# S JU T IN I M

Geometry
Catherine V. Jeremko
®

N E W YO R K

E

T

Copyright © 2004 LearningExpress, LLC. All rights reserved under International and Pan-American Copyright Conventions. Published in the United States by LearningExpress, LLC, New York. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data: Jeremko, Cathy. Just in time geometry / Catherine Jeremko.—1st ed. p. cm. ISBN 1-57865-514-7 (pbk. : alk. paper) 1. Geometry—Study and teaching (Elementary) I. Title. QA461.J47 2004 516—dc22 2003027068 Printed in the United States of America 987654321 First Edition ISBN 1–57685–514–7 For more information or to place an order, contact LearningExpress at: 55 Broadway 8th Floor New York, NY 10006 Or visit us at: www.learnatest.com

Catherine V. Jeremko is a certiﬁed secondary mathematics teacher in New York State. She is the author of Just in Time Math, has contributed to 501 Quantitative Comparison Questions, and has edited two publications, GMAT Success! and the second edition of 501 Algebra Questions, all published by LearningExpress. She currently teaches seventh grade mathematics at Vestal Middle School in Vestal, New York. Ms. Jeremko is also a teacher trainer for the use of technology in the mathematics classroom. She resides in Apalachin, New York with her three daughters.

CONTENTS

Formula Cheat Sheet Introduction

ix xi 1 16 47 78 116 167 201 236 269 314

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Study Skills Building Blocks of Geometry: Points, Lines, and Angles Special Angle Pairs and Angle Measurement Triangles Quadrilaterals and Circles Perimeter and Area Surface Area and Volume Transformations and Similarity Pythagorean Theorem and Trigonometry Coordinate Geometry

v

FORMULA CHEAT SHEET
PERIMETER

Rectangle: P = 2 ϫ l + 2 ϫ w Square: P = 4 ϫ s
CIRCUMFERENCE OF A CIRCLE

C = π ϫ d or C = 2 ϫ π ϫ r
AREA

Triangle: A = ᎏ2ᎏ ϫ b ϫ h 1 Trapezoid: A = ᎏ2ᎏ ϫ h ϫ (b1 + b2)
SURFACE AREA

1

Rectangle: A = b ϫ h Circle: A = πr2

Rectangular Prism: SA = 2(l ϫ w) + 2(l ϫ h) + 2(w ϫ h) Cube: SA = 6s2 Cylinder: 2(πr2) + 2πrh Sphere: 4πr2
VOLUME V = b ϫ h (the area of the base times the height)

Rectangular Solid: V = l ϫ w ϫ h Cylinder: V = π ϫ r2 ϫ h Cube: V = s3 1 Triangular Prism: ᎏ2ᎏ bh1 ϫ h2 1 Trapezoidal Prism: ᎏ2ᎏ h1 (b1 + b2) ϫ h2 4 Sphere: ᎏ3ᎏ πr3 1 Pyramid: ᎏ3ᎏ lwh 1 Cone: ᎏ3ᎏ πr2h
PYTHAGOREAN THEOREM

leg2 + leg2 = hypotenuse2, or a2 + b2 = c2

"

vii

TRIGONOMETRIC RATIOS (SOH – CAH – TOA) Sine of an angle: length of opposite side ᎏᎏᎏ length of hypotenuse length of adjacent side ᎏᎏᎏ length of hypotenuse length of opposite side ᎏᎏᎏ length of adjacent side Cosine of an angle: Tangent of an angle: COORDINATE GEOMETRY Midpoint of a segment: M = (ᎏ2ᎏ. Δy or rise ᎏ run Slope-intercept form of a line: y = mx + b. ᎏ2ᎏ) 2 2 Distance between two points: D = ͙ෆ (x2 – xෆ 1) + (yෆ 2 – y1) x1 + x2 y1 + y2 Slope of a line: or y2 – y1 ᎏ x2 – x1 . the change in the y-coordinate’s value ᎏᎏᎏᎏᎏ . the change in the x-coordinate’s value ᎏ or ᎏ Δx . where m is the slope and b is the y-intercept .

GRE. our Just in Time streamlined approach can work for you. Or perhaps you have had the time. but procrastinated. In just ten short chapters. a civil service exam. perhaps even just a few days. then Just in Time Geometry is the right book for you. or you simply need to improve your fundamental mathematical skills. including work. Y THE JUST IN TIME TEST-PREP APPROACH At LearningExpress. Whether you are preparing for the PSAT. Formulas and geometric ﬁgures have never been your strong suit. from now. accurate way to build the essential skills necessary to tackle formulas and geometry-related problems. GMAT. SAT. and now you have only a short time to prepare. It is possible that you have waited until the last minute because you feel rather conﬁdent in your mathematical skills. you will get the essentials—just in time for passing your big test. It is just a few weeks. Perhaps you just haven’t had the time. and other obligations. Each chapter includes: • a ten-question benchmark quiz to help you assess your knowledge of the topics and skills in the chapter • a lesson covering the essential content for the topic of the chapter ix . topics in geometry are topics that you would rather avoid at all costs. Just in Time Geometry is a fast. This book includes nine chapters of geometry topics. You haven’t begun to study. we know the importance that is placed on test scores. Maybe you just realized that your test included a mathematics section.Introduction ou have to face a big exam that will test your geometry skills. family. If any of these scenarios sounds familiar. Designed speciﬁcally for last-minute test preparation. and just want a quick refresher on the major topics. We are all faced with full schedules and many demands on our time. with an additional chapter on study skills to make your time effective.

and other daily activities. and processes that will ensure success when faced with a geometry problem. that can help you learn more about a particular topic Calculator Tips: offers hints on how your calculator can help you. newspapers. conﬁdence. HOW TO USE THIS BOOK While each chapter can stand on its own as an effective review of mathematical content. no book can cover every type of problem you may face on a given test. Chapters 2 and 3 review the basic knowledge of simple geometric ﬁgures.x J U ST I N TI M E G E O M ETRY • • • • sample problems with full explanations calculator tips to make the most of technology on your exam speciﬁc tips and strategies to prepare for the exam a 25-question practice quiz followed by detailed answers and explanations to help you measure your progress Our Just in Time series also includes the following features: • O Extra Help sidebars that refer you to other LearningExpress skill builders or other resources. Chapters 4 and 5 review common . this book will be most effective if you complete each chapter in order. lectures. beginning with Chapter 1. but also what you are likely to come across regularly in books. such as Internet sites. But this book is not just about recognizing speciﬁc problem types. • i E " • • Glossary sidebars with key deﬁnitions Rule Book sidebars highlighting the rules that you absolutely need to know Shortcut sidebars with tips for reducing your study time—without sacriﬁcing accuracy • • A Formula Cheat Sheet with common formulas for last-minute test preparation Of course. The topics in this book have been carefully chosen to reﬂect not only what you are likely to see on an exam. it is also about building those essential skills.

If time is short. • Chapter 10: Coordinate Geometry reviews the important relationship between geometry and the coordinate plane. . Finally. review as much as possible. start your review with the chapters that address your weaknesses. but you are taking the steps you need to prepare . but a different size. remain calm and think positively. and 10 cover applications of geometry and coordinate geometry. and using study aids such as ﬂashcards. creating a study plan. The ten-question benchmark quiz at the start of each chapter can help you assess your strengths and weaknesses. Lines. and Angles reviews the simplest geometric constructs. . • Chapter 5: Quadrilaterals and Circles reviews the four-sided polygon and the round geometric ﬁgure. • Chapter 4: Triangles reviews the most common geometric ﬁgure and its properties. • Chapter 2: Building Blocks of Geometry: Points. • Chapter 8: Transformations and Similarity reviews the movement of congruent ﬁgures and ﬁgures that have the same shape. Below is a brief outline of each chapter: • Chapter 1: Study Skills reviews fundamental study strategies including budgeting your time. • Chapter 3: Special Angle Pairs and Angle Measurement reviews basic information about angles and angle relationships. The material in Chapters 6 and 7 is concerned with geometric measurement. • Chapter 6: Perimeter and Area reviews both the measurements around a geometric ﬁgure and the measurements that cover a ﬁgure. and their properties. The chapters are arranged such that material covered earlier chapters may be referenced in a later chapter. Your big test may be just a short while away. • Chapter 7: Surface Area and Volume is concerned with wrapping a three-dimensional solid and ﬁlling a geometric solid.I NTR O D U CTI O N xi geometric ﬁgures. . 9. just in time. Depending upon how much time you have before the exam. • Chapter 9: Pythagorean Theorem and Trigonometry is concerned with two very important applications of the triangle. Chapters 8.

.

to get ready for your test just in time. There are four main factors that you need to consider when creating your study plan: what to study. If you have three weeks. where to study. You need to have a good measure of your 1 . you may be feeling that your only option is to cram. or even one week to get ready. when to study. you can create a plan that avoids anxiety-inducing cramming and focuses on real learning by following the simple steps in this chapter. two weeks. you can create a speciﬁc plan that will allow you to accomplish more—in less time. But the “Just in Time” solution is exactly that: just in time. First.1 Study Skills I f you have left studying for that big test until the last minute. you need a plan. WHAT TO STUDY Finding out what you need to study for your test is the ﬁrst step in creating an effective study plan. This chapter will help you put together a study plan that maximizes your time and tailors your learning strategy to your needs and goals. When you put these four factors together. This means that with the help of this book you can use your available time prior to your test effectively. You might be feeling panicky that you will never have enough time to learn what you need to know. and how to study.

you might ﬁnd that working from home offers too many opportunities for distraction. For example. for some people the noisy coffee shop is the ideal environment. You don’t want to study material that you already know. The important thing to remember is that you want to maximize your time. Home is always open and you don’t waste any time getting there. The place should also be convenient and conform to your schedule.4 J U ST I N TI M E G E O M ETRY not to study this subject area at all. a reading room. Studying at home is a good solution if you have a room that you can work in alone and away from any distractions. ◗ Consider Your Options Your goal is to ﬁnd a comfortable. For many people. if it takes you an hour to get there and it closes soon after you arrive. it might take you two hours to cover the same material you could read in an hour in the quiet of the library. the library. Maybe you have roommates who will draw your attention away from your studies. You might be better served by concentrating on solidifying your grasp of the main material covered on the exam. Be sure to pick a place that is relatively quiet and which provides enough workspace for your needs. but that you most need to know. If you are trying to ﬁt studying in between family obligations. . but it can have drawbacks. or a coffee shop are places you can consider. studying at home is a good solution. children or younger siblings who need your attention. That is an hour that you don’t have to lose! However. If home is not a good environment for quiet study. the library might be ideal in many respects. are just some of things that might interfere with studying at home. secure place that is free from distractions. Chores that have piled up. or television that captures your interest. You need to determine what type of study environment works for you. you are not maximizing your study time. If you choose to study in a noisy coffee shop at a small table with dim lighting. However. And you don’t want to study material that you don’t need to know. WHERE TO STUDY The environment in which you choose to study can have a dramatic impact on how successful your studying is. You will make the best use of your time if you study the material that you know the least.

You will need to be in a good physical and mental state. ◗ Sleep Well. perhaps most important. Does it take you some time to get into material? If so. Do you have a short attention span? Then you will do better with a schedule of several shorter study periods. and keep healthy snacks on hand during a long study session. And. And you will need to use the right tools for the job. Sugary snacks . plan to study when you are most energetic and alert. but also you will be sleep deprived by the time of the test. say four hours. Skipping sleep is not a good way to ﬁnd time in your schedule. lose energy and focus. you will need methods that will help you to remember not to memorize the material. Make sure your schedule allows for adequate rest and study breaks. No matter your style. and Relax Does your idea of studying hard include images of staying up into the wee hours and living on fast food and caffeine until the big test? Even though it may seem like you are working hard when you study around the clock and put aside good eating habits in order to save time. Eat three nutritious meals a day. be sure you leave time to take a study break. you should build a schedule with longer blocks of time.or ten-minute break to stretch your legs or eat a snack will revive you and give your brain time to absorb what you have learned. Not only will you be tired when you study. If you plan to do most of your studying in one block of time. Do not sacriﬁce sleep in order to make time to study.STU DY S K I LLS 7 schedule. HOW TO STUDY How you study is just as important as how long—especially if your time is limited. Neither very long study sessions nor very short (except for quick reviews) sessions are an efﬁcient use of time. so don’t skip meals. All these techniques—using the right tools and methods—will help you make the most of your study time. avoid extremes. Adequate rest and good nutrition will allow you to be focused and energetic so you can get more work done in less time. Experts have shown that students are more likely to retain material if they take some time to digest it. A sleep-deprived test-taker is more likely to make careless mistakes. you are not working efﬁciently. and become stressed-out by the testing environment. A ﬁve. Whether you are a morning person or a night owl. The key word is healthy. If you have ever pulled an all-nighter you know that by four in the morning you can ﬁnd yourself reading the same page several times without understanding a word. Most people need about eight hours of sleep a night. You will also need to understand your learning style so that you can select the best study method. Hunger can be a distraction. Eat Right.

because using their bodies helps them remember things. They often talk to themselves and may even whisper aloud when they read. their faces (names are hard to remember). 3. c. their names (faces are hard to remember). their actions and mannerisms. even if you don’t reread them. they often beneﬁt from graphic organizers such as charts and graphs. They often ﬁnd it difﬁcult to sit still for a long time and will often tap their feet and gesticulate a lot while speaking. When you meet new people. by contrast. ◗ Remember—Don’t Memorize You need to use study methods that go beyond rote memorization to genuine comprehension in order to be fully prepared for your test. They tend to learn best by doing rather than observing. c. a. which will help them form images in their minds as they learn words or concepts. sit up close and watch the instructor. and a. One of the most important learning strategies is to be an active reader. b. but be open to strategies for all types of learners. Interact with what you are reading by . b. you remember them mostly by a. and they may like to listen to music as they work. as is making ﬂashcards. In class you like to a. An auditory learner would answer b. especially if they use colored markers.10 J U ST I N TI M E G E O M ETRY 2. Auditory learners. like oral directions and may ﬁnd written materials confusing or boring. They also like being read aloud to. and c. Visual learners like to read and are often good spellers. Oral repetition is also an important study tool. although they may have a distinct preference for one style over the others. Making up rhymes or other oral mnemonic devices will also help them study. Flashcards often appeal to them and help them learn. Determine which is your dominant style. Auditory learners will beneﬁt from saying things aloud as they study and by making tapes for themselves and listening to them later. and b. Kinesthetic learners like to stay on the move. c. It is important to remember that most people learn in a mixture of styles. A visual learner would answer a. b. listen intently to every word. Taking notes is an important way of reinforcing knowledge for the kinesthetic learner. take notes. A kinesthetic learner would answer c. When visual learners study. Kinesthetic learners may want to walk around as they practice what they are learning. Using study methods that suit your learning style will help you to really learn the material you need to know for the test.

You have also ﬁgured out what you need to study. map notes. JUST IN TIME You have thought about the what. and how.M. Your study plan should be as detailed and speciﬁc as possible. it may be because you spend more time socializing than studying. Assign one chunk of material to each of the longer study sessions you have planned. JUST THE FACTS . (your commute time): study Chapter 4 ﬂashcards. Weigh the pros and cons of studying with others to decide if this is a good strategy for you. you then need to follow through.STU DY S K I LLS 13 There are also some disadvantages to studying with others: • Stress of competition. The key to a successful study plan is to be as detailed as possible. to 9:00 A. and create set of ﬂashcards. When you have created your study plan. or if you have to travel a distance to meet up with your study partner. . where. now you need to put all four factors together to build your study plan. • Too much fun. always trying to prove that they are better in the subject than you. Be wary of the overly competitive study partner.: Read Chapter 4. you need to ﬁll in the details. a calendar with space to write. when. and have broken the material down into smaller chunks. You can also plan how to study in your schedule. Sometimes it is better to study with an acquaintance who is well-matched with your study needs and with whom you are more likely to stay on task. you might write for Monday 6:00 P.M. If you usually hate studying. Then for Tuesday 8:30 A. or a personal digital assistant to build your plan. this may not be an efﬁcient strategy. to 9:00 P. . ◗ Building a Study Plan You will need a daily planner. This can lead to stress and sap your conﬁdence. Organizing a study group can take time. If you are spending a lot of time making phone calls and sending emails trying to get your study group together. • Time and convenience.M. For example. Some study partners can be overly competitive. make notes. You may need to combine some chunks or add some review sessions depending on the number of long study sessions you have planned in your schedule.M. but really look forward to getting together with your best friend to study. Now. You have already determined the time you have free for study. .

When you are ﬁnished. rays. Lines. Use this quiz to determine how much of your study time should be devoted to this chapter. and angles. segments. These questions are similar to the type of questions that you will ﬁnd on important tests. lines. 2 16 . Begin reviewing geometry by taking this ten-question benchmark quiz. check the answer key carefully to assess your results. and Angles T he study of geometry begins with an understanding of the basic building blocks: points.Building Blocks of Geometry: Points. All geometric ﬁgures are a result of these simple ﬁgures.

and B b. C F B G H D A E 1. A. FG ៭៮៬ c. A. E. EF and ៭៮៬ AB 3. ៭៮៬ BF and ៭៮៬ DH ៭៮៬ b. Which lines are perpendicular? a. ៭៮៬ AE and ៭៮៬ AB d. ៭៮៬ AB and ៭៮៬ FE ៭៮៬ and AB ៭៮៬ b. All the sets above are coplanar. B. EH and ៭៮៬ HG c. GH and ៭៮៬ AB c. BF ៭៮៬ e. ៭៮៬ AB and ៭៮៬ GH ៭៮៬ and EH ៭៮៬ d. A. H. Which lines are skew lines? a. E. Which set of points is NOT coplanar? a.B U I LD I N G B LO C KS O F G E O M ETRY 17 BENCHMARK QUIZ Use the drawing below to answer questions 1 through 4. C. C. and D c. ៭៮៬ GH and ៭៮៬ AB . and D e. A. ៭៮៬ HE and ៭៮៬ CB e. DH and ៭៮៬ HG d. and E d. BF 4. F. Which lines are NOT parallel? ៭៮៬ and AB ៭៮៬ a. 2. ៭៮៬ CG and ៭៮៬ AE ៭៮៬ and DH ៭៮៬ e. CD ៭៮៬ b. B.

17. 350° 7. and ៮៮. what is the value of x? point B is the midpoint of AC a. Given the ﬁgure below. 70° b. The measure of AW WB. The sum of ∠AWY and ∠BWY is 90°. e.18 J U ST I N TI M E G E O M ETRY ៮៮ is 28 inches. If the measure of AC AB is 2x + 4. 35° e. ៮៬ BD is parallel to ៮៬ BC. which of the following is true? ៮៬ is perpendicular to ៮៬ a. what is the measure of ∠XYW? a. Points A. c. 5 inches b. . 14 inches d. which of the following would ALWAYS be true? ៮៮ is one-half the measure of ៭៮៬ a. 7 inches e. e.5° d. The sum of the measure of ∠ABD and ∠CBD add up to 90°. d. 8. b. The sum of the measure of ∠ABD and ∠CBD add up to 180°. c. AB AD.5 inches 6. If ៮ YZ is the perpendicular bisector of ៮ AB. 12 inches c. d. The measure of ៮៮ YW is one half the measure of ៮ YZ . B. 3. 105° c. and D are collinear. ∠AWY is acute. b. the measure of ៮ 5. C. ∠AWZ is 90°. and the segments intersect at point W. If the measure of ∠WYZ = 35° and ៮៬ YW bisects ∠XYZ.

B. c. right c. right obtuse e. right acute b. and E.B U I LD I N G B LO C KS O F G E O M ETRY 19 9. E. b. The measure of ៮៮ AC is equal to the measure of ៮៮ BD. and then analyze your results to ﬁgure out your plan of attack to master these topics. ∠ACD is congruent to ∠BCD. acute ៮៮ is perpendicular to line 10. which statement or statements are FALSE? a. and BD is perpendicular to line l. E. H. and G lie on a plane that cuts through the solid on a diagonal. C. c. are NOT coplanar. ៮៮ is perpendicular to line m. Choice c. points A. Points A. and d are coplanar points. e. . Answer choices a. obtuse d. Points A. C. ∠BDC is 90°. AC ៮៮ l. B. Points A. 1. and D lie on a plane that is the base of the solid. d. ∠ACD is 90°. C. b. Given that the lines l and m are parallel. BD BENCHMARK QUIZ SOLUTIONS How did you do on the subject of the basic building blocks of geometry? Check your answers here. and D lie on the plane that is a side of the solid. Which is the classiﬁcation of the angle? a.

and some pairs are in planes that are sides of the solid. Skew lines are two non-parallel lines in different planes that do not intersect. The equation is: 2x + 4 + 2x + 4 = 28 4x + 8 = 28 4x + 8 – 8 = 28 – 8 4x ᎏᎏ 4 Combine like terms. Combine like terms. All the other line pairs are either parallel in the same plane. Since no picture is given.20 J U ST I N TI M E G E O M ETRY 2. the measure of ∠XYW is equal to the measure of ∠WYZ. and are actually perpendicular lines. c. Some of the pairs are in planes that are diagonal through the solid. Parallel lines do not intersect. or intersect in the same plane. and divide both sides by 4. Although the angle does not look like a right angle. ៭៮៬ AE and ៭៮៬ AB intersect. Since ៮៬ YW bisects ∠XYZ. 5. and it is labeled with the small square in the angle to indicate 90°. c. = 20 ᎏᎏ 4 x = 5 inches 6. the measure of ៮ AB plus the measure ៮ of BC equals 28. All of the other pair choices are either parallel or skew lines. Some of the pairs are in planes that are diagonal through the solid. so they are not parallel and will never intersect. which is given as 35°. as it forms the bottom right angle of the rectangular solid. 3. sketch the segment: Given the information and the ﬁgure. it is 90°. Subtract 8 from both sides. 4. All of the other pairs of lines are parallel in a plane. and lie in the same plane. d. Since B is the midpoint. d. set up an equation to solve for x. ៭៮៬ BF and ៭៮៬ EH are not contained in the same plane. . Perpendicular lines form a right angle. a. and some pairs are in planes that are sides of the solid.

∠ACD is NOT congruent to ∠BCD. formed by the perpendicular line and segment. Carefully read through the lesson in this chapter for review and skill building. sketch the segments: Perpendicular segments form 90° angles and ∠AWZ is formed by the perpendicular segments. Work through the quiz at the end of the chapter to check your progress. and all straight lines form a straight angle. you need to refresh yourself on these topics. 9.B U I LD I N G B LO C KS O F G E O M ETRY 21 7. ∠BCD is an acute angle. you have a good grasp of the basic building blocks of geometry. but it is deﬁnitely less than 90°. Pay attention to the sidebars that refer you to more indepth practice. and shortcuts. it is never ៮. Since no picture is given. ∠ACD is a right angle. . hints. which is equal to 180°. b. concentrating on the areas where you were weak. stated that ៮ AB intersects YZ 8. If you answered 4–7 questions correctly. proceed to the quiz at the end of this chapter for additional conﬁrmation of your success. 10. so you cannot assume that it bisects. Draw in the angle with a dotted line as shown: BENCHMARK QUIZ RESULTS If you answered 8–10 questions correctly. Note that for choice d. as indicated by the small square in the interior of the angle. Read over the chapter. It is not shown in the ﬁgure. b. a. The angle is a right angle. The angles form a straight line. e. Then. Remember that the middle letter is the vertex of the angle.

published by LearningExpress. and do extended practice. carefully read this chapter and concentrate on the sidebars and visual aids that will help with comprehension. and Bisector Using Algebra to Solve Geometric Problems Perpendicular Lines and Perpendicular Bisectors GEOMETRY VOCABULARY—POINT. First. Midpoint. AND PLANE All of geometry starts with three basic constructs. width. you need help and clariﬁcation on the topics in this section. JUST IN TIME LESSON—BASIC BUILDING BLOCKS OF GEOMETRY Topics in this chapter include: • • • • • • • • Geometry Vocabulary: Point. You may also want to refer to Geometry Success in 20 Minutes a Day. LINE an inﬁnite collection of points that has length. 3. or height. and 4. Line. take the time now to refresh your skills and improve your knowledge. but no width or thickness PLANE an inﬁnite collection of points that has length. LINE.22 J U ST I N TI M E G E O M ETRY If you answered 1–3 questions correctly. GLOSSARY POINT a position in space. A point has no length. Lessons 1. Perhaps you learned this information and forgot. Go to the suggested website in the Extra Help sidebar in this chapter. . 2. and width but no thickness A point can be pictured by a dot and is labeled with a capital letter. and Plane Types of Points Geometry Vocabulary: Ray and Segment Types of Lines and Planes Angles and Angle Classiﬁcation Geometry Vocabulary: Congruent Figures.

name a line. . the line on the following graphic can be labeled ៭៮៬ AB.B U I LD I N G B LO C KS O F G E O M ETRY 23 Lines in geometry are straight lines unless otherwise described. ៭៮៬ BA. If we label another point on the ៭៮៬. A plane is a ﬂat surface. or BC. extends forever in either direction. and C are collinear. in either ៭៮៬ or BA ៭៮៬. Any three non-collinear points on its surface name a plane. A line. C. It can be envisioned as a sheet of paper that extends in all four directions forever. as indicated by the arrows on each end. Any three non-collinear points determine a plane. B. order. line. TYPES OF POINTS GLOSSARY COLLINEAR POINTS three or more points that lie on the same line NON-COLLINEAR POINTS three or more points that do not lie on the same line Example: Points A. and D are non-collinear. Any two points determine exactly one unique line. CA ៭៮៬ ៭៮៬ CB. The following graphic is a picture of AB There can be many names for a line. Two points on the line. AC ៭៮៬. Points B.

however. The endpoint is always listed ﬁrst. there is a line. we crenumber of points on RT ៮ ៮ ៮ ៮ ate two new distinct segments. Following is a picture of RT ៮ or ៮ This segment can be named either RT TR. point S. A segment has a deﬁnite length that can be measured with a ruler. and all of the points that lie between R and T ៮ with endpoints R and T. GLOSSARY SEGMENT two endpoints. ៮៬ XY is dif៮៬ ferent than YX. such as R and T. ៮៬ XZ. It is made up of two different rays. Note that when naming a ray. as shown in the following ﬁgure. There are an inﬁnite number of points on a ray. RS or SR. that is ៮៬ XY. The following is a picture of ៮៬ XY with endpoint X. to RT ៮. the endpoint must be named ﬁrst. There are. we can name the same ray. In the same ﬁgure. and ST or TS. Rays are named with the endpoint and another point on the ray. with another name. If we add another point. ៭៮៬ XY. If we label another point on ៮៬ XY. .24 J U ST I N TI M E G E O M ETRY GEOMETRY VOCABULARY: RAY AND SEGMENT GLOSSARY RAY an endpoint P on a line and all the points on the line that lie on one side of P. an inﬁnite ៮.

but there exists an inﬁnite number of points on these ﬁgures. B. Parallel is denoted by the symbol ʈ so in the preceding ﬁgure. arrowheads are shown on a pair of parallel lines. There may be only a few points named. ៮៮ AC or ៮៮ CA. BD. segments. and planes have an inﬁnite number of points. ៭៮៬ AB ʈ ៭៮៬ CD and ៭៮៬ PQ ʈ ៭៮៬ RS. Segments and rays can also be parallel. there are parallel planes. Often. ៭៮៬ BC or ៭៮៬ CB Collinear points A. ៭៮៬ AC or ៭៮៬ CA. Likewise. B. and D Four segments. or CA " SHORTCUT Remember that all lines. the third dimension is introduced. TYPES OF LINES AND PLANES GLOSSARY PARALLEL LINES lines in the same plane that do not intersect The following is a picture of parallel lines. ៮៮ BD or ៮៮ DB ៮៬ ៮៬ ៮៬ ៮៬ ៮៬ ៮៬ ៮៬ Five rays. named ៭៮៬ AB or ៭៮៬ BA. and it becomes more difﬁcult to envision and depict on a page. named ៮ AB or ៮ BA. named BA or BC. CB. When two distinct parallel planes are pictured. . and C Non-collinear points A. rays. AB or AC. ៮ BC or ៮ CB.B U I LD I N G B LO C KS O F G E O M ETRY 25 Example: Given the ﬁgure: There is: One line.

If they intersect (meet). they meet in exactly one line: GLOSSARY SKEW LINES two non-parallel lines that do not intersect. they meet in exactly one point. If they intersect. . E RULE BOOK Any two distinct lines in the same plane are either parallel or intersecting. and the front and back planes.26 J U ST I N TI M E G E O M ETRY In the rectangular solid above. the left and right. there are several pairs of parallel planes. Two distinct planes can be parallel or intersecting. These two lines are not in the same plane. namely the top and bottom.

HI HK and JN NO ៮ are examples of pairs of segments that are skew. ៮៮ ៮. .B U I LD I N G B LO C KS O F G E O M ETRY 27 Skew lines are envisioned in three dimensions. Otherwise. all three points must be named. or segments. If there is no other angle at vertex R. In the following ﬁgure. the angle can be named ∠R. such as ∠QRS or ∠SRQ. and also ៮៮ also be skew. with the vertex point named in the middle. are called the sides. and IM ANGLES AND ANGLE CLASSIFICATION GLOSSARY ANGLE a geometric ﬁgure formed by two rays with the same endpoint Angles are also formed by intersecting lines. with vertex R and sides RQ RS. and by two segments. Segments and rays can ៮ and NM ៮៮. Sometimes the interior is labeled with a number to make reference to the angle easier. In an angle. as shown in the following picture. The following is a pic៮៬ and ៮៬ ture of ∠QRS. the common endpoint is called the vertex and the rays. with one of the endpoints the same.

the solid curved arrow shows the measure of ∠BAC. but Є2 is ЄCED or ЄDEC. C. D. and E. The m∠BAD. Notice that the same points. the sum of their measure is 180°. the vertex point MUST be the middle point listed. which is the straight line ៭៮៬ DB. together with the segments and rays shown. The dotted curved arrow shows the m∠BAD. create several distinct angles. has a measure of 180°. An angle has a deﬁnite size. and the circular distance to reach the other side determines the measure. measured by a protractor. Degrees are denoted by the ° symbol. The units of angle measured are called degrees. In the ﬁgure.28 J U ST I N TI M E G E O M ETRY E RULE BOOK When naming an angle with three points. " SHORTCUT If there is a ﬁgure where two angles together form a straight line. Angle size can be envisioned as a vertex and one side of the angle on a line. denoted by m∠BAC. . For example: The angle labeled Є1 is ЄCDE or ЄEDC.

The classiﬁcation is a right angle. Example: What is the classiﬁcation of the following angle? The above angle is exactly 90°. . STRAIGHT ANGLES are angles that measure 180°.B U I LD I N G B LO C KS O F G E O M ETRY 29 E RULE BOOK Angles are classiﬁed according to their measure: ACUTE ANGLES are angles that measure greater than 0° and less than 90°. REFLEX ANGLES are angles that measure greater than 180°. OBTUSE ANGLES are angles that measure greater than 90° and less than 180°. RIGHT ANGLES are angles that measure 90°. Example: What is the classiﬁcation of the following angle? This angle is greater than 90° and less than 180°. so the classiﬁcation is obtuse.

therefore PQ QR. Example: Congruent segments are marked with slashes and congruent angles are marked with arcs. Any segments or angles with the same size are congruent. GEOMETRY VOCABULARY—CONGRUENT FIGURES. . that divides a segment into two congruent segments Example: ៮៮ Х ៮៮ In this example. the sum of their measures is 90°. The symbol for congruent is Х. If there is a ﬁgure where two angles together form an angle with the small box in the interior. MIDPOINT of a segment is a point. AND BISECTOR GLOSSARY CONGRUENT FIGURES have the same size and shape. such as Q. and the angle is a right angle. MIDPOINT.30 J U ST I N TI M E G E O M ETRY " SHORTCUT If there is a ﬁgure of an angle with the small box drawn in the interior. then the angle measure is 90°. Q is the midpoint of ៮៮ PR.

Example: ៮. Combine like terms. or ray that divides a ﬁgure into two congruent ﬁgures. algebra is combined with the concepts of midpoint and bisector to solve problems. then mЄABC = mЄCBD and each angle If BC measures 25°. since AB ៮ Х BC ៮៮. segment. Subtract 6 from both sides of the equation.B U I LD I N G B LO C KS O F G E O M ETRY 31 BISECTOR a line. Example: Given the ﬁgure below. USING ALGEBRA TO SOLVE GEOMETRIC PROBLEMS Often. and divide both sides by 12. 6x + 3 + 6x + 3 = 42 12x + 6 = 42 12x + 6 – 6 = 42 – 6 12x ᎏᎏ 12 ᎏ =ᎏ 12 36 Set up an equation to solve the problem. x = 3 inches . if the measure of ៮៮ XZ = 42 inches and Y is ៮៮. remember that the two smaller segments are congruent since point Y is the midpoint. Combine like terms. In this example. what is the value of x? the midpoint of XZ To solve this. ៭៮៬ XY bisects AC Example: ៮៬ bisects ЄABD and mЄABD = 50°.

which is equal to 135°. m∠CBD = 67. or the actual value of the measure of an angle or segment. PERPENDICULAR LINES AND PERPENDICULAR BISECTOR GLOSSARY PERPENDICULAR LINES are distinct intersecting lines that form four congruent angles. and divide both sides by 12. Subtract 15 from both sides of the equation. The symbol for perpendicular is Ќ. . ﬁrst solve for the variable and then use this value to solve for the measure. In the last example. x = 10 Be careful when using algebra to solve a problem. each of 90°. Combine like terms. 12x + 15 = 135 12x + 15 – 15 = 135 – 15 12x ᎏᎏ 12 ᎏ =ᎏ 12 120 Set up an equation.5°. if the problem had asked for the measure of ∠CBA. If the measure of an angle or segment is required. the measure of ∠ABC = 2 ϫ 67. to get 12x + 15 = 12 ϫ 10 + 15 = 120 + 15 = 135.32 J U ST I N TI M E G E O M ETRY Example: Given the ﬁgure below. you would substitute 10 for the variable x. and ∠CBA = 12x + 15. if ៮៬ BD bisects ∠ABC. ∠CBD is one half the measure of ∠CBA since BD Therefore. Read carefully and understand whether the problem requires you to ﬁnd the value of the variable.5. what is the value of x? ៮៬ bisects ∠ABC.

If there are two lines that are parallel. is a segment.B U I LD I N G B LO C KS O F G E O M ETRY 33 PERPENDICULAR BISECTOR of a segment. So. then their measures are equal. they have the same measure. any perpendicular segments in between these lines. the line VZ ៮៮ WY. by deﬁnition. Notice that a small box is used to indicate perpendicular ﬁgures. This small box in the interior of any angle will indicate a 90° angle. E RULE BOOK If there are two parallel lines and a segment perpendicular to one of the lines. so the measure of each separate angle is 90°. Since ∠VXY ≅ ∠WXV. ∠WXV ≅ ∠VXY ≅ ∠YXZ ≅ ∠ZXW and each has a measure of 90°. are congruent. it forms a straight line. or ray that is perpendicular to the segment and also divides the segment into two congruent segments ៭៮៬ is a perpendicular bisector of segment In the following ﬁgure. line. then the segment is also perpendicular to the other line. Together they measure 180°. Segments and rays can also be perpendicular. Example: . Recall that the measure of ∠YXW = 180° by deﬁnition. with endpoints on the lines.

published by LearningExpress. Any two lines in the same plane either intersect.34 TIPS AND STRATEGIES J U ST I N TI M E G E O M ETRY When working with the basic geometric ﬁgures. • When naming an angle.com. and are not parallel. . On the left sidebar. and rays have an inﬁnite number of points. click on Geometry. Click to enter the site. followed by a short interactive quiz. be sure what the problem is asking you to ﬁnd. Sometimes. Skew lines are non-intersecting.math. and other times the measure of a segment or angle is wanted.org/2609/. visit the website www. or they are parallel. the vertex point must be named in the middle. Two lines in the same plane that intersect meet at a single point. and then click on Start the Lessons! to take the quiz. and forms right angles. Two planes that intersect meet in a straight line. You may also want to reference the book Geometry Success in 20 Minutes a Day. There is a series of interactive lessons. • A perpendicular bisector of a segment divides the segment into two congruent segments. remember: • • • • • • • Know the geometry vocabulary.thinkquest. Another website is http://library. are not in the same plane. When you are taking a multiple-choice test. Lines. O EXTRA HELP For further instruction and clariﬁcation on the basic geometric ﬁgures. as outlined under Glossary. the value of the variable is wanted. Segments and angles can be measured. segments. planes. remember this tip to improve your score: • When using algebra to solve a geometry problem. • Angles are classiﬁed by their measure.

and R are collinear. and X are non-collinear. Which pair of lines are skew lines? a. S. 3. ៭៮៬ QT and ៭៮៬ RS ៭៮៬ b. d. Points R. Points W. Y. X. c. Points R and Z lie on a line. d. W. and Z are collinear. c. b. Use this ﬁgure for questions 1 through 6. P. Points Z. Points T. and S are coplanar. Which of the following statements is true? a. Which of the following statements is FALSE? a. choice a and c only e. Points Q. 1. and c are all true. b. 2. . Plane TQW is parallel to plane RXY. The intersection of plane WZY and plane TZY is point Z. TS d. and W are non-collinear.B U I LD I N G B LO C KS O F G E O M ETRY 35 PRACTICE QUIZ Following is additional practice on the basic geometric ﬁgures. Check to see if you have mastered these concepts. ៭៮៬ PW and ៭៮៬ RX e. None of the above are skew lines. WX and ៭៮៬ SY ៭៮៬ and SY ៭៮៬ c. Choices a. b. e.

b. b. choices a and c only e. d. S. and c 7. X. Which pair of lines is parallel? a. R. QW and ៭៮៬ TZ d. and Z d. points T. ∠XYB ≅ ∠BAY ៮៮ Ќ ៮ d. 5. and X b. c. . Z. c. None of the above is always true. choices a. ៭៮៬ QP and ៭៮៬ WX ៭៮៬ and SY ៭៮៬ b. choices a. and c 6. The measure of ៮ BY is equal to the measure of ៮៮ XA. Given the ﬁgure below and the fact that ៭៮៬ XY ʈ ៭៮៬ AB. b.36 J U ST I N TI M E G E O M ETRY 4. ∠WZT is right acute. points W. AX XY e. Which of the following sets of points is coplanar? a. choices a and b only e. ∠ZYS is acute. ៭៮៬ AB Ќ ៮ BY b. points Q. ∠WZT measures 90°. which of the following statements is ALWAYS true? a. QW ៭៮៬ c. Which of the following statements is true? a. choices a and c only e. All of the above pairs are parallel lines. Y. and Z c. R.

acute e. right acute 9.B U I LD I N G B LO C KS O F G E O M ETRY 37 8. None of the above is true. 10. right obtuse d. All of the angles are congruent. ∠CDF is a right angle. What is the classiﬁcation of the following angle? a. e. b. EF DF d. ៮ Ќ ៭៮៬ c. d. which DF. ∠ABC is an acute right angle. obtuse c. Given the following three angles. ៮ EF Ќ ៭៮៬ CD Ќ ៭៮៬ of the following statements is true? ៮ a. All of the above statements are true. ∠ABC ≅ ∠DEF e. ៮៮ DF. straight obtuse b. which of the following statements is true? a. All of the above are true. ∠DEF is the bisector of ∠GHI. Given the ﬁgure below and that ៭៮៬ CE ʈ ៭៮៬ CE. . c. ៮៮ CD ≅ EF b.

XY is the same as XY. which of the statements is true? ៮ has a deﬁnite length. c. e. d. d. D. There are exactly two points on ៮ XY. choices a and c only e. and E are collinear. b. ∠CED is a right angle. XY b. None of the above is true. If CD a. Given the following ﬁgure. together with ៮៬ TU. c. ∠DCE is a right obtuse angle. ៮៬ RS and ៮៬ SR name the exact same set of points. All of the above are true. ៭៮៬ ៮ c. ៮៬ TR. choices a and b only . choices a and c only 14. e. choices b and c only e. AB contains the same points as AC. You can measure the length of line AB ៭៮៬ ៭៮៬ b. There are exactly three points on ៮៬ TR. d. d. Given the following ﬁgure. Given the following ﬁgure. which of the statements is true? ៭៮៬. There are exactly four points on ៮៬ RU. ៮៬ TS and ៮៬ TR name the exact same set of points. 13. a. c. which of the following statements is true? 11. which of the statements is true? a. form a 100° angle. a. Points C.38 J U ST I N TI M E G E O M ETRY ៮៬ Ќ CE ៮៬. There are an inﬁnite number of points on ៭៮៬ AB. 12. b.

2 mm b. 4. What is the measure of ∠QRT ? a. (5x + 20)° e. 6 cm 17. choices a and b only ៮៮. 55° b. 4° c. e. All of the above are true. ST ST = 12 ៮ ៮៮ = 4x + 4. The measure of ∠CAD is twice the measure of ∠BAD. 110° d.2 mm e. Given the following ﬁgure. ៮៬ RS bisects ∠QRT. ∠BAC ≅ ∠CAD c. which of the statements is true? a. (5x – 20)° ៮ bisects PQ ៮៮. 3 cm b. and the measure of ∠TRS = 10x + 15.B U I LD I N G B LO C KS O F G E O M ETRY 39 15. 1 mm c. they intersect at point R. the length of CM ៮៮ = 3x + 7. b. what is the value of x? mm. 8ᎏ2ᎏ cm c. If PR = 6x and RQ a. and the measure of ៮ 18. 4ᎏ6ᎏ cm d. and 16. Given that M is the midpoint of CD ៮៮ the length of CD = 32 cm. what is the value of x? a. 2 mm d. 18 mm 2 1 1 . the measure of ∠QRS = 5x + 35. 3. 7ᎏ3ᎏ cm e. The measure of ∠BAD is one half the measure of ∠BAC. d.

and ៮៮៬ MQ bisects ∠LMN. The measure of ៮ 21. 75° c. 7 inches b. ៭៮៬ CD bisects AB AE = 6x + ៮ = 4x + 17 inches. 22. None of the above statements is true. which of the following is true? a. 35.5° 31 29 . 45 inches c. If the measure of ∠FGH = (2x + 8)°. If the measure of ៮៮ CD = 7 inches and point A is the midpoint of ៮៮ CD. ៮៮? what is the measure of CA a. ᎏ3ᎏ cm 20. If the measure of ∠LMN = 85°.5° b. ᎏ4ᎏ cm b. if ៮៮ AC = 31 cm. and the measure of ∠FGJ = 150°. 15.40 J U ST I N TI M E G E O M ETRY 19. 21 inches 23. In the ﬁgure below.5° d. 6 cm c. what is the measure of ∠HGJ? a. 42 inches e. What is the length 3 inches. 14 inches c. measure of ∠LMQ = 170° e. 33. measure of ∠QMN = 85° c. 14 inches 22. 67° e. measure of ∠LMQ = 85° b.5 cm e.5 inches e. and the measure of EB of ៮ AB? a. 79° d. what is the value of x? a.5 inches d. 7 inches b. ៮ and they meet at point E. 3. 3 cm d. measure of ∠LMQ = 42. 90 inches d. ∠FGJ is bisected by ៮៬ GH.

