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is constant (non zero). This constant is said to be common ratio (c.r.) e.g. 1, 2, 4, 8 ..........…… 1, 1/2, 1/4, 1/8, …..……… 1/4, –1/2, 1, –2, 4, ……… In general a, ar, ar2, ar3, ……, a rn–1 By close inspection of the above series we can say the n-th term of GP will be given by tn = arn–1 c.r. = 2 c.r. =1/2 c.r. = –2
Sum of a geometric progression Now, let us try to find out the sum of the first n terms of a G.P. Sn = a + ar + ar2 +…+ arn–1 … (6) Multiplying both sides by r, we get, rSn = ar + ar2 +…+ arn–1 + arn … (7) Subtracting (7) from (6), we have Sn – rSn = a – arn or, Sn = a(1–rr)/(1–r) … (8) From equation (8) sum of n terms of a G.P. Sn = a(1–rr)/(1–r) Basically we have to find out the value of particular case when, n tends to infinity.
b3.If we take any value of |r| greater than 1 then value of rn when n → ∞ will tend to infinite.P. a2. . a2b2. .. Are you getting convinced that it will tend to infinity. multiply and divides to each term of a geometric series? 1. If we take of |r| less than rn when n → ∞ will tend to zero. a3. …….r.’s also results a G. Suppose a1. (take any number greater than 1 multiply it by itself several time. α.P. an are in G.P.P.P. a3. Note: Students are suggested to assume the known variable related to geometric progression in following way. . Multiplication/Division of two G. ka2. Suppose a1. ……. αß Four number in G.P.P. Suppose a1.P. anbn then a1/b2. a3. ……..r = ß c. a1 will also be in G.P. then 1/a1. an are in G. . 3. then a1b1.. a2. 1/an will also be in G. Where k ? R and k ≠ 0. then ka1. also results a G. Multiplication/Division by a constant number to each term of a G. = ß2 .’s also results a G. ∴ α/ß. ... αß3 c. an/k will also be in G. ……. a2/k. 2. b2. Three number in G. Thus S∞ = a/1–r for |r| < 1 … (9) Enquiry : What happens when any real number can be add subtract.P. an/bn will also be in G. 4. a2.. then an. Reversing the order of a G. a2. a2. ka3. a3. α ß. Taking the inverse of a G. a3. a3b3. …….P. Do the same exercise with one another number less than 1). ……. kan and a1/k.. an–1. an and b1.P. ..P.P.. a2/b2. αß. …….P. Suppose a1.P. 1/a2... …….P.. ∴ α/ß3. an–1. an are in G.P. bn are two G. 1/a …….. also results a G. Hence value of S∞ will also tend to infinite.
ark in case we have to take (2k + 1) terms in a G.. we take a/rk.. a2. then the resulting sequence is also a G. an are in G. • If a1. ar3. …….P. …. …. a2. it is convenient to take them as a/r.. . …… is also a G. αß . a.. b3. in case we have to take 2k terms in a G. • If a1. • If we have to take four terms in a G. a3b3. b1. a2. …… is a G. a. . then loga1.P.P. with common ratio rk. is multiplied (or divided) by a fixed non-zero constant.Five numbers in G. = ß Summary of Important Notes: • If each term of a G. • If each term of a G. b2. with same ratio as that of the given G. ……. ∴ α .P. a G b are in G. a3. In general.P. ar. ar..’s with common ratios r and r’ respectively then the sequence a1b1. loga2. with common ratio rr’. a/r. a3. G be the geometric mean between two number a and b So. then middle one is said to be geometric mean (GM) of two others.P.P.P.r. ……. or. it is convenient to take them as a/r3. G2 = ab ∴ G =√ab Similarly we can find two geometric means between two given numbers a and b.P. a2b2. loga3 …… is an A. then a1an = a2an–1 = a3an–2 = …… • If a1. a/r. G/a = b/G.P.P. (with common ratio r) is raised to the power k. then the resulting sequence is also a G. we take a/r2k–1. a/r2k–3. αß2 – c. In general. • If we have to take three terms in a G.. .P.P.P.. ar.P..P..P. Let. Geometric mean between two numbers If three numbers are in G. …… are two G. (each a1 > 0). ar. . The converse is also true. a/rk–1. ar2k–1.
G1.M. b. Solved examples based on GP Solved examples : Illustration: The 7th term of a G. So if a. is 3. Also t5 = 48 Þ ar4 = 48 or 16a = 48 ⇒ a = 3. …….Let a. Gn b will be a G. then b = √ac is the geometric mean of a and c. Solution: Given that t7 = 8t4 ⇒ ar6 = 8ar3 ⇒ r3 = 8 = 23 ⇒ r = 2.. then their G. G2. when its 5th term is 48. • If a1.P. 12. G1. 6. 24 …… Illustration: . a2.P. tn = a rn–1 or b/a = r3 r =(b/a)1/3 G1 = ar2 = a (b/a)1/3 = a1/3 b2/3 Geometric Mean(s) • If three terms are in G. c are in G..…. Hence the required G. ⇒ r = n+1√b/a ⇒ G1 = an+1√b/a. Find the G.(G) is given by G = (a1a2a3. Here b = arn+1.P. an)1/n.P. an are non-zero positive numbers. ……. is 8 times the 4th term.P. b are in G. then the middle term is called the geometric mean (G. Gn = a(n+1√b/a)n. G2. G2. G2 = a(n+1√b/a)2.P.M. ……. …… Gn are n geometric means between and a and b then a. If G1.) between the two.P.
