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Patran 2008 r1

Thermal User’s Guide


Volume 1: Thermal/Hydraulic Analysis

Main Index
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Main Index
Contents
MSC Patran Thermal User’s Guide Volume 1: Thermal/
Hydraulic Analysis

1 Introduction
Purpose 2

Features and Capabilities 3

Integration with MSC Patran 12

2 Getting Started
Objectives 14

Model Description 15
Exercise Procedure 15
Temperature Boundary Conditions 25
Nodal Heat Source Boundary Condition 29
Convective Heat Transfer Boundary Condition 30

3 Building A Model
Introduction to Building a Model 38

Geometry Modeling 41

Fields Form 42
Fields Create 42

Material Library 48

Element Properties 53
Element Properties Form 54
Properties Show Material Orientations 57

Input Properties 58
Input Properties Form 58

Loads and Boundary Conditions 105


Loads and Boundary Conditions Form 105
Object Tables 120

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ii MSC Patran Thermal User’s Guide Volume 1: Thermal/Hydraulic Analysis

Load Cases 126

4 Module Operation
Preference Files 128

Reference Notes 129


Set up 129
Model Creation 129
Materials 135
Element Properties 135
Load Cases 135
Analysis (job submittal) 135
Results Verification 136
Results Display 137

5 Running an Analysis
Review of the Analysis Application 140

Analysis Form 141


Restart File 141
Translation Parameters 142
Solution Type 143
Solution Parameters 144
Output Request 153
Submit Options 161

Delete 163

Template Generator 164


Template File Data Form 164
Read 172
Template Entries Spreadsheet 173

Thermal Tools 175

Plot View Factors 183

6 Reading Results
Overview of Results Import 198

File Menu Import 199


Import Form 199

Main Index
CONTENTS iii

Analysis Form 201

7 Thermal/Hydraulic Theory
Network Methods 204
The Thermal Network 204
Conduction Networks 205
Convection Networks 208
Gray Body Radiation Networks 210
Wavelength Dependent Radiation Networks 211
Advection Networks 211
Heat and Temperature Source Networks 213
Flow Networks 213

Numerical Analysis Techniques 216


QTRAN’s Predictor-Corrector Algorithm 216
SNPSOR Algorithm 218
Convergence Acceleration Schemes 218
Convergence Criteria and Error Estimation 220
System Energy Balance 221
Table Interpolation Schemes 221
Phase Change Algorithm 222
Element to Resistor/Capacitor Translation 223

8 Thermal/Hydraulic Input Deck


Overview 226

QTRAN Input Data File (QINDAT) 227

QTRAN Run Control Parameters and Node Number Declarations 229


Title Data 229
Input Data Echo Option 229
Temperature Scale and Time Units Definition 230
Transient/Steady-State Run Option Selection and Solver Selection 231
Iteration Limit Parameters 234
Control Parameters 236
Auxiliary Print Options 247
Maximum Time Step Control 253
Node Definitions 254
Print Control 259

Material Properties 263


MPID Number, Function Type, Temperature Scale, Factor and Label 263

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iv MSC Patran Thermal User’s Guide Volume 1: Thermal/Hydraulic Analysis

Material Property Data 268

Network Construction 276


Thermal Resistor Assignments 276
Capacitor Data 320

Boundary Conditions 322


Microfunction Data 322
Heat Source/Sink Macrofunction Definition 325
Temperature Control Macrofunctions 327
Mass Flow Rate Control Macrofunctions 329
Pressure Control Macrofunctions 331
Initially Fixed Nodes 333
Nodal Classification Changes 334
Initial Globally-Assigned Temperatures, Heat Sources, Mass Flow Rate, and
Variable Gravity Fields 335
Individual Assignments of Initial Temperatures and Pressures 337
Individual Assignments of Constant Nodal Heat Sources and Mass Flow Rates
338

9 Convection Library
Convection Configurations 342
Parameter Definitions 344
Configuration 1 347
Configuration 2 350
Configuration 3 353
Configuration 4 356
Configuration 5 358
Configuration 6 360
Configuration 7 361
Configuration 8 363
Configuration 9 365
Configuration 10 367
Configuration 11 368
Configuration 12 370
Configuration 13 372
Configuration 14 375
Configuration 15 378
Configuration 16 380
Configuration 17 382
Configuration 18 386
Configuration 19 389
Configuration 20 392

Main Index
CONTENTS v

Configuration 21 395
Configuration 22 398
Configuration 23 402
Configuration 24 405
Configuration 25 407
Configuration 26 409
Configuration 27 411
Configuration 28 413
Configuration 29 414
Configuration 30 415
Configuration 31 416
Configuration 32 416
Configuration 33 419
Configuration 34 420
Configuration 35 421
Configuration 36 422
Configuration 37 423
Configuration 38 427
Configuration 39 428
Configuration 40 429
Configuration 41 431
Configuration 42 433
Configuration 43 435
Configurations 44-999 437
Configurations 1000+ 437

10 Microfunction Library
Microfunction Library 440
Microfunction Format 441
Microfunction Options 442
Option 1 - Constant 442
Option 2 - Power Series 442
Option 3 - Sine Wave 443
Option 4 - Square Wave 444
Option 5 - Step Function 445
Option 6 - Ramp Function 446
Option 7 - Exponential Function 447
Option 8 - Linear Interpolation of a Data Table 448
Option 9 - Hermite Polynomial Interpolation of a Data Table 449
Option 10 - Repeating Waveform - Linearly Interpolated Data Table 450
Option 11 - Repeating Waveform - Hermite Interpolated Data Table 451
Option 12 - Natural Logarithm Option 452

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vi MSC Patran Thermal User’s Guide Volume 1: Thermal/Hydraulic Analysis

Option 13 - Base 10 Logarithm Option 453


Option 14 - Blackbody Radiation Fraction Option 454
Option 15 - Flip/Flop Option 455
Option 16 - Dead Band 456
Option 17 - Straight Line 457
Option 18 - Indexed Linear Interpolation of a Data Table 458
Option 19 - Indexed Hermite Polynomial Interpolation of a Data Table 459
Option 20 - Indexed Repeating Waveform - Linearly Interpolated Data Table
460
Option 21 - Indexed Repeating Waveform - Hermite Interpolated Data Table
461
Option 22 - Repeating Flip/Flop Option 462
Option 1000+ - User-Coded Functions 463

11 User-Supplied Routines
User-Supplied Subroutines 466

COMMONBLK Definitions 468


common.blk 468
common.char 469
common.dims 469
common.int 471
common.logc 476
common.real 478

ULIBFOR Contents - Example User-Supplied Subroutines 484

Example User-Supplied Routines 536


ULOOP7FOR File Listing 536
UMICROFOR File Listing 540

QTRAN Arrays 545

12 Support Scripts and Codes


Purpose 568

QINDAT File Listing 569

QSTAT - QTRAN STATUS 592

Main Index
CONTENTS vii

A References
References 600

B Mid Templates Supplied in Templatebin and Templatetxt


Materials References, Classification, Quality Code and Index 602

C PATQ Preference Program


Overview 662
PATQ Main Menu Picks 662
PATQ Utility Menu Picks 671

Template File (TEMPLATEDAT) 685


MID Templates 686
MACRO Templates 687
CONV Templates 690
VFAC Templates 692
VTRA Templates 696
VNEV Templates 698
FLUID Templates 700
Example Template File 703

PATQ Limitations 707

MSC Patran Thermal Execution 708


PATQ Files 710
VIEW FACTOR Files 718
QTRAN Files 718

Translation of MSC Patran Thermal Input to SINDA 720


Introduction to the SINDA Utility from MSC Patran Thermal 720
Creating the SINDA Input File 720
The MODELSIN File 727
The APPENDSIN File 746

Using TRASYS Translator 754


Translation of MSC Patran Thermal View Factors to TRASYS 754
Translating MSC Patran Thermal Model to TRASYS Input 754
TRASYS Output to MSC Patran Thermal Input 756

Using NEVADA Translator 760


Translation of MSC Patran Thermal View Factors to NEVADA 760
Translating MSC Patran Thermal Model to NEVADA Input 761

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viii MSC Patran Thermal User’s Guide Volume 1: Thermal/Hydraulic Analysis

NEVADA Output to MSC Patran Thermal Input 763

D Example Problems
Overview 766

Example Problem Number 1--Steady State Conduction Problem 767


Introduction 767

Example Problem Number 2--Transient Conduction Problem 768


Introduction 768

Example Problem Number 3--3-D Iron Cube Problem 770


Introduction 770

Example Problem Number 4--Nonlinear Convection Problem 771


Introduction 771

Example Problem Number 5--Nonlinear Temperature and Heat Source


Boundary Conditions 773
Introduction 773

Example Problem Number 6--Steady State Radiation 774


Introduction 774
Key Concept 774

Example Problem Number 7--Sample of Advection/Convection Coupling


776
Introduction 776
Goal 776
Given 776
Find 776

Example Problem Number 8--Sample of User Routines 778


Introduction 778
Goal 778
Given 778

Example Problem Number 9--Solution of a “Stiff” THERMAL Problem with


the Direct Solver 780
Introduction 780

Example Problem Number 10--Translate MSC.Patran Thermal Input to


SINDA Input 781
Introduction 781
Key Concept 781

Main Index
CONTENTS ix

Problem Number 11--Solution of a Hydraulic Problem 783


Introduction 783

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x MSC Patran Thermal User’s Guide Volume 1: Thermal/Hydraulic Analysis

Main Index
Chapter 1: Introduction
Patran Thermal User’s Guide Volume 1: Thermal/Hydraulic Analysis

1 Introduction

J
Purpose 2
J
Features and Capabilities 3
J
Integration with Patran 12

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2 Patran Thermal User’s Guide Volume 1: Thermal/Hydraulic Analysis
Purpose

Purpose
Patran Thermal is a automated thermal modeling and analysis system for the solution of steady-state and
transient problems. It is a fully-integrated analysis preference in Patran, providing an easy to use forms
setup environment that guides the user to perform a successful thermal analysis. Patran Thermal has
built-in viewfactor and flow network programs that use the same Patran finite element model, eliminating
duplicate modeling. Patran Thermal features a large temperature-dependent materials library, extensive
built-in functions and a convection correlations library. User subroutines can be added in the initial
problem setup to meet the requirements of specialized applications.

Main Index
Chapter 1: Introduction 3
Features and Capabilities

Features and Capabilities

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4 Patran Thermal User’s Guide Volume 1: Thermal/Hydraulic Analysis
Features and Capabilities

Main Index
Chapter 1: Introduction 5
Features and Capabilities

Analysis Capabilities • 3D tetrahedral, wedge and


hexahedral elements
• Steady-state solution
• Shell versions of bar, tri, and quad
• Transient solution elements
• Coupled thermal/fluids solutions • Material properties:
• Conduction heat transfer: • Constant, time- and temperature-
• Across regular boundaries dependent
• Across irregular boundaries • Directionally dependent
• Through heavily skewed meshes • Definitions through 13 evaluation
• Convection heat transfer: functions

• Constant or variable film coefficient • User supplied subroutines

• Library of 57 embedded convection film • Unlimited phase changes


correlations • 1000 member materials library
Geometrical configurations • Thermal conductivity
Laminar and turbulent flows with • Specific heat
calculated transitions • Density
Natural and forced convection • Latent heats
Pool boiling and condensation • Querying capabilities through
Contact resistance with interstitial fluid Patran Materials
• User supplied correlations • Viewfactor program:
• Convection elements • Fully integrated into Patran
• Radiation heat transfer: Thermal

• Built-in viewfactor program • Uses the same Patran model

• Gray and wavelength-dependent • 2D and 3D Cartesian coordinate


radiosity networks viewfactors

• Participating media • Axisymmetric coordinate


viewfactors
• Time- and temperature-dependent
emissivity and transmissivity • Multiple symmetry support:
reflections across a plane or line
rotation "n" times by "x" degrees
about an arbitrary axis
• Finite element support:
Linear quadrilateral faces (Hex, Wedge,
Quad, etc.)

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6 Patran Thermal User’s Guide Volume 1: Thermal/Hydraulic Analysis
Features and Capabilities

• Dynamic radiation viewfactors Linear triangular faces (Tets, Wedges, Tri,


• Advection heat transfer: etc.)

• Variable mass flow energy balance Linear bar faces for 2D x/y elements

• Flow networks: Linear bar faces for axisymmetric elements

• Multiple parallel, series flow paths • Obstruction checking

• Coupled to thermal solution • Flagging of convex surfaces and non-


obstructions
• Pump, turbine, gravity head
• Multiple enclosures
• Ambient node
• Viewfactors reusable when material
properties change
• Adaptive integration order for improved
accuracy and reduced CPU time
• Collapsed radiation network option
• Diagnostic data
• Head loss in pipes, valves, bends, tees, • Direct geometry access from
orifices, check valves, plenums supported CAD systems
• Variable fluid properties • or Patran geometry creation
• Specified or calculated friction factor • Automatic meshing
(Moody's equation) • Apply thermal boundary conditions
Modeling Capabilities to geometry or FEM
• Flexibility in selection of
• Element library:
application regions at a point,
• 2D 3D and RZ bar elements within a volume, along an edge,
• 2D, 3D and RZ triangular elements across a face, through a solid or by
enveloping the complete model in a
• 2D, 3D and RZ quadrilateral elements
spatial field
• Non-spatial fields for time and
temperature dependent boundary
conditions definitions
• On-line context sensitive and
topical help
• Ability to share analysis model and
results with other Patran solver-
applications

Main Index
Chapter 1: Introduction 7
Features and Capabilities

• Patran Thermal Specific:


• Analysis environment selected
through an analysis preference
• Thermal material and element
properties forms
• Thermal microfunctions input data
forms
• Solution parameters forms with
appropriate defaults
• Problem setup and execution
control
• Complete Patran Thermal User’s
Guide online
TRASYS and NEVADA Interface

• Ability to output geometry and


material properties to TRASYS and
NEVADA
• Ability to translate orbital fluxes
and radiation couplings as input to
Patran Thermal
• Supports TRASYS articulating
components
SINDA Deck Capabilities

• SINDA 85 format
• SINDA/G (BCD) format
• Ready-to-run SINDA deck
• Includes radiation resistors
generated by viewfactor program
• Material properties automatically
loaded into Array Data
• Complete Constants Data and
Execution blocks

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8 Patran Thermal User’s Guide Volume 1: Thermal/Hydraulic Analysis
Features and Capabilities

• Thermal boundary conditions: • MSC Institute offers the PAT 312


• Time- and temperature-dependent point P/THERMAL class. Please call for
heat sources a class schedule.

• Time- and temperature-dependent • Documentation


volumetric heat sources • Patran Thermal User’s Guide (on-
• Time- and temperature-dependent surface line)
heat fluxes • Viewfactor code User’s Guide (on-
• Fixed or variable nodal temperatures line)

• Radiant surface properties • Deliverables

• 21-microfunction library for time- or • CD-ROM containing all required


temperature-dependent boundary files necessary to load and run
conditions Patran Thermal, plus example
problems
• User supplied subroutines
• User documentation
• Selectable physical units and output
• Complete installation instructions
• Unrestricted node numbering scheme
• Unlimited problem size (hardware limited only)
• STEP-TAS translator (SUN only)
Solution Features

• Solution algorithms:
• Unconditionally stable implicit predictor/
corrector method (Hughes)
• Explicit method (Euler)
• Strongly Nonlinear Point Successive Over
Relaxation equation solver for implicit
transient or steady-state calculations
• Direct solver and combined direct/
iterative solutions
• User-controlled parameters for fast
solutions of nearly linear problems
• Solution techniques:
• Optional automatic selection of implicit or
explicit solution on a node-by-node and
time step-by-time step basis
• Automatically calculates and updates
convergence acceleration parameters for
iterative solutions

Main Index
Chapter 1: Introduction 9
Features and Capabilities

• Convergence based on estimated


maximum temperature error
• Optional automatic modification of
calculation time step
• Restart option
User Preference

• Patran Specific:
• Intuitive forms driven interface

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10 Patran Thermal User’s Guide Volume 1: Thermal/Hydraulic Analysis
Features and Capabilities

• Exact FE to RC network translation based on


same method as Patran Thermal
• No reverse translator required for post-processing
with Patran
Results Evaluation Capabilities

• Results read and stored in Patran model database


• Results evaluation with Patran's extensive post-
processing capabilities:
• Contour and fringe display
• Time vs. temperature plots
• Isosurface plots
• Animation of results Output information:
• Nodal temperatures at selectable time
points
• Maximum explicit time step per node per
selected time point
• Net element heat fluxes at selectable time
steps
• Nodal heat sources and convection
coefficients at selectable time steps
• Detailed time history of selected nodes
• Optional program calculated parameters
including conduction, convection,
radiation and advection resistors,
capacitors and heat
• Temperatures may be automatically applied as
loads in other solver-applications
Configuration Requirements

• General requirements and configuration


information
• FORTRAN compiler required

Main Index
Chapter 1: Introduction 11
Features and Capabilities

• Optimum memory configuration varies


with problem size and complexity. Consult
your local Patran representative for your
particular configuration and application
needs as well as for supported computer
systems
• Approximate memory requirements
• Dynamically optimizes data array size
prior to execution
Support and Deliverables

• Hotline support Training:

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12 Patran Thermal User’s Guide Volume 1: Thermal/Hydraulic Analysis
Integration with Patran

Integration with Patran


Patran Thermal is a preference selection in Patran for creating a model to be analyzed by Patran Thermal,
the Patran thermal analysis module. The thermal model can be created and submitted directly from
Patran. Analysis results can then be read into the Patran database for postprocessing with the various
Patran tools or for sharing the results with other Patran applications.
When the Patran Thermal preference is set, forms specific to input data required by the Patran Thermal
module will appear under Loads/BCs, Element Properties, Materials, and Analysis. The User Preference
consists of the following:
• Element properties forms for defining properties of the elements in the model such as material,
shell thickness, etc.
• Loads/BCs forms for defining Temperature, Convection, Heat Flux, Volumetric Heat, View
factors, Pressure (hydraulic) and Mass Flow boundary conditions.
• Analysis form for defining solution type, parameters and job control.
• Materials form for defining material properties.
• General fields for defining Non-Spatial and Material Property functions.

If Full Run is set, the Apply selection in the Analysis form will create the appropriate interface files and
execute the solver. The interface files created include:
• A neutral file
• The analysis control files qin.dat and vf.ctl
• The script input for executing the model patq.inp
• The material properties file mat.dat
• The field definition file micro.dat

Note: Append files may be included in the same directory as the Patran database which will be
automatically added to each job submitted from the Analysis form. The supported append
files are: mat.dat.apnd, micro.dat.apnd, template.dat.apnd, and convec.dat.apnd.

Patran Thermal is designed to support the functionality in P/THERMAL 2.6, including the View factor
code, the new coupled thermal/hydraulic networks and creation of a SINDA input deck. Overall, users
will find Patran Thermal a much easier to use product without sacrificing the powerful capabilities of
P/THERMAL.

Main Index
Chapter 2: Getting Started
Patran Thermal User’s Guide Volume 1: Thermal/Hydraulic Analysis

2 Getting Started

J Objectives 14
J Model Description 15

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14 Patran Thermal User’s Guide Volume 1: Thermal/Hydraulic Analysis
Objectives

Objectives
This getting started tutorial goes through the basic steps in creating a Patran Thermal model, submitting
the analysis, and visualizing the results.
• Build a two-dimensional thermal model in Patran (Geometry and Finite Elements).
• Apply temperature, heat flux, nodal heat source, and convective boundary conditions.
• Apply elements properties.
• Create a run-ready analysis deck and spawn a thermal batch job.

Postprocess the results.

Important: For more information about module operation, with step-by-step instructions for various
types of thermal applications, see Reference Notes, 129.

Main Index
Chapter 2: Getting Started 15
Model Description

Model Description
In this exercise you will determine the steady-state temperature distribution in a 1m by 1m Aluminum
slab. The slab will be modeled in two dimensions. The loads and boundary conditions you will apply to
the model are shown in the figure below
.

Exercise Procedure
Accessing Patran
Step 1: In your xterm window, type patran to start Patran.
You should see various status messages being printed in the xterm window. After a short time,
the following Patran main form will appear.

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16 Patran Thermal User’s Guide Volume 1: Thermal/Hydraulic Analysis
Model Description

Initially, all selections within the main form are ghosted except the File selection. Typically
when an option does not pertain to the task you are performing, Patran ghosts that selection to
make it easier for you to choose the viable options. For example, move the cursor to the File
selection in the main form and click the left mouse button. In the pull-down menu that appears
(also shown below), the operations that do not pertain to manipulating databases are ghosted,
since the first thing you must do when starting Patran is access a database.

Next, select New from the pull-down menu.


To create a new database, type the name exercise_1.db under New Database Name, and click
OK. In a short time, you should see your graphics viewport open.

Main Index
Chapter 2: Getting Started 17
Model Description

Let’s stop for a moment to discuss the icons located in the main form. Notice the Patran
Heartbeat in the upper right-hand corner of the main form.

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18 Patran Thermal User’s Guide Volume 1: Thermal/Hydraulic Analysis
Model Description

The Heartbeat changes color to inform the user of Patran’s status.


If the Heartbeat is green, Patran is waiting for you to enter a command.
If the Heartbeat is blue, Patran is busy with an operation, but it can be interrupted by clicking
on the Patran Hand. The operation of the Hand is similar to “control” C (interrupt task).

If the Heartbeat is red, Patran is busy with an operation and cannot be interrupted. Typing or
mouse selections at this time will be ignored.
There are two more buttons in the upper right-hand corner of the main form. One is the Refresh
button (the paint brush) and the other is the Undo button (the eraser).

Main Index
Chapter 2: Getting Started 19
Model Description

The Refresh button repaints the model. After you delete something from the viewport
or pull menus over the viewport, the model might need repainting. If it does, press the
Refresh icon.
The Undo button can be used to undo most commands. Only the previous operation
can be undone by the Undo button.

The Interrupt button is used to stop Patran from completing the process in which it is
working. You can only use it when the heartbeat is blue. It will ask you to confirm the
interruption.

Step 2: After the database is opened, a New Model Preferences form will appear. Select the Default
Tolerance and change the Analysis Code to Patran Thermal. The completed form is shown
below for your reference.

Click on the OK button to close that form.


Selecting Patran Thermal causes Patran to customize the user interface forms to include
terminology pertaining to the Patran Thermal code.
Step 3: You will now create a patch that will represent the geometry of the plate. Click on the Geometry
toggle in the main form. When the Geometry form appears, set it to Create, Surface, and XYZ.

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20 Patran Thermal User’s Guide Volume 1: Thermal/Hydraulic Analysis
Model Description

The form’s default settings will create a 1 x 1 patch at the default global coordinate origin. Click
on Apply to create the patch. Your Geometry form and patch model should now look like the
ones shown below.

To turn on labels click on the Show Label icon. Use the Label Control icon to select specific
labels.
The number of geometric display lines can be changed on the Display -> Geometry and
specifying the number of lines desired.
Step 4: To create the finite element model, click on the Elements toggle in the main form. Set the
Action, Object, and Type pull-down options to Create, Mesh, and Surface. To mesh the patch
with a 5x5 mesh density (i.e., 4x4 elements), change the Global Edge Length to 0.25.
Select the Quad4 Element Topology. Since the patch you have created has four sides, choose
IsoMesh Mesher option.
When a surface has more than 4 edges, you must use the Paver Mesher option or you can
decompose the n-sided surface into subsurfaces containing no more than 4 edges and use the
IsoMesher.

