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Name Mario Leach ______________________________________ BIO 100A Online Home Lab Report: Part I

Revised 9/10/11

Due by: 11:59 PM PST on the second Saturday of class Directions: 1. Before attempting to perform a lab, read the lab's protocol in its entirety, look over the relevant supplemental materials, and gather all of the necessary materials. 2. Exercise caution and respect the safety of yourself and others at all times. 3. Keep notes as you perform experiments. Error on the side of too much detail rather than too little. 4. Use the lab reports to report your results. Do not divide this lab report into a separate form for each lab, remove questions, or directions. 5. Type your answers, observations, and results in bold. 6. Save your report often as you fill it out, so as not to lose information. 7. Use the "Save As" option to save your file as a Word 97 or 2003 doc file. 8. Save your lab report with this file name: Last name, underscore, First Initial, underscore H1. Thus Charles Darwin would save his Unit 1 Home Lab Report as Darwin_C_H1. 9. Submit this report as a single document in the Dropbox under [Unit 1: Home Labs] before 11:59 PM PST on the second Saturday of class.

Lab Report 1 1. Using a metric ruler, determine the length of the items in Table 1.1 below: In the final column, you are to estimate your measurement precision. To do this, measure each item a second or even third time. How close are the measurements? If there is a range of values for the length you measure, record the average difference between measurement values as your uncertainty. If your measured value for a given object appears the same after repeated measurements, this does not necessarily mean that your uncertainty is zero. Look closely at your ruler or measurement device and estimate the smallest unit of length that you would be able to discriminate with it. Every measurement device has limits. For instance, very few people use a ruler with a precision greater than 1/3 or 1/2 of a millimeter; in many cases, even this precision is difficult or impossible to obtain. Typically +/- 1 mm is standard for measuring flat objects with a ruler, but this uncertainty can be expected to go up when the object has significant curvature or its length is not quite so well defined. To measure the circumference (length around) of your head or thigh, wrap a piece of string around it and mark where the string meets itself. Then lay the string out flat and measure the length with your ruler. Table 1.1. Metric measurements and uncertainties. meters cm mm Your favorite shoe Your index finger A pencil Fingernail of your pinky Width of a credit card The circumference of your thigh The circumference of your head .254 .084 .079 0.0106 0.004 .509 .533 25.4 8.4 7.9 1.06 0.4 50.9 53.3 254 84 79 10.6 4 509 533 inches 10 3.3 3.2 .42 .15 20 21 Uncertainty +/-.25 +/-.2 +/-.25 +/-.2 +/- 0.1 +/- 1 +/- 1

2. Measure and record volume in Table 1.2. Estimate the rough volume of your head by using the circumference (denoted C) and multiplying out this formula (based on the volume of a sphere =4r3/3 = C3/(62)): Volume 1/59 C C C = C3/59 This measurement multiplies the circumference (measured in cm) by itself three times, as a result the volume of your head is in units of cm3. Estimate the uncertainty in your head volume (V, called "delta V") calculation by using the uncertainty in your measurement of the circumference of your head (denoted C) and multiplying through the following formula: V 3/59 C C C = 3/59 C2 C Table 1.2. Head volume and uncertainty estimates. Circumference (C) Uncertainty in Circumference (measured in cm) (C) (measured in cm3) 21 22.42 Head Volume 1/59 C3 156.7 cm3

3. Complete the conversions in Table 1.3. The first row has been done. Please be sure to boldface your solutions. Table 1.3. Length conversions. Length km 2.0 km 2.0 705 m .705 3.25 miles 5.23 300 ft .091 m 2,000 705 5230.3 91.44 miles 1.24 .438 3.25 .05 feet 6,562 2312.9 17160 300

4. Complete the conversions in Table 1.4. Table 1.4. Mass conversions. Weight kg 5.0 kg 5.0 400 g .4 50 pounds 22.67 g 5000 400 22679.6 pounds (lbs) 11.02 .881 50

5. Complete the conversions in Table 1.5. Table 1.5. Volume conversions. Volume liters 6.0 liters (l) 6.0 600 ml .6 3 gallons 11.35 6. Complete the conversions in Table 1.6. Table 1.6. Temperature conversions. Temperature C 100 C 100 27 C 27 -2 C -2 27 F 2.77 95 F 35 -40 F -40 F 212 80.6 28.4 27 95 -40 ml 6000 600 11356.23 gallons 1.585 .158 3

7. Population biologists use the term Doubling time to refer to how long it takes a population to double in size. This concept is particularly useful when the average time for a given individual to reproduce is fairly constant in a species. Consider a bacterial population that can reproduce by dividing into two daughter cells (binary fission) from an original single individual cell. Assume a doubling time of ten minutes and fill out the following table. At time zero there is one bacterium, ten minutes later there are two bacteria, ten minutes after that there are 4 bacteria, etc. Fill in the blanks in Table 1.7. Table 1.7. Population growth. Number of 1 Bacteria Time 0 8 30 min 1 hour 2 hour First exceeds 10,000 2hours 12mins

