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https://www.scribd.com/doc/164462911/HarmonicallyImmersedGaussCurvaturebyChrisBryant
10/24/2013
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Curvature
Chris E. Bryant
Department of Mathematics
Oregon State University
cbryant@math.orst.edu
October 25, 2002
Introduction.
In a remarkable paper [5], the late Tilla K. Weinstein (at the
time, Tilla K. Milnor) explored the similarities and diﬀerences be
tween twodimensional minimal immersions, and their more general
relatives, the twodimensional harmonic immersions. One of the few
geometric objects she did not compare—at least, in her published
work—was their Gauss curvatures. Recently rereading this article,
it became clear that there should be an intrinsic and concise ex
pression for the Gauss curvature in the simple class of parametric,
C
3
harmonic immersions from a domain in R
2
(with the induced
metric) into R
N
( N ≥ 3 ), which would reduce to the corresponding
(familiar) formula should the harmonic immersion turn out minimal.
That an intrinsic expression exists is assured by Gauss’ (generalized)
Theorema Egregium (see [3] for an exceptionally clear treatment).
That such an expression reveals more than it obscures is another
matter entirely. It turns out that, in this restricted class, an intrin
sic formula may be expressed in a very concise form, clearly exposing
the underlying minimal version as an obvious special case.
In this paper, we derive just such a formulation from the deﬁn
ing equations of Gauss and Weingarten. Using it, we then deduce
a corollary, exposing another quantity—also originally deﬁned with
reference to the ambient space—as intrinsic. The nature of the proof
initially follows the traditional approach used for codimension one
(see, for instance, [2] or [4] ). And, for the sake of clarity, we have
retained the elementary notation of classical surface theory—albeit,
of arbitrary codimension. Finally, as a courtesy to the reader, several
crucial, but tedious, calculations have been placed in an Appendix
at the conclusion—for referral or avoidance, as the case may be.
1
HARMONICALLY IMMERSED GAUSS CURVATURE 2
Theorem 1. Suppose that χ = χ(u, v) : D ⊂ R
2
−→ R
N
(with
N 3 and D a domain ) is a C
3
parametric map, harmonically
(i.e., χ
uu
+ χ
vv
= 0 ) immersed in R
N
, and let z = u + iv be the
induced complex parameter. Also, let E : = χ
u
· χ
u
, F : = χ
u
· χ
v
,
and G : = χ
v
· χ
v
be the coeﬃcients of the induced metric, through
which, the energydensity: ε = ε(z) and “conformal impedance”:
h = h(z) , may be deﬁned by
ε : =
1
2
(E +G) and h : =
1
2
(E −G) − iF .
Then the Gauss curvature, K
χ
= K
χ
(z) , is given by
K
χ
= −
∆og(ε
2
−h
2
)
4 ε
−
1
2 ε
¸
¸
¸
¸
ε
3
(h/ε
2
)
z
ε
2
−h
2
¸
¸
¸
¸
2
(1)
where ∆ : = 4 ∂
z
∂
z
= (∂
u
)
2
+ (∂
v
)
2
, with ∂
z
: =
1
2
(∂
u
−i∂
v
) .
Remarks.
1. Observe that h ≡ 0 ( iﬀ the harmonic immersion already
comes fullyequipped with conformal parameters) gives the well
known classical formula, wherein ε = E = G .
2. Each of ε, h and K
χ
are actually deﬁned on the induced, com
plex domain, D
∗
⊂ C—essentially the same open, connected
set as D ⊂ R
2
, but recast in its complex role via z = u + iv .
Through this description
1
the metric naturally emerges as the
sum, ds
2
χ
= ε dz
2
+ Re{ hdz
2
} .
3. For any such harmonic immersion, what has been termed the
“conformal impedance” is always a analytic function. To prove
this, notice that h = 2 χ
z
· χ
z
. Therefore,
h
z
= 2 ( χ
z
· χ
z
)
z
= 4 χ
z
· χ
z z
= χ
z
· ∆χ = 0 ,
by the harmonicity of χ . Hence, h : D
∗
−→ C is analytic,
since it satisﬁes the (complex) CauchyRiemann equation.
1
Pairing D
∗
with its conformal structure creates an open Riemann surface. Since thereon,
the conformal change: z −→ z(w) induces the change: ∂
z
−→ (z
(w))
−1
∂
w
(and, of course,
dz −→ z
(w) dw), using ε = 2 χ
z
· χ
z
and h = 2 χ
z
· χ
z
, one may verify directly that
K
χ
, ε dz
2
and hdz
2
are invariantly deﬁned (i.e., conformally invariant) on this surface.