Main Index
Chapter 2: Getting Started 21
Model Description

Click in the Surface List databox at the bottom of the Finite Elements form. Select Surface 1
and click on Apply to create the finite element mesh. Your completed Finite Elements form and
model should look like the ones shown below. Node 999 is created later.

Step 5: You will now define the model’s Element Properties. Click on the Properties toggle in the main
form.
When the Element Properties form appears set the Action, Dimension, and Type option menus,
to Create, 2D, and Thermal 2D. Enter the Property Set Name, Prop1.
Next, click on the Input Properties button. When the Input Properties form appears, you will
see the Material Name, Material Orientation-X, Material Orientation-Y, and Material
Orientation-Z databoxes. For this exercise, you will use the Patran Thermal material database.
Aluminum is the first material that occurs in the database (Material ID, MID=1). To use the
Aluminum Material, type 1 in the Material Name databox. The material is isotropic; therefore,
no directional data (material orientation angles) will be input to the form. The Element
Properties and Input Properties forms are shown below for your reference.

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22 Patran Thermal User’s Guide Volume 1: Thermal/Hydraulic Analysis
Model Description

Click on the OK button to close the Input Properties form.


You will now apply the element properties to your model. Click the Select Members listbox. At
the bottom of the screen, a select menu will appear. The icons represent selection filters that
allow you to assign the element properties to the geometry (left icon) or the finite elements
(right icon). Since the Dimension is set to 2D, you can select a surface or face of a solid if you
apply the properties to the geometry, or surface elements (e.g., triangle, quad) if you apply the
properties to the finite element model (FEM). Select Surface 1 with mouse and click on the Add
button to add this surface as the chosen application region.

Main Index
Chapter 2: Getting Started 23
Model Description

Click on the Apply button to create and assign the Element Properties to the model.
Step 6: In this step you will create a finite element node, next to, but not on your model. The node will
represent the model’s surrounding environment. In a later step, you will assign the
environmental (ambient) temperature to the node. This temperature is needed for the convective
film coefficient definition. Click on the Elements toggle in the main form. Set the Action,
Object, and Type option menus to Create, Node, and Edit. Change the Node ID List to 999.
This number is the ID of the next node to be created.

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24 Patran Thermal User’s Guide Volume 1: Thermal/Hydraulic Analysis
Model Description

Next, set the Associate with Geometry button off and click in the Node Location List databox.
In the select menu, highlight the right most icon, which allows you to select an arbitrary screen
position. Click in the graphics window at a position, next to, but not on the model to specify the
position of Node 999. Click on the Apply button to create the node. The completed Finite
Element form and model are shown below for your reference.

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Chapter 2: Getting Started 25
Model Description

Step 7: You will now assign the thermal boundary conditions for the model.

Temperature Boundary Conditions


Click on the Loads/BCs toggle in the main form. When the Loads/Boundary Conditions form appears
set the Action, Object and Type, respectively to Create, Temperature (P/Thermal), and Nodal. Set the
Option menu to Fixed.
Enter Temp1 as the New Set Name for this boundary condition. Click on the Input Data button, enter a
temperature of 300. The completed Input Data form is shown below.

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26 Patran Thermal User’s Guide Volume 1: Thermal/Hydraulic Analysis
Model Description

Click on the OK button to close the form. Next, click on the Select Application Region button. When
the Select Application Region form appears, set the Geometry Filter to Geometry and click in the Select
Geometry Entities databox. In the select menu, highlight the curve icon since you will now apply the
temperature to the left vertical edge of the patch. Click on the left vertical edge of the patch and Surface
1.1 will appear in the Select Geometry Entities box. Add this selection to the Application Region box.
The completed form is shown below.

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Chapter 2: Getting Started 27
Model Description

Click on the OK button to close the form. Click on the Apply button to create the temperature boundary
condition. Your model should now look similar to the one below.

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28 Patran Thermal User’s Guide Volume 1: Thermal/Hydraulic Analysis
Model Description

To apply the ambient temperature to Node 999, create a new temperature set named Temp2 with the
Option menu again set to Fixed. Enter a temperature of 300 in the Input Data form and click on the OK
button. In the Select Application Region, choose the FEM Geometry Filter. Click in the Select Nodes
databox and select Node 999 in the viewport. Add this node to the Application Region and click on the
OK button. The completed forms are shown below for your reference.

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Chapter 2: Getting Started 29
Model Description

Finally, click on the Apply button in the Loads/Boundary Conditions form to create the second
temperature boundary condition.

Nodal Heat Source Boundary Condition


Change the Object pull-down menu on the Loads/Boundary Conditions form to Heating (PThermal).
Change the Option menu to Nodal Source. Enter a New Set Name, Nodal_Heat, and input 1000 for the
heat source value. Do not input a value for the Template ID. This value is used to identify a user-defined
macro function that can be used to define a varying heat source. Assign the heat source to the center node
of your model (Node 13). The completed forms are shown below for your reference. Click the Apply
button to create the boundary condition.

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30 Patran Thermal User’s Guide Volume 1: Thermal/Hydraulic Analysis
Model Description

Convective Heat Transfer Boundary Condition


Set the Object and Type option menus on the Loads⁄Boundary Conditions form to Convection (Patran
Thermal) and Element Uniform. Set the Option menu to Use Correlations. Enter the New Set Name,
Convection, and change the Target Element Type to 2D. Click on the Input Data button and enter 13.5
for the Convection Coefficient and specify the Fluid Node ID as Node 999. Click on the OK button to
close the Input Data form. Next, click on the Select Application Region button, set the Geometry Filter
to Geometry and highlight the edge icon. Apply the convection boundary condition to the right vertical
edge (Edge 3) of the surface. The completed forms are shown below for your reference.

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Chapter 2: Getting Started 31
Model Description

Step 8: You are now finished defining your analysis model. In this step, you will submit the job for
analysis.
Click on the Analysis toggle on the main form. In the Analysis form that appears. The job name
is assigned the database name and the job description references the session file used to create
the model at the time of construction. Go ahead and change these to something more meaningful
if desired. Click on the Translation Parameters button. The following Patran Thermal
Translation Parameters form will appear.

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32 Patran Thermal User’s Guide Volume 1: Thermal/Hydraulic Analysis
Model Description

The default model dimensionality is 2D and the file to extract undefined materials is
mpidmks.bin. To use these default settings, click on the OK button at the bottom of the form.
You will also use the default setting found in the Solution Type, Solution Parameters, Output
Requests, and Submit Options forms. If you would like to inspect these forms, feel free to do so
but do not change the default settings.
To submit the analysis run, click on the Apply button at the bottom of the Analysis form. Patran
Thermal will create the jobname directory (exercise_1 if you did not change it) and spawn the
Patran Thermal job.
Patran Thermal will create a subdirectory with the job name exercise_1 containing the data
files, message files and the results file for this analysis. If you would like to check the status,
open a new window and look at the contents of the exercise_1/patq.msg.01 file. If
there is a stat.bin file present, you can check the progress of the solution convergence by
typing in this shell the command:
% qstat

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Chapter 2: Getting Started 33
Model Description

By selecting Thermal Tools as the action on the analysis menu, you can obtain an interactive
XY plot of the convergence status as the job is being executed.
Step 9: After the job is complete (this job takes less than a minute), change the Action pull-down option
menu on the top of the Analysis form to Read Results. Next, click on the Select Results file
button. When the Select File form appears, select the subdirectory for the job just submitted by
double clicking the appropriate path:
... ./exercise_1/*.nrf*
Update the Available Files list by clicking on the Filter button. Highlight the file, nr0.nrf.01, in
the Available Files list. Your edited Select File form should now look like the one shown below.

Click on the OK button to close that form.


Step 10: A result template file is necessary to define the nodal results being read back into PATRAN.
One is created and placed in the same subdirectory that job was executed thus it is not necessary
to select one. If it is desired to use something other than the originally created default do the
following. The Select Rslt Template File button in the Analysis form. Move the Files scroll
button to the bottom and select the pthermal_nod_T.res_tmpl results template file. The form
is shown below for your reference.

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Model Description

Click on the OK button to close that form.


Finally, click on the Apply button on the bottom of the Analysis form to cause Patran to read in
the analysis results.
Step 11: To display the temperature distribution across the aluminum plate, click on the Results button
in the main form.
When the Results Display form appears and the only results case will be highlighted. Select the
result it is desired to plot and click on the Apply button to render the plot. Your temperature
distribution should now look similar to the one shown below.

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Chapter 2: Getting Started 35
Model Description

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36 Patran Thermal User’s Guide Volume 1: Thermal/Hydraulic Analysis
Model Description

Main Index
Chapter 3: Building A Model
Patran Thermal User’s Guide Volume 1: Thermal/Hydraulic Analysis

3 Building A Model

J Introduction to Building a Model 38


J Geometry Modeling 41
J
Fields Form 42
J Material Library 48
J Element Properties 53
J Input Properties 58
J Loads and Boundary Conditions 105
J
Load Cases 126

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38 Patran Thermal User’s Guide Volume 1: Thermal/Hydraulic Analysis
Introduction to Building a Model

Introduction to Building a Model


There are many aspects to building a finite element analysis model. In several cases, the forms used to
create the finite element data are dependent on the selected analysis code and analysis type. Other parts
of the model are created using standard forms.
Under Preferences, on the Patran main form, is a selection for Analysis. Analysis Settings defines the
intended analysis code which is to be used for this model.

The Analysis Code Selection may be changed at any time during model creation. As much data as
possible will be converted if the analysis code is changed, after the modeling process has already begun.
The setting of this option defines what will be presented to the user, in several areas, during the
subsequent modeling steps. For more details, see Analysis Form (Ch. 5) in the Patran Thermal User’s
Guide Volume 1: Thermal/Hydraulic Analysis.

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Chapter 3: Building A Model 39
Introduction to Building a Model

Overall Analysis Structure


Patran Thermal produces files that are compatible with the P/THERMAL solver. This includes a neutral
file, the analysis control files qin.dat and vf.ctl, and the script for executing the model
patq.inp. The script can be executed locally from within Patran, producing the input data files and
invoking the solver. Alternately, the files may be moved to a different platform where P/THERMAL
resides for execution. With P/THERMAL, multiple jobs can be created from the same Patran database.
The model files will appear in subdirectories named with the jobname that was entered in the Analysis
form.
For a model whose boundary conditions do not point to a template ID and which references a material in
the P/THERMAL materials library (971-members), Patran Thermal can create the model, submit it for
execution, and postprocess results directly from Patran, without having to invoke the text editor. In
general, the user will only have to utilize the text editor if the model has time/temperature dependent BCs,
view factors, or require user subroutines.

Material Definition
In this release of Patran Thermal, materials must be specified as a number (e.g., 18 or m:18) or by a name
(e.g., steel). The materials set is created when the number or name is entered in the Element Properties
form. The material number refers to a material ID in the template.dat file. If a definition is not found
in the local template corresponding to the material number and the material number is in the range 1 to
971, P/THERMAL will use the MID Template delivered with the solver and load the temperature
dependent material properties. The material IDs associated with the database delivered with the module
can be found in Mid Templates Supplied in Templatebin and Templatetxt (App. B) in the Patran Thermal
User’s Guide Volume 1: Thermal/Hydraulic Analysis.

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40 Patran Thermal User’s Guide Volume 1: Thermal/Hydraulic Analysis
Introduction to Building a Model

If a material is specified in the element properties form by a name, the names are added to the Material
Sets and will be numbered at translation time sequentially in the order they were created. For example,
if the materials set created by defining materials under Element Properties are given the names
Zirconium, Steel and Carbon-Felt, they will be assigned MID numbers 1, 2 and 3, respectively. These
MIDs must be further defined in the MID Template since these materials do not correspond to the MID
templates supplied with the module.

Important: Do not mix material names and material numbers.

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Chapter 3: Building A Model 41
Geometry Modeling

Geometry Modeling
Building the geometry for a thermal model with Patran is nearly identical to the procedure that is used to
build a structural model, and in many cases the geometry can be shared between these two applications.
As in other Patran applications, geometry can be directly accessed through Working with Files (Ch. 4) in
the Patran Reference Manual (SGM), or created with the Create Actions (Ch. 4) in the Geometry
Modeling - Reference Manual Part 2. Besides the part being modeled, occasionally additional geometry
is required in the thermal model to represent the advection and hydraulics network, or for use in
specifying symmetry planes for the Viewfactor code.

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42 Patran Thermal User’s Guide Volume 1: Thermal/Hydraulic Analysis
Fields Form

Fields Form
The Fields form will appear when the Fields toggle, located on the Patran application switch, is chosen.
The selections made on the Materials menu will determine which material form appears.
The following pages give an introduction to the Fields form, and details of all the fields definitions
supported by the Patran Thermal Application Preference.

The functions on the Fields menu are listed and described below in the order in which they appear on the
menu.

Action Object Options


Create... • Spatial PCL Function

Tabular Input

General

FEM
• Material Property General
• Non Spatial General

Note: Non -Spatial/Tabular Input Fields are not supported by Patran Thermal.

Fields Create
The Fields form is used to create Spatial, Non Spatial and Material Property fields.

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Chapter 3: Building A Model 43
Fields Form

Caution: The field is not created until Apply is selected. Wait for the new field name to appear in the
Existing Fields databox after selecting Apply.

Material Property/General Fields


This form is used to compose the function defining a General Field. The only Function Term Type for
Patran Thermal is Patran Functions.

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44 Patran Thermal User’s Guide Volume 1: Thermal/Hydraulic Analysis
Fields Form

Caution: This button works only for terms which are functions (terms preceded by an integer prefix).
Attempting to modify terms which are functions in the text box via the keyboard will result
in an error.

Note: Although Material Property/Tabular Input is supported by Patran Thermal for defining
Materials, the General Method provides more flexibility such as temperature units
conversions and is the recommended approach.

Define Material Property


This form is used to enter all the appropriate data to define the material property. The form header
displays what kind of function was selected. At the top of the form the mathematical expression (if
appropriate) and a description of the function is displayed. Material Property Fields show up as selectable
fields in the listbox in the Materials Input Data form. They can also be referenced in external files such
as template.dat or in user-routines by the MPID number given on this form. When a Patran Thermal
job is submitted, the data entered on this form is written to the mat.dat file in the <jobname> sub-
directory.

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Chapter 3: Building A Model 45
Fields Form

Non Spatial/General Fields


This form is used to compose the function defining a General field. The only Function Term Type for
Patran Thermal is Patran Functions. Non-Spatial/General Fields are referenced by MACRO templates
(p. 685) in the external file template.dat (currently they cannot be assigned from the Patran session).
When a Patran Thermal job is submitted, the data entered on this form is written to the micro.dat file
in the <jobname> sub-directory.

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46 Patran Thermal User’s Guide Volume 1: Thermal/Hydraulic Analysis
Fields Form

Caution: This button works only for terms which are functions (terms preceded by an integer prefix).
Attempting to modify terms which are functions in the text box via the keyboard will result
in an error.

Note: Patran Thermal does not support Non-Spatial/Tabular Fields. Use only Non-
Spatial/General Fields.

Define Non Spatial


This form is used to enter all the microfunction data to define a Non Spatial field. The form, header
displays what kind of microfunction was selected. At the top of the form the function is displayed
graphically or in a mathematical expression (if appropriate), and a description of the microfunction is
given.

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Chapter 3: Building A Model 47
Fields Form

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48 Patran Thermal User’s Guide Volume 1: Thermal/Hydraulic Analysis
Material Library

Material Library
Patran Thermal provides three ways to define material properties:
• Define the material properties under Materials/Manual Input/Thermal Properties constituative
model. The properties data is entered as values which can be a constant, or a time or temperature
dependent field.
• Reference Patran Thermal’s 971-member library of materials delivered with Patran Thermal.
This Materials Library (p. 602) contains temperature dependent properties in units of SI, Inch-
Lbm-Seconds, Foot-Lbm-Hours, and Centimeter-Gram-Seconds. To access the materials library,
use an MID number between 1 and 971 for the Material Name, and do not define any Input
Properties. The materials database in the desired units is selected in the Analysis/ Translation
Parameters Form. The Patran Thermal materials library can also be accessed with the Material
Selector method if Patran Material Selector is available.

Important: Do not mix material names (“Stainless”) and material numbers (“1”) in the model if
referencing the Patran Thermal Material Library. A material name such as Cres.347 will
be interpreted as MID 347.

• If the material properties data exists in a <jobname>/mat.dat file or local


mat.dat.apnd file, they can be referenced under Materials/Manual Input/Thermal Templates
constituative model. The Input Data entered are the Material Property IDs (MPID) that
correspond to the mat.dat or mat.dat.apnd file. Patran Thermal will automatically
create the template.dat file, residing in the jobname subdirectory with the MPIDs pointers
into the mat.dat file.
Material forms appear when the Materials toggle is chosen.

This form appears when Materials is selected on the main menu. The Materials form is used to provide
options to create the various Patran Thermal materials.

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Chapter 3: Building A Model 49
Material Library

Important:Do not mix material names (“Stainless”) and material numbers (“1”) in the model. A
Material Name such as Cres.347 will be interpreted as MID 347.

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50 Patran Thermal User’s Guide Volume 1: Thermal/Hydraulic Analysis
Material Library

Patran Thermal Properties


Object Method Option
Isotropic Manual Input Patran Thermal Properties

3D Orthotropic

The properties list under Property Name can be input as a number or can be selected from the Material
Property fields created under the Fields menu. These thermal properties are translated into a mat.dat
file (residing in the <jobname> subdirectory).
All Material Property defined in the Fields menu will be translated to the mat.dat file. Also, any
material properties constant data entered in the Materials Input Data form is written to the mat.dat file.
If a number has been specified for the material name, it will be used by Patran Thermal as the MID and
the material property will have a suffix added to it for the MPID. If a name is used to define the material,
the next available MID (plus an offset of 1000 to prevent conflicts with the Patran Thermal materials
database) will be used. An MID template is automatically created in the template.dat file located in
the <jobname> subdirectory for all the materials defined from within Patran.

Caution: A material name such as cres.345 will be interpreted as MID 345. Do not mix an MID
number (e.g., 1) and a name (e.g., stainless) in the same database.

If a mat.dat.apnd or template.dat.appd. file is found in the directory where Patran is being


executed, it will be appended to the corresponding file in the <jobname> subdirectory. This is an
effective way of incorporating auxiliary data to the job being submitted. Care must be taken not to create
conflicts between appended files and those generated by Patran.

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Chapter 3: Building A Model 51
Material Library

Important:When the analysis is submitted, Patran Thermal will automatically create the necessary
entries in the <jobname>/template.dat and mat.dat files.

Patran Thermal Templates


Object Method Option
Isotropic Manual Input Patran Thermal Templates

3D Orthotropic

The following form is used to input the Material Property IDs for the thermal properties.

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Material Library

Important:When the analysis is submitted, Patran Thermal will automatically create the necessary
MID template entry in the <jobname>/template.dat file.

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53
Element Properties

Patran Thermal User’s Guide Volume 1:


Thermal/Hydraulic Analysis

Element Properties
By choosing the Element Properties toggle, located on the application switch for Patran, an Element
Properties form will appear. When creating element properties, several option menus are available. The
selections made in these option menus will determine which element property form is presented, and
ultimately, which Patran Thermal element will be created.
The standard Patran Finite Element methods are used for generating elements in the thermal model. The
elements supported by Patran Thermal are detailed in the following subsections. Only linear elements
are currently supported by Patran Thermal. These include linear bars, triangles, quadrilaterals,
tetrahedrons, wedges, and hexahedrons.
Conductive elements must have a material ID (MID) or material name assigned. This Patran MID
number corresponds to a material property template.
Material orientation angle information may be optionally assigned for 2-D and 3-D elements. The
material angles are referred to as Axis-1ROT, Axis-2ROT, and Axis-3ROT. These angles may be specified
relative to the global system, an alternate coordinate system, or the elemental coordinate system. The
material orientation system and angular values are used to transform the orientation of the element
material's principal axes system relative to the global X, Y, and Z system. For a rectangular coordinate
system, the material's principal axes system is rotated within the specified coordinate frame first about
the X, then about the new Y axis after XROT, and finally about the new Z axes by angular values of
XROT, YROT, and ZROT degrees. These angles may reference a spatial field. Similarly, in the case of a
cylindrical coordinate system the rotations are about R, T, and Z. In referencing a cylindrical coordinate
system, the default for an orthotropic material is Kxx along axis-1 (Radial), Kyy along axis-2 (Theta) and
Kzz along axis-3 (Z).
Note that 2-D Cartesian elements rotate only about the Z-axis, while 2-D axisymmetric elements rotate
about an axis given as the cross product of the R and Z axes. Orthotropic material orientation can be
visualized under the Element Properties Show action. Examples of element properties definitions for
orthotropic materials orientations are included under the 2-D shell and 3-D solid element properties
definition forms.
The Element Property forms are also used to supply element thickness information for 2-D shell elements
(bars) and 3-D shell elements (triangles and quadrilaterals), as well as providing Geometric Property
(GP) data for convective quadrilateral elements. More specific information is given in the following
subsections.
The following pages give an introduction to the Element Properties form, followed by the details of all
the element property definitions supported by Patran Thermal.

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54 Patran Thermal User’s Guide Volume 1: Thermal/Hydraulic Analysis
Element Properties

Element Properties Form


When Element Properties application is selected on the Patran main form, the form below is displayed.
Option menus on this form are used to determine which Patran Thermal element types are to be created
and which property forms are to be displayed. The individual property forms are documented later in this
section. The full functionality of the Element Properties form is documented in the Patran Reference
Manual. See Element Properties Application (Ch. 3) in the Patran Reference Manual.

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55
Element Properties

The following table shows the allowable selections for all option menus for Patran Thermal.

Dimension Type Option 1 Option 2


0D • Node Type
1D • Conduction bar • Bar with capacitance
• Bar w/o capacitance
• Scaled Bar Element
• 3D Conduction Bar

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Element Properties

Dimension Type Option 1 Option 2


• Scaled 3D Conduction Bar
• Conductor
• Advection bar
• Flow network bar • Flow network pipe • Constant Mtrl Prop
• Const Mtrl Props
w/moody curve
• Variable Mtrl Props
• Turbine element
• Pump element
• Check valve element
• Head loss element
• Plenum element
• Radiation symmetry
bar
• Axisymmetric Bar • Full 360 Rotation
• Specified Degs of Rotation
• Rad sym bar
Reflection
• Thermal 2D Bar
• 2D • Shell • Shell
• Scaled Shell Element
• Thermal 2D
• Thermal • Full 360 Rotation
Axisymmetric • Specified Degs of Rotation
• Radiation symmetry
tri
• Convective Quad
• 3D • Thermal 3D Solid • FE hex, tet, wedge
• Finite diff hex
• Scaled FE hex,tet,wedge
• Convective
Hex/Wedge

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Element Properties

Properties Show Material Orientations


The material orientations that will be passed to Patran Thermal can be visualized under Properties Show
action.

Note: The displayed labels can be set under the main menu Display- Load/BC/Elem Prop

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58 Patran Thermal User’s Guide Volume 1: Thermal/Hydraulic Analysis
Input Properties

Input Properties

Input Properties Form


Node Type
This form appears when the Input Properties button is selected on the Element Properties form and the
following options have been applied.

Analysis Type Dimension Type Option(s) Topologies


Thermal 0D Node type none Point

This is a point element used to define the type of node.