W. 55° d. the measure of WX measure of ៮ XY = 5x – 5 meters. X. XY ∠WXY? 19 a. Only statements a and c are true. and the 24. Choice c is true—the two planes listed are parallel. as they are the front and back sides of the rectangular solid.5° ANSWERS Following are the answers and explanations to the practice quiz. What ៮៮ is the length of WY? a. 25 m d. Choice b is false—when two planes intersect. they intersect in a line. not in a point. Choice a is true—points W. 11° b.5 m e. 50 m 17 b. What is the measure of 25. Points R. ᎏ6ᎏ m ៮៬ bisects ∠WXZ. 17. Read them over carefully for any problems that you answered incorrectly. ᎏ7ᎏ m c. In the following ﬁgure. c. and Z are not collinear. 12. . Point X is the midpoint of ៮៮ WY. In the following ﬁgure. 70° e. since any three points deﬁne a plane. 1.B U I LD I N G B LO C KS O F G E O M ETRY 41 ៮៮ = 3x + 7 meters. 2. d. Statement c is false. 35° c. and S are coplanar. All of the other statements about the ﬁgure are true.

10. Note that choice b is incorrect. as shown in the ﬁgure by the small box in the interior of ∠YBA. They do not lie in the same plane. 5. as indicated by the small box in the interior of the angle. This is the vertex of the angle. Choice a is incorrect. All of the choices listed are parallel line pairs. The only statement that is true is that ∠ABC is congruent to ∠DEF. b. b. From the ﬁgure. None of the statements is true. they are a pair of lines in the same plane that do not intersect. Even though the angle appears to be acute. AB BY. bisects an angle. 4. The three statements are all true given the facts. ∠WZT measures 90°. 11. a. d. draw the perpendicular rays with endpoint C. d. because a ray. e. 6. Both choice a and choice c show sets of coplanar points. The angle measures less than 180° and measures more than 90°. Choice c is the plane that is a side of the solid. They are two lines that neither inter៭៮៬ and SY 3. e. In order to evaluate these statements. 7. 9. not an angle. Choice a is a plane that runs diagonally through the solid. Note that ∠CED is an acute angle. and the ﬁgure drawn. since the vertex is E. it is clear that none of the three statements is true. The only statement that is true is that the named segment and ៭៮៬ Ќ ៮ line are perpendicular. In all cases. 8.42 J U ST I N TI M E G E O M ETRY ៭៮៬ are skew lines. a. not C. d. WX sect nor are parallel. This classiﬁcation is obtuse. This can be seen if you draw in the side of the angle on the ﬁgure: . the small box in the interior of the angle indicates that it is a right angle.

Draw a picture to help visualize the problem. Since M is the midpoint of the segment. 14. 13. d. even though they contain an inﬁnite number of points. All segments have a deﬁnite length. TS TR name the exact same set of points since they are just two names for the same ray. They both have an inﬁnite number of points. 16. and divide both sides by 6. for a total length of 32 cm. a. e. ﬁnd the value of x. with endpoint T and in the direction of both S and R. . ∠QRS and ∠TRS are conSince it is stated that RS gruent.B U I LD I N G B LO C KS O F G E O M ETRY 43 ៮៬ and ៮៬ 12. Statement c is true—all lines have an inﬁnite number of points. c. Statement a is false—you cannot measure the length of a line. each half of the segment is represented by 3x + 7. Combine like terms. 3x + 7 + 3x + 7 = 32 6x + 14 = 32 6x + 14 – 14 = 32 – 14 6x ᎏᎏ 6 Set up the equation. Statement b is true—these are two names for the same line. b. a. First. Subtract 14 from both sides. 15. Statements b and c are both true. Combine like terms. it is helpful to draw the segment with the given information included. In order to solve this problem. and then use that value to calculate the value of the angle. The two angles are congruent since they have the same measure. = ᎏ6ᎏ 18 x = 3 cm 17. ៮៬ bisects ∠QRT. and so have the same measure. it has an inﬁnite length.

and divide both sides by 2. Use algebra. Subtract 4x from both sides. and divide both sides by 5.44 J U ST I N TI M E G E O M ETRY 5x + 35 = 10x + 15 5x – 5x + 35 = 10x – 5x + 15 35 = 5x + 15 35 – 15 = 5x + 15 – 15 20 5x ᎏᎏ = ᎏᎏ 5 5 4=x Set up an equation. Using the value of 4 for x. 6x = 4x + 4 6x – 4x = 4x – 4x + 4 2x ᎏᎏ 2 Set up an equation. c. Draw the ﬁgure to help solve the problem. Subtract 15 from both sides. The two segments together combine to make segment AC cm. Combine like terms. 2x + 1 + 3x = 31 5x + 1 = 31 5x + 1 – 1 = 31 – 1 5x ᎏᎏ 5 Set up an equation. 18. substitute in to ﬁnd the measure of ∠QRS: 5(4) + 35 = 20 + 35 = 55°. Combine like terms. Subtract 5x from both sides. Combine like terms. = ᎏ5ᎏ 30 x = 6 cm . Combine like terms. = ᎏ2ᎏ 4 x=2 ៮៮ = 31 19. b. The measure of ∠QRT = 2(55) = 110°. and divide both sides by 5. Use The fact that ST algebra. ៮ = 12 mm does not help with the solution. Subtract 1 from both sides. This is one half of the measure of ∠QRT. Combine like terms.

Combine like terms. c. then the measure of CA ៮៮ is half the 22. substitute x = 7 to ﬁnd the length of ៮ AB = (6 ϫ 7 + 3) + (4 ϫ 7 + 17) = 45 + 45 = 90 inches. ∠LMQ is half the measure of ∠LMN. Combine like terms. Draw the ﬁgure to help with the solution. If A is the midpoint of CD ៮៮ measure of CD. 6x + 3 = 4x + 17 6x – 4x + 3 = 4x – 4x + 17 2x + 3 = 17 2x + 3 – 3 = 17 – 3 2x ᎏᎏ 2 Set up the equation. and divide both sides by 2. = ᎏ2ᎏ 14 x=7 Now. Draw the angle with bisector. ៮≅៮ EB. c. Subtract 4x from both sides. ៮៮. Subtract 3 from both sides.B U I LD I N G B LO C KS O F G E O M ETRY 45 20. since E is the midpoint. and AE then ﬁnd the length of ៮ AB. . Use algebra to solve for x. c. 21.

∠WXY = 5n – 20. so the measures are equal. The fact that ∠FGH = (2x + 8)° is not needed to solve the problem. so substitute in 11 for n to get: 5 ϫ 11 – 20 = 55 – 20 = 35°. Subtract 3x from both sides. and then ﬁnd the length of WY 3x + 7 = 5x – 5 3x – 3x + 7 = 5x – 3x – 5 7 = 2x – 5 7 + 5 = 2x – 5 + 5 12 ᎏᎏ 2 Set up the equation. ∠WXY ≅ ∠YXZ. and divide both sides by 2. 25. ៮៮. 24. Use algebra to solve for x. Use algebra to solve for n. a. b. Add 5 to both sides. Combine like terms. and divide both sides by 3. the two segments have the same length. since it is bisected by ៮៬ GH. Combine like terms. b. = ᎏ2ᎏ 2x 6=x Now.46 J U ST I N TI M E G E O M ETRY 23. Combine like terms. = ᎏ3ᎏ 3n 11 = n Now. Since X is the midpoint. by combining like terms. to get the length: 8 ϫ 6 + 2 = 48 + 2 = 50 meters. 2n + 13 = 5n – 20 2n – 2n + 13 = 5n – 2n – 20 13 = 3n – 20 13 + 20 = 3n – 20 + 20 33 ᎏᎏ 3 Set up the equation. Add 20 to both sides. Combine like terms. ៮៮ WY = 3x + 7 + 5x – 5 = 8x + 2. Subtract 2n from both sides. and then calculate the measure of ∠WXY. ∠HGJ is half the measure of ∠FGJ. Substitute in 6 for x. . Make a sketch of the ﬁgure to help solve the problem.

3 Special Angle Pairs and Angle Measurement F requently. what is the value of x? a. 0° b. 90° d. 10° c. 50° e. there are several special pairs of angles that occur. Use this quiz to determine how much of your study time should be devoted to this chapter. 30° 47 . BENCHMARK QUIZ 1. In the following ﬁgure. on math tests that assess geometry skills. See how many of these pairs you remember by taking this ten-question benchmark quiz.

in the following parallel lines cut by a transversal? a. ∠5 d. Which angle(s) shown are supplementary to ∠2. What is the measure of ∠5? a. 53° c. ∠6 and ∠7 c. The following diagram shows parallel lines cut by a transversal. 90° 3. 37° e.48 J U ST I N TI M E G E O M ETRY 2. 100° b. 127° d. ∠5 and ∠8 . ∠6 b. ∠8 e.

28° and 152° b. 148° e. 130° e. 45° and 135° 6. 40° and 140° c.S P E C I AL AN G LE PAI R S AN D A N G LE M EAS U R E M E NT 49 4. What is the measure of ∠8? a. What is the measure of ∠ADB? a. 28° and 62° d. 42° d. The following ﬁgure shows parallel lines cut by a transversal. 138° c. 48° b. 50° c. 40° and 50° e. 90° b. What are the values of the two angles? a. 118° 5. 45° . 40° d.

180° 9. given that the lines are parallel lines cut by a transversal? a. c.50 J U ST I N TI M E G E O M ETRY 7. e. b.5° c. d. d. One of the angles in a supplementary pair is obtuse. The two angles are congruent. 41° d. c. b. 8. Which statement below is ALWAYS true? a. Which of the statements below is true? a. The two angles are vertical. The two angles are obtuse. .5° b. e. The angles in a vertical pair are acute. 20. The two angles are supplementary. The two angles are complementary. 69. What is the value of x. The angles in a vertical pair are congruent. The angles in a complementary pair are congruent. 139° e. Both angles of a supplementary pair are acute angles.

e. ∠1 and ∠4 are vertical. 3. Then. BENCHMARK QUIZ SOLUTIONS Use the answer key to check your knowledge of special angle pairs. b. and vertical angles are congruent. 1. which of the following statements is false? a. . ∠2 and ∠7 are congruent. The measure of ∠8 = 138°. d.S P E C I AL AN G LE PAI R S AN D A N G LE M EAS U R E M E NT 51 10. Use algebra: 3x = 30 = x = 10 3x ᎏᎏ 3 30 ᎏᎏ 3 Set up an equation. c. and corresponding angles are congruent. Because ∠1 forms a linear pair with the angle of 42°. 2. The two angles marked are a vertical pair. and are therefore congruent. Divide both sides by 3. b. e. ∠2 is an acute angle. the measure of ∠1 = 180 – 42 = 138°. The two marked angles are corresponding angles. ∠5 and ∠1 are supplementary. ∠8 and ∠2 are supplementary. read the suggestions following the answer explanations to plan your study of this chapter. thus any angle that is obtuse will be supplementary. b. Using the ﬁgure of parallel lines cut by a transversal below. c. ∠8 and ∠1 are alternate exterior angles. ∠1 and ∠4 are congruent. they have the same measure. 4.

8. Use algebra: 2x + 139 = 180 2x + 139 – 139 = 180 – 139 2x ᎏᎏ 2 Set up the equation. b. Skim over the chapter. the two angles can both measure 90°. substitute in 28 for x to ﬁnd the angle measures. as they are corresponding angles. Pay attention to the sidebars that refer you to . you may not need to concentrate your efforts on this topic. d. = ᎏ2ᎏ 41 x = 20. If you answered 4–7 questions correctly. 7. The two marked angles are supplementary. The two angles shown are adjacent angles that form a right angle. Combine like terms. Subtract 139 from both sides. 10. Use algebra: 5x + x + 12 = 180 6x + 12 = 180 6x + 12 – 12 = 180 – 12 6x ᎏᎏ 6 Set up an equation. you have a solid understanding of angle pairs. Any two angles whose sum of degree-measure equals 90° are complementary. Subtract 12 from both sides. d. It is suggested that you take the quiz at the end of this chapter to make sure that you can handle different problem situations. 6. the other angle is 28 + 12 = 40°. Carefully read through the lessons in this chapter for review and skill building.5 9. These angles are congruent. BENCHMARK QUIZ RESULTS If you answered 8–10 questions correctly. a. Combine like terms. = ᎏ6ᎏ 168 x = 28 One angle is 5(28) = 140°. e.52 J U ST I N TI M E G E O M ETRY 5. and divide both sides by 2. ∠1 and ∠5 are not supplementary. you need a more careful review of these angle pairs. The measure of ∠ADB = 90 – 50 = 40°. and divide each side by 6. Note that choice d is not always true. The sum of the measure of these two angles is 180° due to the straight line they form. c. Now. Combine like terms. Vertical angles are always congruent. but take your time on the sections in which you need to be refreshed.

the focus will be on several pairs of special angle relationships that play an important role in the development of geometry. and shortcuts. published by LearningExpress. Concentrate on the sidebars and visuals that will aid comprehension. Visit the suggested websites for additional problems. Work through the quiz at the end of the chapter to check your progress. Go to the suggested websites in the Extra Help sidebar in this chapter and do extended practice. you need to take time to read through the entire lesson in this chapter. . In this chapter. You may also want to refer to Geometry Success in 20 Minutes a Day. JUST IN TIME LESSON—SPECIAL ANGLE PAIRS AND ANGLE MEASUREMENT Topics in this chapter include: • • • • Complementary and Supplementary Angles Vertical Angles Angle Pairs Formed by Parallel Lines Cut by a Transversal Solving Geometry Problems by Using Algebra Angles were introduced in Chapter 2.S P E C I AL AN G LE PAI R S AN D A N G LE M EAS U R E M E NT 53 more in-depth practice. COMPLEMENTARY AND SUPPLEMENTARY ANGLES GLOSSARY COMPLEMENTARY ANGLES two angles in which the sum of their measures equals 90° SUPPLEMENTARY ANGLES two angles in which the sum of their measures equals 180° Complementary and supplementary angles may or may not be next to each other. The basis of classiﬁcation for these angles is the sum of their measures. hints. Lessons 4 and 5. If you answered 1–3 questions correctly.

54 J U ST I N TI M E G E O M ETRY Examples: What is the measure of the complement of 23°? Because an angle and its complement add up to 90°. a common side and share no interior points Example: LINEAR PAIR a pair of adjacent. GLOSSARY ADJACENT ANGLES angles that share a common vertex. What is the measure of the supplement of 102°? Because an angle and its supplement add up to 180°. which of the following is true? . the measure of the complement of 23° is 90 – 23 = 67°. supplementary angles Example: In the following ﬁgure. the measure of the supplement of 102° is 180 – 102 = 78°.

the pairs of non-adjacent angles (one pair is angles 1 and 3. and ∠4. . d. ∠ADB and ∠EDB are a linear pair. In the ﬁgures above. Choice c is the correct answer. Any two adjacent angles that form a right angle are complementary. or segments In the ﬁgure above. VERTICAL ANGLES When two distinct lines intersect. ∠CDB and ∠CDE are supplementary. rays.S P E C I AL AN G LE PAI R S AN D A N G LE M EAS U R E M E NT 55 a. Choice b is false because the two angles are adjacent but are not supplementary. ∠3. Choice a is false because the two angles are adjacent but together do not form a straight line. The sum of the measures of ∠ADB and ∠EDB is 100°. These two angles are supplementary and adjacent. c. GLOSSARY VERTICAL ANGLES two non-adjacent angles that are formed by the intersection of two lines. and Figure IV shows supplementary adjacent angles. ∠CDB and ∠ADB are a linear pair. Choice d is false because the sum of these angles is equal to 180°. ∠2. " SHORTCUT Any two adjacent angles that form a straight line are supplementary. None of the above is true. Figure II shows complementary adjacent angles. four angles are formed: ∠1. b. the other pair is angles 2 and 4) are called vertical angles. e.

what is the measure of ∠2? ∠1 and the angle marked 139° are supplementary. Because ∠2 is a vertical pair with ∠1. whose measure is 137°. So. Example: Given the following angles. the measure of ∠ABE = 137°.56 J U ST I N TI M E G E O M ETRY E RULE BOOK Vertical angles are congruent. Their measure adds to 180°. . what is the measure of ∠ABE? ∠ABE is a vertical pair with ∠DBC. it is also equal to 41°. So the measure of ∠1 = 180 – 139 = 41°. Example: In the following diagram.

eight angles are formed when parallel lines m and n are cut by a transversal line. In the example below. . When two parallel lines are cut by a third line. there are two main areas: the interior and the exterior.S P E C I AL AN G LE PAI R S AN D A N G LE M EAS U R E M E NT 57 ANGLE PAIRS FORMED BY PARALLEL LINES CUT BY A TRANSVERSAL When two parallel lines are given in a ﬁgure. the third line is called the transversal. t.

Alternate interior angles are non-adjacent and congruent. and on opposite (alternate) sides of the transversal. . All of these supplementary pairs are linear pairs. These pairs are congruent pairs. There are three other special pairs of angles. Supplementary pairs: Є1 and Є2 Є2 and Є4 Є3 and Є4 Є1 and Є3 Є5 and Є6 Є6 and Є8 Є7 and Є8 Є5 and Є7 Recall that supplementary angles are angles whose angle measure adds up to 180°. Some pairs have already been reviewed: Vertical pairs: Є1 and Є4 Є2 and Є3 Є5 and Є8 Є6 and Є7 Recall that all pairs of vertical angles are congruent.58 J U ST I N TI M E G E O M ETRY There are several special pairs of angles formed from this ﬁgure. There are other supplementary pairs described in the shortcut later in this section. GLOSSARY ALTERNATE INTERIOR ANGLES two angles in the interior of the parallel lines.

one in the interior and one in the exterior. CORRESPONDING ANGLES two angles.S P E C I AL AN G LE PAI R S AN D A N G LE M EAS U R E M E NT 59 ALTERNATE EXTERIOR ANGLES two angles in the exterior of the parallel lines. that are on the same side of the transversal. Corresponding angles are non-adjacent and congruent. Alternate exterior angles are non-adjacent and congruent. . and on opposite (alternate) sides of the transversal.

Є1 Х Є4 are vertical angles. Therefore. Є4. . and Є7 are all acute angles. Because they are congruent. Є6. they are supplementary. the measure of ∠8 = 53°. When a transversal cuts parallel lines. Є3. Є5. They are all congruent to each other. all of the acute angles formed are congruent. " SHORTCUTS 1. ∠7 = 180 – 53 = 127°. The same reasoning applies to the obtuse angles in the ﬁgure: Є2.60 J U ST I N TI M E G E O M ETRY Use the following diagram of parallel lines cut by a transversal to answer the example problems. and all of the obtuse angles formed are congruent. and Є8 are all congruent to each other. Є1. Є4 Х Є5 are alternate interior angles. and Є5 Х Є7 are vertical angles. Example: What is the measure of ∠7? ∠8 and ∠7 are a linear pair. Their measures add up to 180°. Example: What is the measure of ∠8? The angle marked with measure 53° and ∠8 are alternate exterior angles. on opposite sides of the transversal. They are in the exterior. In the ﬁgure above.

. Which marked angle is supplementary to ∠1? The angle supplementary to ∠1 is ∠6. This is the only angle marked that is acute. When parallel lines are cut by a transversal line. any one acute angle formed and any one obtuse angle formed are supplementary. and any one acute angle. Notice also that ∠3 ≅ ∠7.S P E C I AL AN G LE PAI R S AN D A N G LE M EAS U R E M E NT 61 2. since they are corresponding angles. you can see that ∠3 and ∠4 are supplementary because they are a linear pair. paired with any obtuse angle are supplementary angles. SOLVING GEOMETRY PROBLEMS BY USING ALGEBRA Often. there are two parallel lines cut by a transversal. Therefore. From the ﬁgure. Example: In the following ﬁgure. you can substitute ∠7 for ∠3 and know that ∠7 and ∠4 are supplementary. ∠1 is an obtuse angle. problems will test your knowledge of these angle pairs and your skill in equation solving.

Use algebra to solve the problem: 2x + 30 = 3x – 10 2x – 2x + 30 = 3x – 2x – 10 30 = x – 10 30 + 10 = x – 10 + 10 40 = x Set up the algebraic equation. Subtract 2x from both sides. They . Add 10 to both sides.62 J U ST I N TI M E G E O M ETRY Example: Use the following diagram to give the measure of ∠DEC. Now. Combine like terms. what is the value of x? In this diagram. the vertical pair is congruent. substitute 40 into the original expression for ∠DEC: ∠DEC = 3(40) – 10 = 120 – 10 = 110°. the two marked angles appear to be almost congruent. they are both exterior angles on the same side of the transversal. It is difﬁcult to establish if they are congruent or not. Example: Given the following parallel lines cut by a transversal. therefore each angle has the same measure. However. In the diagram.

Use algebra: 3x + 5 = 6x – 25 3x + 5 + 25 = 6x – 25 + 25 3x + 30 = 6x 3x – 3x + 30 = 6x – 3x 30 ᎏᎏ 3 Set up an equation. Combine like terms. they are all congruent. Because all three angles marked are acute angles. Sometimes. be sure what the problem is asking for. Add 25 to both sides. the value of the variable is sought.S P E C I AL AN G LE PAI R S AN D A N G LE M EAS U R E M E NT 63 are NOT congruent. = 180 ᎏᎏ 10 x = 18 Example: Use the ﬁgure below of parallel lines cut by a transversal to ﬁnd the measure of ∠2. ∠2 = 3x + 5 = (3 ϫ 10) + 5 = 35°. Other times. Subtract 3x from both sides. . Combine like terms. and divide both sides by 3. Combine like terms. use this value to ﬁnd the measure of the angle. The two marked angles are supplementary. and divide both sides by 10. the measure of the angle is required. When using algebra to solve problems. Use algebra: (6x – 10) + (4x + 10) = 180 10x ᎏᎏ 10 Set up an equation to ﬁnd x. = ᎏ3ᎏ 3x 10 = x Now.

Lessons 4 and 5. or segments. All of the acute angles formed by two parallel lines cut by a transversal are congruent. You will see an activity that tests your knowledge of angle classiﬁcation as well as the identiﬁcation of the angle types. You may also want to reference the book Geometry Success in 20 Minutes a Day.math. visit the website http://studyworksonline. followed by a short interactive quiz. Corresponding angles are congruent. under Basic Building Blocks of Geometry click on Classifying Angles. On the left sidebar.org/interactivate/activities/angles/index.64 J U ST I N TI M E G E O M ETRY O EXTRA HELP To practice identifying the angles formed by parallel lines and a transversal.shodor. click on Geometry. published by LearningExpress. Two adjacent supplementary angles form a linear pair. Another useful site is www. All of the obtuse angles formed by two parallel lines cut by a transversal are congruent. click on Alternate Angles. Alternate exterior angles are congruent. remember: • • • • • • The sum of the measures of complementary angles is 90°. when formed by intersecting lines. rays. Then. Another helpful site is www. Finally. • • • . The sum of the measures of supplementary angles is 180°. Click on Explorations at the top of the website.html#.com.com. There is a series of interactive lessons. TIPS AND STRATEGIES When working with special angle pairs. any one acute angle and any one obtuse angle are supplementary. Vertical angles are congruent. click on Interactive Geometry on the left hand side. There are special angle pairs formed by two parallel lines cut by a transversal: Alternate interior angles are congruent. Then. When parallel lines are cut by a transversal. Vertical angles are angles across from each other.

58° c. What is the value of x. review the answers and explanations to see if you have mastered this concept. 14° d. 1. 60° b. 142° e. 120° . shown below? a. 10° e. 26° c. what is the measure of ∠2? a. 42° 2. 38° b. In the following ﬁgure of two intersecting lines.S P E C I AL AN G LE PAI R S AN D A N G LE M EAS U R E M E NT 65 PRACTICE QUIZ Try these 25 problems. When you are ﬁnished. 71° d.

55° e. 155° 4. 145° c. What is the measure of ∠3? a. alternate interior angles b. 100° 6. corresponding angles d.66 J U ST I N TI M E G E O M ETRY Use the following diagram of parallel lines cut by a transversal to answer questions 3 through 9. What is the measure of ∠8? a. What is the measure of ∠6? a. 145° c. 135° e. 45° b. 45° b. 3. 155° 5. What type of angle pair is ∠1 and ∠5? a. supplementary angles c. alternate exterior angles e. 135° d. vertical angles . 180° d. 55° d. 135° c. 45° b. 55° e.

vertical angles 9. 135° 8. 28° c. 60° and 120° 11. what is the value of x? a. 4° d. What is the measure of ∠2? a. 18° and 152° b. corresponding angles d. What type of angle pair is ∠1 and ∠3? a. 62° . 38° b. What is the measure of the complement of 62°? a. In the diagram. 20° 10. 27° c. 42° and 138° e. alternate interior angles b. What are the values of the two angles shown in the ﬁgure below? a. alternate exterior angles e. 128° e. supplementary angles c. 55° b. 135° e. 80° d. 21° b. 118° d.S P E C I AL AN G LE PAI R S AN D A N G LE M EAS U R E M E NT 67 7. 180° c. 45° e. 45° and 135° d. 30° and 150° c.

All of the above are true. ∠ABD and ∠DBC are complementary. b. ∠4 d. d. ∠1 b. e. Corresponding angles are congruent. 13. ∠ABD and ∠ABC are adjacent angles. d. none of the above 14. The sum of the degree measure of complementary angles is 180°. ∠3 c. Corresponding angles are supplementary. c. e. which angle is supplementary to ∠8? a. The angles in a vertical pair are acute. ∠DBC is half of the measure of ∠ABC. Using the ﬁgure below. ∠ABD ≅ ∠DBC b. which of the statements is true? a. . c.68 J U ST I N TI M E G E O M ETRY 12. ∠5 e. The sum of the degree measure of corresponding angles is 180°. In the ﬁgure below of parallel lines cut by a transversal. Which of the following statements is ALWAYS TRUE when parallel lines are cut by a transversal? a.

22° 16. c. ∠DBE and ∠EBC are adjacent. ∠EBC and ∠EBA are a linear pair. All of the above are true. e. 9° d.S P E C I AL AN G LE PAI R S AN D A N G LE M EAS U R E M E NT 69 15. 108° d. ∠ABD and ∠DBC are a linear pair. 17. b. 100° . ∠ABE and ∠EBC are adjacent. 10° c. 150° e. 7° b. d. What is the measure of ∠ABC? a. Use the following ﬁgure to determine which statements is true. 75° c. What is the value of x? a. 68° e. a. 25° b.

70 J U ST I N TI M E G E O M ETRY 18. b. ∠BAC is a right angle. Which of the following statements is true about the ﬁgure? a. choices a and c e. ∠CBA and ∠ABD are supplementary. 28° and 62° d. What are the values of the two angles? a. 62° and 118° c. What is the value of x in the ﬁgure below? a. 31° and 159° b. 31° and 69° 20. 130° e. 150° b. 25° . All of the above are true. ∠DBC measures 180°. c. d. 31° and 149° e. 100° d. 19. 50° c.

b. e. 160° e. Which of the statements below is ALWAYS TRUE? a. d. ∠3 and ∠4 are vertical angles. 50° 23. Supplementary angles are both obtuse angles. c. shown below. At least one of the angles in a supplementary pair is obtuse. The following diagram shows parallel lines cut by a transversal. which of the following statements is false? a. What is the measure of ∠2? a. d. In the diagram of parallel lines cut by a transversal. b. Complementary angles are both acute angles. e. ∠2 and ∠8 are alternate exterior angles. Alternate exterior angles are both obtuse angles. ∠5 and ∠8 are corresponding angles. 80° b. 22. ∠3 and ∠5 are alternate interior angles. 100° c. All of the above are false. . 20° d.S P E C I AL AN G LE PAI R S AN D A N G LE M EAS U R E M E NT 71 21. Any two acute angles are complementary. c.

40° and 40° b. They are congruent and have the same measure. Add 10 to both sides. What are the measures of the angles? a.72 J U ST I N TI M E G E O M ETRY 24. Use algebra to ﬁnd the value of x: 5x – 10 = 60 5x – 10 + 10 = 60 + 10 5x ᎏᎏ 5 Set up the equation. Combine like terms. Read them over carefully for any problems that you answered incorrectly. 2. 5° 25. c. 50° and 130° d. 90° and 90° ANSWERS Following are the answers and explanations to the practice quiz. 60° and 120° e. 1. ∠2 and the angle marked as 142° are vertical angles. 40° and 140° c. Their measures are represented by x + 10 and 3x + 10. and divide both sides by 5. 75° c. 115° d. = ᎏ5ᎏ 70 x = 14 . Their angle measures are equal. 3° e. This is a pair of vertical angles. What is the value of x? a. 9° b. The following diagram shows parallel lines cut by a transversal. d. Two angles are a linear pair.

They are congruent. their angle measures are equal. b. one is in the exterior. whose angle measure is 180°. The angle marked with the 45° measure and ∠6 are vertical angles. are supplementary. any one acute angle. The corresponding angles are the angle marked with the 45° measure and ∠3. they form a straight line. ∠1 and ∠3 are supplementary. ∠1 and ∠5 are corresponding angles. Combine like terms. 8. and they are on the same side of the transversal. together with any one obtuse angle. When two parallel lines are cut by a transversal. e. and divide both sides by 5. 45 + m∠8 = 180 45 + m∠8 – 45 = 180 – 45 m∠8 = 135° Set up the equation. their angle measures are equal. Together. a. Subtract 80 from both sides of the equation. The angle marked with the 45° measure and ∠8 are supplementary. One is in the interior. 9. 7. d. The angle marked with the 45° measure and ∠2 are alternate exterior angles. their angle measures are equal. 5. They are congruent. The sum of their angle measure is 180°. Combine like terms. 4. d. a.S P E C I AL AN G LE PAI R S AN D A N G LE M EAS U R E M E NT 73 3. Use algebra: 5x + 35 + 45 = 180 5x + 80 = 180 5x + 80 – 80 = 180 – 80 5x ᎏᎏ 5 = ᎏ5ᎏ 100 Set up an equation. Subtract 45 from both sides. They are congruent. x = 20 . 6. c.

These angles form a linear pair. Choice b is never true. Choices c and d are sometimes true. and divide both sides by 10. Use algebra to ﬁnd the value of x: 4x + 40 + 6x – 20 = 90 10x + 20 = 90 10x + 20 – 20 = 90 – 20 10x ᎏ ᎏᎏ 10 ᎏ =ᎏ 10 70 Set up the equation. Let x stand for the complement of 62°. and divide both sides by 15. use this value for x to ﬁnd the angle measures. Therefore. The only time that corresponding angles are supplementary is when they have the measure of 90° each. 14. Choice a is only true if the two angles have a 90° measure. x = 14 Now. ∠3. The sum of their degree measures equals 180°. b. x=7 . One angle is 3x = 3 ϫ 14 = 42°. Add 30 to both sides. b. The only statement that is true is that the sum of the angle measures of ∠ABD and ∠DBC is 90°. The other angle is 12x – 30 = (12 ϫ 14) – 30 = 168 – 30 = 138°. An angle and its complement have angle measures whose sum is 90°. d. 12. Combine like terms. and use algebra: x + 62 = 90 x + 62 – 62 = 90 – 62 x = 28° Set up the equation. Use algebra: 3x + 12x – 30 = 180 15x – 30 = 180 15x – 30 + 30 = 180 + 30 15x ᎏᎏ 15 ᎏ =ᎏ 15 210 Set up an equation. 11. e. The only angle listed that is supplementary to ∠8 is the only obtuse angle marked.74 J U ST I N TI M E G E O M ETRY 10. The only statement that is always true is choice e. Subtract 62 from both sides. Combine like terms. Subtract 20 from both sides. c. they are complementary. Combine like terms. 15. 13. Combine like terms. a. The two angles marked are complementary because the sum of their angle measures is 90°.

Combine like terms. c. Use the value of 25 in the angle expression 3x + 33 to ﬁnd the measure. 19. not point A. Adjacent angles share a common side. All of the statements are true. x = 31 Substitute the value of 31 into the expressions to ﬁnd the angle measures.S P E C I AL AN G LE PAI R S AN D A N G LE M EAS U R E M E NT 75 16. ∠DBC measures 180° because it forms a straight line. Subtract 8 from both sides. 2 ϫ 31 = 62°. and then ﬁnd the angle measures. (3 ϫ 25) + 33 = 108° 18. Choices a and c are true. and divide both sides by 5. The two marked angles in the ﬁgure are vertical angles. which is a straight line. Combine like terms. Subtract 25 from both sides of the equation. The two angles ∠CBA and ∠ABD are supplementary as they form ∠DBC. Subtract 3x from both sides. and no interior points. and (3 ϫ 31) + 25 = 118° . Use algebra to solve for the variable x. d. Note that ∠BAC is NOT a right angle. Combine like terms. Use algebra to solve for x. 3x + 25 + 2x = 180 5x + 25 = 180 5x + 25 – 25 = 180 – 25 5x ᎏᎏ 5 = ᎏ5ᎏ 155 Set up the equation. Point B is the vertex of this angle. 17. b. The two angles are a linear pair. Linear pairs are two adjacent angles whose sum of degrees is 180°. so their angle measures add up to 180°. and then ﬁnd the measure of the angle. 4x + 8 = 3x + 33 4x – 3x + 8 = 3x – 3x + 33 x + 8 = 33 x + 8 – 8 = 33 – 8 x = 25 Set up an equation. e.

∠5 and ∠8 are vertical angles. Divide both sides by 3. 5x + 55 = 2x + 100 5x – 2x + 55 = 2x – 2x + 100 3x + 55 = 100 3x + 55 – 55 = 100 – 55 3x = 45 = ᎏ3ᎏ x = 15° 3x ᎏᎏ 3 45 Set up an equation. ﬁnd the measure of ∠2. Combine like terms. Subtract 3x from both sides. and their measures are equal. Subtract 55 from both sides. ∠2 = 180 – 130 = 50° 23. Subtract 2x from both sides. The angle marked as 5x + 55 = (5 ϫ 15) + 55 = 130°. b. since the sum of their measures must equal 90°. . Divide both sides by –2. 22. ∠2 and 5x + 55 are supplementary. Supplementary angles do not have to be obtuse. Choice b is always true. use algebra to solve for x and then ﬁnd the measure of 5x + 55. e. All of the statements are false. The two angles marked by algebraic expressions are corresponding angles and their measures are equal.76 J U ST I N TI M E G E O M ETRY 20. 21. ∠3 and ∠4 are supplementary angles. Combine like terms. Alternate exterior angles may be either obtuse or acute. e. Use algebra to solve for x. Combine like terms. ∠2 and ∠8 are exterior angles on the same side of the transversal. First. Complementary angles must each be less than 90°. ∠3 and ∠5 are interior angles on the same side of the transversal. Finally. x = 3x – 100 x – 3x = 3x – 3x – 100 –2x = –100 ᎏ =ᎏ –2 x = 50° –2x ᎏᎏ –2 –100 Set up an equation. b. The two marked angles are vertical angles. Two angles of 90° are supplementary.

Combine like terms. Use algebra to solve for x.S P E C I AL AN G LE PAI R S AN D A N G LE M EAS U R E M E NT 77 24. Subtract 20 from both sides. Subtract 45 from both sides. Divide both sides by 4. notice that ∠8 and the angle marked as 75° form a linear pair. Two angles that are a linear pair have angle measures that add up to 180°. 15x – 30 + 75 = 180 15x + 45 = 180 15x + 45 – 45 = 180 – 45 15x = 135 15x ᎏ 15 ᎏ =ᎏ 15 135 Set up an equation. Combine like terms. . Use algebra to solve for x. If this is difﬁcult to determine. and then ﬁnd the measure of the angles by substituting in the value for x. Combine like terms. a. x = 9° 25. and ∠8 and (15x – 30) are corresponding angles with the same measure. The angle x + 10 is 40 + 10 = 50°. and the other angle 3x + 10 is (3 ϫ 40) + 10 = 120 + 10 = 130°. One of them is acute and the other is obtuse. c. Combine like terms. The angle of 75° and the angle marked as an algebraic expression in the ﬁgure are supplementary. Divide both sides by 15. x + 10 + 3x + 10 = 180 4x + 20 = 180 4x + 20 – 20 = 180 – 20 4x = 160 = ᎏ4ᎏ x = 40° 4x ᎏᎏ 4 160 Set up an equation.

2. 6. 7. 9. check the answer key carefully. 9. take this ten-question benchmark quiz. 10 b. When you are ﬁnished. 8 e. 8. 13 d. 5. 12. 8. Virtually all tests that include geometry will have problems relating to triangles. 15 78 . so it’s important to have a strong foundation in this area. BENCHMARK QUIZ 1. Follow the suggestions that follow which are based on how you scored on the quiz.4 Triangles T he triangle is the fundamental ﬁgure in geometry. 5. Before studying the lessons in this chapter. 11 c. Which of the following side measures could NOT form a triangle? a.

Using the triangle below. 90° b. 52° c.TR IAN G LE S 79 2. acute isosceles e. right scalene 3. 38° d. acute scalene c. AAS c. obtuse isosceles d. What is the classiﬁcation of the following triangle? a. right isosceles b. 62° 4. SSS b. SAS d. By which method are the two triangles. ΔWXZ and ΔYXZ congruent? a. SSA e. 142° e. what is the measure of ∠XYZ? a. cannot be determined .

choices b and c 7. 25° e. choices a and c e. Given the following triangle. 14. Given ΔXYZ with exterior angle shown. what is the value of x? a. 12° b. The measure of ∠ABC > the measure of ∠BCA. 90° d. 18° d. The measure of ∠BAC > the measure of ∠ABC. 54° 6. 90° b. 2° e. which of the following statements is true? a.8° c. d. b. 170° c. 20° . what is the value of x? a. Given the triangle below.80 J U ST I N TI M E G E O M ETRY 5. c. The measure of ∠BAC = the measure of ∠BCA.

100° d. The measure of ∠LMN plus the measure of ∠LNM is equal to 90°. and read through the answer explanations. The angle measures in a triangle are in the ratio of 1 : 2 : 5. 22. 45° 10. All of the above are false. All of the above are true. Grade yourself. and then follow the suggestions given under Benchmark Quiz Results. 60° e. The altitude to ៮៮ LN is equal to the median of LN ៮៮ b. 30° b. d.5° e. Given the following triangle. a. 130° BENCHMARK QUIZ SOLUTIONS Carefully check your answers. What is the measure of the largest angle? a. 112. . c.TR IAN G LE S 81 8. Use the following ﬁgure to ﬁnd the value of x. LN is an altitude to the triangle. 24° c. which of the following statements is FALSE? ៮៮. 12° d. 50° b.5° c. e. a. 9.

If you add the congruent sides. which are congruent. and the base angles of an isosceles triangle are congruent. The angle common side of ZX is between the two congruent sides. . The triangle is a right triangle. The two triangles both have an angle of 90°. Choices b and c are true. since it has an angle of 90°. this is not greater than the third side of 11. The triangles share a WX ៮៮. 3. angle. The side measures of 5. e. The sum of the measures of ∠XYZ and 38° must equal 90°. and 11 cannot form a triangle. 5. 6. Since ៮៮ AC is the largest side. so this is another congruent side. ∠A and ∠C are congruent because this is an isosceles triangle. ៮៮ ≅ XY ៮ as marked by the single slashes. Combine like terms. Use algebra to solve for x. Subtract 90 from both sides. Combine like terms. ∠ABC has the greatest measure. The sum of any two sides of a triangle must be greater than the measure of the third side. The largest angle is opposite to the largest side. 5x + 8 + 45 + 37 = 180 5x + 90 = 180 5x + 90 – 90 = 180 – 90 5x = 90 = ᎏ5ᎏ x = 18° 5x ᎏᎏ 5 90 Set up an equation. The measure of an exterior angle is equal to the sum of the two remote interior angles. 4. as shown by the small box marked in the angle. The measure of ∠XYZ = 90 – 38 = 52°. 7. 5 + 5 = 10. Use algebra to solve for x.82 J U ST I N TI M E G E O M ETRY 1. a. The sum of the degree measures of the angles in a triangle equals 180°. 2. so the correct method is side. Subtract 6 from both sides. Divide both sides by 7. 7x + 6 = 40 + 50 7x + 6 = 90 7x + 6 – 6 = 90 – 6 7x = 84 = ᎏ7ᎏ x = 12° 7x ᎏᎏ 7 84 Set up an equation. Divide both sides by 5. 5. c. since all of the side measurements are different. side or SAS. The acute angles of a right triangle are complementary. e. b. b. The classiﬁcation by sides is scalene. Combine like terms. Combine like terms. c.

you need to spend some time on this chapter. x + 2x + 5x = 180 8x = 180 = ᎏ8ᎏ x = 22. The sum of the degree measures of the exterior angles of a triangle is 360°.5 = 112. so express them as x. Work through the quiz at the end of the chapter to check your progress. Use algebra to solve for x. respectively. a. you have a good understanding of triangle relationships.5 to ﬁnd the largest angle. Divide both sides by 8. hints. The angle measures are given as a ratio.5°. d. If you answered 4–7 questions correctly.5° 8x ᎏᎏ 8 180 Set up an equation. Combine like terms. BENCHMARK QUIZ RESULTS If you answered 8–10 questions correctly. point M to the midpoint of LN 9. a. 2x. Combine like terms. and shortcuts. Subtract 60 from both sides. Choice a is the only false statement. concentrating on the areas where you were weak. LM LN and the median (not shown in the ﬁgure) would extend from ៮៮. Many problems in geometry deal with the trian- . Together. pay attention to the sidebars that refer you to more in depth practice. Refer to the shortcut sidebars to pick up any techniques for saving time when solving triangle problems. The answer explanations will help you through any areas that still need clariﬁcation. you need to devote your full attention to this chapter. Take the quiz at the end of this chapter to conﬁrm your success with triangle relationship problems. 2x + 5x + 20 + 3x + 40 = 360 10x + 60 = 360 10x + 60 – 60 = 360 – 60 10x = 300 ᎏ =ᎏ 10 x = 30° 10x ᎏᎏ 10 300 Set up an equation. Combine like terms. If you answered 1–3 questions correctly. their sum adds up to 180°. Use algebra to solve for x. Read over the chapter. Read through the entire chapter.TR IAN G LE S 83 ៮៮ is the altitude to side ៮៮ 8. 5x: 5 ϫ 22. and 5x. Use the value of 22. Visit the suggested websites for additional practice. and then substitute in this value for 5x to ﬁnd the largest angle. Divide both sides by 10. 10.

the basic facts and relationships of triangles will be reviewed. Geometry Success in 20 Minutes a Day. For further study. and all of the necessary vocabulary. Go to the suggested websites in the Extra Help sidebar in this chapter. Chapters 8 and 9 will cover several real-world applications and important theorems of triangles. JUST IN TIME LESSON—TRIANGLES Topics in this chapter include: • • • • • Triangle Classiﬁcation The Angles in a Triangle The Sides of a Triangle Median and Altitude of a Triangle Congruent Triangles Triangles are the most common ﬁgure in geometry. REGULAR POLYGON a polygon in which all of the sides and all of the angles are congruent TRIANGLE a polygon with three sides . Be sure you know all the rules outlined in the Rule Books. so a complete understanding of triangles is crucial for any test that involves geometry. GLOSSARY POLYGON a closed ﬁgure in a plane formed by joining segments at their endpoints SIDE of a polygon is any one of the segments that make up the polygon VERTEX of a polygon is any one of the common endpoints that make up the polygon. and do extended practice. In this chapter.84 J U ST I N TI M E G E O M ETRY gle. published by LearningExpress. Chapter 6 will review the triangle measurements of area and perimeter. The plural of vertex is vertices. Lessons 6 and 7. refer to the book. carefully read this chapter and concentrate on the sidebars and all ﬁgures. First.