HARMONICALLY IMMERSED GAUSS CURVATURE 3
Proof . First, we write out the GaussWeingarten equations for
a twodimensional, class C
3
harmonic immersion into R
N
, where
N ≥ 3, assuming ( N
1
, . . . , N
N−2
) forms an orthonormal frame for
the normal space at each point, p
o
= χ(u
o
, v
o
)—that is, we write
out
χ
uu
= Γ
1
11
χ
u
+ Γ
2
11
χ
v
+
α
N
α
( = −χ
vv
)
χ
uv
= Γ
1
12
χ
u
+ Γ
2
12
χ
v
+ m
α
N
α
( = χ
vu
)
N
j
u
= a
j
11
χ
u
+ a
j
21
χ
v
+ λ
j
α
N
α
( j = 1 , . . . , N −2 )
N
j
v
= a
j
12
χ
u
+ a
j
22
χ
v
+ µ
j
α
N
α
( j = 1 , . . . , N −2 ) .
Here, the Γ
r
pq
are the Christoﬀel coeﬃcients; the
α
and the m
α
correspond, for each α = 1 , . . . , N − 2 , to the (two indepen
dent) coeﬃcients of the secondfundamental form, in the normal
direction, N
α
—which may be deﬁned via the complex function:
lh
α
: =
α
− im
α
: = N
α
· ( χ
uu
− iχ
uv
); and the coeﬃcients λ
j
α
and µ
j
α
may similarly be deﬁned as the real and imaginary parts of
the projections, ιn
j
α
: = λ
j
α
− iµ
j
α
: = N
α
· ( N
j
u
− iN
j
v
) . Finally,
the Weingarten coeﬃcients, adapted to an harmonic χ (i.e., with
j
≡ −n
j
: = −N
j
· χ
vv
), are given (see [2], pg 155, for N = 3) by
a
j
11
=
Fm
j
−G
j
Λ
2
, a
j
21
=
F
j
−Em
j
Λ
2
,
a
j
12
=
−F
j
−Gm
j
Λ
2
, a
j
22
=
Fm
j
+E
j
Λ
2
.
Above, Λ : =
√
EG −F
2
( > 0 , since χ is assumed immersive ).
We are obviously employing an Einstein summation convention in
these 2N −2 vector equations. Since the ambient space is equipped
with the standard Euclidean “dotproduct”, it trivially follows that
N
α
≡ N
α
. For this reason, we hope the reader will forgive the
“asymmetry” of upper and lower indices in the deﬁnitions of the
lh
α
, the ιn
j
α
, and (therefore, also) the a
j
pq
.
HARMONICALLY IMMERSED GAUSS CURVATURE 4
Second, for any such harmonic immersion, the Gauss curvature is
given extrinsically (see, for example, [6] ) by
K
χ
=
N−2
α=1
−
2
α
−m
2
α
Λ
2
= −
N−2
α=1
 lh
α

2
ε
2
−h
2
, (2)
where, again, ε =
1
2
(E +G) and h =
1
2
(E −G) − iF , so that
ε
2
−h
2
= EG −F
2
= Λ
2
.
Indeed, by rewriting the metric coeﬃcients, ( E, F, G ) , in terms of
( ε, h) , an elementary calculation establishes ( j = 1 , . . . , N −2 )
that
2
a
j
11
+ ia
j
12
=
_
h −ε
ε
2
−h
2
_
lh
j
(3a)
a
j
21
+ ia
j
22
= i
_
h + ε
ε
2
−h
2
_
lh
j
. (3b)
Similarly, a rather lengthy computation, involving the same sort of
“metric rewrite” (relegated to the Appendix), allows us to write
A : = Γ
1
11
−iΓ
1
12
=
1
2
(a +b) (4a)
B : = Γ
2
11
−iΓ
2
12
= −
i
2
(a −b) , where (4b)
a : = ( og(ε
2
−h
2
) )
z
( = A+ iB ) (4c)
b : =
ε
3
(h/ε
2
)
z
ε
2
−h
2
( = A−iB ) . (4d)
2
The signiﬁcance of these two particular combinations is revealed in the classical formula:
K
χ
=
N−2
j =1
det
a
j
11
a
j
12
a
j
21
a
j
22
≡
N−2
j =1
Im
a
j
11
+ ia
j
12
a
j
21
+ ia
j
22
.