Note: This 0D element replaces the functionality of type “F” and “I” nodes in PATRAN 2.5.

Bar Elements
Patran Thermal uses bar elements for the following purposes:

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Input Properties

• Conduction with capacitance generation


• Conduction without capacitance generation
• 3D Conductors without orientation
• Conductors with specified values
• Advection
• Specifying radiation symmetry conditions for the VIEWFACTOR code

2-D Thermal Conductive Bar Elements


In 2-D Cartesian (X-Y) space, conductive bars actually represent 2-D shell elements Figure 4-1. The shell
elements are by definition (and in accordance with standard finite element practice) assumed to be of unit
depth in the Z direction. Using the 2-D bar elements as “shells” allows them to be used in conjunction
with surface area boundary conditions such as convection, radiation, and heat fluxes. 2-D Cartesian
elements must be built in the Patran X-Y plane.
Conduction bars will generate conductive resistors between the two-end nodes of the bar and will also
generate capacitors for each node. These bars must be element property data consisting of the following:
• MID Template for the bar material
• Thickness at node 1 of the bar
• Thickness at node 2 of the bar

Figure 4-1 2-D Cartesian (X-Y) Element Demonstrating Unit Depth in the Z Direction

The two thickness values allow for a linear variation of thickness along the bar axis. The average
thickness is used (along with the assumption of unit depth along the Z-axis) to compute an effective
cross-sectional area for the thermal resistors, and the distance between the bar nodes is used to compute

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Input Properties

an effective length. Capacitance volumes are computed based on the linear variation of thickness
assumption coupled with the half-length of the bar.
Conduction bar elements, without capacitance for 2-D Cartesian models, are similar, except that no
capacitors are generated.
Conductive bar elements will be interpreted as 2-D Cartesian when the Model Dimensionality has been
specified as 2-D Plane Geometry under Analysis/ Translation Parameters.

Conduction Bar
This form appears when the Input Properties button is selected on the Element Properties form and the
following options have been applied.

Analysis Type Dimension Type Option(s) Topologies


Thermal 1D Conduction Bar Bar with capacitance Bar/2

Bar without capacitance

Scaled Bar Element

3D Conduction Bar

Scaled 3D Conduction Bar

Conductor

This bar element is used to define conduction heat transfer.

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Input Properties

Advection Bar
Advection is the transport of heat energy by a mass flow stream. Advection bars generate advective
resistors and no capacitors. These data items consist of the following:
• CPMPID for specific heat material property ID (Cp)

• A constant mass flow rate or mass flow rate multiplier (MDOTC)


• An optional MPID that may be used to specify variable mass flow rates

If no MPID number is given for the variable mass flow rate, the constant MDOTC will be taken as the
constant mass flow rate for the advective bar and for the resulting QTRAN advective resistors. If the
optional MPID number for a variable mass flow rate is also given, then the MDOTC value is used as a
scale factor and the effective mass flow rate is computed from the product of the MPID's value and
MDOTC.
Mass flow is considered positive in the direction of element node 1 to element node 2, and negative from
element node 2 to element node 1.

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Input Properties

Note: Advection moves energy from one node to another and quasi steady state is implicit in this
formulation. If transient analysis is to be performed, conduction bars need to be assigned
parallel to the advection bars so the internal energy in each fluid node is properly modelled.

This form appears when the Input Properties button is selected on the Element Properties form and the
following options have been applied.

Analysis Type Dimension Type Option(s) Topologies


Thermal 1D Advection Bar none Bar/2

This bar element is used to define the flow of a fluid when the mass flow rate is known.

Note: The MPID is an integer number referring to a user-defined MPID in the mat.dat file or to a
Material Property/General Fields, 43 with this MPID number in the Input Data Form.

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Input Properties

Flow Network Bar-Pipe


Flow networks transport head energy by a mass flow stream. The mass flow rates are computed by Patran
Thermal in flow network resistors, unlike advective resistors where mass flow rates are input by the user.
Flow network bars generate “one way” flow resistors and no capacitors. These elements must be assigned
element properties and the data field varies with the option selected for the element (tube, pump, turbine,
check valve, plenum, etc.). These options and the correspondent data fields are given below.
This form appears when the Input Properties button is selected on the Element Properties form and the
following options have been applied.

Analysis Type Dimension Type Option(s) Topologies


Thermal 1D Flow network Flow network pipe/ Bar/2
bar Constant property pipe

Constant property pipe with


moody curve

Variable property pipe

This is a Flow Network Bar used for the hydraulics analysis.

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Input Properties

Input required for the various options available for Flow Network Pipe.

Option Description
Property Name Constant Property with Moody Curve Variable Property
[TID] Supply a non-zero dummy TID value. Pointer to FLUID Template
ID in template.dat.
IOPT Enter a 1. Enter a 2. Enter a 3.
[Pipe diameter] Hydraulic diameter of the flow passage defined as 4*CSArea/wetted
perimeter. (For a circular cross section, hydraulic diameter=physical
diameter). If diameter is not specified, it will be calculated using the cross-
sectional area and wetted perimeter specified below.
[Pipe c.s. area] Cross-section area of the flow passage. If not specified it will be calculated
assuming a circular cross section and specified diameter.
[Pipe perimeter] Wetted perimeter of the flow passage. If it is not specified, it is calculated
assuming a circular cross section.

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Input Properties

Option Description
Property Name Constant Property with Moody Curve Variable Property
[Pipe length] The length of the bar element. If it is not specified, it will be calculated as the
straight line distance between the end nodes of the bar element.
[Pipe roughness] Surface roughness of the tube or the flow passage.
[Head loss coeff] Head loss coefficient to account for minor A scale factor to the
losses in the flow network, e.g., losses in bends, MPID_LOSS_COEF
tees, valves, sudden expansion/contractions, material property in the
etc. FLUID Template.
[Fluid density] Specific weight (F/L3), dynamic viscosity Fluid density
(M/LT) and specific heat of the fluid flowing (MPID_RHO), viscosity
[Fluid viscosity] through the network. Must be consistent with (MPID_MU) and specific
the units that are used to solve the thermal heat (MPID_CP) are
[Specific Heat] defined in the FLUID
problem. If applicable to the system of units,
Patran Thermal will convert specific weight to template.*
mass-density based on the ICCALC flag.
[Friction factor]* Friction factor used to [not present for this Scale factor to the MPID_F
calculate the head loss option]. Patran material property defined in
due to flow. Thermal will compute the FLUID template.
the friction factor from
Moody’s chart. Note: A zero
MPID_F
activates the
Moody
equation.
[Coeff thermal Coefficient of thermal expansion used in Thermal expansion
expansion] calculation of buoyancy head. coefficient is defined with
an MPID_BETA material
note: Gravitational constant and direction is property in FLUID
specified under Hydraulic Run Control template. *
Parameters.
* a dummy value must be entered for these parameters.

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Input Properties

Template Definition For Option 3


FLUID TID #MPID's IOPT
MPID_RHO MPID_MU MPID_CP
MPID_LOSS_COEFF MPID_BETA MPID_F

FLUID Template record type.


TID User template ID. A nonzero value which couples the Element Property
record to the information referenced in the template file.
MPID_RHO Material property ID which references the specific weight of the fluid flowing
through the flow network (units of F/L3). Specific weight must be consistent
with the units that are used to solve the thermal problem. If applicable to the
system of units, Patran Thermal will convert specific weight to mass-density
based on the ICCALC flag.
MPID_MU Material property ID which references the dynamic viscosity of the fluid
flowing through the network (units = M/LT).
MPID_CP Material property ID which references the specific heat of the fluid flowing
through the network.
MPID_LOSS_COEF Material property ID which defines a variable Head Loss Coefficient
F
MPID_BETA Material property ID which references the coefficient of thermal expansion
used in calculating the buoyancy head (g * HBETA * DT).
MPID_F Material property ID which references the friction factor used to calculate the
head loss due to flow in a tube. If not specified, friction factor is calculated
with Moody's equation.

Flow Network Bar-Turbine


This form appears when the Input Properties button is selected on the Element Properties form and the
following options have been applied.

Analysis Type Dimension Type Option(s) Topologies


Thermal 1D Flow network bar Turbine element Bar/2

This element is used to define a turbine in a flow network.

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Input Properties

Input required for the options available for Turbine.

Option Description

Property Name Constant Property Variable Property

[TID] Supply a non-zero dummy Pointer to FLUID Template ID in


TID value. template.dat.

IOPT Enter a 6. Enter a 7.

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Input Properties

Option Description

Property Name Constant Property Variable Property

[Fluid density] Specific weight (F/L3), Fluid density (MPID_RHO), viscosity


dynamic viscosity (M/LT) (MPID_MU) and specific heat
[Fluid viscosity] and specific heat of the fluid (MPID_CP) are defined in the FLUID
flowing through the network. template. A dummy value must be entered
[Specific Heat] on the form.
Must be consistent with the
units that are used to solve
the thermal problem. If
applicable to the system of
units, Patran Thermal will
convert specific weight to
mass-density based on the
ICCALC flag.

[Turbine head] Constant turbine head, Turbine head is defined with an


cannot go positive. MPID_HEAD material property in the
FLUID template. The independent variable
for head can be time or flowrate. A dummy
value must be entered on this form.

Note: For head vs flowrate, select the


independent variable
ITSCALE in the MPID as
“temperature” in the same units
as solution temperature units,
ICCALC flag.

Template Definition for Option 7


FLUID TID #MPID's IOPT
MPID_RHO MPID_MU MPID_CP
MPID_HEAD

FLUID Template record type.


TID User template ID. A nonzero value which couples the Element Property record to the
information referenced in the template file.
MPID_RHO Material property ID which references the specific weight of the fluid flowing
through the flow network (units of F/L3). Specific weight must be consistent with the
units that are used to solve the thermal problem. If applicable to the system of units,
Patran Thermal will convert specific weight to mass-density based on the ICCALC
flag.

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Input Properties

MPID_MU Material property ID which references the dynamic viscosity of the fluid flowing
through the network (units = M/LT).
MPID_CP Material property ID which references the specific heat of the fluid flowing through
the network.
MPID_HEAD Turbine head as function of time or flow rate.

Note: Turbine head can be a function of time or flow rate. For independent
variable of flow rate, build the MPID as if it were “temperature”
dependent in the same ITSCAL units as the solution temperature units,
ICCALC.

Flow Network Bar-Pump


This form appears when the Input Properties button is selected on the Element Properties form and the
following options have been applied.

Analysis Type Dimension Type Option(s) Topologies


Thermal 1D Flow network bar Pump element Bar/2

This element is used to define a pump in a flow network.

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Input Properties

Input required for the options available for Pump.

Option Description
Property Name Constant Property Variable Property
[TID] Supply a non-zero dummy Pointer to FLUID Template ID in
TID value. template.dat.
IOPT Enter a 4.+ Enter a 5.

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Input Properties

Option Description
Property Name Constant Property Variable Property
[Fluid density] Specific weight (F/L3), Fluid density (MPID_RHO), viscosity
dynamic viscosity (M/LT) and (MPID_MU) and specific heat (MPID_CP)
[Fluid viscosity] specific heat of the fluid are defined in the FLUID template. A
flowing through the network. dummy value must be entered on the form.
[Specific Heat]
Must be consistent with the
units that are used to solve the
thermal problem. If applicable
to the system of units, Patran
Thermal will convert specific
weight to mass-density based
on the ICCALC flag.
[Turbine head] Constant pump head, cannot Pump head is defined with an MPID_HEAD
go negative. material property in the FLUID template.
The independent variable for head can be
time or flowrate. A dummy value must be
entered on this form.

Note: For head vs flowrate, select


the independent variable
ITSCALE in the MPID as
“temperature” in the same
units as solution temperature
units, ICCALC flag.

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Input Properties

Template Definition for Option 5


FLUID TID MPID's IOPT
MPID_RHO MPID_MU MPID_CP
MPID_HEAD

FLUID Template record type.


TID User template ID. A nonzero value which couples the Element Property record
to the information referenced in the template file.
MPID_RHO Material property ID which references the specific weight of the fluid flowing
through the flow network (units of F/L3). Specific weight must be consistent
with the units that are used to solve the thermal problem. If applicable to the
system of units, Patran Thermal will convert specific weight to mass-density
based on the ICCALC flag.
MPID_MU Material property ID which references the dynamic viscosity of the fluid flowing
through the network (units = M/LT).
MPID_CP Material property ID which references the specific heat of the fluid flowing
through the network.
MPID_HEAD Pump head as function of time or flow rate.

Note: Pump head can be a function of time or flow rate. For independent
variable of flow rate, build the MPID as if it were “temperature”
dependent in the same ITSCAL units as the solution temperature
units, ICCALC.

Flow Network Bar-Check Valve


This form appears when the Input Properties button is selected on the Element Properties form and the
following options have been applied.

Analysis Type Dimension Type Option(s) Topologies


Thermal 1D Flow network bar Check Valve element Bar/2

This element defines a check valve in the flow network. A flow reversal would close the valve.

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Input Properties

This is a list of data input available for creating the flow network bar element, which were not shown on
the previous page. Use the scroll bars to view these properties.

Property Name Description


[Pipe roughness] Enter pipe roughness.
[Head loss coeff] Enter the head loss coefficient. This can represent head loss in pipe
bends, valves, fittings, etc.
[Fluid density] Enter the constant fluid density, viscosity, specific head. If the fluid
density or viscosity or specific heat are not constants, they have to
[Fluid viscosity] be defined with MPIDs in the template and the data input on this
form is ignored. However, some dummy data has to be entered.
[Specific Heat]
[Coeff thermal expansion] Enter coefficient of thermal expansion.

Option 9, CHECK VALVE, constant physical and material properties for fluid flow in a tube. One way
flow. If the fluid flow is not from NODE1 to NODE2, the diameter becomes zero (0.0). Friction factor is
evaluated by Patran Thermal using Moody’s equation.

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Input Properties

TID A dummy ID, not used by Patran Thermal flow network. Supply a nonzero
dummy TID. No template record required.
IOPT The option chosen for the flow bar element. IOPT = 9.
DIAM A hydraulic diameter of the flow passage defined as 4 * CSArea / wetted
perimeter. (For a circular cross section hydraulic diameter = physical diameter.)
If diameter is not specified, it will be calculated using the cross sectional area
and wetted perimeter.
CSAA Cross sectional area of the flow passage. If it is not specified, it will be calculated
assuming a circular cross sectional and specified diameter.
PERIM Wetted perimeter of the flow passage. If it is not specified, it is calculated
assuming a circular cross section.
LENGTH The length of the bar element. If it is not specified, it will be calculated as the
straight line distance between the end nodes of the bar element.
ROUGHNESS Surface roughness of the tube or the flow passage.
LOSS_COEFF Head loss coefficient to account for minor losses in the flow network, e.g. losses
in bends, tees, values, sudden expansion/contraction, etc.
DENSITY The specific weight of the fluid flowing through the flow network (units of
F/L3). Specific weight must be consistent with the units that are used to solve
the thermal problem. If applicable to the system of units, Patran Thermal will
convert specific weight to mass-density based on the ICCALC flag.
VISCOSITY Dynamic viscosity of the fluid flowing through the network (units = M/LT).
SPECIFIC_HEAT Specific heat of the fluid flowing through the network.
HBETA Is the coefficient of THERMAL expansion used in calculation of buoyancy head
(g * HBETA * DT).

Option 10, CHECK VALVE, constant physical and variable material properties for fluid flow in a tube.
One way flow. If the fluid flow is not from NODE1 to NODE2, the diameter becomes zero ( 0.0 ).
Material properties defined with MPID's. Requires template definition.

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Input Properties

TID User template ID. A nonzero value which couples the PFEG record to the
information referenced in the template file.
IOPT The option chosen for the flow bar element. IOPT = 10.
DIAM A hydraulic diameter of the flow passage defined as 4 * CSArea / wetted
perimeter. (For a circular cross section hydraulic diameter = physical diameter.)
If diameter is not specified, it will be calculated using the cross sectional area
and wetted perimeter.
CSAA Cross sectional area of the flow passage. If it is not specified, it will be calculated
assuming a circular cross sectional and specified diameter.
PERIM Wetted perimeter of the flow passage. If it is not specified, it is calculated
assuming a circular cross section.
LENGTH The length of the bar element. If it is not specified, it will be calculated as the
straight line distance between the end nodes of the bar element.
ROUGHNESS Surface roughness of the tube or the flow passage.
LOSS_COEFF Head loss coefficient to account for minor losses in the flow network, e.g., losses
in bends, tees, values, sudden expansion/contraction, etc. This loss coefficient
becomes a scale factor and is used as a multiplier to the value return from the
MPID_LOSS_COEFF material property.

Template Definition:
FLUID TID MPID's IOPT
MPID_RHO MPID_MU MPID_CP
MPID_LOSS_COEFF MPID_BETA MPID_F

FLUID Template record type.


TID User template ID. A nonzero value which couples the Element Property
record to the information referenced in the template file.
MPID_RHO Material property ID which references the specific weight of the fluid
flowing through the flow network (units of F/L3). Specific weight must be
consistent with the units that are used to solve the thermal problem. If
applicable to the system of units, Patran Thermal will convert specific
weight to mass-density based on the ICCALC flag.
MPID_MU Material property ID which references the dynamic viscosity of the fluid
flowing through the network (units = M/LT).
MPID_CP Material property ID which references the specific heat of the fluid flowing
through the network.

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Input Properties

MPID_BETA Material property ID which references the coefficient of THERMAL


expansion used in calculating the buoyancy head (g * HBETA * DT).
MPID_F Material property ID which references the friction factor used to calculate
the head loss due to flow in a tube. If a MPID_F is not specified, the friction
factor is calculated using Patran Thermal's Moody equation.

This form appears when the Input Properties button is selected on the Element Properties form and the
following options have been applied.

Analysis Type Dimension Type Option(s) Topologies


Thermal 1D Flow network bar Head loss element Bar/2

This is a head loss element used to define the losses in a flow network (e.g., losses in orifices, valves,
bend, tees, etc.).

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Input Properties

Option 8, LOSS ELEMENT or CONTROL VALVE, variable parameters for fluid flow in a tube.
Parameters input in the Element Property form will be used as scale factors applied to the material
property evaluations obtained for the MPIDs defined. Requires template definition.

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Input Properties

TID User template ID. A nonzero value which couples the Element Property record
to the information referenced in the template file.
IOPT The option chosen for the flow bar element. IOPT = 8.
DIAM A hydraulic diameter of the flow passage defined as 4 * CSArea / wetted
perimeter. (For a circular cross section hydraulic diameter = physical diameter.)
If diameter is not specified, it will be calculated using the cross sectional area
and wetted perimeter.
LENGTH The length of the bar element. If it is not specified, it will be calculated as the
straight line distance between the end nodes of the bar element.
ROUGHNESS Surface roughness of the tube or the flow passage.
LOSS_COEFF Head loss coefficient to account for minor losses in the flow network, e.g. losses
in bends, tees, values, sudden expansion/contraction, etc. This loss coefficient
becomes a scale factor and is used as a multiplier to the value returned from the
MPID_LOSS_COEFF material property.

Template Definition for Option 8


FLUID TID #MPID's IOPT
MPID_DIAM
MPID_RHO MPID_MU MPID_CP
MPID_EPS MPID_LOSS_COEFF MPID_BETA MPID_F

FLUID Template record type.


TID User template ID. A nonzero value which couples the Element Property
record to the information referenced in the template file.
MPID_DIAM Material property ID which defines a diameter. This can be used to define
variable geometry as a function of time or temperature.
MPID_RHO Material property ID which references the specific weight of the fluid flowing
through the flow network (units of F/L3). Specific weight is consistent with
the units that are used to solve the thermal problem. If applicable to the
system of units, Patran Thermal will convert specific weight to mass-density
based on the ICCALC flag.
MPID_MU Material property ID which references the dynamic viscosity of the fluid
flowing through the network (units = M/LT).
MPID_CP Material property ID which references the specific heat of the fluid flowing
through the network.
MPID_EPS Material property ID which references the tubing roughness.

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Input Properties

MPID_LOSS_COEF Material property ID which references the loss coefficient. Could be used to
model the change in loss coefficient of a global valve which has different
openings as a function of time.
MPID_BETA Material property ID which references the coefficient of thermal expansion
used in calculating the buoyancy head (g * HBETA * DT).
MPID_F Material property ID which references the friction factor used to calculate the
head loss due to flow in a tube.

Flow Network Bar-Plenum


This form appears when the Input Properties button is selected on the Element Properties form and the
following options have been applied.

Analysis Type Dimension Type Option(s) Topologies


Thermal 1D Flow network bar Plenum element Bar/2

This is a plenum element used in a flow network to define a large reservoir.

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Input Properties

Option 11, PLENUM, constant physical and material properties. Conditions across a plenum element
are unaffected by flow. The head can be altered by gravity.

TID A dummy ID, not used by Patran Thermal flow network. Supply a nonzero
dummy TID. No template record required.
IOPT The option chosen for the flow bar element. IOPT = 11.
DENSITY The specific weight of the fluid flowing through the flow network (units of
F/L3). Specific weight must be consistent with the units that are used to solve
the thermal problem. *Hydraulic networks prefer a mass density and the units
conversion is performed internally based on the ICCALC flag.
VISCOSITY Dynamic viscosity of the fluid flowing through the network (units = M/LT).
SPECIFIC_HEAT Specific heat of the fluid flowing through the network.

Option 12, PLENUM, variable material properties. Conditions across a plenum element are unaffected
by flow. The head can be altered by gravity. Material properties defined with MPIDs. Requires template
definition.

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Input Properties

TID User template ID. A nonzero value which couples the PFEG record to the
information referenced in the template file.
IOPT The option chosen for the flow bar element. IOPT=12.

Template Definition:
FLUID TID #MPID's IOPT
MPID_RHO MPID_MU MPID_CP

FLUID Template record type.


TID User template ID. A nonzero value which couples the Element Property record
to the information referenced in the template file.
MPID_RHO Material property ID which references the specific weight of the fluid flowing
through the flow network (units of F/L3). Specific weight must be consistent
with the units that are used to solve the thermal problem. If applicable to the
system of units, Patran Thermal will convert specific weight to mass-density
based on the ICCALC flag.
MPID_MU Material property ID which references the dynamic viscosity of the fluid flowing
through the network (units = M/LT).
MPID_CP Material property ID which references the specific heat of the fluid flowing
through the network.

Radiation Symmetry Bar Rotation


Radiation symmetry elements are used to communicate to the thermal radiation viewfactor code that a
radiation symmetry condition exists. Such a condition implies that your Patran element surfaces which
have radiation boundary conditions should either be reflected across a plane or else rotated about an axis
(see Figure 4-2, Figure 4-3, Figure 4-6, and Figure 4-4). As shown in Figure 4-2, Figure 4-3, and
Figure 4-4, the Patran Thermal system uses bar elements to denote reflections in 2-D (X-Y and R-Z) as
well as rotational symmetry in 2-D and 3-D X-Y geometry.
Radiation symmetry elements in R-Z models always denote reflection about a plane parallel to the R axis.
Radiation symmetry elements in 2-D X-Y space without Element Property data always denote reflection
across a plane.
Radiation symmetry elements in 2-D X-Y or 3-D X-Y-Z space always denote rotational symmetry, with
the model being rotated a number of times by an angular increment (see Figure 4-4). The data for these
rotational symmetry elements include (1) the number of rotations and (2) the angular increment for each
successive rotation.
The nodes on these symmetry bars must have OD elements with Node Type of Information. Type I nodes
are not passed through to the Solver during the translation process. This allows radiation symmetry
elements to be built and their associated nodes do not participate in the thermal analysis calculations.

