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is constant (non zero). This constant is said to be common ratio (c.r.) e.g. 1, 2, 4, 8 ..........…… 1, 1/2, 1/4, 1/8, …..……… 1/4, –1/2, 1, –2, 4, ……… In general a, ar, ar2, ar3, ……, a rn–1 By close inspection of the above series we can say the n-th term of GP will be given by tn = arn–1 c.r. = 2 c.r. =1/2 c.r. = –2
Sum of a geometric progression Now, let us try to find out the sum of the first n terms of a G.P. Sn = a + ar + ar2 +…+ arn–1 … (6) Multiplying both sides by r, we get, rSn = ar + ar2 +…+ arn–1 + arn … (7) Subtracting (7) from (6), we have Sn – rSn = a – arn or, Sn = a(1–rr)/(1–r) … (8) From equation (8) sum of n terms of a G.P. Sn = a(1–rr)/(1–r) Basically we have to find out the value of particular case when, n tends to infinity.
……. a3. also results a G. 1/a2. 1/an will also be in G.P.. Suppose a1. Taking the inverse of a G. Suppose a1.P. αß Four number in G. an are in G. Are you getting convinced that it will tend to infinity.P.P. Multiplication/Division of two G. Reversing the order of a G.P. then an. an/bn will also be in G. ……. . = ß2 . a1 will also be in G. ∴ α/ß3.’s also results a G. an are in G. a2. Hence value of S∞ will also tend to infinite. b3.P. ka2. Suppose a1. If we take of |r| less than rn when n → ∞ will tend to zero. ka3. Thus S∞ = a/1–r for |r| < 1 … (9) Enquiry : What happens when any real number can be add subtract. an are in G. then 1/a1. ∴ α/ß. Multiplication/Division by a constant number to each term of a G. Three number in G. ……. 1/a …….P. kan and a1/k.. a2b2.P.. Where k ? R and k ≠ 0. an/k will also be in G.’s also results a G. also results a G. …….P. an–1.P. αß. ..P. ……. Suppose a1. α. a2/k.P.. a2.. a3. a2/b2.P. α ß. an and b1.P. an–1.r. 2. .. b2. …….. Do the same exercise with one another number less than 1). a2. ...P. . anbn then a1/b2. a2. a2.P.P. multiply and divides to each term of a geometric series? 1. .. (take any number greater than 1 multiply it by itself several time.. a3. a3. then a1b1. 4.If we take any value of |r| greater than 1 then value of rn when n → ∞ will tend to infinite. bn are two G.r = ß c. …….. a3.P. 3. ……. a3b3. Note: Students are suggested to assume the known variable related to geometric progression in following way. αß3 c. then ka1.
P. then loga1. with common ratio rk. G2 = ab ∴ G =√ab Similarly we can find two geometric means between two given numbers a and b. then middle one is said to be geometric mean (GM) of two others. = ß Summary of Important Notes: • If each term of a G. • If we have to take three terms in a G.’s with common ratios r and r’ respectively then the sequence a1b1.. …….r. with same ratio as that of the given G.P.P. then a1an = a2an–1 = a3an–2 = …… • If a1.P. in case we have to take 2k terms in a G. …… is a G. The converse is also true. Let. b1.P. In general.P. ……. it is convenient to take them as a/r. a2b2. ….P. In general. a3. G/a = b/G.P. a/r2k–3.P. . b2.Five numbers in G. a2. ar3. then the resulting sequence is also a G. loga2. • If a1. ….. (each a1 > 0). αß . • If each term of a G. b3.P. G be the geometric mean between two number a and b So.. (with common ratio r) is raised to the power k. …… are two G. Geometric mean between two numbers If three numbers are in G. a2.P. a2. a G b are in G. a3. ∴ α . a3b3. a. ar. we take a/r2k–1. ar. αß2 – c. ar2k–1.P.. then the resulting sequence is also a G. • If we have to take four terms in a G. • If a1.. an are in G. a/r. ar. a/r. a. it is convenient to take them as a/r3. loga3 …… is an A.. . ar. with common ratio rr’..P. or. …… is also a G.. .P. a/rk–1.P. is multiplied (or divided) by a fixed non-zero constant. ark in case we have to take (2k + 1) terms in a G.. we take a/rk. ……. .P.P.
) between the two.P. • If a1. c are in G..Let a. G2. G2. …….M. If G1. G2.M. Solved examples based on GP Solved examples : Illustration: The 7th term of a G. G2 = a(n+1√b/a)2. then their G. b are in G. 6. then b = √ac is the geometric mean of a and c. ……. tn = a rn–1 or b/a = r3 r =(b/a)1/3 G1 = ar2 = a (b/a)1/3 = a1/3 b2/3 Geometric Mean(s) • If three terms are in G.P. 12. G1.P. is 3. b. …….. an are non-zero positive numbers. G1. Hence the required G. is 8 times the 4th term. Solution: Given that t7 = 8t4 ⇒ ar6 = 8ar3 ⇒ r3 = 8 = 23 ⇒ r = 2. Here b = arn+1. 24 …… Illustration: .(G) is given by G = (a1a2a3. an)1/n.P. Gn = a(n+1√b/a)n. a2. Find the G. So if a. then the middle term is called the geometric mean (G. Gn b will be a G. ⇒ r = n+1√b/a ⇒ G1 = an+1√b/a. when its 5th term is 48.P. …… Gn are n geometric means between and a and b then a.…. Also t5 = 48 Þ ar4 = 48 or 16a = 48 ⇒ a = 3.P.P.