HARMONICALLY IMMERSED GAUSS CURVATURE 5
Third, from the C
3
assumption, 0 = (χ
uu
)
v
− (χ
uv
)
u
. Thus, using
the GaussWeingarten equations, reexpressing all derivatives back
in terms of the basis , ( χ
u
, χ
v
, N
1
, . . . , N
N−2
) , we obtain the fol
lowing N scalar equations for the corresponding coeﬃcients
0 = (Γ
1
11
)
v
−(Γ
1
12
)
u
+ Γ
1
12
( Γ
1
11
−Γ
2
12
) − Γ
1
11
( Γ
2
11
+ Γ
1
12
)
+
β
a
β
12
−m
β
a
β
11
( coeﬃcient of χ
u
) , [α]
0 = (Γ
2
11
)
v
−(Γ
2
12
)
u
+ Γ
2
12
( Γ
1
11
−Γ
2
12
) − Γ
2
11
( Γ
2
11
+ Γ
1
12
)
+
β
a
β
22
−m
β
a
β
21
( coeﬃcient of χ
v
) , [β]
0 = (
α
)
v
−(m
α
)
u
+ m
α
( Γ
1
11
−Γ
2
12
) −
α
( Γ
2
11
+ Γ
1
12
)
+
β
µ
β
α
−m
β
λ
β
α
( coeﬃcient of N
α
) . [γ]
Similarly, the equation: 0 = (χ
vv
)
u
−(χ
uv
)
v
= (−χ
uu
)
u
−(χ
uv
)
v
generates another set of N scalar equations
0 = (Γ
1
11
)
u
+ (Γ
1
12
)
v
+ Γ
1
11
( Γ
1
11
−Γ
2
12
) + Γ
1
12
( Γ
2
11
+ Γ
1
12
)
+
β
a
β
11
+ m
β
a
β
12
( coeﬃcient of χ
u
) , [ ¯ α]
0 = (Γ
2
11
)
u
+ (Γ
2
12
)
v
+ Γ
2
11
( Γ
1
11
−Γ
2
12
) + Γ
2
12
( Γ
2
11
+ Γ
1
12
)
+
β
a
β
21
+ m
β
a
β
22
( coeﬃcient of χ
v
) , [
¯
β]
0 = (
α
)
u
+ (m
α
)
v
+ m
α
( Γ
2
11
+ Γ
1
12
) +
α
( Γ
1
11
−Γ
2
12
)
+
β
λ
β
α
+ m
β
µ
β
α
( coeﬃcient of N
α
) . [¯ γ]
HARMONICALLY IMMERSED GAUSS CURVATURE 6
Veriﬁcation of these coeﬃcients is routine. However, we do wish
to stress, once again, that an Einsteinsummation is in eﬀect. For
example, the ﬁnal terms in the last equation (of the previous page)
would be explicitly written
β
λ
β
α
+ m
β
µ
β
α
=
N−2
β =1
_
β
λ
β
α
+ m
β
µ
β
α
_
=
N−2
β =1
Re
_
_
λ
β
α
−iµ
β
α
_
(
β
−im
β
)
_
= Re
_
N−2
β =1
ιn
β
α
lh
β
_
.
Fourth, as one might suspect from the second line (just above),
all of the quantities forming these two sets of three equations—
which the reader will note are labelled [α] , [β] , [γ] , in the ﬁrst
set, and [ ¯ α] , [
¯
β] , [¯ γ] , in the second—may be viewed as the real
(or imaginary) parts of certain complexvalued functions. Indeed,
in this step, we “complexify” corresponding equations; that is, we
form
[ ¯ α] + i[α] , [
¯
β] + i[β] , and [¯ γ] + i[γ] .