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Input Properties

These rotational symmetry bar elements data consist of the number of incremental rotations followed by
the angular increment for each rotation. Since this model is 2-D X-Y, the bar must be parallel to the Z-
axis. In 3-D X-Y-Z, the bar may be arbitrarily oriented. Rotational symmetry bars are illegal for 2-D R-
Z models.

Figure 4-2 2-D Cartesian (X-Y) Reflective Symmetry Bar Element

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Input Properties

Figure 4-3 2-D, Axisymmetric (R-Z) Reflective Symmetry Bar Element

Note: For R-Z problems, radiation symmetry bars must be parallel to the R Axis.

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Input Properties

Figure 4-4 Rotational Radiation Symmetry Bar Element (shown here by the circle-and
crosshairs as being parallel to the Z-axis)

This form appears when the Input Properties button is selected on the Element Properties form and the
following options have been applied. This bar element is used to define radiation reflection symmetry.
Input properties are not needed for this bar element.

Analysis Type Dimension Type Option(s) Topologies


Thermal 1D Radiation symmetry bar rotation None Bar/2

This bar element is used to define radiation rotation symmetry.

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Input Properties

Axisymmetric Bar
If the model is an R-Z-axisymmetric model, the bar elements are also treated as 2-D shell elements with
surface areas for convection, radiation, and heat flux boundary conditions (see Figure 4-5). The bars (or
shells) are assumed to be rotated 360° about the Z-axis. Any of Patran's X, Y, or Z-axis can be selected
as the Z-axis (the axis of symmetry) by making the selection under Analysis/Translation Parameters.
As with the 2-D Cartesian bar elements, you must define element properties with a material and two
thickness values (thickness at node 1 and thickness at node 2).

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Input Properties

Figure 4-5 2-D Axisymmetric (R-Z) Bar Element Demonstrating Rotation About the Z-Axis

This form appears when the Input Properties button is selected on the Element Properties form and the
following options have been applied.

Analysis Type Dimension Type Option(s) Topologies


Thermal 1D Axisymmetric Bar Full 360 Deg Rotation Bar/2
Specified Deg of Rotation

This bar element is used to define thin axisymmetric shells.

Note: This element property definition requires setting model dimensionality to axisymmetric
geometry and selecting the radial and centerline axes under the Analysis, Translation
Parameters.

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Input Properties

Thermal Shell

Triangular Elements
Patran Thermal supports 3-node linear triangular elements in either 2-D or 3-D Cartesian (X-Y or X-Y-
Z) geometry or in 2-D axisymmetric (R-Z) geometry. 2-D Cartesian X-Y models must be built in the
Patran X-Y plane. Whether the model dimensionality is 2-D X-Y, 2-D R-Z, or 3-D X-Y-Z is declared
under Analysis/ Translation Parameters. Patran cannot tell the difference between any of these coordinate
systems.
Allowed triangular elements include the following:
• 2-D X-Y conduction triangles
• 2-D R-Z conduction triangles
• 3-D X-Y-Z conduction triangles
• 3-D X-Y-Z radiation symmetry triangles

The 2-D X-Y triangles are assumed to be of unit thickness in the Z direction. The 2-D R-Z triangles are
assumed to be rotated through 360 degrees. The 3-D X-Y-Z conductive triangles (3-D shell elements)
may be oriented at any angle and must have thickness data at each node. 2-D triangular elements do not
use any thickness data.
For 3-D conductive triangular shell elements, all three orientation angles may be supplied, as well as the
three thickness values.

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Input Properties

Quadrilateral Elements
Patran Thermal supports 4-node quadrilateral elements in the following geometries:
• 2-D Cartesian X-Y geometry
• 2-D axisymmetric R-Z, which to Patran is still X-Y geometry
• 3-D Cartesian X-Y-Z geometry

2-D Cartesian X-Y models must be built in the Patran X-Y plane. 2-D axisymmetric R-Z models may be
built in any plane defined by two Patran axes, e.g., X-Y, Y-Z, X-Z. The dimensionality of the model; i.e.,
2-D X-Y, 2-D R-Z, or 3-D X-Y-Z is defined under Analysis/Translation Parameters.
The 2-D X-Y quadrilaterals are assumed to be of unit thickness, the 2-D R-Z quadrilaterals are assumed
to be rotated through 360 degrees, and the 3-D X-Y-Z quadrilateral shell elements must be given
thickness data.
Both 2-D Cartesian and 3-D shell elements support boundary conditions applied through their edges.
This form appears when the Input Properties button is selected on the Element Properties form and the
following options have been applied.

Analysis Type Dimension Type Option(s) Topologies


Thermal 2D Shell Shell Quad/4, Tri/3

Scaled Shell Element

This form applies to quad and tri shell elements and require thickness definitions.

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Input Properties

Example 1: Thermal Shell - CID Option


Rotations reference a cylindrical coordinate system.

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Input Properties

Example 2: Thermal Shell - Elemental Option


Rotations reference the elemental coordinate system (Nastran definition).

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Input Properties

Thermal 2D
This form appears when the Input Properties button is selected on the Element Properties form and the
following options have been applied.

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Input Properties

Analysis Type Dimension Type Option(s) Topologies


Thermal 2D Thermal 2D None Quad/4, Tri/3

This form applies to 2D elements. In Patran Thermal, they are treated as unit depth.

Important:This element property definition requires setting model dimensionality to 2D Plane.

Thermal Axisymmetric - Full 360 Degree Rotation


This form appears when the Input Properties button is selected on the Element Properties form and the
following options have been applied.

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Input Properties

Analysis Type Dimension Type Option(s) Topologies


Thermal 2D Thermal Axisymmetric Full 360 Deg Quad/4, Tri/3

This form applies to axisymmetric quad and tri elements.

Note: This element property definition requires setting model dimensionality to axisymmetric
geometry and selecting the radial and centerline axes under Analysis, Translation
Parameters.

Thermal Axisymmetric - Specified Degrees of Rotation


This form appears when the Input Properties button is selected on the Element Properties form and the
following options have been applied

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Input Properties

Analysis Type Dimension Type Option(s) Topologies


Thermal 2D Thermal Specified Degs Quad/4, Tri/3
Axisymmetric

This form is typically used when modeling a mixed Axisymmetric and 3D model. It applies to
axisymmetric quad and tri elements.

Important:This element property definition requires setting model dimensionality to axisymmetric


geometry and selecting the radial and centerline axes under Analysis, Translation
Parameters. The axisymmetric elements must lie on the plane and the 3D component must
lie in the first quadrant.

Radiation Symmetry Tri


No input properties required.
The 3-D symmetry triangular element shown in Figure 4-6 happens to lie in the X-Y Plane. This is not
required for 3-D symmetry triangular elements. Radiating element surfaces will be reflected across the

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Input Properties

plane defined by the triangular element. Nodes on these symmetry triangular elements must have OD
elements with Node Type “Information.” These nodes will not participate in the thermal analysis
calculations.

Figure 4-6 3-D Symmetry Triangular Element

Convective Quad
Convective quadrilateral elements may be used to apply convective boundary conditions to 2-D X-Y or
2-D R-Z models (see Figure 4-7). The advantage of using convective quadrilateral elements as opposed
to the CONV LBC form occurs when a spatial variation of fluid temperature along a fluid-surface
interface occurs, and it is necessary to model the fluid as a series of nodes paralleling the surface.
The shaded elements in Figure 4-7 represent convective quadrilateral elements. These elements may be
used to apply convective boundary conditions to surfaces where the fluid temperature is to be represented
by a series of fluid nodes. The data for convective quadrilateral elements consist of the CONV template
TID number, followed by as many GP values (geometric properties) needed to supply from Patran. The
remaining GP values will be taken, as with the CONV LBC form, from the CONV template.

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Input Properties

Figure 4-7 Axisymmetric Cylinder with Convective Quadrilateral Elements Attached

Typically, the fluid nodes are chained together with advective bar elements to model the energy being
carried along on the mass flow stream. The fluid nodes determine which nodes should have convective
resistors generated between them to apply the correct convective boundary conditions for the model.
Convective quadrilaterals must have at least one fluid node associated with each element. Note that if a
convective quadrilateral element has fewer than two surface thermal nodes, there is no surface area
associated with the element and hence no convective resistors will be generated for the element. This
typically occurs at convex corners.
This form appears when the Input Properties button is selected on the Element Properties form and the
following options have been applied.

Analysis Type Dimension Type Option(s) Topologies


Thermal 2D Convective Quad Quad/4

This is a convective quad element used to define convective heat transfer between solid and fluid. No
cross resistors are generated for convective quad elements.

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Input Properties

Thermal 3D Solid
Patran Thermal supports 4-node tetrahedral elements for conduction in 3-D Cartesian coordinates. Patran
Thermal also supports 6-node wedge elements for conduction in 3-D Cartesian coordinates.

Hexahedral Elements
Patran Thermal supports 8-node hexahedral elements for conduction in 3-D Cartesian coordinates. FE
Hex elements generate conductive resistors and capacitors using a finite element formulation. Finite Diff
Hex elements generate conductive resistors and capacitors using a finite element formulation on skewed
or orthotropic elements and a finite difference formulation on rectangular isotropic elements. The
advantage of this approach is that models typically run somewhat faster than the pure finite element
models with virtually no loss of accuracy.
This form appears when the Input Properties button is selected on the Element Properties form and the
following options have been applied.

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Input Properties

Analysis Type Dimension Type Option(s) Topologies


Thermal 3D Thermal 3D Solid FE hex,tet,wedge Hex/8, Tet/4,
Wedge/6

This form applies to three-dimensional, isoparametric solid elements.

Thermal 3D Solid/Finite Diff Hex


This form appears when the Input Properties button is selected on the Element Properties form and the
following options have been applied.

Analysis Type Dimension Type Option(s) Topologies


Thermal 3D Thermal 3D Solid Finite diff hex Hex/8

This form applies to finite difference orthogonal hex elements.

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Input Properties

Note: If a name is entered, the next available MID number will be assigned for use by Patran
Thermal.

Important:Do not mix material names and MID references in the same model.

Thermal 3D Solid/Scaled Finite Element Hex, Tet, Wedge


This form appears when the Input Properties button is selected on the Element Properties form and the
following options have been applied.

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Input Properties

Analysis Type Dimension Type Option(s) Topologies


Thermal 3D Thermal 3D Solid Scaled FE Hex/8, Tet/4,
hex,tet,wedge Wedge/6

This form is typically used for mixed axisymmetric and 3D models. The axisymmetric portion is treated
as a 360-degree rotation and the 3D elements are applied a multiplying factor to scale the capacitance and
surface area by the number of times the 3D component repeats.

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Input Properties

Convective Hex/Wedge

Convective Hex
Convective hexahedral elements can be used to generate convective resistors between Convective Fluid
nodes and Thermal Surface nodes (see Figure 4-8). Any one face of a Convective hexahedral element
may be defined by type Fluid nodes, but the remaining 4 nodes must be type Thermal.

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Input Properties

Figure 4-8 Example of Legal Convective Hex Elements

These elements can also be used to specify contact coefficients (contact resistance) between surfaces.

Convective Wedge
Patran Thermal supports convective wedge elements. These elements can be used to generate convective
resistors between Fluid nodes and Thermal solid nodes. Valid convective wedge elements are shown in
Figure 4-9.

As can be seen in Figure 4-9, any one triangular face may have all type F nodes, or the degenerate edge
(nodes 1 and 4) may be type F nodes. Any other arrangement is illegal. These elements can also be used
to define contact resistances. These elements must be given Element Properties consisting of a CONV
Template ID pointer and appropriate geometric parameters for the chosen configuration.

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Input Properties

Figure 4-9 Convective Wedge Elements showing usage of Node Type “Fluid” to designate
which face will be considered the Thermal Surface

This form appears when the Input Properties button is selected on the Element Properties form and the
following options have been applied.

Analysis Type Dimension Type Option(s) Topologies


Thermal 3D Convective Hex/Wedge None Hex/8,
Wedge/6

These are convective hex/wedge elements used to define convective heat transfer between solid and
fluid. No cross resistors are generated for convective hex/wedge elements.

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Input Properties

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Loads and Boundary Conditions

Loads and Boundary Conditions


The Loads and Boundary Conditions form appears when the Load s ⁄BCs toggle, located on the Patran
main form, is chosen. The selections on this form will determine which Loads and Boundary Condition
forms will appear, and ultimately, which Patran Thermal loads and boundary conditions will be created.
The following page gives an introduction to the Loads and Boundary Conditions forms, followed by
details of the loads and boundary conditions supported by the Patran Thermal Solver.

Loads and Boundary Conditions Form


The Loads and Boundary Conditions form is used to create Patran Thermal loads and boundary
conditions. For more information, see Loads and Boundary Conditions Form (p. 27) in the Patran
Reference Manual.

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Loads and Boundary Conditions

The following table outlines the options when the Analysis Type is set to Thermal.

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107
Loads and Boundary Conditions

Object Type Option


• Temperature (PThermal) • Nodal • Fixed
• Time Table
• Coupled
• Initial
• Template
• Heating (PThermal) • Element Uniform • Flux, Fixed
• Element Variable
• Element Uniform • Flux, Time Table
• Flux, Temperature Table
• Element Uniform • Template, Fluxes
• Element Variable • Template, Volumetric Heat
• Nodal • Template, Nodal Source
• Element Variable • Flux, Spatial Field (Time)
• Convection • Element Uniform • Fixed Coefficient
• Element Variable
• Element Uniform • Time Table
• Temperature Table
• Element Uniform • Template Convection
• Element Variable •
• Element Variable • Spatial Field (Time)
• Radiation • Element Uniform • Ambient Node
• Element Variable
• Element Uniform • Gap Radiation
• Element Variable •
• Element Uniform • Template ViewFactors
• Element Uniform • Spacecraft, STEP_TAS

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Loads and Boundary Conditions

Object Type Option


• Pressure • Nodal • Fixed
• Time Table
• Initial
• Template
• Mass Flow • Nodal • Fixed
• Time Table
• Initial
• Template

The following specifies the defined variables which are used to specify the Boundary Condition ID. By
using the variable name the specific ID can be assigned in a define statement and only needs changing at
one location in any special PCL one may write using the defined boundary conditions.

Object Option LBC ID Variable Name


• Temperature • Fixed • LBC_PTH_TEMP_TIME_TABL_ID
(PThermal) • Time Table • LBC_PTHERMAL_TEMP_FIXD_ID
• Coupled • LBC_PTHERMAL_TEMP_COUP_ID
• Initial • LBC_PTHERMAL_TEMP_INIT_ID
• Template • LBC_PTHERMAL_TEMP_TMPL_ID
• Heating • Flux, Fixed • LBC_PTH_HEAT_FLUX_FIXD_ID
(PThermal) • Flux, Time Table • LBC_PTH_HEAT_FLUX_TIME_TABL_ID
• Flux, Temperature Table • LBC_PTH_HEAT_FLUX_TEMP_TABL_ID
• Template, Fluxes • LBC_PTHERMAL_HEAT_TMPL_FLUX_ID
• Template, Volumetric • LBC_PTHERMAL_HEAT_TMPL_VOLH_ID
Heat
• Template, Nodal Source • LBC_PTHERMAL_HEAT_TMPL_NODS_ID
• Flux, Spatial Field (Time) • LBC_VAR_PTH_FIELD_NAME
• Convection • Fixed Coefficient • LBC_PTH_CONV_FIXD_ID
• Time Table • LBC_PTH_CONV_TIME_TABL_ID
• Temperature Table • LBC_PTH_CONV_TEMP_TABL_ID
• Template Convection • LBC_PTHERMAL_CONV_TMPL_ID
• Spatial Field (Time) • LBC_VAR_PTH_FIELD_NAME

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Loads and Boundary Conditions

Object Option LBC ID Variable Name


• Radiation • Ambient Node • LBC_PTH_RADI_AMBN_ID
• Gap Radiation • LBC_PTHERMAL_RADI_GAP_ID
• Template ViewFactors • LBC_PTHERMAL_RADI_TMPL_ID
• Spacecraft, STEP_TAS • LBC_PTH_RADI_STAS_ID
• Pressure • Fixed • LBC_PTHERMAL_PRES_FIXD_ID
• Time Table • LBC_PTH_PRES_TIME_TABL_ID
• Initial • LBC_PTHERMAL_PRES_TMPL_ID
• Template • LBC_PTHERMAL_PRES_INIT_ID
• Mass Flow • Fixed • LBC_PTHERMAL_MDOT_FIXD_ID
• Time Table • LBC_PTH_MDOT_TIME_TABL_ID
• Initial • LBC_PTH_MDOT_GEN_FUNC_ID
• Template • LBC_PTHERMAL_MDOT_INIT_ID

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Loads and Boundary Conditions

LBC ID LBC Load Type


• 51 • Temperature (PThermal)[Fixed]
• 52 • Temperature (PThermal)[Time Table]
• 54 • Temperature (PThermal)[Coupled]
• 55 • Temperature (PThermal)[Initial]
• 56 • Temperature (PThermal)[Template]
• 60 • Heating (PThermal)[]Flux, Fixed
• 61 • Heating (PThermal)[Flux, Time Table]
• 62 • Heating (PThermal)[Flux, Temperature Table]
• 67 • Heating (PThermal)[Template, Fluxes]
• 68 • Heating (PThermal)[Template, Volumetric Heat]
• 69 • Heating (PThermal)[Template, Nodal Source]
• 70 • Heating (PThermal)[Flux, Spatial Field(Time)]
• 101 • Convection (PThermal)[Fixed Coefficient]
• 102 • Convection (PThermal)[Time Table]
• 103 • Convection (PThermal)[Temperature Table]
• 105 • Convection (PThermal)[Template, Convection]
• 107 • Convection (PThermal)[Spatial Field(Time)]
• 109 • Radiation (PThermal)[Ambient Node]
• 110 • Radiation (PThermal)[Gap Radiation]
• 112 • Radiation (PThermal)[Template, View Factors]
• 113 • Radiation (PThermal)[Spacecraft, STEP_TAS]
• 116 • Pressure (PThermal)[Fixed]
• 117 • Pressure (PThermal)[Time Table]
• 119 • Pressure (PThermal)[Initial]
• 120 • Pressure (PThermal)[Template]
• 124 • Mass Flow Rate (PThermal)[Fixed]
• 125 • Mass Flow Rate (PThermal)[Time Table]
• 127 • Mass Flow Rate (PThermal)[Initial]
• 128 • Mass Flow Rate (PThermal)[Template]

The actual LBC IDs are defined in the following table.

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Loads and Boundary Conditions

Object Option LBC ID


• Temperature (PThermal) • Fixed • 51
• Time Table • 52
• Coupled • 54
• Initial • 55
• Template • 56
• Heating (PThermal) • Flux, Fixed • 60
• Flux, Time Table • 61
• Flux, Temperature Table • 62
• Template, Fluxes • 67
• Template, Volumetric Heat • 68
• Template, Nodal Source • 69
• Flux, Spatial Field (Time) • 70
• Convection • Fixed Coefficient • 101
• Time Table • 102
• Temperature Table • 103
• Template Convection • 105
• Spatial Field (Time) • 107
• Radiation • Ambient Node • 109
• Gap Radiation • 110
• Template ViewFactors • 112
• Spacecraft, STEP_TAS • 113
• Pressure • Fixed • 116
• Time Table • 117
• Initial • 119
• Template • 120
• Mass Flow • Fixed • 124
• Time Table • 125
• Initial • 127
• Template • 128

Input Data
This subordinate form appears when the Input Data button is selected and Static is the Load Case Type
selection (the only Load Case selection currently supported). For Patran Thermal boundary conditions
are not specified separately for steady state and transient conditions which are defined in the analysis

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Loads and Boundary Conditions

form. Thus the distinction between static and dynamic load case has no meaning. The information
contained on this form will vary according to the selected Object.
All boundary condition options which do not contain the word “Template” involve direct translation and
the information is not written to the neutral file. All the boundary condition information is complete
within the Patran model and does not require any supplementary information to complete the input to the
solution module. However, all options which contain the word “Template” translate information passed
through the neutral file and many case requires additional information which is defined through a
template file. The actual translation is done external to Patran. This template file can be built
independently or with the template builder available in the analysis menu.
Defined below is a typical form for Convection (PThermal) as the Object and Fixed Coefficient as the
Option.

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Loads and Boundary Conditions

Spatial Fields

Select Application Region

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Loads and Boundary Conditions

All of the non-template convection options have two selection regions for determining where the
convection boundary condition is to be applied (Application Region) and the corresponding fluid node
(Coupling Region).

Time Table
Input Data form when Time Table option is selected.

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Loads and Boundary Conditions

Fixed Option
Following are the input forms for the convection template option.

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Loads and Boundary Conditions

Non Fixed Option

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Loads and Boundary Conditions

Gap Radiation
Gap Radiation is used for all radiation between entities is not strongly influence by view factor
considerations.

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Loads and Boundary Conditions

General Radiation
General Radiation considerations are calculated with P/VIEWFACTOR. The boundary conditions are
defined through enclosure IDs and template information. Each enclosure is treated as a separate entity
but may have several boundary conditions associated with it. Each material is identified by its own
Template ID and different surface characteristics can be further separated by different boundary
conditions.

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119
Loads and Boundary Conditions

Template Definitions
For variable boundary conditions, Patran Thermal uses a pointer system called a Template ID to
reference more data contained in an auxiliary file. This external file is named template.dat.apnd
and is created using forms on the analysis menu or the system editor in the same directory level as the
Patran database. When a job is submitted from Patran, the template.dat.apnd file (if it exists) will
be appended to the template.dat file created automatically in the sub-directory with the Job Name.
In the current release of Patran Thermal, Template IDs are required for all boundary conditions with
“Template” in the option name. The following table shows boundary condition data types, Template
Name and applicable field types.

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Loads and Boundary Conditions

LBC Type of Data Template Required Fields Referenced

• Temperature • Constant or Spatial Field • •

• Time dependent • MACRO (p. 687) • Non-Spatial/General

• Heating • Constant or Spatial Field • •

• Time or Temperature • MACRO (p. 687) • Non-Spatial/General

• Convection • Constant or Spatial Field • •

• Time or Temperature • CONV (p. 690) • Material Prop/General


Note: Use Config 29

• Correlations Library • CONV (p. 690) • Material Prop/General

• Radiation • Viewfactor code data • VFAC (p. 692) • Material Prop/General

• TRASYS Preference • VTRA (p. 696) •

• NEVADA Preference • VNEV (p. 698) •

• Pressure • Constant or Spatial Field • •

• Time or Temperature • MACRO (p. 687) • Non-Spatial/General

• Mass Flow • Constant or Spatial Field • •

• Time or Temperature • MACRO (p. 687) • Non-Spatial/General

Object Tables
On the input data form, there are areas where the load data values are defined. The data fields presented
depend on the selected Object and Type. In some cases, the data fields also depend on the selected Target
Element Type. These Object Tables list and define the various input data which pertain to a specific
selected object:

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121
Loads and Boundary Conditions

Temperature (PThermal)

Object Type Option


Temperature Nodal Fixed

Input Data Description


Temperature Temperature (value or spatial field) that remains fixed in the
analysis.

