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Geometric Progression

# Geometric Progression

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GEOMETRIC PROGRESSION
GEOMETRIC PROGRESSION

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07/26/2014

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# Geometric Progression A sequence is said to be in Geometric Progression, if the ratio between any two adjacent numbers in the sequence

is constant (non zero). This constant is said to be common ratio (c.r.) e.g. 1, 2, 4, 8 ..........…… 1, 1/2, 1/4, 1/8, …..……… 1/4, –1/2, 1, –2, 4, ……… In general a, ar, ar2, ar3, ……, a rn–1 By close inspection of the above series we can say the n-th term of GP will be given by tn = arn–1 c.r. = 2 c.r. =1/2 c.r. = –2

Sum of a geometric progression Now, let us try to find out the sum of the first n terms of a G.P. Sn = a + ar + ar2 +…+ arn–1 … (6) Multiplying both sides by r, we get, rSn = ar + ar2 +…+ arn–1 + arn … (7) Subtracting (7) from (6), we have Sn – rSn = a – arn or, Sn = a(1–rr)/(1–r) … (8) From equation (8) sum of n terms of a G.P. Sn = a(1–rr)/(1–r) Basically we have to find out the value of particular case when, n tends to infinity.

……. a3. also results a G. 1/a2. 1/an will also be in G.P.. Suppose a1. Taking the inverse of a G. Suppose a1.P. αß Four number in G. an are in G. Are you getting convinced that it will tend to infinity.P.P. Multiplication/Division of two G. Reversing the order of a G.P. then an. an/bn will also be in G. ……. . = ß2 . a1 will also be in G. ∴ α/ß3.’s also results a G. an are in G. a2. Hence value of S∞ will also tend to infinite. b3.P. ka2. Suppose a1. If we take of |r| less than rn when n → ∞ will tend to zero. ka3. Thus S∞ = a/1–r for |r| < 1 … (9) Enquiry : What happens when any real number can be add subtract. an are in G. then 1/a1. ∴ α/ß. Multiplication/Division by a constant number to each term of a G. Three number in G. ……. 1/a …….P. kan and a1/k.. a2b2.P.. Where k ? R and k ≠ 0. an/k will also be in G.’s also results a G. also results a G. …….P. an–1.P. αß. ..P. ……. Suppose a1. α. a2/k.P.. a2.. a3. a2/b2.P. α ß. an and b1.P. an–1.r. 2. .. b2. …….. Do the same exercise with one another number less than 1). a2. ...P. . anbn then a1/b2. a2. a2.P.P. multiply and divides to each term of a geometric series? 1. .. (take any number greater than 1 multiply it by itself several time.. a3. a3. then a1b1. 4.If we take any value of |r| greater than 1 then value of rn when n → ∞ will tend to infinite. bn are two G.r = ß c. …….. a3.P. 3. ……. a3b3. Note: Students are suggested to assume the known variable related to geometric progression in following way. αß3 c. then ka1.

P. then loga1. with common ratio rk. G2 = ab ∴ G =√ab Similarly we can find two geometric means between two given numbers a and b. then middle one is said to be geometric mean (GM) of two others. = ß Summary of Important Notes: • If each term of a G. • If we have to take three terms in a G.’s with common ratios r and r’ respectively then the sequence a1b1.. …….r. with same ratio as that of the given G.P.P. then a1an = a2an–1 = a3an–2 = …… • If a1.P. in case we have to take 2k terms in a G. …… is a G. The converse is also true. Let. b1.P. In general.P. ……. it is convenient to take them as a/r. a2b2. ….P. In general. a3. G/a = b/G.P. a/r2k–3.P. . b2.Five numbers in G. a2. ar3. then the resulting sequence is also a G. loga2. • If a1. ….. (each a1 > 0). αß . • If each term of a G. b3.P. G be the geometric mean between two number a and b So.. (with common ratio r) is raised to the power k. …… are two G. Geometric mean between two numbers If three numbers are in G. a2.P. a2. a G b are in G. a3. ∴ α . a3b3. a. ar. we take a/r2k–1. ar. αß2 – c. ar2k–1.P.. then the resulting sequence is also a G. • If we have to take four terms in a G. • If a1.. an are in G. a/r. ar. a/r. a. it is convenient to take them as a/r3. loga3 …… is an A.. . ar. with common ratio rr’..P. or. …… is also a G.. .P. a/rk–1.P. is multiplied (or divided) by a fixed non-zero constant. ark in case we have to take (2k + 1) terms in a G.. we take a/rk. ……. .P.P.

) between the two.P. • If a1. c are in G..Let a. G2. G2. …….M. If G1. G2.M. Solved examples based on GP Solved examples : Illustration: The 7th term of a G. G2 = a(n+1√b/a)2. then their G. b are in G. 6. then b = √ac is the geometric mean of a and c. ……. tn = a rn–1 or b/a = r3 r =(b/a)1/3 G1 = ar2 = a (b/a)1/3 = a1/3 b2/3 Geometric Mean(s) • If three terms are in G.P. 12. G1.P. is 3. b. …….. an are non-zero positive numbers. G1. Hence the required G. is 8 times the 4th term. Solution: Given that t7 = 8t4 ⇒ ar6 = 8ar3 ⇒ r3 = 8 = 23 ⇒ r = 2. Here b = arn+1. 24 …… Illustration: .(G) is given by G = (a1a2a3. an)1/n.P. Gn = a(n+1√b/a)n. a2. Find the G. So if a. then the middle term is called the geometric mean (G. Gn b will be a G. ⇒ r = n+1√b/a ⇒ G1 = an+1√b/a. when its 5th term is 48.P. …… Gn are n geometric means between and a and b then a.…. Also t5 = 48 Þ ar4 = 48 or 16a = 48 ⇒ a = 3.P.P.