The non-congruent side is called the base. . called the legs. in two different ways. called the base angles. The following diagram shows the classiﬁcation names when grouping by sides. and another by the angles. Each of the angles in an equilateral triangle has measure of 60°. Note that isosceles triangles have two sides congruent. In Chapter 2. angle classiﬁcation was reviewed. or two sides congruent. and also two angles congruent. The classiﬁcation of triangles according to angle measure is shown in the following ﬁgure.TR IAN G LE S 85 TRIANGLE CLASSIFICATION Triangles are classiﬁed. or no sides congruent. or grouped. For a triangle. Congruent sides and congruent angles of triangles are often marked as in the following ﬁgure. Equilateral triangles have all sides and all angles congruent. you can have all three sides congruent (equal measure). One classiﬁcation distinguishes among the sides.

therefore. the classiﬁcation by sides is scalene. To group by sides. notice that even though right triangles and obtuse triangles each have two acute angles. Example: Classify this triangle by sides and angles. note that there is a right angle in this triangle. To group by angles. the classiﬁcation is right isosceles. notice that there are two sides (៮ AB.86 J U ST I N TI M E G E O M ETRY Be careful when classifying triangles by angle measure. THE ANGLES IN A TRIANGLE In addition to classifying triangles by angle measure. there are other important facts about the measure of the angles in a triangle. their classiﬁcation is not affected by these angles. There is one angle greater than 90° (∠B is 110°). . Example: Classify this triangle by sides and angles. Because no sides are marked as congruent in this ﬁgure. ៮ BC) that are congruent. The side classiﬁcation is isosceles. Acute triangles have all THREE acute angles. This triangle is obtuse scalene. So. the angle classiﬁcation is obtuse.

their sum will be 90°. what is the measure of ∠XYZ? Since the measure of the other two angles are given as 105° and 45°. Example: What is the measure of ∠MNO in the triangle shown? The measure of ∠NMO is given. so the measure of ∠XYZ = 180 – 150 = 30°. the measure of ЄMNO could have been found by 90 (the measure of ЄNMO). The measure of ∠MNO = 180 – (90 + 42) = 180 – 132 = 48°. " SHORTCUT The two acute angles in every right triangle are complementary. . as indicated by the small box drawn in the interior. In the last example. Example: Given the following triangle.TR IAN G LE S 87 E RULE BOOK The sum of the measure of the angles in a triangle is equal to 180°. ∠XYZ = 180 – (105 + 45). which is 90 – 42 = 48°. and ∠NOM is a right angle.

and substitute in to ﬁnd the value of the missing angle measures: The angles are 114°. problems are presented in which the angle measures are described as a ratio. Combine like terms. = ᎏ3ᎏ 66 x = 22 Use the value of 22 for x. show the measures as the ratio factor times a variable.88 J U ST I N TI M E G E O M ETRY Example: Use the following diagram of the triangle to ﬁnd the missing angle measures. and divide both sides by 3. the three angles are 114. and divide both sides by 9. In these types of problems. Example: In a triangle. Use algebra to solve for the variable x: x + 2x + 114 = 180 3x + 114 = 180 3x + 114 – 114 = 180 – 114 3x ᎏᎏ 3 Set up the equation. the angle measures are in the ratio of 2 : 2 : 5. such as x: Use algebra to solve for the variable: 2x + 2x + 5x = 180 9x ᎏᎏ 9 Set up the equation. Combine like terms. x and 2x. = 180 ᎏᎏ 9 x = 20 . In the diagram. and 2 ϫ 22 = 44°. 22°. showing the angle measures as factors of a variable. Sometimes. Subtract 114 from both sides. Combine like terms. What is the measure of the angles? Draw the triangle.

. and divide both sides by 6. the second angle measures 2 ϫ 30 = 60°. what is the angle classiﬁcation of the triangle? The angle measures can be represented by x. is a right triangle. and other times. 20 ϫ 5 = 100°. such as in the last two examples. Combine like terms. One of the angles measures 30°. Example: If the angle measures in a triangle are in the ratio of 1 : 2 : 3. Sometimes. = 180 ᎏᎏ 6 x = 30° Substitute in the value of 30 for x to get the angle measures. This extended side and one of the other original sides of the triangle deﬁne an exterior angle. and 3x. the value of the variable is requested. Use algebra to ﬁnd the angle measures: x + 2x + 3x = 180 6x ᎏᎏ 6 Set up the equation. and the third angle is 3 ϫ 30 = 90°. 2x. So the triangle classiﬁcation. classiﬁed by angle.TR IAN G LE S 89 Use the value of 20 to substitute in to ﬁnd the measure of the angles: 20 ϫ 2 = 40°. be clear on what the problem is asking for. GLOSSARY EXTERIOR ANGLE an angle formed by extending one of the sides of the triangle. When using algebra to solve geometric problems. the measure of the angles is requested. 20 ϫ 2 = 40°.

x = 30° . Combine like terms. is equal to 360°. what is the value of x? The sum of the measure of these exterior angles is equal to 360°. Use algebra: 2x + 4x + 40 + 4x + 20 = 360 10x + 60 = 360 10x + 60 – 60 = 360 – 60 10x ᎏᎏ 10 ᎏ =ᎏ 10 300 Set up an equation. or any polygon. Combine like terms. and divide both sides by 10. Subtract 60 from both sides. Example: The following diagram shows the exterior angles to a triangle.90 J U ST I N TI M E G E O M ETRY E RULE BOOK The sum of all of the exterior angles in a triangle. In the diagram.

The measure of ∠XYZ = 120 – 30 = 90°. what is the measure of ∠XYZ? The exterior angle. the measure of ЄDCA is equal to the measure of ЄCAB and ЄCBA. Combine like terms. with the exterior angle shown.TR IAN G LE S 91 E RULE BOOK The measure of an exterior angle to a triangle is equal to the sum of the measure of the two remote interior angles of the triangle. . the measure of ЄDCA = 37 + 72 = 109°. whose measure is 120°. In the ﬁgure above. Example: What is the value of the variable x in the following ﬁgure of a triangle with the exterior angle shown? Use algebra: 6x = 30 + 42 = x = 12° 6x ᎏᎏ 6 72 ᎏᎏ 6 Set up the equation. and ∠XYZ. and divide both sides by 6. So. Example: Given ΔXYZ. is equal to the sum of the angle of measure 30°.

the longest side is opposite the largest angle. Example: Can the measures of 7 inches. Use the variable x for the third side and then use the inequality that 3 + x > 9. and 15 inches form a triangle? These side measures are not possible. the congruent sides. Subtracting 3 from both sides of the inequality yields that x > 6. So. the range of possible measures is greater than 6 but less than 12. are opposite the congruent angles. These measures can form a triangle. 9 inches. when given the other two sides. Example: If two sides of a triangle are 3 and 9. . and 16 > 15. what is the range of values possible for the third side of the triangle? The sum of any two sides must be greater than the third side. All three pairs pass the test. is between the sum of the two sides. Adding 7 + 7 = 14. Example: Can the measures of 7 inches. and then ensure that this sum is greater than the third side. E RULE BOOK In every triangle. x < 3 + 9. since it must be smaller than the sum of 3 and 9. This must work for each pair. and 24 > 7. and 14 < 15. Add the measures of each pair. and 15 inches form a triangle? Test the sum of each pair. and the shortest side is opposite the smallest angle. Set up this inequality. so these measures are not possible. called the legs. E RULE BOOK The sum of the measure of any two sides of a triangle is always greater than the measure of the remaining side. called the base angles. The third side must also be less than 12.92 THE SIDES OF A TRIANGLE J U ST I N TI M E G E O M ETRY There is an important fact about the measure of the sides of a triangle. 7 inches. 7 + 9 = 16. and the difference of the two sides. and 22 > 9. " SHORTCUT The range of possible measures for a side of a triangle. 9 + 15 = 24. or x < 12. In an isosceles triangle. 7 + 15 = 22.

TR IAN G LE S 93 ALTITUDE AND MEDIAN OF A TRIANGLE GLOSSARY ALTITUDE of a triangle is a segment perpendicular to one of the sides of the triangle. MEDIAN of a triangle is a segment whose endpoints are a vertex of the triangle and the midpoint of the opposite side " SHORTCUT In an isosceles triangle. . the median to the base is the same as the altitude to the base. the sides that form the right angle. The length of the altitude extends from the side to the vertex opposite to the side in question. In a right triangle. There are three altitudes in every triangle. two of the altitudes are sides of the triangle.

Use algebra: 3x = 5x – 10 3x + 10 = 5x – 10 + 10 3x + 10 = 5x 3x – 3x + 10 = 5x – 3x 10 ᎏᎏ 2 Set up the equation. b. d. ΔABD is a right triangle. e. Subtract 3x from both sides. = ᎏ2ᎏ 2x 5=x Use the value of 5 to ﬁnd the measure of ៮៮ XZ: (3 ϫ 5) + (5 ϫ 5 – 10) = 15 + 25 – 10 = 40 – 10 = 30. which of the following statements is true? a. it bisects ៮៮ Since ៮៮ YW is a median to XZ XZ. Add 10 to both sides.94 J U ST I N TI M E G E O M ETRY Example: ៮៮ is the median to Given the following triangle. ΔABC is an isosceles triangle. what is the length of XZ? ៮៮. Example: In the following triangle. ΔABC is an acute triangle. ៮៮ is the same segment as the altitude to AC ៮៮. Combine like terms. The median to AC c. . and divide both sides by 2. and the fact that YW ៮៮ ៮៮ XZ. All of the above are true. Combine like terms.

Choice a is true because two of the sides have equal measure. These matching sides and vertices are referred to as corresponding sides and corresponding vertices. Both sides and vertices could be matched up. CONGRUENT TRIANGLES Recall from Chapter 2 that two ﬁgures are congruent if they have the same shape and the same size.TR IAN G LE S 95 The correct response is choice e. They have the same size and the same shape. Imagine lifting one of them and placing it on top of the other. In the diagram. Choice d is true because for this triangle. Choice c is true because this triangle contains a 90° angle. M would correspond to Y. Choice b is true because in an isosceles triangle. all of the angles are less than 90°. . All of the three choices are true. and O would correspond to Z. the median of the base is the same as the altitude to the base. Look at the following congruent triangles. L would correspond to X.

The following triangles are a possible picture for the congruence statement given.96 J U ST I N TI M E G E O M ETRY E RULE BOOK Corresponding sides of congruent triangles are congruent. This is just two of six corresponding congruent parts that are deﬁned by the triangle congruence statement. The measure of ∠ABC = 30°. Use algebra to solve for the variable x: 3x – 15 = 30 3x – 15 + 15 = 30 + 15 3x ᎏᎏ 3 Set up the equation. = ᎏ3ᎏ 45 x = 15° . Corresponding angles of congruent triangles are congruent. ៮ AB is congruent to ៮៮ DE. the corresponding vertices are listed in the same order. Combine like terms. Example: In the following diagram of congruent triangles. you know the corresponding parts even without a diagram. and divide both sides by 3. Add 15 to both sides. and ЄBCA Х ЄEFD. This rule is followed so that when given the statement ΔABC Х ΔDEF. When naming congruent triangles. In the above congruence. what is the value of the variable x? In the diagram ∠ABC ≅ ∠DEF.

∠BAC ≅ ∠MNL ៮៮ ≅ AB ៮ b. B corresponds to M. LN c. Add 12 to both sides. Use the congruence statement to establish the congruent vertices. Use algebra to solve for the variable x: ΔRST ≅ ΔLMN. = ᎏ4ᎏ 36 x=9 Triangle congruence can be assured without knowing all the measures of all of the sides and angles. ∠ABC ≅ ∠LNM Choice c is the only true statement. MN e. The proof of these methods is beyond the scope of this book. . MN 4x – 12 = 24 4x – 12 + 12 = 24 + 12 4x ᎏᎏ 4 Set up the equation.TR IAN G LE S 97 Example: Given that ΔABC ≅ ΔLMN. However. Vertex A corresponds to L. knowledge of the methods is important in order to test triangle congruence. which of the following is true? a. what is the value of the variable x? ៮៮ ≅ ST ៮. There are special cases for testing congruence that only involve three corresponding parts of the triangles. These are mathematical methods that have been proven and are always true. Combine like terms. and C corresponds to N. and divide both sides by 4. ∠CBA ≅ ∠NML ៮៮ ≅ AB ៮ d. Example: Given the following congruent triangles.

Note that AAA (Angle-Angle-Angle) and SSA (Side-Side-Angle) are NOT methods that can be used to establish congruence! In addition. you cannot assume congruence just because they appear congruent. You may encounter test questions that give a drawing of two triangles and limited information about the triangles. then the triangles are congruent. be careful.98 J U ST I N TI M E G E O M ETRY E RULE BOOK There are four established methods of testing triangle congruence. SSS (Side-Side-Side) method states that if the three sides of one triangle are congruent to the three sides of another triangle. the triangles are congruent. The methods above may be needed to establish whether the two triangles are congruent. based on the information given? . what method could be used to establish congruence. Example: In the following two triangles. When you are asked to determine triangle congruence. The side MUST be between the angles for this method to hold true. ASA (Angle-Side-Angle) method states that if two angles and the side between them (the included side) are congruent to two angles and the included side of another triangle. The angle MUST be between the sides for this method to hold true. AAS (Angle-Angle-Side) method states that if two angles and a side not included are congruent to two angles and the corresponding side not included. if a test question asks whether two triangles are congruent. SAS (Side-Angle-Side) method states that if two sides and the angle that they form (the included angle) are congruent to two sides and the included angle of another triangle. the triangles are congruent. the triangles are congruent. One of the angles MUST be between the other angle and side for this method to hold true.

look for shared sides. then this is a side that can be used to establish congruence. and the side that is in between these angles. Given that AD what method can be used to establish congruence of ΔADC and ΔADB? Draw in the perpendicular bisector. Example: ៮៮ is the perpendicular bisector of ΔABC. In the diagram.” common side of AD From the drawing.TR IAN G LE S 99 The correct response is the ASA method. label the triangles with the congruence symbols and then use the ﬁgure to determine the correct method. The two triangles share the ៮៮ . the congruent parts that are marked are two angles. . In triangle congruence problems. including the marking for the right angle and the congruent segments. shown below. since it is two congruent sides and the included angle between them. This is marked with an “X. it is apparent that the method is SAS. If two triangles share a common side. If information is given in words.

and then a side. mark all congruent parts. the method is AAS. Mark the shared ៮. as congruent in the two triangles. The marked congruence is an angle. segment. One of the angles is in between the other angle and side. which is the right angle. When separated. that is HI From the drawing.100 J U ST I N TI M E G E O M ETRY Triangles may also overlap. as in the following diagram. and transfer the markings. It is helpful in these cases to show the triangles separated. . what method could be used to establish that the two triangles are congruent? Separate the triangles. then another angle. Example: Given the following ΔGHI and ΔJIH. which is the shared side.

When you are taking a multiple-choice test. • Corresponding angles of congruent triangles are congruent. Then. • The two acute angles in a right triangle are complementary. TIPS AND STRATEGIES When working with triangles. . AAS.com has an interactive lesson on triangles. immediately eliminate any methods that are AAA.TR IAN G LE S 101 O EXTRA HELP The website www. There is a series of interactive lessons. and ASA. or SSA.math. • Corresponding sides of congruent triangles are congruent. under Polygons. For more information and practice on working with triangles. Upon reaching this site. located on the left-hand list. Another website is http://library. click on Geometry. published by LearningExpress. On the left sidebar. click on Triangles. SAS.thinkquest. • For a triangle to be classiﬁed as acute. all three angles must be acute angles.html. • The sum of the degree measure of the angles in a triangle is 180°. followed by a short interactive quiz. • A median is a segment whose endpoints are a vertex of the triangle and the midpoint of the opposite side. • The measure of an exterior angle to a triangle is equal to the sum of the measure of the two remote interior angles.org/20991/geo/ index. • The sum of the degree measure of the three exterior angles of a triangle is 360°. • There are four methods to establish triangle congruence: SSS. remember: • Triangles are classiﬁed one way according to the angle measure and are classiﬁed a second way according to side measure. • An altitude to a side of a triangle is the perpendicular segment to that side. • The methods of AAA and SSA are not acceptable methods to establish congruence. reference the book Geometry Success in 20 Minutes a Day. remember these tips to improve your score: • For triangle problems that ask for a method to establish congruence. click on Congruent Triangles.

6. What is the classiﬁcation of the following triangle? a. and 10 2.102 J U ST I N TI M E G E O M ETRY • For triangle problems that ask for a method to establish congruence. acute scalene c. A triangle is not possible with side lengths of 6 and 10. what is the exact range of possible measure for the third side? a. 6. If two sides of a triangle are 6 and 10. a measure between 4 and 16 only e. Do not make assumptions based on the appearance of the ﬁgure. a measure between 6 and 10 only d. and 5 b. 3. any measure greater than 10 c. acute obtuse b. 7. 4. 3. any measure less than 6 b. 4. 5. obtuse scalene . Which of the following side measures could NOT form a triangle? a. and 15 d. only use the information given. acute isosceles d. When you are ﬁnished. 13. PRACTICE QUIZ Try these 25 problems. review the answers and explanations to see if you have mastered this concept. and 5 e. and 12 c. 1. 12. acute right e. 5.

SSS e. right isosceles d. acute scalene e. SAS b. isosceles scalene 5. AAS c. By which method are ΔABC and ΔDBC congruent. AAS d. given the following ﬁgures? a. SSA 6. given the ﬁgure ៮ is a perpendicular bisector of ៮៮ below and the fact that BC AD? a. ASA d. What is the classiﬁcation of the following triangle? a. SAA e.TR IAN G LE S 103 4. acute isosceles c. SSS c. SAS b. SSA . acute right b. By which method are the two triangles congruent.

៮៮ ≅ BC ៮ d. 15 e. 89° e. 47° d. 224° c. 60 d. what is the measure of ∠SRT? a. What is the value of x in the following triangle? a.104 J U ST I N TI M E G E O M ETRY 7. AB c.4° 8. Which of the statements is ALWAYS true about the following triangle? ៮ is an altitude of ΔABC. 44° b. 4. ∠ABC ≅ ∠ACB .5 9. 12 c. Given the following triangle. 19. b. 48 b. AB ៮ is a median of ΔABC. a. ΔABC is acute isosceles. AC e.

28 e. Given the following diagram. 56 c. 93° d. Given ΔBDC with exterior angles shown. The measure of ∠SRT is equal to 80°. 120° b. The measure of RT is greater than the measure of ST d. c. 91 . what is the ៮៮? length of LN a. 30° c.TR IAN G LE S 105 10. 63 d. Given the two congruent triangles LMN and RST shown. The measure of ∠SRT is equal to 100°. a. b. e. 10° e. The measure of ៮ ST is less than the measure of ៮ ៮. 11. 7 b. The measure of ៮ ST is greater than the measure of RT ៮ ៮. which statement is true? RS. 12° 12. what is the degree measure of ∠ABD? a.

10° c. 40 . a. 3 b. a. Use the ﬁgure of congruent triangles below to ﬁnd the value of the variable x. 18° 14. 10° e. 8.6° e. 120° d. 31 e. Use the following diagram of a triangle with the three exterior angles shown to ﬁnd the value of the variable x.106 J U ST I N TI M E G E O M ETRY 13. ៮៮ US is the median to RT ៮ RT? a. 15. What is the length of 15. 24° d. 360° c. In the triangle below. 120° ៮. 20 c. 90° b.72 d. 43° b.

120° 20. 30° c. SSS d. 108° e. AAS 19. either choice a or b e. SSA c. What is the measure of the largest exterior angle? a. right triangle c.TR IAN G LE S 107 16. SAS b. 162° b. 15° b. either choice a or c . Given that ΔXYZ is an isosceles triangle where ៮៮ XZ is the base and ៮៮ YM is the median to the base. by which method below can it be established that ΔXYM ≅ ΔZYM? a. 90° d. The ratio of the degree measure of the exterior angles to a triangle is 5 : 6 : 9. which methods can be used to determine congruence? a. Given the following diagram of two triangles. isosceles triangle 17. ASA d. 262° 18. The two acute angles in a right triangle are in the ratio of 2 : 4. The ratio of the degree measure of the angles in a triangle is 2 : 3 : 5. What is the angle classiﬁcation of the triangle? a. obtuse triangle b. 60° e. SSS e. AAA b. 180° c. 90° d. SSA c. straight triangle d. acute triangle e. What is the measure of the smallest angle? a.

23. What is the degree measure of an exterior angle to an equilateral triangle? a. b. The measure of AB is greater than the measure of BC ៮៮ d. 300° d. Given the following diagram of ΔABC. Classify the following triangle by angles and sides.108 J U ST I N TI M E G E O M ETRY 21. ΔABC is an acute scalene triangle. a. The measure of AC is greater than the measure of ៮ BC. 120° e. which of the following statements is true? a. right isosceles d. None of the above is true. isosceles scalene . c. obtuse isosceles b. 180° c. right scalene c. The measure of BC ៮ ៮. 60° b. acute obtuse e. 360° 22. ៮ is greater than the measure of AC ៮៮. e.

TR IAN G LE S

109

24. Given the following overlapping triangles, by what method can it be established that ΔABC ≅ ΔDCB?

a. SSS b. SAS c. AAS d. AAA e. SSA 25. In the following ﬁgure of overlapping triangles, by what method can it be established that the two triangles are congruent?

a. SAS b. AAA c. SSS d. AAS e. ASA

J U ST I N TI M E G E O M ETRY

Here are the answers, with detailed explanations, for the triangle practice quiz. Study the explanations for any questions that you answered incorrectly. Then, go back and try the problems again.

1. b. The measures of 6, 6, and 12 cannot form a triangle. The sum of two of the sides, that is 6 + 6 = 12, is equal to the third side. The sum of any two sides must be GREATER than the third side. 2. d. To ﬁnd the exact range of possible values, remember the shortcut that the third side must be greater than the difference, that is 10 – 6 = 4. The third side must also be smaller than the sum, that is 10 + 6 = 16. 3. e. The classiﬁcation is scalene; all of the sides have a different measure. The angle classiﬁcation is obtuse because one of the angles, namely 120°, is obtuse. 4. c. The classiﬁcation is isosceles because two of the sides have equal measure. The angle classiﬁcation is “right,” as shown by the small box marked in one of the angles. 5. a. Since ៮ BC is a perpendicular bisector of ៮៮ AD, it forms right angles ៮៮, creating the two congruent segments ៮៮ ៮៮. and bisects AD AC and CD Draw in these congruent parts as shown:

៮; From the ﬁgure, the two triangles share the common side of BC this is the third congruent part. The correct method is SAS, because the right angle is between the congruent sides. 6. b. The method for congruence is angle-angle-side, or AAS, since one of the angles is between the other angle and side. 7. a. The sum of the degree measure of the angles in a triangle is 180°. The measure of ∠SRT = 180 – 89 – 47 = 180 – 136 = 44°. 8. b. The two acute angles in a right triangle are complementary. Use algebra to solve for x.

TR IAN G LE S

111

4x + 12 + 30 = 90 4x + 42 = 90 4x + 42 – 42 = 90 – 42 4x = 48 = ᎏ4ᎏ x = 12
4x ᎏᎏ 4 48

Set up an equation. Combine like terms. Subtract 42 from both sides. Combine like terms. Divide both sides by 4.

៮ is an altitude of ΔABC. AB ៮ is 9. a. The only true statement is that AB not a median of ΔABC. The median bisects a side of the triangle. The classiﬁcation of ΔABC is right isosceles, not acute isosceles. ៮ and BC ៮. AC ៮៮ is not congruent to the The congruent sides are AB other sides. ∠ABC and ∠ACB cannot be congruent; there is at most one right angle in a triangle. ៮ because 10. c. The measure of ៮ RT is greater than the measure of ST ∠RST is the largest angle, and the largest side is opposite to the largest angle in a triangle. 11. a. The degree measure of an exterior angle to a triangle is equal to the sum of the other two interior angles. Use algebra to solve for the variable x, and then ﬁnd the measure of the angle. 10x + 20 = 5x + 7x 10x + 20 = 12x 10x – 10x + 20 = 12x – 10x 20 = 2x = ᎏ2ᎏ 10 = x
20 ᎏᎏ 2 2x

Set up an equation. Combine like terms. Subtract 10x from both sides. Combine like terms. Divide both sides by 2.

Use the value of 10 for x to ﬁnd the measure of 10x + 20: (10 ϫ 10) + 20 = 100 + 20 = 120°. ៮៮ and ៮ 12. c. The congruent sides are LN RT, based on the given congruence statement. Use algebra to solve for the variable a, and then ﬁnd the length of ៮៮ LN. a + 56 = 9a a – a + 56 = 9a – a 56 = 8a
56 ᎏᎏ 8

Set up an equation. Subtract a from both sides. Combine like terms. Divide both sides by 8.

=

8a ᎏ 8

7=a

៮៮ LN = a + 56; 7 + 56 = 63.

Substitute in the value of 7 to ﬁnd the length of

112

J U ST I N TI M E G E O M ETRY

13. d. The sum of the degree measure of the exterior angles to a triangle is 360°. Use algebra to solve for x. (8x + 30) + (6x + 60) + (10x + 30) = 360 Set up an equation. 24x + 120 = 360 Combine like terms. 24x + 120 – 120 = 360 – 120 Subtract 120 from both sides. 24x = 240 Combine like terms.
ᎏ =ᎏ 24 x = 10 24x ᎏᎏ 24 240

Divide both sides by 24.

14. c. ∠XZY is congruent to ∠ACB by using the marking that shows these angles to be congruent. Their measures are equal. The measure of ∠ACB is 120°, because the sum of the angle measures in a triangle is 180°, and 180 – 43 – 17 = 120. Use algebra to solve for x. 5x = 120 = x = 24
5x ᎏᎏ 5 120 ᎏᎏ 5

Set up an equation. Divide both sides by 5.

៮៮ bisects RT ៮. From this information, ៮ ៮ and 15. e. The median US RS ≅ ST their measures are equal. Use algebra to solve for m, and then ﬁnd ៮. the length of RT 9m – 7 = 2m + 14 9m – 2m – 7 = 2m – 2m + 14 7m – 7 = 14 7m – 7 + 7 = 14 + 7
7m ᎏᎏ 7

Set up an equation. Subtract 2m from both sides. Combine like terms. Add 7 to both sides. Combine like terms, and divide both sides by 7.

= ᎏ7ᎏ

21

m=3 Use the value of 3 to ﬁnd the length of ៮ RT: 9m – 7 + 2m + 14; (9 ϫ 3) – 7 + (2 ϫ 3) + 14 = 27 – 7 + 6 + 14 = 40.

TR IAN G LE S

113

16. b. The sum of the degree measures of the angles in a triangle is 180°. Because ratios are given for angle measure, express these measures as 2x, 3x, and 5x respectively. Use algebra to solve for x, and then ﬁnd the measure of the angles to ﬁnd the classiﬁcation. 2x + 3x + 5x = 180
10x ᎏᎏ 10

Set up an equation. Combine like terms, and divide both sides by 10.

=

180 ᎏᎏ 10

x = 18 Using the value of 18 for x, the angle measures are 2 ϫ 18 = 36, 3 ϫ 18 = 54, and 5 ϫ 18 = 90. The angle classiﬁcation is a right triangle because one of the angles is 90°. 17. a. The sum of the degree measures of the exterior angles in a triangle is 360°. Because ratios are given for angle measure, express these measures as 5x, 6x, and 9x respectively. Use algebra to solve for x, and then ﬁnd the measure of the largest angle. 5x + 6x + 9x = 360
20x ᎏᎏ 20

Set up an equation. Combine like terms, and divide both sides by 20.

=

360 ᎏᎏ 20

x = 18 The largest angle is 9 times x, which is 162°. 18. d. Draw the isosceles triangle with given information:

៮ The fact that ΔXYZ is an isosceles triangle means that ៮ XY and YZ ៮៮ ៮៮ ៮៮ are congruent. Because YM is the median to the base, XM ≅ MZ. The two triangles share a common side ៮៮ YM, which is the third necessary congruent part. The method is side-side-side, or SSS.

114

J U ST I N TI M E G E O M ETRY

19. b. The degree measure of the two acute angles in a right triangle add up to 90°. A ratio is given, so use the expressions 2x and 4x to represent the acute angles. Use algebra to solve for x, and then ﬁnd the measure of the smallest angle, which is 2 times x. 2x + 4x = 90
6x ᎏᎏ 6

Set up an equation. Combine like terms, and divide both sides by 6.

=

90 ᎏᎏ 6

x = 15 The smallest angle is 2 times 15, which is 30°. 20. e. There are two possible methods to establish congruence, that is SAS or SSS. The two triangles share a common side and the other two sides are marked as congruent. In addition, the small box in the interior of the angle indicates these segments are perpendicular, so both triangles have the congruent angle of 90°. Note that even though the diagram shows congruent parts of side-sideangle, or SSA, this is NOT an acceptable method to use to establish congruence. 21. d. The angles in an equilateral triangle are all congruent. Since their measure must add up to 180°, each interior angle is 60°. The measure of an exterior angle is equal to the sum of the two remote interior angles, so the measure of an exterior angle in this case is 60 + 60 = 120°. 22. d. The longest side is opposite to the largest angle. Because ∠ABC = 128°, the side with the greatest measure is opposite this angle, ៮៮. Note also that BC ៮>៮ AC AB because ∠BAC > ∠BCA. 23. a. The triangle is obtuse because one of the angles is greater than 90°. The classiﬁcation is isosceles because two of the sides are congruent, as shown by the markings on the triangle.

TR IAN G LE S

115

24. b. First, separate the two triangles, and mark all congruent parts. ៮ is a shared side, so should be marked as conRemember that BC gruent on both:

From the new diagram, the method is clearly side-angle-side, or SAS. The angle is between the two congruent sides. 25. e. First, separate the two triangles, and mark all congruent parts. Remember that ∠BCD is a shared angle, so it should be marked as congruent on both:

From the new diagram, the method is angle-side-angle, or ASA. The side is between the two congruent angles.

c. Grade yourself and read through the answer explanations to determine how much knowledge you already have on these topics. All squares are rectangles. e. All squares are rhombuses. This chapter concentrates on the other two most common closed ﬁgures— the quadrilateral and the circle. BENCHMARK QUIZ 1. Start your study of these ﬁgures by taking the ten-question benchmark quiz. d. Which of the following statements is FALSE? a.5 Quadrilaterals and Circles C hapter 4 introduced the basic facts about triangles. 116 . All rhombuses are parallelograms. b. All trapezoids are quadrilaterals. All trapezoids have two congruent sides.

The diagonals of a rhombus are congruent. what is the measure of ៮ RS? a. Using rectangle QRST below. 40° b. b. c. 12 d.Q UAD R I LATE R A LS AN D C I R C LE S 117 2. what is the value of the variable x? a. 22° e. The diagonals of a rectangle are congruent. 8 e. All of the above are always true. In the following parallelogram. 3. 60° . 112 b. 6° d. Which of the following statements is ALWAYS true? a. 72 4. 4° c. d. The diagonals of a trapezoid are congruent. 120 c. The diagonals of a parallelogram are congruent. e.

84 d. 14 b. 80° b. the measure of ៮៮ BD = 84. and the measure of ៮ AE = 6x. In the following rectangle ABCD. 40° . what is the measure of ∠ABC? a. 3. 7 c. 28 e. Given the following circle.118 J U ST I N TI M E G E O M ETRY 5. What is the value of the variable x? a.5 6. 100° e. 160° c. 50° d.

70° b. 42 . What is the +? measure of CB a. 6 e. In the following circle. 115° ៮៮? 8. 28 d. In the following circle. 110° e. 36 b.Q UAD R I LATE R A LS AN D C I R C LE S 119 7. what is the measure of DC a. the measure of ∠AOB = 70°. 145° d. 140° c. 8 c.

12 b. 3 c. In the following circle. 6 c. what is the measure of AC a. 12 d. what is the measure of ៮៮ DB? a. In the following circle. 27 b. 20 e.120 J U ST I N TI M E G E O M ETRY ៮៮? 9. 22 . 18 d. 15 e. 24 10.

A trapezoid is a quadrilateral. b. The opposite sides of a rectangle are congruent. The measure of the consecutive angles in a parallelogram add up to 180°. 4. The only time a rhombus has congruent diagonals is when the rhombus is a square. 10x + 140 – 140 = 180 – 140 Subtract 140 from both sides. 2. Use this value of 12 to ﬁnd the length of ៮ RS: 10x – 8 = (10 ϫ 12) – 8 = 120 – 8 = 112. The only time a trapezoid has congruent diagonals is when it is an isosceles trapezoid. 3. a. c. Every rhombus is a parallelogram. Use this value to calculate the length of ៮ RS. Only isosceles trapezoids have two congruent sides.Q UAD R I LATE R A LS AN D C I R C LE S 121 BENCHMARK QUIZ SOLUTIONS Carefully check your answers. The diagonals of a rectangle are always congruent. 1. . and then follow the suggestions given under Benchmark Quiz Results. Grade yourself. ᎏ =ᎏ 10 x=4 10x ᎏᎏ 10 40 Divide both sides by 10. Subtract 3x from both sides. a. Use algebra: 10x + 140 = 180 Set up an equation. it has four sides. Divide both sides by 2. and read through the answer explanations. 5x = 3x + 24 5x – 3x = 3x + 24 – 3x 2x = 24 = ᎏ2ᎏ x = 12 2x ᎏᎏ 2 24 Set up an equation. 10x = 40 Combine like terms. Combine like terms. The only time a parallelogram has congruent diagonals is when it is a rectangle. Not all trapezoids have two congruent sides. Use this fact and algebra to ﬁnd the value of the variable x. Every square is both a rhombus and a rectangle.

Combine like terms. The measure of ៮៮ AC = 6x + 6x = 12x. d. AC + is equal to the measure of the central angle shown. The diagonals of a rectangle are congruent. the lengths are in the relationship of (outer piece) times (whole segment) = (outer piece) times (whole segment). Multiply in the parentheses. Combine like terms. they also bisect each other. The measure of ∠ABC = 80 ÷ 2 = 40°. The measure of CB 8. The measure of an inscribed angle is one-half the measure of the arc that it intercepts. For the two secants shown. and then ﬁnd the ៮៮. . 6. Use the distributive property. length of DC 6(3x + 6) = 8(2x + 8) (6 ϫ 3x) + (6 ϫ 6) = (8 ϫ 2x) + (8 ϫ 8) 18x + 36 = 16x + 64 18x + 36 – 16x = 16x + 64 – 16x 2x + 36 = 64 2x + 36 – 36 = 64 – 36 2x = 28 2x ᎏᎏ 2 Set up an equation. Use algebra to ﬁnd the value of x. Use algebra: 12x = 84 = x=7 12x ᎏᎏ 12 84 ᎏᎏ 12 Set up an equation. therefore CA + = 180°. Subtract 16x from both sides. b. Divide both sides by 12. = ᎏ2ᎏ x = 14 28 The length of ៮៮ DC is 2x.122 J U ST I N TI M E G E O M ETRY 5. 70°. e. so the length is 2 ϫ 14 = 28. ៮៮ is a diameter of the circle. Divide both sides by 2. c. The measure 7. Subtract 36 from both sides. that is of AB + = 180 – 70 = 110°.

Pay attention to the sidebars that refer you to more in-depth practice. Read through the entire chapter. spend some time on this chapter. the lengths are in the relationship of (outer piece) times (whole segment) = (tangent)2. work through the end of the Practice Quiz to ensure that you have a full understanding of these topics. and shortcuts. you need a thorough review of quadrilaterals and circles. This is the length of AC 10. The benchmark quiz did not cover all the material in the chapter. Multiply. carefully read this chapter and concentrate on the sidebars and all ﬁgures. If you answered 4–7 questions correctly. 3(x + 3) = 92 (3 ϫ x) + (3 ϫ 3) = 92 3x + 9 = 81 3x + 9 – 9 = 81 – 9 3x = 72 = ᎏ3ᎏ x = 24 3x ᎏᎏ 3 72 Set up an equation. Subtract 9 from both sides. Visit the suggested websites for additional practice. Multiply the two segments of one chord together. concentrating on the areas where you were weak. Combine like terms. ៮៮: 4x + 8 = (4 ϫ 3) + 8 = Use this value of 3 to ﬁnd the length of DB 12 + 8 = 20. quadrilaterals and circles are strengths for you. ៮៮. e. The answer explanations will help you through any areas that still need clariﬁcation.Q UAD R I LATE R A LS AN D C I R C LE S 123 9. Go to the sug- . Use the distributive property. BENCHMARK QUIZ RESULTS If you answered 8–10 questions correctly. Use this value to ﬁnd the length of ៮៮ DB. hints. First. Be sure you know all the rules outlined in the Rule Book sidebars. Use algebra to ﬁnd the value of x. Divide both sides by 3. and all of the necessary vocabulary. Work through the Practice Quiz at the end of the chapter to check your progress. d. Multiply. Refer to the sidebars to pick up techniques and vocabulary. If you answered 1–3 questions correctly. Read over the chapter. This value is equal to the product of the two segments of the other chord shown. For the secant and tangent shown. Use algebra to ﬁnd the value of the variable x. Divide both sides by 32. which is the length of ៮៮ AC. 8(4x) = 6(16) 32x = 96 ᎏ =ᎏ 32 x=3 32x ᎏᎏ 32 96 Set up an equation.

For further study. QUADRILATERAL CLASSIFICATION GLOSSARY QUADRILATERAL a four sided polygon Four-sided polygons are called quadrilaterals and. JUST IN TIME LESSON— QUADRILATERALS AND CIRCLES Topics in this chapter include: • • • • • • Quadrilateral Classiﬁcation The Angles in a Quadrilateral The Sides and Diagonals of Quadrilaterals The Parts of a Circle Angles and Arcs Related to Circles and Their Measure Segment Measures as Related to Circles This chapter examines the basic facts and relationships of quadrilaterals and circles. like triangles. Chapter 7 will cover surface area and volume of three-dimensional ﬁgures. Because the parallel bases are not the same length in a trapezoid. refer to the book. there are classiﬁcations for quadrilaterals. A quadrilateral with one pair of parallel sides (bases) is called a trapezoid. In an isosceles trapezoid. Geometry Success in 20 Minutes a Day. Chapter 6 will review the measurements of area and perimeter. Lesson 10. we call these bases b1 and b2. . published by LearningExpress.124 J U ST I N TI M E G E O M ETRY gested websites in the Extra Help sidebar in this chapter and do extended practice. An example can be found in ﬁgure II in the above graphic. the non-base sides are congruent.

A square is a rectangle. A rectangle is a parallelogram with four right angles. parallelogram. rhombus. Refer to ﬁgure IV. The two sets of opposite sides that are parallel are congruent in a parallelogram. A rhombus is a parallelogram with four congruent sides. . it is not contained in the parallelogram sub-group. and a quadrilateral. above. This Venn diagram may help you to understand the classiﬁcation of foursided ﬁgures: For example. A trapezoid is not a parallelogram. as shown in the following ﬁgures: Parallelograms are broken down into further sub-groups. Refer to ﬁgure I. a parallelogram. a rectangle. Refer to ﬁgure III. in the Venn diagram a rectangle is a parallelogram and a quadrilateral since it is contained in the other classiﬁcations. above. A square is a parallelogram with both four right angles and four congruent sides. A square is a rhombus. and a quadrilateral.Q UAD R I LATE R A LS AN D C I R C LE S 125 A quadrilateral with two pairs of parallel sides is called a parallelogram. above.

e. rhombuses. A rectangle is NOT a trapezoid. This is true for all parallelograms. A square is a parallelogram. . including rectangles. opposite angles are congruent. the base angles are congruent. There are special rules that govern the angles in some quadrilaterals: RULE BOOK In a parallelogram. A rhombus is a quadrilateral. and squares. A trapezoid is a quadrilateral. THE ANGLES IN A QUADRILATERAL E E RULE BOOK The sum of the measure of the angles in a quadrilateral is equal to 360°. Refer to the Venn diagram. The sum of the measures of any two consecutive angles in a parallelogram is equal to 180°. All of the other choices are true. In an isosceles trapezoid. The rectangle is not contained in the trapezoid section. b. A rectangle is a trapezoid. The choice that is false is choice d. d.126 J U ST I N TI M E G E O M ETRY Example: Which of the following statements is FALSE? a. c. A square is a rhombus.

and then ﬁnd the measure of ∠WXY: 4x + 2 = 7x – 13 4x + 2 – 4x = 7x – 13 – 4x 2 = 3x – 13 2 + 13 = 3x – 13 + 13 15 = 3x 15 ᎏᎏ 3 Set up an equation. Divide both sides by 3. Example: In the isosceles trapezoid shown. Combine like terms. what is the measure of ∠ABC? The angle is congruent to the angle opposite. Add 13 to both sides. = ᎏ3ᎏ 5=x 3x Use the value of 5 to ﬁnd the measure of ∠WXY: 4x + 2 = (4 ϫ 5) + 2 = 20 + 2 = 22°. what is the measure of ∠WXY? The base angles are congruent. . which has measure of 117°. Subtract 4x from both sides. The measure of ∠ABC = 117°.Q UAD R I LATE R A LS AN D C I R C LE S 127 Example: In the parallelogram below. Combine like terms. Use algebra to solve for the variable x.

is equal to 360°. This extended side and the adjacent side of the original quadrilateral deﬁne an exterior angle.128 J U ST I N TI M E G E O M ETRY GLOSSARY EXTERIOR ANGLE an angle formed by extending one of the sides of the quadrilateral. or any polygon. E RULE BOOK An exterior angle and the adjacent interior angle form a linear pair. . The sum of all of the exterior angles in a quadrilateral.

Divide both sides by 2. Combine like terms. what is the value of the variable x? These exterior angles are congruent.Q UAD R I LATE R A LS AN D C I R C LE S 129 " SHORTCUT Because opposite angles in a parallelogram are congruent. the opposite exterior angles will also be congruent. Subtract 4x from both sides. Add 18 to both sides. Use algebra: 6x – 18 = 4x + 2 6x – 18 – 4x = 4x + 2 – 4x 2x – 18 = 2 2x – 18 + 18 = 2 + 18 2x = 20 2x ᎏᎏ 2 Set up an equation. = ᎏ2ᎏ x = 10 20 . because the opposite angles of a parallelogram are congruent. Combine like terms. Example: Given the parallelogram below and the exterior angles shown.

the opposite sides are congruent. E RULE BOOK In a parallelogram. rhombuses. the two sides that are not the bases are congruent. and squares. Example: In the isosceles trapezoid below. Divide both sides by 4. This is true for all parallelograms. what is the value of the variable x? Use algebra: 4x + 7 = 35 4x + 7 – 7 = 35 – 7 4x = 28 4x ᎏᎏ 4 Set up an equation. Combine like terms. = ᎏ4ᎏ x=7 28 . In an isosceles trapezoid.130 J U ST I N TI M E G E O M ETRY THE SIDES AND DIAGONALS OF QUADRILATERALS There are special rules that govern the sides of some quadrilaterals. including rectangles. Subtract 7 from both sides.

