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requirements Innovate business strategies, and create “TO-BE” systems which you desire Conceptualize and model “TO-BE” information system System Design The solution How to solve it And implementation of the information Implementation Eg:- “mouse” The Layering of What and How What Level 1 How Level 2 What What level 3 How How Level 4
The systems View
The system processes the inputs taken from the environment into useful Outputs using available resources The boundaries are difficult to identify when it is virtual eg:- “An on call doctor in an Healthcare system” In the process of consumption resources depreciate
the extent to which the system is Automated . Labour Skill (Human resource) Overall system Contains many sub-systems The IPOD model of information system Inputs-Data Process & Programs Outputs-Information Data Storage Data storage is very important as it will give you the power to analyse your decisions and can help in improving the systems What makes Information? Act Decision making Knowledge The Automation Boundary EVIRONMENT SURROUNDING THE SYSTEM SYSTEM BOUNDRY MANUAL PART OF THE SYSTEM AUTOMATION BOUNDARY AUTOMATED PART OF THE SYSTEM As managers we should always look for more Automation boundary of the It’s very difficult for users to think about what are our requirements for the future Automation Boundary:. But there are resources that also appreciate like land.
In Facebook you can update status. Now they are also common for social transaction eg:. tag photo also you post about a new product.ATM is a Transactional Process. Models and Modeling Model is a representation of SOME aspect of the system being developed Models are great communication o Leverage visual cues to convey information o Reduce complexity of the components to essentials UML activity diagram is one type of the model o Focusses on both user and system activity Types of Models Mathematical Models (Y=mx+c) Graphical Models (Draw graph) Descriptive Model (Line) Graphical Models Provide information more formally UML model (Unified Modelling Language) Systems Models and Equifinality Equifinality o Equal final state o I.at the low level used by the workers and staff.e there are thousand different ways to skin a cat Systems Modelling exhibits equifinality o There are multiple correct solutions to a systems modelling problem .. Now a days also used by the external stakeholders like customers and suppliers eg:. these information can be used by others.CSS CEO Senior executives (EIS) Middle managers (DSS) First line Supervisors (MIS) Workers/staff (TPS) TPS: .
withdraw Money Deposit Money Always take user view while writing the Use case even when the activity is a response to an activity USE ATM :.it is not a use case as it does not have a Goal. all correct solutions are not necessarily Methodology Techniques Techniques Collection of guidelines Enable an analyst to complete an activity or task Ground rule “DO NOT MAKE ASSUMPTIONS” Do not make unnecessary assumptions in analysis work. Identifying Use cases USER/ACTOR Order clerk USER GOAL .User EVENT ANALYSIS Event Systems are waiting for the events to happen at the continuous state Use case Activity the system carries out Entry point into the modelling process Performed by the system to accomplish some user goal Event Decomposition:.Helps identify use cases Elementary business processes (EBP’s) Basic units of analysis Triggered in response to an event Modeled as a use case Task performed by one person in one place and at one time in response to a business event to achieve one Goal Leaves the system in a consistent state All activities are Verb+Noun phase Eg:.o However. if unclear about something then go back to the domain expert.
ordering when the inventory reaches ROP Fire Alarm (Stand alone event). and validating it . Airbag Some events are Casss 2 Identifying Events Identify technology dependent events and system controls o Eg:.Event Decomposition Event Decomposition o Overall system requirement using event decomposition o Develop use case based on system response Types Of events External events o Occur outside the system o Usually caused by external agent Temporal events o Occurs as a resul when system reaches a point (deadline) in time and triggers the response State events o Asynchronous events responding to system trigger It is a cumulative state of values at the state and when the state is reached the response is triggered Eg:.logon depending on system controls Defer Specifying technology dependent events Event Table Event Trigger Source Use Case Response Destination Ina system data comes in and that is the trigger for the system. Use Case is the processing that the system will perform due to the trigger Summary and Recap All the event should be Cheating 1 Includes>>>>> Relationship Includes or uses relationship o Eg: Date.
combine usecases which are related to Business events . o Date is a common in many system so the same code can be used in many system o More than one use case calling services Eg look up item availability can be used in both the use cases such as Creating an order and Updating the order same is the case Validating the customer Cheating 2 Business events are used to identify use case Adjustment made when building use case diagrams Combine:.
The actor actually touches the system :eg: clerk in Mcdonalds Source:.Provides the input to the system.Specific Use Case Use Cases and Actors Actor:.220. Driver pleads guilty 3. initiates the business event : The customer in the McDonald’s Event 1. Count sends in verdict 5.all use cases shown Shown o Event table and Use case diagrams Detailed Level:. Time to pro Trigger Copy of new ticket Source officer Use Case Enter traffic ticket Response ? Destination ? Fine payment in preprinted envelope Trial request box “X” and no check in envelope Verdict Driver Record fine payment Process trial request RECORD Verdict Trial date questionnaire Driver Count Driver Count Use case levels (pg:. Officers turns in copy of the ticket 2. Driver claims innocence 4.215.Use case levels Two levels Overview level:.225) Define use cases at two levels Overview level – Activity Diagram To model the work flow in a business process To show interaction and activities performed .
