Rs. 295.00

FurmAI,lENTALS OF SURVEYING by S.K. Roy

© i 999 by Prentice-Hall 01 India Pri"ale Limited, New -Delhi. All rights reserved. No part 01 this
book may be reproduced in any lorrn, by mimeograph or any other means, without permission
in writing from the publisher.

IS5N·B1·203·1260-o
The export righ:s of this book are vested solely with the pUblisher.

PUblished by Asoke K. Ghosh, Prentlce-Han of India Private Limited, 1..1.97, Connaught Circus, New Delhi·11 0001 and Printed by Rajr.amal Electric Press, 8,35/9, G.T. Kamal Road Industrial Area, Dalhi·110:J33. .

t,

-------~-----_

..

_----

s;ua.LvJ [w fo tC.Lowaw ul

'~
[i

'I

r

I

Contents
Preface
1.

~
xi

'1

INTRODuctION
Definition 1
Classification of Surveying
1.3 History of Surveying 2
1.4 Modem Trends in Surveying 4
[.5 The Shope and Size of the Earth 4
1.6 Horizontal and Level Distances 5

[,2

1-6

1.1

References 9

2. ERRORS IN
MEASUREME~T

'7-28 ..

2.1 . 'Introduction 7
2.2 Types of Errors 7
2.3 Accuracy and Precision of Measurements 8
2.4 Nature of Random Errors 8
.
Measures of Precision 11 _.) 2.6 The E~o. E9U and E9~ Errors 12
2.7 Propagation of Random Errors 13
2.8 Error of a Series 20
2.9 Error of a Mean 21
. .
2.10 Weighcs of Measurements 22 2.11 Theory of Least Squares Applied to Observations of Unequal
Weights 22
2.12 Calculating Weights and Corrections to Field Observations 23
Problems 27

,

3.

MEASUREMENT OF HORIZONTAL DISTANCES

29-,6.1

',.'

3.1 Introduction 29
3.2 Methods of Measuring Horizontal Distances 29
.. Chaining and Taping Accessories 30
:>.:> 3.4 Measurement by Chain 33
3.5 Reductions to Measurement in Slope 34
3.6 Sysrematic Errors in Linear Measurement by Chaln or Tape:' 37
3.7 Random Errors 40
3.8 Chain and Tape Survey of a FklJ 48
3.9 Error in Off~et 50

~

v

L_~

..

f

r--- --- ­
vi
Contents 3.10 Instruments for Setting Out Right Angles 51
3.11 Miscellaneous Problems in Chaining 53
3.12. Field Work for Chain Surveying 58
Problems 62

·t " ELECTRONIC DISTA:\CE ~[EASURE!'t'1E~TS

65-85

Introduction 65
Basic Concepts 65
Classification of Electromagnetic Radiation 66
Basic Principle of Electronic Distance Measurement Computing the Distance from the Phase Differences Brief Description of Different Typesof Instruments 4.7 Total Station Instruments 73 .
4.8 Effect of Atmospheric Conditions on Wave Velocity 4.9 . Instrumental Errors in EDM 75
4.10 Reduction of Slope Measurements in EDM 76
References 84
Problems 84
4.1 4.2 4.3 4.-+ 4.5 4.6
:}l

68
69
71

74

LEVELLING I 5.1 5.2 5.3 .sA
::;.5

86-116

I

5.6 5.7 5.8
5.9

5.10 5.11 5.12 5.13 5.14 :3.15 5.16

Introduction 86
Basic Definitions S6 Curvature and Refraction 87
Levelling Instruments 89
Classification of Surveying Telescope 91
Lens Formula 92
Engineer's Levels 95
Tilting Level 103
Automatic or Self-levelling Level 104
Some Important Optical Terms 106
Some Important Optical Defects 107
The Levelling Sl:lff 108
P:lr:lllel PI:lte Micrometer 110
Temporary Adjustments of a Dumpy Level Terms Used in Levelling 114
Different Methods of Levelling 114
Problems JJ 5

112

6.

LEVELLING II
6.1 6.2

117-155

6.3 6.4 6.5 6.6

Introduction 117
Differential Levelling 117
Level Book 118
. Checking of Levels 127
Errors in Levelling 128
Reducinz .. Errors :1nJ Eliminatinz Mistakes in Levellins .. 130

...

,

,,'I

/,...,

Contents 6.7 Collimntion Correction 131
6.8 Check Levelling 135
6.9 Fly Levelling 135 6.10 Profile Levelling 136· 6.11 Cross Sectional Levelling 139
6.12 Reciprocal Levelling 142
6.13 Two Peg Test 144
6.14 Three Wire Levelling 146
-6.15 Error, Adjustment and Precision of Level Problems 152

7.

vii

,
,j

147
156-161
156

PERMANENT ADJUSTMENTS OF LEVELS
7.1 Introduction 156
7.2 Permanent Adjustments of a Dumpy Level 7.3 Adjustments of a Tilting Level 159
7.4 Adjustments of Automatic Level 160
Problems 161

8.

ANGLES A~1)DIRECTIONS 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 8.5 Introduction 162
Different Types of Horizontal Angles Direction of a Line 164
Bearings 164
Azimuths 165

162·

162-172

9:

CQi,,!PASS SURVEY
9.1 9.2 9.3 9.4 9.5 9.6. .9.7 9.8 9.9 9.10 9,11

(i,~N·'t,.

173--196

Introduction 173
Principle of Compass 173
Declination 173
Prismatic Compass 174
Surveyor's Compass 176
Trough Cornpass 177
Magnetic Declination Problem 179
Compass Traverse 184
Local Auractlon 185
Adjustment of 1I Compass Traverse 191
Errors in Compass Surveying 192
Reference 193
Problems 193

197-2~O

10. THEODOLITES
10.1 10.2 !OJ IDA lntrcduction 197
Main Pans of 1I Vernier Theodolite 197
Some B:15k Definitions ::!D3
Fundamental Planes and Lines of a Theodolite 203

L __

___ __

l

viii

COIl/C'ntS

r
11.

10.5
Fundamental Operations of the Theodolite 205, 10.6
Verniers 206 10.7 Accurate Measurement of an Angle ~(l8 10.8
Errors in Theodolite Angles 213 10.9
Mistakes in Theodolite Angles 223 10.10
Permanent Adjustments of a Vernier Theodolite 223 10.11
Micrometer Microscope 227 10.12 Optical Theodolites 2~9 10.13
Electronic Theodolites 231 10.14
Measuring Angles with Direction Theodolites 232 Problems 237

TRAVERSE SuRVEY A~D CO!\ll>UTATIO~S
2·H-283,

ILl
Introduction 141 1l.2
Deficiencies of Open Traverse 242 11.3
Closed Traverse 142 11.4
Measurement of Traverse Angles 242 11.5
Measurement of Lengths 244 11.6
Selection of Traverse Stations 245 11.7
Angle Misclosure 246 11.8
Traverse Balancing 248 11.9
Checks in an Oren Traverse 249 IJ.l 0
Methods of Traverse Adjustments 250 lUI Rectangular Coordinates 252· 11.11
Gale's Traverse Table 253 I J. J 3
Usc of Analytical Geometry in Survey Computations 257 11,14
Problems of Ornined ~1easurements . 266 1J. J 5
Finding ~~stake in Traversing 275 Problems 279

I'

12.

CURVES

284-349

Introduction . 284 Basic Delinitions 284 12.3
Intersection of a Line and Circle 298 12A
Compound Curve 310 \2.5 Reverse Curve ::; \ 8 11.6
Transition Curve 32\ \2.7
Centrifuga] Ratio 323 12.8
Length of Transition Curve 323 \2.9
Ideal Transition Curve 325 12.10
Characteristics of a Transition Curve 332 ,12.11
Setting Out the Combined Curve 335 12.12
The Lemniscate Curve 336 11.1
12.1

Problems 3-/7

l -----

c.

Contents ix

13. VERTICAL CURVES
13.1 Introduction 350
13.2 General Equation of a Parabolic Curve 351
13.3 Computntions for an Unequal Tangent Curve 353
13.4 High or LowPoint on a Vertical Curve 353
13.5 Vertical Curve Passing through a Fixed Point 354
13.6 Design of VerticalCurve 355
13.7 Sight Distnnce of Vertical Curves at a Sag 358
Problems 369

350-3iO

1.t

AREAS AND VOLUMES
14.1 Introduction 371
14.2 Methods of Measuring Area 371
14.3 Volumes 385
14.4 Volume through Transition 395
14.5 Volume from Spot Levels 397
14.6 Volume by Simpson's Cubature Formula 398
14.7 Volume from Contour Plan 400
14.8 Mass Haul Curve 403' References 445
Problems 445

371-40$9

...

15.

TACHEOMETRY

450-499

15.1 Introduction 450
15.2 Instruments 450
15.3 Different Types of Tncheometric),lensurements 451· 15.4 Principles of Stadia Method 452
15.5 Internal Focussing Telescope .456
15.6 Determination of Tacheometer Constants 457
15.7 Distance and Elevation Formulae 458 • 15.8 Movable Hair Method 461
15.9 Jangentinl System of Measurement 463
15.10 Subtense Bar 464
15.11 Computations with Incomplete Intercepts 465
15.12 Relative Merits of Holding the Staff Vertical or Normal 473
15.13 Problems in Practical Application of Tnngentiul Method '476 15.14 Tacheometric Calculations and Reductions 480
15.15 Errors in Tacbeometric Surveying, 486
15.1 6 Uses of Tacheometry 486
15.17 ~vIiscellaneous Examples 487
Reference 496
Prob/ellls 496

..

16. PLANE TABLE SURVEYING 16.1 16)

500-525

Introduction 500
Equiprnents Required

500

-~-~

16.3 16,4 16.5 . 16,6 16.7

Working with Plane Table 504
Different Methods of Plane Table Work 505
Errors in Plane Table 511
Advantages and Disadvantages of Plane Table Survey 512
Analytical and Graphical Solutions 514
Problems 524

17. TOPOGRAPHICAL St.:RVEYl:\G
17.1 17.2 17.3 j 7.4 17.5 17.6 17.7 17.8 17.9 Introduction 526
Control for Topographic Surveys 526
Plotting of Contours 527
Characteristics of Contour 528
Methods of -Locating Contours 529
Field Methods of Obtaining Topography 530
Sources of Errors in Topographical Surveys 531
Interpolation of Contours 532
Uses of Contours 532
Problems 536

526-537

c,

18..

COi\STRUCTION SURVEYI:\G
18.1 Introduction 538
18.2 Equipments for Setting Out 538
18.3 Horizontal and Vertical Control 538
18A Selling Out a Pipe Line 539
18.5 Selling Out of Buildings and Structures 541
18.6 Staking Out a Highway 543

538-547

19.U!\DERGROU;\D SURVEYS
19.1 19.2 19.3 1904 19.5 19.6 19.7 20. Introduction 5~8 Application of Underground Surveys 5~9 Aligning the Theodolite 551
Determination of Azimuth by Gyroscope 553
Weisbach Triangle 555
Problems in Tunnel Survey 566
Analytical Derivations of Underground Surveys, 566
Problems 5iB
PROGRA~IS I~

548-579

CO:,\IPUTE,R
20.1 20.2

SURVEYI;\G

580-595

Introduction 580
Explanation of the Programs 580

597-600
601
603-606

.4l1slI'ers to Problems Bibliograplzj'
Index

!,

.

Preface
Modern surveying involves useof sophisticated scientific instruments. mathematical ­ methods and computational techniques. In writing this book on surveying. I have tried therefore to explain comprehensively the principles of surveying instruments and derivarion of mathematical formulae. Separate chapters have been written on 'Underground Surveys' and 'Computer Programs in Surveying' to incorporate the recent developments in this field. . I acknowledge my gratefulness to ail the authors listed in the Bibliography as their works form the background of this book. I am also deeply indebted to Mr. John Gamer and Dr. John Uren of the University of Leads. Dr. R. Baker of the University of Salford; Engineering Council (UK). the Institution :of Civil Engineers (UK) and otherUI< universities for permitting me to use theirquestions in this book. I have also utilized the-questions from the examinations conducted by the Institution of Engineers (India) and some figures and tablesof the standards prepared by the Bureau of Indian Standards. for which I express my sincere thanks to them.I am grateful to my colleague in the Civil Engineering Department, Dr. K.K. Bhar, who rendered immense help by collaborating with me in writing the chapter on 'Computer Programs in Surveying'. I 'owe' my gratitude to the Vice Chancellor, Bengal Engineering College (Deemed University), my colleagues in the Civil Engineering Department and to the staff of the University Library for extending full cooperation during the long and arduous task of writing this book. I wish to express my appreciation to my wife, Subrata and my sons and daughters-in-law, Santayan and Riya, Saptak and Bamali, for their encouragement . and support throughout the course of writing the manuscript. Finally, I express my deep appreciation to my publishers Prentice-Hall of . India for their excellent work in editing the book thoroughly. .

I

S,K. Roy

~

;t

~I.
J1
II,

II!
,'~

.
..

1

:J

Introduction
1.1 DEFINITION Surveying is basic to engineering. Before any engineering work can be started we must prepare a plan or map of the areashowing topographical details. This involves both horizontal and vertical measurements. Engineering surveying is defined as those nctivities involved in the planning and execution of surveys for the location, design, construction, operation and maintenance of civil and other: engineering projects. The surveying activities are:

JI
i

!

I

..

1. Preparation of surveys and related mapping specifications.

2.. Execution of photogrammetric and field surveys for the collection of required data including topographic and hydrographic data. . 3. Calculation, .reduction and plotting cf survey data for use in engineering design. ' 4. Design and provision of horizontal and vertical control survey networks. 5. Provision of line and grade and other layout work for construction and mining activities.. Thus the scope of surveying is very wide and inter-disciplinary in character. Basically it involves accurate measurements and accurate computations. In surveying we use modern sophisticated instruments, e.g. electronic instruments for measurements and modern computational tools, e.g. computers for accurate mathematical computations. Hence thorough knowledge of basic science-say, physics and mathematics-c-is required in grasping modern surveying.

.\

1.2 CLASSIFICATION OF SURVEYING .....
Surveying is a very old profession and can be classified in many different ways.

Classification Based 01l Accuracy oj l~Ork. Two general classifications of surveys are geodetic. and plane. If! geodetic surveying the curvature of the earth is taken into account. Surveys are conducted with a high degree of accuracy. However in plane surveying. except for levelling, the reference base for field work and computations is assumed to be a flat horizontal surface. The error caused by
I

.2

Fundamentals of Surveying

assuming the earth to be a plane area is not serious jf the area measured is small say, within ~50km:! ..

Classification Based 011 Usc or Purpose of Resulting Slap«. This can be classified :IS follows:
(a) Control surveys establish a network of horizontal and vertical points that serve as a reference framework for other SUT\'e)'s. (b) Topographic surveys show the natural features of a country such as rivers, streams, lakes, forests, hills, etc. (c) Land, boundary or cadastral surveys establish property lines and corners. (d) Hydrographic surveys define the shore lines and depth of water bodies, e.g. oceans" reservoirs and lakes. (e) Route surveys are done as a preliminary to construction of roads 'and railways. (f) Mine surveys are done above and below the ground to guide mining operations under ground.
Classification Based on Equipments Used. In chain, theodolite, plane table; tacheornetric surveys, theequipment named is the major equipment used in survey work. Inphotogrammetric surveying, major equipment is a photogramrnetric camera.

Classiflcation Based 011 Position of Instruments. When measurement is done on the ground by say chain, tope or electronic distance measuring equipments it is ground survey; when photographic observations ore token from air; it is aerial survey, 1.3 HISTORY OF SURVEYIKG
The earliest preserved writings on surveying ore those of Heron the Elder; a Greek who lived in Alexandria about 150-100 B.C. His writings include a treatise, Dioptra (Surveyor's Transit); 0 geometry book, Measurement; and an optical work, Mirrors. In Measurement, he describes the method used in determining the area of 0 triangle from the lengths of three sides. Thedioptra could be used for measuring angles and levelling (Fig. l.l). ' . In contrast to the Greeks, the Romans were more interested in practical applications of mathematics and surveying for civil and military works. To layout a route fora road the Roman surveyors used a few simple instruments forestablishing horizontal lines and right angles. For Joying out right angles, they used a groma adopted from an Egyptian device. For long distance measurement between cities, theRomans had an ingenious invention, the hotlotneter, With the fall of the Roman empire, the ancient civilized world came to an end. All technical disciplines, including surveying were no longer needed when even the basic laws protecting life and property could not be enforced. During the Dark ages, the" art of surveying was.almost forgouen. It was not until the beginning of Renaissance that a revival in exploration ~nd trade created

1 Heron's dioptra. it was Galilee Galilei who perfected the instrument in 1609: The first man who attempted to tie established points together by triangu­ latlon was a young Dutch mathematics professor Willebrod Snellvan Roijen . rods. . astronomy. protractors. The plane table was described almost in its present form by Jean Practorius in 1590. Surveying methods and instruments used at the beginninj. as the "theodelitus". B)' the end of the eighteenth century many instruments and tools used by modern surveyors had been developed. Development of the telescope in the late sixteenth century greatly increased the speed and accuracy of surveying. chains and pins for surveying plus angle and level instruments mounted on tripods. of the twentieth century were basically the same as those used in the nineteenth century. Although several scientists share credit for this discovery. During the thirteenth century.modern surveying published a book describing a new "topographical instrument" developed from the quadrant which became known. dividers. and pantograph. Don Englishman DoS an aid to navigation. cartography and surveying. the magnetic compass \vas invented by Neckarn. compasses.! Fig. new licht weizht metals and more advanced callibration techniques result~d in development ~f lighter and more accurate instruments needed for the precise layout requirements of high speed railroads and highways. However. In 1571 Thomas Digges an English mathematician known as the father of . The Construction and Principal Uses of Mathematical Instruments published in 1723 by French writer Nicholas Bion showed sketches of rulers. new interest in western world in navigation.Introduction 3 I . 1. . This simple instrument had all the essential features of modern theodolite except for the telescope. (1531-1626). Advances of eighteenth century left nineteenth century engineers and surveyors a remarkable heritage in tools and instruments. Also shown were ropes. .

1.001 of a centimetre. Inertial surveying. This surface is the topographical surface. It is the surface to which the waters of the oceans would tend to conform if allowed to flow into very narrow and shallow canals cut through the land. computer technology.even a decade ago. andelectronic field. The incorporation of data collectors. Electronic distance measuring instruments for ground surveying now are capable of printing output data in machine-readable language for computer inputandlor combining distance and angle measurements for direct readout of horizontal and vertical distances to the nearest0. ­ The recent refinement in global positioning systems and techniques developed for' military navigation has led to yet another dramatic change in surveying instrumentation. 1. The principal change in levelling instruments has been widespread adoption of the automatic level. Geoid is very irregular and to help in mnthemnticnl computation a spheroid (which is obtained by rotating an ellipse about its minor axis) is assumed which nearly fits the shape of the earth.4 MODERN TRE~DS l~ SURVEYI:\G Recent developments in photogrammetric and surveying equipment have been closely associated with advances in electronic and computer technologies. Different countries have their own reference spheroid because they base their computations on the spheroid which fits the geoid with part of earth's surface in their respective countries.surveyorof. with its miniaturized packaging of accelerometers and gyroscopes and satellite radio surveying have already revolutionized geodetic control surveying and promises to impact all phases of the sun-eying process. especially in route surveying and site selection. it is necessary to know as fully as possible the shape and size of the earth.- --- --- ---------- 4 Fundamentals of Surveying Use of aerial photography for mapping began in the 1910s. As a result of the technological breakthroughs in surveying and mapping the survey engineer of 1990s must be beuer trained in a much broaderfield of science than the. The surface which is normal to the direction of gravity is defined as a geoid.books with interfaces to computer. A background in higher mathematics. automatically levels the line of sight. and advanced rapidly during the following decades. The surface of the earth is not of a regular shape because of presence of mountains in some parts and oceans in other. . and plotterdevices has resulted in the era of total station surveying. The force and direction of gravity at each point varies with the shape of the topographical surface. printer. By 1950 photogramrnctric methods had revolutionized survey procedures.5' THE SHAPE A!'D SIZE OF THE EARTH Since in surveying we are mainly concerned with measurements on the surface of the earth. Lasers are being used fOT acquisiticn of vertical control data in photograrnrnetry and for providing line and grade in construction relat'ea surveying. ge~detjc science and electronics is necessary for today's survey engineer to compete in this rapidly expanding discipline. in which the main level bubble has been replaced with a pendulum device which afterthe instrument has been roush levelled. photogrammetry.

the local plumb line. i~f pre'cisi~n of a long and/or steep distance measurement is ~o be .9~6 m . Fig. RS = Normal to geoid: a = Deflection of the vertical.ht tri:lngl~ horizontal distance. 1. 1. The angle between normal to geoid and normal to the spheroid is known as deflection of lite vertical or station errol: .2 Approximate shape of the earth. Thus . However. 1.0033670034 ~ ~ ~ Spheroid A x: . x ~~ Geoid Q PQ = Nor~~1 to spheroid.2 shows the three surfaces. HO (1) is the right triangle component of the slope distance. . The standard reference spheroid has the following dimensions: Semi-major axis (/ = 6378388 m Semi-minor axis b (I =6356911.3 Rig. Horizontal distance HD (1) Fig. Figure 1.6 HORIZO~TAL AND LEVEL DISTAKCES A horizontal plane is perpendicular to the plumb line at a point but a level surface is at all points perpendicular to. Hence there is a technical difference' between a horizontal distance (HO) and a level distance (LO).Introduction 5 Figure 1.3 shows how horizontal distance is measured in plane surveying and this distance is independent of elevation. The twosurfaces arecoincident at the instrument station but diverge with increasing distance from it due to the earth's curvature. preserved.b = . Flatteninz f == (/ . then convergence of the plumb lines becomes important and horizontal Plumb lines assumed parallel Vertical angle .

1. Vol. Figure I A shows how horizontal distance between two points can be variously defined when curvature of the earth of various approximations are taken into account. Vol. No. 117."Calculation of.lines. Kreisle.s. pp 161-164. Ill. Cornmiuee on Engineering Surveying of the Surveying Engineering Division. "Hlsrory of Engineering Surveying". HD(S)-Ihe arc distance at mean sea level between two plumb. No.. 114. 1971. 3.B.__ .3. Vol.t:mce between two points. 4. 3. P. August 1991. Ad"anced Surveying.. Journal of the Sun'eying Engineering. No. <. 2. "Definition of the Term Engineering Surveying". Sahanl. point.I 6 Fundamentals of Surveying distance becomes elevation dependent. Joumal afSun'eying Engineering ASCE. Journal af Sun-eying Engineering ASCE.3. HD(4)-The arc distance along some level surface between two plumb lines. August 1985. REFERENCES 1. HD(6)-the distance along the geodesic on the el1ipsoid surface between IWO plumb lines. HD(2)':-The distance between two plumb lines in a pJanetangent to theearth at the instrument station: ijD(3)---Thechord distance between two plumb lines. EMI F.. The two end points have the same elevation and the chord is perpendicular to the vertical (plumb line) glil>. o Fig. at the chord mid. ! i i l_. . Burkholder.HorizontallLevel Distances".0 = Centre of Earth. August 1988. Williarn E. Oxford & IBH.4 Horizontal di.

(b) Accidental.­ Errors in Measurement 2. Graduations of the horizontal circle of a theodolite or on a levelling rod may not be perfectly spaced and this may lead to errors. random or compensating errors 01\ the other hand. Comparing several measurements of the same quantity is one of the best ways of isolating mistakes: Systematic errors can always be corrected because their magnitude and sign can both be determined. are subject to chance and hence follow the laws of probability. However much we . For example.1 INTRODUCTION Surveying is based on measurements and whenever we take measurements.' . if a chain is of standard length under a particular pull and temperature and if the pull or temperature changes. temperature. 2. l. (a) Systematic or cumulative. we make errors. gravity and magnetic. declination. sometimes negative.e.2 TYPES OF ERRORS Very broadly errors are of two types. l. whether it will increase or decrease and by how much and then apply suitable corrections. a length or of an angle. say of . random or compensating. ~1istake can be corrected only if discovered. The third type. may try it is difficult to bisect exactly a rod while taking measurements of an . mistake or blunder cannot be classified under any category of error because they are due to carelessness or callousness on the part of the observer. it is never perfect. . However sophisticated an instrument may be.=. we can compute its effect on the length of the chain. humidity. refraction. Finally there are limitations of the human senses of sight and touch. A tape or chain which is : normally of 30 m length does not remain so if the temperature changes and as a result errorin the measurement of length occurs.e. These errors are due to (i) Natural causes (ii) Instrumental imperfections and (iii) ~l:Li""iiltl@ats. Examples of natural causes are variation in speed of \vind. angle. 7 -~ . They are sometimes positive.<'. Accidental. ? . The magnitude and sign of errors are not definitely known.

Figure.8 Fundamentals of Surveying sometimes of small magnitude. 2.1 explains the four possibilities of measurements.3 ACCURACY AND PRECISION OF MEASUREl\1ENTS We have already said that whenever we take measurements we make errors.is }' = ke. Such a curve is shown in Fig. 3rd Measurement-not accurate. three basic characteristics of random errors: (i) small errors are more frequent than large errors. True Value III :J CIl ~ III 0 ( 9 '0 6 ~ • • • • • • • • • • ::J ~ • • • • 1st 2nd 3rd 4th Measurement Measurement Measurement Measurement • Fig. The above three characteristics can be graphically represented by means of a bell shaped curve called the probability clln'e or the normal error distribution curve. 2. x is the size of the error. In practice true error is never known as true value of a quantity cannot be determined. Hence the true value of a measured quantity is never known.1 Accuracy and precision of measurements. (ii) very large errors do not occur at all. Accuracy is the closeness or nearness of the measurements to the "true" or "actual" value of the quantity being measured. by taking a large number of observations we can make an estimate of magnitude of the error likely to be involved. 2.4 NATURE OF RANDOM ERRORS Random errors or accidental errors are unpredictable both as regard to size and algebraic signs. 2. 1st Measurement-accurate and·precise. . we find most probable value and residual error.2. however. There are. Most probable value is that value of a quantity that has the most frequent chance of occurrence or that has the maximum probability of . Instead. 2. However. and e is the base of the natural logarithms. 2nd Measurement-not accurate but precise. k and hare constants that determine the shape of the curve. The term precision (or repeatability) refers to the closeness with which the measurements agree with each other. not precise.1) in which y is the relative frequency of occurrence of an error of a given size.h 2z 2 (2. The equation of the curve. 4th Measurement-accurate but not precise.They are truly accidental and cannotbe avoided. and (iii) positive and negative errors of the same size occur with equal frequency. sometimes of large magnitude and hence cannot be computed or eliminated.

'~ 2 dV J . The difference between the observed value and the most probable value is known as residual error.-. The probability of residual error VI is the area of the probability curve at this value. A residual error is treated as a random error in every .2u 2 I ~V PU2 = )'2~V" = ke. Figure 2.3 shows the probability curve of residual error.2 Prob3bility curve.0 x Fig.i j 1 1 \'! '.3 Probability curve of residual error. It follows the laws of probability and can be expressed in the form y = keh2u2 (2. 2. 2.2) where v is the residual error. Errors in Measurement 9 ! Y . PVI = YI~V = ke" 1. Area is equal to the ordinate of the probability curve at vI multiplied by an arbitrary increment ~ V.respect."~l. y y = ke-fl 2 2 V o VI-+! v Fig. occurrence. Hence .

. .1.. (M n ..:. (ke -II 22' l~ L1V) (ke -Io"lIj '2 L1V) . u- 2 't" .10 Fundamentals of Survcying PL'n = )'1I.M) .. '..M)2 should be minimum. the probability that a set of events will occur simultaneously is the productof theirseparate probabilities. PUn Therefore ..> (2.. 1. M .. Thus + (M 2 - Mi + .e. .= ("1. ~[ (£ u2) = =0 2(M. (M.) =.• l):! =M) =M 2 - M Vj .M U.. is minimum.M):! ! U" = Mil . = ' (. = e L1Vn • e-h'(l'i + li + •. . Therefore the probability of residual error Ulo U:! • . + ' u. . probability is maximum when uf + + ..' PL'Io PU2 • .. M".. J.. Un occurring simultaneously is obtained by the product of ".. i.rneasured II number of times and let its value be 11110 M:! • . Let M be the most probable value.3) The expression is maximum.2(M n - M) .. This gives us the theory of least squares which says that the most probable value or the value of a quantity which has the maximum probability of occurrence is obtained when sum of the squares of the residuals is minimum. = (M" .:1V = ke" 1J~ L1:! n L1V According to the laws of probability. : . P(UIo U:!• ••• • U. Then Ul ui . u~ .e. + ..2(A1 2 - Al) + .M)­ . Let a quantity be.. + l'.. (ke •• -Io"t'" n • L1V) '''OJ ..Af)2 M)2 Then from the theory of Ieast squares L u2• i. + d~f and PUlling d dM2 1: u should be zero ' Should be positive .

a is also known as estimated standard value as the deviations are measured not from the true value but from the mean value. of measurements. 2.:.13 + . = y y .11 + M 2 + 1\.4) =sum of the squares of theresiduals =no..-~ 11.. the spread or dispersion changes with the values of b and ~ in the equation y ke.4 represents the degree of freedom.5 ~IEASURES OF PRECISION '0 Though the shape of the curve more or less remains the same. In Fig.1 where I v~ II II:. 2 (2. 2.....4 Dispersion of error. In practice the number of observations being limited.-..::...1) in Eq. Mean (a) Error v .e. number of extra measurements taken to 'determine a value.. In terms of actual measurements when the estimated standard deviation is known the equation y k~-h:L': can be written as: .4(a) most of the data are close to themean value and hence the measurements are more precise than in Fig.:- 111 . i. which is nothing but the arithmetic mean of the observed values: dAJ- d~.. we get the most probable value by taking mean of the observed values and instead of true errors we get residuals by obtaining deviation from the mean. 2. = ... Fig.:.:. Mean (b) Error v Statistically.Ii I! II 'I i J 'll' iJ '% i! " Errors in Measurement 11 • we get J'y' 1= ._-=--_--. 2. The term (n ... precision can be measured by means of quantity a known as standard deviation or standard error and is given by a v a=. 2.4(b) where there is considerable scatter. ..::. = a positive quantity indicating a minimum.1h 2 . +·lv/n n . The smaller a becomes the greater is the precision. r v2 = 2 + 2 + 2 +...

10" . 90 and 95% of the errors will lie.49°22'20".'2n - (2.49°22'40"..h . Calculate the most probable value of the angle and the standard error of the measurement.. 2 errors derived from an actual set of measurements. the precision of the measurements also increases. We then have k = _1_. It is noted that}' = ke. They bear a relation with standard error and are given by the following. 2.50" + 30".Approximately 2/3rd of the residuals will lie within standard error.5) in which y is the relative frequency of occurrence of a residual of aiven size. + 10" .5) is the curve representing the distribution of . (2. and 49°24'00".41" From the study of the residuals it can be observed that four residuals are within ± 37. THE Eso• E90 A!'I"D ~s E:RRORS Similarly we can find out the limit within which 50. Example 2. Standard deviation a = ± 'f~l' jll ­ .30" . r7 . Solution Angle 49°23'ooN 49°23'20" 49°22'40" 49°22'20" 49°23'40" 49°24'00" Residual v .12 Fundamentals of SU0'eying v .6449 a Egs = 1.6745 a = 1.9599 a ~ . + 50" 100 100 900 2500 900 2500 L 6 x 49° + 139' L v2 = 7000 . the observed values being 49°23'00".6.1 = ± 37. This curve is known as the normal distribution cun'e.1 Anangle~'as measured six times. The quantity h is known as the precision modulus of the measurements.+ /'000 -"-6­ 'I . This is a characteristic of standard error. Ei = 0.49°23'20".41 ". = 1_ e(-II~a~)l1~ O'.49°23'40".v is the probability curve and Eq./2i =_1_ 20'2 As k and h increase. lz'l O'.

. It does not indicate that this error..e. Eg5 (1.7 PROPAGATION OF R4. Let AB = X BC= Y AC= U Then U=x+Y If X is the mean value of X. i.5 Typical probability curve showing £50' £M. the probability of lying within the limit is 1/2. -3a -2a . I' 0 0 -----. 2...is more probable than any .1'. and E: respectively.e. .6745a) Standard error (68. All these are explained in Fig.6449a) :/' . Y '1 B U C Fig..r' E. . 2. other value.. 2.. The length AC is measured in two parts AB and Be.27% area) (c) / EgO (1..-----O A It X . Xj is any measured value and Xi corresponding residual. we .Errors ill MeaslIremellt13 E50 or 50% error was previously known as probable error i... .---H--. . Then the random error of the sum is given by.The term 'probable error' is not used nowadays as it isa misnomer.'DOM ERRORS Suppose a length is measured in three parts whose random errors are say E. This can be derived as follows (Fig.27' £90 and £95' 2. .9599a) -1a Mean +1a +2a Value of error +3a Fig.. the limit within which 50% of the error will lie. Probability of frequency Probable error (50% area) (.6 Propagation of random errors.5. .:..6): . 2. . Then can write. This can also be interpreted as stating that an error has equal chances of lying within this limit as outside it. .

j • then VI = U + 1/) = X) + Y1 = X + xl + Y + )') V2 = U + 1/2 :: X2 + Y2 = X + X2 + Y + )'2 ~=D+~=~+~=i+~+P+h But Hence u=x+y u\ = xl + )'1 U2 =Xz + )'2 = ·'en +)'" I/ n Squaring both sides and adding gives ' =xi. = Y +)'2 = y + Yn .loy tend to zero.V"2 Lit! = L). 1/2 n =X 2 + 2x n n.7) .-(l + L l (2. = Xn = Similarly x+ X.14 Fundamentals of Surveying X2 = x + X2 X. for Be are independent and. uncorreJated and hence their residuals also are independent and uncorreJated. (2. " Y1 = Y2 y + Y\ . obtained by adding the measurements X. denotes the differences between iJ and the value V."n + .'.6) can be written as LIl2 = L . Hence Eq.6) The measurements Xj for AB andthe measurements Y. x + x. + 2XI)' + )r u? =xi + 2X2)'2 + )2Z I/i .Yn If iJ denotes the most probable value of the sum of the two distances obtained by adding X + Y and if Ii. In such a case the term L . + Y .+ 2 Lx)'·+ L l· (2.

~ + a.. + (au)'! ar ). + q2 (2. and putting I.. ~ au =~a... in place of i...8) The above deviations can be still more generalized with the help of calculus. + aQ au + . LII 2 _ Lx2 ~ L)'2 a. + aQ . + (au)'!. Z..dq au au au ax X I + ay YI + " '+ aQql au ax au X2 Taking dX as .• dQ as qi and dU as II... Y. Let u =j{X. 3 etc."Cit dY as y..• .. ax X.. = a." __ ~J ."C~ + -l')( ax arJ ~ + . I Errors in Measurement 15 Dividing both sides by n . su >:: au ax' dx + aY' dy + .9) I'll = ax '''C n + ay)i.. ~ au ar au .: 1 ---+-­ 1/-1 n-l 11-1 or and i....~ + 2(au)(au) ax ar Xn~. 1I~ ~ = uau au (a ax) ~ .. .! +ax ay X\)I + ... we get III = = 112 + au au aY Y2 + .~~ + (au)':! iJQ q. ~ = (au)'! II. ~ . + a.~ + . ar )1 + (au)'! aQ ? X2)2 '! ql + ... 2.. Esum = ~E. dZ and dQ the total change dU in U is given by dll» au ... dY.. + ()~ )'£ + (I~ aQ) qi + ..~... oQ qn au Squaring both sides and adding '! _ III - (aU)2 ax '''C 1 '2 ?(au)(auJ. Q) when each independent variable is changed by a smallquantity dX.e.~ ~ + E)7 (2.. ..

+ . 1 11 11 - a 2 _ /I - .. the cross products tend to zero.r + ( aI' ) 2 au ..." f ' + a. (2..~ + a. .2 "': If U =X-I'.\). Then Iu = 2· (au au )2 . + aQ ...1). + ( au.. 2 2 au-'5' 2 + (au-'5' ay) ~Y +"'+(aQ) a q . 0')2.12) If U = xr au a X = I' and (au)2 ax = l' 2 Similarly au . ax)2 I.. =a.. . a - 1I-·\iV~T + ...~ . + .. au (ax a.au ()2 aQ Iq 2 Diyiding both sides by (11 . .. or 0'2 =0'2 + 0'2 " :r .. Ix21 + (au)2 aI' • nT+ ..16 Fundamentals of Surveying \Ve can rewrite this in the form III = (~~r Ix 2 + 2( ~~)( ~~) I. 0'2 s y II Then or a "" = fr 2 · a 2 +X 2 ·· a 2 z }' (2...J'-.2 """ .. (aU)2 al' =X and aI' = X-. 0'2 +X 2.13) ...t +(ayIY 2 2 + . we get h'""':l = or III 2 (aU)2 I y2 (au)2 I q2 ax . au = 'Va. +a. 0'2 =1'1. /. 2 + . (2. 2 aQ) a q 2 :1 (2. . .11) Now if U = X + I' + Z au)2= (au)2 (ax ay = (au)2 ez = 1 Hence or a.10) + other square terms + cross product terms If the measured quantities are independent and are not correlated with one another.

8).45 ± 0.: 85.439 m2 Example 2. BC and CD with length and standard errors as given below: AB = 125.25 m and OiJ =± . = ± 'YO'.25 m and O'a =± . (2. we have 0'" I' .290)2 + (. C~ = 246. Errors in M easurement 17 Finally if-U =AX. Example 2.3 What is the area of the rectangular field and its error for the following data? sides 85.292 m.'"C\ .: 155.205 m ± .2 A line AD is measured in three sections. .05 2 = 12394. + 0'. C. AB.012)2 (145. U=X+y+z Applying Eq.45 x 145.4 Two sides and the included angle of a triangle were measured with the following results a . where ~ is a constant au =A ax II and aX ! =A2 (au): (2.05)2 + (. Hence applying Eq. b = 71. .: 40°20' and 0'" =± 20".02 m.523 m This is of the form U = X • Y.021 m. Compute the area of the triangle and standard error of the area..021) 2 + (.45)2 = ± 2. BC = 205.85 m ± .05± 0.14) a2 = A2 " . What is the standard error in the total length AD? Solution Here AD'= AB + BC + CD and is of the form .012 m by 145. + 0'.r Example 2.13) 0'" = ± ~(.: A a.020)2 (85.020 m Solution Area = Length x Breadth . = ± ~(.290 m.025 m.72 m ± . .025) 2 = ± .03 rn. 0' 2 :t or 0. (2.

angle A measures 70°30' ± 20" angle B measures 60°10' ±40".5 c . Compute angle C.241 X.25 x cos 40°20' 2 2 =4216. . (2. is aA aA aA ­ aA=\(aa·a ll ) +(ab· a b) +(ac· a .. ~ ~~ = ~ b sin C =lx 71. Compute the standard error of each quantity.7 EX:lmple2.00000485 = 0.18 Fundamentals of Surveying Solution Area of triangle A = ~ ab sin C. side a and side b.5 One side and two adjacent angles of a triangle are measured in order to determine the lengths of the other two sides because the vertex opposite the measured side is inaccessible (Fig.09 ><0.241 m2/m.05 x .) Here I ' .000097 rad..6817 m2• The standard error of the area from Eq.J(23. aA aC =1.25 x sin 40°20' = 50. A 8 a Fig.11). ~~ = ~ a sin C = ~ x 155.25 X 71.09 m2/rad. The side c measures 320 ± . =~ X 155. ab : cos C =1.25 x sin 40°20' = 23. 20".05m2/m .25 x 155. dA=.25 sin 40c20' = 3579. = = 20 x 0.02)2 + (4216. x 71.7).286 m2 Example 2. 2.02 m.2.03)2 + (50. expressed in radian ~.000097)2 = ± 1.

Errors ill Measurement 19 .

the error is proportional to square root of the number of observations.. r.___ _ ~ __ .144 mlradian sin B sin 60010' - 2 "b -=( -) de .00000485i + (1.008 m. + E.o =± 0. Em ie. . 1200 m? Solution No of 30 rn tape in 1200 m = l~go 90% error =40 =± 1. - L ... A distance of 1200 m is to be taped.083226 .. l1 ~'E- .n • = 0. ! .eries' If the error in each measurement is E and no.+ .p.+ E. Example 2.. The total error in the total series of measurement is called the error of the series and is designated as E.88 mlradian db ac = sin C = sin 4~0' = 1.sin 49°20' = 209..8 ERROR OF A SERIES Sometimes a series of similar quantities such as the length of a line are measured a number of times with each measurement being in error by about the same amount. of such measurement is n then .013159 .47)2 • (44.006833 "b = ± .6 The standard error in a tape of 30 m tapelength is ± .6449 x (.00000485)2 2 - ' ab­ ab 2 2 ab 2 2 - __ + (209.013159 Escries = ~o ..6449" ='± 1.08266 m 2. (2."c: -=(314..88)2 • (40 x .144i • (:02i =. What is the expected 90% error in... = \'nE. = :.= ± E .008) = ± 0.I ~o Fundamentals of Surveying ab as = e cos B· sin C _ 320 cos 60°10' ." + upto 11 terms ..+(-) de -. Cfe +(-) dB '''B .15) The above equation shows that when the same error is repeated 11 times.72)2(.-.

17) r. where therefore similarly E=~r.1 what is the standard error of the mean? Solution Standard error of a single observation = ± 37.8 Specifications for measuring angles of an n-sided figure limit the total angular closure to E. u2 = 1..J.V2 Em =~(=g' l1(n .--. _ £.18) These equations show that the error of the mean varies inversely as the square root of the number of repetitions.. Hence the standard error of mean Em =-n. where E is the standard error of an individual measurement and 11 is equal to number of measurements.7 In Example 2. Example 2.=­ "':n Eiftdi\i. (2.-rn n.27" Example 2. .... Now mean is sum divided by number of measurements.9 ERRo"R OF A MEAN When a number of like measurements are taken.!/ .Errors in Measurement 21 2..each angle be measured for the following values of 11 and £? (i) n (ii) 11 =4..1) . the error of the sum = E.:lu~1 ~n~!t EUrl~~ ---.1) (2.41" There are six observation" Standard error of the mean = ± 3~1 =± 15.6745 (EgO)m f L u (2. E =20 sec = 10. How accurately must.1 E. E = 1 min ES~ri~1 II Solution (i) Here = 20 sec = 4 .6449 lI(n . Thus to double the accuracy or reduce the error by one half four times as many measurements should be made.16) 2 (E~O)m = 0..[I.-----..

. exp(.. k2• . exp (-hjuj). "t lz.+ ~£ = 10 sec . In such a case we can take this variation into account by assigning different relative weights to different measurements. There may be many reasons for this. Square of standard deviation <T is variance and weight is taken as inversely proportional to variance and directly proportional to 11 2 which is known as precision modulus.. .10 WEIGHTS OF MEASUREl\1ENTS Sometimes it is obvious toa surveyor that one measurement is moreprecise than another.. . PUt = Yj. may be that'one equipment is more sophisticated than the other or the field conditions during one measurement may be much superior.(li1 Uj" +" "~U2 + .. " L1 V =:~.the e negativeexponent 0 f e must b e minimum. 2.11 THEORY OF LEAST SQUARES APPLIED TO OBSERVATIONS OF UNEQUAL WEIGHTS Pn Let Mit M2• •••• M. un) =(kJ.le .1V Pf)~ = :'2. In such a nezati · · " ·i..J I 22 Fundamentals of Sun'eyillg 'I .. ... + /2 InU n = minimum.. It.1V . ."" 12V2 + . e.. E~riu 11 =60 sec =10 = ± 18. PUn .."/~U. We already know that precision is indicated by standard deviation a.1V = kz ..± .. and thecorresponding residuals UI.. .xp (-'~L9....vn ) ] Most probable value of the quantity is obtained when P·is maximum. .. Now weight P is proportional to Tt 2• therefore . k ll ) " " 2 (L1V) n exp [.... will occur in the set is as follows. un) =(kl exp (-1J? Uf) L1V) (k2 exp (-lziu?) L1 V) . o.. 2.' .·N " (ii) Here .6V =k exp (-.. Un' The probability P that VI' V2• . ..97 sec 60 ­ Ein~i\'iduaJ an. u.. be a set of measurements with varying weights PI' P2• .~) n Probability that residuals willoccursimultaneously is equal to the productof their separate probabilities P(v\t U2• . . case. IjVi + .) L1V) or P(UIt V2 • • "..e.jiIJ 2.1V = l.. Ul...

" + 2Pn(Mn .....M.M) + .ln iV be the most probable value of a quantity whose observed values ·are: MI.20) 2.r I Errors in Measurement 23 2 FIU I + P2ui + . = Lp . M 2• Then =M I V2 = M 2 VI M l'g Vn = M. . . '? ? =minimum • or Let L pu 2 =minimum . + Pn M= p.19) This is the weighted mean of the observations and the most probable value of a quantity with unequal weights.M) =0 P. +P2 M2 + . ll..M)2 + P2(M2 :- M)2 + . . In line with observations of equal weight the following formulae can be derived for observations of unequal weight . Standard error of single obserV:ltion of unit weight =~: ~\2 (2... + Pnu.) L l.12 CALCULATING WEIGHTS AND CORRECTIONS TO FIELD OBSERVATIONS The following are the relevant rules forcalculatlng weights and applying corrections to field observations: 1.The weight of a measurement varies directly as the number of observations made for that measurement.PI(M1 ..PU p(n - 1) 2 (2. + P2 + . ·+PnMn LpM' . 1. . (2..21) 2. . Standard error of the weighted mean =.iJ From the theory of least squares.. + Pn(Mn - iVif = Minimum Differentiating with respect to M 2PI(M 1 - M) + 2p2(M2 .

14. 3..e. Correction for a line of level is directly proportional to the length of the line.25 .1 1\'1 : H':! = 9' . 10".25 20.25 20.) .14.--:.5" + 25.04.25 240.75 . Hence correction to an observation isdirectly proportional to standard error.14. Deviation from mean Squares of deviation 20.5" + 15. 10".25 210. 00" 10" . 00".5" .6745l8~~.1 14 Fundamentals of Surveying Weight is inversely proportional to standard error as shown before.25 210. 240. 00".25 650. 00". 20". Example 2. (ii) The best value of a quantity which measured four times by a method having a probable error of 3 units. Mean Value 43°20'14.U.5" . 4 . Solution (i) Observed value 43°20'10" 30" 10" 20" 00" 40" 00" 10" 30" .04. 4.5" .5" . In the case of levels. -t Corrections to be applied to various observed quantities are in inverse proportion to theirweights.5" .~5 =± 9. .1 =± ~ '\"9' units Probable error of mean by 2nd method = ± ~ = ± 2 units . .25 20. . 40".5" p..20" (ii) Probable error of mean by Ist method =± .5" '''.25 L 1862. gave an average value of 1800 units and measured nine times by a method having a probable error of 6 units gave an "average value of 1808 units of (L.04. 10".4.5" + 04.25 210.30".25 20.5" + .9 Find (i) the probable error of a single observation which when repeated on the same angle gave values of 43°20' plus: 10". . ~. 30". "- Weights are inversely proportional to squares'of probable error .15. of a single observation k=O =± 0.5" . weight varies inversely as the length of the route.

'CB''Cc.1" =87°35'11.0..2" . Summer 19S91 Solution . Here A +B + C = 180°00'2.2" and correction . .S." = . weight weight weight 4 1 2 3 Adjust the angles A.88 units Example 2.0" =49°09'34. Winter 19S5] Soiutlon . 2.0. their observed values taken with a theodolite are: A = 110°20'48" = 13 ::: 92°30'12" C 56°12'00" D = 100°57'04" weight . C. CD-'4'j'2'3-. [AMIE A.1.."t'S" xJ = . CA = . The angles of a plane triangle should sum 180°.The sum of four angles closing the horizon 360° Here the observed angles add to . 3 . and D closing the horizon. .I . 8." = .. I ... D form a round of angles at a triangulation station.t\1:IE A.Hence .11 A.0.360 000'0-\.4" which should be distributed inversely to welghtuge. B.Errors ill Measurement 25 Most probable value = weighted mean = ~x 1800 + x 1808 4/9 + 1/4 * = 1802.12 corrections are to be distributed inversely to weights of observations.. C. ' I" . Therefore Hence ' C 'C .1." The error is 4" and the correction . 1.2" As per rule 4 of Sec.1" weight 1 weight 2 weight 3 [A.S.".4" Example 2.15 .4 C.there is a total error of 2. 1 .2.2" CB = . 4 C.1 "6'3'2 CA' B' c"I'2'3" .6" Cc = . 6 .10 The following are the observed values of angles ina triangle of a triangulation survey. : A B C = 43°15'17. Therefore. I. Adjust the angles.

25 X = _ 4.. (. pu'l 2 2 + 1 .. ~ 0.. ' . 40°20'18" 40°20'19" Weight 2 2 3 Find (1) Probable error of single observation of unit weight.1 0 L pu'l = 4 Probable error of a single measurement = ± 0. '/"2.6745 . -­ 0 ~r.96" 4 4" . 0. g =± Probable error of weighted mean' O.9:!" ..... oOJpu = ..6745 . _ _---­ .. ~ .3605 = • . (H) Probable error of weighted arithmetic mean.6745 ~ 7~) =± 0.. ::t ~ 2 .7 • _:> X 12" =.2~ X 6" =.9538'~ ' .1­ 26 Fundamentals of S/llWyil:g CB 4 =._ . Cc CD =.64" =.0..12 The following are the observed values of an ~ngle: Angle 40°20'20".0.00" Example 2..674:> ~<. pUl~ II - ::: ± 0.1. Solution Weighted arithmetic mean =40°20' + 2 x 20 + 2' x 18 + 3 x 19 7 Then U =40°20'19" u· 1 1 0 .

3" =79°23'23.9.S. Winter 1978J 2.10 Explain the following: (i) (ii) (iii) (i\') Mistakes.2 What are the different types of errors? 2. Summer 19S3) . [A.8" b d weight 3 weight 2 weight 4 weight 2 [AMIE A. a = 83°42' .8. (iii) Mistakes.3" Find the most probable value of angles. 2.S. Least square method.6" c = 94°38'27.1 What causes errors in measurements? 2.S.5 and 701.5 What are the rules for adjustments of weighted field observations? 2. 2. (ii) Accidental errors. Normal distributions. Calculate the most probable value and its probable error. 701.S. Systematic error.8 (a) Explain the terms: [AMIE A. 701. [A~lIE A..S.6. Summer 1932] 2.. 701. (b) The following angles were measured at a station 0 so as to close the horizon. (b) Following observations were recorded for a plane triangle ABC LA = 77° 14'20" wt 4 wt 3 LB LC =44°40'35" = 53°04'52" wt 2 Compute the'adjusted value of the angles.3 Distinguish between accuracy and precision? Errors in Measurement 27 2.28. 702. most probable value.9 Define the principle of least squares andexplain how this lawcan be applied to obtain the most probable value of a quantity. Winter 1980] = 102°15'43. 701. Accidental error. PROBLEl\IS 2.7 (a) Explain the terms: Residual of an observation. Probable error. Winter 1979] (i) Systematic errors.6 The following-are six equally reliable and direct measurements of a base line in meter.4 Derive the theory of least squares.'lIE A.4. 2. How does it change when measurements are weighted'? .0..[AMIE A.

Are there any assumptions involved in the method? [AMIE A.S.>~ \ ..(v) Weight of an observation.S.12 Explain clearly the theory of least squares as applied to the adjustment of survey measurements. Winter 1987] 2.13 Explain the following terms: (i) Standard deviation. .r­ 28 Fundamentals of Swwyillg 2. Summer 1986) 2. (iv) Least square method. (ii) Normal distribution. [AMIE A.11 What is the weight of an observation? What considerations weigh in deciding it? [A!\lIE A.-----< . (iii) Most probable value. . Winter 1990] .S.

3 TACHEOMETRY . ( . ~ ~~1> ~u:Jl r:« t?d'i. They are: (i) Pacing.J {u'c1o'Y"l c-t~ h-)) .2 ODOMETER.1 PACING t::.Jt.r.1 INTRODUCTION One of the most important ~.. ' C11 ('\~d) fJ .~rGf)N'..2..r. . Initially the surveyor must walk a known distance a number of times in his own n'iltur:ll way so that his jpei«>/. l1 1"t:s'JI'S J Gltl '('ith the intercej2t on a levelling staff between the top and bottom cross hairs ~ult~!.r~ I ~1S?~~' 3. This method can often be used to advantage on preliminary surveys where precise distances are not necessary..c~~el.'Kf Here distance is measured not directly but indirectly with the help of an QRtic. (ii) Odometer readings.2.2. the distance is the horizontal length between e. A theodolite with three cross hairs can also be used o 'l)1 J 13i> . While chaining and taping are most common in our country. 3.2 METHODS OF MEASURING HORIZONTAL DISTANCES _./ V . . (iv) Electronic distance measurement. there are many methods of measuring horizontal distances.. ~ r1m ~'f1)J) . Pacing is an approximate method of measuring distance.. An odometer converts the number of revolutions of a wheel of a known circumference to a distance. r ~ ") 3 Measurement of Horizontal Distances I 3.}. (v) Chaining.. and (vi) Taping.a..·):J~)N~iJJf'. If the points are at different elevations.lumb lines at the points. Odometer distancesshould be converted to horizontal distance when the slope of the ground is steep. In subtense bar method.JI')/'S 'p1!i~h')FV)N " ! <\.!~. (aJ/ )(:.t:)f'I.:\ . ·3. electronic distance measurements (ED~l) are gradually being increasingly used: . .~~!?~ in surveying is mea~urement of horizontal distance between two points.: !i>(lJrv!JJ 29 . "'" ~rr. ~rM~' natural p~~ is known.J· c. 3.\_ed by a ~t giving the horizontal distance. .7 "'1:"'/ffit. (iii) Tacheometry. To count the number of paces a pedometer or a passorneter maybe used. lU Depending on the accuracy desired and time available for measurement.'H~.!I.! -< " instrument called tacheorneter.

c:. 3.2. They are basically of two types: (1) Electro optical instruments which use lightwaves for measurement of distances such as geodirneter. There is also 30 m chain with 100 links (instead of 150) so that each link is . --s1:.1. (ii) Pegs.\G ACCESSORIES The. it should be wiped with a dry cloth and then \. easily read and easily repaired in the field if broken.. 1111 • '. (iv) invar.. The chain is robust.. 3 . The invar tape is 'soft and also very expensive. Cloth or metallic tapes are made of high grade linen with fine copper wires running length-wise to give additional strength and prevent excessive elongation. etc.. The coefficient ·of thermal expansion is very small. Details are shown in Fig.6 TAPES Tapes are used for accurate work and may be of (i) cloth or li~n. It does not. For 5 and 10m chains the shape of tallies and the corresponding distances are shown in Fig.2. 3. In India link type surveying chains of 30 m lengths are frequently used in land measurement. Also the weight is a disadvantage when the chain has to be suspended. rnekometer and range master. is usually 6 to 10 mm wide and is more accurately graduated. about 1/30 to 1160 of that of an ordinary steel tape.6 mm. .3 CHAINING AND TAPI. . '.2. withstand rough usage. There are tallies at every 3 m.3. It cannot. In our country it is frequently used though in other countries it is being gradually replaced by tapes. 3..iQ!:L _ I' . on the ground. Details of a 30 m chain are given in Fig. .. 3.m.!:'"()111agnet!c waves are utilized to measure distance. Invar tape is used for very precise work.: Chains are used to measure distances when very great is not required. Tapes used for surveying are30 m in length and graduated in meter.5 CHAINS0<YJ"i /:.... (ii) metal. bending of the links.I ! 30' Fundamentals of Surveying the angle subtended at the end of a line by a known horizontal base at the other end is measured and the horizontal length is geometrically obtained. which transmits microwaves with frequencies in the range of 3 to 35 CHz corresponding towavelengths of about 1 dm to 8.('. 3. . however~ correct length owing to wear on the metal to metal surfaces. 4 ' 'Wooden pegs are used to markthe positions of the survey stations or the end ~. however. (v) Plumb bobs.2.. Steel tape is superior to metal tape.3 rn. 3. 3. Arrows or chain pins are used to mark the position of the ends the chain . (iv) Offset rods. decimeter and centimeter. mud between the bearing surfaces. They come in enclosed reels and are not suitable for precise work. of . ·ith an oily rag.4 ELECTRONIC DISTA:\CE MEASUREMENT (EDM) This is a modem development in surveying where ell. Nomenclatures and dimensions of different parts of a chain are given in Fig. (iii) steel. (iii) Ranging rods. (ii) Microwave equipment. small instruments and accessories used with chain or tape are (i) Arrows. . It is made of 35% nickel and 65% steel. . 0. If the tape gets wet.L7i:.

L r:':: .' ism 30m~8mm f ~ 1m.. I I I . 1..1 Nomcuclnture lind dimensions of different parts of'chain (all. ! 5m I. 5m I 5m I 5m N· ~ . Fig.. 3. 3.. I 5m .... dimensions in mm). g ~ tJ . EVERY Io£TRE l£NGTH/ }~+++++~ '. LARGE 4 ~ L1 NK 75 '-CONNECTING L1IlK (OVAL SHAPED) ~ § ...3t1 I! I I : "I.. ~ iii ::s .1 161 1 ~ '1 · I I r .2 30 Meter chain. ::..r . i') III e '" w Fig. -I"'£:'__ ... ----------j~------:-200 200- ""---<D' .

4 Details' of arrow or chain pin. ~ . 3.) 60° For 4 m and 6m For 5 m Fig. Eye 4 mm dia 400 mm 15 mm ~ Rounded end Fig..3 Shapes of tallies for chains (5 m and 10 in).lI 32 Fundamentals oj Sun'eying • @j Z). 3. 16 60° For 1 m and 9 m For 2 m and 8 m For 3 m and 7 m ~ 60° I.

5 Details of ranging rod. 3. (ii) On uneven ground. In level ground the line to be measured is marked at both ends and at . Details are shown in Fig. 3. 3.4 MEASURE~IENT BY CHAIN There are basically two types of measurernents-e-Ii) On level ground. . Ranging poles and rods are used to make measurements along a straight line.6.Measurement of Horitontal Distances 33 points of a survey line. Details are shown in Fig.5. 200_mm r '200'mm L 2m 200 mm Fig. The typical dimensions are 25 mm x 25 mm in cross section and 150 mm long with a nail at' the top. 3. Plumb bobs are used to project a point on the ground upto the tape or to project a point on the tape down to the ground.

the leader again pulls on the chain leaving an aITOW to mark the position of the end of the first length. 3. - - l . The taping buck usually (i) is rigid in use. 3. 3.. (iv) permits easy transfer of chaining point to or from the ground (\') can easily act as a back sight.6· Plumb bob. After 10 chains have been laid down the follower hands over the ten arrows to the leader and the same prccedure is carried out for the next ten lengths.7b). The leader then pulls the chain taut and inserts an aITOW in the ground to mark the end... The follower holds the rear end of the chain against this and directs the leader into alignment as before.. After relevant work in this chain line is over... Since taping is usually done on the slope when tripods are used. When the slope angle a is known the horizontal distance is .. Sometimes a theodolite is used for ranging. intermediate' point where necessary so that a clear sight is obtained. the follower picks up the first and carries it with him. the lengths are now measured with a tape and not with a chain. theelevations of the tops of tripod must be ascertained simultaneously as the taping proceeds to determine the horizontal distance..7a or indirectly by measuring the sloping distance along the slope and then getting the horizontal distance analytically by measuring the slope by means of'a clinometer or measure the difference in elevation between the points (Fig. 3.. The number of arrows in the hand of the follower at any time will indicate the number of complete chain lengths measured.- . For higher precision a taping tripod or taping buck must be used. The follower holds the rear end of the chain at the station point and by movements of his arms directs the aITOW or ranging rod held by the leader for the purpose into true alignment. For accurate measurements and in all important surveys.5 REDUCTIONS TO ~rEASURE~!ENT . (iii) is portable. (ii) is easily aligned. In uneven or sloping ground the distance may be directly measured in small horizontal stretches or steps as shown in Fig.34 Fundamentals of Surveying r String Fig. IN SLOPE There are two ways in which this reduction can be made.. After the chain has been pulled taut and the further end marked by the second aITOW..

3) H= .S sin a da (3. 3.4) (3.2) Relative accuracy is then Scos a When the slope is expressed in terms or difference in elevation as in Fig.'/S'2_h'2 The expression on binomial expansion becomes It" h~ H=S---­ 3 (3. in order to meet a given relative accuracy in the resulting horizontal distance.8. we differentiate the above equation with. we have dH H =_ S sin ada = _ tan ada (3. 1 chain (a) ~~ ~ Horizontal distance I 1 (3. 'To determine the accuracy with which the vertical angle must be measured . respect to' a and get dH =.7 Measurement on slope: (a) chain held horizontally.5) 25 8S ~I . (b) chain held on slope..Measurement of Horizontal Distances 1 chain 35.1) (b) Fig. ' H =S coszr where S is the inclined length. 3.

7) dC hdh T=sr Slightly different expressions can be derived as follows: Correction = hypotenusal allowance = AC . If both sides are divided by S the relative accuracy becomes (3. 11 Example 3.8) =AD ( 1 + T =AD a.degrees.4 ) T . If the slope is expressed as 1 to 11 a. aO = ~8~ radian Error is 1 in 1500 =: 1500 AD AD '= AD 2 1500 (CtiC)2 180 ". . . .AD = AD sec a. =1.6) and _ 1Idll· dC .2. If we neglect the 3rd term 11 2 C=S-H= 2S (3. + 24 +.2 "a.1 In chaining a line what is the maximum slope (a) in degrees and (b) as 1 in 11 which can be ignored if the error from this source is not to exceed 1 in 15007 Solution (i) Let a..S .9) 5a.~6 FII1lda17lcIltais of Surveying c h A.AD (3./ I '0 H Fig..Ap (3. 3. be expressed in.8 Reduction in slope.

and (vii) Chain or tape not straight..10) If the true length is shorter than the nominal length the correction should be . 3. Example 3. 000 S2(l) • (1) dh = 25.1500 11=" Therefore slope is 1 in 27.­ 2n. The correction to be applied is known as absolute correction Cn and is given by: Cn = True length .2 /1500 = 27.28 m and the accuracy ratio is to be at least 1 in 25.000 x h . A tape or chain is of nominal or designated length at the time of manufacture but with use it will seldom remain at its original length.0157894 m 3. (ii) Tape or chain not horizontal.I.386. Solution . (iv) Incorrect tension or pull.nominal length (3. (iii) Fluctuations in' temperature. We have de hdh _ _ 1_._-_. = .6 SYSTEMATIC ERRORS IN LINEAR MEASUREMENT BY CHAIN OR TAPE The principal systematic errors in linear measurement made with a chain or tape are (i) 'Incorrect length. I.6. 2 With what accuracy must a difference in elevation between two .000. (vi) Incorrect alignment.-. -S =-=r S - 2' .1 I?'CORRECT LENGTH Incorrect length of a tape or chain is one of most important errors.386...092" (ii) AD· a 2 2 ' AD AD =-.It is systematic. (v) Sag.Measurement of Horizontal Distances 37 arr ~ 180 = 'lTIOO a = 180 / 2 tt \ 1500 a = 2. It should be frequently compared with a standard length to find out the discrepancy. _-_-. 30 = . ends of a 30 m tape be known if the difference in elevation is 2. 2(1)(1) = .

. sometimes more pull or sometimes less pull will be applied though the tendency is to apply less pull than the standard.d = 3d ~ 8u2 (3. Since the coefficient ofinvar is very small (3. The horizontal distance is always less than the inclined length. Here P is the actual pull applied P.6.13) . invar tapes will give better result than steel and should be used in surveys of high order. =La (T .6.6.12) which should be applied as pull correction C». therefore c.1 38 Fundamentals of S:tn'cyir:g subtracted while if the true lenph is greater than the nominal length. Otherwise.6 x W-il"C) .and chord length is given as L. L is the length of the chain or tape. is the standard pull. In field operation the pull applied may be more or less which will introduce an error. 3. As a result the chord or horizontal length will be lessthan the curved length. hence the correction is always subtractive.4 INCORRECT TE~SIO~ OR PULL A tape or chain is of standard length under a particular pull. i.3 FLUCTUATIONS L~ TEMPERATuRE A chain or tape is of standard length at a particular temperature.6. Steel being elastic there will be extension. Assuming thecurve to take an approximate shape of a parabola.e. (3. or contraction given by the expression (P .2 CHAIN OR TAPE ~OT HORIZONTAL When' the chain or tape is inclined but assumed to be horizontal an error in measurement is introduced. For important work a spring balance should be used to determine the exact pull. 3. .T. . the length of the tape also changes.6) and (3.1 x 107 N/cm:!. is the standardization temperature. A is the cross sectional area and E is the modulus of elasticity of steel. .15 x 'w-sloe.Ps)L A'E (3.5 SAG A tape or chain supported at the two ends will always sag. the mid point will be at a lower level compared to the two ends. a is the coefficient of thermal expansion. the difference between sagged length .9).11) where L is the length. E for steel is 2. The correction is given by Eqs. The temperaturecorrection is. T is the temperature at which the measurement is made and T. the change being 1.) (3. the correction is to be added. C. If the ambient temperature changes. 3. 3. Temperature effect is less pronounced on a cloudy day or early in the morning or late in the afternoon.

. (3. This means ' Cn + C.3d . (Wd'"J'" L.. (3.the two equations.' P.Ps) L AE ?4p2 = /I _I .15) Sag correction is always negative as the correct length is always less than the measured length. we get Sag correction C.pull ~ :s) L .JAE n.204W . Also by taking moment about one of the supports for half the tape length we get.16) can be derived as follows: Sag correction = --->r 24P. 2~ P. This pull P. _ 0.!.17) can also be solved by trial and error to find the free tension PI' Equation (3. where w2 L (Pn .1~) where w is the weight of the tape/unit length and PI is the pull. w L =--.3d SPI '_. Free tension is that tension which when applied will eliminate the need for corrections required due to' tape standardization. Eq. Pull correction = (Pn Equating . . = unsupported length of tape d = chord length ~ = sag in the middle..d . sag and tension.' .17) Like Eq.C. + Cp =0 (3.~Pn-Ps' (3. ll·2I! W:! L =----. (3.16) which is to be solved by trial and error. Combining . is standard .16).I' Measurement of Horizontal Distances 39 where L. 24P " 1 2 3 . temperature. . Plu = -S- wd:! (3. sag correction becomes _ Su'l _. is given by the expression: " p. Normal tension when applied to a tape or chain wnnncrease the length in such a way that sag correction will be compensated so that no sag correction will be necessary. w 2d3 - 24P? Substituting L in place of d to simplify the result.

204 w.1 Classification of Errors Type of errors Tape length Temperature Pull Sag Alignment Tape not level Plumbing Marking Interpolation. (iv) Incorrectfixation of taping pin. \\. When used in the field.[XE W(0.6. = " " 'P.. Classification I • Systematic (5) or random (R) S S or R S or R S S' S R R R N P . natural (N) or personal (P): Table 3.. Some of the random errors in chaining or taping are: (i) Incorrect determination of temperature. • --+ . 3.204) 0. 3.1 summarizes different characteristic of the types of errors discussed. (iii) Deflection of plumb bob due to wind. The correction is always subtractive..Ps In taking a number of chain or tape measurements along a line the tape or chain may be off line and thus introduce systematic error. Errors can be instrumental (l).rAE = 3.. Equation (3. However.P.7 CHAIN OR TAPE NOT STRAIGHT When a chain or tape is not straight but bets bent due to bending of the links of the chain or bending of part of tape.3 A 30 m tape weighs 12 glm and has a 'cross 'sectional area of 0. . The systematic errors in chain or tape survey may become random when there is uncertainty about their magnitude and sign.6 INCORRECT ALlGN~'1ENT ~P" .P P P P P P Example 3. Table 3.7 RANDOM ERRORS The difference between systematic 'and random errors has already been explained. the tape is only " .fAE . N.6. . (ii) Incorrect application of pull.. the reading will always be more than the actual distance and the correction will be always subtractive.P. .(_1)1~. (v) Incorrect reading. the magnitude is difficult to obtain unless compared with a standard chain or tape. = ~P" .and at a temperature of 20cC.S .020 cm2• It measures correctly when supported throughout under a tension of 85 newton.1) can be used to determine correct horizontal length with a being the horizcntal off line angle instead of the slope angle.-l 40 Fundamentals of Surveying P.

13. .00) x 114. The tape weighed 0..5) = . = 12 g/m =..20~) = .TJ > = 30 x 1. Example3.~.15 x 10-5 x (12° ..00224 = 0 Distance between. under a tension.0. ' Solution There is variation from standardized condition as regards (i) Temperature. 3 C == (0.of 85 newton. . Total correction =0.012 kg/m =0. The sag correction is negative as the correct lengthis always less than the measured length. The temperature is 13SC.12r(3~0 ) J . '..' 0 and 30 mark = 30 m. What is the distance 'of zero and 30 mark under these conditions? . (ii) Support at the ends instead of throughout. This correction is· additive as the length of the tape is more than the standard because of rise in temperature.028 cm!.) (i) Corre~tion for absolute length = + (30.4 A 30 m steel tape measured 30. (i) Correction for temperature = L· aCT .Ql.12 N/m.0150 m when standardized fully supported under a 70 newton pull at a temperature of 20°C.Measurementof Horizontal Distances 41 • supported at its ends. What is the truelength of the recorded distance AB for the following condition? (Assume all full't. 24P­ Weight of tape . w2 V (ii) Sag correcti-on = --.00224 rn.90 kg (9N) and had a cross sectional area of 0.00224 m. ' .15 x 10-5(20 .pe lengths excep~ in the last one.00224 .0570 m (ii) Temperature correction =La (T - TJ ) = 114. .01049674 m (iii) Pull correction = (P ~~J> L .~ 30.095 = + 0.095 x 1. (24)(85"") =.

245 .076 m.49)(30) • Pull correction = (.1 x 10') .5 = ..70 mm and a thickness of 0.5 x 2. (P .0246q6 kg/m = ..0058211· m . [Salford] Solution Permissible error on 30 m = I. 3 mm Weight of unit length of tape = .0127 x '. = .2L .03125 mlloo m For 114. Young's Modulus as 20700 MN/m2 and the acceleration due to gravity as 9.27 x .005. = ( 24 x 1002 (3) + (fax 24. = ± .00025)(20700)(106) .24129 N/m Let P be the pull applied..Otcig5x 114. Assuming that the ends of the tape are held at the same level and that the standardizing temperature for the tape obtains on the site. d2 (v) Correction for slope = .028)(2.0~5) = + . determine the increases in tension to be applied to realiz.095 m.095 = . =.. = 24p2 W (negative ive) (IV) 2L 92 X 30) . ± 3~ -. .I ·42 Fundamentals of Sun-eying l = (100 .095)\24.09) 24 X 100 2 .01.e that accuracy. .0356208 (negative) 2. . slope correction =Hence total correction . Example 3.70)(114.2 x 100= . .. Sag correction . ~OOO.030375 + .035?546 m Corrected length = 114.5 A steel tape of length 30 m standardized on the flat under a pull of 49 N has a width Of 12.000.. It is to be used on the site to measure lengths of 30 m to an accuracy of ± 1/10.806 mls'-.25 mm. Take the density of steel as 7750 kglm3.00025 x 1 x 7750 =. (0.

Ps) L P II ' .870 rn.+ --!. value = 107.2 L3 ..000 Ml':/m'1 and the acceleration due to grav ity as 9. value = 167 K Example 3.) I U correction p = AE 8Cp = 8P' L AE .1.3279 .045646) _ 65498~472 .24129)2 x 30 24p 2 When the error is ± 10.26..698 RHS = 6. and (li) The corrected length of the line if the actual field tension was IS5 K .22 RHS = 4.= (P _ 49)(.026 kg/m and a cross-sectional area of 3. the apparent field tension t-eing 178 K Determine (i) The nominal corrections 'for pull and sag which would have been evaluated for each 30 m tape length.4.6 A tape which was standardized on the flat under a tension P.' .6.3 will lie between 100 and 150 App. = 24p 2 ~~.2. was used in catenary to measure the length of a base line. The tape which had a mass of-0.255 = .Ps) (ii) Sag correction C.892 . Take Young's modulus as 155.806 mls2• Solution Theoretical Part (P .0127(P X .. .911 1.045646 . C (. when P = 50 P = 100 P = 150 P =200 RHS = . oC p ± oPL AE = 1 ± Cp AEL(P-PJ ) .(P .610 . P- Solving by trial and error.24129)2 X 30 3 ~4p2 x 0 1 3 .5498 = .153 RHS'= 2. - .26.199 =. Measurement of Horizontal Distances 43 Sag correction = (.49)(30)(10 ) = (. + 3 mm 3 1 . The length of the line was deduced as 659.000' .!.637 = 5.25 mm'1 was standardized on the flat under a pull of89 N.5 N + 3 will lie between 150 and 200 App.00025)(20700)(10 6) 3 (. Show that the nominal corrections for pull and sag must be modified by factors of± oPI(P ..Ps) and +20PIP respectively if an error of ± oP occurred in the applied field tension P.

.+-­ Mathematical Part _. Pull correction = (P ~Ps) L •.07865) .07865) = . _ • .3)(.806)2 x 30 3 x 1000 = .. (.24p2. 178 N = 3.180895 Change.242242 No. (.89) .89)(30) x 1000 Pull correction for.329324 mm Correct length =659.89)(30)(1000) (3)(155. +f l Fundamentals of Surveying sc - s '1'~L3 oP = -_ .000 MN/m2• Solution.875 m Example 3.024 kg/m...38)(. 2. (178 .07865 =.1.005 =659.024 x 9. .21..423137 .P =. If the tape had a cross-sectional area of 3 inm2 and a mass of 0. _ w= oP 24 p3 .. determine the field tension to be applied in order that the correction in tension was equal in magnitude to the correction for sag. 2 L3 _ is» p' . 24p2 Sag correction = w 2L3 .7 A steel tape. Correction = ..870 + . under a pull of 89 N. sc.:. of 30 m tapes :.. 87 . 30 m longwas standardized on the flat. AE - ~ (P. 24 p 3 ­ L3 24p 2 + -=~--·_·--·2 C.(2.0/865 Modification factor for sag = - oP 2..3 mm .87 _ 22 30 .= + .. : • . w2L3 Sag correction for 178 :N = . What error was induced in the sag correction by an error of + 6 N in that tension? Young's modulus = ]55. .. .806)2 (3'0 3) 24p2 - (1000) rom ....242242 x 22 = 5. in correction for 30 m tape = (5.026 X i ~ =- 9.000).2 x 155000 = + 5.383 mm . 24 X 178 2 Modification factor for pull =± p _ Ps (185 -178) _ = + (178 .659.=...

950 M. ' wL2 .Jlof g/m._ . ~s :::: = (11.48777)3 =5. ange In sag correction =3.N/m 2.\2 Initial length of line =300 + (11.22 2aP p =. and eJasticit: normally applied to base line measurements in catenary. find the tension at .27 Pull correction =3.043125)(305.ction Sag correction =3. _x x .72)(~)(1)(8890)(9. Making useof thecorrections for sag.32? . It is necessary to define its limiting positions when the temperature varies. Sag correction ='3. 3 rnrn 5) =: (12.4)(5)2(10 6) . temperature.81 • m When the temperature falls to -15°C.043125)2(305.C h' .79403 . let T[ be the tension. x 6 ~ _ 0..794)(15)(10-6)(35 J t (-15» =0. temperature of -15°C and the sllg in the two cases. with a tension of 5 kN when the temperature is 35°C.043125)2(300)3 =305. its density 8890 kg/m3 and its coefficient of linear expansior 15 x rov-e.29 (24)(1 06)(T) '2 24T[2 7. n 'in reed (2.16 =3.2 = . Total present length of transmission line 300 + \l' 2J L =300 + (11.806) 10 .').48777 m 2)(10 6 ) With this length of line a better approximation for sag = (11.7 mm diameter is stretchedbetween two points 300 m apart at the same level. (24)(5 = 11.§. Hence correct length of line =305.043125 N/m .27798 mm.79403 m Amount of sag = 8T .2293455 m .2 Contraction of wire Lea =(305.m.794)3 =300 + 145.3.794)2 (8)(5)(10~~' = 2. Young's modulus for coppe is 68.29 } = 138 N P =139 N . Example 3.8 A copper transmission line 12.22 .22 } . [London University Solution Weight of transmission line/m .043125)2(305.16 } =3. 1: 1" ~ Measurement of Horizontal Distances 45 By trial P P = 140 N Pull correction Sag correction Pull corre. .

obtained as follows (Fig.11)(1000) .9).9468 m 16 00 )3 . wei._ f• Example 3. in mining operations.79403 - 0.1 is r.n I = (.5) .9 r.' = C.8850rn.11 kN = (11.794)(10)3 (rr /4) (1257)2(68950) l! I Extension due to increase in tension = (T\ Equating.806/40)2 x 303 (24) = + .­I =305. 300 + 145.000 m .ew T1 = 5.0023 = 15. Let m = mass of tape/unit length g = acceleration due to gravity A = cross sectional area of the tape E = Yourrg's modulus Force acting on element dx mas =mg • oX r I l __ J .000)(-. the tape will extend under its own weight which can be.2293455 + 0.564)2 = 25..9002 (ii) : Standardization error per 30 rn = . whc the.015 kg/m.0998 m Recorded arc length = 16.0023 m whe Standardized chord length = 15.46 Fu-ndamentals of SUM-eying - I 5)(305. 3. C Sag correctlo. (3.03573(T1 . is 0. x ( ~ =.. Solution' Standardized chord length = 29. Exr: .043125)(305. By trial and error N sag ..9 A tape of nominal length 30 m is standardized in catenary at 40 N tension and found to be 29.0532 m Standard· izanon 30 Standardized arc length Sag correction = 15.0152 m Standardized arc length =29.. If the mass of the tape.015 X 9. 1_..9468 .222 m (8)(5. error = (16.8850 m · . calculate the horizontal length of a span recorded as 16 m.9445 m (0 Tape used vertically'for measurement When a measurement is taken keeping the tape vertical say..0998) = .

.00007342 m.9 T:lpe measured vertically.L2 .7)(10 1°) _____ _ _ _ ----.J .19) when tension P is applied at the lowerend. =.0744 kg/m and the cross sectional area is 9. (ii) At 10 m from top . cos2 e 1 + P C:.r =20 m.18) and (3.19) include the effect of slope and as sOchseparate slope correction is not necessary.10 Calculate the elongation of a 30 m tape suspended under its own weight at (a) 30 m from top. (.. cos2e -sln e ) (3.: becomes C.18) .7(I0 10)N/m2.806)(20)2 (2)(9. e = .6)(10-6)(10. .7)(1 0 Ill) = 0. Extension oe = . mass of the tape is 0. When x varies from 0 to L.' (WL C.L2 = (2)(9. Example 3. 3.\~~ 'Sine) _ (j.S06)(30)2 = 2AE mg . 1 L I L ~ i x ~ =) dx I -x ·ox Fig. when tension P is applied at the higher end and is equal to (I .07~)(9. Solution (i) e (. Given th:lt E = 20.0001652 m.6(1O-6)m2. . Integrating e • to mg AE = mg·x2AE + C mg . (b) 10 m from top.Measurement of Horizontal Distances 47­ . the same level When the supports are not at the same level. sag correction . Here eis the angle of inclination with the horizontal and when eis small C. cos 2 e. The above formulae (3. e = 2AE (ii) Sag correction with the supports not (If.0744)(9.6)(1 0-6)(10.: = ~.

. e ::: tan-I ~07 ~ sin cos'2 e::: 0. 3. However.should be such that lengths of the 'sides do not differ widely when they become well conditioned triangles. Young's modulus 2(10)5 N/mm'2.9999 e ::: 0. (i.(.0112981 =29.48 Fundamentals of Surveying Example 3. w'2L3 Correction for catenary ::: 24p2.0000391) =. The triangles . Now ED~'1 equiprnents have brought this method to use again.. The field may becovered by a chain of triangles as in Fig.01233. section of tape 3.806)2(30)3(10)-' = .11.13)( 1.7066° .01233») =. The top of one peg was 0.. Calculate the horizontal distance between the marks on the two pegs.2)(1 0)-6(7. Solution Weight of tape/unit length e (3. the tape being in catenary under a pull of 90 N. .0112972 m.75(10~) kg/m}.10 or by a number of triangles with a central station as in Fig.Oll3)(..8 CHAIN AND TAPE SURVEY OF A FIELD A field may be completely surveyed by a chain and tape or by tape only.9998)(1 + . 3. When tension is applied :H the lower end m C. If they differ widely the triangle is' :'ill conditioned"..9'109 X ::: 9.0112981 Horizontal distance = 30.cos e = 0..370 m below the other.9887028 m. 3.75)(1 O~) ::: .029109)(9~~06)(.13 mm by 1..0113 m (24)(90)'2 ::: 0.(.9887019 m.9998 When tension is applied at the top end c.(. the following basic principles should be followed: . The method consists of dividing a field into a number of triangles and measuring the sides 'of each triangle. This type of survey is suitable for surveys of small ' extent on open ground with simpledetails. Assume density of steel 7. =.11 A nominal distance of "3D m' was set out with a 30 m tape from a mark on the top of one peg to a mark on the top of another. Horizontal distance = 30 . =.029109 kg/m. this was the only method available before instruments for measuring angles were developed..0113)(. In fact .20 mrn.0112972 ::: 29. • .9998)(1 + .

. 1. 3.. A. PQ are oblique offsets and AQ is the chain length. 2. Always work from the whole to the part. BD. 3.11 Polygon with central station. 3. Fig. AC. PQ and AQ are known where AP. are chain lines.10 . PQ and RS are perpendicular offsets. 'FIH is a check line and KL is a tie line.Measurement of Horizontal Distances 49 H A L v r \/ E I M 'y Fig. BC.12 P~can be plotted if AQ and PQ are known where PQ is the perpendicular offset and AQ is the chain length. Similarly in Fig. C. 3. D.13 P can be plotted if AP. B. In Fig.10. are station points. 3.The areashouldalways be covered . To avoid error offsets should be as small as possible. .. . The interior details are usually plotted with respect 10 the chain line by taking measurements perpendicular to them when we have perpendicular offsets and sometimes taken at an angle to the chain line when we have oblique offsets. Chain of triangles. AB. Always make provisions for adequate checks. 3.. with as big triangles as possible.12 AB is the chain line. tie line can then be plotted to fix details. . In Fiz. In Fig. The. . Hence we have check lines.

PP2 = ~P. 3.9 ERROR IN OFFSET The offset may not be set exactly at right angle to the chain line but deviate from right angle through a small angle a. . L . fr . When there is error both in length and direction the total error is PP2 as shown in Fig. 3. . = = = P21 .14. 3. . . 3. PP. a.pl and PIP2 = 1 siri a . .. PP2 = 'i 01-+ (/ sin a)­ . . = Of giving .14 Error in offset angle./ P A C Fig.12 Perpendicular offsets. Taking PP.15. . . The horizontal displacement PP2 in plotting is then 1 sin alS ern. Q B 3.P2 as a right angled triangle . 3. .' . .13 Oblique offsets.PI2 + p. A Fig. where1 length of offset in meters and S scale (l em S meter) as shown in Fig. .I l \ 50 Fundamentals of Surveying p A Q S B Fig.

) and (b).3 m.25'! . given that length of the.Measurement of Horizontal Distances 51 .) shows the open cross staff with two pairs of vertical slits giving two lines of sights at right angles to each other. 3.25 = ~(0. Figure 3. jl -._" 0.15 .­ -- C Flg.16(0. 0. Sin 2 a a =2.16(0.15 Error in length and angle of offset.offset is 10 meters. Solution PP2 = ~ 5t'! + (t sin a)'! Here PP2 = 0.l6(b) shows a French cross staff._.. It is essentially an octagonal brass box with slits cut in eac~ face so that opposite pairs form sight J .:.25 mm on the paper._. (ii) Optical square.1 CROSS STAFF The cross staff is the simplest instrument for setting out right angles.) or or or (5 sin af = 0.10 INSTRUL-.0. the scale is 20 m to 1 em and the maximum error in the length of the offset is 0. Example 3./P P2 T .25 rnrn 51 = ~J x 10 mm =0.15 2 . Two types of cross staff are shown in Fig. Find the maximum permissible error in laying off the direction of offset so that the maximum displacement may not exceed 0. and (iii) Prism square.lENTS FOR SETTI~G OUT RIGHT ANGLES The instruments used to set offsets at right angles to the chain line are (i) Cross staff. 1/ ~'_. Figure 3.15)2 + (5 sin a)2 = ~015'! .15 mm ~ x 10 mm =5 mm 1= 0.12 .10. 3. 3.292° =2°17'31" 3.

17(b). (b) French cross staff. 3.This is a handy instrument with three openings and is based on optical principle as shown in Fig. The instrument is mounted over a short ranging rod and two sights.16 (a) Schematic diagram of open cross staff. The other two pairs enable angles of 45° and 135° to be set out.' E Viewing window Viewing window ? (3) OptiC31 square. (b) Fig. . rays from a point P will get reflected at first mirror.4 and then again get reflected at B to meet the eye E. Vertical slit slit • ~ Octagonal brass box (a) .2 OPTICAL SQUARE . 3. are observed through slits at right angles to each other. If two mirrors A and B are fixed at an angle of 45°. The lines PA and BE are at right angles which can be seen from Fig.r -1 52 Fundamentals of Surveying I Vertical slit . 3.10. L . 3. lines.17(a).

the reflected ray a LCAB '= 90° - with LC LABC = 45 0 =45 0 + a - lind therefore Hence LABE = 900 LAOB 2a = 90~. 3..EOUS PROBLEl\IS IN CH. . In practical surveying many types of obstacles are encountered which can be classified as (i) Obstacles to ranging but not chaining..I8. The slime principle as described in optical square is followed in the working of prism square as shown in Fig.. elise (i) can be further subdivided into two groups: -. 0 is always fixed and needs no adjustment unlike in the optical square. In the optical square the mirror B is half silvered. observer at E sees a pole lit Q through the unsilvered portion and the image of the pole at P through silvered portion of the mirror B. oJ . PRISM SQUARE. and (iii) Obstacles to both chaining and rangl ng.. 3. The advantage of prism square is that the angle 45.11 i\IISCELLA). · · · .3. Hence a with the normal.-J . If the incident ray PA makes an angle ABwill also make the same angle. .-\.Measurement oj Horizontal Distances S3 c· Normal to Mirror A •••••4. To see whether the two lines are at right angles.17 Optical Square. Fig.10. When the two poles appear coincident the two lines PO and EQ are at right angle and 0 is the foot of the perpendicular from P on EQ at O. 3. 3.~:1 . 45° + a E o Normal to Mirror B P (b) Path of rays in optical square. (ii) Obstacles to chaining but not ranging.INI~G .

3. As shown in Fig.Path of rays in prism square.19. Similarly from N J both /If 1 and A are visible..:' . · I I I I :p Fig. In case (3) recourse is to be taken to. 3. First a range man et M1 will ask the range man at Nl to move to N~ such that M)N2B are in one line. B are in one line 3S . shown in Fiz. ~( Normal E ' · ./45 900-a~ 0 e ! I' I .. reciprocal ranging. M 2 M N • M.19 two intermediate points M) and N1 are selected such that from M) and N) and B are visible. (a) When both ends of the line may be visible from intermediate points on the line. The process will be repeated till A. ~ B A . B •••• (. . 3..18 . 3. ranging (two ends visible). N. (b) When both ends are not visible from intermediate points.54 Fundamentals of Surveving ~o~~v. M. . Similarly range man at N2 will ask range man AI) to move to M 2 such that A.H~N~ are in one line.19 Reciprocal. Fig.

3. D A Fig. To determine the width BC of the river. 80 m H I 40 m G I "'l. 90' C D . 3. c 8 k \. 90' . . . . Obstacles to chaining but not ranging are encountered while crossing rivers.Measurement of Horizontal Distances 55 ~ In case (b) as shown in Fig.13 A survey line ABC crossing a river at right angles cuts its banks at Band C (Fig. the following operation was carried out. C. Example 3. 3.prolonged. . Obstacles to both chaining and ranging occur while chaining across a building.Fig. ­ These are exemplified by solving a few typical problems. 90' A B . . . Then computing C1C and DIDfrom consideration of proportionate triangle C and D cqn be plotted. Finally CD is joined and. a random line AB I should be chosen such that B.20 Reciprocal ranging (two ends not visible). 3. Rand?m. .21 Example 3.13.20.21). D. line . 81 A . is visible from Band BBI is perpendicular to the random line.

CD =tan 22° . For determining the width of the river two points A and B are selected on southern bank such that distance AB 75 ern (Fig. And DG was extended to cut the survey line ABC at H. [AMIE. The bearings of a tree C on the northern bank are observed 10 be 38° and 338° respectively from A and B. Find the width of the river. DB . Calculate the width of the river. AD CD = t~n 38° . BE and GD are parallel and equal. Line CE was extended to D and mid-point F and DB was established. Then EF was extended 10 G such that FG =EF.r ! 1 56 Fundamentals of Surveying A line BE 60 m long .r: '0 Example 3.60 40' CB 60 CB CH ":"" CB = or CB = 80 ~~ 60 = 120 m..22).J . 3. Hence GD = 60 m From ratio and proportion BE = HD or' = CH =100 60..60 = 100 ..22 N ~'. . GH and HB were measured and found to'be 40 m and 80 m respectively.as set ou.. [A?\HE. 338" 75 m o I' Solution Let CD be the width of the river.E 5 Fig. Point A is westwards. Summer 1981] Solution As BF FD and EF =FG.14.14 A river is flowing from west to east. 3. Summer 1982] = c w+.t roughly parallel to the river. Example 3.

27 rn Example 3.56356 m .AC _ 10002 + 1000'1 . 1000 m long is ranged 10 the left of AB such that the points C. ~ BD'!. .Measurement of Horizontal Distances 57 Hence . and D are collinear (Fig.. 3. 800 m long is ranged 10 the right (If AS clear of the lake.' "8~ 75 + I an . If the chainage at A is 1262.AD From AADB. calculate the chainage of B.= 2DB .44 rn.23). A line AC.8002 = 068 . CD2+AD--A cos D = 2AD .15. + AD-AB~ ­ cos 0. B. Solution From triangle ACD. Similarly another line AD. [A:'IIE. . 3.2DB • AD • cos D = 6002 + 10002 _ (2)(600)(1000)(0. Winter 1985] o A Fig. The lengths BC andBD are 400 m and 600 m respectively. C. A and B are on the opposite sides of the lake. AD = CD tan 38° ..23 Example 3. + AD'!. or AB! =BD'!.15 AB is a chain line crossing a lake...68) = 544000 AB = 737.~ __ = 63.(2)(1000)(800) . DB = CD Ian 22~ Adding or AD + DB CD =75 = CD(Ian 38° + tan 22") = t an.

24 Example 3. Determine the lengths CD and CE so that D and' E may be on the prolongation of AB. Hence the principle of chain survey or chain triangulation as it is sometimes called.78 rn cos 30= CE = 121. Draw a sketch showing all the points.92 tan 30° =70.92 m long is set at B. . is to provide a skeleton or frame­ work of a number of connected triangles as triangleis the only simple figure that can be plotted from the lengths of sides measured in the field.10 + 70. From C two lines CD and CE are set out at angles of 30° and 40° with CB respectively (Fig. Solution CD cos 30= = 121. 3.39 m Chainage of D = Cbainage of B + BD = 95. The following points should be considered while selecting survey stations or survey lines.92 A ' B 95. To prolong the line beyond the building. c 40° 121.12 FIELD WORK FOR CHAIN SURVEYIKG In chain surveying only linear measurements can be taken with the help of chain or tape.16 A survey line AB is obstructed by a high building.3.56 = 2000. The intersection points of the sides are called stations and these are established by placing ranging rods at station points after reconnaissance survey of the site. .39 = 165.16. No angular measurement is possible.00 m Example 3.92 = 140.92 cos 400 BD = 121.10 m find the chainage of D. a perpendicular BC 121. If the chainage of B is 95.m CD = 121.49 m 3.10 I D E Fig.58 Fundamentals of Surveylng Chainage at B = 1262044 + 737.16 .24).92 m = 159.

The bearing from true or magnetic north of atleast one of the llnes should be shown. The stations should be located from three or more points and enough information should be plotted so that they can be relocated if necessary. 3. 1.1 BOOKING THE SURVEY The data obtained in the field are recorded systernarically in an oblong book of size about 200 mm by 120 rnrn which is known as field book. 3. 3.25. Survey stations should be mutually visible. (iv) field l J . Make a rough sketch in the field book showing the Jocations of chosen . . Figure 3. 2. Sufficient space should be kept in the field book between different chainages.12.28 shows some conventional symbols commonly used.12. Hence the survey lines should pass close to the objects. 3.26 and 3. There should be sufficient checklines. stations and chain lines. Plotting in the field book need not be to scale.2 CONVEi'-lIONAL SYMBOLS Different features in survey are represented by di fferent symbols and colours. 3.27 show the rough sketch of a plot. 3. It opens lengthwise and usually has two lines spaced about 15 to 20 mm apart ruled down the middle of each page.. 2. (iii) time and money available. 2. The important steps before starting a survey are: 1. .Smal1 details should be plotted in an exaggerated scale. The offsets should be as'sbcn as possible. Measurement of Horizontal Distances 59 1. Clear sketches of all details should be shown in the field book. There should be atleast one long back bone line in the survey upon which the surveyor forms the triangles. Figures 3. 5. Bookings should be donesystematically starting with the side having more details. The triangles formed should be well conditioned. Nothing should be left to memory. The following are the guide lines in recording a field book. The lines should preferably run through level ground. is entered within the double lines. 7. the station points and the double line entry in the field book. 5. 4. 3.. (ii) nature of the ground.l:!. Number of survey lines should be as small as possible. Begin each line at the bottom of a page. 6. 4.3 DEGREE OF ACCURACY OF CHAli\I:\G The degree of accuracy which can be anained depends on (i) fineness of graduation of the chaln. This is double line field book and the distance along the chain line .

.k .....­ ... ..... . . ' \ .. "..: : 80.8 ~ . . .. ~ . ... . .. . . . Building corner . corner ~ Fig.. ""'\' \ 75..... 792 . .26 .. .. L ....... . .60 Fundamentals of Surveying A B ac: .. ····. ~ ~ BUilding / '. ... (\l Tree .. . 3..25 Rough sketch of the plot. ...· 6 D ..':.. Fixing of a station. . ... . ..'9\. . 3. . C N ..J:.' . . . Fig.. stations and chain lines. -­ .. -..... ..4 . ' ".~ ~... . : . . ''I. .

.1 15. t::"111 ---U"LJ"' BU/LLJ/N6 ... : I: I :I :· :. _.Measurement of Horizantal Distances .7 ..5 . .. 22.~ . FENCE _. .. ~ Fig.. MARcH MAcSCltYl?Y CONCRETE ~ ~ CON TO o» !.. CAI?T TIi'ACA' -+tt+t+H ~ ROAP lUll. ~~.7 35.7 11....2 4. B Lirie AB ends b.99t(p'i f FOR£Q'r :" ~ ...27 A typical page of double entry field book..5 . £MBAHKMENT ~ ~ " BR/. 63. Station A Line AS begins Fig.f)(j£ :.. A~ 6TR£AM ~ J%'\ ~ TREE 'l? q q q V fl9q. ... 10.5 b. :U8 Conventional signs or symbols. ~ '. ­ -.. 9 15.7 . --:. . _---_.... . 3. . J ..poUIID WAU.4 --y .?:~'/'.4 57. 61 -' .V 4. CUrT/Nt. WAY ~~.. FIJDTPnH ~- I tt til rr! • t t IJ HEDGE -e:::t:::>-<O­ &AT£ . 3.. ..4 43.-.~: ..:.--.

1 62 Fundamentals of Surveying conditions.7.1 .000 to 1 in 1. Givean advantage. etc.3 What is a well conditioned triangle? Why it is necessary to use well conditioned triangle? 3. 3. For measurement with steel tape 1 in 2. Givedifferent methods of measuring horizontal distances. 3. Calculate the true length of the line from the following data: Pull on tape = 10 kg Cross section of tape = 5 mrn x t rnrn Weight of tape per cubic em of steel = 7. .000. the bearing of A is 215"30' and the bearing of C is 305c30'.000.6 Explain the various points which you will keep in mind while recording entries in a field book.5 COl too long after chaining a total distance of : 3048 m.5 What is an offset? What are djff~rent types of offsets? Why offsets should be as small as possible? 3. 4. plumb bob 1 in 1.4 State the principles involved in choosing stations for a chain and tapesurvey. If the length AB is 60. PROBLEMS 3.000. May 1966] 3.[. [AMIE. Winter 1978] = . 3. For measurement with invar tape 1 in 20. (v) technical competence of the staff. May 1966] 3.0000113 E 21 x lOs kgicm2 [AMIE. For measurement with tested chain. and a disadvantage of each.960 m find the width of the river. The same chain was found to 30. The accuracy varies from 1 in 100 to 1 in 200 when measurement is done through pacing or pedometer.~·· Explain the principle of chain surveying. 3.000 to 1 in 20. I. 2. For measurements with chain on rough or hilly ground 1 in 250. Advanced Surveying. 3. Give a neat sketch of a page of the field bo6K.8 Band C are two points on the opposite banks of a river along a chain line ABC ' vhich crosses the river at right angles to the bank. gm Mean'field temper~ture = 20"C Coefficient of expansion = 0.000. From a point P which is 45. It was then used in catenary in three equal spans of 10013 m each to measure a level line which was found to measure 3400 m.720 m from B along the bank. .7 A 30 m chain was found to be 15 Col long after chaining 1524 m.9 A tape 100 m long was of standard length under a pull of 4 kg at l2°C. tAMIE. The following accuracy of chaining can usually be obtained under most suitable conditions. Find the correct length of the total distance chained assuming the chain was correct at the commencement of chaining.

A line AC 800 m long is ranged to the right of AB clear of the lake. Surveying. The lengths BC and 8D are 400 m and 600 m respectively. In the first setting. The bearings of a tree on the far bank as observed from A and Bare N 500E and N 43°W respectively. . In the second settine the rods were ranzed on line as before. Surveying. [A~lIE. (c) Draw explanatory sketches to show (i) Well conditioned rriangle. (ii) a building. Winter" 1984] 3. one of 2.4~ m.. the rods were so placed that their tops were in line with the top of the tower. ~' .' (b) When is it necessary to adopt method of reciprocal ranging? Describe the procedure in detail.10 (a) Explain the principle. [AMIE. All the measurements of chainages have actually been taken along the ground. (c) Explain briefly the method of chaining on sloping ground. find the height of the tower. Winter 1982] 3. (b) State clearly the degreeof accuracy required to be achieved in measuring horizontal distances under different conditions.thesame . on the opposite sides of the lake. Winter 1985] __J .50 m and the other of 1. . ~ stations are not intervlsible (b) AB is a chain line crossing a lake A and B are. [AMIE.14 (a) Describe the method of ranging a line across a ridge when the terminal . distance between the rods was 30 m. The ground has an angle of elevation of 8°15' from chalnage 238 m to chainage 465 m. calculate the chainage of 8.00 m length were used in order to find the height of an inaccessible tower. (rll) Check line.. construction and use of an optical square.13 (a) Explain with sketches how to chain past (i) a river.. (b) Two ranging rods.. Calculate the correct horizontal distance from station A to station B. [A~tIE. 8 and D are collinear. Winter 1984] - 3. Similarly another line AD 1000 m long is ranged to the left of A8 such that the points C. There is a rise of 25 m from chainage 465 m to station B having chalnage of 665 m.12 (a) What factors should be considered in selecting stations of a chain survey? (b) What are offsets? Discuss the relatlve merits of different types of offsets? Why is it desirable' that offsets should be as short as possible? (c) A and B are two points 150 m apart on the near bank of a river which flows from east to west. [A~HE. This time the. If the distance between the two longer rods was 90 rn. The distance between the rods was 15 m. Determine the width of the river.Measurement of Horizontal Distances 63 3.. (iil Tle line. Surveying. . Surveying. It was also found that the 20 m chain used for chaining was 5 cm too long throughout the work. Summer 19831 3.11 (:1) A survey line AB is running along different slopes as detailed below: There is a downward slope of 1 in 10 from station A to chainage 138 m. If the chainage of A is 1262.

(iii) Surveyed tree. (ii) Temple. (ii) Criteria for selection of chain survey stations. (vi) Railway bridge over river. (iv) Booking chainage and offset measurement entries in a field book. as used on topography map for the following objects and indicate their colour: (i) Pucca building. . . (i\') Embankment. (v) Rood culvert on a drain.1 64 Fundamentals of Surveying 3.15 (a) Draw the conventional signs. (b) Describe any three of [he following operations in a chain surveying: (i) Measurement of lengths on sloping ground. (iii) Crossing a wide river as an obstacle to chaining.

.~ "".1.. 4. Onecycle of the wave motion is completed when one period has been completed and the number of cycles per unit of time is called frequency. 4 Electronic Distance Measurements 4. = Clf.2 BASIC CONCEPTS Electromagnetic waves can be represented in the form of periodic sinusoidal waves as shown in Fig. 65 .~ . . of a wave is the wavelength which can be determined as a function of the frequency f and the velocity of electromagnetic radiation C as ). .:: F . G The time taken for an alternating current to go through one complete cycle of values is called period of the wave. The linear length). A 'rr '2 . basic electronic concepts are first discussed. . 4. as the name implies utilizes electromagnetic energy for measuring distances between two points. I I . To facllitate understanding. 4.1 Wavelength. ~ 1\ . . Oscillators convert DC drawn from an energy source (battery) into an AC of ccntinuousslnewaves. . The unit of frequency is hertz (Hz) which is one cycle per second. .1 Il'iTRODUCTION j Electronic distance measuring instruments. Sinusoidal wave D 3rr 2 Fig. A continuous wave does not include any information or intelligence but it can be effectively used as a carrying agent. ---r---­ . B • :.

.2 Amplitude modulation.basic unit.3) as in frequency modulation the amplitude of thecarrierwave remains constant butthephase of the carrierwave is vaned according to the phase of the modulation wave. In frequency modulation (Fig. V = Ve sin ~c • I alternates sinusoidally with an amount V( = a' Ve• The coefficient a indicates the depth or the degree of modulation... . During modulation. and (iii) Phase modulation. ' In amplitude modulation. The total spectrum of electromagnetic radiation used in electronic and electro­ optical distance measurements encompasses wavelengths from the visible light of about 5(lOr7 to about 3(104) m at the radio frequency region. The process of superimposing the desired sinewave or other periodic signal on 10 the carrierwave is called modulation.r I 66 Fundamentals of SlIn'ryil:g The fundamental inforrnatlon transmitted by the carrierwave in electronic surveying is a sinusoidal wave form to be used for measurements.own in Fig..~/Vc where V. . j ..V. ~. Table 4. the 'frequency and the phase of tne carrierwave do not change but the strength and amplitude Ve of the carrierwave. v. " Fig. Three main types of modulation are frequently used in electronic distance measurements.. In phase modulotion (Fig. v . j Vc J . They are: (i) Amplitude modulation. Frequencies are large numbers and always positive powers of the.The carrier frequency is increased during one half cycle of the modulation signal and decreased during the Other half eyelet. (ii) Frequency modulation. .2. ~. 4..thus the frequency is least positive and highest when the modulation is most positive. it is defined as V.1 lists . is theamplitude of modulation wave. the amplitude of the carrierwave thus alternates between the limits \Ie + and V.3) the amplitude of the carrierwave is kept COnstant but the frequency varies accorqing to the amplitude and pclarity of the modulation signal.." . '.' as sh. periods are small numbers and always negative powers of the basic unit.. 4. the hertz. ·tJ CLASSIFICATION OF ELECTRO!\IAGNETlC RADIATIO~ .

2) . _J ...\ l I. (b) Carrierwave. I' .' ! 111. (c) Frequency modulated carrlerwave (frequency changes)..1 f I.·t.Electronic Distance Measurements ·v 67 • (a) v . (c) v . (d) Phase modulated carrierwave (phase changes). (d) Fig.1tion: (:I) Modul:ltion wave. (Ref.3 Frequency and phase modu!. (b)· v I. 4. f \ Ill.

000 10. 3. .4 BASIC PRIl-\CIPLE OF ELECTROl\IC DISTAKCE i\IEASUREMENT In measuringthe distance between rwopoints electronically.= 10 ~ sec .000-1.1 0.Table 4.2 gives a commonly used classification of different frequency and wavelength. .0-0.' 3-30 GHz .l\'e1ensth . Period and Wavelengths (Ref. 30. Microwave instruments. a time of approximately 67 (10-1~) sec must be distinguishable. 30­ GH7.01­ 4. .000-100 100-10 10-1. 2) r =l~f 1 sec 1 m sec 10-3 sec 1 )J sec . l . Wavelength . 2) Classification Very low frequency Low frequency Symbol VLF LF :-'1F Frequency 10-30 kHz 30-300 \.000 1. EDM instruments can be classified :IS: 1. Frequency Relationship of Frequency.l .000-10. . 2. = Table 4. .. Visible light instruments.3 (10)1~ m 3 (lOr' m 3 (10)"-4 m relationships of frequency.= 1012 Hz = = 3 (0)5 m . Light frequencies permit the use of optical corner reflectors at the section stations .1-0.2 Commonly Used Frequencies and Wa\'elel1gths (Ref. kmlsec. an alternating signal travels from one point to the other. Infrared instruments. This interval of time is difficult to measure directly but it can be resolved by a phase rneasurement of a signal with a period of 67 (10-9) sec corresponding to 15 mc per sec. If the distance is to be measured by direct time comparison with an accuracy corresponding to the nearest COl. so a much higher carrier frequency is employed and the signal appears as a modulation frequency. period and wavelengths when the propagation velocity c is given the approximate value of c 3(105) . Depending on the type of carrlerwave employed. 1 n sec = 10-9 sec 1 p sec = 10-12 sec Period W.01 Medium frequency High frequency Very high frequency Ultra high frequency Super high frequency Extremely high frequency HF VHF l:HF SHF EHF 0. This signal frequency is too low for direct transmission.A =cT 3 (10)' m Hertz (Hz) kHz = 103 Hz 6 MHz 10 Hz 9 GHz = 10 Hz THz . it is reflected or returned in some manner and then is compared with the phase of the original signal to determine the travel time for the round trip.l! \ 6S Fundamentals of Surveying Table ~.0 1.Hz 300-3000 kHz 3-30 MHz 30-300 MHz 300-3000 MHz .

is related to c. hn and The wavelength i. The distance being measured corresponds to many half wavelengths nt the modulation frequency plus some fraction of a half wavelength. )'812.Qp frequency corresponds to the time required for the signal to travel one half wavelength in both direction. Microwave systems can operate through fog and clouds although an optically clear path is required if the .fog or clouds may cause a loss in accuracy and prevent a reliable estimate.\' Electronic Distance Measurements 69 but requires an optically clear path between the two stations. These relations are given in Table 4.+lnQ. Is = 9. Table 4.>' m ).~) = ~cl (I _ f B) I"'~ )'B I'A I'B I'A IA (4.1) I.. Is.99 I .00 (106) i' A .10 =9.90 (106) T = I~' T 15 0.. 4.on.3. The presence of. 15 0.3 Nominal Frequency and Half Wavelengths Frequency in cycle/sec' Half wavelength inrn • (4.. several frequencies to overcome this ambiguity.to convert into a horizontal distance. All the instruments use data from..999 15 T:: T= i. 2 )'8 =3(10)5=15 . 0 _ i·e ./2..4 _B = ~d _ 2cl = ~d (1 _~.5 CO:'rIPUTI~G THE DISTANCE FRO:'rI THE PHASE DIFFEREI\CES One complete cycle at the 04. Phase differences needed in the determination of distance d can be derived :IS follows: .". 9. Several measurements are made at one of these frequencies inorder to reduce inherent electronic errors in the system.Ic undiD'The corresponding halflengths are)..0 (10 6) . the velocity of propagation and the -frequencyj" by.2) -~ . 2(10)' .9 With the exception of )"~' the modulation wavelengths are not useful directly but the wavelengths assoclcted with the frequency differences allow the ambiguity introduced b)' the long path to be resolved.vertical angle between two stations must be determined. Four modulation frequencies are used in determining the totallength being measured.=7 Representative nominal values for these quantities are given in Table 4. )'A :: 0.99 (106) Ie . The four frequencies are f~.. =10. ).4.