. This includes squares.Q UAD R I LATE R A LS AN D C I R C LE S 131 GLOSSARY DIAGONAL of a polygon is any segment that connects two non-consecutive vertices There are helpful rules that govern the diagonals of some quadrilaterals: E RULE BOOK The diagonals of every parallelogram bisect each other. rhombuses. This includes rectangles. and squares. The diagonals of every rectangle are congruent. The diagonals of an isosceles trapezoid are congruent.

132 J U ST I N TI M E G E O M ETRY E RULE BOOK (continued) The diagonals of every rhombus are perpendicular. This includes squares. This chart summarizes the facts about quadrilaterals: .

or Parallelograms. For more information and practice on working with quadrilaterals. Then. click on Quadrilaterals. click on Quadrilaterals. The measure of LP algebra: 7x + 7x = 126 14x = 126 14x ᎏᎏ 14 ᎏ =ᎏ 14 x=9 126 Set up an equation. under Polygons.math. What is the value of the variable x? The diagonals of the rectangle are congruent and they also bisect ៮ is equal to the measure of ៮៮ PN. Another website is http://library. the measure of ៮៮ MO = 126. Use each other. Upon reaching this site.html. click on Geometry. published by LearningExpress. located on the left-hand list. followed by a short interactive quiz. O EXTRA HELP The website www. Combine like terms. reference the book Geometry Success in 20 Minutes a Day. Divide both sides by 14. On the left sidebar.thinkquest.org/ 20991/geo/index.com has an interactive lesson on quadrilaterals. . There is a series of interactive lessons.Q UAD R I LATE R A LS AN D C I R C LE S 133 Example: Given rectangle LMNO below.

All diameters in a circle are congruent. All radii in a circle are congruent. The radius is one-half the length of the diameter. The diameter is twice the radius of the circle. ៮ and ៮៮ are two chords shown: AB DE. The center point deﬁnes the circle. but is not on the circle. they have equal measure. In the above ﬁgure. eter is shown in the circle above as AB This is represented by d = 2r.134 THE PARTS OF A CIRCLE J U ST I N TI M E G E O M ETRY Circles are another common plane ﬁgure. called the center. they have equal measure. This is represented by AO 1 ᎏ ᎏ r = 2 d. TANGENT to a circle is a line that intersects the circle in exactly one point . CHORD a line segment whose endpoints are on the circle. there DIAMETER of a circle is a chord that passes through the center of the circle. RADIUS of a circle is the line segment whose one endpoint is at the center of the circle and whose other endpoint is on the circle. A diam៮. A radius is shown in the circle above as ៮៮ or OB ៮៮. GLOSSARY CIRCLE the set of all points equidistant from one given point.

One of the points on the circle is the endpoint of the secant segment. .Q UAD R I LATE R A LS AN D C I R C LE S 135 TANGENT SEGMENT a part of the tangent whose one endpoint is the point on the circle SECANT a line that intersects the circle in two points. SECANT SEGMENT a segment that extends in one direction beyond the circle. A secant contains a chord of the circle. but contains the two points on the circle.

The sum of the measures of the arc sections that form the circle adds up to 360°. 16x = 4x + 36 16x – 4x = 4x + 36 – 4x 12x = 36 12x ᎏᎏ 12 ᎏ =ᎏ 12 x=3 36 Set up an equation. Example: In the ﬁgure below of circle O.136 J U ST I N TI M E G E O M ETRY ARC of a circle is a piece of the circle. Divide both sides by 12. Use algebra to ﬁnd the value of the variable x. Arc length can be measured in degrees. Subtract 4x from both sides. Then. Use the value of x = 3 to ﬁnd the length of ៮ AB: 16x + 4x + 36 = 20x + 36 = (20 ϫ 3) + 36 = 60 + 36 = 96. . ﬁnd the length of the diameter. ៮ AB. Combine like terms. what is the length of ៮ AB? All radii in a circle are congruent.

the arc measures AB.Q UAD R I LATE R A LS AN D C I R C LE S 137 Sometimes. In these types of problems. The sum of the measures of the central angles that form the circle adds up to 360°. Combine like terms. . DA are in the ratio of 2 : 3 : 3 : 4. like x. CD. 2x + 3x + 3x + 4x = 360 12x = 360 12x ᎏᎏ 12 ᎏ =ᎏ 12 x = 30 360 Set up an equation. problems are presented in which the angle or arc measures are described as a ratio. Example: In a given circle. and then ﬁnd the measure of the arcs. and DA = 4x = 4 ϫ 30 = 120°. What is the measure of each of the arcs? The sum of the degree measure of all of the arcs in a circle is 360°. Use algebra to solve for x. and express each arc measure as a variable times the ratio factor. ANGLES AND ARCS RELATED TO CIRCLES AND THEIR MEASURE GLOSSARY CENTRAL ANGLE an angle whose vertex is the center of the circle. Now use the value of 30 to ﬁnd the measure of each of the arcs: AB = 2x = 2 ϫ 30 = 60°. BC. show the measures as the ratio factor times a variable. BC = CD = 3x = 3 ϫ 30 = 90° each. Assign a variable. Divide both sides by 12.

. The measure of an inscribed angle in a circle is equal to one-half the measure of the intercepted arc. and whose sides pass through two other points on the circle INTERCEPTED ARC an arc contained in the interior of an angle E RULE BOOK The measure of the central angle in a circle is equal to the measure of the intercepted arc.138 J U ST I N TI M E G E O M ETRY INSCRIBED ANGLE an angle whose vertex is on the circle.

central angle that intercepts that arc. it divides the circle in half. Example: +? Given the following circle. Perpendicular radii form a central angle of 90°. they divide the circle to form a quarter circle. what is the measure of AB The measure of the intercepted arc is equal to the measure of the + = 60° because ∠BOA = 60°.Q UAD R I LATE R A LS AN D C I R C LE S 139 " SHORTCUT A central angle of 180° is a diameter of the circle. AB .

Subtract 7 from both sides. These angles intercept the circle in two places. Angles formed by secant and tangent segments have a vertex in the exterior of the circle. there are two intercepted arcs. secants. The angle is 67°. Use this fact and algebra to ﬁnd the value of x: 3x + 7 = 67 3x + 7 – 7 = 67 – 7 3x = 60 3x ᎏᎏ 3 Set up an equation. Divide both sides by 3. = ᎏ3ᎏ x = 20 60 There are also angles formed by tangents. Combine like terms. Angles formed by two chords have a vertex in the interior of the circle.140 J U ST I N TI M E G E O M ETRY Example: In the following circle. The angle and its vertical pair intercept the circle in two places. what is the value of the variable x? The measure of an inscribed angle is one-half the measure of the arc that it intercepts. and chords of a circle. there are two intercepted arcs. .

E RULE BOOK Two secant segments. two tangent segments.Q UAD R I LATE R A LS AN D C I R C LE S 141 There are rules that govern the measure of these angles. ᎏ(y – x) m ∠APB = ᎏ 2 1 . or a tangent and a secant form an angle exterior to the circle. The measure of this angle is one-half of the difference between the intercepted arcs of the angle.

The measure of AB 110°.142 J U ST I N TI M E G E O M ETRY Example: The following ﬁgure is a circle with tangent and secant shown. ACB and AB. so the measure of ᎏ + = 360 – 180 – 120 = 60°. The measure the intercepted arcs. . The measure of ∠APC = ᎏ1 AB 2 (180 – 60) = 1 ᎏᎏ(120) 2 = ᎏ2ᎏ = 60°. ៮៮ AC + = 120°. so the measure of arc ACB = 360 – 110 = 250°. What is the measure of ∠APB? The measure of the arcs around a circle sum up to 360°. and the measure of CB the measure of ∠APC? + = 180°. the measure of AC + . This is one of Because ៮៮ AC is a diameter. The other intercepted arc is AB of all of the arcs in a circle is equal to 360°. The two arcs. 120 Example: + is Below is a circle with two tangents as shown. What is is a diameter of the circle.

Example: Using the following circle.Q UAD R I LATE R A LS AN D C I R C LE S 143 are the intercepted arcs. determine the measure of ∠AOD. Use the formula to calcuThe two intercepted arcs are AD 1 late the angle measure. Use the formula to calculate the measure of ∠APB: measure of ∠APB = ᎏ2ᎏ(250 – 110) = ᎏ2ᎏ(140) = ᎏ2ᎏ = 70° 1 1 140 E RULE BOOK A pair of vertical angles is formed by the intersection of two chords of a circle. The measure of ∠AOD = ᎏ2ᎏ(90 + 60) = 1 ᎏᎏ(150) 2 = ᎏ2ᎏ = 75°. + and BC + . The measure of either of these angles is equal to one-half of the sum of the intercepted arcs of the angles. 150 .

E RULE BOOK Two tangent segments to a circle that share a common endpoint are congruent.144 J U ST I N TI M E G E O M ETRY SEGMENT MEASURES AS RELATED TO CIRCLES Just as there are rules concerning the angles related to the circle. and then ﬁnd the length of tangent ៮ AP: 10x – 30 = 7x 10x – 30 – 7x = 7x – 7x 3x – 30 = 0 Set up an equation. x x Example: In the following graphic of a circle with two tangents shown. the measures are equal. there are also rules that govern the segments formed by secant and tangent segments and chords. Subtract 7x from both sides. Combine like terms. . Use algebra to solve for the value of x. what is ៮? the length of tangent AP A 7x P 10 x– 30 B The tangent segments are congruent. they have the same measure.

the product of the measure of the outer piece and the entire secant segment is equal to the square of the tangent segment. E RULE BOOK When two secants intersect in the exterior of a circle. A secant to a circle has a portion of its segment in the interior of the circle (a chord of the circle). x = 10 Use this value of 10 to ﬁnd the length of ៮ AP = 7x = 7 ϫ 10 = 70. This is easier to show with a diagram and labels. the product of the measure of the outer piece and the entire secant segment is equal to the product of the corresponding pieces of the other segment. Combine like terms. b a d c b(a + b) = d(c + d) When a secant and a tangent segment intersect in the exterior of a circle. and a portion in the exterior of the circle. b c a a = b(b + c) 2 . which will be called the outer piece.Q UAD R I LATE R A LS AN D C I R C LE S 145 3x – 30 + 30 = 0 + 30 3x = 30 3x ᎏᎏ 3 30 Add 30 to both sides. = ᎏ3ᎏ Divide both sides by 3.

Example: In the following circle with tangent and secant shown. Divide both sides by 12. Combine like terms. Use the distributive property. Subtract 144 from both sides.146 J U ST I N TI M E G E O M ETRY Example: Given the following circle with secants shown. Multiply. This is the value of ៮ AB. what is the value of chord ៮ AB? The product of the outer piece times the whole segment of one secant is equal to the product of the corresponding pieces of the other secant. Use algebra to solve for x: 12(x + 12) = (18 ϫ 10) 12x + (12 ϫ 12) = (18 ϫ 10) 12x + 144 = 180 12x + 144 – 144 = 180 – 144 12x = 36 12x ᎏᎏ 12 ᎏ =ᎏ 12 x=3 36 Set up an equation. what is the ៮? length of AP .

They will be helpful when working with the tangent segment measurement problems. Subtract 16 from both sides. i E CALCULATOR TIPS Locate the “square” key and the square root key on your calculator. Divide both sides by 4 = ᎏ4ᎏ x = 12 48 Use this value of 12 to ﬁnd the length of ៮ AP = 12 + 4 = 16. Use algebra to ﬁnd the value of the variable x.Q UAD R I LATE R A LS AN D C I R C LE S 147 The square of the tangent measure is equal to the product of the outer piece and the whole secant segment. and then use this value to ﬁnd the length of ៮ AP: 4(x + 4) = 82 4x + (4 ϫ 4) = 82 4x + 16 = 64 4x + 16 – 16 = 64 – 16 4x = 48 4x ᎏᎏ 4 Set up an equation. Use the distributive property. Combine like terms. . Multiply. the square root function is the second function that corresponds to the “square” key. RULE BOOK When two chords of a circle intersect. Often. The keys will look similar to the following graphic. the product of the measures of the two segments of one chord equals the product of the measures of the segments of the other chord.

Multiply. located on the left-hand list. Follow the tutorial and take the quiz.148 J U ST I N TI M E G E O M ETRY Example: ៮៮? In the circle below. the product of the measures of the two segments of one chord equals the product of the measures of the two segments of the other chord. Divide both sides by 24. • The sum of the measure of any two consecutive angles in a parallelogram is 180°. . remember: • Quadrilaterals are classiﬁed according to the Venn diagram shown in this chapter.html has a lesson on circle relationships. Upon reaching this site. what is the length of AO For the two intersecting chords. click on Circles. • The sum of the measure of the exterior angles in a quadrilateral is 360°. O EXTRA HELP The website http://library. ﬁnd the length of ៮៮ AO: 3x ϫ 8 = 12 ϫ 4 24x = 48 24x ᎏᎏ 24 ᎏ =ᎏ 24 x=2 48 Set up an equation. Use this value of 2 to ﬁnd the length of ៮៮ AO = 3x = 3 ϫ 2 = 6. Use algebra and solve for x.thinkquest. TIPS AND STRATEGIES When solving problems related to quadrilaterals and circles.org/20991/geo/index. • The sum of the measure of the angles in a quadrilateral is 360°.

In the following parallelogram ABCD. 45° . • Be familiar with the rules for ﬁnding other angles and segment lengths dealing with chords. 65° c. 2. d. 325° d. • In an isosceles trapezoid. When you are ﬁnished. c. 165° e. PRACTICE QUIZ Try these 25 problems. review the answers and explanations to see if you have mastered this concept. the base angles and the sides that are not the bases are congruent. what is the measure of ∠ADC? a. • The measure of a central angle in a circle is equal to the measure of the intercepted arc. secants. All trapezoids have two congruent sides. All parallelograms have a 90° angle. e. All squares are rhombuses. • Be familiar with circle vocabulary. All rectangles are squares. b. • The measure of an inscribed angle in a circle is equal to one-half of the measure of the intercepted arc. • Know the facts about the diagonals of quadrilaterals as shown in the chart in this chapter. and tangents of a circle.Q UAD R I LATE R A LS AN D C I R C LE S 149 • Opposite sides and opposite angles in a parallelogram are congruent. 145° b. The diagonals of all parallelograms are congruent. 1. Which of the following statements is ALWAYS true? a.

if BD AC = 7x – 23. 11 b. 30 e. what is the value of the variable x? a. 7 d. 9 c. 10 b. what is the length of ៮៮ WZ? a. Given rectangle WXYZ below. 70 ៮៮ = 3x + 17 and ៮៮ 4.150 J U ST I N TI M E G E O M ETRY 3. ᎏ2ᎏ e. 47 c. 35 d. In square ABCD. 38 3 .

In parallelogram WXYZ. A rhombus has four congruent sides. 100° b. ៮៮ XC WY = 10x. Which statement below is FALSE? a. 15 e. 30 c. 20° e. 50 d. 45° d. All rhombuses have 90° angles. c. and ៮ CZ = 2x + 8 a. Given isosceles trapezoid PQRS. A rhombus is a parallelogram. b. . e. 50° ៮៮? 6. d. 20 b. The diagonals of a rhombus bisect each other. 70° c. what is the length of WC ៮៮ = 20. The diagonals of a rhombus are perpendicular.Q UAD R I LATE R A LS AN D C I R C LE S 151 5. what is the measure of ∠QPS? a. 60 7.

30° e. 150° c. 80° .152 J U ST I N TI M E G E O M ETRY 8. 12° e. 120° 9. 75° c. 24° b. 50° b. The following ﬁgure is parallelogram ABCD with exterior angles shown. 130° d. What is the measure of ∠BAD? a. what is the value of the variable x? a. Given trapezoid GHIJ. 60° d.

37 b. what is the length of MN a. 2. 4. 15 e. 18 c. 20 b. 34 .Q UAD R I LATE R A LS AN D C I R C LE S 153 10. In isosceles trapezoid LMNO. 4 e. What is the value of the variable x in the following rhombus RSTU? a.5 d. 2 c.8 d. 16.4 ៮៮? 11.

OP . and c are all true. Use the diagram to determine which of the following is FALSE. Choices a. ៮៮ a. QP d. x = 4 ៮៮ = 12 c. JL ៮៮ ៮. ៮៮ OQ ≅ OP b. e. None of the above is true. ៮៮ QP = 10x – 16 ៮៮ = 12 e. 13. LM d. b. KM bisects JL ៮៮ ≅ KJ ៮ c. Which of the following statements is true for rectangle JKLM? ៮ ≅ KM ៮៮ a. b.154 J U ST I N TI M E G E O M ETRY 12.

17° c. 80° b.Q UAD R I LATE R A LS AN D C I R C LE S 155 14. 100° d.5° b. 134° 15. 10° e. What is the measure of ∠MOP? a. 34. What is the measure of ∠BAC? a. 67° d. 40° c. 20° . 113° e.

In the following circle. 120° d. the ratio of arcs BC : BA : AC is 2 : 4 : 6. 20° d. 200° 17. 60° b. What +? is the measure of BA a. 160° e. 240° e.156 J U ST I N TI M E G E O M ETRY 16. 140° b. 20° . what is the meas+ ? ure of WX a. Given that ៮៮ WY is a diameter of the following circle. 180° c. 40° c.

80° e. 65° . 120° c. 100° b. Use the following circle with tangents shown to ﬁnd the measure of ∠APB. 240° d. 90° 19. a. 130° e. Use the following circle to ﬁnd the measure of ∠AOD. 10° c.Q UAD R I LATE R A LS AN D C I R C LE S 157 18. a. 50° b. 40° d.

80° d. what is the measure of ∠BPC? a. 70° b.158 J U ST I N TI M E G E O M ETRY ៮ is a diameter of circle O below. 20° c. 50° e. 35° 21. 10° . 25° b. 60° e. In the following circle with two secants shown. 20° c. 45° d. Given that AB ∠BPC? a. what is the measure of 20.

4 d. 625 d. 25 b.5 c. 5 e. 2 e. 24 c. 50 23.4 b.4 . 12. What is the value of the variable x shown below in the circle with two tangents? a.Q UAD R I LATE R A LS AN D C I R C LE S 159 22. What is the length of secant ៮ AP in the following circle? a. 4. 14. 2.

4 d. 20 b. 10 d. what is the length of OB a.160 J U ST I N TI M E G E O M ETRY ៮៮? 24. 6 e. 12 c. 6 ៮? 25. In the circle with two chords shown below. 16 c. what is the length of AP a. 8 e. 2 b. 12 . In the circle with two secants shown below.

The measure of any two consecutive angles in a parallelogram add up to 180°. Use algebra to ﬁnd the value of x: 3x + 17 = 7x – 23 3x + 17 – 3x = 7x – 23 – 3x 17 = 4x – 23 17 + 23 = 4x – 23 + 23 40 = 4x 40 ᎏᎏ 4 Set up an equation. The measure of the angle is 180 – 35 = 145°. d. Study the explanations for any problems that you answered incorrectly. then ﬁnd the length of ៮៮ WZ: 3x + 8 = 5x – 10 3x + 8 – 3x = 5x – 10 – 3x 8 = 2x – 10 8 + 10 = 2x – 10 + 10 18 = 2x 18 ᎏ 2 Set up an equation. a. If the diagonals of a parallelogram are congruent. have two congruent sides. 3. = ᎏ4ᎏ 4x 10 = x . Use algebra to ﬁnd the value of the variable x. Some trapezoids. Subtract 3x from both sides. Add 10 to both sides. a. c. this is not true for every parallelogram. Subtract 3x from both sides. Then. Opposite sides of a rectangle are congruent. 2. The diagonals of a square are congruent. then it is a rectangle. 1. Rectangles are the only type of parallelogram that have 90° angles. Only some rectangles are squares. this is true for any rectangle. All squares are rhombuses. Combine like terms. Combine like terms. Refer back to the chapter for further study if needed. a rhombus has four congruent sides. Combine like terms. = ᎏ2ᎏ 2x 9=x ៮៮ = 5x – 10 = (5 ϫ 9) – 10 = 45 – 10 = 35 WZ 4. Divide both sides by 4.Q UAD R I LATE R A LS AN D C I R C LE S 161 ANSWERS Here are the answers. go back and try those problems again. for all the practice problems. Add 23 to both sides. with detailed explanations. Divide both sides by 2. but not all. Combine like terms.

In an isosceles trapezoid. The Use this value to ﬁnd the length of WY ៮៮ ៮៮. a. that is. 10x = 10 ϫ 6 = 60. The sum of the measure of the angles in a trapezoid is 360°. so it is 30. the sum of the measure of the angles in a trapezoid is 360°. . From the ﬁgure. Combine like terms. the base angles are congruent. Divide both sides by 15. d.162 J U ST I N TI M E G E O M ETRY 5. Any exterior angle and its adjacent interior angle form a linear pair. The measure of ∠BAD = 180 – 130 = 50°. which is 50°. b. 8. 10. the measure of ∠ADC = 180 – 50 = 130°. length of WC is one-half of the length of WY 7. those that are squares. Combine like terms. Subtract 8 from both sides. 9. e. The measure of ∠QPS is one-half of 100°. Use algebra to solve for x: 10x + 5x + 90 + 90 = 360 15x + 180 = 360 15x + 180 – 180 = 360 – 180 15x = 180 ᎏ =ᎏ 15 x = 12 15x ᎏᎏ 15 180 Set up an equation. Statements a through d are always true of every rhombus. Subtract 4 from both sides. as shown by the small box written in the angles. e. Combine like terms. All of the sides of a rhombus are congruent. Divide both sides by 2. Combine like terms. Any two consecutive interior angles of a parallelogram add up to 180. Use algebra to solve for x: 10x + 4 = 24 10x + 4 – 4 = 24 – 4 10x = 20 ᎏ =ᎏ 10 x=2 10x ᎏᎏ 10 20 Set up an equation. In addition. Divide both sides by 10. There are two 90° angles. 6. The two smaller segments of each diagonal are therefore congruent. The measure of the sum of the base angles is 360 – 130 – 130 = 100°. b. Only some rhombuses have 90° angles. ៮៮. Subtract 180 from both sides. The diagonals of a parallelogram bisect each other. Use this fact to ﬁnd the value of the variable x: 2x + 8 = 20 2x + 8 – 8 = 20 – 8 2x = 12 = ᎏ2ᎏ x=6 2x ᎏᎏ 2 12 Set up an equation.

c. the sides that are not bases are congruent. e. 15. 13. Add 16 to both sides.Q UAD R I LATE R A LS AN D C I R C LE S 163 11. Divide both sides by 4. Combine like terms. QP Statement c is false. determine which of the other statements is false. Subtract x from both sides. a. QP ៮៮ = (10 ϫ 4) – 16 = 40 – 16 = 24. b. c. Combine like terms. Statement a is therefore true. The measure of XY + is 40°. The measure of an inscribed angle is equal to one-half the measure of the arc it intercepts. The + is 180°. and c are true. The diagonals of a rectangle are congruent. These are the sides marked as expressions. 14. Subtract 3x from both sides. it is twice the measure of WY measure of the inscribed angle that it intercepts. d. Use the fact that all radii in a circle are congruent. Opposite sides of a rectangle are congruent. The measure of ∠BAC = 80 ÷ 2 = 40°. b. After ﬁnding the value of x. ៮៮ = 3x + 7x – 16 = 10x – 16. The measure of a central angle is equal to the measure of the arc it intercepts. Choices a. Subtract 4 from both sides ៮៮ = x + 19 = 15 + 19 Use the value of 15 to ﬁnd the length of MN = 34. 7x – 16 = 3x 7x – 16 – 3x = 3x – 3x 4x – 16 = 0 4x – 16 + 16 = 0 + 16 4x = 16 = ᎏ4ᎏ x=4 4x ᎏᎏ 4 16 Set up an equation. 16. The diagonals of a rectangle bisect each other. and then ﬁnd the length of ៮៮ MN. The measure of the arc that intercepts a diameter is 180°. The measure of + = WY – XY. Combine like terms. WX . 12. 2x + 4 = x + 19 2x + 4 – x = x + 19 – x x + 4 = 19 x + 4 – 4 = 19 – 4 x = 15 Set up an equation. In an isosceles trapezoid. or 180 – 40 = 140°. Use algebra to solve for x.

The measure of the exterior angle formed by a tangent and a secant is one-half of the difference between the outer arc and the ៮ is a diameinner arc intercepted by these segments. The measure of ∠APB = 230 – ᎏ2ᎏ = ᎏ2ᎏ = 50°. The measure of the exterior angle formed by two tangents is onehalf of the difference between the outer arc and the inner arc intercepted by the two tangents. The sum of the measures of the three arcs in the circle is equal to the degree measure of the circle. 20. The outer arc is the degree measure of the circle minus the measure of the inner arc. c. which is 360°. b. The measure of an interior angle formed by the intersection of two chords is one-half of the sum of the measure of the two arcs that the chords intercept. Because AB + + ter. the measure of AC = 180 – 70 = 110°. 4x. and then +. The measure of ∠BPC = 110 – ᎏ2ᎏ = ᎏ2ᎏ = 20°. 360 – 130 = 230°. e. solve for x. AB = 180°. Find the measure of BA 2x + 4x + 6x = 360 12x = 360 ᎏ =ᎏ 12 x = 30 12x ᎏᎏ 12 360 Set up an equation. Combine like terms. 18. The measure of ∠BPC = 90 – ᎏ2ᎏ = ᎏ2ᎏ = 20°. 21. and 6x. respectively. Use algebra to assign the arc measures as 2x. b. 40 50 70 40 130 100 80 180 . The measure of ∠AOD = 100 + ᎏ2ᎏ = ᎏ2ᎏ = 90°. 19.164 J U ST I N TI M E G E O M ETRY 17. Use the value of 30 to ﬁnd the measure of arc BA = 4x = 4 ϫ 30 = 120°. Divide both sides by 12. a. The measure of the exterior angle formed by two tangents is onehalf of the difference between the outer arc and the inner arc intercepted by the two tangents.

d. Subtract x from both sides. The length of AP 24. Multiply the two segments of one chord together. e.4 + 10 = 14. c. This value is equal to the product of the two segments of the other chord shown. Use the distributive property. Divide both sides by 12.Q UAD R I LATE R A LS AN D C I R C LE S 165 22. Divide both sides by 4. This is the length of OB . Use algebra to solve for x: 5x = x + 20 5x – x = x + 20 – x 4x = 20 = ᎏ4ᎏ x=5 4x ᎏᎏ 4 20 Set up an equation. Subtract 100 from both sides. Multiply. 12x = 8 ϫ 6 12x = 48 ᎏ =ᎏ 12 x=4 12x ᎏᎏ 12 48 Set up an equation. ៮៮. Multiply. Solve for x. Use algebra and assign the missing segment length to the variable x. Use algebra to solve for x: 10(x + 10) = 122 10x + (10 ϫ 10) = 122 10x + 100 = 144 10x + 100 – 100 = 144 – 100 10x = 44 ᎏ =ᎏ 10 x = 4. The lengths of tangents to a circle are congruent. Combine like terms. 23. ៮ = x + 10 = 4.4. and this will be the length of ៮៮ OB. Divide both sides by 10. The measure of a secant and a tangent to a circle are related by the fact that the square of the tangent measure is equal to the product of the outer piece and the whole piece of the secant.4 10x ᎏᎏ 10 44 Set up an equation.

.166 J U ST I N TI M E G E O M ETRY 25. = ᎏ6ᎏ 6=x 6x Use the value of 6 to ﬁnd the length of ៮ AP = x + 10 = 6 + 10 = 16. Subtract 64 from both sides. b. and then ﬁnd the length of ៮ AP. Subtract 10x from both sides. the lengths are in the relationship of (outer piece) times (whole segment) = (outer piece) times (whole segment). Multiply. For the two secants shown. Divide both sides by 6. 10(x + 10) = 8(2x + 8) 10x + (10 ϫ 10) = 16x + (8 ϫ 8) 10x + 100 = 16x + 64 10x + 100 – 10x = 16x + 64 – 10x 100 = 6x + 64 100 – 64 = 6x + 64 – 64 36 = 6x 36 ᎏᎏ 6 Set up an equation. Combine like terms. Use algebra to ﬁnd the value of x. Use the distributive property. Combine like terms.

6 Perimeter and Area T he word geometry means “measure of the earth. A basic understanding of geometry is crucial to success on your upcoming test. 25 cm2 c. a.” We constantly measure things in real life. Take this short benchmark quiz to see how much of your studies should be concentrated on this chapter. BENCHMARK QUIZ 1. we measure fabric and wallpaper. Find the area. 30 cm2 167 . We measure for fences and carpets. 15 cm2 b. 50 cm2 e. 60 cm2 d.

2 ft e.4 ft d.168 J U ST I N TI M E G E O M ETRY 2. 10. 25π in2 d. 20. 100 in2 e. a.2 ft b. 23. 25 in2 . 15 ft 3. 43. a. 5π in2 b. 100π in2 c. Find the perimeter.6 ft c. Find the area.

120 m2 d.P E R I M ETE R AN D AR EA 169 4. a. Find the circumference. 8π mm c. 64π mm d. 256π mm e. Find the area. 16 mm b. a. 80 m2 e. 960 m2 5. 60 m2 c. 96 m2 b. 16π mm .

Find the perimeter of the isosceles triangle. Find the area. a. 192 m2 b. 96 cm2 b. 72 mm b. 24 cm2 e. 80 m2 d. a. 120 mm 7. Find the area of the shaded region. 52 m2 e. 136 mm e. 144 cm2 8. a. 40 mm d. 48 cm2 c. 320 mm c. 120 cm2 d.170 J U ST I N TI M E G E O M ETRY 6. 130 m2 . 120 m2 c.

14 for π. 391. Use 3. Find the area of the irregular ﬁgure. 281.96 in2 10. 64 cm2 b.72 in2 d. 137. 114. 853.24 cm2 c.44 in2 c. 50. a.86 in2 b.6 cm2 e.24 cm2 . 545.93 in2 e. 314.14 for π. a.P E R I M ETE R AN D AR EA 171 9. Find the area of the shaded region.76 cm2 d. 13. Use 3.

Then. Use this value to ﬁnd the side of the rectangle: x – 5 = 13 – 5 = 8 m. and diameter is twice the radius. e. Add 5 to both sides.6 ft. a. . To ﬁnd perimeter. so the area is 25π in2. Divide both sides by 9.4 + 6 + 2. you add up all the lengths of the sides of the polygon. The area of a circle is A = πr2. where π is a constant. Multiply this by the side of length 12 to get the area: x – 5 = 112 – 8x x – 5 + 8x = 112 – 8x + 8x 9x – 5 = 112 9x – 5 + 5 = 112 + 5 9x = 117 = ᎏ9ᎏ x = 13 9x ᎏᎏ 9 117 1 Set up an equation. A = ᎏ2ᎏ ϫ 10 ϫ 3 and multiplying them all together yields an area of 15 cm2. The area of a triangle is A = ᎏ2ᎏbh. Combine like terms. This is an isosceles triangle. where A stands for area. 2. In this triangle. c. The radius. Circumference is found by the formula C = πd. Then. Use this fact and algebra to solve for the variable x. The area is 8 ϫ 12 = 96 m2. d. and r is the radius of the circle. 3. 5 inches. a. The problem gives the diameter to be 10 inches. Opposite sides of a rectangle are congruent. The perimeter is 7. Subtract 4x from both sides.2 + 8 = 23. Combine like terms. 5. C = 16π mm. 4. b stands for the base length. the 1 base is 10 cm and the height is 3 cm. 8x = 4x + 24 8x – 4x = 4x + 24 – 4x Set up an equation. and h stands for the height—the length of the segment that is perpendicular to the base. 6. is one-half of the length of the diameter. The diameter is 16 mm. The radius of 8 mm is given. Add up all the sides to ﬁnd the perimeter. where C is the circumference. b. Using the formula. Add 8x to both sides. π is a constant and d is the diameter. A = π ϫ 5 ϫ 5. the two sides marked as algebraic expressions are congruent. ﬁnd the length of these congruent sides. Use algebra to ﬁnd the value of x.172 J U ST I N TI M E G E O M ETRY BENCHMARK QUIZ SOLUTIONS 1. ﬁnd the length of the side of the rectangle.

A = Arectangle – 1 Atriangle. the radius is one-half of 8. This ﬁgure is a rectangle and one-half of a circle. Using the order of operations. and subtracting out the area of the inner figure. Substitute in the given lengths and value of π to get A = 8 ϫ 8 – 3. The radius is 4 cm. concentrating . Using the area formulas.24. The area of the shaded region is the area of the outer ﬁgure. from left to right. a triangle. b1 and b2 are the lengths of the parallel bases. minus the area of the inner ﬁgure. The radius is one-half of the width of the rectangle. The area will be A = Arectangle + (Acircle divided by 2). Substitute the 1 given information into the formula: A = ᎏ2ᎏ ϫ 10 ϫ (16 + 10) to get 1 A = ᎏ2ᎏ ϫ 10 ϫ (26). a rectangle. 10. 1 BENCHMARK QUIZ RESULTS If you answered 8–10 questions correctly. or A = 13. the radius is 7. Perhaps the questions you answered incorrectly deal with one speciﬁc area in this chapter.14 ϫ 72) ÷ 2 = 238 + 76. the height = 10 m.93 in2. you multiply ﬁrst. Notice that the diameter of the circle is the same length as the side of the square. Read over the chapter. you get A = bh – ᎏ2ᎏbh. 16 m and 10 m. A = 1 (12 ϫ 8) – ᎏ2ᎏ(12 ϫ 8) = 96 – 48 = 48 cm2. b. e. The perimeter is 48 + 48 + 40 = 136 mm. 7. A = Asquare – Acircle. Multiply all terms on the right together to yield an area of 130 m2. you get A = s2 – πr2. So. 9. the square. A = 64 – 50.14 ϫ 4 ϫ 4. Use this value to ﬁnd the length of the congruent sides: 8x = 8 ϫ 6 = 48 mm. The area of a trapezoid is A = ᎏ2ᎏh(b1 + b2). A = (14 ϫ 17) + (3. c. Divide both sides by 4. since it is perpendicular to the bases. d. In this trapezoid. the circle. Using the area formulas. where A stands for area.76 cm2. you have a good understanding of area and perimeter.P E R I M ETE R AN D AR EA 173 4x = 24 = x=6 4x ᎏᎏ 4 24 ᎏᎏ 4 Combine like terms.93 = 314. The bases are the parallel sides. 8. The area of the shaded region is found by taking the area of the outer ﬁgure. A = bh + πr2 ÷ 2. and h is the height— the length of the segment perpendicular to the bases.

If you answered 1–3 questions correctly. E RULE BOOK To ﬁnd the perimeter of a polygon. Get additional practice on geometry by visiting the suggested websites and taking the quiz at the end of the chapter. . it is a linear.174 J U ST I N TI M E G E O M ETRY on those areas of weakness. you need to spend some time on the topics in this chapter. add up all of the lengths of the sides of the ﬁgure. First. published by LearningExpress. JUST IN TIME LESSON—PERIMETER AND AREA There are many applications of geometry in mathematical problems. This chapter will describe ways that geometry is used for measurement. Work carefully through the examples and pay attention to the sidebars that refer you to deﬁnitions. Perimeter is an addition concept. Be sure to name the units. Carefully read through the lesson in this chapter for review and skill-building. Proceed to the Practice Quiz to try to improve your score. You may also want to refer to Geometry Success in 20 Minutes a Day. which will help with understanding and will provide extended practice. and shortcuts. If you answered 4–7 questions correctly. The topics in this chapter are: • • • • • Perimeter of Polygons Area of Common Polygons Perimeter and Area of a Circle Area of Irregular Shaped Figures Area of Shaded Regions PERIMETER OF POLYGONS Perimeter is the measure AROUND a polygon. hints. there are several areas you need to review. one-dimensional measurement. and 16. 13. Go to the suggested websites in the Extra Help sidebar in this chapter. carefully read this chapter and concentrate on the sidebars and visual aids that will help with comprehension. Lessons 12.

the perimeter can be found by P = 4s. and w is the width. Substitute in to get 6 + 4 + 5 = 15 mm. = ᎏ4ᎏ x = 5. where P is the perimeter.P E R I M ETE R AN D AR EA 175 Example: Find the perimeter. like all parallelograms. that is AB. 3 mm. For a square. Perimeter can be found using the formula P = 2l + 2w. BC. or any rhombus. Combine like terms. the opposite sides are parallel and congruent. Divide both sides by 4. and AC. In a rectangle. In this example. Combine like terms. Subtract 3x from both sides. the opposite sides are parallel ៮ ≅ DC ៮៮.5 22 . Example: Find the perimeter of the rectangle. Use algebra to solve for and congruent. Add up the lengths of all sides. like all parallelograms. AB the variable x. Add 4 to both sides. The height. where P is the perimeter and s is the length of one of the sides. " SHORTCUT In a rectangle. is information that is not needed to calculate the perimeter. 7x – 4 = 3x + 18 7x – 4 – 3x = 3x + 18 – 3x 4x – 4 = 18 4x – 4 + 4 = 18 + 4 4x = 22 4x ᎏᎏ 4 Set up an equation. l is the length.

Example: Find the perimeter of the trapezoid.6 inches. AREA OF COMMON POLYGONS Area is a measure of how many square units it takes to COVER a closed ﬁgure.176 J U ST I N TI M E G E O M ETRY Use this value to ﬁnd the length of ៮ AB and ៮៮ DC . BC = 2 ft = 24 in. Now add up the four sides: 24 + 60 + 30 + 26 = 140 in.5) + 18 = 34. Change the lengths of the sides given in feet to be inches. Area of a triangle Area of a parallelogram Area of a trapezoid ᎏ A=ᎏ 2 bh 1 A = bh ᎏ A=ᎏ 2 h(b1 + b2) 1 Be sure to include square units in your answer. Area is measured in square units. Use the shortcut for the perimeter of a rectangle: P = (2 ϫ 34. a conversion must be made before calculating perimeter or area. You can also think of units being multiplied together: cm ϫ cm = cm2.5. where two measures are multiplied together. and b1 and b2 are the parallel sides of a trapezoid.3) = 69 + 54. There are formulas to use for the area of common polygons: E RULE BOOK—COMMON POLYGON FORMULAS A stands for area. Area is a multiplication concept. Be alert when working with geometry problems to make sure that the units are consistent.5) + (2 ϫ 27. h stands for height (which is perpendicular to the base). If they are different. . b stands for base. or the words centimeters squared. 3x + 18 = (3 ϫ 5. and AD = 5 ft = 60 in. 1 ft = 12 in.6 = 123.

so the height is 10. The key strokes are shown below to calculate the area of the triangle 1 ᎏ in the above example: A = ᎏ 2 ϫ 18 ϫ 10. Include the square units. If you have a fraction key on your calculator.8 mm2 1 1 Substitute in the given information. For rectangles and squares.2 A = 91. the height is also a side of the polygon. use it when calculating the area of a triangle. squares.2 . the calculator may help.P E R I M ETE R AN D AR EA 177 Recall that rectangles.2 mm and the base is 18 mm. and rhombuses are parallelograms. Multiply the terms on the right together. Example: Find the area of the triangle.8 A = 91. A = ᎏ2ᎏbh A = ᎏ2ᎏ ϫ 18 ϫ 10. Note that the height must be perpendicular to the base. i CALCULATOR TIPS When calculating areas.

where r is the length of the radius. OR C = 2πr. C = πd. the height is the length that is perpendicular to the base. there are 300 divided by 100 meters. in math tests. is a special ratio that is a constant value of approximately 3. There are 100 centimeters in a meter. not a side of the ﬁgure. Because the ﬁgure is a parallelogram.5 A = 4. " SHORTCUT The area of a square is A = s2. AREA of a circle is the number of square units it takes to cover the circle. Often. therefore.5 m2 Use the area formula and substitute in the given lengths. The base is 300 cm. Before using the area formula. answers will be C . which is 3 meters in the base. ᎏ Pi compares circumference to diameter in the following ratio: π = ᎏ d . PERIMETER AND AREA OF A CIRCLE E RULE BOOK CIRCUMFERENCE of a circle is the distance AROUND the circle (the perimeter).5 m. and d is the length of the diameter. PI.5 ϫ 3 A = 4. where π is a constant. π. A = bh A = 1. and the height is 1. all units need to be consistent. Include the square units.178 J U ST I N TI M E G E O M ETRY Example: Find the area of the parallelogram. A = πr2. where s is a side of the square. where π is a constant and r is the radius. Change 300 cm into meters before proceeding. Multiply the base times the height. It is the same value for every circle.14.

22 ᎏ or π = ᎏ 7 .3 m A = πr2 A = π ϫ 10. In this case.09π m2 1 Substitute in 20.6 meters. If the problem asks for the area of the circle.6 for d. or π = ᎏ 7 . a problem will direct you to use either π = 3. the units will be square units. Example: Find the area of the circle. and include the square units. Now. look for the π symbol printed above one of the keys. The radius can be found by dividing the diameter by two. Just like for all area calculations. for example. The units for circumference will be linear (single) units. Other calculators have the constant as a second function. Take care and check if the problem gives the radius or diameter. such as 136π square units. r = ᎏ2ᎏ d r = 10.14. The problem gives the diameter. Substitute in for the radius. you can calculate the circumference and area of circles. which is more 22 ᎏ accurate than using either π = 3.3 A = 106. the key looks like one of the following: Using the formulas above. you must ﬁrst calculate the length of the radius. and gives the length of the diameter. or shift function. The ﬁrst step is to calculate the radius. use the formula for the area of a circle.3 times 10. Usually. use the π key on your calculator unless otherwise instructed.P E R I M ETE R AN D AR EA 179 given in terms of π. Multiply 10. which is 20. Sometimes. which are approximations for pi. i CALCULATOR TIPS Many calculators have a special key for the constant pi.14. .3 ϫ 10. If answers are not given in terms of π.3.

Multiply one-half times 34.76 by 3. Substitute in the diameter. so the radius of the circle is one . Take care on multiple-choice tests. The area is A = Atriangle + ᎏ2ᎏAcircle. rectangle. and include units. Example: Find the area to the nearest hundredth. Divide 106.76 = 3. one will be in terms of π. Notice that this ﬁgure is a triangle with one-half of a circle on the 1 top. Use π = 3. Sometimes the answer choices will look similar. or circle.14. answers are left in terms of π. To ﬁnd the radius.76 feet. Often. ﬁnd the radius.14 3 d 34 = d r = ᎏ2ᎏd r = ᎏ2ᎏ ϫ 34 r = 17 ft 1 1 Substitute in for C and π. and another will omit the π constant. such as a triangle. use the radius formula. AREA OF IRREGULAR SHAPED FIGURES Some problems ask for the area of an irregular shaped polygon. C = πd 106. The key to solving these types of problems is to break the ﬁgure up into polygons that you recognize.14 to ﬁnd diameter. as in this example.180 J U ST I N TI M E G E O M ETRY Frequently. The base of the triangle is equal to the diameter of the circle. Example 2: Given that the circumference of a circle is C ≈ 106. pieces of circles are part of the irregular ﬁgure.