Place MF buy Order © Place MF sell order © Place RP buy Order © Place RP See order © Place MF buy Order (b) Place MF sell Order (b) Place RP buy Order (b) Place RP See order (b) Get balance Quote © Get balance quote (B) Clarify legal status of investment portfolio © Clarify legal status of investment portfolio (b) Route a call.Split use case (common use case) Escalate a call. 10.diamond Activity:. 12. 13. 15. 11. 4. 9. 7. 6.Curved box Activity diagram can be used depict the entire system RMO case Activity Diagram:. 3.(227) Summary and Recap Ads Capture workflow Used in conjunction with use cases Notation o Synchronization bar for concurrent o Synchronization bar for looping Event Customer calls Trigger Enquiry Source Caller Use Case IVR response Customer enters the pin Using touch tone Menu “Enter your pin” IVR Customer identification Response Recorded greeting message Identifies customer Destination Customer Customer Use case 1.Activity Diagram Notation Decision activity:. 2.pg:. 14.Split Use case Monitoring a call . 8. 5.
SSD captures flow of information between system system and external actors Message passing and lifeline One SSD for one use case Storing Data Class diagram (System level) o Says what data we are going to store in the system o Each box represent a class o Class is a concept or idea about which we want to store the data.There are some business processes that qualify as use cases buy are not mentioned in the case 1.Catalogue iD or product ID. o Eg:- One system One Event table One Use case diagram One class diagram One ET/UCD Multiple UCs . Update MF by order 3. Create Sample system Sequence Diagram (SSSD) The actor gives some data to the system o Eg:. size (input message) o Item information (an output message) The lines crossing into the system layout is the number of inputs therefore if there are three arrows passing into the system that means that there are three input messages. Update MF sell order 2.
e the tray could be empty or idle at the same time .e when the printer is in the working state it is loading the print sheets following which the guard condition checks the completion of the state and get back to the idle stage Concurrent paths for printer Devide the nested state into two concurrent compartment i.In a SSD Only the input is a function (*[c]y:=f(x)) and not the response STATECHARTS Ericsson developed in the earlier stages Based on graph theory Current Statecharts diagram To find out the current state of the problem State could be a static or could be in a process States are mutually exclusive It is a semi-permanent condition is prone to change eventually Only one sate is permanent that is pseudoend So every state will have an arrow coming out of it until it ends Named as “beingshipped” “Working” Transitions Its shorter than the month If state is of a month than the transition could be of 1 min Labels o Transition name (parameters)[Guard condition]/Action expression o The name of the transition should reflect the name of the message event that triggers the transition because transitions are caused Nested States (composite state) i.
They are a result of interaction Organizational Capital o Leadership o Culture o Motivation o Teamwork Information capital Human Capital Why tangible assets are not included in the strategic maps? Because the tangible assets are valued as high as 75% in thye market cap of the company. Long term shareholder value Strategic value is a process which is carried out to achieve a long term shareholder value . concurrent oaths Looks for additional transitions o Take every paired combination of states and check whether a transition Integrating Object-Oriented Models ORGANIZATIONAL STRATEGY AND STRATEGIC MAPS Intangible assets:. so the strategic map is designed to find the actual value of the intangible assets of a company.Rules Find all the possible state Identify transitions state Sequence state-transition combinations in correct order i.e pepare the life cycle of the object Review paths and identify independent.
Can be used to for smaller units in the company provided the it can be related to the overall picture 2.Information Capital 1) Technology infrastructure:- Information Capital Technology infrastucture IC Applications (Directly supports the business process) TPS Application Analytics Applicatgion Transformational Application Strategic map 1. price quality etc. find individual value proposition for each case an process in the case The customer perspective should have value proposition vectors of value attributes Products? Services Processes of innovations Opportunity identification R&D portfolio Design and Development Commercially Launching . Don’t confuse with IC alignment components and the applications 3.“E-Recruiting” 4. In the customer Perspective don’t put the general things… like availability. Don’t put the Asset ready processes in the strategic map eg: .
Service—Logic Innovations: .How to innovate Customers. A new approach to innovation Customer participation Create value for the customer Value is realised and not released Customer is a co-creator of the value eh: the search result of the google will depend on the user SLI changes at the least one customer role User Buyer Payer SLI is triggered by Embedding knowledge into objects Changing the integrators of resources Reconfiguring the value consideration Service Logic Innovation Framework Change in firms value creation Service logic Innovation Change of Customer Role User payer Smart offerings Cell 1 Cell 2 Value Integration Cell 4 Cell 5 Value Constellation Cell 7 Cell 8 Buyer Cell 3 Cell 6 Cell 9 The co-creation process involves the producer and consumer both doing together . Not Products.
one producer and one consumer Change in firms value creation Service logic Innovation Change of Customer Role User payer Smart offerings Traffic Automated information traffic control system with system application on mobile Value Integration Cell 4 Cell 5 Value Constellation Cell 7 Cell 8 Buyer Cell 3 Cell 6 Cell 9 .e the knowledge has to be transferred to a device Value integration:.has to to be smart i.Smart Offerings:.
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