124 ---y.999 rn-When the modulation frequency is brought ..4 and the phase differences from the instrument readings.4-8) = 13. When the modulation frequency is 15 MHz. The final length is obtained by summing all the part lengths. A-O) _ 1.000 1.- (). 300. . -2­ 0._.000 I .9(). ()• . .c> = 0.500..86 m Modern EDMs use the decade modulation technique... Equation (4. A-S Eqcivalent ). .C or d = (A _ B) }.5 Summation of Distances Contribution from Phase Difference Hypothetical phase difference in cycles A .D = 92. -D) = .816. . . . -D 2 • )'A =150 =15.86 13.500 IA -ID = 106 I" r Io = 10.5. 12 in meters Distance contribution in meters 15."-B _ 3xl0· =15.0 term are used.500 150 15 0.\_s/2 2 in which half wavelengths are obtained from Table 4.1 ().4-C 2xl0 4 IA .00 2 = 9.00 A .92 A .2d(f~ c ).B= _ fs) = 2d' fA'" Is =~ c c . The .21. .. Table 4. . A hypothetical example of how distances are derived and total distance obtained is shown in Table 4.00 15.Ic = 2 =1. All significant figures beyond the decimal point in the A'.11 A ..0 = 921. . . .' A. the half wavelength is 10 m. 14 -Is= 104 10' T= ). avelength in meters ). It can be seen from the table that only The first figure to the right of the decimal point is used in calculating the coarse contributions to d since other significant figures are included in later terms of the summation.4 Frequency Differences and Equivalent Half Wavelengths Frequency differences in cycles/sec Equivalent half .124 2 0.2) can be rearranged to obtain an expression for the distance d. phase meter reading then gives distance between 0 and 9."II iO Fundamentals of Surveying Table 4.B = 0. .

cube.5 MHz. Frequency of modulation is precisely controlled by a crystal oscillator. 4.816. .6 BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF DIFFERENT TYPES OF IiI\STRUl\IENTS Geodimeters. The distance 13. although heavy rainfall may reduce theworking range.J . 4. Hence no adjustment of distance is . 10 or 35 GHz as the carrier. the alignment of the reflector with respect to the geodimeter instrument is not critical and alignment errors of the order of 10° may be tolerated. the half wavelength is 100 m and the phase meter gives tens of meters. There the phase difference between the transmitted and received modulation or pattern waves is compared. The prism is often called a corner rejle-ctorbecause. Continuous lizhr emission in the transmitter is intensity (amplitude) moduJated. 800 and 13. Finally a 15 kHz frequency will give the number of thousand meters. Each unit in the reflector is a retro directive prism made of three mutually perpendicular reflecting surfaces.Electronic Distance Measurements 71 down to 1. the beam widths are narrow-s-between 2 and 20°.00. Knowing the phase difference or by decade modulation technique distance can be determined..The'tellurimeter uses microwaves at about 3. ~..000. The intensity variation or amplitude variation is properly represented by sine waves. When it is still brought down to 0. Tellurimeter.4. one is called the master and the other the remote unit. The carrier frequencies of the two units differ slightly making it possible to utilize intermediate frequency (IF) amplification. Block diagram of the instrument is shown in Fig. The measuring set consists of an active transmitter and receiver at one end of the line to be measured and a passiveretro directive prism reflector at the otherend.. through haze or light rain.Itis-made by cutting a corner from solid glass. the half wavelength is 1000 m and we get hundreds of meters. As regards illumination power. This is a modern ED~1 instrument. Environmental correction factor can be directly dialed into thetransmlner toslightly varythe frequency so that a constant wavelength is maintained despite atmospheric variations. The transmitter uses a GnAs diode which emits amplitude modulated (A~l) infrared light. Measuring can be carried on either at night or day time. All reflectors in the modem instrumentsare based on the retro directivity principle. ~ ~ a . precision radiofrequency generatorand an electro-optical shutter to formsinusoidal light intensity waves~ The distance is obtained by comparing the phases of outgoing modulation waves with those received by the receiving component after reflection from the distnnt reflector. Because the carriers are microwaves. forstabllity.86 m will then be obtained as summation of 6.86. Light entering the prism reflects from eachof me three surfaces andafterwards this triple reflection returns to the instrument parallel to the incident beam.usiM a . 10. The bareoutlines of the measuring principle consistofa frequency modulated carrierwave from the master station being sent to the remote station where it is received and retransmitted to the masterstation. The measuring set consists of two active units with a transmitter or receiver. All geodimeters employ visible light as the carrier.15 MHz. Hewlett-Packard 3800. .

.0002783 and Co = 299. The .. This beam is sent to the • . ~A General flow diagram of Hewlett-Packard 3800.5 krn/sec the basic modulation frequency representing 10m distance is /1 = 14..985 :'-1Hz. Dlsplay Phase meter Fig. Chopper splitter <. With the refractive index /I = 1. "­ .. "­ r ..985 kHz The time snaring between the transmitted signals and the reference signals is made in the chopper beam splitter which divides the modulated light coming from the Ga-As transmitted diode into two separate beams alternately. necessary at a later stage. ... Variable filter Internal beam Interference filler Transmitter ./ ~ ( External beam ' - 1/ ..i92. f'.85 kHz h = 14.. l\ L..-l I 1 72 Fundamentals 0/ Surveying Rstro reflector L. The light signal to be transmitted is then focussed into a beam.> -. Receiver optics and phase difference circuits Frsqvency generator . other modulation frequencies are: h = 1.-i9S5 MHz /3 = 149. Humidity has little effect on the propagation of infrared light and hence is not measured.

" . In. parts per million (pprnj. visible sunlight) without eliminating the modulation signal from the carrier. . operation the total station is set up over the required point and its height over the survey station measured.« 4. azimuths. Usually this is done by pressing a key on the field book. wavelength is converted to distance during the nulling process and displayed on instrument dials. including horizontal and vertical angles. The fractional . calculated values such as coordinates. This filter helps to reject signals of other wavelengths (e. The internal and external beams are then converted to electrical energy. A phase meter converts the phase difference into direct current having a magnitude proportional to the differential phase. ' '.This may include units settings. In ' some systems it may be a key on the electronic.g. The digital light emitting diode display gives the operator the distance and classifies its measuring quality in three ways. horizontal angle and vertical angle. curvature and refraction and horizontal and vertical angles to compensate for the tilt of the vertical axis. and a flashing "0" displaywarns the operator that under present conditions a valid ' measurement cannot be rnade.J . aflashing display means that conditions are such that the measurements are marginal. Then the operator points at a prism/target and initiates a reading. distances. Some of thesemay becorrections for collirnations. Electronic total stations can also have a variety of functions to improve efficiency and accuracy. This current is connected to a null meter which automatically adjusts itself to null the current.Electronic Distance Measurements 73' distant reflector. Both external and internal Iigh't' signals then pass through an interference filter located just in front of the receiver diode. etc. heights of instruments and targets. The electronic field book's basic function is to store the raw'data gathered in the field. None of the beam splitting.~ • --. and horizontal distances may be transmitted. The field system (totalstation and field book) is usually controlled via the field book. Mcdern versi~~ of HP 3800 is fully automatic and a built-in computer averages the distance measurements without beingaffected by interruptions of the beam. other data maybe included in the data stream.value (for the electronic distance meter EDM). prism constant being used. chopping and ." The total station's function is to measure horizontal and vertical angles and slope distances in a single integrated unit.of slope distance. Addltlonally. point numbers and descriptive codes. solid measurement within the instruments specified accuracy. " . electronic field book and softwares used in the office for processing data.7 TOTAL STATIO~ INSTRU~IE1'1TS Modern surveying system typically consists of an electronic total station. . It is usually connected to nn electronic field book.filtering processes will cause phase shifts between the' transmitted and reference light signals. Asteady numerical display indicates a good. total station. slope. temperature and pressure. ' While the basic data sent by the electronic total station consist. The principal reason for this is that the field book keyboard does not transfer the force used to press the keys to the total station.

must be determined. Because of refraction the direction and speed change. Refractive index is a function of temperature. is the equivalent or effective wavelength of radiation in micrometers.l of . Humidity is given as the partial pressure of thewater vapour in air. pressure and bumidity. are: (a) Mercury vapour = 0~5500 (b) Incandescent = 0. the Barrell and Sears. 11 = . 4.5650 (c) Red laser =0. The refractive index usually symbolized as 11 is related to the dielectric constant J.5 krn/s.288) 5(0. In modern surveying. setting out is given equal importance as data gathering.900-0. In field observations it is almost always obtained by the simultaneous observations of wet and dry bulb readings of a psychrometer. : (d) Infrared = 0. Traditional surveying techniques force one to view surveying as a data gathering activity. This view does not recognize t~e fact that once a design is completed based on the survey data there usually is a need to transfer this design on to the topography. the air in the following way: . Since the velocity of such a group wave differs a little from the velocity of equivalent or effective wave.8 . EFFECT OF ATMOSPHERIC CONDITIO:\S O~ WAVE VELOCITY.792. therefore.930 To compute the ambient refractive index for Iightwaves. International Association of Geodesy General Assembly (1963) has recommended that the Barrell and Sears (1939) formula may be used to calculate liS or group index of refraction when A.~ I For the kinds of light used in EDM's the values of A. +. (1939) formula is usually applied as follows: • L .136) (Ilg _ 1) 10' .287604 3(16. The velocity of electromagnetic radiation is constant in vacuum (at the velocity of light) bur when affected by the atmosphere it is retarded in direct proportion to the density of air.2 + A. a special group index of refraction. .[ii The instantanecus velocity c of the radiation at any point within the atmosphere is a function of the speed of light Co and the refractive index 11 and is given as c = colli where Co is a constant and is taken as 299.I 74 Fundamentals of Surveying One of the most crucial aspects of the electronic data collection concept is data flow. J. In electro-optical instruments the light forms groups of waves of slightly different lengths even if it is monochromatically filtered.6328 .

Humidity is the most critical parameter to be observed in connectlon with measurements made by using r'diowaves.00367 = Temperature in degree Centigrade.49 (P _ e) + 8626 (1 7 574. The required accuracy by which humidity must be known is about 100 times greater in radiowave propagation than it is when light emission is utilized. ...7 mb = ± 0.· where T is in Kelvin units. For microwaves Essen-Froome formula can be used which is as follows: Nm = 103. 4. P e a t = Total pressure = Partial pressure of '. . light is the carrying agent of preference.L _ 55(10)-8 e] 106 1 + at 760 1 + at where s. If error is to be restricted to one part per million (ppm) the allowable standard errors in observing T. Thedistance through which light travels in the glass tube during retro reflection is a + b + c which in tum is equal to 2t. In high precision geodetic or geophysical applications. error in ED~I may occur for not having the effective centre of the reflector plumbed over the far end of the line as shown in Fig. therefore.Electronic Distance Measurements 75 N = n [nz .The distance tis measured from the face . From above.5..partia! differentiation> of the-formulae is: to be done. .. .9 INSTRUMENTAL ERRORS IN EDM Apart from error due to atmospheric refraction.6 mb (millibar) For microwave mr = ±·0.significance when microwaves are used.1 . it is obvious that the allowable uncertainty in observing temperature and pressure is of the' same magnitude in each case. To investigate the sensitivity ')f the atmospheri~ parameters T. P and e are in mm of He.8)e r . =(ll a' :'" 1) 106 .6 mb (millibar) mt = ± 25.r T. P and e are: For lightwav~ mr = ± 1.23 mb .. The effect of water vapour is small on propagation of lightwaves but is of great .0c C mp .8 ·mp 111t cC = ± 3. Pand e or their partial effect on N. ± 3. 4. ater vapour in millimeters of mercury = Heat expansion coefficient of air 0..

5 Reflector correction. Thishas to be determined for each reflector-instrument combination known as Ct. " ". BC and AC all in a straight line. " . a . ... .--- r-. R . • . ... '..10 REDUCTION OF SLOPE MEASUREl\IE~TS I~ ED~l EDM measures slope distance between stations. In some cases. ' .' .I 76 Fundamentals of Surveying r-t---l .it is to be done manually. This can be obtained by measuring a distance electronically and also very accurately by means of an invar .(Measured AB + Measured' BC) Microwave instruments may suffer from a phenomenon known :IS Ground Swing. The method is explained with the help of examples..... . is to take measurements AB.. Reduction of slope distance to horizontal can be based on difference in elevation or in vertical angle..... This is due to multiple reflection of microwaves from ground or water surface. '...~: From EDM ... Then (Measured AB + C1) + (Measured BC + C1) = Measured AC + C1 or Ct = Measured AC . " C . The effective 'comer of the cube is at R and represents the end of the line and hence CR is the correction to be applied to the measured line. The equivalent air distance through which the light travels is 1. of the reflectors to the comer of theglass tube.. Many instruments automatically reduce the horizontal distance. I.5171 . Errors from this source can be r~duced by elevating the master and remote units as high above ground as possible and averaging a number of measurements taken from both ends....... '.....517 (2r) on account of the refractive index of glass. .. " Another way of deterrninlngC. " '. ' . ... 4. .. tape... To EDM CR~ ~Plumbline 1... As different combination of reflectors are used at different times of measurement the "reflector constant" is not the samefor a1\ setting of the instrument.. 4... ~ Fig.

mercury . Whnt is the velocity through this air? What is the modulated wavelength if the rnodulatlng frequency is 24 MHz? ----~ .\ for line length of 3000 rn? Solution tn 1 millimicro second Distance travelled/sec = 10-9 sec = 299. = ± (7 mrn + 7 ppm) .792.is accepted as 299.5 kmlsec for measurements with an EDM instrument.97 ern (ii) 15 m =.. 7(3000)(10 » ) .5 kmlsec .! instrument has an accuracy capability of ± (7 mm + 7 ppm) what is the precision of measurements in terms of 1/.(3000)(10 3) = 107.2 What is the refractive index of red laser light at a temperature of 20'C and barometric pressure of 710 torr? Neglect the effect of . time lag (iii) (a) Accuracy = ± (5 mm + 5 ppm) =± (b) (5 + 5(8~~~103)) = ± 9mm 3 Accuracy .(7 mm +.1 (i) If electromagnetic energy travels 299.! has a purported accuracy capability of ± (5 mm + 5 ppm) what error can be expected in a measured distance of 800 m? (b) If a certain ED).142 =_1 107..792.5 kmlsec under given conditions what unit of distance corresponds to each millimicro second of time? (ii) The speed of electromagnetic energy through the atmosphere nt a standard barometric pressure of 760 rnm of.000 Example 4.299.792.0034.Electronic Distance Measurements 77 Example 4. 106 .792.= ±28 mm In terms of 11:c _ 28 1 .015 km =299.997925 (lo-l) krn =2.. :> x 10-8 sec Velocity of light Hence.rapour pressu~e. =±.015 sec -5 .792.5 krn = 299. What time lag in the equipment will produce an error of 15 m in the distance to a target 80 krn away? (iii) (a) If an ED).792.997925 (l0-1) m Distance travelled in 1 millimicro second = 29.5 .5 (10-9) krn = 2..

0003002 )(710) 6 =( 1 + (0.1)(106) = (.714.3 Microwaves are modulated at a frequency of 70 MHz.288) . s ) Modulated wavelength = 299.6328)2 (0..~ .3078 ng = 1.. .5 ?99 7142'1 km/ = 1.1 p] 106 = -'-_.04 + (3)(16. N n . V _ Co a .1 + at .000261272 =.488092 m Example 4. through an atmosphere at a temperature of 12c C.00030~2.78 Fundamentals of Surveying Solution For red laser light).6328.2 T • ~ I~ = 2876.760 .26 (1 . [11 . 5(0. . lin = 1.21 = (12488.04 + 3(16.49 (P _ e) + 8626 (1 + 5748) e T T T . 285 .5748) 76 285' +.( ~ where Co is the velocity of light' in vacuum .49 (712 _ 76)' + 86.:: 103. Refractive index in air under given atmospheric condition neglecting effect c vapour pressure. They are propagated.288) + 5(0136) (0. _ .000261272) (106) (na .000261272. 285 . atmospheric pressure of 712 torr. . N m = 103. . =0. and a vapour pressure of 7.taken as 299. Hence refractive index of standard .792. L. air for the laser carrier is given by (lI _ 1) 107 = 2876.no The velocity of light through this atmosphere .6328)4 =3002.000261272) (106) .792. What is the modulated wavelength of these waves? Solution For microwaves. 299.6 torr.00367)(20) 760 (10) = (.092)(10-6) krn (24)(l0~ = 12.136) g .5 km/s . .

2814638 m.47 (70)(106) =4.385 m.792.495 = 0.495 m MT = 1.384 rn.385 1. What is the horizontal distance between M and P? 0 I Solution In Fig. A line measures 533.452 m with this instrument-reflector combination. J\-/E = 1. The slope distance after meterological corrections is 1650.295 = 1. The height of the target.385 - PS = 1.318 = -0. The measured vertical angle is + 3°02'32". o.ME = 1. Be measures 282. The height of the reflector set up at P is 1.5 ?99 70? 47 k' I = 1. _. AB measures 354. Example 4. = 299.0003044 = 1. (354.47672 11 m = 1 + . 4.0003044 =­ .318 musing 11 particular 'ED:vr reflector combination.I . What is the correct length of the line? Solution C/ =Measured AC - (Measured AB + Measured Be) =636.at P on which the vertical sight is taken is 1.'-i'" Electronic Distance Measllremcnls79 =255.693013 = 304.615 .m sec. .0.702.615 m TE = MT .78371 + 48. = 1.092 m and AC measures 636.294 m.615 m.09 m .6 E = Position of EDM T = Position of theodolite R =Position of reflector S = Position of target . Therefore.0003044 " ~m 299. Example 4. The height of the theodolite at M used to measure the vertical angle is 1.452 m.384 + 282.158 = 533. Modulated wavelength }.452 .295 =0.5· The height of an EDM set up at /vI is 1.158 m.495m.1.4 In a straight line ABC.295 m.092) Correct length of the'line = 533.12 m PR SR From the data given Therefore.

- _ (0. Rf( ER' cos 0: .SO Fundamentals of Surveying s 3"01'32" 1. 4.495 m T E 3"02'32" ~ j R 1.09 =.65 m? Solution Measured angle am (by Theodolite) I:J.452 cos 3e02'35.l24~ m Example 4. . .265) sec .385 m 1 M p E~a Fig. sec = . .: 1650A52 = 3.615 m T 1.. 4.20 m above the theodolite axis. =. .se06'70" .74396" 0: + t10: = 3° 02'35.74" Horizontal distance =ER cos (0: + ja) = 1650.265)" :> =539. = 0. what is the corrected horizontal distance for a recorded slope distance of 75.7 a vertical angle of . In =O.ge06'20" was recorded. From E.20 c~s_ ~96'20" (206.4..87" .03 m .6 Example .0. L10:. The EDM instrument was standard mounted and offset a distance of 0..10: .5.74" = 16~S..03)(cos 3°02' 32") (206. I2 . If the theodolite and reflector heights are equal..6 In Fig. ER' is drawn parallel to TS giving RR' .

O.804 rn ..911 m H :: ~ L~ ..7 A slope distance of 940.87" .1599 m __ -..stations.410 + h.65 cos 8°15'19.866 m Example 4.J .Electronic Distance Measurements 81 ·EDM.87" Horizontal length = 75.911 2 :: 937.07 m(corrected for meteorological conditions) was measured from A to B whose elevations were 643.(568. ~ = am + L1av = 8°06'20" + 08'59.:: 1. .7 Example 4.39 + I 1.80~) :: 73.41 rn and 568i39ni above datum respectively (Fig.J9J. 4.410 + 1. Find the horizontal length AB if heights of the EDM! and reflector were 1.87" = 8°15'19.07"!. 4.d 2 = .205 . . . d =643.6.804 rn .205 m h. Solution 'Here CD =L h~:: 1. of B + h..8). above their respective .205 m and 1.) = 643.= 74. . Horizontal Fig.(Elev..73.

41 rn hh. A survey line forming part of a precise test network was measured with the instrument anda mean valueof 2999.can be drawn from these calculations? .7. S --l hr =568. Example 4.) of 0. Themean ambient temperature cC 1 and pressure P were 13.792.860 urn. Compute the correction in the distance due to this error. It was later discovered that the field barometer was in error by + 24 mb. 1.985400 MHzot specified meteorological reference data of l2 (1) and 1013 mb (P) and carrier wavelength (i.8 The formula given in a manufacturer's instruction manual for computing the atmospheric correction (Cm ) to measure electro-optical distance measurement is Cm = l"'""'""::'"' _. What conclusions.5 kmls. 4.00028195 u. electromagnetic radiation in free space to be 299. TI t Ts Elev.00000 m corresponding to cC 3 frequency of 14.+ and 978.39 m Fig. ana compare the results.uw194335 P 1 -----x-+ I + 0.00366086 t 1013 where =ambient atmospheric temperature (~C) P = ambient atmospheric pressure (mb) Corrected slope distance = measured slope distance x Cm t o The modulated wavelength of the instrument (i-s) is 20. A =643.82 Fundamentals of Surveying c he 1 d Elev. Compute the atmospheric correction using the formula given in the instruction manual and from first principles.097 rn recorded.8 Example 4. Assume the velocity of .00 mb respectively..

00 ] 1+0. Council] From manufacturer's formula: Solution c.003~6086X13.1 P =1 + -'~-X --­ at' 1013.00028195 0.00366086t x 1013 + 1 1.000294335 '978.S f = group refractive index of atmosphere.000011.860 IJm)' =velocity of electromagnetic radiation in free space (299792. = ambient temperature (K). _8'760 ~ . )."T " ' . + 3 x 162.00028195 .4x 1013 +1 =1. =: ambient pressure (mb).25 .98540 MHz) [Eng.88 .661 x 10-3 K-1.000294335 P ] 1 + 0. .36] 0.5 km/s) = modulation frequency (14.: l' + [1 11..000000 m).1 X 10~ ~ 3 x.· Electronic Distance Measurements 83 Aide memoire: 11 n . = group refractive index of white light (1. ' . =Ins where nIl 11. = group refractive index for standard conditions. = [ 1. Co ns a T P .2 + 5 X 1.[ 0. =carrier wavelength (0. Co ). = 3.000294). = modulated wavelength (20..

pp.4 1013. No.AAA~A'AA~ _ 299i92500 •• A~_ .X 286. 11 /I = 1+ 0. Hamson. Joumal ofthe Surveying and Mapping Division.S'+ Fundamentals of Surveying }. REFEREKCES I.097 m Correction in distance =2999. H" Electronic Surveying and Navigation. PROBLEMS 4. At temperature of 13.2 'How does electro-optical instrument differ from EDM instrument? ­ .0002943' 3.661 X 10. Proceedings of the American Society of Civil Engineers. 11/1 = 1 + aT . "Electronic Surveying: Electronic Distance Measurements"...Il g - -n.1000281993 ratio = 1. New York: John Wiley & Sons. 89.25 '0 P = 2. October 1963.648 x 10-6 =.02 m Error due to incorrect reading of pressure is small.648 With length 2999..1 Explain the principles of electronic distance measurement. 2. 97-116.s.4CC and 978..277 oP 011/1 X with oP = + 24 106 =. 503. 0.-1 1 X on/l =----aT x 101325 .661 X 10-3 x 286.E.00 mb of pressure.277 x 24 =6. .25 = 1.000270919 =1.097 x 6. .i7046 x 10-7 017/1 X oP 10 6 =.AA - _ . Vol. Laurila Sirno.000270919 ..00.000011 p­ ":""::7':"':. A. 4.00029433513 0P = x-­ 3 3.4 X ~=-==-= 978_ 1013. 1976.

10 What is the velocity of mercury vapour light at a temperature of lOoC and barometric pressure of 710 torr? 4.83 m. h.4 If a certain ED~'1 instrument has an accuracy capability of ± (7 mrn + 7 ppm) what is the precision of measurements. 01 of 4. EDM instrument is standard mounted and offset a distance of 0.6 Discuss the errors in electronic distance measurements.45 m and 1230.24 rn. .65 m respectively.9 Calculate the horizontal length in Example 4. 329J2 m and 428.11 Microwaves are propagated through an atmosphere of 75°F. h. what is the modulated wavelength? 4. eleVa and the measured slope length L are 1.5 torr. in terms of 1/.45 01.~_~ 4. for line lengths of (a) 30 m (b) 150 m (c) 2000 rn? 4..7 m.6 if'the vertical angle is + 10°45'30".~. If the modulating frequency is 30 MHz.25 01 vertically above the theodolite axis and the recorded slope distance is 59. " 4. 1.7 Which causes a 'greater error in a line measured with an ED:-'U? (a) A 2°C variation of temperature from the standard. 1205. distances AC..5 To callibrate an EDM instrument. atmospheric pressure of 715 torr and a vapour pressure of 12. 4.3 If an EDM instrument has a purported accuracy capability of ± (5 rnrn + 5 ppm) what error can be expectedin a measured distance of (a) 600 m (b) 3 krn? . 4. 275.25 01. (b) A neglected atmospheric pressure difference from standard of 2 mercury. AB and BC along a straight line were measured as 2436. ' -) . What is the instrument constant for this instrument? Compute the length of each segment corrected for the instrument constant? 4.8 Calculate the horizontal length between A and B if in Example 4.09tn respectively.Electronic Distance Measurements 85 4. elev.12 Determine the velocity of red laser light through an atmosphere at30°C and elevation 1700 m.7.

and (v) calculating volume of earth work. (ii) in the design of highways. etc.5 Levelling I 5.. .. (iii) locating the gradient lines for drainage characteristics of anarea. elevation between -A and B Vertical line . . R6 . 5. . .. canals. etc. .. Horizontal Iin!. Levelling involves measurements in vertical direction.. reservoir.. . 5. With the help of levelling difference in elevation between two points or level of one point with respect to another point of known elevation can be determined.1 L~TRODUCTION . railways.1 . Levelling helpsin (i) knowing the topography of an area. sewers..__ ) Level SLJrtacepaSSin9lhrOLJgh A / Difference ~in 1. .2 BASIC DEFn\ITIO~S Figure 5. .1 illustrates some of the basic terms defined below as used in levelling. .Fig. Basic terms in levelling. (iv) laying out construction projects. .

However. Alarge body of still water unaffected by tidal waves is the best example of level surface. .\1. etc. ".. It is usually a permanent object.2 illustrates these errors. d is expressed in krn. Level Surface. mean sea level).d'1 12.4 can be taken as the radius of the earth. levelling instruments providehorlzontal line of sight and as Q.). AB(2R + AB) .078 d'1 m (5. It is a point of known elevation above or below a datum. Figure 5. top ofa culvert. 5. For small areas level surface is taken co be a plane surface.2R (5. =d­ .2) d'1 when.Horizontal Line. ' As AB is very small compared to diameter of the earth AB' 2R =d'1 . 5. . From geometry of circle . Any level surface to which elevations are referred (for example. result curvature error occurs..is measured by passing level lines through the points A and B. Neglecting small instrument height 5. . The liserage height of the sea's surface for all stages of the tide over a very long period (usually 19 years).1) or The diameter of the earth is taken as AB. 0. It is a continuous surface that is perpendicular to the plumb line. e. .4.. Vertical Line.734 krn = 0.Levelling 1· 87 It follows the direction of gravity at any point on the earth's surface and is indicated by a plumb at that point. Datum. A line at any point which is perpendicular to the vertical line at that point. . Mean Sea Level. top of a metal disc set in concrete. In addition due to refraction in the earth's atmosphere the ray gets bent towards the earth introducing refraction error.734 krn Hence curvature correction AS =12. .3 CURVATURE A:\D REFRACTION From Fig.g. Bench M\lrk (B.1 it is apparent that difference inlevel between A and B .

067dl m when d is expressed in krn.1 Determine the distance for which the combined..078d2 rn.005 .. -----. Consequently the refraction correction is taken as lnth of the curvature correction.005. Level surface through the instrument axis Fig.067 or d 0?73k' =~. Example 5.067d2. it can be seen thatrefraction correction reduces the curvature correction and hence the combined correction is 6nth of .2 What will be the effect of curvature and refraction at a distance of (i) 100 m (ii) 1 km (iii) 50 km (iv) 100 km? I I I· . = = = = = The radius of the ray Ie bent due to refraction is taken as seven times the radius of the earth. i. .1. Example 5. O.e.88 Fundamentals of SI/li'e)'ing Horizontal line of sight d Mean sea level .2 Curvature and refraction correction: l instrument station. S staff station. From Fig. distance of the staff from the instrument. Solution Correction in m = O. 5. m ~ 273 m . /B =d.. '. correction is 5 mrn. The correction is subtractive from the staff reading. AB curvature error. BC error due to refraction: AC combined error due to curvature and refraction.. . 5.067 = ... 'where d is in krn d2 = . SB =staff norma) to earth's surface..

067 Dr D 1 = 21. Find the distance of the sailor from the light house.067 m (iii) EL.3 A sailor standing on the deck of a ship just sees the top of a lighthouse.' Example 5.04 = 29. distant objects are to be viewed and measurements taken. [AMIE. hi or =30 = . Summer 1979J Solution II = 0.O~7 = 8. A measuring telescope and not a viewing telescope forms the main part of a levelling instrument. = . are .64 km Mean Sea Level =21. . 0.4(:1) shows a Kepler's or astronomicul telescope.5 m (iv) Ed .16 km Similarly Hence totaldistance D D2 = ~. R:I)'s from the 'object AB after refruction from the objective O.067(.067(50)'! = 167. The top of the light house is 30 m above sea level and the height of the sailor's eye is 5 m above sea level.067 d'J. . 5. dis inkm .3.3 Example 5.80 km ~ Sailor's eye hI = 30 m h~= Sm Fig. Figure5.7(10-6) m (ii) Eb = .4 LEVELLING I:-.Levelling I 89 Solution (i) E(.067(1)2 = .01)2 6.STRUi\lENTS In levelling. 5.067(100)2 670 m = = = = From the above result.16 + 8. m where a is in rn. it is seen that curvature and refraction correction may be neglected for small lengths of sights but should invariably be taken for long sights. Telescopes are broadly of two types. .

. • For viewing purpose Galilee's telescope is more suitable than Kepler's telescope as an erect image is obtained in the former. If the lens is so placed that ba is situated within the focal length... I nC'cu vUJC'. .. for measuring purposes Kepler's telescope is more suitable as a real inverted image is formed in front of the eyepiece. . In surveying telescope there is :1 diaphragm carrying ...' Eyepiece .Virtual inverted : image Kepler's telescope.... 5Atb)) therays refracted by the objective 0 are intercepted by :1 concave eyepiece E before :J rC:JI image is formed.. a virtual image conjugate (0 ba. . 5.. I 0 c B ... . Eyepiece ". On entering the eye.. . In Galilee's telescope (Fig..""""" ' . .... ~ ~.' ...> _••• - -'1 ':.....r-­ I 90 Fundamentals of Surveying brought to focus before they enter the eyepiece E and in consequence :J real inverted image is formed in front of the eyepiece.. : a Objective / '.. b Virtual direct 'image Fig. l' A ..". • Fig... the rays after refraction at E appear to the eye 10 proceed from b'o'.: a' :. they therefore appear to diverge from the vertical image ab which is magnified and erect. .. inverted and placed at b'a'. The object AB thus appears magnified. -7 ' . . The line.crosshairs placed in front of the eyepiece. However...joining the intersection of the Real inverted image _...I(b) Galileo's telescope.. b' Real object Eye t\ ..... '.... ..4(1I) '... 5...--:....

plane of the crosshairs. . . formed in the . eyepiece affectsboth to the same degree. Eyepiece Diaphragm carrying crosshairs (b) Fig. . In surveying telescope. Focussing screw <ID Eyepiece . crosshair.5. '.Outer tube t . If it is done by moving an additional concave lens between the object and crosshairs it is internal focussing. The movement is done bya rack and pinion . it is external focussing.5 CLASSIFICATION OF SURVEYING TELESCOPE The surveying telesc-ope is broadly of two types-(i) External focussing.Focussing screw <r:D . 5. Levelling I 91 crosshairs with the centre of the objective provides a definite line of sight known as line of collimation. (b) Internal focussing telescope. (ij) Internal focussing. r . By focussing is. If it is done by changing the position of the objective relative to the . In external focussing telescope the objective which is mounted on the inner tube can be moved with respect to the diaphragm ..---! . Figure 5. the real image Co. The eyepiece magnifies both the image and the crosshairs simultaneously 'and distortion or other defects produced in the passage of the rays . through the.5(b) shows a section through an internal focussing telescope.which is fixed inside the outer tube.(a) External focussing telescope.meant bringing the image of the object in the plane of the crosshairs.5(a)shows a section through a!l external focussing telescope while Fig. (n) . 5.5 . .

'. .' 1 s:.' u = image distance and is positive in the direction of rays f = focal length.iand II = object distance and is positive in a direction opposite to the direction of rays coming from the object . positive for convex lens and negative for concave lens Figure5. . 1 = -fl II U can be applied to find v when u andf are known.92 Fundamentals of Surveying arrangement operated by focussing screw:As can be seen from Fig.6 (:I) R5)' diagram for external focussi~g telescope. ' The conventions to be followed in this book are: Distances are measured inwards towards the lens.6(a) gives the ray diagram for external focussing telescope.:. both the objective andthediaphragm carrying crosshairs are mounted inside the outer tube and the distance between them is fixed. . . I (a) o-j Staff Diaphragm carry­ ing crosshairs / Focussing lens Objective (b) Fig. Figure5.6(b) gives that for an internal focussing telescope. diaphragm and the objective by means of focussing screw.6 LENS FORMULA The lens formula 1 +.f .5(b) in the internal focussing telescope. (b) Raysin an Internal focussing telescope. 5. An additional double concave lens is mounted on a short tube which can move to and fro between the.1 '\t. The advantages of internal focussing are: Diaphragm Staff . 5. 5.

. Example S. Calculate the angular error in seconds due to this cause.5 rn.i Levelling 1 93 (1) Less overall length' of the tube of the telescope.U. (2) Less imbalance.025 mm from it when the telescope is'focussed at 7. (4) Better optical properties. (3) Less wear of rack and pinion. At infinity focus the optical centre of the focussing lens lies on the line joining the optical centre of the objective lind the crosshairs but deviates laterally 0.7(a) Example 5. Solution Using the lens formula 1+1=1 U lC 1 Without the focussing lens II ':" e..J 125 mm----j--125 mm--j f-x-J Fig.4. (6) When used as a tacheorneter.r = i5 mm '----~-- . and is positive 1= 200 1 1_ 1 -+--­ U co 200 giving u = 200 mm .4 An internal focussing lens has an object glass of 200 mm focal length. . Determine the focal length of the focussing lens. (i) Less brightness of the image..5) Line of sight is not affected much during focussing operation. Its disadvantages are: . (ii) Interior of the telescope cannot be cleared an? repaired in the field. additive constant is very small. 5. The distance between the object glass and the diaphragm is 250 rnm. When the telescope is at infinity focus the internal focussing lens is exactly midway between the objective and diaphragm. (. [L.

025 rnrn the position of thelenses areasshown in Fig. " -75+ +125 1 ( 1) =7 1 1 1 2 or or 7.025 mm of the concave lens.75 + 125 = - 1_ 375 f = .T + 250 = x + 44.5 mm (concave) when the telescope is focussed at 7. 5.521' = 44.7(b). Let II = x then U =. 'Ul is thedisplacement at the level of 1st image because of lateral displacement of 0.025 44. From Fig.709 mrn.71.200 or or U=200 lJ 1 1 1 .I I 94 Fundamentals of Surveying For the focussing lens.7(b) XTI .521 + 71. -+---­ lJ + 7500 .187. object distance is negative as they are measured towards the lens in the direction of light but image distance is positive.77 = 133.521 205.521 which gives _1= __1_ x 187. or • 'tXt =.5 x = 71.5 m without the focussing lens 1 1 1 -+-=­ v u f 1 1 1 .5 m with lateral displacement of concave lens .77 mrn The distance between the lens and objective then becomes 205.00957 mm -I .479 mm ' with the shifting of the focussing lens.77' .7500 = 205. 5. . When the focus is at 7..479 Using the lens formula 1 1 1 -+-=­ U u f 1 x + 44.479 .

podP1 v ~ PCCl\{ iU!I\:lACl\ y't <I\pu!ds \CJ!UCl.•••••••. j .\ y '£ Y" .{dwnp c jo .:\ ZU!ll!J. ' . g600' - \'-' •• '" - ·cn'" .41 '~:".0' -)' n' L.:~1 'p.!d.l1 .\Cl\ .3 ..(dUinp II )0 surd JOfcUJ 0141 .••.1ICll V .L{ S::!lICl.J.! Jl. ·S'~ .1=.. \J...14 S.... ..<l ~ClJL{l Cl\{l)O U3!S.\Cl\ Cl41'pt.\.~n Clq 01 S! lUClWnJISU! ClL{l U<l4.$.IJ se U.l '~p:c \CJ!lJ:l.s.tp 'SJ".\..lJ::lS s1 'JEIJJr IJ.\ .l.\\OU~ 'CllC\d J:l.J .\5!s JO &Un ) .. --: .. ..\'.\!I~ClfqO IC) ..__. r \".:q UCJ Cldo. UJW =2:0' • f] .\.lqnl c-Iqqnq CldoJS. ll...$l\.rCjd ICllltJt!d reddn Cltl1'S. ~.\\ClJ::S SUH\Cl. s~..tpS Cll!l .141 )0 1Cl:pOS Cllll U! ~<I.. '" A I \ . ( c9. . q!) ..lll ljznOL{l '!Cl. ~9·6 = .:1 ~'J!ll._ .iPU!dS \t:::l!lJCl..lQOJS. d...\l \'CJ.\3 IP) puc '.J.d..g!~ U! U.•..11 .\\ pOd!J1 ~ jo doi UO PCl.\.lL{1 U! pCllC10J .I.1 s.\d:lJna ::m: \Cl.~x I .ClJ41 .\ J:dwnp U JO WtlJZt:1P JpCW. ..\\O. I.qm CldO::lSCl\Cl1 Cl41 .\!..upiu:l JO S. If I I .. .\..(q ucdn P\.lIPU!dS Cll{l 'Cl::lCl!d ClUO 5C JCllllClgOl I~CJ .~ (q) SUClICl.\ SI! 1110qC'ClUll\d ICIUOZ!J04 . .U..o.\IlCWJOU S! (01.\.urcs "'lll 5! ~ld!::lu!Jd ~uP'CJ.\.sucd U!ClU rnoj SU!U!C1UOJ eqm lCIClw C S! 11 'SU!Ssn:-Oj Icumu! .••..llnJ!lClJ JO wfcH{dc!G (J) . Yj I X sual xeAUO:J 01 enp a6ew! 10 UO!l!sod I -----------------~-------- .\ Cl41 puc .11\:\d \Cl\lcJed 0.l .JC .\\.\dJ .l .OllS ~! ICl..\!It!a.Jt! ".\\1)0 SI~!SUOJ ptCl4 3UHI.ClJ~l .\Cl\ ..rJ 'SXIS . JO ::l!lt'wOin\" (!!!) puc \01.JC ..l.\..lll W :.•••••.\\O\ Clll1 '1[-1IUq]JJ Cl41 PCllltlJ S! . ' \ . .\'0.jo .l!P 5'.

9. The negative lens should be mounted on a sliding tube co­ axially inside the tube carrying the objective lens. Objective Lens. 5.) curvature of field. j-E)'epiece Tribrach I Vertical spindle \ Db' . To minimize loss due to reflection. chromatic aberration and spherical aberration arenearly eliminated. (\. (ii) spherical aberration. ·fff~~. Diaphragm: The diaphragm carries the reticle containfng a horizontal ana vertical hair. To avoid the first two defects as much as possible the objective lens is composed of both c~own and flint glass as shown in Fig. N~garil'e Lens. the lenses nrc given a thin uniform coating which has an index of refraction smaller than that for glnss.JS many defects like (i) chromatic aberration. As a result. main tube by means of four capstan headed screws with the help of which the position of the crosshairs inside the tube .9 Objective lens. A single lens h. Trivet stage Tripod III Vertical axis Fi~. ~.!i levelling screws • Dumpy level. The optical axis of both the lenses should be the same and movement of the negative lens during focussing operations should not introduce deviation of either of the lens axes. (iv) astigmatism. Jectlve .. The diaphragm is fined inside the. (iii) coma. and (vi) distortion.~~ Fig. Flinl Sloss _ I i~~"" "~J ~~ ~~Z~~~~- Crown glass \~.r 96 Fundamentals (If Surveying Dia::>hragm ~~bblel'b' ___ 1­ I. 5.

5. both horizontally and vertically and :l slight rotational movement is also possible. i. Lenses of the same rnnteria! are achromatic if their distance apart is equal to the average of their focal lengths.. . Fig. two additional horizorual Jines are added. serves as reticle. the eyepieces should reduce chromntlc and spherical aberration. . .11 Different types of crcssbairs. . In many modern instruments. Figure 5. Crosshairs Fig. Eyepiece. a thin glass plate with lines ruled or etched and filaments of dark metal deposited in them. Some eyepiece erect the Image to give a normal view when it is known as erecting eyepiece. 5. however. Karmali}'.10 shows the diaphragm and reticle. The: additional hairs are known as stadia hairs and are used in computing distances by stadia tacheometry. Previously the crosshairs were made of spider web or filaments of platinum or glass stretched across an annular ring. one above and another below the usual horizontal hair. Levelling I 97 can be adjusted slightly.11 shows different arrangements of crosshairs.10 Diuphragm currying crosshairs. Diaphragm ring I I I ~ Reticle Adjusting screw. the image is seen magnified and inverted through the eyepiece. Figure 5. Ideally.c. Sometimes. The eyepiece lenses magnify the image together with the crosshairs in order to give the surveyor ability to sight and read accurately the levelling rod graduations.The image formed by the objective and the focussing lens is inverted.

1.! -. This eyepiece. i. For surveying purposes the diaphragm must be between the eyepiece and the objective. is not generally used with the telescopes for measuring instruments because it does not correct the image of the diaphragm which is put between the two lenses and is thus only viewed through one of them with theconsequence thatits image isdistorted.. Here.. I If their distance apart is equal to the differences between their focal lengths. This introduces errorin measurement. d =~ I =~I instead of instead of I 1lf + fJ =I .h. -I =0 Huygen's eyepiece (Fig. Chromatic condition t (3f + f) ~ 2f = d 2(::.e. The most suitable is Ramsden's eyepiece (Fig. ?. However it is used in Galilee telescope.J 2). 5. 5. Huygen's eyepiece. conditions but the focal plane lies between thelenses. spherical aberration is reduced.: d Spherical condition 3f .13 . (/1 + h) .f = Fig. d =II . It can be seen that this eyepiece satisfies the condition for elimination of neither chromatic aberration nor spherical aberration.J 98 Fundamentals 01 Surveying d=. I-. .12 Ramsden's eyepiece.JAf -+ 1 Fig'. 5. however.13) satisfies the.

5. 5.16. and (iii) Larger length of the eyepiece. alcohol. 5. From Fig. The liquid must be non-freezing. Levelling I 99 The third type of eyepiece is erecting eyepiece (Fig.14). The sectional elevation and the plan of a level tube are shown in Fig. This angle may vary from 1" to 2" in the case of a precise level. 5. (ii) Uncertain definition. Nowadays. upper surface of the tube-and sometimes also the lower surface-is ground to form a longitudinal circular curve. Level tube works on the principle that the surface of a still liquid. Fig. = 206~65S ••• III where S 1/ = difference in stuff readings (I nnJ b = number of divisions the bubble is displaced between rcudings I = distance ofstaff from instrument ' .rhe ends help in adjustment of the level tube... ' The sensitivity of the level tube depends on theradius of curvature (R) and is usually expressed as an angle (8) per unit division (d) of the bubble scale. The radius to which the tube of an engineer's level is ground is usually between 25 to .1-1' Erecting eyepiece. It is of glass tube: sealed at both ends that contains a sensitive liquid and small air bubble. it consists of four plano-convex lenses. upto 10" to 30" on an engineer's level. chloroform OJ sulphuric acid or petroleum ether was used as a liquid. quick acting and relatively stable in length for normal temperature variation. As seen in the figure. tan n8 or = /18 /l8~d =SIl 8~. 5.50 m. This can be determined in the field by observing the staff readings at a known distance from the level by changi ng the bubble position by means of a foot screw or tilting screw as shown in Fig. The . Earlier.16 tan /18 =~ I Since 8 is very small.15. being at every point normal to the direction of gravity is :I level surface. The capstan headed screws at . .J =/II S 8 •. Its disadvantages are: (i) Loss of brilliancy of the image due to two additional lenses. It gives erect image of the object. purified synthetic alcohol is used.

section. Fig.15 A bubble tube: (a)Cro..16 Sensitivity of bubble lube: ... r -1 Reading (a) S=a-b R / Staff. . (b) plan. 5.r--I ----­ --~-----~ 1 \ 100 Fundamentals of Surveying Bubble tube axis 'j' I I • Metal case Top of telescope axis (a) 0([11111111111 ill) (b) Fig.. 5.

given change in the angle.Levelling I -} 01 If d = length of one division of the bubble tube then d = R8rJd ndl or R = dIe =-S A tube is snld to be more sensitive if the bubble moves by more divisions for a . + ~ ­ Total movement n - 2 2 Figures 5. these readings representing divisions from a zero at the centre 'of the bubble tube. The sensitiveness of a bubble tube can be increased by: (a) Increasing internal radius of the tube.5 A three screw dumpy level. O.1 at the object glass end and 14. From Fig. By similarly elevating the sight the bubble readings were-O 12.015 m.6.eye pieceend. .(d) Decreasing roughness of the wall (e) Decreasing viscosity of the liquid. 5. .17 L = Length of bubble =0 1 + E 1 =O2 + E2 . . The line of sight is depressed by manipulating the foot screws until the bubble on the telescope reads 4. setup with the telescope parallel to two foot screws is sighted on a staff 100 m away. S. A sturdy tripod in good condition is necessary to obtain the best results for a fine instrument. 0 1+£1 xx» 2 -E1 IT= O2 2 + E2 . .18 and 5. The reading on the staff was 0.O? .0. If the bubble is graduated from the centre then an accurate reading is possible by taking readings at the objective and eyepiece ends (Fig.17). An adjustable tripod is advantageous for set ups in rough terrain but the type with fixed leg may be slightly more rigid. (b) Increasing diameter of the tube.E1 E~ .7 and staff reading 1. Example 5.4 at the. 5.19show the details of an adjustable leg of a tripod stand and a fixed leg tripod as per I.930 m. E 5. The sensitivity of the bubble tube should tally with the accuracy achievable with other parts of the equipment. (c) Increasing length of the bubble.

- . . .102 Fundamentals of Surveying c . .4 + 5. I 01 ~ ...1 .14. fQ . ..7 .. 29 $ . y ---' }2~ . . Fig. 4 t ¥b .U. .... . I I . .~----r: Zero of graduations x · :x . end E1 : . .78" . I I . .12.6(1oo} == 22. .. Eye. .:'" 6..) Sensitivity of bubble 8m = 2062~5S _ 206265(1. : .. ." ..50 mm.. E2 Movement of bubble Determine the sensitivity of the bubble and the radius of curvature of the bubble tube if the length of one division is 2. · .6 2 1~2 == "':' 8:6 divisions 2 =_ 103. [L. 5.17 . I .. I I :y .:::e.._. . #.0. If"!' . I I I I I I . E2 . }iCenlre of bubble !/ Object glass end --. ­ 2 2 == 4.£1 +.9 == _ (Negative because the line of sight is depressed and the bubble moves to the eyepiece end initially. ..025 . .930} 8..] Solution­ n- .. . 1-.( .0... 0 1 . .-.B! AU a _. .

5 mm .095 m = 22.l8 Dimensions and nomenclatureof tripod forsurveying Instruments (adjustable leg). Bracket lor fastenir. Abull's eye(circular) spirit level is available forquick approximate levelling or a b:111 and socket arrangement (with no levelling screws) permits the .R =" . .6)(2j)(I00) S = 22631. d' i =(8.In tilting level. if the level is in adjustment and if the line of sight is made horizontal by bringing the bubble to the centre of its run. It was initially developed for precise levelling work but nowadays is used for general purpose. the line of sight can be made horizontal by a tilling screw even though the vertical axis is not exactly vertical.631 5.Levelling 1 103 Circular Bubble . the vertical axis autornaricully becomes truly vertical.g carrying bell Rinu u o All dimensions in millimetsrs Fig.5.8 TILTING LEVEL In dumpy level.

The observer then tilts the telescope until the two half images are made to coincide in which position the bubble is centred. A micrometer screw under the eyepiece controls this movement. .21 shows schematically a tilting level. . ~otshoe with sharp point Fig. 9 All dimensions in millimeters \215 . This is the most popularvariety of levels.+ Fundamentals of S/I/1'eying Circular bubble ~ Brackets for fastening carl)'ing belt . .19 Dimenslons and nomenclature for fixed leg tripod for surveying instruments. The ease and rapidity with which the instrument makes error free readings has made it popular..9 AUTOMATIC OR SELF-LEVELLING LEVEL . These half images are brought into superposition and made visible by a prismatic arrangement directly over the bubble.20 shows a split bubble before and after coincidence. head to be tilte9 and locked nearly level. Figure 5. Figure 5. 5. The exact level is obtained by tilting or rotating the telescope slightly in a vertical plane about a fulcrum at the vertical axis of the instrument without changing its height. The level can be made horizontal just before the observation. When the level is not horizontal.10. 5. the observer sees the main level tube as two half images of opposite ends of the bubble. Advantages of tilting level are accuracy and quickness. L .

2. Level tube.4. 3.i ~ t ~~: i ~' f~ All levelling operations depend on the establishment or a line of collimation perpendicular to the direction of gravity. As apparent from Fig. 9. 5. Eyepiece. But in making an auto level ready for operation only approximate levelling-of its circular bubble is needed lind then its in-built compensator takes over and makes the level ready for operation automatically in no time. 13. 8.:: 2 3 12 9 11 13 Fig. Spring loaded plunger. In making a conventional level ready for operation the skill and time of the operator is needed for accurate centring of its sensitive telescope bubble. II. 5. Tribrach.Levelling I' . 5. 105 • (( \S I .20 Coincidence bubble. 6. Bubble tube fixing screws. Tilting screws. . Ray shade. 10. Diaphragm adjusting screws. the compensator (which freely hangs in correct vertical position) takes the horizontal ray from the staffto the centre of diaphragm for correct readings inspite of any possible residual tilt. Fig.21 Tilting level: 1. \S r? 10 I 4 . 12. 5. Trivet stage. 7. Objective end. Focussing screw.22.Telescope. Technical data of an Indian automatic level is as follows: Telescope Image Magnificatlon Multiplication constant Shortest reading distance Longest reading distance Clear objective aperture Erect 2~ times 100 15 m 200 m 35 rum . Foot screw.

(c) When telescope tiles down compensator swings forward.. 5..the abi'lity of lens' for distinguishing details. value is . It Is.e of sight _ .110 mm Graduation interval ­ 10 ...10 SO:\rE IMPORTA~T OPTICAL TER\iS Resolving Power.10 mml2 mm Automatic levelling Setting accuracy = lit'"" ± 0. 5.. Diameter ..__ ..r­ 106 Fundamentals of Surveying Wj~e 4 support Horizontal crosshair Horizontal line of sight ­ . (b) Telescope horizontal._---------- ­ ... - - -I ­ - - - - - - . ccmpcnsator: swings backward.8 sec Compensator range = ± 15 min Horizontal circle . Horizontal crosshair (b) Horizontal crosshair (c) Fig._-------_. Circular level Sensitivity .J Fixed prism Compensating prism Fixed prism (a) Horizontal lin. Its.- l­ • - .22 Compensator of a self-levelling level: (a) When telescope tilts up.

Usually. To remedy this defect two lenses. It is the ratio between the angle subtended at the eye by the virtual image and that subtended by the object. This is chromatic aberration is shown in Fig. prevents accurate focussing dueto the rays incident on. magnification is restricted to 2 to 3 times60/R. and (iii) Reduction of the field of view.67. ~ . This can be obtained with an instrument with R = 4. Spherical Aberration. the red end of the spectrum being refracted less than the violetend. Magnification.To distingulsh. For example. (b) Spherical aberration. 5. 5.67 if it is magnified 13 times. 107 usuallystated as the maximum number of lines per millimeter that can be seen as separate lines in the image. 5.23(b».23 (:1) Chromatic aberration. (ii) Waste of time in focussing. the lens being refracted more than the rays incident :H the centre (Fig.surface of the lens and . It is given by the empirical formula R = 140sec D where D is the diameter of the lens aperture in rnrn. Large magnification causes (i) Reduction of brilliancy of image. in objective a convex and a (a) (b) Fig.23(a). Definition. makes accurate focussing difficult. It depends on eliminnring optical defects like chromatic aberration and spherical aberration from the eyepiece and objective. therefore a combination of lenses is used so that aberration of one eliminates that of the other. It arises due to the spherical. 5. known as dispersion. The resolving power depends on the diameter of the objective lens actually used (effective aperture).10. Chromatic Aberration.Levelling I />. Magnlfying power of telescope is measured as the ratio of the focal length of the objective to that of the eye piece. therefore.11 SO:\IE I~IPORTANT OPTICAL DEFECTS When white light is refracted through a glass prism it is split into its component colours. The quality of definition in a telescope is its capacity to produce a sharp image. the image being surrounded by a rainbow like boundary. This phenomenon. one concave of flint glass and the other a convex lens of crown glass are cemented together with balsam as already explained in Section 5.details human eye requires a minimum resolving powerof 60. If D is 30 mm R comes to 4. This can be remedied by using only the central portion of the lens which also cuts down the amount of light entering the eye. Usually.

5. l.5 m . In Ramsden's eyepiece two plano convex lenses are kept at a fixed distance apart.wires on . It may also be of fibre glass or metal.24(c). Self-reading which can be read by the instrument operator which sighting through the telescope and noting the apparent intersection of the cross. Brass cap Brass cap !Z2 1] I . 5. L .e. 5. / / Brass cap / Solid Spring clamp Handle 1.108 Fundamentalsof Surveying concave lens are cemented together. the rod. 5. 3m 04-­ 1.12 THE LEVELLING STAFF A level staff is a graduated rod of rectangular section. 2. (b) Folding when it can be folded to smaller length-Fig.. 5. It is usually made of teakwood. This is the most c::ommon type.· (c) Telescopic when the staff can be shortened by putting one piece inside another-Fig.24 ./ Brass cap (a) 1 (c) Brass cap (b) Fig. ' . A levelling staff can be of .24(a). (a) Solid. I.25 m One piece Handle Hinge at 2m Spring clamp 2m 1. .. Target rods having a movable target that'is' set by a rod person at the ' positionindicated by signals from the instrument-man.Different types of levelling staff. .24(b). of' one piece-Fig. Two main classes of ~od are: " 1.25 m T 2m Hollow.

j~ . .i1J ediil . ' .m:ml ~ ~ rzm:&I ~ o Cap [f'~O .r. the thickness of the graduation being 5 mm.~." '. '.' . ) -.:td. 5.. .:::!II l:!!:Jl:D oO t:... ~ .staff shown in Fig.~25 I I 1 ".j 0 '="'•.5 mm . -:-23l1'. To ensure verticality the staff has a circular bubble of 25 minute sensitivity. " .24(c).i!i'riW ..: . Each meter is subdivided Into 200 subdivisions. Folding staffIs light and convenient to handle.1:\­ 75 mm (:l) (b) fig. H'NJ "~. .."..lil ' . -lI· e. the topmost part is solid and the other two parts are hollow. (b) Typica! derails of graduations. · ll!:l'.t~re>y.XO{J:!jJ:. The staff can be folded to 2 m length. 5.·.25 (a) Lev elling staff (folding type).Lt'@!$lf#1i#A ~ 5 mr:-. Cap ~ () z::::::=:J t:::::::m t::::=!:J : .>:-:t. In relescopic. 1 5 mm 5 mm Folding handle 511'''''9 . . :' . 70 mm ' 1 t*·'4't·. \1 Locking device I ~. ~. O:':': .T: f--r 35 mm .@MliS"'" mild ~ l')~ ~ ['.. Details of a levelling staff (Folding type) are shown' in Fig. 5.:'Jl.€' 6 ~ : 'I .. ~: _5 mm 5mm 1 II:IImI o. 2. ' I£.25(n) and (b). . ': rts:Mi"i.tttj. iliQ!&iiij Q $i1. ()-" Il:::l:D ~ .Z'. As per lS-1779-1961. ...USO-g .\ ... . . . Levelling I 109 Solid staff being of one'piece gives more accurate reading...' '" Ig. the width and thickness of staff are 75 rnrn and 18 mm respectively.

for self-readingstaffonly one trained staff. i I l_ . Fig. It is painted red and white in alternate quadrants. The displacement d gives the fractional reading which is .13 PARALLEL PLATE MICRO~IETER As shown in Fig. It enables theinterval between thehorizontal crosshair and the nearest staff division to be read directly to 0. Due to refraction a ray of light parallel to the telescope axis is displaced upwards and downwards by an amount proportional to the amount of . Moreover.27a parallel glassplate is usually fitted in front of the objective of a precise or geodetic level. The target is a small metal piece of circular or oval shape about 125 mm diameter.26 gives details of a ~ target staff. tilt. The staff holder then clamps the target and take the reading. I ~~ 110 Fundamentals of Surveying The two top pieces when pulled up are kept in position by brass flat spring clamps at the back of each piece fixed at its lower end. The theory can be derived 3S follows: 4. man and target man should be adequately trained.1 mm.. Target IT] fig. The plate is tilted till a full reading of the staff coincides with the crosshair. Apparent advantage of target staff is accurate reading but it takes more time. The parallel glass plate can be'tilted forward or backward by means of a micrometer head at the eye end of the telescope. The telescopic staff is not as accurate as a folding staff because of possible slippage between the parts. 5.obralned directly from the micrometer drum. While using the telescope staff care should be taken to ensure that the three parts are fully extended. 5. Instrument man is required butfor target staff reading both instrument . It is used for long distance sighting when it becomes difficult to take staff reading directly. 5. 5.26 Target staff. . .. that is. On the other hand self-reading staff is quicker. When the plate is vertical no displacement occurs. For taking reading the level man directs the staffrnan to raise or lower the target till it is bisected by the line of sight. Target staff has sliding target equipped with vernier.

I. Let J.-t­ ..... be From bABC.f3) . 5~27(b) Derivation of equation. sin f3 ) cos f3 From 1:1\\'5' of refraction ~ ..fJ> = ---!"'-f3 • (sin ex cos f3 ":'cos ex sin fJ> .. .=1 sin a (1 _ C?S ex Sin a . cos .. Fig.27(a) Parallel plate micrometer .27b). _ cos a sin f3 ) cos f3 _ t ..cosf3 • sin (a. " cos f3 " BC =: t5 =AB sin (Cl. " .. plate (Fig. thickness of the glass plate AB=:. . 1 . Fig.. =: AC = t.Levelling I 111· " Telescope objective StaN Refracted ray . 5... "" " " . . AB cos f3 theJf~§'~ index of the glass used in the. = t(sin CI.' 5.

The angle a is small. II/'!.) 2 sin aJp = t sin !fa is small sin a[I _~l . ~. .. - L . . calculate the angular rotation of the prism to give a vertical displacement of the image of 1 mm.L-l J1.1._--- . 16(0.. or cos p= ~1. Th~~: .L . . .6 If the index of refraction from air to 'glass is 1.. :.L which shows that the displacement is directlyproportional to the angleof rotation a of the plate provided. ~.. J1.!. sin a v» - .. =ka where k ~ r • J. Sin a Jl ..112 Fundamentals of Surveying .. J1.6) =.' '1..0. -1 =ra'-­ J1. _. 1= 16·a·1..) .(Si:af ~ 0= t sin a [1 _c~s a .ta(1 . Solution o=t·a·J.' sln-a J a ~·a and sin2 a ~ 0. . .1667 rad = 9°33' 5.."-l&.14 TEMPORARY ADJUSTMENTS OF' A DUMPY LEVEL Temporary adjustments are done at every setting of the instrument in the field.Example 5.6-1 1.6 a. .(sin aJP)'!. P sin a sin f3 = P which gives or sin f3 = sin a ..6 and the parallel' plate prism is 16 mm thick.i J..' .". arid o=..

the adjustment is allright. This will vary from person to person as it depends on the vision of the observer. I I I 02 \ \ \ \ \ CG I \ I . (e) Now tum the telescope through 180a so thatit is again parallel to levelling screws 1 and 2 (Fig.. reading the crosshair does not change with the movement of the eye as the image and the crosshair both move together. Bring the bubble to the centre of its runby the third foot screw only rotating eitherclockwise or anticlockwise Fig. Focussing: This is done in two steps. 3 I I . (d) Repeat the process till the bubble is' accurately centred in both these conditions.28(a». Some instruments are provided with a small circular bubble on the tribrach to check approximate.~~.._------------------~---------- :1 Levelling I I< 113 1. (c) Turn the telescope through 90a so that the level tube is over the third screw or' on the line perpendicular to the line joining screws 1 and ~.le\·elling. Turning foot screws to level bubble tube. At this stage the levelling . First step is focussing the eye­ piece. . . .28(b). For instruments with three foot screws the following steps are to be followed: 'I ':1 (a) Turn the telescope so that the level tube is parallel to the linejoining any two levelling screws as shown in Fig.~ \ 3..This is done by turning the eyepiece either in or out until the crosshnlrs are sharp and distinct.-~ ------------~---_. 2. 5.------~a~ 2. .\ 1'0" I c:::::J I . the level should be checked for permanent adjustments. This is done by means of the focussing screw where by the image of the staff is brought to the plane of the crosshairs.28.. If the bubble still remains central.' (. 1 Fig. Setting Up:" Initially the tripod is set up at a convenient height and the instrument is approximately levelled._0 " . Levelling Up: The instrument is then accurately levelled with the help of levelling screws or foot screws.28(a). I \ \ I II \ \ I I I I I -' .- e 0----------'.screw should be at the middle of its run. . 5. This is checked by moving the eye up or down when . If not. 5. The next step is focussing the objective. 5. \ \ ~ J .. (b) Bring the bubble to the centre of its run by turning the two levelling screws either both inwards or outwards.---G (b) 1 2:/ ~ \\ ' -. 3.

Turning Point or Change Point: For levelling over a long distance. usuallyit means elevation of thelineof sight or lineof collimation with respect to the datum. the elevation of other point can be easily found out. as shown in Fig. 5. S. A staff is held on the turning point and a foresight is taken before shifting the instrument. the principle that pressure decreases with rise in . 4. It may mean height of the instrument above the ground at the station where the instrument is placed. Back Sight: It is the first reading taken at a station of known elevation after setting up of the instrument. . 6. 3. 5. 7. it means that the second point is at a higher level than the first. Line of collimation is an imaginary line joining the optical centre of the objective with the intersection of crosshairs and its continuation.51 . In trigonornetrical levelling the difference in elevations is determined indirectly from the horizontal distance and the vertical angle. Turning point or change point connects one set of instrument readings with the next ser of readings with the changed position of the instrument. From the figure the reduced level of B can be derived as 100.. Station: This is a point where a levelling staff is held forlaking observations with a level.114 Fundamentals of Surveying . top of towers. From the next position of the instrument another reading is taken at the turning pointkeeping the staff undisturbed which is known as back sight. the instrument has to be shifted a number of times. Then if the elevation of one point is known. the instrument is placed at C roughly midway between two points A and B. In barometric levelling. etc. This is also known as direct levelling. Reduced Level (RL):Reduced level of a point is itsheight relative to the datum.0.:29. 5..57 = 101.30. Fore Sight (FS): This is the.16 DIFFERENT METHODS OF LEVELLING In levelling it is desired to find out the difference in level between two points. However. It is used mainly to determine elevations of inaccessible points such as mountain peaks. 2. From the readings it can also be observed that if the second reading is smaller than the Ist reading.. Since trigonometric relations are utilized in finding the difference in elevation it is known as trigonometrical levelling. Intermediate Sight (IS): As the name suggests these are readings taken between the Ist and last reading before shifting the instrument to a new station.lS TERMS USED IN LEVELLl~G The following terms are frequently used in levelling 1. This reading gives the height of the instrument (elevation of the line of collimation) as. The level is calculated or reduced with respect to the datum. Height of the Instrument (HI): This has two meanings. The staff readings are shown in the figure. Elevation of line of collimation =Knownelevation + Back sight . 5. In Fig.44 mm.50 + 1. lastreading taken before shifting an instrument to a new station.

5 Describe the method of operation ofa parallel plute micrometer in precise levelling. However. calculate the angular rotation of the prism to give a vertical displacement of the image of 0. for comparison. A I.. 7TTT77T ·1 1 I 8 T elevation is used. aneroid barometer is less accurate compared to the mercury barometer.3 Define optical axis of a lens.4 List in tabular form. As the aneroid barometer is strong and sturdy it is preferred to the mercury barometer which is fragile and cumbersome.. Hence it is possible to determine the difference in elevation between t\VO points by measuring the pressure difference between the points by eithermercury barometer or aneroid barometer. D Fig. the advantages and disadvantages of a tilting level versus an automatic level. 5.1 Explain how surveyers and engineers can often ignore the error caused by curvature and refraction in levelling work. Line of collimation .2 What errors may be introduced in using telescope's focussing screws? 5.01 I Levelling / ' 115 1. . . " PROBLEl\IS 5. . If the index of refraction from air to glass is 1. .000 I m.30 Trigonornetrical levelling. 5. 5.51 A Fig.29 Direct levelling. 5.6 and the parallel plate prism is 15 rnrn thick. 5.HI = 102.

XI s ..::_~-r~ "~~~1~ I .t~ .: .116 Fundamentals of Surveying ~ '.· .

The figure also explains the different terms used in connection with differential levelling. x .2 DIFFERENTIAL LEVELLING· Figure 6.545 Fall between 8. = 100.L. / X A X 8 x o Q.1 Differential levelling. (ii) Check levelling. and A. 8. and sectional elevation of aroad way along which a line of level is being taken. (iii) Fly levelling. . and (vi) Reciprocal levelling. R.1 INTRODUCTIO?'l' Direct levelling can be broadly classified as: (i) Differential levelling.815 8.645 A 8 c 117 D E F. 6. 6. G Fig. (iv) Profile levelling. 1.M.M.X E X F 1.6 Levelling II 6. (v) Cross sectional levelling.1 shows the plan.M.

330 L 3. of reduced level 100. Afterthis.L. 99.430 0. a fore sight is takenat G before the instrument is shifted again..The last rending on D is known ssfore sight.525 1.770) .6~5 Fore­ sight: Rise Fall Reduced Distance level in m Remarks Bench mark Staff Stn.3 LEVEL BOOK .L. .605 100. The instrument. E Staff Stn. is then setup atQ.050 1.330) .535 99.1. G 1. (i) Rise and fall method. F Staff Sill.965 99.550 1.545 99.11 S .840 6.This is back sight for the second set up of the instrument. The staff is now held at points A.100 0.515 m.545) = . sights are taken on E and F and the last reading. This is the first reading taken . and (ii) Height of collimation method.stnff position during which the position of the level is being changed. 0.010 0..(1. It is found that no further readings are possible after D due to (i) poor visibility and (ii) change in level of the ground surface or some obstacle in the line of sight. B Staff Sm. point D. Let its value be 0.after setting up the instrument and is known as back sight.0.755 . 6.0..' I I . . C Staff Sm. levelled and a staff reading is again taken on. the instrument is shifted to point Q. There are two methods of reducing levels. D (Changepoint) Staff Sm.815 1.(100.545 99.130 0.610 1.1st R. Band C in tum and readings known as intermediate sights are taken. The point D is called change point or tum point because it is the.I Fall =(0.840 Last R. = (99.(3.i05) .1 Rise and Fall Method Back- sight. Fundatncutals of Surveying The instrument is set up :it a convenient position P and the level staff is placed over the B.110 1.Intermediate. Complete bookings and reductions in the two methods are given in Table . Table 6.705 0 30 60 90 120 150 180 L =2.170) = . Instead of writing the readings in a sketch and giving suitable descriptions.\'I.515 Intersight 1.3. the whole process of levelling is systematically shown in a level book and reduced levels of different points found out.095 1.5-1-5 m.655 0.I RISE· AND FALL METHOD Each reading is entered on a different line in the applicable column. except at .170 L 0. A Staff Sm.645 99.715 1.610) =. The last rending taken with thisset up of instrument is at D.840 I Rise .I Fore-sight = (2.0.415 99.515 0.770 L 'I Check: I Back-sight.6.

6.515 Foresight Ht. ~ 4 . of change point D is obtained from the first line of sight by comparing intermediate sight 1.L.0. of nextpoint E.S.330 . When a reading ends on an lnrermedlate sight.170 =.705 L 2.of the lastpoint obtained from previous set up of the instrument.815 1.S. B:lck· Table 6.fO 3.I F.5~5 Distance Remarks 'B.1. When the instrument is changeda new height of collimation is obtained by again adding new backsight with R. of .64-5 with foresight 1. of the point on which the staff stands.705 - 100.t.e.L. This is to connect the line of sight of one set up of the instrument with the line of sight of the second set up of the instrument.755 99. Check:.2 Height of Colllmarlon Method Intersight sight 0.170 . 1. remain unchecked compared with rise and fall method where errors in all R. The checks are: r Backslghrs» L -Foresights =1: (Rises) - L'"(FalIs) . .605 L655 1.= ":" O.535 L 3.645 1. a rise of 0. backsight 1.545 .840 =99.L.'-':('" Levelling II 1 i 9 change points where a' fore-sight ' and a back-sight occupy the sameline.L.965 990415 99.2). At the end of the table arithmetic checks are shown. are detected.L. 1. itcan be seen that they are not at the.095 1. For checking for subsequent reading this may be considered as backslght. First R.L. In this case intermediate R. Reduced collimation level 10L060 100. 1: Backsights .·s the following formula may be used: .S.L.15 99. reduction is easier with height of collirnatlon method when the intermediate sights are large in number.545 99.L.3.L.Ls. for checking purposes it should be taken as a foresight. i. To check Intermediate R. same level. = 2330 .First R. L 7.515 101.715 1.Ls. However.515. R. of all ' th~ other points are obtained by subtractingthe staff reading from the height of collimation. =Last R. From Fig. 6.535 99.First R.815 iscompared withintermediate sight 1.e.715. = Last R.M.L. R. The arithmetic checks to be applied are: i: B.525 . . 6.100 m (Table 6. For the R.360 ·99.130 rn. a rise of 0. .Ls.i: Foresights Last R.2' HEIGHT OF COLLIMATION METHOD The height of collimation is obtained by adding the staff rending which must be backslght to the known R. i. .

965 + 99.22 3.H.03 Foresight Rise Fall R.S.~1 Pist.C.07 .645 + 99.H. of I.1. If an even gradient of 1 vertical in every 7 horizontal starts 1 rn above peg 0.89 1.15 193. Complete the levelling table given below.32 R.06)(4) + (101.03 3.07 1.81 - .67 1.415 + 99.1 .L.170 = 708. • 5 6 7 2 3 0 20 40 60 3. Back.20 ·t24 0.S.44 L 7.5~5 + 99.L.1 Station BJ'\f.25 1.56 1. Intersight sight 3.and 1 ES. R.16 195.10 Inter- sight . making total 4.16 195.36)(3) = 708.96 0. J. of applications.04 1.97 193.54 1049 3. ·In the second set up of the ins..585 + 3.41­ 2.S~ and 1 F.L. Foresight Rise Fall R.87 1. 193.67 2. In the first set up of instrument we have 3 J.62 0 1 ..755 + 99.4 Example 6. making total 3. of applications can be further explained as equal to: No.92 .01 190.62 2. For the example given: L.32 No. + L F.trument we have 2 I.!g L Reduced levels less the first + ~ I.S deduced from it. 194. = Height of each collimation x i'o. of gradient O· 20 40 60 80 100 120 1-10 0.1. 193.76 . .96 0. Lond] Table 6.S.62· 194.65 192.56 1.24 0...S.20 4.87 .S. and F.1 . what is the height of the gradient above or its depth below peg 7? [I.53 192.E. Example 6.91L 7.27 LS.705) + 7.37 ·.92 1.41 SO 100 120 140 Solutlon Complete levelling table is Table 6.16 L 6.2. = (99.34 190.S. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Distance Backsight 3.74 ------ .22 3.535 + 99.3 Example 6.S. Station B. = (101.10 2.120 Fundamentals of s/II"cy[.

. Intermediate sights on A + SO and A + 100.22 respectively.23. Intermediate sightson A.~.68 + 23. backsight 2.. Tabulate theabove readings on the ccllirnatlon system and then assuming the levels at A and A + 120were correct.9$ + 2~.68 .L = 192.88. = (13. + L F.10 = 2.. calculate the amounts by which the rails would have to be lifted at the intermediate points to give a uniform gradient throughout.15 .51 and 2.54 on A + 120.81.00.l st R.­ Check: :E (B.58 m l.L.30 + 25.2 .. A + 60: change point: foresight 1.32 and 1. 192.7 ~ 193.2.39 m or a. foresight of 1.01 rn above'.27 -.' Example 6..S. + 24.In order to find the rail levels of an existing railway.47 m =J.61 + 2-'1.10. R.3. + r 1.61.47 m Last R. 23..68) + 11. . then points :It distances in multiples of 20 m from A and the . .6~ = -1.7...-'12 = 187.27. Solution (i) fleig/It of Collimation Method . point A W:lS marked on the rail.7~ =-1.5.. 2. following readings were taken: . Reduced levels less the Ist.M.15 = 1. .62 m .A + 20 and A + 40. = 25. 121 Check: 6. .47 m H::ight of gradient above peg .) = 6.L. Levelling II. all being in meters. .... 0.92 respectively.16 . Repeat the tabulation on the riseand fallsystem and apply what checks are possible in each case.. . and finally 0.78 + 3. 2.) - L (F.8. Backsight 3.91 7.5.S.90 + 25. 8..g .42 = 2.Ist.5S m LnstR.193...

819 41.i 121 Fundamentals of Surveying I Each instrument height x l:\o.] Solution The readinss are setout in the t:lbl~·below.(Figtires in brackets denote inverted .3. - - Table 6.584 0 ~O 40 60 2.LC.356 \.42 = 2.00 Check: L 3.42 :E 2.68 .88 co.54 1..356.416 SO 100 120 140 160 :2. 40.51 2. .L.58 . are taken as negati ve.62 rn (ii) Rise and Fall Method Table 6.389 Distance Remark A 0. [R. 0.819 m.29 0.L.616].92 1.739 41.58 Example 6.479 42.30 0.677 1.835 42. The level of A is 41.749 41.2. 1.34 0.7 Example 6.2. staff readings) .378 [2. Set out the readings and complete the bookings.038 45. Rise 0.23.r Fall = 2. Inverted staff readinss .378.S.616) 1.027 B :E :{121 :E 2.32 1.39 2.98 ~~.765.520 ·H.00 120.2oo ·W.L.027.5. = 25. deduced from it) =26. 23.S.lst.61 24.524 43. and F. the staff being held in the l st case at ::I starting point A and then at 20 m intervals: 0.58 0.49 (4) + 27.00 60.2 .68.90 25.551 - .835.10 = 2. .61 .58 L 0.38 24. 41. =6.58 r Rise .6 Example 6.00 ·r B. 2.68 23.r F.064.10 23.765 1. These were as follows.063].30 25. Backsight lntersigh. [2. 1.064 [0.L.58 Last R. .3 HI of Backsight Intersight Foresight collirnatlon R. Calculate the gradient from A to B.81 2.eo OAO' . the last reading being at B: 2. 0.524.00 = 2.00 .29 Fall R.00 100.S. Foresight . of 1.677.5 L 3.00 80.00 Remarks 3.22 (3) = 187.S.063) 0. The level was then moved forward to another position and further readings were taken. 1.0. [0.27 Distance 0.00 z 6.060 42.3 The under noted readings in meters on ::I levelling staff were taken along a roadway AB with a dumpy level. R.22 2.'1.

. 0.274...M.133.277 1.the backsights being underlined. of collimation R. 2. ".41.718 . 039. O.4 The following figures are staff readings taken in order on a particular scheme.i2. 37.819 = . 'check the entries. L I~A26 I 5.810 1. = 41.0.S.746 37.0.8 Example 6.L.1.899.813 2..170..L.096 .523 . illQ. 2.L. Difference of L Backsight and L Foresight (Last intermediate sight should be considered as foresight) =7.277. . I Reduced level less the 1st + L 1. deduced from it) = 42.873 I 7375 . 1. = 344... Remarks 8.S. " .390 .563. 38. 2...3.542 ~ ..630.1.S.1st R. 3. The first reading was taken on a benchmark 39. =3. .430.2~3 . of 1.390.375 = 0.908.752 3.551 Last R. Comment on your completed reduction.6.4 Backsight Intersight Foresight Ht. :EF.. I L Each instrument height x (1':0.u.389 .Levelling l/ .430 3.00 Gradient from A to B = °i~~O = J in 372.S.121 = .899 1. 123 Check: L B.S.2.D.S: and F.00 .310 5.. 2.376 .542.416 x 4 = 344. 40. and find the reduced level of the last point. 2. - - .5S4 x 4 + 43.1.468 37. .630 3.206 37.09 Example 6.170 2. .563 38..513 . 39. Solution Table 6. + L F.605 39.90S.133 . asu.5~2 . Enter the readings in level book form. 3.

205.L.L.205 = 2. Find the missing readings with the help of [A~nE. = 205. 209.415 x 3 Distance in m 0 30 60 B.L.125 m (ii) R.310 ~ R. and first R.S.S. between 240 and 2iO . Summer 1979] available readings and apply arithmetical check. + L ES.p Underside of bridge girder x . = 0. less the 15t + L 1.675 x 210. deduced from it). = 305.145 . x Solution Missing readings can be obtained as follows: .426 + 5.1:!4 Fundamentals of Surveying Difference of last R.904 Example 6.563 = 0.5 . (i) Difference in R.L.205 Hence ES.L. at 240 = 205.873 .955 + 14.920 x ·x x 206.040 205. reading corresponding to 270 m chainage = 1.690.I.M.275 210.904 L Each instrument = 325.920 + 0.5. and ES.895 .995 x 3 + 41. 210 240 2iO x x 2. =40.355 0.635 c. A page of an old level book had been damaged by white ants and the readings marked x are missing. x 1.510 Remarks B.9 Example 6.080 x 3.895 205. R..L. at 210 = 206.L.5 height x (Nos.690 =0.S.376 x 4 + 40. ' Table 6. H.840 x x x J::!O 150 x 209.39.425 209.520 x 208.040 R.630 1. F. = 39. of 1.L.523 =325.5.895 Difference in R. x 1.

080 + 3.I.5:'= 1. = 3.435 1. R. (iv) After 150m distance will be 150 + 30 With =180 m =2. Hence intermediate sight corresponding to 210 =1.920 Height of instrument becomes 207. between 60 and 90 =209. = 208. = 209.815 .400 .925 m (v) At ISO. = 209.010 j . and =205.755 H.920 + 0. at 180 =206. Corresponding backsight =207.065 rn (iii) With R.L.245 m (vii) After 60 m distance will be 90 m with backsight 0.68 F.520 m Inverted staff reading = 1~115 m Ht: of instrument (vi) At 120 m 1. Hence =212.680· (viii) Difference InR.435 m (ix) At 30 rn. R.520 =209.635 =209.630 and H. =210.Levelling II 125 · .890 =0.895 1.890 m ES.5. = 210. = i.520 R.840 and H.I.S.145 = 2. = 209.425 H.L.520 208.L.I.355 =212. R.L.L..08 .= 0:400 rn Hence 208.L..206.S at 90 m = 3~355 + 0.I.275 = 1.815.

960.i60 210.510 - =3.~. . From the last position of the instrument two stations Band C with R.126 Fundamentals of Sutveying (x) With I.435 .S.S. The readings are tabulated as follows: i g .000 respectively are to be established without disturbing the instrument: Workout the staff reading at Band C and complete all the work in level book form.685.690.275 210.925 1. it indicates change of instrument point.245 1. 50.--_.510 210.115 3.250. 2.175 1.635 Remarks '. When there is a sudden change.675 2. 1.305.510 .208.-- _ .L.690 = 3._­ . Under side of bridge girder staff inverted C.925 I.050 (Stn.205.630 207.L B.820 Difference of 1st R. we have the following table: Table 6.0":0 2. F. = 1. . 209. R.L and Last R.. A) R.120.080 .800.920 2. 2.L. L 8.3.6 The following consecutive staff readings were taken on pegs at 15m interval on a continuously sloping ground: 0.010 3.520 C.10 Example 6. ISO 210 2-10 270 0. 2.510 4.820 Example 6. 3..680 208.425 209.755 209.125 ~ 4.675 Writing the missing readings.S.S.L.450. 2.050 was taken is known to be 50.825..895.!.840 1.1. H. 3.212-:435 1.P.S.895 205. 2.815 206.5 Distance in m B.690 .S.S90 ~06. = 8. 2.L = 212. of station A where the reading 2.760 m R. 1.895. 1.675 = 210.690 Difference of L F. = 209. [AMIE._------------- _-_.255. .P. _ _ -~-.S00 and 51.L.. Winter 1982] Solution Since it is a continuously sloping'ground with same set up of instrument there will be continuous increase of reading.690 205.355 0 30 60 90 120 150 0.

i.) to check the'level difference.S.s.5.S.590 B.P.305· 2. lst R.4 CHECKIKG OF LEVELS 3 + 52. _-.960 .390 51.r.255 3.485 1.2(b) show the two.51..685 51. .·.690 2.510 52. 52..060 c. There will alvvays be errors in field work and it is always necessary to get an ideo.590 .S. 2. Ley.685 52. : 2. = 544. =55. between A 'and B.L. .11.69 :E Each Instrument Height x (:-:0. 0.825 3..e 50. of the magnitude of error.00 = .S. R.82 + 11. + :E F.685 . of 1.300 1.625 50.M: CPS ~ Fig. This can be obtainedby taking the. and F.500 6.of levels (closed circuit).25 .example above indicate onlycorrectness of arithmetical computations.oflevel .2(:1. It is advisable to make the length of foresight and backsight equal to eliminate common instrumental errors.250 .. 6. 4. ' CP3·· Stalion B Station A original B.S.6 Distance B.300 55..820 11. 6.590 55. .Statlon A 50.645 54.895 r.3 x 3 = 544. 53.L. Fail Ht of instrument ·R.11 Example 6. ES.4.800 Station 8 5 LOOa Station C L Check: 13.P.L.660 -:.800 3.590 . Ris~ .050 1.51 6.90 105 120 56. Remarks 0 15 30 45 60 75 ..250 =. c.They do not indicate that levels of the points are also correct. X = 56.895 1.'0'. = 519. In Fig. Figures 6.180 c.2(a) Checking.120 ~ 2.250 :E :E r F.I!!/it!8 II 127 • Table 6. the line. less the Ist + :E I. level backto the original benchmark or to another pointof known elevation or benchmark.2(a):ind 6.Last a.955 .645 X 2 + 54.485 x 2 + 55. types of check. = 6.S.450 1.660 ·55.69 The arithmetic checks carried out after each.J .62 + 13. deduced from it).

in levelling it is possible to make blunders. that is. and (hi) reading wrong numbers. Proper notekeepingand systematicfield work will eliminate the first two while multiple readings can reduce the third to a minimum. Figure 6. and the difference of rending does not give the true difference. el =e::!and the difference of reading is the true difference of . If a large difference occurs there must be some mistake in either (i) computation or. 6. . at Point P Fig. When a survey starts from a point and loops back to the same point. sighting and atmospheric conditions are proportional to the numberof setups and/ordistances between benchmarks. _. . e3 > e. The discrepancy represents the error of closure of the circuit and should be very small. Systematic errors occur when the instrument is out of adjustment.L. line of sight remains inclined. . In the first case the level difference should be zero.L.1:8 Fundamentals of StllTcyfllg is broueht back to the oricinal station A.2(b) Checking of levels with kno\~n R. when the line of sight is not horizontal when the bubble is at the centre of its run.M.2(b) line of le\'el is taken to another point P of known R.L. (ii) in reading of the rod or (iii) in entering the field notes. . 6. level between A and B as the errors gel cancelled. • This is known as collimation error. a. (i) using a wrong point for a benchmark. In both cases we can compute the error in levelling. Original Slalion . But with imperfect adjustment.in the centre of its run line of sight is horizontal. It can alsobe eliminated by keeping the backsight and foresight equal. . after taking foresight at B instrument should be changed to a new position and backsight taken. it should be known R. This can be removed by checking the permanent adjustment of the level frequently. 6. . CP1 CP3 CP4 8. . the accidental errors in reading. (iii) Natural errors. As DC> DA.M.5 ERRORS IN LEVELLIi\G As explained earlier. In the second case. (ii) Personal errors.3 shows the error caused by inclined line of sight. Level OIlT of adjustment Normally when the bubble is.-\ = DB. In Fig. (ii) reading rod incorrectly.5.1 INSTRUMENTAL ERRORS t. (iii) reading on the stadia cross hair instead of the middle crosshalr. 6. In such a case station B has 10 be made a change point. Blunders in levelling may occur due to. If D. Errors can also be classified as (i) Instrumental errors. with bubble at the centre. for example. systematic errors and accidental errors.

.. AS-Vertical Staff. 6. 6. . AS'.. when the image and the' crosshair do not exactly coincide.J Error due 10 ncn-verticaliry.This can also be done by moving the rod slowly backward and forward arid taking the minimum reading as'shown in. (iii) Defective tripod.3 Collimation'error. Sluggish bubble and faulty focussing tube will lead to inclined line of sight and hence erroneous reading. A I-Instrument Station. Parallax Parallax.. NOli '. . .2 PERSONAL ERRORS 1. Hence a habit should be . Some levelling rods are fitted with circular levels at the back'so that verticality can be ensured by keeping the bubble central. (2) Other instrumental errors are: (i) Sluggish bubble. (ii) Defective staff. 2. formed for checking at the beginning and ot the end of each reading. leads to error in rod reading. .. Fig... 3. AB" cos 8 or =AB =AB sec 8 AB" . .5.4.129 L 83 I I K A '0 'S c Instrument' station Fig. EI =:::". ~ 6. Defective staff will give wrong reading and so also defective tripod.. This can be avoided by proper focussing and checked by moving the eye 'up and down. is made. From the figure it can'be seen that.=== . that is. Bubble not properly centred " This is a very serious error because of line of sight will be horizontal only when bubble is central.. (iv) Faulty focussing tube.1 Levelling J[ F 'e. 6. ASN-:'Inclined Staff Fig..' ' ..e~iicalilY of lite slal! The rod should be plumbwhen the rending .. .

the observed foresight will be too small and the elevation of the turning point will be too large.4. 5. Telescopic staff not fult» extended In India telescopic staff is more frequentlyused. all the parts of the staff should remain truly vertical and graduation should be continuous from one piece of staff to another. Moreover.\D ELIl\llNATING 1\USTAKES I~ LEVELLING Errors in levelling can be reduced but never fully eliminated bysysternaticadjustment and manipulation of both the level and staff. It can be practically eliminated by keeping the backsight and foresight distances equal. When working with telescopic staff. (v) usual field book checks should be observed.end of the bubble tube may be heated more than the other.I. used. 4. Temperature variation Temperature may cause unequal expansion of the various parts of the instrument. Settlement of tripod or turning point If the tripod settles between taking the backsight and foresight readings. The level should.3. be protected from the direct rays of the sun.3 NATURAL ERRORS 1.' of rod. a correction should be applied as already explained in Sec. In precise levelling when the backsight and foresight are not equal. Similarly if the change point settles between taking a foresight and the following backsight. the next observed backsight will be too great and H. (iv) usual field check should be done. It is of negligible quantity for 'ordinary levelling. Wind vibration Highwind shakes the instrument and thus disturbs the bubbleand the rod. .B" . The rod may also expand due to temperature. 3.. For precise work inver rods may be.1) eincreases. levelling may be discontinued for a few hours during midday or shorter sights may be taken. high wind. 5. The following points should be kept in mind for an accurate levelling: (i) bubble should be checked before and after each reading. One.. It is also dependent on the coarseness of the crosshair and the type . Precise levelling work should never be done under. The error is accidenral. the bubble then moves to the warmer end causing error. Curvature and refraction This error has already been explained is Sec. 6.P.5. preferably.3. calculated will also be toogreat. 4. (ii) rod with circular bubble should be used: (iii) length of foresight and backsight should be made equal. 6. Thus settlement of tripod or C. Hence it It is obvious that this error increases as AB increases or as is advisable to use small height of the staff. (vi) telescope should be shaded .AB = AB(sec e. it should be fully extended.6 REDUCING ERRORS A. Sighting error Error in sighting occurs in poor weather conditions and in longsights.130 Fundamentals of Surveying The error due to non verticality is given by e =. leads to systematic error as the resulting elevation will always be too high. 5. 2.

.\ It is not always possible in practice to make backslght equal to foresight... 6.. It is also not possible to always ensure horizontal line of sight.' D (:I) B 'I ..the line of collimation is inclined upwards even if the bubble is central.5 (:1\ lin: or collimatlon inclined upwards.. This is also known as Csfactor correction in which C represents the inclination of the line of sight when the level bubble is centred.3 m above intervening terr~in. The error is D tan« . .Levelling II 131. from sun.Da. Da as a is small and the correction is .I.. ~l b2 . 6..5(a). . I (c) I ··Ali- - - - Fig. d: ~-->!o---:----D1 I (b) 'J B Horizontal aj . I z A I. (b) Set up 1.. (c) Set up :2. .nClined ---­ a'.:.'In Fig. ... Hence collimation error invariably occurs and a collimation correction should be applied.­ . This is often expressed as CD where C is the Inclined line of sight E C Horizontal line of sight A I. (vii) line of sight-should be atl~ast 0..·Inclinedlioe of sight Horizontal line of sight Inclined line of sight '"'!"_--.\" .. . • 6.7 COLLIMATIO~ CORRECTIO:.. This will reduce errors and detect mistakes.

This correction is to be applied I I Error in .S. 6. intervals intervals .Bbl· = Aa2 + Cd. From the figures.Sum of short distances Once the C factor is known. For Set up 2 Correct difference between A and B =Aal-Bb{ = Aa2 + CD2 .. intervals . we get Aa2 + Cd. .S(d)..S...L B. 6...(d) + d-:J _ Sum of short distance reading . 6. Hence if C is positive the line of sight is inclined downward. a." .S(b) and (c).~ --_ . a\a2 = Cd.LB. Fig.s. 1. i.2) Equating (6.(Bb2 + CD) .-. . 0 C _ (Aa2 + Bbl) ..L back.L B.The line of collimation is assumed to be downward.- .S. intervals 1*-. (6.a2 = CD2 b lb2 = CD\ -. set up the instrument between A and B as shown in Figs.L F.Sumof iongdistance reading Sum of longdistances . intervals 'I' L Sum of ~. bIb!' =Cd2 For Set lip ] Correct difference between A and B = Aaj . In this case C = .S(d) Collimation ~orrection (backsights and foresights not .(Bb2 + Aa2) Transposmg (D) + D2) . -or.' I sight j r ___ - -- .S.(Bbf + Cd2) ' . C positive.S. L B.(Bb2 + CD) = Aa2 + CD2 .1) .S. this can be applied for necessary correction for unequal backsight and foresight as shown in Fig. intervals --1 -i equal)..5(d) is C factor times (L F. intervals).e.-­ --.2).I I I 1 ~ Error in .-'-:­ _. readings l-. ..(Bb2 + Cd2) (6. To determine C.1) and (6.I 132 Fundamentals of Surveying correction factor. . - _-.a.. 6. The correction to be applied as shown in the Fig.

30" + 0.-.323 per 30 m upward 30el =0. B =2.237 0.0.237 . I b 87.027 m = 1. True difference of level between A and B = 87....914 m on a staff held at A and 2..e. ( ="'x c==:=J (.. I \ 60 m Example 6.] Solution b1 I _.914 . to.323 . level than B..914 ":' 30a) = .279 f--- m --k 30 .87.30a + 0.------- ------- .30a ..60a = 2.6). i. ..05~ = 2.- --­ 1 I . m/~7.296=' . the bubble having been carefully brought to the centre of its run before each reading." I ___ ·I B Fig. Therefore or 0. the line of collimation is upward. 6.(Aal . [L.183 m .887 rn .bib) .7.279 O.. A .575 m and 87.57~tlJJ . Dla) = (2.. It Js known that the reduced levels of the top of the pegs A and Bare 87.6 Let us assume that the error is positive.(Bb l .279 = 0. it = 0. /.027 Rending at A = Aal .. Levelling II 133 Example 6..027 =1.60a) -(1.ala • Reading at =1.U..296 and A is at a higher.. _ .914 . Find (a) Collimation error.575 .237 . 6...7 A level set' up in a position 30 m from peg A and 60 m from peg Breads 1.237 m on a staff held at B. This is equal. (b) The readings that would have been obtained had there been no collimation error..D respectively (Fig.

Enter and reduce the ~eadings in an accepted form of field book.134 Fundamentals of Surveying Example 6. Corrected staff reading =(observed st~ff reading) cos 5° = . The reduced levels of the bench marks at A and B were known to be 43. R.803 .014 2.613.P. It is found after readings have been taken with the staff supposedly vertical as indicated by a: level on the staff that the level is 5° in error in the plane of the staffand instrument.L.003.735 A 43.593 B41.L Distance B.795 3. 43.746 = 2.650 m and 41.014.5~ Remarks 44.003 1. ·1.622 1.L.078 40.426. .335 ·0.057 m But the staff was held 5° off the vertical hence.283.650 0.8 H. 0. .t1. 2.672 :E 4.. 1.593 =2.cos 5°) x staff reading .613 2. I.426 1.911 41. change point.(1 .' Table 6. and last R.12(3) Example 6. .S.543 0. 2. '-: ! I Solution The data are tabulated in level book form and the R.085 -. 1.S.999 40.036 2. 60 rrr respectively? -(L. of the different points calculated. 2.699 42. 0.L.721 40. 1.085 (A).057 Difference between lst R.331 39.672 m respectively.0.803 Difference between ~ ES.622.283 1.8 The following staff readings were obtained when running a line of levels between two benchmarks A and B..L.650 - 41. Is the collimation errorof the instrument elevated ordepressed? What is its value in seconds if the backsights and foresights averaged 30 m and . 0. 3. . I.709 .V) . C. 1.911.4.231 ES.338 41.335. . 2. - L B.0038 x staff reading Correction = . =43.S.i95.036. 2. C. = 6.P.543.231.746 :E 6.650 42.

038 41.049 .42 L 1.003 2.L: 43..339 41.8.8 CHECK LE\'ELLI~G It is used for checking of elevationsat the end of day's work.­ 4·t731 42.978 The observed difference in level is too great as the actual difference is 1.To. "~I --0 .629 42. · .978 ?06'6· .541 0...729 I 6.601 Remarks A 43. = 122 seconds Backsight .049 =2.326 ·0.650 41.081 ..049 Actual difference = 1. 6.903 H.. .013 41. Long distances are taken as sights. Levelllng II· 135 A second table is drawn with the corrected staff readings for backsight and foresight o n l y . .i29 =2.4. F.918 and as the foresights exceeded the backsights in length the coliirnation is upward.41..509 R.728 40.S.I.6.778 . .1~(b) Example 6.:\'eIs.1. 1.601 Diff =6. .-­ Foresight = 120 m 4 x 30 =240 m 4 x 60 .0.650 841.7 Example 6. It is used for reconnaissance oi an area or for approximate checking of I.778 43..611 1. 3.d CoII " rmation error = 2-W _ 120 x . 2.650 .672 I 4.z A B Fig.S.------.ble6.8 B. :> secon 5 . 6.S.9 FLY LEYELLI)iG It is a quick but approximate method of levelling.616 1..

2 a typical longitudinal section is shown in Fig.8 Longitudinal section. that is.. book them properly in the level book.8. After the longitudinal or profile section is drawn. 6.o ci 0) '<l" (l) ci ro- 0 ci (l) I Distances 0 in meIer 30 60 90 120 150' 180 Fig. . side walk or sewer line can be designed. The procedure is exactly the same as in differential levelling as explained in Sec. It is necessary to take staff readings along the centre line. of known R.M.. so that larze number of readinss can be token and foresights and backsights are made approximately equal. It is however... a known R. vertical 1 em = 20 em. transmission line.The basic objective is to plot accurately the elevation of the points along the line of levels. 6. This is necessary before a rail road.l) (l) "" ci c..L. Based on the example given in Sec. Usually a line of level is run along the centre line of the proposed work as shown in Fig. F A (---~--~-.136 Fundamentals of Surveying 6. at the beginning or end of curve.\ ---- G I :r II Datum 99. compute the R. It-is now necessary to plot the profile or longitudinal section.1. 's of different points and apply suitable arithmetic checks.L.L. it is necessary to have a smooth surface: This is known as zrade line which is selected on various considerations like: (i) minirnurn am. at critical points where there is a sudden change of levels. so that suitable field checks are applied. 6. off the centre line. Toshow the distortions of the ground the elevations are plotted on a muchlargerscale after taking a suitabledatum than the longitudinal distances.unt'of cutting and filling of earth work..10 PROFILE LEVELLI~G As the name suggests. It can be pI aced any where if necessary.l) .L. in m (l) ci ci (l) ~ . Scale: horizontal 1 cm = 15 rn. B 'i\. also close with .-~---I .2. 6. it shows a profile. highway.also necessary to start from a B.\ . L/') I. and (iii) keeping the slope within allowable limit. . 6. aline depicting ground elevations at a vertical section along a survey line. Level is taken every 15 m or 30 m interval.l) I L/') I M L/') t!l R.. not essential to-put the instrument along the centre line.00 m L/') I L/') (l) I (l) (l) \ I I. L/') L/') I. (Ii): balancing the cut and fill. It is . .

295 2.=98.'ensure equal volumes of cut and fill and suitable adjustments of grade line may be necessary to ensure thlsconditlon. R.C. 3. i ellingIl ..ery small and is within allowable limit. .645 . .919 = 1." =98.088 3.137 -If points A andG are joined by a Straight line the slope of the line becomes (99.765 Hence depth of tr~nch at X =99.:·r.M.774 1.165 -.9 " Remarks B..­ Solution The tables show the problem and solution...97.200 ' .. • Le.999 1. ho\vever.535)/180 or 111059 which is .801 1.L.99. This may not.002 m 1.S.384 1.165 m At )'..152 " 3.L. ~.765 = 2.365 _ 120. 200 = 97. 120 m from A R. 40 m from A 40 R.9 The levellinz shown in the field sheet givenbelow was undertaken during the laying out of a sewer line.161 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 Point X ' Point Y Point B .390 1. 1.116 1.551 0.M. ' Example 6. Depth of trench at Y = 100. Determine the height of the ground at each observed point along the sewer line arid calculate the depth of the trench at points X and Y if the sewer is to have a gradient 'of 1 in200"downwardsfrom A to 8 and is to be 1. of sewerline atA = 99.754 98.5.732 2.IOOJ24 .S.365 m At X. = 98. F.~·.S] .13 Example 6.280 .280 m below the surface at A "[RJ.439 ' Table 6. = 98. 98.637 1. 1.t..204 .36:> .. Distance (m) B.936 '1. . B.417 .705 .

F.S.165 X 102.S.071 1..999 1.350 Remarks B.10 .460 .890 0.185.238 0. 2.175 R. .339 L Rise .410 L 5.399 = 2.600 181.738 .138 Fundamentals of Surveying Details of Field sheet.L.820.382 60 80. 75 100 Peg 1 Peg 2 Peg 3 Peg 4 . 0.402 100 y 0. = 100. B.10 In running fly levels from a benchmark of R.M.825 0 25 50 . R.085. Table 6.198 100.085 1.036 2.825 1.645 98.11.919 98. Summer 1986] pegs on the given gradient· Solution The data and the required readings are given in a tabular form.116 1.563 99.625 . Determine the staff readings required for setting thetops of the five . the following readings were obtained: .575 1.9 B.339 Example 6. Backsight: Foresight: 2. of Distance Remark sewer 1.L. Table 6. 2.100 181. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Dist.I. I. 183.L.890. H. 183.883 20 40 99.925.324 .025.625 1.370 183.765 .350.890 From the last position of the instrument five pegs 3t25 meters interval are to be set out on an uniformly falling gradient of line 100 with the lst peg to have a R. 1.550 182.925 2.384 1. 100.325 1.025 1.550 182.417 1.204 97.583 0.399 L B.152 3.625 .5.410 .819 100. 2.185 183.L.15 Example 6. =13.339 Last R.002 .S.732 2.774 1.820 0.463 0.850 181.801 .890 0.800 .365 A 00 99.First R.341 . 1. 120 140 Point B 0.S.L.S.390 1.295 I. 184.566 B. 185. No.:E 3.551 .071 =2.S.775 98. 1. 0.643 0. [AMIE. Rise Fal1 R.002 =2.M.. 1.:L Fall = 5.:L ES.638.L. 2.350 182.98. :E7. 3.440· 183. 99. 0. Peg 5 L5.270 . 1. L4. of 182.088 3.936 .0i5 . 99.341 L 13.. S.738 .345 181.637 U61 :E 11.3. 100.14 Example 6. F.L.

. Figure 6. . ~6:9(a) Plan ' Station L 8.535 1.L.5. R. == 181.875 1.S.S.". and F. Figure 6.27)(1) + (184..s'a.+ L F.1. c<:'? C'.945 ..195 105. Remarks c 0 A 5 10 15 5 10 15 .625 1.S.L F.955 Last R..350 .625 .835 L RL.015 . =5.M Distance (m) 8._.I.37)(1) + (183. 105. == 1468. Cross section is usually plotted in the same horizontal and vertical scale.7.S.695. F.800 + 7. from it) =(185.805 106. less the IS(+L I..955 6.175)(5) = 1468. In the case of roads and railways apart from longitudinal section.405 104.S.280 105.5. cross sections at right angles to the centre line of the alignment are required at some regular intervals.S = 1456.185 = .025 105.820 105.285 105.540 1.Levelling II 139 Check: L B.S. cS\ Fig.183.460 L (Each instrument height x No.135 105.795 1. .+ 4.?J. This is necessary to know the topography of the area which will be required for the roads and railways and also to compute the volume of cut and fill for the construction work.415 1.835 .L.460 '. H.1.11 CROSS SECTIONAL LEVELLING For laying a pipeline or sewerline only longitudinal section is adequate because the width of the line is small.­ - 1. R 1. of .L.9(a) shows the plan.9(b) shews the cross section and the table shows the entry in the level book. 1.685 1.Ist R. \~ \() ~ o ~ \() \~ c<:.

. ' '. 6.Sm.......?..9(b) Cross section C~ I.....1 L1" SIGHT RAILS AND BONING RODS Sight rails and boning rods are used for excavation purposes associated with the grading of drains and sewers... [trrnJ co u1 N 0 0 .... u1 0 ... The sight roils are established at fixed points along the excavation line at a height above the formation level equal to the length of the boning rod." .... • I 15 10' 5 0 Fig....L.:..10 Sight rails and boning ... Fig.. '''J'*f""''C..... When the boning rod is in line with sight rails the excavation is correct depth (Fig.. . 0 It) 0 ...... L.10)..5 m..... \... .1 1'.. The formation level compared with the surface level gives the depth of excavation. 6. . 6.rods.. ......:.'\i~''7'':iFi.... Sight rail Boning rod length of boning rod . 6. I OJ .:... Vertical Icm = 15 a... U"l' 0 . Scale: Horizontal I em = 5 10 2......+.. u1 0 .. L'.0 Fundamentals of Surveying Datum 104. Distances .... II) N q II) lI'l <:1' <:1' II) It) ~ c::l N M 0 .. 0 .00 R..

.956 .956 Difference in level = 2.~~ Invert level at B = 28.394 .594 . E and F are the sites. - [L. D.] Solution Sight r at A 'I~..538 = 1. Sight rail at F 34. ­ Difference ' = 1.-.138 Ground level at C =' 31.456 Natural ground 1 in 500 A 28.39~ m. The natural ground can be considered as .3 m boning rod or traveller can be used.956 m _ at A.16.------.238 = 0.438 (i.i) Ground level at B = 31. c. " • Difference at D Difference at E Difference at F = 1.IE>. peg at ground level at A was used as datum. 6..­ = 31. Sight rails 'are to beset up at A.------..a plane surface rising uniformly from A to F at a gradient of 1 vertically in 500 horizontally. B. C.10.----. (i) Ground level at A = 31. the ground level at A being 31.. the invert then rising uniformly at-1 in 200 to F. of manhole's 100 m apart on a straight sewer.956 B­ e 0 . The backsights and foresights were -made approximately equal and a.----­ .U.-. .394 Invert level at A = 28. Draw a level book-showing the readings.456 : Difference in level (iii) = 2.394 + . D. The level of the sewerinvert is [0 be 28. f Line of sight r-.. E and F so that a.31.956 +-~~~ = 29.938 The level book is shown in Table 6.-- ---.838 (i").11 A.-Levelling Il 141 " Example 6. F Formation gradient 1 in 200 Fig.956 31.79~ Invert level at C = 29.~.11 Example 6. B.

e (-sign as difference is measured at A instead of at B) I 1 By adding 2d =(a\. To avoid these errors two obser.(b~ + c + e - = (a:! -. is long and errors due to (i) collimation.4. = at + c + e . As shown in Fig.r . inclined line of sight.J .hI = (al From second set of readings: difference in level'. 6.a~) =.' d hi) 1- (c . =.bl) + (a~ ~ h:) I j 1 I I I I I . i.12 instrument is placed near station A and observations are made on staffs at A and B. however.e.r) +e r .-\.r) .ations are made. Sight distance. differe~ce From first set of readings: in level = d = BB.While crossing 3 river or ravine it is not possible to put the level midway so that the backsight and foresight are equal.. Similarly instrument is placed near Band staff readings are taken on B lind A. (ii) curvature and refraction are likely to occur. h..(c .

c . a Levelling II 143 I. [(a2 .. = 2' _. . 6.to. ...due . r· =2" [(al . colllmation If the combined error due to curvature and refraction are known error due to collimation can be found out. I JeT :J.518 on 8 0._ . Example '6.399 1. (al . ­ Subtracting or 2(c ... + e) . .bl)] Here c r =curvature error =refraction error e =error . (b) The error due to imperfect adjustment of the instrument assuming the mean radius of the earth 6365 kill..r + e = [(a2.r .332 Find (a) The true difference of level between the stations.b2) ~.) -- --.•.12 Level lit A 8 The results of reciprocal le... (b) b Level line through B Station B Fig.b2) .. elling between stations A and B Height of eyepiece (m) 250 m apart on opposite sides of a wide river were as follows. <zGO:-.-­ .--_. (Lll. Line due to refraction (3) f c 1 t a\ T Line of collimation rI ----------"""'­ Horizontal Line due to refr \.524 on A 1.f LIne of collimation . I Staff reading 2..b2)] . or tl .(al .bl)] . ­ . 1 bl) + (a2 .12 Reciprocal levelling.