For later reference, we ﬁrst form [¯ γ] + i[γ] , giving
0 = [ (
α
)
u
+ (m
α
)
v
] + i[ (
α
)
v
− (m
α
)
u
] +
α
[ Γ
1
11
−Γ
2
12
−iΓ
2
11
−iΓ
1
12
] +
m
α
[ Γ
2
11
+ Γ
1
12
+ iΓ
1
11
−iΓ
2
12
] +
β
λ
β
α
+ m
β
µ
β
α
+ i[
β
µ
β
α
−m
β
λ
β
α
] =
( ∂
u
+ i∂
v
)(
β
−im
β
) +
(
β
+ im
β
)[ Γ
1
11
−Γ
2
12
−iΓ
2
11
−iΓ
1
12
] +
( λ
β
α
+ iµ
β
α
)(
β
−im
β
) =
2 ∂
z
lh
α
+ lh
α
b + ιn
β
α
lh
β
, or
(lh
α
)
z
= −
1
2
b lh
α
−
1
2
ιn
β
α
lh
β
. (5)
HARMONICALLY IMMERSED GAUSS CURVATURE 7
Equation (5) is the complex version of the CodazziMainardi sys
tem of equations—which reduces to the single complex equation,
(lh
1
)
z
= −
1
2
blh
1
, for N = 3 . ( The orthonormality of the
normal frame forces ιn
β
α
= 2 N
α
· (N
β
)
z
to be skewsymmetric. )
Note that the quantity, b, is truly the same as that deﬁned in (4d) :
Γ
1
11
− Γ
2
12
− iΓ
2
11
− iΓ
1
12
= ( Γ
1
11
− iΓ
1
12
)
. ¸¸ .
A
−i ( Γ
2
11
− iΓ
2
12
)
. ¸¸ .
B
= b .
Next, combining [ ¯ α] + i[α] generates
0 = ( ∂
u
+ i∂
v
)( Γ
1
11
− iΓ
1
12
) +
( Γ
1
11
− Γ
2
12
)( Γ
1
11
+ iΓ
1
12
) + (Γ
2
11
+ Γ
1
12
)( Γ
1
12
− iΓ
1
11
) +
(
β
−im
β
)( a
β
11
+ ia
β
12
) =
2 ∂
z
( Γ
1
11
− iΓ
1
12
) +
( Γ
1
11
− Γ
2
12
)( Γ
1
11
+ iΓ
1
12
) − i(Γ
2
11
+ Γ
1
12
)( Γ
1
11
+ iΓ
1
12
) +
lh
β
( a
β
11
+ ia
β
12
) = ( by explicit summation, and (3a) : )
2 A
z
+ ( Γ
1
11
+ iΓ
1
12
)
. ¸¸ .
A
[ Γ
1
11
− Γ
2
12
− iΓ
2
11
− iΓ
1
12
]
. ¸¸ .
b
+
N−2
β =1
lh
β
__
h −ε
ε
2
−h
2
_
lh
β
_
=
2 A
z
+ Ab +
_
h −ε
ε
2
−h
2
_
N−2
β =1
 lh
β

2
, or, using (2) :
A
z
= −
b
2
A +
_
h −ε
2
_
K
χ
. [ g
1
]
HARMONICALLY IMMERSED GAUSS CURVATURE 8
While forming [
¯
β] + i[β] , produces the equation
0 = ( ∂
u
+ i∂
v
)( Γ
2
11
− iΓ
2
12
) +
( Γ
1
11
− Γ
2
12
)( Γ
2
11
+ iΓ
2
12
) + (Γ
2
11
+ Γ
1
12
)( Γ
2
12
− iΓ
2
11
) +
(
β
−im
β
)( a
β
21
+ ia
β
22
) =
2 ∂
z
( Γ
2
11
− iΓ
2
12
) +
( Γ
1
11
− Γ
2
12
)( Γ
2
11
+ iΓ
2
12
) − i(Γ
2
11
+ Γ
1
12
)( Γ
2
11
+ iΓ
2
12
) +
lh
β
( a
β
21
+ ia
β
22
) = ( by explicit summation, and (3b) : )
2 B
z
+ ( Γ
2
11
+ iΓ
2
12
)
. ¸¸ .
B
[ Γ
1
11
− Γ
2
12
− iΓ
2
11
− iΓ
1
12
]
. ¸¸ .
b
+
N−2
β =1
lh
β
__
i (h + ε)
ε
2
−h
2
_
lh
β
_
=
2 B
z
+ B b + i
_
h + ε
ε
2
−h
2
_
N−2
β =1
 lh
β

2
, or, using (2) :
B
z
= −
b
2
B + i
_
h + ε
2
_
K
χ
. [ g
2
]
Our ﬁnal task will be to combine
3
equations [ g
1
] and [ g
2
] , ulti
mately utilizing the values determined for a, b, A, and B—hence,
the reader may want to refer to equations (4a) through (4d).
3
The GaussWeingarten equations may also be complexiﬁed, producing the “pair”
χ
zz
=
1
2
aχ
z
+
1
2
bχ
z
+
1
2
lh
α
N
α
( with χ
zz
≡ 0 )
N
j
z
=
lh
j
ε
2
−h
2
hχ
z
−ε χ
z
+
1
2
ιn
j
α
N
α
( j = 1 , . . . , N −2 ) .