Lab Report 2 1. Fill in table 2.1. To describe pH without access to pH detectors, simply use the pH chart earlier in this chapter to describe each as acidic, neutral, or basic. Table 2.1. Experimental set up. Cup Contents of cup 1 2 3 4 Water + H2O2 Potato + Water + H2O2 Potato + Vinegar + H2O2 Potato + Ammonia + H2O2 pH (acidic, neutral, basic) Neutral basic Acidic Acidic

2. Fill in the table 2.2. Compare all cups. Use relative terms to describe the size and number of bubbles in each cup. For instance, describe the Number of Bubbles using the terms: No bubbling, Moderate bubbling, Good bubbling, Very good bubbling. To describe average bubble size use the terms: Very small, Small, Large, or Very large. To describe the Catalase Activity, use your data on the size and number of bubbles to estimate the amount of gas produced in the Catalase mediated process. Use the following terms: Very Low, Low, Moderate, High, Very high Table 2.2. Catalase reaction observations. Cup Number of Bubbles Size of Bubbles 1 Med Very Small 2 Very Small Small 3 Medium Small 4 Large Large Catalase Activity Moderate Moderate Moderate High

3. Bubbling indicates the formation of what chemical? Be specific. Bubbling is indicating the formation of Oxygen due to the catalase releasing Oxygen from the solution. 4. Describe the activity of Catalase as pH increases. Do you think that the activity level of other enzymes are likely to have a similar pH dependency? Explain your reasoning. Enzymes are likely to have a similar dependency due to them accelerating the breakdown of the molecules. 5. Assume that you have a pH meter which would enable you to very accurately measure the pH of a solution. Describe an experimental design that would allow you to pinpoint the exact pH at which Catalase is the most active. Be explicit. I would slowly introduce catalase to each solution and measure as I go to see which one is most active. 6. Regarding cup #1:

A) Describe the utility of cup #1 as a control. Be explicit. Would be used to understand the effect that the Catalase would have when introduced. B) What other material did you introduce to this cup? Describe what you observed. How does Catalase activity in the material you investigated compare to potato? The Catalase activity was similar.

Lab Report 3 1. List the following experimental materials. Please type your solutions in bold face. A) Kind of yeast used: Fleischmann's Fresh Active Yeast B) Kind of water used: Arrowhead water C) Average temperature of the water bath during the experiment:60 Degrees F D) Average room temperature during the experiment (estimate if necessary): 72 E) Duration of yeast solutions exposure to bath: 45 Mins 2. List your results in Tables 3.1 - 3.4. Table 3.1. Independent variables and experimental conditions. Bottle Sugar Yeast Water Yeast solution To be heated in warm water bath? height (in cm) 1 1 teasp 2 teasp cup 1.20 No. Leave this bottle at room temp. 2 1 teasp 2 teasp cup 1.20 Yes. 3 1 teasp 2 teasp cup 1.20 Yes. Replicates bottle #2 4 1/3 teasp 2 teasp cup 1.20 Yes. 5 No Sugar 2 teasp cup 1.20 Yes. 6 1 teasp No yeast cup 1.20 Yes. Table 3.2. Bottle 1 2 3 4 5 6 Observations of dependent variables. Balloon size Yeast growth .75 inch Yes 2.20 inch Yes 2.20 inch Yes 1.45 inch Medium 1 inch Low-Med None None Other observations Small expansion Large expansion Large expansion Slow expansion Expands less No expansion New height of yeast solution (in cm) .75 2 2 1.25 1 0

Table 3.3. Balloon size and solution height measurements. Bottle Circumference, C (cm) Radius (long axis, R; cm) 1 2 3 4 5 6 .75 2 2 1.25 1 0 .25 .6 .6 .4 .3 0

3. In Table 3.4, record yeast growth and estimated volume of each balloon on Bottles 1-6. a) Yeast growth = New height (in Table 3.3) - Original height (in Table 3.1) b) If the balloon did not inflate, it has a volume of zero. c) To estimate the volume of each balloon, use the following formula for the approximate volume of an ellipsoid with a horizontal circumference C and long axis radius R (from Table 3.3): Volume 2/19 (C C R)

Table 3.4. Analysis: Yeast growth and balloon volume. Bottle Independent Variable Yeast growth: (Change in solution height) 1 No heating none 2 Control 1 2.5 cm 3 Control 2 2.5 cm 4 1/3 teaspoon sugar Med 5 No sugar low 6 No yeast 0