The instrument was then moved to D so that the distance DB was about five times the distance DA and thereadings with the bubble central were 1. Was the' instrument in adjustment? .560'm and 1.L . The difference of readings gives the true difference in level between points A and B. . .808) = + 0. Example 6. 6. 6.1.b:\)] = t [(1.07)] = .bl ) + (a2 .2 m] 2 2502 = 2(6365)(1000) [1 .not remain quite central when the telescope was moved from A to B. Figure.b2) - (a\ .5.655 m respectively .2518) + (0. The readings on A and B were 1.13(b) and (e)).591 m respectively.bl )] .06 m .4 and B.0.13shows the fundamentals of the test. =..399 . TI"'Je difference of level = ~ [Cal .156 m (. ..2(.33~)] = .IS6 = + 0..13(a)).00422 m .13 A modem dumpy level was set up at a 'position equidistant from two pegs .~4 - l. The bubble was adjusted to its central position for each reading as it did. .964 m indicating that A is at a lower level than B. The level is then shifted along line AB either towards A or B through a known distance and the readings taken as shown in (Figs.13 TWO PEG TEST The two peg test is a familiar test to find the error of line of collimation of a level.~ [(~O. the height of the eyepiece is taken as the staff reading.144 Fundamentals of Surveying Solution Since the staff is' very close to A and B in lst and 2nd setup respectively.481 m and 1. 1 Total error = '2 [(a2 . 6. . From the readings and the known distances it is possible to calculate the collimation error. Initially the length AB is measured and the level is placed at the middle of two pegs A and B and the staff readings taken (Fig.119)] Error due to curvature and refraction L = 2R [1. Error due to collimation = + 0.004 = + 0.152 in 250 m Hence errorll00 m 6.

Fig. .481 A is III n higher' level than B. " • .--:--:----:-:--- ~ . Solution Figure 6..-. Line of collimation --r B' C A D (c) f...-.d..·ilh corresponding staff readings. " True difference of level ...591 = 0.-.. I d2 d....o+!.' B Line of collimation Line of collimation A B f--d. +d 2 =D· ~ (b) . Line of collimation Staff at B c D!2 + (a) D/2 . . Levelling II 145 · · · A ­ ~ .. 6.. L... =1.14 shows the two positicnsof the instrument 'v.110 m 1.13 Two 'peg test..

Aa) + 4e = 0.~ J .r 146 Fundamentals of Surveying Inclined line of . Hence. Since the wires are equally spaced the difference of reading between the upper and middle wires should be equal to that between middle and lower wire. on B it is Se. if error on A is e.Dl5 or e = . the observation should be repeated.591 horizontal A t B I~ I· - . In the second set of readings as angle a of the line of collimation is constant. 4e = 0.095 m But Bb . -r .14 THREE WIRE LEVELLING In ordinary levelling staff is read against only the middle horizontal crosshair whereas inthree wire levelling staff is read against all the three horizontal crosshairs and recorded.'.14 Example 6.Aa =' true difference in level = 0. indicating line of collimation was downward. These three readings are averagedto get a better value".481 1. .(Aa + e) = 1.110 = . Inclined line of .O. B· 1 ~ Fig.110 m .655 .095 -'0.13.560 • or (Bb . collimation 1. 6..1.004 m . Hence ' Bb + 5e . 6. If they do not agree within the accuracy of the instrument.. The .560·:~A~:'1655 horizontal A ' DA I-- o .

(7) (2) (5) CPI CP2 CP3 B~12 (6) Ariiametic check 6. of a point in a level line is based on the above principles. CS= 270 m The sections on Route 1 were levelled eight times. From theadjustment necessary for the common point. The outer loop should be adjusted first. . distances being as follows: Route 1 AC = 180 m Route 2 AE 1~4 m Route 3 AH = 26~ . out as also misclosure in the innerloop.S.\I II Levelling II 147 difference betweenthe upper and lower reading provides the staff intercept necessary to calculate the sight distance and to check whether backsight and foresight are equal. Though theory of least square is the best method for adjusting such a . .m = CD 282 m EF = 156 m = HB =369 m DB =228 m FG = 32~ m. (4) R. A typical page of the level book used for three wire levelling in given below. The adjustment required forthecommon point is' found out.e. the adjusted value of the starting point is found.I. Finally. F and C. The difference in level between two points A and B was found by three routes-(l) vla C and D. ES. of the inner loop. This rnlsclosure is. (3) H. those on Route 2 twice and . the outer loop is again adjusted based on new adjustment'. ES. When misclosure of level is known.18 show the procedure. Since standard error or probable error is directly proportional to the square root of the length of a nne and weight is inversely proportional to thesquare of probable error weight is inversely proportional to the length of a line in a level circuit. In multi loop circuits a benchmark should be made common to both the circuits. Weight also varies directly withthe number of repetitions. • . Remarks B. discrepancy is adjusted in proportionto 'length from the starting point.L.L. circuit. when levelling ends at a point of known elevation or at the starting point. (3) via H.17 and 6.S. " Distance reading B. Example 6. ADJUSTi\IENT AND PRECISIO~ OF LEVEL • In levelling error is likely to be more when the length of the line is more' or the number of set up of the instrument is more. again adjusted. approxlmateadjustments can be made. serr station (I) B~Il .14 . Similarly weight is inversely proportional to the number of instrument set ups. ERROR. l. (2) v la E. Examples 6. Therefore adjustment orcalculation of most probable value of R.15.

the established differences in level thus obtained being 30. D. Weight is inversely proportional to the square of probable error and directly proportional to the number of repetitions. and the usual laws for combination of readings hold.) Solution From the given data. find the most probable value of the difference in level between A and B. 30.285 (.279 m Example 6.U. the distances being Route 1 AC = 120 m CD = 162 m DE = 300 m EF 258 m FB = 132 m Route 2 AG = 240 m GH =306 m HB = 384 m Route 3 AJ = 294 m JB = 462 m The sections on Route 1 are each levelled four times. find the most probable value for the difference in. w) =4/9ii. wI : w2 : w) = 11\11 1 : 112/12 : lIil). : 8/930: 2rl56 . of repetitions =corresponding lengths Here 111 =8 112 =2 113 =4 1\ =180 + 282 + 228 =MOm 1 2 = 144 + 156 + 324 + 270 =894 m I) = 264 + 369 = 633 m II.292 - 690 -+-+­ 690 894 633 824 (2-) + 8. level between A and B. those on Route 2 eight times.2iS m. = = 120 + 162 + 300 + 258 + 132 = 972 m [2 = 240 + 306 + 384 = 930 m [) = 294 + 462 = 756 in [I WI .285 m respectively.148 Fundamentals of Surveying those on Route 3 four times and the differences in level were found to be 8. 1 2 and I) Most probable value =Weighted mean _ \"\-'"\ + II'~X2 + \\'3-'") \\'\ + \\'2 + \\'3 _ (8. the difference in level between two points A and B is found by three routes-via C. via G and H and via I.81 m.15 Ina topographical survey.275) (~) + 8. . where lilt "2 and 11) = no.: »'2 :. If the probable error in any section at each levelling is proportional to its 'length. and on Route 3 twice.. (Salford) Solution Most probable value is the weighted mean of the observed values..57 m and 31.292 m and 8. (L..Sc. E. If the probable error in any section for a single levelling is proportional to the square root of the length of thatsection.08 m respectively. B.i-.) 894 633 i =8. and F. 8.

to a new B.024(l0-S) uf = 1.A whose elevation is 146. The measured difference in elevation is + 10.P.522 rn.0.JfO•.Levelling II ' 149 Most probable value ::: Weighted mean ' • • 4 8" '2 '.522 -: 3.'2 u3 = 143.851 .(30."'Ioffit) Solution Standard error is proponional to the square root of the number of setups required.' (30. .2630 + 0.00032 143.72 m Example 6.57) + .0086 + 0.M.P requiring four set' ups.3.086 ITi by ...080 .B whose elevation is 146. A line is carried from B. hence. Hence standard errors oflines 1. 1 .436 ..08) _ 972 ' '930 756 ' . 1 •• \ • '~2 •• 3 - 10' '6 .08632 m Standard error of the weighted mean v\ 1. 143. Weights are inversely proportionalto square of standard errors. The measured difference in elevation is .l.08632 = ..0026 =30.M.• by -1st route 146.08) 1.755 m. •• v -' I .M. A line is carried from B.M. 2 -+-+­ 972.M.3.3.1268 + 0.P requiring six set ups.00968 = 143.096 m .0822 .J4 respectively.096 - 143.P requiring 10 set ups. 930 756 _ 0.(31.4 8.755 .312 =143.[6 and .16 A line of levels' is carried from B..08632 = . 2 and 3 are proportional to .:. by3rd route Weighted elevation' = =132.2nd route = 146.086 = 143.M.00632 . r..lf = 1.768 + 10.086) + i (l~3.08632 = + .M.00411 + 0. P. The measured difference in elevation is .81) + .851 m to B.+1+1 10 6 4 = 143.436 rn.P and the standard error of this elevation.768 m to B.143. = ' 143. .312 m.096) +* (143.e whose elevation is 132. Compute the weighted elevation of B...M.024 X10-7 .080 m _ to (143. '4 Level of B.

562(10.17.003579 =± (.562 x 10-5 0. 0"\ Example 6.003579)(4) =± .15 Example 6.562 x 10-5 2· = ± . .37 x 10-5 P: . .004979 Standard error of each of the measured elevation • .003579)(6) =± . . 100.990(10~) L pv 2 =2.02147 0"3 =± (.00 A c '" co ~ ~ o '\P 3 3 E o Fig.150 Fundamentals oj Surveying u~ 5 =9. 6. .01432. Compute the adjusted values of the levels of different points.L.5167 x 2 =± .17 Figure 6.~ /2. '\~ ~ d~~~ R.15 shows a closed circuit of levels with difference of levels betweendifferent points and the length between them. = 3.= 1. = 9.~?..562 x 10-5 Standard error of the weighted mean = 2. 1 .003579)(10) = ± . Solution 8 ?>.) vi .u.03579 0"2 = ± (.99 x 10-5 p~ui .

P...63 105.14.B as reference they are also reduced by the same amount .10 + 0.85 it closes on B. 6.A and closes on the same point as' shown in Fig.B(l) as 101.0.85 = 104.6 =103.06 rn/set up.8-1- 101.45 = 102.. = 105. ? 15 1 0·' 0.52 + O.29 103.-.15 .1.30 m.1. The elevations observed at different points are as follows: Elevation observed ·B. ".M.559 m ? ' 2 0.) ":" .1 O· ? 67' 0.85) at D = 100 + 3.05 = 102.M. 102.52 of: 2. + . .. -..M.30 m.10 • • =. Loop 2 is adjusted.M.27 103.0..15 giving a mlsclosure of + 0.18 A level line is run from B.6 B.).50 101. Starting with B.00 = 101.00 = 100.6 and B.05 . .M. 2.05 .3 C.15(2.. 6.25) E 100 + ". 2 1.B(2) C. B.45 = 103.5 B.l~ ~_1.30/5 = .M.15(5.05 = 100 m Example 6..35 = 103.+ 3.) + 6.) + 6.B is included in both the loops.P.16.P. Solution First the outer circuit.Pl .1.6) 3 5.15 = 101.67 .A C.75 = 101.734 m · .52 + 2.Levelling11 151 Misclosure = +' 3.2.~ 1(1) is to be reduced by 0. 104.67 .+ .PA C. In the outer loop there are five change points while in the inner loop there are four change points.) .).08 m at A = 100 + 3.J at:::.+ .05 = 10-1-.A is based' onB.15(6.15 .6-1-5 m .15 m ov~ra length of 6.I.A 1st correction 2nd correction = 105.21 . B.+ _.P.'t'.. In Loop 2 there are 5 instrument set ups and hence a correction of .00 99.lvlB(I) C.(2) as 1O:!.M.85 101..2. B.P.05) '6.0. As C.85 .2 C. Le.15(3.M.05 km Elevation adjustment at B = 100.30 = 100. 2.93 100.05' :It C = 100 +.00.

850 2.000 2. given the diameter of earth as 12. .16 Example 6." Determine (i) the true R.16/4 = 0.B by 2 instrument set ups. giving R.M. ofB.740 krn.L. B.18.151 Fundamentals of Surveying . . PROBLEMS 6.A is adjusted by four instrument set ups and B. This gives a misclosure in loop 1 as .L. . Loop 2 '3 Fig. ' (b).L of P = 126.200 Remarks PQ = 1055 m R.850 1.100 . .6. 6. Details are shown as 1st correction and 2nd correction in the example itself.A as'99.3 Name the different sources of errors in levelling and explain how they can be eliminated or minimized. .16 and is equal to 0.M. in the collimation adjustment of instrument. 6. . The following notes refer to reciprocal levels: Instrument near P Q Staff readings on P Q 1.2 Describe in detail the methods of reduction of levels and explain their merits and demerits.0. Winter 1984] L . The values in loop 2 are now adjusted. if any. of Q (ii) thecombined correction for curvature and refraction and (iii) the angular error.84 m.4 (a) Derive an expression for the combined effect of earth's curvature and atmospheric refraction in levelling. Sec B.1 Draw a page of a typical levelling 'field book and explain how the readings are recorded. 6.M. [AMIE.04 m per set up.

the level was set up near A and the staff readings on A and B were 2. check your results.690 2.425· [A~llE. 0. . Insert the missing figures.575. Calculate the reduced levels of the points and also the gradient of the line joining the first and last polnts. (iii) Backsight.. respectively. (iv) Foresight.2 8.925 0. 2.x .875. and (v i) Reduced level. and re-bookall the figures using th~ "rise and fall" method. Winter 1987] 4 . Levelling II 153 6. .6 (a) Show that the reciprocal levelling eliminates effects of atmospheric refraction and earth's curvature as well as effect of in adjustment of the line of collimation.605. (b) . [AMIE. (b) The following figures were extracted. 6.M No. 2. 1..235. 2. . 0.865 . 1. R. F:lll ! .825. Rule a page of a level field book and enter the above readings. 2.L.M No. Rise.285 1. correction. 0. Summer 1987].1 x 2..645 m and 3.. .120.340 232.085 m and 1.8 (a) Describe the method of longitudinal levelling with the help of a suitable diagram and sketch a typical longitudinal section.from a "level field book". some of the entries being illegible.050 1.5 (a) Define with the help of neat sketches the following: (i) Level surface. Remarks B:i\! No.240.915. (ii) Horizontal surface.­.S. 1. . Find the correctlon due to each and the combined. [AMIE. The level was then moved and set up near B.S. Station 1 2 3 4· 5 6 7· 8 9 B.S.935.. (b) The following is the page of a level field book from which several values are missing.The following consecutive readings were taken with a level and 3 m levelling staff on continuously sloping ground at a common interval of 20 rn. Winter 1956] . Apply all necessary checks.7 (a) Discuss the effects of curvature and refraction in levelling.. the respective staff readings on A and B were 1. - F. J 6. 233.960 1. .230 m.100 x 0. Reconstruct the page and fill all the entries where x mark is present. x .860.3 x . 2. 1.300 x 1.725 The reduced level of the 1st point was '192. Find the true difference of level between A and B.695 rn. (v) Height of instrument. 6. Why are these effects ignored in ordinary levelling? (b) In levelling between two points A and B on opposite sides of a river.255 B.650 2:105 I.

568.S.430 F. . if first point was 192. (c) The following consecutive readings were taken with a level and 3 m levelling staff on a continuously sloping ground.9 (a) Derive expressions for curvature and refraction correction along with diagrams in levelling.2 -' x .L. '2. 1.275 0.395 1.1 T.740 .914.920 x 1. 6.. 0. 6.210 x 8. 0.00 .385 1.310 x 0. 1.S. Rise Fall R. 1. Remarks 100.872. 0. B.P.574. ' 5 6 7 x 0. .860. Apply the usual checks. 1:824. .585 x x x x 100.234.t. Fill in the missing data.154 Fundamentals of Surveying Station I 2 3 4 B.13 x x T.S. (b) Explain the operation of balancing backsight and foresight with the help of a diagram and describe its advantages. 1.238. 2.P. Summer 1988] . x 0. [AM1E. 0.· . .10 Reproduced below is the page in a level book.M. 0.122 m.936.602.630 0.722 Determine the reduced levels of all the points of R. 1. 2.

Staff reading at station B. .'~~. 3.750) =0. R. (b) The following consecutive staff readings were taken on pegs at 15 m interval on a continuously sloping ground. 1. J ~ {. 2.M.690. . I.750 (i) Was the line of collimation inclined upwards or downwards and by . . A(R.ork in level book form. 3. of station A where the reading 2." a horizontal.l i' ··r '~~ "1. how much? (il) Calculate the readings that sbould be obtained on A and B to have . Winter 1980] 6.. Summer 1983] - I ! ~-.685.M.895. .450.\c. Staff reading on B. (b) Calculate the errorin staffreading on account of (i) Curvature of earth. (iii) State in what direction and by how much the.i50 Staff reading on B. complete all the \. (ii) Instrument very near to station B Staff readinz at station' A ~ 0. [A~HE.675 .12 (a).800.. ...'.. 2. ". Winter 1982] 6. ' i·.-.~.050 (station A) .050 was taken. 50. " ". 1. 41"" 'r .255.13 (a) Draw of neat sketch of an interval focussing telescope of a level showing clearly all the important parts. 2.000 respectively are to be established without disturbing th'e-instrument. (c) Show the above two errors clearly on a neatly drawn sketch and also the combined correction to be applied in this case.' " ""..855 Staff reading at station B = 1. 1."'.>'. From the last position of the instrument two stations Band C with R. 2.250. 0. 2. Write in brief about the special points of 'autolevel'.825. 11.~'" F "l~':. . 3. (ii) Normal refraction in levelling operations if the staff is held at a distance of 800 m from the instrument. is known to be 50.800 and 51. Levelling l/ 155.llne of sight.' .L. diaphragm has to be moved for adjustment. State the function of each part. B(R. 10./" "":1:.895. .605 . .750) =1..925 Find out from the above observations. (d) Following observations were taken for testing of a dumpy level: (i) Instrument exactly 'at the mid-point ofline AB Staffrending at station A = 1.L.120.)(:~.L.960. If not in adjustmentwha: is 'the nature and amount of error in distance AB? What w111 be the correct readings on staff at A and B from station B when the lineof collimation is adjusted? [A~UE..305. . whether the line of collimation is in adjustment or not. .= 0.L. [AMIE.' .-Work-out-the-staf(-readings-at-stl1tiens-B-and-G--and-----~ l· I~ r~.

:1 i I 7. .2 PERMANENT ADJUSTMENTS OF A DUMPY LEVEL . I ~·Hori"ontai VA (a) Line of sight hair I i (Perpendicular to VA) Bubbletube axis +-. be checked periodically by the users and.1 They are as follows: . .1 INTRODUCTION Two types of adjustments are made on any surveying instrument-(i) Temporary.iP The correct axes relationships for a properly adjusted level is shown in Fig. 1 Permanent Adjustments of Levels 7.~ I I. Temporary adjustments are those performed each time an instrument is used and should invariably be done each time.7 I i A.1 Axes relationships of a level: (a) Sid'e view. (b) Front view. 7. ~~ ~" . Permanent adjustments 'are usually done by the instrument makers. 7. -'I . 156 /' Ii \) ~l . if necessary. They should however. sent to the maker or may be done by the users themselves if experts are available. the instrument is set up in the field.Vertical Axis (b) Fig. '. (ii) Permanent.

the adjustment has to be repeated till the bubble remains central during one complete revolution of the telescope. Bring the bubble half way back by raising or lowering one end of the level tube by means of capstan headed screws. # Explanation The adjustment is based on the principle of reversal which states that reversing the instrument position' bv . . If not. Now rotate the telescope throughlS0° to see if the bubble still remains central. Permanent Adjustments of Levels' 157 . The horizontal crosshairshould lie in a plane perpendicularto the vertical axis. 2. Test Set up the level. ' ' 3. . rotation in a horizontal or vertical plane . If the set square is now turned about BC. When the instrument is now rotated through 180°. the vertical ~xis. of the instrument. no adjustment is necessary. The axis of the bubble tube should be perpendicular to the vertical axis. 2.2. the distance through which the bubble moves off the central position is double the error. 7.3(a) shows how level tube is brought to the centre of its run when the vertical axis is riot truly vertical. Correction 1.. cd remains :IS it is but the new position of ab becomes a'b' as the angle -----' . The same principle is applied in this adjustment.1 FIRST ADJUSTMENT Purpose' To make the axis of the level tube perpendicular to.2. The other half is corrected by means of the two levelling screws parallel to' the telescope. This is initial condition. 1. If the bubble' remains central.2 Principle of reversal. ' c c c e I I A r (a) ! 8 A 8 (b) A Fig. 7. 3. Figure 7. enabling a surveyor to directly determine how much correction is needed. The line of sight should beparallel to the axis of thebubblerube. centre the bubble and revolve the telescope through 180°. 'I. This can be easily shown with the help of a set square where the sides AB and BC are not exactly perpendicular but there is small angular error e. the error is doubled as shown in Fig. 7. .'If not.I ". doubles any error present.

·7.2.2 SECQND ADJUSTMENT Purpose To make the horizontal hair truly horizontal when the instrument is levelled. If not. hair becomes truly horizontal. . Check again by sighting point P as before and repeat the process.158 Fundamentals of Surveying Level tube a Inclined vertical axis c i K / a' a l-=".e remains fixed and ac becomes cb'. Adjustment Loosen the four capstan screws holding the reticle carrying the crosshairs.2. Test Sight some well defined point P with one end of the horizontal hair-. 90o . Rotate -the telescope slowly on its vertical axis. 7. 7. True vertical axis I I d (a) (b) Fig.The screws should be carefully tightened in its final position. instrument is out of adjustment. the horizontal hair is truly horizontal.4 Adjustment of horizontal crosshair. Hence half the error is adjusted by the 'capstan headed screws as shown in Fig. 7. Fig.=C:::: I I b b b' I e :-. the .7. if neces:sary. Hence the error from the horizontal is 2e which is double the error between the level tube axis and the vertical axis. If the horizontal crosshair moves over the point P throughout its length. Rotate the reticle throughthe required small angle so thatthe horizontal : .3 THIRD ADJUSTMENT Purpose. To make the line of sight parallel to' the axis of the bubble tube or to make the line of sight horizontal when the bubble is hi the centre of its run.3 Adjustment of bubble tube axis.3(b).. 'J L .

3 ADJUSTMEI\TS OF A TILTl~G LEYEL The tilting level has three adjustments: .' the true difference of level between A and B./ .6). . . 7. Since the instrument is placed at the middle even if the line of sight is inclined. Ifdifference inreadingis not the same. 7.Bb. ' Now the instrument is placed at one end D very close to the point A.6 Second position of level (two peg test). 7. If the difference in reading between Aa' and Bb' is the same as' the previous. The instrument is first placed midway between two pegs A and B which are at least two chains apart as shown in Fig..compute the correct reading' at B by adding or subtracting from the reuding :it A. the difference of readings Aa and Bb will be the true difference of level' between A and B. b' . 'b A I I I I I B C Fig. To' get the correct value several trials will be necessary . the line of sight is' horizontal and no adjustmentis necessary. a Permanent Adjustments of Levels 159 Test This is done by means of Two-peg test. . 7.reading: Aa . Loosen the top (or bottom) capstan screw holding the reticle and.5. The reading on B.S Initial mid position of level.Aa' is taken by'sighting through the objective lens. Reading on A. . Adjustment. tighten the bottom (or top) screw to move the horizontal hair up or down to get the required reading at B. Bb' is taken in the usual way (Fig. 7. a' B D A Fig.

160 Fundamentals oj Surveying 1. Horizontal crosshair should be truly horizontal when the bull's eye bubble is centred. 2. The circular bubble should stay in the centre as the telescope is rotated about the vertical axis. 3. Line of sight should be horizontal when the main sensitive bubble is . centred. These adjustments closely follow the adjustments of dumpy level with minor modifications. 7.3.1 FlRST ADJUSTMENT

The test is same as in dumpy level. A point P is seen at the end of the horizontal crosshair, The telescope is now rotated about its vertical axis to see if the point P remains in the horizontal hair. If not, adjustments are to be made by the capstan sc~ews and rotating the crosshalr reticle.
I

7.3.2 SECOND

ADJUSTME~T

Purpose The purpose of this adjustment is to make the plane of the circular bubble perpendicular to the instrument's vertical axis. Test The telescope is turned 1800 in azimuth. If the bubble docs not remain central, it is brought half way back to the centre in both directions by raising or lowering the bubble mount by means of capstan screws or spring screws as required. Thisadjustment is not essential as precise bubble tube is used to obtain a horizontal line of sight. . 7.3.3 . THIRD ADJUSTME:--:T Purpose This adjustment makes the precise bubble tube axis parallel to the instrument's line of sight. Test The two-peg test is applied to find out if the line of sight is horizontal when the bubble is centred. Adjustment If not, the correct reading at B is computed and the crosshairs are brought to that reading by rotating the telescope's tilting drum. The precise bubble is then centred using the bubble tube adjusting nuts. If the bubble is the coincident type, raising or lowering one end of the bubble vial will bring them. into coincidence.
7.4 ADJUS~MENTS OF AUTOMATIC LEVEL

/'

,

I

: k

I !
i
1

'

.i
Automatic levels have two principal adjustments: (i) Circular bubble; (ii) Line of sight. . .

.

. l

Permanent Adjustmentsof Lei'eis

161

. .

Adjustments are the same :IS stated earlier. Before these adjustments are done on automatic levels, it should be checkedthat the compensator is functioning properly.

PROBLE~lS

7.1 (a) What is the difference between the temporary adjustment and permanent adjustment of a dumpy level? . (b) Describe the permanent adjustments of a dumpy level. How can these be tested and done in the field'? [A~nE, Summer 1978] 7.2 (a) Draw a neat sketch of a dumpy level and name pans thereon. (b) List the 'temporary' and 'permanent' adjustments of a dumpy level. (c) Describe the function of crosshairs and stadia hairs. [AMIE, Winter 1979] 7.3 List out the permanent relationshipsthat should exist between the different principal lines of a perfect dumpy level. rAMIE,.Winter 1980]

"

."~

8

.

~

Angles and Directions
8.1 . INTRODUCTION

,

1
Measurement of angles is basic t,o ~ny survey operation. When an angle is measured in .a horizontal plane it is horizontal angle, when measured in a vertical plane it is vertical angle. Angle measurements involve three steps: (i) Reference or starting line; (ii) Direction of turning; (iii) Angular value (Value of the angle). These are shown in Fig. 8.1.

I

Vertical _ / / plane
/

".. . -1--.....
-'

Direction of turning
. . . . I
I

"

'lC..

Reference or starting line Vertical angle (elevation) Reference or ./" starting line

.
!
I

-\1--....1..,:----/l--,7.,r;:K~J.. . . .-

..... , -----;~"-'-jf--""'<"--'

I

Direction of turning
I

Horizontal plane distance

_L / "APrg~lar
-

/

Vertical angle
Direction of (depression)
turning

Fig. 8.1 Measurement of angle.

8.2 DIFFERENT T\TPES OF HORIZONTAL ANGLES·

As explained in Fig. 8.2 horizontal angles canbe (i) Interior angles, or (ii) Deflection angles. Interiorangles can be clockwise when the direction of turning is clockwise, or anticlockwise when the direction of turning is anticlockwlse, Similarly deflection
162
"V,

AlIglesalld Directions °J63
B

. .
A

8

C

A

C

E
(a)

D

E
(b)

D

D

Anticlockwise left dellection angle

.
Clockwise
\

\
\

Right B deflection' angle

,<"

e"

(c)
Fig.8.2 Differen;types of angles: (3) Closed polrgon-instrument statlon .-t. B. C. D and E, all angles measured clockwise. (b) Closed pol)'gon-:-instrumem stations A. B. C. D lind E. all angles measured anticlcckwise. (c) Del1;:':lion o,::~:c~.

164 Fundamentals of Surveying
angles are measured clockwise or towards right and anticlockwise or towards left. Figure 8.2 explains the different measurements.
8.3 DIRECTION OF A LI:\E

..

Direction of a line is the horizontal angle from a reference line called the meridian. There are four basic types of meridians:
1.Astronomic meridian It is an imaginary line on the earth'ssurface passing through the north-south geographical poles. 2. Magnetic meridian It is the direction of the vertical plane shown by a . freely suspended magnetic. needle. . 3. Grid m~ridian A line through a point parallel to the central meridian or y-axis of a rectangular coordinate system: . . 4. Arbitrary meridian An arbitrary chosen line with a directional value assigned by the observer. These are explained graphically in Fig. 8.3.

Astronomic north

Magnetic north Arbitrary or Assumed north

Magnetic Variation or Mapping\ declination Angle

Fig. 8.3

Different north directions.

8.4 BEARINGS Bearing of a line is measured from the north or south terminus of a reference meridian. It is always less than 90° and is designated by the quadrant in which it lies as shown in Fig. SA. From the figure it can De seen that Bearing of OA = N 400E 08 = S 25cE OC S 30=W
OD = N 4S=W

=

Since bearing is with reference to N-S line angles are measured clockwise in the lst (NE) and IIIrd (S.W) quadrants. Iris measured anticlockwise in 2nd and 4th Quadrants (NW and SE). When bearings are measured with reference to astronomic or true meridian it is true bearing. If the be:iring is from magnetic meridian, it is

\-,

Angtes and Directions
o
N
N

165

. .

A E

w

)(

E

C

S

6

Fig. 8.4 Quadrantal bearing.

magnetic bearing and when from a grid it is grid bearing. If the instrument is set up at 0 and bearing of OA is taken it is forward bearing. But if the instrument is set up at A and bearing of AO.is taken. it is forward bearing of AO but back bearing of 004. Hence back bearing of 040 is S40~W. Back bearings thus have the same numerical value but opposite letters.

8.5 AZI:\IUTHS
Azimuths are angles measured clockwise from any reference meridian. They are measured from the north and vary from 0° to 360' and do not require letters to identify their quadrant. Figure 8.5 shows the azimuths of different lines whose bearings are given in Fig. 8.4.
N

o

AE

Vl

{

_~(

7'l1

E

./'

..

'

c s B Fig. 8.5 Azimuth or whole circle bearing.
Azimuth of 0,.\ =-to' OB = 180= - 25' = ISS" OC = 180 + 30' =210' OD 360: - 45' 315:

=

=

.';

166 Fundamentals of Surveying
As stated before, forward azimuth of OA is 40°. The back azimuth of OA is forward azimuth of AO and from the figure it is clearly equal to 40° +. 180° = 220°. Thus the forward azimuth and back azimuth differ by 180°. As before azimuths are true, magnetic, gridor assumed when theyare measured with reference to true, magnetics grid or assumed meridian respectively. From a study of the bearings and azimuths of the lines OA, OB, OC and OD, the following observations are made: (a) When a line is in the 1st quadrant the azimuth varies from 0 to 90° and azimuth and bearing of a line are the same (line OA). (b) When a line is in the 2nd quadrant the azimuth lies between 90° and 180° and it can be obtained from bearing by subtracting it from 180° (line OB). (c) When a line is in 3rd quadrant the azimuth lies between 180° and 270° and it can be 'obtained from bearing by adding 180° (line oq. ' (d) Finally, when a line is in the 4th quadrant, the azimuth is obtained by subtracting the bearing from 360°. The azimuth will lie between 270° and 360° , (line OD). To convert azimuth to bearing the following rules should be followed: (a) When the azimuth is between 0° to 90°, it lies in 1st quadrant and the .bearing is the same as azimuth with the symbols NE. (b) Between 90° to 180°, the linelies in the 2nd quadrant and the bearing is obtained by subtracting azimuth from 180° with the symbols SE. (c) Between 180° and 270°, the line lies in the 3rd quadrant and bearing is obtained by subtracting 180° from azimuth with symbols S\\'. (d) Finally, in the 4th quadrant; azimuth is subtracted from 360° to get bearing with the symbols NW.
3S

,'~

, ":'"1'

·:\ .. ·

"

Usually azimuth is known as whole circle bearing and bearing is designated quadrantal bearing or reduced bearing. Table 8.1 gives a comparison between bearing and azimuth.
Table 8.1 Comparison between Bearing and Azimuth Point
1. Angle

Bearing Varies from 0° to 90' It always lies between any two of the four letters N. S. E and W
(i) Both clockwise and

Azimuth Varies from 0° to 360° No letter is necessary

2.

Designation

..

3. Measurement

anticlockwise measurement is necessary (ii) Measured from north and south

Measured always clockwise Measured only from north

·
.
v-;

:j

:11

,

­

III

;i!
:!I
!II,

!'I
:
' I '

I

,

i:}

'.
Angles and Directions
Example 8.1 Convert the following azimuths to bearings
• . . OA
' .

167

II

Ii

=54°20'

.

, OS.= 154°25'

OC

=261°25'

OD = 312°38' ' , From Fig. 8.6 (i) bearing of 004. e = N54°20'E Fig. 8.6 (ii) bearing of OB, 8=180° - 154°25' =5 25°35'E Fig. 8.6 (iii) bearing of OC 8 = ,261 °25' - 180° =5 81°25'W Fig. 8.6 (iv) bearing of OD e 360° - 312°38' N47°22'W.

NpA
(i)

= , =

N

w---or-

E

W

Ol\~

E

.i
o

S' ,\8 (ii) , N

w
S

E
312'38'

c

(iii)

(iv)
Fig. 8.6 Example 8.1.
,
'

Example 8.2 Convert the following quadrantal bearings towhole circle bearings, ,
OA= N 15°10'E OS'='537°50'E

OC

=S 49°40'W

. OD,

=N 80

025'W

-,

From Fig. 8.7 (i) whole, circle bearing of OA 8 =15° 10' Fig. 8.7 (ii) whole circle bearing of 08 e 180° - 37°50' = 142°10" Fig. 8.7 (iii) whole circle bearing of OC e 180° + 49°40' 229°40' Fig. 8.7 (iv) whole circle bearing of 00 8 = 360° - 80°25' = 279°35'

= =

=

b

Example 8.3 The whole circle bearings of the sides of a traverse ABCDEF are given below. Compute the internal angles. Bearing Bearing Bearing Bearing of AS =290°45' of BC 250"43' of CD = 196° 12' of DE = 175°24'

=

------ -- -------

-- ------ - - - - -

----- -

--------- -- - - - - - -- --_._-

--

_._-­

168 Fundamentals of Surveying
A

.
., .

0

I

(i)
D

o r >JU

I \
B

(ii)

e -49"40'

~8
(iv) Fio 87 e ..

c/

I
(iii)

Exam I

Bearing of EF B , . = 112°18' earmz . 30·00' "" of FA =

.

P' 8.2.

e"

Fig. 8.8 Example 8.3.

Solution The backbearings and forebearings differ by 180°.
Hence~

Bearing of BA 110°45'
Bearing of CB 70"48'
Bearing of DC = 16°12'
Bearing of ED == 355°24'

= =

~

Angles and Directions

169

. •

Bearing of FE = 292°18'
Bearing of AF = 210°00'
From the Fig. 8.8 8A
.

=Bearing of AB ::- Bearing of AF
= 290=45' - 210=00' . = 80°45' = Bearing of BC - Bearing of SA = 250°48' - 110=45'

8s

8e

.= Bearing of CD - Bearing of CS
= 196°12' - 70°48' = 125
Q24'

=.140~03'

8D = Bearing of D.E - Bearing of DC
= 175°24' - 16°12'
=~59° 12'

From the Figure

BE

:= Bearing of EF + (360

0

-

Bearing of ED)

= 112°18' + (360= - 355=2·n

= 116°54'
8F = Bearing of FA + (360= - Bearing of FE)

.= 30°00' + (360° - 292= 18') .=
97°42~

Total internal angles of a closed traverse

..

= (211 - 4) Right angles

.= (2x 6 :- 4) Right angles

= 720°
8A + 8s + 8e + e D + 8E + 8t = 80°45' + 140=03' + 125°24' + 159°12' + 116 + 97°42' = 720°00'

Q54'

Calculations should always be based on a properly drawn sketch.
Example 8.4 The same problem when the bearings of the sides are expressed in quadrantal system. Bearing Line K 69°15'W .J.8 S 700 48'W BC S 16= 12'\'1 CD 5 ~=36'E DE 5 67°42'E EF 000'E ~ 30 F.4

.

170 Fundamentals of Surveying
Solution .. The backbearlngs of the lines are obtained by just changing N to S. E to Wand vice versa. Bearing AB'

Be
CD

Backbearing BA
CB

Value S 69°15'E
N 70 048'E N 16°12'E N Q4°36'W N 67°42'W S 30 000'W

\ I

DE

DC ED

EF FA
Drawing separately each node
B
N

FE AF

. From Fig.·8.9(i)

8A = 180° -:- (69°15' + 30°00')

w

-~

I

)
A

E

=80°45'

F

s
(i)

From Fig. 8.9(ii)

8s = 70°48' + 69°15'

c
(ii)

\
J

=140°03'

A

B

w

From Fig. 8.9(iii)
-).1('

-.

E

8c = 180° - 70°48' + 16°12'

= 125°24'

o
(iii)

...
c

Angles and Direaions

171

From Fig. 8.9(iv)

w

r:-

E

8D = 180° - (16°12' + 4°36')
= 159°12"

(iv)

o
From Fig. 8.9(v)
W
,<:: '"

8e = 180° - 67:142' + 4°36' = 116°54'
F

s
(v).
E

A

From Fig. 8.9(vi)

w
F

E

8F = 67°42' + 30°00' = 97°42'

S (vi)
Fig. 8.9 Example 8.4.
<

Example 8.5 Compute and tabulate the bearings of a regular hexagon given the starting bearing of side AS = S 50°lO'E (Station C is easterly from B).
.'
...,.
'

",

Solution The total internal angles of a regular hexagon are (2/1 - 4) right angles, i.e. 2 x 6 - 4 S right angles = 720°. Each angle. therefore. is 120°. The ,. rouzh sketch of the hexaaon is shown in Fig. ... 8.10.

.

=

-

. Whole circle bearing of A8 = 180; - 50:110'
= 129°50'

172 Fundamentals of Surveying . Hence Bearing of Be = 129°50' - 60° = 69°50' .10 Example 8. Since whole circle bearing is measured clockwise. moving in an anticlockwise direction by 60°.. 8. True bearing then becomes 360°..50°10' = 309°50' E Bearing of EF = 309°50' _ 60° 2~9°50' 1 :.. It is anticlockwise because we are subtracting 60°.60° 129°50' I I . Bearing of CD = 69°50' .. The external angles are all 60° and the deflection at B from AB to Be is 60° towards left or anticlockwise.11). this is subtracted from the previous bearing. that is..60° = .50° 10' Bearing negative means it has crossed the N-S line in the anticlockwise direction by 50°10' (Fig.5. I I _ 60° 189°50' . E I­ F o I ! W -"'"!<:-­ c B Fig~ 8.60° = 9°50' Bearing of DE = 9°50' . . 'I . .

1 'INTRODUCTION The compass has been used by navigators and others for many centuries. hove the advantageof . When the magnetic north is towards the west of true north. The angle of dip varies from 0" near the equator to 90° at the magnetic poles. when towards east. .2 PRI~CIPLE OF CO)IPASS I· The earth acts as a powerful magnet and like any magnet forms field of magnetic force which exerts a directive action on a magnetized bar of steel or iron. A line on a map or chart connecting points that have the same declination is called isogonic lines. 9. though of limited .accuracy.3 DECLINATION Declination may be towards east or west. the needle pointing towards the magnetic north. 9. the declination is west or negative. To overcome this dip a small weight is placed on one side of the needle so that it can be adjusted until the needle is horizontal..grie'tic north.earth's...1 explains lhis. The. ' . .. the true north or Astronomical North. Magnetic compasses.• • 9 Compass Survey \. The horizontal angle between true north and magnetic north is known as declination. Figure 9. An agonic line consists of points' having zero declination. 9.. . The imaginary line on the surface of the earth joining a point and the true North and South geographical poles indicate. The declination at an)' location can be obtained (if there is no local attraction) by establishing a true meridian from astronoruical observations and then ~~adi ng the compass when sighting along the true meridian. Prismatic compasses can either be used independently or in conjunction with other angle measuring instruments in orienting a mop or plane table and ..A freely suspended magnetic needle will align itself in a direction parallel to the lines of magnetic force of the earth at that point and indicate the magnetic north. magnetic force not only aligns a freely suspended magnetic needle along magnetic north and south but also pulls or dips one end of it below the horizontal position.giving reading directly in terms of directions or bearings referred tomo. The surveyor's compassisan instrument for determining difference in direction between any horizontal line and a magnetic needle. making a surveyor traverse. it is east declination or positive.

Locality-It is greater near poles and less near equator. . _- __ . In Paris it was 11 cE in 1680 to 22eW in 1820. Season-It is greater in summer than in winter.tiii) Diurnal change. However.------------_ . tl M. Fig. Time-It is more during day and less during night. this variation does not follow any general law or mathematical law.. are: Sigluing system The siahtins consist.'" PRIS~IATIC CO:-'IPASS The names of different components of the prismatic compass are shown in Fig. four factors: 1.. Irregular variation is caused by unpredictable magnetic 'disturbances and storms.tN. . The magnitude also is very high... Diurnal variation means variation over a day. vanes .. . These changes are (i) Secularchange. I: II II :! 'I !I ! II 2.. the declination was 11 cE in 1580 and 2~oW in 1820.. T. . The magnitude of variation is more than a degree.... Ii II 11 II \1 II ! II 9. . They. (ii) Annual change. system .hinsed .2. . 9. . It can be obtained only from detailed charts and tables derived from observations. Secular variation of declination occurs over a long period of time approximately for 250 years. . .1 (:I) West or negative decllnation. 9. It is roughly l' to 2' in amplitude. 3. of sizhtlnz . TN.N. . (b) East or positive declination. . The rate of variation over 2~ hr is quite irregular. For example. .17~ Fundamentals of Surveying . .N. The declination at a place does not remain constant but changes with time. It varies from place to place.. l. and (iv) Irregular change.... Year-The daily variation changes from year to year. . II 'I II " il I' il II Ii Ii II II Ii Annual variation means variation over a year. It depends on the following. in London. Secular variation is very important in the work of the surveyor and unless mentioned otherwise variation in declination means secular variation.

to a conical agate sapphire and pivoted on a sharp pin point.·e. .· · • Sighting Vane with Hair Line Compass Sui. 6 diametrically opposite to each other on the outer case. Dip adjustment slide The dip adjusting slide consists of a small metal rider. Damplng-cum-antlwear system The system consists of If device to lift the needle when the former is moved by one of the vanes normally kept folded when not in lise.has a vertical line slot in the metal housing of the magnifying prism and the front or sighting vane has a fine vertical hair line sight.lO be placed between the eye and prism to see objects againsr sun or other source of illumination..2 Prismatic compass. . non-liquid. Magnetic assembly The magnetic assembly consists of a thin bar magnet fitted.. which may slide along the needle to balance it in the horizontal plane. Reading system The rending system consists of a magnifying prism auached .: Bearing indicating system The system consists of a graduated circular nrc which forms an integral part of the needle. . 9. Protective cover The protective cover consists of a disc of glass fitted on top of the brass case to protect the needle and the graduated circle. to the outer case.r 175 Filter Mirror Outer Case Magnetic Needle . .. The eyeing vane .' . Coloured glasses Red and green glasses are provided near the eye vane which C. Fig.

. the reading increases.5 SURVEYOR'S CO~1PASS Figure 9.4 shows the essential parts of a surveyor's compass. (c) South line in the outer box below the prism: (d) Tip of the pivot: (e) North line of the outer box. and (g) sighting line on the vane. The graduations on the aluminium ring increase clockwise from 0° to 3600 with the zero of the graduations coinciding with the south end of the needle.When the object vane is rotated.. the magnetic meridian as in the case of prismatic compass. . the observer reads the south end of the needle through the triangular prism and reads 0° which is the bearing of true north. Hence the graduated card or ring is not oriented in. (b) Slot in the prism bracket. the following parts of the compass should lie in the same vertical plane. As shown in the figure. (a) Centre of the prism slide block. 9. when' . These are shown in Fig.3 Graduations of a prismatic' compass. -. .. S0 of sight N 1800 . N' 1800 I IE 270 0 \A. the reading is 270°. 9. 9." ___ i 1 IE Reading is taken here ReadingiS~ taken here Direction 0 . When it points exactly to the east the reading is 90°.--. say clockwise. .. the graduated ring is directly attached to the box and not with the needle. The figures are engraved inverted on the aluminium ring. (f) Centre line marked on the hinge lug.3. (b) w Direction of sight E Reading is taken here s0 (c) 0 Fig. the object is sighted first with the object and eye vane and reading is taken against the north . When the needle points towards the north. This arrangement directly gives the bearingof a line. For reading the graduated scale. towards west.. ~Oo N -. Direction of sight 900 W .176 Fundamentals of Surveying With the compass held level and sighted along the local magnetic meridian.

a' = East. Z = [. 1 if thechange In decimation IS westward. t%w' = -. CD BC =.\2:15'E: =S:F40'E. .~' . '.?EW'. . O:~O'\\'. . (1993-1950) =. 9. . These lines are [0 be retraced using acompass when the declination is What bearings should be set off on the compass? . The magnetic bearings of several lines observed at the time were as follows: AS = (l.4) is positive then y'Ew = 1 and If it is negative then y' E\\' =. (9. {3 + 90 (2 - ~EW . Example 9. If the right hand side of Eq.of aline is S 45°~0'W in 1950.2 GRAPHICAL SOLUTION Magnetic declination problem can be solved easily by drawing sketches of true north. . 181· Case 2 When change in declination is given. j(E\~ a' = '(YEw e +-D!\\' • IIg) .:-:S)] .26:20'\\.. When there is an annual change of 'g' in. .. magnetic north and also change of declination. ..s = . If the annual change is2' eastward.magnetic declination for a period of /I years. . DE =S5S:00'E.magnetic declination. = 1 as change is eastward.(.5) is a function of only the changes in magnetic declination.7. the original and present magnetic declinations are not needed.3 At the time a survey was run.' ". It is interesting to note that Eq. hence ~:-. ~EW =2' Ocw. . (9:4) where . . (9. the magnetic declination was 6°50'E. Compass Sur:r ey. { 1 if the chanze in declination iseastward.. (9. if it is negative add 360~to it. -. If' Z' is greater than 360=.1 and li' is west. Example 9.1°26' Corresponding reduced bearing is S~o04'\V ..1 z: =45=30'+ 90[(2 . EF = (l. .­ Solution Given {3 = S45°30'\V.5)· . .1) ":' (.8S:30'\\".(1)(43)(2) n g =43.EW • ~:-:s .. subtract 360~ from it.2 Suppose the."f.. then the original and present declination 'can be.. =45°30' + 90 [2 + 1 =224~04' IJ -1°26' = 45°30' + 180:1 .1)(. wh::ft is the magneticbearing inJ993?:: -. CE\\·ng.I.i)] . .related as: " .:.

7(a) to 9. T. 9:'(c) Example 9.7(a) Example 9.N.N.. Initial Condition Final Condition Fig. Fig. 6"50' E .N.·· . . T. E s .S.7b) .7a) ~ M.S. M. 9. M.N. M. T1N• D D 6"5Q' c E w c E .7(e».N. Initial true bearing = 6°50' . 9. 9. M.S.N.­ T.3. M./ •. 9.3.N. T.S. . I M. C T.3. Line AB (Fig 9.Fig. C '. 9. w 30W E L w A .7(b) Example 9.6°50' = NI9°30'W Final observed bearing = 19"30' .4°40' = S2°10'W Final Observed bearing 2°\0' + 0°30' S2°40'W Line CD (Fig. M..7c) = = .S.N. .182 Fundamentals of Surveying Solution (1) By graphical methods (Figs.N. T.30' = NI9°00'W Line BC (Fig. Initial true bearing = 26°20' .

7d) M.(.1)(0°30') Z' = (. 58COO' Fig. ~ . 9.1)(1)' 26°20' + 90(2 .1 + (1)(6°50') .7(e) Example 9.Y' EW • (J' Line AB. Final observed bearing = 81°40' .7(d) E E Example 9. Initial true bearing e 88°30' .. .1 .S. •• i Initial true bearing =6°50' + 2°15' :: N9°05'E Final observed bearing:: 9°05' + 0°30' = N9°35'E Line DE (Fig.7e) M. - ~ 19°W .~E\V • ~ NS)] + YEW' (J .3. (J = fJ = N2p020'W.N.3.1 f1 = 0030'W YEW =. Final observed bearing = 51°10' -:.(-1)(1)] :: 341 ° Quadrantal bearinz Line BC. .Compass Survey 183 '. 9. /3 =S 4'40'E ~ss = . 9..­ Z' = [~EW ~~sfJ + 90(2 . Fig.0°30' = N81°10'W. 6°50' F~ E F 0""30' E T.6°50' ::' N81 °40'W.S.6°50' = S5101O'E .0°30' =S50040'E Line EF (Fig:9. (ii) By analytical methods Present magnetic azimuth It'.. ~)ois = 1 6°50'E YEW:: 1 ~~w = . Initial true bearing = 58°00' .~EW .1) .(.

1)(0°30') = _ 4°~0' + 180° + 6°50' + 0°30' Z' = (+ 1)(.1)(0°30'). Line DE .I 184 fundamentals of Surveying fE\Y =+ I' + 1(6°50') .278°50' = N81°10'W 9. Z' =1 =1 = (1)(1) 2°15' + 90[2 ~ 1'.1)(0°30') =.(.. .1 Z' =(-1)(1)(88°30') + 9.(.0 [2 + 1(6°50') .'= 558°00'E. f3 .: .1 .(~ 1)(0°30') = 2°15' + 6°50' + 0°30' :: 9°35' Quadrantal bearing = N9°35:E. + 1 (6°50') ..fEw = + 1 Z = (+ 1)(.1) .1)(58°00') + 90[(2 ..58cOO' + 360° = 309°Z0' In quadrantal system S50:l40'E . In such a case it is held in the hand and traverse sides are made long so that .(.(1)(1)] . In quadrantal system = 360' .r" Line EF f3 = N88°30'W ~l'S = +1 .(+ 1) . Line CD f3= N 2°15'E ~NS ~E\V . ~NS =.I) 4°40' + 90(2 .88°30' + 360° + 6°50' + 0°30' ..(.8 COMPASS TRAVERSE This instrument is normally used for rapid and exploratory surveys. + 6°50' + 0°30' :.(+1)(-1)] = 182°40' Quadrantal bearing = S2:l40'W.centring effect is .. = . ( (.1)(1)] ..(.1) (1)] ~E\V = . = 278°50'.1) . + 1(6°50') .(.

9. . bearing of AD and AF are measured. the offsets on the right are taken.CLOSED TRAVERSE From the bearings obtained from compass. wires carrying electric . DE. At each station two bearings are taken. The-usual steps in ~ompass surveying are: (i) Reconnaissance.There may be small discrepancy and this may be distributed equally among all the angles. iron pipes near a station.9 LOCAL ATTRACTION Normallya magnetic needle points towards magnetic north and as such remains parallel to itself at :111 stations of the compass survey.' .. Then proceeding from A to a. But for accurate work. EF and FA are measured. Lengths AB. . (ii) Marking and referencing stations. ' ' 9.II reduced. and so on. However. The free needle method of surveying is used in which the needle is floated before each readinz so that readlnz at each station is taken with respect to magnetic meridian. pointed by the magnetic needle at a particular suulon is known as Local attraction at a station and should be corrected before true bearings of the lines rna]' be .4. . The difference between the true magnetic north and the north .8 Comp:1SS traverse.') . so that adjustmentof the last line is neln =e. the compass 'is set over tripods and lines 'are measured with a chain or tape.4) right angles where n is the number of sides. Survey 185 . B • Fig.1 ADJUST~lEi\T OF ANGLES OF A . the included angle at each starlon can be computed.: • . they deflect the needle and the needle no longerpoints to the true magnetic north. CD. that of second line 2e/lI. ' . BC. the bearing of the 1st line is adjusted by e/n. 9. The error may also be adjusted in the bearings of the lines.current. Compass.8 shows a typical compass traverse and how measurements and offsets are taken. (iv) Taking offsetto the details. (v) Observing forebearings and backbearings at each station. They should add to (2n . at ..8. If the total error of the bearing of the. the whole or majorpart of the error may be adjusted at that station. (iii) Running survey lines. if there are magnetite in the ground. steel structures.i <-I 1".'. For example. Figure 9. . last line is t and number of lines are n. If it is suspected that large error may occur at a particular station.

2° . 24°0' 181°30'. . 1 = '.. it may be due to observational error or local anraction. (iii) 'Included angles LQ 100°. .3°30' Correction for declination =+ 3°30' When corrected for declinationbearing becomes 204° + 3°30' = 207°30' = I I. find the true bearing of line PQ and also the declination at station P. Normally the backbearing and forebearing of a line should differ by 180°. .4 The forebearing and backbearing of line PQ were observed to be 205°30' and 24°0' respectively. . ~ 'I 'I From the above data calculate (i) local attractions at stations P and S (ii) corrected bearings of all the lines and tabulate the same..:1 iI -.. If the bearing of sun as observed from station P at local noon is 358°0'. (iv) Local attraction at station R 2°W (v) All the observations were free from all the errors except local attraction r Iii Iii \1 Iii = = = Ii I' 'I . !.' I . I -------~ ~~I: I . LR 105°. [AMIE Winter 1982] Solution Since the forebearing and backbearing of RS differ by (211 ° ­ 31°) 180°. ~ I I " II il.I II II II II I'i I i II 'j = · !! • :I 'j II Local attraction atR = 2°W Local attraction at S '= 2°W Hence Correct bearing of RS = 211 ° . I( I . II II !I . " iI.. the local attraction can be computed.1°30' =. [AMIE Winter 1982] Solution The forebearing and backbearing of a line should differby 180°.1 II Example 9. (i) Forebearing and backbearing at station P =55° and 135° respectively.I Ii \1 !1 I I I As station Q is free from local attraction bearing at P (free from local attraction) is 180° + 24°0' 204° True bearing of sun at local noon = 360° Observed bearing =358° Hence error due to local attraction and declination combined = . (ii) Forebearing and backbearing of line RS = 211 ° and 31° respectively..5 Following are the data regarding a closed compass traverse PQRS taken in clockwise direction. local attractions at RandS are the same. ~ II I' I· . Example 9. If they do not.186 Fundamentals of Surveying obtained. = Iii III Ii \I 'I Hence local attraction =181°30' = 1°30' 180° . •. It was known that station Q was free from local attraction. 2° = 209~ -::1 . If observational and instrumental errors are eliminated. Here the difference is 205°30' . " .2° (Correction to be added to observed bearing) Error due to local artractlon + 1°30' (Correction to be subtracted from observed reading) Hence error due to declination =. I Iii II II II :. I ~ I I. through different examples. Computation of local auraction and adjustment of compass traverse are shown. " I' I' 1 I' 'I II "I I' i 1..

Correct bearing of PQ ::: 54°· Correct bearing of PS Correct bearing of Sf = 134° Correct bearing of QP= 134° + 100°= 234° =134 =314°' 0 Observed bearing of PQ = 55° Hence Local attraction at P is 55° . Local attraction at S = lOW " =.. Observed bearing of CD Declination W =181°00' 3°30' . 289"30' 303°IS' 1°00' 108°45' DA .. Line Forebearing ' 32~30' Backbearing 214°30' AB BC CD 124°30' 181°00' .y Compass Survey Q 187 • " R S Fig.54° .2°W Example 9..~ Example 9." . Correct the bearings for local attraction and determine the true bearings of the lines if the magnetic declination at the place is 3°30'W. Correct bearing of SR = 31° . Solution From the observations of the bearings of different lines. ..2° = 29° Correct bearing of RQ =209 0 + 105° =314 0 Correct bearing of QR = 314° .6 The forebearings andbackbearings of the lines of a closed compass traverse are as follows: ' . 180° . 9. Hence the two stations C and D are free from local attraction.. it is found that the forebearing and the backbearing of the line CD differ by 180°..5.

. AB = 32°30' . 357°30' Observed bearing of DA Declination W Correct bearing of D.4. Error due to magnetic declination =3°30'W .3°30' = 286°90' 180°00' 106°00' It differs from observed bearing of 108°45' by (108°45' .2°45' = 0045'E Observed bearing of AB = 3~030' •. Hence as obtained before Example 9.106°00') = 2°45'W.4°45' = 119°45' Correct bearing of CB = 119°45' + 180° = 299°45' . error is due only to declination of 3°30'W. Correct bearing of AD. "' Correct bearing of.188 Fundamentals of Surveying Hence Correct bearing of CD Correct bearing of DC 177°30' + 180°00' ~ '.2°45' = 29°45' Correct bearing of BA = 209°45' Observed bearing of BA = 214°30' Hence correction at B = 4°45' Observed bearing of BC = 124°30' Correct bearing of BC = 124°30' .7 The following forebearings and backbearings were ob'served in traversing with a compass. '. subtracting = 289°30' = . Correctbearing at C = 303°15' . Observed bearing of CB = 303°15' SinceC is free from local attraction.' Hence' Local attraction at A = 3°pO' .3°30' =299°45' '.

~. Interior angle lit P = 37:30' + 59~OO' =96~30' Q • R .~-.4) rt angles (2 x 5 .__ -.9. -..540 0 =540: = 1:15' .60°) =133°15' Sum of interior angles = 541 ~ 15° Theoretical sum = (2/1 ..4)(90) = Hence Error =541°15' . .10 Example 9..'(37°30' + 43° 15'>.Compass Survey 189 Line Forebeering S 37°30'E S 43°15'W Backbearing N 37°30'W · • · PQ QR N 44°15'E S S 72~15'E RS N 73°00'W N 12~45'E ' ST 13~15'W S 59~OO'W N 60~OO'E TP Calculate the interior angles lind correct them for observational errors. = 180°'-80°45' =99~ IS' Interior angle at R = 44~15' + 73°00' = 117~15' Interior angle atS.(l2~~5' + 72~15') .._J I .= 180~ .t Interior angle at T .= 13°15' + 90°00' + (90° .. . Interior angle at Q = 18011 .7.--~ . =95° . Solution . Fig.

190 Fundamentals of Surveying Distributing the error equally in all angles. 9. 9.(1°15')/5 =.11 (ii) From Fig.as observed from a station A was 358° and the magnetic bearing of the same was 4°. = 200° - 2° = "198° From Fig. . correction at each angle = . The correct angles are LP =. From the Fig. AC and AD when measured with a prismatic compass were found to be 296°.15' = = LT =133°15' -15' = LS = 95°00' .\1IE Summer i991] Solution .11(ii) .2° = 200° Magnetic bearing when declination is 2°E .8 (i) The magnetic bearing of sun at noon was 175°. M. . The back bearings of the lines AB. ' (ii) In an old map a survey line was drawn with a magn. True bearing = 202° .11(i) the declination is 5°E .etic bearing of 202° when the declination was 2°W.11(iii) Declination = 4° + 2° = 6°W ' Backbearing of AB = ~96° .346° and 36° respectively. Find the true forebearings of the lines AB. . 96°30' .15' Example 9.15' ".N. (iii) The true bearing of a tower T. W N E w E W (ii) ~ii) Fig. [A. ' =99°15' - 15' = LR '= 117°15' .15' = LQ 96°15' 99°00' 117°00' 9.. 9.4°45' 133°00' . Find the magnetic bearing when the declination is 2°E. 9.. Show with a sketch the true bearing of sun and themagnetic declination. AC and AD.

Let ABCDE be a closed traverse. /1 5 + /~:ri~e:e~4 + 1 X AA 1 i. The perimeter of the traverse is drawn on a suitable scale. A compass survey is usually plotted by drawing the length of a side with known bearing and then plotting other sides from the included angles.. the coordinates of the traverse stations are computed from the length and bearings of lines and then plotted. = 116~ Declination =6 Correct forebearing =110~ . Let it be aa' as shown in Fig. D. + I) xAA I + 1 + /5 . . f o r ' B / =/1 + /2. d. While plotting a closed traverse it is usually found that the last point does' not fall exactly on the starting point. This introduces what is called a closing error. Forebearingof AC =166~ True bearing of AC =160:0 Backbearing of AD = 360 Forebearing of AD = 2160 True bearing orAD = 210" 9. closing error and the amount should be. Let it be (lCZI' Join aa'and draw parallels through b. + I Perimeter J x AA .Perimeter x I E =II + l~. + I. AA I The adjustment can also be done graphically.. E and AI should now be shifted by lengths bbl . The movement of the stations should be parallel to the . I 4 C= /1. At a' the closing error is plotted in original direction and in true magnitude. the plotted traverse is ABCDE Al' Here A41 is the closing error. Usually Bowditch'srule is used for adjustment of theclosingerror. .According to this rule.join A by moving itself. I and finally AI should. e which cuts roOI in bJ . 9. e. Cl' £II' el' The plotted points B. 9. Forebearig of AB 0 Backbearing of AC = 346 0 . eel and a'a\ respectively.12. C. I D-/J+/~+/)' AA .10 ADJUSTMENT OF A CO~IPASS TRAVERSE .Compass S II 11:(!)' 191 j . . .e. shifting each station by an amount which is proportional to its length from the starting station.+ /2 xAA Perimeter . As shown in Fig. the closing error is adjusted by.12. For accurate work. CCI' ddt. AB\C\D\EIA is the adjusted traverse.

. (4) Magnetism of needle weak. Errors in compass surveying may be due to the following causes: Instrument Errors (1) Compass out of level. (b) Personal Errors . !I II !1 9. (2) Needle not straight.' . (1) Variation in declination (2).1 1\ . " " II ~ ! Ii 1\ II I.I " r- I 192 Fundamentals of SIII1"f'ying A II " _. c.12 Graphical adjustment of compass traverse. (1) Compass not properly levelled. . (a) I' i II .- E. Local attraction. .11 ERRORS. (3) Movement of level sluggish. 9. . (2) Compass not properly centred over the station. '.'. (4) Irregular variation in magnetic storms. (4) Incorrect reading and recording of the graduated ring. 15' a' (b) Fig. . (3) Magnetic changes in atmosphere due to clouds and storms. I' D c (~) a ~ b ..n . (5) Plane of sight not vertical (6) Line of sight not passing through centre of graduated ring. b 1 2 C 1 3 d 1 4 e. (3) Ranging rod or signal not accurately bisected. IN COMPASS SURVEYING . (e) Natural Errors . I.

Then again he changed the direction and walked 1504 steps in the direction S 65°E and reached a point D. .) What are the advantages and disadvantages of compass survey'? Describe the limits of precision of compass surveying. "Analytical Solution of }'13gnetic Declination Problem". started from a point A and walked 1000 steps in the direction S 67°W and reached a point B. (iii) Whole Circle bearing and reduced bearing..traverse: Line . State your comment and support it with rational arguments . ' REFEREl'ICE 1: Easa.-\~l1E Summer 1980] . 17i=J. 48=25' B. (a) Tabulate the difterences between Q prismatic and surveyor's compass. ' [AMIE Winter 1978] III III II III II I If I 9. Iii (iii) Calculate the true bearings if the declination was 1=30'W.I I Iii Iii I I III il i'l I EB. While making a reconnaissance survey through woods. AB . 32+'329. 193 . Now the surveyor wanted to return to his startiug point A~ In which direction must he move with the hand compass and how many steps must he walk to reach the point A? [AMIE Summer.115. (i) State what stations are affected by local auractlon and by how much. pp. No. August 1989. (ii) Porebearlng and backbearing. 3. .B. Then he changed his direction and walked 512 steps in the direction N lO=E and reached a point C.r: Compass Survey .) \Vh:!:t is local attraction? Briefly describe it.BA was found to be 1291:> 15'.1. !'of.5' 104=15' 165'15' 295=30' 230°00' 356°00' 2841:>55' 345°15' 79'00' I. Then the same instrument was shifted to station B and the bearing of . II PROBLE:-'IS 9. (c) Describe in tabular form the relation between: (i) Magnetic bearing and true bearing. a surveyor with 0. Where is compass survey normally used'? (b) What ore the different forms of 'bearings' of a line'? How would you convert one form of bearings to the others? [A~IIE Summer 1978] 9. (b) A compass was se't on the station A and the bearingof AB was 3091:>15'. ASC£ Journa! of Si/rl'iyillg.. . (ii) Determine the corrected bearings. (0. !s there any local anracrion at sraticn A or at tbe station B? Can you give a precise answer? . 1979J 9. .4. Said.2 (0. Be CD . (b) The following bearings were taken in running a compass . Engincering VoL . DE EA . {. hand compass.. .3..

. L .' . . ~.194 Fundamentals of Sun'eyillg ..

[A~'11 E Wint. adjust it graphlcally.-\~. .4.lIE Winter 1987] . (c) A line was drawn to a magnetic bearing of S32°W. 9. [A}. AB 32"30' 214~30' BC.'r 1993 J Q . if the magnetic declination at the place is 3°30'W. 124"30' 303'15' CD 181 "00' 1=00' DA 2S.8 65°30' 145=30' CD 43~45' 126=30' Be 104=[.. .. (a) What is meant by closing error in a closed traverse? How would you. BS and true bearing of the lines assuming magnetic declination to be 5: 2(I'\\'.)= 30' 10S=45' Correct the bearings for local attraction and de:c:rminethe true bearings of the lines. when the magnetic declination W:IS 4°\V. [Al\lIE Summer 1983] 9. (c) The forebearings and backbearings of the lines of a closed compass traverse are as follows: Backbearing Line Forebearing . .to be 184"30' at local noon with a prismatic compass. was observed. (a) Differentiate between prismatic and surveyor's compass . (a) What are the sources of error in compass survev? What precautions will • . [. you take to eliminate them? ' (b) Convert the following whole circle bearings to quadrantal bearings: (i) 32'30' (ii) 170°22' (iii) 217"54' (iv) 327°2~'.. .'283=00' DE 326: 15' 1-14=45' Determine the corrected FB.. (iii) Trough compass and tubular compass.11. Compass Survey 195 sun..llE Summer 1984] 9. To what bearing should it beset now if the magnetic declination is 8"E? (d) The following fore bearings andbackbearings were observed in traversing with a compass where local attraction was suspected: Line FB .10.9. ' Calculate the magnetic bearings and true bearings of all the sides of the traverse. ' (b)\Vrile a brief note 'on variarions in magnetic declination. (c) Distinguish between the following terms: (i) True meridian and magnetic meridian (ii) Local attraction and declination. Tabulate the results and drawa neat sketch to show truebearings. BB ." . (b) Explain the following: (i) Magnetic meridian (ii) True bearing (iii) Declination (iv) Whole circle bearing (v) Isogonic lines (vi) Secular' variation.

(iv) False. dip is vertical angle of depression of the magnetic needle. Disadvantages are: (i) Not accurate. included ansle is not affected as both the sides are equally . due to various instrumental errors and undetected magnetic variations. affected by local attraction.' 0­ "" . bearing will change with change of declination. they' are provided to read against Sun 01' other source of illumination. (iii) False. (v) Correct. then whole circle bearing is directly obtained. permanent adjustment of surveyor's compass is done by ball and socket arrangement . Not suitable except for rough surveys (ii) Computational corrections for local attraction is necessary. (vi) Correct.1 (a) Advantages' are: (i) Giving direct reading for direction (ii) Quicksurvey for rough work (iii) Valuable tool for geologists.196 Fundamentals of Sun-eying HINTS TO SELECTED Ql"ESTI0~S . ­ . Limits of precision of compass survey: (i) Angular error should not 'exceed 15 x -JII minutes. . where 11 is the number of sides of the traverse (ii) Linear error should be about lin 500.. . 9.6 (b) (i) False. (ii) Correct.· Used for preliminary and rough work. foresters and others (iv) Bearing of oneline has no effect upon the observed direction of any other line (v) Obstacles such as trees can be passed readily by offsetting the instrument by a short measured distance from line.. 9.

However. . Theodolites these davs 0. 10.. in vernier theodolites verniers are used to measure accurately the horizontal and vertical angles. and (iii) Levelling. The main components are described below. it rotates about its transverse horizontal axis (trunnion axis) which is placed at right angles to the line of collimation and the vertical circle which is connected to the telescope rotates with it.10 . Theodolites 10. ­ of sieht can ' be rotated in a vertical plane through 180= about its horizontal axis. Typical data of a telescope used for a transit theodolite available in India are: ..1 shows the main parts of a vernier theodolite. As the name suggests. The precision of angles can' be as high as 1". (ii) Precise 'optical theodolites. the instrument can be used for other purposes like (i) Prolonging a line.are . Theodolites can be brondl)' clussified us (i5 Vernier theodolites... the telescope is of measuring type. Objective Aperture = 35 mm Magnification = 15 times Tube length = I i mrn Nearest rocusslng distance = 3 m Fkkl of \ lew = I: 30' 1')7 . It is used primarily for measuring horizontal and vertical angles.1 INTRODUCT10~ The theodolite is a very useful instrument for engineers. ' The precise optical theodolites uses an optical system to read both horizontal and vertlcal circles. This is known as transitting and hence the name "transit". Telescope As already explained in detail in the chapter on levelling. .. . has an object glass. .11 transit theodolites. When elevated or depressed... ..2 l\IAI~ PART5 OF A VERZ'\IER THEODOLITE Figure 10. (ii) 1 vIeasuring distances indirectly. a diaphragm and an eyepiece and is internal focusslng. Generally 20" vernier theodolites are used. . Here the line ..

1..~: I t :::>: UPi' e r plaIt lower plale ~l I'. "Diagrammaticalsectioria1· drawing.! .1 . a .... of.: ~"'" .(2) Footscre~:s(3)Cl:lmpingscrew for centring (4) Lowerplate (5)Gradu:lled arc (6) Upper plate(7) Standards (8) Telescope (9) Horizontal axis(10) Verniers (11) Vertical circle (12).n'~ ­ ~ ~" ---. :.~~-------- 14 .416 The trunnion axis is supported at its ends on the standards which are carried by the horizontal vernier plate.~~.-j I.el. .theodolltetj l) Tribrach and trivet ':. Stadia "ratio Addition constant = 100 =0. . .'?/'/@ .~~ ~l:::~~~i . The vertical circle is graduated in degrees with graduations at 20'.Tripod top (13) Vernier frame (14) Arm of vertical circle clamp (15) Plate levels (16) Vertlcal circle clamping screw (17) Level on vernier arm (18) Hook for plumb bob..198 Fundamentals of Surveying . 10.y~ Lev.:~. The graduations in each quadrant are numbered from 0° to 90° in opposite directions from the two zeros placed at the horizonl:ll '" . The function of the telescope is to provide the line 'of sight. .l.\~{~~ 0: Fig. need Tal' of I!ipod .':'n. Vertical Circle The vertical circle is rigidly connected to the transverse axis of the telescope and moves as the telescope is raised or depressed.

the line joining the two zeros is also horizontil. Reading is obtained '. Clip Screw Fig.3. ann is fixed and is centredon the trunnion axis. Eye piece Objective Vernier Fig.diameter of the circle.2 shows the position of the vernier with respect to the axis of the telescope.! '~". Theodolites 199 . read the vertical circle.2 Vertical circle.3.'~ " I . 10.f~ jjizontal .. Vernier '\ 1 J Index frame (or T frame or vernier frame) It consists of a vertical portion called dipping ann and 'ahorizontal 'portion called an index arm.The index. ann can be' rotated slightly with the help of a clip screw fitted'to the clipping arm at its lower end as shown in Fig. . Figure 10.'pe and ~Ated in '::fJbered Spring arrangement.vernler lind telescope. At the two extremities of the index arm are fitted two verniers to . The index arm helps in taking measurements of vertical angle with respect to horizontal ~~ " I trivet' aduated -ernlers vertical '."ith reference to the fixed ~ernier when the vertical circle moves. . Altitude bubble . Functioning or clip screw lind vernier (vertical circle). When the telescope is horizontal. The :usual diameter of the circle is 127 mm. . 10. For adjustment purposes the index. The vertical circle is used to measure the vertical angle. ~ i. j . 10.) Level.. graduations on silver in degrees is 113° or 20'. A bubble tube often known as altitude bubble is fixed on the T frame. Vernier reading with magnifier is 20".~ Vernier Vernier -­ Trunnion axis 'I Vertical leg ~he tied by line .

' Two standards resembling letter A are fixed on the upper plate. t . The Upper Plate i lL platl:~ itl'll 'JIi ~':~: .l1)' telescope Tripod..to 360 ". levelling therefore. i f The 1el't. 10. As shown in Fig. .4. 10.two extremities diametrically opposite.l ~I 0 .. It carries an upperclamping screw and a corresponding tangent screw for purpose of accurately fixing it to the lower plate.: are gi"en" . mOlionc . . usually L untighten . r-< -. .4 (a) Longitudinal section through upperplate and lower plate. The . " " ~.The standards or (A frame) I'.. The T frame and also the arm of the vertical circle clamp are attached 10 the A frame. . ~. (b) genm.7~ leveli'li make. the two plates can. : . the upper plate is attached 10 the inner spindle and carries two verniers-with magnifiers at. ' :"" of spindles.:. the tripor Other ae.. The trunnion axis of the telescope is supported on these' A frames. has al rell' .' '(a) . . Tribrach Levelling screw "'~ Clamping screw It is aee . (b) Cross section . " telescopic .k I Alsoc~ ! f I Vernier Vertical a~is \ tnbrach. t of the. 10' I' .. (11)' with a ci: Spindle of lower plate Spindle of upper plate (b) Fig. move together. s: The theoe l:" .:' Also called the vernier plate supports thestandards at its upper surface. 1 the top 0: from a h over the The Sllif. . The upper 1 The q. .-.~: .. graduatic : is 20". ~. . When the upper plate is clamped to the lower plate by means of upperclamping screw. . i It usuil\!: Upper Plate Vernier Horizontal scale tribrach : Lower plate Upper clamp Lower clamp lower plt levelling shapes.

When the device is untightened. three ends . Tripod " . I I . The following terms' are frequently used in connection with theodolite and are given here for ready reference.[ I I I (a) Magnetic compass-theodolites of simpler types may be obtained. There is a large central hole with thread in the trivet. to the tripod. the instrument is first approximately centredover the station by moving . Other accessories . There is also the lower tangent screw to enable slow motion of the outer spindle. The theodolite is fitted on a strong tripod when being used in the field. the tripod legs. 10.centring device which helps in centring the instrument over the station.' The shifting head It is a. the instrument and the plumb bobcan be moved independently of the levelling head when the foot plate has been screwed on. o to 3. The diameter of the typical circular scale is 127 rnrn. One of the plate levels is kept parallel to the trunnion axis. graduation on silver in degrees is 1/3° or 20' and vernier reading with magnifier is 20".of the trianaie>:rhe tribrach and carries threelevellins. They are provided on the top of the telescope for ease of initial sighting. (b) For rough pointing of the telescope towards the qbject. . The upper one is known as . therefore. The tripod has already been explained in detail in connection with levelling (Fig. . A plumb bob can be suspended from a hook at the lower end of the inner spindle to put the instrument exactly over the station. ' I :'.screwsatthe lower platealso known as foot platehas three grooves to accommodate thethree levelling screws.The lower plate is fixed to the'tribrachwith the help of the lower clamping screw. It is attached to the outer spindle which The levelling head It usually consists of two triangular parallel plates. It usually lies below the lower plate but above the tribrach. Usually. the telescope is generally fitted witha pair of external sights. Lower plate is used to measure the horizontalangle. - Theodolites : 20l ' plate carries two plate levels placed at right'angles to each other..60°. The Lower Plate Also called the scale plate. . Exact centring is then done by using the shifting head.5). Tne levelling head is used to level the instrument horizontal. fitted with a circular compass box in the centre of the upper plate. it carries the circular scale which is graduated from turns ina' bearing within the tribrach of the levellinghead. The lower ends of the grooves are enlarged into hemispherical shapes. The purpose of the plate levels is to make the vertical axis truly vertical. . - ~ . The telescopic tripod is used for theodolites where accurate centring is required.. The thread fits into the top of the tripod when mounting the theodolite.

Alidade: The term alidade is applied to the whole of that part of the theodolite that rotates with the telescope. the level of the axis. 5. horizontal or trunnion axis: and vertical circle rotate. Standard: Two vertical arms of the theodolite which bear the transit axis.202 Fundamentals of Surveying • RinU o All dimensions In millimeters Fig. the horizontal circle and the illumination system. 10.. Limb: It consists of the 'vertical axis. telescope. The axis aboutwhich the telescope .. 3. 7. vertical circle and vernier frame. 2. 1.5 Dimensions and nomenclature of tripod for theodolite (Telescopictype). . . Transit. 6. Centring: Bringing the vertical axis of the theodolite immediatelyover a mark on the ground or under a mark overhead. Stridinglevel: A sensitivelevel mountedat right anglesto the telescope axis and used mainly in astronomical observations for levellingthe horizontal axis or measuring any error in . 4. . Least COI/Ilt: Measure of the smallest unit which a vernier will resolve.

(iii) The vertical axis. the theodolite is in the face right condition. The lines are: (i) The line of collimation or line of sight. ". . 2. 5. Swinging the telescope: . and (v) The plate level axis.plane containing the vertical circle with vernier. Atis of the plate level: It is the straight line tangential to the longitudinal curve of the plate level tube at its centre..\1£ BASIC DEFINITIONS 1. . . . Vertical axis: The axis about which . . They are: . Trivet: An underpart of the theodolite which may be secured to the tripod top with which the toes of the levelling screws make contact. It is the process of rotating the telescope through 1800 in the vertical plane. it is known as face left condition. 7. Plunging tile "telescope: This is also known as transitting or reversing..~ht condition: If the vertical circle is on the right side of the observer. the intersection of the cross hairs with the optical centre of the objective.. it is also known as normal condition. .It is the process oftuming the telescope clockwise or anticlcckwise about its vertical axis. . and (ii) Vertical . Theodolites 203 8.3 50. (b) The horizontal axis is normal to the vertical axis. once with" telescope in the normal condition and another in the reverse condition. Since normally the vertical circle is on the left side. Axis of tile altitude level tube: It is the straight line tangential to the . Face ri. 4. ' . Face left condition: If the vertical circle is on theleft side of theobserver. . . longitudinal curve of the altitude level at its centre. Double sighting or double centring: It is the operationofmeasuring an angle twice. . 3. ­ (a) The line of sight is normal to the horizontal axis. 8. These lines and planes beardefinite relation to one another in a well adjusted instrument. .: lOA FUNDAMENTAL PLANES AND LINES OF A THEODOLITE There are basically two planes and five lines in a theodolite. Clockwise rotation is called swing right and anticlockwlse rotation is called swing left. Tribrach: The part of the thecdolite carrying the levelling screws. Changing face: It is the operation of changing face left to face right and . vice verso. 9. . (iv) Altitude level axis. (ii) The transverse or horizontal axis of the telescope. 6. 9.the alidade rotates.. By this process the direction of objective and eyepiece ends are reversed. 10. 10. The telescope is then in the inverted form and hence the condition is known reverse condition. The planes are: (i) Horizontal plane containing the horizontal circle with vernier. Line of collimation: It is an imaginery line joining.

20J" Fundamentals of Surveying • (c) The vertical axis is normal to the plane containing the horizontal circle.7. (d) The line of sight is parallel to the axis of the telescope bubble tube. . for accurate reading some other requirements are: (a) The movement of the focussing lens in and out when itis focussed is parallel to the line.6 and 10. .of sight. Horizontal' axis Plate Vertical' Axis (a) Bubble Tube axis Front View p H line of sight (b) Top View. (e) The axes of the plate levels lie in a'plane parallel to the horizontal circle. Condition (a) ensures that line of sight generates a planewhen the telescope is rotated about the horizontal axis. . (c) The line joining the indices of the A and B verniers must pass through the centre of the horizontal circle. theodolite. the line of sight is horizontal. isnever in perfect adjustment and as such errors do or-cur when taking measurements. '" - --_ --" . Condition (c) ensures thatwhen the horizontal circle is horizontal (as indicated by the plate level) the vertical axis will be truly vertical. . t:J. however. Condition (e) ensures that when the plate bubble is central.circle is truly horizontal.!dng observations with double centring and also reading both verniers A and B. . . the horizontal . ". . 10. . tundamental Iines and planes are shown schematically in Figs. Condition (b) ensures that the line of sight will generate a vertical plane when the telescope is plunged. Fig.6 ' Fundamental lines 9f a. These errors can be greatly minimized by · •. 10. In addition to the above. (b) The inner spindle and the outer spindle must be concentric. 'Uv. An instrument. -. Condition (d) ensures that when the telescope bubble is at the centre of its run'.

3. thereby enabling the'sight line to be pointed at an object with a preselected angular value set on the plates. 205 . The exact centring . . (iii) Levelling up.5. 10.1 TEMPORARY ADJUST~IENTS OF A THEODOLITE . and (v) Focussing the objective. I 4. . The lower tangent screw rotates the lower plate in small increments relative to the levelling head. . The upper plate clamp locks the upper and lower circles together. Vertical rotation of the telescope is controlled by the vertical motion clamp and vertical tangent screw.j . I--+-:]---.7 Position of the fundamental lines in II schematic dlagram of atheodolite. . an exact reading or setting is attained by turning the upper tangent screw.1 B \ . (ii) Centring. the upper and lower one rotates as a unit. .1~. Vertical axis (a) Side View. . Next centring is done to place the vertical uvls exactly over the station mark. .. 10. Approximate ce:mi:1g is done by means o~' tripod legs.5 FUNDAME:"iTAL OPERATIO:"iS OF THE THEODOLITE 1. If the upper plate clamp is locked and the lower one unlocked. .angular value. 5. Telescope bubble tube axis _' ­ ~~ . A' I (b) Front View C' C Plate bubble tube axis . . the upper tangent screw' permits a small differential rotation between the two plates. l ! II 10.. Fig. 'iI." ~1 Theodolites . the upper plate can be rotated about the lower one to set a desired. These follow more or Jess the procedures explained for setting up a dumpy level in Section 5. A lower plate clamp locks it to the levelling head. 2. With the lower clamp locked and the upper clamp loose. The following are the five temporary adjustments of n theodolite: (i) Setting up. In seuing up a theodolite the tripod legs are spread and their points are so placed thnt the top of thetrlpod is approximately horizontal and the telescope is at a convenient height of sighting. By locking the upper clamp. (iv) Focussing the eye piece.

Hence vernier constant is 1/60 and ~O' -­ . Each degree is divided into 3 parts.horizontal measurements the main scale is 011 the lower plate. the vernier is on the T frame.on the foresight target.6. Forlevelling up and focussing. the instrument should be exactly over the station and hence exact centring is very important. Sinceangle measurement is involved..1EASURING A HORIZONTAL ANGLE A'horlzonta] angle is measured by first fixing the zero of the vernier in the upper plate to oeoo'OO" of the circular scale of the lower plate. the line of sight is back sighted along the reference line from which the angle is to be measured.J. 10. 10. the procedures already explained in connection with levelling should be followed. The screw clamping ring of the shifting head is loosened and the upper plate of the shifting head is slid over the lower one until the plumb bob is exactly over the stu lion murk. .6 VERNIERS In a theodolite there are two angular verniers for measuring horizontal and vertical . using the upper tangent screw. When upper clamp is tightened.. /I is equal to 60 as sixty divisions of the vernier coincides with 59 divisions of the main scale.1 1. circle and vernier(upper.C 60 x - Similarly for the vertical circle.C = 1 x Smallest division II of the main scale The main scale for horizontal circle is graduated from 0° to 360°. The process can be systematized with the following steps. Tighten the screw clamping ring after the exact centring. For vertical angles. hence the smallest division of the main scale is 20'.8. L. The fine adjustment in this operation is done by lower tangent screw which becomes operative when the lower clamping screw is tightened. For fixing to 0-0 the upper clamping screw and the upper tangent screw is to be used. Then loosening the lower clamping screw. angles.. the main scale is on the vertical circle."0" . (a) Loosen both clamps and bring the 0° circle mark roughly opposite the vernier index mark.' . This is explained with reference to Fig. the vernier is on theupper plate. The upper clamp is then loosened and the telescope rotated clockwise independently of the circle until the line of sight is. (b) Tighten the upperclamp and bring the zero(0°00'00") mark of the circle into precise alignment with the vernier index. . Both the verniers have least count equal to 20" which can be obtained as follows: L. For. 10. plate)are locked together ::IS one rotating unit.~06 Fundamentals of Surveying is done by means of the shifting head or the centring device.

the value of the vernier reading.60'40'20" C Staff Fig. . .· t Theodolites 207 A staff (backsighl) . Staff B for backsight . (c) With the 10\\ er clamp still loose. ... (b) Loosen the lower screw and rotate the two plates as a whole to point to B. (d) Tighten lower clamp and use lower tangent screw to align the vertical cross wire along the bccksight. . 10.8 Single: measurement of n horizontal angle. The fine adjustment . (f) Tighten the upperscrew and focus accurately the foresight by means of upper tangent screw.2 LAYlr\G A HORIZONTAL A~GLE The following are the steps: (a) Fix the 0-0 of the vernier with the 0-0 of the main scale with upper fixing screw and the upper tangent screw. • · B Instrument station Horizontal angle . (g) Read the value of the angle by taking the main scale reading and adding .should be done by the lower tangent screw.c -. : iO. point telescope (rotating upper and lower plate unit b)' hand) to backsight. .6. . -. . (e) Loosen upper clamp andromte upper plate until the telescope roughly points to the foresight. Instrument station A Line o! foresight Staff C from ·foresight reading . ..

W". (i) Method of repetition. and (ii) slip due to defective clamping arrangement.Ii 208 Fundamentals of Surveying (c) With lower clamp fixed loosen the upper fixing screw and set the vernier to the required :Ingle.1 MEASURING HORIZONTAL ANGLES BY REPETITION AND· REITERATION Horizontal angles can be measured. (ii) Face left. But it provides immediate check on the personal error in reading the verniers or micrometers. (a) The effect of swinging the telescope right and then left and of bringing the crosshair into coincidence approaching from left in the former case and from right in the latter case eliminates: (i) the error due to twist of the instrument support and back lash error. following are the advantages of the above procedure. (1v) Face right. (c) The "changing of zero" eliminates the errors due to defective graduation. (d) If the required angle is say 31o~l'. (b) "Face left'l and "Face right" observations eliminate the errors due to the non-adjustment of the line of collimation and the trunnion axis. swing left. . (ii) Method of reiteration.7 ACCUR·\TE ~1EASURE~1ENT OF A~ANGLE A theodolite is never in perfect adjustment and the lines and planes are not ideally related to one another as required in Section lOA. swing right. The operation can be repeated with a different "zero" or initial value. .' . To minimize error as much as possible. approach left. (d) The "reading of both verniers" also minimize error due to defective graduation. The average of the above 24 readings will give a very good result. \. the total number of angular readings will be 4 x 3 x 2 =24. swing left. approach left (approaching the target from the left side). 10. the vernier should be roughly fixed at 3Io~0' by the upper fixing screw and then finally adjusted to 31°~2'~O" by the upper tangent screw. approach right. Thus if the instrument is filted with two verniers and three"zeros" are taken. These are described below.. 10. the errors due to centring or non-levelling of the instrument cannot be eliminated by the above mentioned process. However. (iii) Face right. an angle is measured a number of times with instrument: (1) Face left (vertical circle on the left of the telescope) swingright (clockwise movement) . approach right. (e) The line of sight is now along the required angle and point C can be established by depressing the line of sight. (e) The "averaging" of all observed values minimizes the personal error. \ ". Method of Repetition It involves the following steps. The. . . accurately by either of the two methods.. e'· .7.

Errordue to inaccurate bisection is minimized as the average value of the final reading is taken.'1 Theodolites 209 . error -4" and has an error limit of ± 5". An error due to imperfect graduation of the scale is eliminated or reduced to a . The vernier reading now shows the angular measurement as the sum of flrst and second angle.e.(transit) the telescope. and (iii) eliminates blunders. Til I. A single observation can be read correctly to within 20".ards )f the clock : cross'l Both I:lmpinl . . Personal error in reading the vernier is reduced. (ii) compensates for systematic errors. Since the average value of the final reading is taken. number of repetitions) to determine the average value of the angle. . and error + I" (within limit of ± 2. 2.axis not being exactly horizontal. The t perfec 2. of the angle following the'procedure outlined . Tighten upper clamp and complete foresight pointing using . the average is 84°27' 15'. the angular reading correct to 20" is 337=49'00". ' II 'erted :-C2 = elesco s agal . .2. Divide the sum by t\VO (or the. Read'and record the value. .Ieast count of the vernier. alion Iged 5.in ' detail in Section 10.. " 3. 4. ' 3. of readings is11. of observations. the angle can he read to a finer degree of subdivision than what can be read directl)'. rotate upper plate. Loosen upper clamp. .5"). will be ± 20/211 or.the upper tangent screw. the whole instrument with angular reading fixed at initial value and point to backsight. Tighten lower clamping screw and point accurately at the backsight with the help of lower tangent screw. . the average is 84°27'10" correct to one half of the vernier's least count. and point at foresight. Error due to slip and error due to the trunnion . When the number of angles are large more time is required by this method compared to the method of reiteration. Assume an angle of 84°27'14" is measured with a 20" transit. rotate upper/lower plateunit i. divided by 4. Loosen lower clamp. 4. Divided by 2 . .mlnimum as the reading IS measured on several parts of the scale and then averaged. plunge. Obtain the first reading. The telescope is now inverted and aligned on backslght with the initial angle reading remaining set on the horizontal circle. The precision attained b)' this method of measuring an angle is to a much finer degree than the. at the . The advantages of this method are as follows. The disadvantages are: I.6. Measured four times'. 2. Hence the angle will be read as 84°27'20" (error is + 6" and possible error limit ± 10"). measuring an angle by repetition (i) improves accuracy. Thus if no. 6. least countl2 .. precision auained tirnes no. In short. t . I. Measured twice the observed reading to within ± 10" is 168° 54'20".

rctatiog it -about the transverse axis is called "plunging" or "transiuing" the telescope.24°30'44" = 03". Final setting Measured value 2ti a 30' 44" ± OS" . It' is more accurate to plunge the telescope than turn 180° with the horizontal circle..10 Laying angle by repetition. 10.12. If the length is say 200 m. Let the value of the 'Ingle be 24°30'44" ± 05".'00 29088 m.. 10. B Occupied station 10. the linear distance is 200 x (radian measure of the difference). The difference between the required value of the angle and the value of the angle set out is 24°30'47". The 'let of turning the telescope upside down. Since this value is very small. that is. The telescope is plunged and a point C1 is . A is backsighted. This procedure is repeated until D is sighted..7. 10.--- -~ . x 60 03. This is shown graphically in Fig.' cannot be set out by means of an angular measurement. If the instrument is not in proper adjustment the above procedure will give errorneous result as shown in Fig. the instrument is set lip at B and A is backsighted..2 LAYING OUT A~GLES BY REPETITION Sometimes it is necessary to measure an angle more accurately than is available with the least count of the instrument. inverted or plunged position. x 60 x 180 - .. it . Double centringor double sighting consistsof making :1 measurement of a horizontal or vertical angle once with the telescope in the direct or erect position and once with the telescope in the reversed. Suppose we want to set an angle at 24°30'47". 10.!£.210 Fundamentals of SII/'"C'yillg 10. telescope plunged and the new point D' is sighted which is on the prolongation of AB. the upper and lower plates clamped.10.7. For 03". But it Coin be converted to linear distance if the length of the side of the angle is known. The angle is then measured 4 times. As explained in Fig. . this is equal to zco . The instrument is then shifted to B. Temporary selting at 24° 30' 40" " ±20" A Initial Line Fig.11 and "Double Centring" should be adopted. With 20" transit available the instrument is set temporarily at 14Q30'40" ± ~O".3 EXTENDING A STRAIGHT LINE Suppose it is necessary to extend a line AB to D which is not directly visible from A..

. Now unclamping the upper . . 10. Then with the telescoperemaining inverted. the instrument is rotated in azimuth through J sao. CIC= CC! = =1/2 elc!. .. backsight Extending a straight line. The reading of the other vernier is noted.Erroneous. '. the initial station with 0-0 vernier reading in one vernier. 10. A is again backsighted the telescope is again plunged and a second mark C1 is obtained.4 METHOD OF REITERATION This method is used when several angles are to be measured ai the same station (Fig.7. Both the vernier readings are recorded and their mean gives LBAC. obtained along BC I· 'in contlnuationofAB. The instrument is placed at A and pointed towards B. The upper fixing screw is clamped and the crosshalr brought into coincidence approaching from the left (approach left). The correct location of C \vill lie between CI and C2 • . 10. station Foresight telescope inverted Fig. 211 Instrument station and telescope plunged > ·BA..12 . The two foresights will have equal and opposite errors if the instrument is not in perfect adjustment.Double centring.13). . line when the instrument is not in adjustment . With instrument "face left" the telescope is turned clockwise (swing right) to sight C. A a Instrument . CIC! Twice the error. Theodolites .

clamping screw. Tum the telescope through 90° so that the altitude level is over the third foot screw. Some instruments such as the transit theodolite measure vertical angle while most optical theodolite measure zenith angle. swing left.' .5 'MEASUREMENT OF VERTICAL ANGLE. A vertical angle is an angle measured in a vertical plane from a horizontal line upward or downward to give a positive or negative value respectively. Repeat the process till the bubble remains central in both positions. approach right as explained before.:! F/lI1l/l1I11CII/{/[S oJ Surveying D Fig. The mean of the vernier readings now give angle BAD. the" vertical circle verniers will read 0-0 when the line of sight is horizon!:!\. Level the instrument initially with the help of plate bubbles. Positive or negative vertical angles are sometimes referred to as elevation or depression angles respectively. Bring the altitude bubble to the centre of its run by turning the two foot screws either both inwards' or outwards.:! I.:IincentraJ for lI\I positions of the telescope. the former is used in measuring the vertical angle. • " 'j 2. Other readings are taken with face right. A vertical angle thus lies between 0° and ± 90°.the altitude bubble parallel to one pair of foot screws. If the permanent adjustments of the instrument lire correct the bubble odjustments and no index error.7.13 Method of reiteration. A zenith angle is an angle measured in a vertical plane downwards from an upward directed vertical line through the instrument.. 3. With correctpermanent S. ' 10. the instrument is further rotated to sight D. As the altitude bubble is more sensitive compared to the plate bubble. Bring the bubble to the centre of its run by turning the third foot screw.. . will r~I1. 4. It is thus between 0° lind 180°. The difference of angles BAD and BAC give CAD. . The steps for measuring vertical angles are given as follows: 1. The altitude bubble is usually fixed over the T frame as assumed in the following discussion. 10. Bring .

B1. The clip screw is used for making the permanent adjustments.1 Ii'\STRl~lE~TAL ERRORS Error due to eccentricity of inner and aliter arms As already explained. 6. 7.The inner spindle carries the two verniers while the outer spindle carries the horizontal circle. The mean of both vernier readings gives the vertical angle. it can be' eliminated when readings with' both faces are taken and their mean i5 recorded. take mean of both the readings of the vernier.. Clamp the vertical circle and bisect P exactly by the finendjusiment tangent screw. a theodolite has two spindles.. This is known as eccentricity of verniers. errors will occur.AiB2.14.. . then. . To measure venicalungle. IThe mean of the face left and face right readings \Viii be.8 ERRORS ix THEODOLITE A~GLES The following errors occur in rheodcllte measurements. The observed angles are elllnd e~~ the correct angle will be 9. loosen the vertical circle clamp and direct the telescope towards the object P whose vertical angle is required.be eliminated by taklng reading with only face left or iiu:e right. Otherwise. there is no eccentricity of verniers. == . 10. . ' 2.t:ln _I.8. the required angle. However.' ' .. Important points in measuring vertical angles: 1. . . A:B) are differeruposirions of the twoverniers which are lS0~ apart i. " Tlzeodofitt!s213 . r _ e COS" Since C'.ls s~l:lll and cos ¢ llcs between 0 and 1.e 1 =. 8. 10. . .¢ a~ = 9 . Then 0 10 2 is eccentricity and A. t! cos 0 can be neglected in comparison to 1'. Index error (vertical circle not reading 0-0 when line of sight is horizontal) cannot. }1). forvernier A~' for vernier B1· Ctl 01£ A::£ = Ian -I c sin 0 . e. Read both verniers. The clip screw shouldnot be touched while measuring the vertical angle. This is examined . The centres of these tWO spindles should coincide. Hence the e~or is a. 9. Change the face of the instrument and again.' Let 0 1 be centre of vertical axis and O2 centre of graduated circle. Errorswill also occur if the two verniers (He not exactly 1800 apart.e.with reference to Fig.

""O. Hence when there is no eccentricity of axes or verniers 0. . From the figure. = = = 01 =~ = constant .. When the instrumenthas both eccentricity of axes and eccentricity of verniers.'. ~ = O. 10. \\ I 90 7 A3 83 8 1 Fig.. CC1..(1 or 0= 8 1 + (J.. Therefore Similarly CCI"" I! sin ¢ . the total error of the other vernier A2 = O:! = 2ex . it can be seen' that the total-error of 2nd vernier 8.A.. 10.. then for the two positions A I at 00 and 8~ at 0°. Rearranging . ¢ = 81 - CCI =e~ + Cl1 . When there is no eccentricityof verniers A. = 8.B I lie in one straight line. 29 =8 + 8~ + Cl'i .. + 2a where A.: 0 1 = A.-.14 it Can be seen that (i) along I 02' ex = 0. C lOin ¢ r If the verniers are 1SO" apart . + B: 1(. When the index 8~ O. Since Cl! . error will occur due to both causes. 2­ Thus the average of two readings give thecorrect value From Fig. .15. ° .~ /4 Fundamentals oj SIIITC'yillg o 270 I I' :.. 10. O. Thls is shown in Fig. If there is eccentricity and A and Bare 1800 apart. ~~ .14 Eccentricity elf inner and outer axis.'71 -IE? . (ii) at right angles to this line Cl is maximum. is the index error and index A I is <It 0".

+ 2Ct .. 90' " 90 0 Tlu:odolircs 215 III ~ . In fact. Thus iherneun of the face le ft and face right readings. Hence tun () = DE but CD co:' " CD DE " =tan e' II tan () =tan e sec Ct.(2Ct .. the axis of which coincides with the horizontal axis of the instrument'(Fig. = Error due to line of collimation 1I0t being perpendiclllar to the trunnion axis If the line of collimation is not exactly perpendicular to the horizontal axis of the instrument it would not revolve in a vertical plane when the telescope is raised or lowered. 1I' there ls no eccentricity of axes but A and 0 nrc not ISO" apart.CE ls the line of sigb: which is not at right angles to the trunnion axis. 81 and ~ nrc equal but opposite in sign.. i. double centring eliminates this error. . the error will' be of equal value but opposite in sign. angles of elevuticns nrc and ((~ then the net error 81 .. As () and E are both small. = "I :i I 'I I III . ZDE is the horizontal plane and () is the projection of angle e on the horizontal plane.~ . On changing f:lcc.e~ ± E (sec ((I .) = 2).tS Eccentricity of verniers und axes. I0. l. error due to both causes C.e..).1n he eliminated. From th~ figure. then 01 and o~ will vary in magnitude as zero sening is consecutive I)' changed around the circle of centre O2 but their difference will remain constant as DI . The error incrcnses with increase in angle of depression or clevmion.A and B are not I RO' apart. . Finally if there is eccentricity of axes und.. it will generate u cone.8~ =). then + 01 ." l6Zrr ~ ~l18~' _ I 2m' 2m' Fig.e. " 11180: J "'" r~ A.~. A O'/. lO.. By rending both verniers und adopting a mean or both the readings. () = C sec Ct jill 1f for two observations on the same face.. tan () DE =ZD but ZD= CD cos a thnt is.16).sec a:I.c:::= !?2a t _..

_ .. I Fig. Trunnion axis 1I0t perpendicular [0 [he vertical ax~s If the trunnion axis or horizontal axis is not perpendicular to the vertical axis. From Fig. when the telescope is rotated about the horizontal axis. 10. An error will occur if the foresight and backsight are inclined at different angles to the horizontal. . I E Vertical Axis D Fig.17 Trunnion axis norperpendlcularto vertical axis.17 A BCD-vertical plane swept out by the line of sight when the trunnion axis is truly horizontal.. Vertical Axis Inclined plane lilted horizontal axis 'line of sight • E c e.16 Line of collimation not perpendicular to trunnion axis.. '":rl 216 Fundamentals of Surveying t· B A . it would not generate a vertical plane but would generate an inclined plane. 10. 10.

t Tllt'ot/vlilt'.­ .El tan Cli + E: tnn 0. BC ton i. no matter whatever is the vertical angle.= e = Error in measuringhorizontal angle From the figure: .since and e are small.-.. If the theodolite is out of-adjustment. 0 .17 but of equal magnitude thus double centring eliminates this error.' SIn ED = BlIt BC =AD e= ED . sin e = ED EC But EC = Be tan e . ABEF-inclined plane swept out by the line of sight when trunnion axis is inclined at an angle E to the horizorual.-10. the inclination of the trunnion axis will be in the opposite direction as shown in Fig. and £~ :1rI: the angles by which the vertical uxis L. Thus the error in measuring horizontal angle will be E tan a... C' tan a. This error is not eliminated bv double cenrrlnu as the vertical axls does not change in position or 'inclination 'ns the change of face is done. If E is the: angle by which the vertical axis is not truly vertical. not ll'lIly vertical und Ct. AE =line of sight. Fig. On transitting the telescope. Vertical axis not trulyvertical e e ".: ((1' where £.'> 217 .direction (If pointing or the line lit" !\i~ht.. does not remain constant for all horizontal angles of the telescope.. the vertical axis. Figure 10. angle of inclination of line of sight. to.19 shows the error in measurement of on angle when the vertica] axis is not truly \ ertical. . the vertical axis will not be truly vertical even if the plate bubble is at the centre of its run.C. the horizontal axis will not be truly horizontal by the same angle E. E.: .. Ct.ED BC _ AD =tan a' or sin = tan a tan e . + C~ = 04:08: . the error is zero.1 S shows the difference in effect of change of face when the trunnion axis is not perpendicular to the vertical axis and when the vertical axis is not truly vertical. 10. When the direction of pointing is in the same direction as the inclination of the vertical axis. The error is maximum when the: pointing is at right angles to th~ direction of Inclination of . Observed angle A:08: Correct angle AIOB1 = A~OB: . however.

. the line of collimation should be horizontal.lS Vertical axls not truly vertical. line Face left Face right Fig. -.19 Error in angle measurement. If not. and the vertical circle index should read 0-0.e. altitude bubble is. central. Vertical circle index error To obtain correct vertical angle. 10. i.218 Fwu!(/l/lCII!(/!S of Surveying " Horizontal axis Vertical axis Trunnion axis Face left Vertical axis Face right Horizontal . line Horizontal . Let. error in measurement of vertical angle will occur. 10. A2~ oJ o Fig. . when the telescope is horizontal.

0 f the . f . + ¢ + e Taking mean a = ell + C{2 2 If the altitude bubble is not central. " Line of sight . then .= Correct altitude angle..Theodolites . Figure 10. ai_ a2 = Observed angles of altitude .20 Vertical circle index From Face left observation ' a = al From Face right observation ¢- e a = a2. .0 219 a . 10. ..20 shows the different angles for both face left and face right observations when the bubble is made central b)' means of clip screws. Ii 0 1• is greater than E:. " e = Index error. e" when iuce Idt. ¢ • • = Collimation error. Face right Fig. = Reading oftheobjective end ofthe bubblewith face right 0L = Reading of objective end of bubble witl: 'face left ER = Reading of eyepiece end with face right £" = Reading of eyepiece end with face left . .£" ...EN e" w h"~n tuce nu ..>}Afr1[ 4 ) the vernier Index error Telescope axisA' Line of sight Telescope axis Face left J Line of sighl error.. the line connecting the vernier zeros would be inclined to that line obtained when the altitude bubble is central and any movement of the altitude bubble would cause an equivalent rotation of the line of vernier zeros in the same direction. If ' ' \ '.j Line joining zeros on the vernier Objective end of the instrument - Line of sight Collimation error Zero·Zero of Incex -' error L / :. IH III dex ex frame = 0" TIlen rotauon OR ~ - 0. where fI' = angular \':t111C of one div ision of the bubble tube. .

This error can be minimized by taking observations over different portions of the horizontal scale so that they are spacedover the entire scale and their mean come close to the correct value.~ (OL . L . From the above discussion it is clear the effect of error is greatest .when observations are taken with (i) line of sights at different vertical angles. x = Displacement of 8\ from B. . cr = cr.~. 2 COL - EL) e" '·_:~1 t '. 10." . B. This is shown in Fig. '~~ . .. However.21 where 8 is the station point and A and C are the observed stations.8.2 PERSONAL ERRORS These errors result from limitations of human eye sight and are accidental in nature."'. 2 nnd a= cr! + ¢ + {e or ~ (OR .2~O Fundamcinals of Surveying "~. °-L E) ' horizontal scale If any graduations on the horizontal circle are not uniformly spaced or if the scale is not properly centred the horizontalangle readings will not be correct.) + -4 (:E 2 Error due to imperfect graduations 011 en . 81 =Actual station point. + cr.( . these errors can be almost eliminated bv takins mean of two angles taken ~\'ith face left and face right observations as th~n half-the readings are-too large while the other half too small. . 8\ = Observed angle from B1 8 = Required angle from B. 'I a=(cr. ...•.¢ - {e .E en} R) Taking mean of the two readings : . Averaging the sum gives the correct angle. = Required station point. 'i\ ::~ e will be decreased and When OR> ER• by 1. '?t:.ER) (J' . . (ii) of different lengths..EL) en} (OR . e will be increased by 1. . 1" accurate centring If the instrument is not set exactly over the station point there will be error in measuring horizontal angles there. 10. .

.8 == a + {3 Let ABS I = Sin 9..:.. or 0 = 0' or ISO".. :.:. ' /3 in second = 206265.r sfn c as AB = AS l Similarly =c.' 9l] =0 " or or cos ¢ cos (8 .r sin (8 b ¢) Total error ?06"6sin (8 . dE = 206165 s [cos ¢ _ cos (8. Theodolites B '2~ 1 . a + {3 ' =_::>.:. (J = "06"6_ . • .. a . a In second = "06"6­ .'¢ + . A~---------- C Fig. .0) -= ' C b: cos ¢ = E.:. cor ¢ =O.(Sin .. d¢ "C . Error in measurement: 81 .c cos =90~. ' " c b 'J For maximum and minimum values ...IO.:l.' . b.-~---.!1 Inaccurate centring.. Hence sin e = O. then r\~ .9.::>....:. .X sin'" ' A~ .~ = c sin f) b . (cos 8 cos ¢ + sin 8 sin ¢) b Dividing by sin ¢ . As a is small sin a= ({ radian .r. cot ¢ = ~ (cos or when" cot v e cot ¢ + sin 8) e . .r sin 0 = --:­ .