HARMONICALLY IMMERSED GAUSS CURVATURE 9
Fifth, combining [ g
1
] + i[ g
2
] , we ﬁnally deduce that
a
z
= (A + iB)
z
= A
z
+ iB
z
=
_
−
b
2
A +
_
h −ε
2
_
K
χ
_
+ i
_
−
b
2
B + i
_
h + ε
2
_
K
χ
_
= −
b
2
( A + iB ) − ε K
χ
= −
b
2
( A − iB ) − ε K
χ
= −
b
2
b − ε K
χ
= −
 b
2
2
− ε K
χ
, from which it follows that
K
χ
= −
a
z
ε
−
 b
2
2 ε
= −
[ ( og(ε
2
−h
2
) )
z
]
z
ε
−
1
2 ε
¸
¸
¸
¸
ε
3
(h/ε
2
)
z
ε
2
−h
2
¸
¸
¸
¸
2
= −
∆og(ε
2
−h
2
)
4 ε
−
1
2 ε
¸
¸
¸
¸
ε
3
(h/ε
2
)
z
ε
2
−h
2
¸
¸
¸
¸
2
,
which, noting 4 ∂
z
∂
z
≡ ∆ , completes the proof.
HARMONICALLY IMMERSED GAUSS CURVATURE 10
Corollary. Let χ = χ(u, v) satisfy the theorem’s hypothesis.
And assume ( N
1
, . . . , N
N−2
) is an orthonormal frame for the nor
mal space, with corresponding (complexiﬁed) second fundamental
forms
4
, lh
α
: = N
α
·( χ
uu
−i χ
uv
) : D
∗
−→C (α = 1 , . . . , N−2) ,
and induced complex parameter , z : = u + iv . Then,
(i) The function, ( lh
2
1
+ · · · + lh
2
N−2
)
z
, is intrinsic .
(ii) The function, lh
2
1
+ · · · + lh
2
N−2
, is holomorphic iﬀ
χ is ﬂat, or the induced metric is conformal.
Proof . Letting lh denote the column vector, (lh
1
, . . . , lh
N−2
)
T
,
and ιn : =
_
ιn
β
α
_
be the (N − 2) × (N − 2) matrix, with entries
ιn
β
α
= 2 N
α
· (N
β
)
z
, we can write the CodazziMainardi system (5)
in the form
lh
z
= −
1
2
blh −
1
2
ιnlh . (5
)
Multiplying this through by the row vector, 2 lh
T
, we get
2 lh
T
lh
z
= − blh
T
lh − lh
T
ιnlh .
Now, since ιn is skewsymmetric, lh
T
ιnlh ≡ 0 . Thus, using the
more familiar notation of (real) “dotproduct”, this last equation
becomes
( lh · lh)
z
= − b( lh · lh) .
However, − lh· lh = − (  lh
1

2
+ · · · +  lh
N−2

2
) = Λ
2
K
χ
, by
formula (2). Therefore, we obtain
( lh · lh)
z
= bΛ
2
K
χ
, (6)
showing the lefthand side to be intrinsic, since the righthand side
is entirely expressible in terms of ε , h, ε
z
, and h
( K
χ
, as given
in (1), and bΛ
2
= ε
3
(h/ε
2
)
z
), thereby proving part (i).
4
Here, we are identifying each of the N − 2 second fundamental forms (relative to the
given orthonormal frame), dσ
2
α
: =
α
(du
2
− dv
2
) + 2m
α
dudv ≡ Re{ lh
α
dz
2
} , with
their corresponding complex coeﬃcient functions, lh
α
=
α
− im
α
. Also, notice that
( χ
uu
− i χ
uv
) ≡ 2 (∂
z
)
2
χ . Thus, each quadratic diﬀerential, lh
α
dz
2
, is conformally
invariant on the associated Riemann surface (generated by D
∗
).