Then 8 = ARm–1. then 2+t/3 = n = k ⇒ n = k. Arithmetic-Geometric Progression Suppose a1. a3. (a + 2d)br2. 12 the nth and 27 be the tth terms of a G. is (a–6)2 = a(a+6) or. because common difference is given. take m = 1. Hence there are infinite numbers of G. …… is a G. and last three are in A. There are infinite sets of values of m. how many such progressions are possible? Solution: Let 8 be the mth.P. …. b3. a2 – 12a + 36 = a2 therefore numbers are 8. (a+d)br. with common different 6 and last terms is equal to the first term then find all four terms in series. Solution: This is very tricky question. 12/27 = Rn–t = (2/3)2. n. a+6 now first three are in G. If you read question carefully then it is clear that we have to start with A.P. containing 27.P. t = 3k – 2. 2.Does there exists a G. (a + 3d)br3. Then the sequence a1b1. 8. Illustration: In a four term series if first three are in G. and b1. is an A. By giving different values to k we get integral values of n and t.P. –4. An arithmetic-geometric progression is of the form ab. For example. …. a. 8/27 = Rm–t =(2/3)3 ⇒ 2m – 2n = n – t and 3m – 3n = m – t ⇒ 2m + t = 3n and 2m + t = 3n ⇒ 2m+t/3 = n. 12 = ARn–1. anbn is said to be an arithmetic-geometric progression.P. a–6.’s whose terms may be 27. a2b2. b2. 27 = ARt–1 ⇒ 8/12 = Rm–n = 2/3. 8. Let the numbers be a + 6. a2.P.P.P. …… Its sum Sn to n terms is given by . whose first term is A and common ratio is R. 8 and 12 as three of its terms? If it exists.P. t which satisfy this relation. 12 (not consecutive).
= ab + dbr(1–rn–1)/(1–r) (a+(n–1)d)brn ⇒ Sn = ab/1–r + dbr(1–rn–1)/(1–r)2 – (a+(n–1)d)brn/1–r. Solution: Let S = 1.2 (2100–1/2–1) – 100. 2100.23 +…+ 100.e.2101 = 199.2101 ⇒ S = –2101 + 2 + 100.2100 + 100.2 + 1. Arithmetic Geometric Progression Solved Examples Illustration: Find the sum of series 1 . so that rSn = abr+(a+d)br2+…+(a+(n–3)d)brn–2+(a+(n–2)d)brn–1+(a+(n–1)d)brn.Sn = ab + (a+d)br + (a+2d)br2 +……+ (a+(n–2)d)brn–2 + (a+(n–1)d)brn–1. Subtracting we get (1 – r)Sn = ab + dbr + dbr2 +…+ dbrn–2 + dbrn–1 – (a+(n–1)d)brn.22 + 3. Multiply both sides by r. consider n (1/2)r for increasing value of n i. 22 + 3 .2101 ⇒ –S = 1.2101 ⇒ –S = 1. (1/2)1 = 1/2 = 0.23 +…+ 99. If –1 < r < 1.22 + 1.22 + 2.2100 ⇒ 2S = 1. Solution: n = 1 : 1. the sum of the infinite number of terms of the progression is limn→∞ Sn = ab/1–r + dbr/(1–r)2. 22 +…+ 100 .5 …… (1) …… (2) .2100 – 100.2101 + 2. Illustration: Let r = 1/2.23 +…+ 1. 2 + 2 .2 + 2.
then tp = a + bp + crp–1.) ⇒ S =25/8 Illustration: Let t1. Solution: Let S = 1 + 4/5 + 7/52 + 10/53 + ……… 1/5 S = 1/5 + 4/52 + 7/53 ……… Subtracting (1–1/5) S = 1 + 3/5 + 3/52 + 3/53 + ……… 4/5 S = 1/1–3/5 (? It is infinite G. tm+1.P. 88. tm–1.n = 2 : 2 × (1/2)2 = 1/2 = 0. tm. be a sequence so that (i) tm+1/tm = tm/tm–1 ……… constant then tp = (t1)rp–1 (r) (ii) tm+1/tm = tm/tm–1 = constant (r) then tp = constant 1 + (constant 2) × rp–1 (iii) If the difference of difference of terms are in G. 14.375 n = 10 : 10 (1/2)10 = 0. Illustration: Evaluate 1 + 4/5 + 7/52 + 10/53 +…… to infinite terms. 738 ………… Note: .P. and so on Thus we observe that as n → ∞ n rn → 0 for |r| < 1. 251. t3. t2. Illustration: 7. where r is the common ratio.00976.5 n = 3 : 3 × (1/2)3 = 0. ……. 33.
324/108 = 108/36 = 36/12 = 3 ∴ tp = a + bp + c 3p–1 p=1 t1 = 7 = a + b + c p=2 p=3 t2 = 14 = a + 2b + 3c t3 = 33 = a + 3b + 9c Solving. we get a = 3. (3p–1) . c = 3 ⇒ tp = 3 + p + 3. b = 1.
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