' " The position of the bubble centre should be checked frequently and. (ij) direction of the instrument 8 1 with respect to station B. i. (a) Poor visibility resulting from rain... (e) Gusty or high velocity winds that vibrate or displace an instrument. and foresight.3 NATURAL ERRORS These are due to environmental causes like wind. Displacement of tripod The instrument man should be very careful in walking about the theodolite. it should not bedone in the middle of a measurement.~~ . Correct reading however. It is more when length of sight is small. . Angular error is about l' when the error of centring is 1 em and the length of sight is 35 m. between a backsight.. Improper focussing (parallax) While taklng measurements. i... snowfall or blowing dust. Greater care must be exercised on shorter sight distances and a narrower object. 10. However. the maximum error exists when ¢ tends towards 90° relative 10 the shorter line. The bubble is drawn towards the heated end of the theodolite. Error of pointing This error has the same effect as shown in the previous paragraph. (iii) length of lines band c.~ . move plumb bob strings and make sighting procedures'.. ' . Horizontal and vertical angles suffer in accuracy whenimproper focussing causes parallax. Thus centring error depends on: (i) linear displacement x. temperature change and other atmospheric conditions such as the following. In that case the instrument should be reset. depends on experience. Then the image of the object should be brought in the planeof the cross wires. Level bubble not centred • " . particularly when it is set up in soft ground. then cot ¢ ~ 0 or ¢ -+ 90:>. the cross wires should be carefully focussed. should be recentred. difficult. (b) Sudden temperature change causing 'unequal expansion of various components of a theodolite leading to errors.e.. It is maximum when the displaced direction is perpendicular to the shorter line.8.222 Fundanicutals of S/lrrcying If b » c. if necessary.e. Misreading a vernier An accidental' error occurs if the'observer do~s not use a reading glass or if he" does not look radially along the graduations when reading the verniers. The tripod is easily disturbed. (d) Settlement of tripod feet on hot pavement or soft or soggy ground. (c) Unequal refraction causing shimmering of the signals making accurate sighting difficult.

The primary function of a theodolite is to measure horizontal and vertical angles. (a) The line of sight is normal to. If the bubble remains central [he adjustment is correct. the horizontal axis. and (vi) Horizontal vernier. say. Some of them are: '. (ii) Drlvlng stakes to receive the tripod legs in unstable ground. ' . (d) The.10. (iii) Telescope bubble tube.. .:.. (iv) Horizontal axis.10 PER. Correction Bring the bubble half way back by the capstan headed screw at one end of the level and the other half b)' the foot screws.. work these errors con be'minimized by (i) Sheltering' the instrument from wind and rays of the sun. 10. 219° instead of 291°. (. For accurate and precise.. (f) Reading the wrong circle (clockwise or anticlockwise). wrong tangent screw. . (c) The vertical axis is normal to the plane containing the hori~ontal circle.. smoke stocks.. (e) Reading wrong vernier (in the case of 0 double vernier). (b) Turning the. there are two planes and five lines ina theodolite.~ Mistakes occur due to carelessness of the observer.\IA~ENT ADJUSTl\1E~TS OF A VERNIER THEODOLITE . (g) Reading small elevation'angle as depression angle or 'viceverse.1 PLATE BUBBLE TUSE [0 Purpose' To make the axis of each plate level bubble perpendicular vertical-axis. (ii) Crosshairs and line of sight. and stand pipes which radiate a great deal of heat: 10.. It is then rotated in azimuth through 180=. These lines and planes bear definite relation to one another in a well adjusted instrument. (c) Reading wrong numbers. (j) Missing the direction in measuring deflection angle. They are: ' . . . and (iii) Avoiding horizontal .' ' '.5.adjustments of a vernier theodolltcare: (ij Plate bubble tubes. line of sight is parallel to the axis of the telescope bubble tube.') Vertical vernier.refrocticln by not allowing transit lines to pass close to such structures as buildings. As already explained in Section 10. (h) Notceritring the bubble tube before reading vertical angle.Theodolltes ' ~23 • . the Test : The plate bubble tube is levelled by means of foot screws. " . (d) Dropping one division of the main scale reading say 20'. . Based on above the principal . (0) Forgetting to level the instrumerit. J . (b) The horizontal axis is normal to the vertical axis. 10. (i) Sighting on the wrong target. ..9 l\HSTAKES IN THEODOLITE Ai'iGLES '". (e) The axes of the plate levels lie in a plane parallel to the horizontal circle.

Figure 10.E on the left side of the vertical axis.. ' -. the vertical axis is not truly vertical.PIJle bubble test.1 ! I ! II I • .--_.2 CROSSHA1RS A:-\D LINE OF SIGHT There are three ddjustments: Adjustment of vertical cross hair Purpose To place the vertical crosshair in a plane perpendicular to the horizontal axis of the instrument. . the bubble now makes on angle of 90o. lit right angles to the vertical axis. 10.· 224 Fundamentals of S1I11"Cyil/g Explanation Figure 10.22 . the crosshair is not perpendicular to the horizontal axis.. ­ ------'1'1 II. i .. The plate level which still remains at an angle E is made horizontal by means of capstan headed screw.22 (a) shows the initial condition when the bubble is levelled. Correction Loosen oil. . The plate is. however.. I I I: !I II Vertical Axis not tru~y vertical 1. True ~ertical I Bubble levelled i True vertical Vertical Axis truly vertical Plate at right angle 10 the vertical axis Plate I (b) (c) (a) Fig...r. the capstan screws and rotate the reticle carrying the crosshairs so that vertical hair becomes truly vertical and perpendicular to the horizontal axis. The bubble level becomes horizontal but as it is not at right angles to the vertical axis.10.22 (b) shows when the bubble is rotated about vertical axis through ISoo.A:~ il I I II . Test The test is simil~'r to that of horizontal crosshair in the adjustment of dumpy level... Repeat the test . Figure 10. t' • ". If it does not. 10.22 (c) shows how the vertical axis is rotated through E (half the deviation) by means of foot screws to make it truly vertical. . One 'end of the vertical hair is brought to some well defined point and the telescope is revolved on its transverse axis to see if the point appears to move along the hair. As the vertical axis and the angle between the vertical axis and the bubble tube remains unaltered..

.Theodolites 225· . . -. 2nd Transit L c D A' A B Line of sight .(iii) With the telescope still in the inverted.. (v) Since two transittings are involved distance between Band C is'jollr times the error of adjustment. horizontal axis. . Line 01 sight after . Repeat the test till 'A' is again seen after reversing backsight A. . . after first transit Fig. (iv) Transit the telescope again and set a point C beside the first foresight point B. Test Here double centring method of prolonging aline is applied. .. position.23 Adjustment of line of sight. . unclamp either plate. allow true . The steps are: (i) Level the instrument and backsight carefully on a well defined point 'A' about a chain away (Fig. turn the instrurnent on the vertical axis. 10. This will . lnadjustment : point B will be on the extension of the straight line. (ii) Transit the telescope and see another point B at approximately the same elevation as 'A' and atleast two chains away. Correction Loosen one of the side capstan screw and tighten the otherso that the vertical hair moves through 1I4th the distance Be to point D. . clamp the plate. ~ . • • • • Adjustment of line of sight to Purpose The purpose of this adjustment is to make the line ofsight perpendicular the straight line extension when transiulna .23). . .­ . If the instrument is. backsight on the first point A again and . . This is necessary when the transit is used as :1 level or when it is used in measuring vertical angles. Adjustment of horizontal crosshalr . 10. Purpose To bring the horizontal hair into the plane of motion of the optical centre of the object glass so that line of sight will be horizontal when the telescope bubble is in adjustment and the bubble is centred. . the telescope.

25). With plates clamped elevate the telescope and bring it to point A by using the horizontal axis adjusting screw which raises or lowers the end of the cross arm until the crosshairs are brought to A. Correction Set a point D half wa)' between Band C and sight on it. In such a case when the plates are levelled. '. the distance between them being at least 3 to 4 chains (Fig. 10. .4 ADJUSTMENT OF TELESCOPE BUBBLE TUBE Purpose Test To make the axis of the bubble tube parallel to the line of sight.24). Test Set up and level the instrument at a distance of 10m from a tall vertical wall. If Band C do not coincide. Adjustment of horizontal axis -. 10. If the.24 Adjustment of horizontal crosshair. '" i l . TIghten the clamp and check the adjustment by repeating the Test. the horizontal axis is truly horizontal and the line of sight moves in a vertical plane as the telescope is raised or lowered. Rotate the telescope through 1SO°. readings of horizontal crosshair at Band C with telescope both normal and inverted. Rai~e the telescope through a vertical angle of 30~ and sight some distant point A on the wall. the horizontal axis is not truly horizontal and needs adjustment.I r .difference in readings at Band C in both conditions is the same. F~ '4 Purpose The object of this adjustment is to make the telescope's horizontal axis perpendicular to the transit's vertical axis. ' Correction If not at the centre. Take. Plunge the telescope to 0° and mark a point B on the wall. (Fig. Plunge again the telescope to O~ and mark a point C on the wall.2:!6 Fundamentals of Surveying Correct line of sight Line of sight telescope plunged C sight (telescope normal) Fig. Repeat the lest and adjustment until the horizontal hair reading does not change for normal and plunged sights on the far point. Same as the two peg test of dumpy level. the reading is brought to mean of the two readings at C by means of capstan screws on the top and bottom of the telescope. This is known as Spire Test. 10. 10. Test Set up and level the instrument at A and mark two stations at Band C. reverse the telescope and sight A again.then the line of sight is truly horizontal when the telescope bubble is at the centre of ·its run.10.

index error. Method II This is used if the vertical vernier has a bubble tube. With micrometer microscopes readings may be taken on large' geodetic theodolites .11 ~IlCRO~IETER i\IICROSCOPE Verniers in theodolites can read upto 10". Method 1 This is used if there is no vertical vernier bubble tube. using the vertical lock and slow motion. Set the vernier to a reading of exactly 0° using the vernier slow motion screw and centre-the vernier bubble using the bubble tube adjusting screws. centre the telescope bubble. there is. centre the telescope bubble. carefully loosen thevemlermounting screws. . centre the telescope bubble. move it to a reading of exactly O~ and refix. If the vertical vernier does not read exactly O~. Precise verniers may read upto 10". Set up and level the instrument. Set up and level the instrument and then using the vertical . If not. . Correction This adjustment is performed in two ways.. then.* c Fig.lock and slow motion. .5 ADJUSTME~T OF VERTICAL VER~IER Purpose To ensure that vertical circle reads.Theodolites 227 · j. .10.25 Correction The correct reading for 'marking the line of sight horizontal is computed and it is set on the distant rod by means of vertical Circle slow motion screw. zero when the line of sight is horizontal. The vertical circle reading should now be zero. 10. 10. Using the vertical circle slow motion screw. B ".. The telescopebubble is then centred by turning the capstan screws at one end of the level vial. Test Level the instrument with both plate level bubbles. 10.

26(b) which shows the view in the eyepiece together with graduations in the adjoining drum. 10. FromFig. To measure the fractional part. In this example. Fractional parts of a revolution of a drum. The slide can he moved by 'me:Jns of a milled head on the outside of the micrometer tube. objective . corresponding to fractional parts of a V division on the horizontal circle may be read on the graduutec drum againstan index mark fitted to the side of the· .26 (a) and (b) show the details of a micrometer microscope and how readings are taken.16 (:I) Micrometer microscope.26(b) it is 106°. the mlcrometer is turned until the graduation 106° 50' lies midway between the movable hairs. and this graduation should appear to be central between the two movable hairs. The pitch of the screw is such that a complete revolution moves the slide through two successive divisions of the graduated arc. box. 10. The function of the eyepiece is 10 form a magnified image of the index. The low powered microscope is fined with a srnall rectangular mctul box ut a point ncar where the image of the graduations formed by the objective will be situated. the graduated drum is divided into 10 large intervals and each of the large intervals into 6 small ones.r 2:28 Fundamentals of Surveying to I" and on smaller theodolites direct to 10" or 5" and estimated to 2" or 1". note the divisions on either side of the V and take the lower one. the horizontal circle is graduated to J 0' of are. Therefore. / graduaied drum Milled Movable hairs i Drum Capstan headed screw Knurled clamping and adjusting rings (b) index . lb) Reading in a micrometer microscope. To take a reading. movable hairs and the image of the graduutions formed by the objective. The method of using and reading the micrometer will be understood from Fig.50'. When the drum reads zero. each of the' large divisons on the drum corresponds to J' of arc and each of the small divisions to 10" of arc. These hairs are filled so that they will lie parallel to the images of the division marks of the graduated arc. The box with windows in the top and bottom is fitted with a fixed mark or index and with a movable slide carrying a vertical hair -or pair of parallel hairs placed \'1:1')' close together. 10. Figures 10. The index beside the drum is now between the graduations 4' 20" and 4'30" and by estimating " " . one of the graduations should be in the centre of the V.screw for loosening drum ~_Eye (a) piece Fig.

With the telescope level. Vertical circles are graduated from 0° to 3600 . 229"' . The)' can be both double centre and directional. Hen~e the complete reading is 1060 54'27". 5. tenths the reading on the drum may be taken as 4' 27". 1. The alidade can be detached from its mounting or tribrach.12 OPT'leAL THEODOLITES These are used for precise survey and have many improved features compared to vernier theodolites. . The horizontal and vertical circles are made of glass and have precisely etched graduation lines and numerals. battery powered light provides illumination for night work. . . Direction theodolite on the other hand. The horizontal circle setting screw can be used for changing the position of the horizontal circle. . " . The horizontal line of sight is established by first centring the vertical circle control bubble and then setting off a 900 zenith ringle using the vertical clamp and tangentscrew. in normal position. . There is' only one clamp screw and one tangent screw.. The inner spindle of most theodolites is hollow in order to provide a line of sight for the optical plummet which takes the place of the plumb' bob used to centre the theodolite over the point to be occupied. The circles and optical systems are completely enclosed and the instrument is dust proof and moisture proof. does not have thelower clamp and lower tangent screw. Their main improved features are as follows: . 9... a 6. 0° corresponding to the instrument's zenith. 7. lens to provide sharp views even at relatively short ranges. All circle readings and bubble position checks can be made from the eyepiece end it is not necessary to move round the instrument. Telescope is shortand internal focussing and equipped with a large objective .. Angles are read through an optical system consisting of a microscope and series of prism. a lowermotion and a vertical motion together with appropriate clamps and tangent screws. • 10. . .' 10.­ • r • : ••0 : . Optical reading repeating theodolite hasan upper motion. in inverted position the angle is 2700 • Optical reading systems of direction instruments permit an observer to simultaneously view the circle at diametrically opposite positions. The instrument is lightweight and compact and easy to operate weighing only about 5 kg. . 4. . thus compensating for any circle eccentricities. 3. ' Theodolites . 1\. a zenith angle of 90° is read. Some theodolites contain a pendulurn compensator which minimizes "index error". An adjustable rnirror on the outside of the instrument housing reflects light into the reading system. 2. 8. . Their vertical axis is cylindrical and rotates on precision ball bearings. .

.c: till" 0. . ~' Vertical Circle ~I . I Vertical i . I: I ii I ·!!ll i I i ~...-~ __ .1 PRINCIPLE OF OPTICAL MICROSCOPE AND OPTICAL PLUMJ\.~I ... line or marker ~ ". They then pass through a parallel sided glass block C which con rotate about a vertical axis..Vpnsm yr~m_' ! I Optical plummet eyepiece E -tw:-: Horizontal circle j Horizontal circleTo ground station Fig~ 10..230 Fundamentals of Surveying 10.1ET Figure 10. Light falling into the mirror after reflection and refraction through suitably placed prisms... I ! 'Glassblock C .." / ' D Circle i ~I: T? eye A1---. The block C ls rotated by the micrometer selling knob and its position is indicated by the graduated sector scale S. Finally they are focussed on the plate D.J pIece •.I -~-'---T.27 shows the schematic diagram of an optical microscope and optical plummet together..nsiti . I .. passes partly through the graduations of the horizontal circle and partly through the graduations of the vertical circle. E~ch window has a fixed reference.12..a! .I S axis i I I I ' I o .' 't.:1 r I· I ~~ ~-.'. iI". ' V" .27 Schematic diagram of nn cptical microscope and an optical plummet. Through the reading eyepiece at D the observer can see vertical circle graduations in the window V a portion of horizontal circle graduations in window H and a portion of the sector scale in window S. Sector scale S I 1 ~ I I :JI __ I~ -- I' II .

Similarly for the vertical angle viewed in the window marked \'.... Generally.12.. To read the horizontal angle the window marked H is viewed. The optical plummet helps in centring the theodolite over the station. As the micrometer screw is turned. or in some other special circumstances. The optical plummet sight is very useful for optical centring. Two causes of accidental setting up errors have been eliminated.it gives the fractional part in minutes and seconds. The upper end of the rod and consequently. however.27 shows the line of sight of an optical plummet. In this method. The top of the rod is moved laterally by means of the tribrach (with which it is attached) which moves over the top face of the tripod.10. light-emitting diodes (LEOs) or liquid crystal diodes (LCDs) are used for display.The total reading will. the tribrach is then locked into position by means of knurled clamping nut at the upper end of the rod. . the thickness of the block C and the length of the scale S must be so adjusted that a movement of the scale from 00'00" to 20'00" causes the pictures in the windows. therefore. This technique ls referred to as "force centring". This is ensured by doing simultaneously the levelling and centring operation which ls . be equal to full degree reading plus a fractional part. becomes obligatory when there is high wind or when the ground mark is at the bottom of a hole. the bottom of which is pointed and is set into the station mark. record and display horizontal and vertical angles. Through the eyepiece the observer can view the ground station in relarion to a diaphragm mark in the optical system. Its use. It is obtained by fitting lenses into the hollow central axis of the instrument so as to form a small telescope pointing vertically downwards. .. But to be effective the sight line of the centring telescope should be vertical.time consuming.13 ELECTRO:\IC THEODOLITES Electronic theodolites use the principle of electronics to read. and backsight). a . . the theodolite can be removed and can be quicklyinterchanged . V and H to move -distance of exactly one division 20' of the circle scales. From the ground station line of sight passes through the lens and then through a reflecting prism to an eyepiece at the side of the instrument. Figure 10. The data obtained can be stored ·l__ J . theodolite occupation. This is another way of accurately centring the instrument over a ground station. to ensure the above. the micrometer scale reading also changes and. The verticality of the centring rod is ensured by bringing the bull's eye bubble attached to the centring rod to the centre. Theodolites 231 and as the block is rotated: the pictures of the scales moves across the windows. Advantages of forced centring are obvious-instead of three separate setups at every station (foresight. or tribrach is necessary. with an Eo:\I. The micrometer screw is turned until the degree mark is exactly on the reference line. only one placement of the tripod . .2 CENTRI~G BY CENTRIKG ROD C -~.. . . 10. . The centring rod is a telescopic plumbing rod. However. reflector or a sight pole without disturbing integrity of the tripod! tribrach set up. .

io. loosen the horizontal clamp.. Observed direction Angle 21 0 12' 14" 42 0 27' 41" Fig. ~. tighten clamp and make the perfect pointing with the horizontal tangent screw. is 42~27'41". Sometimes the theodolite is equipped with an ED~lI when it becomes a total station instrument or an electronic tacheorneter. the left most station of the set. Let the reading be 21°15'27" as shown in Fig. This is the first step.i« l\'IEASURING A!\GLES WITH DIRECTION THEODOLITES I The direction theodolite reads "directions" or. Next. Then as in single angle measurement observations should be taken on B. The reading. This completes the 1st position or set of angles. With the help of in built computer slope distances can be reduced and horizontal distances can be corrected for curvature and refraction. The included angle is.. The reading will differ by approximate 180° from the first reading. 10. Fundamentals of S/lIwying directly in an electronic data recorder for later retrieval. then 42°27'41" ­ 21°15'27" or 21°12'14". Set up the instrument at A and pointat B. A· ~o~ e~ O'()<:J 0 I}.. Sights are then taken to D. make a rough pointing towards A. The circularoptical micrometer enables directions to be read to the nearest second or less. 1. Next loosen the horizontal clamp and observe the sameprocedure to point towards C.28 Measuring single angle with direction theodolite.232 . e0 -e ~ . In thiswaysighting errors and instrumental .29 showshowa number of angles can be more accurately measured with a direction theodolite. C. '2-\ . 10. It does not provide for a lower motion as is contained in a repeating instrument. The instrument can then be used for measuring and displaying horizontal and vertical angles. The mean of the two second values is suffixed to the direct reading of degree andminute to givethe mean value. .\ . Coordinates for the occupied station can be obtained when coordinates of other points are known. With the horizontal clamp loose. . horizontal distance. say. and elevation difference. For measuring the horizontalangle ABC. and B in the counter-clockwise direction.positions on its horizontal circle. C.. and computing by a microprocessor either in the field or in the office. . "". Initializing on B permits directions to be read in a clockwise sequence. D and E. rotate allidade through 180° and reverse the telescope and point again to E. setup the instrument at B.28. Figure 10.

For maximum error . 10.c cos e . • C!l ~ A To'E' Fig. . 10.1._. The second set will start from the original reading plus 180/11 where It is the number of sets. Compute the maximum and minimum errors in the measurement of clockwise angle ABC induced by the centring error if the magnitude of the angle is approximately 120:) and the lengths of thelines AB and BC are approximately 5 m and 20 m respectively. .ccurate measurements of angles by direction theodolite. ~ B A Fig. What conclusions can be . " . added value will be 90Q if three. The final angles arc then the means obtained from all the sets. _. If there are two sets. ' Example 10. The initial reading for the second set will depend on the number of sets to be observed. it will be 60°.1 List the factors which determine the magnitude of the angular error due to defective centring of the theodolite. ' The centring error in setting up a theodolite over a survey station is 1 mm. '.8.29 A. Council] .drawn from this computation? [Eng. From the directions the included angles can be obtained as before.' . A second set of readings can then be taken and a third set and so on. cot ¢ = c sin e b . c Solution Theoretical portion has been explained in Section 10. .30 Example 10. errors are eliminated but not random errors.r Theodolites " 233 .

106 + sin (120 . = 206265 x 1(Sin 79. . . Example 10. . the telescope is then lowered to read the scale with the results given below.' . B (The error in horizontal circle reading caused by a trunnion axis misalignment t "is t tan a where a is the altitude). Determine the magnitude and sense of error in collimation of the theodolite and the inclination of the trunnion axis.100 mm to + 100 mm and is mounted just touching the wire and in the same plane as the trunnion axis. [Bradford] Solution Let both the corrections to horizontal angle be positive.11 mm. trunnion axis by a small amount C. Exactly 20.265. 2. .000 m away is a vertical wire carrying two targets at different levels. e be the angular trunnion axis error . Trunnion axis is high on the left. The theodolite is first pointedal a target.6. Target A . .26" . Then 1. A theodolite undertest for error in collimation and alignment of the trunnion axis is set with its axis truly vertical.5 cos 1:0:> =0.24 mm.1963957 + .79.2 Derive an expression for the error in the horizontal circle reading of a theodolite (11) caused by the lineof collimation riot being perpendicular to the .r 23~ Fundamentals of Surveying - 5 sin 1:0 2 ~o . Line of collimation bears to the right. = 47.106° E =206265 x e i: (J + sin (~- ¢l)) -.'1 Vertical Angle 65°27'15" 30°43'27" Scale Reading + 4. Let x be the angular collimation error. An accurate scale perpendicular to the line of sight is graduated from .The zero graduation coincides with the wire.032733) . (ii) Major contribution in angular error is from the shorter side.106)) 1000 5 20 =206.192 ¢ =79. Minimum error is zero. .(. Conclusion: (i) Angular error E is maximum when the displacement tends to be perpendicular to the shorter line..

41 x ·0. . On transiuing for circle right reading axis is high on the right and correction 8{3 =8{3. tan sec Cil Ci.000· -.16 x = + 64. = + ~ x 206265" . Find the difference.000' Here . . show that the difference between circle left and circle right measurement of the horizontal angle subtended by two targets whose elevations are 8 and-¢ above horizontal is 2 a (tan 8. axis is high on the left. Theodolites 235 Then e tan a.74".35 Solving. Example 10.42. Since in measurement.59 e + 1.of>! = - a (tan 8 . +x sec Cil = ­ ~·x 206265" 20.8f32 = + a (tan e­ tan ¢) for face left reading when. [LondonUniv. say.IS1. hence collimation bears to the right.16 =. ~ . In a certain theodolite the horizontal axis is 0.tan ¢).1 .19 =2. to the nearest second. Ci. hence trunnion axis is high .19 e + 2.3 If the horizontal axis of a tbeodolite makes an angle of 90° + a with the vertical axis and if the instrument is otherwise in adjustment. Theoretical portion has been covered in Section 10. a2 tan a2 sec a2 Therefore =65°27' 15" =2. Solution For horizontal axis error a for each reading clockwise correction is (added/subtracted} if the axis is high on the (left/right) and its value is a tan e. •• '.39 2. .' e tan a.59 = 1. • 20.\" = 147. Hence on face left condition the observed rending will be correct value of the .8. 6 ". on the right.025 mm out in 100 rnrn and· the instrument is otherwise in correct adjustment.tan tP).. =.41 =30°43'27" =0.]. two sights corresponding to clockwise horizontal angles {31 < /3z will be taken at vertical angles e and ¢ ~fJ = 8f31 .62" e Which is positive. + x sec Ci. between circle left and circle right values of the horizontal angle subtended by two targets whose elevations are 55°30' and 22°00'.

Hence a' =25°11'00" + 20" = 25°21'20" J­ . being readings of the ends of the bubble. 4. Deduce the value ofthat angle from the data given below.tan 9). 25°21'00'" . . .. 1.x "06"6-" .25 a .tan ¢).tan 91.5 div.) 2 4 ­ . Similarly for face right condition observed reading will be correct value + a(tal1 e . = 108. and one division of the altitude level is equivalent to 20 seconds.\' e: '. 25°:!l '~O" 3. Hence difference in reading .a(t:Jn 8 .. _:l 100 .and it was noted that the altitude bubble was not in the Centre of its run in either the face left or face right positions.2o(t:ln e. .4 4 .(al + a.tan ¢) tan 55°30' = 1. 20°11'00" Solution If the bubble is not central during observations (face left and face right) the apparent index error. Struct.b:!) a. the correctangle is I e"· a = . 0 and E refer to the objective and eyepiece end respectively of the bubble. -(r. Here .) = . b.39i' .5 div.0.b l ) and r:! = (o:! . Example 10. .(1 + 3) =20 .025 .(r.455 tan 22°00' = OAO·t =2 'x 0..5 div.0~06265.4 An angle of elevation was measured by vernier theodolite .) + .5 div.rved ~ngles.39" = I'~8. x (10455 .0.:.404) . Hence 2a (tan e .-0. + r.136 Fundamentals of Surveying angle . e :: 55°30' ¢ = 2rOO'. If a\ and a'2 are the ~bse. [I. is given by (1"1 + 1"2)/4 where 1"1 = (a.. 20" " + I. E] Face Vernier readings Altitude level 0 Left Right 25°~0'~0" I E 2.

(b) Describe in detail the collimatica adjustment of a transit. (say with reference to bubble axis of telescope) (ii) the error due to eccentricity of the verniers of a theodolite 80m eliminated by averaging the v emiers.fii) Bubbleaxls.2. [?~1I~ AdvancedSurv eyingWinter 1985] 10. (a) Define for a rheodolite (i) Vertical exls. . (c) There are two vertical axes for the t\VO horizontal plates top and bottom of a theodolite.. Say what will happen and what you must do if the two vertical axes are: (i) Inclined to each other. (iii) Collimation axis. (ii) Renderlnguunnlon axis horizontal.I i . (b) What relationships exist gmong theabove principal axesof the theodolite (c) Describe the 'spire test' for a theodolite explaining in detail the (i) Object.. . it is not always. (:1) What is the basic difference between temporary and permanent adjustments ofa theodolite? ' . (vi) Adjusting vertical axes truly vertical. (iv) Vernier and microptic theodolites. (d) Why is modem theodolite called a transit in USA? [A~HE Advanced Surveying Summer 1986] IDA. (iij Necessity. (b) Classify as temporary or permanent adjustment: (i) Focussing of eyepiece. (a) Bring out the main difference between the following pairs: (i) External .(a) Mention the permanent adjustments of a common type of theodolite. (c) Account for the following: (i) according to the principle of reversal. if any: between the (i) Horizontal axis and trunnion axis. (b) Under what sltuationts) can there be difference between the vernier readings of horizontal circles of a theodolite? How will you eliminate the error (s) in one or both of them? . (ii) Line of collimation and line of sight. [A:-'UE Advanced Surveying Winter 1987] .. (iii) Transit and non-transit 'theodolites. (iv) Horizontal axis. (ii) Kepler's and Galilee's types of . (iv) Bringing the image of an object exactly in the plane of diaphragm containing cross lines. (d) What is index error in a theodolite? Briefly describe a method to remove it. • Theodolites 237 PROBLEi\IS 10.. (b) Explain the following misnomers: (i) The diaphragm of a surveyor's telescope is said to contain. [A~l1E Advanced Surveying Winter 1936] 10. (ii) Parallel to each other. 'crosshairs' but there are no 'hairs'. . (a) How is the principle of reversal applied while adjusting'the axis of a plate bubble of a t h e o d o l i t e ? : . [AI\'lIE Advanced Surveying Summer 1935] 10. and internal focussing telescopes. (iii) Test (iv) Adjustrnent.. telescopes.1. 'horizontal' unless special efforts are periodically taken. (iii) Coincident. (v) Making bubble axis horizontal.3. (c) Bring out thedifference in a theodolite. (iii) Centring a theodolite over ground mark.5.. (ii) The trunnion axis is also called 'horizontal axis' but then. the apparent error on reversal is twice the real error.

1979] to its proper positon? 10.~-. : . that it may be used to read vertical angles correctly. . [AMIE Advanced Surveying Winter 1979] 10. if the 'crosshair' is not in its proper position.11.~'(.238 Fundamentals of S/l/wyillg 10. (a) Enumerate the permanent adjustments of a transit theodolite. . 'face right'. (b) What is the effect on an observed horizontal angle if the trunnion axis is not perpendicular to the vertical axis in a theodolite? Illustrate with a sketch. (b) Describe the field operations for measuring a vertical angle when the available theodolite has perhaps a faulty trunnion (transit) axis. axis perpendicular to the vertical axis. (a) What are the permanent adjustments necessary in a verniertheodolite? (b) Briefly discuss how (i) line of collimation and (ii) trunnion axis adjustments are made. (c) Explain how a transit theodolite is tested and if necessary adjusted so . [AMIE Advanced Surveying Winter 1989] 10.12. ' (b) Explain the differences between.6. Give a list of the permanent adjustments of a transit theodolite and state the object of each of the adjustment. (iii) Free and Fast needle method of traversing. "vhat error will occur? How would you bring the 'crosshair' [AMIEWinter. (c) What are the advantages of making 'face left' and "face right' observations in the theodolite survey? [AMIEAdvanced Surveying Winter 1990] 10. (i) Chain surveying and traverse surveying. Explain how you will carry out the adjustment of verniertheodolite for obtaining the relationship horizontal. -. -~ ---'. (a) Describe the method of repetition for measurement of horizontal angle theodolite. Differentiate between temporary and permanent adjustments of a vernier theodolite and name the temporary adjustments. (d) During a theodolite observation. . [AMIE Summer 1988] 10. (a) Describe the functions of the following partsof a theodolite: (i) Vernier (ii) Tangent screw (iii) Clip screw (iv) Tribrach plate (v) Foot screws (vi) Vertical circle. (a) Give a list of all permanent adjustments of a common type of · · . . " •.10. (ii) Transluing and swinging. (b) What are the basic differenc~s between 'transit' and. 'non-transit' theodolite? (c) What is meant by 'face left'. . 'swing left' and 'swing right' 'in theodolite operation.·~:I .... Describe how you would make the trunnion axis perpendicular to the vertical axis. theodolite. __ [AMIE Advanced Surveying Summer 1988] 10.9. '.8.7. '-. [AMIEAdvanced Surveying Winter 1980] -. .

When this line is horizontal. This gives the name 'transit'. this can be eliminated by taking mean of the two readings. plate level axis. passing through the eyepiece and the optical centre of the objective of the telescope.ellmin:ned by taking average oftwo readings. if there is eccentricity: However mean of the two verniers will be free from eccentricity effect. 10. (a) . (ii) Line of sight is any line. e. The telescope in a modem theodolite can be rotated about its horizontal axis through 0. Temporary adjustments are required to be made at each station before taking readings. readings distributed overdifferent portions of the horizontal circle. (i) Temporary (ii) Permanent (iii) Temporary (iv) Temporary (v) Temporary (vi) Permanent. Many instrument makers use flnely drawn platinum wires. . 10. Permanent adjustments which usually last for a long time put the fundamental lines. some use fine glass threads and others use a glass diaphragm on which lines have been etched. (b) (c) (d) . horizontal axis. This line should . vertical axis. Reading against either vernier will. (i) Trunnion axis of a theodolite is the axis about which the telescope and vertical circle rotate. complete circle. it becomes the horizontal axis of the instrument. (c) 10. in proper relation to one another. If the axes are not parallel the bubble will behave as if the instrument is not levelled. the word 'transit' means to pass over or cross over and the line of sight of the transit can be made to cross over from one side to the otherby rotating the telescope about its horizontal axis. If the theodolite has two verniers placed at diametrically opposite points. the difference of the readings of the two will not remain constant but will vary periodically round the circle.4. This can be . horizontal circle does not coincide with' the centre 'of the vernier plate. It is the line passing through journals which fit into the bearings at the top of the standards.: • • HINTS TO SELECTED QUESTIO~S. etc. L ... This can be minimized by taking mean of several. (b) (i) The crosshairs used in some surveying instruments are very fine threads taken from the cocoon of a brown spider.be incorrect. Line of collimation is an imaginary particular line joining the intersection of the crosshairs of the diaphragm and the optical centre of the objective... be perpendicular to the horizontal axis andshould also be truly horizontal' when the readinz on the vertical circle is zero and the bubble on the t~lescope or on 7he vernier frame is at the centre of its.3.run.2 (b) Difference in vernierreadings can occur (i) if the centre of thegraduated .Theodolites 239 . Non-parallelism of the two vertical axes is easily detected by carrying out the levelling up process round one of the axes and then rotating the instrument about the other.g. (iii) If the zeros of the vernier arenot at the ends of the same diameter. -. Ifthe axes are parallel but'not coincident it leads to eccentriclty. .. (ii) If there is imperfect graduations of the horizontal circle.

' . (iii) the line of collimation not . ~ . This axis should be horizontal so that the telescope generates a vertical plane. . being parallel to the axis of altitude level or telescope level. (b) (ii)Transitting is the process of turning the telescope overits supporting axis through 1800 in a vertical plane. (ii) the line of collimation not being perpendicular to the horizontal axis. 10. . Hence the name 'horizontal axis'. (c) Face left and face right observations remove errors due to imperfect adjustments of' (i) the horizontal axis or trunnion axis not being perpendicular to the vertical axis.5. The swing is termed right or left accordingly as the telescope is rotated clockwise or anticlockwise. . Swinging the telescope means turning the telescope in a horizontal plane. 10.240 Fundamentals of Surveying (ii) Trunnion axis is the axis about which the telescope rotates.9.

B B '" C 0 /\ F . In Fig. The survey performed to evaluate such field measurements is known as traversing. . There are two basic types of traverses: (i) opel} and (ii) closed. '\ . B D E. .1 Open traverse.2(b) shows a traverse which covers a plot of land in the form ABCDEA. a..Z(a) ABCDEF represent a proposed highway route but the actual traverse begins at A' and ends at F'. • . Note that the traverse originates and terminates at the same point. Figure 1I. This is 11 typical layout for 11 highway ot a pipe line. 11 Traverse Survey and Computations 11. An open traverse terminates at a point of unknown position. A . This type of closed traverse is known as "geometrically open. Figure 11. Fig.cf known location. E . Figure ILl shows an open traverse. A traverse isa series of connected lines whose lengths and directions are measured in the field. A dosed traverse terminates at a point of known location. mathematically closed".. 11.2 shows two closed traverses. Both originate at a point..2 Closed I reverse.. 11.. (a) Fig..1 I~TRODUCTION . A' (Known point) '. F' A (Known point) ~"c E­ (b) . 2~1 .

by plotting the traverse or by mathematical calculations (to be explained later) it is possible to calculate the closing error which gives an indication of the accuracy of measurements.. This affords a check on the accuracy of the measured angles. (iii) !o establish control points for mapping and also for photograrnmetric work. " 11..4) right angles where II is the number of sides. " 11.4 MEASUREl\lENT OF TRAVERSE ANGLES t. There is no arithmetical. In case a traverse originates and closes on known points. 11. (b) There is no check on position of intermediate points as there is no known or assumed position except the starting station.(a) There is no check on summation of. Traverse angles can be (i) Interior angles. Traversing is used (i) to determine existing boundary lines. Moreover. The remedial steps are: (a) Each distance should be measured in both directions and also should be roughly checked by using the stadia hairs of the theodolite.. there is check for both linear and angular measurements. In any case it is always desirable to avoid open traverse. and (v) for locating coriirol points for railroads highways. (ii) to calculate area within a boundar)'. and other construction work. (iv) to establish control points for calculating earth work quantities. Other deficiencies are: .angles based on mathematical conditions. (iv) Azimuth angles.2 DEFICIENCIES' OF OPEN TRAVERSE An open traverse is usually run for preliminary SUT\'ey. systematic errors should be detected and eliminated. (b) Angles should be measured by method of repetition and should also be checked by magnetic bearings.however. it may be desirable to run a separate series of lines to close the traverse or to obtain coordinates of the starting and closing points by tying to marksof known positions. There is. Sometimes.3 . check for field measurements.242 Fundamentals of Surveying This type of closed traverse is "geometrically and mathematically closed". (c) True azimuths or bearings of some of the lines should be determined with reference to the sun or stars depending on the importance of the survey. (iii) Angles to the right. no check on the systematic errors of measured length and hence.: . (ii) Deflection angles.~ . CLOSED TRAVERSE When a closed traverse originates and terminates at the same point and all the internal angles are measured we can utilize the mathematical condition that sum of the internal angles of a closed traverse is (2/1 . (v) Compass bearings: .

F A Fig. The angles C3n be improved by taking repeated readings and roughlyrchecked by means of compass readings. .Jt is good practice.3 shows measurement of interior angles. Figure 11. however. route surveys are usually run by using defleciionangles or anglesto the right. This can be used in both open or closed traverse.~. This is shown in Fig. " " B A '.Angles to the right Angles measured clockwise from "a backsighton the previous line are called angles to the right or azimuths from the backline. e. Figure 11.Traverse Survey and Computations Interior angles " t 243 • • Interior angles of a closed traverse should be measured either clockwise or anticlockwise. 11. This conforms to the graduations of the scale in the theodolites which increase clockwise. Fig. A deflection angle is formed at a traverse station by an extension "of the previousline and the succeeding one. . 11. Fig.3 Interior angles. The numerical value of a deflection angle must always be followed by R or L to indicate whether it was turned right or left from the previous traverse line extended. Rotation should always be clockwise from the back sight. to mC3Sure311 angles clockwise.4 shows an open traverse and how a deflection angle is measured and noted.5 Angks to the right.4 Deflection angle. Deflection angles Open" traverses. 11.g. 11.

Compass bearings Here a compass can be used to get the bearings directly of all the lines of a traverse from which included angles can be obtained. therefore. 11. For low precision workchalningor tacheornetry can be used. the 0° reading will always point towards North. Insuch a case usually the bearing of the first line is measured with the help of the compass and all the angles are measured to obtain the bearing of the other. 11. While the' first method is known as loose needle method of bearings.\ s shown in Fig. Azlrnuth angles. As a result it is. At each station the transit is to be oriented by sighting the previous station with the back azimuth of the line JS the scale reading. The method.6 .not necessary to add or subtract angles to find the azimuth of a line. If the upperscrew is now unclamped and sight is taken along C. the theodolite is fitted with a compass. this method does not allow the use of double centring which eliminates most of the instrumental errors. the latter is known as fast needle method. Now if the theodolite with the reading 340°29'20" is pointed towards A from B. This pointing towards A should be adjusted by lower tangent screw when the reading will remain unchanged. . the accuracy of a compass is very low and as such it is rarely used in a theodolite traverse. A traverse can be run by reading azimuth angle directly. . A N F Fig. . In tacheornetry distance can be measured in both directions and average value taken.6 azimuths are measured clockwise from the north end of the meridian through the angle points.4B is 160°29'20". lines.5 MEASUREMENT OF LENGTHS Depending on the accuracy required. ' Suppose the' azimuth of . However.14-t Fundamentals of Surveying Azhnuth angles . 11. the clockwise circle reading will give the azimuth of BC directly. The 'azimuth of BA is then 340°29'20".. tacheometry or electronic distance measuring equipments. taping. Sometimes. . cannot be used where high precision .. However. is required. the length can be measured by chaining. ' .

it will.7(b)is shown a permanent station with a steel bolt fixed in a concrete block. SELECTION OF TRAVERSE STATIONS Traverse station should be selected so that they facilitate the survey work. This is shown in Fig. y Nail Square peg Concrete block (a) (b) . The stations should be so located that from the traverse lines all the details of the area can be plotted. . (c) Marking and referencing . 11. (b). Traverse Sur. For referencing . the length of the traverse lines should be long and number of stations minimum.ING OF TRAVERSE STATIONS' Traverse stctions should be properly marked andreferenced on the ground.. To improve precision.6.. n.of the route.1 MARKING A'ND REFERENC. 11. be an open traverse and the traverse stations are located at each angle point and at other important points along the centre line.6..' ~ ~ j$J~~}:~ (c) SRlt.. as shown in Fig. In Fig. The stations should be located orr firm ground so -that the instrument does not settle during taking of observations. -'. ~. For route survey.7(a). 11. a station it is measured with respect io three or more permanent objects as trees so that the point can be relocated as and when necessary. The top should be almost flush with the ground so that it is not knocked off. Otherwise like benchmarks they will be lost... . 11. however. 11. tree tree :1 station.ey and Computations 245 .7 (3).. Usually a square wooden peg with a nail on the top is used as a traverse station. Fig.7 (c). For property survey it will usually be a closed traverse with the traverse stations at the­ perimeter of the traverse.

the adjustment can be applied arbitrarily to one or more angles. afterstarting from the initial station and going round the traverse..{ii (1Ll) where 11 is the number of anales and k is'a fraction of the least count of a transit vernier o~ 'smallest graduatio~6f a theodolite scale.7. .If the angle rnisclosure is greaterthan the permissible value. The permissible misclosure is based on the occurrence of random errors that may increase or decrease the sum of measured angles. the algebraic sum of deflection angles is zero. For a closed polygon traverse. it will be inappropriate. It is given by the formula: <-. clockwise angles being termed positive andanticlockwise negative. Instead 20" correction should be applied to one angle and no correction should be applied to the next angle. For a four sided traverse C = ± 20{4= ± 40". the bearing of the first line should always be recomputed using the last angle as a check after progressing around the figure. The algebraic sum of the deflection angles in a traverse is 360°. in practice. However. In an azimuth traverse.g. For closed traverse. For most ordinary.7 A:\GLE ~llSCLOSuRE \ . For example. Sometimes. it is possible to surmise that error has occurred in a particular angle due to adverse measuring conditions. . the sum of the interior angles should be equal t~~~. because of miperfections in equipment and errors made by surveyors the sum of the measured angles differ from the theoretical value. the angles should be rerneasured to get the acceptable value.' . (ii) average adjustments. making accurate sighting difficult.1 BALANCING THE Ai\GLES OF A TRAVERSE 0/' If the angle misclosure is within the allowable value. In the average adjustment method. and (iii) adjustments based on measuring conditions. When the lines in a traverse cross an odd number of times. 11..' . This should tally with the original azimuth.-= ~!jght angles where II is the number of sides. it should be distributed amongst the angles so that the sum is equal to the correct geometric total. if the least count of the instrument is 20" and 10" correction is applied to all the angles. the initial station should be occupied again and azimuth of the initial line again measured. For ordinary theodolite traverse k = 20" (least count of a theodolite). However applying corrections equally sometimes give false impression of precision.. obstructions in line of sight. . .as a checkon bearing computed from deflection angles. When two adjacent sides of a traverse are . Hence as the theoretical sum is 360°. the acceptable value will He between 359°59'20" and 360°00'40". e. C =k. The fraction depends on the number of repetitions and the angular accuracy required. Whenever possible magnetic bearings of lines should be taken to act.. the total rnisclosure is divided by the number of angles and applied to all the angles. This rule applies if the lines do not criss cross or cross an even number of times. traverses. Three methods of angleadjustments are: (i) arbitrary adjustments.246 Fundamentals of Surveying 11.

10. AI . much shorter compared to other sides. 11.8). 11.100 ---1­ . error is more likely to occur in the angle containing the shorter sides. As the final error depends on error caused due to both angular and linear effects. it is no use making angular measurements very precise while not being able to maintain sameprecision in linear' measurements. B If the linear error is to be equal to the angular error 108 = ol Or 08=~ If the angular measurement is made with an accuracy an ordinary theodolite). the point P' shifts to give the final position?".r. If there is linear error Sl.2 .6963 .ANGLE DISTANCE RELATIONSHIP' Surveyors must strh:e to strike a 'balance' in precision for angular and linear measurements.:. Let 8 be the angle measured 'and length I be the linear measurement to give the point P (Fig.. 10. This is known as adjustments based on measuring conditions. Fig. .1 = "0 x 1 x . Hence larger-correction should be applied to this angle. 60 x 60 ISO = 9. . If there is angular error of Set the point P shifts to P'. :'. . Traverse Survey and Computations 247 • .10. .8 Angie-distance relationship. .000 X 5 ra d'Jan. of 20" (least count of .7.= 10. . ol = 20" . The relation between linear and angular measurements can be derived as follows: .

3440.000 Even if the angles of a traverse is balanced.9.300 1 20.8 TRAVERSE BALAKCI1\G 206.9 Traverse balancing. Table ILl shows the compatible relation between angular error and Ii near error. 11. The y B c' . linear error is to be restricted to 1110..000. 6880 1 10.Fig.248 Fundamentals of Surveying This.X1 . The amount by which it fails to close 'is known as closing error. . if we try to plot the traverse either graphically or analytically by means of coordinates.200 1 05" oi" .shows that with a 20" theodolite.1 Compatible Angular and Linear Error I . 11. it will not close as shown in Fig. 11.6. '.Y= ! i --~ ---r Q'3 3 I 1 r I J I I I I I I IE I I I I' Q'4 11 D II II II . 1 .600 1 41. . Angular error 05~ Linear error 1 688 1 01' 30" 20" 10". Table 11. X rr 0 -+I.6.

.

Traverse Survey and Computations 249
traverse will be balanced when the closing error is made zero. The latitude of a lineis the distance it extends in the north or south direction. In terms of rectangular coordinates latitude is the Y coordinate of a line obtained by multiplying its length with cosine of the reduced bearing. From the Fig. 11.9 latitude of AB = II cos al' .Similarly for BC it is equal to 1 2 cos a2' and so on; The positive direction of Y corresponds to Korth and hence the latitude ,of· ABwhose projection points towards the North is positive. Latitude of BC whose projection along the axis points towards the South is negative. Departure of a line is its orthographic projection on the east-west axis of the survey. It is along the X-X axis of the rectangular coordinate survey and is found by taking sine of the reduced bearing of aside. For example, departure of AB = I. sin ai' of BC =1 2 sin al and so on. East departures are considered positive, west departures are negative. For a closed.traverse with proper algebraic signs. sums of both latitudes and departures must be zero. However, if the traverse does not close, the.sum of the latitudes will not be zero, and there will be a small discrepancy in latitude known as latitude mlsclosure, Similarly, a small discrepancy in departure will be known as departure misclosure. Fromthe figure it canbe seen that latitude misclosure is LlX'anddeparture rnisclosure is .1yand the misclosure in length ill =..J l1,y2 +. .1y2 • If .1X or .1Y is large it shows somewhere a mistake has been committed. Mistake may be in computation or in fieldwork. Fieldwork mistake may be in measuring angle or in length. By analysing the traverse closure it is sometimes possible to identify the line in which mistake has been committed. The ratio of the closure error to the perimeter of the traverse is known as closure precision. It is usually expressed in the form 1 in 11, n will depend on the accuracy of the survey desired. The closing error is due to random errors rather than systematic error if the traverse begins or closes on the same point. However, ifthe traverse begins in a known point and closes at another known point, the closing error is due both to systematic error and random error..

... •

Y·r

11.9 CHECKS I;S AN OPEN TRAVERSE·
There is no reliable check in open traverse. As the traversedoes not close, the mathematical condition of summation of angles cannot be applied. Except the starting station, other traverse stations cannot be checked as they are all unknown stations. To improve measurements of open traverse-(i} each distance should be measured in both directions and should be roughly checked using the stadia hairs of t~ theodolite, (ii) angles at the stations should be repeatedly measured by method of repetition, and as ri further check magnetic bearings of lines should be observed, and (iii) the directions of some selected lines should be checked by astronomical observations, i.e. by observing the sun or stars. . The following checks can also be applied to part of the traverse.

.

\

Cut off lines method
The open traverse can be checked by running cut off lines between certain .intermediate stations. In Fig. 11.10. A£ is one cut off line. £1 is another. The

L

250 Fundamentals of 51111'(.'"in8
G

A

E Fig. 11.10 Checking of traverse.

J

bearing of AE should be taken both at A and E. They should differ by I SO~. The distance AE should be measured and checks for the closed traverse ABCDE should be applied. Similarly with the cut off line £1.
Sighting 'apromlnent o b j e c t . .

A p'r6mine~t object 0 issi'ght~d fro~ stations A, D and G of the traverse, i.e. bearings of AO. DO and GO are measured as also the lengths AO. DO and GO (Fig.ll.ll). From the closed traverse ABCDO. coordinates of 0 can be computed. This should tally with the coordinates of 0 computed from the closed traverse
ODEFGO. "

O'
/ /

/-"', \ ,
.

/ /

\ \
\

., '
'

,
<,

/
/
/

o

/

/

B

\

, ,

'

F

D

'G
H

A ~
Sighting
:I

prominent object.

11.10 METHODS O,F TRAVERSE ADJUSTMENTS

Before a traverse can be plotted. its closing error should be made zero. This is known as traverse adjustments. A traverse involves two types of measurements: (i) Measurement of length. and (ii) Measurement of angles. We can have the following three basic conditions:
. 1. The angular accuracy is higher than the linear accuracy Such a case. may occur in traversing in a hilly terrain if we measure angle by means of a theodolite which is expected to be accurate but measures distances horizontally by means of tapes. The accuracy of linear measurement will be low..

,.
-.

2. The angular accuracy is the same as the linear accuracy. This is likely to occur when the angles are measured by means of theodolite but distances are measured with an EDM. . 3. The angular accuracy is lower than the linear accuracy This is the condition when .angles are measured with compass which gives less accurate values whreas lengths are measured by means of EDMs:

Traverse Survey and Computations

251

· ·

.

Depending on 'which category the traverse belongs appropriate methods should be applied for adjustment of the traverse. , . Five basic methods of traverse adjustments are: (i) Arbitrary Method, (ii) Transit Rule, (iii) Compass or Bowditch Rule, (IV) Crandall Method, and (v) Least Square Method.. .. . 11.lC).1 ARBITRARY METHOD As the name suggests in this method there is no fixed rule for distributing the closing error in latitude and departure. However, engineering judgment is used. If there is reason to believe that because of field conditions or types of instruments used measurement of one line is less. reliable than others, it would be reasonable to adjust only the latitude and departure of that line so that algebraic sums of latitudes and departures are made'zero. This method of adjust­ ment is very simple and in effect gives weightage to the expected accuracy of individual rneasurements.: 11.10.2 TRANSIT RULE In the transit rule the correction to latitude of a line is in proportion to the magnitude of latitude and departure correction is in proportion to the departure or the line. Symbolically, Adjustment in latitude of AB

=

Latitude of AB x latitude misclosure Absolute sum of latitudes

f AB Departure of AB x departure rnisclosure ' . >J = -.::...--;-;----:;----~_;__----­ Adjustrnent 10 departure 0 Absolute sum of depart.ures . Theoretically, the transit rule should be used to balance a traverse where the' angular measurements are more precise than the linear measurements. However: as different results are obtained for differentmeridians, this rule is seldom used. 11.10.3 COMPASS OR BOWDITCH RULE Bowditch rule is used most frequently as this rule is applicable when the linear and angular measurements are equally precise.. The probable error in linear measurement is taken to be equal to {i. Corrections are made by thefollowing rules: . . . . .. Adjustment in latitude AB

= length of AB x latitude misclosure
perimeter of traverse

..

Adjustment in departure AB = length Of ~B x departure misclosure perimeter of the traverse The bearing of each line of the traverse will be altered afterapplying the Bowditch's rule. The method is most suitable for compass survey where the probable error of angular measurements and linear measurements tally. However, the method is

252 Fundamentals of Surveying

most commonly used for an average engineering survey since (i) it is easy to apply (ii) The corrections do not alter the plottings significantly. 11.10.4 CRANDALL METHOD'
In this method, it is assumed that linear measurements contain larger random
errors than the angular measurements. Initially, the angle misclosure is distributed
equally amongst all angles. The angles then remain unchanged. The linear
measurements are then corrected by weighted least square procedure.
11.10.5 LEAST SQUARE METHOD This is the most rigorous method of adjustment of traverse and is based on theory
of errors developed in Chapter 2. By applying suitable weights difference in
measurement' accuracy of lengths and angles of a traverse can be taken into
. account. The adjustment is based on the principle of making the sum of the
squares of the weighted residuals a minimum. Since large computation is involved,
the method is computer based. . After the adjusted latitude and departure of a line has beendetermined, the new length and bearing of the line can be determined from the relation
L

=,/(latitude)2 + (departurej?
-1

Reduced bearing == tan

(Departure) Latitude

The quadrant 'being obtained from the signs of latitude and departure. . 11.11 RECTANGULAR COORDINATES
It is already seen from Section 11.8, thatthe rectangular coordinates are useful in computing the latitude and departure of a line and also.the closing error of a traverse. Usually N-S line corresponds with the Y-Y axis and the' East-West line with the X-X axis. The coordinates of the end point of a line with reference to its initial point are called consecutive coordinates or dependent coordinates of the end point of the line. The consecutive coordinates are equal to the latitudes and departures with proper signs.The coordinates of a point with respect to a common origin are known as independent coordinates of a point. They are also called total latitude or total departure of a point. Figure 11.9 is replotted in Fig. 11.12 with adjustment of closing error, i.e. closing error made zero. In that case A' will coincide with A. The consecutive coordinates of
B = 1.1 cos
all

1

11 sin at

C =and so on."

il

~os

al' 1 2

sin

a2

s..

....

. • •
.
~

Traverse Survey and Computations 253

y
B

I I I I I

c
. I;

I
I I y", I

o

I

I

X
_

-------------------------F-ig-11.12-Co~Idin:1I:s of 51.:1tion 1'~0=in=t=5.'_____

If.the coordinates of A are xAand Y.ol. the independent coordinates of Bare (VA + 11 cos al), (xtl + 11 sin al)' The independent coordinates ofC :: (y,(' + 11 cos a l - 12 cos Cl:) and (x,( + 11 sin al + 1 2 sin Cl2) and so on. Therefore total latitude of any point = Original latitude + algebraic 'sum of latitudes upto the point. . Total Departure = Original departure + algebraic sum of departures upto the point. . It is convenient to select the origin so that the whole of the traverse lies in the North East quadrant and all the points have positive independent coordinates as shown in Fig.. 11.12. The rectangular coordinates are useful in (i) Calculating the length and bearing of a line, (ii) Calculating areas of the traverse, (iii) Making curve calculations, and (iv) Solving various problems of traverse calculations.
11.12 GALE'S TRo\VERSE TABLE

In the field usually lengths and inward angles of a closed traverse are measured. In addition bearing of a line is taken. Foradjustment of the traverse, the field data and computations are systematically recorded in a table known as Gale's Traverse Table. The steps involved are:
"

'.

(a) Write the names of the traverse stations in column 1 of the table. (b) Write the names of the traverse lines in column 2. (c) Write the lengths of the various lines in column 3. (d) Write the angles in column 4. .
(e)Sumup nil the angles andsee whether they satisfy thegeometric conditions
as applicable, i.e. (i) sum of nil interior angles = (211 - 4) right angles, (ii) sum ... of all exterior angles = (2n + 4) right angles. (f) If not, adjust the discrepancy as shown in Section 11.7.1. (g) Enter corrections in column 5.

25~

Fundamentals of Surveying

(h) Write the corrected angles in column 6. (i) Starting from the actual or assumed bearing of the initial line, calculate the whole circle bearings of all other lines from the corrected angles and enter in column 7. (j) Convert the whole circle bearings to reduced bearings and enter in column 8. . (k) Enter the quadrants of the reduced bearings in column 9. (I) Compute the latitudes and departures of the measured' lines from lengths and bearings and put in proper columns la, 11, 12 and 13 as applicable. (rn) Sum up the latitudes and departures to find the closing error. (n) Calculate corrections by applying Transit rule or Bowditch's rule as desired. . (0) Enter the corrections in appropriate columns 14 to 17. (p) Determine the corrected latitudesand departures and enter in appropriate columns 18 to 21. They will be corrected consecutive coordinates.. . (q) Calculate the independent coordinates of all other points from the known or assumed independent coordinates of the first station. As a check the independent coordinates of the first point should be computed. It should tally with the known or assumed value. All these details are shown bymeans of the example below. Example 11.1 The mean observed internal angles and measured sides of a closed traverse ABCDA (in anticlockwise order) are as follows: . Angle DAB ABC BCD CD.4. Observed value 97°41 ' 99°53'
72~23'

\

.:

. 89°59'

Side AB BC CD· DA

Measured length (m) 22.11 .58;34 39.97 52.10

Adjust the angles, compute the latitudes and departures assuming that D is due N of A, adjust the traverse by the Bowditch method; and give the coordinates of B. C, and D relative to A. Assess the accuracy of these observations and justify your assessment. [I.C.E.] Solution Solution is done with the help of Gales' Traverse Table. As D is due North of A, the approximate shape of the traverse ABCDA. (in anticlockwise order) will be as shown in Fig. 11.13.
N
D

L

t

7 c
'.

A
B
Fig. 11.13 Example 11.1.

,

..•.

. Traverse Survey and Computations

255

•• •

Whole circle bearings of diffe~ent lines can be computed-after applying corrections to inward angles. Total discrepancy' of inward angles is 4' which is distributed equally amongst all the angles. Computation of Bearings Bearing of AD =
0"0'00" 97:>42'00"

.'

Bearing of AB

=.
=

+ 180"00'00"
,Be:lring of BA=
277"42'00"
99"5~'00"

LABC

377"36'00"
<>'~.

360"00'00"

Bearing of BC Bearing of CB

=

17°36'00"

--

197"36'00"

,.

LBCD
Bearing of CD_

+ 72"24'00'"
270°00'00" - 180° 90"00'00" 90"00'00"

Bearing of B.4

180"00'00"

-

Total angularerror is 4'. Since the angular reading is correct upto 1 minute, 4' error is permissible in measurement of four angles ar four stations, Rest of ~he . calculations are shown in Gale's Traverse table (p. 256).

.

"

Example 11.2 The following lengths, latitudes, and departures were obtained for a closed traverse ABCDEFA.' Length
~

Latitude

Departure

.,

!"

AB BC CD DE EF

183.79 160 ..02 226.77 172.52 177.09 53.95

o
+ 128.72 + 177.76 - 76.66 - 177.09 - 52.43

+ 183.79
+ 98.05 .- 140.85

- 154.44 0.00

FA
Solution

+ 13.08
[L.U.B.Sc.]

Adjust the traverse b)' the Bowditch method. Computations ore given in Table 11.3 (p, 256)

.. .. ...
.9
c

. ...
v

Table 11.2
v v '1:

.. .
c
u

Galc's Traverse T:lhlc (Example 11.1)
CUIISCClIlivc

,...
' 1'

Currccli ••IIS
(nnwdilch Rille) Lal. W ()el'.·

.c

;;

Iii
(I)
1\

::J
(2)

c

v

DO c
v

'1:

" 0

c

~

.s
U v
l:
0

c

~

" ~
l:
0

c

Cnonlilllilics.

U v

·u ..,
.c :i :>- v

Ii

" 1:
-o v

Cun""le" Cnl1scculivc C..urdimllc5 . Lal.
D"!I•

h"kl'"",klll
(\"I...liIlO1lc,"

..J

.s
(·1)

~

0.5

••

U

U

... .D

~

-a

"

" .;;
C1

C

'-'II.
N
(+1
( Ill)

I)el'· S

" "

H
(+) ( 12)

H
(II )

H
(1.1)

+
(I")

(IS)

.+ (1(.)

(17)

N
(+)

S

I!
(T)

W

? ~
§
::;
;;;­
::; ..
;

H
(I'})

H
(211
(2Z)

(3)

(05)

«(,)
97°42'

(7)

(3)

(9)

..(ill)

(20)

CUI U.lKI 1·21.'JC, +J'}.7·1 -IHI.1.1 IHUHI

97°<11' +1'

U.IHI

n
C

/Ill IIC

22.11 1)9°053' SSj4 72°23' +1' +1' 99°054'

1.J7°4217°J("IK)~

liloI8'(1l1~ 17·J(.'lIll~

Sf;

2.%

21.'"

-.U7 -.18 39.')7 -.13 -.17 39.97

+.US +.1·1 +.1Il +.IJ +.42

J.OJ

21.% -J.ll.l 17.7H

~ ~
:;:. ~
'--:

NE 055.(,1
SW ll.llll

I7.M

0505.-1;1
..
0.13

72°2,"
270·llll·(1O~ 1)1l011O'1lI1~

+S2AO
3'/.1l7

CD 39m
D
01\ 1\

89"059' +1' 90°00'

+052.27
180"lllI'IXI~

.52.10
172.051 3S,}OS6' +4' 3(>llolKI'

IKloIXJ'lHr'"

SE
SS.c.I

052. III

U.1lI1

052.27 0505.43
55.43

IHUJ OO.IIU 3'/.87 39.li7

~

505.06 39.0505

-.0505

L

L,I = + 0.0505

Tnl"l clo_illg error

= .J..sS 2 + .42 2 =0.(,1) m.

~

Del' = - 0.<11.

I'red_ioll =

!flcfJ} = I ill 2050.
Cnrrccti<Jn
Correct..,1 I.lllilucI"

Table 11.3
J"llilllcic

Example 11.2

1)C1",""re .

Llne

Lellglh +

7(,.(,(, 177.11')

+ 111.\.79 ')li.OS

(,1(1.805 15..... ·\ IUXI

Lalilude -0.0(, -lUIS - 0.117 -lUIS -1I.ll5 - 0.111 - O.JO

Del'"""re + Il.II7 + 0.0(, +ll.m + O.lll, + 0.07 + OJl2 + 0.:17

1.h·I""llIrc
+ 111.1.8(. + '}II.11 -1,111.7(, - 15·1..\11 + 11.07 + 1.I.1ll IHI.OII

/III

nc
CI)

Dr.
/'1-" /.;\

183.79 I(,1l.1I1 22('.77 172.052 177.11')

O.llll 12S.72 177.7(,

- O.(K,
+ 1211.(.7 + 177.(") - 7('.71 - 177.1·1

SJ.9S
974.14 30M8

052.'13
;1116.18

L

13.08 21)4.'/2

-52AS
IXI.IHI

2'/S.1'}

L 1"liulIl"

=+ 11.:111

L '1e,""I"'"

=- 11..17 .

-.

.,'

'·:'"'A"'·.*firM#'~f~

7

Traverse Surrey and Computations

257

:; .
,

11.13 USE OF AZ'iALYTICAL GEO~IETRY. COMPUTATIO:-\S·

ix SURVEY

<

I .

Since rectangular coordinates are used in computing latltude and departure of a line, rules of analytical geometry can be suitably applied in solving survey computational problems. Moreover, with computers they are highly efficient also. The following formulae of analytical geometry are useful in survey calculatlons. 1. Distance D between two points with rectangular coordinates (XI'
(x:. )':). .. .
(IL2)
)'1) and

.D = ,'(XI

-:('2):

+ (YI _ .'":)2

2. Point (x, y) dividing the join of (XI' YI) and (xr- Y:) in the ratio of k : I is given by

x-

_ 'Ixi + k:c: . _ 1.'"1 + kY2 I+k • .\ - I+k

(11.3}

where k and I have the same sign for internal division and opposite signs for external division. . 3. The slope of a line (not parallel to the y-axis)
111

= tan e = .\~

-

,\'1

(11.4)

.'t'2 - XI

where e is the inclination of the line with positive r-axls and (X\I YI) and (x:. )'2) are any two points of the line (Fig. 11.1-l.a). . 4. The angle (I., measured counter-clockwise from n line ,LI of slope 111\. to a line ~ of slope 111: is given b)' tan
CJ.

= 1 + 1111 111:.

1112 - nil

(I 1.5)

Two lines are parallel if nil 1112 and perpendicular if tIli/l/2 1. 5. Area ofa triangle joining three vertices (...." ,vI). (X2,Y2) and (x), order is
..}- [XICr2 - )') + .'('2(Y3'-- )'1) + '\)(\'1 - .....·2)J

=

=-

j')

in

(11.6)

For polygon ' vith 11 sides Area
::1

t

[XI(\': - YII) + X2(\'} - YI) + ... +

.t,,_I(\'n - ,\'n-:)

+ X,,(YI -

,\'11_1» ,

(11.7)

6. Equations of a straight line are (Figs. J l.l -lb, c, d): (a) Point-slope form; .. y (b) Slope-intercept form.
-,\'I

=11/(.-: - XI)

(I

1.8)

Y = IIIX + C.

(11.9)'

258 Fundamentals of Surveying
y-axls

./1
/ /

(xz• yz)

/

/
/ /

/

(J

.// I (x,. y,) T, I I I I I x, o
(a)

/~
I I
I
I
I I xz .

x-axls
.:!

4

y

.
/

'

/ / /
/

/
/
/

m =tan e = y - y,

x- x,

..

o
(b)

y

y

x Y a+ti = 1
- clb
b

P(x,y',)

d+ - ­

-,

-======'-' ~a2 + b 2
x

c + ax, + by,

o

a
(c)

x

o . ,. - cia
(d)

. Fig. 11.1... Equations of :l str:lig'ht line. '

..

· -Traverse Survey and Computations (c) Intercept form (d) Normal form: c>O
b.'1

259

:£+1..-1 a b - .

(11.10)

c<O (e) General Equation:
ax

(11.11)

+ by + c

= 0 (b ;: 0) =- db.
= 0 is given by

slope = - a/b.

y intercept

7. The distance of

(XI. )II)

from the line ax + by + c

0)

c>O

±c + ax\ '+ b.'i
~a'1 + b 2

according as (Xl, )',) is on the origin or non-origin side of the line. (ii) c<O

;- c + ax\ + b)\ ;~a2 + b 2

according as (XI' Yl) is on the origin or non-origin side. Example 11.3 The following traverse was run from station I to station V between which there occur certain obstacles. Line
I-II

Length (m)
351.3 .

Bearing
N 82°28'E. N 30 041'E. S 81°43'E.
S 86°21'E.

II-III . III-IV IV-V

149.3

4-l. 7.3

213.3

It is required to peg the midpoint of I-V. Calculate the length and bearing of a [I.C.E.] line from station III to the required point. Solution The solution is given in the tabular form below. Coordinates of midpoint of I-V, 96:j7, 107;.97 Coordinates or 48.14, 539.99

srm 17-L42, 4~-IA9 Length of the line = 171.13 m.

260 Fundamentals of Surveying
Table n.s Example 11.3

Latitude ' Point
I
"

Departure E
\V

Independent coordinates

Line Length

Bearing
N
S 0

.

I

0 348.27

I-II
II-III

351.3 149.3 447.3 213.3

N 82°2S'E N 30"41'E

46,~

348.27 46.04 76.22 174.4:! 424.49 64.57 442.61 , 13.58 212.87 96.27 1079.97

II

128.38

III

III-IV IV ' IV-V V

S 81°43'E S 86°21 'E

109.85 867.10

() with north

=tan"!

424.49 - 539.99 174.42 - 48.14

=tan_1115.50 - - - =- 42°')'6'41" _ 126.28
Hence reduced bearing of the line = S 42°26'41"E (Fig. 11.15).
N

174.42, 424.49

• IV V

I .-.'c::::::: 0,0
Fig. 11.15' Example 11.3

~--

E

Example 11.4 It is proposed to extend a straight road AB in the direction of AB produced. The centre line of the 'extension passes through a small farm and in order to obtain the centre line of the road beyond the farm a traverse is run from B to a point' C, where A, B, and C lie in the same straight line. The following
." .!

"

02 cos 87"42' . 261 .ECB = 360° .Traverse Survey and Computations .02 cos 87°42' + 77.I~ sin 53°36' = 0 hence . (c) chainage of C taking the [L. 17.II = 0 Projecting perpendicular to BC.02 sin 87'42' . .14 m Calculate (a) length of line EC. projections of lines along and perpendicular to line BC will be zero.1'+ cos 10"18' = 65.29. .29.02 sin 87"42' .282°36') .(77'2·r + 63°54' + 92°18') .S2 cos 58"36' . From the figure. Since BDEC is a closed traverse.L. Solution Figure 11. .(360' .] chainage of A as zero and AB = 110. Fig. 29.DEC = 360' .16 gives a graphical presentation of the problem.+ sin 10=18' = 17 8? m I.EDF = 87'42' .=121°2·r Angle to be measured at C for prolongation of BC = 180° .1.34 m. L. (b) angle to be measured at C so that the centre line of the road can be extended beyond C.02 m DE = 77.14 sin 10"18' .U.291'06' = 68°54' .77. = 10"18' L.77. angles and distances were recorded. = 29. ­ sin 58:36' 11 =77.71 m.4.14 cos 10°18' -1 2 cos 58°36' . 11. ABD = 87'42' BDE = 282°36' DEC = 291°06' BD = 29.16 Example 11. the angles being measured clockwise from the back to the forward station.121°24'= 58°36' Projectlng along BC.

. coordinates are: E T· P .81 . N + 9091.33 Applying the Bowditch's rule.48 . 180. Corrected 6.6155.5 A traverse T.74 m Closing error in Easting =+ 0.03 Adjusted Bearing 210°41'40" 50"28'30" 20"59'50" 6. + 175.44 Correct difference of Northing Observed difference of Easting =9385.04 = 194.E 6.73 + 9385.95 'AB BP + 212.33 llN + 0.304.95 = 293. 162.17 Observed difference of Northing» ..0.75 . TA Length '354AO 275..4BP was run between the fixed stations T and P of 'which the.9091.74 = .180.82 453. Corrected Value .33 .E Correction.41 =212.17 m.07 +0.91 =194.180.54 + 422.0.48 The coordinate differences for the traverse legs and the data from which they are calculated are: .00 + 110. BP Corrected 6. =194.75 +.54 + 422.75 + 162.27 Closing error in Northing == 293.N .46 TA AB SP .304.293. Perimeter of the traverse = 1083.14 .71 = 176.304.73 = 293.262 Fundamentals of Sun-eying Chainage of C = chainage of A + AB + BC = 0..44 194. calculate the coordinates of A 'and B.54 + 422.95 + 422.0.82 + 212.86 + 175. .91 + 212.75 + 175. 0.82 + 162.33.11 Correction .09 + 0.75 + 175.E . Solution Correct difference of Easting between T and P = 6349.N .08 .34 + 65.05 rn.180. Example 11.44 TA AB .91 6.14 + 6155.75 + 162.11 .304.41 .14 Corrected Value '.25.04 + 6349.

.82 = + 6187.26 x' .118y' . .04 + 162.82 =+ 5974.04 . 410. .26 5.. x' .86 or or x' ..571.... 408..86 = + 8786.76 =144 33..44y' .. 595.10..... 64-1-52 Putting x and y the equations reduce to x' v' 10..20 402. . 605. Find the coordinates of the point of intersection of the line joining A and D with the line joining Band C.. Point A B C D .46 == + 8962.82 . 0. .219 ..26 410...y' :.20 .. .25 = 2.73 .34 361..Traverse Survey arid Computations 263 Coordinates of A + 6155. 304..66 :.r 410...' = 2.. + 8962... 5.26 .. 7. ..­ 5.975 /=0. .20 .C.46 Solution Equation of the straight line AD :t' . .33 + 422.. B... -.5.180.U2 .48 E . .22 + 212... 8?0 .26 408.28 .33 N Check Coordinates of P + 6187.28 605. 1.60 49.. 36150 Equation of the straight line BC x .25 :c' .46 Similarly =2.20 408.8.95 :.04 E + 8786. 40234 = 64452 .87 + '175.22 E + 9091.. . Solving ..6 The coordinates of (our points A..28 = 48. .06 571....4.14 N Example 11. .=.87 N Coordinates of B + 5974.46 )' .28 64-U2 595. ..06 400 = x' 600 ::: y' Y .44 = + 6349...118y' = 8. D are given below...20 = 0.50 )' 605.81 '= 9385..44y' I =1.

= 0 .50 m 375.06 m 571.. where a and b are the intercepts on the axes 40234 + 595.26 = 1 x . the straight line CD.40234)2 + (57L46 .7 = 0 Equation in the normal form 3'63.478 . .26 m.522 Y + . (iii) The length of the perpendicular dropped from POl).2.52 ~363.630.06 . (ii) Equation of a )jn~ in intercept form ~+t=l. Solution (i) Length of line CD = ~(595.34 m 361.63052 + 363.975 .1.52 m.8079 ./36326 2 +63052 2 . D and P are given below.52. (iii) The equation of the line in the form a.50)2 =284. Example 11.06 = 1 a b 36~0 + 57~46 = 1 or or t (1. 363." + by + C =0 is.580) =.630. Hence the equation of the line . Y .7 The coordinates of the three points C.26).20 m y 595.22 m D P Find (i) the length of the line CD (ii) Equation of the line CD and points at which it cuts the axis. 0) and y-axis at (0.361.262 + 630. + 363. =.46 m 580.26x .26 _ ~363. a X 1~ b = 363.522 X ~ _ 630.52y + 229042.262 + 630.-.99 m.:!64 Fundamentals of Surveying giving y = 600.219 x = 402. Point C :c 402.630.2290427 .It cuts the x-axis at (.

520 + 129.110 + 119.375 154.7589 y = 0.8665y .0) coordinates of E =99.520 129. 580.vI = m(x . [AMIE.17 Example 11.095 70.095 + 70. Hence the distance is . .630.110 119.8 .'(1)' .4992(375. Here c is negative and the point P is on the non-origin side. a bearing of 3420 • Calculate at which distance from A it intersects line AB.314.760 =491.540 DE A line is to be set out frorn.7.22) in the above form we 'get the distance of the point P from the straight line CD.840 41... The equation of a line in point slope form..314.4992x + 0.0..405 + 195.7019 m.265 m y coordinate The bearing of the line set out from E = 342~. Hence the distance is positive.1­ X .760 298. "'- . y -. Line AB BC CD Latitude in m Departure in m 99. 1964] Solution Taking coordinates orA as (0.405 195. 265 The algebraic sign of the radical in the denominator is chosen to be the same as that of b. The following are the latitudes and departures of a series of survey lines in meters. Nov.8665(580.+.7589 = 0 Substituting the coordinates of P(375. Equation of the straight line then becomes .0. 11.20) + 0.Traverse Survey and Computtuions .840 + 41.52 a Fig.20.540 =617.stationE on.375 + 15.380 x coordinate =298. Example 11.22) .

617.265) =-3. BCDE is now a closed traverse and therefore.3764 =0. Here length of side EA and the bearing of adjacent side AB is unknown. Symbolically.18).265) the equation of the line y . we can write AB ·BE ----sin a . where I is the length and 8 the reduced bearing of a line.19. tan 8 is positive for acute angle and negative for obtuse angle. In the closed traverse ABCDEA. r. length and bearing of BE can be determined.994 2 + 2~3. With known bearings of BE and EA. With these two equations we can solve two unknowns or missing quantities.3334x Solving y x = 700.380 =./700. bearings only or length and bearing together. Bearing or length or both of one side omitted (Fig.740 m = 738.sin r .405 Equation of the line AB x . 2.077 (x .324.095) 99.D=O cos O2 + + In COS 8n = O. D = 0 and L = O. r.7402 11. 99. Length of one side and bearing of an adjacent side omitted.This is shown in Fig.994 m =233.3.3334(x - =0.99.617. algebraic sum of departures is also zero. + /2 r. I.095 = .3334 298.077. r.298.. Here 8= 90° + 18° = 108° and tan 8 = .077x + 1899. the inward angle a can be determined.fENTS Closed traverse is always preferable as they provide necessary checks..L=O or and· I. sin 81 + Ii sin 82 + + In sin 8n = O .99. or both of the side EA has not been measured.e. The following cases may occur 1.·11. Join BE.405 y .298. Similarly. Applying sine principle to triangle ABE. i. As the line passes through the point (491.380.266 Fundamentals of Surveying m = tan 8 where 8 is the angle with positive x axis.405 =0.491. they can be computed utilizing the two conditions of a closed traverse.14 PROBLEMS OF O:-'UTTED MEASURE1\.936 m Distance from point A = . 11. bearing. cos 8. For such a traverse algebraic sum of latitude is zero.3. The unknowns may be lengths only.095 or )' . if the length.

=s~n f3 Sin r BE. and AE . From the conditions of closed figure L L = 0 and L D = 0. there will be two solutions and approximate shape of the figure must then be known. - . However. Hence r can be determined. length and bearing of BE can be found out (Fig. as before.19 Length and bearing omitted. sin a = sin 'I = sin f3 AB BE AE . c B Fig. Bearing of AB = Bearing of AE -+: r. f3 '= 1800 .. AE and BE are known. 3.. Frequently.. . B Traverse Survey and 'Computations.20). N A ~/ / II / (J. E Length unknown . 11. . .18 Bearing or length omitted. \ I I o \ I y I \ Bearing unknown I I \ {3. 11. With r known. two algebraic equations involving 11 and 12 can be obtained and solving them simultaneously 11 and 1 2 can be found out. internal angles a. Applying sine rule. Lengths of two adjacent sides omitted. Here lengths of AE and AB are unknown. f3.(a +r) . Since the bearings of BA. 267 Fig. 11. and y can be computed.

21 Bearings. Bearings of two adjacent sides omitted.1 la bSIn ' a. A lC bSin ' r= 2: 1.c) where The angles a.o lengths emitted.b)(s. Sin r s~n t3 Sin AE = BE r 4. the omitted . In the triangle ABE lengths of the sides are known. A = ~s(s . -.(. or and AB =BE s~n a . D length 12 . Suppose the beatings of AE and AB have not been determined.!-_---c B Fig. ca SIn ~ =2: = 2: 5. When the two affected sides are not adjacent: In Fig.22(a). 11. 11. Area of the triangle in terms of sides..a)(s .lUG Tw. E b A c B Fig.263 Fundamentals of SI/11'C)'ing E Unknown length 11 \ /al / I / I I A I I f3 I Unknown / " / <. s = a +~ + c t3 and r can be obtained from the relation. As before length and bearing of BE are known.

. Solution This is a case oflength and bearing of one line missing.1l. . / A / / ///~ .C. 11. 108.e.] Find by calculation the required informati?n.7 9°06' 92.796 135. . .B 261°41' 9c06' 182'22' 7['30' R. Example 11. N AB I I I / I / I CD I A 1/ D' o F (a) F (b) E Fig. so as to form the closed figure shown in Fig. .9 . bearings or in both.815 39.190 Westin. Since the latitudes and departures of equal parallel lines art equal. I I I D II B I I C .! I I AB 101.0 W. Then this becomes a problem of omitted measurements of adjacent sides and can be solved as explained before.7 91. Example 11.i7~ f ! : L . ED and DD'.22 Two.Traverse Survey and Computations 269 measurements are line AB and CD.352 118. Line Length 102. this problem can be solved by shifting the line CD until it is adjacent to AB. FE.663 166. . . [L. the length and bearing of AD' can be determined.5 125.5 .796 17..26 Be CD DE i I .. Omissions may be in lengths. S81°41'W N9°06'E N 77°3S'W N 7Lo30'E 107.9 An opentraverse was run from A to E in order to obtain the length and bearings of the line AE which could not be measured direct with the following results: Line Length W..V.540 14. non-adjacent sides ornined.730 191. • BC CD 102.B AB .809 Northing Southing Easting 14.331 19. .. B N}. The solution is done in tabular form given below.5 261°41.5 108. Table 11.B.5 282°22' . . From the known sides AF. 90.22(b).

10 A clockwise traverse ABCDEA was surveyed with the following .U. results: ' .+ 84°18'10" + 102°04'30" + 121 °30'30"] 436°3'30" C " 102°04'30" 8 101. Assuming no error in survey. .io.048 R 152.23 .01 m : 140.01 o 121°30'30" '. Bearing of EA is in South and East quadrant. Example u.016 m ? ' ed"uced' beari -I 56. Hence bearing of AE is in North and West quadrant. . AB BC CD 101.013 = "0013'1?" ­ eanng 0 fAE = tan.Q13 m Dif( of East-Wes: = 56. we have.20°13'12" =339°46'48" Example 11.048 m Length of AE = ~152. E Fig. LAED =(2 x 5 ':'".27 m LBAE = 128°10'20" LCBA = 102°04'30" LDCB = 84°18'10" LEDC = 121°30'30" The angle AED and the sides DE and EA could not be measured directly. .24 m 99.Q13-· + I ? .] Solution To obtain the angle AED. Hence whole circle bearing of AE is 3600 .4)90° =540=00'00" = 103°56'30" [128°10'20".048. [L. 11.= 162.270 Fundamentals of Surveying Diff of Ncnh-South = 152. " 56. find the missing lengths arid their bearings if AB is due North.

= tan-1 148.66 98.17 . Difference of East and West = 148. The Iength and bearing' of AD is determined from the table: Table 11.17. LDAE = 50°14'32" " Hence Applying sine rule LAED = 180° .24 99.C.) Sin J') J =67.Traverse Survey and Computations. t'orth South E:lst West AB BC CD N 0'00'00" E ' . 1 8' -S" AE = • 10'" -6'''0'' sin .01 N 77°55'30"E 56°22'40" E 130. = . Whole circle bearing of DA = 257°55'48" LADE = 25'43'58" Whole circle bearing of AE= 128'10'20" Whole circle bearing of AD = 7'7°55'4'8": :". Whole circle bearing of DE = 173°37'20" + (180° . = 103'56'30" 15152 _ AE l sin lOJ 56' 30" .6' Example 11.52 m Length of AD .}31.99 m. Bearing of D. . . 2.4 is in South and West quadrantand hence bearing of AD is in North and East quadrant.17 2 Reduced bearing of AD . 10\.) 't . 31.(25°48'58" + 50°14'32'') . =151.03 148.35 29.121°30'30") = 232'06'50" .sin 25:.17 L - Difference of North and South = 31.B.66 137.34 98.27 W.01 140. R.69 = N 77·55'48"E.69 2 +148.14 11.0 .B 0'00'00" 77:55'30" 173'37'20" . 271 · · · · The problem reduces to that of emitted measurements of two adjacent sides.69.10 Line Length 10l.+8'58" = DE sin 50'1'+'32" or 15152 .

This is a case of omitted measurements of adjacent sides. =101. 11. . 163.16 + 75.72 m .46 + 126.00 180.00 Bearing N 38°42' W N 45°30' E N 62°34' E AB BC CD DE EA Compute the missing length and bearing..00 .24). In a traverse the following lengths and bearings were measured.01 m Bearing of AE = 128°10'20" Bearing of EA = + 180°00'00" 308°10'20" Bearing of DE = 232°06'50" Example 11.272 Fundamentals of Surveying DE = 151.11. D B A Fig.Northing of AD =130 cos 38°4i' + 180 cos 45°30' + 163 cos 62°34' .00 180. Here bearing of DE and length of EA are missing (Fig..10 =302.52 sin 50°14'32" sin 103°56'30" = 120. l" '.. Side Length em) 130. 11.11 . Solution. L- _ .24 Example 11.

81.sin DAE .27 m Bearing of DA =32°21'00" + 180°00'00".78 =358._ AD· sin DAE - DE = 3i~~6 sin 42°39'40" = 0.30 sin 38°42'+ 180 sin"45°30' + 163 sin 62°34' .12 In a traverse the following lengths and bearings were measured: Side Length (m) 140 m 185 m Bearing N 30°30' E S 80°15' E S 15°15' W Side Length 155 m '115 m Bearing S 20°15' E N 85°30' W N 18°12' W AB DE Be . .sin ADE sin AED . CD EF FA Compute the missing sides.67 = 191. .I .28 +128.914 = 371. Length of AD =:.78 '" 302. Traverse S/lrve)' and Computations 273 Easting of AD = -1. .914 LAED =66°06'00" = 71°15' LADE = 180° .(42°39' + 66°06') AE .72 Bearing of'AE =75°00'00" Bearing of AD = 32°21'00" LDAE = 42°39'00" Applying sine principle AD _ DE _ AE sin AED .36 m = N 32°21°00''E Bearinz of AD .35836 sin 71°15' 0. = 212°21'00" LADE =71°15'00" Bearing of DE = 141°06'00" Example 11.tan-I 191.39 + 144.

.E -.27. '" \\ \\ / / / / \\ c D· ~~ \ 'B' I A .96 ~. . .. : =339°45' .25 Example 11. . . . traverse is shown in Fi£!. "'" 11. '..11.." . t . .. 155 . By moving parallely. A rouzh .97 + 48. 11. 231~40'48". L AB'E == 108°04'12" .25 (a). - - ' .' '." ..30°30' . 2 2 Length AB' = .155 cos 85°3Q' 1)15.12.13 "'.J --___ A c .13 o 79.89 m.= :.115 x 0. sketch of the closed . Bearing of AE = 51°~O'48" ." .92 m.078 . -----.f79. the two non-adjacentsides AB and DE are mode adjacent..66 + 154. . Bearing of B'E. Bearinz of AB' = tan-I 101.137. (Fig.25b).92 .= N 20015'W Whole circle bearing of B'E . + 185 x 0. = 21°10'48".. .cos' ~8°12' = 140 x 0. ' . ' x 0. WholecirCle bearing of B'A.92 .. .J Fundamentals of Surveying '.". ----------­ . ..". Total departure of AB' = . Solution· This is a problem where length of two non-adjacent sides of the closed traverse are missing. ' =+101.22 + 35.13 ' = 128..169. Total latitude of AB' = + 140 cos 80°15' + 185 cos 15c15' .140 x sin 80°15' + 185 sin 15°15' + 155 sin 85°30' + 115 sin 18°12' = . B E ·N / / / N .949 = + 79.92 + 101. \ \ \ (a) (b) Fig.

.LAEB.. Which length is wrong and by how much? As the .'.=~c.13 The field results of a closed traverse are: . . Check satisfactorily but there is ? mistake in the length of a line.. However.15 121. .=.=..s':-'-in~5:::0:-:::04~5~'-=---=-- 128.-s-=-'n-=A:=-=':E:-:B~' i :...Traverse SlIT>Jey and Computations. when the closing error is not parallel to any line the perpendicular bisector of the closing error when produced passes through the opposite station. either analytically or graphically.57 41.S:.'.12:=.15 FINDING l\IISTAKE IN TRAVERSING For a closed traverse. 129°15' = 50°45' = B'E sinB'AE = AE sinAB'E =AB' = s~n B'AE sm AEB' . mistake is suspected at this angle and a correction to this angle will swing the traverse through an arc to eliminate the closing error.231 m 11.:. = 180 .06 61.!S:::..89 x sin 21°10'48" = 60. c = .. line should be checked.:.. it can be surmised that the closing error is due to faulty measurement along that line. These are shown in Figs. .. If a line is found to be parallel to the closing error. :2 1 :-" 'sin 50°45' = 158. 11.+.:. . Line AB Whole circle'bearing 0000~ Length (m) 50. 275 • • ..62 BC CD DE 63°49' 89°13' 160°55' 264°02' 258 018' EF FA.18 rn.:.. the closing error can always be computed. Ail' x sin AB'E AE = ':"':'::. The observed values of the included angles..107'8:-: o. Example 11.x-:-=si-:=:n=.60 91.08 67. In that case...9.(21°10'48' + 108°04'12") · · Applying sine rule AB' sinAEB' B'E = 180° :. The amount of closingerror is the linear mistake and the measurement of the concerned . c'c.26(a) and (b).

28 .06'cos 89°13'.06 sin 89°13' + 61. lengths are measured by an accurate 30 m chain suggest how the' mistake was made.' -.58 m Total of Eastlng and Westing 50.92 .92 = 8..60 + 40.Southing: 50.05 + 20.60 cos 0°00' + 91.9 m 119.E.19 .26 Mistake in traversing. [I.\ -. =0. _ 61. = t .40.'\.41.60 sin 0°00' + 91.4. parallel to BC "­ '\ D' '----1 C Perpendicular to closing error II II 'I A Swing of the arc (b) Fig.09· .\.00 + 81..57 cos 19°05' . --0 276 Fundamentals of Sun'eying B A ~.121.19 + 0.08 cos 63°49' + 67..62 sin 78°18' .62-cos 78°18' = = 50..24. 11.73 + 67.66 = 4.57 sin 19°05' .08 sin 63°49' + 67. .13 .58.] Solution Total Northing and .4US cos 84°02' ..e. \\ Ii Closing line .15 sin 84°02' -"121..

and backbearing.1~ The table below gives the forward and back quadrantal bearings of a closed compass traverse.9 2 = 10.' W SS 1'1 641/ 2"W Back bearing S 54° \V N 66' W 1'1 25° E 1'1 75 1/ 2' E S 63 1/ 2° E A gross mistake has been madein the measurement or booking of one of the lines.63" which is close to bearing of BC . Tabulate the whole circle bearings corrected for local attraction indicating clearly your reasons for any corrections.· _Traverse Survey and Computiuions 277 Closing error = ". The mistake is due to tallies being similarly. Hence the stations C and D are free from local attraction. Using this corrected length adjust the departure and latitude of each line of the traverse to close.. State which line is in error.U.116 1/2° Bearing of CB = 29-1-° Bearing of BC = 114° Observed benring of BC = 112 1/ 2° = Local attraction at B = 1112° Bearing of BA 2351ho Bearing of AS = 551/ 2° Observed bear:.'i.B. The whole circle bearing of the lines are: F. 112 1/ 2 Bt CD DE EA. AB 55° .00 m Bearing of closing error · · =tan-I ~:.1g of AB = 55° Local attraction at A = 1/2' . ° 205" 2~7° 2951/ 2 ° 234° 294° 25° 75 1/ 2° .458 2 + 8. B. of 10 m has been made in the line BC. using Bowditch's method of corrections.] Solution From checking of forbearing.~ =62'46'9. Example 11. (L. looking for 10 m and 20 rn.B. it can be seen that line CD is free from local attraction. Hence it can be surmised that a mistake in length . Line· AB BC CD DE EA Length (m) 130 66 65 56 Forward bearing N 55" E S 671/ 2° E S 25° W S 7. a difference of 10 rn.

~--.43 160.. 205' 257' 2970 Q..-. N N 55°30'E S 66'E S 25"W ..7 Example 11.34 73. Table 11.56 78.94 113.75 m = .47 54.99 Closing error = 16.4£ = 116'ho Local attraction at A = 112° Hence the lines and the corrected bearings are: Diff in latirude=15..91 12. S 77° W N 63°W Latitude S 26.59 39.29 35. _.-~ .278 Fundamentals of Survcyin.46 ----..89 diff W " CD DE EA L diff = 2.e..84 58.._--_. the error has occurred in this line..14 Latitude N S 26.14 60.29 W AB BC CD DE EA 130 66 .. Bearing of DE = 257~ Bearing of ED = 77° Observed bearing of ED = 751/~· Local attraction at E = 11/~~ Correct bearing of EA '295'/-/ + 1'/2• = 297° Bearing of AE = 117° Observed bearing of.43 168.41 167.-_.3 ~ S 24.04 12.94 113.. Further the amount of closing error is very large close to ~ .--­ .57 116..90 = 1.63 Length 130 66 85 56 88 w.65°W :>. _.14­ 60.59 39. Bearing· :::: tan-I 16~9. 65 56 88 27. bearing Reduced bearing 55°30' 114"00' 205'00' 257·00' 297·00' N 55"30'E S 66·00'E S 25°00'W S 77°00'W N 63°00'W Departure E 107.57 98.___.23 Diffin departure = 6. Adjustment of the traverse.63 Departure E 107.44 Since the bearing of the closing error is almost parallel to line CD.__. 20 m chain which may have been used._ .­ Table 11.41 167.B.. Hence it can be taken that length of CD should be 65 + 20 = 85 m.47 73. .•.56 78..14 Line Length (m) Whole circle bearing 55'30' 114' ...84 77..~ Line AB BC Example 11.92 54.

2.iS PROBLE:\IS 11.33 BC + 0. Winter 1978] 11.0.1.3 In order to fix a point F. departure = -.29 .9 Example 11. [AMIE Winter 1979J 11.1 (a) A man travels from a point A to due west and reaches the point B.60 01­ 1.Bearing 173°50'00" 85°06'40" .6 rn.30 107.0. a traverse was run as follows: .49 . L latitude = 1.52 S E \V + 0.5S .1-9 .39 60.59 26.68 -O. The disrance between Aand B = 139. traverses are conducted on either side of a harbour as follows: Traverse (1) Line· Be Line 'AD AB Length (m) 200 100 Traverse (2) Length (rn) Bearing 85°26'20" 1isolO'40" .11 16S. Calculate the length of bearing of closing error. exactly midway between A and E.23 .2 From a common point A. .06 EA L + 0.11 115.39 2.-11 + 0.54 115. Traverse Sur v ey and Computations Corrections 279 Tobie 11.­ __ J DE 500 Calculate the distance from C to a point F on DE due south of C and the distance EF. Calculate the latitude and departure of the line AB.21 40..' .OA5 ..89 . (c) In a closed traverse 'latitudes' and departures of sides were calculated and it was observed that .17. (b) What is 'closing error' in a theodolite traverse? Howwould you distribute the closing error graphically? .11 CD DE 76046 12. 0.0.45· + 0.06 168.52 35.14 Corrected values Line AS N S E W x 74..63 5·U7 75. .0. [AM1E..

90· + 100.173. 'An abstract from a traverse sheet for a closed traverse is given below: Line Length (m) Latitude Departure AS BC CD DE EA 200 130 100 250 320 . [AMIE Summer 1982) ~ .6.250 Fundamentals of Surveying Line Length Bearing AB BC CD DE -WO m 500 m 600 m 400 m 30° 00° 3000 30° Assuming point A as origin.00 + 50..5. calculate (a) the independent coordinates of points C. :' (a) Balance the traverse by Bowditch's method. .00 . .20 0.. (b) Given the coordinates of A. c 300 . therefore.280. Find the length and direction of line BA. It is not possible to measure the length and fix the direction of line AB : . The coordinates of A and B were were 225 e O as under: Station A B Easting Northins . It was also required to fix a station E on line BA such that line DE will be. . run and following data were obtained: Line Length in m Reduced bearing N 500 E S 700 E S 300 E AC CD DB 45 66 60 .400· 200 150 [AMIE Winter 1981) . .~V: Calculate the independent coordinates of C.00 + 130.00 + 0. directly on account of an obstruction between the stations A and B. (c) Calculate the enclosed area in hectares by coordinate method. Graphical solution will not be accepted.154. 200 N.00 + 86. A traverse ACDB was. [AMIE Winter 19S0) 11.. (b) the length and bearing of CF. The bearings of two inaccessible stations A and B taken from station C O' and 153°16' respectively.4. [A!\·lIE Summer 19S0J 11.00 +'250.00 .. OOE. It was also required to fix a station E on line BA. determine the coordinates of other points. 11.00 .perpendicularto BA. E and F. If there is no obstruction between stations A and E calculate the data required for fixing the station.

10.l l. . Southing 30. This was done by traversing from Ato C as follows: Line AB < • Length 750 m 500 m 600 m Bearing 3600 1200 SOo 105' AD DE EF Compute the length and bearing of Fe..8.100. Traverse Survey and Computations 281 '. State the various methods of balancing a closed traverse. 11.00 200:50 300. . (iii) Independent coordinates of station B if those of A are 100. [A~IIE Summer 1933] 11.. (a) What are the different rnathernaticul methods of adjusting a closed traverse? Explain clearly where these methods are used and why. State under what circumstances each one is preferred. A line ACof 2 krn length was measured to be set out at right angles to a given line AB. are as under: Line Length in m R. [A~IlE Winter 1982J 11.25 199. (b) . 11.7. closed theodolite traverse ABCDA.4.75 W B C D 300. .15· Complete the above table in all respects if there is no closing error for the traverse.B. (a) Explain why transit rule is more suitable than Bowditch rule for adjustment of a closed theodolite traverse. Station A N S E 299. (ii) Corrected consecutive coordinates of station B using transit rule. . AS BC CD DA N 45°E 51. 49. (b) Following table give data of consecutive coordinates in respect of a . S 60~E Northing. (a) Explain briefly the different methods of checking the correctness of angular observations in an open theodolite traverse.9.65 63..25 299.00 Easting.00 ·200.Part of data and calculations in respect of a closed theodolite traverse ABCD.50 Westing.75 200.50 From the above data calculate: (i) Magnitude and direction of closing error. [A~I1E Summer 1935] Ll.

While C and Dare not intervisible. Line Length (m) 298. . ABCDE run in the counter-clockwise direction andare tabulated below.282 Fundamentals of Surveying (b) A and B are two stations of :10 open traverse and their independent coordinates are as follows: Station A Latitude (rn) 27'+56. exactly midway between stations A and E. DE EA .2 7721.7 ? ? 21304 AB BC CD Bearing 0"0' N 25°12'W S 75"06'W S 56°24'E N 35°36'E [A~lIE . roughly north of B. To fix a station F.13 The following notes refer to II closed traverse. . to D. .6 B . a traverse was run as follows: Line Length (m) 400 500 600 400 AB BC CD DE Bearing 300' 00" . (a) What is meant by closing error in a closed traverse and how is it . Summer 1989).8 26936. adjusted graphically?" (b) The measured lengths and bearings of the side of a closed traverse . .6m.12. 11. Calculate the lengths CD and DE. It is proposed to construct a railway track from C roughly south-of A. 3000 300 .7 205.. Compute the missing quantities. [AMIE Winter 1990) 11. the perpendicular offsets from the traverse stations to the railway track are measured to be AC =104 m and BD =57. Determine the whole circle bearing of CD.14.. [A~HE Winter 1986) o • 11. Line Length (m) 715 1050 1250 950 575 AB BC CD DE EA Bearing S 60"00'E ? ? S 55°30'W S 02"45'W.0 Departure (01) 6007.

:. the angles are changed less but the lengths are changed more. In theodolite traverse angl.. 11.Traverse Survey and Computations 283 '.• •• • Assuming station A. the lengths are chanzed less and the anzles are chanzed more.l1E Summer 1991] HI:\TS TO SELECfED QUESTIO~S .s are accurately measured with ilieodolite whereas measurement of length with chain or tape is of lesser accuracy. 11. E and F. Hence for adjustment transit rule is more appropriate. Sometimes it is also used for a theodolite traverse of low accuracy. [A~. ' (b) the le~gth and bearing of CF..8 (a) In the transit rule.origin. as. calculate-s­ (a) the independent coordinates of stations C. . .1 (0) Graphical method based on Bowditch's rule .has been explained in Chapter9 for compass survey. Compared to this in Bowditch's rule.

avoid abrupt change of direction curves are introduced between two straights both in the horizontal and vertical plane.... C Forward t~ngent . .1 shows a simple circular curve. '9:-':: . Curves ~ Horizontal curve * ~ Vertical curve.1 Basic elements of a curve. Curves can be broadly classified as follows. ~ Circular ~ t ~ Simple ~ ! Transition Combined ~ I • Compound Reverse ~ * Cubic Parabola J J Clothoid Cubic Spiral ~ Lemniscate ~ 12... II .1 INTRODUCTION T~ . II I . Curves 12.2 BASIC DEFI~ITIO. 12. ...'. . .__J .'• 12 .S Figure 12.. 2S-t • . o Fig.

Therefore. . B is the vertex or point of inter section. ' According to the chord' definition the degree of curve is equal to the angle subtended at the centre by a chord of 30 m length. 30 m. T1DT2 is the length of the curv e. D. . T1 is the point of curvature..2(a).. If the deflection angle is clock wise. It is a point on the forward tangent at the end of the curve. the curve is II right hand curve..CII/"\'es 285 Two straight lines AB and BC intersect at the point B. T1Tz is the long chord. From Fig. TIB and T2B are tangent distances. . Arc definition is generally used in highway practice and the chord definition in railway practice.2 Degree of a curve.2(b) Sln- a . the distance between the vertex B and midpoint D of the curve is called external distance. 12. 12.87 2rrR R a - (12. 2 =­ 15 R For small angle sin (D~2) :: DJ2 radian. When the deflection angle is aruiclockwise. The degree of a curve (D) is defined as the ringle subtended at the centre by 110 arc or chordof standardlength which is usually the length of a chain. BD. T2 is the point of tangency. 12. .. D-(3600) (30) _ 1718. ordinate.•. The cur.e TIDT! is~':' to make the change of direction from AB to BC smooth. L1 is the deflection angle.2.. Relationship between radius and degree ofa curve: According to arc definition the degree of a curve is equal to the angle subtended at the centre by an arc of . It is the angle by which the straight line Be deflects from the straight line AB. They are equal. AB is the back tangent or rear tangent. It is a point on the back tangent from where the curve starts. E is the middle point of the long chord and DE is the mid . 12.. the cur ve is a left hand curv e. .1) o (a) o (b) Fig.1 DESIGNATION OF A CURVE A curve can be designated either in terms of radius (R) or the degree of a curve. From Fig.

External distance or apex distance =BD.OD = R sec &2 .R cos tJ/2 = R(l .R) 1 =( 360 (J) 2. Subtracting the tangent length T. (ii) Instrument methods in which a theodolite. . 5. f T =chamage a " I + rrRJ 1S00 Chainge is usually expressed as number of full chains and part length of a chain.2S6 Fundamentals of Surveying or D r =360 . 4.2) It is seen that the arc definition and the chord definition give identical results when the degree of curve is small. tacheometer or a total station instrument is used. For example.2. = OB . To avoid confusion length of the chain should be clearly specified.5 m 137 + 15. 12. Mid ordinate = OD . 3. Length of curve (1): Length of the circular curve T1DT2 is given by 2i.!1 tt R _ 1718·87 - R (J2.cos fJ2)." . 6. 1.3 SETTING OUT OF A CURVE A circular curve can be set out by (i) Linear or chain and tape method when no angle measuring instrument is used. 12. 12.OE =R . " . Chainage of tangent points: The chainage of intersection point B is generally known. = 2 x R sin &2 = = 2R sin tJ/2.5 m with 30 m chain = 137 full chains + 15.. Chainage of T1 Chainage of T2 =chainage of B - T. Tangent length T: =rrRJ 1800' Tangent length is given by TIB = T2B = R tan fJ2.1.R.2 ELEMENTS OF A SIMPLE CURVE The following equations can be derived from Fig.2. Length of long chord = TIET. a chainage of 4125. =chainage of T1 + length of curve (l) .5.

12. The deflection :lngle .. from the triangle OPP.~' =R! =R" . If L is the length oflong chord TIE = U2 -. x! + OP. and and OE = ~R'2 _ (U2)! DE = R .. by means of a theodolite.(! or (0£ + y)! OE + Y ="'R~-- .3) Dividing the long chord into an even number of parts. points on the curve can be obtained with corresponding values of . Points TIl T! and the midpoint E of TI T! are obtained on the field. .(U2l To get y at any distance x from E. 12. 1.3 Offsets from long chords. Chain and tape methods . (12. Offsets from tile long chords Usually the lines AB and BC (Fig.!1 may be set out very accurately o Fig.~R! . already plotted on the ground.r.. .. Lengths BT •• BT! and TIT! are calculated.'t'­ ~ ..3) :ire· . ell ryes 287 • .

/R2 + x 2 " R _ '( ')' 1/~ . Perpendicular offset: From the triangle OPP1 (Fig. 12..5)' . . The offsets from the tangent C~1Jl be either radial or perpendicular to the tangent..r?­ .2S8 FllIldamcntals of Surveying 2. 12.. '=R 1+£ R2 '~R ' = R(l + L) -R 2R 2 2R (12. = - .5) ./R2 +x 2 )' = .r ~ ~ =(R + y)2 - R +Y = .r?­ . 12..0 Fig.4) ". x: (l2.4 Offsets from tangents. Radial offset (Fig. --~ A c .4): From the triangle OT1 Q• . Op 2 R2 =OPI2 + pp? =(R _ )')2 + .. (R ­ y)2 = R2 - R -)' = -J' R­ .+.' . Offsetsfrom the tangents Curves can also be set out by measuring offsets from the tangents.. OT? + 1jQ2 = O~ or ' or or R.

. The method has a drawback that error in locating is carried forward to other points. A Curves 289 c o Fig. A o Fig.5 Perpendicular offset.jneed be accessible. not shown in Fig. the chord length is small and approximately equal to the arc length (Fig. Offsets from the chord produced This method has the advantage that not all the land between T. to have reasonable accuracy the length of the chord chosen should not exceed RIlO.\.. 12.6). =R _ R . F' . (1i 2R R2 : ..2)112 =R-R+-" (12. . 12. and T2 (Forward Tangent point. 12. .6) 2R 3.The method is based on the premise that for small chords.6 Offsets from chord produced. However..

F::. =¥". 2R = 2R The first chord C. makes the chainage of F a full chain..290 Fundamentals of Surveying From the property of circle it" the angle LBTIF = 8.F = 'loIR. is a full chain and Cn is the last subchord which is normally less than one chain.7).(C. Tape and Theodolite method In this method a tape is used for making linear . The length of the subchord is so adjusted that the chord length when added to the chainage of T.l = C. The angle at the centre LT.F is the [irst subchord which is normally less than 1 chain.measurements and a theodolite is used for making angular measurements. + C . C. OF = 201 CJ = chord T.. . Subsequent chord lengths Cll C3. (12. T. .7) 0 3 = 2R (C2 + C3) Cl C3 =C3 =Cn ­ 1 where Cn_. C. the tangential angle method or the deflection angle method. are all full chains.. =2R (C1 + C2) Similarly but hence The last offset . Then from propertyof circle ·C.. or The first offset 01 1 = 2R C 0. = 2~iR . . Then T. is called a subchord. Let T. .. arc T. a full chain.FH be part of a circular curve with Tit the initial tangent point. = c. The method is accurate and is used in railways and highways (Fig. 12. Instrumental Methods 1.E is now produced to F' such thalFP= Cl . The method is also known as the Rankine method. 2R 2R C~ l) .D.

+ 8" In practice C\ is the first subchord and CII the last subchord. 12. Then with the help of a tape and ranging rod. The tape with the ranging rod is so adjusted that the tape measures FH = C" and the ranging rod lies along the line of sight TIH. Similarly.1: from the tangent line. C1 180 x 60 minute = 2R t: = 1718. or . s.87 ~I minute (12.8) Therefore. .7 Tape: and thecdolhe method.. by mensuring d. the tope is put along the line of sight and distance CI is then measured to locate F along the line of sight."Curves 291" o Fig. The point H is located with the help of a" tope and ranging rod.' = 2Rrr C1 180° " . C2 = C3 =. the instrument is set at T\ and the line of sight is put at an angle 8. = 1718. As a check the deflection angle Ll" for the: last point T: is equal to ~2 where .. H is sighted·fromT. Ll" = 81 + 5z + 8J + . = C"_1 are full chain lengths.87 C~" Ii minute ot_ • Since the theodolite remains at T I . as computed above.1 is the angle of intersection. + ~ = . Similarly.. to locate the point F with the help of a theodolite and tape. .