Object Type Option


Temperature Nodal Time Table

Input Data Description


Name Micro Function name that Table will be stored under in the general fields.
Description Definition of Table.
Time Data pairs which define a bounded linear table which specifies temperature as
a function of time.
Temperature

Object Type Option


Temperature Nodal Initial

Input Data Description


Temperature Initial temperature (value or spatial field). If the entire model has the same
initial temperature, set the global value under
Analysis/Solution_Parameters/Run control Parameters.

Object Type Option


Temperature Nodal Coupled

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Loads and Boundary Conditions

Input Data Description


<No Input Data> Usage: This option only uses Select Application Regions to define the
primary application region and the companion region that will be thermally
coupled. This option can be used to couple topologically non-congruent
meshes, to model cyclical symmetry or to tie nodes in mixed 3D and
axisymmetric models. The entities will be coupled based on a Selection order
or Closest Approach, as chosen. To maintain accurate transient effects, the
thermal capacitance of the node in the companion region will include the
capacitance of the node in the primary application region.

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Loads and Boundary Conditions

Object Type Option


Temperature Nodal Template

Input Data Description


Temperature Scale factor on temperature returned from template evaluation.
Template ID Positive template ID points into template.dat file.

Convection (PThermal)
Object Type Target Option
Convection Element Uniform 1D, 2D, 3D Template, Convection
Element Variable

Input Data Description


Convection Coefficient Convective heat transfer coefficient or a geometric property if
template ID is used.
Convection Template ID Positive integer, points convection template in template.dat file.
Fluid Node ID The node ID to which the head is convected.

Object Type Target Option


Convection Element Uniform 1D, 2D, 3D Fixed Coefficient

Element Variable Nodal,1D,2D,3D

Input Data Description


Convection Coefficient Heat transfer coefficient (constant or spatial field). Correlations
library not allowed in this option. The corresponding area for
convection will be based on application region 1 entities. This
boundary condition is useful for connecting dissimilar meshes with
thermal resistance in between or for tying a surface to a fluid stream.

Convection between regions can be applied to 1D elements for 2D


thermal or axisymmetric elements. Currently not supported for 1D
elements in 3D space.

Note: Filter must be the same (either Geometry or FEM) on both application regions.

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Loads and Boundary Conditions

Heat Flux
Object Type Target Option
Heating Element Uniform 1D, 2D, 3D Template, Fluxes

Element Variable

Input Data Description


Heat Flux Heat flux value or a scale factor if template ID is used.
Template ID Positive integer, points heat macro in template.dat file.

Nodal Heat
Object Type Option
Heating Nodal Template, Nodal Source

Input Data Description


Heat Source Nodal heat source or a scale factor if template ID is used.
Template ID Positive integer, points macro in template.dat file.

Volumetric Heat
Object Type Target Option
Heating Element Uniform 1D, 2D, 3D Template, Volumetric Heat

Element Variable

Input Data Description


Heat Source Volumetric heat source or scale factor if template ID is used.
Template ID Positive integer, points macro in template.dat file.

Pressure
Object Type Option
Pressure Nodal Template, Fixed, Initial

Input Data Description


Pressure Nodal pressure or scale factor if template ID is used.
Template ID Positive integer, points pmacro in template.dat file.

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Loads and Boundary Conditions

Mass Flow
Object Type Option
Mass Flow Nodal Template,

Fixed,

Initial

Input Data Description


Mass Flow Rate Nodal mass flow node or scale factor is template ID is used.
Template ID Positive integer, points mmacro in template.dat file.

Radiation (PThermal)
Object Type Target Option
Radiation (PThermal) Element Uniform 1D, 2D, 3D Gap Radiation

Element Variable Nodal, 1D, 2D, 3D

Input Data Description


Surface 1 Emissivity Emissivity value or spatial field for application region 1.
Surface 2 Emissivity Emissivity value or spatial field for companion region 2 (default = 1).
Form Factor Viewfactor value applied to the radiation couplings (default = 1).

Note: Filter must be the same (either Geometry or FEM) on both application regions.

Viewfactor
Object Type Target Option
Radiation Element Uniform 1D, 2D, 3D Viewfactor

Input Data Description


Enclosed ID Enter radiation enclosure ID.
Template ID Positive Integer points to VFAC, VTRA or VNEV data in template .dat
file.

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Load Cases

Load Cases
Patran Thermal does not currently support Load Cases. All the boundary conditions must be entered in
the Default load case for both steady state and transient runs. This load case is automatically selected
when the analysis is submitted from the Analysis Form.

Note: Use of Load Cases in the Patran Thermal model can cause unexpected results.

Main Index
Chapter 4: Module Operation
Patran Thermal User’s Guide Volume 1: Thermal/Hydraulic Analysis

4 Module Operation

J Preference Files 128


J Reference Notes 129

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Preference Files

Preference Files
If Full Run is set, the Apply selection in the Analysis form will create the appropriate interface files and
execute the solver. The interface files created include:
• A neutral file
• The analysis control files qin.dat and vf.ctl
• The script for executing the model patq.inp
• The material property file mat.dat and template.dat
• The field definition file micro.dat

The user has control of which files are created and how the execution is to proceed through the
parameters in the Submit Options form. These submit parameters have been defaulted for new jobs. With
Patran Thermal, multiple jobs can be created from the same Patran database. The model files will appear
in subdirectories named with the jobname that was entered in the Analysis form.
Patran Thermal is designed to support the functionality in P/THERMAL including the View factor code,
the coupled thermal/hydraulic networks, creation of a SINDA input deck, both forward and reverse
translation of enclosure tria and quad surfaces to the TRASYS and NEVADA codes.

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Chapter 4: Module Operation 129
Reference Notes

Reference Notes
These notes are a supplement to the PAT 312 Patran Thermal class and are intended to answer the most
commonly asked Patran Thermal questions.

Set up
1. The FORTRAN & C programming languages must be loaded on the workstation that will be used
for running the thermal solution (not required for the Patran SINDA translator).
2. The environmental variable PATH must include the location of FORTRAN 77 (F77), CPP
compilers and related libraries. Type echo $PATH in the UNIX window to verify the PATH
variable.
3. Copy the file p3epilog.pcl from the Patran installation directory to your home directory.
Every time you enter Patran, an additional pull down menu called “Shareware-Thermal Tools”
will be available to simplify building and verifying Patran Thermal models. This can be
accomplished as follows:
% cd
% cp
<inst_dir>/patran3/shareware/msc/unsupported/utilities/p3epilog.
pcl.
where <inst_dir> is the installation directory for your Patran executables.

Model Creation
Loads & Boundary Conditions

Temperature Varying with Time


You will be specifying the temperature variation as a Non Spatial Field as follows:
Select the Fields Button.
Set the Action-Object-Method to Create-Non Spatial-General respectively.
Enter a field name that describes this boundary condition in the Field Name databox.
Select the Input Data button.
To enter a table of time vs. temperature data, set the Select Function Term to mfid_indx_linr_tabl
which stands for microfunction of indexed linear table.
Enter a Micro Function ID (MFID) to a number that you will reference in the template.dat MACRO
template. You can modify the default number to a number that matches the MACRO number you will
use in the Loads/BCs form.

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Reference Notes

Fill out the spreadsheet of Independent Variable (time) vs. Dependent Variable (temperature) data.
Select OK and Apply.
Select the Loads/BCs Button.
Set the Action-Object-Type to Create-Temperature(PThermal)-Nodal.
Set the Option to Variable.
Select the Input Data button.
Input Temperature Scale Factor of “1” and enter a Template ID of 1 for your first varying temperature
boundary condition.
Enter the desired node(s) in the Select Application Region subform and select Apply.
In the same directory where the database exists, create a file called template.dat.apnd. All
information in this file will be copied to the template.dat file in the job name subdirectory when the
job has been submitted.
Enter the following information into the template.dat.apnd file:
MACRO 1 1 0 0 1.0
1
where the “1” following the keyword MACRO refers to the template ID that you entered in the
Loads/BCs Input Data form. The “1.0” is a scale factor for the temperatures and the “1” on the second
line refers to the microfunction ID that you specified in the Micro Function ID (MFID) databox in the
Fields form.
If you have two time varying boundary conditions, then you would add two additional lines as follows:
MACRO 2 1 0 0 1.0
2
Note that comment cards in this file begin with the character “*”.
See class problem number 5 for an example of this process.

Heat Varying with Time


The heat application is very similar to the “Temperature Varying with Time” application described
above.
Variable heat input can be in the form of nodal heat source, volumetric heat flux, and heat flux.
You will be specifying the heat variation as a Non Spatial Field as follows:
Select the Fields Button.
Set the Action-Object-Method to Create-Non Spatial-General respectively.
Enter a field name that describes this boundary condition in the Field Name databox.
Select the Input Data button.

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Chapter 4: Module Operation 131
Reference Notes

To enter a table of time vs. temperature data, set the Select Function Term to mfid_linr_indx_table
which stands for microfunction of linear indexed table.
Enter a Micro Function ID (MFID) to a number that you will reference in the template.dat.apnd
MACRO template. You can modify the default number to a number (3 for example) that matches the
MACRO number you will use in the Loads/BCs form.
Fill out the spreadsheet of Independent Variable (time) vs. Dependent Variable (heat) data.
Select the Loads/BCs Button.
Set the Action-Object-Type to either

Create-Heating(PThermal)-Nodal.
Set the Option menu to either Nodal Source, Fluxes, or Volumetric Generation.
Select the Target Element Type as appropriate.
Select the Input Data button.
Input Loads/BC Scale Factor “1” and enter a Template ID of 3 (arbitrary) for a varying heat boundary
condition.
Enter the desired node(s) (or element(s) for Flux and Volumetric Generation) in the Select Application
Region subform and select Apply.
In the same directory where the database exists, create (or open) a file called template.dat.apnd.
All information in this file will be copied to the template.dat file in the job name subdirectory when
the job has been submitted.
Enter the following information into the template.dat.apnd file:
MACRO 3 1 0 0 1.0
3
where the “3” following the keyword MACRO refers to the template ID that you entered in the
Loads/BCs Input Data form. The “1.0” is a scale factor for the temperatures and the “3” on the second
line refers to the microfunction ID that you specified in the Micro Function ID (MFID) databox in the
Fields form.
If you have two time varying boundary conditions, then you would add two additional lines as follows:
MACRO 4 1 0 0 1.0
4
Note that comment cards in this file begin with the character “*”.

Total Heat Application


To apply a known amount of heat to a region of elements, use the Shareware pull down menu, and select
Total Heat. Use the Per Area option if the heat is applied evenly over the element faces and use Per
Volume if the heat is to be spread out evenly throughout the solid element (Tet/ Wedge/ Hex).

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Reference Notes

Convection Varying with Time or Temperature


Select the Loads/BCs button and set the Action-Object-Type to Create-Convection(PThermal)-
Element Uniform. Set the Option to Use Correlations. This option give the user the choice of using
correlations (or a table as in this case).
Enter a New Set Name that describes this boundary condition. Set the Target Element Type to 2D for
plate elements or 3D for solid element faces.
Leave the Loads/BC Set Scale Factor at 1 (this is not a convection coefficient scale factor!). Leave the
Convection Coefficient blank. This is a scale factor to the table of convection coefficients vs. time or
temperature. Input a Convection Template ID value (1 for example). This is a pointer to the
template.dat.apnd file. Enter the Fluid Node ID and select OK. Select Application Region, select the
FEM button and select the desired elements. Select OK & then Apply.
In the same directory where the database exists, create (or open) a file called template.dat.apnd.
All information in this file will be copied to the template.dat file in the job name subdirectory when
the job has been submitted.
Enter the following information into the template.dat.apnd file:
Note that comment cards in this file begin with the character “*”.

*CONV TID# config # # of GPs # of MPIDs


CONV 1 29 0 1
5001

The “CONV” is a keyword for convection templates. The first “1” is the template id supplied in the
Loads/BCs Input Data form. “29” denotes the convection configuration for time or temperature varying
convection as described in the documentation. “0” denotes the number of geometric properties (GPs)
supplied by this template, and the last “1” is the number of MPIDs for the configuration. This MPID is
given on the next line & is arbitrarily given the number “5001”.
The number of GP values defined by the template is zero in this case because the correlation only requires
the nodal subarea which is supplied by Patran and PATQ during the translation process.
In the same directory where the database and template.dat.apnd file exist, create (or open) a file called
“mat.dat.apnd”. All information in this file will be copied to the “mat.dat” file in the job name
subdirectory when the job has been submitted.
Enter the table into the “mat.dat.apnd” file as follows:

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Reference Notes

MPID 5001 ITABLE Time 1.0


Convection Coefficient (Btu/hr-ft^2-F) as a function of Time (seconds)

MDATA 0. .9
MDATA 1. 1.1
MDATA 1.5 1.15
MDATA 2.0 1.4
MDATA 4.0 1.8
/

The MPID is a keyword for material property id. The “5001” refers back to the “5001” given in the
template.dat.apnd file. “ITABLE” denotes that this is an indexed table which means that Patran Thermal
starts the search in this table where it left off in the last time step and is therefore faster than the
“TABLE”.
Any input other than “MDATA” or “/” after an MPID keyword is assumed to be a comment. For this
example, the “Convection Coefficient (Btu/hr-ft^2-F) as a function of Time (seconds)” is a comment that
describes this table.
The “/” is required at the end of each MPID input.
To input this table of convection coefficient as a function of temperature, use the keywords “Fahrenheit,”
“Rankine”, “Celsius”, or “Kelvin” in place of the keyword “Time”.

Contact Conductance
Select the Loads/BCs button and set the Action-Object-Type to Create-Convection(PThermal)-
Element Uniform. Set the Option to Between Regions. When selecting the Application Region, set
the Order to Closest Approach. To create contact conductance between two geometric solid faces that
contact each other in the Patran model, both application regions should be element based (such as setting
Region 2 to 3D). If Nodal is selected for Region 2, and a surface or face of a solid geometric entity is
selected, Patran will fill the listboxes with the nodes from both contacting faces even if only one face is
selected (an error will flag this when selecting the Analysis Apply button).

Radiation
PCL that creates the radiation boundary condition and eliminates the need for editing the
“template.dat.apnd” file for viewfactor templates exists and will be included on the Shareware pulldown
menu as described above.
or
Select the Loads/BCs button and set the Action-Object-Type to Create-Radiation (PThermal)-
Element Uniform. Set the Option to View Factors

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Enter a New Set Name that describes this boundary condition. Set the Target Element Type to 2D for
plate elements or 3D for solid element faces.
Select the Input Data button.
Leave the Loads/BC Set Scale Factor at 1 (this is not a viewfactor scale factor!). Input a viewfactor
Template ID value (1 for example). This is a pointer to the template.dat.apnd file. Leave the
Participating Media Node databox empty. If your model is not completely enclosed, enter the ambient
node into the Ambient Node Id databox. Viewfactors that do not see any portion of your model will see
the temperature of this node (fixed or variable). The viewfactor code will not attempt to calculate
viewfactors for all elements with the same Convex Set Id (any integer number). The Obstruction Flag
databox is another CPU saving feature that can be left empty. The default viewfactor direction will be
applied in the element normal direction. Under the Finite Elements Verify-Element-Normal form,
arrows can be displayed in the element normal direction. If the opposite direction is desired, Enter “1” in
the Top/Bottom Flag databox to apply the viewfactor boundary condition in the bottom direction. In
order to have radiation off of both faces of a plate element, two viewfactor applications must be applied,
one with the Top/Bottom Flag empty (or set to “0”), and the other with the flag set to “1”. The last
databox is the Enclosure Id. Only viewfactors with the same Enclosure Id have the possibility of seeing
each other.
Select Application Region, select the FEM button and select the desired elements. Select OK & then
Apply.
In the same directory where the database exists, create (or open) a file called template.dat.apnd.
All information in this file will be copied to the template.dat file in the job name subdirectory when
the job has been submitted.
Enter the following information into the template.dat.apnd file:
Note that comment cards in this file begin with the character “*”

*VFAC TID # # bands


VFAC 1 0
*emissivity tau emis. MPID tau MPID band # 1 band # 2 kflag collapse
flag
0.8 1 0 0 0 0 0 1

“VFAC” is a keyword to signify viewfactor template. The first “1” is the template id that you supplied
in the Loads/BCs Input Data form. Assuming you are not performing spectral analysis (emissivity
varying with wavelength), then the"# of bands” is zero.
The second line (of non-comment input) starts with the emissivity. This is the only required input for this
line. The “collapse” flag at the end of this line is beneficial in reducing the size of your radiation network
by up to a factor of 16. The “tau” is the transmissivity and is set to “1” unless you have a participating
media. The “emis. MPID” is the material property ID for variable emissivity. Set this to zero for fixed
emissivity. The same is true for “tau MPID”. Since this is not a spectral problem, “band1”, “band2”, and
“kflag” are set to “0”. All element viewfactors with the same “collapse” flag ID will be condensed.

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Reference Notes

Materials
Varying with Temperature
If you wish to use the materials from the Patran Thermal library, use the Shareware-Thermal Tools pull
down menu item P/Thermal Materials List. Input the name of the material of interest, such as “alu” to
get a listing of all materials in the Patran Thermal material library that contain the characters “alu”. To
use this material in your model, you may skip the Materials form entirely and input this material ID in
the Element Properties, Input Data form in the Material listbox
To input your own materials that vary with temperature, Select the Fields button from the main menu,
and set the Action-Object-Method to Create Material Property General. Enter a descriptive name for
this field, and select Input Data. Select the desired option for you field. For a table, select
mpid_indx_linr_tabl. Now you can enter a table of temperature versus material property (i.e.
conductivity, etc.). Be sure to select Apply after completing input for each table
This information will get written to your jobname directory into a new mat.dat file when you submit
your job.
All other material properties can be input from the Materials form selected from the main form.

Element Properties
For 3 dimensional models (vary in x, y, and z), be sure to use the Action-Dimension-Type of Create-
2D-Shell for plate elements (quads or trias). Release 1.4 no longer requires the input of four thickness
values for each corner.
For the case where a model is 2 dimensional (all of model is constructed in x-y plane) and is assumed to
have unit depth thickness in the z-direction, use the Action-Dimension-Type of Create-2D-Thermal
2D for plate elements. Since unit depth is assumed, no input of element thickness is input.

Load Cases
Load cases are not supported for Patran Thermal. Create all of the loads and boundary conditions in the
default loadcase.

Analysis (job submittal)


Select Analysis from the main menu. Be sure to correctly specify the model dimensionality in the
Solution Type menu. 2D assumes that all of your model is in the x-y plane and that you have unit depth
in the z direction. For models which have bar elements with cross sectional area, plate elements with
thickness, and/or solid elements, use the 3D selection. See Element Properties, 53.
If you are resubmitting you analysis, and you wish to reuse the settings you had from your last run, select
a previous job from the Available Jobs listbox in the Analysis form. You can then modify any setting
you wish before you select the Apply button.

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Reference Notes

Results Verification
Job Submittal Status
To verify that your job submittal was successful, examine the patq.msg files and look for error
messages. If you are running a viewfactor job, you can check the status by examining the vf.msg
message file.
Note that the shareware pull down menu has a Translation Status option that examines the contents of
the patq.msg file for you.

Temperature Convergence
In the jobname directory, enter the command qstat or qstat -b. qstat will give the status of your
job while (and after) it's running. Check to make sure that the temperature change between iterations is
decreasing and is approaching 1.e-05 for convergence with the default parameters. If your model has not
converged after 1999 iterations (the default maximum allowable for steady state as displayed by qstat),
verify that your material properties are correct. Note that the convergence criteria is based on the slope
of the model convergence and not a simple iterative delta in temperature.
The Patran Thermal Tools pulldown menu has a Thermal Convergence Status option that makes x-
y plots of the convergence status. Be sure to use the Clear button when finished viewing these plots to
clear the windows for the next time you wish to check the status.

Total Heat Input


At the UNIX window in the jobname directory, enter the UNIX command:
% ls qout*
The highest version of qout.dat.* is the most recent output file. Verify that the total heat you
intended to input to the model matches the value of TOTAL HEAT SOURCE INPUT ENERGY
displayed from the UNIX command:
% grep HEAT qout.dat.#
where # is the highest value of qout.dat in your directory.

Total System Heat Balance


From the same “grep” command given above, be sure that the value of SYSTEM HEAT BALANCE is
small relative to the TOTAL HEAT SOURCE INPUT ENERGY (less than 1% is a common rule of
thumb) for steady state analyses.

Nodal Heat Balance


Before submitting your job, select Output Requests from the Analysis form. Select the Nodal Results
Type button, and select all 8 of the output options. When you post process your results, you will have the
net nodal heat flux at each node. If you create a new group without the boundary nodes, your fringe plot
should be very close to zero for all nodes. If all of you values are exactly 0, then you probably did not set

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Reference Notes

the output requests form to include all eight output options. You can resubmit the job for one iteration to
get a new result file.

Results Display
From the jobname directory, enter the UNIX command:
% ls -rt nr*
to get a listing of the nodal result files in reverse time order. The last file should be read in for a steady
state analysis. This command is important as the following example illustrates.
Run 1: Material properties were input in meters instead of millimeters for one of the materials. The job
never converges and give output files every 500 iterations; nr0.nrf.1, nr1.nrf.1, nr2.nrf.1, nr3.nrf.1.
Run 2: Material property corrected and job converges in 27 iterations resulting in nr0.nrf.2.
Then the Analysis form is selected and the Action is set to Read Results, Select Results File. After
selecting the jobname directory, which will filter on the nr* files, the last one listed is nr3.nrf.1
(from UNIX alphanumeric sorting). However, the nr0.nrf.2 file should be selected if the most
recent result is desired.
Next, select the Select Rslt Template File button, scroll towards the bottom and pick the last pthermal
result template (pthermal_nod_T.res_tmpl) and select apply. This result template allows for all 8 result
values that may have optionally been selected within the Output Requests-Nodal Results File Format
form before the job was submitted. If only temperature was requested in the output files (default) then
the remaining values of net nodal heat flux, etc. will be zero.
Select Results and display the fringe plot.

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Patran Thermal User’s Guide Volume 1: Thermal/Hydraulic Analysis

5 Running an Analysis

J Review of the Analysis Application 140


J Analysis Form 141
J
Delete 163
J Template Generator 164
J Thermal Tools 175
J Plot View Factors 183

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Review of the Analysis Application

Review of the Analysis Application


By choosing the Analysis application, located on the Patran main form, the Analysis form will appear.
When performing an analysis, several option menus are available. The selections made in this Analysis
form will determine which option menu is presented, and ultimately, which Patran Thermal analysis will
be performed.

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Analysis Form

Analysis Form
This form is used to set up the parameters for the analysis, and will submit the job to the Patran Thermal
solver.

Restart File
Pthermal can be restarted with initial temperatures based on a nodal results file from a previous
execution. If a nodal results file is specified it will be used to define initial temperatures for the new run.
If it is desired to continue with a given file numbering sequence, it can be specified. The time of the restart
file will be the new time associated with the current analysis unless the user defines a new time. The

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Analysis Form

restart case will ignore the temperature specifications unless one flags that the initial temperatures are to
over write the restart temperatures.The new initial temperatures can be for any of the nodes.

Translation Parameters
This subordinate form appears when the Translation Parameters button is selected on the Analysis form.

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Analysis Form

Solution Type
This subordinate form appears when the Solution Type button is selected on the Analysis form.

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Solution Parameters
This subordinate form appears when the Solution Parameters button is selected on the Analysis form.