Balloon Volume (cm3) None 15.63 15.63 7.81 3.90 0

4. Describe the experimental questions in this yeast activity (in a paragraph or two). To describe the varying elements of cellular respiration and production of carbon dioxide in yeast, different variables are going to be combined. This will lead to an observation of the variables to see which if any, will activate the yeast. Balloons are used to capture CO2 emitted in order to accurately measure what is at play. 5. Describe what is measured by the balloon volume. How does it correlate with yeast growth? Be specific. The volume of the balloon represents the amount of CO2 being emitted by the yeast. It gives an accurate measurement. 6. Compare Bottles # 2 & 3. Are they very different? Discuss the utility of having a duplicate measurement when considering the precision of your experimental technique. Bottles 2&3 can be seen as our controlled experiment because the measurements were duplicate and validate that we are accurately accounting for any variables being introduced. 7. Compare Bottles # 1 to 2 & 3 and discuss the effect of temperature on cellular respiration in yeast. Temperature plays a tremendous role with cellular respiration it is especially observed during the cold and warm water phase of the experiment. During the cold water phase yeast is not active but as soon as warm water is introduced it is extremely active.

8. Compare Bottles # 2, 3, 4, 5 and discuss the effect of sugar on cellular respiration in yeast. Sugar plays a huge role on cellular respiration in yeast and this can be clearly seen during the phase that involves no sugar at all because there was almost no expansion. Once sugar got introduced the growth of the balloon had a direct correlation with the amount of sugar being introduced. 9. Discuss results obtained with your experimental Bottle #6 in comparison with the other experimental conditions. Combining different variables does not entirely provide results. The yeast is what is responsible for CO2 being emitted. Sugar and warm water did absolutely nothing. 10. In a paragraph or two, describe your conclusions, thoughts about what you learned about cellular respiration, and/or things that went wrong. Yeast combined with sugar and water are what make CO2 be emitted. Sugar feeds yeast and the amount of CO2 grows as sugar is being added. The warm water is another element that adds to the mix and growth of CO2. This displays the varying elements and how combined they provide different results.

Lab Report 4 1. Describe what you can see in the final DNA extraction solution. Is the precipitant bubbly or stringy? Does it stick together or does it form many islands? The final DNA solution is thin bubbly. It does not stick together and it does form many island like clumps 2. List your phenotype for the tongue rolling, ear attachment, and hitch-hiker thumb traits in Table 4.1. Use the following notation: a) If you can roll your tongue, then your phenotype is R. If you cannot, then your phenotype is r. b) If your earlobes are unattached, then your phenotype is U. If your earlobes are attached, then your phenotype is u. c) If you do not have a hitch-hiker thumb, then your phenotype is H. If you do have a hitch-hiker thumb, then your phenotype is h. Use the information above to determine your possible genotypes and record them in Table 4.1. Notice that the phenotype for a given trait is recorded with a single letter, whereas the genotype requires two letters per trait. Then, using what you have figured about your genotype, infer the different possible genotypes that your parents could have had. For instance, if you determine that your possible genotype for earlobe attachment is UU or Uu, then the possible parental genotypes and crosses are: Possible parents of UU: UU UU; UU Uu; Uu Uu Possible parents of Uu: UU Uu; UU uu; Uu Uu; Uu uu For this question, do not ask your parents about their phenotypes! You will do this in question 3. Question 2 is an exercise in inference based on your understanding of genetics. Table 4.1. Personal phenotype and genotype; inferred possible parental genotypes. Trait Your Your possible Inferred possible parental genotypes Phenotype Genotypes and crosses R Tongue rolling (R or r) U Earlobe attachment (U or u) h Hitch-hiker thumb (H or h) Hh;hh Hh,hh UU;Uu UU, Uu RR,Rr RR, Rr

3. Complete Table 4.2 for you, any blood relatives that you can ask (i.e., parents, siblings, children, etc.), and at least five unrelated Others (e.g., spouse, friends, co-workers, etc.). As before, phenotypes for a given trait are recorded with a single letter. You may wish to report separately on your children and spouse in Table 4.3. Table 4.2. Observed parental, sibling, and others phenotypes, Trait Mothers Fathers Relatives Phenotype Phenotype Phenotype(s) Tongue rolling (R or r) Earlobe attachment (U or u) Hitch-hiker thumb (H or h) r U h r U h r U h Others Phenotype(s) R u H

In Table 4.2, are there any traits that are particularly common or uncommon among you and your relatives, compared to the unrelated others? Yes there are traits uncommon among us to include my brother having blue eyes. Everyone else in the family has brown, but on my moms side her father had blue eyes which would be an recessive trait coming out.

Numeric Grade: 200 / 200 pts Weighted Average (Earned/Possible):

20 % / 20 %