06 = 3. plus the circumference of one whole circle. The two half circles are congruent.14 ϫ 23 ϫ 23). The radius is 9. Use 3. P = 92 + (3.661. the perimeter will be two sides of the square. Multiply ﬁrst. and then add to get the area. Substitute in the 1 1 known formulas: (ᎏ2ᎏ ϫ 18 ϫ 22) + ᎏ2ᎏ ϫ π ϫ 92.06 mm2.14 for π. A = (46 ϫ 46) + (3. AREA OF SHADED REGIONS Often on math tests. and one-half of 46 is 23 mm. Example: Find the perimeter of the above shape.44 mm. with two half circles on either end.P E R I M ETE R AN D AR EA 181 half the base of the triangle.777. Multiply ﬁrst and then add to get 198 + 127. This ﬁgure is actually a square. P = 46 + 46 + πd.116 + 1. The radius of the circle is one-half of the side of the square. and together they form a whole circle.23 m2.23 = 325. A = 2. Substitute in the formulas: A = s2 + πr2. P = 92 + 144.44 = 236. Example: Find the area of the ﬁgure. In this case. A = Asquare + Acircle. such as these: .14 ϫ 46). you are asked to ﬁnd the area of a shaded region.

htm. • Calculate the area of a shaded region by subtraction: Ashaded = Aouter – Ainner. Again.com is another good resource for practice with geometry. Click on Lesson #10. Geometric Figures. • Be careful of unit consistency when solving problems of area and perimeter.uwc.aaamath. • Know the formulas for the area of a circle and common polygons. • Calculate the area of irregular-shaped ﬁgures by breaking them up into smaller ﬁgures that are recognizable. A third site to visit is http://rock. and there is a brief description of the topic followed by an interactive quiz. • Area is a square measurement that measures how many square units it takes to cover a ﬁgure. a. The topics are well organized. 46 in2 c. 288 in2 e. TIPS AND STRATEGIES • Perimeter is a linear measurement that measures the length around a plane ﬁgure. You will ﬁnd this on the right under Math Topics. 160 in2 b. 240 in2 . You will see the heading Table of Contents on the left. 3.edu/galexand/baw/toc. Answers are provided. PRACTICE QUIZ 1. The website www. • Circles can be measured for circumference and area. click on Geometry. 120 in2 d. there is a lesson followed by a quiz with answers provided.P E R I M ETE R AN D AR EA 183 2. Once on the home page. Find the area.

31 ft d. Find the perimeter. 68. 42 in c.184 J U ST I N TI M E G E O M ETRY 2. 50 in . a. 60 cm c. 137 cm e. 52 in b. 165 cm b. 120 cm 3. 3.5 cm d. Find the perimeter. a.1 ft e.

24 in2 b. 40 in2 c. 52 in2 . 22 mm2 d. a. 64 mm2 e. 36 mm2 b. Find the area. 144 in2 e. a. Find the area. 60 mm2 5. 48 mm2 c. 72 in2 d.P E R I M ETE R AN D AR EA 185 4.

265 cm d. 900π mm2 b. Find the perimeter. 265 m e. 1. 60 mm2 c. a.300 cm 7. 225π mm2 d. Find the area. 225 mm2 . a.520 m c.186 J U ST I N TI M E G E O M ETRY 6. 1. 1. 900 mm2 e.520 cm b.

28 cm b. 12π in e. 24 in .P E R I M ETE R AN D AR EA 187 8. 6 in b. a. 56 cm c. Given the circumference of a circle is 24π inches. 84 cm d. 80 cm e. 6π in c. 12 in d. 336 cm 9. ﬁnd the radius of the circle. a. Find the perimeter of the equilateral triangle.

a.188 J U ST I N TI M E G E O M ETRY 10. Find the area of the square. 8 m2 b. 1. 6 cm b. 6π cm c. 64 m2 d.024 m2 . a. 18π cm d. 9π cm e. Find the circumference. 128 m2 e. 32 m2 c. 36π cm 11.

25 cm c. 2.P E R I M ETE R AN D AR EA 189 12. 64 in d. ﬁnd the length of ៮ AB. 55 in e. Find the perimeter. Given the area of the rectangle = 90 cm2.5 in b.5 cm e. 8 cm 13. 28. 18 cm d. 15 cm b. a. 11. 46 in . a. 67 in c.

a.190 J U ST I N TI M E G E O M ETRY 14.19 cm2 .10 cm2 d. a. Find the area of the ﬁgure to the nearest hundredth.29 cm2 e. 236. 52 mm2 15. 293. 88 mm2 c. 632. 748 mm2 b. 56 mm2 e. Find the area of the rectangle. 112 mm2 d. 180 cm2 b. 406.55 cm2 c.

06 in2 . 105. a.54 in2 17.83 in2 d. 297. 635. 714.87 in2 d.62 in2 e. 146. a.P E R I M ETE R AN D AR EA 191 16.16 in2 c.14 for π.27 in2 e.06 in2 c. 70. 478. 400 in2 b. Use 3. Find the area of the ﬁgure to the nearest hundredth. Find the area of the shaded region. 462. 45.76 in2 b.

97 ft2 . a.192 J U ST I N TI M E G E O M ETRY 18. 54. 111. 146. 73. 25π cm2 e. 7π cm2 d.48 ft2 d. 40π cm2 19. π cm2 c. 108. 58π cm2 b.97 ft2 c. Find the area of the ﬁgure to the nearest hundredth.24 ft2 b. Find the area of the shaded region.48 ft2 e. a.

P E R I M ETE R AN D AR EA 193 20.5 cm2 b. 28. 34. 31. 33 cm2 e. 49 in2 b.5 cm2 c. a. 9 in2 . 69 in2 c. 39 cm2 21. Find the area of the ﬁgure. Find the area of the shaded region. a. 80 in2 e.5 cm2 d. 29 in2 d.

28.98 mm c. a. 59. 47. Find the perimeter. 107.5 cm2 e. 157 cm2 b. Find the area of the shaded region.96 mm 23.96 mm e. 103. 185.1 cm2 d. The radius of the circle in the ﬁgure below is 5 cm.5 cm2 . 53. Use π = 3.14. a.98 mm b. 53.5 cm2 c. 75.194 J U ST I N TI M E G E O M ETRY 22.94 mm d.

5 in2 c. Find the area of the ﬁgure. a. 34. (200π – 200) cm2 . 28 in2 d. 57 in2 25. 93 in2 b. (40π – 200) cm2 d. (100π – 100) cm2 c. (200π – 100) cm2 b.P E R I M ETE R AN D AR EA 195 24. (100π – 200) cm2 e. a. 75 in2 e. Find the area of the shaded region.

where h is the height and b1 and b2 are the parallel bases. 30 + 30 + 40 + 37 = 137 cm. The area of a triangle is A = ᎏ2ᎏbh. An equilateral triangle has all three sides congruent. c. where b is the base and h is the 1 height. c.520 cm. Substitute in to get: A = π ϫ 152 = 225π square millimeters. The perimeter is the sum of the measure of the sides of a polygon. 3. The area of a circle is A = πr2. This is a rectangle. The side measurement of 12 inches is not needed to solve this problem. b. 4. d. Substitute in to get: (2 ϫ 260) + (2 ϫ 500) = 520 + 1. Add 12 to both sides. 5. . The area of a trapezoid is A = ᎏ2ᎏh(b1 + b2). Combine like terms.196 ANSWERS J U ST I N TI M E G E O M ETRY 1. The area of a parallelogram is A = bh. The radius is one-half of the diameter. Substitute in to get: A = ᎏ2ᎏ ϫ 12 ϫ 12 = 6 ϫ 12 = 72 square inches. For this trapezoid. Divide both sides by 3. 8. b. so use the shortcut formula: P = 2l + 2w. Note that choice b has units of meters. which is incorrect. e.000 = 1. One of the sides is given as feet. where b is the base and h is the height. Use algebra to ﬁnd the value of the variable x. Substitute in to 1 get: A = ᎏ2ᎏ ϫ 6 (6 + 10) = 3 ϫ 16 = 48 mm2. Substitute in the values for the base and height: A = 24 ϫ 10 = 240 square inches. Subtract x from both sides. and the other two sides are given as inches. Change 5 meters to 500 cm. Find the length of one of the sides and multiply by three: x + 18 = 4x –12 x + 18 – x = 4x – 12 – x 18 = 3x – 12 18 + 12 = 3x – 12 + 12 30 = 3x = ᎏ3ᎏ 10 = x 30 ᎏᎏ 3 3x 1 1 Set up an equation. 7. This problem gives the diameter. One-half of 30 is 15 mm. Note that choice e is just 225 mm2. The perimeter is the sum of the measure of the sides of a polygon. The units must be consistent before solving. 6. the height is also the side perpendicular to the parallel bases. Combine like terms. a. c. 2. which is incorrect. of equal measure. 20 + 10 + 12 = 42 inches. Convert 1 foot to 12 inches.

A square has all four sides of equal measure. Subtract x from both sides. Divide both sides by 2. . and all radii are congruent in a circle. Use the value of 6 to ﬁnd the diameter. The perimeter is 3 ϫ 28 = 84 cm. so the radius is 12 inches. and then use the shortcut for the area of a square. e. The area is 322 = 1. where d is the diameter of the circle. Divide both sides by 5. c. to ﬁnd the diameter. Two radii are shown. The radius is one-half of the diameter of a circle. 10. Combine like terms. Use the value of 8 to ﬁnd the length of one of the sides of the square: 3x + 8 = (3 ϫ 8) + 8 = 24 + 8 = 32 meters. 11. Combine like terms. e. 9.024 m2. The circumference is 36π cm. which is two times a radius: 2(3x) = 2 ϫ (3 ϫ 6) = 2 ϫ 18 = 36. Since the formula for circumference is C = πd. the diameter is 24 inches. Add 32 to both sides. Use algebra to solve for the variable x. then solve for the circumference: 3x = x + 12 3x – x = x + 12 – x 2x = 12 = ᎏ2ᎏ x=6 2x ᎏᎏ 2 12 Set up the equation. Onehalf of 24 equals 12. Subtract 3x from both sides.P E R I M ETE R AN D AR EA 197 Use the value of 10 to ﬁnd the length of side x + 18: 10 + 18 = 28 cm. A = s2. 8x – 32 = 3x + 8 8x – 32 – 3x = 3x + 8 – 3x 5x – 32 = 8 5x – 32 + 32 = 8 + 32 5x = 40 = ᎏ5ᎏ x=8 5x ᎏᎏ 5 40 Set up the equation. Combine like terms. Use algebra to ﬁnd the value of x. The circumference is C = πd.

The area of a rectangle is A = bh. Use this value to ﬁnd the length of the longer sides: 7x + 6 = (7 ϫ 4) + 6 = 28 + 6 = 34 mm. The opposite sides of a rectangle are equal measure. Combine like terms. so use algebra to ﬁnd the variable of x: 7x + 6 = 11x – 10 7x + 6 – 7x = 11x – 10 – 7x 6 = 4x – 10 6 + 10 = 4x – 10 + 10 16 = 4x = ᎏ4ᎏ 4=x 16 ᎏᎏ 4 4x Set up the equation. The area is given as 90 cm2.375 = x 66 ᎏᎏ 48 48x Set up the equation. Divide both sides by 4. Subtract 7x from both sides. a.198 J U ST I N TI M E G E O M ETRY 12. and then use this value to ﬁnd the length of ៮ AB.25 cm.25 + 3 = 11. b.5 feet = 18 inches. To ﬁnd the perimeter. Add 10 to both sides.55 = 236. Use algebra to solve for the variable x. add up the measure of the sides. is 12 cm. 13. First make all units consistent. Perimeter is 24 + 18 + 10 + 15 = 67 inches. so convert the feet measurements to inches by multiplying by 12: 2 feet = 24 inches. Now. Use the π key on the calculator. and the formula for the area is A = bh. b. All of the answer choices are inches. Use the distributive property. ៮: 6x + 3 = (6 ϫ 1. The side of the rectangle.55 square centimeters. 14. Airregular ﬁgure = Arectangle + Aᎏ1 . Combine like terms. . Divide both sides by 48. This irregular ﬁgure is a rectangle and one-half of a circle. Combine like terms. The answer calls for 2 circle the value to the nearest hundredth and does not specify what value to use for π. Subtract 24 from both sides. The radius is one half the measure of the diameter so the ᎏ radius is 6 cm. which is also the diameter of the circle. Substitute in 1 1 the formulas and then the values: A = bh + ᎏ2ᎏπr2 = (15 ϫ 12) + ᎏ2ᎏπ62 = 180 + (18 ϫ π) = 180 + 56. calculate the area = 34 ϫ 22 = 748 mm2. 15.375) + 3 = Use this value to ﬁnd the length of AB 8. 90 = 8(6x + 3) 90 = (8 ϫ 6x) + 24 90 – 24 = 48x + 24 – 24 66 = 48x ᎏ =ᎏ 48 1. and 1. b.

A = s2 + ᎏ4ᎏπr2.5 cm2. The outer ﬁgure is a rectangle and the inner ﬁgure is a trapezoid. 17.P E R I M ETE R AN D AR EA 199 16.5 = 34. Substitute in the values to get: 3 3 202 + ᎏ4ᎏπ102. The outer ﬁgure is actually a circle with a radius of 7 and the inner ﬁgure is a circle with a radius of 3. and three fourths of a circle with radius of 10 inches. d.8. A = bh – πr2. 4 cm. Simplify to get: 49 – 20 = 29 in .96 mm. The shaded region is Ashaded = Aouter – Ainner. The area of the shaded region is Ashaded = Aouter – Ainner. it will just be the circumference of one circle with diameter of 14 mm. Substitute in to get: A = 72π – 32π = 49π – 9π = 40π cm2. is the distance from the inner circle to the outer circle. The area of the shaded region is Ashaded = Aouter – Ainner. A = πr2 – πr2. which is 4 inches. Simplify to get: 24 + 10. Substitute in to get: A = 1 2 ᎏ (9. and the π key. a.24 = 45. e. Use your calculator. or one half of 8.14 ϫ 42) or 96 – 50. The radius of the circle is one-half the height of the rectangle. Add up the two pieces 3 to get the total area.62 = 635. c. and a half circle with radius of 3. with base of 10 and height 1 1 of 7. 20. P = 16 + 16 + πd = 32 + 3. Use the π key to solve: 400 + ᎏ4ᎏ ϫ 100 ϫ π = 400 + 235. c. A = ᎏ2ᎏbh + ᎏ2ᎏπr2. This irregular ﬁgure is a square with sides of 20 inches. The triangle has base of 3 plus the base of the rectangle (3 + 4 = 7) and height of 3. 18. The outer shape is a rectangle and the inner shape is a circle. The rectangle has a base of 5 and a height of 9. The rectangle has base of 4 and height of 6. The perimeter of this irregular shaped ﬁgure is the sum of the two sides of the rectangle (length 16 mm). e.5 ). One is the radius of the inner circle.24 = 54. a. This irregular ﬁgure is a right triangle.14 ϫ 14 = 32 + 43. the other measure. The trapezoid has a height of 5 and the bases are 5 and 3. A = 1 1 2 ᎏ ᎏᎏ (ᎏ 210 ϫ 7) + ( 2 π ϫ 3.8 ϫ 5) – ᎏ 25 ϫ (5 + 3). and the circumference of two one-half circles with a diameter of 14 mm. 21.5. All of the answer choices are left in terms of π. 22.24 ft2.76 square inches. This ﬁgure is a right triangle and a rectangle. 19. Two segment lengths are given.96 = 75. Substitute in to get A = (12 ϫ 8) – (3.62 in2. to get: A = 35 + 19. Since it is two one-half identical circles. . Substitute these values 1 1 into the formulas: A = bh + ᎏ2ᎏbh = (4 ϫ 6) + ᎏ2ᎏ(7 ϫ 3).

the radius of 1 1 the circle. plus the area of the middle section. or (100π – 200) cm . which is twice the radius. The inner ﬁgure is a triangle. The area of this irregular ﬁgure is the sum of the areas of two identical triangles. The rectan1 gle has a base of 7 in and a height of 3 in.5 cm2. and the height is 5 cm. This simpliﬁes to 72 + 21 = 93 square inches. Substitute these values in to get: A = π102 – 1 1 2 ᎏ ᎏᎏ 2(ᎏ 2 bh). 24. a rectangle. d. The radius is given as 10 cm. The base is 10 cm. A = πr2 – ᎏ2ᎏbh = (π ϫ 52) – (ᎏ2ᎏ ϫ 10 ϫ 5). The height of the triangles is the radius. The triangles have a base of 9 in and a height of 8 in. 25. The area of the shaded region is Ashaded = Aouter – Ainner. The base of the triangle is a diameter of the circle. where the base is the diagonal of the rectangle. The area of the shaded region is Ashaded = Aouter – Ainner. so the base of the triangles is 20 cm. Simplify to get 78. which happens to be the diameter of the circle. The outer ﬁgure is a circle. a. A = (2 ϫ (ᎏ2ᎏ ϫ 9 ϫ 8)) + (7 ϫ 3). . Simplify to get: 100π – (2 ϫ 2 ϫ 200). so treat this rectangle as two triangles. d.5 – 25 = 53.200 J U ST I N TI M E G E O M ETRY 23. The outer ﬁgure is a circle with a radius of 5 cm. 10 cm. and the inner ﬁgure is a rectangle. The base and height of the rectangle are not given. the base is a chord that passes through the center of the circle.

This chapter concentrates on the three-dimensional measures of surface area and volume. 9 b. 11 201 . BENCHMARK QUIZ 1. 8 e. 12 c. Take this ten-question benchmark quiz to assess your current knowledge of these concepts. 6 d.7 Surface Area and Volume C hapter 6 reviewed the concepts of measurement in two dimensions. How many edges does this rectangular prism have? a.

400 in3 e. 342 in2 d. Find the volume of the trapezoidal prism. 5. 6. 300 in2 e. a.202 J U ST I N TI M E G E O M ETRY 2.800 in3 c. a. 468 in2 c. Find the surface area of the triangular prism. 2. 360 in2 b.520 in3 b. 324 in2 3. 63 in3 d. 2.040 in3 .

1. 656 m2 e. 2. a. Find the surface area.100 mm2 c. 850 mm2 d. 704π m2 b.250 mm2 b.500 mm2 5. Find the surface area. a. 768 m2 d.000 mm2 e. 704 m2 c. 1. 1.S U R FA C E A R EA A N D VO LU M E 203 4. 768π m2 .

250 cm3 b. 450 cm3 e. a. a. 784π m2 e. 196π m2 d.500 cm3 c. 49π m2 c. 14π m2 b. 6 in d. 19. 144 cm3 7. The volume of the cylinder is 384π in3. Find the value of the variable x.2 in b. Find the volume. The base of the triangular prism is an isosceles right triangle. 342 cm3 d. 3 in c. a. Find the surface area of a sphere whose diameter is 14 meters. 40.204 J U ST I N TI M E G E O M ETRY 6.5 in e. 49 m2 8. 21. 43 in . 20.

Find the volume of the sphere.S U R FA C E A R EA A N D VO LU M E 205 9. a. ᎏ3ᎏ in3 10. 360π ft3 b. Find the volume of the cone. 64π ᎏᎏ 3 in3 in3 b. 120π ft3 e. 90π ft3 . 64π in3 128π ᎏᎏ 3 256π d. 30π ft3 c. c. 256π in3 e. a. 60π ft3 d.

The area of each 1 1 triangle is A = ᎏ2ᎏbh. or A = 12 ϫ 6 = 72 in2. 4. 6. . the height. The height of the triangle. or A = 12 ϫ 8 = 96 in2.206 J U ST I N TI M E G E O M ETRY BENCHMARK QUIZ SOLUTIONS 1. The edges are the segments that make up the solid. is 2 times 15. or 45 cm. V = ᎏ2ᎏh1(b1 + b2 ) ϫ h2 . Evaluate the exponent: 2(π64) + 2π ϫ 8 ϫ 40.520 in3. Surface area is 18 + 18 + 96 + 96 + 72 = 300 in2. 3.250 cm3. 1 Substitute in the values for the heights and bases: V = ᎏ2ᎏ ϫ 7(20 + 1 16) ϫ 20. The base of the triangle. Perform multiplication: 128π + 640π. e. h2. The area of each is A = bh. and then adding these areas together. Since this is an isosceles triangle. b. Substitute in 8 for r. b. and height to get: 2(25 ϫ 5) + 2(25 ϫ 10) + 2(5 ϫ 10) = 2(125) + 2(250) + 2(50) = 250 + 500 + 100 = 850 mm2. SA = 2(π82) + 2π ϫ 8 ϫ 40. c. The base and height have equal measure. There are 12 segments: four on the top. V = ᎏ2ᎏ ϫ 7(36) ϫ 20 = 2. 2x = x + 15 2x – x = x + 15 – x x = 15 Set up an equation. width. and four that make up the sides. In this prism. a. The surface area of a rectangular prism can be found by using the formula SA = 2(l ϫ w) + 2(l ϫ h) + 2(w ϫ h). where B is the area of the 1 base. the base is a trapezoid. Substitute in 1 the measures: V = ᎏ2ᎏ ϫ 30 ϫ 30 ϫ 45. four on the bottom. Multiply to get 20. 2. Substitute in the values for length. Use the formula V = ᎏ2ᎏbh1 ϫ h2. a. Evaluate the length of the dimensions using this value. The bottom face is A = bh. Surface area is found by calculating the area of each face. d. The base is a right isosceles triangle. Volume of a prism is found by V = Bh. h1. Use this fact and algebra to ﬁnd the value of the variable x. there are two congruent rectangular faces. Use the formula for the surface area of a cylinder: SA = 2(πr2) + 2πrh. There are two bases that are triangles of equal measure. choice c is 768 m2. Combine like terms to get the surface area of 768π m2. and 40 for h. 5. Be careful. the radius. or A = ᎏ2ᎏ ϫ 6 ϫ 6 = 18 in2. is 3 1 times 15. or 30 cm. and three rectangular faces. The height of the prism. and then calculate the volume. Subtract x from both sides. which is incorrect. is also 30 cm.

BENCHMARK QUIZ RESULTS If you answered 8–10 questions correctly. there are several concepts you need to review. you have remembered a great deal about surface area and volume. and 16 that cover these concepts. Multiply to get in3. 8.S U R FA C E A R EA A N D VO LU M E 207 7. Work carefully through the examples and pay attention to the sidebars that refer you to deﬁnitions. 15. V = ᎏ3ᎏπ62 ϫ 10. Get additional practice on geometry by visiting the suggested websites and taking the quiz at the end of the chapter. Refer to Geometry Success in 20 Minutes a Day. where r is the radius of the base. Work through each example in the text on paper to be sure you can solve it. Multiply. or 196π square meters. proceed to the Practice Quiz to try to improve your score. b. The surface area of a sphere is SA = 4πr2. The radius is one half the length of the diameter. Read over the remainder of the text to pick up any shortcuts or techniques for solving problems. published by LearningExpress. Evaluate the exponent: V = ᎏ3ᎏπ ϫ 36 ϫ 10 and multiply to get 120π ft3. SA = 4 ϫ π ϫ 72 = 4(49)π. This book has lessons 14. c. This sphere has a radius of 4 inches. 4 x=3 9. . and h is the height of the cone. The diameter is given in the problem. π(82)(2x) = 384π π(128x) = 384π 128πx ᎏᎏ 128π ᎏ =ᎏ 128π 384π Set up an equation. If you answered 1–3 questions correctly. If you answered 4–7 questions correctly. Divide both sides by 128π. Use the formula for the volume of a cylinder and an algebraic equation to ﬁnd the value of the variable x. 1 10. and shortcuts. If the questions you answered incorrectly are centered on one speciﬁc area in this chapter. Go to the suggested websites in the Extra Help sidebar in this chapter. d. which will help with understanding and will provide extended practice. The volume of a cone is V = ᎏ3ᎏπr2h. hints. V = ᎏ3ᎏπ43 = 256π ᎏᎏ 3 4 4 ᎏᎏ 3 ϫ π ϫ 64. take your time on that section in the chapter. or 7 meters. Use the formula for the volume of a sphere: V = ᎏ3ᎏπr3. carefully read this chapter and concentrate on the sidebars and visual aids that will help with comprehension. Then. e. Carefully read through the lesson in this chapter for review and skill building. The volume of a cylinder is V = πr2h. Substitute in the values for 1 1 radius and height.

This chapter will review three-dimensional solid ﬁgures. The parts of a polyhedron are deﬁned as faces. Vertices. and Edges Surface Area of Prisms Surface Area of Cylinders and Spheres Volume of Prisms Volume of Cylinders and Spheres Volume of Pyramids and Cones THREE-DIMENSIONAL FIGURES: FACES. GLOSSARY FACE of a polyhedron is one of the plane surfaces on the solid EDGE of a polyhedron is one of the segments on the solid VERTEX of a polyhedron is an intersecting point of any two edges of the solid . AND EDGES Solid ﬁgures are three-dimensional entities. vertices. The topics in this chapter are: • • • • • • Three-dimensional Figures: Faces.208 J U ST I N TI M E G E O M ETRY JUST IN TIME LESSON— SURFACE AREA AND VOLUME There are many applications of geometry in mathematical problems. Surface area is a covering or wrapping concept and volume is a ﬁlling concept. VERTICES. Polyhedrons are solids whose surfaces are made up of polygons. and edges.

S U R FA C E A R EA A N D VO LU M E 209 Some common solid ﬁgures are deﬁned below. RECTANGULAR PRISM a prism that has bases that are rectangles CUBE a rectangular prism with six congruent faces that are squares TRIANGULAR PRISM a prism that has bases that are triangles TRAPEZOIDAL PRISM a prism that has bases that are trapezoids CYLINDER is a solid in which the bases are circles and the other surface is a rectangle wrapped around the circles SPHERE a solid in which all of the points on the sphere are an equal distance from a center point. . GLOSSARY PRISM a three dimensional solid that has two congruent faces called bases. This distance is the radius of the sphere. The other faces are rectangles.

. There are six faces: two congruent trapezoids.210 J U ST I N TI M E G E O M ETRY RECTANGULAR PYRAMID a solid that has a rectangle for a base. Example: Find the surface area of the prism. with the other face wrapping around this base and meeting opposite the base at a vertex point SURFACE AREA OF PRISMS Surface area is the number of square units that it takes to cover a three dimensional solid. the parallel faces are trapezoids. ﬁrst determine the number of faces on the prism. and four rectangles. and four triangular faces that meet at a vertex opposite to the base CONE a solid that has a circle for a base. The 1 1 area of each trapezoid is A = ᎏ2ᎏh(b1 + b2). The formulas for the area of the faces were covered in Chapter 6. To calculate surface area. This is a trapezoidal prism. or A = ᎏ2ᎏ ϫ 2 ϫ (7 + 4) = 11. Calculate the area of each face and then add them together.

Add these six areas together to get the surface area: SA = 11 + 11 + 42 + 24 + 30 + 18 = 136 mm2.4 + 18x – 26. Use algebra to ﬁnd the value of the variable x. and then combine like terms.4 = 13.4 in2. The area of the left face is A = 5 ϫ 6 = 30.4 from both sides.4 = 26. The area of each rectangle is A = bh. .4 + 18x Set up the equation.2 + 13. The area of the top face is A = 4 ϫ 6 = 24. Example: The surface area of the triangular prism shown is 242. The triangular base is an equilateral triangle. 242. or A = 6x. 216 ᎏᎏ 18 ᎏ =ᎏ 18 12 = x 18x Divide both sides by 18. What is the length of ៮ BC? Use the variable x to represent the length of ៮ BC. The area of the 1 1 ᎏ ᎏ ᎏ ᎏ two triangular bases is A = 2 bh.2. the length of ៮ BC: 242.S U R FA C E A R EA A N D VO LU M E 211 The area of the bottom rectangle is A = bh.4 = 26.4 Subtract 26. Each of these is congruent because the triangular base is equilateral.2 + 3(6x) 242. This is the length of ៮ BC. and the area of the right face is A = 3 ϫ 6 = 18. Multiply. or A = 2 ϫ 6 ϫ 4.4 – 26. There are three other rectangular faces.4 = 13. or A = 7 ϫ 6 = 42. 216 = 18x Combine like terms.

Take the square root of each side. and h is the height of the prism SURFACE AREA OF A CUBE: SA = 6s2 where s is the length of a side of the cube Example: The surface area of a cube is 384 ft2. there are two other sets of congruent faces. Be alert when working with geometry problems to make sure that the units are consistent. Calculate the area of one of these bases and then multiply by 2. Divide both sides by 6.212 J U ST I N TI M E G E O M ETRY " SHORTCUT For prisms. a conversion must be made before calculating surface area. l is the length. Example: What is the surface area of the following rectangular prism? . Each edge of the cube measures 8 feet. What is the length of an edge of the cube? 384 = 6s2 = ͙64 ෆ = ͙ෆ s2 8=s 384 ᎏᎏ 6 6s2 ᎏᎏ 6 Use the formula to set up an equation. there is a pair of parallel congruent bases. If they are different. For rectangular prisms. These facts lead to the formulas commonly used for rectangular prisms: SURFACE AREA OF A RECTANGULAR PRISM: SA = 2(l ϫ w) + 2(l ϫ h) + 2(w ϫ h) where w is the width.

S U R FA C E A R EA A N D VO LU M E

213

The length is 2.5 feet, the width is 6 inches, and the height is 10 inches. Convert the length to inches (1 foot = 12 inches). The length is 12 ϫ 2.5 = 30 inches. Now use the shortcut formula: SA = 2(30 ϫ 6) + 2(30 ϫ 10) + 2(6 ϫ 10) SA = 2(180) + 2(300) + 2(60) Evaluate parentheses. SA = 360 + 600 + 120 Perform multiplication. SA = 1,080 in2 Perform addition; include units. When there is a variable present given as one of the dimensions, an algebraic equation is used to either solve for the variable, or to ﬁnd a measurement. Pay attention to what the problem is asking for; sometimes the value of the variable is needed, other times the actual measurement is requested. Example: The triangular base of the following prism is an isosceles triangle. Find the surface area of the prism.

Since the triangle is isosceles, the sides marked as algebraic expressions have equal measure. Use algebra to solve for the variable x. Evaluate to ﬁnd the length of these sides. Then, calculate surface area. 13x – 60 = 7x 13x – 60 – 7x = 7x – 7x 6x – 60 = 0 6x – 60 + 60 = 0 + 60 6x = 60
6x ᎏᎏ 6

Set up an equation. Subtract 7x from both sides. Combine like terms. Add 60 to both sides. Combine like terms. Divide both sides by 6.

= ᎏ6ᎏ x=1

60

214
1

J U ST I N TI M E G E O M ETRY

The area of the triangle is A = ᎏ2ᎏ ϫ 90 ϫ 50 = 2,250 mm2. The congruent sides of the triangle are 7x = 7(10) = 70 mm2. Two of the rectangular faces are A = 70 ϫ 100 = 7,000 mm2. The other face is A = 90 ϫ 100 = 9,000 mm2. Add these areas to ﬁnd the surface area: SA = 2(2,250) + 2(7,000) + 9,000 = 4,500 + 14,000 + 9,000 = 27,500 mm2. Example: The surface area of the rectangular prism is 652 cm2. Find the value of the variable x.

Use the shortcut formula and algebra to ﬁnd the value of x: 652 = 2(8x) + 2(22x) + 2(8 ϫ 22) 652 = 16x + 44x + 352 652 = 60x + 352 652 – 352 = 60x + 352 – 352 300 = 60x
300 ᎏᎏ 60 ᎏ =ᎏ 60 5=x 60x

Perform multiplication. Combine like terms. Subtract 352 from both sides. Combine like terms. Divide both sides by 60.

SURFACE AREA OF CYLINDERS AND SPHERES

A cylinder has two congruent bases that are circles, and one long rectangular piece that wraps to form the side.

S U R FA C E A R EA A N D VO LU M E

215

The side marked h is the height of the cylinder. The side marked c is the circumference of the circular base, calculated by the diameter of the circular base.

E

RULE BOOK
The surface area of a cylinder is the two times the area of one of the circular bases, plus the circumference of the circular base, times the height of the cylinder:

SURFACE AREA OF A CYLINDER
SA = 2(πr2) + 2πrh The surface area of a sphere is based on the radius of the sphere:

SURFACE AREA OF A SPHERE
SA = 4πr2

Using the preceding formulas, you can calculate the surface area of cylinders and spheres. Take care and check if the problem gives the radius or diameter. If the problem asks for the surface area of a cylinder, for example, and gives the length of the diameter, you must ﬁrst calculate the length of the radius. The radius can be found by dividing the diameter by 2. Just like for all area calculations, the units will be square units. Example: Find the surface area of the following cylinder. Use 3.14 for π.

216

J U ST I N TI M E G E O M ETRY

Note that the units are not consistent. Convert the height from meters to centimeters by multiplying by 100: 0.5 ϫ 100 = 50 cm. Use the formula for surface area, substituting 16 for r and 50 for h: SA = 2(π162) + 2π ϫ 16 ϫ 50. Evaluate exponents: 2(256π) + 2π ϫ 16 ϫ 50. Perform multiplication: 512π + 1,600π. Combine like terms: SA = 2,112π cm2. Use the value of 3.14 for π to get the surface area: 2,112 ϫ 3.14 = 6,631.68 cm2. Example: The surface area of the following cylinder is 384π square units. What is the value of the variable x?

Use the formula and algebra: 2(π16x2) + 2π(4x)(8x) = 384π 32πx2 + 64πx2 = 384π 96πx2 = 384π
96πx2 ᎏᎏ 96π ᎏ =ᎏ 96π 384π

Set up the equation. Perform multiplication. Combine like terms. Divide both sides by 96π. Simplify; take the square root of each side.

4 ͙ෆ x2 = ͙ෆ x=2

S U R FA C E A R EA A N D VO LU M E

217

Example: Find the surface area of a sphere with a diameter of 6 inches. The diameter is given. Calculate the radius, which is one-half the diameter. The radius is 3 inches. Use the formula A = 4πr2; A = 4 ϫ π ϫ 32 = 36π in2. Frequently, answers are left in terms of π, as in this example. Take care on multiple-choice tests. Sometimes the answer choices will look similar; one will be in terms of π, and another will omit the π constant.

VOLUME OF PRISMS

Volume is a measure of how many cubic units it takes to FILL a solid ﬁgure. Volume is measured in cubic units. Volume is a multiplication concept, where three measures are multiplied together. The units can also be thought of as multiplied together: cm ϫ cm ϫ cm = cm3, or the words “centimeters cubed.” There are formulas to use for the volume of common solid ﬁgures.

218

J U ST I N TI M E G E O M ETRY

E

RULE BOOK
Volume is the area of the base of the solid ﬁgure, multiplied by the height of the ﬁgure. This can be expressed as V = Bh, where V is the volume, B is the area of the base, and h is the height of the prism. The formulas for the area of these base shapes were covered in Chapter 6 of this book.

VOLUME OF A RECTANGULAR PRISM: V = lwh

In this case, B = lw, (the base is a rectangle), where l is the length, and w is the width.

VOLUME OF A CUBE: V = s3
In this case, B = s2, and the height is also s.
1

VOLUME OF A TRIANGULAR PRISM: V = ᎏ2ᎏbh1 ϫ h2

ᎏ In this case, B = ᎏ 2 bh1, where b is the base of the triangle, and h1 is the height of the triangle. The variable h2 is the height of the prism.

1

S U R FA C E A R EA A N D VO LU M E

219
1

VOLUME OF A TRAPEZOIDAL PRISM: V = ᎏ2ᎏh1 (b1 + b2) ϫ h2

1 ᎏh1 (b1 + b2), where h1 is the height of the trapezoid In this case, B = ᎏ 2 and b1 and b2 are the parallel bases of the trapezoid. The variable h2 is the height of the prism.

Example: Given the volume of a rectangular prism is 766.48 mm3, ﬁnd the height if the length is 6.7 mm and the width is 11 mm. Use the formula for the volume of a rectangular prism: V = lwh 766.48 = 6.7 ϫ 11 ϫ h 766.48 = 73.7 ϫ h 10.4 mm = h Substitute in the given information. Multiply 6.7 times 11. Divide 766.48 by 73.7 and include units. The units are linear (single) because this is a height measurement.

Example: Find the volume of the trapezoidal prism.

Use the formula, substituting in the measurements: 1 V = ᎏ2ᎏh1(b1 + b2) ϫ h2. V = ᎏ2ᎏ ϫ 5(12 + 4) ϫ 14.2. Evaluate parentheses: ᎏ2ᎏ ϫ 5(16) ϫ 14.2. Multiply left to right to ﬁnd the volume. The volume is 568 cm3.
1 1

Follow the keystrokes below to verify if your calculator follows the order of operations. and r is the radius of the circular base. VOLUME OF A SPHERE: V = ᎏ3ᎏπr3 4 The volume of a sphere is based on the radius of the sphere. . the calculator will most likely perform the correct order of operations. B = πr2. VOLUME OF A CYLINDER: V = πr2h In this case. where π is the constant. This is especially helpful when ﬁnding the surface area or volume of trapezoidal and triangular prisms. where V is the volume. The example keystrokes are for the previous example. This can be expressed as V = Bh. Verify that your calculator shows the correct answer of 568. B is the area of the base and h is the height of the prism.220 J U ST I N TI M E G E O M ETRY i CALCULATOR TIPS If your calculator has the fraction key and parentheses keys. multiplied by the height of the ﬁgure. VOLUME OF CYLINDERS AND SPHERES E RULE BOOK Volume is the area of the base of the solid ﬁgure.

Use the formula to ﬁnd the radius: r = ᎏ2ᎏd r = ᎏ2ᎏ ϫ 14. Use 3. Include the cubic units.68π V = 985. The volume of a cone is based on the formula for the volume of a cylinder. Use the value of 3. B is the area of the circular base. Multiply one-half times 14. the formula is V = ᎏ 3 lwh. Multiply to get 2.S U R FA C E A R EA A N D VO LU M E 221 Example: Find the volume of a cylinder whose base diameter is 14.8. and h is the height of the cone. B is the area of the base. 1 VOLUME OF A CONE: V = ᎏ3ᎏπr2h In this case.14 for π. E RULE BOOK VOLUME OF A PYRAMID: V = ᎏ3ᎏBh In this case. Multiply all the number terms together on the right. Use the formula V = ᎏ3ᎏπr3 and substitute in 12 for r.728. 1 .8 r = 7. For a rectangular pyramid.8 inches and has a height of 18 inches.4 ϫ 18 V = 985.4 ϫ 7. recognize that while the diameter is given. Eval4 uate the exponent ﬁrst: ᎏ3ᎏπ ϫ 1. 4 4 VOLUME OF PYRAMIDS AND CONES The volume of a pyramid is based on the formula for the volume of a rectangular prism.14 for π to ﬁnd the volume: 7. and h is the height of the pyra1 ᎏ mid.56 cm3. First.4 in V = πr2h V = π ϫ 7. Example: Find the volume of a sphere with radius of 12 mm. the radius is needed to calculate volume.68π in3 1 1 Substitute in the given value for diameter. Substitute in the given information. V = ᎏ3ᎏπ123.304π cm3.234. Now use the formula for the volume of a cylinder.

the radius is 12 inches. Use 1 the π key on the calculator since no value for π is given. Use the formula for the volume of a cone: V = ᎏ3ᎏπr2h.8 32x ᎏᎏ 32 ᎏ =ᎏ 32 508. V = ᎏ3ᎏ ϫ π 1 ϫ (12)2 ϫ 24 = ᎏ3ᎏ ϫ π ϫ144 ϫ 24 = 1.152 ϫ π. 1 V = ᎏ3ᎏ Bh. ϫ 8 ϫ 12 ϫ x = 508.8 32x = 508.8 1 ᎏᎏ 3 Set up the equation. Find the volume of the cone to the nearest hundredth. The length and width are 8 and 12. Use the formula for the volume of a pyramid and your knowledge of algebra to ﬁnd the height. Example: The volume of the following rectangular pyramid is 508. Multiply using the π key and round to the hundredths place to get 3. Divide both sides by 32 and include units. Find the height of the pyramid. Perform multiplication. The height has linear units.8 m3. x = 15.9 m . The radius is one-half the measure of the diameter. 1 Represent the height of the pyramid as x.619.222 J U ST I N TI M E G E O M ETRY Example: The height and the diameter of a cone are both 24 inches. meters.11 in3.

• The volume of a cone is one-third the volume of a cylinder with the same base and height. From this page. Each topic has a lesson. and Lesson 16. The website www. click on Geometry. There are useful web sites that deal with these topics of geometry. pyramid. The website www. Answers to all quizzes are provided. • The face of a prism is one of the plane surfaces of the prism. • Know the volume formulas for the common solid ﬁgures. • The edge of a prism is any one of the segments of the prism. • Volume is a cubic measurement that measures how many cubic units it takes to ﬁll a solid ﬁgure. Visit these sites if you feel you need further clariﬁcation on these concepts. 2. select Space Figures. Once on the home page. • Surface area is the amount of square units it takes to cover or wrap a three-dimensional solid. Lesson 15. three-dimensional solids: prism. and cone. . Scroll down to select either surface area or volume on the right side of the page. click on Geometry. and there is a brief description of the topic followed by an interactive quiz. which you will ﬁnd on the left under Select Subject. Answers are provided. Geometry Success in 20 Minutes a Day.aaamath. 1. TIPS AND STRATEGIES • Familiarize yourself with the common. published by LearningExpress. Once at the site. cylinder. • The volume of a rectangular pyramid is one-third the volume of a rectangular prism with the same base and height. • Surface area is measured in square units. has several lessons devoted to this topic: Lesson 14.S U R FA C E A R EA A N D VO LU M E 223 O EXTRA HELP If you need extended help in working with surface area and volume.com has extensive lessons on geometry.com is another good resource for practice.math. followed by an interactive quiz. You will ﬁnd this on the right under Math Topics. The topics are well organized. sphere. • A vertex of a prism is where any two edges meet at a point. Each has a unique method of presentation.

9 b. How many vertices does the following solid ﬁgure have? a. 8 e. 7 d. 9 . 12 c. 2 d. How many edges does this solid have? a. 4 c. 6 b. 5 2. 3 e. 6 c. 1. 5 3.224 PRACTICE QUIZ J U ST I N TI M E G E O M ETRY Use this ﬁgure for questions 1 and 2. How many faces does this solid have? a. 12 e. 8 b. 6 d.

288 cm2 e. 126 cm2 d. 252 cm2 c.S U R FA C E A R EA A N D VO LU M E 225 4. Find the surface area of the prism. 9π in2 b. 432 cm2 5. a. Find the surface area of the sphere. Find the surface area of a cylinder whose diameter is 16 mm and height is 16 mm.024 mm2 d. 216 cm2 b. 27π in2 e. 144π in2 c. 320 mm2 c. 384π mm2 6. 12π in2 . 64π mm2 e. 36π in2 d. a. 384 mm2 b. 1. a.

10 cm d.8 cm b. what is the value of the variable x? a. 1 cm d.5 cm 9. 300 in3 8. 0. 2. 6 cm c. Find the volume of the solid.7 cm e.226 J U ST I N TI M E G E O M ETRY 7. 2 cm e. a. What is the length of a side of a cube whose volume is 27 cm3? a. 8 cm . 0. 900 in3 b. 9 cm b. 720 in3 c. 592 in3 d. 3 cm c. If the volume of the triangular prism is 48 cm3. 512 in3 e.