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Analysis Form

Run Control Parameters


This subordinate form appears when the Run Control Parameters button is selected on the Solution
Parameters form.

This subordinate form appears when the Maximum Time Step button is selected on the Run Control
Parameters form.

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Analysis Form

This subordinate form appears when the Maximum Time Step button is selected on the Run Control
Parameters form.

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Analysis Form

Convergence Parameters
This subordinate form appears when the Convergence Parameters button is selected on the Solution
Parameters form.

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Analysis Form

Iteration Parameters
This subordinate form appears when the Iteration Parameters button is selected on the Solution
Parameters form.

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Analysis Form

Relaxation Parameters
This subordinate form appears when the Relaxation Parameters button is selected on the Solution
Parameters form.

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Analysis Form

(Hydraulic) Run Control Parameters


This subordinate form appears when the (Hydraulic) Run Control Parameters button is selected on the
Solution Parameters form.

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Analysis Form

(View Factor) Run Control Parameters


This subordinate form appears when the (View Factor) Run Control Parameters button is selected on the
Solution Parameters form.

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Analysis Form

(View Factor) Linkage Files


This subordinate form appears when the (View Factor) Linkage Files button is selected on the Solution
Parameters form.

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Analysis Form

Output Request
This subordinate form appears when the Output Request button is selected on the Analysis form.

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Analysis Form

Print Interval Parameters


This subordinate form appears when the Print Interval Controls button is selected on the Output Request
form.

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Analysis Form

Nodal Results File Format


This subordinate form appears when the Nodal Results File Format button is selected on the Output
Request form.

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Analysis Form

Result Template Labels


Results templates based on the selected output parameters will be created, put is the execution
subdirectory and used as defaults to load the results back into PATRAN. The user can edit the labels that
will be used to create the template file.Defaults are selected from the temperature options used for the

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Analysis Form

output and calculation temperatures and the default material properties to be used. Only labels that were
selected for output entities can be edited and written to the results template file.

Print Block Definition


This subordinate form appears when the Print Block Definition button is selected on the Output Request
form.

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Analysis Form

Plot Block Definition


This subordinate form appears when the Plot Block Definition button is selected on the Output Request
form.

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Analysis Form

Diagnostic Output
This subordinate form appears when the Diagnostic Output button is selected on the Output Request
form.

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Analysis Form

SINDA Input Deck Format


This subordinate form appears when the SINDA Input Deck Format button is selected on the Output
Request form.

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Analysis Form

Submit Options
This subordinate form appears when the Submit Options button is selected on the Analysis form.

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Delete

Delete
This form is available when the Action on the Analysis form is set to Delete. This can be used to delete
jobs from the database, revert a job to default values or create a new job starting with the default values.

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Template Generator

Template Generator
This form appears when the Action is set to Build Template on the Analysis form.

Template File Data Form


The Template File Data form is accessed from the Analysis form and enables the user to create the
template file entries (MID, MACRO, CONV, VFAC, FLUID, VTRA and VNEV).
The following Actions are supported:
• Create - Allows the user to create a template file entry. The user selects the type of template
entry to be created (i.e., Object), fills in the appropriate definition data and selects the Apply
button. After a template entry has been defined, the user may view the data in the template
spreadsheet form (from the Display Spreadsheet toggle) and may (optionally) write the data to a
file from that form.
• Modify - Allows the user to modify an existing template file entry. The user selects the template
entry to be modified (i.e., Object and Defined Entry), changes the appropriate data and selects
the Apply button.
• Read - The Read action allows the user to read an existing template file (.dat or .apnd) into
Patran. Existing entries may subsequently be modified or new entries created as outlined above.
• Delete - Entries may be removed from the template file spreadsheet by selecting the template
type (Object menu) and ID (from the listbox) and selecting the Apply button.
Note that the actions listed above affect the entries in the template file spreadsheet. No file output is
produced until the user selects the Write File button on the spreadsheet form at which time all entries in
the spreadsheet are output to the desired file.

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Template Generator

MID

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Template Generator

MACRO

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Template Generator

CONV

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Template Generator

VFAC

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Template Generator

VFAC (Non Wavelength Dependent)


Used to indicate viewfactor information associated with the VFAC template.

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Template Generator

VFAC (Wavelength Dependent)


Used to indicate spectrally dependent radiation information associated with the VFAC template. Setting
the Wavelength Dependent toggle results in the display of the Advanced Options Data form. In this form,
the user indicates the number of wavebands associated with the template entry and then proceeds by
filling in the spreadsheet for the required data (see LBC section for more information).
The spreadsheet is completed by entering data for the highlighted cell in the input databox (located
underneath the No. Wavebands databox). Once the spreadsheet values have been supplied, the Apply
button (Template File Data form) is hit to complete the definition of the VFAC entry.

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Template Generator

FLUID

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Template Generator

Read
The Read action allows the user to read in existing template data from an external file. The extension of
the template file (either .apnd or .dat) is indicated by setting the Template File Type switch. The Template
File… button is used to specify the name of the template file to be imported. Once the Apply button has
been hit the template entries are placed in the template file spreadsheet for viewing.
If the Sort Entries toggle is set to ON, the template entries are sorted first by type (i.e., all MID, MACRO,
CONV, etc. entries are placed together) and then by ID within each type (i.e., MID 5, MID 10, MID 25,
etc.).

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Template Generator

Template Entries Spreadsheet


Selecting the Display Spreadsheet toggle, results in the display of the Template Entries form. This form
contains a spreadsheet where all the currently defined template data may be viewed and also provides
widgets to operate on that data.

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Template Generator

The contents of a spreadsheet cell may be modified by selecting the cell and changing the contents of the
Input Data databox. A comment line is indicated by placing a * in the first character of the first cell of a
row (note: all other cells in that row will be ignored in this case). The comment text follows the asterisk.
Clicking on any cell will result in the contents of the cell being displayed under the spreadsheet. This
allows for viewing of long text comment strings.
Toward the bottom of the spreadsheet, information labels indicating the number and type of defined
template entries are displayed.
The Write File button allows the user to write the spreadsheet contents to an external file. A file may be
appended or a new file generated (Note: It is recommended to import a template file, add/modify entries
and then export a new file rather than append to an existing file.) by selecting the Append File/New File
switch above the Write File button. Once the Write File button has been selected, the user will be
prompted for the filename to write to; selecting the OK button results in file output.
All spreadsheet contents may be cleared using the Clear button. This action is irreversible (the user is
prompted to verify that this was the intended action) in that once the spreadsheet is cleared, the entries
may not be retrieved but must be recreated from scratch or imported from an external file.

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Thermal Tools

Thermal Tools
Several of the PCL shareware tools for Pthermal have been moved to Pthermal’s Analysis Form when
the action selected is Thermal Tools. Most of these function perform just as they did in the past except
for the convenience of getting to them.

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Thermal Tools

Pthermal Results Reader


The Results Reader allows the user to see and select specific results files based on the type of results,
file extension and various selection methods. The automatically created template files associated with the
specific results will be used if it exist. Specific user template files can be used if the user so selects.

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Thermal Tools

Pthermal Job Status


The Job Status allows the user to get a plot of the convergence status to be obtain during execution or
after the job has completed. This will access the stat.bin file extracting the results and making a XY plot
of the convergence factor and relaxation factor versus the iteration number for both transient and steady
state runs.

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Thermal Tools

Total Heat per Area


The Total Heat per Area allows the user to specify a total heating load over a given area. The user
specifies the heating and then follows it up with the element 2D surfaces or 3D faces that the heating is
to be distributed over. The proper flux is then determined and a heat flux boundary condition is applied
to each of the nodal subareas. Later the user can edit the boundary condition through the normal
Loads/BCs forms.

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Thermal Tools

Total Heat per Volume


The Total Heat per Volume allows the user to specify a total heating load that is to be applied over some
group of 3D elements evenly. The total heat load is specified and the group of 3D elements it is to be
distributed over is selected and the proper volumetric heat flux is determined. The resultant boundary
condition can be edited through the normal Loads/BCs forms.

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Temperature Interpolation
The temperature interpolation function does????

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Thermal Tools

Node Modified by Field


One can modify the node location or field by a given offset or by using a scalar function. All modification
must be done in the global co-ordinate system.

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Plot View Factors

Plot View Factors


Pthermal creates a binary view factor data file that contains all raw information related to the view factors
between each surface in a given enclosure.The view factors are calculated based on the subnodal
representation of each element.This data can be extracted and put in text data files that will enable the
user to determine relative view factor data between any surface or group of surfaces. The subsequent data
then loses the finer view factor information associated with the subnodal area; however, this is only for
examination purposes. The radiation network used in the calculations still reflects the subnodal
refinement. This operation is not automatic and requires interactive operation by the users. There is a
sequence of operations the user needs to follow to create and investigate the calculated view factors. The
first time through the user must Create VF Data Files for the desired enclosure. To plot the view factors,
groups will be created that have surfaces related to each enclosure with the Create Enclosure Surfaces
button. Each time before creating a plot, first select the controls associated with a given enclosure through
the Define/Get VF Plot Controls. Only post the group with the desired enclosure information and define
the view factor groups with Plot View Factors.

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Plot View Factors

Create VF Data Files


The Pthermal view factor raw data file contains too much information and is not in a form that is
convenient to create arbitrary view factor information and plot it. Six text files are created that contains
information that the user can examine and is in a form that can easily be used to create view factors for
any user selected grouping. These files will have a user defined prefix which is usually the same as the
job name directory. Appended to this is the enclosure ID while the final suffix denotes the type of file.
All files have data only with no header information. Each file type is defined below.

Control file .cntr


The control file contains a single record with:
1. Enclosure ID

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Plot View Factors

2. Number of Surfaces
3. Dimension Code
4. Surface Offset
5. Maximum Surface ID
6. Maximum Number of Nodes per Surface
This information applies to one enclosure and will become initial values for subsequent enclosures. The
dimension code is defined ( p 143 view factor manual ). The surface offset is adjusted such that a surface
ID can be easily identified. The maximum surface ID will be used as the seed offset for the next
enclosure.

Correspondence File .cors


The correspondence file contains information that relates each surface to element and node data related
to the model. For each surface there are two records.
The first record contains:
1. Surface ID
1. Element ID
1. Element Face ID
1. Surface Configuration
1. Number of Nodes
The second record contains:
1. Node ID’s for this surface

Surface Area .area


This file contains the surface area of each surface. Each record contains:
1. Surface ID
1. Surface Area

Residual View Factor .vfsp


The value of each view factor in a closed enclosure should be one. The thermal module uses the view
factors as calculated rather than make adjustments to have each one summing to one. It is felt that
numerical calculation would over predict as well as under predict so over the whole enclosure numerical
error would cancel better than attempting to make each one have exact closure on one. Also, any leaks
in an enclosure would let energy escape the enclosure is included as part of the residual. By plotting the
residuals one can see the errors or get the view factor to space. The residual file contains:
1. Surface ID
1. One minus the Sum of View Factor - ( 1.0 - Fi )

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Plot View Factors

View Factor Matrix .mtrx


A file is created in which for each surface the product of the surface area and the view factor to every
other surface is specified. This is the information that sequentially is used by the user to create plots from
one view factor group to another. All information associated with each surface is written as a single
record
1. Surface ID(i), ( AiFij for j from surface i to number of surfaces

View Factor .vfij


A file is created in which for each surface the view factor to every other surface is specified. This can be
examined to determine the view factor from any surface to any other surface; however, this file is not
used in any subsequent view factor calculations. All information associated with each surface is written
as a single record
1. Surface ID(i), ( Fij for j from surface i to number of surface
The form to extract these files is shown below. The sequence of operations are to select a raw view
factor data file, validate the file selection and then create the view factor data files. If the raw data
file selected the validation operation will produce an error message rather than letting one to
continue.:

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Chapter 5: Running an Analysis 187
Plot View Factors

Define/Get VF Plot Controls


Whenever the user is going to create a set of view factor plots they must define the enclosure desired and
specify some identifier that will be associated with each set of view factor plots. This is done through the
Plot Controls form. Each enclosure has a set of files associated with it for plot creation. This file identifies
the enclosure and information necessary to size arrays etc. for the view factor calculations. The desired
control file is selected from the Select VF Plot Control File Name and then the needed data is loaded
through the Get VF Plot Controls.

Create Enclosure Surfaces


For convenience and so users can isolate different parts of the model, a separate group is defined with a
set of surfaces corresponding to each enclosure. This group should be all that is posted when one is
plotting various view factors. After one has finished examining the view factors and this information will
no longer be needed and can be deleted.

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Plot View Factors

Post Enclosure Group


To simplify looking at radiation surfaces one should only post the surfaces in the enclosure being
examined. Using the Group -> Post form select the surface group.

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Chapter 5: Running an Analysis 189
Plot View Factors

Plot View Factors


The plot view factors form allows the user to group of surfaces in a from-to grouping they desire to obtain
view factors between. An option is available to create a file with a summary of the data just plotted.

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Plot View Factors

Plotting the Results


The element results in the database can be plotted through the Results -> Create -> Fringe forms.
1. First select the results case one desires to examine.
2. Determine the type of plot you desire. The view factors are from a selected group to each
individual element in the to group. Thus the most meaningful is probably the Element Fill since
the calculated view factor is the weighted sum of each subnodal view factor. If discrete contours
are desired the element values are evaluated for all elements associated with each node.

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Chapter 5: Running an Analysis 191
Plot View Factors

3. The Domain should be set to None if the element file is to be used so that the true view factor for
each element is plotted. If the contour plots are desired set the Domain to All Entities if the
continuous option is used.
The fringe selection forms are shown below.

Following are some examples of view factor plots. The example is two parallel plates one unit on a side
and 0.6 units apart. For this case the view factor to space is greater than it is to the other plate for each
element.

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Plot View Factors

A plot from a single surface to all other surfaces is shown below in the element file mode. Note that the
sum of all view factors is from the single surface to all other surfaces is included in the title.

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Plot View Factors

The same plot is shown below in a discrete/smooth format.

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A sample of the output is shown below. The surface list for each group is defined in the output. The total
surface area for the from surface and the resulting view factor between the groups is defined. A second
set of area and view factor is shown. This is the total surface area of all elements in the enclosure and the
sum of all view factor area products in the enclosure. For a totally enclosed system the total sum for area
and area view factor product should be one. The individual view factor from the “from group” to each
individual surface is output. A partial table is shown below. The Surface ID that is defined by radiating
surface with the given offset and its corresponding element ID for the view factor specified in the first
column. The next surfaces continues incrementing by one for the next columns on that given row. There
is no break on a row if the numbering has gaps. For example surface 1121 begins with element 121.5
(where .5 indicates the top of a surface) begins in the first column. Element 210.6 is shown in the second
column, but the element ID is not consistent with the surface ID until the next row. The file below is only
representative and does not include all columns or rows.

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Plot View Factors

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Chapter 6: Reading Results
Patran Thermal User’s Guide Volume 1: Thermal/Hydraulic Analysis

6 Reading Results

J Overview of Results Import 198


J File Menu Import 199
J
Analysis Form 201

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Overview of Results Import

Overview of Results Import


Patran Thermal can import results through either of two approaches. The first approach is through the
Import option of the File menu under the Patran main form. The second approach is through the Read
Results option on the Analysis form under the Analysis application. Both approaches require the
Analysis Preferences to be set for Patran Thermal to create the proper analysis specific forms.
Once the analysis results are imported into the database, they become part of the database unless
specifically deleted. Multiple results files can be imported into the same database.

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Chapter 6: Reading Results 199
File Menu Import

File Menu Import


Patran can import Patran Thermal results through the File menu Import option.

When the Import option is selected and Analysis Preferences is set to Patran Thermal, the analysis
specific Import form appears. See Import Form, 199 for more information.

Import Form
When results are imported in this manner, the entire file is input into the database. If selective results
types are desired in the database, then the Analysis Form, 201 Read Results approach must be used.

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File Menu Import

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Chapter 6: Reading Results 201
Analysis Form

Analysis Form
The Read Results Analysis form can be used to read results from a Patran Thermal analysis by setting
the Action to Read Result.

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Chapter 7: Thermal/Hydraulic Theory
Patran Thermal User’s Guide Volume 1: Thermal/Hydraulic Analysis

7 Thermal/Hydraulic Theory

J Network Methods 204


J Numerical Analysis Techniques 216

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Network Methods

Network Methods
This section provides an introduction to network concepts, techniques, and terminology. Network analog
methods are discussed for thermal problems which involve conduction, convection, gray-body radiation,
wavelength-dependent radiation, advection (mass flow), heat sources, or temperature sources.
Recommendations for certain problem types are also presented.

The Thermal Network


Thermal analysts have for some time been trained to formulate heat transfer problems in terms of thermal
networks which are analogous to resistor-capacitor electrical networks. The basic formula for current
flow across an electrical resistor is:

(E[1] – E[2])
I [ 1 → 2 ] = ------------------------------------ (7-1)
R

where I is current, E is voltage, and R is electrical resistance.


In heat transfer, the analogous equation for heat flow across a thermal resistor is:

Q [ 1 → 2 ] = (-----------------------------------
T[1] – T[2])
- (7-2)
R

For transient current or heat flows, flow into an electrical or thermal capacitor must be included. For
current flow I into an electrical capacitor, the equation is:
dE
I = ------- * C (7-3)
dt

where C is the value of the electrical capacitor and dE/dt is the time derivative of the voltage across the
capacitor. In heat transfer, the analogous equation for heat flow into a thermal capacitor is:
dT
Q = ------- * C (7-4)
dt

The value of C in this equation is taken from:


C = ρ * V * CP (7-5)
where:

ρ = =density of the material associated with the node,


V = =volume associated with the node, and
Cp = =specific heat of the material associated with the node.

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Network Methods

Note: One convenient feature concerning thermal capacitors is that one node of the capacitor is
always “grounded.” This contrasts with electrical capacitors, where an electrical capacitor
may be connected to two separate voltage nodes and is not necessarily grounded. This
forced grounding of thermal capacitors simplifies thermal networks and thermal network
calculations (relative to electrical networks) considerably.

The parallels between electrical and heat transfer equations have led to the development of the thermal
network concept. The remainder of this section defines more completely thermal network concepts,
especially as they apply to the QTRAN thermal network program. QTRAN has taken the conventional
thermal network concepts and has added to them vis-a-vis wavelength-dependent thermal radiation
resistors, the three-node convective resistors, LaGrange cubic finite element resistors, and others. For
those who are more comfortable with finite element concepts, it might be easier to think of a thermal
resistor as a 1-D finite element. Another viewpoint is to simply think of the thermal resistors as
computational molecules or numerical models, especially where normal thermal resistor concepts do not
strictly apply (e.g., the three-node convective resistors and wavelength- dependent resistors).

Conduction Networks
This section briefly outlines the fundamentals of the electrical network analog approach for conduction
networks. It includes multidimensional transient and steady-state network models and the associated
mathematical relations which govern them.

Steady State Cartesian Conduction


Steady-state heat conduction networks in Cartesian coordinates will be the first network model discussed
in this section due to their relative simplicity. Steady- state networks in general do not require thermal
capacitors and are simple to derive from first principle considerations. Remember, however, that the
conductive network is simply another method of arriving at a finite difference approximation to the
problem. This implies that many of the numerical considerations which apply to more classical finite
difference or finite element discretization schemes will also apply to thermal networks. There are two
major reasons for resorting to a thermal network as the method of solving a problem: (1) the ease with
which various combinations of boundary conditions may be handled as compared to the more classical
finite difference or finite element schemes and (2) computational efficiency for large, strongly nonlinear
problems. Network methods in general will allow more flexibility for the user (indeed, the finite element
method may be thought of as a very powerful subset of the more general thermal network approach).
1-D conduction is the cornerstone for both 2-D and 3-D conduction. For starters, a Cartesian 1-D
conductive resistor is defined as follows:

Length
R = ------------------------------- (7-6)
( k * Area )

and the heat conducted from node 1 to node 2 is computed from the following expression:

Q [ 1 → 2 ] = (-----------------------------------
T[1] – T[2])
- (7-7)
R

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where:

Length distance between nodes 1 and 2


k thermal conductivity of the material
Area effective cross-sectional area between the two nodes through which heat is allowed to flow

Note: The conductance, G, is the reciprocal of the resistor value, R. For one dimension, a
conduction problem consists merely of a string of conductive resistors going from node to
node. For 2-D and 3-D, a conduction problem consists of a network of these resistors going
from node to node in all three dimensions.

Transient Conduction
Transient conduction involves the added complications of capacitors, where a single capacitor value is
defined as follows:

C = ρ ⋅ Volume ⋅ C p

C the capacitor value


ρ the material density
Cp the material specific heat

If the node in question lies at a material interface, it may be convenient to assign one capacitor to the node
for each material at the interface. The heat equation being solved for transient conduction at a given node
[i] is then seen to be:
all all
T[j] – T[i]
∑ C [ i, n ]dT [ i ] = ∑ ---------------------------
R [ i, j ]
- dt (7-8)
n=1 j =1

which states the sum of all the capacitances multiplied by the time derivative of node [i] is equal to all of
the heat flows across all resistances into the node.

Important:Since QTRAN uses implicit integration, stability considerations are not required. However,
the maximum stable time steps for an explicit forward Euler algorithm would be given by
the following expression:

all

∑ C[K]
K=1
dt [ maximum stable explicit ] = -------------------------- (7-9)
all

∑ G [ i, j ]
j= i

While the maximum stable time step in the system does not affect QTRAN’s stability, it may have an
effect on the execution time. In general, the smaller the stable time step the more time a given problem

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Network Methods

may take to execute. A network with tiny stable time steps tends to generate stiff systems of equations
which are more difficult to solve than non-stiff systems. However, a network whose nodes have
predominantly small stable time steps will also give better resolution in the time domain to fast transients,
especially at very early times in the simulation. A rule of thumb for the mesh spacing (which directly
affects the explicit stable time step) is to compute the approximate mesh spacing from the following
formula:

α * time [ i ]
dx < ---------------------------- (7-10)
5

dx approximate average mesh spacing in regions of rapid change


α k
thermal diffusivity = --------------------
-
〈 ρ ⋅ C p〉

time [ i ] earliest time point of interest (e.g., first print dump for a transient problem

This is an extremely approximate formula and you can typically violate it by a factor of several. If
violated by orders of magnitude, however, the results may be in serious error. The formula given can be
arrived at from several approaches. One approach is to look at the most significant term of a 1-D
conduction solution which is an infinite series. Another approach is to look at response times and decay
rates of exponentially damped dynamic systems. Try it out and see what results are obtained. Review past
analyses that have been performed and compare the mesh spacing to this criteria.
Although this mesh spacing criteria is important in regions undergoing rapid change, this criteria can
typically be grossly violated in regions where the transient is very mild.