...DS1 to measure distance. Similarly instrument at T2 is set at 62 ~ 61 + 82 from T:. One theodolite is placed at T1 and the angle 01 is set out with respect to tangent TJB. Two-thcodotites method In this method 1\\"0 theodolites are used one at T1 and the other at T2 (Fig. 3. .the tangent which are computed before hand. ()J can be computed :IS before.S Two-iheodolhes method...Ep /. U. Ii is specially convenient when the ground is rough and accurate chaining is not possible. Total station instrument method A total station instrument consists of an optical theodolite to measure angle and an E. the instrument at T\ is set out at 0\ + 02 = j~. Let the coordinates of the intersection of the tangents be Npt.~ Es - EA (12.eying 2.. 12.J and curve radius R..N. intersection angle .s each point is fixed independently.TI' The intersection of the two lines of sight locates the point G which is found with the help of a ranging rod. (c) Coordlnates for curve points are determined by the deflection angles from. The radial stake out technique is used for the setting out of 3 curve (Fig..9).. ' ) T2 o Fig. I:!.292 Fundamentals of 5111. . azimuth can then be calculated as: aAS =tan:" No . The method is accurate though expensive as two theodolites with two instrument men are involved. z-:::. azimuth' of-the back tangent eel. The error is not carried forward a. The reference . To locate the point G. (b) Takea back'sigbt to another point B of known coordinates. . then the coordinates of the point of curvature are: -I . The following are the steps: (a) The instrumentis set up at A whose coordinates are known from previous control survey.! and the angle 61 is measured with respect to T~Tl' A ranging rod is moved such that it intersects both the lines of sights and locates the point F. IE v. . Similarly the second theodolite is placed at T.9) '. FrC'111 the geometry of a circle if the tangential angle BT1F is 01' then the angle at the circumference TIFT~ is also 81.S).

(f) The horizontal distanceis computed from coordinates.' '. . Nrc =Nn - R tan tJ/2 cos Ct.NAf + (E.! .d.Curves.E.9 . Locate points M and N on AB and Be respectively.1 0) (12. Layout angle » tan .· (12. + Lir) (12. ­ (e) The required layout angle is then given by . 293 · • B • · (Ne.1x) cos «(X.R tan tJ/2 sirt (d) Curve point coordinates are then calculated as: N. .12) (12.r is the total deflection angle for point .10) 1. and (iii) final tangent point not accessible. Ell) .14) . . 12. . '.13) Here .. Layout distance ~ [(J'l:" .r. N _ N . The following difficulties rna)' occurin setting out 3 curve: (i) point of intersection of tangents not visible. -I (E.r =Npc + (2R sin . . . ' Point oj intersection oj tangents not accessible (Fig. r - A (XAB.Total station instrument method.4 PROBLEMS IN SETTING OUT CURVES . 12. . (ii) initial tangent point not accessible.2.\)2]ln (12. (XI (12. + Lir) Ez = Epc + (2R sin Lit)'sin (Ct. . It is positive for clockwise and negative for counter-clockwise rotation..15) 12.r.11) Epc::. En .E a) 2" Fig.a . where the measurement is clockwise from the reference backsight.

12. can be plotted from TI • Initial tangent point not accessible (Fig.' . 12. Measure angles a and f3 with a theodolite and length lItN with a chain or tape.ae.1/2 .'". By measuring MQ and QN and if MQN is'made a right angle then MN = ~MQ2 + QN 2 . This is equal to BT2E as the angle between the chord and tangent is equal to the angle at the circumference.. 1. and T2 can be located from M and N respectively and the curve.1 . The anglesubtended at T 1 11/2 .11) In this case.12) .(.J MN BA! = MN sin f3 sin J BN = MJ~sin a SIO L1 4. the 'CUrve has to be set out from the second tangent point T2• Let the first chord be T2E.tJ/2 + aE for pointing towards T2E. Then or Similarly BM sin j3 = sin . Calculate MT 1 = BTl -BM NT2 = BT'1. Similarly to locate Dangle reading should be 3600 . accessible (Fig.29-l Fundamentals of Surveying .". Since the scale graduations read clockwise the vernier should be set :It 0-0 with pointing towards T2B and should be set out at 3600 .(LV2 . • c o Fig.10 Point of intersection of tangent not visible. 3. .Two points M and N areselected on Be which are accessible. Final tangent point not. 12.: Thus T.. .aE) or'360° .aD)' = ". 2. .BN 5.

Let point D be visible from T1 but £ point is not visible. 4.11 Inaccessible Initial tangent point.. 2.2. the initial tangent point (Fig. 3.12 Inaccessible. 1. 12.'.13). 12.. T2N then is equal toMIY ':'MT. 12. 2. BT2 is known and Bivi Is measured. A N c Fig. The chainage of N is equal to chainage of TI plus length of the curve T1T2• 12.5 SETTI~G OUT CURVE FRO~1 A~ I. . hence MT2 is known. Two cases may arise: CASE I The instrument is set up at a point D which is visible from T. : A c Fig. Shift the instrument to D and make the reading 0-0. final tangen] point.'.7­ Curves 295 '. M ~ .TER:-'lEDlATE POINT . .

.14).. o Fig. Point towards D and reverse the line of sight.j + i. 1. Point towards T 1 and then plunge the telescope so that DD' is obtained. 12. A c -.. i ·A III I c o Fig.. Set u~ the instrument' at E and fix vernier at ~D' 2. The direction of DE is then obtained by measuring clockwise Os as originally obtained.14 Selling out from invisible lntermediate point. . (Fig. 12. 3. .13 Selling out from intermediate visible point. ' 4.296 Fundamentals of Surveying -. The pointing is now along ED'.. . CASE 11 ~~ = ~. 12. . When the instrument is set up at a point E which is not visible from T1 . .

- DD 1 TIG' DJ Tj = B1j .15 Setting out from the point of intersection.66 to locate point F. . 81 2.6 .ell)' The length TID will be I11O... 8n =. DD..R cos 8 tan c = R tan. With zero of tape at Tto and ranging rod at I110.:.. 82 =10' . .~. = BT.6 12 .. f .As the rotation is anti-clockwise if the reading is zero-zero along BTl.cos 8 = tan. the tape is swung till the angle ell is bisected.make the total reading ... CIlT1leS . If the curve is divided into ten equal parts.is perpendicular on the tangent BTl' GD is drawn parallel to BTl' In the triangle BD1D tan c = BD. 3._ . the instrument is set up at B and making an angle ell calculated corresponding to 8 i. Similarly for other points. 12.. Let D be the point which is to be located (Fig: 12.15).. r..6 To locate the point D. =.t THE POINT OF INTERSECTION The procedure is based on the following geometrical relations. . - - - --­ '..G GD R .. 297 '.6 SEmNG OUT THE CURVE FRO. 12. the reading along BD will be (360° .R sin 8 1 .sin 8 A c o Fig.2.. Rotate the upper plate through Os + 06. i.6/2 .dIIO.

2 cos e + R tan 1:.. .R tan &2. 12. .1':4 _ Yp -: - 1':4 X p -X. 12.2 cos 8 Yp = . e) is: R2 = (.= (Xp.R..BP cos 8 =. 12.R tan &2 and . . 12. Yo) and passing through point P (X p • Yp ). centre 0 (Xo. Here Xp . Ys ) respectively (Fig. the intersection point. Ys .17). The equation of the straightline passing through A and B is X s -~.l. Then the coordinates of the point 0 are .2.point P are known. is given by . . -Xo)./2)2 + (. Let coordinates of A and B be (XA• YA) and (Xs. • '.Z sin e + R)2 As Z. L1 are known a solution for R can be found. R. .2 sin. =. .7 PASSING A CIRCLLAR CURVE THROrGH A FIXED POI~T It is necessary to find the radius of a circular curve tangential to AB and Be and passing through the point P. 2 .­ . Let the origin of the coordinate system be at B...3 lNTERSECTION OF ALINE A1\"D CIRCLE This can be determined if the equation of the straightline and the equation of the circle are known. the coordinates Xp and Yp of the .16 Passing a circular curve through a fixed point. e.+ (Yp~ yo) _ .2 sin 8 A c • I o Fig. .. If the length BP and the angle e are known. Equation of a circle having origin at 0 (. .BP sin 8 = . . Similarly the equation of a circle of radius R.. .R) and passing through the point P (-2 cos e. X axis along the back tangent and Y axis at right angles to it as shown in Fig.16. _.198 Fundamentals of Surveying 12.

) . ...18 Intersection of two circles. . .Clines 299 Y o (Xo• Yo) o Fig. R2 . 12. 12......... . I J I 0\ (XOI ' YOI ) X Fig.. .. . I I .... Rl .3. The equation of a circle passing through (Xp• i'p) with radius R1 and centre 01(XOI' Yo. 12.. . y .1 INTERSEcrIO~ OF TWO CIRCULAR CURVES I I This can be solved by writing equations when coordinates of the centres of the curves and radii of the curves are known (Fig.. Solving the above two equations simultaneously a quadratic equation-of the form ayt + bYp + C = 0 is obtained from which Yp and then Xp can be obtained.17 Intersection of a line and :I x circle.. 12. . ....18)..I" . .. ... ... . ..

-'0.I 300 Fundamentals of Surveying is Similarly with O2 at centre and radius R2 (Xp . 12. 12.E_'~c::­ tan a/2 + tan [3/2 '. what is thl7ir degree of curve by (i) arc definition..19 ". 12. A a Fig. If the circle touches the lines at Tit T3 and T:!o then from Fig. .--:ES i II Let AD. (b) 500 m. 12.19 Curve tangential to three lines.2 CURVE PASSING TANGENTIAL TO THREE U.19). Example 12. . (ii) chord definition? .D=. (c) 1200 rn. " TID = DT3 = R tan 0:12 T-jE = ET2 = R tan fJl2 " .Yo:i = Rj From the above two equations two unknowns Xp .3.1 For the circular curves having radius R (a) 250 rn. It is required to draw a circle touching the three lines. R tan aJ2 + R tan [3/2 =DE or R = _--:-:"=. Yp can be obtained.Xo:'l + (Yp . Then. DE and Ee be three lines (Fig..

12. 2 sin"! 2 _ 360" x 90 _ 3 ~380 Do .•'­ From the above it is clear that the degree of a curve by arc definition and chord definition is practically the same for curies with large radius.e. -I .0 = 6..!.L .:. (b) a theodolite is available . A o . (a) D ~ 360" x II 2.sIn... 8· DC' = ? .....r x 500 ..2 Two roads having a deviation angle. 360 x 30 = 1. Solution (a) By offsets from the long chords (Fig.500 = . i.879" DC' =' 2 sin-I 1.432~ II 2. flat curves but differ when the radius of the curv~ is small.2. .Curves 301 Solution. steeper curves.. Fig.2.'1 4"'''' sIn 1200 . . Calculate the necessary data if the curve is to be set (a) by chain and offsets only.20 Example 1~. of 45°48' are to be joined by a 1SO m radius curve.) ­ (c) . 15 3 4. that is.r x 1200 Dr -? ..8750 ~ 2:>0 • (b) 1..:R· 30 =' 2rrx 360 x ~O = 6.. -I :.. Example 12. D =.20) . 12.

/]80 2 0 4 = .88 =3191. - 0 6 = . = i 79.88 m Chainage of T2 = 3047..180in 180 =0041 m 180 ::: 4.722 165. .165.8 + 143.89 0.8 ~ • Taking XI = 101 ch + 17.03 m :::: 76 m m Chainage of T.J180 2 + 42./180 2 30 2 .00 These offsets are shown in Fig...l::! = -{IS0 2 -: 202 - ~R2 ..))2.67 =3. = 3047.65 40 2 . Y = .2 I Y2 =.)) =~b802 + 72.20.(Ll2):! - .68 m .88 m X2 = 30 + 12.38 m " ~ ".48' = 2~ 180 sin 22c54' T]E =70 m i (1 .94 m - -'"4 = 76 " )'4.8 Length of the curve = R Xdox ir = 180 \~~8 x:r = 143.0~ '.165:831 = 11.J180 2 +76 2 180 =15.22 - x3 .187 m " Central offset ED = Starting from E offset distances at 10 rn interval.8 = 12.831 = 13..50 2 -165.8 m 1 ' + 12. . 0 3 = .IR2 -.1: 2 - R chainage at T. 180 =13." ~ o.09.2.831 =7.831 165.2 = 60 + 12. 12.2~ .cos tJ2) ='180 (1 . = ISO t:ln~5c48' 2 =76.831 = 13../1S02 .2 )\ =.87 .831 =9.JIS0 2 .. = ~hS02..102 O2 .302 Fundamentals of Surveying Length of tangent =R tan .= .08 :::: 140 m ' T1T1 = 2R sin 45.76 = 30~7.' ..831 = 0.J R~ + ./180 2 60 2 70 2 - 165. = ·.9°) = 14.cos 22. =140. = 3123.!Is0 2 0 7 = .= 30 -17... ' .8 .. (b) By offsets from the tangents: y =..70 1 - 165.

=42.2. C. ..68 minute 180 ' = 11./180 2 76 2 = 16.2 180' minute .1222 == 0.3 ) C? 03 ..68 m = 1°51'30" L . .== 5.68 m Length of last subchord == 1t.. = 171887 . . -16 m + C)"': 2 -2 x 180 .2 )'2 )'3 = 180 .68 m Last offset = On = = 106 ch + 11.. =-- .' . If mmute» 1718. ' .83 m (d) By offsets from the chord produced: Length ofIst subchord = 12.0 x 30 minute = 286..'Curves 303 (c) By perpendicular offsets: ..R = _11.68) == 1.11 m .2 )'1= ISO. .2R 30 (12'''' 30) . 02 == 1718.42.~~_ (30 + 11. ' ' .352 m (e) With the help of tape and theodolite 'Length of 1st subchord UI 1: = 12.~. == 116.. Taking' XI x:! y == R .2 2 0 1 == 2R == 2 x 180 == Q.+ .y'.2 = 72. I chainage of T2 == 3191.x· ..50' = 1°56' 30': . (Cn_ 1 + Cn) .1180" - 72.2 m 12. 302 ==-==5m R 180 • ~> . .'ISO· . . = . :(3 =180. .2 rn CI .87 x 12.:.2 2 =15. :.87 x 11. '.0 Yo! = 180 --..68 m.. f.~13m C2 (CI O2.. =12..."4rR· ..45' 03 last subchord = 4°46'29" " =0"..l'o! =76. .02 m ... ~lS02 .41 m ' ..\ =0n_1 =02 On = 1718..

. (L... 183 _ CB _ ---. + 02 + 63 + o~ = 11°29' 28" + 4°46'29" = 16°15'57" = 16°16'00" .)H/I c".30" + "~-+6'29" = 6°~2'59" =6:'43'00" =01 + 02 + 03 =6c~2'59" + 4°46'29" = 11°29'28" = 11°29'20" =0.<0." "'HJl.sin 9°24' E' .. --------. .6 5 66 =01 + 02 + 03 + Sot + 05 = 16°15'57" +4°46'29" = 21°02'26" = 21°02'20" =0\ + 02 + 03 + 04 + 05 + 06 =21°02'26" + 1°51'30" = 22...°53'56" = 22°54'00" 66 =22°5~' =. Determine.21).._ .. the radius of a circular curve to connect the straights.£Q sin 160° :.. Deflection angle 6 = 9°24' + 10°36' = 20° ...U. tabulate all the data necessary to set out pegs at 20 m intervals of through chainage and show your calculations check.6J 6~ 64 =15] + oJ = 1'56'. - ./i.:it Example 1~..g Readings from the tangent point .pJ2: The last reading indicates the values which can be obtained with a 20" theodolite. " \0 \ \ \ \ \ .i LJj . 12.sin 10°36' . Example 12..00 m. \ .:11 = "] = 1°56'30" .JV"".J . The conditions of the sight are such that it is decided to make B the first tangent point. angle CDB = 10°36' and the forward chainage of B =2750. ~2.3."\ '' ' " . A \ \ . Fig. '"-' . ~~ ~.) Solution From (Fig../il(4I. .AII".3 The intersection point C of two railway straights ABC and CDE is inaccessible and so convenient points Band D in the straights are selected giving BD = 183 mangle CBD = 9°24'. J....

837 m.m . 6 chains of the existing 25 chains radius curve are taken up at each end and replaced in part' by curves of sharper radius.(. or .' x "~ .167 = '194. also the total centre line length of track to be [L.42 = 558. the shift s = 2~R2 -t II _ x_:> Solution here RII has been substituted for Rn) . . Determine the radius of the sharpened curves.30'48" . Hence the length of 1st subchord = 10 m.] relaid.' A _ LJI . Chainage of the Ist tangent point = 2750.l67.1" = 2 = .22 Ivers f3 = 1 . sm CD = 1S .87 x 10 .cos PI (i) . From Fig.42 " R = 98.39 m . .1' SIO 't' sin 1602 -~ ='87. . 12.'1 - ~ _ 1718. 92.~~ (20 + '10) = 1°32'23" .U.~~~. Length of curve = ~~'x 9 20 = ~R - _ rr x 558. With 20 m chain [his is equal to 137 ch + 10 m.. CB ".m' [an 10° ' . .167 ­ .558. . '160~.= 98. ' 20 Example 12. ' . 12.0267 ch (approximately as = "4 respectively and let.. . '..22) be the original and amended radii ' 16 ? _ = 0.837m ' '= 9 ch + 14. . ' R [an d/2= CB .4 In improving an existing railway curve by inserting transition curves 4 chains in length.12 = 01 + 8z = .837 m Length of las! subchord = 14.00 rn.C/lrI'es 305 Therefore ' ='183 x sin '10°36' = 98'4.. Let Ro and Rn (Fig.1/2.

306 Fundamentals of Surveying O' Fig. ·..536 ch.5 . Total centre line length of track = 15.cos {3 =1 . Hence AQ =2.000 and ."':-·- R. n.0:!865 =(R(} (0~02865) . . = . . R tan 34 -i-R tan 21. 1 . ' Example 12.5 A single circular highway curve will-join tangents XV and VYand also be tangent to BC.0 ' n .cos' 13°45' =0. • • .032 x 6 =5.?'iR -.The transition replaces ari equal amount of circular curve.768 ch.5 2 rad =0.23.. = '24.032 ch AC aC AC = Rn Ro and = 24. BC = 190 m . . Substituting in (i) 3~ " =(RlJ n Rn) vets {3 " Rn} or or Now 'R:!' "?3 "61 ­. L and stations PC and PT in Fig. the tracks to be replaced at each end ' is 7.4. 12. Calculate R. L2 ?IoR _""t Q =" 'R n = 3R a "'"~ 4:! .24 r~d = 13°45' ' . 2 .2 .22 Example 12.since the shift AA' bisects the transition PQ.t But and But actual ~ {3 = ~~ rad = . ~'. 12.768 ch 25 ' .

6 After a back sight on the PC with 0°00" set on the instrument. R= 190 .305 = 6 ch+ 2.5 r.5 = 180 = 372. y or .61 x 0. (a) Setup at midpoint.24 (i) o . (b) Instrument at mid point of curve.61 m Length of curve = trR l~g5. -. 12.7 =555.5. what is the deflection angle to the following curve points (Fig. Chainage of PC =10 x 30 =182...7 m 384.. Solution (a) The deflection angle 180° + al2 = Fig.25 m Example 12.. Clines 307 . _ _ 190 tan 170 + tan 10..55 m ..7 m Chainage of PT= 372.1 89 =384. x Fig.•.23 Example 12. 12. deflection at 3/4 point.0.305 + 0. deflection to 3/4 point..7)° . ..24)7 . deflection to PT. (c) Setup at 1/4 point of curve. x 38-k61 x 55.55 + 182.25' in =18 ch + 15.12.

calculate the. = = = Solution Let the coordinates of the point of intersection be X p and Yp Fig...24 (iii) o Fig. =.. If the azimuth of line AB is 39°28' .00.. .00. Yp . = 80.. 12. "' ~.Y Yp . 12.00 A N .00.. 80.24 Example 12.00 and X o 210.7 In Fig. .25. Example 12.. • A Fig. 00. . and the circular curve radius 60.. . . coordinates of intersection point P.:!4 (ii) o (c) The deflection angle = 180°· + &8 + aJ~ =180° + 3f. Example )2~7..25 the coordinates-of points A and 0 are XI.308 FUlldamenTals of Surveying (b) The deflection angle = 1800 + J/4 + . 12.p_-.· Yo 250... ..00 rn..X'~X .:.6. 12.T =1800 + 3. We get ~n:>28' tan ~7 . !. 12.:1 8 Fig...jig P.. YA 130. = x.. Fig.25. 12..130.

.470.. Curves 309 .200)2. 12.05m tan e= X~ - rq - xq :: 470.00 .200. P \ --:-_ \ \ \ \ " \ "" . or Substituting or or exp .26) .45.890.- -{~P: P~ y .823 Yp .2io..26. '0 102 = ~(xq . 13 ' -----~---------~- .tso.00 m and for circle with cenireOi.o .823 Yp - • . or or ")3 _ X p ..": • .. \ :.250. Fig..00)2 ~ (Yp .XOj!' + (Yq - roi :: ~(330. 26..0)2 + (330 .95.Yp -130 Xp = 0. 1:!. . :: 191. are X0 1 =330. Compute the coordinates. .!.of interesection point P shown in the Fig. X0 2 ~ 470.± :: 47.00 rn..8.08 Yp Yp . .~'y\e " \ .176 226.80. . . 308..00 m and rO I =330. . .. (Xp - xoi + (Yp'~ 1'"0):1"'= R:1 .l:!.. Xp :: :: + 11506·U6 = 0 307.00 :: 1~0 330..0 . JCLI e . 12. .oop =60:1 (0. i' I ~. 'R l = 100m and R:1 = 120 m.26. - . .93 Example 12.26 Example 12. Solution (Fig.~.99 -'210.677 rj .00 130 1 e= t3n.00 Y02 330..8 Coordinates of a circle of centre 0.00)2 + V'p. .. " For circle with origin at 0. ..408. O8 .00):1 = 602 1.00 .99 .00 m and Y0 2 :: 200..

58 m CURVE A compound curve consists of a' number of circular'curves of different radii joined together with centres of the curves all lying on one side of the curve.310 Fundamentals of SlI/w.l2 .4 COMPOU~D = 200. 12.18) l ..R2 sin . The equationsof the compound curve'can be derived by considering the Figs. . Figure12. = cos" lOO~ + 191.11 .17) (12. Coordinates of P from 0 1 Xp =.05 2 -100 2 :! 2(120)(191.111 = 0 .00 + 120 cos 20.03° Azimuth of0 2P = 360° ~ (~7.16) (12. .61 .11 .00 + 120 sin 20.05~ .35°.R1 = 0 " (12.11 + (R2 . + R2 cos .' .RI) .05) .100 cos 79. 12345 as a closed traverse and applying the usual conditions of a closed traverse.: T2 sin .\"illg From the law of cosines a.87) '. The point of curvature of the next curve is the point of tangency of the previous one. algebraic sum of departures and latitudes are zero.00 ...25° = 312. .48m Check (coordinates from O2 ) X p = 4iO.00 + 1"00 sin 79.87° Azimuth of OIP = 180° (~7. • • T1 + T2 cos . . the azimuth and length of other lines can be tabulated as follows: . The following three equations can then be derived: .25° = ~28.47 m Yp = 330.26. =26.1:!0:: .97° = 312.85) = 100.46 m r.C?S .05) = 32.11 .85° a = COS-I 1202 + 191..(100)(191. = 339.330. . i.12 + 32.(R2 .27 shows a compound curve.97° =~28..R I ) sin . . Assuming the direction of 1-2 as the North line.e.

R~. = 0 T~ (1) sin :d + R1 cos L1 . Obtain the second tangent length of whole curve.r.28). T:!.! = 6 (2) (3) . TI 0 RI I 2 90' 90' + L1 180 + L1 L1 1 0 . .. T2 cos L1 R2 sin L1 (R2-R 1) sin L1 1 .. i31.RI ) sin i3. Table 12.The distance from the intersection point of the end straight to the tangent point at which the 240 m radius curve leaves the straight is 300 m (Fig.1 Data of Traverse 1-2-3-4-5.Rt = 0 t1 1 + L1. 5 Fig. The curve is to be compound. Since there are three equations.Curves 311 ·. and radii of the two branches are 240 m and 360 m. Solution The three equations of compound curve are: T1 + T2 cos d . out of seven unknowns four must be known before the equations can be fully' solved.) cos L1 1 .27 Elements of acompound curve.R2 sin :d + (R~ .9 A railway siding is to be curved through a right angle and in order to avoid buildings. Example 12.(R 1 -R 1) coszl. Side Azimuth Length E Departure W Latitude N S 1-2 2-3 3-4 4-5 5-1 00 R. s. 12.l1~andL1. T1 R2 R2-R1 sin L1 R2 cos L1 (R2-R. 12. .' There are seven unknowns T.

. °2 Here T1 = 300 m . ' . Equation (l) then reduces to ·~OO + 0 -360 + 120 sin zi.3I:! FUlldaTllcIlI{j[S oj Surveying '.92 m Example 12.29.1 =90° R1 R2 =240 m = 360 m . 12.6 =42°10' and the chainage of the point of intersection is at station SO + 19. and the chainages of the point of compound curvature and the point· of tangency. = 120 11. =0 Sin .120 cos 30° ":" 240 = 0 T2 = 240 + 120 cos 30° = 343. compute T1.10 Referring to Fig. Using the arc definition of degree of curve. =sin'" 0. I . 60 .9.. if T1 = 100 rn. 12.RJ = 140 m. .62.1 2 = 60° Equation (2) gives T2 + 0 . .61 = 18°15'...28 Example 12. ~/ .'!! Fig.70. . .5 =30° . Solution The three equations of compound curve: are: .1.• =05 . R2 and .

140) (0.56.Rz sin 42°10' + (R2 . ".R 1) sin .67) + (R~ .: (R2 - R1) cos L1 J - R1 =0 .140 =0 or 0.1 + Rz cos L1 Here . T\+ Tz COS .36 R1 =.0 . 100 + Tz cos 42°10'.1 .95) .(5) Equation (3) reduces to 18°15' +."1 / / .1 Tl R1 . 100 m = 140 m = 18°15' - = 42°10' (~) Equation (1) then reduces to .74) .R2(0.)10' +R~ 'cos 42°10' - (Rl ~ 14q) cos iso15' . Fig.Curves 313 ".31) = 0 From (5) T z(0.74) ... .6 .1~0) (0.140 =.0.74 Tz .12 = 42°10' (6) From (6) From (4) .29 Example 12.6i) + R::(0.11 + .12 = .1 .Rz sin ~ + (R~ .10. Equation (2) reduces to T2 sin 42.11 :: 0 (1) (2) (3) Ti sin ..(R:: . 12.12 = 23°55' 100 + T2(0.11 . .140) sin ISo15' = 0 .

.2 m.293 m Chainage of the point of tangency =48' + 24.67 T: .293 = 48 ch + 24. : '.11 The following data refer to a compound circular curve which bears to the right (Fig. Assume 30 m chain.593 = 47 +.2 . Chainage of point of intersection = 164 ch + 15. Radius of 1st curve = 20 chains. = 140 x 18.l~ x Chainage of point of tangency =369. Determine the running distances of the tangent point and the point of compound curvature given that the latter point is 4.70 Chainage at the beginning of curve (assuming 30 m chain) = 1500 + 19.0 Solving = 167.293 + 369. Length of second curve = 502.' a back-angle of 294°3d (ro'm the 1st tangent.025 = 61 ch + 4.314 Fundamentals (if Surveying 0.3:. .90 m R~ =502.732 =48 + 24.35 ~8~.025 m 'Examp1e 12. Radius of lst curve Chainage of intersection point = 164ch'+ '15.7 .0.293 + Length of second curve if . 180 T1 =44. m .100 =47 + 9.11 R2 = 7.70 T~ =1500 + 19. Solution Angle ABD =360° = 65°30' 294°30' " . Angle of intersection (or total deflection) = 60° . = 20 x 30 = 600 m .7 Length of first curve = 140 x .1) (radian) 'IT.25 chain from the point of intersection af. 54.7 + 44.25 x ".593 m Chainage of point of compound curvature = 41 + 9..732 =48 + 13 + 4.12:30). m Chainage of point of intersection =50 + 19.

23 0 =36 0 13'48". =600 tan 18.50 m From triangle ABD " or sin .11/2 .20 m 4.1 112)2 = 127.<: ' .5 = 196.09 .1150 .27 = sin 65.5 = AD = 2 x 600 sin .4"2. 12. SJ :r = 211..1 1 /2 (sin . . = 23 AS = ED 046' 12" =R1 ton.30 Example 12.115 = 196.5' ~~~~ 650)0' '= 0. "'J.'-1 .1 /2 sin 650 30 ' sin 650 30' 127.284 BE .176 m 196.. ' Fig. = 164 x30 + 15.25 x .11 == 36.78..11.25 ch . ' .= 18..2 .2~ .30 ='127.2~~. 4. = 4935.284 m BE sin 78.12 = 600 - 36~13~48". Curves 315 · .

the straight lines A0 1 and DO'}.316 Fundamentals of Surveying EF = 211. • Since the tangent.399 m Chainage of point of compound curvatur~ = 4527.40 =4907. Also determine (a) central angle of the new curve (b) central angle of 1st curve of radius 200 m. x ir =507.ircula~ curve between the same tangent points.14 .31 shows the original curve with a straight portion in between.:.176 x ~in 1~0 sin 23.AE = Chainage of A :!11. ' OICt =.28 EF = 453.77 0.284 DF= 257. Find the radius of the curve.2 = 4527.74 + ~79. Solution Since the combined curve is to be replaced by a single circular curve between: the same tangent points.75 m Example 12.885 R2 = i 223.403 BE . Figure 12.12 A 200 m length of straight connects two circular curves both of which deflect to the right.6 x ?377 Length of 2nd curve = .51 =R 2 tan 11. The radius of theIst curve is 250 m and that of the 2nd is 200 m. 200 m .176 . Assume that the two tangent lengths of the earlier set are equal. The central anzle for the second curve is 30°.--1800 -.OIB -BC t But 0lB = 0IA = radius of 1st curve = 250 m BC I " = O~C: = radius'of 2nd curve .176 x 0.866 = 453. .14 + 507.196. when produced will iritersect at 0.The combined curve is to be replaced by a single'.74 211. The dotted line shows the proposed circular curve. the centre of the new curve. lines remain the same. ' ::: 379.79 =Chainage of B - =4935. 1?2~'::.61 Chainage of PT= 4907.61 =5414. the tangent lengths must be equal. .56 m "Length" of curve AD =" ~OO x 316S~3 x n .C I perpendicular to OIB.79 DE = 196. Draw O'}.

22 + R"l . '. sin 0 10 20 002 =sin 0~02 =R 200 =214..458 m OO~ 00 1 = R . .400 R + 2002 00 1 Solving.250)2 = 206.= isoo.2(R .20102002 cos 45°58' 286. 12. Hence " 0IC I == 250 .12•. ..200 = 50 m 0\02 = ·~hOO2.(l4~' + 90° + 30°) From triangle 0 1020 . + OOr .200)(206.1z) .03° .458 m . 01020 = 180°-(6 +90°+ .' ·200 . Therefore.2)(0.+ 502 and ~ 206.. OOr =o. R =414..61 R + 57323.458 m. .6 (R .o.22 + (R .' CII riles . e + 90° + .200)2 .12 = 180° .2 m . e = tan -I 0 1q = tan " lQ. ...31·Example 12.0 + 2.250 = 164. =14. At point ° ='14°2' 010'. • o Fig. 02 Ci ' .: 317 ..695) or R2 _ 500 R + 2502 =206.

5 REVERSE CURVE· .Fig.61 = .458 x sin 45c58' 164. 12.1 GENER~ " f EQUATION OF REVERSE CURVE AB and AC are two straights meeting at an angle 4J: TJ and T2 are the two tangent . 12. Steering is dangerous in'case of highways.63" .involve sudden change of super elevation (cross slopes) at the junction of two branches of ihe curve.6 .' ' 2.2.6 = 1SO" .458 =---­ sin45=58' sin oqO'l 214.458 = 0.(69"37' 48" '.X2 / a2 X2 I I :R I I I C A r' . --. ' . T2 -­ p Fig.32.32 Reverse curve.31 S Fundamentals of Surveying Hence l64A58 2l4.5. Sometimes reverse curves are provided on roadsand railways designed for low speeds. 12. High speeds'cannot be provided on reverse curvesfor the following reasons: l. . The use of reverse curve is limited to unimportant places like sidings and cross overs. . They . '/ O2 I I I a2 . ~2 + 45"58') = 64"24'l2" 30" = 34"24' i'2" '= 64°24'12'" - 1.9375 L0010i =69. Reverse curves are used when the straights are parallel or intersect at a very small angle.. A reverse curve is composed oftwo simple curves turning in opposite directions as shown in.

T·P2N ='. or When the Then t\VO straights are parallel . The common tangent A'TC makes an angle of a 1 and a: with AB and AC respectively.040 m. Also calculate lengths of both branches.co~. find the maximum allowable radius. =(R + r) cos(a2 .02N= R. 2 = 2(R + r) tan aJ2 . .. Let LAo'TIT:l be . • o OII1/es 319 points.'t2 . 0 0" :: a' m'+ 'a.t2) . both the radii are different.\-f = z sln l'-fN = 0lP =(R+ r) sin (a2 NT2 = R sin Xl' " . Example 12. TI.­ Hence Similarly TIT2 =TtM + MN + NTI = PN =r cos .t2) .:.'t7 O~p. .hen LTIOIM =xI and L. al . the f9110wing derivations can be made: . Common tangent length = A'C~ = (R + r) tan aJ2 .. I '.' ¢ = co (infinity) and '.x2) + R sin Xl 0IM . OzN is produced and·OIP is drawn parallel to MN so th~t they intersect at P.~ . From Fig.33. T I Tz =TIT +.32. 12.J . .'t2 .T1 be Xl' T. If. = Ct: =(X (say) .tz as 0iMancl02N are drawn perpendiculars to TITz.]. we have . e. 12. If the lines are 10 m apart and the maximum distance between tangent points measured parallel to the straights is .. Solution From Fig. 'XI .tl'... each section "having the same radius. TT . ¢ = XI al -: a2 . 'i' or Similarly or Hence. calculate the radius of the second branch if that of the lst branch is 50 rn.·'tl· =ai . 12.'tl and LAT. .' .13 Two parallel railway lines are to be connected by a reverse curve.' '" al.'tl' From Fig. however. aj and a2 are also angles subtended at the centres by arcs of radii rand R respectively. T is the point of common 'tangency.. .. 1 = . o~ ~ ¢ Xt =al - az· =¢ + X2 ~ . .32.'= r sinXI + (R + r) sin (a: .tt = '02N+ OIM = R cos' Xl + r cos XI' 0.

3:20 Fundamentals of Surveying o .~--------Iy T.' .25 = 14°02' =28°04' .= 17. '.02x 28°4' 180= '.02 Length of 1st branch .' x I--------"---. tan 6)/2 = .. .02 sin L\ 0.' ~ 1r x 35. Fig. When the radii are equal.47 If R) =50.1) =(R) + R2) sin 6) = 40 40.= = 85.50 m 2 x 0.47 ' (ii) Let the radii be R) and R2. 40 ' = 42.= 0.25 40 6)/2 61 =tan"! 0. ': = 180 = =24. • . Length of _nd.15 m I l.49 m =: .' ' 40 R) + R2 = .. let the common radius be R. 180 ..' 10' " ..50 = 35. 12. (i) . ~ranch . R2 = 85. then Xi' = XT + TY = R1 sin 6) + R2 sin .. .33 Example 12:13. 40' 2 sin A =. rrRA it x 50 x28°4' 180 . Then =Rsin 6) =TY XY =XT + IT = 2R sin 6) =40 XT " R =.. .02 .

" w ·hori~ontal Fig. 12.super elevation is provided which means raising the outer edge of a curve over the inner one.1 SUPER ELEVATION It is the raising of the . " " = \VIr gR '? . (ii) increase . overturning. " In order that there is no lateral thrust the resultant force must be normal· to the inclined surface. To avoid this.' The centrifugal force P . or side slipping of vehicles.Curves 321 12. 12.34 Super elevation. = .6.or decrease in curvature gradually. 12. (ii) Centrifugal force P.34.-­ x ­ Weight of the vehicle . Transition curve helps in (i) providingsuperelevation. When a vehicle moves on a curve there are two forces acting: (i) Weight of the vehicle.gR \V where u = velocity 9 = acceleration due to gravity R = radius of the curve If B = width of the road in m G gauge of the railway in m.outer edge of the railway or road surface above the inner one as shown in Fig. '. \ " . As 'soon as a vehicle or a train enters a curve. A transition curve is a curve of varying radiusintroduced between a straight and a circular curve or between two circular curvesto facilitate change over from straight to curve or from one 'curve' to another. W. ' Inclined Surface .6 TRANSITION CURVE • . it experiences a centrifugal force which tends to cause derailment. Hence tan () = Centrifugal force\Vv 2 1" . .

.ftan 8 . " .' .'(.' for speeds less than 50 kmlhr. '. . 0 ::. ' From Fig."':" Forces'normal to the pavement'= P sin 8 ...': .7' f sir) 8 . In railways if the cant Oi'sup~r elevation is provided by the' above relation..... vJ < tan 8 +f ' gR . ..1 ... . = gR on railways :. .­ .· ..'. -. The usual value of f is taken as 0:15 for speeds greater than 5D kmlh'r and 0. it is known 'as equilibrium cant.. = 1.'.can be neglected.' '..:"~ I I. . 12. ':' .y'~~ci' is 'gi~e'n' in terms of the side friction factor (j) which is the ratio of the sum of forces due to friction acting parallel to the pavement to sum of forces normal to the pavement.: '.. '12. tan 8 is small andftan 8 is still smaller and hence. P Sin 8 + W cos 8 or P cos 8 . ' . ."' i :.! :. '. '. B~2' .16) shows that centrifugal force is balanced partly by friction .05 8· ' W = cos 8 :.::~ .6. +Wcos' 8 nr sin 8 Forces parallel to the pavement.~ ... .. . lz = B tan 8 = on roads gR .: " . -'.'. tan 8 +f v2 gR =1-ftan 8 (12. . . " .\\'ays • ~ T . or 'p ~ ~in 8'+/'. : . .. •• .e P cos 8 " Hence side fricti~n factor f =' P c?S 8 . ' '.. ~ .' .. :.. : '..ftan 8 Now Hence for safe design. . ~: f?r rail. Gv· ~ .2 SUPER ELEV~TION O:--IHIGHWAYS ' In' highways the friction between the tyre of the vehicle and the road surface comes into play when the vehicle nesotiates a curve.' : -: ':'. tan 8 + f.I .Equation (12. .~in:: " '. .'" " . lit railways' cant'is usually . This frictional force acts parallel to the pavement of the highw....\V sin 8 = f (P sin 8 + H' cos 8) .' . =. . ".322 Fundanieutals of Surveying then . '. If less cant is provided the' track 'will' have cant deficiency. ...i.18 . . .." .restrlcted td'15.' .. or .34.IVsin 8 ' . " As 8 is small.19) ...

R = 0.'2 If the entire centrifugal force is to be balanced only by the friction then e= 0 and . _. g . ' . If maximum super elevation ist~ke~ ~~ ·. 41):! . .. for railways (12. 'g'R ' -_1/4. :. . . then . . and R = --'--. . . lJ 8· '. R . wanttobal:l..20a) . .tan 8. : ".nce. . (a) As an arbitrary value from past experience say 50 m.' .. 1)2 ..v·' . or . ..• '? and ..-. (b) When super elevation is applied at a uniform rate say 0. .tha't ta~'8 = 1/4. .1 m in 100 m. -=1 gR . = 1/4 R ' . ' • . . The maximum value of centrifugal ratio is I/4 for road and for railway it is. 4L. get.. •.. f and partly by superelevation. Wu 2 Thus centrifugal ratio ="P/W =' gRW = ~R' . ..-g/ ... If we. . .7 CENTRIFUGAL RATIO ..25 . 12.. Thus for roads . . ':' R= g .' ". .Pentirely by super elevation is taken to be zero andwe. I)' 2" • . 1/8. . •.' . 2 '. .' The ratio of the centrifugal force and weight is called the centrifugal ratio. .25g = g . 12.: ' If the maximum value of 1 is taken as 0. 2 .. I)~... L'· . Curves 323 ~" .:. . ':.8 LENGTH OF TRANSITION CURVE Length of a transition curve may be taken in the following manner: . ... '.

81 x . t.. " Time taken by the vehicle to passover the transition curve' 1 =L v =L v sec' Super elevation attained in this time 1 x r em .81 x R 60 x 60 .« (VX'IOOO)2 1 60x60 R 2 " • • or L =vxlOOx15 x (VX1000) r x 9. R 1 .324 Fundamentals of Surveying For cant of lr meter length of curve = 1000 11 = 1000 x If G=1. r = time rate em/sec. .: . V = speed in krn/hr.81 = ~24.0 .5 m V = kmlhr IS 11 = vl00 = 9. L = length of transition curve in meters 11 =' amount..-. '.5m V Gv 2 gR =kmlhr 1000 V = 60 x 60 m/sec .of super elevation.. .Lensth L == 1000 x 15 x (1000 x V)2 ..7 ~ ~. ' v = speed of vehicle in rn/sec. (60 X 60)2 X 9. r em Lr v x 100 But when G 11 =-­ gR Gv 2 = 1.4?4 7· V . If (c) When super elevation is applied at an arbitrary time Tate of r units per second-Jet us say.' If 2 v2 .

This should be equal to v2/R.. . It is zero at the straight and reaches its maximum value at the beginning of the circular curve: Thus h a: 1 but h= . . ' ~ In a transition curve super elevation is gradually provided. 3 u . Acceleration attained during this time is 1 X . If u = speed in rn/sec.. .W. a = ~ mlsec3 is the permissible rate of change' of radial acceleration. If . . .Curves 325 .' m/sec2 ' '. acceleration at the beginning of circ~l:lr curve.= 6430 If 12. .H Shortt gives a rate of change of radial acceleration of about 1/3 mlsec3 as a comfort limi: above which side throw will be noticed... Hence or If V is expressed in kmlhr L . . bv gr 2 hence bu gr 2 0: I If b. .3277 Rr ..b. time taken to travel over the transition curve is Uu sec.81xRr 60x60 'V3 = 0.. . . v and g are constants . 60 x 60 ':R .9 IDEAL TRANSITION CURVE y3 . " . =3 ( Y X 1000) 3 1. ".: ~ Y X 1000 x 100 X 15 x ( V X 1000)­ . ·60x60 9. (d) By the rate of change of radial acceleration: In this method the length of the transition curve is decided so that the passenger does not experience any discomfort due to sudden application of centrifugal force. : .

e. 'I . ee r 1 or lr = constant =LR where L is the total length of the transition curve and R. O2 . T = tangent point = beginning of the transition curve Tc = initial tangent " A = any point on the transition curve at a distance J from the origin T r = radius of curve at point A ': ' <:: .urve.326 Fundamentals of Surveying I - ..e..35 shows an ideal transition curve. R = radius of circular curve L = total length of the transition curve. the angle between the initial tangent and the tangent to the transition curve at the junction point D. Y = coordinates of the junction point D.35. 12. Thus the fundamental requirement of a transition curve is that its.1 INTRINSIC EQUATION OF THE IDEAL TRANSITION CURVE Fig. c"· . i. transition . D y T a . Here .' ~ : Fig: 12. qJ = angle which the tangent at A to the'curve makes with the initial tangent Tc ¢s =spiral angle.curve.9.radius of curvature r at any point shall vary inversely as the distance J from the beginning of the curve. )' = coordinates of any point A of the transition c. x. Such a curve is the clothoid or the Glover's spiral and is known as the ideal transition curve. minimum radius).. X. radius of the curve at its end (i. • • It has already been shown that for an ideal transition curve lr = constant = LR or I 1 r = LR· . I' " I' A1 A20i x X Id~:l1 'I . . 12.

J2RL¢ =k.21) This is the intrinsic equation of the id~al transition curve.. ' dl( i}~i + ~: -'.{¢ = .J2RL (12. C = 0.It can be further deduced .' .. 12:9.. =dl cos ~ = ..1£ 2 ( .J ' Ii ~ 1/2 d~ 1 ..1 where when I " k = .2 EQUATrONS OF THE:CURVE IN TERMS "OF CARTESIAN.e. =.. ..:.. c " 2 1 ..9 = 2LR. Therefore ' " ' (12../2 _.. 1:' - .22) =L. at 1 = 0. +. i.. ) d¢ Integrating . at the junction . 3/2 ... ..... : • But or Integrating.' ". 327. But 1=k dl = k " '2' Substituting .'t'. 4 '0_ d.~ Curves'.LR' 1. we get d¢ .JlL . 9 = 0. ' . dx ' . . COORDINATES From calculus.L + L4! 2! . 1\-1/2 .

1) .J.. x=l. ··dy. 5/2 iii 9/2 ) -6.. 'I • ·(12...24) WI Integrating ... ~O R.. (12.) or .26) .1 =2RL 216 k ­ 8 =I (1.~+ ~8 10 k / 4 • . = dl sin = dl ( ¢ Substituting.+ 1 4 4 3456 R L Similarly./¢ (12..23) But ~ = x k­ I: and 1. .... d~ '2 k 1 ¢ III d¢ dy - _.L­ ~ . k '2 ( ~ 1/2 - 'r'''' ..+ 120 . Putting.l­ ( . l=k.'1: =0 when ¢ =0 or (12.: .328 Fundamentals of Sun'eyillg The constant c =0 3S . .25) PUlling .. dl = ~~ + ~:...

sin ¢ = ¢ and cos ¢ = 1 ~. two approximations i.$ . 6RL.~ = ¢. Curves 329 From Fig. . 1 . . 2RL = 6RL radian = .. \0' 9/2. ."'....k ¢ 112 "'42 + .e.. Here only one approximation has been made. /2" /2 .00309 (1' + 0.35 _. .J have been mode. 1800 P rrRL minute . ( ¢)12' =:..28) ... '913 as both a and ¢ are small = '3 ..e.The expressiony = Il/6RL. .. . i. For layout of true spirals or for applications requiring more accuracy. sin . which is expression for a cubic parabola. ¢ 7f2¢ 1112 .". therefore..0. (12. a = 913 . 'But in the form 'V=-·-" . 5/2 .( .27) -10+216-'" = "3 + 105 ¢3 ¢5 + 5997 This is \'ery closely approximated by the expression . x =I . tan a . 12. ' . The expression a ¢l3 is approximate. '. and finally Xl Y = 6'RL '. The cubic parabola is.) . ) 1320 .c" = where c" a correction expressed in seconds and found by c" = 0.00228 ¢-s is . " Considering only the 1stterm the followingapproximate expressions con beobtained.9 tan ¢/3 = Hence tan or "3 + 8T t ¢l ¢s 18225 a = tan ¢/3 a . a small correction must be subtracted to get an exact relation. .:.. (12. = x ¢ v k -3. .~is· the equation oro cubic spiral. inferior to cubic spiral. (12.29) .

=Mx3 radius of curvature r.lo-_--. The correction is small and can be neglected in most work.1 10.' .3 1f dx- . = ..11 133.1 shows the typical values. .= 6'~L .) c" 0. ~ iv ' dx· dv =6 Mx.\ ..1 RADIUS OF CURVATURE OF A CUBIC PARABOLA ~ The equation of a cubic parabola y .330 Fundamentals of Surveying where ¢ is in decimal degrees. 2~. dx ~ dv . -­ .88. Table 12. c" is a nonlinear function of O. ' But 3 .n¢ .= = 'vW jl • = ~12Mto. 'For cubic parabola -:. Table 12. tan ¢ 6 M:c 6 /If ..9.46 5 10 15 ~O 30 35 40 ." M. 200.30) .4 3. increasing at a greater rate for larger ¢'s. = 3 Mx'.1 Corrections \0 ¢ ¢ (deg. ' .83 84.-' = tan 9 dx .3 MINIMU~..-_oL-...\2 = tan '¢ '{tail¢ x = ~31T --:--T (12.39 12.~ d .

39 . (12.-.04082...J12Mtan¢.762 46~~' (12. cos? r) .. This is ' due to the npproxirnations made in deriving the equation of a cubic parabola from the intrinsic equation of n transition curve..32) =1.l 2 cos2 ¢ .= ~12Msin¢...' := 6RL rmin = ----... 1 1. Curves 331 to .. i.'cos..91~87)s with i­ M .. ~ .762-{fJ d do " (sin ¢ . ... . ~:. .P05'41". t:10 ¢ = 1/5 rmin (0. Beyond that it increases and violates the fundamental equation of a transition curve. •.=---.5 sin:! 9 = 6' .5sin¢ .. cos s 9) t/J ' =' 0 sin 9 = O. the cubic ' parabola cannot be used :I:) a transltion curve. r= " sec~ '¢ " = .39 . . x 1 1.cosS¢ 1 (12..' RL The derivation shows that the radius of curvature of a cubic parabola decreases from ¢ = 0 when it is infinity to ¢ = 24~5'41" when it is 1.. . So beyond ¢ =2. ".' RL ... Then or or or or or Substituting the value of ¢ in Eq.:.31) The radius r will be minimum when the denominator is a maximum. " ..31) " 1 = ~12M x 0.

. the main curve is either sharpened or sharpened and shifted in order to accommodate the transition curve. the oricinal circular curve is usuallv . L = 2R' But rp.---v " T t.10 CHARACTERISTICS OF A TRA:\SITlON CURVE To O1ccommodate a transition curve. I Transition curve Os' \ \ \ I I I I " \1\ I Y o Fig. 12.2¢s t' ­ I" '" I ".D3D4 is the original circular curve. - Original circular curve --~- Shifted circular curve ""~=:::::::~. in an old track.. the transition.This means at G.< where L is the length of the transition curve. 12.332 Fundamentals of SlIn'eying 12. Sometimes. C Tangent at E . DE is the shifted circular curve and TD is thetransition curve. Some equations are derived in the following lines below Shift of the circular curve GD.36.B. part of the transition curve Is approximately equal to the circular portion./ " I ~> '.. TB is the original tangent and D:. shifted slightly inwards as shown in Fig.36.36 Characteristics of transition curve'.. however.~s E D4 A '­ \ " \ \ \ Circular \ Tangent at 0 • \ \ 6 . Further.. From Fig.< is the angle which the tangent to the curves at D makes with the original tangent T. In the Fig. \ \ ~¢Sl Circular ' \ r\' \\ . TG == TD2 = L '2 . D is the point of junction of the circularcurve with the transition curve and «1. )2. 12.c. curve is bisected.36. DID.

. . 2 4~~' the shift ge. _ _ I More accurate values of the shift can be obtained as follows: shift 5 = FD 2' .' ( . 2! L~ 0­ . ~.. is in radian Total tangent length (a) True spiral: BT . . )­ =SO! + TD!­ = (R + 5) tan ~2 + (TH .[-(1m ¢7I2 ¢11I2] =k T . =R-R+R'-'-' ~R' ..¢?~! 9~1~2] "['. OF "= R =R-'R 1--" .42 ~ +1 ­ :320. .­ .:. k = 2R~ and simplifying .FDa =DR-FD 1 .. = = 6R = FD~ R cos 9" .ts bisected at the point G. .. . _ L'" ­ . .-­ 333 ..." "[¢~.-".k -".." As D~G = L2 L2 =6R -..> =(R + 5) tan d/2 + (X ...2' .. . ':'.J _ -" +-$ 3 42 1320 2! 4! . ?I .. ~.R [l -cos ¢ $] Taking '" . 2! ..R 1. .33) 5 = 2~~ ( J .L~ 4R~ . where DF is perpendicular to FD 1 OD~ = ODt . Curves ~---..HD:.J.= SR ' .· .~~ + l~lo -.. ¢~"¢J)-] ( 12.. __ L' DH 6RL .. '( '()~) _. 8R L • = 24R =sbift of the curve.+ -"-' .OF) where 9.

2 (1­ 2 L . Angle subtended atthe centre of the circular curve (. Length of circular curve = r.. ( 1. As before BT =(R + S) Ian .. (b) Cubic parabola.Ll/2 ~ L" .) degree. X = 2R L2 1) =L ( 1. expression. .: 2R . R sin ¢. i. 40R7. 24R -".29. .) ' 40R­ ..increment and (X . ~ • • .' . L L­ -. __ 2¢ ) 1 + 2L . (R . 3 ). nR(~ - ". = · .5R L('S ) In the above.!1 ."\ X =L ( 1. ".) .+ S)tan Ll/2 + . .33-t Fundamentals of Surveying ?\ow But ¢. = (R + S) tan Ll/2 + V2 Lengtl: of combined CU/1'e.) 180 Hence combined length of curve = . = R( 9.R sin ¢J) or (L/l) (l .. .) =(R + S) tan Ll/2 + ( L .2 ¢ . =(R + S) t'an. .R 2~) . DF = R sin 9.lO J II 9.R(~ .S tan Ll/2 is called the shift.112 + (X .4R 2 1O 2 L = L ) L.S/5R) is coiled as the spiral extension. " L ' L.48R' .1--2 ( '. . .= (~+S)tan Ll/2+ ~(1~ 12~2R2) =. . ---. BT 6J =~( .~3. '2 1. .

. (a) Shift of circular curve S = L2/24R (b) Spiral angle 9J = U2R radian. . Chainage of the point of intersection.. ' . Deflection anlZle'.: ~ (b) Y = 6RL 0' . 4.. Add the length of the transitioncurve to get the chainage of the junction point D. . Curves 335 12. . = (d) Length of the . ~. .56R2L2 .. . [3 . [4 ' ).'" - " .. ~A + 2L' 'I.. Add the length of the circular curve to get the chainage of the other ' . The transition curve should beset out from the point T by the deflection angle method when a deflection angle 573[~/RL minutes. .. .combined curve = The following are the subsequent steps: . . (c) x s = 6RL 3 For transition curve chord length istaken as 10 rn while the 1st and last chord will usually be subchords. 4. 2. The following calculations should then be made. The circularcurve is to be set out with respect to tangent at D by the formula .a. . . junction point E. . ~. Length L of the transition curve. ' . 2. = = For setting out the curve by linear method any of the following formulae should be used depending on accuracy desired: ' .2 9 s) . 5. Add again the length of the transition curve to get the chainage of the 2nd tangent point T '.' . the beginning of the tr~nsition curve. (0) y = 6RL 1. [3: (.11 5ETTI~'G OUT THE COMBL"'ED' CURVE The following data are required for computations of various quantities required for setting' out the transition curve: 1.. (c) Total tangent length (R + S) tan 612 + L/2. From the chainage of the PI subtract the length of the tangent to get the chalnage of T. Radius R of the circular curve. 3.. ' 3...d between theorizincl tansents... rrR(... ' 8 = 17!9 ~ minutes for angular method 2R or 8" = bl/(bl/_ I + bl/)' for linear method as explained before.

D and AE = tangents at the origin A. i. The curve is symmetrical to the major and minor axes and is very much suitable when the deflection angle between the straights is large due to the following reasons: (a) The radius of curvature decreases more rapidly.' 15" D Fig. (b) The rate of increase ofcurvature reduces towards the end of the transition curve. AA' = major axis BB' = minor axis P =any point on the c u r v e . the path traced out by an automobile when moving on the curve). (c) It is close to the 'autogenous curve" (i.37 Lemniscate curve.e.12.e: angle between AP and AD {3 = angle between polar ray AP and the tangent PP1 at P = = = The polar equation of Bernoulli's p Lemnis~ate is (12. 12. 12.:RVE The form of transition curve usually used in modem roadways is the Bernoulli's Lemniscate. ' PP\ = tangent to the curve at P ¢ = angle which the tangent at P makes with the straight line AD p AP polar ray of AP a deflection angle of P. In the figure .4.12 THE LEr\'t~ISCATE Ct.336 Fundamentals of Surveying 12.34) =k ~sin 2a .37 shows the different elements associated with Bernoulli'sLemniscate. .1 EQUATION OF BER:\OULLI'S LEMNISCATE Figure 12.

'.sin 2a p k =". 9' . (12.~ .p•.fSfnfa k cos 2a = tan 2a.. ~ . For polar coordinates. p'l sin 2a . ~ = C1. or Again f3 = 2a. r«. this is approximately true. .' ..fSfnfa . 3"... .Jsin 2a do or tan p = ~ . derivation angle ~ is exactlyequal to three times the polar deflection angle a."4" • r P = 3 sin 2a . . . In case of clothoid or cubic parabola.34) tan f3 =p . .sin 2a .+. . k2 k4 = 9p'l.ates .f3' . da dp' kcos2a da = . .'l in the above equation and simplifying we get k .. :=­ Also It .-- ~.. • • By differe~tiating Eq. 'd 2 p ) p­ da 2 substituting the values of dplda and d2plda.= qc +ia =3a Thus for the lemniscate curve.. the radius of curvature (r) at any point is given by ' : ( ! As k+(~)'r d da P p-+2·- )2. Curves 337 From the properties of polar :oordin.

1= L and (I =(II = 3a~:.42) tan ~ + ~ 2 2 = 130. The triangle ABB' is equilateral..338 Fundamentals of Surveying .P "9 = (180 + 0. 'Ii (v) 6"" .13.5 .78 111 Deduct tangent length = .78­ Chuinage of intersection point = 1092.. At the end of the curve r = R.. The polar ray to B makes an angle of 150 with AD. ..18 m 130.556) (iT) = 153.76 (iv) In Total tangent length =(R + S) tan J..x' The major axis AA' makes an angle of 450 to AD. Length of circular curve = (62. ./2 + U2 .) pr k = ~3p.' t: =.

42 (0. ' Solution -.1) = 0.04" - . (i) .9156 X 10-1 + 1. - (1- (0.49376 x lO-i ) ~ 0.2.41 (l .9997) =OAI9S7~ m .15 Show how the computed 'values of Example 12. ShIft S L2 ( ¢~ 9: ) = ~4R 1.48 + 1320 .1183).14 change when more accurate formulae are used.Example 12.1183)2 48 + 1320 (0.

12..38). If .88 m. _ lt can. = (R + S) tan J'2 + ~ _ (1 . ~ radian = 6 x 1C 180 a . therefore. .' -:--2°' = 142. ' Example 12.3~O Fundamentals (If Surveying (ii) Total tangent length for true spiral. Sin . [Salford] 6° D -.146. .69 m · • ..OA19874) 2 2 S x 180 = 109.5 + 42.16 . . sin 84° .592 (1.76753.286065 '= 130. A curve connecting two straight~ which deflects through an angle of 12° is transitional throughout (Fig.00 mfrom the'intersection. = t· 9= ~ = 2° .point of the straights determine (to the nearest meter) the minimum radius of curvature of the curve and the length .I2. B Fig.3S ' Example 12.r = sin 94° sin 2° =.J-) )R -s = {180 +OA19874) tan 62.5 In the triangle A!3C sin 94° 'sin 2° -r-=-s­ or Similarly Be 'AC 5 sin 84° = sin 2° = sin 2Ct ..~ or Be = 5. ' transition curves is 5.48146 + 21. be seen that change is very very small and as such use of accurate formula is not necessary. of each tangent. . .the junction of the two .16: Solution. .' .

A .2487 0= 913 = 4°45' '(a) From the condition for rate of change of.'it' 1- r--:.O straights having ~ totaldeflection angle' of 28~30' is to be transitional throughout. Taking curve length approximately equal to .39).' Curves 341.( 1000)3 .3? Example 12.4974 R~= 64300.' D F 5 c Fig.. .J ..6. determine (:1) the length and minimum radius of 'curvature of each spiral: (b) the tangent lengths. 0.-------- -------. LR = c~~or(3! .' ' [Salford) Solution . or As the curve is spiral.u3 . Show that an' angle of 0~~45' isrequired to locate the intersectionof the two transition curves from the tangent point on one of the straights {Fig. 12. .~L~. 3. .~:RL = .the chord length as 2' is a small angle. . Total deflection angle =28°30' ¢ = 14"15' ¢ radian = 0. If the designvelocity is 100 kmlhr and the rate of change of radial acceleration is II} m/s3.17 " A symmetrical highway curve joining t~\..radial acceleration 1.412 ----.S8 x 180 =682. ISO =0. 3. 0' R = Lx 180 2x6x" = 1~2.25 x r.2 m 12x" Exnmple'12.4974R Therefore. 12.412 L = 2R9 = 2R 14. __ .~ 64300.17.

.84:: .U.S~ m (b) From the figure tangent length = X + Y tan ¢ x =+..f~) ~ '178.. [L.1 ­ 6R ' ..Ut.:. = . AD makes 1/3 x 9 =3° at A with tangent Angle at E Tangent distance AB sin 96° = sin 3° 5 . '6 x 359.76 x t:1O I·U5 -.. 12040).73.f: ..73 + 14. L'( ') ('1 _0. Therefore. 14 '..'" 178.84 _ = 177.55 . Calculate the tangent' distances and the minimum' radius of curvature.: = 18/2 =9°. (1- 0. ~ 'i lf = 181.18 The curve connecting two straights is to be \\:holly transitional without intermediate circular arc and the junction of the two transitions is to be 5 In from the intersection point of the straights which deflect through an angle of 1So (Fig. ¢­ Y•.55 m = OA97~ R = (OA9i~) (359.' = 14.2487::) 14 . If the super elevation is limited to 1 vertical in 16 horizontal.] Solution A --= 3° Chord Transition Cu~e ~F =r~~ ( ."·n Fundamentals vf Surveying R L =359.. B ?"7:> Cu~e c Chord Transition --- .5:') = 178.48 m Example 12. .2487::) 10 . determine the correct velocity for the curve and the rate of gain of radial acceleration.76 m. IVO Examplel::!.. 5 D Fig. tangent length = 177.

84 kmlhr . = 9.~in8P Sin 3) = 9~:36.axis.' = . Employing the Ist two terms only of the· expansions for sin p and cos 9. 1 lI­ = 16 . _.. sin 96° sin 3:1 or .36 ::: 0.567)3 a :::-. tan a or U . :z . . calculate (0) the cortesioncoordinates of the first junction point taking the tangent point as origin and the straight as the ..">_:.567 m/sec u = 48. 9. Curves 343 AB _5 . . " o .7"".. 300... =L R = -.b. u3 (13. '.~ Junction Point '\ Circular Fig.35 m .806 x 300..'~". Two straights deflecting at an angle of 48°40' are to be connected . ..U6 x 180 29 2 x 9 x tt =300. ..... ::: .01' m L =2R¢ where R = minimum radius of curvature 5 =' sin 3) or AD=5.~ .. 12.19. LR.088 m/sec 3 Example 12.. Froma ADB AD sin 81) :::: 95. by an arc of radius 300 m with clothoid transition curves of the form 8 = m. '.41 Example 12. 12...41). .19 ..35 x 94.. Ii g .f¢ llnd75 m long at each end (Fig.35 16 or or u = 13.

( 1 0 SR) 5 50..016 + 37. .8828 Y=f~(l.' +?L ~ I .) .~ + 1320 . (b) .1215 m. IL .781) x 300 .f:) -:. You are not required 10 prove any of the expressions used in the solution. _ i5~ (_ 0.?0" .TT . =~(1 i~J =. at junction point .480 = 173...125 2 0.7825 .?¢ ) '180.: . -.i81 m (c) Tangent length =(R + S) tan tJ/2 + ~.= 0..125 4 ) _ ' .6 x 300 .125 = 74.75 . (d) Total length of the curve = I 7R(J .= 136. 0781) tan ?4 i5 (1 -.. (L. 2 ) " ' " (1 .10 0.] Solution (a) x.24 x 300 1 .4375 X 10-7 = 0.496 m. " =' 3. 75 ~ ( .+ Fundamentals oJ Sll"\·c.+.("'00 T.Shift S = 2~~ 'I ( 1- ¢2 48 + 1320 . (c) the tangent length from the intersection point.3.125 2 ) 14 . (d) the total length of the curve.U. .I .. ' .000253 + 1.' iP 4 ) 0.\·i/l~ (b) the shift.

..1) = 500 (sec 17.) 7­ = 329.1) =2-t.67 .~9 m..to be laid.20 A circular curve of radius 500 m deflects through an angle of 35°. ' " . Determine the amended radius assuming that the shift can be calculated with sufficient accuracy on the old radius... ~ ~ . .2 180 x 7. = 157. = Curves 345 n(300){48. .-t3 ... Length of curve TIT~ = 500 x ~ = 500 x 35 x 1i 180 01.' .~ . .. .R'= OTt :. Tangent length = R tan 11/2 =500 tan 35/2 .5" . . 1M = R (sec 11/2 . The deviation of the new curve from the old at their midpoints is 0. = 305.500 m.264 m. 12. .' .5 m towards the intersection point (Fig.l I . This curve is to be replaced by one of smaller radius so as to admit transitions 100 mlong at each end.. Calculate the lengths of the track to be lifted and of new track.16) + 2 x ..42)...856m Example 12.. ' . ' Solution Old curve ~ .

NM' =1M .04852) '. = 24 x 471..696 m =.833 m.264 -0. Shift using new radius . = 2T{M' Making suitable approximation· = 2(T{Q' + Q'MT = 2 (T(RI + RIQ' + Q'Ji) As the transition curve gets bisected at RI T{R 1 = U2 and RIQ' is approximately equal (0 the corresponding circular portion.500 - 0..1 .873.696 = 0.891 R' =471.142 m which is the length of the 'new track to be'laid .833 x sec 17.= 22.3~6 F/lndamelltals 0/ Surveying Shift (using old radius) = '2~~ 100 2 24 x 500 0 =~.NM' = R'(sec fj/2 ~ 1) = R' x (0.5 =0.- =0.891 m . But or = 22.883 m. Hence the length of the new curve = L + Length of circular portion = 100 + R' x . The length of the new curve T{Ti.MM' .· IN = shift X sec jJ2 = 0.=..873 m.IN =24. .=.696 x ---rso­ = 388.24if L2 100~ ... 35 x tt =100 + 471.

=199.5° " '=149.1---­ ':~.157. = T{TI + TIM PI.351 m . T( T I =T( I - TIl = 199.00. = (471.351 + 305.+ TIM) = 2 x 41. II I Curves 347 Length of old track to be lifted' .696 + 0. = (R'+ shift) tan lJ/2' .132m PROBLEMS [AZ\.883) tan 17.000 ."~ .649 = 41.IJE Summer 1980] ..00 m Ti'I'='T{P+PI = 1~0:+ 149. ~~ . Hence length of old track [0 be lifted = 2(T(T1.00 m.43 = 388.

. The followingobservations 'were made:LAPQ= 160°. [AMIE Winter 1982] 12. calculate: (i) the radius of the second if that of the first was 90 m.6 (a) State the conditions to be fulfiled by a.4 A'200 m length of straight connects two circular curves deflecting to the right. 12.[AMIE Winter 1983J 12. Determine the radius of the curve. (b) Prove that the shift bisects the transition curve and transition curve bisects the shift. Calculate the suitable length of the transition curve and super elevation. If the radii were to be different. t' . (b) What is a transition curve and where is it used? How will you determine the length of a transition curve and the amount of super elevation to be provided? .00 m. Calculate the chainages of intersection point B. point of curvature and point of tangency. (b) Two parallel railway tracks were to be connected by a reverse curve. 250 m and that of the second curve was 200 m. .5 (a). Using the usual notations state the relationship between the several elements of the curve. to calculate various quantities in this case when necessary data are known. distance PQ = 125 m and. [AMIE Winter 1985J 12.7 (a) List the requirements to be satisfied in setting out a transition curve. They are . Two points P and Q were selected respectively on AB and Be. (ii)" The lengths 'of both branches of the curve'. (b) Draw a neat sketch of a reverse curve provided to join two parallel straights. . theircentre lines was :!O m. It 'has to be designed' for a rate of gain of radial acceleration of 0.2 rnIs 2 and a speed of 60 kmlhr. . compound and re\'erse curves. The'centra) angle for the second curve was 15°58'. ." [AMIE Winter 1981J -12. Also state the formulae. [AMIE \Vinter 1980J . .3 (a) Supplementing with neat sketches differentiate between simple. Find the radius of thecurve. A o.8 (a) Draw a neat sketch and show the various elements of a simple circular curve. transition curve is to be used at each end of the circular curve of 500 m radius. The distance between. (c) A 10 m wide road is to be deflected through an angle of 35°30'. (c)·· Two straights AB and BC meet at an in accessible point B. The combined curve is to bereplaced by a singlecircular curvebetween the same tangent points. each section having the same radius. (b) Derive an expression forthe superelevation to be provided in a transition curve. transition curve introduced between the tangent and circular curve. chainage of P= 1500. LCQP = 145°.The distance between tangentpointsmeasured parallel to the track was SO m. Show the various elements of a compound curve on a neatly drawn sketch. The radius of the Ist curve was. to be joined by acircular curve 0(450 m radius.3~S Fundamentals of Surveying 12.

curve (T I ) and point of tangency (T2 ) if the chainage of the-point P is 2857. • Curves 349 (c) Two straights TIP and'PT2 are intersected bya third line AB such that LPAB.' . It is proposed to set out the curve by offsetsfromchords by taking peg intervals equal . (iii) Deflectionangle to any point. the deflection angle being '50°30'. (iii) total length of the composite curve. ~. ... Calculate the radius of the simple circular'curve which will be tangential tet the three lines TiP. [MvfIE.".The length of the chainconslsting of 100 links is 20 rn. (b) A road pend which deflects 80° is to be 'designed. (ii) Point of intersection...:5 m . + 60. a maximum centrifugal ratio of 1/4and a maximum rate of change of acceleration of 30 cmlsec2• The curve consisting of a circular arc combined with two cubic spirals. Determine the lengths of all offsets to setout a curve of 15 chains radius.. 1 .:Winter 1987] 12.= 46°24'.'.:-: . (i) B~ck and forward tangents.to 100 links. 312 'in.Give any five general requirements ofa transition curve. ' '[AMIE Summer 1986] = 12. . (v) Degree of curv e. AB. The two tangents of a simple'circular cur.e intersect at chainage 59 .. (iv) External distance.10 (a) Explain the. . (ii) the requisite length of the transition. Calculate (i) the radius of the circular arc. and TPi and the ehainage of the point of the ..following terms for a simple circular curve: .. (b). curve and tangency.9 (a) . fora maximum speed of 120km/hr. LPBA 32°36' and dlstance AB . ' rAMIE Winter 1988J .

It is usually parabolic as parabolic curves provide a constant rate of change of grade. .. 13. In a summit curve an upgrade is followed by a downgrade. (d) FaIling curve.1~a) Sag curve. Vertical Curves 13. . A vertical curve should be so designed. In a rising. " t. There are four types of vertical curves as shown in Fig.13' .' . and (ii) adequate sighting distance is available bef~re thevehicle reaches the summit. downgrade. __.curve an upgrade is foIl owed by another upgrade.. In a sag curve. a vertical curve is required to smoothen the change.~. (b) Crest or summit curve.I ll~ . a down grade is followed by an upgrade.. II I II (a) 1\ (b) 350 II 1\ . that .1 INTRODUCTION For highways and railways whenever there is a change of grade in thevertical plane. (c) Rising curve. (b) uniform rate of increase of centrifugal force.a down grade is followed by another '. In a falling cU0'e. " (i) it gives smooth riding qualities which again will occur if (a) there is a constant change of gradient.

gl' If the change occurs over a length L. C Y =.t· + B at x = 0 Y ) =8 (d d..2A =a constant. This is shown in Fig. C at x = 0 Differentiating .2 GEl'iERAL EQUATION OF A CURVE The generalequation of a parabolic curve.curve 'rate .3 shows the nomenclature of a vertical curve when inserted between two grades. point B is the end of the vertical curve (EVC)"gl is the upgrade and t: is the downgrade. y =A.... = 2A..is followed by another slope g2 the change of grade is g2 . Here point A is the beginning of vertical curve (BVC). -:...r: 0 dv d..1 Cd) Different types vertical curves: (:I) Sag curve: (b) Crest or summit curve. Hence the statement that for a parabolic . .• VerticalCurves' 351 • ' .2.r: which means B is the slope of the tangent at origin ~:.of. The . (c) Fig. equation of aparabola .~ +Bx +. PAR~BOLIC 13. (c) Rising curve.g I)/L: Therefore or Fisure 13. change of slope is a constant.-. (d) Falling CUf\'~. 13. is.' = 1x (:) =rate of change of slope = . the rate of change of grade is (g2 . If an upward slope of g. 13.

82 .A 2L 'y " - (13..L...l..2 Parabolic vertical curve..J~----'----'::-------'" B EVe (end of vertical curve) . ' vertical curve) Any point on-the curve - - }lave datum Fig. '.1) .352 Fundamentals of Surveying Y1 . eve (beginning of A ~----'-. - • e. y e 92 downgrade ~. 13..81.l. .3 Equation of a vertical curve.+ )'SI'C ': .. 13....-_~--------X 011+·'--­ Fig.t. 'X-':: 0 e . x y =A\. =(g\~ 81}x 2 + 81'~ .2 + Bx + C can now be transformed to 'as and with y 81 =M + 81 x + Ysvc =B C _=)'svc..e 2.

3 where PP' == (r12~"". 'of intersection of the grade lines.L~GENT CURVE An unequal tangent curve is simply acombinationoftwo equal tangent curves. . When a vertical curve is laid out such that thepoin.. . Here BVC to CVC is one equal tangent curve and from CVC to EVC is another equal tangent curve. A and B are midpoints of BllCVand VEVC respectively. 13. C (PVI) lies midway between the two ends of the curve' measured . 13. Figure 13.. CCI = CI C 2 •. From the elevations of A and B.2) Taking upward grade as positive and downward grade as negative.. The points on the vertical curve'can also be plotted from the grade lines by utilizing the following properties of an equal tangentvertical parabola: 1.gl L gl't' r - . " - .4 shows such a curve. .e. curve can therefore be plotted by using the parabolic equations of the curve.1: (3) sag curve r is positive.' 2. 13. The points on the vertical ' . .Vertical Curves' 353 If .: g2 . The curve lies midway between the point of intersection of the grade lines. }' = (~) x:!'+ r should be used with proper si·gn. . These methods are explained in detail through illustrative" examples.' ' The method of plotting the points on the curve from the corresponding points on the grade is known as method of tangent offsets or tangent corrections. and the middle point of the chord joining the BVC and EVC • i. r has the following signs. (c) rising curve r is negative.4 HIGH OR LOW POINT ON A VERTICAL CURVE It is often necessary to locate the highest point'(in the case of summit) and the lowest point (in the case of a valley) for a vertical curve. (d) Falling curve r is positive. The offsets from the tangent to the curve at a point are proportional to the squares of the horizontaldistances from the point. i. The two equal tangent curves should be computed as explained before. horizontally then It is an equal tangent parabolic curve. (b) summit curve r is negative. This is shown in Fig.. 3.3 COMPUTATIONS FOR AN UNEQUAL TA. + )'B~'C (13. This helps in lnvestigating . grade lines.e. 13. the gradientof the line AB can be computed. . Fig. The offsets from the two grade lines are symmetrical with respect to the point of intersection of the two.

it is.to are known L can be found out from. L )2 Y2 = ~ ( 2" +xo Therefore with respect to tangent BC. When )'1.ix With. dv : . 13.\' g g 2 . drainage conditions. }'l and . Now = 2A:c + B. ..5 YI = ~ . f. .pect to tangent AB.r = L or giL giL = ---=~g2 .Xo with res. From Fig.the quadratic equation.4 Unequal tangent curve..ead structures.. • .t =- .81 gl . the tangent to the curve will be horizontal and slope will be zero.. L )2 (! ..often necessary that it passes through a fixed pointof known elevation. and A =:g2 .l3. . 13. and L is the curve length. in computing clearance beneath overh. or cover over pipes or sight distance. .'. At the highest or lowest point.I X + gl = 0 d. This is required when a new gradeline must meet an existing railroad or highway crossing or a minimum vertical distance must be maintained between the grade line and the underground structures. 2L d. gl is tangent grade through BVC g2 is tangent grade through EVC. . .35-1- Fundamentals of Surveying v Fig.g2 where x is the distance from the origin to the point. . .5 VERTICAL CURVE PASSING THROUGH A FIXED POINT While designing a vertical curve.gl . .

6 DESIGN OF VERTICAL CURVE : The length of a vertical curve is based on two conslderatlcnsvIl) Centrifugal effect.5 Vertical curve passing through a fixed point.75m/sec2 2 =v a .Vertical ClIl1'eS .: R =0. In sags and in summits of flat gradients.isusually the determining factor.. (ii) Visibility.. 355 . 13.75 = 1028.erysmall and can be neglected. .' A ~-----'---+---------=- ~ U2 U2 . centrifugal effect is the main consideration. 13. Curvature = ---=---~~ . If the permissible centrifugal acceleration If V = 100 km/hr.. d 2yld\:z·· {I + (dyl d\·)2J31f2 As vertical curvesare usually flat curves (dylcf. ·c Fig.Tf is '. At summits visibility .8 ::: 1000 m .a R =!:!.. 100 x 1000)2 R = ( 60. 0. . Hence d 2\' 1 Curvature = dT2 = R = 2A .x60 . Centrifugal effect Acceleration due to moving in a curve .

.oJ. S c L. =~.Sighl distance 'At summits the length of the curve is controlled by sight distance.. A minimum sight distance is required to 'avoid accident. 2L .min R =--=~ g~ L .I C Fig.0) ] = lOOOx2=40m' SO . --..356 Fundamentals of Surveying or !.6 Sight dis(an~e S< L.e.. It is already shown" y Line of sight DBE is tangential to the summit of the curve at B. "2 = height of object or hazard on the travelled road. Let "1 = height of driver's eye above the roadway. i. .(.gl with R = 1000 m =1000 (82 - 81) If two gradients 1 in 50 meet in a sag Lmin =1000 [ S10 .gl ." . and (ii) when sight distance S overlaps the curve and extends on to the ' tangent S > L. .2 . ' Two cases may occur: (i) when sight distance S is entirely on the curve. 13.\'~ ~ 'g2 . CASE 1 S<L AI_ U2 -1­ U2.

Usually 82."C =a.' = . while 'r is negative in summit . 13. S ~ .'. the rate of change of 82 will be equal and opposite tothat (If gl' ' .a + b .15. L h.3)reduces to .. noor. .[h. _g2 . 1%.[[h "/8\. S = U2 + hl/g l + h2/g2 Setting the final derivative of S to zero..2S'.. Eq. . If hi = hi = h.81 a1 II I 2L . e. (13.3) The value of hi is usually taken as 1.it dg gl l - ~ dg:! = 0 82 To make S a minimum.) . gl' are expressed in %. . .l91 L s Assuming scalar value for 81 .7 Sight distance S > L. Fig.. .05m and h2 as 0.S'~: 28.g.. . we get .V~ ~b'='~ {h. h. m. +.({h. y =hi' Since hi 'is positive. or Similarly But sight distance S =.[h. (13..82 CASE II: S >' L .fii. . + . Vertical Curves 357' When .. 3% so that 8 becomes 8/100 and the expression reduces to ~ L' 81 -82 (... .) V~ '.

= . x A {fl. It is stipulated that the head light of a vehicle which is normally 0. .: .81 .75 m above the ".jh. hence with proper algebraic sign the expression becomes: L = 25 _ 2(...7 SIGHT DISTANCE OF VERTICAL CURVES AT A SAG .358 Fundamentals of Surveying or or or or or gl h~ _ lr~ = 0 gj 85 g~ = ~h.fh..fh.jii.4) At the summit g~ is negative. + . + ~fl 8\ -g~ (13.[h. Design of vertical curve in sag is based on minimum stopping sight distance. Substituting the values of 81 and gl or (13.fh. gl {Tr. " 11 rEi or g I .4a) • 13.. xA 82 = . + g~ = A = gl + "-1.+.

.. 13. _0. L G S:lg . " " • • .75 + S tanI" or _ (g2 . Vertical Curves 359 road surface with the beam of light inclined at an angle of 10 to the horizontal will illuminate this distance.7.5 m EG = 0. ' I C I Fig.75 + 0.5) . e 0 I =h + Stan 1 =0. 82 - 2L g.gl) S2 . CASE 1: S < L A I· F 10 S Parabolic Curve h J 8 I.2(0. . S2 = 0.8 Sight distance at S<L I It is already deduced I and But As AC EG h = 82~~8.' .017~ S) (13.75 + Stan 1° Equating.

9 .81)(S . . SE Il.·150 m 1665 m Beginning of Vertical Curve (BVC)· . When S > L Fig.L) . gl) (2S ..0174)= g2 .5 .1. Chainage of C = 60 + 15 -U2 = = = . 0:75 + S (0.. 10 = (g'l . .1. Example 13.1. ~~ (2S . 300 100 ...000167. withlz = 0. Check by second diffeiences:AssuJ:ne 30 m chain. Example 13.360 Fundamentals of Surveying C. 3.U2) But EG = lz + Stan 10 • 11 + Stan..1Q . 0. .6) or ~ = 2S _ . 13. Compute and tabulate the curve for stakeout at full stations. An equal tangent parabolic curve 300 m long has been selected to join the two tangents. . 13.5) _1_ = .gl (13'.... r = (.75 m.L) (1. 13. Solution C '.5% grade at station 60 + 15 and elevation 250 m (Fig. Fig.5% grade meets a -1. Chainage 60 + 15 elevation 250 m. ~jght distance at sag S > L In this case EO= (g2 . A + 3.10).035S) g2 .5 + 0.. 1815 m .

.

12 m.362 Fundamentals of Surveying -A check on curveelevations is obtained by computing the first and second differences between [he elevations of full stations as shown in the right hand columns of the table.100 3..005 .11 Example 13.5 ( (268)= .2425 -Elevation of the curvec'entte = 246.5 .735 =246.3. 3.267 + 100 '2 + 2L(100)' "2 or L L) _. (check) _ 2 Example 13. The elevation of the point of intersection is 267 m and chainage is 780 m (Fig.780 m Fig. 1 = 200 m · - .75 +2 247.5% meets anothergrade of + 0. Chainage. .f' . _ Elevation of midpoint of the . ~ 244. that the line joining the vertex and the midpoint of the long chord gets bisected by the curve.11).]2 This can be checked by the property of the parabola.75 + 0.005L ­ .035 x ]50 . Compute a suitable equal tangent vertical curve and fullstation elevations. L/2 Z 268 ::: 267 + .5 . chord of th~ parabola = ·244.2 A grade of .50%.0175L.00 = 248. Solution The general equation of a parabola y = Ysvc + gtX + (I}x Z 3. Field coordinates require that the vertical curve should pass through a point of elevation 268 m at chainage 780 m. 13.2425 + 250.5 + 0. 13. The elevation of the curve's central point .005L • · or L= . Unless disturbed by rounding off all second differences (rate of change) should be equal.2.0175L = 267 + .0~]67 (150)2 = 248. w­ '0 Elevation 267 m.

3 A 4.100 = 680 m =22 +20 m Elev"ation at the beglnning of the curve "~ 267 + t4 x 100 Example 13.8 + 9~~4 =396.~.160 x 120 = 397.160 x 60 = 398. 400 .00% grade meets a -2.4 m " Elevation of EVC = 400 .4ISO .8 =1. 392. Compute and tabulat.6% .8 m Grade AB = = 396..00% grade at station 50 + 00 and elevation 400 m. full station elevations.398.00 m. FilII Staiion Elevations . Length of 1st curve is 180 m and that of 2nd curve is 120.6 m Elevation of B . .8 m = 392.Vertical Curves 363 · .." ." Solution (i) + Elevation of BVC Elevation of A =400 - 18f~4.: Chalnage at me beginning of the curve = 780 . .

54 .60 ..12 0.28 + 0.20 47 + 0 48 + 0 49 + 0 50 + 0 51 +b + 0..' .12 1.54 . 52 + 0 53 + 0' 54 +0 -0. --~---- Fig.3. 2(180) x 100 =. + 6.2 + 2.. L50 .96 .O% =.0.6.0.' ='+ 4.1.26 + 0.54 +0 394.3 Example 13.64 397.. -/0 '2 2 .24 .12 0.2.08' .4 + 3.00%' .' 397..~ + 0.30 397. . First difference 1..6 + 4.88 0.12 0.14 Second difference The rest of the calculations are given in Table 13.46 .16 + 1. '13.1.0. 82 =:: + 1.2....6% .14 .0.364 Fundamentals of Surveying These elevations are shown in Fig. (ii) For the first curve 81.8" .12· Example 13..3.96 395.0"'1 .34 + 0... Table 13.6.02 0. 1.92 0.6 1 = 2(lX 20) x 100 - =.06 ..: 0...06 .48 0.44 1.1.26 .12 0.50 x' 10'-4 .18 398..96 ' 1..3 Station 44 + 0 45 + 0 46 x 0 30 60 90 120 150 180 30 60 90 120 SIX n?/2 Curve elevation ' 392.26 398.4.' :'r' '2 =. 13. -­ --.16 --0. 0.. '.12 Chainage 50 + 00.~.0 + 7. Elevation 400 m --.66 0.80 393.86 396.94 O' o .6 Df.22 .84' 398..67 x lO-s For the second curve 81 82 =+ 1.90 0.2 0..

.)0. with hi =h2 = 1.jh. For case (iii) L _ 400 2 [05 - (-12)] .4)] .270.) 2L ' 81 -.v-t.. h2 = 0.24 =?' .4 What is the minimum length"of vertical curve to provide a required sight distance forthe following conditions? (i) Grades of + 3.'h. (8)(1..15 100 = 720.4 .15) 2. sight distance 230 m.. + .:: '9 76 ?70 L .82 ' .2) For case (ii) .82 S2 ~'S or (.(.1. 270 _../1. .23> 230.:> > -" .5% and . .) ' or ~ g.13 ..+ . sight distance 270 rn. ' . (.15 m.[ii.49 > 400 m.Vertical Curves ..(100)(8)(1.05) .-=g. S= ~ L 81 . = (.3. 100 x 2 x 2.2%.2._I_ .' L = 230 2 (3.4%..4% and .fh. 100 x2 x 2.8 . sight distance 400 rn.333 .05 + .8 x. If S < L .2 x 2.~ 2(5. = 1403.3.[h.?"'O L. -: For case (ii) L _ 270 2[4. + . (ii) Grades of + 4.)2 or For case (i) .05)(100) _ .e o 365 ' Example 13. Solution At summit hI = 1. '.~.4%.8) 2(8.1~ _ 230 2 X 5..4» _1_ 2 (-. (iii) Grades of + 0.13 '" =·638.(-2.05 m the formula reduces to For case (i) 230 .jh.8% and .05 m. > ­ i.

For case (iii) L ~00~(1. . 13. we get .5.7) 400 = (100)(8)(1. . II Example 13. -. retaining as much as possible of the original curve and adjusting the gradients on both. the equation of the parabola may be written as: II I.U. "-'" ".e.sldes to be equal..05) ="9-65 _:>. BSc] Solution Let f. 13. ..7 per cent up and 0. <. . assumed to be Land lJ respectively il )' =At 1 d~'l: II II or d" = 2Ax Equating tblssuccessivelyto the-gradients (a + b) and then (c + d). _. Hence the formula to be used. )' = Ax2 New approach c% r- L' o x ~I Old exit b% -.13)..2 rn c 400m.5 A parabolic vertical curve of length 100 m is formed at a summit between grades of 0.8. Determine this gradient. The length of the curve is to be increased to 120 m. '.L-l+-E'_ Old approach a% L y Fig.366 Fundamentcls of Surveying .13 Example 13.' II . For case(iii) the result is not valid ::IS L < S whereas the assumption was L > S.~~7 x 100 =258. Taking axes ::IS shown (Fig.82 = 2(400) _8 x 1. . '.8 per cent down. with "1= III 811 L=2S--­ II II II 8\ . i.} be the length'of the new vertical curve.:. As change of slope is very small chord lengths are assumed to be the same lengths as the distance along the curve. '. [L.~.

(ii) Tabulate the reduced levels of the points on the curve :It Intervalsof 20 m from P and Onts highest point.'" 1 2A = a +b L' =: 2~ (c'+ 'd) J:"'. at chainage 5910.7 + O..L ' .0 rn. 1?0 ­ _1 .~ 2A 100 (2!. Similarly .95 m. was found to have a reduced level of 45.0. A point P. Find the minimum sighting distance to the road surface for each of the following cases: ' . ertical . (i) Find the chainages and reduced levels of the tangent points to the curve.6 On a straight portion of a new road an upward gradient of 1 in 100 was connected to' a downward gradient of 1 in 150 by a vertical parabola. .7% .14). 13.S) 100 .)' x 100 ' 2g 100 120 = 1.I Curves 367 I L = 2~ (a:-.. on the first gradient.T A ~ 1 iri150 " B Fig.(0. ~.12 m and point Q at a chainage of 6210.•.b) L or.8~· L' = 120 m =_1 .m Let g be the new grade both up anti down 100 2. b =0.-' Here L = 100.9% Example 13..0 m on the second gradient of 44.-\ =(a + b) (c + d) a =. or or ~.5 100 g = 0. 13.6. a 1 in 100 ".14 Example 13..m (Fig. Summit curve of length 150.

or = 44.0 == 45.05 m above the surface of the road (iv) The driver of a lorry for whom the similar distance is 1. Highest point occurs at a distance x = --1. 5930.5910.fh.0) x 160 Hence .82 .5910.m..8 + 75 =6094. :.) 8\ .80 rn. .8m R.0) = 90 m Chain age of points at 20 m interval of P = 5910.. : Chainage at the 2nd tangent point =6019.00 . + .12+ (..8) 150 1 (ii) The R.8 .L of 2nd tangent point = 44.718 m.8 m (i) Ch.L's of different points on the curve at 20 m from P are given in tabular form below.!!:. 45.x) x 1~0 x = 6019. I(200) (L) (Jh.(.8 .L of 1st tangent Point =45.368 Fundamentals of Surveying (iii) The driver of a car whose e)'e is 1. 5950 and so on chainage of 1st tangent point 5944.160 . . '.t .82 TOO x 150 1 ' _ . (5944. 8\ . ~ 6094."c:.12 + 0.1.t..ainage at_tI1e lst tangent point =6019.8 --75 =5944.95 + (6210.80 = (iii) When S <L S -.0) 100 = 45.95 + (6210. Solution Let the point of intersection R has chainage ..348 = 45.468 m R.12 + .

052 0.807 45.82 .452 0.n.0067 =75 + 119. +.00 105.(150) {1.11 > L hence invalid (iv) When S > L '0­ .20 85.. when hi ~ 1.849 45.25000 Curve elevation 45.918 45.:.16806 ..00 6070.'178. PROBLEMS.23616 ' 0.1.500 Bve Highest Point Eve = = 1.11350 ' 0.519 45.00 5.:.l '~·· -.93 > 150 m.40328 0..61483 0. . 150 (1..~. ".718 Remarks 0..[ii.00 81''( • r:r/2 0..00 0.20 65.i'.00 6030.15) (20?).22 .s =f.20 90.\:'\. + . 13.:-­ 2 .252 1.20 25.20 45.750 45.~ .0000 0.252 0.1.~:..3. to" ..900 .20 ' 125.1 Why a parabola is used as a vertical curve? Why not a circle? 13.00150 0:03528 ' 0. ( -- Vertical Curves Table 13.884 45.450 1..':~.852 0.024 + 0387) = 189.468 45.00 609-t80 x 0.905 45.00 150.05 + ".20 145." .22 > 150 m. + (....052 1.0.44995 0.'.0067 .= 75.2 What is meant by rate of change of grade on vertical curves and why it is important? 13.'~ ":'.00 6010.00 6034..Tabulate station elevations for an equal tangent parabolic curve for the data given below: ..)l 2 81 . (-0..--. • " • ­ 59+tSO Chainage 5950.917 45. .4 Example 13.685 45.80 m = 194.93.652 0.Jji.00 6090.01 + .00 5970. S = 75 + .80 6050..Jt.!.' -(M + {ffi)2 = 253.01 + .411)2 =+.67) (200) (150) (...00 5990.87083 1.6 369 .:.

»>: .5% sight distance 200 m. (b) Why are parabolic curves not generally used for.5% grade at station 60 + 15 and elevation 300 m.. HI:--lTS TO SELECTED QUESTIONS 13.1.3. parabolas are seldom used because drivers are able to overcome abrupt directional changes at circularcurves by steering a parabolic path as they enter and exit the cur:ves. highway curves? 13. Length of 1st curve 200 rn. ..6' (a). .--_ .-~..00 m at station 26 + 00.00% grade meets a .. 13.1. Second difference indicates.1' Because parabolas provide a constant rate of change of grade. . vehicular traffic.. they are ideal for vertical alienrnents used for.7 In determining sight distances on vertical curves. ' . 13.horizontal. . Circle does not .2% grade at station 40 + 00 and elevation 400. As rate ofchanze of a parabolic curve is constant.00 m at station 26 + 00 13..20% sight distance 400 m.2. Compute a suitable equal-tangent vertical curve and full station elevations. C".". (c) + 0.• .•. (a) + 3.. Grades of . Fixed point elevation 261. provide constant cha~ge'of graM.00 m.. second difference 'is constant.. ­ (b) On highways. .. how does the designer determine whether the cars or objects are on the curve or tangent? 13.5% and ." ' / .. 13.6 (a) Explain why the second differences of curve elevations are equal for a parabolic curve....3.5% and + 0.5%. . 350 m curve.... (b) + 4. . PVI elevation 260.5% and .. -.~. ~ .5% sight distance 3~0 m. second curve 133 m. / ~ ..5 Compute and tabulate full-station elevation for an unequal tangent vertical curve to fit the requirements below: A + 4.' .. .' . • .4 Field conditions require a highway curve to pass through a fixed point.3iO Fundomemals oj Sltn'~'illg A + 3% grade meets a ...8 Calculate the minimum length of curve to provide required sight distance in the following cases.5% and .--'" ... stake out at full stations. . rate of change..

. to be cut or filled in planning a highway. 14. il :1 J. area=.a)(s-b)(s .' : I' ". it is not possible to run the traverse along the boundaries. . rectangles or trapeziums. • • III • ~ il il 14 Areas . (3) double meridian distances.'1'" (a + b + c) : I AREA OF A TRAer WITH IRREGULAR BOUNDARIES Iii -.. planimeter can be run over the enclosing lines to compute the area of the plot.471 acre or 1 acre = 0. In . .-- ----­ . the traverse line and the irregular boundary is determined by 1. Land is ordinarilyboughland sold on the basis of cost per unit area. When the plan or map of an area is available.. Iii 2. a tract oflandwhich may beregular or irregular in shape. To compute volumes 'o(earlh\\'ork. (4) coordinates. hectares or square kilometers.[S(s . They are: (1)geometrical methods when the area is divided into a number of triangles.c) where a. Simpson's rule. 3. . ~J il . 1 hectare = 10.S.-. The traverse is usually run at a convenient distance from the actual boundaries. Mid ordinate rule.--------. . however irregular it may be. It is often necessary to compute the area 'of.I !I. ' ' 371 .000 m2• The relationship between acresand hectares is: 1 hectare = 2.l I:-. If the boundaries of a tract are irregular.-----'} -::. III .and. The area between.TRODUCTlO:-< ii I 1cJY'~v?' il I: '! .Volumes 14.1) are sides of the triangle and s = t III 1. (14. The area of a triangle whose sides are known can be computed by the formula.I l III . .1 C ill: ! 'II :I i il. Average ordinate rule." II 14. " .-' ~-- --.2 METHODS OF ~IEASURING AREA There are many methods for measuring area. it' is necessary to compute the areas of cross sections.2.I units the area is measured in square meters.4047 hectare. (2) by taking offsets from a straight line.. The offsets from the traverse to the irregular boundary are taken at regular intervals or if necessary at irregular intervals. b.

L Fig. + M 6 +M. 14. . Figure 14.d + Mjd + M 4d . A = MId + /I1-:. -.3) The area can also be computed by applying the trapezoidal rule which is obtained by considering each part as a trapezium and then adding the part mass together. + Os Average or di • 8 mate = and area = average ordinate = OJ x length + O2 +~) + . d 0. Os are the ordinates to the boundary from the baseline OJ + O~ + 0) + '" + 0.. . = d(M 1 + /112 + M) + M4 + /11.372 Fundamentals of Surveying :\lid ordinate rule Figure 14. total area . + 2 + 2 .0 1 + O2 d ~ O2 + 0) d 0 6 + 0.2) Average ordinate rule.2 Average ordinate rule: 'I I If OJ. Total area of the irregular plot: . 10 7 108 d I r-d+ci+d+d+d~d-+-d~1 ..(M 1 + M 2 + M) + /114 + M s + M6 + M.. Therefore..2 explains this method. O:!• . .1 Os I 06 .. . +08 X L (14. (14. + 0 8 d A.1 explains the application of this rule.. O2 I03 I 04 . I I. 0. + Mg + M9) = .+ M 8 + M 9) 11 L · · · . + Msd + M 6d + Mid + Msd + M 9d . 2 + 2­ + .

' 03 ". +.trapezoidal role can.4) Area is equal to product of the common interval d and sum of intermediate ordinates plus average of the first and last ordinates.o3+ ° 4 '+ " o. ' . 14. If the intervals are not equal the areas of the trapeziums have to be computed separately and added: together.Alternatively. I ~ '. . ~ The area ABCDEF consists of two parts: (a) Area ABCDGF which is equal to 0\ d Fig. I~. .~. . .. Simpson's rule In the roles stated above the irregular boundary consists of a number of straight. On»)" . L(O\ + On+'! . lines. d =viz and no. therefore..3 shows an area with a curved boundary. it can' be approximated as a series of straight lines. . If the boundary is curved.- AreasandYolumes 373 ·' = d( 0\ + 0 8 f + 0:!+. ~'. + 03 X 2 2'd = d(O\ + 03)' . ~'~'\ :.+ 0 6 + 0 7 ) • If the number of segments is n.. A = It 2 ' + O2 + 0 3 + . The .s. ofordinates-e n + LTherefore' . whic~ assumes that the short lengths of boundaries between the ordinates are parabolic arcs. applied.3 ' Derivation or Simpson's rule. ". . Figure 14.. "1~>~:T. Simpson's rule is. ' ..' o H F 01 '02 " B. (b) Area DEFGD =~ x area of enclosing parallelogram FHEIDG.be stated as: (14.

the number of intervals must be divisible by three. 20i .d)(DEF) 3 + 0 1) 2 x (2d) X (° ='3 O2 2 = Total area = = ~ •d X l20 2 - (03 + 01)]' (01 q+ 0\ x 2d + 2d [20.)] VJ % [30 1 + 3°3. There exists another formula (known as'Simpson's 3/8formula) which assumes a third degree polynomial passing through four consecutive points of the ground profile as shown in Fig.. add 1st and last ordinates to four times the even ordinates and two times the odd ordinates and multiply the sum by one third the common interval. -.. Whetherthe area 'computed is more or less than the actual value depends on whether the area is concave or convex to the baseline.+ (On-I + 40n + On+I)] d '=3' [01 + 0n+1 + 4(02 + 0 4 + 0 6 + . 23- + 11.d ="3[01 + 402 +°3]' .) ." The accuracy of Simpson's rule is more than the trapezoidal rule for curved boundary.)] (14. .. [(01 + 40 2 + 03) + (03 ' d ' Taking all the areas together. In words. 14.374 Fundamentals of Sun'cying' = ? ' 3' x ('2.. total area becomes A = • + 404 + Os) + (Os + 406 + 0..+ 2(03 + Os + 0. the number~f segments 11 ~hou)d always be even ana the number of ordinates odd for Simpson's rule to be applicable..~. To apply Simpson's 3/8 formula to a sequence of intervals. Area of the next two segments . ' . +.203] .+ 402 '" .4.5) Since we are taking' 2 'segme~ts at' a 'time. the rule is "To get the area by Simpson's rule. . .'. ..= "3 [03 + 404 + Os] 3' d . It takes the following form. .) + .

latitude is positive towards North and negative towards South. 3. . Double. 4. Departure and total latitude method.. Figure 14. Similarly. Thus the meridian distance of any line is equal to the meridian 'distance of the preceding line plus half the departure of the preceding line plus half the departure of the line itself.. = meridian distance of AB. the reference meridian is generally chosen as passing through the most westerly comer of the traverse or further away from it. HG = meridian distance of BC. For applying this rule. (Fig. 14. the sign of the departure should be considered./ =latitude of AB. Taking the North-South line passing through 'A'. Double parallel distance method. 2.meridian distance method. . meridian distance of CD is equal to the meridian distance of Be plus half the departure of BC plus half'the departure of CD.5 shows the different associated terms. Meridian distance method. Mathematically meridian distance of BC is equal to meridian distance of AB plus half the departure of AB plus half the departure of BC. Meridian distance method .6) EF M. The meridian distance of a line is the perpendicular distance from the line's midpoint to a reference meridian (North-South line). EF is the meridian distance of AB. GR is the meridian distance of BC. Similarly. .Areas and Yolumes f(x) 375 3rd degree polynomial 00 I I I I I I 03 . 1. To avoid negative signs. Easterndeparture being positive and Western departure negative.

MN latitude of BC. . Q) c Q) --..L . = = • .> ..6) .. / A ~-f C- H:I -Departure of CD Latitude of BC.~ F .. lJ = meridian distance of CD.. .5 Meridian distance method. ON = latitude of CD. .6 Derivation of area by meridian distance method....r:::: L- .376 Fundamentals of Surveying D Meridian distance CD I J . 14. ODN Area ABCD =.AM) x EF + NM x HG + Jl x ON + LX x (.A H E -7 C -... N 0 J L . Departure of BC Latitude of AB a: Departure of AB Qj II I' II II Fig.-. M S Fig.. N \. 14..OA) (14.AMB + NMBC + NCDO - = (...- I Latitude of CD E /'i .distance AB. .. '-= . LK meridian distance of DA.' '5 "L: Q) c Cll G E o Q)' C Meridian distance BC B . OA = latitude of DA.

Double meridian distance method In order to avoid working with half departures. This can be rewritten as: .OA) x DMDD.AM) x EF + m. the most westerly station has been chosen as origin.'"ID of t.. towards south. and hence is negative.I.!. As regards sign of latitude. Thus the D.. The following are the rules for computing DJlDs for a closed'traverse.4). ' Symbolically A = L L x M d where and L = latitude Md ' = meridian distance.e.' = . Here summation of products of m"ID and latitudes of lines of a closed traverse with proper sign givestwice the area of the traverse. The DMD of the first line is equal to the departure of the lst line. i.AM) x DMDAlJ + NM x DMDsc +ON. 1. from the direction of arrows it is clear that latitudes of AB and DA point downwards. i. negative DMDs can be avoided. the area will be positive.he previous' line plus the departure of the previous line plus.e.the departure of the line itself. ..l x HG + JI x ON + LK x (.0.· I I . 2L x DMD. surveyors use the double meridian distance.[D of BC is equal to the DJJD of AB plus the departure of AB plus the departure of BC. if counter clockwise. '. The reference parallel is usually taken through the most southerly point of the traverse along the east-west line. The DMD of each succeeding line is equal to 'the D. The DMD of the last line of a balanced closed traverse is equal to the departure of the line but with opposite sign. '2. ~ f .x DMDcD + (.OA) x 2LK)] ' 2JI " 2 . It has already been shown Area ABCD = (. [(-o4J1) x 2EF + NM x 2HG + ON x + (. the area will be negative.e.'. i. If the l st line is chosen as the one that begins at the western most comer. .d = t [LLxDMD] i. = 1 '2 [(. perpendicular to the reference meridian. 3. Double parallel distance method In this method perpendicular distances of mid points of different lines are measured from a reference parallel. I I Areas and Volumes 377 Here all the departures are positive as A.' . or 2ABCD ::. If the traverse is covered clockwise. The double parallel distance is twice the parallel distance of . twice the meridian distance in making computations.

= t (.) be + t (L 2 + L3)(."?L 2(Dco) ' " 1 .Dco) Do..)Dsc + _ 1 .DsC> . The DPD for any traverse line is equal to the DPD of the previous line plus the latitude of the previous line plus latitude of the line itself. Dec B Fig. ) ..9 ~I Area of the closed traverse ABeD.). The traverse area can be computed by multiplying the DPD of each line by its departure.Lt)DAB + '2 (..'.D oA) . .1/2L"2 bc =112(.378 Fundamentals of Surveying a line. Dj. II: Iii II: 1\ -1­ L 3 il . DOA D Dco --1 lil "'I Iii 111 t Iii Iii II -A Reference station 1 C L2 Li c Reference meridian I " II . t 1 (L 2 + L 3)(- D co) + t 1 (L 3)(. summing the products and taking half the absolute value of the total.L. · _ .L.L 1) DAB 1 + 2' (L 3)(- + t (1 L. 14. <-­ ".7 Total latitude method.CcB.Dco . Reference meridian. i Departure and total latitude method Totallatitude of a point is equal to its distance from the reference station measured parallel 10 the reference 'meridian. A = ABb + Bbc + Dee C + ADe .. <'it' II 'I I L _ _~.)(D AB + Dsd + '2 L 2(D sd + '2L3(...L..1/2L 2 (.'2 (.D o.

YA ) 0' v· . . 4. +DsC> + (L2)(+ D sc .. l·t8 Coordinates method. . Hence following steps should be followed in computing area by this method: 1.. .Ys)+(X o . x.D co - Do.(Xo. '.. YD) A (X".Dco) + (L3)(. . +x Fig.L1)(D"s 1 '. Total area of the traverse A= t(Xc +XB)(Yc .~)1 = L total latitude of a point x (algebraic sum of two adjacent departures).Do. To avoid negative sign.)<l':~ _ Y s) _ ( X . + L)(. . . '.l':~) _. y " . . the origin 0 is chosen at the most southerly and westerly point.3 COORDINATES ~IETHOD In this method independent coordinates of thepe"ints are used in the computation . __. 14. .. of areas.D co . .2. Areas and VO[IIJnes 379 = '2 {(. Compute the total latitude of each station from a reference station. 2.. Half the algebraic sum of these products gives the required area.. X"')<Yo ..XcJ(Yo.Dco) .)} . Find the product of total latitude of each station and the corresponding algebraic sum of departures. station. 3.1 . o r 2 A = {(-L1)(D"s + Dsd + (L 2)(Dsc .}c) o _(X s . Compute the algebraic sum of departures of lines meeting at thi.

_" I l_ . Product of all adjacent terms taken down to the right. (14.XDYc . Pole block or anchor Ir is a heavy block. however irregular its shape may be. In 14.Y A XX • A The coordinates can also be listed in the following form: Xc XD X A YA Ys Yc YD Y. 2..Xs>-:~ .X.380 Fundamentals of Surveying or 2(A) = ~~Ys + XsYc + X'Y D+ XDYA " .XAYD = (XAYs .XSYA) + (XsYc . Two sums of products should be taken. applying this procedure.X. Figures 14.Y s) + (XCYD . YDXA The traverse area is equal to half the absolute value of the difference between these two sums. This is fixed on the plan by . X A Xs (14.2. very accurately. YAXS . XCYD. There are two types of planimeters: 1.XDYc) + (XDYA . . YsX c. Products of all adjacent terms up to the right. a fine retaining pin called the anchor point.e. i.Y s . it is to be observed that the first coordinate listed must be repeated at the end of the list. A YAxX .4 MEASURE~1ENT OF AREA BY PLANIMETER The planimeter is a mechanical instrument.9(a) and (b) show the essential parts of an Amsler polar planimeter which are described as follows: 1.XAYD)· The above relation can be expressed as follows for easy remembrance.8) 1.. The Amsler polar planimeter is more frequently used and hence explained here in detail. YCX D. Roller planimeter . XAYS.. XDYA 2. Amsler polar planimeter. It measures the area of a plan or map.7) Y s X Xs Yc Xc yDXXD . XsYc.