Find the volume of a sphere with a diameter of 18 ft.400 in2 b. What is the volume of a cylinder with a height of 100 cm and a radius of 5 m? a. 243π ft3 d. 972π ft3 e. 2. 360 ft3 b. 25π m3 11. 360π ft3 c. 1. Find the volume of the pyramid. 729π ft3 c. 10π m3 c.944π ft3 12. 726 in2 e. 64 in2 c. 1. 400 in2 d. 180 ft3 13. 2.331 in2 . Find the surface area of the cube. 1. 1.000π m3 e.S U R FA C E A R EA A N D VO LU M E 227 10. 120 ft3 d. 120π ft3 e. a. 72 ft3 b.500π m3 d.000 m3 b. a. a.

280 cm2 b. a. 240 cm2 e. Find the surface area of the rectangular prism. 160 cm2 d.228 J U ST I N TI M E G E O M ETRY 14. 2(144π) + 24 ϫ π ϫ 13 mm2 b. 192 cm2 . 2(24π) + 2 ϫ π ϫ 13 mm2 c. 144π + 24 ϫ π ϫ 13 mm2 d. Find the surface area of this cylinder where the height is 13 mm. 1. 1.600 cm2 c. 156π mm2 e. a.872π mm2 15.

624 mm3 b. a.S U R FA C E A R EA A N D VO LU M E 229 16.4 inches b. If the volume of the triangular prism is 3. 840 mm3 d. 8 cm . 36 inches 18. ﬁnd the height. a. 8. 6 cm b. 576 mm3 17. 85. 15 inches e.064 mm3 e.7 inches d. 28.990 in3. 63. The volume of a cube is 512 cm3. What is the value of the variable x. 30 inches c. if the length of each side is 2x cm long? a. 64 cm d. Find the volume.3 cm c. 4 cm e. 672 mm3 c.

66 m 32π 22. 288π mm2 20. 144π mm2 c.152π cm3 c. 1 inch d. 16 m b. Find the volume of the cylinder shown when the height is represented as 16x cm. If the volume of a sphere is ᎏ 3 m . 96π cm3 e. 9. a. 12π mm2 e. what is the diameter of the sphere? a. What is the height of the cylinder. 11 inches e. What is the surface area of a sphere with a radius of 6 mm? a. 2 m d. 1. 5. 4 m c. 36π mm2 b. ͙8 ෆm e.5 inches c.912π cm3 b. 6. 6 inches . 48π mm2 d.230 J U ST I N TI M E G E O M ETRY 19. 12 inches b. 432π cm3 d. if the diameter is 14 inches? a. 256π cm3 ᎏ 3 21. The surface area of a cylinder is 182π in2.

10. The pyramid has a height of 28 cm.154. a. 372 cm3 . a.304 mm3 b.33 cm3 e. The height is 16 mm.304π mm3 e.464 cm3 b. 96π mm3 24.S U R FA C E A R EA A N D VO LU M E 231 23. 3.384. 2. 2. 31. Find the volume of the following cone. 768π mm3 d.89 cm3 d. Find the volume to the nearest hundredth. 30. 768 mm3 c.67 cm3 c.

Multiply: 72 + 144 + 36. 3. 4. on this solid. There are four in the base and four on the sides.847.14 for π. a. Add these like terms to get 384π mm2. Use 3. SA = 2(12 ϫ 3) + 2(12 ϫ 6) + 2(3 ϫ 6).541.12 in3 d. 29. There is one rectangular base and four triangular faces.408 in3 b. Multiply to get 128π + 256π. . Substitute in the values: SA = 2(π82) + 2π ϫ 8 ϫ 16.36 in3 ANSWERS 1. e. Use the formula for the surface area of a cylinder: SA = 2(πr2) + 2πrh. 703. 9. the points where the segments meet. The diameter is given. Evaluate parentheses to get 2(36) + 2(72) + 2(18). 2. The radius is 8 mm.232 J U ST I N TI M E G E O M ETRY 25.04 in3 e. b. which are the polygons of the solid. 9.136 in3 c. 3. There are eight vertices. which are the segments of the solid. There are eight edges. First calculate the radius as one-half of the diameter. Finally. d. Use the shortcut formula for the surface area of a rectangular prism: SA = 2(l ϫ w) + 2(l ϫ h) + 2(w ϫ h). There are ﬁve faces. add the measures to get the surface area of 252 square centimeters. Find the volume of the following cone whose height is represented as 3x inches. a. 5. e.

d. all the sides have equal measure. c. which is 3. Multiply to get 720 cubic inches. The length of a side of the cube will be the cube root of 27. b. times the height. Use the formula for the volume. Substitute in for the radius to get SA = 4π32. or 36π square inches.S U R FA C E A R EA A N D VO LU M E 233 6. First. Multiply to get the volume of 972π cubic feet. The volume of a cube is given by the formula V = s3. note that the units are not consistent. Substitute 1 in the values from the diagram to get V = ᎏ3ᎏ ϫ 6 ϫ 6 ϫ 10. Substitute in to get V = π ϫ 52 ϫ 1 = 25π cubic meters. d. The volume of a trapezoidal prism is V = ᎏ2ᎏh1 (b1 + b2) ϫ h2. Multiply to get 120 cubic feet. where s is the side of a cube. Use the formula for the volume of a pyramid: V = ᎏ3ᎏlwh. Substitute in the values from the drawing: V = ᎏ2ᎏ ϫ 1 5(10 + 6) ϫ 18. 1 which is 18 inches. Combine like terms. c. Divide both sides by 24. Use this fact and algebra to ﬁnd the value of the variable x. Simplify the left-hand side: multiply. and algebra to ﬁnd the value of the variable x: 1 ᎏᎏ 2 1 1 ϫ 3x ϫ 4 ϫ 4 = 48 24x = 48 48 Substitute in the values. Subtract 4x from both sides. 13. 7. Volume is the area of the base. 12. Evaluate parentheses: V = ᎏ2ᎏ ϫ 5(16) ϫ 18. Divide this measure by 2 to ﬁnd the radius. b. e. V = ᎏ2ᎏbh1 ϫ h2. The 4 radius is 9 feet. Combine like terms. 6x – 46 = 4x – 24 6x – 46 – 4x = 4x – 24 – 4x 2x – 46 = –24 2x – 46 + 46 = –24 + 46 2x = 22 Set up an equation. 1 4 . The diameter is given. then ﬁnd the length of a side. Use the formula for the volume of a cylinder: V = πr2h. ᎏ =ᎏ 24 x=2 24x ᎏᎏ 24 9. 8. In a cube. a. Change 100 cm to 1 meter. Substitute into the formula to get V = ᎏ3ᎏπ93. 10. Add 46 to both sides. because 3 ϫ 3 ϫ 3 = 27. where r is the radius and h is the height. 11. Eval4 uate the exponent: V = ᎏ3ᎏπ ϫ 729. a trapezoid. Use the formula for the surface area of a sphere: SA = 4πr2. Use the formula for the volume of a sphere: V = ᎏ3ᎏπr3.

16. Use this value to ﬁnd the length of a side: 6x – 46 = 6(11) – 46 = 66 – 46 = 20 inches. Use the formula for the volume of a trapezoidal prism. or 2. or 6 times 202. . b. Because x = 2. Substitute in the values to get 2(π ϫ 122) + 2π12 ϫ 13. Evaluate parentheses: V = ᎏ2ᎏ ϫ 6(20) ϫ 14. This is equivalent to 2(144π) + 24π ϫ 13 square millimeters. Subtract 4x from both sides. Simplify the right side by multiplying. 5x = 4x + 2 5x – 4x = 4x + 2 – 4x x=2 Set up an equation.990 = 266x + 798 Multiply. Use the formula for the surface area of a rectangular prism: SA = 2(10 ϫ 4) + 2(10 ϫ 4) + 2(4 ϫ 4). This is 6 times 400. Use this value to ﬁnd the height. 15. Combine like terms. Use this fact and algebra to ﬁnd the value of the variable x. Multiply to get 80 + 80 + 32 = 192 square centimeters. 3. 3.990 = ᎏ2ᎏbh1 ϫ h2 3. a. c. In a rectangle. Now. 14.192 = 266x Combine like terms. Evaluate parentheses: 2(40) + 2(40) + 2(16). 17. 3.234 J U ST I N TI M E G E O M ETRY = ᎏ2ᎏ x = 11 2x ᎏᎏ 2 22 Divide both sides by 2. Surface area is SA = 6s2. the length is 5 times 2. V = ᎏ2ᎏh1(b1 1 + b2) ϫ h2. and then calculate the surface area. Use the formula for the volume of a triangular prism and algebra to ﬁnd the value of the variable x. Substitute in the values from the diagram to get: V = ᎏ2ᎏ 1 ϫ 6(12 + 8) ϫ 14.990 = ᎏ2ᎏ ϫ 19 ϫ 14 ϫ (2x + 6) Substitute in the values. 12 = x The height is 2x + 6 = 2(12) + 6 = 30 inches. e.990 – 798 = 266x + 798 – 798 Subtract 798 from both sides. the opposite sides have equal measure. or 4 centimeters.990 = 266x + 133(6) Use the distributive property. or 10 centimeters. 3. 3.192 ᎏᎏ 266 ᎏ =ᎏ 266 266x 1 1 1 3.990 = 133(2x + 6) Divide both sides by 266. and the width and height are 2 times 2. multiply to get 840 cubic millimeters.400 square inches. 3. Use the formula for the surface area of a cylinder: SA = 2(πr2) + 2πrh.

Add 18 to both sides. 4 Multiply that value times two to get the diameter: V = ᎏ3ᎏπr3. Evaluate the exponent: SA = 4π(36) = 144π square millimeters. the diameter is 4 meters. Use the formula SA = 4πr2. Evaluate the exponent. 20. d. use the formula for volume. V = s3. Divide both sides by π. All radii in a circle have the same measure. If each side of the cube is 2x cm long. b. and the height is 16x = 16(3) = 48 cm. Use the formula for the volume of a sphere to ﬁnd the radius. Simplify. ෆ = ͙r ෆ ͙8 2=r Because the radius is 2. 10x – 18 = 4x 10x – 18 – 4x = 4x – 4x 6x – 18 = 0 6x – 18 + 18 = 0 + 18 6x = 18 = ᎏ6ᎏ x=3 6x ᎏᎏ 6 18 Set up the equation. = ᎏ8ᎏ 3 8x3 3 ෆ = ͙x ෆ ͙64 4=x 19. Combine like terms. Use this fact and algebra to ﬁnd the value of the variable x. the radius is 4x or 4(3) = 12 cm. Use the formula V = πr2h. Take the cube root of each side. b. Divide both sides by 6. ϫ 4 ᎏᎏπr3 3 8π ᎏᎏ π 3 8π = πr3 ᎏ =ᎏ π 3 πr3 Multiply both sides by the reciprocal of the fraction. Substitute in the radius: SA = 4π(62).912π cubic centimeters. Then. use this value and algebra to ﬁnd the value of the variable. 4 times 4 times 4 equals 64. Evaluate the exponent: 144π(48) = 6. . Take the cube root of each side. 32π 4 ᎏᎏ = ᎏᎏπr3 3 3 3 32π 3 ᎏᎏ ϫ ᎏ ᎏ = ᎏᎏ 4 3 4 Substitute in the values. Because x = 3. 512 = (2x)3 512 = 8x3 512 ᎏᎏ 8 3 Substitute in the value. Combine like terms. or V = π(122) times 48. 21. a.S U R FA C E A R EA A N D VO LU M E 235 18. Divide both sides by 8. Subtract 4x from both sides.

The height is 3x = 3(4) = 12 inches.847. The height is 6 inches. 1 ᎏ 2 23. 84π = 14π(h) Combine like terms.67 cubic centimeters. SA = 2(πr2) + 2πrh. Multiply to get 9. 25. to the 3 nearest hundredth. 1 . Subtract 2x from both sides. 24. to the nearest hundredth. Use this value to ﬁnd the needed measures. c. All radii of a circle have the same measure. 182π – 98π = 98π + 14π(h) – 98π Subtract 98π from both sides. Combine like terms.14 ϫ282 ϫ 12. Use the formula to ﬁnd the height. e.236 J U ST I N TI M E G E O M ETRY 22. Add 40 to both sides.14 ϫ784 ϫ 12. Multiply to get 10. Combine like terms. d. Substitute in the 1 2 ᎏ values given in the diagram: V = ᎏ 3 π12 ϫ 16. Use this fact and algebra to solve for the variable x. Evaluate the exponent: 1 ᎏ V=ᎏ 3 π ϫ144 ϫ 16. and then ﬁnd the volume. Multiply to get 768π cubic millimeters. Substitute 1 in the values given in the diagram: V = ᎏ3ᎏ ϫ 32 ϫ 34 ϫ 28.154. Substitute in the values. Use the formula for the volume of a pyramid: V = ᎏ3ᎏlwh. The radius is 7 inches. Divide this measure by 2 to get the radius. Diameter is given. Divide both sides by 15. b. Evaluate the exponent: 1 ᎏᎏ ϫ 3. The formula for the volume of a cone is: V = ᎏ3ᎏπr2h. 1 The radius is 2x + 20 = 2(4) + 20 = 28 inches. ᎏ =ᎏ 14π 6=h 84π ᎏᎏ 14π 14π(h) 182π = 2(π72) + 2π ϫ 7 ϫ h 182π = 2(49π) + 14π(h) Divide both sides by 14π. 17x – 40 = 2x + 20 17x – 40 – 2x = 2x + 20 – 2x 15x – 40 = 20 15x – 40 + 40 = 20 + 40 15x = 60 x=4 Set up an equation. Use the formula for the volume of a cone: V = ᎏ 3 πr h.04 cubic inches. Substitute in 1 the values to get V = ᎏ3ᎏ ϫ 3. Evaluate the exponent and multiply.

.

What type of transformation does the following picture represent? a. and will also be covered. and assess the knowledge you already possess on this topic. dilation e. reﬂection d. Similar polygons are in proportion to the original ﬁgure. the lesson will follow to review subjects that you may have forgotten. BENCHMARK QUIZ 1. After taking the quiz and reading over the explanations. congruence 238 .8 Transformations and Similarity P revious chapters addressed congruent ﬁgures. This chapter begins by assessing your understanding of transformations and similarity. rotation b. Take the benchmark quiz. yet are congruent to the original ﬁgure. This chapter deals with ﬁgures that undergo transformations. translation c.

What is the length of ៮ HI? a. the letter W 3. 4 cm . Which of the following letters has rotational symmetry? a. two lines of symmetry only b. Which choice represents all of the symmetries present in the following ﬁgure? a. the letter L d. 9 cm e. rotational symmetry only 4. Pentagons ABCDE ~ FGHIJ.TR AN S F O R MATI O N S AN D S I M I LAR IT Y 239 2. the letter I b. four lines of symmetry and rotational symmetry e. the letter T e. 7 cm b. the letter A c. four lines of symmetry only c. 2 cm d. two lines of symmetry and rotational symmetry d. 6 cm c.

72 feet 7. ᎏ5ᎏ 6. 7 feet d. 72 inches b. what is the scale factor from ΔQRS to ΔXYZ? a.240 J U ST I N TI M E G E O M ETRY 5. If the triangles are similar. 9 feet c. If the toy is 18" long. A toy rocket is a model of a real rocket with the scale of 1 : 48. 864 feet d. 5 feet. 3 c. 30 inches c. ᎏ3ᎏ e. 66 inches e. 8 inches 1 1 . 5 d. 10 b. how long is the real rocket? a. How tall is the building that casts a shadow that is 14 inches long? a. 2 feet e. 4 inches b. A man 5 feet tall casts a shadow that is 10 inches long.

A 10-foot stop sign casts a shadow of 36 inches. He must use a scale factor or the picture will be distorted. 18 mm e. What is the ៮៮? measure of CD a. 9" ϫ 15" . 9 feet d. 12" ϫ 15" c. 5 mm b. 13ᎏ3ᎏ feet c. 9" ϫ 12" d. A photographer can blow up a picture. 11 feet 1 b. 20 mm c. The two polygons in the following ﬁgure are similar. 5" ϫ 7" e. 12 mm 9. 22 feet 1 e. 8" ϫ 10" b.TR AN S F O R MATI O N S AN D S I M I LAR IT Y 241 8. Which dimensions below could be a possible size for an enlargement of a 3" ϫ 5" photograph? a. How tall is the telephone pole that casts a shadow of 48 inches long? a. 13ᎏ3ᎏ inches 10. 2 mm d.

It can be rotated 180° about a point at the middle of the letter and map onto itself. 3ϫ6=2ϫ៮ HI 18 = 2 ϫ ៮ HI 9=៮ HI . The pentagons are similar. The letter I is the only letter choice that has rotational symmetry. corresponding side of little pentagon = and cross multiply to solve. Divide both sides by 2. Multiply on the left side. This transformation is called a reﬂection. their sides are in proportion. d. 2. and equidistant from.242 J U ST I N TI M E G E O M ETRY BENCHMARK QUIZ SOLUTIONS Following are the answers to the benchmark quiz. Cross multiply. ៮ AB correCD corresponds to ៮ HI. d. The ﬁgure shown has four lines of symmetry and rotational symmetry of 90°. 3. a. c. See how much you already know about transformations and similarity. and ៮៮ corresponding side of big pentagon ᎏᎏᎏᎏ corresponding side of little pentagon corresponding side of big pentagon ᎏᎏᎏᎏ . 1. The picture represents a ﬂip over an imaginary line between. the two triangles. 4. Explanations are provided for all problems. as shown in the following ﬁgure. 3 ᎏᎏ 2 ᎏ =ᎏ 6 ៮ HI Set up the proportion. Set up the proportion: sponds to ៮៮ GF.

ΔXYZ has sides that are three times as big as ΔABC. This is not an answer choice. The building is 7 feet tall. The ratio of toy rocket to real rocket is 1 to 48. so the height of the building. The problem states that the toy rocket is 18 inches long. When polygons are similar. = ᎏ5ᎏ 14 ϫ 5 = 10x 70 = 10x ᎏ =ᎏ 10 7=x 70 ᎏᎏ 10 10x 14 ᎏᎏ 10 x Set up the proportion. a. Since the units on the shadow are both inches. The scale factor is the dilation factor. Multiply the left side. 8. and CD ៮៮ cross multiply to solve. Divide both sides by 10. Use a proportion. The building and the man. AD corresponds to ៮ YZ: . together with their corresponding shadows. Set up an equation. the height of the man is in feet. since there are 12 864 ᎏ inches in a foot: ᎏ 12 = 72 feet. c. will be in feet. Cross multiply. unit height of man conversion is not needed. 6. 7. Convert 864 inches to feet by dividing by 12. using: corresponding side of big trapezoid ᎏᎏᎏᎏ corresponding side of little trapezoid = corresponding side of big trapezoid ᎏᎏᎏᎏ . the measure of their sides is in proportion. form two similar right triangles. corresponding side of little trapezoid and ៮៮ corresponds to side WZ ៮៮. with the setup of shadow of building ᎏᎏᎏ shadow of man = height of building ᎏᎏ .TR AN S F O R MATI O N S AN D S I M I LAR IT Y 243 5. represented as the variable x. e. The real rocket is therefore 18 ϫ 48 = 864 inches. b.

b.3 3 1 13ᎏ3ᎏ 48 ϫ 10 = 36x 480 = 36x ᎏ =ᎏ 36 ៮=x 13. Divide both sides by 16. form two similar right triangles. represented as the variable x. 10.3 480 ᎏᎏ 36 36x The telephone pole is feet tall.244 ᎏ =ᎏ ៮ ៮ CD ៮៮ 16 ϫ CD = 8 ϫ 10 16 ᎏᎏ 8 10 J U ST I N TI M E G E O M ETRY Set up the proportion. . 48 ᎏᎏ 36 ᎏ =ᎏ 10 x Set up the proportion. ៮ is ᎏ1ᎏ. the height of the stop sign is in feet. 16 ϫ ៮៮ CD = 80 ៮៮ CD ᎏᎏ 16 80 ᎏᎏ 16 = 16 ϫ ៮៮ = 5 mm CD 9. . Multiply the right side. so the height of the telephone pole. The telephone pole and the stop sign. The original photograph and the enlargement must be similar rectangles. The 9" ϫ 15" size is an enlargement with a scale factor of 3. Multiply the left side. If the rectangles are similar. Cross multiply. Divide both sides by 36. The other dimension choices do not have a consistent scale factor. unit conversion is not needed. e. Use a proportion. Cross multiply. height of stop sign Since the units on the shadow are both inches. together with their corresponding shadows. will be in feet. with the setup of: shadow of pole ᎏᎏᎏ shadow of stop sign = height of pole ᎏᎏᎏ . then each side is enlarged by the same scale factor.

but you need to carefully study the lessons and sidebars throughout the chapter. Go to the suggested website in the Extra Help sidebar for additional practice. . ﬂip. Polygons can be moved by a slide. Not only will this chapter deal with congruent polygons that are transformed. Try the examples that are illustrated on a separate sheet of paper and compare your method of solution with that given in the text. you have some understanding of the concepts covered. JUST IN TIME LESSON— TRANSFORMATIONS AND SIMILARITY There are many applications of geometry in mathematical problems. Work through the Practice Quiz at the end of the chapter to check your progress. Attend to the sidebars and visual aids that will help you grasp the material. have the same measure. If you answered 4–7 questions correctly. These movements are called transformations. Take your time as you read through this lesson. The topics in this chapter are: • • • • • • • Transformations Symmetry Dilations Similar Polygons Area. and do extended practice. If you answered 1–3 questions correctly. and Similar Polygons Applications of Similar Triangles Scale TRANSFORMATIONS Congruent geometric ﬁgures have the same size and shape. the sides and angles.TR AN S F O R MATI O N S AN D S I M I LAR IT Y 245 BENCHMARK QUIZ RESULTS If you answered 8–10 questions correctly. it will address similar polygons that have the same shape but different size. feel assured that you have a good foundation in transformations and similarity. All corresponding parts. or turn. The sidebars and Tips and Strategies may be especially helpful to you. Go to the suggested website in the Extra Help sidebar in this chapter. Volume. be sure that you remember all the components of this topic. you need extended help in understanding this chapter. Read over the chapter.

. an imaginary line between and equidistant from the ﬁgure and its image ROTATION the image of a geometric ﬁgure after a turn by a set number of degrees around a point Geometric ﬁgures can be transformed over interior lines and points. as shown in the following diagram.246 J U ST I N TI M E G E O M ETRY GLOSSARY TRANSLATION the image of a geometric ﬁgure after a slide in a set direction REFLECTION the image of a geometric ﬁgure after a ﬂip over a line of symmetry.

TR AN S F O R MATI O N S AN D S I M I LAR IT Y 247 SYMMETRY When a geometric ﬁgure is symmetric. it is often obvious if a ﬁgure has rotational symmetry. There can be none. If you are unsure. see if you can draw an imaginary line. or several lines of symmetry for a ﬁgure. usually somewhere in the center. the ﬁgure would fall on top of itself. trace the geometric ﬁgure and actually fold the traced ﬁgure at the line in question to determine if it is in fact a line of symmetry. where if you anchor this point and rotate the ﬁgure. one. Leave it on top of the original ﬁgure. Rotational symmetry is present if there is a point in the interior of the ﬁgure. lines of symmetry are readily apparent. such that if you folded the ﬁgure at this line. the ﬁgure can be reﬂected over an interior line or rotated from an interior point and it will map onto itself. Two types of symmetry are line symmetry and rotational symmetry. anchor the point of symmetry in question and actually rotate the traced ﬁgure. O EXTRA HELP Often. If you are unsure. O EXTRA HELP Like lines of symmetry. trace the geometric ﬁgure. the ﬁgure will fall exactly on top of itself before one complete rotation of 360°. Study a geometric ﬁgure. .

it will map onto itself. It would have to be rotated a full 360° before it would map onto itself. This trapezoid has one line of symmetry: . If it is rotated 180° about the point shown. Example: What types of symmetry does this isosceles trapezoid have? The trapezoid does not have rotational symmetry. The rhombus has two lines of symmetry: The rhombus also has rotational symmetry. Point A will be at Point C. as shown by the congruent sides.248 J U ST I N TI M E G E O M ETRY Example: How many lines of symmetry does this ﬁgure have? The ﬁgure is a rhombus.

Example: What is the dilation factor from ΔPQR to ΔSTU? The dilation factor is a fraction. A fourth transformation. changes the size of a geometric ﬁgure. the transformed ﬁgure was congruent to the original. and preserves the shape.TR AN S F O R MATI O N S AN D S I M I LAR IT Y 249 DILATIONS The previous transformations preserved the size of the ﬁgure. . 1 1 The factor is ᎏ3ᎏ. because 9 ϫ ᎏ3ᎏ = 3. since ΔSTU is smaller than ΔPQR. The dilation factor is a multiplicative operator on the measure of a geometric ﬁgure or on the sides of a polygon. GLOSSARY DILATION a shrinking or enlarging of a geometric ﬁgure that preserves shape but not size DILATION FACTOR a measure of how the transformed ﬁgure has changed size. dilation.

a similar polygon results. Similar polygons have the same shape (congruent angles). In a proportion. GLOSSARY SIMILAR polygons have corresponding angles that are congruent. then their corresponding sides are in proportion. The dilation factor in this case can be called a scale factor. the product of the means is equal to the product of the extremes. What is the scale factor from ABCD to EFGH? ៮.250 SIMILAR POLYGONS J U ST I N TI M E G E O M ETRY When a polygon is dilated. which corresponds to AB ៮. is four times as The scale factor is 4. and corresponding sides that are in proportion. E RULE BOOK Recall that a proportion is an equation in which two ratios are equal. as shown in the following diagram: . Example: Rectangle ABCD is similar to rectangle EFGH. The symbol for similarity is ~. but can have different size. EF big. Set up a proportion if the scale factor is not apparent. You solve proportional problems by a method called cross multiplication. If you are told that two polygons are similar.

TR AN S F O R MATI O N S AN D S I M I LAR IT Y 251 Cross multiplication is a very easy procedure. . The challenge in solving word problems using similar polygons is in the set-up of the proportion. The procedure for cross multiplication is straightforward and relatively easy. corresponding side of little polygon shortened to just: big ᎏ little = big ᎏ. Take care to keep all corresponding sides in order. Example: 6 n ᎏ ᎏᎏ Solve: ᎏ 26 = 52 . Follow the example to practice the procedure. Divide 312 by 26 to ﬁnd the missing term. 6 ϫ 52 = 26 ϫ n 312 = 26 ϫ n n = 12 Multiply 6 and 52. little Example: In the following picture. Find ៮៮ FG. Choose one method of set-up and use it in all problems. Show that the product of the means equals the product of the extremes. The examples that follow will use the set-up: corresponding side of big polygon ᎏᎏᎏᎏ corresponding side of little polygon = corresponding side of big polygon ᎏᎏᎏᎏ . rectangle ABCD is similar to rectangle EFGH. use cross multiplication. Remember that you are comparing ratios and that the order of the ratio set-up is signiﬁcant.

Sometimes. Use the setup ᎏ = ᎏ . Solve this type of similar polygon as you would the others. Substitute in the values of the known sides. it is helpful or necessary to convert units before setting up a ratio. Cross multiply. What is the measure of GH One side of rectangle ABCD is measured in inches. Side GH Substitute in the values of the known sides. and ៮ DC BC corresponds to side FG. taking care to use the correct measurements for each polygon. knowing that the sides are proportional. Divide both sides by 8 to get ៮៮ FG. and another side is measured in feet. Cross multiply. Convert 1 foot to 12 inches before setting up big big the proportion. Take care and pay attention to the units used in a problem. Divide both sides by 12 to get side ៮៮ GH. length of ៮៮ FG ᎏᎏ length of ៮ BC ៮៮ FG ᎏᎏ 3 = length of ៮៮ GH ᎏᎏ length of ៮៮ CD = ᎏ8ᎏ 30 ៮៮ FG ϫ 8 = 3 ϫ 30 ៮៮ FG ϫ 8 = 90 ៮៮ FG = 11. Sometimes. Multiply on the right side of the equation. where ៮៮ AD corresponds to ៮៮.252 J U ST I N TI M E G E O M ETRY ៮៮ corresponds to side HG ៮៮. Multiply on the left side of the equation. and ៮៮ CD corresponds to ៮៮ GH: EH 36 ᎏᎏ 12 little little = ᎏ6ᎏ ៮៮ GH 36 ϫ 6 = 12 ϫ ៮៮ GH ៮៮ 216 = 12 ϫ GH 18 = ៮៮ GH ៮៮ is 18 inches. the similar polygons are inside each other.25 Set up the proportion. Example: ៮៮? Rectangle ABCD ~ EFGH. .

Example: If the sides of similar rectangles are in the ratio of 2 : 7. ៮៮.TR AN S F O R MATI O N S AN D S I M I LAR IT Y 253 Example: The triangles shown in the following diagram are similar. the ratio of the volumes will be a3 : b3. Cross multiply. What is the measure of ៮៮ CD? The measure of ៮៮ AD is equal to 7 + 14 = 21 mm. or 4 : 49. If the ratio of the sides of similar polygons is represented as a : b. Multiply on the left side of the equation. AREA. Divide both sides by 7 to get CD 21 ϫ 10 = 7 ϫ ៮៮ CD ៮៮ 210 = 7 ϫ CD 30 = ៮៮ CD ៮៮ CD is 30 mm. what is the ratio of the areas of these rectangles? The ratio of the areas will be 22 : 72. AND SIMILAR POLYGONS Corresponding sides of similar polygons are proportional. Set up a proportion: big big ᎏᎏ = ᎏᎏ: little little 21 ᎏ 7 ᎏ =ᎏ 10 ៮៮ CD Substitute in the values of the known sides. ៮៮ CD corresponds to ៮ BE. Recall from Chapter 6 that area is a multiplication concept—a squaring concept—where two dimensions are multiplied together. This side corresponds to ៮ AE. . and a scale factor establishes the relationship of their measures. where three measures are multiplied together. VOLUME. In Chapter 7 you reviewed that volume is a cubing concept. If the ratio of the sides of a geometric solid is represented as a : b. the ratio of the areas will be a2 : b2.

and each triangle has the same angle measures. Because the triangles are similar. Therefore. casts a shadow that is 54. or 5 : 3. one way is to set up a proportion. the angles are congruent.254 J U ST I N TI M E G E O M ETRY Example: If the surface area of two similar cubes is in the ratio of 25 : 9. APPLICATION OF SIMILAR TRIANGLES Right triangles are commonly used in conjunction with similar polygons to measure tall objects such as trees or ﬂagpoles. If the length of the shadow cast by the ﬂagpole is 192 inches. On a sunny day. or 125 : 27. Therefore. the sides are in proportion. how tall is the ﬂagpole? Use the set up: shadow of big ᎏᎏ shadow of little = height of big ᎏᎏ height of little . such as: shadow of big ᎏᎏ shadow of little = height of big ᎏᎏ .4 inches long. height of little Example: A woman. the ratio of the volumes is 53 : 33. what is the ratio of the volume of these cubes? Since the area is in the ratio of 25 : 9. 68 inches tall. To solve this type of problem. the sides are in the ratio of ͙25 ෆ : ͙ෆ 9. Notice from the above picture that two right triangles are formed. the sun hits all objects positioned at the same location at the same angle.

TR AN S F O R MATI O N S AN D S I M I LAR IT Y 255 192 ᎏᎏ 54. Example: A model locomotive measures 8. or 20 feet SCALE Scale is a special ratio used for models of real-life items. you will often ﬁnd the scale ratio printed on the model as model : real. This ratio is ᎏ 10 .” How tall is the statue if the scale drawing height is 10 inches? Choose a set-up for the proportion. or scale drawings on blueprints and maps. like feet. This is the scale factor of all of the dimensions of the actual toy to the corresponding dimensions of the real car. So. This scale factor says that the real car is 62 times larger than the toy. On model airplanes. h = 240 inches. For example. Unit conversion is not needed to use the proportion method.056 h Set up the proportion as suggested. You would have to convert to like units if you wanted to know how they really compare.4 ϫ h = 13. like inches.7 times 16. if “1 inch = 10 feet. even though the ratio would be 1 : 10. which is 139.2 inches. On a scale drawing.” This means for every 3 inches on the map. how long is the real locomotive? Since the real train is 16 times as big as the model. or 11.6 feet. Cross multiply. If the scale given is 1 : 16. On scale drawings.4 ϫ h = 192 ϫ 68 54. Example: 3 A scale drawing of the Statue of Liberty is said to be “ᎏ4ᎏ inch = 12 feet. a scale on a map could read “3 inches = 10 miles.4 ᎏ =ᎏ 68 54. the real train will be 8. the scale will be a comparison of a small distance unit. but care should be taken to remember that the units do not agree. to a large distance unit. such as model railroads and model airplanes. Divide each side of the equation by 54. Solve scale-drawing problems as you would any type of similarity problem. since the ratio is 1 : 62.” this does not mean that the real item is 10 times bigger. it is 10 3 ᎏ miles on the actual road.7 inches in length. such as: drawing dimension ᎏᎏᎏ real-object dimension = drawing dimension ᎏᎏᎏ real-object dimension . keeping the units consistent and clear in your answer. a toy car may have the ratio 1 : 62 printed on the bottom.4.

2) Click on Geometry from the leftmost column entitled Select Subject. change ᎏ4ᎏ to 0. According to this drawing. Take care to ensure a proper set-up when solving problems with proportions.256 ᎏ 12 3 ᎏᎏ 4 J U ST I N TI M E G E O M ETRY = ᎏhᎏ 3 10 12 ϫ 10 = ᎏ4ᎏ ϫ h 120 = 0.75 ϫ h 160 = h Set up the proportion. Divide each side of the equation by 0.edu/ ~cpmawata/.utc. refer to Geometry Success in 20 Minutes a Day: Lesson 11. where h stands for height. There are interactive java-based activities to explore transformations. Scale is a special ratio that compares a model to a real-life object. TIPS AND STRATEGIES • • • • • • • • • • • A translation is a slide of a geometric ﬁgure in a set direction. Then. 3 Multiply 12 times 10. Geometric ﬁgures can have lines of symmetry and rotational symmetry. under Math Cove Projects. click on Rigid Transformations. A rotation is a turn of a geometric ﬁgure around a point. the height of the statue is 160 feet. corresponding sides are in proportion and corresponding angles are congruent. They are similar geometric ﬁgures. the website www. . In addition. A dilation is a shrinking or enlarging of a geometric ﬁgure by a dilation factor. On the leftmost side. O EXTRA HELP For further practice and extended lessons on similarity. and Similarity. For similar polygons. In a proportion. Cross multiply. Proportion. Ratio. A reﬂection is a ﬂip of a geometric ﬁgure over a line. Similar polygons have the same shape. Another useful website to study transformations is http://www. but usually not the same size. Solve proportions using cross multiplication. click on the following link.math.75. click on the following link.75. the product of the means equals the product of the extremes.com has helpful mini lessons on similar polygons: 1) Click on Pre-Algebra from the leftmost column entitled Select Subject. under the title Ratios and Proportions: Similar Figures. Then. under the title Relations and Sizes: Similar Figures.

ﬁgure IV e. see how much you have learned and reviewed about transformations and similarity. The ﬁgure has exactly ten lines of symmetry and rotational symmetry. The ﬁgure has exactly one line of symmetry and no rotational symmetry. 1. The ﬁgure has exactly one line of symmetry and rotational symmetry. none of the above . c. The ﬁgure has exactly ﬁve lines of symmetry and no rotational symmetry. 2. Which ﬁgure below shows a single transformation of a translation? a. The ﬁgure has exactly ﬁve lines of symmetry and rotational symmetry. b. ﬁgure II c. ﬁgure I b. Which of the following statements are true about the ﬁgure below? a. d. ﬁgure III d. e.TR AN S F O R MATI O N S AN D S I M I LAR IT Y 257 PRACTICE QUIZ Now that you have studied these lessons.

rotation b. c. Which of the following ﬁgures has both line symmetry and rotational symmetry? a. dilation 4.258 J U ST I N TI M E G E O M ETRY 3. ﬁgure II only c. A dilation preserves the shape of a geometric ﬁgure. ﬁgures I and II b. A reﬂection preserves the shape of a geometric ﬁgure. e. ﬁgures I and III e. b. Which of the following statements are NOT ALWAYS true? a. slide d. . ﬁgures II and III d. A translation preserves the size of a geometric ﬁgure. reﬂection c. all of the above 5. d. A dilation preserves the size of a geometric ﬁgure. A rotation preserves the shape of a geometric ﬁgure. What type of transformation is shown in the following diagram? a. translation e.

Quadrilaterals ABCD ~ EFGH.5 cm c. 8. 2. 1 ᎏᎏ 3 b.5 cm ៮៮? 8.5 cm e.5 from rectangle PQRS to rectangle WXYZ. What is the measure of FG a. If the dilation factor is 1. 6. 4 d. What is the dilation factor from similar triangles ABC to DEF? a. 6 feet . ᎏ6ᎏ e. ᎏ4ᎏ 7. 5 feet d.5 cm b.TR AN S F O R MATI O N S AN D S I M I LAR IT Y 259 6. 3 feet e. 3. 7.5 cm d. 10. what is the length of ៮ XY? 1 1 a.25 feet b. 3 c. 4 feet c.

25 feet. 400 inches 12. 196 inches e.75 inches e.6 inches = 10 feet. 3 : 5 c. 400 inches d.2 feet c. 9 : 25 10. How tall is the tree? a. How tall is the ﬂagpole? a. If the real statue is 160 feet in height.35 feet d. 440 feet c. 1.2 feet b. what is the height of the drawing? a. 16. 30 feet b. casts a shadow of 50 inches. 6 : 10 b. What is the ratio of the areas of these triangles? a.6 feet b. A man. 78.260 J U ST I N TI M E G E O M ETRY 9. 9. A scale drawing of the Statue of Liberty is 0. 15 : 25 e.25 feet . The 15-foot telephone pole casts a shadow of 2. 9. An oak tree casts a shadow of 54 inches. 960 inches c. 70 inches tall. A ﬂagpole casts a shadow of 18 feet. 25.6 inches d. 16 feet 11. 18. 9 : 15 d. The ratio of the sides of two triangles is 3 : 5. 8 feet e.

4 feet d. What is the width of the real boat if the length is 36 feet long? a. What is the length of ៮៮ LN? a. 12 : 25 b.TR AN S F O R MATI O N S AN D S I M I LAR IT Y 261 13. 1 : 13 e.5 cm 14.175 . 8 cm b. 256 : 625 d. 6 cm d. 32 : 50 b. If the real train is 12 meters long.4 feet e. ΔXYZ ~ ΔLMN. 7. 1 : 48 c. In the following diagram. 1 : 1.5 feet c. 9 cm c. 4. A model boat is made to scale. 8 : 12. The scaled model of a train is 25 cm long. 7. 14. The model has a length of 20 inches and a width of 8 inches. 53 inches 15.5 e. 12 cm e. what is the scale factor? a. What is the ratio of the volume of the smaller cube to the larger cube? a. 48 : 75 c. 90 feet b. 24 : 50 d. The ratio of the surface area of one face of a cube to the surface area of one face of another cube is 16 : 25. 64 : 125 16.

two lines of symmetry d.262 J U ST I N TI M E G E O M ETRY ៮៮? 17. How many lines of symmetry does this parallelogram have? a. slide . what is the length of QU a. 8 inches 18. reﬂection c. rotation e. one line of symmetry c. 10 inches b. dilation d. 3 inches e. 15 inches c. translation b. six lines of symmetry 19. What type of transformation is shown in the following ﬁgure? a. zero lines of symmetry b. four lines of symmetry e. 5 inches d. Given that ΔQRS ~ ΔQTU.

The billboard is 7 feet by 5. 5 meters b. How wide is a lake that measures 5. Rectangle ABCD is similar to rectangle EFGH.5 meters 21. 6 feet.4" d.85 m c. 980 cm e. 238. casts a shadow of 35 inches. 9 meters c. 3" ϫ 4. 8" ϫ 11" c.18 m 23. 8" ϫ 10" e.8 m d. 6 feet. 9. How tall is Miguel. What is the length of ៮៮? GH a. who is 5. who casts a shadow of 42 inches? a. A map shows a scale of 1 cm = 4. 1.6 feet 22.3 cm on the map? a. 1. The drawing must be similar to the billboard.TR AN S F O R MATI O N S AN D S I M I LAR IT Y 263 20.5 m. 6 feet. 6 meters e. 23.6 feet. 6 inches b. 3" ϫ 5" b. 5 inches c. 12" ϫ 20" .5 meters d. 4. A drawing is blown up for a billboard. 6 feet e. Juan. 2 inches d.5 feet tall. What are possible measurements for the drawing? a. 6.5 m b.

20.8 inches b. Figure III shows a translation. The lines of symmetry are shown in the following: 2.25 cm2 b. 62. and the trapezoids are similar? a. The star has ﬁve lines of symmetry and it also has rotational symmetry. Figure I is a reﬂection.8 feet e.1 inches c. 156. 16. and ﬁgure IV is a rotation. . d.3 inches ANSWERS 1. An action ﬁgure of Godzilla is made to the same scale.264 J U ST I N TI M E G E O M ETRY 24. 27. 2.25 cm2 e. c.75 feet tall. 1. If King Kong was 45 feet tall and Godzilla was 51.1 feet d. 32.5 cm2 d. 56.5 cm2 25.5 cm2 c. how tall is the Godzilla action ﬁgure to the nearest tenth? a. An action ﬁgure of King Kong made to scale is 14 inches high. ﬁgure II is a dilation. 166. What is the area of trapezoid ACDE if the area of trapezoid ABGF is 25.

Triangle DEF is smaller. multiply the measure of the side that ៮៮. 7. A dilation does not preserve the size of a geometric ﬁgure. Multiply on the left side of the equation. a. If the sides have a ratio of 3 : 5. b. FG BC. so ៮៮ FG = 4 ft. which is QR 8. so their corresponding sides are in ៮៮ corresponds to ៮ proportion.5 cm. d. that is 32 : 52 = 9 : 25. the areas will have a ratio of these factors squared. using the setup of = ᎏ3ᎏ 8 ϫ 3 = ៮៮ FG ϫ 6 ៮៮ 24 = FG ϫ 6 4 = ៮៮ FG 8 ᎏ ᎏ ៮៮ FG 6 big ᎏ little = big ᎏ: little Set up the proportion. so the dilation factor is a fraction. 9. 6. Divide both sides by 6. If the dilation factor is 1. 7 ϫ 1. and ៮ EF corresponds to ៮ AB.TR AN S F O R MATI O N S AN D S I M I LAR IT Y 265 3. 4. or ﬂipped. It is one-third the size of the original triangle ABC.5. over a line between and equidistant from the two images.5 = 10. Set up a proportion. e. c. The drawing shows a trapezoid being reﬂected. The quadrilaterals are similar. Figures II and III have both line and rotational symmetry of 180°. b. It usually enlarges or shrinks a ﬁgure.5. corresponds to ៮ XY. . by 1. Cross multiply. The lines of symmetry are shown in the following: 5. e.