An arithmetic-geometric progression is of the form ab. because common difference is given. Arithmetic-Geometric Progression Suppose a1. …… is a G. …. whose first term is A and common ratio is R. Hence there are infinite numbers of G. 27 = ARt–1 ⇒ 8/12 = Rm–n = 2/3.P.P. a3. 8/27 = Rm–t =(2/3)3 ⇒ 2m – 2n = n – t and 3m – 3n = m – t ⇒ 2m + t = 3n and 2m + t = 3n ⇒ 2m+t/3 = n. –4. Solution: This is very tricky question. 12/27 = Rn–t = (2/3)2. anbn is said to be an arithmetic-geometric progression. is (a–6)2 = a(a+6) or. a2. For example. b3. (a+d)br. how many such progressions are possible? Solution: Let 8 be the mth. If you read question carefully then it is clear that we have to start with A.P. a–6.P. a2 – 12a + 36 = a2 therefore numbers are 8. …… Its sum Sn to n terms is given by . Then 8 = ARm–1. b2. Then the sequence a1b1. 12 the nth and 27 be the tth terms of a G. and b1. 12 = ARn–1. Illustration: In a four term series if first three are in G. (a + 3d)br3. a2b2. There are infinite sets of values of m. n. 12 (not consecutive).P. and last three are in A.P. Let the numbers be a + 6.P. with common different 6 and last terms is equal to the first term then find all four terms in series. …. then 2+t/3 = n = k ⇒ n = k.Does there exists a G. a. a+6 now first three are in G.P. 8. take m = 1.’s whose terms may be 27. By giving different values to k we get integral values of n and t. t which satisfy this relation.P. containing 27. 8. (a + 2d)br2. t = 3k – 2. 8 and 12 as three of its terms? If it exists. 2. is an A.
Solution: Let S = 1.22 + 3.22 + 1.23 +…+ 100.2100 + 100. consider n (1/2)r for increasing value of n i.5 …… (1) …… (2) .Sn = ab + (a+d)br + (a+2d)br2 +……+ (a+(n–2)d)brn–2 + (a+(n–1)d)brn–1. Illustration: Let r = 1/2. 22 + 3 .2 + 2. the sum of the infinite number of terms of the progression is limn→∞ Sn = ab/1–r + dbr/(1–r)2.2 (2100–1/2–1) – 100.23 +…+ 99.2101 ⇒ –S = 1.2 + 1.22 + 2.23 +…+ 1. 22 +…+ 100 . 2 + 2 . Solution: n = 1 : 1. Multiply both sides by r. 2100.2101 ⇒ –S = 1.2101 = 199. (1/2)1 = 1/2 = 0.2101 ⇒ S = –2101 + 2 + 100. Arithmetic Geometric Progression Solved Examples Illustration: Find the sum of series 1 . = ab + dbr(1–rn–1)/(1–r) (a+(n–1)d)brn ⇒ Sn = ab/1–r + dbr(1–rn–1)/(1–r)2 – (a+(n–1)d)brn/1–r.2100 ⇒ 2S = 1.e. Subtracting we get (1 – r)Sn = ab + dbr + dbr2 +…+ dbrn–2 + dbrn–1 – (a+(n–1)d)brn.2100 – 100.2101 + 2. so that rSn = abr+(a+d)br2+…+(a+(n–3)d)brn–2+(a+(n–2)d)brn–1+(a+(n–1)d)brn. If –1 < r < 1.
P. tm–1. Solution: Let S = 1 + 4/5 + 7/52 + 10/53 + ……… 1/5 S = 1/5 + 4/52 + 7/53 ……… Subtracting (1–1/5) S = 1 + 3/5 + 3/52 + 3/53 + ……… 4/5 S = 1/1–3/5 (? It is infinite G.P.) ⇒ S =25/8 Illustration: Let t1. 88. 33. be a sequence so that (i) tm+1/tm = tm/tm–1 ……… constant then tp = (t1)rp–1 (r) (ii) tm+1/tm = tm/tm–1 = constant (r) then tp = constant 1 + (constant 2) × rp–1 (iii) If the difference of difference of terms are in G. 14. then tp = a + bp + crp–1. t3.n = 2 : 2 × (1/2)2 = 1/2 = 0.5 n = 3 : 3 × (1/2)3 = 0. where r is the common ratio.00976. Illustration: 7. 738 ………… Note: . Illustration: Evaluate 1 + 4/5 + 7/52 + 10/53 +…… to infinite terms. ……. and so on Thus we observe that as n → ∞ n rn → 0 for |r| < 1. 251. tm. t2.375 n = 10 : 10 (1/2)10 = 0. tm+1.
we get a = 3.324/108 = 108/36 = 36/12 = 3 ∴ tp = a + bp + c 3p–1 p=1 t1 = 7 = a + b + c p=2 p=3 t2 = 14 = a + 2b + 3c t3 = 33 = a + 3b + 9c Solving. c = 3 ⇒ tp = 3 + p + 3. (3p–1) . b = 1.
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