. readings upto 11l000th of a revolution oJ the roller is obtained. 14. therefore completes one revolution after every 10 revolutions of the roller.-_~-". Its one end is attached to the integrating unit while the other end carries the tracing point or opticaltracer. The integrating unit or measuring unit It consists of a hardened steel integrating disc carried on pivots. (b) The integrating unit 2. By means of a vernier. III ! Iii ~~------C-~~~------c-~_~----. Complete revolution dial'. and (iii) 6 indicates the vernier reading of the roller which is in thousandth. (ii) 45 on the roller which means out of . . The reading of a planimeter is in 4 digits. Tracing arm This may be either fixed or variable in length.' 3. . 3456 it shows: (i) 3 on the disc indicating 3 full rotations of the roller. The disc spindle is connected to a primary drum or roller which is divided into 100 parts. ' 4. (geared splndl~) I Disc' spindle .' . This disc is divided into ten divisions.100 divisions roller has moved through 45 divisions. Pole ann or anchor arm This is a bar whose one end is pivoted about the pole 'block and the other end about the integrating'unit. The disc. The roller is so designed that when it completes one revolution. anotherdiscconnected with the roller shows one dimension. If the reading is say.9 (a) Schematic diagram of Amsler polar planimeter. ) Measuring or Integrating unit Poleblock (Heavy weight) (a) Areas and Volumes 381 ~ III 'II I.' Integrating disc (b) Fig..

25 cm-. 2. The area should be 25 cm:!. -1. =.R. 3. If the observed difference in reading is 1125. The tracer point should be guided by a triangle or straight edge though usually it is steered free hand.R.R.25 x 104 m2•. C = Constant of the instrument usually marked on the tracing arm just above the scale divisions. area is 0. Since area obtained by planimeter is not necessarily an exact value. If the difference in reading is. =Final reading.carefully watched and clockwise or anticlockwise rotation of the zero mark of the disc against the index mark should be noted. say. The area is then obtained as: A =M(F. circle.25 x 1125 = i81. 5. . 1 Unit 25 2 0 . It is also desirable to trace the figure one or more times in the opposite directions and average these values also.. 1" ~m = 100 m. The movement of the disc should be . . Since the bar setting may not be perfect it is best to check the planimeter constant by running over the perimeter of a carefully laid out square 5 cm on a side with diagonals 7.. . I.07 cm. This constant when multiplied by . While using a planimeter the following points should be observed: 1. 100 cm = . . '100.. . or 1 cm2 = 100 x 100 m2• Area = 281. The anchor point should preferably be placed outside the traverse as this will avoid the additive constant C. The area is measured by moving down the tracer over the outline of the plan or map in a clockwise direction. . N =Number of full revolutions of the disc. It is to be added when the anchor point is within the circle and is taken to be zero when the anchor point is outside the circle. As one revolution of the disc FR. and (iii) tracing point or tracer. M gives the 'zero .when the rotation is clockwise and minus sign when anticlockwise. is 10 units. The tracing point should always be moved clockwise. it is good practice to trace figure several-times and take an average of the results thus obtained. Plus sign is to be used . 4. it is multiplied by 10 in the above expression. The different values should agree within a limit of 2 to 5 units.9) where M = Multiplying constant or planimeter constant and is equal to the area per revolution of' the roller. ± 10 N ± C) (14. (ii) drum or roller.382 Fundamentals of Surveying The planimeter when placed over a plan or mapwhosearea is to be measured rests on three points: (i) anchor point. This value is marked on the tracing arm. a The length of the tracingann of the planimeter canbe adjusted and accordingly value of M will vary.25 cm2• Ifthe scale ~f the map is. =Initial reading.

­ 'F. AG . length and bearing of BE' can be obtained.. If EE' and hence FE' are known.•. '. Compute the area ABCDG. Therefore t AN· A~ . Areas and Yolumes 383 The planimeter is useful in measuring irregularareas. If eis known. Find out a station point which will approximately divide the traverse into required areas. considering BE'FA as a closed traverse.4H =A .from a closed traverse through a fixed point. . 14. . Let G be the given point on DE. either e or EE' must be known. This will not be equal to the required area AI' Let the area to be added be A2 and is equal to AGH.. . . It is often used in measuring cross-sectional areas of highways and in computing areas of property surveys. off a required area by a line.. length and bearing of BE can be obtained. . t AH . departures computed and after proper balancing of the traverse total area of the traverse is calculated. length EE'can be obtained by applying the sine rule.. latitudes. Now by applying DJfD methods areas of the pans BCDE and BEFA can be obtained. ~ Partitioning land' It is oftennecessary to partition land into two or morepieces for sale or distribution to family members. Let it be A. c B E A' . Some problems and their solutions are outlined below. II Fig. Knowing the coordinates of Band E. the area is divided by the line'BE'. Let ABCDEFA be a closed traverse (Fig.. 1.. heirs and so on. 2 . 2..11). It is necessary to calculate the areas BeDE and ABEF.' .Applying sine rule the area of the triangle is . sin G. Initially a boundary survey is to be made. .' line between two points.. . To CUt. If instead of line BE. sin GAH Since bearing of AG is known angle GAH can be determined. to the triangle BEE' and then area BebEE' or ABE'F can be obtained. 14. Area cut off by a line BE between two points. For regular shapes and in some casesvanalyrical solution is possible for division of an area'into required pans.' ..10 Panitioning by • I . Hence latitude and departure of BE are known..

14..12 Partitioning by a line running in 3 given direction. E F Fig.3S~ Fundamentals of Surveying c B o A A2 . tan e and tan cP are all known. area EFIJ. JE= and IJ = HO .tan e - t It'-tan It sec' e· cP In the above equation the only.. . to give an area close to the required area A I' If the discrepancy is A2 which is to be added to the initial area BCDEF the line EF is to be shifted parallely to OH such that the area EFIJ is equal to the required area A 2 (Fig. sin Knowing.11 Partitioning by a line through a fixed point or .. Further• .unknown is It as other values. viz. 14. 2A 2GAH' AH = AG. . To cut off a required area by a line running in a given direction: As before the line should initially pass through a station point say E..h(t~n ¢ + tan (J) c o A K Fig. the angle AOH.12) The area EFIJ = FE x h - . FI = It sec 1/1. bearing of GH can be determined. . '.. 14. " ~ h'. 3...

(ii) Unit area or borrow pit method.Areasand Volumes 385 The line 11 can be located from the distances IF. "\ c T hr . 5.coahgravel or other materials knowledge' of volume computation is required. The difference in the two areas will be the amount of cut or fill.1 CROSS SECTION METHOD This is employed for computation of volumes for highways.e. Two level Section.13 Cross section of existing ground profile. railways and canals. ~ 14. 14. The coordinate axes are the finished grade and the centre line of the cross section. A general direct method for land sUbdivision~ has been suggested by Easa.. They can also 'be obtained by photograrnmetry. I· • bI2 + Sc -----1+ bI2+ sc Existing groun . Here a series of cross sections are taken along the length of the line at regular intervals. -. Side hill two level Section.:\.: The following five types of cross sections generally occur in practice: 1. Three level Section.3YOLUMES Surveyors are often required to compute volumes of earthwork either in cut •. it is useful if all the areas are derived by using one method only. The cross sections are plotted on a sheet and over the cross section design templates are superimposed.. .J4. There are basically three methods for this: (i) Cross section method. 14. 4.Fig... (iii) Contour area method.. The general formula for area is .. .3. profile ~ .... Level Section 2.. /_b -I" EXisting ground '>"'"\. by considering the figure as a closed traverse. . These are obtained by measurements in the field. Whlle different formulae can be derived for different types of cross sections. 3.. This is shown in Fig...4 profile . To compute stockpiles of. or in fill when planning a highway system. and E1.13. FE. Multi level Section. Area to be filled up . i.

(b/'l + nh) Y h 0 0 B C D Area A = 11 t [h{..10) !/ I I I 'I coordinates of .---- ------------ --------------_.------ --- -------------­ II I 386 Fundamentals of Surveying A= t [XI(Yz . + Xn(Y I - Yn~l)] or 1 [Y1(X .nh) + h(." II II! + .X2) n) Z(X3 .nh») !\ =.(... ..~l[b + nh). The negative sign is immaterial and should be ignored.XI) + Y z + Y4(XS - II I X3) + .Yn) + X~(Y3 .bll)} + h{. Level section II I. h2 .b . 14. Y coordinates of two points are zero. Point .(b/2)}] [h(. 14. '. Two-level section in cutting.4 n~ ! !~ h len: x .X + Y A = '2 3(X4 . I Fig.. B..(b!} + ~11I»} " = t '1- 0{b12 + nli .bl2 + bl2 + WI -'1\'2 . (14.bl2 bl2 .0 o hi .14.14 Level section. + Yn(X I - Xn_I » )· il :i "\ l Since for a cross section in earth work..(.b/2 .(b/'l + IIh») + 0 {b12 .Y1) + Xj(Y4 - Yz) .~ )' A B C E .b .:.I nhB 1. from Fig.(b12 + nh) .(b/2 + nh) . C and D. A I­ t I· II II . il :1 Coordinates of A.b/2 -1b/2--1 nh 1 ­ . the computation will be shortened if the second equation is used.

. . . Fig.WI)] = .. 14. h + (h + ::) lV2 + (h . . .1/2 [bl2(lt l + h2) + h l H'2 + h2wtl = -1/2 [b/2(1t1+ -. From the.15 h + w-fm = h.15 ~ Two level section in cutting.1/2 [bl2(h l + 1t2) + h(I~'1 + 1~'2)] (14. WI Areas and 'loll/mes 387 .nlm) =WI .l~:) WI] 2) . Two-level section in filling .!!!.n) (m m --­ or Similarly Area iIf terms of coordinates WI =(bl2 + nh) . geometry of Fig.11) :\ . or or sn + (h +. = WI b/2 + nl: ~ wI(1 .16 WI = (b/2 + nit) _11_1_ 111 + 11 .-. I h.. 14... = . 14. m -­ m.­ m+n =! [0 + 0 + (h l)(- W2 - bl2)+ (h 2) (. From geometry of the Fig.n . WI bl2 + htn= . 1 b/2··--J.bl2 . C ~ '. .::) .n lV2 = (b12 + nh) .

m17 "2/11 = ... + b/l .388 Fundamentals (If Surveying A I'" b/2j. b/2 ---L w.1m "2 =h + 1'/2/m. 14..~~ n.. '1. C t . w~ (b/2 '. I H A ----­ ~7' t /I...17 Side hill two-level section...mil "2(m . Side hill two-level section From the geometry of Fig. = hI =11 - + nil) ... /l2h2 = + bl2 From similar triangles HGF and FIC /1.' . mh ml1 2 =112112 + bl2 .n'h'~1 B W2 Fig.16 Two level section in filling.L. J1l "'...17. Hence if b.. II.:. " h. ~/2~ B n I h2 W2- h. . li. 14. 111-/1 . -I . The same formula as derived above is applicable. 14.mil Ih2 n2h2 ----+-1 '? I" ."2) =:: bIZ . m are given 11 2.17 1\'2 '. "'I and W2 can be computed and the area obtained as shown above...1 Fig.. n. h'.

I Iii b: = b/2 - mil ..12) =1 (bl2 + mh)'­ 2 m-nl Similarly.bl2) \1'1) + It(-wz - + It:(.n2 II . 14.. • bl2 . Areas and Volumes . = n! (WI ... ~ . mlr] + b/2 n2 =. I' 1 '2 .[b12 m .nz . (b12 m .J!L. nZ 1. = (WI - Substituting the values of WI' we have .b/2 + bl2 WI - o o o )~'z hi h h! Area = t [0(b/2 + \l'z) + 0(1\'1 + bIZ) + ht(O ..mh)z 2 m . Area of cutting Area of filling (14.. Three level section =1 (b/2 . bIZ) bI2)(bI2 + mh).II Ii I II .112 .nz (14.0)] . Coordinates . .!!L(b/2 + m .1 = 112' bl2 . m m-nZ = --. .18(a).: Similarly WI nzh) nl h) =-.. or W2 m . y x Points .nl l Area of cutting = But or bl2 + nlh l i h (b/2 + mh) - hi = WI 1.. Hence Area .13) Here at least three levels are required to define tl1e ground slope.389 j'.bl2 . The shapes in cutting and filling are shown in Fig.. A B C D E .nZ mh + bl2 . .

.. m.n) w. +h wI = b/2 + n (:: + hJ.[b 2' (hi + " 11~) + hew.. = t [.hew. hI ---l I I In -'. (m ml WI =b/2 + nh = mlml (bl2 + n") -n = m~ or '. + 1 2' "'2) _ b~2 ] =. . W2 . = ··w. W... or .18... I). h) m. Similarly W2 1172 ~ /1 (bl2 + 11") . .. or or =m.'" IF h " " T I -1- b/2 _I B I' Fig. . . . .(h. . '­ . 71 2 =h - W2/m2. m.' .. E f~ .b.390 Fundamentals of Surveying w. .11 = w..A fb/2 h21 -. (a) Three level section. hI =h + nI. 14. = b/2 + nh.. h.. + W2) ] As before . W. h. .

3. The prismoidal formula very nearly gives the correct volume of the solid. The error in the use of the end area formula arises chiefly from the fact th:lt in its application the volume of a pyramid is considered to be one-half the product of the base and the altitude whereas the actual volume is one-third the product of these quantities.U8(b) Multilevel section.f\ I· I I I h ' I L­ . IULAE FOR COMPUTATION OF VOLUMES Volume by average end areas The volume by this method is given by 1 ' V = '2 (Ao + At) L (14.in Section 14. and n are given. '. # Multilevel section Figure" 14.2.2 FOIU.r\-" ~ A r~ b/2 w. ' E G o .14) . The area of the middle section is obtained by raking dimension of the middle section and computing the area or by computing the area of a section whose dimensions are Intermediate of the end dimensions. .18(b) shows a multilevel section where more than three levels are required to define the transverse slope ofthe ground..15) . =Average end areas x Length between the sections. I )' !-W'~:W'-1 • ' 8 b/2-~ W4 /J ---+~ I Fig. m2 '. 1. Prismoidal Formula The volume is. ... Here Ao.' -. For a multilevel section the coordinate method of determining areais convenientThis has already been explained . . : . ~ V 'L = "6 (Ao + 4M + AI) (14.3. Areas and Vol limes 391 Hence if h and slopes mi' and hence the area.•. AI are the end areas where as M is the area of the middle section. 14. hi' h2• wI and W2 can be computed . .

17) v= f -+ An+3 + 4(A:z + A. . by end area methods: Volume between Al and Az = Al + A. .. V= D 2 + Az + A3 + .. (14." Am at an equal interval of D.. 2D (A.t (1~... + An .. A 2• • . _ A +A between A z and A 3 -.... Vt The next prismoid = 2f (At + 4A 2 + A3) ' " V2 = 6"' (A3 + 4A4 + As) 2D .16) This is known as trapezoidal rule. L = 2D and the formula becomes .+I + 4An+ 2 '+ An +3) (At .­ L ' If three consecutive sections A It A z and A3 are taken at interval of D. 2 _ 3 D An_I + An ' -_-D between An-t and An = Total volume then ...2' . + An m 11 • Volume V = Am X L where L is the length between the first and last section. . Trapezoidal rule for computing volumes If we have a series of sectional areas AI...392 Fundamentals of Surveying ~olume by mean area method In this method the mean cross sectional areaof the various sections is firstcomputed as: A = Al + A2 + .J . [At + An' ' ].v" = T Adding . .. + An+ l ) ] . The volume of a prismoid v= 6(A o +4M+A 1) 1.D .4 + . Prismoidal rules for computing volumes . + And + 2(A3 + As t .

4 CURVATURE CORRECTION. If the number of sections is even the prismoidal formula cannot be applied to the last two sections which should be treated separately..n the sections x (Area of 1st section + Last section + 4 times the even sections + 2 times the odd sections] To use the prismoidal rule the number of sections must be odd. D R . If prisrnoidal rule is to be applied the area of the mid section should be computed separately and then the formula should be applied. 8 where 8 is in radian and is given by DIR. The volume obtained by the trapezoidal-rule is always greater than the volume obtained by the prisrnoidalformula.. Hence D.• . the prismoidal formula states that the total volume V = Interval betw.2A m +A z) 14. if the area is constant . subtracted from the prismoidal formula to get the result of the prismoidal rule. =(R - e) . = D = "3 (AI .· . . Either the trapezoidal rule or the end area rule should be applied to compute the volume of the segment. =(R ­ e) . As the volume calculated by trapezoidal rule is greater than that . In computing volumes it is normally assumed that sections are parallel to one another. This is based on Pappus' Theorem which states that the volurne : swept out by an area revolving about an axis is equal to the product of the area and the length of the path traced out by the centroid of the area. the correction is negative and should be . Therefore.Areas and Volumes 393 In other words. .3 PRISMOIDAL CORRECTION OR PRISMOIDAL EXCESS .volume by the prismoidal rule D D . 14. However. distance travelled by centroid.e. in a curved path the sections are radial and not parallel to one another. where D is the distance along the centre line. 14.. calculated by the prismoidal formula.3. Volume =Area x distance travelled by centroid Dc From the Fig.3. Correction Cp = Volume by the trapezoidal rule . "2 (AI + Az) ­ "6 (AI + 4Am + Az) . Hence the above formulae do not givecorrect results andsuitable corrections are to be applied.­ It is the difference between the volumes computed by the trapezoidal rule and the prismoidal rule. .19.

. The eccentricity of a particular cross-section can be determined by locating its centroid. .+Az)XD±(At +Az)XDX e 2 _ 2. . 'i f " When the centroid is away from the centreline D. v= . .I '. I­ and and •. J = Area x ~ (R I II I III 1 II I If the area is not constant but A I and A2 with eccentricities el and el . .19 Curvature correction... . Average area = ·A I +A. _ el + e.~8a) (A. The centroid is determined by dividing the cross section into small triangles and by taking moments about any line.sign when outside. The correction is normally small but when R is small the correction becomes large. '. = (R + e) • Hence the volume by Pappus Theorem V ~ + e) .18) The above formula can be split as: 'II 'Ii 'I (l4. _. Plus sign is to be used when e is on the inside of the curve and minus.I 'I" II Iii III I. -- A 2 ) X ~ (R . II I' I' ---------'-------~~j . Average eccentncity e = --2-­ v = ( AI .± e) II II (14. " R 'II II =Volume by trapezoidal rule ± Correction.394 Fundamentals 0/ Surveying I i I !I I < ((\ Centreline I " 11 Centroid line I .. 14..! I ii Jii III Fig.

4 VOLmm THROUGH TRANSITION t In the case of railroad or highway construction there is both cut and fill. Fill section. . ." . 3-3 ~ (d) Smaller fill sectiOn-sec.~ Areas and Volumes 395 14.1-1 .20.~. ~ Fig. For example.20 Cross sections in a highway.I Partially fill (0) Partially cut and partially fill-Sec. 5-5 -'. there may be a number of full fill-sections and a number of full cut-sections. " (e) Fill section-Sec. However. 14. Here area of the fill section at 3-3 is the base and the distance between sections 2·2 and 3·3 is the = . it is transitional. . 14. The volume between section 2-2 and section 4-4 consists of both cut and fill. The volume of thecut is computed usually taking cut areas at section 2-2 and section 3-3.4-4[ Fill section. The volume of fill between section 2·2 and 3-3 should be computed as a pyramid with the formula volume base x altitude/3. In between there may be a section of partial fill and cut. (a) Cut section-:-Sec. This is shown by a number of sections as in Fig.

Similarly the volume of cut between sections 3-3 and 4-4 is obtained as a pyramid with partially cut area as the base and the distance between the sections as altitude. . Figure 14.d ~=b. A1="2 lC. + 2 C~) Substituting for bm and cm. bJ 2 f _(CI . 14. Fig. + b2c2 + b1C2 + b2 cJ . 1· Am = 8' (blc. "A 2 . =t blCl 1 ="2 bmcm The area of the middle cross section is computed as: Am where bm and Cm are given by ': =(b l C m _. \.21 shows the geometry of a pyramid frustum..gives . C2 b2 h . For a frustum of pyramid the ratio of the corresponding dimensions of the end areas is constant. . Easa4 has however suggested that the volume should be computed as frustum of pyramid..21 Geometry of pyramid frustum. altitude. the areas of "the end cross sections · 1b . . I h --:---­ 1~ If' t A. Also.=-r ­ t. This ratio is given by.396 Fundamentals of Surveying ~...

. rectangular or consists of a numberof vertical sides. c.a.at the corresponding points. 14.JA IA2 + Az)' (14. v= f(A I '+. =2.· b.b 2c I Am = . 14. L1 V = average height x area of the square abed. The difference between the formation level and the exisring level of the ground will give the height of fill or cut. + hot + hi 4 x area of the square bee] If the areas of the squares are all equal and is given by A..22 Volume from spot levels. etc.~Az) Finally substituting for Am.underground reservoir..5 VOLUME FRO:\I SPOT LEVELS . It is interesting to note that this formula requires only'the areas of the end cross sections.22) a d b f c e Fig.Ar~as and Volllmes:' 397 But ~ bici =2A I b 2C2' = 2A2 and . d (Fig. When the area excavation is square. The volume of any square say . summation of volumes can be expressed as .19) which is the required pyramid frustum formula. . as in the case of foundation of a water tank.The volume can be computed by taking levels of number of points along a grid. . + h + hd = lIa + hb 4 (' x area of the square abed • • Similarly volume of beef =h b + h•.JAIA2 · 'rTT '1 4 (At+ ~ + 2". 14... Thus blc:! := .

14.~ + 4 L "J (l·UO) L h. [j(x. y) dy .. f(x. SlMPSO~'S =surry of depth used once n..._'otI"" 4 U'~I"oII"oIIIU. III and j = O. intervals in each direction. ~ ~.. )'2)] dx .23.s VOLUME BY CUBATURE FORMULA Volume can also be computed by a non linear profile formula known as Simpson's cubature formula which is applicable only when the grid has an even number of .fO f(x. .'.. giving t. dx . =sum of depth used twice and so on.' = . The excavation depthsj{x. 1.23 wr. =sum of depth used once L 112 =sum of depth used twice L "3 = sum of depth used thrice L h4 = sum of depth used four times which is the maximum number of times a vertical height can occur. To calculate the excavation volume of the grid based on Simpson's l/3 formula..e.. ~ .. Yi) at the intersection points (x.2l) . If the plan area is-divided into a number of triangles. "3 (L h) where" is the vertical height.')b) dx+ 4 'fn fn ' jJi.. ~'I) lJ.. V~ where hi h: ~ (L "I + 2 L "2 + 3 'L "3 + ..A 3 .1= hn + lIb + he../UUt. first we consider the unit grid (2 x 2 intervals) shaded in Fig... [ f'f) f(x.'2) d\'].. . )0) + ~!(x..= fnf\~ .1V will be that of a triangular prism. + 8 L "s) (14.. /I are known.\lll~ v = 1· (L "i where +2L 112 +3L .. The volume of the unit is given by u ..'0 First the inner integral is calculated using Simpson's 1/3 formula.) UJ aut : t:. 1. I~ . = . ~\)+ lex.fse sides are divided into III and /I intervals where III and II are even. l4. V == k . l. the volume .x If all the triangular areas are equal . V . Yi) with i = O.j Jo f 'T' Ji. This is derived as follows: Take the rectangular grid of Fig...'I: + •f(x• .

Art. I. Yo =c 1 I Xo I I x. Xi = '\"0 + ili i = 0.r"... 1. . f'''"!(. = )'0 + jk v j = 0. II Then the composite formula for calculating the volume of the total grid \. 1·t23 Rectangular grids with equal intervals (m and n are even). Xm-l ' 'X m =b . 399 Yn = d I Yn-l T T k Y2 + l­ k Y.\'.... . y) dy dx .' is = f. '" • III >.ro '0 . .'as and Yolumes .. • ..'. '~'h~h~1 Fig.. I i =a Xi' . .

one needonlymultiply each of the depths/. 2... .24. 16 . 14. Note that the second and third columns are to be repeated as well as second and third rows..j bythe corresponding element and sum the results for all points. When the formation level'of the proposed road is known this can be superimposed on the cross section. This will give us the required cut and fill at various sections at the centre line. The volume of earth work is computed using the trapezoidal rule or the prismoidal formula. . 4. The method can be computerized.. When the finished surface is a level surface (reservoir problem).. 9 1=0 j=O IJ IJ (Composite Simpson's Cubature Formula) (14. 14. Thusto calculate V. 16 8 16 2 8. By equal depth contours. 4 2 8 4 4 1 4 16 . 14. of the proposed road. 8 ." 8 8 2 16 4 1 The matrix corresponds to the grid points shown in Fig. .L L )•.~oo Fundamentals of Sun-eying '...7 VOLUME FROM CONTOUR PLAN The contour plan can be utilized for computing the volume of earth work between different contour lines.. ~ I I I I ) I 1 I .. For the whole grid hk m n V =. ' 4 4 2 8 . 4 16 8 8 4 2 4 16 4 8 2 1 .23. 4 8" 2 B= I . There are four different methods:­ .1-. By cross sections From the contour plan cross section of the existing ground surface can be plotted as shown in Fig.23) in which Aij =the corresponding elements of the B matrix I... 4 8 16 4' 2 4 4.. 1. " '. 16 . By cross sections. The area of the cross section is determined from the depth at the centre and side slopes. By horizontal planes. 3...

Areas and Yolumes . 401

(a)

Original ground.

(~)

Fig.. 14.24 Volume from

cross section.

By equal depth contours

...

In this method the contours of the finished or graded surface are. drawn over the contour map at the same interval as that of the contours. If the original contour is plotted with finn lines, the contour of the proposed surface is plotted with. dotted lines. At· the intersection of full line contour.with a dash line contour, depths of cutting or. filling can be determined, By joining the points of equal cut or fill a set of lines are obtained. These lines are the horizontal projection of lines cut from the existing surface by planes parallel to the finished surface. The irregular areas bounded by these lines are obtained by planimeter. The volume between any two successive areas is determined by multiplying the average of two areas by the depth between them (Fig. 14.25). .

.. By horizontal planes
In this method, the volume ofearth work is computed by taking horizontal sections on thecontour plan.The existing contours are plotted as finn lines.The proposed formation surfaces are shown by dotted lines. The volume can be computed by the following steps: (a) The dotted lines and thefinn lines intersect at some points. Theyrepresent points of no cut or fill. All these points are joined to give a curve. (b) Within these curves the original ground surface is at a higher level than the proposed grade surface and as such excavation of the ground is necessary. (c) Similarly, outside this line fill is necessary. (d) The amount of cut or fill at each section is plotted and from the hatched figure areas of cut AI' .4. 3, As and fill Al. A4 , A6 can be computed.

402

Fundamentals of Surveying

o
109

109

108

108

\ 105
104

... 103

102 .
101
100
Fig. 14.25
Volume from equal depth contour, 101
100

(e) Compute the volume of the earthwork between two successive contours using the average end area method. The pyramidal formula should be applied for the end sections (Fig. 14.26).
ground surface

100

. I
I

99

Fig. 14.26 Volume from horizontal sections.

. Capacity of a reservoir
.

.

Two general methods are used for-computing the reservoir .volume-(i) By taking horizontal sections; (ii) By taking vertical sections. In the first method the whole area under each contour line in computed. Let the":l be A h A 2• • • •• A~. If the trapezoidal rule is applied the vOl.ume

Areas and Volumes

403

...

.V = /1

'[A I+ 2

All ... '

+ A2 + A) + ... + A

. ]
II _

1

where h is equal to contour interval. If necessary prisrnoidal formula C3n also be applied (Fig. 14.27).' .

104

I ,

.

..
Fig. 14.27 Contour lines of a reservoir,

The second method is applied when the reservoir is regular in shape. From the contour mapdimensions of the vertical cross sections are obtained. The volume is then calculated from the cross sectional areas.
14.8 MASS HAUL CURVE

In highway andrailroad construction it is necessary tocompute volumes of earthwork to be cut or to be filled in and distance through which cut earthis to be transported for filling 'purposes. This will determine the cost of the earthwork portion of the project. Mass haul curve where the-curnulative volume of earthwork i.s plotted against distance helps in computation of the same. The curve is usually plotted below the longitudinal level section and is shown in Fig.'14.28. The following information may be obtained from the mass-haul diagram.
1. An inspection of the mass diagram shows that a rising curve indicates cut and a falling curve indicates fill. 2. Maximum and minimum points on the mass curve occur at grade points on the profile. 3. The algebraic difference of ordinates between any two points indicates the volume of earth work between the two points. 4. If a horizontal line is drawn to intersect the diagram at twopoints excavation and embankment will be equal between the two stations represented by the point

,.

404 Fundanientals of Surveying Fill
"!""'"'">

Cut
-'-

;~~~~ I I _ , I I \
I I I
I f I I ..

Formation line Cut I ~

,
(

I I I
f I
Q)

I I I
I I I I

t

F'II
I

ground surface
..

I I
I
f I
I I

~x :;7
Fill

I

:
I
I I I

"5 >
Q)

:J

E

I . I

I
\

1
I

1
\

Longitudinal section Minimum
.............

f I

.~

I I
I

.1· I
I

I I

I I..
I

~r

'S

co

I (.

I

Base'\
I' I
me . I

I

___

1/

I~

I I
I

.

.

Maximum

--+ Distance

Maximum

Maximum

Fig. ~(28 Mass haul curve.

of intersection. Sucha horizontal line is called a balancing linebecause theexcavation
balances the embankment between the two points at its ends.
, 5. Sincethe ordinates to the diagram represent algebraic sums of the volumes
of excavation and embankment referred to the initial ordinate, the total volume of
cuts and fills will be equal from one zero ordinate to another zero ordinate or if
the initial positive ordinate is equal to the final negative ordinate,
When a material is cut and deposited in a fill, it does not come to its original
volume. Initially when cut it expands in volume but finally when compressed by
overburden at the top, it may show a lesser volume or shrink. The shrinkage is
. usually 5 to 15% depending on the character of the material handled and the condition of.the ground on which the. embankment is placed, . The following terms are used- in computing the cost of earthwork utilizing mass haul curve. .
Haul; haul distance, average haul distance

"

They are all connected with movement of earth from one point to another usually from cut to fill. Haul distance is the. actual distance from the point of cut to the point of fill. Average haul distance is the distance between the centre of gravity of cut to the centre of gravity of fill. Haul, however, means productof volume of cut and average haul distance. It is also equal to the area between the mass haul curve and the balancing line. Haul is volume multiplied by distance. Hence its unit is m3 x m. However, it is usuallyexpressed as station meter which means 1 m3 of earth work moving through 1 station. .

. .

Free haul; overhaul

.

.

Contractor is to be paid. for carrying the excavated material.Usually two rates are
used for payment to the contractor. One "is based on free haul limit (distance) for

Areas and Yolumes 405
which thecontractor is notpaid any extra. Another is overhaul which is more than the free haul limit and for which contractor is to be paid extra.

Borrow and waste
Normally the balancing line is' so adjusted that the amount of cutand fill are equal. However, this may require long overhaul. Sometimes,' therefore. it is economical to fill an embankment by borrowing earthfrom outside.This is known as "borrow". Similarly sometimes it is wise to leavethe cut material in spoil banks when the transportation distance is verylarge and willinvolve largeoverhaul. This is known as "waste". . '

Limit of economic -haul (LEH)
"

,,'

It is the maximum limit of haul distance-beyond which it is not economical to use the material obtained from cuts. Beyond the limit of economic haul, it is more economical to waste the material or to take the: materials from the borrow pits than to haul it.

Lead and lift
Lead is the horizontal distance through which 'the excavated material is moved from the cut to the required embankment. Lift is the vertical distance through which an excavated material from a cut is moved to the requiredembankment, Lead and lift are general terms and can be used for any construction material, e.g. sand or cement.

Balancing line
If a horizontal line is drawn to intersect the mass haul curve at two points, excavation and embankment (with proper shrinkage correction) will be equal between the two stations represented by the point of intersection. Such a horizontal line is called a balancing line because the excavation balances the embankment between the two points at its ends. .' '. . .

Shrinkage
Earthwork.when cut occupies a greater volume than its original position. Solid rock when broken up occupies a much greater volume than its original value. However when placed on embankment and compacted the volume will be less. Except rock, the final result is usually shrinkage and a shrinkage factor has to be applied to the excavated volume to compute the volume of embankment that would be filled ·up. The shrinkage is usually 5 to 15%.

Swelling
As already explained, rocky soil when excavated usually expands in volume and the ratio of the expanded volume and the volume in in-situ condition is the swelling factor. Table 14.1 gives an idea of the expansion and contraction in volume when excavated and subsequently compacted,

I

t

406 Fundamentals of Surveying
Table 14.1 Expansion and Contraction in Volume (Volume before excavation 1 m3) Materia) Rock (large pieces) Rock (small pieces) Chalk Clay Light sandy soil Gravel Volume immediately after excavation m3 1.50 1.70 l.80 1.20 0.95 1.00 Volume after compaction m3
1.4v 1.35
1.40

"

0.90 0.89 0.92

14.8.1 USE OF THE MASS DIAGRAM The following points may be noted when using the mass diagram.
1. Points beyond which it is not feasible to haul material define the limits of .
a mass diagram. A limit point may be the beginning of a project, the end
of a project, the bank of a river or an edge of a deep ravine where a bridge
will be constructed. .

2. Since the ordinates to.the diagram' represent the algebraic sums of the
volumes of excavation and embankment referred to the initial ordinate. the
total volumes of the excavation and embankment will be equal where the final ordi nate equals the initial ordinate. If the final ordinate is greater than the initial ordinate, there is an excess of excavation, if it is less than the initial ordinate, the volume of embankment is greater and additional material must be obtained to complete the embankments. 3. Grade line is usuallyfixed keeping in mind that it should not exceed the
permissible limit. Balancing lines should be drawn over moderate distances.
Long balancing line though ensures balancing of earthwork may mean
longoverhaul distances and more cost: In such a caseit may be economical
to waste material at one place and obtain the volumes necessary for filling
. from borrow pits located along the right of way.' 4. Costing of earthwork may be computed by using a mass diagram. The
limit of economic haul (LEH) is the distance beyond which it is cheaper
to borrow or waste material. It is determined from the following:
LEH = Free haul distance + Costof excavation Cost of overhaul For example, if the free haul distance is 300 rn, the cost of excavation is Rs. 3/ .m3, the overhaul is Rs. 2 per station meter (I station meter is movement of 1 m3 of material through 1 station'say, 30 m)

~

..

... . LEH . =300 m + 3/2 x 30 .=345 rn, Suppose the distance is 400,m, i.e. 100 m beyond free haul distance.
., . 100 x 2
Cost,~f overhaul .;: . 30 = Rs. 6.67.'
.

'

I

Areas and Yolumes , 407

Cost of excavation =Rs. 3.00 .
.
"

Hence it will be more economical to take material from the borrow pit than to haul it from the cut. . Figure 14.29 shows the earth profile. gradeline and the mass haul curve. CD. FG and /1 are the balancing lines. To minimize cost the)' are not necessarily equal. The following information maybe obtained from a study of the mass-haul­ . curve.
C2

I.
A ~c _
I

:

I

'C=:i=::>'

,

I

IR I
Fig. U.29. E:lrth profile.. gradellne and mass haul curve.

K

,

.

(a) When the loop of a mass haul curve cut off by a balancing line is above that line, the excavated material must be moved forward to the right in the direction of the increasing abscissa. However, when the loop is below the balancing line. the material must be moved backwards to the left in the opposite direction. For. the balancing line.CD, the movement is from C to D as mass CIC.[ fills the void [dld2• For the balancing line FG, the movement is from G to F as the cut gtg2m fills the'void 112m. (b) Haul is product of volume of earthwork and distance of travel. Hence area of the mass haul curve above balancing line is the corresponding haul. For example, the area BCLDFTQSB in Fig. 14.29 indicates the total haul between Band F. Similarly the total haul between C and D is the area CLD. If CD .is the free haul distance, the volume of earth CS which will balance [he fill DT is beyond free haul limit and must be paid at the overhaul rate. (c) The c.g..of the volume of earth and the. distance tbrough which it should be moved can be obtained graphically as fol1ows. Bisect the line CS at U and draw the line UV parallel to the base cutting the mass haul curve at , V. Then \' is the c.g, of the portion BVCUS of the curve. Similarly Y is the c.g, of the R.H. Portion. Hence the overhaul distance is VY and the over hauled volume of earth work is CS. The overhaul distance is determined by (implicitly) assuming that centroid is the location at which it has equal volumes on both sides. Despite the simplicity. of determining the centroid by this procedure, it does not give the correct location of the centroid.The centroid. by definition, is the location at Which the moment of the total volume of the section about any point is equdl to the sum of the moments of incremental volume of that section about the same point. This does

-!

4U::S

r unaamentats

OJ ':>III"I'C,\ III~

not necessarily mean that the volumes on both sides of the centroid are equal. (d) The haul over any length is a minimum when the location of the balancing line is such that the arithmetic sum of areas cut off by it, ignoring the sign, is a minimum. (e) Wheneverthere is a vertical interval between successive balancing lines, there is a waste if the succeeding balancing line is above the preceding balancing line. If we consider AK as a balancing line, there is no waste or bOIT9Wing but the length BF beirig large there will be overhaul if the , length CD is the freehaullimit. But if we want to avoid overhaul and keep the balancing lines within freehaul limit as CD, FG and lJ, there will be waste or borrowing. As lJ is above FG,there is a waste of material between G and 1. Similarly there is borrow of material between D and F. (f) Minimum haul will not .always ensure minimum cost as in that case there , may be large waste and,borrow. Minimum cost will depend upon freehaul "distance, overhaul limitof economic haul; costof excavation andborrowing. Example 14.1 Distance Offset The following offsets were taken from a chain line to hedge:

o
9.4

20

40

10.8

13.6

60 11.2·

80 9.6.

120 8.4

160 7.5

220 6.3

280
4.6

d, =:: 20
d~

. /If, = 9.4 + 2 10.8

= 10.10
= 12.20 .

= 20

/11~

13.6 = 10.8 + 2

d3 ="20
d4 = 20 ds = 40 d 6 = 40 d7 = 60

.: '13.6 + 11.2 =] 2.40 /11) = 2

+ 9.6 M4 =11.2 2

= 10040

Ms =9.6 + 2 8,4 = 9.00
/.16

= 8.4 + 2 7.5

= 7.95

M, = 7.5 + _ 63 ;.. 6.90 M s, = 6.3 + _ 4.6

ds = 60

=5.45

Areas and Volumes 409

.. .

Total Area = Midi + M 2d2 + MJdJ + M~d~ + M5d 5

~

+ M6d6 + Midi + M sd3
, = (20 x '10.10) + (20 x 12.20) + (20 x "l2.~0) + (20x 10040)

+(40' x 9.00) +..(40 x 7.95) + (60x 6.90) + (60 x 5.45)
sq units.

= 2321

, (ii) Average ordinate rule:

Average ordinate = 9.4 + 10.8 + 13.6 + 11.2 +::.6 +8.4 + 7.5 + 63 + 4;6 ,

= 9.Q.44.
Area = 9.044 x 280

= 2532.32 sq units
(iii) As the intervals are not all equal, Simpson's rule should be applied in parts. By Simpson's rule, taking three at a time ",

, ,·',d ' ' Area = "3 [° 1 + 402+ 0 31
'~

Area from lst to 3rd Ordinates' ,

."

20
[9.4 + 4(10.8) + 13.6]
=3 =441.333

Area from 3rd to 5th ordinates
20 3

,=

[13.6 + 4(11.2) + 9.6]

= 453.333

Area from 5th to 7th ordinates,'

=

"40

3

' [9.6 + 4(8.4) + 7.51

= 676.000
Area from 7th to 9th ordinates:
"

60 =-

3

[7.5 + 4(6.3) + 4.6]

'

,
"

.
Hence total area

= 7-i6.00
= 4·H .333 + 453.333 + 676.000 + 746.00

=2316.67 sq. units

410 Fundamentals of Surveying

(iv) Trapezoidal rule
A

+ Oil =d ( 01 . 2

+ O2 + ... + 011_1)

1

-,

Considering 1st five ordinates
Al

=20 ( 9.4 + 2 9.6

+ 108· . + 136 . + 111)

= 902.00 Considering 5th to 7th ordinates .
. A2

=40.(9.6; 75 .=678.00

+ 8.4) .

Considering 7th to 9th ordinates

A3

~ 60 C~~ 4.6 ~ 63)

Total area

=741.00 =902.00 + 678.00 + 741.00.
= 2321.00 sq. units.

.

It can be observed from the above results that the mid ordinate rule and the trapezoidal rule give the same results, .

Example 14.2 The following perpendicular offsets in in are measured from a straight line to an irregular boundary at regular intervals of 10 m..
hi = 8.25 h 2 = 13.85 h3 12.25 hoi = 10.85 h s = 12.25
h6

=

= 13.60 1t 7 = 15.25 h g = 16.85 hI} = 14.95 h lo = 17.35

h ll = 20.05
hl'2.

= 15.90

h l 3 = 12.25

It.14

= 12.00

. Compute the area lying between the straight line and the irregular boundary by (i) Trapezoidal rule. (ii) Simpson's one-third rule (a) using hi as the first offset, (b) using h l 4 as the first offset. Solution (i) Trapezoidal rule
Area

. .

=,

d[ OI + 2·011 + 02"+.. -0

3

.. + +....

°]
II-I

l

_

·1 i ;

,

.

Areas and Yolumes 411

..

(ii) Simpson's 113rd rule: No. of ordinates must be odd.

(a) Using hI as, first offset and applying upto

"13'

1~ {8.25 + 12.25 + 4(13.85 + 10.85 + 13.60 + 16.85 + 17.35
+ 15.90) + 2(12.25 + 12.25 + 15.25 + 14.95 + 20.05)] = 1745.33 sq. m..
Area of last two offsets by trapezoidal rule .
= 12.25; 12.0 X 10

Hence : rule; A .= 10 3"
[ht~

= 121.25 Total area = 1866.58 m2

(b) Taking hl~ as first offset and h2 as last offset for applyingSimpson's

+ h 2 + 4(h t3 + h ll -+: h9 + h7 + hs + h3)

+ 2(h12 + h 10 + h08 +h 06 + ho.;)]

= 1~

[12 + 13.85 + 4(12.25 + 20.05 + 14.95 + 15.25 + 12.25 + 12.25)

+ 2(15.90 + 17.35 + 16.85 + 13.60 + 10.85)] = 1743.1667 m2 •
Area of last two offsets by trapezoidal rule

= 8.25; 13.85
•' 1

X

10 =? 110.5

Total area = 1853.67 m2• Example 14.3 A closed traverse ABCDA is run along the boundaries of a built­ up area with the following results: Side AB BC CD DA

.
,"

. .

;,

W.C.B. 69°55' 166"57' 244°20' 3-l-7" 17'

Length 262.0 155.0 268.0 181.0

Coordinate the stations B, C and D on A as origin and calculate the area of the traverse in hectares by'
(i) Meridian distance method. (ii) Double meridian distance method. (iii) Double parallel distance method.

.'

(iv) Departure and total latitude method. (v) Coordinate method. . .Solution The computation of independent coordinates of the points B, C and D with A as origin is shown in Table 14.2. (i) Meridian distance method gives

84 . 500 C CD J) D/\ A 500.55 323.04 (+ 0.. •• ..'.84 b n IJC 155. Example 14.3 Departure Independent Coordiuates N in m 1\ Quadrantal bearing N Latitude s E w s E 500.35) 590... ~". .39 539.60 L 267.50) (+ 0. " e nUl l :lIillil • .10 176.00 116. 246. ~ n .04 (+ 0."w· r.·I~ 1 'WiJillifltHifl ' .04 281.r:.­ w ..2 Stiltion Line Length W. . . • i .'- . '" § ._[[...• f "ruble 14..0 69°55' . wi' :'. N 69°55'E 90. ~ '.25) .' .0 268. ..00 '439.39 : + (0.0 11\1.10 L 281.39 781.00 ».0 166°57' 244°20' 347°17' S 13°03'E " S 64"2O'W N 12°43'W 35.. . 1''nitW II • !.35) ::s Adjustment of computational error is shown in parentheses. ~ !~ . '1:1 L 266.00 W 500 AD 262..19 39.: ~.56 (+ 0.29 746.--------- .25) 151.·']~rfflrr~':~lr7trr.C.D.': '.29 241..

:: .281.29 439.29 .500 x 539.84 500.39) .84) .60..46· m2 .29 D 323..39.:: 43849.00 590.' ~ • .LHence area .71) x (.29 = 443.915 .l51. . .39 + 35.590.60.39 781.81 . ' . (iv) Departure and total latitude method: The formula is 87698.81 + 176.29 x 781.:: (500 x 746.84 + 176.:: 90.29 x 500) + (590. 4. 24-1.:: 4.151."114 r unaamentats OJ Surveying (iii) Double parallel distance method: Line Latitude Double parallel Distance Departure D pD x Dep.00 .:: 246.D .00 =.:: . Total latitudes of points B.81 Algebraic sum of the departures of the two lines meeting at B. + 109374.71 . D with reference to the reference point A is B .55 .206.39 539. C.81 + 90.20 .XBYA) + (XsYc"'-XcYs) + (XCYD-XDYC> + (XDYA -X.00 .206.19 2 Area. • DA AB BC CD + l76.19 x 781.:: (XAYB. 539.241..:: ~ total latitude of a point x (algebraic sum of two adjacent departures).55 .:: 43849.11 . 39.98 + 134p. '. + (323.29 - 151. C.28043.38 hectare.00 746. point (v) Coordinate method. .29 .39 .:: .60.38 hectare.20 + 35.176.00 ' ­ 116:10 + 176.29 x 281.29 x 746.:: 35 -.7044.:: 281.00 : '383. Dare B .:: 8769~.91 + 90.:: 90}9 C =90.39) + (439.71 D .84 . Coordinates of A B C X Y 500.29 ..95 .39 2 Area.10 .15LOO = 383.915 2A .32 m2 Area .16 m2 .116.39 443.:: 87698.323.29 x.39 + (.00 ­ 116.241.39 .55 .81 + 90.39) .91 + 246.19 x 500 .o\YD) ..:: 281.:: .81) x (.10 == 116.10.:: 0 + 90.55­ .55) + (-176.C.39":" 439.84 .

A :: M(F..38 hectares-. The anchor point was placed inside the figure and the tracing pointwas moved in the clockwise direction along the outline'. . Therefore.7.6 Find the area of the zero circle from the following observations.R.=87704 m2 Example 14.R.4 planimeter. ~ =78050 + 133370 .R. ":" I.' .. :: 100(2.462 .R ± 10 Iv) I-!ere N =3 and the sign is plus as the zero mark passed iii the clockwisedirection.J and Yolumes 415 .R. .. 15391 .placed outside the plan and [he tracing point was moved in the clockwise direction. ± ION + C) ..5) :: 517.462 . Final reading 1. Area ='43852 m2 = 4.Art'Q.. Initial reading Final reading M ·c :: 20. . . Calculate.R. = 23.' .5· Determine the area of a figure from the following readings of a planimeter.the area of a plan from the following readings of a Initial reading 7. . . .I.90 cm 2 Example 14.5 =100 cm2 =2:141 = 7. 7. The zero of the disc passed the fixed index mark thrice in the clockwisedirection.218.762 m2 Example 14.anticlockwise direction.: . The anchor point was.141 ... Therefore A =' 100(1. ± 10 N + C) = = As the anchor point was placed 'outside the plan C =O.456 + 30) .I.456.108325. - . Solution In this case N:: 1 and the sign for N isnegative as the zero mark passed in the anticlockwise direction. . A :: M(F.. 10 + 20. Take M = 100 cm2 (i) anchor point outside the figure: . Take M =100 cm2 Solution A = M(F. The zero mark of the disc passed once in the.' .218 .

R.432 The zero of the disc passed the fixed index mark twice in the anticlockwise direction. Solution (i) As anchor point is outside' the figure . -r.7 .25 Area of zero circle = 24.432 . .R.412 The zero of the disc passed the fixed index mark once in the clockwise direction.722.452 + 10) = 596 cm2 (ii) With anchor point inside A 596 =M(F. 8 .7.. (ii) Anchor point inside the figure Initial reading 3. ± ION + C) =100(5. BC S 80eE eOQ' 122 m. . 14. ..I.25 x 100 =2425 cm2 Example 14.20 + C) .722 Final reading 5.. C ~O A = M(F. or C = 24." -- ~"'- . ... CD N35 W 61 m and DA a circular are tangent to CD at point D (Fig.-.30(a». 14.3.l.30(a) Example 14.R. = 100(3. C Fig.7..411 .R. j o r unaanicntats oj Surveying Initial reading 70452 Final reading 3. ± ION) .Calculate the area of a piece of property bounded by a traverse and circular arc described as follows: AB S 4Q DO O'W 122 m. .

I f .67 6.96 93.x.' I S 40000'W S 80°00'E N 35°00' W· 49.98 49..42 y B C D + 41.0 y °= 0 .14. 0) Coordinates of x .45 .34) _ 32.74 x = .64.63 = 64.9. = 114.63 120.(.67! + 6.4=.63 .114..67) ·0.18 120.74 =- .74 .t' Equation of a line perpendicular to AD I y = 959...40 Latitude of DA Departure of DA.93.96 = 120. .42 ! 1:' .45 21.96 . 64.74 2 Bearing of DA = N tan-I .14 34. y- . .32.02 Length of D.0_ 6~7~ W 5°55' =N 5°55'W Angle between CD and DA Taking coordinates of A(O.6.-erse Table Bearing N S E 1 Length 122 122 61 W 78.74W = 65.67 Equation of the line AD .Areas~d Volumes 417 ! ~ Solution Line AB BC CD DA Gale's Tra. 114.40 = 6.113.67N 49.78.64.34 = 1 ~]~7 + C .J64.37.t + C when the line passes through midpoint of AD whose coordinates are (+ 3.59. =35°00' = 29°05' 6:>.14· 113.72 + 6.

line then becomes y =+ 1. (.128 x + c' when passing through the point 6.64.4.26 = 66.9~9.69 Equation of line CD .74.'61.74.72. Point of intersection of this line with the perpendicular bisector of AD can be obtained by solving simultaneously the two equations: Y = .72 or .95 Length of radius of the curve = .~ 18 Fundamentals of Surveylng or C = .63 '-.'_. x . (.58 2.6939 .67) Equation of the line CD is .+ 2626 2 Area of sector A = R2 (rr8 _sin2 8) 360 .17° .67) 41.39 Equation of the.41.67) c' =. x· 69"'9 Y = 1.63)-114. y .26. Hence 8 = 58°10' = 58.428x . D 6.428 .6.58 y =.~ Solution gives the coordinates of the point of intersection x =+ 61.64.55.32.72. (.74 ' = y =. (.114.69.69 Equation of the line then becomes y X = 9.05 Equation of a line perpendicuar to CD )' = + 1.(-114. 1. • where 8 = angle subtended at centre in degrees.8 .(64.59 "'? . Coordinates-of C 41.63).69 ' . R = radius of circle: Here 8/2 = 29°05' .32.

.14 + 85.) + (XsY. 2·' • = 371. Area ~+' 10962.l6 m~ = 5:261.50) 2 = 5481. List in order [he length and bearings of all sides for each parcel. .952 (1rX 2 x29.50 = t x (10962.66 .45 .~YD) 0 x (.14) + (85. Refer .67 2 Area = (X.510963 hectare Example 14.2&+ 3898.16 x 21. (-78.659..XsYo) = (+ 25.78..67) .-J .5 Difference = 2630. Coordinates ofB.(0)(-64. Area of circular portion = 371.78 2 Area = (XsYe ..e.03 + 772.25 .Areas and Volumes 419 .93.18 + 28..XeY s) + (X. is greater than 1/2 the area..64. Area =2630. 78..74)(·· 114.XoYc) ..93. C and Dare x B . 360 .42) x 0 + (.67) = 0 .(+.618 Hence net area « 5109.8 Divide the area of the plot in two equa] parts by a line through point B. A = 66.:.18) . C D 0 + 120..XoY.63) _ (+ 41. Solution Join BD.42 + 41.09 _ sin 58J7) .XsY.63 .632 .72 + 6~74 0 .Y o .72)(-: 93..7-1)(0) .21. i.) + (XoYs .6.60 . 510911 = 255~.3l8 m2 1 01 __ -.618 Area in terms of coordinates w X A Y B C D 0 .50 = 76. to the plot of Example 14.64.73 -: 2698.XcYs) + (XcYo .~Ys .0 + 8989.45) +: (+ 41.16 Y 0 .72)(. m = 0. (XoY" -X.45) .114.78 x 120.7. .2554..42)(-114.63) = + (+ 6.

' =tan"' ~~:~~ = S 71.00 90./ BD2 + DE2 . ' Example 14.420 Fllndamemals of Surveying Let area of triangle BED = 76.7 m.24 90.16 = 89.9 Partition the area given in Example 14. BE ' _ 1.78 2 + 85. Solution Draw DE parallel to BC (Fig.7 into two equal areas by a line parallel to BC.32°W Bearing of DE =Bearing' ot'V.16 2 " = S9.40 rn. BE = .30b). The traverse table for the quadrilateral BCDE is given below: v i L_ . . 14.89 sin 106.:' = S 35°00'E ~ BD ·DE· .32° =90.76 122 59.40 . BE DE sin 10632 = sin DBE sin DBE = DE· sin 106.32° + 35° = 106. AB DBE = 1.32 .2' S 40000W N n023'E N 35°OQ'W S SooOO'E N 35°OQ'W S n023'W. 122..2BD . Length of BD = .76 2 Again or 2 x 89.-128.892 + 1. or Length and bearing of lines.76 x sin 10632 _ 01S'6 90040 .sin BDE Angle between DB and DE = 71.40 BE ED BC CE EB 1. cos BDE 6 = ~89.32 = 1.S9 Bearing of DB nl. DE .89 x 1.16 m2 Length and bearing of line BD.32° Area of triangle BDe"= or DE= 2 ~ area' BDsmBDE .07° = 1°4.76 cos 106.2 x 76.<. Tabulate in clockwise consecutive order the lengths and bearings of all sides.

18 D 80.87 1 2 =48. Draw FG parallel to DE so that area DEFG = 1065.96 0. 14.78 x 31.90 = 1065.766/2 Since BCDE is a closed traverse I 49." C Fig.98 .00) = =7241.21.642l 2 = 0 A I I ..82 . 8 .17lj .9. 2 Area (120.82 m2 .26 x 80. Latitude :N S' Departure W E 120.18 x 80.92 m! .18) + (28.00 0.14.84) =2554.96 + 0.18 =0 120.30(b) Example 14.98/1 0.00 .2937...14 --39.98 0.0. 39.92. Solving II = 49.981 1 -0.2554. Bearings . This is more than ~ (total area) = ~ (5109..(37.14) ..14 -21.(.17/1 0.65 " ~ Area = 3620.14 x 0) .16) .26 x 0.642l 2 · Be CD DE EB 122 61 11 12 S 80"00'E N 35"00'W N SO"OO'\-\' S 40"00'W ·2U8 49.766l2 .(28.· Areas and Volumes 421 Line Length Quadrantal .21.26 B 00..9 m2• Difference in area = 3620.16) + (37.16 28.(0 x 21.29 x 0) .78 x 120.64 x y Independent coordinates of points B O O C .120.. 0.29) + (31.78 E 31.

----+1 Fig.10 Prepare a table of end areas versus depth of fill from 0 to 10 m by increments of 1 m for level sections 20 m wide level road bed and side slopes 2 to 1 (Fig. We have area = h(b + nh): Here b area =.35°) .80°) .90° =49. Hence .788h2 or h=16.577) = 76.16.r­ 422 Fundamentals of Surveying 1 /' II 1 .16 76.(180° . t I h ~ I-Solution 20 m .tan 17 of '2 h: tan ~ hl = DE x h + 2 [tan e + tan t/J] Here DE = 49. FG =49. "" 't/J '= (360° .31).87 e = 80°00' + 40°00' Hence 1065. = DE x h + '2 1.8~ = 49.48 .64 .48 BF = BE .87 + 16.87· GC = DC .:: 29.DG = 61 _ 16. .07" Bearing N 80°00'W N 40°00'E N 80°00'W S 35°00'E GC Example 14.92 90°00' =30° =45° .31 Example 14.16 " cos Length" and Bearing of Sides Line CB BF FG Length 122 29.10. 14.87 x (1.07 cos 4:>° ..48 49. h[20 + 2h] = 10 m and n = 2. 14. = 49.~~~ = 48.87h + 0.FE = 48.87 x lz + T h2 [tan 30° + tan 45°] .64 .19.

.. -i 2. 1·t32 Example i·u I.2.12 For the data listed. . Use a shrinkage factor of 1. .3) + 1.+ W2)] Area atsection 52+ 00 =tH (0. Draw the cross sections and compute volumes by average end area method (Fig: 14. fill and cumulative volumes in Cut between stations 10 + 00 and 20 + 00. 1.5 t­ -1. ~.755 m:! • Assuming station distance 30 rn. tabulate cut. i ( • III Volume = t (7.5 -1-2. C 1...48 78 112 150 hem} Are3 (m:!) • 0 1 2 6' 192 3 4 7 8 9 10 238 2S8 342 400 5 I Example 14. .. Example U.5 4.2 1. Notes giving distance from centreline and cut ordinates for stations 52 + 00 and 53 + 00 are c 0.755) x 30 = 238.".1. Fig.8/4.5-1 4.5.1)] =7.0(42+5.1 (b) '-J (a) Section at 52 + 00. Area = J[~ (ItI + hz) + h(w 1 . C 1.2/5.1)] = 8.3 r- .I f ~ Areas and Yolumes 423 The results are given intabular fonn below: .30 for cuts.5.8 + 1.11.575 m~ t .32}.2)+ 1.15 m 2 Area at section 53 + 00 = t [~(1.7 .2. C 1. An irrigation ditch is with b = 5 m and side slopes 2 to 1.15 + 8.7. C 1.2. " . (b) Section at 53 + 00.3/5. .1 -I (a) 1- f.2.2(4. .7 + 5.1 and C 1/4. Take 30 m stations. hem} Area (m:!) 0 22 .0 + 1.0.

12 End area m2 . Determine the end area graphically by counting squares e . Fill Cut volume .6' 34. 00.3 .801.29 .6 + 816.0 + 1525..6 ·00. .60 .6 + 00 17+ 00 18 + 00 19 + 00 31.1249.29 . H·I. 30.6 and 14 + 13.30 11.5 13 + 00 14 + 00 14 + 13.0 + 534. by end area methods.1. =324.77 + 00 34.0 . 11 + 00 12 19.6 00.­ Volume Cut Station 10 + 00 .76 + 694.448. .0 . section on graph paper and superimpose upon it a design template for a 10 m wide road bed with fill slopes of3:1 and a subgrade elevation at centre line of 324.69 +778.5 +146.29 .Example 14.124.7 14.4 + 997.8 31.77 + 150.50 18.50 15.129.0 Station 15 + 00 16 + 00 17 + 00 18 + 00 19 + 00 20 -7 00 End area (m2) Fill Cut 12Aq 23..00 + 150.3 Cumulative Volume 0.30 . 14 + 00 and 14 + 13.13 From the following excerpts from field notes (i) Plot the cross .30 +2192.0 ' + 718.6 15 + 00 1.80 30.0 Solution Table 14. Fill ' Cut 0 +196.8 + 767. .90 m. -.00 14.21 - .0 + 627. .543. Others are" computed .672.40 . -847:5 + 2068.12 rn .807.6 and 15 + 00 are computed as 1/3 base x altitude.5 11.80 :.7 .0 12.99 + 112.60 :20 + 00 .71 The volumes between stations 10'+ 00 and 11 + 00. .29 00. Example 14.0 " 23.21 .23 + 2079. Cut Fill 0 19..00 26.30 + 1545.6 " End area (m2) . .424 Fundamenials of Sun-eying Station 10 + 00 11 + 00 12 + 00 13 + 00 14 + 00 14 +13.00 . 26.

7 23 10.•.42 ~ \.0'17 (ii) Also calculate slope intercepts and determine the end area b)' coordinate method.82 .23 m. + 1. 425 .0 C·L To. 14..I ..L.• 20 + 00 1.0· 2.64 m Change of slope between C'E and CE 0...-'" : :~ .0 322.057.82 22 4.O 2. L 4. slope of line FE= l= 0..81·m =0.:. ..7 2. Solution (i) Elevations of the points are obtained by subtracting corresponding rod reading from the H • T. ··7 7· . RoL. .40 = 0.057 + 0.0 321.52 20 + 00 L. . + .6 1.321..5 x ~ = 323.• IT 7.42= 0.• The vertical distance CC' is covered in a horizontal distance of ~1~0:· '".91 321. ..•.33 slope of lineCD= 321.333.0 1.7 IT 23 The cross section is plotted in Fig. of point C =321.12· 2. Check by computing areas of triangles' and trapezoids...2 2. of the levelling instrument.7 7. The new data can be written as follows: 322.0 C.33: '" ! i Fig.90 .42 321. R.. I Art'dS and Yolumes . ~ CC' = 1..390 ~~~ =4.. of point C' = 324.42 1..333 · i •. 14.6 IT 322.

. . . . .321. of J = . . · . .. .333) = 320. . .5)(0. ·.. .. . 32252 10 . . . . . . . . . 7 Hence O. . . ..47. ..... . -t t • .. · : .. .... .64 m. ..001 sIope 0 f JH .90 - (14.5)(0.. .333) = '324. . . ... " ...90 . .. I •• I . .. . .. .. . .34 Cross Section Example 14. . .K. .L. .64 = 14.42 + (321'. . .. .814m. . Fig•. I" .1. .. ... . . . ' . . . .. " . . . fill . of H (from G) = 324. . ·. . .. ... .. . " .. . . •• ' ·. · · . .L. . .288) x Hence O. . . tu: of H = 322.333) = 3. . ·. change . ·.. ' . this vertical distance is covered in a horizontal . I" .. .685 R. . . .288 ". . Vertical distance KE = (14. ·.. . ... .42) . ... . .343.234 •• r r'.. . .64 .. " .... . ... .. .. . ..420 . ..904. .distance of 1. of E (from F) = 324.814/0.. 'I' .. .. x 4. R. I .90 -(7 . . . .322. ·.....' Check R.. · .. ..42 .90 - (17 ..5) x j = 321.. .L. . . of r == 324. . .. . ..42 x 5188 =322. . .... This is lower than the level of H which means fi' lies between Hand J. . ·.. . .. .. . . . . . .. " . of ..L.14...82 .. .. . . . . . ..3~2.. slope of Glf = 0. . " . .K.. .. . ..64 . .333 = 0. . . . .(7.R. . .' . . . ·. ..42 + 0.. ..21 m. ~ .13 (large scale).. .343 = 5. . .343. .472 m R.333. of r = 324. . '" .... . .. '.... ' . . . .L... . ..686 . . . . . JJ' = l. . .T..322. .. . ... . . . .. . . of E (from C) = 321.. • R.052 =322. ' . . j = 327. . .64 = 321.:. . .. . . ..42'+ 322~127 -=.of slope = om + 0.426 Fundamentals of Surveying Hence horizontal coordinate of E = 10 + 4. .5)(0. . .. .With change of slope 0.

.. . • .. ." ' .Ol=="=""-~f-t ~-::.35 Coordinates of controlling points.2..21 " ' . ' . .' . . . ..00 . . ' . . " .43 .. ' ...41 " . I ." .00 4. . ""." ' . .1~. . . .03 53. i! ' . '2 (2. .8.. .48) x 7. .. .Computations 1 "'... ' . . . . " -. . I.48 l' x 5. . .78+ 2.. . .. .. . . . . . . . . . . ' ' ." . . . ' ' ......5. ' .64 10.00 -7.. ! " . . ' ' '.. .48 x 4. . . I. . ' . . . " . ' . . . Figure HU. J 0.29'.98 + 3...Areas and Volumes 427 • " Area bytrapezoids and triangles. . Example 14.00 0. . . . ." .00 F E C B 14. . . .. .. . . " . . ' . . I . . 6. .+~~ . .. (Fig. A. .00 5.' '... 1 L52 19. . . . . ... . . . " " . ' . . . .'.. ' . " . ' \ . . . LKAJ KNBA NMCB MEC "'2 (2. I.00 . . . ' . ' . .' . ' .· . .• I .. .." . 14.00 1 (2. I. . .. ... . ' .. "'. . .'. . .. .' ' ' : . 2" .- . . ' """j' . . ' .. '" .56 18. .48) x 6. ' .. ' -'-~ ' I. . .. I .. " . " .#..98) x 4. : . \4..' .38 8. I. . '-. . .00 l. ' . •• I.35) .00 " 1 ' ' . . ' .. ' . . ' . . . . -"!. . . ' . ' Fig.. ....x 2. .-I '" I' . .. .64 .29 H G K ." . .' .. . . . .1/2 x 2 x 2. . ' ".1/2 x 5 x 3. ! ' ' '. . ! : " ... ' "I'll • ' . --:: . '. .' ".! " . . : . . . . .07 .43 .78 + 2. ..' Area. .' . . . . .." . . . .'... .00 '2 x 3. .. ~ .. .12.. .48 m2 1 "2 ' -HLG -EFM Area by coordinates Point K X 0.. ' '. . .'.

9 5.0) +. 4. 46 + 23 -0­ F2.6) = 18.98 106. ': 18--" .6 "0 -0­ 6:6 C2.50 189.7 T .l CO.6) + T (5. + d r) Station 43 + 00 43 + 13 44+00 .2 + 6. .)".: 106.6 T Cl.8 190.43" FO. L .77 Cross section . The road bed is 8 m in cut and 7 m in fill and the side slopes are 1:1 in cut and 11/ 2: 1 in fill.0) = 26.90.64 190.2 .07 .7 -0­ eo.7 -0­ 79 For a three level section.4 C2.9 C2.24 190.6 .3 53 C12 52 Cl.0 192.O FO.4 191. CO. 2.8 FO.9 0 Cl.91 .6· 189.4 5.9 Cl.14 From the accompanying final-cress section notes compute the total volume of cut and the total volume of fill between station 43 + 00 and station ·48 + 00 by the average end area method.0 Fl.8 -0­ FO.l 8.40 190. 189.44 190.6 -0­ 4:l C1.0 F1.9 + 7. Example 14.9) + Area =30.1 188.0 4.9 49 Cl.7 0 46 + 00 45 + 27 45 + 00 44 + 15· ·44+00 43 + 13 43 + 00 Solution FO. T (5.22C. 8/4(1. .9) '. 2.9 + 3.20 193.6 ---::w C3.2 189.6 192. 8/4~1.1 .6 4.23C.·r 428 Fundamentals of Sum:ying Twice total area = .74 189.8· 6:6 C2.50 Grade Elevation 189.9 C3.98 Area = 2·"49 m2 =.6 5:7 51 F1. (5.6 e R 48 + 00 47 + 00 -.o C1.40 189.9 + 3. the area is given by A f =b14(f.0 CO. Station Ground Elevation 187. F3.S0 190.2 33 CO.8 61 C2.2 193.57C. 8/4(1. + fr~ + 2" Cd.2 + 2.9 + 7.0 5.O .3 .16.

7) =23.8.'+ 1851 ~ 1268 x 15+ 12.3+ 6.62 ~ 1.03 ..9 ' cOS5 "0 9J and f: . T (·t7 + 6. 14. are the distances to the left and right.0 c2.36 = . (b) theprisrnoidal formula.7 e2.10F. (4~0 ' =5.62C. dr) J.0) + 2 (4.51C. b + e.68 .36 m3 2 2 1 x 11 x 3 3 + 11 + 312 X 23 + 3"2 x 8.62 x 27 + 5. ..3) = 8.68C.3 + 2.4)+ If (5. +t· dr) fn which ff ' are the fill at the left and right edge of the road bed respectively.6) + 814{0. 8/4(0. + c .0 + 0. and d.0 11.23 + 2657 'x 13 + 2657 + 1822 x 17 + 18.4 '.0 + 1.15 Given the following five level sections compute the volume of earthwork lyingbetween them by (a) the average endarea method.6 .6) +2" (S.6 . and d.0 . " . T + 5.2-F.Areas and Yolumes ' .8 + 3..7 + 2.9) + "'0 (4.8 8/4(1.2F + 1.8 0 cO.!.9 m3 Example 14.7) +2 (5. 0.' " S/4(1. -' "0. d.6 8. 0. As the section is cut the symbol c should be substituted for f Area A = t (el .7 + 4.9) =1.9 x 23 Volume offill =1532.00 e1.3) = 3.1 x 30 =568.:" ~: . 23.90 x 3 + ~ x 1.4) .6) + 8/4(0.1) = 12.0 cOS 8.O + 5.1) + 8/4(0.2 + 4.6 + 0.: 5.0 c2.0 Volume of cut 30.60F.60 x 7 +' 8. 2. 2 <to d. 8/4(3.22 + 1851 x 15 2 2 2 .0 8.9 C.1 + 1. Solution The area of Fig. . Compute the side slopes Station 44 + 00 c31 142 Station 45 + 00 c15 103 f" e3.6) = 12 18.429 44 + 15 45 + 00 45+ 27 46 + 00 46 + 23 47 +00 48 + 00 8/4(1. + lb. .

Hence.1 _ 8 . _ 055 1.0 A Stati~n '15 . . =t x 30(62.1)= 13. The road bed width is 20 m and the side slopes 11/ 2:1. r '.1 F2.02 m2 ' 2 Station 45 + ()~ A =' ~ (1 x 10.36 Example 14.2 _ 8 = '2 .6 123 9.4 F6. (a) the average end area method. F23F3. ABC DE FG H Station 15 + 00' Fl.7 63 2.02) ~ 1125.01 + 13..4 x 142+ 2. 1-­ Station 44 + 00 A. .2 c1.0 3.1 1 = d.1"'1 - 9.7 .0 0. c. --1­ " Fig.7 9. (b) by the prismoidal formula.25 8.6 x 1t9) ::: 62.ill n.1 20.2 x 1225 + 175 x 16 + 15 x'105) = 35.01 +13. Right hand side slope = .7 X 16 + 05 Volume by average end area .0 10.00 8. . of the end sections.75 er.3 c2. 1 .8 103 7.9 12.9 n.7 F2. d. dimensions of the middlesection are taken as mean of the corresponding dimensions . Area =t (2.C D E' F G + 15 fl.8 @ 12.5' o· 45 14. .bl2 =14.6 F4.15. .3 +0.16 Given the following notes for three irregular sections.1 .o F4..01 m x 9.B .5 .15 Example 14. _c.7 . Left hand side slope .8 x 16 + 2.45 3.5 F23.2 -1 . J (3. M c2.28 12. Volume by prismoidal rule Since the area of the middle section is not given.430 Funadn2enrals of Surveying 1­ ~ 1- b I -.s c1. . 14.= . compute the volume of earthwork lying between station 15 and station 16 by.02 + 4 x 3535) = 1082.35· V = Ii (62.l F3.

1 ." AmLS and Yolumes 431 A . 14.~G' F' D' E' Fig.9.1 (63 ~ 2. 1 1 11 =.3 1.5 .0 = 56.33.2"x .81.- -- H ~ . '-- . · JVt .38 A BI C I D 3.1 _ 4.6.= 4.31.0) .5 =-10 .6.1'15 .• 'S.63) + 23 ~ 3.5! 23 x (123 .= . 6. C· D' E . 2. 10..4 ~ 6.. H' Fig.45 .7 ~ 2.. .5) + 4. 14.5 =-1 =1:­ 11 = 12.6 f13 FO..5 2 ' . .7· .. . 51 ope 0 f 1 me ri = 6. ' i 2.7) + 23(9.. 6. 14.6.. 2 .. .10 10 1.37 A E F i I 2~6 J G " .8_ 2.1 I I ' I :3~~.7 .6. the dJIJ with proper sign C3n be plotted :IS in Fig..8 _1. Solution Taking the origin at E.82 + 11. 6.9 1'1­ = 12.6 +32.01 m2 Station 15+15 The data can be plotted as in Fig.. 1.5 F3..10. G.1 .7 .7(2j_.4 . '7 __ 11'\ - 1.5 _ 0) + 2.:> Slope of H G' = 1.7 20 0 3.0 .16. = . C' ----13. 14.. Ar~a= 1.S Fl. H Station 16 + 00 FO. Slope of lA' 1.9 .6 (4.73 .10 =18 _.~ x (20..= : ­ 20 .6 I I I E' F' .9 9. 4.9 lOA 15.94 +7.38 Example }·U6.' 6..0) + 2.37 Example 14.F. 2.4 (14...93 + 33.1 E I F H G .7 F3..0 _ 14. · lA' Slope 0 f 1 lne 1.5) + 3.10) 1 ..1) - t x 15 x (123 ..? Fl.4 r>.6 (20.

10.22 ~2• .4)(151 .1 -: 3.0) + 3. + 30. 14. H' 0.8 _ 10.7 (103 .7.6 m I .6)(10.4 - 1 .9 .7 .7:. .39.13.9.• .8 -10) .1 = .7 + 3.6) + t (13 + 0.7 -10) =4.4)(3.8 (9..9) t (25 + 3.66 .7)(2. 0.87 +8.6.9 ='. 14.1 (7. I 2 • . _ 1n =.'2 (3.39 Example 14. 3.9 - 1 . H D' IE' p G' -I' Fig.9)(12.7 .0) 1 .00) + '2 (3.10 = 5.39 + 7.8 (12.4)(15.4· .47 + 21.10. 0.0 ~ 4.432 Fundamentals of Surveying Area = 1.6 .03 + 11.7 .8(12. Area = t + + + (0.9.6 + 13)(10. .9 .9) .8 ~ 1. Station 16 +00.4 + 25)(10.t·(1.6.7 _ 0) + 3.9 -: 2.0 .6 1'15 JA' = 1n 0 51 .3.3) + 2.7) + 4.1(3.4 1'15 IH' = 15. : 3.8)(9.2.1 .7) + 3.0) + '2 (1.7 + 1.2.lOA) - t (0.2.0) '2 (1.43 The data can be plotted as in Fig. 0. (a) Volume by average end area method .0) =47.9 _ 3.0 (12.8 + 17)(6.71 = 79. ope .16.7) 1 1 ' '2 (0.t x 1.84 .

~ Area of cut = too 16 b) '.Areas and Volumes 433 V" = 2" (56. Calculate the total volume of earthwork in a length of 200 m. V =1965.the fill in the latter case.b) orx = .60) = 2102.50 h1J • Example 14.. Solution From cut.17 -Astraight level road is to be constructed on a plane hillside with a lateral slope uniformly 9 horizontally to 1 vertically.17.. the side slopes being like wise 1:1 and 2:1 in cut and fill respectively and the formation width is 10 m. .1: .22 + ·n:60)(15) . (i) when the areas of cut and fill in each cross section are equal.(>1 + 4(79. and (ii) when the total earthwork in each cross section is a minimum stating the volume of cut in excess of .:.40 Example 14.--"""" 8 . 14. 1 1O-b+:I:' 9 --=­ :1: (10 .22)(~5) . br ~ :. . '1 ' .22)+ 47. ' " .....375 mJ • (b) Volume by prisrnoidal rule = Ii (56. )' 1 --=­ 2y + b 9 tW . I I I IX I I Fig...01 + 79. = (10 From fill. !. ' '+t (79.

(10 .434 Fundamentals of Surveying or y = bn Area .45 = 666. . ..55 m:. the original surface of the ground being approximately level.b)2 b2 14 '10 .b)(-I) + 2b = 0 16.cut .41).the excavation to be entirely on the inside of the curveand to retain the existing side slopes of 11/ 2 horizontal to 1 vertical.= 1.' = . calculatethe volume of earth to be removed in this length.00 m3• 16 \~- ~ x 200 3• m = 311.b =5. =\~2 = 1. 14 b = 4.U. 517 2 Area of ..!.-----:'.... The cutting is to be widened by increasing the formation width from 6 m to 9 rn. £. .17 .. . E = (10 . Total volume of earthwork Excess of cut over fill '= 43..18 The centre line of a highway cutting is on a curve of 120 m radius.b)2 + b 16 This will be minimurri when dE db= 0 14 or or Volume of cut = Volume of fill = 2(10 . [t.10 m over a length of 90 m (Fig.55 m3• Example 14. b .' (i) Since areas of cut and fill are equal.!.. .:. . 16 Area of fill =-'.67)'2 x 200 = 355. v =.] ~ • .67 .67 m. 2 7 =­ 14 b 2 .83 (10 . 2 . b .=­ 16 Solving b = 4. 14.4. If the depth of formation increases uniformly from 2.40 m to 5.67 2 (ii) Total earthwork.

65 . .6= 6.41 Example 14..3 m Fig.65-1 r----: 5. t (AI + A~) .g9 = 84. 2 == 8.3 m or . Solution el =6+ 2 6. .6 6. I '2 1 (7.52 m. at the end-~ =3 x 5. 1. I 3 \J + 3-1 92 . 3 +9. Volume swept = L» . .1 =15.' 6.69 m.' I I I I' 2 • I---- (b) Cross section.85 m3 .2 m2• 1---13. '" • . Length of the path of centroid = 90 x 1~~.40 9.I .6 =t4 I r-3 ~~3m-+-3 m_1 : 91 - 1 (a) Cross section at the beginning-AI =2. From Fig.6 = "..3 om.6 + 2 3 + 13.33 m. \ r- I t t 3 -J.65 . 14. . 10. Areas and Yolumes 435 J== .41. =833 m 'or =.4 )( 3 = 7."(6.2 e2 10...10 .' = 84. " r-iean radi IUS 0 .I I i' f.3) = 950.65.2 + 15.18. f f the path 0 f centro: "d 0 f new excavation .3"0 + =120 2 833) = 112..2.52 x . 14.

000 164. Volume= ~ [(476000 + 1000) ~ 2(431000 + 377000 + 296000 + 219000 + 164000 + 84000 + 10000)] . 219 + 296 .000)]. Volume =~ [1~ + 219. the trapezoidal formula can be straightaway used.19 The areas within the contour Jines at the site of a reservoir are as follows: Contour (m) at 158 156 154 152 150 148 146 .000 + 164..627 x (106) m3• Up to 150 m.= 3.000) + 2(84. By prismoidal formula.000 377.-. . 154 m.800.' .000) + 2(10. 3• Hence the level of water lies-between 152 m and. Volu~e = ~[{476000 + 1000) + 4{lO. 144 142 Area (m~) .. 3.000 m3• Solution Since the contours are at regular interval of 2 rn.000)] (lcY) = 736 x Up to 154 m Volume in3• (1cY) +.. i I .000 431.2 .· Calculate (a) the volume of water in the reservoir when the water level is 158 m using the end area method..000 296.000 + 84. + 296 + 377' x 2 2 x{l~ = 1924 x (lcY) rn .ooo +'164000 + 296..000 84. x 2 x (1V) .000 + 219.000 10. (b) the volume of water in the reservoir when the water level is 158 m using the prismoidal formula (every second area maybe taken as mid area) and the water level when the reservoir contains 1.000 = + 431.000 The level of the bottom of the reservoir is 142' m..639 x (l06) m3• . .000 219.436 Fundamentals of Surveying ~ .000 1.476..000 + 377. Example 14.3. =736 x .

Example 14.5 .il:+ 296x . .665 =153. .'C+-=. 5m A2 8m 15m S m 1---15.t 5 . Let :c be the distancebeyond 15:! m. l-tA2 Example 1·t20. [e. determine the radius ... c I: Sm 20 m 15 m •I :s ·1 ] I. 59?) -4'9 2'2. 21 m..5 --I . This cutting is to be widened by increasing ·the formation width from to m to 15 rn.olurne ~ ..5 -I . r-. ':c (81 . Solution .. 1_­ . extra . . ' . =8 x 5 = 40 m 2 Fig.of the curve. The ground surface and formation are each horizontal and the depth of formation increases uniformly at the centre line from 5 m at chainage 2700 to 8 m at chalnage 2800.549 = 0 1..665 Hence the level of water = 152 + 1.000 This must be equal to 549x . • 12.E.25. the excavation to be entirely on the outside of the curve and to retain the existing side slopes of l vertical to 2 horizontal... Al =' 5 x 5 = 25 m2 . .665 m. '.000 + _96.r '2 [(3iiOOO -196.t' .Ie t l ! Areas and \'olllmes .5 m.).10 3• Hence.' .. . . 437 Volume upto 152 m = 1251 x (llY) m3 Extra volume required = 549 x .. .20 The centre line of a highway cuttingIs on a circular curve of radius R. 2 (1a:') m). J . ·. ?' '? ] + _96.!. If neglecting the influence of curvature causes the volume of excavation over this length to be underestimated by 5 per cent..t= or or ·20..: .000) .5 .

2 -. 2 horizontal and 1 vertical. mean radius .(3250) 5 =­ 3250(R + 14)/R 100 . Determirte the radius of the centreline if the volume of excavation is over estimated by 5 percent when the influence of curvature is neglected. (125 + 155) of the excavation = R + 2 =R + 14.. Example 14.21 The centre line of a' certain section of highway cutting lies on a circular curve in plan.5 m or e: = 26 -2- 21 + 10 2 = 15. length is 400 m.. mean radius of the path of new excavation =R - 16 + 18 = R _ 17 2 " J when radius is R. [Salford] Solution el I = 16 + 2 16 =16 m + 16 = 20 . 2 e2 = 18 m. Underestimation = or R 3250(R'+ 14)/R . This cutting is to be widened by increasing the formation width of 20 m to 26 m.5 m. . when radius is R + 14 length is 1~0 x (R + 14) Initial volume =lOOx (25 ~ 40) Final volume with curvature = 3250 m3 ~ 1~0 x (R + 14)(65~' (~) . or 22 + 10 = 16m.~ 'f 438 Fundamentals of Slln·(r:ng el = 20 2+ 5 = 12. when radius is R length is 100m. the excavation being on the inside of the curve and retaining the original side slopes of. The ground surface and the formation are each horizontal and the depth to formation over a length of 400 m increases uniformly from 3 m to ·5 m. I If R be the original radius.5 m or 15 + 10 = 125 m. If R be the original radius. + 5 = 15. or 26 + 10 2 = 18 m. = 266 m..

­ Overestimation = 9600 (R . . Therefore eccentricity of centroid of excavation will be 13 + h from the former centreline.17) .17)/ R 100 .. 6~ 3m +-~ .17.. Accurate method Area of new excavation = 6 It.. 10---r I . j '" i:". I or R = 357 m. 14.17)/ R] = 2.' '-'~{ J .. 9600 x (R . .. For any given depth at the centreline of h. . 400 x (18 + 30)' . length 1 = 4~ x (R .- 82 ·1 Fig. x =~ x 2 = h m. ~" 10 . I .~ · 20 +-6--l 5 rn.. .17) .'17) X 24 R = . .43 Example I·Ul. <":.. .[9600 x (R . 1 ~ Areas and Volumes 439 " 16 .I~. Initial volume = 2 9600 m3 = Final volumes with reduced curvature = 4~ x (R . 9600 . when radi~s is R .­10~.

00 . R . ~ 28~5} SO(R -R17.25 } 17.. 327~..0 25.0 22. 30.125 17.75 17.5 .50 }' 16. ~ e .75 } 16.00. R 2.25 ~ 52~~) .875 18.875) = 50(29.375 16. 25. 27..875 17. 17.50 4. Jz (m) 3 3.375) = 50(26. ~ i == 50 (192.25 _ 39~34) (24. 95 .0 .5) 50(R -.5 27.5 30. 3.50 '} 17. 50(R -:')7.75 5. . . Volume of excavation 0-50 50-100 100-150 150-200 200-250 250-300 300-350 350-400 C +2195). ' Total Volume of Excavation.0 .16. 150 200 ' 250 300 350 400 . 45~09) 7. C 2LO).5 .00 } .440 Fundamentals of Surveying Distance (m) 0 50 100 .75 _ 30~34) .0).50(R -)7. .( ~6375) =50(2025 _ 33~59) .75 _.625 19.5.00 } 17.625) = 50 (2L75 .25· 3.5 24. 36159) .. 50'(R .0).0 ~ 225)·.00 4.. 8 50(R- -.' 24. R- ( 21.0} 50(R -}6.125) = 50(24.25 } 16.625) = 50(27.00 } 16. 50.7.0.5 .375 17.25 4.75 4. 48~09) • (28.625 .875) = 50(23. 28.6125) =50(18.50 . 21.125 16.72) .0 16.75 _ 42~84) e (25. A=6~" (m2) 18 ~=13+1t (m) Mean distance of centroid from elL " 16.25 .

0 + 4(19.0 + 27.0) = 21.5 + 408 + 472.72/ R).00 .0 + 22.75 ..5 +21.5 + 25.3279.50 16.0 28.5 (1 .5 (1.441 . R = 358.5) ~ 1 .72/ R) =.: 17.05 50(192.88 + 376.0 _ 34~50 (~ _16.0 + 30.5 + 25.50 17.~) (1 _1~) = 18.0 ~ A IS b 50 .0 (1 ~ 17~0)= 27.2 (3~6.0 + 24.5) =22.0 _ 24.5 24.0 19.O 18~0) = 30.25 17.5 21.18. 54~. 37~88 1~) = 24.5 27.0" 43~88 47}.5 )= 28.17.5 30.~30.5 + 24.25 16.5 ..88 + 505.0 25.4(316.0 '22. 16 16. = 530 [18.22.5 + 22.88) ~ .5 + 28.0 _ Volume by prismoidal formula.3279..88 If" + -R+ 2(11..eS8 + 439.28.5) = 25.7 m.50(192.0 (1 _ 40~.0 (1.5(1_ 21.5 .75 17.0) . . Distance A 18.0 _ .5 _ 31~88 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 1~. Overestimation = or 5~ [(18 + 30) + 2(19. 27.5 + 27 + 28~5») .5) 540.Areas and volumes ..0' (1 _ 50~88 .00.5 16:5) = 19.0 _ 2S~00 '19. Using equivalent areas and the prismoldal formula. .00 (1.= 9600 m3 9600 .! 25..00 .0) .Uncorrected volume'= . 17.

00 per station meter for "overhaul" or haul distance exceeding 100m.~ (828 + 6558. (b) Free haul limit of 100m at Rs.8 applicable to fill volumes.00 13. = 5 [576 30 Volume without considering curvature = 5 x 576 = 9600 30 % overestimation. 15.5 m at station 20 and thence rising uniformly on a gradient of 1.2 . (ii) Assuming a balancing factor of 0.00 .e.00 per m3 plus Rs. Table 14. 20. the formation being at an elevation above datum of 14..9840.4 Example 14..5 [576 :.2 per cent. 9600 . hauling and filling.00 14. . 30 m.442 Fundamenrals of Surveying 5 [ 30 ~8 + 384 + 144 . the cut and fill volumes being prefixed respectively with the plus and minus signs. .08/ Rl ..9 . The table shows the stations in 30 m units and the surface levels along the centre line.00 per m3 for excavating. One station meter . 2. = 0.05 5~ [576 -:9840.22 The following notes refer to a 400 m section of a proposed railway and the earthwork distribution in this section is to be planned without regard to adjoining sections. i. R = 358.75 m.08/ m or -.1540..7 ..820.22 Volume (m3) Station . ­ 30 .08)] '.8 25 - + 416 L. plot the mass haul curve on a horizontal scale of I em = 10 m and a vertical scale of 1 cm = 1000 m).08 + 2454)J ~ (9840.1 24 + '1160 17. Example ·14.6 _J 15. The corresponding earthwork volumes are recorded in m3. (i) Plot the longitudinal section using a horizontal scale of 1 ern =24 m and a vertical scale of 1 ern: = 10m. = 1 cubic meter hauled through one station. (iii) Calculate the total haul in station meter and indicate the haul limits on the curve and longitudinal section.100.~ Station Surface level (m) Surface level (m) Volume m3 ) 20 21 22 17.+ 1400 19.. . ' (iv) State whieh of the following estimates you would recommend: (a) No free haul at Rs.

.. .

.\ l~lO~ (n) .' .. EIl!.\ [1:1 0l (!) SJllJlU/lS3 ISO:) .\J.lO. [naq [1:101 EW l~d 00'0(. ·s'}! = 9L It x 0(: ..\\4UUd JO ~wn[o.UIIS JO S/f]JUiJIllVPIlIl. ·s'}! lV EW 9LIt =OOtt + 9L6i: =p~lnl:4 aq OJ ~... .:! ttt .lO'\\4Ut!~ JO ~wnIo... • OO'0t9i:9 = 9LIt x ~l = EW rad OO·~t ·s'}! OO'OZ~£S @ l{..

Said ~1. 2.es . = 162 m and AC = 230 m The offsets measured from chain lines CD and DA to the [rregular boundaries are as follows: fW . "Improved Method of Loc:iting Centroid of Earthwork".. Easa. .llg Ellgineering.and the sides CD and D. .1989. .4.13-25. The plot was surveyed by chain and tape by the method of chain surveying. ASCE . "General Direct _Method of Land Sub-divlsion". 402-411: 3.. C. The sides AB and BC are straight . Sltr. .:llthwor"-. x 1000 =550 m) SV = 5. • t 14. .. .60 St:llionmetc~ =. Vol. 4. = ')3' _ )4 30. Costcfoverhaul __ hi AB.U.. "Estimating Pit Excavaricn Volume Using Non Linear Ground Profile".= 153. In BC Volume ofc.1 A plot of land ABCDA has four sides.. .ble.'t!)'jng Engineering.. 2. May 19S8.Joumal of . D. 277~S.35:-: 2~ ::: USA m Dlstancecfrnoverncnt.. . No. February 1985. =62640"t 2i7~S =Rs~ 90388.pp. _ .. BC = 165 m. . ' PROBLDlS' . Easa. are irregular. No\'ember.4.­ Distanceof mo\'cmcnr.1. No. 114. REFERE~CES l. 114. CD = 155 m. . pp.125? ~0153:60 =11520.55. \~~luine ofeanhwork. Said M. pp. 117. _QT...71-83. . pp." " .00.25_x 1000 =2250 mi : . E~sa. .­ Total station meter = 11520 + 235~ = 13S7~ Cost. fixing four stations at A.00 per station meter = Rs.550 x )' 2SA lalton =. He~ce 1st scheme is'pre:fer::. B.lournul of Surw.t. No. @. and D and W:lS moved and measured in the clockwise direction.No.. Vol ns."Pyramid Frustum Formula for Computing Volumes at Roadway Transition Areas"..S3id M. ASCEJournal of SI/n'e)'ing Engineering. ASCE..OO Total cost.~ 0..S ' meter . Vol.". ASCE Journal of Sun'e)'ing Engineering. measured from one station to the other are as follows: AB = 150 m. The straight distances. .. 98-101.. Easa. .Areas and.. Vol.-. Rs.KN- = 6A x 2'. . Said M. 2.. .\.2.\'o{llTr. M~y 1991.=2. ~5 .

0.00 0.00.173. ·-t· ". B Civil Summer 1981] . Civil Winter 1979]..00 left 2. 00 E determine the coordinates of other points (c) Calculate the enclosed area in hectares by coordinates method.280. 120 162 0 1.1.75 left 0.2 An abstract from a traverse sheet for a closed traverse is given below: .0 300 152. calculate: (i) the radii of the two arcs.\.3 In order to layout a pond in a public park two perpendiculars AD and BC of 40 m and 80 m length respectively were erected at either end of a line AB of length240m.62 right 2.50 left 2.00 left Offsets (m) . Bank slopes are 2 horizontal to 1 vertical.".5 .00 + 250.. DC and the end perpendiculars are tangential. right 2.00 + 130.00 right Calculate the area of the plotABCDA.:~" .The ground levels along the centre line were as follows: Distance (m) Ground level .:146 FUl1damentals of Surveying ~1 f·::::­ :':..lIE Sec.' Distance from C (m) Offsets (m) o 30 60 90 120 155 Distance from D (m) o 1.. rAMIE Sec. B. B Civil Summer 198]] 14. (ii) the perimeter of the pond.00 .0 200 154. .]54.00 .00 f (a) Balance the traverse by Bowditch's method (b) Given the coordinates of A 200N. calculate the volume of earthwork in eubicmeter by (a) Prismoidal formula (b) Trapezoidal formula. [AMIE Sec. 0 ]55. B Civil Winter 1980) 14.45.22 right. 14. If the pond is to have straight sides lying along AB and DC.25 left 1.. ~ b 30 60 90 . Assuming the ground to be level transversely.0 ]00" ]54. the ends being formed of circular arcs to which AB.00 + 50. [AMIE Sec. Line AB BC CD DE EA Length 200 m 130 m 100 m 250 m 320 m Latitude .~ :s.30 right .20 0.00 + 86.4 The formation width of a certain road embankment was 20 m. [A!'.~.5 400 152. Fonnation level at the starting point was 161.90 Departure + 100.

7 The following level readings were taken on the centreline of a highway alignment. 2.) 1500 m is 61. Areas and Yolumes 4.7' 20 5. Calculate the volume of water in the [AMIE Winter 1982J reservoir. The ground levels at every 100 m along the centre line are as follows: Distance (m) R. 14.: Area enclosed (hectare) I I .6 300 107.2 200 107.S.425 F.425 1. .. n r ' .700 2.9 140 8.0 m and the embankment has a rising gradient of 1:100 while the ground is level across the centre line. R.000 2. (ii) Simpson's rule. Calculate the volume of earthwork by the prismoidal rule. 108.D. R. 12 110 410 890 1158 !' j' 6'-:> ­ 630 The areas given are the ones which will be contained by the proposed dam and contour lines as given above..L. 1.8' 80 9. 1. Contour (m) 610 615 610 .3 500 108. ~ I The formation level at zero chainage id07.8 I .~. and end offsets by (i) trapezoidal rule.the terms lift and lead in earthwork. ~ . (b) A road embankment 500 m long is 15 m wide at' formation level and has side slopes 2:1. rAMIE Summer 1986] .200 2.D.S. 1500 1530 1560' 1590 1620 1650 1680 B.5 (a) Explain.9:25 2. (c) Following data refer to a site of :1 rcserv oir.2 '.2 ' 400.S. the barbed fence.6 (a) The following perpendicular offsets were taken from a chain line to a barbed wire fence ­ j ( I' .00 Remarks B.I j J I ~ 1. (b) Write explanatory note on prisrnoidal correction in computation of earthwork quantities. i I .106.5 Calculate the area between the chainline. '. 60.050 1.750 .Ls (m)' o 100 105.80 m and 10 rn .550 3.8 40 10.3 60 12.400 1. respectively with a falling gradient of 1 in 100 and side slopes 1:1. 14. chainage (m) 0 offsets (m) .7 95 8. ..2. The designed crest level and the crest width of the proposed embankment at reduced distance (R. 14. 170 6.8 110 6. I .6. .M.

The ground levels at every 100 m along the centre line are: ' ' .14.7 105 108.8 100 106. [£\lIE Summer 1987] 14. compute the volume of earthwork.D.300 110. for 'full storage capacity.is i i m.. (L. calculate the eanhwoik [A~nE Winter 1985] in filling from R. calculate the volume of earthwork. .600 107 103.W. TI 2 3.6 o 200 300 400 500 . If the ground level and formation levels are as follows.D) and top water level (T. has a width at formation level of 9 m with side slopes 2 to 1.D.50 million cubic meters between lowestdraw down . of cutting between the two stations using trapezoidal formula.4 105. 14. (b) A railway embankment 600 m long has a formation level width of 11.8 10.9 105. Distance (m) Ground level (m) o 107. [A~llE Summer 1989] 14. (Note: Calculate volumes using end area rnethod.9 Cross section 3.11 In a proposed hydroelectric project a storage reservoir was required to provide a storage of 4. 1650 m.9 (a) Derive an expression forthe area of a three level'section with the help of a neat sketch.0 400 110.L.D.5 111.1 13.W. The ground is level across the centre line: " Distance (m) Ground level (m) Formation level (m) 100 105.2 Theembankment has a risinggradient of 102m per 100m andthe formation level is 110.D.5' 106.5 104.5 at zerochainage.7 500 112.9 "9. [AMIE Summer 1990] .D. 14.0 4.1 -. was to be 68" calculate T.12 (a) Why must cut and fill volumes be totalled separately? (b) Discuss comparative side slopes in cut and fill.1 03.L).2' 106. Assuming the ground to be level across the centre line. 500 m long. ' .6 106 [AMIE Summer 1988] .10 A railway embankment. Calculate" the volume .T 0- The width of cutting at the formation level.8 7.roadway in cut is normally wider than the same roadway in fill? L .448 Fundamentals of Surveying Assuming the ground to be levelacross the alignment.5 108.' : .5 m with side slope 2 to 1.6 104. The areas contained within the stated contours and upstream face of the dam were as follows: Contour (m) Area (hectares) 100 30 95 25 90 23 85 17 80 15 75 13 70 7 65 02 If L. (c) Why a.8 107.3 200 .8 The following notes refer to three level cross section at two stations 50 m apart Station 1.. 1530 m to R.) '.

4..J .16 A road embankment 35 m wide at formation level with side slopes I: I'and' . free haul and overhaul.] an assumed free haul limit. AlA the depth of cut was 3 m at the centre line and the cross slope was 10 to 1. 14.. AB and Be are each 30 m. . . two'situations where prismoidal corrections must be applied." .average height of 12 m is constructed with an average gradient 1 . Discuss . I _-----. State and prove the prismoidal formula. ..L..C. . . .. with an. The surface of the ground has a uniform side slope of 1 in 6. HI:'-i-rS TO SELECTED QUESTIONS l·t12 (a) Earthwork in cutting and filling iO\~olvedifferenttypes of work and hence payment at different rates..the prismoidal correction. ' (b) The width of formation level of a certain cutting is 10.. Show conclsely how the "haul" may be ascertained from the curve. l\. .. ( .l4 With reference to civil engineering practice explain what is meant by the following: ' (a) (b) (c) (d) Trapezoidal and prismoidal rules.'The ground has an average slope of 12 to 1 in direction transverse to centre line. i "1 i.0 m and 5. . . 1·tl7 (a). Calculate (i) the length of the [AMIE Winter 1993] road. (c) Roadway cut is normally widerthan tills to provide for drainage ditches. side slopes are 1:1. (d) List the information which can be extracted from a mass diagram. Define a prismoid.E] .15 A cutting is to be through ground where thecross slope vanes considerably. ' 14.0 m. answer with neat sketches. (ii) volume of .0 m respectively determine the volume of earthwork involved in this length of cutting. The formation width is 10 m and the side slopes 11/ 2 to 1. the difference must be borrowed. (e) State. in 30 from contour 140m to 580 m. At Bthe correspondingfigures were 5 m and 12 to 1 and at C 4 m and 8 to 1. Moreover.fass diagram.. Areas and Yolumes 449 '. Calculate the volume of excavation between A and C. -. . l·lo13 Describe' whh. 14. (b) Side slopes in fill usually are flatter than those in cuts because in fill soil is in artificial state whereas in cuts soil remains in natural state. also the "overhaul" for . (ii) Centre height is great and width narro~v at one station and the centre height is small but width large at the adjacent station. Haul.0 m and the .. (e) (i) When the middle area is not the average of the end areas... if there is insufficient material from cuts to make the required fills. neat 'sketches an "e'urthwork' mass curve".the embankment in crrr'.~~:i. Prismoidal correction. [U.0 m apart are 3.' stating the relationshlp ft bearsto thecorresponding longitudinal section. [I.. Explain your [AMIE Winter 199~] . If the depths of cutting at the centreline of three sections 50. Q ..

15 .2 INSTRUMENTS #' .1 INTRODUGTION Tacheometric surveying (also called stadia surveying) is a rapid and economical surveying method by whichthe horizontal distances and the differences in elevation are determined indirectly using intercepts on a graduated scale and anglesobserved with a transit or the theodolite._. The accuracy attained is such that under favourable conditions the error will not exceed 1/1000. It has three horizontal hairs. (b) Stadia rod. and . Tacheometry " 15.' The following are the two.main instruments: (a) Tacheometer. The value of stadia surveys can be appreciated in rugged terrain and in inaccessible areas where conventional methods are difficult and time consuming. The stadia method has many applications in surveying practice including traverse and levelling for topographic surveys. one central and other t~'o equidistant from central hair at top and bottom.45 mm diameter. Tacheometer It is a vernier theodolite filled with stadia diaphragm. ' 450 . Figure 15. The width is between 50 to 150 mm. a special large staff called a stadia rod is used. (ii) Large aperture of the obJective-35. ':. Stadia rod -. A tacheorneter differs from an ordinary theodolite in (i) High magnifying power. ~ For short distances an ordinary levelling staff with 5 mm graduation can be used. For long distances. The graduations are very prominent so that they can be read from long distances. It is usually 3 to 5 m long and in one piece. dm and em. stadia rod (part v i e w ) . In modern instruments these three lines are etched as also the vertical hair. The graduations are generally in rn.1 shows different types of stadia hairs used.2 gives a typical graduated . . 15. Figure 15.

l. as the name suggests.e.1 St:ldi~ Ii hairs. { . the hairs are flxed in position. *~ 0 0 0. 15. -" 0 0.990 0.800 Fig. Stadia system which again can be divided into-(i) Fixed hair method.. L1h (a) (b) u (c) i i I I .e.UREMENTS . 0 Red . - I 15. i. 3. In the fixed hair method..2 . Stadia rod.3 DIFFERE:\T TYPES OF TACHEO~lETRIC MEAS.I " II II (d) (e) Fig. Tangential system. . . 2.850 Black 0.. Subtense bar system.900 0. The staff intercepts. 1.. 15. the distance between them remains constant. the readings .950 .' 'I There are basically three types of tacheornetrlc measurements.Tacheometry 451 '. and (ii) Movable hair method.

the' top and bottom hairs are movable and this is done by means of micrometer screws. 15... This is shown in Fig. as the 'name suggests.. However.4 . upper stadia reading Central stadia reading Central cross hair Constant I -+.~t-'-'--x----. While taking readings at different distances micrometer screws are adjusted such that the top and bottom hairs intersect the fixed targets.4. This is shown in Fig. This requires two settings of the instrument at 8 1 and '. at which the hairs intersect the staff varies as the distance of the staff from the instrument station varies. Lower stadia reading Staff... Bottom target S~ff . of S -----=-... In the movable hair method.:---. This is shown in Fig.. .::-x- Bottom Cross hair' Staff vertical . i. ·S·. (J2 and only one hair-top.9. .. central or bottom should be used for the intersection. In the subtense bar system a special staff with two targets at two ends at a fixed distance apart known as subtense bar is placed horizontally and the angle between the targets from theInstrument station is measured. the fixed hair method is frequently used. 15. 2· . 15.1 .3 Fixed hair method.e. the stadia hairs.. two readings are to be taken at the two targets at a fixed distance 'S' apart in the staff.. this method is rarely used. Tangential system.452 Fundamentals of Sun-eying .- 8 D Fig.. 15. On the other hand..iew of the subtensebar is shown.5 where plan . In the tangential systems. 15."":1 ~ --r.-'. Figure 15.-.. The staff intercept however.. is kept fixed at' a constant spacing usually 3 m..--. the stadia hairs are not essential... vertical Fig.3.4 PRINCIPLES OF STADIA METHOD .6 shows how the rays from the stadia hairs in an externalfocussing .. 15. As it is difficult to measure the stadia interval accurately and adjust the stadia hair every time an observation is to be taken.

... .1=1+1 I II U where I is the focal length of the objective. . 15. telescope intersects the staff held at a distance D from the axis of the instrument. station' = fixed : ~ Target Fig... Tacheometry 453 Target T S Instrument ... ~ . ...6 Principle of St:ldi:l.. method. A.­ I u o Fig.. we can write 1t=1+­ u -=­ I: i /I III S .1) II = distance of the staff from the objective u = distance of the stadia hairs from the objective As II and u are the conjugate focal distances theyare related by the lens formula.. or' . From the principle of optics AB will be the stiff intercept S corresponding to the stadia interval 'i'.. 15.5 Subtense bar. But Therefore Rearranging terms. From similar triangles aob and AoB -=-=­ oC AS oc ab S or where -=It u S (15.

Without the intervening anallactic lens. I 1 1 -+- i" fl h. r r A S C T J f1 D =~. 05. the image would have been virtual and at b2a2 which is at a distance f2 from the object glass. The anallactic lens is placed at a distance from the point F' where is the focallengthof the' anallactic lens. called an anallactic lens is placed between the diaphragm and the objective at a fixed distance from the latter. To avoid the additive constant Poro in 1840 devised the external focussing anallactic telescope. As a result the triangle AoB converges at the point 0' from which D is measured.4) hi an external focussing instrument when focussing is done by moving the objective lens d slightly changes with focussing and it usually lies between 0. the distance of the staff from the axis of the instrument D=Il+d =(?) This is usually written as ' .- 454 Fundamentals of Surveying It - -(f) S + f i 05.' S+ if + d) 05. Henc.S Anallactic lens.3) .6 m. Thus ab is the inverted image of the length AB of the staff. The rays coming from A and B (corresponding to stadia hair a and b) along Ao' and Bo' are refracted by the object glass and meet at F'. Here an additional convex lens.7 shows the optical diagram of an external focussing anallactic telescope. D = KS + C K where = ~ =multiplying factor I C = f + d ::: additive constant (15.2) From the Fig. Figure 15. 15. From the conjugate relationships of principle of optics.e the rays passing' throughF' will become parallel after being refracted by the' anallactic lens.6.3 to 0.5) .

6) and Eq..5) . i ..h. f - §"=. ~oJ . i' _ h -n (15.8) I '.8). h-n m-n=-r+ 1 .-1 I or Similarly from Eq. (15.7) The minus sign before (j~ . T-~ Multiplying Eq. . II ... . we get. (15. _h-n+f' f' • ? Hence §. . (15. . m-n or h-n [i r n h-n._Ji-Ih-n+f i- I '" = II . (15.I I ! \.·h. conjugate relationship: SJ.I r (~) r n+I'} .m-n From Eq. (m . 1 +~I'--c (j ~ . For the anallactic lens. we get .~n ..n) . 11 h =/1// - 1 =1.6) h= III /1-1 --=--1 f' .6) a~b~ is the object and ab is the image and 'applying the L= _ f' .1/) (15.n) has been used as bothab and a2 b2 are on the same side of the' anallactic lens. . Tacheometry 455 As the length ab and alb2 are proportional to their distance from the objective 0 7=7. Since the length aba~d (l:bi are proportional to their distances from the centre IV of the anallactic lens.. (15.!J.

or or or or len . (f + f' . The equation can' be derived as follows. that' is.f') + d (/ + f' . . .K= ( j C=d-'I f' ' +! ' . I (15. to bring the image of the object in the plane of the crosshairs. If' '. there is a concave lens between the eyepiece and the objective. _ 1(/1 .there was no internal focussing lens. K will be equal to 100 when the multiplier '..10) In such a case the apex of the vertical triangle AF'B will become A'o'B.1-=1.5 INTER.9) =KS + C .11) .".f> (f' If' II) II (/ + f' If' II) 1(11 . 1(1\ -f') In order that D = KS additive constant C should be zero. The focal length of the object lens is f The focal length of the internal focussing lens is It.456 Fundamentals 01 Surveying = = or I II + (/1 .') + + If' !J =-? _It I I(n-f') D=(!I+d) = . lip' . dl n=f+ I+d (15. 15.where . the image of the point P will be at P' (Fig.. 1+. .nd n(f + d) = !(d +f) + df . (15.n)i If' =100 land /I beingalready fixed! and i can be suitably adjusted to make the multiplying constant 100.If..~AL FOCUSSl./ Irand I .II) i 1+ f' .G TELESCOPE In an internal focussing telescope. +-1\ .. If' §. . The purpose of the concave lens is to focus the telescope. The lens formula is . .8)../.f') =d I+f'-n fn ../I . 15.If= [d + I'd .