Cross multiply. and the real statue is measured in feet. Since the units for the man are both inches. The man and the ﬂagpole. Divide both sides by 50. together with their corresponding shadows. convert the ﬂagpole shadow length to inches by multiplying by 12: 18 ϫ 12 = 216 inches.120 = 50x 15. form similar right triangles.2 feet. The model is measured in inches.4 ÷ 12 = 25. a. 10x = 0. which will be in inches: 0.6 ϫ 160 10x = 96 10x ᎏᎏ 10 = 96 ᎏᎏ 10 x = 9.4 inches = x This is not one of the answer choices.6 ᎏᎏ 10 ᎏ =ᎏ 160 x model model Set up the proportion. c. Convert this to feet by dividing by 12: 302. Multiply on the left side of the equation.120 ᎏᎏ 50 ᎏ =ᎏ 50 50x 302. ᎏ 11. Use the variable x to represent the height of the ﬂagpole: 216 ᎏᎏ 50 ᎏ =ᎏ 70 x shadow of ﬂagpole ᎏᎏᎏ shadow of man height of ﬂagpole Set up the proportion. Cross multiply. Use the variable x to represent the model height.6 inches. The height of the drawing is 9. Set up a proportion to solve this problem: ᎏ real = real . Use a proportion.266 J U ST I N TI M E G E O M ETRY 10. Multiply on the right side of the equation. 216 ϫ 70 = 50x 15. with the setup of: = ᎏᎏ height of man . Divide both sides by 10.6 .

25 2. The height of the tree is 30 feet. Divide both sides by 2.25x ៮ corre13. YZ ៮៮. the sides are in proportion. Use the variable x for tree height: 4.25 x = 30 67.5 feet.5 ᎏᎏ 2. Cross multiply. Use a proportion. c. Set up a proportion.5 = 2. Cross multiply.5 ᎏᎏ 2.5 ϫ 15 = 2. a. the setup is shadow of tree ᎏᎏ shadow of pole = height of tree ᎏᎏ . height of pole Since the units for the telephone pole are both in feet.25 ᎏ =ᎏ 15 x Set up the proportion. . The triangles are similar.25.25x ᎏ =ᎏ 2. The tree and the telephone pole. Multiply on the left side of the equation. form similar right triangles.TR AN S F O R MATI O N S AN D S I M I LAR IT Y 267 12. 10 ϫ 3 = 5 ϫ ៮៮ LN 30 = 5 ϫ ៮៮ LN 6 = ៮៮ LN 10 ᎏ 5 = ᎏ3ᎏ ៮៮ LN Set up the proportion. Multiply on the left side of the equation. The length of the segment is 6 cm. 4. together with their corresponding shadows. sponds to ៮៮ MN and ៮៮ XZ corresponds to LN big big ᎏ using the setup of ᎏ little = little .25x 67. convert the tree’s shadow length to feet by dividing 54 inches by 12: 54 ÷ 12 = 4.

The set up is: width of model ᎏᎏ length of model = width of real ᎏᎏ . Set up a proportion. change the meters to centimeters by multiplying by 100. the sides are in the ratio of ͙ෆ 16: ͙ෆ 25. Therefore. Cross multiply. 19. or 4 : 5.4 = x 20x x Set up the proportion. 8 ᎏᎏ 20 ᎏ =ᎏ 36 8 ϫ 36 = 20x 288 = 20x ᎏ =ᎏ 20 14. = ᎏxᎏ 1 Set up the proportion. Divide both sides by 20. If the areas are in the ratio of 16 : 25. a. .4 feet. 288 ᎏᎏ 20 15. e. the units will not affect the set-up. Divide both sides by 25. 18. Cross multiply. The triangles are similar. The ﬁgure shows a turn. The length is 15 inches. comparing width to length. the ratios of the volumes will be 43 : 53. The scale factor is 25 ᎏᎏ 1. Because both models’ dimensions are in inches.200 ϫ 1 25x = 1. 16. so set up a proportion using ៮៮ = 3 + 6 = 9. b. length of real Note that because the real length of the boat is in feet. big ᎏ little big ᎏ. d. The scale factor is 1 : 48. Cross multiply. Use the variable x to represent the width. the width will also be in feet.200 ᎏᎏ 25 x = 48 17. This parallelogram has no lines of symmetry.200 model ᎏ. The length of QT 9 ᎏᎏ 3 = = ᎏ5ᎏ 9 ϫ 5 = 3 ϫ ៮៮ QU ៮៮ 45 = 3 ϫ QU 15 = ៮៮ QU ៮៮ QU Set up the proportion. real and the units must be consistent. The width is 14. Multiply on the left side of the equation. b. d. So. or a rotation of 90 degrees clockwise. Multiply on the right side of the equation. or 64 : 125. Multiply on the left side of the equation.268 J U ST I N TI M E G E O M ETRY 14. little 25x = 1.200 25x ᎏᎏ 25 = 1.

the units for Miguel’s height will be in feet. Use a proportion. Even though the units are different. b. The variable x will represent the width of the real lake. 6 ϫ ៮៮ QU = 9 ៮៮ QU = 1. Multiply on the right side of the equation. no conversion is necessary. map map ᎏ 22. form similar right triangles. Cross multiply. e. together with their corresponding shadows.85 m 1 ᎏᎏ 4.5 ϫ 5. the setup is: ᎏᎏ = ᎏᎏ shadow of Juan height of Juan . using big big ៮៮ ៮ corresponds to ៮៮ ᎏ = ᎏ . so set up a proportion.TR AN S F O R MATI O N S AN D S I M I LAR IT Y 269 20. the answer will be in meters.5 42 ϫ 5.5 = 35x 231 = 35x 231 35x ᎏᎏ = ᎏᎏ 35 35 6.5 21.3 x = 23. Cross multiply. The rectangles are similar. e.6 feet tall.3 Set up the proportion. Divide both sides by 35. Miguel is 6.6 = x 42 ᎏᎏ 35 x shadow of Miguel height of Miguel Set up the proportion. Divide both sides by 6. Juan and Miguel. there is no need to convert units. Use the variable x for Miguel’s height: ᎏ =ᎏ 5. . Multiply on the left side of the equation. = ᎏxᎏ x = 4. Use a proportion with the setup ᎏ real = real . little little 6 ᎏᎏ 3 ᎏ =ᎏ ៮៮ GH 6 ϫ ៮៮ QU = 3 ϫ 3 3 Set up the proportion. Cross multiply. CD corresponds to ៮៮ FG and BC GH. Multiply on the right side of the equation.5 5. Since the units for the shadows are both inches.

270 J U ST I N TI M E G E O M ETRY 23.75 x model model Set up the proportion. The Godzilla model height will be in inches.75 = 45x 724. Multiply on the left side of the equation. Find dimensions that would satisfy the similarity condition that the sides are in proportion. You may need to test several of the width width ᎏ answer choices. Use the variable x to represent the height of the Godzilla model: 14 ᎏᎏ 45 ᎏ =ᎏ 51. b. or 25 : 156. The proportion is true. 24.6 ᎏᎏ 7 8 Test the proportion. with the setup: ᎏ real = real .25. This is because area is a squaring concept. ᎏ 25. a. the area of the larger trapezoid is 156. Since the area of the smaller trapezoid is 25.5)2. 14 ϫ 51. The sides are in a ratio of 5 : 12. Cross multiply.5 ᎏᎏ 45 ᎏ =ᎏ 45 45x 16.6 ϫ 10 = 7 ϫ 8 56 = 56 5.1 inches tall. The areas will be in the ratio of 52 : (12. Divide both sides by 45. Set up a proportion of ᎏ length = length . d. Since the real heights are both in feet.1 = x . Use a proportion. The dimensions of 8 by 10 will work: ᎏ =ᎏ 10 5. the same as the King Kong model height.25 square cm. no unit conversions are needed. Multiply on the both sides of the equation. Cross multiply.5.5 = 45x 724. The Godzilla ﬁgure is 16.

Chapter 6 reviewed the perimeter and area of triangles.9 Pythagorean Theorem and Trigonometry O ther chapters in this book have dealt with the most common geometric ﬁgure. the triangle. Take the following benchmark quiz that starts this chapter to assess the knowledge you already possess about right triangle applications. 271 . Chapter 4 covered the basic properties and classiﬁcation of triangles. This chapter will review applications that involve the right triangle.

5.272 BENCHMARK QUIZ J U ST I N TI M E G E O M ETRY 1. 4 feet b. what is the measure of ៮ YZ. 50 feet e. 10 feet . 3. If the sin ∠ACB = 0.29 cm c. 100 cm b. 28 cm ៮? 2.74 cm e. 10 cm d. to the nearest hundredth? Y 8 cm X 6 cm Z a.5. 5 feet c. 16 feet d. what is the length of AB A B 8 ft C a. In the following right triangle.

14. In the following triangle. what is the length of ៮ XY to the nearest hundredth? W X 15 cm 40º Y a. 300 cm d.49 cm .97 mm c. 4. 2 mm 4.63 cm e. 6. What is the measure of ៮ PR to the nearest hundredth? R P 18 mm 10 mm Q a.05 mm d.64 cm b. 224 mm b.P Y THAG O R EAN TH E O R E M AN D TR I G O N O M ETRY 273 3. 2. 5.24 mm e. 9.67 cm c. 11.

The volleyball net shown is 6. 43. 15.75 feet e. 5 feet b.274 J U ST I N TI M E G E O M ETRY 5. If the lighthouse is 40 feet tall.67 feet d. 63 feet b.73 feet c. If the anchor cord is 8 feet long. 94. 4. how far away is the stake from the bottom of the pole? a.23 feet e.45 feet . 32. 21.5 feet c.63 feet d. A boat sights a lighthouse at an angle of elevation of 23°.5 feet tall. how far away is the boat from the base of the lighthouse? a. 16 feet 6. 1.

to the nearest hundredth of a block. 7. 2. if she could walk the shortest path? a.P Y THAG O R EAN TH E O R E M AN D TR I G O N O M ETRY 275 7.83 blocks d. 2 ᎏᎏ 7 7 ᎏᎏ 2 c.2 e. What is the tangent of ∠BAC? a. 5. How much shorter would she walk. 4 blocks c. b. 1 block e. 8 blocks . 2.17 blocks b. Liz walks 5 blocks north and 3 blocks east to get to school.7 8. ͙53 ෆ d.

What is the length of the diagonal of rectangle ABCD. 21 inches b. 8. 7. what is the length of ៮៮ DG? a. Given the ﬁgure below. 31.276 J U ST I N TI M E G E O M ETRY 9. to the nearest hundredth? a. 15 inches 10.5 inches c. 5 mm c. 10 mm b.94 inches d.66 mm d. 225 inches e. 2. 20 mm e.5 mm .

b = 8. Set a = 10. and c = ៮ YZ. ᎏ cos 40° = ᎏ 15 (cos 40°) ϫ 15 = ៮ XY 11. P ෆR ෆ = 14. Multiply both sides by 8 to get ៮ AB = 4 feet. b = ៮ PR. The sin ratio is 0. and AB ៮ is and BC ៮: the side opposite to ∠ACB. and multiply to get ៮ XY rounded to the nearest hundredth. .P Y THAG O R EAN TH E O R E M AN D TR I G O N O M ETRY 277 BENCHMARK QUIZ SOLUTIONS 1. a. rounded to the nearest hundredth. to get 62 + 82 = c2 36 + 64 = c2 100 = c2 ͙100 ෆ = ͙ෆ c2 10 = c 2. Add like terms on the left.49 = ៮ XY ៮ XY Set up the equation. ៮ YZ = 10 cm. e. Multiply both sides by 15.97 Evaluate exponents. 3. and the side measuring 15 cm is the hypotenuse. 4. ៮ is the hypotenuse. Perform the cosine function. Use the Pythagorean theorem: a2 + b2 = c2. Set a = 6. Subtract 100 from both sides of the equation. Set up an equation to solve for AB Set up the equation. b. and c = 18. ෆ XY ෆ is the side adjacent to the angle of 40°. c. Take the square root of both sides. Take the square root of both sides. hypotenuse Evaluate exponents. Use the cosine ratio to solve for the adjacent adjacent side: cosine ratio = ᎏᎏ hypotenuse . to get 102 + b2 = 182 100 + b2 = 324 100 + b2 – 100 = 324 – 100 b2 = 224 2 ͙b ෆ = ͙ෆ 224 b = 14.5 = ᎏ8ᎏ 4=៮ AB ៮ AB opposite ᎏᎏ .97. Use the Pythagorean theorem: a2 + b2 = c2. Combine like terms.

The height of the lighthouse is the side opposite to the angle of 23°. Take the square root of both sides. The distance needed is b in the formula. to get 6. The cord is the hypotenuse of the triangle.25 b2 = 21. Set a = 5. a. tan 23° = ᎏxᎏ (tan 23°)x = 40 94.5. Set a = 6. Use the variable x to represent the distance from the boat to the lighthouse. The distance is 4. to get . 8. or ᎏ2ᎏ. and the hypotenuse would be the shortest path. rounded to the nearest hundredth. The distance from the boat to the lighthouse is the adjacent side to the opposite angle.52 + b2 = 82 42. The pole and the cord form a right triangle. Divide both sides by the tangent of 23°.23 = x 40 Set up the equation. 6. The boat and the lighthouse form a right triangle. d. Use the tangent ratio = ᎏ adjacent . Use the Pythagorean theorem: a2 + b2 = c2.75 b = 4. adjacent 7. Her walk forms a right triangle.278 J U ST I N TI M E G E O M ETRY 5. Draw a picture of the situation. The tangent ratio is The side opposite the angle is 7 and 7 the side adjacent to the angle is 2.75 2 ͙b ෆ = ͙ෆ 21.25 = 64 – 42. c.25 from both sides.25 + b2 = 64 42. to ﬁnd the distance. Subtract 42. b.67 Evaluate exponents. Multiply both sides by x. and c = 8.67 feet. and b = 3. Use the Pythagorean theorem: a2 + b2 = c2. Combine like terms. opposite ᎏ. rounded.25 + b2 – 42.

The shortest distance is 5.83 blocks. Take the square root of both sides. and b = 12.83 blocks. Take the square root of both sides. e. rounded. an exact measurement. Combine like terms.P Y THAG O R EAN TH E O R E M AN D TR I G O N O M ETRY 279 52 + 32 = c2 25 + 9 = c2 34 = c2 ͙34 ෆ = ͙ෆ c2 5. The diagonal is the hypotenuse of a right triangle formed by two of the sides. She would thus walk 8 – 5. The shortcut is 5. Set a = 9. ៮៮ EG is a shared side to both. 9. 10. forming two smaller right triangles. The length of the diagonal. d. to get 92 + 122 = c2 81 + 144 = c2 225 = c2 ͙225 ෆ = ͙ෆ c2 15 = c Evaluate exponents. Combine like terms. The ﬁgure shows an altitude drawn to the hypotenuse of a large right triangle.83 = c Evaluate exponents. Break the triangles apart to see the relationship of the sides. Her walk was 5 + 3 = 8 blocks.17 blocks shorter to get to school. . Use the Pythagorean theorem: a2 + b2 = c2. The three right triangles are similar.83 = 2.

You may also want to refer to Geometry Success in 20 Minutes a Day. Work carefully through the examples and pay attention to the sidebars referring you to deﬁnitions. hints. Read over the chapter. Lessons 8 and 20 in the book are devoted to these concepts. spend some time studying this chapter. you will gain a better understanding of this topic. Cross multiply. Follow the lesson in this chapter to review the basic concepts of right triangles. The topics in this chapter are: . Get additional practice on geometry by visiting the suggested websites and working through the Practice Quiz at the end of the chapter. FG ៮៮ EG 10 ៮៮ ϫ 5 = 10 ϫ 10 DG ៮៮ DG ϫ 5 = 100 ៮៮ DG = 20 = ᎏ5ᎏ Set up the proportion. JUST IN TIME LESSON— PYTHAGOREAN THEOREM AND TRIGONOMETRY The Pythagorean theorem and trigonometry are two very common and practical applications for right triangles. Go to the suggested websites in the Extra Help sidebar in this chapter. which will provide additional help and extended practice. If you answered 4–7 questions correctly. Proceed to the Practice Quiz at the end of the chapter and try to improve your score. Carefully read through the lesson in this chapter for review and skill building. which you can apply in word problems. BENCHMARK QUIZ RESULTS: If you answered 8–10 questions correctly. there are several areas you need to review. By carefully reading this chapter and concentrating on the visual aids. published by LearningExpress.280 J U ST I N TI M E G E O M ETRY Set up the sides of the smaller triangles in a proportion: ៮៮ DG ᎏ ᎏ ៮៮ EG ៮៮ DG ᎏᎏ 10 ᎏ =ᎏ ៮ ៮. Divide both sides by 5. and shortcuts. Multiply on the right side of the equation. concentrating on those areas of weakness. you have a good understanding of right triangle relationships and applications. If you answered 1–3 questions correctly. Perhaps the questions you answered incorrectly deal with one speciﬁc area in this chapter.

two smaller right triangles emerge. .P Y THAG O R EAN TH E O R E M AN D TR I G O N O M ETRY 281 • • • • • • • • Similar Right Triangles Identifying the Sides of a Right Triangle The Pythagorean Theorem Special Right Triangles Applications of the Pythagorean Theorem Identifying the Opposite and Adjacent Sides of a Right Triangle The Trigonometric Ratios Applications of Trigonometry SIMILAR RIGHT TRIANGLES Chapter 8 described similar polygons. E RULE BOOK When an altitude is drawn from the hypotenuse of a right triangle. All three triangles are similar to one another. A special case of similarity arises with right triangles.

it is helpful to break the three triangles apart as shown: Example: In the following diagram. what is the length of ៮៮ DC? Separate the triangles. and ﬁnd the corresponding sides: ៮៮ DC on the larger of the two triangles corresponds to ៮៮ BD on the smaller of the two triangles. ៮៮ BD on the larger of the two triangles ៮៮ on the smaller of the two triangles.282 J U ST I N TI M E G E O M ETRY When this type of problem is encountered. corresponds to AD .

the base and one side are perpendicular.P Y THAG O R EAN TH E O R E M AN D TR I G O N O M ETRY 283 Set up a proportion. little ៮ ៮ BD ᎏ ᎏ ៮ ៮ AD ᎏ =ᎏ ៮៮ BD : ៮៮ D C Set up the proportion. . Cross multiply. such as the height of a tall tree. In a right triangle. DC 12 ϫ 12 = 6x 144 = 6x = ᎏ6ᎏ 24 = x 144 ᎏᎏ 6 6x IDENTIFYING THE SIDES OF A RIGHT TRIANGLE Right triangles are special triangles used for measuring objects that would otherwise be difﬁcult to measure directly. Multiply on the left side of the equation. Divide both sides by 6. GLOSSARY HYPOTENUSE of a right triangle is the side of the right triangle that is opposite the right angle LEGS of a right triangle are the two sides of the right triangle that make up the right angle In right triangles. using the variable x for the unknown. ៮៮ is 24 inches. using 12 ᎏᎏ 6 ᎏ =ᎏ 12 x big ᎏ little = big ᎏ. there is a special relationship between the hypotenuse and the legs of the triangle. This relationship is always true and it is known as the Pythagorean theorem.

Use the Pythagorean theorem a2 + b2 = c2. m. The converse of the Pythagorean theorem is also true: In a triangle. and c.284 J U ST I N TI M E G E O M ETRY THE PYTHAGOREAN THEOREM E " RULE BOOK The Pythagorean theorem states that in all right triangles. SHORTCUT You can remember the Pythagorean theorem as the well-known formula: a2 + b2 = c2. Special note: Be careful! There is nothing special about the letters a. Note that it does not matter whether you set a = 6 and b = 14. the sum of the squares of the legs is equal to the square of the hypotenuse if and only if the triangle is a right triangle. due to the commutative property of addition. or a = 14 and b = 6. A test question could be “tricky” and could call one of the legs c. Example: Find m to the nearest hundredth. and c is the hypotenuse. b. where a and b are 6 mm and 14 mm and c is the unknown. where a and b are the two legs of the right triangle. leg2 + leg2 = hypotenuse2. . the sum of the squares of the two legs is equal to the square of the hypotenuse.

P Y THAG O R EAN TH E O R E M AN D TR I G O N O M ETRY

285

a2 + b2 = c2 62 + 142 = m2 36 + 196 = m2 232 = m2 ͙232 ෆ=m 15.23 mm = m

Substitute in the given lengths. Evaluate the exponents, left to right. Perform addition. Take the square root of 232 to ﬁnd m. The value of m will be approximate, to the nearest hundredth and include the units.

i

CALCULATOR TIPS
Use the key on the calculator to ﬁnd the square of a number. To calculate 142 on the calculator, enter:

Use the

key to ﬁnd the square root of a number. Depending on your speciﬁc calculator, this key is used either before or after you enter the radicand. To ﬁnd ͙ෆ 289, enter

286

J U ST I N TI M E G E O M ETRY

Example: Find the value of y in the following diagram:

This is a right triangle, where the hypotenuse is 26 m and one of the legs is 24 m. This is a multiple of the common Pythagorean triple, 5, 12, 13, so the Pythagorean triple is 10, 24, 36 by multiplying each length by two. The unknown side, y, is therefore 10 m.

"

SHORTCUT
There are three sets of Pythagorean triples that appear over and over again in math test problems. Knowing these three common triples will save you valuable time in working problems of this type. a 3 6 9 12 5 10 15 8 16 b 4 8 12 16 12 24 36 15 30 c 5 10 15 20 13 26 39 17 34

One set is: and multiples thereof:

Another set is: and multiples thereof:

The third set is:

Memorize these sets: {3, 4, 5}, {5, 12, 13} and {8, 15, 17}. If a right triangle problem is given and two of the three numbers in one set appear (or multiples of the two numbers), you can avoid all the substituting and calculating and save precious test time.

SPECIAL RIGHT TRIANGLES

Some special right triangles have side relationships that are helpful to memorize.

P Y THAG O R EAN TH E O R E M AN D TR I G O N O M ETRY

287

"

SHORTCUT
In a 30°–60°–90° triangle, the hypotenuse is twice the length of the shorter side, and the longer side length is the length of the shorter side, multiplied by the square root of three:

In an isosceles right triangle, the length of the hypotenuse is the length of a leg, multiplied by the square root of two:

The altitude of an equilateral triangle forms two smaller congruent triangles that are 30°–60°–90° triangles.

288

J U ST I N TI M E G E O M ETRY

APPLICATIONS OF THE PYTHAGOREAN THEOREM

The Pythagorean theorem is often embedded in word problems, where a right triangle is formed from the given situation. Example: A volleyball net is staked to the ground as shown in the diagram:

The cord on the stake is 15 feet, and the pole is 9 feet tall. How far from the bottom of the pole is the stake (value n in the diagram)? The cord, the pole, and the distance from the bottom of the pole to the stake form a right triangle. The cord in this diagram is the hypotenuse of the right triangle. The height of the pole, 9 feet, is one of the legs. The unknown is the other leg. a2 + b2 = c2 92 + b2 = 152 81 + b2 = 225 b2 = 144 b = ͙ෆ 144 b = 12 ft Note that this problem could have been solved using the shortcut, as 9, 12, 15 is a multiple of the common Pythagorean triple of 3, 4, 5. Substitute in the given lengths. Evaluate the exponents, left to right. Subtract 81 from 225. Take the square root of 144 to ﬁnd b. The value of b is 12; include units in the answer.

IDENTIFYING THE OPPOSITE AND ADJACENT SIDES OF A RIGHT TRIANGLE

The legs of a right triangle can be deﬁned in reference to one of the acute angles in the triangle.

P Y THAG O R EAN TH E O R E M AN D TR I G O N O M ETRY

289

GLOSSARY
ADJACENT side to an acute angle, in a right triangle, is the side of the triangle that is
a side of the angle, and not the hypotenuse OPPOSITE side to an acute angle, in a right triangle, is the side of the triangle that is across from the angle in question

Note that the side that is adjacent to one of the acute angles is opposite to the other acute angle.

THE TRIGONOMETRIC RATIOS

The word trigonometry means, “measure of right triangles.” Common comparisons, or ratios, are made between the sides of right triangles. These are known as the trigonometric ratios, and these ratios reference one of the acute angles in a right triangle.

GLOSSARY
SINE (SIN) of an angle is the ratio that compares the side opposite the angle, in a right
triangle, to the hypotenuse of the triangle

290

J U ST I N TI M E G E O M ETRY

COSINE (COS) of an angle is the ratio that compares the side adjacent the angle, in
a right triangle, to the hypotenuse of the triangle

TANGENT (TAN) of an angle is the ratio that compares the side opposite the angle,
in a right triangle, to the side adjacent to the angle

"

SHORTCUT
You may recall from your school days, the mnemonic device to O O A ᎏ ᎏᎏ ᎏᎏ remember the trigonometric ratios: SOH–CAH–TOA, or S ᎏ H –C H –T A , where S = sin, C = cos, T = tan, O = opposite, A = adjacent, and H = hypotenuse.

P Y THAG O R EAN TH E O R E M AN D TR I G O N O M ETRY

291

Example: In the following right triangle, what is the tan ∠C?

The side opposite to ∠C is 12 m and the side adjacent to ∠C is 9 m. Use the tangent ratio of lowest terms. Sometimes, the ratios are given as a fraction, and other times they are given as a decimal. Example: If the cos ∠Q = 0.5 in the following triangle, what is the length of ៮៮ PQ?
opposite ᎏ, adjacent ᎏ ᎏᎏ ᎏᎏ to get ᎏ 9 m = 9 , or alternately 3 in 12 m 12 4

The cosine ratio is
៮៮ PQ ᎏᎏ 10

so set up an equation:

= 0.5

Substitute in the known values. Multiply both sides by 10.

៮៮ = 5 PQ

In some problems. The method of changing the angle mode will vary for each individual calculator. Try the examples below. hypotenuse and the sin–1 key on the . Most often. Some calculators require the angle measure followed by the speciﬁc trig key and others require the trig key ﬁrst. what is the measure of ∠XYZ. so check your manual. Example: Given the following right triangle. ensure that your calculator is in degree mode. Use the sine ratio. tests will present angles in degrees. and others in this chapter. use the following keys: Your calculator will return the ratio as a decimal. Use your calculator to ﬁnd these angle measures. To ﬁnd a trigonometric ratio from the calculator. opposite ᎏᎏ . to the nearest tenth of a degree? The side opposite to ∠XYZ has a length of 7 and the hypotenuse has a length of 9. Check your calculator with the example below to see which type you have: Example: Find the sin of 30°. to be sure your calculator is in the correct mode. the trigonometric ratio is given for a right triangle and the actual angle measure is requested. calculator. First. followed by the angle measure.292 J U ST I N TI M E G E O M ETRY i CALCULATOR TIPS You will need a scientiﬁc calculator to ﬁnd the trigonometric ratios.

use at least four decimal places in the approximation of any trigonometric ratio.1°. use the calculator to keep accuracy throughout the calculations. the angle degree measure may also have to be rounded. and the angle is required. and round only the ﬁnal answer.99708907.0. Otherwise. which would round to 60°. use the following calculator keys. enter the fraction when using the sin–1 key. The angle is ∠XYZ = 51. what is the value of the angle? Use the calculator and enter these strokes: Your calculator gives an angle measure of 59. If your calculator does not have parentheses or fraction keys.866. use 0. which are typically the second function above the regular trigonometry keys: Example: If the tangent of an angle is 1.P Y THAG O R EAN TH E O R E M AN D TR I G O N O M ETRY 293 sin ∠XYZ = ᎏ9ᎏ 7 Use the sin–1 key. rounded to the nearest tenth of a degree.7777 as an approximation for the given fraction. what is the value of the angle? Use the calculator and enter these strokes: If the trigonometric ratio is rounded. i CALCULATOR TIPS If the trigonometric ratio is given. If your calculator has fraction keys. Caution: Do not round trigonometric values until the end of the calculations. . as in the following example: Example: If the sin of an angle is approximately 0. When a problem asks for a rounded answer.

such as a tree. where the height of the tree is the side opposite to the angle of elevation. and then measures the angle of elevation to the top of the tree: Note that this situation is in essence a right triangle trigonometry problem. knowing his height above the ground. A surveyor uses a tool to calculate the height of an object. An airplane pilot. . can determine the length of the horizontal distance between the plane and the edge of the runway by measuring the angle of depression: Again. He stands a set distance from the tree. this situation is a right triangle trigonometry problem. Note that the angle of depression is the same angle used in the angle of elevation of the preceding problem.294 J U ST I N TI M E G E O M ETRY APPLICATIONS OF TRIGONOMETRY Trigonometry is often embedded in word problems where a right triangle is formed from the given situation. A common application uses an angle of elevation or an angle of depression.

refer to the book Geometry Success in 20 Minutes a Day. = x = 107. to the nearest tenth? Draw a picture of the situation: The height of the lighthouse is the side opposite the angle of 25°. Round to the nearest tenth. under Relations and Sizes. represented as x: tan 25° = ᎏxᎏ (tan 25°)x = 50 (tan 25°)x ᎏᎏ (tan 25°) 50 ᎏ (tan 25°) 50 Set up the equation with the given information. The website http://library. From this page. Multiply both sides by x. There are useful web sites that deal with the Pythagorean theorem and trigonometry. published by LearningExpress. followed by an interactive quiz. . The ﬁsherman sights the top of the lighthouse at an angle of 25°. How far is the boat from shore.math. Answers to all quizzes are provided. 1.com is another source of help. Once at the site. click on Geometry.thinkquest. The distance from the boat to the shore is the side adjacent to the opposite 25° angle. ᎏ adjacent . Use the tangent ratio.2 feet O EXTRA HELP If you need extended help in working with geometry.html is a tutorial on the concepts covered in this chapter. Divide both sides by the tangent of 25°. On the edge of the shore is a lighthouse. The website www. which you will ﬁnd on the left under Select Subject. which stands 50 feet in height. 2.P Y THAG O R EAN TH E O R E M AN D TR I G O N O M ETRY 295 Example: A ﬁsherman wants to know how far his boat is from shore.org/20991/geo/stri. Each topic has a lesson. to ﬁnd the distance. select The Pythagorean Theorem and right triangle facts.

O opposite ᎏᎏ • Sine of an angle is the ratio of ᎏᎏ hypotenuse . What is the value of n in the following right triangle.296 TIPS AND STRATEGIES J U ST I N TI M E G E O M ETRY • When an altitude to a right triangle is drawn.21 mm c. 3.47 mm b. C ᎏᎏ. • Be familiar with triangle sides that are opposite and adjacent to a given angle. and the three triangles are similar. draw a picture. • Familiarize yourself with the parts of a right triangle. and identify the right triangle formed. • Know how to use your calculator with the trigonometric ratios. • Know the common Pythagorean triples and how to ﬁnd their multiples. or TOA. • The Pythagorean theorem is used to make measurements with right triangles. or CAH. 5 mm d. two smaller right triangles are formed. PRACTICE QUIZ 1. or SOH. to the nearest hundredth? a. H hypotenuse O opposite ᎏᎏ of ᎏ adjacent . or a2 + b2 = c2. • The Pythagorean theorem is leg2 + leg2 = hypotenuse2. T A . S H . 4. 10 mm e. • The trigonometric ratios compare the sides of a right triangle. • Tangent of an angle is the ratio • For word problems. • Cosine of an angle is the ratio of A adjacent ᎏᎏ . 7.16 mm .

8 m d. e. 144 m e. What is the length of MN hundredth? 3 ᎏᎏ 5 4 ᎏᎏ 5 3 ᎏᎏ 4 4 ᎏᎏ 3 a. to the nearest 3.45 m c. 13. 45° ៮៮ in the following triangle. 12 m .93 m b.P Y THAG O R EAN TH E O R E M AN D TR I G O N O M ETRY 297 2. d. c. What is the sin ∠A? a. b. 2.

How much shorter is the walk. 7. What is the tangent of ∠P? a. to the nearest hundredth block. d.72 blocks c.28 blocks b.298 J U ST I N TI M E G E O M ETRY 4. 4. b. 4. Lara walks 7 blocks west and then 2 blocks south to get to the stadium. 2 blocks .5 blocks d. 53° 5. 9 ᎏᎏ 12 12 ᎏᎏ 15 12 ᎏᎏ 9 9 ᎏᎏ 15 e. c. if she could walk a straight line? a.24 blocks e. 1.

7.68 cm d. to the nearest foot.25 cm . 17.195 feet b.5 cm long? a.5 cm e. of a square whose side is 12.527 feet c. 25 cm b.P Y THAG O R EAN TH E O R E M AN D TR I G O N O M ETRY 299 6. an airplane sights the 10-foot tall control tower at an angle of depression of 50°. 7. 5. 12.000 feet above the ground. 4. 6. What is the length of the diagonal.779 feet d. What is the horizontal distance.187 feet e.959 feet 7.07 cm c. 4. to the nearest hundredth. When it is 5. 156. from the tower to the plane? a.

200 feet long. 3 inches d.300 J U ST I N TI M E G E O M ETRY 8.5 inches b. . 56° b. 21 inches c. 34° e. in the following right triangle. 11.000 feet vertically. 4. What is the length of HI est tenth? a.83° d.6 inches . to the nearest degree? a. 1 inch e. that the slope makes with the horizontal. Katy rides the chair lift on the ski slope. What is the angle. and rises 1. 200° c. ∠B. to the near9. The lift is 1. 12° ៮.

what is the length of ST a. If the sin ∠T = 0.09 mm c. 7͙2 ෆ feet c. 10 mm ៮៮? 11. In ΔWXV. 6 mm e. 7͙3 b. 14 feet d. 8.2 mm d. what is the length of WX ෆ feet a. 8.04 mm b. 3.5 feet e.P Y THAG O R EAN TH E O R E M AN D TR I G O N O M ETRY 301 ៮? 10. if ៮៮ XV = 7 feet. 7 feet .8. 4.

b. A conveyor belt at the shipping company is constructed as shown: How long is the full length of the conveyor belt. 5 ft b. c. What is the length of the hypotenuse if the leg of the triangle is ͙8 ෆ inches long? a. 17 ft e. what is the cos ∠DFE? 4 a. 2 inches e. 8 ͙ෆ 2 inches c. 10 ft c. 13 ft 14. 4 inches b. d. 16 inches d. If the sin ∠DEF = ᎏ5ᎏ. 12 ft d. 4 ᎏᎏ 5 3 ᎏᎏ 5 3 ᎏᎏ 4 5 ᎏᎏ 4 5 ᎏᎏ 3 .302 J U ST I N TI M E G E O M ETRY 12. ΔQRS is an isosceles right triangle. to the nearest foot? a. ͙2 ෆ inches 13. e.

What is the height of an equilateral triangle whose side is 20 mm long? a. . 20͙3 ෆ mm b. What is the measure of a side of a square whose diagonal is 10 inches long.8° d. 7.75 mm e. 7. 90° c. What is the measure of ∠XYZ? a.P Y THAG O R EAN TH E O R E M AN D TR I G O N O M ETRY 303 15. 10͙2 ෆ mm d. 10 mm 16.16 inches e.07 inches c.47 inches . 22. 45° 17. 3. 4.63° b.14 inches d. to the nearest hundredth? a. 10͙3 ෆ mm c. 60° e. 5 inches b. 14.

Which of the given side measures for a triangle forms a right triangle? a. 15. 6. 4.4 m d. 20. In the following triangle. and 25 .304 J U ST I N TI M E G E O M ETRY ៮ to the nearest 18. 3. 31. 15. 7. 20.3 m b.1 m c. and 17 e.3 m e. and 12 d. 12. 9. 37. and 13 c.4 m 19. and 6 b. 12. what is the length of AB tenth? a. 15. 18.

. 37° c. 41° e.45 cm e. 13° ៮៮. 3. 12 cm c. 53° b. to the nearest hundredth? 21. 12.P Y THAG O R EAN TH E O R E M AN D TR I G O N O M ETRY 305 20. What is the length of AC a. 2.46 cm d. 6 cm b.49 cm .49° d. What is the measure of ∠JKL to the nearest degree? a.

6 ᎏᎏ 10 10 ᎏᎏ 6 8 ᎏᎏ 10 10 ᎏᎏ 8 6 ᎏᎏ 8 23. 19 ft b. e. ͙353 ෆ ft . 15 ft d. ͙98 ෆ ft e. c. 18 ft c. what is the sin ∠LMN? a. how high up the building does the ladder touch? a.306 6 J U ST I N TI M E G E O M ETRY ᎏ 22. b. d. If the cos ∠LMN is ᎏ 10 . A 17-foot ladder rests on a building as shown: If the base of the ladder is 8 feet away from the building.

a. You can use the Pythagorean theorem to ﬁnd the length of the missing leg. The value is 7. or you can recognize that this is a common Pythagorean triple. 1 mm b. 41 ft c.P Y THAG O R EAN TH E O R E M AN D TR I G O N O M ETRY 307 24. 10 ft ANSWERS 1.21 to the nearest hundredth. 14 ft b. b. 2 mm d. Evaluate exponents. The sine ratio is hypotenuse is 5. how tall is the tree to the nearest foot? a. 68 ft e. b = 4. Take the square root of both sides. to get 62 + 42 = n2 36 + 16 = n2 52 = n2 ͙52 ෆ = ͙ෆ n2 7. Use the Pythagorean theorem: a2 + b2 = c2. and c = n. 5 ft d. hypotenuse The side opposite to ∠A is 3 and the . 6 mm e. e. opposite ᎏᎏ . If he is 15 feet away from the bottom of the tree. What is the length of x in the following diagram? a. Set a = 6. 4 mm 25. Add like terms on the left. A surveyor sights the top of a tree at an angle of elevation of 70°.21 = n 2. 8 mm c. 3. namely the 5–12–13 triple.

Divide both sides by the tan 50° to get the distance.28.990. tan 50˚ = ᎏxᎏ (tan 50°)x = 4. . and the hypotenuse would be the shortest path. The horizontal distance from the tower to the plane is the side adjacent to the angle. The shortest distance between two points is a straight line.990 Set up the equation. Her walk was 7 + 2 = 9 blocks. to get 72 + 22 = c2 49 + 4 = c2 53 = c2 ͙53 ෆ = ͙ෆ c2 7. b. The tangent ratio is opposite ᎏ. rounded to the nearest foot. and b = 2.000 – 10 or 4. 6. Her walk forms a right triangle. Set a = 7. From the diagram.28 = c Evaluate exponents. The shortcut is 7. which opposite is ᎏ adjacent . the side opposite the angle of 50° is 5. Combine like terms.28 = 1.72 blocks shorter to get to the stadium. Multiply both sides by x. c. Take the square root of both sides The shortest distance is 7.187 4. d. rounded. Use the variable x to represent the horizontal distance.28 blocks. Draw a picture of the situation.308 J U ST I N TI M E G E O M ETRY 4. Use the tangent ratio.990 x = 4. She would thus walk 9 – 7. adjacent The side opposite to ∠P is 12 and and the side adjacent to ∠P is 9. 5. Use the Pythagorean theorem: a2 + b2 = c2.

Set a = 2. 8.8 = 0. ∠B = 56 9. to the nearest hundredth. opposite which is ᎏᎏ hypotenuse .000 Set up the equation. d. The side opposite is 8 and the ៮ hypotenuse is ST.5 ϫ ͙ෆ 2 = 17. From the diagram. e. Use the sin–1 key to ﬁnd the angle. Subtract 4 from both sides.200 1. so the hypotenuse is 12.68 cm.8 ϫ ៮ ST = 8 ៮ ST = 10 8 ᎏ ៮ ST Set up an equation. and c = ͙5 ෆ.8. Use the Pythagorean theorem: a2 + b2 = c2. Take the square root of both sides.P Y THAG O R EAN TH E O R E M AN D TR I G O N O M ETRY 309 7. whose sides are 12. The sine ratio is ᎏᎏ hypotenuse . ᎏ sin ∠B = ᎏ 1. c. Use the sine ratio. ៮ HI = 1 inch opposite 10. rounded to the nearest degree. a. Set up an equation: 0. Divide both sides by 0. the chair lift length is the hypotenuse and the vertical distance is the side opposite to ∠B. . Draw a picture: The diagonal is the hypotenuse of an isosceles triangle. to get 22 + b2 = (͙5 ෆ)2 2 4+b =5 4 + b2 – 4 = 5 – 4 b2 = 1 b=1 Evaluate exponents. This is a special triangle. Multiply both sides by ៮ ST.5.

12. The entire conveyor belt is 5 + 7 + 5 = 17 feet.) The hypotenuse is thus 14. ΔWXV is a 30–60–90 special right triangle. ៮៮ DC = 10 mm. The side opposite to the 30° angle. c. represented as x. ͙ෆ 2 ϫ ͙ෆ 8 = ͙ෆ 16 = 4. 15. The hypotenuse of an isosceles right triangle is ͙ෆ 2 ϫ leg of the triangle. Notice that there are two triangles on either end of the belt system. The variable x = 5 feet. so it forms two 30–60–90 right triangles. ៮៮ DC. 13. . the altitude. d.310 J U ST I N TI M E G E O M ETRY 11. the side opposite the 30° angle. is one half the hypotenuse. The side opposite to the 60° angle. a. The conveyor belt section on either end. 4 ᎏ ᎏ The cos ∠DFE is 5 . and the adjacent side to ∠DFE is 4. 20 mm. b. is twice the side opposite to the 30° angle. is 10͙3 ෆ mm long. (In this case with length of 7. Draw in the known sides. 14. which are both 30–60–90 right triangles. The hypotenuse is twice the length of the shorter side. Draw a picture of the triangle. a. with the height shown: adjacent The height is also an altitude. because the sine ratio is opposite ᎏᎏ : hypotenuse The cosine ratio is ᎏᎏ hypotenuse .

and 25 is a multiple of the common {3. 144 + 225 = 289 is NOT true. Tangent opposite is ᎏ adjacent . the triangle is a right triangle. ៮ is the hypotenuse of the right triangle. so the acute angle is 45°.07 Combine like terms. 17. From the diagram. This is an isosceles right triangle. 9 + 16 = 36 is NOT true. Use the cosine and AB ratio. hypotenuse ᎏ cos 50° = ᎏ ៮ AB cos 50° ϫ ៮ AB = 24 Set up the equation. 81 + 144 = 169 is NOT true. . Choice d: 122 + 152 = 172. Take the square root of both sides. d. to get a2 + a2 =102 2a2 = 100 a2 = 50 2 ͙a ෆ = ͙ෆ 50 a = 7. The diagonal is the hypotenuse of an isosceles right triangle. Choice c: 62 + 72 = 122.3 AB 19. The side of the square is 7. Choice b: 92 + 122 = 132.07 to the nearest hundredth. the side of length 24 is adjacent to the angle. e. If the theorem holds. 20. Set a = b. If it does not hold. e. 4. the triangle is NOT a right triangle. the sides opposite and adjacent to the angle are shown. 225 + 400 = 625 is a true statement. b. a2 + b2 = c2. tan ∠XYZ = 1 ∠XYZ = 45° This problem could have been easily solved without trigonometry. Use the tangent ratio to ﬁnd the angle measure. Test the pairs by using the Pythagorean theorem. ᎏ tan ∠XYZ = ᎏ 16 16 Set up the equation. ៮ = 37. In the diagram. 5} triple. with the diagonal. Time could have been saved if it had been recognized that 15.P Y THAG O R EAN TH E O R E M AN D TR I G O N O M ETRY 311 16. Test each choice: Choice a: 32 + 42 = 62. Draw the square. Divide both sides by 2. Use the Pythagorean theorem. 18. and round. 36 + 49 = 144 is NOT true. and c = 10. that is 24 adjacent ᎏᎏ . Multiply both sides by AB Divide both sides by the cos 50°. Choice e: 152 + 202 = 252. Use the tan–1 key to ﬁnd the angle. Choice e is the right triangle. ៮.

which is ᎏ adjacent . Combine like terms. adjacent ᎏᎏ . e. where the hypotenuse is 17 and one of the sides is 8. 24. ៮៮ EG is a shared side to both.45 Evaluate exponents. 4. The height where the ladder rests against the building is 15 feet. and c = ͙ෆ 16 = 4. The sine ratio of the given angle is 8 opposite ᎏᎏ . or you can recognize the common Pythagorean triple of 8–15–17. From the diagram. tan ∠JKL = ᎏ6ᎏ ∠JKL = 53° 8 Set up the equation. the opposite and adjacent side measures are opposite given for the angle. a. or ᎏᎏ. The ﬁgure shows an altitude drawn to the hypotenuse of a large right triangle. Draw in the sides based on the cosine ratio. Use the tan–1 key. forming two smaller right triangles. From the picture. that is {6. a2 + b2 = c2. Set a = ͙ෆ 10. hypotenuse 22. 8. {3.312 J U ST I N TI M E G E O M ETRY 20. c. as shown: The sides indicate a multiple of the common Pythagorean triple. . Use the tangent ratio. c. Subtract 10 from both sides. d. this is a right triangle problem. 10}. and round to the nearest degree. Rounded to the nearest hundredth. Use the Pythagorean theorem. to get 2 ͙10 ෆ + b2 = 42 2 10 + b = 16 10 + b2 – 10 = 16 – 10 b2 = 6 ͙b 2 = ͙ෆ ෆ 6 b = 2. Break the triangles apart to see the relationship of the sides. The three right triangles are similar. Take the square root of both sides. 21. 5}. 10 hypotenuse 23. You can use the Pythagorean theorem.