Conduction in Cylindrical and Spherical Geometries


Cylindrical, spherical, polar, triangular, skew, or other networks all use the same underlying principles
as Cartesian meshes for both steady-state and transient runs. However, there are special formulas for the
conductive resistance in these coordinate systems that must be used to account for the differences in
effective cross-sectional areas. For hollow cylinders and a 360-degree circumference, the effective
conductive resistance is as follows:

1n (R [ outer ] ⁄ R [ inner ])
R [ cylinder ] = ------------------------------------------------------------------ (7-11)
2 * π * k * Length

And, for spheres:

R [ outer ] – R [ inner ]
R [ sphere ] = --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- (7-12)
4 * π * R [ outer ] * R [ inner ] * k

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R[outer] outer radius of cylindrical or spherical section


R[inner] inner radius of cylindrical or spherical section
k thermal conductivity of the material
Length length of the cylindrical section

Conduction with Phase Changes


Heat conduction with phase change introduces an extra term into the network capacitors. Specifically,
the capacitors must now be able to properly account for latent heat effects at a given temperature as well
as the normal specific heat effects. Furthermore, to be perfectly general a code must be able to account
for multiple phase change temperatures and latent heat effects within each capacitor. In addition,
simultaneous phase changes at multiple nodes with the transition direction going in either direction (e.g.,
either melting or freezing) must be allowed.
To be mathematically ideal, at least some phase changes are supposed to occur at a single temperature,
not over a temperature band. This causes the internal energy of a material undergoing a phase transition
to cease being a function of temperature. This can cause some rather significant numerical headaches,
and the introduction of a narrow phase transition temperature range (say, 0.1 to 1.0 degrees in width) will
not usually significantly affect the answers to most problems. The introduction of this artificial phase
transition range has the benefit of causing the internal energy to be a function of temperature at all points,
and this is a great advantage from a computational standpoint.
The advantage of smearing this phase change over a very narrow band is not, however, enough of an
advantage to allow even QTRAN’s SNPSOR algorithm to converge if it relied only upon Newton’s
Second Order Method. The “S” shape that the phase transition introduces into the nodal heat flow rate
curve is a classic way to kill Newton’s methods. QTRAN, however, detects when the old time step’s
temperature and the new time step’s temperature straddle or intrude into a phase transition region. At
these times and for only those nodes involved, QTRAN’s SNPSOR algorithm reverts to a bisection
algorithm technique which is immune to “S” curve effects. Thus, the SNPSOR algorithm remains
convergent even for implicitly solved phase transition problems.
It is also possible to solve some problems involving phase transitions over a large temperature range by
putting a bump into the specific heat curve and then being careful not to allow large temperature changes
in a single time step. This has the advantage of sometimes being much faster than the built-in phase
change algorithm, but it also carries some risk with regard to accuracy.
Phase transition problems tend to consume considerably more CPU time than normal problems. It is,
therefore, an advantage to specify that a problem does not involve phase changes if it is known a-priori
that this is the case. This is done by specifying 0 for all capacitor PHIDs. When using PATQ to translate
a Patran neutral file, specify 0 for the PHID on all MID templates.

Convection Networks
Convection networks can be a source of great anxiety. They tend to embody an empirical convection
coefficient h in the convective resistors, and the formulas used to compute this h value are usually highly

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Chapter 7: Thermal/Hydraulic Theory 209
Network Methods

complex. Transition regimes also frequently exist, where the empirical correlation used for a particular
configuration may be a function of Reynolds, Grashoff, Rayleigh, Prandtl, Graetz, and add infinitum
number ranges.
For example, the pipe flow configuration in QTRAN uses five different correlations with seven factorial
transition regimes based on everything from Reynolds number ranges to viscosity ratio ranges. Also,
since the correlations are not in general continuous through the transition regimes, interpolation must be
used when in a transition regime to maintain continuity and avoid numerical convergence problems.
Further complications arise when mass flow through tubes or packed beds occur, as three temperatures
are then needed. The following sections expand on these concepts.

Ordinary 2-Node Convection Thermal Resistors


The majority of the QTRAN convection configurations are in keeping with the conventional thermal
resistor concept in that there are two nodes associated with each resistor. The conventional convective
resistance is given by the following expression:

1
R = ---------------------------- (7-13)
( h * Area )

where:

R is the thermal resistance, h is the convection coefficient, and Area is the surface area from which heat
is being convected. The heat flow across the resistor is then given by:

Q [ 1 → 2 ] = (-----------------------------------
T[1] – T[2])
- (7-14)
R

The tricky detail of this operation, of course, is to compute an h value for the resistance expression. In
general, empirical correlations must be relied upon. These correlations are usually somewhat tedious to
evaluate, since they themselves are in general a function of temperature and/or temperature difference.
Furthermore, each correlation is usually only applicable to a range of dimensionless parameters, and
hence these parameters must be evaluated to determine which correlation to use for a given configuration.
The result is a very painful (if done by hand) iterative solution for even a relatively simple convection
problem.
QTRAN alleviates the pain somewhat by offering a convection library from which the user may select
any one of 37 configurations which are in turn supported by 61 correlations (several generic correlations
also exist). QTRAN will automatically and dynamically select the appropriate correlation for both the
configuration type and the dimensionless parameter range for the resistor. A catalogue of available
configurations is contained in Convection Library (Ch. 9) along with a catalogue of supporting
correlations. All correlations are fully documented and referenced such that the user may easily locate
the references from which the correlations were taken.

Special 3-Node Convection Thermal Resistors


As stated previously, the majority of the QTRAN convection configurations are in keeping with the
conventional thermal resistor concept in that two temperature nodes are associated with each resistor.
However, certain configurations (i.e., configurations CFIG = 1, 2, 21, and 25) require the association of

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a third temperature node with the convective resistor. Configurations CFIG = 1, 2, and 21 are pipe flow
configurations and CFIG = 25 is a flow through porous media configuration. For all four configurations,
three temperature values are needed. The three temperatures needed are:
1. a wall (or media) temperature
2. an upstream temperature
3. a downstream temperature
It is at this point that the computational hydrodynamics concept of “upwind differencing” must be
introduced. Upwind differencing is a numerical technique that is used to maintain stability for a
numerical solution which involves advection. Simply stated, upwind differencing assumes that
information (in this case, heat) is carried only from upstream to downstream. Information (or heat) is
never carried from downstream to upstream. The impact of upwind differencing on the three-node
convective resistors is that the upstream node NEVER gains or loses heat through the convective resistor
so long as the flow velocity associated with the resistor remains positive.
Thus, it is seen that all heat transfer through the three-node convective resistors occurs between the wall
(or media) node and the downstream node. The upstream node is used solely as a reference temperature
node for LMTD calculations (if appropriate) so long as the flow velocity is positive. The LMTD is used
for those flow configurations for which it is appropriate, and a differential between the wall temperature
and the average bulk fluid temperature is used for other configurations.
From this discussion, it is obvious to the casual observer that the three-node convective resistors do not
account for advective heat transfer (i.e., the heat carried along on the mass flow). In order to complete a
thermal model involving a three-node convective resistor, it is frequently necessary (depending on the
boundary conditions of the problem) to use an advection resistor to properly account for the heat balance.
Another point that may not be quite so obvious is that the three-node convective resistors may not be
directly used to compute entrance temperatures given that the wall (or media) and exit temperatures are
known. Remember that the heat transfer to the upstream node is not a function of a the three-node
convective resistor since the upstream node is used only as a reference temperature. The upstream node
temperature must be taken from boundary conditions or else calculated from other thermal resistor,
capacitor, and heat source influences.

Note: There is no current way of assigning 3-noded convective resistors from Patran. To use any
of the 3-noded configurations, they will have to be assigned manually.

Gray Body Radiation Networks


Gray body radiation networks also differ slightly from the normal thermal resistor concept in that the
potential across the radiative resistor is evaluated as σ * T 4, where σ is the Stefan-Boltzmann constant.
QTRAN automatically uses the σ * T 4 potential when evaluating gray-body resistors, and hence the
difference between radiative and conductive resistors is essentially transparent to the user. Note that the
σ * T 4 potential is also applicable to non-surface radiosity nodes such as are encountered in gray
networks.

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Chapter 7: Thermal/Hydraulic Theory 211
Network Methods

The formula for radiative heat transfer used in thermal networks in QTRAN is as follows:
4 4
σ * ( T [ 1 ] – T [ 2 ] )-
Q [ 1 → 2 ] = ---------------------------------------------------- (7-15)
R

The formula for R is dependent upon whether R is a surface resistor, a view factor resistor with or without
a participating media, and so on. The actual formulation of the specific resistor types is defined after
Table 8-1 and Table 8-2 for gray body and wavelength dependent radiation respectively.

For more information on radiative networks, consult any radiative heat transfer book that describes the
network approach. See Ref. 6. in Appendix A.
The gap radiation creates radiation coupling without the radiosity network or performing form factor
calculations. Some assumption inherent in the formulation are that the area radiating is large relative to
the distance between the radiating surfaces. A form factor may be included, but if it is significantly less
than one, consideration should be given to using the radiosity network and calculating the appropriate
form factors. Type 5 radiation resistors are used thus the emissivities must be constant. Type 5 resistor
are constant and are treated internally as conductances. The last major assumption is that the two surfaces
radiating to each other are of equal value. Since a form factor is included, small variation can be
compensated for by adjusting emissivity or form factor values. The radiation conductance is determined
with (7-16)

1 A1
C = ---- = A F = -----------------------------------------------------
- (7-16)
R 1 12 ------
1 1 1
+ ------ + ----------- – 2.0
ε ε F
1 2 12

Wavelength Dependent Radiation Networks


Wavelength-dependent thermal radiation networks are a rather significant extension of the gray-body
radiation network theory. In essence, the normal radiosity network is divided up into discrete frequency
bands such that the emissivities, transmissivities, and absorptivities of the radiating materials can be
assumed to be gray within each frequency band. For each frequency band that is used, a distinct but
frequently parallel radiosity network is generated between the radiating surfaces and participating media.
Each frequency band network is typically coupled to any of the other bands only at the surfaces of the
radiating materials or at participating media nodes. This treatment allows reflections from dissimilar
surfaces to be handled correctly, and is directly analogous to the multigroup treatment used in certain
high-energy physics codes. This approach does not assume an average emissivity over the entire
spectrum (e.g., the Air Force Weapons Lab’s “TRAP” code), but instead inherently allows emissivities,
absorptivities, and transmissivities to be functions of frequency band, temperature, and/or time.

Advection Networks
Advection occurs whenever some quantity is carried along on a mass flow stream. For example, if hot
fluid enters a container, heat (energy) is carried with the fluid into the container. Similarly, if a cold fluid
enters a hot container, cold (or negative energy) is carried with the fluid into the container. This transfer
of positive or negative energy by mass flow must be accounted for when doing thermal simulations if

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such mass flows exist. The mathematical equation for the heat added to node [i] by such a mass flow
stream is as follows:
Q [1→2]=MDOT * Cp * ( T[1] - T[2] ) (7-17)

Q [1→2] the amount of energy transported by the mass flow from node #1 to
node #2
MDOT the mass rate of flow from node #1 to node #2
Cp the specific heat of the flowing mass

Note: QTRAN evaluates the specific heat as the integration between the temperatures of node #1
and node #2 using the temperature increment defined by CPDELT.

T [1] the temperature of node #1 (upstream node)


T [2] the temperature of node #2 (downstream node)

One facet of numerical stability should be mentioned at this point because of its influence on advective
resistors. It is necessary to limit the transport of energy by advective resistors to one direction only for
the purposes of the QTRAN program. Specifically, energy is carried by advective resistors only from the
upstream node to the downstream node (which node is upstream or downstream is determined by the sign
of the MDOT mass flow term). This scheme is immediately seen to be equivalent to one-sided or
“upwind” differencing which is a common practice among numerical fluid flow analysts, and is
commonly used because of its stability enhancing characteristics.
By introducing upwind differencing, we can guarantee that the system of equations has a stable solution.
This does not mean, however, that the SNPSOR algorithm in QTRAN can always solve the system of
equations. This is due to the point iterative nature of the SNPSOR algorithm. As long as the system of
equations is diagonally dominant, point iterative schemes tend to work very well. However, the
introduction of advection tends to weaken this diagonal dominance. As the diagonal dominance weakens,
point iterative methods have more and more difficulty converging, until they eventually fail. One way of
aiding convergence (at the expense of speed) is to under-relax. With a small enough relaxation parameter,
a solution will usually converge. However, be aware that CPU times increase rapidly as the relaxation
parameter approaches 0.0.
The user has the option of applying the relaxation parameters to the entire system of equations, by node
group types, or on a node by node basis. To under relax, apply the under relaxation only to the advection
nodes by using a relaxation multiplier less than one. Apply this to the advection nodes. This will direct
the under relaxation only to those nodes that need to be under relaxed and still give some flexibility, by
allowing the solution module to search for an optimum relaxation parameter.

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Network Methods

Heat and Temperature Source Networks


In virtually all thermal problems either temperature sources or heat sources exist. A temperature source
is defined to be simply an externally controlled boundary temperature. A heat source is defined to be
anything that contributes heat to the network, not including the resistors and capacitors.

QTRAN Microfunctions
Microfunctions are a unique QTRAN feature. Frequently, there is a need to apply very complicated
temperature or heat sources that may consist of tabular data, sines or cosines, exponentials, constants, or
terms which may or may not be multiplied together or divided by one another. QTRAN lets each discrete
component of a complicated temperature or heat source be defined as a “microfunction”. Once all of
these component microfunctions have been defined, then a library is available from which to build the
more complicated functions (macrofunctions) that are needed for temperature or heat sources. Many
macrofunctions are allowed to reference the same microfunction. Thus, for a very complicated tabular
data microfunction, it is only necessary to build it once and then reference it as many times as needed.
Other microfunctions can then be used to multiply or scale this complicated microfunction. Currently,
the argument of a microfunction can be either time, temperature, a temperature difference, a temperature
average, or a σ * (T[1] 4 - T[2] 4) radiation potential. If the radiation potential is specified, QTRAN will
convert the T[1] and T[2] values to degrees absolute before computing the radiation potential value.

QTRAN Macrofunctions
As stated above, a macrofunction consists of one or more microfunctions that are either multiplied or
divided by one another. Quite complicated macrofunctions can be expressed in this manner. Note that,
when building temperature or heat sources, it is quite allowable to assign more than one macrofunction
to the same node. Multiple macrofunctions assigned to the same node are simply added together to
compute the final source value.

Flow Networks
This section briefly outlines the fundamentals of fluid flow networks and the associated equations.

One Dimensional Flow Network


Flow networks are incorporated into the Patran Thermal system to analyze the complex fluid flow system
coupled with the heat transfer problem. The analysis is focused on average flow parameters, like mass
flow rate, and pressure. Users requiring a detailed analysis of the flow field have to resort to CFD solvers.
Assumptions:
1. The flow is assumed to be incompressible single phase with no viscous heat effects.
2. Physical and material properties are assumed constant over the element; however, they can vary
from element to element and can be temperature and/or time dependent.
3. Flow is assumed to be steady-state or quasi-steady (steady state at each transient point).
The pressure drop in a fluid flowing in a duct from point I to J can be expressed as:

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2
P I – P J = ΔP = ρ f L V
-------------------------- (7-18)
2D

P Static pressure in the duct


r Fluid mass density
f Moody friction factor
V Fluid mean velocity
D Hydraulic diameter of the flow passage
L Length of flow passage from node I to node J

casting equation 1 in terms of mass flow rate.


2
m· 1
P I – P j = ΔP = ρ f L . -----------
2 2 2D
- . ------- (7-19)
ρ A


m· = A fL . PI - PJ (7-20)
D

linearizing the above equation.


1
m· = A fL . ------------------------ ( P I - P J ) (7-21)
PI - PJ
D

or:
m· = flow resistance * ( P I - P J )

adding the head losses in flow with the loss coefficient, K.

2ρ |
Flow resistance = A fL . ------------------------------- (7-22)
----- + K | PI - PJ |
D

Adding gravity and pump/turbine heads, the basic equation in matrix form can be written as:

[ K p ] [ P ] = [ m· ] + [ Heads ] (7-23)

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Chapter 7: Thermal/Hydraulic Theory 215
Network Methods

Kp Pressure conductivity matrix

P Nodal static pressure


m· Fluid mass flow rate

The flow resistance is a function of pressure; therefore, the problem is nonlinear and an iterative
procedure is required for solution. The resistances are computed, assembled and the matrix equations are
solved for nodal pressures.

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216 Patran Thermal User’s Guide Volume 1: Thermal/Hydraulic Analysis
Numerical Analysis Techniques

Numerical Analysis Techniques


This section describes some of the numerical methods used by QTRAN which may be of interest to the
user. These methods include QTRAN’s predictor-corrector algorithm which is used for transient
calculations, the Strongly Nonlinear Point Successive Over Relaxation (SNPSOR) point iterative
solution algorithm which is used to solve the systems of nonlinear equations which are posed by implicit
transient integration or by steady-state calculations, convergence acceleration schemes used by the
SNPSOR algorithm, table interpolation schemes, the phase change algorithm used by QTRAN, and the
finite element to resistor/capacitor translation algorithm.

QTRAN’s Predictor-Corrector Algorithm


QTRAN uses a predictor-corrector algorithm for transient problems. This algorithm uses a first order
predictor with a second order corrector equation. Details are presented in the following sections.

QTRAN’s Predictor Equation


QTRAN currently uses simple linear extrapolation in the time domain to predict the future value of a
node’s temperature.

QTRAN’s Corrector Equation


A family of one-step algorithms has been developed by Hughes (see Ref. 1. in Appendix A) and are
claimed to be unconditionally stable for nonlinear type of problems.
QTRAN’s Modified Hughes Equation:

T [ i, ( t + dt ) ] – T [ i, ( t ) ] SUM [ i = 1, all ] { Q [ i, T [ t + β *dt ] ] }


----------------------------------------------------------- = ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- (7-24)
dt SUM [ i = 1, all ] { C [ i, T [ ct + β *dt ] ] }

If the heat absorbed into the capacitor is treated as merely another heat flow, the left hand side of this
equation can be moved to the right side and presented as:
0 = SUM [ i = 1, all ] { Q [ i, T [ i, ( t + β *dt ) ] ] } (7-25)
where the value of T[t+β*dt] is taken as:

T [ i, ( t + β * dt ) ] = T [ i, t ] * ( 1 – β ) + T [ i, ( t + dt ) ] * β (7-26)

Furthermore, since t and T[i,(t)] may be assumed known and hence constant, using the corrector equation
to integrate with respect to time may be seen to be equivalent to finding a value of T[i,(t+dt)] that zeros
the following function:
0 = SUM [ i = 1, all ] { Q [ i, T [ t + β *dt ] ] } (7-27)

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Chapter 7: Thermal/Hydraulic Theory 217
Numerical Analysis Techniques

T[i] the temperature at node “i” being integrated with respect to time
t current time at which T[i] is known
dt current integration time step
b Hughes integration algorithm explicit/implicit weighting factor
SUM[i=1,all] { Q[i,T] } total heat flow rate into node “i” from all other resistors and/or
heat sources. Flow into the node is based on the temperatures at
time = t + β * dt for resistor heat flows and temperature-
dependent heat sources. Time-dependent heat sources are based
simply on time = t + dt
C[i] ρ * V * Cp, where ρ is the density of the capacitor’s materials,
V is the volume associated with the capacitor, and Cp is the
capacitor’s specific heat. C[i] is evaluated at a temperature of
T[i,(t+β*dt)]

Optimum Explicit/Implicit Weighting Factor


The corrector algorithm of the previous section uses a weighting factor β which is used to determine the
amount of “implicitness” that will be used for the formula. As per Ref. 2. in Appendix A, it is possible
to choose this factor β such that fourth order or higher spatial accuracy can be achieved. For a 1-D
problem, the method of choosing β is detailed as follows:

ΣC
dt s table = ------- (7-28)
-
ΣG

dt
R = ----------------- (7-29)
-
dt stable

if
( R ≤ 0.35 )β = 0

else
β = 3R –1
----------------
6R

β = MAX ( β, 0.0 )
(7-30)
QTRAN currently offers this basic scheme as an optional adaptive weighting algorithm. A significant
feature of QTRAN’s adaptive explicit/implicit weighting scheme is a lower cut-off value for the Fourier
Modulus. If the Fourier Modulus is such that the current time step being used by QTRAN is less than
0.35 of the stable time step for a given node, that node is then integrated with β = 0.0 (totally explicit).
This can speed up calculations very significantly.

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SNPSOR Algorithm
QTRAN uses a Strongly Nonlinear Point Successive Over Relaxation (SNPSOR) equation solving
algorithm which is a diagonalized hybrid of Newton’s First Order Method and Newton’s Second Order
Method when solving the systems of equations generated by a thermal network. Many nonlinear
computer programs use a linear point iterative technique such as Gauss-Seidel coupled with successive
over relaxation (SOR). Such an algorithm will frequently prove to be satisfactory. However, this
algorithm can run into difficulties if the equation system is strongly nonlinear as is the case with “hot”
thermal radiation problems where temperatures of 2000+ C may be encountered. When linear SOR
algorithms encounter these problems, under relaxation is usually used to force convergence. However,
this under relaxation will usually cause convergence to be unacceptably slow and will frequently
adversely affect accuracy due to premature convergence.
An approach to the problem is to use a hybrid of Newton’s First Order Method and Newton’s Second
Order Method. Newton’s First Order Method is essentially the same as using the first two terms of a
Taylor series to estimate a function's zero, while Newton’s Second Order Method uses the first three
terms to estimate the zero. Unfortunately, Newton’s Second Order Method requires three function
evaluations per iteration if it is to be used. Furthermore, the Second Order Method is generally
prohibitively costly and wasteful on conduction problems since conductive heat transfer is generally very
close to being linear (First Order). It should also be noted that conduction dominated nodes are generally
the most numerous in large thermal system networks. The approach used by QTRAN is a hybrid of the
First Order and Second Order methods. Specifically, second derivatives are not calculated for conduction
terms (i.e., conductive resistors are assumed to be linear within a given iteration and their contribution to
the node’s First derivative is simply the sum of the resistor’s reciprocal values (conductances)). All other
heat contributions to a node (e.g., capacitances, convective resistors, radiative resistors, mass flow
resistors, and heat sources are assumed to be nonlinear and hence Second derivatives are calculated for
these terms). Conductive resistor heat flows (which are generally the most numerous) are therefore
calculated only once per iteration while other heat flows are calculated three times per iteration. The
result is a rapid yet solidly convergent algorithm capable of both rapid computation for conduction
problems and reliable convergence for the strongly nonlinear problems. For more information
concerning Newton’s Second Order Method, see Ref. 3. in Appendix A.
While the hybrid Newton’s method works great for most problems, there are a few classes of problems
that present pathological cases for failing any Newton’s method. These are the classic “S” shaped curves,
and phase transition problems introduce exactly this type of “S” shape into the nodal heat flow rate curve.
Fortunately, QTRAN can detect a phase transition and will shift to a bisection method for any node
currently undergoing a phase transition. Bisection methods are relatively slow, but they are immune to
the “S” shaped curves.