15. = '. ~ j".{~ .(U(II . i.. Here f../:' .. ­ \ P t= I jl+--'.15) + VIII +tiff1 + vffl= 0 • :. ". (ii) A\!ditive constant C. 1 (15. (II -I) 1.J . 1 v -.6 DETER~ll~ATIO:" OF TACHEO~IETER CONSTA~TS 7.I) 11 = (u - 1) (u' . ' '.I .Tacheometry Diaphragm carrying cross hairs 457 P" I v~ Fig.- u-I "1 ' II-I.14) Substituting. or v.-:~i': are two ccnstann in an external focussing tacheorneter: (i) Multiplying ~or.e. or Cross multiplying. Il(v . .I = I. C O. This is a quadratic equation in 1 and can be solved to give 1 in terms of f.5t:l"t K.u') = (u' -1) (u' . 15.Concave lens Objective staff '---_':'~--:-- .8 r .=L (15.VIlJi (15.. . .This change is almost compensated for throughout the range of focus by a corresponding change in the value of C. 11 or )(u-l) . -~'l. f -. The value of the stadia interval factor is then assumed to be constant throughout the focussing range. When the'fonnula of the type D = KS + C is applied to observations through internal focussing instruments.': .12) Then treating P' as an object before thefocussing lens giving an image at 1'" gives."only u is a variable on which 1 depends./) + IIfJ 1. 11 and v are constants.­ u -I u Internal focussing telescope.1) (15. This fact allows the consrant C to be neglected.-'.13) (Negative sign is used as both the object and the image are on the same side).'· . 110 v and II.. 1 . it is found that the value of K changes slightly when focussing the Internal lens. . -1 ( fit )= (fit U .. ~ ' __ .·v' -.

. .' The three points on the staff which are cut by the three stadia hairs are A. For internal focussing instrument the distances are measured from a point which is directly under the instrument. 15.. C and B. length at an interval of 15 m. Hence formulae are derived for the above cases only. - ~L E p Fig. For external focussing instrument the distances are measured froma point which is if + d) em in front of the axis of the instrument. However. and the stadia rod inclined to the vertical at an arbitrary angle.. The mean values of K\. By focussing a distant object say 300 to 400 m away and measuring the distance between the objective and the crosshairs.7 DISTANCE AND ELEVATION FOR.Alternately. Here AB is the staff intercept.9). vertical (e. • . C being the point of intersection of the central hair. · • · . Dz = KzS z.. D2. the focal length of the objective can be determined.. The distance between the objective lens and the centre of the instrument is then measured. 15.. Inclined sight and staff.D 3• •:. . This is the distance d and the constant C can then be obtained. Draw A' 8' perpendicular to IC.. an angle of elevation} . are noted. the formula D =KS + C can be applied to a number of pairs of distances D\ and D 2 and getting' corresponding stadia intercepts CJ and C2• Solving a number of such simultaneous equations and taking their mean values will give the value of K.T\1ULAE In tacheornetry the most general approach will be to derive expressions when the telescope is inclined to the horizontal.9 Inclined sight (elevation).458 Fundamentals of Surveying The additive constant C =f + d. usually the stadia rod is kept either vertical or normal to the line of sight.'and correspondingstaff intercepts SI' S1' S3' . . Then D = KS gives the formula D\ =K\S\. the axis of the telescope which makes an angle e with the horizontal (Fig. 15. D v . K 2 and K 3 gives the multiplying constant K. The telescope is then focussed at an object between 100 to 150 m. and so on. The multiplying constant j7i is obtained by taking a number of readings on a fairly level straight line 100 m to 200 m. Then distances D 1.

' D = KS'. ' . As the additive constant is zero for an external focussing telescope fitted with an anallactic lens and it is very small for an internal focussing telescope..19) (15.10 Inclined sight (depressicn).. or' P is known. . of P + II + V .18) .. (15. Hence R.17) t KS sin 28 + C sin () (15. Hence .... A.L. ButAB is the. 'hence 5' = 5 cos e .L. .Tacheometry . + C = KS cos e+ C .~ 'I B '. ..1'O) .. 4' As A'CA 8. .812.B' AB cos 8 with the s'mall'appro~imation of LCA'A and LCB'B being considered right angles. Actually CA'A is 90~+ &2 and CB' B is 90~ = = . 15. AI A' V ~ o A'B' = S' AS c-L =S Fig. 459 .. ....staff intercept Sand A' 8' = S'. of Q can be obtained as R.CQ where CQ is the central hair reading..L.20) v=t The R. .' '. . I H . the terms containing C can be neglected and we can write H = K5 cos1 8 K5 sin 28 (15. .16) Horizontal distance H Similarly = D cos 8 = K5 cos1 8 + C cos 8 V =IC sin e = (K5 cose + C) sin 8 = KS cos 8 sin 8 +C sin 8 = (15. ofQ = R. When the angle 8 is an angle of depression (Fig: !5.L. L_ . I. .

L.CR = R. In this method. of Q • · =R. Hence D = KS + C = r sin 8 If the distance of the middle hair reading from Q.. D sin 8 - r cos 8 • . .L of Q = R.460 Fundamentals of Surveying As before D = 1\5' + C = KS cos 8 + C H =D cos 8 =K5 cos:! 8 + C cos 8 V = D sin 8 = KS sin 8 cos 8 + C Sill 8 R.j. of P + (I + V . of P + " .' Ir P Fig. Inclined sight with staff normal to the line of sight (8 an angle of elevation)" Fig.reading.L.L. 15.11 Sight normal (when' e is angle' of elevaticn). of P + IJ . the staff is held normal to the line of sight. i.e.11. IC is perpendicular to AB =S .D cos 8'+ r sin 8 . 15.CQ where CQ is the central hair. (KS + C)cos 8 + rsin 8 R. . that is.L. =.V . then RQ = CQ sin 8 and CR = CQ cos 8 = r cos (J Hence horizontal distance between P and Q IQ' = IC' + C'Q' =. CQ is taken as r.

. As before . of Q= R.L. = KS + C IC' = IC cos e = (KS + C).8 MOVABLE HAIR ~IETHOD As already explained in fixed hair method.15..·n.L.13.L. 15. 15. the stadia interval is fixed while the staff intercept changes with distance of the staff from the instrument station.·arrJ (Fig. fixed interval say 3 m apart.J .r sin e =(KS + C) cos e..\ I ... In the movable hair method._. This is shown in Fig.11) r-«. of P + Iz.r sin e R.= R.CC' .Q'C' =IC cos e-r sin e =D cos e. CQ sin e = r sin e QE = CQ cos e =r cos e IC = D Hence-horizontal distance between P and Q IQ' =IC' .normal (When 8 is angle of depression).This is shown in Fig. the staff intercept S is kept fixed by having targets at 0.r cos e . stadia interval varies with the movement of the hairs and as such the tacheornetric angle /3 is not constant but changes to /31' ~ and /3j. cos e If the distance of the middle hair CQ =r CE = Q'C' =. .14.EQ . . Fig•. Corresponding to stadia intercepts i l. l: and iJ • However. of P + 11 . • • ~ 15.12 Sight .Tacheometry 461 'When the line of sight is deprnud do. 15. ::i:'. j '":r i '~i.D sin e ..

../" o 0. the formulae which C:1O be derived from the above figure are D = (PilS + D1 if + d) . JJ- T Jl ~ D2 . I.462 Fundamentals of Surveying S3 ______ ll. Figure 15. i . 15. If p =pitch of the screw on the micrometer andr = number of rums and part of a tum (measured on the'micrometer drum) to bring hairs to the targets.L -n77'T T_2S __ I Fig. . then. 15.15 shows the optical diagram ofa subtense theodolite with movable hairs.15 Subiense rheodollre. But. is now a variable and is measured by :l micrometer.~ D.. Fig. 15. D3 . ~ B' " I As before.~ Fig.13 Fixed hair method. =px . ~'---~I-.14 Movable hair method. . ___ ­ -I A' C' staff ~ and .... • =(jlil)S + (/+ d) Hence the general formula for movable hair method is the same'as the fixed hair method.

: 0 (iii) r • Fig. 6 ~_. 01' D (ii) 'I' ..16 Tangential system of measurement.L '..L 0-1-'­ _ p ---I H (i) ___1_[ o ~ .' .. .. 15. and (iii) one angle.16 (i) to 15. .:. figures 15.. . . 1... TT __ ' ! S T h:. (ii) both angles are angles of depression. / l ' . f.21) • where KS = -+C .'T In this method two readings are taken with the central hair at two targets spaced at a known fixed distance apart soy 2 m or 3 m...' 6 2 .16 (iii) show how the observations are made when: (i) both angles are angles of elevation.. I V .r K =jlp 15. Horizontal . ~ P .. . .1_ -j'-r .9 TA:"GE:"TIAL SYSTEM OF· MEASURBIE('I... ! Horizontal ' \ ____l __ p :~I---- T ST t i V 1 D --"'-------. angle of elevation and the other angle of depression.Tacheometry 463 and therefore "D = IS + (j+lf) ps (15." :R~V .L. Horizontalj .

sin (81 . of P + h + V . .22) H = tan e l S - tan e2 ta!l V = H tan (). From Fig.L.tan ~) " (15.17 Subtense bar (Plan view). 15. Fig. The theodolite is locatednt '0. ' 5' . 15.. From Fig.17 AC tom f3/ " . .17 shows the plan view of the subtense measurement. It is a bar of accurate length mounted horizontally over a tripod with a levelling head. . ='WI {J/2 = 2 tan {JJ2 ' 512 . _ S cos e1sin 8~ . Iar I ' h)'= tan AC OC.(the perpendieu engt ~/2 . Invar is used so that error in length due to variation of temperature is minimum..and contains invar wires anchored there and tensioned by springs at the target ends. = - 8 S I'" 8 tan tan:J e2.l6(i) v = H tan 8~ V + S = H tan 81 '. R. cos 8 2 .r Similar equations can be derived for case (ii) and case (iii).cos 81sin 8 2 cos 82 (15.= OC or . o E""'""=t 8 Fig. 15. The outer steel casing is hinged at the middle . 15. of Q =. .10 SUBTEr\SE BAR . The target holders themselves are of brass. or or S = H(tan 81 .L. S cos 81cos 8 2 .82 ) sin 8 2 = sine. The two targets are at A and B and the midpoint of the targets is . 15.3t C.23) R.464 Fundamentals of Surveying Case i When both angles are angles of elevation.

it is necessaryto determine the precise full. For long sights and large vertical angles. As 1 radian =206265 seconds. Thus an instrumental error for one pointing equals that for the other pointing. A table is supplied with the subtense bar which gives distances iri meters corresponding to 'values of 13. This accuracy can be obtained by measuring the angle with a . These errors are eliminated by the subtraction " . D = S x 206265 13 (15. There is no need to reverse the telescope in these measurements because both targets are at the same vertical angle and at the slime distance from the theodolite. thecorresponding stadia intercept S is not generally equal" to twice (or four times) the observed value. =2" 206265 1 f3 if f3 is in seconds. Establishing S for half-intercepts The stadia intercept S is the sum of the lower half intercept I and the upper half intercept II. S is usually 2 m. r is always smaller than It and vice versa for negative a. EO 1/ cos a. the computed value would be different from the actual full intercept because the half or quarter intercepts are not equal. Doubling. For positive a.1" theodolite in several positions of the circle.11 CO:-'lPUTATIOl\S WiTH INCO~IPLETE INTERCEPTS . EP II sin a and from triangle PEP' = = . Thus S=I+1I I and II are equal only when a = O.. intercept that corresponds to the observed half or quarter intercept. When it is necessary to observe the half(orquarter) intercept.. To eliminate these discrepancies. Also the angle is obtained by the difference between the two directions to the targets. In practice this problem is overcome by observing the half-intercept between the..' 15. For inclined sights. From the triangle PEO. Therefore reading both the lower and upper crosshairs is not possible. The instrument for subtense measurement should be accurate to 1" of angle or Jess. centre and lower (or upperj-crosshairs and doubling the observed value for use with the standard stadia formulas. of one direction from the other. On theother hand half intercepts of S' are always equal. ~ where f3 is in second Unit of D will be unit of S. the stadia intercept may exceed the rod length.Tacheometry 465 If 13 is small tan {312'= /3!2 where 13 is in radian.The resulting discrepancies in the computed horizontal distance and difference in elevation may be substantial.24) i I I I . "­ . the half-intercept or quadrupling the quarter intercept provides the precise full intercept-only for horizontal'sights.

.25) Similarly. Eq. . 2(cos a .EP' =u cos a - u sin a tan e where e is half the angle between the upper and lower cross hairs. since C is vel)' small compared to KS' . . from the triangles QQ'O and QQ'F.---L' Fig. tan tan 5' e = 2H' e = 2(KS' '4o C) == .27) is quite negligible compared to cos a (For a = SOD.466 Fundamentals of Surveying ~. ~ S'- .26) Substituting u and I in the equation S=u+[ S' = S(cos a . K = 160. the following relationship can be obtained .27) . v. the second term equals 2 x 10-5) . ' L v ---.27) then reduces to .18 Computations with incomplete intercept. S' I 'lK r'.sin a tan 9) e: . EP' OP' =EP tan e =u sin alan e =S/2 =OE u= . . 15. The second term in parentheses on the right handside of Eq.tan asin a tan: (J) As ' (15. . I . (15. (15. (15. Rearranging.1= 2(cos a + sin a tan e) - S' - (15. S'= S cos' eX .

d) or ~ d= (f+ f') 112 .75 +I' /' =11. = . ~ .31) ~ . For the lower half intercepts. .75 . . f(d:.5 (18. l » u.general theorem .! Example 15. Substituting for S' and tan e Scan be expressed in terms of S II and 1.:)(fOr the half intercept f) As expected.75 ern will be a convenient value for thefixed distance between the objective and the anallactic lens.I '.29) = 2{1 + ra. the general description being as follows: Focal length of objective f 22.f') c= . 1 < u and for a < 0./') 3. the two half intercepts are equal for a =O. . For a> 0. Ian Ct) .18..) (~'i a: .16875 em . =2Kl (.25 100(215 + 1115 . By (i) or =22..75) =0..25 em i = l00(f + f' .. ff' .30) v =Kl (1+ ta 2n:) sin 2a + Csin a (15.d) f f' = 225 x 11. and by the .28) (15. Determine (a) a suitable value for the focal lengthj" of the anallatic lens (b) the exact spacing of the lines on the diaphragm.:) (15. the stadia formulae changes to H '.1 A theodolite is fitted with an ordinary telescope in which the eyepiece end moves in focussing. (fff-d) (i) 100= i(f + f' .25 ern Diaphragm lines are on glass in cell which may be withdrawn.5 ern Fixed distance c between objective and vertical axis = 11.' 1+ cos.a + C cos a ---vr (15. Solution By simple conjugate relations .Tacheometry 467 . (for' thebali intercept II) = 2u (1 _ta.. ' It is desired to convert the instrument into an anallactic lens tacheorneter by inserting an additional positive lens in tube and ruling a new diaphragm so as to give a multiplier of 100 for intercepts on a vertical staff and in this connection it is found that 18.

2 In a telescope the focal lengths of the objective and anallaciie lens are 22. 6 alLiiSJL r .(225 + 1115 . (I +1'.175 ern interval between the subtense Jines.. 225 d + 225 x 15 . A subtense interval is to be scribed on the diaphragm so as to give an anallactic multiplier of 100 for a horizontal sight on staff held vertically 100 m horizontally from the axis of the theodolite. ' 25 .bi 1J1KAJ.3 An internal focussing telescope has a negative lens of IS ern focal length. the focal length of the objective being 20 ern.d =2004 .i =. 225 x 11. f /.t&J czz 31.5 and 11.. with an error of 1/500 of :l em in the 0.'(f +1'. also in m.25 S x 100 1 = .d + 15 .d ='004 225 .500.d)i II'S 'Differentiating... (0.. Determine the error that would occur in horizontal distance D when reading intercepts S.54d + 414 = 0 1 d =15.22 S ern where S is in m Example 15..20) .3 cm I. Solution We have D= .S t. = ­ 120.4~·g Fundamentals of Surveying Example 15.04 em 20 x 9990 ' 2 = /d/-d+1' + If' .07 ern or 27.d)j2 .175)2. 10 = 9990 ern h f1 or or or Admissible = 'ffJ h _I = 9990 _ 20 = 20. \~07 + 15) 100 i= 0.42..48 ern d =15. 4 2iI $ a &t2iZ£ii a 2U I. Determine the exact spacing of the subtense Jines.5' ern and 10 ern respectively.f' d +/') s f J -1-j or or 9970 =2.. "t' a Solution II = 10000.25 respectively and the constant distance between these is ::0 cm for a multiplier of 100. d1 .J .0 e .•. iiJ.07 cm L (/. and the fixed distances from the objective to the diaphragm and vertical axis are 22. '&J .Lt £J.

112 = 138.11211.0 m and the heieht of the instrument axis 1.47 .35 + 20.20) = R.000 2. 15. Calculate the gradient e.L.L. The reduced level at station A was 100.35 m above the ground. H =NS cos2 K e S = 100. Station A To " B Whole circle bearing from N Vertical angle + 11°30' .lSIJ .296 m H =KS cos2 e· = 100 (2. 2' .47 m R.048 x cos2 11°30' = 100.634 m V= = t 1 J(S sin 28 .524/1. oJ Here Fig.Tacheametry 469 i Example 15.(p~s. e =11°30' =2. of A + 20.28 rn 0.600) x cos2 17° . . x 100 x 1.~. of A + 1. 15.17:00' Stadia readings 2. of station B = R.L.4.048 H ~ 100 x 1.Q.048 - 1.19 Example 15.000 = 1. 15.ed as the h..048 x sin 23° = 20.524 ! From station A to C (Fig.356/0.600 C 45'00' 138°00' Solution From stationA to B J A 11°30' B.4 The readings given belowwere made with :I tacheornetric theodolite having a multiplying constant of 100 and no additive constant.1.zont31 distance one meter rise or fall vertically between the st3tion'sB and C (Fig.19).

. of station C = R.572 slope BC.Q22 = 2~3 B A C Fig.2S~)It:! = 171. _ 62. of A + 1.. BC .022 .35 .21) = 62. =(l00. 171. Fig.21 Example 15:4.20 Example IS..42.27 m R. 15.6342 + 138.~ • .276 Difference of level between Band C (Fig. 100 x 1.42..L.572 m 1 ~ I '.. of A . . 15.356 = R.470 Fundamentals of Surveying j' .L.512 x sin 34° = 42.27 .1. l c.L. 15.V = t KS sin 29 =t x.

36 x sin 30° 2 ::: 25. of B = 15..5 .L.. .: _ern) p A Stadia readings (m) 0.J .instrument Vertical angle .586 .05 m to a staff station B. H = KS cos2 Here.which was i5.26 m V = . (a) Instrument P-muitiplying constant 100. 15.007 ::: 40.Tacheometry 471 Example 15. additive constant 380 mm.' . S =(1.38 1.: R.55 . (b) Instrument Q-muldplying constant 95. Staff held normal to line of sight.586 x cos" 30 + 0.38 + 25.7L-1-/1. staff held vertical.22 Example 15.586 ~ .36 X cos 30° .s sin 28 + C sin 8 _ 100 x 0.additive constant 360 mm.K = 100.714) =0.36 + 30° + 30° Q Solution Instrument P A What should be the stadia readings with instrument Q? ~ A Fig. Height of .1. - .300 B B . Instrument At To . =44.Two sets of tacheornetric readings were taken from an instrument station A the reduced level of..55 m .300 8 =30° e+ c cos 8 0.05 + 1. 1. H ::: 100 X 0.0071 1.. sin 60:1 + 0.5.973 'rn ---------- .

L.\ 1.866} + r (0.620 . of A + 1. the reduced level of which is J5.5 S + 0..L. 1 9 " R.5 (l) =47.38 B 1.86 r 40. the object glass of telescope being known tohave a.36 + (47. of B = 40.37 (2) Solving simultaneously (l)'and (2) r = 0.27 S + 0. of B or or =R.94 m St:lff held normal to line of siaht w • What is the error in the calculated reduced level of C if the multiplying constant of the instrument is taken as ISO? Calculate the horizontal distance AC using the correct multiplying coostarn.0.L.632/0.896/1. focal length of 230 mm and 10 be at a distance of J 38 rnm from the trunnion axis.33 + 0.4221 Remarks 1.27 S + 0.38) cos 30° + r sin 30° or =(95 S + 0.38 44. .264 Hence readings are: 0.896 S 5/2 =0.38) 0.57 S .5) =82.5 S + 0.05 + 1. Instrument at A Height of instrument (m) To Vertical angle + 30° Stadia readings 1.l60 Example 15.528 =0. You are told that the multiplylng constant for the instrument is belivcd to be 1SO..330 Staff held vertical R.93 V =D sin 8 = (95 S + 0. The following tachcometric readings are then taken from an instrument starion A..1S1/ 1.5 S + 0 .973 = 15.19) -0.38 c + 45° 1.~25/1. .86 r 47.472 Fundamentals of Surveying Instrument Q.0~2Jl.3S)(0.05 m.0.36 +(47.86 r =24. H D =D cos e+ r sin e = KS + C =95 S + 0.6 You are given a theodolite fitted with stadia hairs.5 r =43.19) .26 =(95 S + 0.5 r 82.

.05 + 1.395 sin 60" + 0.150.central hair reading .­ . .:.748 =15057 -0.57 x '.330 . 15.620-1.202 m :: 32.0.LBYC.225) () =0.S Here sin 20 + C sin 0 S :: (1. Effect of non verticality on distance can be studied. or or 40. I Tacheometry 473 Solution v =.05 + 1.57) (1. In some case a plumb bob is attached to ensure that the staff is held vertical while holding.25.L.YIYare all right angles. of B = R. of A + h + V .298 + 0. 15.368 sin 30" 0.94 K R.' i . Vertical holding .83 m v2 1 r. B1XA 1• and B.184 . RELATIVE MERITS OF HOLDING THE STAFF VERTICAL OR NORMAL " This is usually done by fitting a small circular spirit level or a single level tube with its axis perpendicular to the face of the staff. Let the vertical staff ABCD tilt backward or forward through a small angle f3.395m· =30) = 0..L. XY =AC cos 8 = S cos 8 XIYI = AIC. . then from Fig. Assuming that LBXXr.1710 K + 0.38 -+ 0.181 sin 45" .171 K + ..43 x ..171 =KSsi n 8 L422 Error = (180 .1710 K+ 0.23(i) with 8 an angle of elevation. H =(KS + C) cos 8 + r sin 8 = (150.032) sin 45" =29.368 m C =230 + 138 = 368 mm II v =~ 0.422 = 15'. cos (8 + f3) =SI cos (8 + f3) fi' ~.18~ = 0. .1.298 x =6.184 ­ 1. = :15.368) cos 45" + 1.12 .38 +.( -.

. taken on the inclined staff.--c-o-s-:e:--'.. Assuming XY=X1Y1 5 cos 9 = SICOS (9 + 13) or S = 51 cos (8 + 13) cos 8 This gives thecorrected reading S with staff vertical compared with the actual reading 5. = KS cos2 9 ..474 Fundamentals of Surveying ·D Fig. H r -H). = 13 tan e . The error e in horizontal length Hr .. cos2 1'(' £J . 15.. ~ e cos (8 ± fJ> cos2 o l:l cos 8 1\. r.. cos 8 .cos 9 =---.:---­ =cos 13 + tan e sin 13 .:. cos 8 cos /3.KSI cos2 I'S = I .. HI.23(i) Staff deviated from vertical. sin 8 sin /3 .H).1 If fJ is small and is less than So cos /3 == 1 sin fJ :: f3 H r -H". = cos(8±/3)_1 H".J - _ KS· I 29 [cos (8± 13) 1] cos cos 8 ­ Expressed as a ratio.

't .D sin e + r cos e. provided with a lens and a reflecting mirror is attached to the staff and the staff man looks through the reflector inclining the staff at the same time till the light flash is obtained which happens when the line of sight strikes the object glass of the tacheorneter.C. 5 =5.7 In a tacheornetric survey. very rapidly with Increase of O.23 (ii) .Then the error ratio = " KS = I .825 m was recorded on a staff which W:lS believed to be vertical and the vertical angle measured on the .D sin e + r cos e) cO To keep the staff normal to the line of sight. Example 15.KS 5 . 15.e. an interval of 0.51 = 1 . ' small angle {3. Fig. Assuming A. =AC = 5 AIC I = A~C~ cos /3 i. Thus the ratio is independent of the angle e l'O\V H ~ D cos' 0 + r sin e ~~' or = . a small collimator.Tachcometry 475 It can be observed that error. cos {3 1 KS1 .Staff deviated from normal. is dependent on 0 andit increases very rapidly with increase of 0 as tan 0 incre:lses. eH =(.cos{3 Staff normal Staff deviated from normal .23 (ii) shows what happens when the staff deviates from normal by a . Normal holding Figure 15..

If the multiplying constant of the instrument is 100 what is the error in horizontal distance? In what conditions will the effect of not holding the staff vertical be most serious? What alternative procedure can be adopted in such condition? Solution .' position of the staff.tan 8. ' . There are two options: (a) Constant base. S is kept fixed while 8.. . ~~gg =2.825 cos (15 + 21475) cos 8 . . The error will be very serious when the angle 8. (b) Variable base i. cos 15° . In such a case staff should be held normal to the line of sight. From trigonometrical tables it is found that tan 0° 34' 24" =0. 0. S S -l'OOS H - . .8~. 1] . i. L.03 or 3%... . 0. ' cos 15° oH = KS cos2 8 [cos (8 + '/3) . S is variable for each staff station but 81 and 82 are pre­ selected. . . and'Sare to be measured.831 In .f3 S =tan-I.1475· .~25) cos2 150 I-cos 17. and 8~ are observed for each ~. ' It is already derived H- ."".. . Then I. '~ 1] -' = 100 (0. Intangentialmethod 8 1. I. "[09555 = 100 (0. 1 = .0.. Actually the staff which was 4 m long was 150 mm out of plumb and leaning backwards away from the instrument position.01 ­ This enables quicker and simpler computation of S. vertical angle measured on the theodolite is very large.tan 8 ~ S It is possible to select 8 1 and 82 such that tan 8 1 and tan 82 becomesimple fraction of 100.= . such as.13 PROBLE~1S IN PRACTICAL APPLICATION OF TANGENTIAL METHOD .e. .476 Fundamentals of Surveying theodolite was 15°. 15.02 or 1%.-- -. 933) 0:9659 ] .1475° = SI cos (8 + /3) =0.e.01 .825) (9. ' cos 8 .

20") = tan e: - {I2 . This is shown in Fig. . Then Let HI = tan (e + 20" ) . thus dividing each octant into 100 unequal parts.. then oBI = + 20" and oth.(Tangemi:ll method. 25 50 75 100 75 50 ..02.20") l e S tan (8.): Effect of Angular Error in tangential measurement can be rnathematlcally studied. tan 10 43' 06" 0.25 a 25 50 75 100 75 50 25 a. If the probable error of measuring each of the angles is 20". Lines ore then drawn from the centre to these points.24 Fergusson's chm.. Tacheometry 477 .03 = Similarly angles for other percentages.20". The points of division on the circle are marked 0 to 100..tan (e~ . can be obtained from tables. The divisions are further read to O.• ~ _ ~ . when l and e~ are both angles of elevation.24:Each linesuch as OB is divided into 100 parts.15. . .. smaller divisions not shown. = . Though computation becomes easier it is difficult to set angles at such odd values. + 20") = tan 81 + (II tan (e: . tin 10 OSi 4?" =" 0. . Furgusson has solved this problem by dividing a circle inscribed in a circle in eight octants.t.Qlof a unit by means of special drum mlcrometer.25 50 75 100 Fig. fS. It is known H= tan eI S - ten e2 .

.HI _ 2a HI .. + o.-__ S tan 8i) + (01 + a~) ~ For small differences in angles 8 1 and 82 the tangentdifferences are approximately equal. ' =0. _ .H. H.0874887 ' =0. 8.~. =-'-qH..0874887.. (q + 2a) or or or H'q'+'20 H..: a r =± 5" =0..tan 8 2 + 02 _ .tan 5° tan (5 500-x 3 2 X 100 =3 x 1O~5.. If tan 81 . tan 5° =0. O(}I ..tan 82 is taken equal to q = S =Hq S = H.(tan el - _-=-_---"'S_-. Then. =5° and S =3 m .q e HI =q H 2a wheree is the error in horizontal length H . " + x) --------.0875187 . we get 1 500 cr = 2 X a X 100 ­ a= . Hence 01 1'12 = a. Ratio of error or As an example let H r r=~=. -------­ I.478 Fundamentals of Surveying H I Then = tan e. ..0000978 = S= 2aHI 2 X 0.0000978 3 X 100 =153374 Under such condition if r is not to exceed 1/500. 20 2a 2aH =q =-SIH =-­ S =100 rn.!..

378 m Example 15. .00 = -138. [AMIE Surveying Summer.0168 tan 5"24' .556 m Fig..055 tan 8z =..of A = R. tan 5°24' .3. 138.I +51.. " ' Thus the permissible angular error 'is ±'6..14" .A ' m x ~ .tan 3°10' 2 0. . .8. ~ =3°10' 1 H =S ­ tan 8 1 .. = 6.155 and 2.556 + 4. On sightj~g the graduation corresponding to the height of the instrument axis above the ground.655 for angles of elevation 4. Find the horizontal distance and the reduced level of A if the height of the instrument axis is 138.0017058° .556 meters above datum.15. Example 15. = 5.00 :.L. 15. . ItllJrJII .1 =2 rn.14"..~ Tacheometry 479 or or 5 + x. the vertical angle was 5%.0168 m R.0017058° . 8 =5°24'.1987] .822 .5% respectively.5% and 5.25).tan 8 z. 2 -. ~1 _J.9 An observation with a percentage theodolite gave staff readinzs as 1.045 .3.0945278 .25 Example . 15. = 140.0553251 = 51. Solution !~ tan 81 = . . Compute the horizontal distance and the elevation of the staff station if the instrument has an elevation ofSOO. 5°24'" A R. of .sm .8 The vertical angles to vanes fixed at 1 m and 3 m above the foot of staff held vertically at a station 'A' were 3"l()' and 5°24' respectively (Fig.512 m.t.'C =.L.s = 3. . ' Solution Here . .

tan 8) 5' =.905 m :::: (500..ice filled to the vertical circle of a tacheorneter (Fig. in.655 .155 R.75 ~ If r be the s~aff reading corresponding to the height o~.14 TACHEO~ffiTRIC CALCULATIOl'\S AND REDUCTIONS The great disadvantage of tacheornetry is that it requires elaborate calculations to find out the horizontal distances and elevations of points.. ..L.045 :::: 6.tan 8 2 .Q12 m 15.905) + 6.. V :::: H tan 82 :::: 150..05 If S is the.75 ::::' 1. There are tw o scales: one for calculating horizontal distances and the other for vertical distances..:--=-= .. "-. " This isa mechanical de'. = Hence H' KS If . In tacheornerry for inclined si£hts H K5 cos~ 8.immedjate." ~ 2.480 Fundomcnizts of SI/11'Cying H :::: 5 :::: 2. . the V scale is marked 50 and a reading of less than 50 indicates that the telescope is inclined downward i~ ~f 2~12 or = i J .stlf. the instrument r . (ii) stadia diagrams.05::> . (iii) stadia slide rules can be used.512 + 1.00 x .... The graduations on the scale meant for vertical distanees are terms 100 x sin [as V KS sin 28 and are' read against an index mark..cos: 8) = = KS sin:' 8 The horizontal scale...i50 . To help in computations (i) stadia tables.1. Special :. of fA + V ..05 S :::: ..:-.corresponding staff intercept H :::: or S' tan 8\ -.1.26).l5.00 m. therefore. ~h(":' the values of the percemagecorrecticn 100 sin2 8 that should be subtracted Irorn 100 5....lin~ntsU~~Ele::ll:nan Stadill Arc and Jeffcot Direct reading tacheometer enable .0. If the line of sight is assumed horizontal' ..S tan 8\ . Braman stadia arc' .I.. 15.reductions..f L_ .H :::: KS (1 .6S? .".04::> :::: 150.L. The central graduation...: ••.. .005 x 150 = 0.055 .155 = 508.of horizomal distances and elevations of points. of staff = R."..75 m Let the angle to the graduation corresponding to the height of the instrument be CIJ so that tan CI) :::: 0.

Tacheometry -loSl r. The value of V is then given by V =S x (Reading on V scale .t r-.910 m Elevation of staff = 140. '\. second division 0. ". it is brought to a whole number by the tangentscrew.315 . '.55 Reading on H scale . .725 = 14-lo.145 x (55 .50 Assume K = 100 and C = 0 if =1.1. This does not appreciably change .1:315 m Reading on V scale . 'If the index is not against the whole number reading of the V scale. while a reading greater than 50 shows it is inclined upwards.13.01.3 .. = 1-1-0. . The corresponding angles of 8 which gives t sin 28 =0.' the value of S and' hence the result.26 Beaman stadia :l1'C (schernadc diagram).'. Example: Central hair reading .145 Elevation of LA. Fig.50). Staff intercept .D2 or e=1°08'46" and so on.50) = + 5. Hence the first division is 0.scale is based on the computation thar l 2 sin 28 for each graduation is a magnitude of 0.01.02 and.'.50 + 5.01 or e=O~34/231/ t sin 2e ~ 0.725 . The graduations on the vertical. so on.. = 1. .'.

F'lU'd reticle 3.~ reticle 2. (c) and (d) explain :: s~c---- (a) 2 .H.3.435 m Horizontal distance = 1. The two cams are fixed in position but so shaped that the interval between the pointers is adjusted automatically with the variation of the vertical angle of the telescope. Mcr.482 Fundamentals oj Surveying Horizontal Correction = 1.065 m Ieffcot direct reading tacheometer This is the tirst direct reading tacheometer which was invented by H. Fie.27 r: :~I.1ding tacheometer. Cam Swilch ring HI at 0 Swi1ch ring set at H ~ .500 .27(a).t ~ ~ fr.435 = 114.l I 1 sa = 5cY'2 sin 2a 5:. (b). The intercept between the central pointer and the bottom pointer on the right side multiplied by 100 gives the horizontal distance D and the intercept between the central pointer and the topleft hand pointer multiplied by 10 gives the vertical component.'2 ~ I.435 = 111. The central one is fixed while the other two are movable and actuated by cams. 15..rlc: of Jeffcot dir:.145 x 3 = 3.. Jeffcot to directly obtain the horizontal distance and vertical intercept and thus avoiding tedious tacheometer computations. Follcvo·er 4.3. Figures 15. The diaphragm consists of three platinum" iridium pointers. .145 x 100 .

A scale of tangents of vertical angles is engraved on a glass arc which is fixed to the vertical circle cover of the instrument.28 Szepessy tacheometer. As the graduation is in percentage 0.The following are the steps for using the tacheorneter: .005 means an angle whose tangent is 0.00005 or 0.by first setting the fixed pointer ata whole decimeter mark andthen readingthe other two pointers. and (iii) Parallax error is . It uses percentage angles. is 'greater than that of height pointer. 15..~50 =100 x (2.000 Vertical intercept =. If the rC:lding of the fixed pointer. 15. The stadia rod readings are taken. (ii) It is difficult to.005%. = 85' m fixed pointer =2. TT + 2S 1] Fig.= 2.10(2.005 but marked at every om.850 ' height pointer Horizontal distance r' -} 'f. ___I .' difficult to avoid. The scale is divided to 0.0000 -0. the vertical intercept (\') is positive and "ice versa.50 m This instrument is not much used these days because: (i) Pointers cannot be read easily. A number of prisms reflect the scale in the view of the eye piece and when the staff is sighted the image of the staff is seen along with the scale as shown in Fig.850 .28.350) = 10(1. Example Let the readings of the distance pointer .' =O.Tach~om~/ry 4S3 the principle. S:epessy direct readill~ tacheometer It is a very popular direct reading tacheorneter of the tangent group.. measure half intercepts.000) .2.650) =+ 16.

Self reducing tacheometers They differ from conventional tacheometers in the fact that the interval between the stadia lines varies automatically with the telescope inclination. The stadia interval between the upper and lower c~rve multiplied by 100 gives the horizontal. (d) The vertical intercept is obtained by multiplying the staff intercept with . (b) By the vertical circle tangent screw bring the axial hair to a whole number division. The upper curve is the horizontal distance curve. . l_ . (c) Read the stadia between two consecutive whole numbers.484 Fundamentals of Surveying (a) Sight the stadia and clamp the instrument at some convenient position.Themiddle curve determines jhevenical distance interval together with the. if the staff interceptS =1.12 = 17. .40 m . .of the curve which is being used. = 1. This is made possible by having stadia lines etched on a special glass circle called a diagram I . The lower curve is called the zero curve and it is placed on a convenient full graduation on the stadia rod. The diagram rotates about the trunnion axis as it is connected to the telescope through a system of gears such that different parts of the diagram and hence different stadia lines are seen in the field of view as the telescope moves. Instead of conventional stadia lines. the axial hair reading.45 and the axial hair readins is 17.45 x .45 x 100 = 145 rn V . through which' the line of sight is directed. This replaces the diaphragm in the 'telescope. distance p. For example. Horizontal distance curve Vertical distance curve Datum curve K = 100 ' Fig. Figure 15.factPJ:for that p~ . 15. The staff intercept multiplied by 100 gives the horizontal distance D. there are threecontinuous curved lines.29 Self-reducing' tacheometer. then H = 1.29 shows the field of view of a typical diagram tacheorneter.

As 52 varies with.5) i sin 28 and (5) i sin 28 are introduced.000) x roo =21. This magnifies the value of 5: which must be reduced accordingly. 2' I Sin 28) -2 sln?8 .1 00 If the middle curve reading = 1.J . D =(. In ordinary tacheometer v =leKS sin 28) = (Iii) (~) sin 28 In diagram tacheorneter the stadia interval (52) used for obtaining height differences varies as t (i sin 28) so thnt v = I (.. (2.5 I 1 =KS1 SI is the interval between the upper or horizontal distance line and the datum line. I. the datum line. = ({) 52 = KS2 52 is the stadia reading between the middle curve lineand the lowercurve reading. t (1.fixed but in self reducing tacheorneter the interval i varies with 8 as i cos2 8.5 m and the horizontal distance = 0.75 m with 'F " Theory The baslcstadia formula D= KS cos 2 e.61 ~ )( . .000 Upper curve reading = 1. Hence multi plying factor or diagram constant 112. /2 " I cos 8 ) 5. ' = (jIi) 5 cos2 8 in ordinary theodolite i 15 .615 m = 61. / ' .Tacheometry 4S5 Example Let the lower curve reading = 1.435' - = 11'2 1.435 v= ~.1 are marked on the middle curve with positive or negative sign indicating elevation or depression of the telescope.} (i sin 28) it becomes verysmall for angles less than about 25~.2 or 0. Hence ' . 0.­ 52. cos? 'tJ =4. .615 m The difference =0. So curve of i 51n 29.e. .

~is. Errors may also occur if the multiplying and additive constants are not checked from time to time. readings \\'ltn lirie ofslghi passifrg' within I m of the ground surface should be avoided. (iii) inaccurate reading of the vertical angle. So where low accuracy is acceptable. and (iv) error due to non-verticality of staff. These are due to (i) inaccurate centring.486 Fundamentals of Surveying 15. 15.15 ERRORS L~ TACHEOMETRIC SURVEYING The errors can be classified in three groups (a) Instrumental errors.16 uSES OF TACHEO~IETRY (a) It is a rapid method of surveying though nOt highly accurate.~ the telescope. . (c) Errors due . the coarseness of the stadia hairs and the type of rod used. (b) It is useful for topographic survey where distance and elevations of points are both required. Sun Working directly under hot sun should be avoided.:. H7nd Working under strong wind should be avoided as it is difficult to keep the staff vertical or normal under such a condition. Errors due to natural causes These errors are due to-­ <l?('jracrion .. '. . Error due to imperfections in the graduation of therodcan be keptto minimum by standardizing the rod.: temPer:ifu-t~·chaii-ge. Errors du'e to manipulation and sighting . . The accuracy of stadia measurements is largely dependent on the instrument and the rod used.to natural causes. (e) It is used in plane table survey in the form of telescopic allidade. (ii) index error and (iii) accuracy of reading of the vertical circle. this is recommended. . It should always be checked that altitude bubble is at the centre of its run when readings are taken. levelling and bisection. Errors occur due to imperfect adjustments of the tacheorneter which are dependent upon (i) adjustment of altirude level. (b) Errors due to manipulation and sighting. Poor visibility Working under poor visibility should be avoided as under such conditions readings will be incorrect. occurs-due to varying densiiv of different air strata due to . Instrumental errors . To nilniniiie"d11~ error. (ii) incorrect estimation of the staff intercept. For longer sights error depends on the magnifying power .

.11 A tacheorneter was set up.550.: =4. COS-I ~ 201 200 0 ~200 201 .KScos 2 8 .. at station 'A' and the following readings were obtained on a vertically held staff.04 = . (V. the staff being held vertically and the instrument having an anallactlc lens? .[0 complete field survey required ferphotographic mapping. '.M.) Solution '$• • True horizontal distance D Sloping distance L = KS cos2 8 =KS =sec2 8 Sloping distance L_ KS Horizontal distance ::: D ..650.'2. \' = KS sin .L. '28 ~ .515 m . (d) Tacheometer is used ..2°18' B +8 036' 3. 200 + 1 . . of B.= .380 = 425. Vertical Angle Hair readings Remarks R.· .Tacheometry 487 . 3. Permissible error 1 in 200.L.M. 3.Station A Staff station . (e) It can also be profitably used in differential levelling. 201 =200= 200 . B.4. Solution H = KS cos2 8 + C cos 8 .17' ~nSCELLA~EOUS EXA)lPLES Example 15. C sin 8 when 8 = '2') IS' . of B if the constants of the instruments are 100 and 0. 402'24" Example 15.' or L. ?01 2 sec 8 = 200 D 8 = sec"' . .L. .515. Calculate the horizontal distance from A to B and the R..225. " ' 15. profile levelling and in indirect trigonomctric31 (e\·etJing.875 1.10 Upto what vertical angle may sloping distances be taken as horizontal distances without the error exceeding I in 200.. 3.

8038 m H = ~S .station ~ = Elevation of.r (axial hair reading) 425.4 cos 8°36' =190 (1.~80 + 0.999 sin 8 = O.12 An internal focussing telescope has 3 length 1from the objective to the diaphragm.550 =431. ~ Solution For the objective '(convex lens) .681 .2.3.6378 .0598 =25. I I I = III -y. 0..04) For angle of depression Elevation of staff. u.+ 3.Ii. =O. =454.616 m I I V = 100(3. .Instrument station + h or...6378 m Elevation. .65) = 100(1. station + It] . and f2 respectively.988):! + (004) (0.2.~16 -:-3. [Elevation of instrument station + 11] .4 (0.of staff·station =431.515 + 2. For angle of elevation = Elevation of instrument station + It + V .V .-~ - I.5150 = 25..CHO sin 28 ~ t i .988) = 169. The focal length of the objective and the internal focussing lens are f.515 = [Elevation of instrument. Elevation of staff station: ..4(0.4SS Fundamentals of Surveying cos 8 = 0.73) sin 2~036') + OAsin 8c36' (0.= fl .2~57) + 0. Find the distance d of the focussing lens from the objective when the object focussed is at a distance III from the objective.OSO =2.268 II m Example 15.681 . .016 • = 2.875 .578 + 0.cos:! e+ c cos e ~ ~ = 100 (1.1495) +~25.550 =425. ~ ~ .380 _ 1.r V = 100(3.73) (0.73) (cos 8°36'Y 0.225) .616 .6 + 0.

: . Solution u. .1.30 EXJmplc. Fer the focussing lens (concave) _. Determine the focal length of the focussing lens.v2 =VI .1. The focussing lens is midway between these when a staff 18 rn away is focussed.c!) -!:.(1 . _ .180 ..?f2)}] t 1 [(I ~ UI)'± ~/(l :t"UI)~ + '1) ± ~/(l- = 1[(l IJI)~ + 4h. 15.. the objectglass of focal length 180 mm is located 220 mm away from the diaphragm.VI) (l + 412 .500 or V. =_.12. =18. '1)}] ='2 ((l + vJ)± "//(l.~I_ Uz =VI -..L+...d.00 Ii =0.18 rn =5..vJ)}] Example 15." = II -.000 rn ii.dia.Wagm r--~ v / " Inlemal .'OC\JSSirig lens' •.182 .d or or or Solving d = (ul . = 0. Objective Tachrometrv .(VI-c!) 1 1 d"1-d(l + VI) VI) + (lvl ~Hl"': VI)} = 0 'd~ -d(l + + lUlU +h) -h.L L: 14 2 L'2 or r : 1 '1' 12 = IlL. u.y" .I} = 0 4(ull +VJ!2 .. 15.' 489 .13.2J' r~ • ---- i Fig. I 1 1 1 1 = 0. ... .13 In a telescope.d) U-d) =f~(l .

110 =-+­ U.0.0.1 JO =.14. - 1· 1 . C2Ft = 125-d rn = . Solution For the objective fl = 125 mm and thus the position of F.182 . The lens is concave.208 i. Therefore.13.e. = .110 = 0.7979 m f. Example 15. find its distance from the diaphragm when focussed at infinity.31 Example 15. U2= VI - Intemal focussing len Diaphragm For the focussing lens 0. 15. will be 125 mm from CI .0.4.490 Fundamentals of Surveying Objective 18m he_ _ l.14 In an internally focussing telescope.072 + 0.=-~ 't'=-:"0 ~1'~~~-~ Fig. 15..072· V2 =0.208 rnrn &/ c\ -- Objective r{ ~1 V.32 Example 15.110 = 0. is' 200 mm from the diaphragm. 1 V2 h 1 . . 1 = . the objective of the focal length J25 mrn.········ . if the internal focussing lens is • of focal length~250 rnm. Intemal focussing lens d ~ 1==200 I Fig.

. 15.e. a = .250 (200 . V " Mechanical Axis ~ focussing len.250 d + 31250 'd..47' or 20.250 =. objecti ve a VI -S = III • 'S l.50..51 ' =200 -20..000 + 250 d .d) (200 .325 d + d"!)= .48 mm Thus the internal focussing lens will be 179.e..15 Derive expression for the spacing of the stadia lines to give a' multiplying factor K for a given sight distance D if j = stadia interval and S = stadia intercept. Solution ~ 1 o -----.I =-+­ I: U~ r' ~.52.'1 S =1111' I...(25000 ..250 1. ..d) (125 .- a " =-­ <:d -l Objective U2~ .(125 . .48 mm away from the diaphragm when focussed to infinity.--..33 Example \5. i. . ' or or or - =.' 0 1• .(l2S =200 ~d 1/2 t!) 1 I ..d) =. . For the convex lens. "= 179. . . V2 = 304. Exarilple15.=1lI1 III where IlII =magnifying power l .. ~ I V2 Fig.Tacheometry 491 For the internal focussing lens I: 1I~ v2 =.s ­ .15.d) + (200 .d) + 250 (125 d"! -' 325 d + 6250 ''. I d) ..

096 mm .... = 120..096 0= 150 m .r.l7l: Example 15.0 + 120.. = II . I =Q .:192 Fundamentals 01 Surveying For the concave lens (internal focussing) . Solution Here / At 150 m.16.f~ = 240.00 1 0. =260. ..~40 = 149.. = 1 1 u.L'.120 .= . / + VI / . • a i = 11111112 S D = KS S = 12. 149. 15. ~-- Fig. - U2­ = III. K = 100•. = 140 rnrn.93 .096 mm = 140. The focal lengths of the objective and the. =111" ' .... J.93 x 0. =149.ay. a 112 or i u.:.16 An internal focussing telescope has an objective 140 mm from the diaphragm. = 120. Find the distance apartof the stadialines to produce a multiplying factor of 100 when the st~ffis 150 m a. L.34 Example 15.e.0.-' U\ -II or VI = Udl III -I.904 mm = 140. v' I. D = 150 m u\ = 150. K j=-K~ Dm.:..0 + 120.096 = 19..: Slaff . .II.93 m as the axis lies midway between the objective and diaphragm.. For the objective.120 x 1000 '.. Ii. concave lens are 120 rnmand 240 mm respectively.

60 mm ../19.096 .876 or 60.904 x 97~.90 =Vl.10 = 78.48 = 140' .28J = 199.60 x 29.000 .17 What errors will be introduced if the above instrument is used for distances 30. = 1 . 139.120.096 ±. d =2" [(1 + VI) ± .930 x 5938 120A8 x 78.Tacheometry 493 d = t [(t + tll)± -.78) Example 15.60..­ =t V2 .48 =140 + 120. 100 and 150 m? Solution .120.[260./(1- UI) (l+ 41: - L'I)] .70 = 29.UI)] =.[ .52 . 150 x 1000 (120.d= 120.876 (1000) == 1.d = 140 .22 =79.096) (79.60.78 mm =VI .d = 120.930 mrn 29.38 or 61.48 =260.61.38 S =i = X 1t11l/UIU2 1.v(l.93) (59.38 does not fit physical conditions hence inadmissible] Vz 112 =. At 30 m UI :: 30.90 = 299.10 =59.876 mm = KUI ll2 DVI V2 i .096± -.930 x 120 vI 1+ 1til VI = 29.9~] = t· [260. t t [260.930 _ 120 =.v(1952)(97952)] [260.656] :::: 199.48± .d = 140 .22 However 199.vI)(l + 412 .48 := 19. r' ~(' Itz =I .1403 mm .10 [199.= (100) (149.48 -61.876 is inadmissible as it does not fit physical conditions.48 ± 138.220 =59.

299. m .09.494 Fundamentals of Surveying The value should be 300 mm Error = 300 .144 =260.70 = 999.. _ 120 I+ VI VI =120.856 mm 1­ d = d = i [(l + tqL± .00 + 120.129 = 0.129 mrn The value.33 .67 "2 = 120. 120.144 = 19. = 100.33.144 mm = 140.0871 m/l00 .330 = 59..v~(l + 412.814) .000 . _ 1.9129 m Error = 0.144 ± -/(19.814 or 60..144mm =140.'.814 S " l.1403 = 0.30 mm VI= 999.086 ml30 m At 100 m "I '.67 =999.30 x 120 999.484] = 199. error = 0 as the diaphragm spacing has been set accordingly.144 =i x "1"2 60.00 .144 ± 139.60. .00 mm.881 mm Therefore and should be 100. "" . As before.120.856)(979.Jff .' 1000 . = t [260.00 m At 150 m D = 99.VI) r·~· t [260.30.144 x 79.856)] = t [260.60 x (99930) (59. . d = 60.000 m. Error'. Hence error = 0. .33 = 79.999..856)] . V2 = 140 .144 ± ".914 m and should be 30.8597 mm Therefore D = 29. should be 1000.856) (979.

Tacheamary -.45 m. 495 Example 15.77 + 0.1. i n +(1+ d) For inclined sights .07) cos2 II °40' =...100 (2.979):! =216.26) (0.48 m 269.if + if) cos () 10036' . the multiplyingconstant 100 and the staff vertical.:65 and 4.18 The constant for an instrument is 800 and the value of constant C = 0. and the reduced level of the staff station. The staff W:lS held vertical Solution Sum of micrometer readings =4.readings Jre4.267 = 8.33 .19 The following values were recorded during a theodolite tacheornetric survey Stadia readings Vertical angle Instrument height Height of collimation : : : : 3.265 + 4. C =a and K = 100 H = 100 S cos2 () H = 100 (3.45 cos = 271.44 = 272.267 and the: line of sight is inclined at + 1O~36·.SOD x -.L. Calculate the distahce from the instrument to the staff when the micrometer. [CEl] . 10036' + 0.21 m Example 15..20 (middle) 1. cos2 .01 m Find the horizontal distance between the staff and instrument station.07 (bottom) 11°40' 1. Determine the error in the horizontal and vertical distances due to an error of ± 5 minutes of arc in the measurement of the vertical angle.532 D . D = KS n - cos2 e + .33 (top) 2.532 3 . Assume that the telescope is anallactic.K .' . The intercept S =3 m.'1. =.Solution with =KS cos2 e + c cos () . of instrument station + h + V ­ central hair reading t! ~ _ - KS sin 2() 2 J .75 m Reduced level of the staff station = R.

1990. 3.L. Eau.height of collimation =R.L.~O.230 ]'e$peeth·c!y.. \'01 116. Said M.760 and 0.0) to 1~0 C~O) =± 0. 100.1:0 and 4. '.30 m REFERE:\CE 1.26) (0.010. .918) (. are O.g of Stadia Surveying with Incomplete Intercepts".396) Hence reduced level of staff station = 269. 3. 2. ASCE Jc:.M.396) • (60) (180) (5) (n) = ± 0.'. :"\0.00 and I stlltiOD B. de . = 100 ~ 226 (.25) cos 2 ({1"40') = ± (l00) (2. 0( R.1 A t3chcomcter is p13c:d at II station A and readings on a staff held upon a B. of instrument station + height of instrument h = 269. .01 + 44.75 .130 m V= ~S sin 28 d8' dV = KS 2 cos 28 2 .75 m sin 2 (11040') .2.26) (0. H KS cos2 (t' = dH ':' _ KS sin 2e de dH '= ± KS sin 28.26) sin 2(11040') 60 '180 = ± 100 (2. PROBLE~ts 15. 5 1r = ± 100 (2.01 m "." '= ± (l00) (2.20 = 311.56 as.4 496 Fundamentals of Sun'eying > = 100 ~ 226 =44. 2. Pi' 139-148.:..200. dV = ± KS CbS 28 d8 " .• "~{odellir. Augus.~ 0/ SUf'l'~-i~1 EJ:ginttrillg. The angle of deprcssicn of the telescope in .

\HE Surveying Winter 1980J 15.0025 ern exists in the interval between stadia Jines. Find the horizontal distance from A 10 Band the R.Tacheometry 497 . (b) .6°19' and in the second case . of staff station B. [A. . - " \. Assume fli = 100 and if + Q) ::: . of statlon B." the first case is . [A~IIE Surveying Winter 1981J 15.45 rn 100 30 em 1.00) to a staff station B. Thestadil readings with instrument Q. 1.28-1.3 m. .L. 1978] 15.4 (a) Describe the procedure to determine the constants of a tacheorneter in the field.3 Two sets of tacheornetric readings were taken from an instrument station A (R. (c) ." .2 (a) Draw a neat diagram and derive from first principle an expression for the horizontal distance between a tachcornctcr and a vertically held staff for a horizontal line of sizht.780. 100. Instrument Multiplying constant Additive constant Height of instrument Staff held p Q 95 45 em 1.5 (a) Derive the distance equations for the tangenrial systemof racheomeiry' when both the sightings are angles of depression. Calculate the stadia interval.440. The focal length of .795 ? p Q B B A Determine (a) The distance between instrument station and staff station.L.and 1.7°42'. object glass was 25 em. . Find the error that would occur in horizontal distance with :10 ordinary stadia telescope if an error of 0. (b) The stadia readinzs with horizontal sight on a vertical staff held50 m away from a tacheorneter were 1. The distance between t~e object glass and trunnion axis of the tacheorneter was i5cm. . Focal length of object glass ::: 25 ern Multiplying constant = 100 Additi ve constant ::: 35 ern [A~IIE Surveying Summer 1980J 15. .40 m Vertical Normal to line of sight Vertical angle 5°44' 5°44' Instrument At A To Stadia readings 1. . .L. (b) R. [A~lIE Surveying \\imer. 1.090.

Vert.650 m.720. 3. The following observations were made with the staff held vertical on each station: Instrument station p p HL of axis 1. 2. of B. a tacheorneter fitted with an anallactic lens. of the .I of the trunnion axis above ground was 4.350 1.650.g to angles of elevation of 4% and 5% are 1.525 and 2.Jeffcot direct reading tacheometer.50 Staff station B.9:25 respectively. Vertical angle . Staff station.905 0. ·A " . angle .250 Determine the gradient of the line QR. 1. Distance AB was measured and found to be 1600 m. (b) A tacheoineter was set up at an intermediate station C on the line AB and following readings were obtained: .500. rAMIE Surveying Winter 1984] 15. 3. If the vertical angle on sighting the staff reading equal 10 the h:i~:-. 2.055. R. Find the gradient of the line joining station k and station B. .[AMIE Surveying Summer 1982] 15.055.M. (b) Explain how you will obtain in the fieldthe constants of a tacheometer. 2. Staff readings 0. Determine the elevation of the top of .810 B The instrumentwas fitted with-an anallactic lens and the constant was 100.7 (a) Explain in brief the essentiai features. 2.620 1. given the elevation of point A is 430.60 1. 2.. The same point on the top of the hill subtends an angle of 12°30' at point B which is in direct line joining point A and top of the hill.1.670.950. the value of the constant being 100.60 1. .700.445. 3. (c) The top of a hill subtends an angle of 9°30' at a point A.6 (a) Explain in brief any direct reading tacheorneter you know.055 Remarks.: st"if station if that of he instrument station was 493.M. (b) A line was levelled tacheometrically \\'ith. Q R + 8°36' + 10°42' Q .L. calculate.8 (a) What is an anallactic lens? Explain the objectof providing an anallactic' lens in a tacheometer.the hill and its horizontal distance from point A.675. + 4°20' . = 250.880. the merits and demerits.5%. (i) the hcrizcmal distance between instrument and staff: (ii) the elevation of tl.2°18' Staff reading 1.498 Fundamentals of Surveying (b) Staff readings observed with a percentage theodolite correspondi.6°20' ... rAMIE Surveying Summer ]981] 15. .· [AMIE Surveying Summer 19~) e.

47 : I ABBC CD + 4"32' . (c) A traverse ABCD was 'run by a tachecmeter fitted with an. ~ Bearing 27"3S' 300"2-l' 236°45' Vertical angle +7"~' Staff intercept 1.9 (a) Comparethefixc:d hairstadla and tangential method of tacheometric survey. of depression. .2°10' [A~fIE- 1. . ~ ...... (b) Derive expression for determining the elevation of staff station and its distance from instrument station .The following readings were taken with the staff held normal: .f Tacheometry 499 15. Sketch the illustrative diagram.90 1..75 Surveying Winter 1989] Find the length and bearing of DA.hen One vertical angle is of elevation and the other. Line .anallactic lens and having :l multiplying constant as 100.

2539-1963 specifies three types of boards with. Even in construction layout staking. plane table method can adequately plot. The plane table-alidade combination is an extremely useful and a versatile instrument. 16 Plane Table Surveying 16. The necessity of transferring the field data to office and preparation of map is completely 'avoided.: th"eoetails.S. In large scale mapping of built-up areas where a considerable volume of underground . Plane table sheet of suitable drafting media. dimensions given below: . Compass 6.·detail and paved surfaces is encountered. I. there are features which can be mapped in moredetail by ground survey techniques.. Plumbing fork and plumb bob 4.2 EQurntE~TS REQUIRED The following equipments are required for plane table survey. Spirit le. Plain table 2.. 16.ery useful as a basicinstrumentfor teaching fundamental concepts of surveying because the geometric principles are readily grasped and the objective of a survey operation is clearly indicated in the map sheet.-el 5. plane table method is very useful. .. The plane tabl« It consists of a small drawing board mounted on light tripod in such a way that the boards can be rotated about the vertical axis and can be clamped in any position. It is also v. ' soo . While photogrammetry is being extensively used for topographical survey these days. Alidade for sighting 3.1 INTRODUCTION The plane table surveying is a very quick method of surveying where field observations and plotting of the plan proceed simultaneously.. >. It can perform all the usual survey functions with the exception of field astronomy. I. -'" I .

The stretched thread.l.- Protecling. . This may be (i) PIJin or(ii) Telescopic. . "The sight rules are made of wood or metal but the sight vane is made of metal only.. It is possible to suitably clamp them in vertical position. I· "i A Fig.. Alidade (sight rille) . 16. The front or object vane and the rear or sight vane are of folding type. \CirCU!ar Disc of Brass .3. 15 The details of the board. The bonorn surface (If the sight rule is truly plane and has bevelled edges.Designation A L~e Di:nensions (mm) B C . ~ o 0 o 0 o o B o o o o o 0 160 mm MIN o o o 0 ... The plane table stand is 1:!50 rnrn in heigh. 16. from the top of the clamping head to the shoe. the brass circulardisc which finnl}' secures the clamping assembly to theboard and the clarnplng assembly along with tne tripod arc given in Figs.1 and 16}.uI . . The materials and dimensions of sight rules are given in Table 16. \ Battens E~~.1 Plane Table Board. -11+--. The front vane has a thread across its length andthe rear vane has :I fine slit to view through it. 16. The two vanes can be linked through :I thread when required for sighting at high elevations or depressions. object vane thread and sight vane vertical slit are coplanar and this plane is parallel to the edge of the sight rule and normal to the plane table board when levelled."£" . Strip.50 600 SOl) 600 Medium Small 500 ~OO 15 15. . The details of a Plain alldade are given in Fig.

brass or aluminium alloy or 3 15 •••• '.... The telescope eyepiece is generally swivel mounted so that the observer's eye need not be aligned with the telescope's longitudinal axis. The point of the upper arm and the plumbline are in the samevertical line.. /" ·~II I I Countersunk Brass Wood Screw ~b:: ::~: . (Fig. The elevation of the point can also be computed by using usual tacheornetric relations... (ii) a trunnion axis.•.1 Material and Dimensions of Sight Rules Designation Large Medium Small L ·A B C D 3 Material 750 600 500 25 25 20 or 25 50 50 30 or 40 15 15 10 or 3..-.. a plumb bob being attached to the free end of the lower arm. ••" "'~ '.1 •. . All alidades are equipped with a circle for measuring vertical angles. a days ED~U is mounted on allidade and facilitates plane table operations. The plumbing fork is used for .. telescope which can rotate against the trunnion axis. Plumbing fork 'f This is :I V-shaped piece of metal with parallel arms 'of equal length. Fig..-.­ A telescopic alidadc consists of a base or blade composed of either a plain or articulated fiducial straight edge that rests directly on the plane table..2 Clamping Assembly. The horizontal distance between the instrument and the point sighted can be computed by stadia readings on the staff kept at the point. 2 Brass or aluminium alloy Brass or aluminium alloy Wood. . Table 16.'. 16A).. ~o ..502 Fundantentals of Surveying Hexagonal Brass Nuts in Recess I '.-::-. 16. On the base is: (i) a pylon or pedestal. and (iii) 3.

503 x . rr --/1 7... 1 I .5 Thread '..-Plan~ Table Surveying .. Level Tube Vertical Circle Magnifier --'\.L ..) ...screw Eye piece Fig......0_­ C~J'.-lJo-' ::::---.4 Telescopic allidade.Focussing ... (AlI dimensions in rnillimeters. 16.3 Sight Rule (Alldade).. Det. 16.....'5 . _2.a~ at X Notch I I W Rear Vane 100 ~----_ .J Fig.

Fundamentals of SIII1'Cyl'Ilg Centring the table Here the upper end of the plumbing fork is placed over the planed point and the plane table is so adjusted that the plumb bob is on the station point below. It should also be stiff and tough and suitable ror longtime archival. The longer sides of the trough are paraJlel._.. For more accurate work spirit level is to be used.Jhal~jther side can be· used-us a ruler or !:lid-dOwn to coincide ".itha "'-st~3jghl-'lj'~'~dra\\'n on the paper.5 U-fork and plumb bob. '. This is done throughplumbing Ll-fork. -.3 WORKIl'iG WITH PLA~E TABLE Before mapping work can start with plane table. . This can be ascertained by placing the level in two directions at right angles 10 each other and observing that the bubble is central in both cases.5) u-Iork Fig. L plumb bob Spirit level A small spirit level either of the tubular variety or of the circular type is used to check th:lt the plane table when in use is level. Compass Usually a troughcompass is used. 16. the following steps are needed: Fixing The plane table should be fixed to the tripod. It should be capable of withstanding repeated erasures.. " f1:n SQ. \ . it is through eye estimation. II 16. Centring The table should be so placed that the plotted point a is exactly over the ground point A.~. The dimensions of the sheet should remain stable under variable conditions of temperature and humidity. Transferring of/he ground point Here the plane table is centred over the underground point by means of the plumb bob while the upper arm of the forkgives the point to be plotted on the drawing sheet (Fig. I Levelling The plane table should be levelled.a~.50. The working sheet should be carefully mounted with spring clips. I. thumb screws or drafting tape. . Plane cable sheet It should be of superior quality and should be moisture proof and non-hygroscopic. for small work. 16. quality storage...

1. This is essential when more t.with which a point can be located by intersection. 16. r'·~'·: . 16. ' . The lengths are measured and points 0. E and F.4. the line ba coincides with the.'. (iv) Resection.. 16.: This is an approximate but quick method of orienting the: plane table.nst this line and the table is turned till the needle freely floats in the middle. .ground line 13. alidade which is placed on ba sights the pole a. and orientation is achieved.Plane Tcbl. Orientatlon is done by (i) Trough compass. ­ 16A. Suppose the line ab has been 'plotted on the plane table corresponding to the ground line AB. where the tableIs to be oriented.. . the compass is placed agai. (ii) Intersection. C. and. This has been explained in subsequent sections.2 l:\TERSECTION One of the great advantages of plane table: is the ease.t A. (iii) Traversing. The table is then clamped in position. e and fare plotted as shown in Fig. The table is then said to be oriented.ln one instrument station is to be used. This is the direction of magnetic north and a line pencilline is ruled ag3inst the long side of the box. The instrument is then shifted to Q and it is so placed . c. '.-The line PQ is measured. After shifting the plane table from A to B. At any other station.METHODS OF PLANE TABLE WORK There are four methods of plane table work: (i) Radiation. To locate points A and B rays are drawn from p towards A and B. 16.: SU""~'ing 505 Orientation This is done: byrotatingthe planetable such that plotted lines in the plane table sheet are: :lll parallel to the corresponding lines on me ground. Orientation bj' trough compass . orientation will be: done by (i) placing the point b exactly over the Station B with the help ofU fork. b. Here P and Q are known stations and the plane table is first placed over station P and alidade points towards PQ.4 DIFFERE~T. .7).4. B. Orientation by back sightillg This is a more accurate method and two cases rna)' arise depending on whether it is possible to set the plane table on a point already plotted on the sheet by way of observation from previous station or not In the first case orientation is done by back sighting. (ii) Back si£hting. When this is achieved. and pq is plotted on the sheet (Fig. d. Here plane table is placed over station point P and alidades are pointed -townrds A. D.6.1 RADIATION .(ii) by rotating the plane table such that.. from station B. When 'the plane table cannot be placed over a plotted point method of resection has to be applied.m centrally. The usual method is to place the trough compass on the plane table sheet and 10 rotate the plane table: till the: needle 110.

..8). With the alidade pivoted at q.... I I I I B " " " . I ..3 TRAVERSl.. ·... Here initial station A is occupied and then :\Bis sighted a~d measured. ""'.~ _ ... the angles are directly plotted without measuring them (Fig. I ." \ I ..506 Fllndall/elllels of Surveying B' I .1G . 16A.. rays are drawn toward A and B on the plane table sheet. : " ..-... _ . ... A traverse consists of a series of straight lines connected together. .-_ _..6 Radiation method. The difference in elevation between the alidade at Q and the point A can be determined in the same manner... In such a case the plane table is properly oriented at Q.."..' D F E Fig.. .... 16.. c --. In a plane table traverse.-t' has been measured from each set up.­ " . I I . . ". ' . The product of the distance APt scaled from the map-and the tangent of the vertical angle at P is the difference in elevation between the alidade at P and A. . .. The difference in elevation between A and P anc that between A and Q can be obtained if the vertical angle to . ..... . L. . The intersection of corresponding two rays defines the map position of A and B.7 Method of intersection that q is over Q and pq corresponds to the line PQ." . Then station B ... A I" .. 16.. . .~I~~ P .. 0 Fig] 6. ­ . . .

. Whenever possible. (a) Here A. In similar fashion. some or ali measurements must be repeated. b. The point can then be located by observing three known points such as church steeples. e arc their plotted points on 0. is occupied and BA. It is required to locate the corresponding point p on the sheet. water towers. The three-point problem has long been employed in navigation to ascertain 0. The distance BA is measured and the average of A8 and 804.is placed in an arbitrary position from where the three points are visible. flag poles or any other prominent object. (d) Graphical solution. ·Y. . Tile three-point problem Here three points in the field and their corresponding positions in the plane are known. 16. 507 d 0 c '. 16. It is necessary to locate the position of the observer. sighted.~.4 RES ECTlO:S Resection is a method of orientation used when the table occupies a position not yet located on the map.4. Treeing paper method This method consists of the following steps. used in laying out ab.! is set up atpoint P. C are three known stations and G. I I J . The next point C is observed with t!'le blade touching b. There are two field conditions: (i) the three point problem. drawing sheet.8 Traversing. (b) I:1s!~u:ne:. B. The plane table. (c) Analytical method.• >.average value ploned :IS be. They are: (a) Tracing paper method.Plane Table Surveying. and (ii) the' t\VO point problem. . ship's position b)' observing with a sextant on three recognizable features on the shore. There are man)' methods for solving the three-point problem. distance BC ang"CB -measured and. succeeding points can be occupied and traverse lines plotted. (b) Lehmann's method./'. Fig. check sights should' be taken over previously occupied points. The solution enables the surveyor to place the plane table at any suitable position for taking details. Small discrepancies are adjusted but ira plotted point is missedby an appreciable' distance.

. . .9). . . 16.' Keep the alidade along p' a and rotate the table to sight A.. 16. " . ~' C a \ I a' . . Bb and Cc will meet at a point if the orientation is correct.508 Fundamelita!s of SlII1'Cyillg (c) Orientth. Clamp the . they will not meet but will form a small triangle known as the triangle of error. similarly sight Band C. . Lehmann's method This is the easiest and quickest solution. on the ground. D. .. 4. ." .. I \ I I I I '1 I I .I· . to abo A . . and C. p'h' and p'c' on the tracing paper. band c previously plotted on the map.. at a unique point (b) When rays are drawn from control signals. another point p' is chosen as per Lehmann's rule.. SI4. B and C and draw p'd. The principles of the method arc as follows: (a) When the board is properly oriented and the alidade sighted to each control signals A. \\ I' p' 0( I' I" ~ ( " P " C Fig.9 Tracing paper method. 2. C " I. p'b' and p'c' pass through corresponding points a.. 'I I. (f) The tracing paper is then moved above the drawing sheet until the three radiating lines p'd.~ .. B.. I I \ I . . The three rays Aa. To reduce the triangle of err~rto zero. however. Set the table over the new station P and approximately orient it. Usually. the angles at their intersections are true angles whether or not the board is properly oriented. " . B nnd C. . (d) Fix a tracing paper on the sheet and locate the point P approximately as p' by means of plumbing fork. b ' b' . With alidade on a sight A. 3. rays drawn from their respective signals will intersect . (e) Sight the stations A.' . (g) This point is marked and the board turned to make the lines radiate to the signals A. . . Procedure 1. . table approximntely with eye or compass so that AB is parallel . (h) The board is then clamped (Fig. B I .

This will give next approximate orientation (but more accurate t. . Then sight B with alidade at b and C w ith alidade at c. By rule 1 p is outside the small triangle as P is outside the triangle ABC. Bb and Cc is proportional to the distance of P from A. Fig. Hence the rays will always meet . if not it w ill be ouuide. the rays will meet at a point. Since. By rule 3. The point p' should be so chosen thaI its distance (rom the rays A.10 .. since the table is rotated in one direction to locate P. Hence the observer should choose the prominent points such that they do not lie on a circle. Lehmann s rilles There are three rules to help in proper choice of the point p'. at a point. 2. there is failure of the fix and the solution becomes indeterminate.. . it cannot be in either of the sectors contained by the r:lysPA. 3. c . the rotation of the t:lble must have the same effect on each ray. using the proportions for the perpendiculars given by scaling the distances PA.e.. The point p' should be: so chosen that it lies either 10 the right of 311 three rays or to the left of :111 three r3)'S.7. Band C and the instrument position P are so chosen that they nil lie on the circumference of a circle. it must be in the lett hand sector as shown. Analytical and Graphical Solutions are given in Section 16. Triangle of error. Byrule 2. though not at the same point. Referring to the Fig. P lies within the triangle ABC) then the position of the instrumenton the plan w ill be inside the triangle of error. 1. PE and PC 'Failure of the fix When the three points A. If the plane table is set up in the triangle formed b)' the three points (l. 5. B :I:1d C respectively. PB and PC. 16. The rays will again form a tri:lOgle of error but much smaller.. .Ptan« Table S/tr\·t)". 16.10:.ng S09 table. The method has to be repeated till the triangle of error reduces to zero. p .!un the pervious one).a. Because the two angles subtended by the three points at the circumference of the cirucurnscribing circle will always be the same. This is because no matter how the board is oriented.

16. b B Case. the point C (Fig. From B a line bx is drawn towards C. (b) With alidade at a. (d) Shift the table to C. '­ a'----='-"'i----------+----'=-----'" A Fig. II When the plane table cannot be placed in the controlling stations.12): " (a) An auxilliary station point D is to be chosen near C. Draw the ray to intersect the ray drawn from d to b in b'. 16. The board . the alidade is placed over a and A is sighted. take back sight to D with reference to C). (e) With alidade at a. . case 1. Thus C2 represents C with reference to the approximate orientation m~em~· . sight A. (b) The table is then shifted to C and oriented by back sighting B along xb and clamped. Measure DC by estimation and ~ark CJ.510 Fundamentals of Surveying The two point problem Here two points .(c) From station D and keeping the alidade at d sight C.11 Two-point problem. or the . (gl The angle between ab and ab' is the error in orientation. (c) To locate potnt C which is on the line bx. Set the table :It D in such a way that ab is approximately parallel to AB. Two cases can arise either the points can be occupied by the plane table. sight A and draw a line. This ray intersects the previously drawn ray from D in c~.imate location of B with respect to the orientation made at D. (f) From C2 sight B.4 and B are visible from the instrument station C and the corresponding points a and b are given in the plane table sheet. Similarly with alidade at b sight B. Clamp the table. The two rays intersect at point d. ' . Let a and b be the corresponding points of the ground points A and R (a) The plane table is set up at B and oriented by sighting A. The line Aa when produced backward cuts the line bx at c to fix . points cannot be occupied.11). . 16. Thus b' is the approx. ·lflg.. Case I When the points can be occupied by the plane table.

plane table will not be horizontal even if the bubble is in the centre of its run. thesetting up of an auxilliary station involves more work in a two point problem compared to the three point problem.Plane TableSurW)'. (iii) Error due to manipulation and sighting. This is' done by fixing a pole at P such that it is in line with ab'. Three types of errors are involved: (i) Instrumental errors. a 1----7' ""i--'T""""- P Required tum d D c Fig. The plane table is then rotated till ab comes in line with P. (b) The fiducial edge of the alidade may not be stralght. through the angle bab'. The table is thus'correctly oriented.5 ERRORS 1:\ PLANE TABLE . '.J1g 511 I 'I' • ! A I I " . Instrumental errors These may consists of the following: (a) The top surface of the' plane table may not be perfectly plane. Moreover. case II. . Two 'point problem does not give accurate result as with finite distance of the point P'it is difficult to rotate and orient the table at C. (f) With defective level tube. . should be rotated. there will be error in sighting. 16. (i'i) Errors in plotting. . (c) The plane table may not be Stable due to loose fittings' (d) If the magnetic needle is sluggish accurate orientation may not be possible. "J .12 Two-point problem. 16. They will intersect at c (not shown) which will be the point corresponding to C. (e) If the sight vane is not perpendicular to the base of the alidade. (h) From this new position draw rays Aa and Bb.

(b) 1'\0 field book is necessary.7S m. (b) If the plane table is not properly oriented there will be angular error in location of points ' (c) If the plane table is not properly clamped. .' (c) Without any field data. (blPlouing error will occur if the alidade is not properly pivoted against the point or if thicker pencils are used. (d) The plane table can be. centring error will occur.ADVANTAGES SURVEY Advantages A~D DISADVANTAGES OF PLAj\E TABL. and a centre crosshair reading .1 The plane table operator sets over an unknown ground-point and measures a distance of 1. Hence minutest detail can be ploued.78 m on the rod. ' ' (d) Sighting error will occur if the object is not bisected at the middle. (e) The control points are usually fixed by triangulation and interior fillings only are done by plane table. (f) The workers are to be very skilled :IS field work and plotting has to be done slmultaneously and necessary computations have to be done in the field itself. (b) It is not possible [0 work under rain or scorching sun. (e) It is very rapid and less costly.:!9 m from the ground to the alidade. The rod man holds the rod on :I point whose elevation is ~S2.used even in magnetically sensitive areas where compass survey is not possible.512 Fundamentals of Surveying Errors ill plotting (a) If the drawing paper is not of good quality. The plane table operator reads a stadia interval of 1. (c) Irregular lines such as stream banks and contours can be checked. it is not possible to replot the plan in a different scale. (d) Morefield time is required as the plotting has to bedone in the field itself.6 . Compute the elevation of the unknown ground point. Errors ill sighting and manipulation (a) If the plane table is not exactly over the station point. Example 16. This is particularly so if the scale of drawing is small.664 m. with temperature changes it will shrink or expand and there will be errors in plotting. between observations it will move and there will be error. 16. a V-scale reading of + 8.of \. ' Disadvantages (a) The method is not very accurate.E (a) The map is made while looking at the area.

iS m 4S~.530 m . + S Product =+ 8 x J. + 13J12m Elevation of Known point = 482. If the displacement of P was 30 em in :I direction at right angles to the ray. 2000' r:. how much on the plan would be the consequent displacement of a point from its true position if I r:.Elevation of alidade =. not accurately centred above P.75 m Central bair reading =+ l..1.218 m .13 Example 16. 13.2 Derive an expression for inaccurate centring of the plane table. and the correct A B Pc = Pd = 30 em b' p ~ Incorrect posltlpn .Plan« Table SurwJing .2.D:.V.312 ~71.66-' :. 471.290 in Elevation ofground = 469.218 = Elevation of Instrumem Axis:. 16. Let A andB be the two sighted stations.L? 20 • Solution Let P.The plottedangle then is APB.~ m \··Sc3Ie :. .928 m In setting up the plane table at a station P the corresponding point on the plan Was Example 16. the original point and p the plotted position of point P. 0f P Fig-. 200 I and .. 513 Solution Stadla interval = I.

Ii . . BC. =.USldt.a. en r = 200' hen. .:. let!!. =..15 mm. The linear error in centring is Pp. In s ABP In 16. . (large) 1 x 300 =. aa . E. Angular error in centring is a+ {3 = i'. a. Pc : aa =pa Sin ex = po .. j [ .i. (small) 1 x "00 = 200 . i. It may be frequently found necessary to locate additional points that arc subsequently used as instrument stations.liP bb' = BP x. The error in the plotted positions are .e.F. a = pa x AP bb' =pb sin{3 =pb {3 =pb x pa ~% If R. 20 =: (ii 0) III W Ga 15 mm. .514 Fundamentals of Surveying angle APB and the error in angle is the difference between APB and ApB. Method I (Fig. (iii) angle f3 are known. The sclctien of this problem means the computation of the position of a station from observations to three known points. J. 20' 1 . t. a' and b' are the correct positions of A and B. Care observed./ Pd =rx Pd In this case Pc = Pd =e =30 em = 300 mm (i) when r = 2'doo' ao' = 2doo x 300 W 0 ') ( II hI. 82 and (ii) lengths AB. (very large) 16. = r = AP x r x Pc =r x Pc .. pb = RP x r aa' _ AP x r .. B4 ..5 mm.7 A~ALYTICALAND GRAPHICAL SOLUTIONS In three-point method it is necessary to fix a point by making observations to three known points. Hence (i) The observed angles 8 1.. .!.1~) sin exl = BP sin 8J 4 s BCP _. =1. Analytical methods From station F~ A.1• &:.. C. 1.

or If LI sinal _ L-:. sinal sin 8 1 From triangle PBC PB sin al = L:!sin 82 .:t Fig. 11 = if! al 2 C(: =al. .16.~.tan al cos rfJ = K tan a2 or tan c- =siri (rfJ - al) =K sin a! sin ¢ cos a! . Then AP. BP and CP can be found out applying the sine rule.tP sin al =K sin al = K + cos sin ¢ r" 'I' fromwhich al can be found out.' .. .a:) or sin al or Dividing by cos a: sin 'r/J ..in e!.14) PB= L. + a! ..1" AnJI)..cqs... Methodll From triangle ABP (Fig.al = (¢ . s. = K sin a:! L s Sin fh al + a: = 360-.tic:ll solution or three point problem..in al = ~ s.(91 + e: + (3) =: ¢..Plane Tabl~ ~uf\'Q'ing SIS B A c '. sinal sin 8 1 ­ sin 8! sin a! = L1 sinalsin8! L: sin 8 1 . 16. InABCP.

P can then be determined by Tlenstra's formulae which state The coordinates of ' £1' = Kif" + K:Es + KjEe K1 + K 2 + K3 .al) cos t + a~) cos t (al + a:/) (al . Cl'1 and Cl': can be computed. (al + a:) tan (A e 1 + tan e Now or + B) = tan A + tan B 1 .516 FilII damentaIs of SlIn'£'ying and tan e= L1 sin L . 8.. e­ I then This can be derived as follows: tan ~ (al .tan A tan B cot (A + B) = 1tanA .tan .0':) can be 'found out. Let the coordinates of A.sin al + sin a2 Therefore 1 tan ~ (al ... (al i t. ~Iethod 11I Tienstra's-Method.Ian e 1 + tan e tan tan J. t (al ..:I a:) '1 (a I + ce~) = cot (~5° = COl (4510 + 8) + 8) tan ¢/2 or tan From the above relation (0'1 .al) _ sin al ..sin a: . N.a:) tan tan 1JI = cot (e + 45°) tan 9/2 sin ~ (al + al) = sin ~ (a. : Es• lola and Ee. Cbe E.Ne. As (0'1 + 0':) is known.a:) _ 1 _ tan tan J. :/ Sin e.4 tan B + tan B If A is taken to be 45 10 and B is taken to be 8 cot (~5" + 8) = 1 .

16 Graphical solution of three point problem (~Iethod I).16...in Fig. Draw a circle passing through At D and C... K~ = K3 = 1 (cot BAC ... e'l and e l the measured angles. "I p Fig.L.Plane Table Suruying B 517 . 16. 0' i ..~~ C II..J~C p Fig. 1 (cot CBA ..-_-+-_-L~ C A-"'-----'--. 16. In the above formulae _ K1 ...I A IF----L--=---+--. Join DB and produce it to cut..-- ..cot CPA) ~ 1 . the circle in P which is 'the ". cot ACB .These lines intersect at D. required point (Fig:..16). Method I Join AC. Graphical solution ~ Let At Band C be the three known points.8 A. 16.13 1ienSIl'3'S method. .. . At A draw a line AD making an angle e l and at C draw a line CD making an angle er.cot APB Angles are measured clockwise as shown .15.cot BPC) --~-=------:.

01 and at 'A draw a perpendicular. D.92 at Band C when they cut at 02' With 0. as centre 'draw a circle through A and B and similarly whh 0'1 as centre draw a circle through Band C. Drop a rrrrendicul:lr from'8 on ED. C. 16.18) B A c o Fig. They cut at 0\. Bare concyclic.518 Fundamentals of Surveying Proof LDAC = LDPC = e'1' LDCA = LAPD = e 1 as A.e. Join ED. This cuts DE at P which is the required point (Fig. They intersect at E.'The circles intersect at the required point P (Fig. At B draw a line at an angle of 90° . Similarly draw a line at 8 at angle of 90° . At A and B draw 90° :. 16. Similarly Method III Join AB' and BC. They interesect at D.18 Graphical solution of three pointproblem (Method III). and B0 1 respectively. 4 $ "'. 16. . Similarly draw 90° . =8 1 asA. with AO.17). .8: and <1 perpendicular at C. :. P. 16.' Proof LAPB 1 = 2' LAOIB 1 =2' ·29. '" A Fig. Method II Join AB and BC. - . • 4 p 4.17 Graphical solution of three point problem (Method II). Pare concyclic.

.:'alidJdc passing through a cutting d'bd :11 d.19(i). J6... Draw the line: dblr. I • I I / . c the required angles APB and BPe. This will intersect cd produced at p !I) IO~:Il. fig. a station 0 is established. the stations Band o'being: on the opposite sides of AC. Example 16.19(ii). Hence bda =bpa ..P. Proof From field observations . (V. The position of 0 is to be found b)' three point resection on A. Determine the distances 0:\ and Oc. P and E are concyclic LAPS .. Bb should now pass through p.\\'ith the 3Iid:. The: table is now oriented with the help of alidade draw A.LAEB L BDC = e:.: P. Bessel's solution (Plane Table over station P).lc~ along ba sight A.) . b. Vnc!L-:17I1' and sight C with thl: alidade along ik: and clamp.19 (iii) to A to C to B •\ \ \ . Clamp and sight C with th. ... I I / d I d' b 1/ c a (ij . 1 and L BPe = up and 1<:\<:1 the: plane l.24'.(ii) (iii) Fig. 4. the angles AOB and BOC t-eing respwively 24~ 12' and 36°06'.B. b being towards B. abel' . / a" \ dr­ \ / / / d' . 3. . a.7. CllllllP and the alidade over b io sight C. . l\Iethod IV Bessel's method-s-L Set =8. Bf I I / I . But = APe and bad = BPC bda bpc =APe - BPe ::: APB.3 The sides AS and BC of a triangle ABC with stations in clockwise order are 200I m and 3114 m respectively and the angle ABC is 1540. . d are concyclic. =BPC bpc =bad.19.1ble over P. 16. Fig. p.\ \ \ I / l / . Band C..Plan« Tab/~ S/lrw)'ing 519 Proof As A.10 C / . Unclamp and with the alidade :Ilong ab sight B. . / T I I . b. Outside this triangle.~. II being towards A. 16. apb =APB Hence p simultaneously subtends with a. fig. 16. pl3CC 2.

4099 ~ 1 08"6 :!001 x 0.520 Fundamentals of Sww)'ing Solution c A ".(24"12' + 36"06' + 154"24') = 145°18' =¢. tan a~ = 0. sin 8 2 =2001' sin 36°06' 3114' sin 24"12' = 3114 x 0.1850 a~ at = 65.20 .0826 .5692 = 02605 = 2.(0.65"24' I =79"54' LABO :: ISO" . " =75"54' LOBe = 78"30' III I . 0 Fig. Method I sin CCI ~ sin 8 1 "sin CC2 = L.40 = 65"24' = 145"18' . Example 16.(79°54' + ~4"12') 'I .3. 16.­ al =K + a2 = 360 .5892 .5692 1.822 I) 0.

2C()lsin79'~'· - sin 2~>12' = 2001 X ..1267 '" =7. ..4476° al + al =145.74° al = 79.~)"ing .9237 or tan". m 0. sin 8.\ . 8. =cot (45 + B) tan ¢/2 = cot 87..~SOS 7' OAw') .93 rn.7~87° tan 72°39' = 0.93-'5 ..43° or 2al = 159. Calculate the coordinates of station O.4 The coordinates of three stations A. 521 Applying sine rule A8 _ 08 _ 0:\ r.=12 .7287°.60 Similarly in Be _ oe - oe 3114 sin 7S030' sin 36=06' .' -'sin 75·5~' 08 .a2 =14. Method II sin CC2 sin CCI _ - L1 sin 8 1 _ 2001 sin 36·06' !. t . Example 16. = tan B· o =42.sin 79=5. 200] x 0..2001 x sin 75:5":' ."09\J = 4734.9695 .sin78"30' sin 36=06" 05892 or _' 3114 x 0.2238° al . sin 2":'j 2' :: O.3114 sin 24°12' :: 0.2 =0. Apoint 0 is set up inside the triangle and the observations in Table 2 are taken.9799 ' =5178.87° a2 Rest can be-computed as before.0396 x 3. and C are given in Table 1.'). ~ i• ! sin 2.3000° =65.Plane Table Sur:.

34 = cos'" &20. 114°59'06" Solution From the coordinates.48)2 + (31493.31 Northing (m) 26166.t-ng1 29236.67 .34 2 .' + CB""'."-95~" 1 .20 ..48 x 2795.'.67 .B LBAC . 1 1~"O"S' .53 2.' • •'+ • ~1'~5~" +~ of.2~078. C') .4 e . _. Adjusted value BOA COB AOC 142°48'32" 92°12'22" .29236.4320048 2 2 x 3143.53 = cos"! 0.._ .078.04)2)1(2 m. ...C.: cos'" ( .~8 C :8377.48)2)1(2 =3143.20 29661. CA = [(28377.34 =4320048 AC 2 + AB­ .482+ 279Sj4 2 ..26266.29236.67 Table.48 31493.. AB = [(26266048 ..04 .AS:! 2 CA· CS 2 x 4320.+" I I l.2'.AC 2 3143.1­ 522 Fundamentals of Surveying Table 1 Example 16.53 m.3143.­ :! x ~3:::0. - = cos. .31)2 + (29661.20..7633 = 40~ 14'24" LCBA =COS· I = cos -I A8: + BC""' ..53 x 279534 = 93°9'36" LACS =cos"! Co.29661.31? + (31493.: = 46°35'2.2 Example 16.4 Station A B Easting (m) :!~OiS.4~ >: 3143. 2 x x AB' ~'. BC = [(28377.:-..53 2 + 2795.48)2)112 = 2795.04 .

E. .0.8197 + 1.. as given by Tienstra's Iormulaeare...n.cot 93°9'36" .1 + "'~ + "'3 .. cot 142°48'~2" . . K.. = OA417 .:.cot 124°59'06i .67 2..I.322 m ---.94598 .P/at:~ Tab/~ Surveying 523· check: 40~14'2-+H +93°9'36" + 46°35'2~" IS~ = 179°59'2-l" ::: . .8127 E o - .... "'.5513 + OA-H7 =2... 1 . __ .6998) 1 = 0. K I +K 2 +KJ no Where ..cot 46"35'24" .4 + K~Es + K)E c I' I' I' n. . E u o - _ K.48 + 0..4417 x 28377...1... 1 _ -.. cot 92'12'22 ~' . 1 .I _ _ 1 1.(.8127' = 25960.t-f.. 1 . = 0.. .8197 _ __ . _ KJ - .:.2J385 ..0385 1 . .' . Coordinates of O.18149+ ..__ = cot 40°14 '24" _ 1 . _ .5513 K3 - .5513 x 26266.8197 x 2407831 + 1.... ..(-131787) =2..' . + K2 + KJ = 0.6446 = 1.. K2 = 0...0... KINA + K:2 N s + K)N c .0552 . ..

Under what field . . (b) What doyou understand b)' strength of fix? Explain with the help of neat sketches. 16.8 (a) With the help of neat sketches describethe plane table survey operations of radiation and intersection. . [AMJE Surveying Summer 1983] 16. table survey over other types of survey. 16.5 (a) Describe the advantages and disadvantages of plane'table survey.81 m PROBLEMS 16.4 o- K~N B + K~Nc K I + K. Explain with neat sketches anyone method of planetabling for locating ~ the' details. '16.3 (a) Enumerate the different methods of plane tabling and highlight the topographical conditions under which each one'is' preferred: (b). Describe stepwise the solution of the problem in field by the Lehmann'!'. [A1\'llE Summer 1986) 16.8197 x 29236. _ + K3 + = 0. (b) What do you understandby orientation in plane table survey? Explain different methods of orientation.2 (a) State theadvantagesand disadvantages of plane table surveying.conditlons each method is used? .04 2. (b)' Explain what is understood by orientation of a plane table and how the method of resection is useful for this purpose. rules. (b) Explain withsketches anyone methodof solving the three point problem. bad fix and failure of fix. [AMIE Surveying Winter 1980] 16. Describe its solution by trial and error method. . (b) Explain with neat sketches anyone method of solving the 'three point problem' . [AMIE Surveying Summer 1978]. [AMIE Surveying Summer 1980).48 + 1.. the terrns good fix. Define the three point problem and with the help of neat sketches.6 (a) What are the accessories required for a plane table surveying? (b) State three point problem in plane tabling.5513 x 31493.1 What are the different methods of 'plane tabling'? Describe them fully with neat sketches.524 Fundamentals of Surveying N _ K 1N.20 + 0. .9 (a) Enumerate different methods of plane table survey. '[AMIESur\'cying Winter 1984). Briefly indicate the rules which may be followed in estimating the position of the point sought.7 (II) State the advantages and disadvantages of plane. IA~llE Sun'eying Winter 1984] 16.8127 = 30547. [AMJE Surveylng Winter 1981].·1·417 x 29661. 16.4 (3) What is meant by "two point problem" in plane table survey? (b) Explain with neat sketches the solution of "two point problem" in the field.

{.. [A. Explain with sketches the methods of orienting plane table b)' back sighting. the corresponding point on the plan was not accurately centred above A. representing the station A on the plan was not exactly above the corresponding station A on the ground.­ _~t-. " ' . .11 (a) . _ 'with those of chain surveying. (b) Explain the three-point problem and show how it is solved by (i) tracing paper method (ii) trial and error method. (b) Enumerate the methods of plane tabling arid state the conditions under which each one is preferred. (c) In setting up the plane table at a station A. with neat sketches. (b) Describe. (c) State the methods used for plane tabling" Under what conditions is each of these preferred to? :' (d) What is two point problem and how it can be solved in the field'? . direction at rizht ansles to a rav to P (AP) was 30 ern. (c) Explain clearly the two point problemand how it is solved. I .. (c) In setting up the plane table at a stntion '. (b) Describe the graphical method of adjustment of plane table traverse.' 16. \Vh:ll precautions will you take against each? - [A~lIE Surveying Winter 1956] . If the displacement of a in a . ". [A~!lE Surveying Summer 1996] I ~ . find the consequent di:place.. [A~IIE Surveying Winter 1990] 16.. .10 (a) What is three point problem? How is it solved by Bessel's method? (b) Compare theadvantages and disadvantages of plane table surveying ..\llE Surveying Winter 1993] 16." f.. (c) Describe the methods of orienting a-plane table [A}. it was found that the point a. [A~IIE Surveying Summer 1957] = 16.13 (a) List the instruments and accessories used in plane table survey. ' .!IE Surveying Summer 1991] 16.14 (a) What is meant by plane tabling? When do you recommend it? State the edvantages and disadvantages of plane tabling.. .12 (a) List the accessories used in plane tabling highlighting their purpose. the method or resection. given that (i) scale of plan is 1 cm =150 rn. (ii) scale of plan (RF) = 1/600. the plan would be the consequent displacement of the point from its true position. distance AP = 2000 rn. if (i) scale 1 cm 100 m and (ii) 1 ern = 2 m. . distance of AP = ~O m and (iii) scale of plan is 1 ern = 2 rn. how much on .1. ' . [.15 (a) Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of plane table surveying. the application of Lehrnanns' Rules in solving three point problem. AP = 20 rn. If 'the displacement . . ' ..' . For what purpose it is used?.. (b) Describe with neat sketch.ent of p fr~m its true position.of A W:lS 25 em in a direction at right angles to the ray. .\'.~.\IIE Surveying Winter 1~9~J 16.Plane Table Surveying S25 (C) Enumerate the various sources of error in plane table survey.

It is drawn from field survey data or aerial photographs. drawing all features and symbols. Whether it is laying a railway or highway or design of an irrigation or drainage system. natural and artificial features and forms of the earth's' surface. plane table and alidade. For any engineering project topographic survey is a must. Elevations are found out at all traverse points. trilateration or inertial or satellite methods.2 CONTROL FOR TOPOGRAPHIC SURVEYS A topographic map should ~e drawn in three phases as given in the following. Instruments required include transit. any other point can be obtained by using geometric principles as shown in Fig. Develop horizontalcontrol producing a frame work for plotting details. 2. Plot all points of known elevation and locations of artificial or natural features for vertical control. Vertical control is provided by benchmarks in or nearthe tractto be surveyed. Usual methods are traversing. It is the basis for map scale and locating topographical features. hand level. ground methods are still required for checking aerial photogramrnetry and also for plotting derails. tape and levelling in various combinations. level.17 Topographical Surveying 17. Horizontal control is provided by two or more points on theground precisely fixed in position horizontally b)' distance and direction. Total station EDM'sare used to advantage in topographic surveying. Once the horizontal control is obtained. the topographical features of the place must be known so that correct engineering decisions may be taken. 3.1 INTRODUCTION "" The object of topographical surveying is to produce a topographic map showing elevations. 17. 1. triangulation. 17. Construct contour lines from plotted points of elevation. Though aerial photographic methods areextensively used in preparing topographic maps. L The following informations are required: 516 .

obtained when the surface of the ground is intersected by a level surface. ..: ..l . From thestudy of thecontours the surface features such as hills. .. depressions or undulations of the earth can be easily understood (Fig.' . C \t7A~C p Fig. The' solution is'not unique as two points can be obtained. (c) One angle and adjacent distance.?'· A 4LiL ~.f T ". (g) Two angles at the point to be·loc:l.!. (a) Two distances from A and 8 are required- >.. 17. B. 17. B A B A (b) Two angles B (c) An. (f) The intersection of two known lines.. (d) One angle and the.. (e) One distance and a right angle offset.3 PLOTTI. Topographkal SurwJillg 5:!i . :xc ~ . A contour line is an iraaginary line containing points of equal elevation and it is.1 .This can be understood by studying the contours of a hill. 17. . B C A (d) Angle ot A and distance PB (e) Distance AC or BC and distance CP .on" distance AP p ' p 0 ·P/I..\G OF CONTOURS In a topographic map the elevations of different points are shown by..''''.2). opposite distance.means of contours.. (0 From intersection of two known lines AB and CD . Locating a point P. .ted.(g) Two angles at P from known stations A. Suppose a hill is cut by L . mountains. B A C .:It A .. (a) twodistances: (b) two angles. . . .

(iv) time and expense of field and office work. 11 0.2 Contour of a hill.in elevation represent hills. When the contours are evenly and parallel spaced. The vertical distance between any two successive contours is known as contour interval. The contour interval should be small when the ground is flat. (iii) purpose and extent of survey. it indicates uniform s l o p e .00 and 120.00. the survey is detailed survey for design work and longtime and large cost can be accepted. otherwise interpretation of contour will be difficult.00. The contour interval may be large when the ground is of steep slope. The contour lines will be circular if the level surfaces cut a vertical cone. straight lines if the surface is uniformly sloping.00 90.4 CHARACTERISTICS OF CONTOUR I 1.00. The contour interval is kept constant for a contour plan. the scale of the map is large. (ii) scale of the map. If they decrease in elevation it is a pond. The slope between contours of equal intervals is assumed to be uniform and difference in contour divided by the distance gives the steepness of a slope. if the contours are closely spaced the slope is steep. 17. the scale of the map is small. 2. Hence if the contours are widely spaced the slope is gentle.00 Fig. 17. 4. 3. Concentric closed contours that increase.00 100. I . elliptical if they cut a sloping cone.528 Fundamentals of Surveying 120. ' . 100. Depression contours will have inward facing radial marks to avoid confusion. (Fig: 17. Contours must close' upon themselves though necessarily within the map. Contours are perpendicular to the direction of maximum slope.00 110.2) imaginery level surfaces at 90. The contour interval depends on (i) nature of the ground. the survey is preliminary and the survey is to be completed in a short time and cost should be small. Then the plan of the cut surfaces will give the contour line.

4 contour lines go in pairs.up valleys and sides of the ridges. Similarly a single contour cannot split into two lines. (2) Indirect method also known as controlling pcim method.4 Contours of (a) Ridge. 17. elevation cannot unite and continue as one line. (b) Valley. Topographical Slln't)'inS 529 5. 120 '7"'.3 Overhanging cliff with vertical surface. In the direct method. Two contour lines having the same.·. Similarly it crosses a valley also at right angles in the form of Vs. Contour linescross at rightangles ridge crest in the fonn of U's. Contours of different elevation never meet except on a vertical surface such :IS overhanging cliff or cave (Fig. As shown in Fig.11 0 vertical surface 100 120 110 100 Fig. 7.r--------~. 17. (a) 70~/~ (b) Fig. 17. the contour to be plotted is actually traced on the . 17. Two contours of same elevation meeting in aline indicates knife edge condition which is seldom found in nature. 6.5 METHODS OF LOCATI~G CONTOURS There are two principal methods of locating contours (1) Direct method also known as trace contour method. 17. 901{\ soJA \ ~0-1.3).

is accurate and is useful for an :ngineering stud)' in.. ~ l'~ . The different methods for obtaining topographyare as follows. In the indirect method. This method is particularly suitable for contouring small hills. .:l.. different points X. However the method becomes Impractical as too much time is required with ordinary methods of reducing stadia interval to get the required difference in elevation. 1. p'''''' d. " . The method is' rapid and sufficiently accurate for most topographic surveys. If elevation of the instiU.'. Instruments like transit or theodolite. J". S . of.. Interpolation is used to give the contour line. azimuths and vertical angles.. --_.J readings should be _.6 FIELD METHODS OF OBTAL~ING TOPOGRAPHY There are many methods for obtaining contours. • "". (ii) Elevation of the points._---­ 1... hand level.. '0 1--.. thecontours are located by determining the elevations of well chosen points from which the positions of points on the contours are determined by interpolation.t:r. 17.45 m. 120..' iil. C. C.5 Direct method of contouring. Levels are taken along these radial lines at measured distances from the centre..to-Y. Z to locate the different contour points. D and E are the controlling points from which contours will be interpolated by topographer from experience and by judgment. the traverse stations (previously plotted) are occupied with a transit or theodolite and angles 10 desired contour' points and features are measured. C::..:jt.'ol\'in~ drainage or imgauon./:.(15 :n. t. =--------_.J:'f ~ Dr··. plane table.point A is 120. ~:. If we w~n~ to plot contour lines .of I 19.~ til .50 y 8 Fig. E can be obtained. The rod person has to tno\.5 respectively.'1 . (i) Location of the points.. Two data are obviously required..t is 1. """-'" . D.·.. B.5 121. Only those points are surveyed which h-'. .t 1':. With the instrument set at A elevations of points B... .5 and 0.' ED!'v11 are used in various combinations to plot the points and compute their levels..530 Fundamentals of Sllrrcyit:g r sround. The method is quick if sophisticated equipment like a combination theodolite-EDMI (total station instrument) with selfreduction capacity is used. This :nethoo bf plo:ting co~to~rs .5). = I: i~ (FIg: 17.h. Y. ' Radiation method In this method..I'" . Stadia method In this method distances and elevations of points are obtained by stadia interval. 121. 17.:-.'~r.

if 2 m contours are required." theelevation of theobserver's. the page of the field book will be as follows: a L at: 70 3. Sometimes.2 8.5 78 4.not required.0 72. This ensures correct reproduction . When levelling uphill.7 SOURCES OF ERRORS Instrumental errors I~ TOPOGRAPHICAL SURVEYS (i) Since while plotting contours different instruments like transit.the. the point at which the observer's eye strikes the ground is noted.0 Contours by hand level A hand level can be used for finding. For example. height of a point when very high precision is . On some surveys contour points are directly located along with any important change in ground slope. They can also be used for earth work computation.. theodolite.t the slte either by direct or indirect method.of the: area.5 74 '. In this method from a known elevation and measuring the height of the eye of the observer. Coordinate squ~res method Here the area is divided into a number of squares.errors will OCCur if there are maladjustments i!" the instruments.: the centre line at suitable intervals and at all break points so that true profile of the area is obtained. These cross-section data can be used for compiling contours.5 0. the side of he square depends on the terrain and accuracy of the survey. 17. . A stadia distance and vertical angles are 'read. Contours are then interpolated between the corner elevations by estimation or by proponionate distances assuming the slope between points to be uniform. 6.7 2. Levels are then taken at rightangles to' .Topographical Sur.eyeis known.8 76 3.00 7~ R so 78 .0 . the observation of vertical ancle is avoided 'by using the alidade as a level.' Contour is plotted immediately .eying 531 Plane table survey Here plane table procedures are employed to locate a point.8 80 6. .76'. Cross section methods This is usually done in connection with route survey. The instrument is then placed at a suitable position and readings are taken at the corners of the squares. 5. The observer then moves to the new station and adding again observer's height a new elevation is obtained. ED~U are used.cir:~ the instruments. (ii) Errors may occur in re::. hand level.. place table. The longitudinal profile is drawn along the centre line of the route..4.

1.CONTOURS Interpolation is a process'of spacing the contours proportionately between the plotted ground points established by indirect method. (iii) inaccurate plotting to scale. It can be done by 1. 17.contour points. the tracing paper is placed over A and B in known elevation Jines. Control points not properly selected foreasy coverage of the area. (v) omission of some topographical details. Mechanical interpolation A rubber band marked wlthuniform series of marks can be stretched to find the correct interval for each1ine.8.. Mistakes may occur due to (i) instrument (iij misorientation.6 and 17. . These-are explained in Figs. . 17. (i) (ii) Erro~s may also occur ill mapping due to (i) inaccurate line work from blunt or too soft pencil. Direct calculation The intervening horizontal distance between the guide points is measured and contour points are located by arithmetic calculations using theory of proportion. Moving the tracing cloth over the plan so that pointA lies on the radial line representing elevation of A and point B on the radial line representing B. Graphical method In this method.531 FUlldamc/lTcls of Surveying Errors may also occur due To Control traverse not being properlyestablished.vchecked and adjusted. (iii) misinterpretation ' . (iii) Instrument points not properly selected for clear visibility of distant points or for contour delineation.. Estimation Here the positions of contour points between the guidepoints are located by estimation based on experience 'and judgment.. of field notes. (iv) improper selection of scale. (iv) inadequate number of . the points having other elevations can be pricked. This is shown in Fig. 3. 2..9 USES OF CONTOURS The following are the important uses of contours. .7. (Ii) inaccurate angular ploning with a protractor. For interpolation of contours between two points A and B of known elevation.8 INTERPOLATION OF . 4. The levels of the points where -------. the interpolation is done with the help of a tracing paper or tracing cloth. -­ . The intermediate elevations are then pricked on the line. Mistakes . ' " ' 17. Drawing 0/ sections From the contourlines the section along any given direction can be drawn.. In the first method parallel Jines are drawn on the tracing cloth representing different lines of elevation. 17. In the second method converging lines are drawn OJ:! the tracing paper.

.
.

Topograp1ti~al SUfw.\";ng

533

.

.

.
C,

106

~.

C

-: ./
C2

./8

105
104
103 102 101 100

Interpolation of contours' (A 101.2, B 104.6,' C 1 102. C:! 103 and ~ 104)

Fig. 17.6 Tracing paper method (parallel lines).

102 101

a

100

Interpolation of contour 'A 101.2, B 104,6, C " C;, ~, - 102, 103, 104 respectively. Adjust ·the tracing paper so that AB is parallel to PO•.

Fig. 17.7

Tracing paper method (converging lines).

the section iinecuts the contour lines are known and hen~e they can be plotted to a scale and the profile of the section obtained.· .

2. Intervisibility between points Fromthe contour lines intervisibility between two points A and B can be determined. The points A and B are joined by a line and section of the ground is drawn. From the lccatloo of the points in the section and the ground profile, it is possible to find out whether A and Bare intervisible (Fig. 17.9).
3. Plotting contour gradient and location of route Contour gradient is a

line lying through

O';!

on the surface of the ground and preserving a constant

53'; FlIl1damcllials oj Surveying
y

105 100

9S

90

o
95 96

.(a) Section along AB

x

97

97 ·96 95

.94

A

(b) Contour plan

Fig. 17.8

Section from plan of

:1

contoured area.

A
105 ­ 104 103 102 101
'-'!> ......

... ......

Line of sight

..