Draw a picture of the situation: The height of the tree is represented as x. Cross multiply. and then multiply and round. Use the tan key. ᎏ tan 70° = ᎏ 15 tan 70° ϫ 15 = x 41 = x x Set up the equation. Multiply both sides by 15. Divide both sides by 16. Multiply on the right side. . opposite Use the tangent ratio. The side measuring 15 feet is the side adjacent to the angle.P Y THAG O R EAN TH E O R E M AN D TR I G O N O M ETRY 313 ᎏ ᎏᎏ Set up the sides of the smaller triangles in a proportion: ᎏ ៮៮ ៮ EG = ៮ FG ᎏ =ᎏ ៮៮ FG 16 ϫ ៮៮ FG = 8 ϫ 8 16 ᎏᎏ 8 8 ៮៮ DG ៮៮ EG Set up the proportion. which is ᎏ adjacent . b. 16 ϫ ៮៮ FG = 64 ៮៮ = 4 FG 25. and is opposite to the angle.

developed a method of positioning a point in the plane by its distances. a philosopher and mathematician. Take the benchmark quiz to determine how much you remember about coordinate geometry. Rene Descartes. or simply. the coordinate plane. This chapter reviews how this plane applies to geometry.10 Coordinate Geometry I n the 1600s. from the intersection of two ﬁxed lines drawn at right angles in the plane. x and y. 314 . This plane came to be called the Cartesian plane.

4). What are the coordinates of point R on the graph below? a. What is the other endpoint.3)? a.C O O R D I NATE G E O M ETRY 315 BENCHMARK QUIZ 1. if the midpoint of the segment is (–1.12) c. (–5. (–3. (3.5) e.3. (2. (2.5) d.3) b.–5) .2) e.7) b. (–5. (5.3) c.–3) d. (–3. (1. (5. One endpoint of a segment is (3.5) 2.

units e. What is the area of the ﬁgure below. 32 sq. in square units? a.316 J U ST I N TI M E G E O M ETRY 3. 8 4. units d. units b.–5) and (2. 2͙5 ෆ d. 8 sq. 64 sq. units . What is the distance between points (–3. 5͙2 ෆ c.–2)? a. 40 sq. 2͙ෆ 6 b. ͙34 ෆ e. 24 sq. units c.

C O O R D I NATE G E O M ETRY 317 5. y = 4x + 5 d. y = –5x – 5 e. What is the equation of a line that is perpendicular to the line y = –4x + 5? 1 a. y = –ᎏ4ᎏx + 5 c. y = 4x + ᎏ5ᎏ b. y = 4x + 3 d. y = ᎏ4ᎏx – 3 1 1 1 . y = 4x – 3 e. What is the equation of the line on the graph below? a. y = 3x + 4 b. y = –3x + 4 c. y = ᎏ3ᎏx + 4 6.

Figure II c. Which graph shows a reﬂection of ΔABC over the line y = x? a. Figure I b. none of the above . Figure IV e.318 J U ST I N TI M E G E O M ETRY 7. Figure III d.

–2) c. (–3.–7) d. (0. (0.–4) b.0) .3) e.C O O R D I NATE G E O M ETRY 319 8. What is the solution to the system of equations shown below? a. (–4. (3.

from ΔABC to its image ΔA´B´C´? a. y = 7x – 8 d. What is the equation of a line that is parallel to y = 7x – 15? a. ry-axis d. y = 15x + 7 c. RP. rx-axis e. . The coordinates are (–3. e.–3) 10. Point R is three units to the left of the origin. so the y-coordinate is 5. What is the transformation shown in the graph below. y = –7x – 8 e.320 J U ST I N TI M E G E O M ETRY 9. so the x-coordinate is –3 and it is 5 units above the origin. y = ᎏ7ᎏx – 15 b. T(2. T(–2.–90° c.5). y = –7x + 3 1 BENCHMARK QUIZ SOLUTIONS 1.3) b.

is 1 – –3 = 4 units long. Isolate the x and y. run 6. =3 4 + y2 = 6 y2 = 6 – 4 y2 = 2 4 + y2 ᎏᎏ 2 The coordinates are (–5. Multiply both sides by 2. or A = ᎏ2ᎏ ϫ 64 = 32 square units. Use the midpoint formula to solve for x2 and y2: M = (ᎏ2ᎏ. Base 1. The slope of a perpendicular line will have a slope that is the negative reciprocal of the given equation. Use the distance formula: D = ͙( x2 – x1 ෆ ෆ )2 + (yෆ 2 – y1) 2 D = ͙(–3 ෆ – 2ෆ )2 + (–5ෆ – –2)2. The graphed line crosses the y-axis at (0. The height. b. Choice e is the only choice with this slope. Count the units for b1 (the base). so the y-intercept is 4. 5. b1. Substitute in these 1 1 values to get: A = ᎏ2ᎏ ϫ 4(10 + 6). d. c. The equation is y = –3x + 4. e. b2. The slope of the given equation is –4.2) 2 3. b2 (the other base) and h (the height). or D = ͙(–5) ෆ +ෆ (–3)2. ᎏ2ᎏ). Base 2. Use the formula for the area of a trapezoid: A = ᎏ2ᎏh(b1 + b2).1). using y2 – y1 4–1 3 rise ᎏ ᎏᎏ ᎏᎏ ᎏ =ᎏ x2 – x1 = 0 – 1 = –1 = –3.4). or D = ͙ෆ 25 + 9 = ͙ෆ 34. The slope is the coefﬁcient before the variable x when the equation is in the form y = mx + b. d. The negative reciprocal is 1 ᎏᎏ. The slope can be calculated from the points (0. 4. h.C O O R D I NATE G E O M ETRY 321 x1 + x2 y1 + y2 2.4) and (1. is 6 – 0 = 6 units long. Combine like terms. 3 + ᎏ2ᎏ = –1 3 + x2 = –2 x2 = –2 – 3 x2 = –5 x2 Use the midpoint formula. 4 1 . is 7 – –3 = 10 units long.

The coordinates are (3. c. This is T(–2. Figure IV is a translation. and four units below the origin. When an equation is in the form y = mx + b. a. 8. 10. a. The solution to the system is the coordinates of the point of intersection. is choice c.322 J U ST I N TI M E G E O M ETRY 7. Figure II shows a reﬂection over the line y = x. so the x-coordinate is 3. b. which is shown below: Figure I is a reﬂection over the x-axis. 9. This point is three units to the right of the origin. This transformation is a slide in which each point slides two units to the left (negative direction) and three units up (positive direction).3). Figure III is a reﬂection over the y-axis. the slope is the coefﬁcient of the x variable. which is 7. so the y-coordinate is –4.–4). such as these. The equation of a line parallel to the given equation will have the same slope. . The only equation that has the same slope.

C O O R D I NATE G E O M ETRY 323 BENCHMARK QUIZ RESULTS: If you answered 8–10 questions correctly. Pay attention to the chapter sidebars to be sure you have a full understanding of the various aspects of this topic. published by LearningExpress. carefully read through the lesson in this chapter to review the material and build your conﬁdence. JUST IN TIME LESSON—COORDINATE GEOMETRY The coordinate plane is a powerful tool when used in conjunction with geometry and algebra. You may also want to refer to Geometry Success in 20 Minutes a Day. First. hints. If you answered 1–3 questions correctly. and 19 of this book pertain to these concepts. Work through the Practice Quiz at the end of the chapter to ensure your success.and y-axes. called the x. you possess a solid foundation of knowledge about coordinate geometry. carefully read this chapter including the sidebars and visual aids that will improve your comprehension. concentrate your efforts on Chapter 10 topics. The x-axis is a horizontal . Chapter 10 topics are: • • • • • • • • Ordered Pairs Midpoint Distance Between Two Points Geometric Figures in the Coordinate Plane Linear Equations Systems of Equations Slope—Special Relationships Transformations on the Coordinate Plane ORDERED PAIRS The coordinate plane is a grid created by the intersection of two perpendicular number lines. Get additional practice on geometry by visiting the suggested websites and solving the Practice Quiz at the end of the chapter. If you answered 4–7 questions correctly. Study the contents of this chapter to gain important knowledge and skills to prepare for your upcoming test. Work carefully through the examples and pay attention to the sidebars that refer you to deﬁnitions. and shortcuts. Go to the suggested websites in the Extra Help sidebar in this chapter. which will provide extended practice. Lessons 17. 18.

There are four regions created by this grid and axes. Points exist in this two dimensional space in the coordinate plane. The y-coordinate is ALWAYS named second. as deﬁned by its ordered pair. Each point has a unique location. The x-coordinate is the horizontal distance from the origin. point O above.0). as shown in the following diagram: The quadrants are named by Roman numerals.324 J U ST I N TI M E G E O M ETRY number line and the y-axis is a vertical number line. The coordinates for the origin are (0. The following graph shows some points and their ordered pair name: . Points are named in the coordinate plane by an ordered pair: (x-coordinate. The other quadrants follow in a counterclockwise direction. ycoordinate). Positive x-coordinates are to the right of the origin and negative x-coordinates are to the left of the origin. The y-coordinate is the vertical distance from the origin. The intersection of the axes. Positive ycoordinates are above the origin and negative y-coordinates are below the origin. Quadrant I is in the upper right corner. is called the origin.

all points have the sign (–x. –y). all points have the sign (–x. In Quadrant III. . all points have the sign (+x.C O O R D I NATE G E O M ETRY 325 Notice the signs of the ordered pairs and where they lie in the coordinate plane: In Quadrant I. +y). In Quadrant II. In Quadrant IV. all points have the sign (+x. –y). +y).

326 J U ST I N TI M E G E O M ETRY To ﬁnd the ordered pair for a point. and then count how far away from the origin the point is in the vertical direction. count how far away from the origin the point is in the horizontal direction. .

and C below? .C O O R D I NATE G E O M ETRY 327 Example: What are the coordinates (ordered pairs) for points A. B.

The coordinates of point C are (1. The midpoint is exactly halfway between the two points. MIDPOINT Any two points determine a segment. The coordinates of point B are (–4. Every segment has a midpoint.–2). and 2 units below the origin. Point C is 1 unit to the right of the origin and 1 unit below the origin. y1) and (x2. 2 .3). The coordinates of point A are (2. Point B is 4 units to the left of the origin. given the coordinates x1 + x2 y1 + y2 ᎏ ᎏᎏ). E RULE BOOK The coordinates of the midpoint of a segment. y2) is M = (ᎏ 2 .328 J U ST I N TI M E G E O M ETRY Point A is 2 units to the right of the origin. of its endpoints as (x1.–1). and 3 units above the origin.

0) and other endpoint is D (10. This segment and midpoint are shown on the previous graph.4)? Use the midpoint formula to ﬁnd x2 and y2: 10 + x2 ᎏ ᎏ 2 4 + y2 ᎏ ᎏ 2 =7 10 + x2 = 14 x2 = 4 Multiply both sides by 2 Subtract from both sides =0 4 + y2 = 0 y2 = –4 The other endpoint is (4. is (7.7)? Use the midpoint formula: M = (ᎏ2ᎏ.1). This is evident from the graph: –3 + –6 –5 + 7 –9 2 You can use the midpoint formula to ﬁnd a missing coordinate. C. ᎏ2ᎏ). .C O O R D I NATE G E O M ETRY 329 Example: What is the midpoint of the segment with endpoints A (–3. Example: What is the endpoint. M.5. or M = ( ᎏ2ᎏ.–4). of a segment whose midpoint.–5) and B (–6. ᎏ2ᎏ) = (–4.

Distance h can be found by subtracting the x-coordinate of one point from the x-coordinate of the other point. v. . and the vertical distance.3)? From the graph. the horizontal distance. Example: What is the distance between A (8. E RULE BOOK —THE DISTANCE FORMULA The distance between two points is given by the formula: 2 2 D = ͙ෆ (x2 – x ෆ (y2 – y ෆ 1) + ෆ 1) This is an important and useful formula in coordinate geometry.6) and B (4. and therefore ͙ෆ h2 + v2 = distance.330 J U ST I N TI M E G E O M ETRY DISTANCE BETWEEN TWO POINTS The distance between two points in a coordinate plane can be calculated if the coordinates of the points are known. h2 + v2 = distance2. form the legs of a right triangle. covered in Chapter 9. Distance v can be found the same way using the y-coordinates. h. It is based on the Pythagorean theorem. The distance between the points is the hypotenuse of the right triangle.

and multiples thereof. The distance is D = ͙4 ෆ + 32 = ͙16 + 9 = ͙ෆ ෆ 25 = 5. 5}. h = 4 and v = 3. 4.–4)? D = ͙( –3 – ෆ ෆ –7)2 + ෆ (6 – –4ෆ )2 = ͙ෆ 42 + 102 ෆ D = ͙16 ෆ + 100 ෆ = ͙ෆ 116. 17}. you can count the length of the horizontal and vertical distances. . When working with the distance formula. you often must simplify radicals. In the 2 above problem. or {8. Example: What is the distance between (–3. To simplify a radical. factor out all perfect square factors.C O O R D I NATE G E O M ETRY 331 When the points are shown graphed in the coordinate plane. ͙ෆ 252 = ͙ෆ 4 ϫ ͙ෆ 63 = ͙ෆ 4 ϫ ͙9 ෆ ϫ ͙ෆ 7 = 2 ϫ 3 ϫ ͙ෆ 7 = 6͙ෆ 7 Simplifying radicals is often the last step in using the distance formula. D = ͙ෆ 4 ϫ ͙ෆ 29 = 2͙ෆ 29 " SHORTCUT If the h(x2 – x1) and the v(y2 – y1) are the two smaller values in a common Pythagorean triple. 12. Recall from Chapter 9. 2 ϫ ͙ෆ 100 = ͙ෆ 2 ϫ 10 = 10͙ෆ 2 ͙ෆ 200 = ͙ෆ Example: Simplify ͙252 ෆ. that the common Pythagorean triples are: {3. 15. Example: Simplify ͙ෆ 200. 13}. the distance will be the largest value in that triple set. {5.6) and (–7.

13}. or length of altitudes of certain polygons. (x2 – x1) = 8 – –4 = 12 and (y2 – y1) = 2 – –3 = 5. This is part of the triple {5. length of sides. GEOMETRIC FIGURES IN THE COORDINATE PLANE Polygons are created in the coordinate plane when various points are connected to form the sides. 12. The distance is therefore 13 units. length of diagonals. .332 J U ST I N TI M E G E O M ETRY Example: Find the distance between points L and N in the following graph. You may be required to determine the area.

(4 – –1). From Chapter 6. The height can be determined by counting the perpendicular length between the bases. Substitute in the values to get 2 1 A = ᎏ2ᎏ ϫ 6(9 + 5) = 42 square units. 2 – –4 = 6 units long. (6 – –3).C O O R D I NATE G E O M ETRY 333 Example: What is the area of trapezoid PQRS? Count the squares to ﬁnd the lengths of b1 and b2. b2 is 5. Base b1 is 9. . units long. the formula for the area of a trapezoid is: A = ᎏ1ᎏh(b1 + b2). units long.

1) (0. This simpliﬁes to D = ͙ෆ (–11) ෆ + (–4) = D = ͙ෆ (–6 – 5ෆ ෆ = ͙ෆ 137 units long.5). or 2 2 2 2 ) + (1 ෆ – 5) .334 J U ST I N TI M E G E O M ETRY Example: What is the length of the longer diagonal in parallelogram FGHI? The length of the diagonal is the distance between point F (–6.3) (1. For the equation y = 2x + 3. ͙ෆ 121 + 16 This answer is simpliﬁed. LINEAR EQUATIONS The coordinate plane shows the inﬁnite solutions to an equation in two variables in picture form.5) . a table can be made to show the values that satisfy the equation: WHEN x = THEN Y = ORDERED PAIR SOLUTION –2 –1 0 1 2(–2) + 3 = –1 2(–1) + 3 = 1 2(0) + 3 = 3 2(1) + 3 = 5 (–2. 1) 2 ෆ )2 + (yෆ and H (5. Use the distance formula: D = ͙ෆ (x2 – x1 2 – y1) .–1) (–1.

When the line is extended. other ordered pairs are deﬁned that satisfy the equation.7).–3) and (2. Lines graphed in the coordinate plane have certain characteristics. . as shown dotted above.C O O R D I NATE G E O M ETRY 335 These ordered pairs are then graphed. such as steepness. and joined to form a line. such as (–3. and where the line crosses the y-axis and the x-axis. The line is the set of inﬁnite points that satisfy the equation.

the change in the x-coordinate’s value ᎏ or ᎏ Δx . It is the value of y when x = 0.336 J U ST I N TI M E G E O M ETRY GLOSSARY SLOPE of a linear equation is the steepness of the line. run Y -INTERCEPT of a linear equation is the y-coordinate where the line crosses the y-axis. . It is the value of x when y = 0. X -INTERCEPT of a linear equation is the x-coordinate where the line crosses the x-axis. Δy y2 – y1 ᎏ x2 – x1 or rise ᎏ. It is the ratio of the change in the y-coordinate’s value ᎏᎏᎏᎏᎏ .

The slope will Δy ᎏ be ᎏ Δx . . Count the change in y. and then the change in x. the horizontal distance. You can determine the slope of a line by ﬁrst choosing two integer (integral) values for the coordinates on the line.C O O R D I NATE G E O M ETRY 337 The magnitude of the slope value determines the steepness of the line. the vertical distance.

If the movement is up. If the movement is right.338 J U ST I N TI M E G E O M ETRY The sign of the slope indicates whether the slope is “uphill” or “downhill.” when moving from left to right on the graph. ᎏ It is helpful to think of slope as ᎏ run . rise . then the change in y is negative. the change in x is negative. if the movement is down. then the change in y is positive. Start at one integral ordered pair and rise ᎏ determine how many units are traveled as you ᎏ run to reach another integral point. The sign of the slope will be determined by the integer rules for division Δy ᎏ as ᎏ Δx . the change in x is positive. if the movement is left.

To reach point (1.1) starting at the y-intercept. you rise –1 (down 1) and run +1 (right 1). which is the value of y when x = 0. and the x-intercept is 1. which is the value of x when y = 0. to determine the slope.2). Find integral points. which is often the intercepts. 1–2 –1 .C O O R D I NATE G E O M ETRY 339 Example: What is the slope and intercepts of the following graphed line? The y-intercept is 2. (0.0). (2. So the slope is rise ᎏ run = ᎏ1ᎏ – 0 = ᎏ1ᎏ = –1.

+2 2 run The equation of a line. from (0. which is the value of x when y = 0.3). GLOSSARY SLOPE-INTERCEPT FORM of an equation is the equation solved for y: y = mx + b. when in a special form called the slope-intercept form. Slope is +3 3 rise ᎏ = ᎏᎏ = ᎏᎏ.0) to (2. where m and b are real numbers and x and y are variables. determines the slope and y-intercept of the graphed equation.340 J U ST I N TI M E G E O M ETRY Example: What is the slope and intercepts of the following graphed line? The y-intercept is 0. which is the value of y when x = 0. The slope is determined from the shown integral points. . and the xintercept is 0.

5 Subtract 3x from both sides. the b term. Divide all terms by 2. What is the slope of the equation x = 3? This equation is not in slope-intercept form. This happens to be a horizontal line passing through the point (0. The slope is undeﬁned. What is the slope of y = 4? There is no x variable. This happens to be a vertical line passing through the point (3. because the coefﬁcient of the x term. which is –5. and b is the y-intercept of the graphed equation. there is no y variable.4). .C O O R D I NATE G E O M ETRY 341 Any equation in two variables can be expressed in slope-intercept form.0). the slope is zero. What is the y-intercept of the equation y = –7x? There is no b term. What is the slope of y = –x + 6? The m term in this example is –1. Solve 3x + 2y = 17 for y: 3x + 2y – 3x = 17 – 3x 2y = –3x + 17 2y ᎏᎏ 2 3 17 = – ᎏ2ᎏx + ᎏ2ᎏ 3 = – ᎏ2ᎏx + 8. Examples: What is the y-intercept of the equation y = –7x – 5? The y-intercept is (0. Example: Express 3x + 2y = 17 in slope-intercept form. m is the slope of the graphed equation. y E RULE BOOK When an equation is in the slope-intercept form. is implied when only a negative sign is shown. so the line crosses at (0. The slope is –1. or it is said to have no slope. by isolating the y variable. the m term. y = mx + b. Combine like terms.–5). The slope of this line is –7.0) and the y-intercept is zero. –1.

using the slope. Graph another point.342 J U ST I N TI M E G E O M ETRY When an equation is in slope-intercept form you can graph the solution in the coordinate plane without making a table. The slope rise is ᎏ run . –ᎏ1ᎏ. . Use this procedure: 1. Graph this point as the y-intercept at (0. b = –2. 2. In this equation. Start at the y-intercept and then travel up or down. 5 Use the slope of –5 and write it as a ratio. and left or right as dictated by the ratio. written as a fraction. again using rise ᎏ. Example: Graph the linear equation y = –5x – 2. that is the y-intercept. run 4. Connect the points into a line and label the line. 3.–7).–2). starting at the last point graphed. b. Graph the second point using a rise of –5 (down 5) and a run of 1 (right 1) to reach the point (1. Graph the point. Your points will form a straight line. Graph a second point.

Example: What is the equation of the following graphed line? The line crosses the y-axis at positive 3. 2. To get from this point to another integral point on the graph (shown rise above). The equation is y = mx + b. so the value of b is 3. This is the value of b. you can also determine the equation if given the graph: 1. Pick two points on the graph that have integral coordinates and deterrise Δy ᎏ mine the ᎏ run = Δx ratio. +2 2 2 . you travel down 1 (–1) and right 2 (+2). Look at the graph to ﬁnd the y-intercept. 3. The equation is y = –ᎏ ᎏᎏx + 3. The slope is ᎏ run = –1 1 1 ᎏᎏ = –ᎏᎏ. This is the value of m.C O O R D I NATE G E O M ETRY 343 Just as you can graph a line given the equation.

To solve a system of equations graphically.3). There are several ways to solve systems of equations. When the lines are equivalent their graphs fall on top of each other. Example: What is the solution to the following system of equations? The graphed lines intersect at (1. When the lines intersect. some of which are beyond the scope of this book. they meet in one point. or an inﬁnite number of solutions. When the lines are parallel they will never meet. This is the solution to the system. . The solution will basically be an ordered pair to deﬁne the point of intersection. solving the system graphically. When you solve a system of equations there can be one.344 SYSTEMS OF EQUATIONS J U ST I N TI M E G E O M ETRY A system of equations is two or more equations that have related variables. which is an inﬁnite number of solutions. graph each equation on the coordinate plane. which is one solution. none. which means there is no solution. The solution is the intersection of the graphed lines. is explained in this chapter. One method.

The y-coordinate. Any fraction with zero in the numerator is equivalent to zero. The x-coordinate. A vertical line has a slope that is undeﬁned. rise . the rise. A vertical line has the form x = c. the run. or sometimes said to be “no slope”. does not change. A horizontal line has the form y = b. does not change. the slope of a horizontal line and the slope of a vertical line. Any fraction with zero in the denominator is undeﬁned.C O O R D I NATE G E O M ETRY 345 SLOPE—SPECIAL RELATIONSHIPS Slope is the ratio of ᎏ run . There are two special slopes to be considered. A horizontal line has a slope of zero.

One example of a perpendi1 cular line is y = –ᎏ3ᎏx. PERPENDICULAR LINES have slopes that are negative reciprocals of each other. which has a y-intercept of zero. Examples: What is the equation of a line parallel to the line y = –5x + 11? For lines to be parallel.y + b) . GLOSSARY T (A . One example of a parallel line is y = –5x + 1. (value for b). These transformations can be pictured on a coordinate plane.346 J U ST I N TI M E G E O M ETRY E RULE BOOK PARALLEL LINES have equal slopes. is shifted to the point (x + a. What is the equation of a line perpendicular to the line y = 3x – 4? Perpendicular lines have slopes that are negative reciprocals of one another. The slope of the given line is 3. TRANSFORMATIONS ON THE COORDINATE PLANE Chapter 8 described various transformations that can be performed on a geometric ﬁgure. Choose any y-intercept.y).B) a translation of a graphed polygon in which each point. (x. they must have the same slope. Choose any y-intercept. the slope of the perpendi1 cular line is –ᎏ3ᎏ.

y) becomes (–y.y) becomes (x. R Y = X a reﬂection of a geometric ﬁgure in the line y = x (slope of 1.y) becomes (–x. Point (x.C O O R D I NATE G E O M ETRY 347 R X -A X I S a reﬂection of a geometric ﬁgure in the x-axis. and y-intercept of 0).–y).y) becomes (y. .–9 0° a rotation of a geometric ﬁgure of 90° (a quarter turn) clockwise around a point P.x). R P . Point (x.–x).y) becomes (y.x). The point (x.9 0° a rotation of a geometric ﬁgure of 90° (a quarter turn) counterclockwise around a point P. The point (x. R Y -A X I S a reﬂection of a geometric ﬁgure in the y-axis. R P .y). The point (x.

348

J U ST I N TI M E G E O M ETRY

R P ,18 0° a rotation of a geometric ﬁgure of 180° (a half turn) around a point P. Point (x,y)
becomes (–x,–y).

R P ,270° a rotation of a geometric ﬁgure of 270° (a three-quarter turn) counterclockwise
around a point P. This rotation is the same as RP,–90°. R P ,–270° a rotation of a geometric ﬁgure of 270° (a three-quarter turn) clockwise around a point P. This is the same as RP,90°.

Example: The following ﬁgure shows a translation of ΔABC of T(3,2) marked ΔA'B'C' and a translation of parallelogram EFGH of T(–3,–1) marked E'F'G'H'. Note that point C on the triangle, (–1,1), for example, moves to point C', (–1 + 3,1 + 2), or (2,3). Point E, (3,–1) moves to E', (3 – 3,–1 –1), or (0,–2).

C O O R D I NATE G E O M ETRY

349

The next ﬁgure shows a reﬂection of ΔABC of ry-axis marked ΔA'B'C' and a reﬂection of rx-axis marked ΔA"B"C".

350

J U ST I N TI M E G E O M ETRY

The next ﬁgure shows a rotation of ΔABC of RP,–90° marked ΔA'B'C' and a rotation of ΔABC of RP,180° marked ΔA"B"C".

O

EXTRA HELP
If you need further help in working with coordinate geometry, refer to the book Geometry Success in 20 Minutes a Day, published by LearningExpress. There are also Internet resources that will help you to master this topic: 1. The website http://library.thinkquest.org/20991/geo/coordgeo.html is a tutorial on the basic concepts of graphing in the coordinate plane. 2. http://www.shodor.org/interactivate/activities/transform/index.html is an interactive activity to study transformations in the coordinate plane. 3. http://www.wtamu.edu/academic/anns/mps/math/mathlab/ beg_algebra/ has lessons on the coordinate plane and graphing equations. Scroll down to tutorials 20–25.

C O O R D I NATE G E O M ETRY

351

TIPS AND STRATEGIES

• The coordinate plane is a grid formed by horizontal and vertical number lines that intersect at the point called the origin. • The coordinate plane is divided into four quadrants. • An ordered pair (x,y) deﬁnes a point in the coordinate plane as the horizontal distance, x, from the origin and the vertical distance, y, from the origin. • In Quadrant I the coordinates have the sign (+,+ ). • In Quadrant II the coordinates have the sign (–,+). • In Quadrant III the coordinates have the sign (–, –). • In Quadrant IV the coordinates have the sign (+,–). • The midpoint is the point halfway between two endpoints of a segment. • The distance between two points in the coordinate plane is found by using the distance formula. • Geometric polygons reside in the coordinate plane. • Area, side length, diagonal length, and height can be calculated using coordinates of endpoints. Δy rise ᎏ ᎏ • The slope of a linear equation is the ratio of ᎏ Δx = run . • The y-intercept is the value of y when x = 0, where a graphed equation crosses the y-axis. • The slope-intercept form of a line, y = mx + b, determines the slope and the y-intercept of a graphed line. • A system of equations can be solved graphically by ﬁnding the intersection of the graphed lines. • Parallel lines have equal slopes. • Perpendicular lines have slopes that are negative reciprocals of each other. • Horizontal lines have a slope of zero. • Vertical lines have no slope, or a slope that is undeﬁned. • Geometric ﬁgures can be transformed on the coordinate plane.

PRACTICE QUIZ

352

J U ST I N TI M E G E O M ETRY

2. What are the coordinates of the point M shown below?

a. (–5,2) b. (5,2) c. (2,–5) d. (–2,5) e. (–2,–5) 3. What are the coordinates of the midpoint of the segment joined by (–7,–4) and (–1,5)? a. (–4,4.5) b. (4.5,–4) c. (–3,0.5) d. (–3,4.5) e. (–4,0.5) 4. One endpoint of a segment is (–8,–2). What is the other endpoint, if the midpoint of the segment is (0,0)? a. (2,8) b. (8,2) c. (–4,–1) 1 1 d. (ᎏ8ᎏ,ᎏ2ᎏ) e. (4,1)

C O O R D I NATE G E O M ETRY

353

5. What is the distance between the points (1,4) and (4,8)? a. ͙5 ෆ b. 13 c. ͙13 ෆ d. 5 e. 17 6. What is the length of the diagonal in the graph of the square below?

a. 4͙2 ෆ b. 8 c. ͙8 ෆ d. 32 e. 4

354

J U ST I N TI M E G E O M ETRY

7. In the following graph, what is the area of ΔPQR?

a. 7 sq. units b. 28 sq. units c. 14 sq. units d. 10.5 sq. units e. 0.5 sq. units

–3) and (6. What is the length of the segment whose endpoints are (–2. 4͙2 ෆ units d. What is the length of the height of trapezoid ABCD on the following graph? ෆ units a. ͙8 ෆ units 9. 2͙17 ෆ units b.–1)? a. 6 units c. 68 units c.C O O R D I NATE G E O M ETRY 355 8. ͙32 ෆ units d. 32 units e. ͙37 b. 32 units e. 4͙5 ෆ units .

y = –2x + 2 1 b. y = –ᎏ4ᎏx + 2 1 c. y = ᎏ3ᎏx – 6 . y = –6x + 3 1 b. y = 2x – ᎏ4ᎏ d. y = ᎏ2ᎏx + 2 11. y = –ᎏ3ᎏx + 2 c. y = 3x + 6 d.356 J U ST I N TI M E G E O M ETRY 10. y = –4x – 2 1 e. y = –3x – 6 1 e. What is the equation of the line shown in the following graph? a. What is the equation of a line that is parallel to the graph of line y = 3x – 6? a.

3 3 d. Which is the slope of the following graphed line? a. –5 2 . ᎏ3ᎏ b. 5 c.C O O R D I NATE G E O M ETRY 357 12. ᎏ2ᎏ e.

3 d. What is the y-intercept of the following graphed line? a.358 J U ST I N TI M E G E O M ETRY 13. c. b. –3 2 ᎏᎏ 3 3 ᎏᎏ 2 . 2 e.

C O O R D I NATE G E O M ETRY 359 14. What is the equation of a line perpendicular to the graphed line in the following graph? a. y = –3x + 2 1 b. y = –ᎏ3ᎏx + 2 c. y = 3x – 2 d. y = x – 2 e. y = –x + 4 .

–5) . What is the solution to the system of equations shown in the following graph? a. (0.0) b. (0.0) d.3) c.–2) e.360 J U ST I N TI M E G E O M ETRY 15. (–2. (0. (3.

2 d. What is the slope of the following line? a. 1 3 .C O O R D I NATE G E O M ETRY 361 16. 0 b. ᎏ4ᎏ e. undeﬁned c.

20 square units d. 2͙5 ෆ square units b. 16 square units c. 8 square units e.362 J U ST I N TI M E G E O M ETRY 17. What is the area of the parallelogram shown below? a. 12 square units .

What is the length of the diagonal of rectangle ABCD shown following? a.5 units d. ͙41 ෆ units e. ͙ෆ 61 units b.C O O R D I NATE G E O M ETRY 363 18. 30.5 units c. 20. ͙50 ෆ units .

42 square units . 24 square units e. 48 square units c. 40 square units b.364 J U ST I N TI M E G E O M ETRY 19. What is the area of trapezoid LMNO? a. 54 square units d.

T(10. Which transformation is shown in the following ﬁgure from ABCD to A´B´C´D´? a. ry = x b. ry-axis e. rx-axis d.0) .90° c.C O O R D I NATE G E O M ETRY 365 20. RP.

Which of the following ﬁgures shows a rotation of 90° clockwise.366 J U ST I N TI M E G E O M ETRY 21. Figure IV e. none of the above . from ABC to A´B´C´? a. Figure III d. Figure I b. Figure II c.

What is the equation of the following graphed line? a. y = –x e. The equation is not shown. y = –x + 1 c. . y = –x – 1 d. y = x b.C O O R D I NATE G E O M ETRY 367 22.

y = x + 7 . y = 7 b. y = –7 c. What is the equation of the following graphed line? a.368 J U ST I N TI M E G E O M ETRY 23. x = –7 d. x = 7 e.

ry = x .–180° b.–2) d.C O O R D I NATE G E O M ETRY 369 24. rx-axis e.3) c. T(3. What is the transformation shown in the following graph of ABCD and its image A´B´C´D´? a. T(–2. RP.

(1. Point M is two units above the origin.–2) d.370 J U ST I N TI M E G E O M ETRY 25.ᎏ2ᎏ).ᎏ2ᎏ): M = (ᎏ2ᎏ. 2.1) c. This point has coordinates that are both negative. so the y-coordinate is 2. e.–3) ANSWERS 1.0. – 7 + –1 –4 + 5 –8 1 x1 + x2 y1 + y2 . This is (–4.2). a. Use the midpoint formula: M = (ᎏ2ᎏ.ᎏ2ᎏ) = (ᎏ2ᎏ. and thus lies in Quadrant III. (–3. so the x-coordinate is –5. The coordinates are (–5. (0.–2) e. (–2. Point M is ﬁve units to the left of the origin.5). (3. What is the solution to the following graphed system of equations? a. 3.0) b. c.

y2 = 2 –2 + y2 The coordinates are (8.0) and (–4. This can be simpliﬁed to 4͙ෆ 2 units.3) and (–1. Use the midpoint formula: M = (ᎏ2ᎏ. or 2 2 2 2 D = ͙ෆ (0 – –4ෆ ) + (0 – ෆ 4) . The graphed line crosses the y-axis at (0. and the vertices are (3. 2 9. or D = ͙(–3) ෆ +ෆ (–4)2. Count the units for b (the base) and h (the height). The height.2). 8. c. run . 2 The distance formula is: D = ͙( x2 – x1 ෆ ෆ )2 + (yෆ 2 – y1) . or D = ͙9 ෆ + 16 = ͙25 ෆ = 5 units. This simpliﬁes to 2͙ෆ 17 units long. or D = ͙ෆ (4)2 + (ෆ 4)2. c. a. Find the length of the height of the trapezoid by using the coordinates of the endpoints of the height. b. or D = ͙ෆ 16 + 16 ෆ= ͙32 ෆ . D = ͙ෆ (3 – –1ෆ )2 + (3 ෆ – –1)2. y2 = 0 + 2 Combine like terms. ᎏ2ᎏ = 0 Multiply both sides by 2. Use the distance formula: D = ͙ෆ (x2 – x1 ෆ )2 + (yෆ 2 – y1) . 2 5. a. Substitute in 1 these values to get: A = ᎏ2ᎏ ϫ 7 ϫ 4. 7. The equation is y = – 4 x + 2. b. so the y-intercept is 2. d.ᎏ2ᎏ) to solve for the variables x2 and y2: =0 –8 + x2 = 0 x2 = 0 + 8 x2 = 8 –8 + x2 ᎏᎏ 2 Use the midpoint formula.4). Use the formula for the area of a triangle: A = ᎏ2ᎏbh. h. Use the distance formula: D = ͙( x2 – x1 ෆ ෆ )2 + (yෆ 2 – y1) 2 D = ͙(1 ෆ – 4)2 ෆ + (4 –ෆ 8)2. The slope can be calculated from the points (0.C O O R D I NATE G E O M ETRY 371 x1 + x2 y1 + y2 4. is 2 – –2 = 4 units long. –2 + y2 = 0 Isolate the x and y.1). or D = ͙ෆ 16 + 16 ෆ = ͙ෆ 32 .2) and (4. using y2 – y1 2–1 1 1 1 rise ᎏ ᎏᎏ ᎏᎏ ᎏᎏ ᎏᎏ ᎏ =ᎏ x2 – x1 = 0 – 4 = –4 = – 4 . 6. or D = ͙(–8) ෆ +ෆ (–2) = ͙ෆ 68 . This simpliﬁes to 4͙ෆ 2 units long. or 14 square units. The base is 4 – –3 = 7 units long.2).–1). or D = ͙(4) ෆ + (ෆ –4) . 1 10. or 2 2 2 2 D = ͙(–2 – 6ෆ ෆ ) + (–3ෆ – –1) . Use the coordinates of opposite vertices and the distance formula 2 to ﬁnd the length of the diagonal: D = ͙( x2 – x1 ෆ ෆ )2 + (yෆ 2 – y1) . which are (0.

c. using 3–0 3 y2 – y1 rise ᎏᎏ ᎏᎏ ᎏ = ᎏ run x2 – x1 = 2 – 0 = 2 . d. which is the numerator of the slope ratio. The equation of a line parallel to the given equation will have the same slope. The slope of a perpendicular line will have a slope that is the negative reciprocal of the given equation. –4). the coefﬁcient before the variable x when the equation is in the form y = mx + b. or D = ͙(–5 2 ͙(–4) ෆ +ෆ (–5)2 = ͙ෆ 16 + 25 ෆ = ͙ෆ 41 units long. 17.4) and (–1. so the y-coordinate is 0. such as these. The slope of a horizontal line is always zero. is choice c. Calculate the slope: ᎏ run = x2 – x1 = –1 – 0 = –3 1 ᎏᎏ. The distance formula is D = 2 2 ͙ෆ (x2 – x ෆ ෆ ෆ – –ෆ 1)2 + (–4 ෆ – 1)2. b.3). 12. y2 – y1 1–4 rise ᎏ ᎏ ᎏᎏ such as (0. The only equation that has the same slope. –3). Use the distance formula on the coordinates of the opposite vertices.0). This point is three units to the right of the origin. such as (–1.0) and (2. The height is the horizontal distance between the points (using the x-coordinates). When an equation is in the form y = mx + b. 1) and (–5. so the x-coordinate is 3. and count the units in length (using the ycoordinates). Use the formula for the area of a parallelogram: A = bh. Use the vertical side as the base. which is 3 . It is 5 – 1 = 4 units high. a. 13. The solution to the system is the coordinates of the point of intersection. It is 1 – –3 = 4 units long. The negative reciprocal is – ᎏᎏ.1). e. 16. The slope can be calculated from the points (0. or D = 1) + (y 2 – y1)ෆ. or where the graphed line crosses the y-axis. 18.372 J U ST I N TI M E G E O M ETRY 11. a. The slope of the given equation is calculated by using two of the integral points shown. There is a zero change in the y-coordinates. The area is 4 ϫ 4 = 16 square units. 14. and zero units from the origin in the vertical direction. This is at the point (0. The y-intercept is the value of y when x = 0. . 15. The coordinates are (3. b. The y-intercept is –3. d. the slope is the coefﬁcient of the x variable. which is 3. Choice b is the only –1 3 choice with this slope.

Use the formula for the area of a trapezoid: A = ᎏ2ᎏh(b1 + b2). Figure II shows a rotation of 90° clockwise. (using y-coordinates) is 6 – 2 = 4 units long. in y = mx + b form. 1 1 Substitute in these values to get: A = ᎏ2ᎏ ϫ 6(10 + 4). 22. The equation. (using the x-coordinates) is the top side of the trapezoid. or a ﬂip. The height. This is the graph of a horizontal line. d.0) and (–1. is y = –x. b2. The y-intercept is 7. The bases are vertical in this trapezoid. so the equation is y = 7. This is denoted by ry-axis. which has the form y = b. d. b. since the y-intercept is 0 and the slope. Figure I is a rotation of 180°. y2 – y1 1–0 1 rise ᎏ ᎏ ᎏ ᎏ ᎏᎏ using ᎏ run = x2 – x1 = –1 – 0 = –1 = –1.1). Figure III is a rotation of –270°.C O O R D I NATE G E O M ETRY 373 1 19. . a. h. over the y-axis. so the y-coordinate is 0. 20. This is a reﬂection. 21. 3 – –3 = 6 units long. 23. The slope can be calculated from the points (0. (using y-coordinates) is 6 – –4 = 10 units long. or A = ᎏ2ᎏ ϫ 84 = 42 square units. The graphed line crosses through the origin. e. b2 (the other base) and the h (the height). Base 2. Count the units for b1 (the base). and Figure IV is a translation of 1 unit right and 3 units down. –1 is implied by writing –x. b1. Base 1.

so the x-coordinate is 1. This is the reﬂection of the polygon over the line y = x. The solution to the system is the coordinates of the point of intersection.374 J U ST I N TI M E G E O M ETRY 24.0). denoted by ry = x. . and zero units above the origin. so the y-coordinate is 0. e. a. This point is one unit to the right in the horizontal direction. The line of reﬂection is shown: 25. The coordinates of the solution point are (1.