HARMONICALLY IMMERSED GAUSS CURVATURE 11
To prove (ii), ﬁrst note that putting either K
χ
≡ 0 ( χ is ﬂat) or
h ≡ 0 (the metric is conformal) into equation (6) leads immediately
to the holomorphicity of lh · lh . On the other hand, suppose that
lh·lh is holomorphic, for nonﬂat χ; and assume h is not identically
zero. Then we must have 0 = bΛ
2
= ε
3
(h/ε
2
)
z
. Multiplying
this last through by ε
−3
h , and using the antiholomorphicity of
h , gives 0 = h(h/ε
2
)
z
= (hh/ε
2
)
z
= (h
2
/ε
2
)
z
. But then,
conjugating this, we also have 0 = (h
2
/ε
2
)
z
. Thus, since the open
set D
∗
is connected, and h is not identically zero, h
2
/ε
2
≡ ρ
o
,
for some positive constant, ρ
o
. Therefore, ε
2
= ρ
−1
o
h
2
throughout
D
∗
(with ρ
−1
o
> 1 , since 0 < Λ
2
= ε
2
− h
2
). As a consequence,
the Gauss curvature (1) reduces to
K
χ
= −
1
4 ε
∆og(ε
2
−h
2
) = −
1
4 ε
∆og
_
ε
2
_
1 −h
2
/ε
2
_ ¸
= −
1
4 ε
∆og
_
h
2
ρ
o
(1 −ρ
o
)
_
= −
1
4 ε
∆
_
ogh
2
+ og
_
1
ρ
o
−ρ
o
_ _
= −
1
2 ε
∆ogh ≡ 0 ,
since ogh = Re{ og(h)} is harmonic. Of course, this contra
dicts the nonﬂatness of χ. Thus, if χ is nonﬂat, it must be that
h ≡ 0 , that is, the induced metric is conformal. .
Remarks.
1. Observe that lh
2
1
+ · · · + lh
2
N−2
(and so, its ∂
z
derivative), is
independent of orthonormal frame. Thus, we are free to de
ﬁne it via the geometrically signiﬁcant vector, lh : = lh
α
N
α
.
Hence, lh
α
N
α
· lh
α
N
α
= lh
2
1
+ · · · + lh
2
N−2
, given any
orthonormal frame, ( N
1
, . . . , N
N−2
) , for the normal space.
2. In the nonﬂat case, part (ii) is really saying that analyticity of
the function, lh
2
1
+ · · · + lh
2
N−2
: D
∗
−→ C , is equivalent to
χ : D ⊂
domain
R
2
−→ R
N
being a minimal immersion
5
. The
classical version (N = 3) is well known—and was, evidently,
ﬁrst noted by Heinz Hopf, while working on CMC surfaces [1].
5
In this (nonﬂat minimal) case, note that
lh
2
1
+ · · · + lh
2
N−2
dz
2
becomes a (quite
possibly branched) holomorphic quadratic diﬀerential on the associated Riemann surface.
HARMONICALLY IMMERSED GAUSS CURVATURE 12
Appendix
To establish the identities (4) for a, b, A, and B, we use the fact
that ε =
1
2
(E +G) and h =
1
2
(E −G) − iF may be inverted
to give the following relations
E = ε + Re{h}
G = ε − Re{h}
F = − Im{h} .
Similarly, we can use these to express the partial derivatives, ∂
u
and ∂
v
, of each of the three metric coeﬃcients in terms of the
∂
z
: =
1
2
(∂
u
−i∂
v
) derivative of ε and h ( all the while assuming h
to be analytic, so that h
z
≡ h
) :
E
u
= Re{2 ε
z
+ h
}
G
u
= Re{2 ε
z
−h
}
F
u
= − Im{h
} , and
E
v
= − Im{2 ε
z
+ h
}
G
v
= − Im{2 ε
z
−h
}
F
v
= − Re{h
} .
Thus, for example, using the ﬁrst “triplet”, one quickly ﬁnds that
G + iF = ε −h , with which we now verify formula (3a) :
Λ
2
_
a
j
11
+ ia
j
12
_
= ( Fm
j
−G
j
) + i( −F
j
−Gm
j
)
= −( G + iF )
j
− i( G + iF ) m
j
= −( G + iF ) (
j
−im
j
)
= −(ε −h) lh
j
; therefore
a
j
11
+ ia
j
12
=
(h −ε )
Λ
2
lh
j
=
_
h −ε
ε
2
−h
2
_
lh
j
.