100 99 98
97 96

95 94
93

B

92

91
90
Section AS
\

A

.\
I

.~

\

\

\

,

1
94 100
I
o~ ... ::>

. J 105100
I

95·

nO~ 10~ 105
I

C

93 95

~

. I

I

Contour Plan

A and B are notlntervlsible A and C are visible

Fig. 17.9 Inrervisibiliry of points,

.

~-

"

Topographical Sun'()';l1g 535
inclination to the horizcntal: If :I. highway. railway C:Ln~1 or any other commcnicarion line is to be laid al a constant gradient, the alignment can c35ily be plotted on the plan or map, tr the Contours are at an interval of-m meters and if the gradien: is I in n, the horizontal distance to cover m meters is min "meter. From the initial point A. an arc should be drawn with" distance mln to locate the Ilrst point a, Similarly from a lob and so on. The distances should be in the same scale as contour map.

Fig. 17.10 Plotting contour gradient.

4. Determination of catchment area . A study of the contour enables us to calculate the catchment area of a river, The catchment area of a river has a typical pattern with ridges and saddles. Watershed line is defined as the line which separates the catchment basin of a river from the rest of the area. This line crosses the contour lines at ridges and saddles at right angles. This area can be calculated with the help of a planimeter (Fig. 17.11).
• " J . '

90

Fig, 17.11

Catchment area,

536

Fundamentals of 'Surveying . .
~

5. Estimation of reservoir capacity .From a study of the contour lines, the reservoir capacity of a can be computed. nie areas between different contour lines can be measured by planimeter. Average area into 'depth gives the volume between contour'inter.a!. . '.' . . .

dam

Wall of dam

x

(a)
150

~

140
' " 130
~ 120

~ 110

Wall of dam

~100

/

~.90

/

-,
.......

(.
\'Valer level
(b)

fig. 17.12 Estirnatlon of reservoir capacity from contour.

PROBLEMS
17.1 (3) What are the different methods of 'contouring'? Describe anyone of

them. (b) What are the uses of a contour map? How will you determine the intervisibility of a point if the contour map is given to you? Explain by giving an example. [A~UE Surveying ~ummer l~iS] 17.2 (a) What is a contour? Define and explain. (b) Describe the method of squares for finding the contours in a map of a plot of land. . (c) Whatis meant by (i) contourinterval, (ii) Contouring by direct method, (iii) contour gradient? [AMIE Surveying Winter 1979]

. ' Topographical Surveying

537

17.3 .(a) Show with neat sketches. the characteristlc features of contour lines for the following: ' ,
(i)Apond. (ii) A hill. (iii)'A ridge, (i..,) A·valley, (v) A vertical ctiff.
(b) Enumerate the uses of contours and illustrate one such use with :1 sketch. {A~UE Summer 1930]
17A (a) List the uses of :1 contoured topographic map, Show with the help of

neat sketches. the characteristic formation of contour lines for the 'following' topographic 'features: . (ijVcnical cliff (ii) Over hanging cliff. (iii) Valley. and (iv) Ridge. (b) The areas enclosed by contour lines Jt 5 m interval for. a reservoir upto the face of the proposed dam are as shown below: Value of Contour lines (m) Area (m2) 1005 400 10lD 1500 1015 3000 1020 . 8000 1025 1030 18,000 25,000 1035 40,000

Taking 1005m and 1035 mas the bottom most level and the highest water level achievable of the reservoir determine the capacity of the reservoir by (i) Trapezoidal formula and (ii) Prisrnoidal formula..
I't~~ " :,J.

.

~

18

Construction Surveying
18:1 L\/TRODUCTION

In every country construction is a major activity and setting out, therefore, becomes an important work for the surveyor. Nortnally surveying involves preparation of a map or plan showing existing features of the ground. Setting out is the reverse process of fixing on the ground the' details shown in a map or plan.
18.2 EQUIPMENTS FOR SETTli':G OUT

Normally ordinary equipments as described' before. e.g. levels, theodolites, tapes and EDMl's are used. However, for vertical control Automatic laser levels are being frequently used these days. They provide a continuous sharp beam of visible light at a given grade (selectable by the operator) and maintain it at the same grade precisely at all times. The laser beam can be intercepted at any point by special target. This way one knows one's own level without anyone giving readings from the instrument end. An extended development of such laserlevel is to provide a continuously rotating beam with a given grade thereby giving a plane in the same grade. They can be applied fer tunnel alignment. machine alignment, elevator shaft alignment, pipe laying. false roofing installation, etc. They expedite placement of grade stakes over large areas such as airports, parking lots. ctc. Laser methods have the advantage of being (i) convenient, (ii) quick, and (iii) accurate. However, they are quite expensive, Theodolites combined with ED~lls that can automatically reduce measured slope distances to their horizontal and .vertical components and "total-station" instruments are also very convenient for construction stakes.
18.3 HORIZONTAL A:,\DVERTICAL CO:'\TROL
. . .

a

The importance of a good frame work for horizontal and vertical control in 3 project area cannot be over-emphasized. It is important fora surveyor in charge of a project 10 describe and reference all major horizontal control monuments. 0 Methods shown in Fig. 18.1 can be used with intersection angle as close to 90 as possible. To preserve vertical control monuments (benchmarks) it is recommended
538

COils/merion Surve.... ing

539

Fig. '18.1

Horizonra] control.

thnt an adequate number of difrerential lcvel circuits hi: run to establish supplementary benchmarks removed from areas of construction and possible displacements, yet close enough for efficient use by construction personnel. For brge projects, it is common engineering practice to establish :1 rectangular srid system. Usuallv such a system is based on a local coordinate svstem. The ends of major .r and y grids are fixed by concrete monument supporting a metal disc. Interme?i:itepoints' are fixed. by wooden stakes 50 x 100· mm.
oJ , • .­

lS~~X'SETTI~d OUT A PIPE LINE· .,.".,.
Pipelines are of two types (i) Gravity flow lines. (ii) Pressure flow lines. Slopes must be very carefully maintained in gravity flow lines because it utilizes only the force of gravity for maintaining flow. In contrast, pressure flow lines generally depend upon a pump to provide movement of liquids through the line. There are mainly two methods: (i) Conventional Methods of using sight rail, boning rods; etc. (ii) By means of laser. . ..­

Conventional methods' .
The steps in the conventional methods are as follows. Principal points such as manhole locations and the beginnings and ends of curves are established on the ground along the designedpipelinecentre line locaiion. An offset line parallel to the pipeline centre line and farenough.from it to prevent displacement during excavation and construction is established. Marks should be closer together on horizontal and vertical curves .than.on straight segments. A marker stake is placed behind the grade stake (The side of the grade stake opposite the pipe centre line). On the flat side of the marker stake is marked "C" to the invert or pipe flow line and the grade stake's station location. On the reverse side is shown the horizontal offset from the· pipe centre (Fig. 18.2). On hard surfaces where stakes cannot be driven, points are marked by paint, spikes orby other means. . . The work is usually done in two steps: (i) excavation with trenching machine and setting of guide line (Fig. 18.3), (iij-transferring the invert grade from guideline to pipe invert. For transferring.invert grade the following procedure needs to be followed. upright o~ each side . (a) Grade boards are erected bydriving a 5 x 10 of trench and nailing a 2.5 x 15 board to them.

em

5";0

Fundamentals

(1 Sur.. . eying

\
\
\
Pipe centre line

Cut . Vertical Interval from top of grade stake down to" invert of pipe"

Marked· . here C2.12

"Station"
location of grade stake 15 +00

Offset distance on back of centre line 2 mE Marker stake 12x 50 x 1.2 m

~

.tB- G~ade stake

" Edge of trench

\

\
Fig. 18.2 Laying a pipe line (conventional method).
Contractor's ~~. . . Stake ~(;:o0 Marker stake

.~~

~

0.s-00

e

Grade stake

2m

GIL of pipe

)." . >J Pipe ~edding
Invert of pipe

.

)

.

..

;.: ~ ... " . - ; _ .

.

F1g: 18.3 Excavation with trenching machine.

i nterval (3 m in this case).

(b) The top edge of the cross or arade b'oard is set at a full no vertical

"....

"

.

----------------~

L

(c) A nail is driven into the top edge of the grade board to mark horizontal alignmeRt and a string or wire stretched between each alignrnern nail to provide a checking line for pipe installation. ,.\ ~r.!dc pole (!,,::; wooden pole with a richt angle foot on its bouorn end) tra:15fer; t~:: invert ;rJJ:: fromguide line 10 rir..: invert. . . , Herel~\'el of C= :US' m. Guideline string' is ::;0 fixed thJt it is 3 rn (:1 full meternumber) above invert of pipe, Hence guideline is to be setO.S5 m abov e grade stake (Fig. 13.4). Marker stake,
250 x 150

It
0.85 m
~~?' stake

c:

'::=

Nail ,at centre line of pipe 50 x 100 upright

Grade pole

2.15 m

J-.-­
j
Invert

of pipe
Fig. 18.4 Transferring grade to pipe invert.

Laying pipeline through laser
Laser equipped survey instruments can also be used in laying accurately pipeline. Though laser replaces guidelines and much grade setting and checking work. conventional survey methods are still required for correct positioning and alignmen l. As already stated laser methods have the following 'advantages: (i) Less Labour is required (ii) Line and grade can .be accurately staked (iii) On going work can be easily checked (Iv)Trench can be bock filled as soon as the pipe is installed. Figure 18.5,shows how the laser beam provides a horizontal and vertical alignment and replaces the guideline. ' Figure 18.6 shows how the laser beam can be placed inside 11 pipeline and aligned along centre line and slope.
18.5 SETTISG OUT OF BliILDI~GS A~1) STRVCTURES

The first task in selling out a building or a structure is to locate the ownership line. This is required for (i) to pro\'id~ a baseline for layout.fii) to check that the proposed building does not encroach on adjoining properties.

542' Fundamentals of Surveying
Laser

uni~~

Laser beam
--L

n
... x.

{

":'-_---'

Target

Invert of pipe

Fig. 18.5 Laying pipeline through laser,
Laser .unlt

.~ _ ~
»;

~
A.
A

~
A

j} ~ __ -f
X.

Laser beam

».

X.

.><,.

A.

~x.

Fig. 18.6 Laser beam inside pipeline.

Stakes may be set initially at the exact building corners as a visual check on positioning of the structure but these points are lost as soon as excavation begins. Hence batter boards are necessary. Figure 18.7 shows a typical batter board.

Wire or sIring

Fig. 18.7 Typical bauer board.

It is usually set 1 to 2 m from each end of theintersecting building lines. Top of the cross pieces are nailed a full number of meter above the footing base or at first floor elevation. If possible all batter boards should be set at the same elevation so that a level line is created. Comer stakes and baiter board points are checked by measuring diagonals for comparison with each other and theircomputed values. Benchmarks (beyond the construction area are required to control elevations. After erection of batter boards, excavation of the structures' footings or basement can begin.' ' .' Stakinz out a building can be quickened by taking minimum instrument c _ , ' _ ,

...

..
Construction Surveying 543

setups and staking many points from a single setup of the instru~cnt. Final buildinz dimensions, however. should be checked by tapes, ED~trs' ere, ­

18.6

.

STAK1~G

OUT A HIGHWAY·
.

. The staking 'of high,way project is, usually done in the following steps.
1. The first step is to provide the contractor with stakes showing poin t,:; marking limits of the construction project. This will enable the contractor to clear the site and hence these stakes are known as clearing stakes. They are 1.5 ern x 2.5 ern x 1.25 rn.woodenlarhe and are placed 1 chain apart.

a

2. Next, rough cut stakes are to be provided so that, the contractor can undertake "rough-cut" grading operations. . These stakes are set (i) along the project centre line at 15 m interval, (ii) at the beginning and end of all horizontal curves, (iii) at any other grade or alignment transition. The stakes are 2-.5 cm x 5.0 cm x 45 cm. On the stakes are marked C . or F indicating cut or fill.
....;tr).

"",iX'
Indicates stake is set on Gil of road
Indicates vertical interval above or below ground surface to finished grade

\

Gil of construction

Fig; 18.8 Typical marking on stakes.

3. To guide a contractor in marking final excavations and embankments .slope stakes are driven at the slope intercepts (intersections of the original ground and each side slope) or off set a short distance perhaps a meter. Figure 18.9 shows . the principles of slo~e stakes:
. Grade stakes are set at points.that have the same ground and grade elevation. Three transition sections normallyoccur in passing from cut to fill and a arade s~ake i"s ~et3t each one. Figure 18.10 shows slope staking and grade poi~ts at transition sections. Example 18.1 Describe the procedure of setting out of atwo storeyed building with 200 mm thick 10::1d bearing outer walls all round. The foundation width is 750 mm. The building is absolutely rectangular and outside dimensions above plinth level are 12.000 mm X 18,000 mm. Draw the 'foundation plan' of. the outer

5-W- F!ll1da'JJCI110!S of Surveying

...---.._;-. -' +.',­ ., r- W/2~
Gatchpoint '

I GIL of construction
H.\.
./

W/2-r
.

.':

I..

Offset stake and marker SIS 1.5 : 1

-(
Offset stake and marker

Hinge point

Fig. 18.9

Principles of slope stakes.

I

,
I
I
I

I

I I

I

.'
I

I

,

I

\\'311s soo".;n& all the dimensions (not to Scale). In the' above plan show lhe ~u;t!W,~~ c{ ,hfferentpeg.s required, for seuing out of tb~ 3Nl\C building. [A~UE Sur,cling Winter 1978)

Solution '..The 00uide dimensions are
~.,...

12,000 mm x J8.000 mm

5 With walls 200 mm thick centre line dimension's of building " . These are shown in Fie..050. (i) Murk the centre line of the longest wall 011 the ground by stretching a string between offset pegs I-I. (iv) The strings intersect at 5. .-If the-distance.. . ' . 44 at risht angles to 22. .!~.. - - . (iii) Obviously 33 should be at right angles to 11. 8 and obviously 57 and 68 should be equal.11.000 ... 7. 9 3 I . the outside dimensicns of foundation arc: . The peg should project 15 to 50 rnrn above the ground level.200) or . 'r'" 0 0 .050 x 17. (12. (ii) Similarly stake strings along 22. . ----ell 12 Fig. .000 . r-: 11. 57 and 6S are not equal" the right angles should be checked. 18.. .Cocstrucston Survryir:g 5'.1 (not to scale).550 Inside dimensions are 11.. 6..­ 17800 18550 ~ 16 2 1 .. ' ... To ensure right angles at the cornersoptical square or theodolite may be used or rizht ancled trianales should be formed by measuring sides in the ratio 3 : 4 : 5. batter boards may not be required. Since this is asmall building. 12. 18.11 ' Example 18. The following are the steps: .550 x 18.800 x 17.800 WJII \\'ith foundation width 750 mrn.' . Instead offset pegs are used. -~-l15 l l 9 . • I 1Q'i!-" ­ .200) x (18. ~ .' • 13 • I 116 12 I• I 17050 ' I • I 1 14 _1 0 0 r-r 1.1') -10 14 - 150-­ 2 11 c:J .. 33 and 44.22 at right angles to 33..

and 16­ 16 should be slaked and the equality of the diagonals of the points of inter section checked ..5.64 + 0. 15-15. The observations in the Table are therefore made.2. Equating Nonhing and Southing 4.12).69 20. 18.. 18.12-12.. 600 m N). is located initially by means of a peg at the south-west corner (Point A.12 Example 18.2 During redevelopment in a city area a block of flats rectangular in plan is to be built with the long elevationoriented due east-west. Line AP PQ Whole circle . [Salford] R C 13°30' D s· 25P 0. ~o '6"v ~ Fig. (vi) The pegs with nail at the top should be fixed 'at least 1-2 rnfrom the outside excavation "line so that they are not disturbed during excavation. Calculate the minimum distance from the proposed development to the new building line.97 1) = 26.00 . bearing Horizontal distance (m) 251 cOO' 283cOO' 80. 11-11.27 + 21. 13-13.WCB of PQ = Reduced bearing =N 77°00' W From the dam the following chart can be obtained. 14-14..6 Fundamentals of Surveying (v) Similarly lines 9-9.. The remainder of the building cannot be set out 3S existing properties have not yet been demolished and it is essential to check its clearance from a proposed new building line. 10-10. Solution wcs of AP = 251-oo 283~00' Reduced bearing = . which is to measure 86 m long by 21 m wide. 1.200 mE. Point Q is located on the proposed building line which is straight with a WCB of 13Q30' (Fig. Example 18.S 71cOO' W .64 The building.

29 sin 76°30' =0.23 x 43.1 Ex~.Length (m) '" R.mple IS.69 ~'7i~ W .CB = 86~29 .. " Line A.9~ m Equating Easting and Westing 0. Minimum perpendicular distance =0.97 II. . = 42.40 .&.97/1 II. N 90~ E I~ 21.11 0.' 5 16. ~1'3ble 18.!H ' ' ~.:n RB SA 571 4 W 50. RC = RB .! .63 .28 m.40 1 2 =96.86 = 0.23 II + 1 2 = 96.94 =86.23 II l~ 21.13~3(/ E .0.00 0 or . 20.B.29 " .P PQ QR .00 ' ·5 lSfY·E 76.t. II = 43... 0.29 . Latitude r-. l I . {).CO'lJrnl~tion Surveying \ s-n : .:9 10..

:s :. In certain types of operations. 5. 6. '. to sight targets.~~~. .[. The following peculiarities of underground surveys. .. the position ofwhich is unknown with respect to a point of established location. The lighting in underground passageways is generally poor and artificial illumination must be provided 10 view instrument crosshairs.19 Underground Surveys 19. and to permit normal movements of survey presonnel in executing their duties.::. caves and construction in subterranean passageways. Instrument stations are set with some difficulry since plugs must be driven into drill holes in rock. The sights taken in shafts and sloping passageways are often sharply ~. 3. Care must therefore be taken in all surveying operations involving the alicnmcnt of tunnels or the runninz of undercround traverses...~tt:J~~. - ~ - ./ . is to obtain the horizontal and vertical coordinates of <1 point. tunnelling. The working ~P3CC in P3~S:J:. Lines of sight are frequently very. '<'. 7.'. In many instances the underground workings arc wet. 8. Instrument stations and benchmarks for levelling must often be set into the roof of a passageway to minimize disturbance from the operations being carried on in the workings.indicate how they differ .C\\·:. Underground surveys arc essentially similar to three-dimensional surveys on the surface in that the purpose of all 3n£le and distance measurements.1 INTRODCCTlO~ Underground surveying embraces th~ survey operations performed beneath the surface of the earth in connection with. is often cramped. 2. from surface surveys. 5UI"\'C~' lines must be carried through locks in pressure chambers. to read verniers." ~:-. exploration of. 4. with considerable water dripping from the roofs of passage ways and running along the floors. :. . ::. 1.lY!.short either because (If crooked passage \\':l~'s or because aligninent must often be brought down from the surface through small shafts.

19. The methods to be adopted for connecting survey work 'depends on local conditions and length of proposed tunnel.L _ Centre line and grade stakes within the tunnel are usually set in the roof to' avoid displacement arid destruction by the constant flow of people and machinery as construction proceeds. from a line of sight to both the floor and ceiling of the passage are involved in underground surv eying whereas only'one vertical dimension is normally encountered in surface surveys.2. If stakes are set on the floor they should be offset into . 19. (b) transferring the alignment underground. (ii) proper gradient. The alignment is permanently referenced b)' a system of monuments within an area outsideeach tunnel portal. Tunnel is a very costly venture.'(3) meets the demand of-modern rapid transit in a city. hence it must follow the best line adopted to proposed traffic and it must be economical in construction and operation. . distance nnd differences in elevation of each end of the proposed tunnel. ­ The following engineering operations are 'to be performed in any tunnel construction. (d) underground setting out. The survey. Itis always advisable that the survey is based on suitable local coordinate system. But vertical .inclined and it is frequently necessary to observe both horizontal and vertical angles through a prismatic telescope or eyepiece or through an auxilliary telescope mounted either above the main telescope: or to one sic:: of the instrument standards. It (1) reduces the grade.2 VERTICAL SHAFTS For long tunnels' excavation are carried inward from bethportals. It is much more difficult to keep satisfactory survey notes when the workings are wet or dirt)' and the illumination is poor. and (iii) establishment of permanent stations marking the line or the proposed route.1 SURFACE SURVEY Surface survey connects points representing each portal of a tunnel. 11.Frg. Tunnel is constructed when open excavation becomes uneconomical usually when it is more than 20 in. along the tunnel's . (i) exact alignment. A traverse connecting the portal points determines the azimuth. Plumbing down the shaft constitutes a special problem which is peculiar to underground surveying. ~ ~ 19. . Two vertical dimensjons. 10. 19.A working sketch of how tunnelling work proceeds is shown in. work in connection with tunnelling can be divided into four types: (a) surface survey. edge'. (2) shortens the distance between given points separated by a dividing mountain or ridk~. an area.2 APPLICATIO~ OF UNDERGROU~D SURVEYS The major application of underground surveys is in the construction of tunnels and other underground utilities. 9. Hence survey of tunnel is very important and explained in detail. (c) levels in tunnels.2.

.550 Fundamelltals of Surveying Transit or theodolite used. (iii)'Laser. .. Pentagonal prisms attached to the objective end of the telescope of a theodolite can facilitate transfer of a given bearing to different levels as in the case of surface and underground lines as well as upward and downward plumbing. ~~ . .. The advantages of :10 optical collimator are: (i) ~fore convenient than a plumb bob. '. as in case of plumb bob.. . Oscillations of the bob can be controlled by suspending it in a pot with high viscosity oil.f I Fig. --_ . (ii) Can be used to set marks directly on the floor of a completed shaft. --­ ---_ .1 Surface survey suspended from hooks fitted in roof.. 19.. .:! Pentagonal prism. A laser equipment can be.. (iii) 1\0 w ires. The bob is suspended from a removable bracket attached to the surface side of the shaft. 19. The laser . Optical plumbing becomes important with the increase in depth of internal shaft. to "double centre" alignment .. shafts are also sunk upto required depth along the alignment of the tunnel at intermediate locations along the routes. used to. The vertical alignment can be done by (i) Plumb bob. it can also be used to check perpendicularity. As the line of sight of a theodolite in adjustment will transit in a vertical plane. (ii) Optical collimator. Various types of plummet are a~'ailable for upwards and downward sighting to allow the establishment of a vertical line and these are normally manufactured so as to be interchangeable with theodolites on their tripods. - ~ . A heavy plumb bob (5 to 10 kg) is suspended on either a wire of heavy twine. is necessary.Fig. provide J vertical line of sight. Roof Mark painted on heading Permanent· monuments .

." I I 01 . In all cases the main idea is to deduct the height of the shaft measured from the top of <I benchmark of known value.3 ALIG:\I:SG THE THEODOLITE There is diversity in practice as to the positionof the theodolite at both the surface and the bottom of the shaft./ Fig. In modem days ED~II is also used.3 Transferring level underground. (c) Visibility should begood fat Em. )st~el wires. The important features of laser measurement are: . =0. Tunnel . Surface' . = 01- °2· . : Tape· rLevelling lnstrument : ~ Tunnel -------- Bottom of 8 to 10 kg. user used in surveying equipment is helium neon gas laser which produces a bright red beam which clearly intersects a scale or rule. It is characterized by an extremely long range of upto "100 krn.. Underground Surveys 551 generates a light beam of high intensity and of low angular divergence and can be projected over long distances since th~ spread of the beam is very small to provide a visible line for constant reference.l . The aboveground survey is linked with the working ... (a) ED:... Figure 19.. 19.. The disadvantages of laser are (i) BUlky (ii) Requires more electrical power (iii) Can damage the eye. Relatively good accuracy (± 5 mrn to ± I. 19.n unit and reflectors should be in the same vertical line. (b) Both are mounted on stable support.74 x IO IJ Hz. Here )..4 shows how depth is measured by ED:\II. (ii) chain.:U LEVELS l~rTUN="ELS In transferring levels underground. (iii) specially constructed rods.1I to operate. 19....6328 X 10-6 m and/:: -!. Depth of Tunnel . little difficulty isencountered <It the ends of the tunnel but at the shaft use is made of (i) steel tape.' rnm/krn) i~ possible with laser carriers since laser is a source of very coherent and stable radiation. support for Tape ~ and Weight . Figure 19.3 sh~\'ls how depth is measured by asteel tape. (i.

. I Vertical distance .A. Laser instrument ---~---'-l '.L. Transfer of alignmentdown shaft by.. The theodolite is placed on' the correct alignment at the surface.• ( II 1/1\ Alignment mark on face of t"leading v Plumb bob 5. = R..5. of reflector of laser-V. Two wires with plumb bobs'are suspended from points along the alignmenl marked by theodolite paintings.L.Fundamentals of Surveying Stand ~ . . II The important features of this are: 1. .L. .. on ceiling to .. 8..10 kg Instrument i:1 Uris with wires Fig.. 19. .-' . Permanent monument I Ordinary theodolite r '//) Control pc'nts on ceiling 1\ " Wire - ~ .'•: :i...:. surface of a tunnel through vertical shaft. Transfer of surface alignment 10 underground may be done through plumb bobs or by vertical collimator. c- '...5 Transfer of alignment.4 Use of Laser. 19. . 9 Reflector· Fig. "II 2.11 n . of the Ilne known from conventional levelling.D.M. be set by conventional \. measured by laser' R... plu~b bobs is shown in Fig..' R. 19.

•Theodolite' at the-tunnel floor is now aligned in line with the two plumb ..is fixed with respect to the allidade of the theodolite. Fig. Suspension tape Moving mark . in many situations such :IS in underground mine surveys or where the area is perpetually overcast with clouds. two points on the top of shaft are transferred on the floor through vertical line of sight.~. on the other hand.. Gyroscope I I I 1 ~K I . 19. However. Inside the gyroc0:tmpass a gyrornctor is suspended an a thin tape similar to a plumb bob. \ I . A gyroscope. Light source ~.. A schematic cross sectional view of the gyrocompass is shown in Fig.. 4.s 553 bobs...6.. these methods would not be possible.:. The eyepiece is attached to the instrument and as such it .Underground Surve.'tI~ATIO~ OF ~'ZI:\IUTH BY GYROSCOPE Reliable azimuths are ordinarily determined in survey work by measuring angles from existing reference azimuthal' by making observations on the sun or the stars.. With the aligned theodolite controlpoints are set on the tunnel roof. is usually attached to the top of a theodolite. These points are utilized In a precise double centringoperation to prolong the tunnel alignment." permits the determination of reliable azimuths under these adverse: conditions... 3. In the case of vertical collimator.4 DETER. Viewing eyepiece . 19.. The gyroscope. This mark is converted to a V-shaped index which is viewed through the eyepiece. V-shaped index . 19. The uppeffend of the tape is connected to the upper end of the'tubular housing at the top.. The moving mark oscillates with the gyroscope. " .6 Schematic diagram of gyrocompass..

ss is then fitted on the theodolite with the telescope in the face left position. Thus if the mid-position of the oscillations is established. The gyromotor is now turned on and allowed to run UPiO full operating speed.7..The gyrocompa.roughly pointing towards the North by means of prismatic compass or tubular compass (taking into account the declination of the compass needle). the gyroindex mark can be observed through the eyepiece as moving "ftCfOSS the-graduations . '2 '0 .One method of doing the above is the Turning Point Method.7 Azimuth of line.1 Fig. The azimuth of a reference line is established by sighting on a reference mark with both face left and face right conditions and taking the mean of both readings. the-theodolite telescopeis set up..7. the mean value ro is given by 'I. . If . If the three successive turning points are and r) •. the telescope line of sight at the station is oriented towards the north and the purpose of all observations is to determine that position. This gives the reading for True Nonh.19. In practice. The observer then follows the movement of the moving mark following the v­ index until the opposite turning point is reached. the moving mark will remain stationary on the V-shaped mark and the corresponding horizontal circle reading has to be obtained quickly. As the spinner oscillates about the meridian. 19. If the readings are more than three. The horizontal circle is again read and recorded.This approximate value is known as Schuler Mean. The procedure may take 20 10 30 min but yields an azimuth .\1 as shown in Fig. '1'+ 2r2 + '3 = 4 .contained in the eyepiece scale. When a turning point is reached. The azimuth of a reference mark is then obtained. keep it at the centre of the V-index by turning the horizontal circle tangent screw.\1 is the mean circle reading of reference mark and N is the true North reading. however. True North Line of sight for True t~orth Reference mark reading 1. If. 19. mean of the Schuler means of three consecutive values is taken.554 Fundamentals of Surveying . the azimuth of the line is At -. the direction of the line of sight of the telescope of the theodolite was not on the symmetrical line of the oscillatory mark and differed by angle E then azimuth of the lines becomes A=M-N+E as shown in Fig. Here the observer follows the oscillation of the moving mark and tries to.

. To~~t the proportionality factor c two observations should be made \~ith directions N{ and N5. 19.5 WEISBACH TRIAl'. AB (Fig. the clockwise' horizontal circle is read. The theodolite is. firs: set up and' oriented to approximate :'\onh. If desired.moving mark. 11'1 is givenby the expression of iJ. + cL1r1 a1' -­ . In order to get a check on 8. to the left and back to the V-index is noted'. . 19. .iI.GLE This is a method of connecting the surface and underground surveys and avoids direct alignment Here tlie theodolite is set up at C near and almost in line with AB so that the effect of error inBC or AC on is least when is least. the angles ACD. = N~-'. . a is the mean of amplitudes left" and right and L1t is equal to tL . " ' :t. then the line of sigbt points to the true north (except for E).~' "'.8).1r a correction i. about 15' to the west and east respectively of the middle oscillations of the . and' the differenceis t. being found by subtraction.8 Weisb:lch triangle. ACB being usually less than 30'.fR' Then. BCD which AC arid BC make with any line CD may be measured. BC and as a check..1.. The weakest e e e e= e o A . Fig.Underground Slln'(ys555 with a standard deviation of -20"'. . Solving 19.V must be applied to the initial circlereadingY to get the 'true north N. If not. The angle is measured very accurately as also the distances AC. . The instrument is "expensive and can be used profitably only in large projects. the negative swing timetR is the time taken for the moving mark ro travel from the V-index to the right and back to the \':indcx (negativeswing time).With the help :1 stop watch the time tL taken for the moving -mark to move fremthe \'-inde:x. . : ' N ... . This is known -as positive swing time. .' = caat where c is aproporticnality factor relating scale readings to time. The following two equations are then obtained ... Similarly. N = N + tlV ' .' . If the average: tL is equal to the average t~. . the offset CE from the verticalplane of AB can be calculated and a line parallel to the centre line set out. The other method of determining azimuths using the -gyrocompass is the transit method.

4. A and B being the plumb wires. 72°16'21" .-s .. Example 19.83.9) ~" CBA = -.Si5 ::: 7.). C and D the respective surface and underground theodolite stations.875" . p c / .34 . Example 19.556 Fundamentals oj Sun·eying· point in the method is the fact that lines and angles are measured from unsteady points A and B. and P and Q the reference points accordingly.L 0" '\~4" 8. Determine the angle between the reference lines CP and DQ. 19. A 4.1. o ""'--------. 011 the surface For small angles (Fig. 19.l:S" Underground Similarly (Fig..-:.1 The following notes refer to the alignment down a shaft by means of Weisbach triangle. Station C Line CA Length Angle inm 4.83 D CB AB DA DB 72°16'25" 72°16'21" 1i6°4'36" 176°4'27" 4...48 4..91 9. "'\ '" -" = ....40 Solution .~3 B Fig. 4. 7~oI6'25" -7.J::~16'li.CAO .91 4A8 = 9.­ 9 x 4.S /:> Therefore and eAo: :1 + 3..34 8.". '<.. given that zero readings were taken on the reference points on each case.10) DBA .87" . 19. .S75" eOA:: PCA . rendering it necessary to take the extreme positions of the plumb wire... x ..9.

(log sin 1" ~ 6. 9.4. The angle ACB was found to be 121" (Fig.93 x == 97.87" = 176'4'36" .807 x 9.005" Example 19.\f =9 + 9.87" == 176°~'17.¥I'f.3 The centre line of a tunnel AB shown in Fig. 19.C. Solution sin )..8T' . Calculate the rectangular distance from C to the line AB produced.125" CP and DQ == 103°48'0.2 Two plumb wires A and B in a shaft are 3.642 m apart. m M Fie:: 19.165 m from the wire B..11 Example·19. and DA.." ..18. .E] A 3.13" DMA But Hence angle between ". 19.38 x 10~ m =9.12 is [0 be set out to a given bearing. B A.6-l2 ~ ==~40.11)..738 mm I I Example 19. a " . Therefore.10 'Ex3mpte 19. or 6' If' .82" 1O~ e = AC sin ¢ = (3. A' theodolite was set up at C slightly off the line AB and at a distance of 6.· " CGA == 72°16' 17.40 . 165 sin 2'1" 3. A'short section of the main tunnel has been constructed .165) sin ¢ = 9. ' .2.1.642 m 8 D 121" c Fig.87 = 18. n. 19.6855749) .82'" = 3'24. U~~erground Surveys 557 .642 + 6.

Angle CEF= 167°10'20". .. CD =3.. Calculate the coordinates of station F and G. Two wires C and D are plumbed down the shaft and readings are taken on to them by a theodolite set up at station E slighlyoff the line CD produced. . CD + DE = 3. .70 and E 375.12 rn. DE = 4._ or This is external angle. FG = 57. r. . ' Solution LDCE = 4. I . ..sin . =? 8. tunnel and sighting ..' ~S'" .78 and N 1115. Finally a further point G is located in the tunnel andthe angle EFG measured.37 rn respectively... EF = 13. 7 . 7 . .6-t + 4A6 .64 CE sin CDE .64 . .3S" or sin CDE :: C£ sin 3S" "6-l S.10 m _ 3. . Angle EFO =87"23'41". A point F is located in the. 19.nne_l__ . Fig..46 x .1 shaft. ..is taken on to this from station E.558 FUlldamell1als of Surveying along the approximate line and access is gained to it by means of adit connected to .~" 3.] Shaft .56" :: 01'~~.B G ) 7 7 ) . the coordinates of C and D have been calculated and found to be N 1119. . u :: 46.12 Example 19.46 rn..lO ..- "I 3.E.50 m. Angle DEC = 38". [I. } . LCDE = 84..' _ . From the surface' survey initially carried out.e. _----:TL!. A ( . ) ) I .32 and E 375.s6" . .64 S'n 1.6" CE .3.64 m.

n.L8 .t~r: = 173°37'15. -. B'"' aof.9798 m = 56.84" E Latitude = 57." = 173'37'15.92°36' 19" = N 81 °oa 54..' =~ 1119.46 cos 6°26'17.37 m -I =S . 375"'7) -' ..]n.79+1.Bearing.432 . 0 .m Departure = 57.84" E Bearing of pE = S 6°26' 17.12 sin 06°22'44. = 4.. 111931 -:..31 m E 375.46 sin 6°26'17.70 rn E 375.50 cos 81 °54.16" ..87°23'41") = 173°37' 15.r = N 6=26' 17.16" E Latitude ::: 13. '. . Coordinates of F = Coordinates of D ± Latitude/Departure of DE ± Latitude/Departure of EF 'Bearing of ED = N 6°26' 17.038 m Departure-= 13.432 m Departure of DE = 4.12 cos 06°22'44.78 m. r' Latitude of F = 1115.16" E Bearing of FG . Coordinatesof D : I.8":'" + 33" +167'W20" Quadrantal bearing = S 06°22'44.70 .S.500 m Bearing of EF = S 06°22'44.84" 1.:..70 -4.16" = 13.O1'2·U6") E =:\ (6'27'42". 1115. of DC Coordinates. DC '-'~.84" - (ISO' .13.50 sin Slo00'5.S4" E Bearing of EF = 6°26'17.1. = Bearing of ED ~ IJn ("'-'7" ~I •• " -.of C .8" = 0.1115.038 = 1098. E 6°27'42.=.84" .4" E ..457 m Bearing of FG = N 81 °00' 54.8" .84" W Latitude of DE = 4.84" = 8.23 N ..

19.00 a =tan-I 1167' .37. and 506 m. The coordinates of Band C relative to A are respectively in m (N 1334. 167 o 33 867 B C :WO IS7 213 .L.L.L. The data levels andbore hole depths to the seam are: A ~ 200 M.13)..21 N Departure of G =376.4 E relative 10 C + 6S + 101 o .n .. - 37~ 0.327 + 56.98 = 1107.. 1334 . =::I.794 =433. Find the magnitude and direction of the dip of the seam.)' . C. . 0) 867 Fig..= 213 M.500 + 1.t Solution Data arc given in the tabular form below: Table 19.. 19./.. and 460 rn.121 E Example 19.. "'90 S67' = t..-0. (0..t :.'. -I 1"'4 -.13 Example 19.L. 33 1334 1167 c .. E867) (Fig.4 Bore holes are sunk at points A.' .." .. Band C to locate a coal seam.457 = 376. level Scam depth :(JS ~60 R.560 Fundamentals of Surveying Departure of F Latitude of G = 375.327 E = 1098.::(i(.S. B 187 m M. d Level scam N .1 Example 1904 Point Coordinates Ground....~~ 587. 167 A .. E 33) and (N 167.S.and 587 m.13 + 8.S.

3\ Let F be the poin: in the scambelow DC :I: t~:: sarne Icvel 63 BC = lOl 6:'.53.52 m .78 m.78m Hence F is 167 + 785.78= 952. 867..e..BC = 11 67 cosec 53. . Length CG = CF sin i' =978. )~.83° = 90 -ce = 90 .n =283. 1800 -73. .39' = P53.= 978. =. Example 19. the direction of the dip of the seam = 106.17 = 783.. Determine the coordinates and reduced level of the point at which the 'centreline of the tunnel meets the upper surface of the stratum..56° . .28 m East ­ of A LAFC = 180° . together with those of three points A.&78. Dep. x 1'-"S' 9-·.17 =r Drop a perpendicular CG from C onto AF.79 x 0.39 = 36. and magnitude of dip == u8 min 783.(a + {3) =180° . = 978. -9 Then CF = 101 x .79 cos ce. =.79 sin 53. .44) =53.39 + 73.61° .44° .44 m = 1 .S rn. Then CG is the line of the greatest slope of the seam (i./~. in '. Band C 'on the upper plane surface of a stratum 'of rock as determined by bore holes. .79 sin a . For CF Lat..5· The following table gives the coordinates and reduced levels of two points P and Q on the centre line of a straight tunnel. .. Whole circle bearing of GC.802 = 7SS.(53. 583.44 m Angle 8 1] = 90 . 5S3.r = 36. North of A and ... =.:.72 rn .I rn the SC:1m at A. 11. the dip of the seam).

70 =0 4. x 430 )' .62 2.00 0.15 i.1 4.7 1.7 3.O 43 3...\" -axis to run east. 335 2.00 1.a.00 .!.0 + . lOa. (470.0 1.Z 1 1 470 700 x 370 000 100 335 262 215 1 1 =0 .:.Q = Y .00 700. 0. (s: ) say .0 LO i a .0.z~) are.7 0.0 4.0 .0 2.!.7.)1 )'2 . the y-axis towards north and the z-axis vertically upwards. 272) . Y2' .7265 =A.00 370.0 .62 335 1. 1.0 335 a 1.0 1.00 700.7 100 0.ZI = Z2 . 335).. The equation of the straight line joining points (XI' YI' ZI) and (x::.00 o 100.3 7. 370.0' 1.1) The equation of the plane passing through the three points (430.: # :.0 1.35 3. 2.00 265 272 335 262 215 Solution Take the origin of three dimensional coordinates at the projection on to datum of the origin of the two dimensional N-E coordinates.67 700 133 = Z . (19.15 3.4$#414. 1..x - XI X2 .a.:-·-x 100 . 262) and (700. Aka .00 200.ZI Therefore the equation of the line PQ joining points P (0.7 or x 100 x.00 470. 67. Take the .00 430. 265) and Q (700. --~= ..0 2.3 100 3.62 =0 215 7..0 1.15 ~3 ~. 215) is .)1 Z . Z' x 4.XI Y . " 0' .0 v 1. 200.7 7.=. '100 100 or 4..0 0.562 Fnndamcntols ofSurveying Point N Coordinates (m) Reduced Level (rn) E p Q A B C 67. 1.62 2.

5' [Bradford] The calibration constant of the instrument is + 2.4') 4 =278°29.0$) .675' 280OJO.S) .~ 1'. in Eqs. Solution Schuler mean of three turning point observations is 'given by the expression (aI' + 2'12 4 + a3)' Hence 1st Mean + 2760:21.3) to (19:5) we 'bet x =iOO x 0.3' right' 280°32. .625' .4' 280°30. x = 700 ).857 z = 265 + 7 x 0. =0 (19. (19. (19.836~' + 8.8' = 280°32..8') + 276°233' 2nd Mean . .llndcrgrowidSun·t)"f.8' 280°29. (19.S57 Substituting the values of). . .93 m i'\ )' = 67 + 133 x 0.3) 09.' or From Eq.BI~ 19.8' + 2 (2i6°233 4 l_ .).6' = 2760:201' + 2(2800:32.6 Using the Schuler mean calculate the bearing of reference object B f~pm the following observations taken at station A using a gyro theodolite. Ath Mean ') + 280°295' = 2800:30. Exam.4' + 2(276°21." .::!) 09..469 .857 = 271 m R:L.= 278°26.6' '276°23.2):lnd simplifying ' (19.6' +2(280°30. =0.857 =600 m E = 180. 563 E~panding the determinants .6'.91 ~ -3S65r . Horizontal circle readings to B: face left 42°26' 15" I face right 222°26'25" Angular readings of successive gyro turning points were as follows: left 276°20.60' 3~Mean = 4 = 278°26.)' = 67 + 133 ).": =265 + l).. ' Substituting in Eg.6')+ 4 2760:21.1) 2.1' 276°21.

20 .45 _ $ 2. 04 .. Observations last of true north Horizontal circle reading during transit oscillations 15°30. $ ai-a·u k £ aAtJi.2 Mean amplitude reading . ' Mean value The azimuth of J =278°26. + 7.1t(5) Amplitude reading .7.7 + 8.10.7 The following 'transit' observations were recorded witha gyro theodolite attachment on a laboratory base line bearing 128°17/52'~.5 s. Timc of transit lime of swing !eft + (5) .5 5. 14 min 41.11 min ~6.10.2.35.7 5 07 min 2004 5. 137.becornes negative hence 360° should be added.7 s.45' Transit times: 0 min 0 s. Therefore Example 19.3 .7 s 07 min 20.cas£t.6' line A=M-N+E where M is the mean circle reading of Reference mark.. 14 min 41.1 $ o I:::~ . = Observations we-SI of true north Horizontal circle reading during Transit oscillations = 15c O O . II - . ~ min 05..8.10.10.5 s 1~ min .11 min 18.8 + 8.6' But M .00' Horizontal circle reading to reference object = 1·B032.5 Determine the additive COnstant and the proportionality factor for this particular attachment stating carefully the units of both.50 9.:! s. • • 0.9. £ AU ~.( . + 8.4- _.14 IPa tN. t..0" :.00' Horizontal circle reading to reference object = 1·Bc32. S hSld.90 .05 9. .. ... [CEI] Solution Table 19.1.0 s.<:.5..9.6 lime diff . + 8. .34.45' Tir:H:S or transit: 0 min 0 s.. Amplitudes: + 7. 03 min 57.40 10. N = True north reading E =Calibration constant Here /If =Corrected reading from face left and face right observations N = 2is026.t) s 03 min 57.8 -138. .N . 0_4.00 + 202.·4 4.1 s Amplitudes .7 ·r: .. 07 min 20.2 Example 19.3. .56~ Fundamentols of Slln'eying .5 s 11 min 18.6.5..7 + 202.t .35.tP ..

6 .00' 341.15°00. left + (s) + 2.68 C = 15°30. ..35.044 x 34i.0 Q-$ min I! min 26.9 ..1 s + 2.iO Mean = 50.i Amplitade rColding .2 51..97' .77 s Mean amplitude Gw ~tE X aE = 6. 5.044 x 340.19~.68 = 15.77 x 6.:>:) .J~ amplitude aE..00~ .03' =0.09 LJ.195.17 S MC.'" ="' .5.75 6.7 . For the eastern setting = 0.0 s l~ min 41.1nsit s OS.N'+ E Corrected a~imuth=M 128°17'52~ = 143°32'27" -(15°30'00" -14'58.73 = .2")+ E =26.1tE .044'ls CawtJtw CaE..2 SOA· ..= 9.9 ~Ie'u\ Table J9.35.73 =+ 341..7 s 07 min 20A s Time of s'o\o ing .09) 30 = 681.t5.7 Time dlff .0 50. _ J I . '9" : : 0 .3 Time oftr.68 _ (_ 340.t5.1'(5) amplitude rC.8" E For the western setting similarly E Average E =43" .rw x aw =+ 50.67 = .67 Eumple 19.6 + 7.09 = 14.5 ~rw 6.17 x 9.MC3n ~E = .77 =.lding o min 00.75 6.: + 7..340.

Ell E 2• W2­ For checking o Brick Pillar ·t ~.7 ANALYTICAL DERIVATIONS OF U!\'''DERGROU:\D SURVEYS Sloping plane surfaces Let A. ~ Westside Eastside Fig. 19. F. B. (ii) Transferring the alignment underground usually through vertical shafts. Here surface alignment is done through triangulation and tunnelling operation through both ends as in case 3. Shafts are constructed at the ends for alignment purpose. . When both vertical shaft and surface alignment are not feasible. a the L . opa are on the proposed centre line W3E 3 at the level of the tunnel. necessary to use an eccentric shaft. 1. Two problems may arise: (a) It is impossible to set out the line on the surface. When the depth below the surface is too great for shafts to be sunk but surface alignment is possible.6 PROBLE:\lS l~ TU~~EL SURVEY As already explained tunnelling involves (i) Surface alignment. 4. D.3 and Fig.3..A and BB be plane contours or horizontal lines in the plane AB. with a separate pier for carrying the theodolite. (b) The shafts cannot be placed on the centre line of the tunnel. In the first case. 19. 3. This is explained in Example 19. 19. In the second case which occurs when the tunnel is under a major highway. it is . Hence four cases may arise.. Work progresses simultaneously from both ends and alignment is checked from both Band C. the position. Surface alignment is possible and depth is not great so that vertical shaft can easily be constructed. C. direction and chainage of the centre line at any specified point can be obtained by the use of a precise traverse and the corrected coordinates of the traverse. ' . the latter is then connected with the tunnel by means of an 'adit' or entry tunnel.14 Surface alignment. etc. When the vertical shaft can be constructed but surface alignment is not possible.5. E. Here vertical shaft is to be constructed and surface alignment is transferred underground as explained in Section 19.566 Fundamcntols of Surveying 19. This occurs when tunnelling in town or other built up areas. . Here brickor concrete structures styled 'observatories' are erected at different points A. 2.

. Then sincethe height of B above Aor P is a tan.. as shown dotted will be such that a sec (90" + ¢ ..ontal distance betweenthese lines and e the angle of steepest slope in AB (Fig.if. A· (b) P A o a tan () p4---. but in the surface. If AA be the assumed direction of meridian and a line PQ of bearing. . b). = tan ~ seq' tan ). If. .. in the stratum at right angles to. the direction III is prescribed for a given slope ()) along' PRJ cutting will result if/II> ¢ and filling if 111< ¢ when ()) rises from P to R and the difference -in elevation between Rand B will be a (tan e . 19. however. Hence tan OJ = alan e . or while at right' angles to PR. a cosec ¢ = tan e sin ¢ or sin ~ = ~ . 1.cosec ljI tan w) =a tan e t::ln). ¢ 'and .15 b). 19.-l --'-_ a cosec (c) ¢ 0' Fig. Three point problem Given the borings to three poines on astraturn to determine dip and strike.inclination w to the horizontal lie in the plane (Fig. PQ.Ur. tan e 2. h~. = tOlO e sec ljI 3.15 a. . 19.height of Q above P. e.dusro:md Surveys B R 0 567 B I a A 1--' a (a) ----.90") tan . The lateral slope). . .15 Sloping plane surfaces.. it is equal to 'the..

tan 8 = Af::: AB sin <5 a . Join BE which is the direction of the strike. LAlY F = angle of dip e.r) can be calculated.tJ 90° f Fig. Draw AlY perpendicular to AF and equal to a.E + Ali . A is the highest point and B is the lowest point. 19..y) = ~~ ~ ~~ .m') The bearing of the strike will be . Let A. Band C the positions of the bore holes. At A. tan ~ (0 + r) AE+ EB 2 " = AE-EB • Ian 1 {l so:> Hence t (0 . Also t - (0 + r) =t -. 'a' represents the level difference between A and Band c (small) the level difference between B andC.16 'Three point problem.y) :i. Join ArCand when produced it cuts A C produced at E. 19.:c.tan 1 ' -t (0 + y) (a . Drop perpendicular AF from A to line BE at F.' IS0° + f3 -8 AD' {180° .c) a X AC From the triangleEAB AE . Join D'F (Fig.(a .f3)) or tan t (15 . Analytically AE::: (a .) Fundamentals of Surveying A' .16). AA' is drawn perpendicular to AC and CC is drawn at C perpendicular to C. ora + '( where a and f3 are the given bearings.AS _ tan 2' (0 .

E. At P. perpendiculars A-\' and AX' equal to a are drawn. Here C is assumed to be below B and hence it is drawn downwards..to PQ and equal to p + PEln where: n is the gradient of the line.• BD AB ' Level Of D in PQ relative to P PD =P+­ 11 . perpendicular is drawn over AC which cutsA"C' at M. SIO (a + Y + c5) AE =AP -si-n-(. Join P' E'.Jf::' . a given point of the centre line (If the tunnel whose coordinates or bearings and distances are known. EN is drawn perpendicular to the centre line PQ and is made equal to EM. A'Bis joined. EE: is erected perpendicular . sin y ". SIO(CC+Y) PE=AP .hertngs and P. Let the centre line PQ of the: tunnel cut AB in D and AC in E.l5 a. At C. At f. ee' is erected perpendicular to CA and equal to c.Underground Sur. p and c of points A. AI D. Hence to locate O.:=-z. perpendicular DO' is drawn. I ... A"C' is then joined. At E..·iJh a rock strtlJUtlf 569 Let A. PP' is drawn perpendicular to PQ and equal'to p. 19. At A. AD =AP . C be the plans of the .------T-7 C C' Fig.sin(a+c5} . 19. lei 8 be the datum point so that the heig~.~.. sin y PD =AP . P and C are lno\\ n. f)'s Intersect/oil of the centre line of atunnel .-+--'-y-+-:8::"). B. A' Gradient line=-_-.. From f.17). sin a SIO (a + y) Then level of D on ABwith respect to B DD' = .17 Intersection of tunnel with rock stratum. perpendicular is dropped from X on the centre line (Fig. Analytically.. DF is drawn perpendicular to PQ and made equal to DD'. FS is then joined which cuts lh:: line P'E' at X which is the elevation of the point 0 where the centre line intersects the ' upper surface of the stratum.Q 1 in n --. with AB and AP being known ..

18 Example 19. Council] Solution The points A. .17 _' (PD + DY .570 Fundamentals of Surveying From fig. (. Calculate (i) the direction and rate of full dip of the ore body which may be assumed to be uniform.p.18. All quantities are in meters.np.nPO) DF or or or PO. DY Cross multiplying . .PO) DF .DY + 11 PO.oF .DY}.DY PO = 1l{(PD + Dr) . 430) Fig. Band Care plottedIn the Fig.8 The coordinates and surface levels of three exploratory bore holes At !3 and C are given below together with the depths to a metalliferous ore-body. .400) D'. C 4970.pn DY PO(DY + nDF) ~n(PD + DY) DF·. .s- ? [Eng. E . 19. 19. . 19.( • /1 1830. A fourth bore hole is to be drilled at point D. (ii) the bore hole depth at which the ore body would be 'intersected at point D. DY + nDF Example 19.8•. Bore hole A Easting Northing Level AOD Depth Ore body 400 2960 40::!O B C D 49iO 3680 1920 2850 1830 430 : 90 260 100 390 300 5~ . F S D (3680. From coordinates length of 360 ~~=~~~:====:b~.DF = n(PD +DY) DF . the coordinates and surface level of which are also listed. (pn + PO) DY = (n PD + n DY .

1920)2 .76 m .40 r = 88. = 174.29° .25 . 360 1 dip = 1103..74 =228.. .m BE 360 BE = 90 = '". eanng 0: (7 t~n - -1 4970 . )S30)2 =J393.04 = 91. bearing of BA = 180Q + t"'nlY .C. AE BE .1-4 m. .430)~ = 2443.AE 270 =270 . = 1880.74 .A ~ 1-0 = 32.1920 = 180°+48.30 5 = 52. if BC .137.4020 2850 _ 1830 = 180 tan Q 42. "nT.+ (2850 . Underground Slln'qs 571 AB =~(.20 5+ or 5- r = 16.: 1 4020 . :> t (5 .C.70° '2 1 . 2850 .3680)2 + (2850 .180" n.00.if'lJj. BE . ..B of BF = 137.96° = 137.w'20 " 2960):.r) = BE + Be tan '2 (8830) 48632 .37m CA = ~(4970 - 2960)2 + {1920 .06 tan "H.04° ABC = 228.f .35° r = 35. Be = ~(4970 - 4010)2 + (1350 -.74° ''iT C -b .2960 .74..19 . = 2012.95 Q BF ~ BC sin 52.1830)2 .35 0 = 1103. = 1410.r) = 8.0~o + 37.60 W. AS =1§Q x AS == 360 x 14I01-l 270 270 .BC 1 (5 .60 = 106 Length BD = ~(4020 . .

24 _ ~x=--=­ 1309.63 bore hole depth :: 815.97 1000 . .83 _.:.75) -. -310 o· ~··W -~OO 1 1 =0 1 1 1 1 =0 1 1 -.63 + 390. 1830.24 m Depth of ore at D 360 1134.92 2.310 .95 or ED' = BE sin 35.8 Equation of a' plane passing through three points: A (2960.400) Equation of a plane passing through these three polnts.0. sin 35. or 2.85 1.99° = 40.3680 tan 8 = 2850 _ 430 8 = 7.00 .415.63 rn Alternative Solution of Example 19.70 = 1134.75° LEBD' = 48.95 -+40.52 x = 130952 x 360 1134.24 = 415.96 4.95 sin 76.000 l:: ­ Level of ore body :: .632 m Level AOD of D =390. x 2960 4020 4970 x 1000 y 1920 2850 1830 .40) C (4970. .:: 1205. .0. 19:!O..572 Fundamentals of Surveying . .63) 815.74 -7. .L 1000 1. .99 BE _ BD' sin (35.400 + (.02 4.310) B (4020. 2850.. 4020 .0-+0 -DAD ..

0594.91 2. ..6381 \. ~ ~ ~ ~ - .r = 3680.6381" 0. .9647 z . ..815.122. .1658. ..r 1000 x 2.-.".0. = 1658. + 0.693 .059.sco 1.310 .. at which the formation centre line of a cutting and tunnel constructed at a downgrade of 3 in 106 from A would find the stratum when driven in a north .. y) -.1 .::: .04 -OAO Expanding the determinants . . . -0..8S 1.~0.83 -0.059.wI~--· ..0 .x 4.63812 x 2850 1658.. x 40'0 _ -v0.0 m below ground level locate where the cuttinz finishes (Fig. wjt~. At what depth' will this point be below the surface.. .6381 1658..385 ..059-t.02 4..31 2.96 + --::. easterly direction..693 390 ..6381 )' .0594~ + 0. ~ coordinate zero.el ar A'? If tunnelling commences when the formation is 18.2 + 0.9 The table gives data concerning i~e position of a plane rock stratum at three stations A.0594 perpendicular distance on the from point (x..~ 'J~~ ..92 . 1 x 4. ...385 ":"' •x+ ...".62 3.: Example 19..96 .2850) 0.0. .335 At D. 2 -.97 ' 1. -0.385 ....l' = 1205.6381 + ~0. 19.8. From the point (4020. ).0594 0.}' .I .0.1. = 430.. : .depth of ore body depth of ore body = 390 + 815.---:.t perpendi ICUIar di Istance = .t :c + 0. ' 122.83 .97 2.2 + 0.0594~ + 0.' ./0.before.6381 '/0. 0.6381:!· ~0. Determine the coordinates of the point .05942 + 0. the cunins starting at w ground le. equation 'ofthe line ..629 (negative sign is not significant) slope = 1'··· 40 = . as .6381 2 .. or 1.059.693 rn. .:.20)..92 2. Band C.693 =0 =-815.6381 2 = ..065.85 1.J.+0.5 I..o.S3 I ~ "fiII_.02 1000 4.

9.90): :: 335Al () -I + (30 ~ 330)= Be :: tan 300 150 :: 63.555~ LDAB ::: .875° LADB ::' JSO .125 + 63A30 :: iO.330 .125° :: 37.L S. 19.-­ Length Be :: \!(2~O . 7..867 m -I 2.5 G \ A I .57° .+ FUlldml!Cllfa!s of Surveying Station Ground level :lbo\'c OD (rn) Depth [0 rock (rn) B 150. n -I.Si 5) ::: 71..0 90.2 10. ~.~ O .0 -3. (0.+5° .30 Coordinates (N.W 30 -l~ -71')':.5 m C= 192.5 177.5 0. Solution.5 rn B :: 177.5:: 142.owest point) Fig.0 ~O. E) 13.+.13.43° LABD :: 7. 0) (t.5 m Length of AB = ··hJ. Levels of rocks at A == 150.-i0.5 :: 136.57. 330) 13.0 ..+ 1.Ian .0 ...19 Example 19.(70.-\B .5 = 151.2 (90.o~ + 30~ = 2. 10.555 + 37 .0 3·t5 2~O.0 c 192.

41 x 156.598 Difference of surface between Band C = 192.4 = si~37.555 .: sin 37. " . = 190.51 Sin "4] 867 x ..20 Example 19.5r _ sin 70.4 -'.. m v = 10.10.0 Ground level of point of intersection = 150 + 27 = 177.2 =135 .0 .875 241.86 .57 ' 'D'8 =240.9.00 In 42 A 15~ Fig. = 15.867 Sin 71.875 71. 0+ 24~.8 098 Level of the intersection point = 136.2 Let the two lines AF and GH cut at a distance of x. 19.098 = 144..4 '.sin '7f.1 x 190.1~6 'x x . Depth at D =6+ 33~.867 AD DB AD = si? 70.51 = 10.555 x 241. Then .5 + 8.0 -177.57 = 1"56.86 III 240.

515 0. z ]00 1.30 i 11 1= 0 .60 m Hence depth ofsurface = 3i40 m Let the formation be 18.5 151.90 100 0 0.:.5 142. 1 =0 1 1 x 100 or 0 2.0 m from G.30 3.365 JA25 1. l I ' . 576 Fundamentals' of Sltrl'(?ying Level of intersection point = 1-+-+.· .L at a distance x from A.4 )'.5 1 0 240 90 0 30 330 -. x y z 136.

.02829 = 144. O. n .02829 ). =' .. :c 0 240 90 y 0 30 330 . = 134.707. 192 Equation of a plane passing through these three points: A =0. n If the line passes through . =.f"\ .07. . 177 C = 90.: x 100 or L 100 0 0..30 . = .0 z . C on the ground 150 B = 240.44225 =0 }.02829.920 x = .00306 (O. y = 0.5 1. say .•O"~'j9 _l:i• = . 330.." If . + 150) .10. 100 1. = 190.65 =. :'1. B. 30.707 . ~ . 11 .920 Coordinates of corresponding points A. substituting these values in the equation of the plane..598 m X 190..-­ '\'2 I.150 • -r = .y.) and havi~£ direction . x = 0.0765 (-. • ( .90 =0 . _ .\'\ m .98 z = 150.00306)" + .0 v. m.1 150 1 =0 177 1 192 1 .) + .00153.92 0 2:4 0.= . \ ' .0. X (... = : -:.3 3.-\(0.707 .77 1. . and z = 150 .h the point cosines f.171 = ~ '\'2 '\''2 and the slope is 31106.-.:. '\'2 or x ..f.. .707) }.02829 ). x ).) =I.98 y = 134. Equ3tion of a line passing throu.ft. Since it intersects the plane.10.. 150) and it moves in north easterly direction I =~..Expanding the determinant Equ:ltion of the: plane ..707 ).00153. Then the equation of the line . :r I ..44225 =0 (.

2998 m respectively..:nfJ~ ACB and its value was 0:':W'25".::.996 - 14-+. The distances .lS.598 = 31.707 0.k 111 be set out from Be to establish CE parallel to AB.398 m = distance below the surface.00 ! / ..0765: = 1104. .00765 Y + .. = 176. Equation of the line of cutting.' ~~ distance along x y plane =.9S) .5 + 1 (.00765) (134. (b) A and B were two vertical wires suspended in tunnel shaft and the bearing of AB \\'3S 55° 10'30".707 or gh'jng + .' + 150 + 1S) i. Calculate the perpcndicul-" distance from C to AB produced.. The equation of the plane'of ground .' x 0.' = 106.0765 z -11. )':!.-tC and ell \\ Co': 6AiS2 m and 3.11.02829 =A -.475 = 0 -"It Let the formation is 18 m below ground level at coordinates of the formation z\ and coordinates of the plane X:!.: = 176..00765 x . [AMIE Advanced Surveying Wil1h:r . PROBLE~IS 19.475 = 0 =75 )'1 = 75 ZI:= 147 :2 = 165. The point C W:IS on the :-if!:l hand side while proceeding from A to B.05 m.707 . ' .00765 x .707 ...•II. ..11.00765 i..00765 i.0 578 Fundamentals of SurW\'[1I .075 Xl .02829 ).. the bearing of c.and how underground " setting out is done. ::2' At that point Substituting..0765 z . in transferring a given surface alignment down a shaft in order to align the construction work of a new tunnel.0765 (. .996 ..-t and the :In..-: ) . .'2 x is =106. or or or difference . x' v :-150 -=-'-= 0.' x . [AMIE Advanced Surveying Summer 19S3j 19. .00765 )' + . A theodolite at C measured the .2 (a) Describe the surveying operations necessary.475 = 0 .1 Briefly discuss how in a typical tunnel survey the surface alignment and levels are transferred to the underground tunnel.

anced Survey ing Winter 199J J 19.-.00 m !\ respect]. Horizontal circle reading y Plumb wire P Plumb wire Q x 273°42'24-" 93 . P being nearer to A than Q.I] . the bearing of PQ.. A theodolite was set up. Pointing direction­ . bearing of 165°35'.8 m "C D 2653 2763 2653 2671 m m m m m m m m [C.. IX whilst p.: and 1300.945 ".374 m In apart. Two surface reference stations X and r having coordinates of 1000.g~unJ Surveys 579 19. It is proposed to connect the roadways by a drivage from point B on 0. The distances from the theodolite to X and P were 269.5 A and B are points on the centre line of a level mine roadway nndC and D are points on the centre line of a lower 'roadway having a uniform gradient between C and D.00 m E.E.00 m .. . 1500.e1y were observed during a sh3ft plumbing exercise.iJnd~.. calculate (i) the actual length and gradient of the drivage. Point A B Northing Easting 1321 1418 1321 1498 Reduced Level 462.1. Q42'08" 9S=00'50" 9s000' 40" .00 m E and 1000.3 What are the broad steps in tunnel surveying? E. LA~1JE Ad. and Q were 5.2 m 441. (ii) the coordinates of the point at which it meers the lower roadway.5 m 462.in the Wcisbxh triangle method of tunnel alignment underground.~.5 m 418. at surface station A near to the line xr and th~ readings in the follow ing Table recorded.r'. Given the following data.12 m and 8. E5t.:lte [Salford] 19.\pta.

1 INTRODUCTION As in all other subjects computers are being widely used in surveying also. = "'This chapter has been written in association with Dr. 20 .E.Surveying" . The listings of the programs are given at the end of the chapter. P.. has some knowledge of computer programming. . . All the programs are in Fortran 77. - "This can be rewritten as: Pn 0. . Solution by Program 1 yields Pn 138.20~ . E ~ 155. College (D. Bhar. K. -.000 N/mm2 Trial and error solution givesP. In this chapter a few computer programs on solution of examples in surveying are discussed. with sample input and output data.. P.16).. This non-linear equation is solved for P" using method of Bi-section. =(p} . C. =89 N. 20.}Pn w.2 EXPLANATION OF THE PROGRAMS Program J Solves problem on normal tension using method of Bi-section.U).024 kg/m.957323 N. IV= 0. The normal tension 3S given in ~~apter 3 (Eq.K.E. Assistant ?rof~HN of . The normal tension in surveying is that tension which will stretch an unsupported measuring tape by an amount which is exactly equal to the decrease in length due to the sag.and . A = 3 mm:!.7. 3. Though the programs are that the reader interspersed withcopious comments and explanations. B. . it is assumed . + 0. (3) P. = 139 N.f"AE - P.2042 • W2 • AE)I/3 L =30 rn.In Example 3. b 20.: .' . Computer Programs In .

¢1. USU...23.. /(1..9360 + .1!.1( 1 .600 + . TO + 216 .\ 1 -.. Now' . If. r(! ]~ /I216 . Considering Eq.g.. IO = (c) Program 3 It calculates the: ordinates or :l transition curve. 12. fP= ( L / )2 ¢s For a given x value.25. 12. For a transition ( .. e.ed using No.1Il)' Newton-Raphson method w orks !:lo. [1 ]:: /. It required 11 iterations whereas the lJaer took JS iterations. Newton-Raphson method is preferred. which gives .1(1 . 8 = TO Then x = 1(1 ..) li+l = Ii .8) = 0 This equation is to be solved for I. 1is to be determined from the non-linear Eq..f(l) = x -1(1 .8) = :c ..i5. (9' 9 9 0 Y = 1 3" .' ¢s / 10 + _L" • 9.1: = fll - 10 + lli. let . 12. 9= 2LR ¢s L =2R 12 ) ":.23 using any iterative method.. using Newton-Raphson's method. 12..1'(1..Computer Programs in Sun'~g SSl (b) Program 2 Here the same problem issol·.9573 ~.3n Bi-section method.'here au~.216 + 9360 + . Although both worked well. y is to be determined from Eq.25 . - .23 and Eq. CUll'C.) where i is the iteration index.1on-lUphson Method_ Solution b)' this program gives P 133.'as .. . Newton-Raphson Method and using that value of I. ( ¢2 9~ 96 ] = :c . J .[ L'1. ¢~ 96 .::r tl't.42 + 1320 . referring Eq.9360 + '" 3 S 7 o~ o~ o~ ] and ".. j{l) =:c .8) or .

5 rri 2 (iv) by Program 5.5.Bi) = Xi + liB. .40 30 10. 20.60 ..5 + 14.4 + 7. (iii) by Program 4 and (iv) by Progr~'5.1 using an iterative scheme. First.5 .8 .5 + 13. area = :WS 1 m:! ' (t)Program 6 This program calculates the independent coordinates of the stations of a closed traverse after applying corrections by Bowditch's rule.5 + 14.4 + 7.5~m2 (ii) Area by Simpson's rule :' 33° [9."'~) 'r'.5 + 4(10.0)] = 15 [139. Solution (i) Area by Trapezoidal rule: ana = 320 [9. (20.\"'.+.I. 13.5 + 10.1 The following offsets were taken from a chain lineto a hedge. corresponding value of I is determined from Eq. discrete values of .8 + 12. Neglecting the 2nd and higher term.. 12.1 ) = l. + 2i~~.! ."(I_L. area = 2092. Eqs. 11.0) + 2(12. This value of / and corresponding ¢ is then used to determine )' from Eq. In the computerprogram upto the fourth terms within the parenthesis (in the expressions for x and y. 116 LX 9 .0 180 7. we get.r are generated from the beginning and end of .. 12. (d) Program 4 In this program. (e) Program 5' In this program. the hedge the end offsets by (i) Trapezoidal rule.14.J =. + fili) = Ii + Xi . the area under a curve is computed by Simpson's 1/3rd rule.¢: -. (ii) Simpson's rule.~ . the area under a curve is compu:ed by trapezoidal rule.(I .13 and 12.r value and the no.8 + 10.581 Fundamentals of Surveying = . r> us :au au I!IIt --- . Hence f(f) ~ 0.I..25) are considered. For each of these discrete values of X.{1 .5 150 13. '. f'(f) Ii + I This is the recursive equation to be used to determine 1 for a particular x. Finally the area of the traverse is computed in terms of the coordinates.5·+ 2 (10.5)] = 2081 nl (iii) by Program 4. Example 20. Distance (m) 0 Offset (m) 9.5 90 10:5 120 .".5::~.5] = 2092.5 Compute the area includedbetween the chain line.~+ 1 IOL4 Y. Therefore. of divisions for x.

954 = _ 6725.Fiz.2~S Be 85. (Ref. Length AS 1~. Area = .966.) + Ys(X c .987.311 ":" 1015. Area 1 = '2 [YA. the d.2.355 .:!.485 (92.\ B C D £ F 130: 18'·IS· 110~lS':!3" 99=32' 35" 116= 1S'02" 1L 9:~6'07" 1~3)~6'20" CD 77.411 (966. \\ith the traverse labelled anticlockwise as shown in .355) " + 935.l were obtained.374)] 2 01 By Program 6.U75 . -XE)] = t [1000.\ sides. ' " .1000.. .l.00(937. B c o Fi~.ng Example 20. - .835 (1000.994.1 Evarnple 20.2.311) + 883. 1000 m!\ and the whole circle bearing is 166=45' 52".ll. (ii) Area in terms of Coordinates. coordinates of the other five traverse stations? [Salford/C10Bl (ii) Compute also the area of the traverse in 012• or line AF Solution (i) The solution is presented in the form of Gales Traverse in Table 20.1~ .Computer Programsln SUTw:".2 583 (i) A survey was carried out in :1 closed jraverse with si.00) + 9-1-8.x:~) .318 DE 28. + YC<XD .l in Table :!O. 20.914 The coordinates of point A are 1000 mE. F 20.988 (99~. 92~.771 Internal Angle .1 Example 20.XB) + YD(XE -Xc) + '1£(XF-XD) + YAX". F.1(4) .048 rrr.000 . Table 20.(XB -X. .6726.175)· (l015.099 .624 + 886. Fig.1) . After adjustment by Bowditch's method what are the . :!O.222 EF 53. + 1006.37~ -.~ 65.

835 .00 r fA A 143°46'20" J43°46'18" 346°45'52" N 13°14'08" Wi 65.730 + 935.OOH + 1000.019 + 8~6.2 Example 20.954 116°18'02" . ·f ""A X .104 EF 22°59'34" N 22°59'34" E 53.222 + 994.330 28.136 + 94l.~~ I:) .2 Gale's Traverse Table I ~ Sin.6H9 + 100(1.: coordinates N + 1000. ~~ .311 + 924..318 I -.118 .485 .091 +U.c. + 3.485 .676 .58. J 16°18'00" DE E 83°13'29" N 83°\3'29" 119°46'07" 119046'05" e 28.64.­ ~ ~ .63. S 33°04'31".O.12.00 13 + 1000.074 .881' + 20.771 .789 . Bearing Quadrantal bearing [Length Latitude Departure Ind.374 +1015.787 + 42.63.741 .025 + 28.624 + 3.000 .15.15.58.248 II DC ..64.572 (WOO .686 .(-) W + N(+) VI ~ E (+) S (-) ~ § Table 20. .329 + 48. I.104 + 1000.355 .J65 .180 + 883.914 + 64. i 77. Line Internal Angle Corrected Angle .00 L 720"'O(J'12" no°O(l'{)O" 324.175 + %6.067 + 20.00 + 9M7.0. u 0° U~' 23" 99°32'35" wi I'Ii ::s + 6.t41 L C CD 0 99°32'33" 146°55'~9".196 + 42.163 + 64.099 + 48.' ­ A 'AU J30° IW45" 130018'43" 297°04'35" N 62°55'25" 1I0 18'21" 227°22'56" S 47°22'56" 0 I Observed Corrected Observed Corrected 14.tv.12.4~5 ~ W! 85.880 + 6.

...gt.. eps) go to 30 if (y I "'y3 .1 in rn:n:! JnJ E i.....0001 L II II .06031 3.. weight (N).... o-z) c OF':nin... 1 •• ....l:d tcnvicn in Sc:. endif 20 continue write (II. .....' iterations? 11 x. 40) i.'\3-PN"2·PS·0..~i~'~:' ~~:~'~~~~~'~i '. out') c Reading input values: (From file d~tJ I ... __:7-_____..........Ie.0) then x I = :<3 yl = y3 else x2 =:<3 y2 = >'3 .07.. file = 'data I. The b. 'Converged after'.a*...:'~. Maximum number.l~i. the mvdulu\ of eINi..r-ut\ are the w...... A i. op~n (10.~.. x3 40 formal (l x.......204 Method of bisection: Initial values of x are tx\ 1000 N and x2 C xl = 1000. :<3 30 write (*....~~~'j' ~ i~h' '~~i'~"'" c c c ~l:~\e~ i:-:... "'" c c c c Th'i~' .-\: Sectional area. . in Values of standard tension (N)..20-V'2'~\\'''2·SA:·E = a c or': ftx) = x"J-:I.rC... where x = Pi': and a = PS f~~::~ .(3*x3 ..~'~i'~'~' '~.. ••• ..O . fI2.. S.*3.. ..... E.'~r.I _ _ . the ~...... *) 'Does not converge after 100 iterations' stop' ... E.. in') open (II..0 0...~....PROGRA~t ...40) i..0 155000......0 :<2 = D.e~tM (~)............:it) in ~e""h\n1mm2.... . ) read (10.of iteration for bisecricn is taken as 100 c do 20 i = I. sectional area (mm"'2)..... b = W"'\V"SA "'E"'0..'~ '~. W: Weight...in) c PS: Standard tension..204*0.:ti(ln....b if (abs (>'3) ....\ . inr:ut and output file . eps c Form of the' equation: P.: ir.... Ps i~ Ihc SI. *) 'Doesnot converge after 100 iterations' write (".. c E: Modulus of elauicity. 0........a"xl*x.. x3 = as' (x I + :(2) y3 = x3**3 ..:'" :1*:<2*:<2 ....( .. _ ..l.. 100 .'1c!..... i3.(N/mm":!) and eps 89......i~ht C'f Ih: IJ~ in :-........\"2·b = O....-.....lm u'........ This rn..) PS. SA. file = 'JJtJI .. implicit double rred~ion (a-h. yl xl**3.:~ the Bi-section method..... eps: precision factor read (10. 'The normal tension is calculated as'.......... W.b y2 :<2*....1J a...6: Newton') end = =0 N = = II ! : I Input file: datal.....~. ton. write (11...:'.b .

40) i..957323 Newton PROGRAM 2 c c c c c c c This program determines the normal tension related with chain surveying.0 x = xl c Maximum number of iteration for Newton-Raphson Method c is taken as 100 do 20 i I. 50 write (*. eps: precision factor read no.0·x"'x . 100 fx = x*"'3 . 30 write (l J. *) 'Does not converge after 100 iterations' write (*. This program uses the.' Newton') SlOP' . .x *x .0*a*x if (abs (fdx) .le.Newlon. *) PS.' iterations? IIx.Oe-QS) go to 50 ' . E. . SA.:!04/12*-W/l2*SA*E c or: f(x) = x"3-ax/l2-b :. o-zj Opening input and output files open (lO.3S. x = x . X write (*. *) read (l0.. c E: Modulus of elasticity. A is the sectional area ln mrrizand E is the modulus of elasticity in Newtonlmm2. SA: Sectional area. eps c Form of the equation: PN"3-P:'-l"2"'PS-Q. Newton-Raphson method. implicit double precision (a-h. where x :.. The normal tension is calculated as'.: O. eps) go to 30 29 continue write (11.out') c Reading input values: (From file datal . The normal tension is calculated as 1..6. 1.fl2. out Con\'cr£~d after 38 iterations .a*.le.204 c Newion-Raphson Method: Initial value of x is: xl = 1000 N x l ::: 1000.i3.b fdx ::: 3. 40) i. W: Weight. x ~o format (l x. Output file: datal. file = 'datal . *) 'Does not converge after 100 iterations'..586 FllIldomcl/lals of Surveying .. c =0 = = stOP' I . end 1.204li<0.: PN and a = PS b W*W"SA "E*0. 'Converged after '. W. The basic inputs are the weight of the tape in Newlon Ps is the standard tension in.in') open (II.in) c PS: Standard tension. .fxlfdx if (abs (fx) .2.. *) 'fdx is too small' 51"p' . file = 'datal' .

("3/42 + r"'5/1320 . . weight (~).. Li.." Computer Programs in Slln·~.. Nx + 1 xi xi + delx Li = xi do 70 k = I. 2) Opening input and output files open (10.0 + £**6/9360. *) 'Converged after '.. For a given x..Xo)!Nx xi Xo-delx fs = U(2.. eps debt = (Xrn . *) 'Does not converge after " iter. c .0 ..'/ 2' xi yr/ .k.07. Output file: datal.' iterations' yi = Ii'" (f/3. Xo.•..\·iltg . eps) go to 80 Liexi + Li *lheta 70.. ) and v l<f13 .. iter f = fs* (LilL.0) cord 0.le. *) read (10.+ .. Xo..in') open (11. continue write (*..) *"'2 theta £**2/10.. ~e·"'ton 3 .0 xr = xi-Li* (l.0 .' iterations' . E '~~'mm"'2) a:td C't's 89... •••• • • • • • • • • • 0 . y) coordinates of a transition curve w hich are given 35 follows: ·x 1 (l-f":!JIO + ("'-4/:216-("6/9360.f**7n 5600. Nx.where: . delx.f**41216.. 200) 200 format (The coordinates of the transition curve are as follows? 80 I I 1­ I' ... = = = stop write (*. R. xr. :~. in Values of S!~ndJ. out Converged after 11 iterations The normal tension is calculated as 13S. eps real cord (50... I . f 1''':!I(:!LR) = (tIL)":! (5: fs U:!R.0 ..0001 .. iter.-n#o2).Q-theta) if (abs (xr) .out') Reading input values: (From file d':lIa2... e >. Is.0 155000._ 3.t'f:: c c.0 + ("'*5/1320.. real L.9SiJ:!3 PROGRA~J I.00. R. 2)= yi 100 continue write (11..f**3/42. file 'data2 .060-. first to find 1 and then to calculate y = = = = . file = 'data2 . read (l0. 1) = xi cord (i.' iterations' . ). *)'Ooes not converge after 'Jter. in) = read (10.(-"7175600 + . Xm. "') \ . 587 Input file: datal. c c c c Program to calculate the: (x.. scctiolUl ar.rd tension (i'). theta.1 (m. c c c."') L.0*R) do 100 i = 1.:. write (11. Xrn.

4414 ~1.7207 22. final value of x. The basic inputs are: n.' The trapezoidal rule c~n be stated":is follows: I = A = h[yll2 + (y2 + )'3 + . 220) format C .1215 ".6505 67..3137 1. Input file: dala2 . .. . PROGRAM 4 c c c c c c· c c c c This Program computes the area under a curve by Trapezoidal. The coordinates.1622 59.9063 63. . f)" ' . no.0105 .in Length.4883 11.2090 29.6722 . cord (i.1334 .8829 .') end 1) \f .out . no. ':: .4649 26.as follows: xi ..9766 18.2728 2. of the transition curve are. I).9137 2. • I " "' 1 I .6973 37. yi.9297 48.4180 56. of iterations.OOO~ I: 44..51i7 . number of ordinates and h is the interval between two successive ordinates (constant). flOA) write (II._-----------\ sss Fundamentals of Surveying r 210 220 .0031 . i = J.6739 52. file = 'dat:l3 .3946 71. 1) + )'nl2}-: where yl is the ith ordinate of the curve y = f (x).. formal (f8A. 1).0000 3.00001 Output file: data2 . i = 1..') ~x+ write (11. Radius R.7441 7.1388 74. n is the total..1991 .3889 .. 2x.882895 20 100 0.67-+5 3..0000 . n and h. * .5948 1.9532 33.0840 .output files oren (10.2835 .0 74. initial value of x.8547 1. . 210) (cord (i.2324 14.0249 .. + )·'n :. delx values.in') ::¥t ' '!lUi.0486 .06iS 1.. . eps 75 300 0. rule of numerical intezration.l856 yi . dimension y( I00) 'Ojll:ning input and.

.5"(y( I) + )'(n)) do 10 i = 2. 'is computed as'.-« 'I .. outTrapezoidal Method of numerical integration . *) c rC:ld(\O.. ·No. 3] read (10.5000 10.\) ...~_ ~_..' Ordinate? 2' ."·" under the curve .~ : ~ \.50 Output file: data3. the slven "r·~.4000 IO.. Iolo IT .e the . 220) .. file = 'd3!33 . .50 10. flOA) write (11..p. 2' ~ '/ 33:\. n) Wriling ihe given values \\Tile (11. 209~. 2 3 4 Ordinate 5 6 7 is computed :IS 9.. 'units') end. 10 = = = hO!< sum write (II..0000 7.. . of numerical integration? read (10.50 14. write (*. in No.. '. n .. A Input file: data3. the area under the curve'! 12:<.SCOO 12.5COO _~.00 7. in) n: Total number of ordinates: h is thc uniform intcr. n) 210 Iormat (2:<.80 12..) = r{.50 13. ~ _.. flOA. ar.~' sum 0. 'Using the given ordinates. )·(i). :!10) (i.Computer Programs . . ::: . i3. of ordinates and Interval 730.40 10.·)n. .1 sum = sum + y (i) continue .50CO units ..'1'= .0 Ordinates 9..') write (II. (~'(i)..') 220 fermat (' c Trapezoidal method ~.) c c open (11.Given crdinates....~ Sllr"~'ing. ~OO) = :::!oo format (:Ot.h " ) (i): ordinJ~:s of lhe curve )' read (10. 230) A 230 format (12x. 230) A .out') Re:lcing input values: (From file d3tU.5000 l·UOOO 13.-> No. i I. 2:\.SS. 'Given ordlnates. 'Trapezoidal ~lett:oo 1h..I'f.. i I.

The l/3rd ru Ie can be stated as follows: I = A = (hJ3) [y l + 4)'2 + 2)'3 + 4)'4 + 2y5 . 220) format (' . i3. "') read (10.to*y(i) + 2.50 10.. 'units') .50 .'is computed as'.1) +-yn]: where yi is the ith ordinate of the curve y = f (x). n . ': Ordinate" 2' 210 220 c 10 230 write (II. flOA. in No. i = 1. . .in') open (11.RO 12. in) c· n: Total number of ordinates: h is the uniform interval read no. 'Glven crdinatesc-« 'I 2' '1 = 33x.~O IO.X. n) formal (2x.out') c Reading input values: (From file dala4. dimension y{lOO) Opening input and output files open (10.-\!\1 5 c c c c c c c c c c c This Program computes the area under a curve by Simpson's . n. :?x. L~O J 3. format (20x. . file 'data4 . 210) (i.0*). n is the IotaI number of ordinates (must be odd) and h is the interval between two successive ordinates (constant). :l00) :00 . end . *). l/3rd rule of numerical integration.590 F/illd(/m~lI(als ofSurveying PROGR. (i + I) continue A h'" sum/3. of ordinates and Interv::!1 7 :0. .00 7. yO).I.. flOA) write cu.') Simpson's 1I3rd rule sum =(yO) . 230) A ~. file = 'dala4 . h c yti): Ordinates of the curve y :: f(x) read (10. n and h.50 I.0 write (I I. the curve'l 12x. *) (y{i).2 + ~)'n . n) c Writing the given values write (11." + 2yn .') = = = Input file: d:lt~4.yen)~ do 10 i 2. 'Simpson"s one-third rule of numerical integration? 12. formal (/2:\. "') read (lO. i = I. The basic inputs are: n~ )'i. 230) A write ("'. the area under. 'No.0 9. 'Using the given ordinates. i = I. 2 sum sum + .

IO • • • • 10. . . min (1). . (4) whole circle bearing (WCB) of the line joining stations 1 and 0.10 10 10 10 10. and the coordinates of the first statlon. out Simpson's one-third rule of numerical integratlon .. Ko.5000 14. sec (i). 1 2 Ordinate 9. delN (15) • • 10. min (15). n) c \\'CB of the line joining stations land n read (10.. . ' 10 • • • 10 10 10 10 10 • • 10 10 10 • • 10 • 10 10 • • 10 10 10 • • 10 ~ 10 • 10 10 10 IO. . (3) length of each side. 10 • • 10 10 10 10 10 • 10 10 10 10 10 • • • • • • • 10 . ~CO) ~Q ror. in') open (11.ri:e (11. cd (15. '. 10 • • • • • 10. *) (deg (i).' . • • • • • • • • • • • • cr. 'Computation of errors in a closed traverse? . me = 'd:l. The basic inputs are: (1) No.0000 units PROGRA~I 6 I •••••••••••• .t.5000 10. *) 01. . n. ..0000 7. WCB (15). 2)..5000 Lsing the given ordinates. *) = read (l0.. . . . . i is. file 'd:ua6. minute and second read (10. .•••••••••••••. i = 1. "'. *j rc:!J (10 • • ) cd (1. *) (:II (i). closed traverse after applying Bowditch's rule. . = . . real al (15).4000 5 6 7 . 10 10 10 • • 10 t t' 10 integer deg (15).. .. . . . Given ordinatesr-c.J. . . cd (I. of stadons. Number of stations read 00. .5000 13. ..:'~t (10:t. delE (15). .~:ll': i:.' c c c C c c c .ta6. 10 • • 10 10 • • • • • • 10 • • 10 10 . . . . . *) no. .*) read (10.v'''~i:." ••••••.. *) 0 Included angle at each station in degree.:h''s rule'i1:t 'Given C:JtJ:-·/~. . . . n) 31: length of each side ' read read i :: 1.. . . . . 2) c· D:1tJ re~di::g complete .10 IO . 10 10 • • 10. . . c c c open (10. *) read (l0.. . .3• 10. sec (15) . . angle (15).~ {'-'/2:t. ••• ~ Computation of independent coordinates of the stations of a. (2) included angle at each station. n2. 10 • • • • IO • • 10 • • • • 10 " " . 10 • • 10 • • • • • • • 10 10.Output flle: d~t34.•••••••••••••• . 1). the area under the curve is computed 3S 2031. no. . out') 'n. n3 WCB 1 n1 *3600 + n2*60 + n3 c Ccordinates of the 15t station rc:1J 00.8000 12.

Angular error: angle-c-observed angle in seconds AT-Total included angle (theoretical) ATl-Total included angle (observed) AT (2*n . i2. 5:-:.Fundamentals 0/ Surveying 205 15 ~07 c c c c ao c c c :09 110 211 212 22 214 . angle (i). errl.O) Computation of whole circle bearings' al ISO. 'rn'.0*60. flO.c 2 'Station Internal angle Side Length') write (11. 6:-:. nWCB(i) = WCB(i-J) + angle (i) if (WeB (i) .• 211) wrlte f l I. n. lOx i3. 207) format (48 C-'» 1. no.o. 'Angle Observed value Correction Adjusted \'al~~. 'd'. i2. i3.0"'60. flO. 2:<.0 do 20 i = I. deg (i). 's'. 205) i. :!Oi) do 15 i 1. 210) format (2x. al (i) format (2x.ge.al = = = = = = = = I I I j 'L _ .) write (11. n il=i+l if (il .o. sec (i). ri an angle (i) + errl A1"2 = AT2 + an write (11. 8x• . AT2 format (5x.3) continue write (11. 214~ A11.glo n) il = 1 write (ll. -. 209) format (/2x. 19x. 211. i3.4) "90*3600 ATl 0. al) then WCB (i) ::: WCB (i) .1. 4x. min (i). 212) i.f5. i.0 \\'eB (1) = WCBI + angle (1) do 30 i 2.1 1 ' (second) (second)')'" write (11. 211) format (54 ('-'J) A12 = 0. an ' angle (i) = an format (2x.0 : do 22 i 1. i2. 'Correction for internal angle:-') write (11. i2. 'fS.O) continue \~'rire <U.AT Distributing the error to each angle errl = -errl/float (n) Corrected angle write (11. 'Total\ no. n angle (i) = deg (i) *3600 + min (i) "'60 + sec (i) AIl ATl + angle (i) continue err: Error in observed angles errl= ATl .

1) cd (i. a2 216 format (2:<. s 1. 217) s3. 2' Line WCB (second) 3' 4'/66('-'» Length delE actual corrtd delN'/ actual corrtd s1 = 0.err3*al (i)/tl s l w s l s.3» .3» do 36 i = 2. 0. 2~O) . 4 (rIO.1) 36 continue write (11. cd (i. 215) 215 format (12:1.a'I·P'6 6('-')/ .eastings and northingst-e-') write (! 1. n) il r: write (11. n . u.. i2..err2*al (i)/tl a2 = delN (i) . 'Corrections to eastings and northings:-'/ = . n . 011 (i).0 do 34 i = 1.0 do 32 i = 1. delE (i) al .0 s2 0.0 s3 . 230) = = = = = .3.gt. 'Corrected..al s2 = s2 + a2 53 = 53 + delE (i) 54 = 54 + delN (i) il = i + 1 if (i 1 .8~S 136311e .4 (flO. delE (i). n II = tl + 31 (i) dr = wen (i) -fact· del E (i) = :II (i) • sin (dr) dc:l~ (i) = 31 (i) "cos (dr) err2 err:! + delE (i) err3 = err3 + del~ (i) 3~ continue Corrected casting and northings c write (11. 2) = cd (i .1. delE.06 err2 = 0. s2 217 format (66 ('-')12".. ddS c fact-PVC 180-3600) fact = 4. u. no. s4. £8. al = delE (i) . 1) + delE (i . 'Total'...'-'.ol1hj:l~ difTcter:ces.0 .0 err3 = O~O tl = 0. s4 0.216) i.o. WCB (i).ddN (i) a2 34 continue write: (11. al. 2) + delN (i .I Computer Programs in Sun'~)'ing 593 else WCB (i) = WCB (i) + 31 endif 30 continue c Determinnion of e~stin~ and r. 1) =cd (i . delN (i). 2~0 format (f2~..1. IS~.

22253. 1).2~8 . ~30) write (11.eq. 18m 1l0d 18m 99 d 32m Il6 d 18m 4'6m 119 d 143 d 46m 45s 235 35s 2s 7s :!Os 3-4 4-5 5-6 6­ 1 I I . 0) i I = ri if (i2 . 'Station Easiing delE l\Clrlhing ­ dc1X) write (II.3 units') end Input file: dataf.099 65. ~1~) ~22 format (1x. = i-I i2= i +' 1 if (i I . delN (i). . I» *0.. in Number of stations. f8.cd (i l .5) ~O continue write (II.~48 85.s. ". second' 1301845 110 18 23 99 32 35 .. :~~) (i.59~ Flmda11lt'll1a!s of Surveying write (11.gt.914 WCB of the line joining stations 1 ond n "16645 52 Coordinates (If the 15t station 1000.: using Bowditch's rule Given dat:l:­ Station 1 2 3 4 5 6 . I) .3. 'Area (If the traverse = ". 5:<. delE 0). n) i2= 1 area = area + (cd (i. 230) 230 format (54 {'-'» c Computation of the area of the traverse area = 0. 14.318 :3.. Internal angle Side 'I . cd (i.2 2 -3 Length 14. 3:<.914 130d . ~).77J 77. 240) abs (area) ~~O format (/2x.0 1000.s.J J6 18 2 1J9467 14346 20 Length of each side. cd (i.. n = I.0 Output file: dat:l6. 77.. . f8. n) 6 Included angle at each station in degree.318 28.3) write (II.771 . 2)* (cd (i2. 1x. minute.222 53. out Computation of errors in a closed traverse . 3x. no. no.0 do 40 i = I. flO. i ~24 format (2:<.09965. D. n il. 85.

006 6.180 28.624 886.2.118 '" 42. 431167. 23.099 65. 3..881 64.074 .311 924. .163 .771 77.486 .485 -58.330 48.882 64.U89 3.222 53.066 delE comd . 5175'78.787 3. 517580. 397103.730 . 2592012.2.63.135 42.6·t787 .64.0 -2.0 Adjusted value . delN corrtd 10694i5.58.248 .5 6 Area of the traverse = 6726..196 28. 358353.048 units.000 1006.836 delN 6.12.355 994.486 948.175 966.019 20. 528929. 1248352.882 64.15. 418682.180 28.105 .914 -'12.' 5-6 6-1 Total 818576.411 883.15.076 .025 20. 82774. 358355. 299609.595 Correction for internal angle:­ Angle 1 2 > Observed value (second) Correction .105 Northing 1000.730 .15. .019 20.0 .6. 4 5 6 .689 .486 -58. A -ft.105 .074 .741 . Total 469125.000 987.164 .0 . 397101.85.r ".63.374 1015.12.330 48'. 431165..\ .318 28.000 Corrected eastings and northingst-eStation .954 935. Corrections to eastings and northings:-· Line WCB Length actual 14.135 42.2.164 .000 (second) 1-2 2-3 3-4 ~ actual . (second) ~691 . 6..63.2.0 .091 .2. delE .1 2 3 4 Easting 1000.330 48.686 .689 . 418680.2592000.Computer Programs in Surveying .0 .

.

0966 rn.. 1230.10299710.65" CHAPTER 3 ~j'V " 3.2 rom 597 .12 (c) 70.38 rn.11 9.00605 m 5.49 km 5.55077 m 3.14 m.12 299726.13 (b) 5.8 (b) 83'42'2S.11 (b) 42.Il 661. 2.10 99.7 3068.2 m 3.8 424.989902 m 4. 53'=04'5S" 2.7 rn.Answers to Problems CH.8 30.-\PTER 2 2.11 km/s CHAPTER 5 ' 5.94 m 3.38 km/s 4. 0.79 m 4.5 m 3.5 0.6 .6 701.9 3400.14 (b) 1999.35".320.59 rn. 79:23'22. 4~'40'39".83". 2436. 102°15'42.5 l' 1'5.612 m 3.3' (a) ±8 mrn (b) (b) ± 20 ± rnm 4. 1205.32" 5.12 25.7 (b) 7i'I~'23".88 ' (c) 18~30 ± 95~00 4.1126 m 3.9 58.. 94"38'26.826 m 4.li".718 m 4.4 (a) ± 4161.0326 rom (concave) 5.44 m CHAPTER 4 4.

Line True bearing 11 cOO' 251:1 13P Magnetic bearing Be CA AB 15°30' 255°30'. SP = 3140 PQ = 54° QR :.t)"· Line AB AC AD True back bearing ·280=00' 330'.0.6.500 m CHAPTER 9 9. S :: 2° W (ii) RS = 209°. 0.00 rn. 9.0.7 (b) .L..'.-l (b) 125.. 2.750 .. W' AB BC CD Corrected for Local attraction .175°10' 103°25' .163c~5' DE .5 (a) 200C:OO' (b) 10° E (c) }5S000' ..7 (a) 206°00'.5825 m 6.30'. or equal local attractions at A andB. at stn. 9.13 (d) collimation is inclined downward by 0.+°55' 165°15' 259030': Corrected for Declination . (iii) Diaphragm has to be brought downward 6.8 (b) 99..1i51 rn 6.S.6 (b) 25.2 (b) No local attraction.00' 20:00' Forward bearing 100' 150° 2000 "'. 9A (b) At A =.3 (b) 745. at stn.1-5°30' W. 134~ 9. declination is 2° E (b) (i) R:: 2° W.750. B =+ 1c05'.0751335 m.f7°25' .fS e55' 1i6°40' 10.310 (R.l3 6. 9) 6.11 (b) (i) downward (ii) 3. 135=30' 9.5 (b) IJ:!5 rn 6.10 1. S) . N . EA 9.593 FlIlldmlll'l)fals of Surveying CHAPTER 6 6. . C = .f4 steps. ISO~30' DA :: 2S6cOO' .925 (F.8 (b) .9 True bearing at AB == 29°45' BC :: 122°45' CD :..

9 rot 248°57' 1104 (b) B 25.00.50 m. 252.7 (i) 2.6.1 (a) 0.324 m.052 m.00 + 1492.-\ CHAPTER 11 . 139.653 m.11 (c) S 20= W (d) True bearing at AB = 60= 10' BC S37~54'·W CD D.~~ 80.220 K 100.00 E (c) .' 350· 11. 3121. . -59.2 m O~ = 1m = = = = . =98=55' =J9'~O' =319:15' 11.6 em 12. 32°08'24" 11.'(TS (0 Problems 599 9.8 457.4 576. /1 42. J I = 1'20" 12.600 m 12.00 E D 1090403 j\ 280.11 163°16'12" 11.10 523.68 rn. 905.f (b) 278.828.1 Length of 1st subchord .69 m 12.10 (b) N 32°30' E S 9~3S' E x 3~=36' W 9.22 m.119. 2490. 38.31 11.n.0.30 m~ I~ 37.2 Length of Circular curve . DE = 837.15. 1852.428 N 280.6 mW (c) 2.1485 N.848 m Bearing i': 70" 10'12" W 11.6 134046 rn.5 250.8 32.176 rn u.23 rn.9 453.1485 N.10 (b) 0l = 0.71 m 12.497 m 11. S 45° E (ii) '300.3. K 70~ 10'12" W Length of BE = 45.n CD 1\ 82=31'48" W. .6 165~.100.6:0227 hectare 11. 200.0.29 m. S 5i~21' E 11.00 E C 24.577 m.00 E E 357.62 . 272.2 rn.90S rn.82 m 12.if + 746Al.3 (a) + 846A 1.t~ m.S2. 1420.193 N 230. + 200. .2 126.099 W 11. BC= N 62~5S'4S" E = CHAPTER 12 12..099 W (iii)' 400.29 m.t7 rn 12.3 R 85 m.7 46. :.81 .12 CD = 760.613 m 12. 56.t\n.

434. (b) 1808 m.33 m~ 19.100 m CHAPTER 14 I . 500 m (bY I in 10.4155.2665.11 95. 19.15 m:i 14. 15.54 m. .17 (b) 5718. 75.5 15.:! 5. 1 in 3.67 m.5 111m (iii) 1.735 m.5 10.59 m (c)· 23·t638 111.25 m3 .600 FIIJldaIllCIl1(/[s of S/l1wyillg CHAPTER 13 13.15 4684.4 35° 16'00" . 333.50 m:!.736 rn.2 15.02 rnrn (ii) 0.51" 19. (ii) 367.425 m~ . (b) 104375 m~ 14.\.9 m' .__ m3 l·t7 ]228.5 J~.119 m 14.4 (3) 106416.2.581 rn.3 (3) 602. :65~0.) "~ii8 II _. 77.~4 x 14.\.48 mm 140 01.697 In.4 (b) (i) 378.16 13.S (3) 70.148 2.(1.03994 rn. i 15. 500 CHAPTER 19 01.200 rn.98901.10077 hectare l·t3 21.6 (3) (i) loW5.614 m:! 14.IO 32816 013 14.6 15.5 (b) 1 in 5. 1343.5959. (b) 106.67 111:! .376 (c) 152I .780.656 rn. (ii) 1458.9 16765.000 m.087. 1.3 15. CHAPTER 15 .\ 14. (c) 683.S 15.8 2556 14.7J In ]4. io' m) 414.51" 0041'36. 14.094 m.5 m01 CHAPTER 17 17.667 01 3 H.15 (e) (i) .48. (c) 10413.. 235°31'41. S 52°10'30" E CHAPTER 16 16. 36.933 m .2 (b) .U 24881.1 15. 549.4 15.'.

Advanced Sur veying. Surveying. Publications. Mahajan. and Paul R. Dhanpat Rai and Sons. K. Bannister. New York. Clark.London . Bcok Company.l. 1. Bannister. Higgins. P. Solving Problems ill Surveying. Hussain. Macrnillan and Company.H. (19i I).ymg.(1969). Prentice-Hall .New D~lhi. ~Iikh:lil (l9. (l9S3). London. Fenves.ColllpWef Methods ill Civil Engineering. (1976}.A. Arthur and L. S. Surveying. New Delhi. Higher Surveying. (1986).F. Arthur and R~: manu Baker (199~).dwlI/ad Surveying. Som. w. Constable and Company. New Delhi. London. and B. Arora. Santosh K. Harper and Row.1':. S. and Harry Bouchard (1982). Russell C. Computational Models ill Surveying and Photogranvuetry. Plane and Geodetic Surveying.K. Brinker.. Lnxrni Publications. London. Nagra] (1983). ~. and Edward ~1. New York.t. ELBS with Longman. J. New Delhi.N. Oxford and IBH Publishing Co" Calcutta. BrirllJr: Russell C. Raymond (1997). McPherson. Ghosh (19S2. Blackie.B. Ray (1953) Surveying. V. and Roy Minnick (1987). I.R. Vol.C. B. Shahani. New York. Van Nostrand Reinhold. Harper and Row. Surveying. Moffit.~5). Francis H. Price (1983).D. Standard Book House. New Delhi. J. London. Uren.. Chand and Company Limited. David (1956). Elementary Surveying. B. P. and S. New York. Sll1wying for Engineers. Advanced Surveying. The Sllr\'t'yillg Hand Book. and P. (1991). and W. Edward Arnold.l!11~s :-'1. Introduction ~1cGr:l\\"-Hill (II Surveying. . and }'LS. Lorat (1956). .F.' Punrnia.Bibliography Anderson. 1 and II. Norman t 1965). (1990). SI111L. ELBS and ~ lucmlllan. Glasgow and London. of India Private Limited. Text Book of Surveying. New Delhi. Vol. Natarajan.'Wolf (l9S4). A. D. . Macdonald. a. Thomas.' Metheley. New Delhi. Tat~l ~kGra\\'-Hill Publishing Company Limited. \'01s. London. ELBS and Pitman. London.Ad\'GlIced Slm:eyillg. Surveying. Steven.

.·..

.lff 52· Curves ~54 compound 310 degree 285 minimum radius of curvature .i Centring 231 Chains 30 Chromatic aberration 107 Clussification of surveying Compass 173 prismatic 174 .::!3 temporary 205 Angles 162 azimuth' 24. 107 Accurccy 8 Additive constant 454 Adjustment level 11 2 permanent 156 temporary 112 theodolite 205 permanent 2. 243 horizontal IS2 interior 243 rnisclosure 246 to the right 243 traverse 242 vertical 162 Angle distance relationship 247 Areas 371 quadrantal 165 reduced 166 true 16~· whole circle 165 Bench mark 87 Bernoulli's lemniscate 336 Bisection method 580 Boning rods 140 Bowditch method 251 averaze ordinate rule 371 coordln:lte method 379·' departure and total latitude ~7S double meridian distance method 377 double parallel distance method 377 meridian distance method 3i5 .:\ (-. Beaman Stadia Arc 4$0..~U . reverse 31 S $~ltil1i= out 2$6 simple 2S~ tran-ition 321 Curv ature 87 corrccticn 8$ 3.1­ balancing 246 deflection 242.. 252 Cross st:. Bearing 164 udjusuneut (. 553 . . 373 trapezoidal rule 373 Azi rnuth 165. compass _ forward Ib~ magnetic It. rnidordlnate rule 372 Simpson's rule.11. ..I I Index Aberration 107 chrornatlc 107 spherical .. surveyor's 176 traverse I S~ trough 177 Compass Survey' adjustment 191 errors 192 Computer programs 530 Construction surveying 538 Contours 527 characteristics 528 Interpolation 532 methods of locating 529 uses 532 Conventional symbols 61 Crandall method .f IS5 buck 165 "I .

509 Fergusson's chart ~ 77 Field rook 60 Focussing 92.3 benchmark Si . 147 fly 117 height of instrument 1P .'+03 Eccentricity of circles ~ 13 verniers 197 Electronic distance measurements 30. 98 98 Face left :!03 Failure of ii. 40 residual .jl'.: 162 Horizorual distance 5 Index error 219 Internal focussing telescope 92 Interpolation of contours 53:! lmermediate sight 118 Invar tape 30 Isogonic lines 173 Jeffcotdirect reading tacheometer ~82 Earth work calculation 385. permanent adjustment 156 profile 136 reciprocal 143 staff lOS temporary adjustrnen. 112 trlgonomctrical 115 Line of collimation :03 Local attraction . 65 amplhude modulation 66 instrumental errors 75 wave length 65 Errors 7 accidental 7 offset 50 planetable random 8.9" standard 13 systematic 7 tachecmeter 486 topographical surveys 531 Eye piece 95 Ramsden's Huygen's Latitudes and departures ~49 Laying off horizontal angle 210 by repetition ~ 10 Least square 10 Least square method 252 Lens formulae 91 Level automatlc 1O~ dumpy 95 engineers' 9'+ tilting 103 Level book II S L~\'eJJing I 17 adjustment 112 change point II~ checking 1:!7 collimation correction 12-1 cross sectional 1:9 datum 86 differential 117 '. I Gyroscope: 553 Hewlett packard 71 Height of collimation " 114 ~ I ~. 113 external 91 internal 92 Gale's traverse table 253 Geodetic surveying Geodimeter .. FUf/da/llcllTals of Surveying Datum 86 Dedin:llion 173 graphical solution lSI magnetic 179 D::-fcCIS of lenses 107 Depanure 2~9 Diaphragm 95 Dip 173 Direct method of contouring 519 Distribution of angular error 185 Diurnal variation 174 Dumpy level 95 History of surv eying 2 Horizontal angI.604 .. errors 128. 155 Longitudinal section 136 Magnetic declinatlon 173 dip 1i. I ..>.

33 correction 39 Schuler mean 55~ Obj~~ti'.:e ~5 .:tJn. ~5n errors 456 .1J.Jn ~eJ lcve! ~6 ~!:ridiJn 16~ R:lji:lli~n IT\Ctt'ro R:lm~.Jul cu/'\ C 403 definition . magnetic li3 :\ e\\ Ion Raphscn's method .'n ~ 11 f<C:F~tjth'n :O.S R-:.:lss h. con.e 96 Obsracles in chaining 53 Odometer 29 Offsets 49 Sections cross 139 longitudinal 136 Secular variation 174 Sekction of survey station 58 Self reducing tacheorneter 4S~ Sensitivity.509 Planimeter 380 Plumb bob 34 .of bubble tube 100 Setting out building 541 pipeline 539 Shape of earth 4 Sight distance 355 S3g 358 summit 356 Simpson's rule 373 Spherlcal aberration 107 Stadia 450 hair.c 50S 93 riccc error S .'m li:-.ul.~n. ~I.:(~ use 405 ~l:. 536 Resolving power' 106 Risl: and fJlI method J 18 S:ll.\c~dl:. 451 rod 45L oblique 49 " perpendkul:lr 49 Omitted measurements ..91 Probability curve S 4S3 't.lndex ~l:1~nHkllion 605 . 'I 10. Plumbing fork 502 Pol~.:lrbilrJI)'.~l'm R:m~.108 a k\'cllin :: lOS target 110 St:lking S·B Super elC:\':ltiun :. . R~Cl'nnJ:.::r\oir I:aj'Jdty ..:hc:"metr: 29. 586 Sorm:ll tension 39 . TJ. folding . .Jr cocrdinares 2~S Rcdu-:::J NJringl66 Refraction 81 Reit~r:lt:I.. fl-J RJ~~in.:it'fl'CJI fJ:':.in.n's t)t RJr.'3 R-=. 16-t astronomic 164 grid 16-t r.netic 1~ Micrometer 110 rnicroseope :!.Optic:ll defects 107 Optlcal square 52 266' Pacing 29 Parallil:( 222 Partitioning 383 Plane surveying I intersection 505 lehman's method 508 orlentatlon 505 radiation 505 serr cross 51 .~ I Symbols. 531.3 R.27 rlr:llld plate 110 ~Iimke 7 .. r:lnging 33 Precision S Prism square 5J Prismatic cornpas.entional 6 L Szep::~sy' dir::ci reading uchconictcr resection 507 traversing 506 trbngle of error . J 7::' Prisrnoldal correction :.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful