25 .
The answer sheet is then to be submitted to the internal examiner. The duration of TEE can be 3 hours followed by viva-voce. The practical may be allotted to the learner by the way of lot system. write report (in answer sheet) and appear for vivavoce.0 CONDUCTION OF TERM END EXAMINATION (TEE) IN BPCE 022 Conduction of the examination: The examination will to be conducted in the respective study centres during which the learner has to administer a test. S/he may then collect the test/ material and start conducting the practical. The duration per student may be 10-15 minutes. Chits with names of various practicals may be prepared before hand and the learner may be asked to pick one chit at the time of the examination. S/he will have to bring one subject along with her/him. s/he will have to report the findings in the answer sheet. 26 . Once the learner finishes conducting the practical. Viva voce will be conducted by the external examiner. This will be followed by the viva voce. The answer sheets will be corrected by the external examiner.7.
______________________________________________________ Enroll No.: Name of the Study Centre: Regional Centre: Place: Date: Signature of Academic Counsellor Name: Designation: Place: Date: Note: Certificate to be attached in Practicum Note Book. ______________________________ of BDP.APPENDIX CERTIFICATE This is to certify that Ms/ Mr.BA (Psychology) Third Year has conducted and successfully completed the practical work in BPCE 022 (Practicals in Clinical Psychology/ Counselling/ Industrial and Organizational Psychology) Signature of the Learner Name: Enrolment No. 27 .
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