HARMONICALLY IMMERSED GAUSS CURVATURE 13
Now, we compute ( Γ
1
11
− iΓ
1
12
) using the classical expressions for
these Christoﬀel coeﬃcients; that is, we rewrite (see [4], pg 148):
2 Λ
2
A = 2 Λ
2
_
Γ
1
11
− iΓ
1
12
_
=
(GE
u
−2 FF
u
+FE
v
) − i (GE
v
− FG
u
) =
( Re{ε −h} Re{h
+ 2 ε
z
} −2 Im{h} Im{h
} + Im{h} Im{h
+ 2 ε
z
} )
+ i ( Re{ε −h} Im{h
+ 2 ε
z
} + Im{h} Re{h
−2 ε
z
} ) =
( ε Re{h
} + ε Re{2 ε
z
} −Re{h} Re{h
} −Re{h} Re{2 ε
z
}
−2 Im{h} Im{h
} + Im{h} Im{h
} + Im{h} Im{2 ε
z
} )
+ i ( ε Im{h
} + ε Im{2 ε
z
} −Re{h} Im{h
} −Re{h} Im{2 ε
z
}
+ Im{h} Re{h
} −Im{h} Re{2 ε
z
} )
( ε Re{h
} + ε Re{2 ε
z
} −Re{hh
} −Re{2 hε
z
} )
+ i ( ε Im{h
} + ε Im{2 ε
z
} −Im{hh
} −Im{2 hε
z
} )
= ε h
+ 2 ε ε
z
− hh
− 2 hε
z
= ( ε h
z
− 2 hε
z
) + ( ε
2
− hh)
z
, from which we obtain
A : = Γ
1
11
− iΓ
1
12
=
( ε
2
− hh)
z
2 ( ε
2
− hh)
+
ε h
z
− 2 hε
z
2 ( ε
2
− hh)
,
having made full use of the facts that Λ
2
= ε
2
−h
2
≡ ε
2
−hh ,
and that ( hh)
z
= hh
, by the analyticity of h . (Also, recall
that in (4a), we had set: A =
1
2
(a +b) .)
HARMONICALLY IMMERSED GAUSS CURVATURE 14
Similarly, we compute ( Γ
2
11
− iΓ
2
12
) by replacing Γ
2
11
and Γ
2
12
with their corresponding metric expressions (see, also [4], pg 148):
2 Λ
2
B = 2 Λ
2
_
Γ
2
11
− iΓ
2
12
_
=
(2 EF
u
−EE
v
−FE
u
) − i (EG
u
− FE
v
) =
( −2 Re{ε + h} Im{h
} + Re{ε + h} Im{h
+ 2 ε
z
}
+ Im{h} Re{h
+ 2 ε
z
} )
+ i ( −Re{ε + h} Re{2 ε
z
−h
} + Im{h} Im{h
+ 2 ε
z
} ) =
( −2 ε Im{h
} −2 Re{h} Im{h
} + ε Im{h
} + ε Im{2 ε
z
}
+ Re{h} Im{h
} + Re{h} Im{2 ε
z
} + Im{h} Re{2 ε
z
}
+ Im{h} Re{h
} )
+ i ( ε Re{h
} −ε Re{2 ε
z
} + Re{h} Re{h
} −Re{h} Re{2 ε
z
}
+ Im{h} Im{h
} + Im{h} Im{2 ε
z
} ) =
( −ε Im{h
} + ε Im{2 ε
z
} −Im{hh
} + Im{2 hε
z
} )
+ i ( ε Re{h
} −ε Re{2 ε
z
} + Re{hh
} −Re{2 hε
z
} )
= i ( ε h
− 2 ε ε
z
+ hh
− 2 hε
z
)
= i ( ( ε h
z
− 2 hε
z
) − ( ε
2
− hh)
z
) , so that
B : = Γ
2
11
− iΓ
2
12
= −i
_
( ε
2
− hh)
z
2 ( ε
2
− hh)
−
ε h
z
− 2 hε
z
2 ( ε
2
− hh)
_
.
(Again, recall our earlier notation in (4b): B = −
i
2
(a −b) .)
HARMONICALLY IMMERSED GAUSS CURVATURE 15
Then, (4c) and (4d) follow easily upon noting , ﬁrst
( ε
2
− hh)
z
( ε
2
− hh)
= ( og(ε
2
−h
2
) )
z
,
and ﬁnally
ε h
z
− 2 hε
z
ε
2
− hh
=
ε
4
ε
4
_
ε h
z
− 2 hε
z
ε
2
− hh
_
=
ε
3
ε
2
−h
2
_
ε
2
h
z
− 2 hε ε
z
(ε
2
)
2
_
=
ε
3
(h/ε
2
)
z
ε
2
−h
2
.
References
[1] Ulrich Dierkes, Stefan Hildebrandt, Albrecht K¨ uster, Ortwin
Wohlrab, Minimal Surfaces I, SpringerVerlag, New York, 1992,
page 32.
[2] Manfredo Do Carmo, Diﬀerential Geometry Of Curves And Sur
faces, PrenticeHall, Inc., Englewood Cliﬀs, New Jersey, 1976.