Then 8 = ARm–1. then 2+t/3 = n = k ⇒ n = k. Arithmetic-Geometric Progression Suppose a1. a3. (a + 2d)br2. 12 the nth and 27 be the tth terms of a G. is (a–6)2 = a(a+6) or. because common difference is given. take m = 1. Hence there are infinite numbers of G. …… is a G. and last three are in A. There are infinite sets of values of m. how many such progressions are possible? Solution: Let 8 be the mth.P. …. b3. a2 – 12a + 36 = a2 therefore numbers are 8. (a+d)br. with common different 6 and last terms is equal to the first term then find all four terms in series. Solution: This is very tricky question. 12/27 = Rn–t = (2/3)2. n. a+6 now first three are in G. If you read question carefully then it is clear that we have to start with A.P. containing 27.P. t = 3k – 2. 2.Does there exists a G. (a + 3d)br3. Then the sequence a1b1. 8. Illustration: In a four term series if first three are in G. and b1. is an A. By giving different values to k we get integral values of n and t.P. –4. An arithmetic-geometric progression is of the form ab. For example. …. a. 8/27 = Rm–t =(2/3)3 ⇒ 2m – 2n = n – t and 3m – 3n = m – t ⇒ 2m + t = 3n and 2m + t = 3n ⇒ 2m+t/3 = n. 12 = ARn–1. anbn is said to be an arithmetic-geometric progression.P. a–6.’s whose terms may be 27. a2b2. b2. 27 = ARt–1 ⇒ 8/12 = Rm–n = 2/3. 8. Let the numbers be a + 6. a2.P.P.P. …… Its sum Sn to n terms is given by . whose first term is A and common ratio is R. 8 and 12 as three of its terms? If it exists.P. t which satisfy this relation. 12 (not consecutive).

= ab + dbr(1–rn–1)/(1–r) (a+(n–1)d)brn ⇒ Sn = ab/1–r + dbr(1–rn–1)/(1–r)2 – (a+(n–1)d)brn/1–r. Solution: Let S = 1.2 (2100–1/2–1) – 100. 2100.23 +…+ 100.e.2101 = 199.2101 ⇒ S = –2101 + 2 + 100.2100 + 100.2 + 1. Arithmetic Geometric Progression Solved Examples Illustration: Find the sum of series 1 . so that rSn = abr+(a+d)br2+…+(a+(n–3)d)brn–2+(a+(n–2)d)brn–1+(a+(n–1)d)brn.Sn = ab + (a+d)br + (a+2d)br2 +……+ (a+(n–2)d)brn–2 + (a+(n–1)d)brn–1. Subtracting we get (1 – r)Sn = ab + dbr + dbr2 +…+ dbrn–2 + dbrn–1 – (a+(n–1)d)brn.22 + 3. Multiply both sides by r. consider n (1/2)r for increasing value of n i. 22 + 3 .2101 ⇒ –S = 1.2101 ⇒ –S = 1. (1/2)1 = 1/2 = 0.23 +…+ 99. If –1 < r < 1.22 + 1.22 + 2.2100 ⇒ 2S = 1. Solution: n = 1 : 1. the sum of the infinite number of terms of the progression is limn→∞ Sn = ab/1–r + dbr/(1–r)2. 22 +…+ 100 .5 …… (1) …… (2) .2100 – 100.2101 + 2. Illustration: Let r = 1/2.23 +…+ 1. 2 + 2 .2 + 2.

then tp = a + bp + crp–1.) ⇒ S =25/8 Illustration: Let t1. Solution: Let S = 1 + 4/5 + 7/52 + 10/53 + ……… 1/5 S = 1/5 + 4/52 + 7/53 ……… Subtracting (1–1/5) S = 1 + 3/5 + 3/52 + 3/53 + ……… 4/5 S = 1/1–3/5 (? It is infinite G. tm+1.P. 88. tm–1.n = 2 : 2 × (1/2)2 = 1/2 = 0. tm. be a sequence so that (i) tm+1/tm = tm/tm–1 ……… constant then tp = (t1)rp–1 (r) (ii) tm+1/tm = tm/tm–1 = constant (r) then tp = constant 1 + (constant 2) × rp–1 (iii) If the difference of difference of terms are in G. 14.375 n = 10 : 10 (1/2)10 = 0. Illustration: Evaluate 1 + 4/5 + 7/52 + 10/53 +…… to infinite terms. 738 ………… Note: .P. and so on Thus we observe that as n → ∞ n rn → 0 for |r| < 1. 251. t3. t2. Illustration: 7. where r is the common ratio.00976.5 n = 3 : 3 × (1/2)3 = 0. ……. 33.

324/108 = 108/36 = 36/12 = 3 ∴ tp = a + bp + c 3p–1 p=1 t1 = 7 = a + b + c p=2 p=3 t2 = 14 = a + 2b + 3c t3 = 33 = a + 3b + 9c Solving. we get a = 3. (3p–1) . c = 3 ⇒ tp = 3 + p + 3. b = 1.

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