[3] Karsten Grove, Riemannian Geometry: A Metric Entrance,
Lecture Note Series, No. 65, University of Aarhus, Dept. of
Mathematics, Aarhus, Denmark, 1999, page 47.
[4] John McCleary, Geometry From A Diﬀerentiable Viewpoint,
Cambridge University Press, 1994.
[5] Tilla Klotz Milnor, Are Harmonically Immersed Surfaces At
All Like Minimally Immersed Surfaces? published in: Seminar
On Minimal Submanifolds, Enrico Bombieri (Editor), Princeton
University Press, 1983, pages 99110.
[6] Tilla Klotz Milnor, Mapping Surfaces Harmonically In E
n
,
Proc. Amer. Math. Soc. (78), no. 2 , 1980, pages 270271.
HARMONICALLY IMMERSED GAUSS CURVATURE 16
Just as in the codimensionone case, the compatibility condition,
(N
j
u
)
v
− (N
j
v
)
u
= 0 ( j = 1 , . . . , N −2 ) ,
reproduces the system of CodazziMainardi equations (coming from
the tangential components). However, unlike the classical situation,
we obtain a new system of equations from the normal components—
the Ricci system of equations (?). To put the above system into
complex form, note that
4 (N
j
z
)
z
= ( ∂
u
−i∂
v
)( N
j
u
−iN
j
v
) = ∆N
j
+i
_
(N
j
u
)
v
− (N
j
v
)
u
¸
.
Consequently, we seek the normal components of the system of (real)
equations:
0 = Im
_
(N
j
z
)
z
_
.
Setting Λ
2
= ε
2
−h
2
, we have (from the Weingarten equations):
(N
j
z
)
z
=
_
lh
j
h
Λ
2
_
z
χ
z
+
_
lh
j
h
Λ
2
_
χ
zz
−
_
lh
j
ε
Λ
2
_
z
χ
z
−
_
lh
j
ε
Λ
2
_
χ
zz
+
1
2
(ιn
j
α
)
z
N
α
+
1
2
ιn
j
α
N
α
z
=
_
−
ε lh
j
lh
α
Λ
2
+
1
2
(ιn
j
α
)
z
+
1
4
ιn
j
β
ιn
β
α
_
N
α
+ ( pure tangential terms ) .
Then, the Ricci equations (?) are given by ( 1 ≤ j , α ≤ N −2 ):
Im
_
−
ε lh
j
lh
α
Λ
2
+
1
2
(ιn
j
α
)
z
+
1
4
ιn
j
β
ιn
β
α
_
= 0 or
K
N
jα
=
1
2 ε
Im
_
(ιn
j
α
)
z
+
1
2
ιn
j
β
ιn
β
α
_
,
where we have set
K
N
jα
: =
Im
_
lh
j
lh
α
_
ε
2
−h
2
_
= −K
N
αj
_
.
HARMONICALLY IMMERSED GAUSS CURVATURE 17
For the case: N = 4 , I believe that the righthand side of this last
formula is the curvature of the normal bundle, K
D
, in the given
orthonormal frame—or, at least, a “simple multiple” thereof. My
problem is this: Given a general nonorthonormal tangentbasis (in
such a case, ε
2
−h
2
may not be assumed identically one ) what is
the proportionality factor—that is, for what value of ρ do we have
K
N
12
= −K
N
21
= ρ K
D
?
Or put another way,
K
D
=
Im
_
lh
1
lh
2
_
ε
2
−h
2
for what value ( = ρ
−1
) ?
Should K
D
be conformally invariant, then also must be. For
observe (in the ﬁrst equality, below) that
K
N
12
=
Im{ (2 N
1
· χ
zz
)(2 N
2
· χ
zz
) }
( 2 χ
z
· χ
z
)
2
−  2 χ
z
· χ
z

2
=
det
_
N
1
· χ
uu
N
1
· χ
uv
N
2
· χ
uu
N
2
· χ
uv
_
det
_
χ
u
· χ
u
χ
v
· χ
u
χ
u
· χ
v
χ
v
· χ
v
_
Recalling χ
vv
= −χ
uu
, the second equality shows that changing
the orientation of the tangentbasis, ( χ
u
, χ
v
) −→ ( χ
v
, χ
u
) , re
verses the sign of K
N
12
—as obviously occurs when the orientation
of the normal frame is reversed. This is characteristic of the cur
vature of the normal bundle in codimension two. (Thus changing
both orientations does not eﬀect this curvature.)
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