Convergence Acceleration Schemes


QTRAN currently offers the user the option of selecting either a fixed or an adaptive over-relaxation
scheme. In addition, a single over-relaxation parameter may be applied to the entire system of equations,
or groups of relaxation parameters may be applied to groups of nodes dependent on the type of node and
boundary conditions present, or individual relaxation parameters can be applied to each individual node.
The following discussion applies to which-ever method of application is selected. Over-relaxation

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Chapter 7: Thermal/Hydraulic Theory 219
Numerical Analysis Techniques

schemes can speed the solution of elliptic problems by a factor of over 30 for many problems which are
commonly encountered. Numerical experiments by the author with QTRAN’s adaptive relaxation
algorithm (i.e., QTRAN estimates and continuously updates the relaxation parameter for the adaptive
algorithm) have shown that the adaptive algorithm is over twice as fast as the optimal fixed over-
relaxation algorithm for many transient problems. QTRAN’s adaptive relaxation algorithm has also
proven to be quite successful in estimating the optimal relaxation parameter for steady- state problems.
Special note should be made that over-relaxation (not under relaxation) can be used even with the “hot”
thermal radiation problems. QTRAN’s SNPSOR algorithm does not (in general) force the user to resort
to under-relaxation to gain a sufficient radius of convergence (with the possible exception of a few
sublinear problems), whereas codes relying on linear SOR solvers frequently do.
QTRAN’s relaxation parameter estimation algorithm is based on the convergence rate R of the iterative
solution, where R is calculated from:
E[i]
R = ------------------- (7-31)
-
E[i – 1]

where:

E[i-1] is the largest iterative delta (positive or negative) at the i-1'th iteration, and E[i] is the largest
iterative delta (positive or negative) at the i'th iteration. In the limit as the iteration count i goes to infinity,
the following formula (see eq. 3-83, 3-113, and 3-116 of Ref. 10. in Appendix A) may be used to
estimate the relaxation parameter (assuming that the eigenvalues of the iteration matrix based on the
current relaxation parameter have not yet become complex).

( R + RELAX current – 1 )
A = ------------------------------------------------------------
- (7-32)
RELAX current

B = A ×A (7-33)
--------------
R

if
( B ≤ 1.0 ) then
RELAX new = RELAX current

else
C = square root ( 1.0 – B )
2.0
D = RELAX damp ------------------ – RELAX current
1.0 + C
RELAX new = MIN ( RELAX new, RELAX maximum )

endif
RELAXmaximum is the maximum allowed relaxation parameter which can be set by the user. The
theoretical maximum value is 2.0 and the code limits it to a value of 1.999. RELAXdamp is a damper on
the rate of increase of the relaxation parameter. As with other applications of numerical analysis, this
parameter does not have a theoretical basis, but numerical license allows for its interjection. This
parameter tends to prevent the over-relaxation parameter from going beyond its optimum value.

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As stated previously, this algorithm works fairly well as long as i approaches infinity and the eigenvalues
of the iteration matrix have not become complex. However, i never approaches infinity in practice and
eigenvalues frequently become complex.
QTRAN approaches the i going to infinity problem by recognizing that what one is really after is to
simply get a “good” estimate of the convergence rate R in some averaged sense. Specifically, R will
frequently change values drastically in early iterations for a given time step or for a steady-state problem,
and also after the relaxation parameter has been updated. What one wants to do is simply wait for the R
value to stabilize before updating the estimate of R. This can be easily done by simply requiring that, for
a finite number of iterations (say (3) iterations): (1) R be less than 1.0, (2) that the sign of the iterative
delta’s are constant, and (3) that the value of RELAXcurrent has not been updated more recently than (4)
iterations ago. If these three conditions are met, you can assume that the value of R[i] is approaching the
asymptotic limit of R[infinity].
One minor complication to all of this is that the above algorithm for calculating RELAXnew is valid only
as long as the eigenvalues of the iteration matrix do not become complex (this was alluded to earlier).
For more information, see Ref. 9. in Appendix A. This brings up two major problems: (1) how does one
know when the eigenvalues have gone complex, and (2) what to do then, since there is no theory for
predicting the optimal relaxation parameter for a system with complex eigenvalues. The answer lies in
purely empirical numerical engineering.
First, one observable fact is that the largest iterative delta’s E[i] have a tendency to oscillate in sign (+
and -) once the eigenvalues have gone complex (they can change sign at other times too, but the E[i] will
frequently oscillate continuously with complex eigenvalues). Second, the cause of complex eigenvalues
is usually that the value of RELAXcurrent is greater than RELAXoptimum for the equation system being
solved (although you have no way of knowing how much greater). However, since an oscillating sign is
an indication that RELAXcurrent is too large, QTRAN simply subtracts 0.01 from the value of
RELAXcurrent each time that the sign of E[i-1]/E[i] changes. Eventually, the value of RELAXcurrent is
reduced back to near RELAXoptimum. It is also worth knowing that from a practical consideration,
RELAXcurrent needs only to be within about 0.002 of RELAXoptimum in order to be “exact”.

Finally, the value of RELAXcurrent is limited so that 0.01 <= RELAXcurrent <= 1.999.

Convergence Criteria and Error Estimation


QTRAN does not base its convergence tests solely upon the iterative delta E[i] as do most other
commercial codes. Instead, the test performed is based upon the E[i] value plus the historical
convergence rate R. The formula for the convergence test is as follows:
EPSI = convergence criteria (QTRANs EPSISS or EPSIT values from

Thermal/Hydraulic Input Deck (Ch. 8)

Factor = 1.0 ⁄ ( 1.0 – max ( RELAX current – 1.0, min ( 0.999, R ) ) )

if

Main Index
Chapter 7: Thermal/Hydraulic Theory 221
Numerical Analysis Techniques

( E [ i ] ⋅ Factor < EPSI )


then convergence has occurred

else

keep iteratin

end if
This basic formula can be derived from the equations presented in Convergence Acceleration Schemes,
218 along with a formula used to compute the sum of an infinite series.

Energy balance is often used as a convergence criteria but it is not used as a criteria in QTRAN even
though it is printed out.
The energy balance in the QTRAN output is equal to the energy stored during a time step for transient
problems and is zero for steady-state problems. If advection is present, then the energy balance will
include the net energy carried into and out of the problem by the flowing fluid. When examining the
energy balance for the system, it should be compared to the total energy flow in the system. If the system
energy balance was 1100 when a zero was expected, it would be a large number; however, if it were
compared to the total system energy which may be 1.1 x 1012, then the 1100 for the system energy
balance becomes a small number.

System Energy Balance


The System Energy Balance (QSB) reported by QOUT.DAT is defined as:

Q SB = Q NF – Q S

where, QNF is the combined net heat flows on all nodes including the boundary nodes and QS is the heat
fluxes by applied Heating or macro functions. In cases where the heat flow is driven by boundary nodes,
the system energy balance is simply the sum of all net heat flow rates on every node (including the
boundary nodes) as reported in QOUT.DAT. The system energy balance may be higher than the control
volume heat balance (heat entering the system minus heat leaving the system) since it also reflects the
numerical tolerances on the calculated nodes. As such, it provides a more realistic picture of the
uncertainty.

Table Interpolation Schemes


QTRAN currently uses three distinct table interpolation schemes. These schemes are detailed in the
following sections.

Linear Interpolation
This is the simplest table algorithm used by QTRAN and involves simple linear interpolation between
table data points. Linear extrapolation is used when data is requested that lies outside of the X-Y data
provided by the user.

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Numerical Analysis Techniques

Hermite Polynomial Interpolation


This is a slightly more complex algorithm that resembles cubic spline interpolation in nature. The exact
computational process involves the determination of the tabular function’s first derivatives at table
interval boundaries. Using the first two derivative values and the function’s values at an interval’s
boundaries, a cubic equation can be derived and used for interpolation within the interval. Since
neighboring intervals also use first derivatives when calculating their cubic equations, it is seen that these
tabular functions maintain continuity of slope (first derivatives) from interval to interval as well as
maintaining continuity of value (linear interpolation maintains continuity of value from interval to
interval, but not continuity of slope). Hermite Polynomial Interpolation can thus be used to provide a
“smooth” tabular function if the user desires. Quadratic extrapolation is performed if the value lies
outside of the tabular data.

Linear Computed Interval Interpolation


QTRAN also offers Linear Computed Interval (LCI) interpolation for library material property
evaluations. This linear table algorithm is an extraordinarily rapid linear interpolation scheme. A table
property value is returned using only two multiplication and two addition operations. No interval search
is required when LCI is used. Extrapolation is performed if the value lies outside of the tabular data.

Phase Change Algorithm


The phase change algorithm used by QTRAN accurately models latent heats by adding an artificial
temperature-dependence function into the capacitor’s specific heat curve. This has the effect of taking
the latent heat and spreading it out over a very narrow (user specified) temperature region. This has the
advantage of maintaining a capacitor’s energy content as a function of temperature and is done for
numerical and coding convenience. It is similar in function to putting a “spike” into the specific heat
curve to account for latent heat effects. However, unlike some other codes which use such “spikes”,
QTRAN knows exactly where these “spikes” are in the temperature/enthalpy curve and there is no
possibility that QTRAN can jump over them or miss a part of the spike (and hence erroneously fail to
calculate the latent heat effects properly) as some other codes can. This technique has no restrictions
whatsoever in terms of whether the user runs explicit, implicit, or some weighted average. Many codes
add restrictions of this type for phase change models, but not QTRAN.
There is currently no coded limit to the number of phase regions that may be assigned to any capacitor
in the system, nor is there any limit to the number of times that a given capacitor may transition from one
phase to another. This also includes phase direction reversal prior to the complete melting, freezing, etc.,
of a node. There is also no limit to the number of nodes which may be simultaneously undergoing a phase
transition.
Material properties may be varied in a near step-function manner at phase transition temperatures. While
QTRAN does not perform convective calculations when a material has changed phase, it does assume
that conduction continues to be a heat transfer mechanism. It is thus seen that QTRAN is able to continue
with heat transfer calculations after a phase transition has occurred, subject to the assumption that an
appropriate value for the thermal conductivity of the newphase region is used

Main Index
Chapter 7: Thermal/Hydraulic Theory 223
Numerical Analysis Techniques

Note: A restriction to the phase change algorithm is that no capacitor is allowed to undergo more
than one phase transition per time step.

Element to Resistor/Capacitor Translation


The QTRAN thermal analysis package includes a routine in PATQ to translate finite element data to
resistor/capacitor data for the following finite elements:
1. Linear 2-D Bar Elements (2-D Shells)
2. Linear 3-D Bar Elements
3. Linear Cartesian and Cylindrical Triangles (2-D)
4. Linear Isoparametric Cartesian and Cylindrical Quadrilaterals (2-D)
5. Linear Simplex Tetrahedrons (3-D)
6. Linear Isoparametric Wedges (3-D)
7. Linear Isoparametric Hexahedrons (3-D)
8. Linear Isoparametric Triangular Shells (3-D)
9. Linear Isoparametric Quadrilateral Shells (3-D)
PATQ program reads in finite element data for these element types and then constructs a mathematically
exact resistor/capacitor representation. The network is NOT an approximation, but instead includes all
finite element cross-derivative terms and any other increased accuracy that is inherent to a finite element
discretization scheme using a lumped capacitance matrix. Such a translation program is highly desirable
from the standpoint of being able to take advantage of the excellent finite element solids modeling
packages that exist, and also from the standpoint of accuracy for skewed meshes (many finite difference
schemes introduce an intolerable 0th order error for Laplacian difference operators when the mesh being
used is skewed). It is also highly desirable from the standpoint that finite element formulations inherently
allow for arbitrarily oriented anisotropic materials (e.g., composites), while many finite difference codes
cannot perform analyses on anisotropic materials unless the material axes are by chance lined up with the
mesh directions.
While the finite element based approach generates a mathematically exact resistor/capacitor
representation, the resulting areas and lengths have no physical significance. The lumped capacitance
network solver used in QTRAN is able to solve both finite difference and finite element based
resistor/capacitor networks either separately or simultaneously. Finite difference based
resistor/capacitors may be appended to the PATQ translated model by including them in the appropriate
input files (i.e., CONDUCDAT, CAPDAT, etc.).

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Main Index
Chapter 8: Thermal/Hydraulic Input Deck
Patran Thermal User’s Guide Volume 1: Thermal/Hydraulic Analysis

8 Thermal/Hydraulic Input Deck

J Overview 226
J QTRAN Input Data File (QINDAT) 227
J
QTRAN Run Control Parameters and Node Number Declarations
229
J Material Properties 263
J Network Construction 276
J Boundary Conditions 322

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226 Patran Thermal User’s Guide Volume 1: Thermal/Hydraulic Analysis
Overview

Overview
This chapter is divided into five major sections which contain all of the information necessary for
assembling the QTRAN input data file QINDAT. The functions of the five sections are detailed as
follows:
• Overview--Input Data File
• Run Control Parameters and Node Number Declarations
• Material Properties and Phase Change Sets
• Thermal Resistors and Capacitors
• Boundary Conditions

Main Index
Chapter 8: Thermal/Hydraulic Input Deck 227
QTRAN Input Data File (QINDAT)

QTRAN Input Data File (QINDAT)


QTRAN Input Date File (QINDAT) is used as a command file by the Patran Thermal system. PATQ will
supply bulk data files created from the PATRAN Plus model which are referenced by the QINDAT file
with $INSERT commands. This greatly reduces the size of the QINDAT file, allowing a relatively small
(usually about 60-70 significant data lines) command file for QTRAN. An example QINDAT file is
provided with the Patran Thermal delivery and in QINDAT File Listing, 569. This file is heavily
commented to make it easier to locate and understand the various input data file parameters that are
normally placed in QINDAT. Section references in the QINDAT file refer to the input sections discussed
in this chapter.
If QTRAN detects a data mismatch when reading the input data file, QTRAN will print out the image
and number of the input data file line that was being read when the error was detected. This feature can
greatly ease the debugging of an input data file. After encountering such an error, QTRAN will terminate
program execution normally. QTRAN uses a free format input data file structure, so there is no concern
about getting data in correct columns. Most data lines begin with keywords such as MDATA for material
property data, CAP for capacitor data, etc. These keywords allow QTRAN to verify that what it is
currently reading at a particular part of the data file is what it should be reading. Although the data is free
format, the order in which the data is entered is very tightly controlled. All keywords specified in the
QINDAT file must be input in the order encountered in this chapter. New keywords have been added for
the enhancements in Patran Thermal. The QINDAT file can be obtained from the STARTUP directory
with the GET_QTRAN command which will provide a sample input file indicating keyword order
dependence. This is done for a number of reasons, including CPU efficiency. The most important reason
why QTRAN input data is in fixed order format, however, is that it guarantees that each QTRAN input
file (QINDAT) will look approximately the same without having important control parameters buried
somewhere where a later user may not expect them to be found. With a fixed order format, it is easier to
look for a particular parameter if it needs changing.
To insert comment lines anywhere in the input data file to document the input data, begin the line with
an asterisk (*) or semicolon (;) in column 1. QTRAN will ignore any input data file line that begins with
an asterisk or semicolon. QTRAN will also treat a semicolon as an end-of-line terminator, so that
comments may be placed to the right of a semicolon. These comments can be valuable for documenting
input data files for later reference.
QTRAN also offers the following commands that may be embedded in the input data file:

$RESTART filename next_nnn TIME OVRWFL


This command is used to restart a calculation. If this command is to be used, it must be the first
noncomment line in a QINDAT file. This command causes QTRAN to read a QTRAN nodal results file
cp10 as a restart file. Since QTRAN creates nodal results files with the name NRnnnNRF, the parameter
next_nnn allows the nnn value to be specified for the next NRnnnNRF file that QTRAN will generate
after being restarted. For example, a $RESTART command may look as follows: TIME is a value that
will be used as initial time for the subsequent run rather than the time from the restart file. OVRWFL is
an over write flag that allows specified initial temperatures to replace temperatures specified in the nodal
results file.
$RESTART NR127.NRF 200 0.0 1

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QTRAN Input Data File (QINDAT)

This command would cause QTRAN to read in NR127.NRF as a restart file. The next NRnnnNRF file
that QTRAN generates will be named NR200.NRF. QTRAN reads the time and temperatures from the
NRnnnNRF file. The time overrides TSTART and the temperatures override any TEMP data. If a TIME
has been defined on the restart card, it overrides all other times and is used for TSTART to continue the
run.

Note: The RESTART capability only works with binary nodal result files. If the NRFORM flag
has been set to 1 so as to generate ASCII nodal result files, the Patran utility, READER,
must be used to convert the ASCII file to the binary equivalent prior to restarting QTRAN.

Defining the over write flag OVRWFL with something greater than zero will cause any temperatures
specified in the TEMPDAT file to over write those specified in the restart file. This allows the user to
change either initial of fixed temperatures from those specified by the restart conditions. The temperature
over write is performed before the user restart function URSTRT is called. URSTRT is always the final
restart operation.

$INSERT filename
Inserts the file cp10 into the input data file stream at this point. Nesting of $INSERT commands is
permitted. The depth of file nesting is currently limited to ten deep. This command must begin in column
one of any line in the input data file and there must be exactly one space between $INSERT and the file
name.

$ECHO_ON or $ECHO_OFF
Enables or disables, respectively, the printing of input data file information into the output data file at the
point where the $ECHO_ON or $ECHO_OFF command is encountered. These commands must begin in
column 1 of any line in the input data file.

$STATUS
Sends the remainder of the input data file line to the status file. This can be used to keep track of QTRAN
when large data files have been prepared, or to debug input data files.

$TRACE_ON or $TRACE_OFF
Commands QTRAN to send each line of the input data file to the status file as it is read. This is used
primarily for debugging purposes.

Main Index
Chapter 8: Thermal/Hydraulic Input Deck 229
QTRAN Run Control Parameters and Node Number Declarations

QTRAN Run Control Parameters and Node Number


Declarations
This section shows how to enter run control parameters and node numbers. The run control parameters
do not specifically describe the thermal network, but are instead parameters which are used to control
QTRAN’s behavior while solving the problem (e.g., start time, stop time, etc.). The parameters and
options are listed below.
1. Printout Titles or Labels (p. 229)
2. Input Data File Echoing (p. 229)
3. Temperature Scale and Time Units Definitions (p. 230)
4. Transient/Steady-State Run Option Selection (p. 231)
5. Iteration Limit Controls (p. 234)
6. Initial Time Step, Starting Time, Stopping Time, Time Step Multipliers, Convergence Rate
Criteria, Derivative Perturbation Parameter, Relaxation Parameters, Explicit/Implicit Ratio
Control, Phase Change Temperature Band, Maximum Allowed Temperature Change per
Iteration, Stefan-Boltzmann Constant, and Discontinuous Macrofunction Flag (p. 236)
7. Resistor/Capacitor/Heat Source Data Output (p. 247)
8. Maximum Allowed Time Step Control (p. 253)
9. Node Number Declarations (p. 254)
10. Print Control (p. 259)

Title Data
The title data are alphanumeric character strings (80 characters total) that are used as a text description
(title) for the QTRAN output file. QTRAN will continue to read the input file and will continue to treat
the data as title data until it encounters a dollar sign ($) in column 1.
Remember that if the character string begins with an asterisk (*) or semicolon (;) in column 1, QTRAN
will treat the line as a comment line and will not include the line in the title data. This is consistent with
the QTRAN convention of using an asterisk in column 1 to denote an input data file comment line.

Input Data Echo Option


IECHO(keyword) IECHO

Examples
IECHO Y
IECHO N

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QTRAN Run Control Parameters and Node Number Declarations

Parameter Description
IECHO A parameter that specifies whether or not the input data is to be echoed into the
output file. The convention is as follows:
N-- No Echo

Y-- Echo
Notice: This option may be overridden by using the $ECHYO_ON or $ECHO_OFF
commands. If the $ECHO commands are used, they must begin in column 1 of the
input data file. There is no limit to the number of these $ECHO commands that may
be used, and they may be used on any line of the input data file. These commands
are especially useful for selectively suppressing the echo of the QINDAT file into
the QOUTDAT.

Temperature Scale and Time Units Definition


ISCALE(keyword) ISCALE
ICCALC(keyword) ICCALC
TLABEL(keyword) TLABEL

Examples
ISCALE K
ICCALC R
TLABEL SECONDS
Two temperature scales must be specified: one that will be used to present the output file data (ISCALE)
and one that will be used for calculations (ICCALC). The temperature scales for ISCALE and ICCALC
may be identical. In addition, a 10 character label for the simulation time units must be specified. This
label (TLABEL) will be printed out with the results of all steady-state or transient runs. It is not used for
anything else, and may be left blank.

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Parameter Description
ISCALE Alphabetic entry that corresponds to the output temperature scale to be used.
Regardless of the temperature scale being used to perform the calculations, the
temperatures may be output in Celsius, Fahrenheit, Kelvin, or Rankine by entering
the appropriate character for ISCALE. The convention is as follows:
C-- Celsius

F-- Fahrenheit

K-- Kelvin

R-- Rankine
ICCALC Alphabetic entry that corresponds to the temperature scale to be used to perform
all calculations (e.g., evaluation of temperature-dependent properties, evaluation
of temperature dependent heat source/sink functions). The same temperature scale
codes that are shown above for ISCALE are used for ICCALC.

Regardless of the scale specified for ICCALC, thermal radiation problems will
automatically use correct absolute temperature scales when evaluating heat flows
across thermal radiation resistors. Specifically, if ICCALC is specified as C,
QTRAN will use K when evaluating the potentials of 6 * T4 at each end of the
thermal radiation resistor and will use R if ICCALC was specified as F. Resistor
material properties will still be evaluated using the scale specified by ICCALC.
TLABEL A 10 character entry that corresponds to the time units that are being used for the
simulation (e.g., seconds, minutes, hours, fortnights, etc.). TLABEL is not used for
any internal units conversions or anything else except that the 10 characters will
be printed out after TIME values with the output data. TLABEL may be left blank.

Transient/Steady-State Run Option Selection and Solver


Selection
Hydraulic Network Option and Solver Selection
HIPOT (keyword) HIOPT HSOL NTBHUP

codeindent10
HIOPT 0 2 1
or
HIOPT 1 2 10
or
HIOPT 2 2 4

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Parameter Description
HIOPT Run-option parameter selects one of the following three options:

0 - No flow network solution.

1 - Flow network solution only.

2 - Flow network coupled to the thermal solution.

All hydraulic solutions are quasi steady-state. If a transient run is being made,
whenever the hydraulic solution is executed it will be a steady-state solution with
the thermal conditions at the beginning of the hydraulic solution being used for the
flow network evaluation.
HSOL Parameter that selects a solution option default SOL is 2 (Direct solver option).
Currently, the only direct solution option SOL=2 is supported.
NTBHUP Usage is dependent on the thermal option selected. If a steady-state thermal solution
is being executed, then the hydraulic network solution is recomputed every
NTBHUP thermal iterations. For a transient thermal solution, the hydraulic solution
is updated every NTBHUP time steps. The hydraulic solution is highly nonlinear
and can require significant computer resources. By computing mass flow rates
(hydraulic network solution) less often, the overall solution is speeded up without
any significant loss of accuracy as long as the flow properties (viscosity, density,
etc.) are not a strong function of temperature.

There is a strong coupling between the hydraulic and thermal solutions if buoyancy
is included in the hydraulic solution. In this case the two solutions should be updated
every iteration by setting NTBHUP to 1.

Thermal Network Option and Solver Selection


IOPT (keyword) IOPT SOL NITBUP MFLIPF

codeindent10
IOPT 5 0 0
or
IOPT 3 1 10
or
IOPT 3 2 1 8
or
IOPT 2 0 5

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Parameter Description
IOPT Run-option parameter that selects one of the following six calculation sequences
(see Section 5.2.6 for an explanation of TSTART and TSTOP):
A data check only. Input data will be read and echoed, but no calculations will be
performed.

A transient run from initial conditions.

A transient run after initial-steady state calculations have been performed. All time
dependent functions are calculated for the initial steady-state calculation using
time = TSTART.

A steady-state run only. Time-dependent functions will be evaluated using


time = TSTART.

A transient run from initial conditions, followed by a steady-state run from the final
conditions. Time-dependent functions will be evaluated using time = TSTOP.

A steady-state run with the time-dependent functions for the steady-state run
evaluated at time = TSTART, followed by a transient run, followed by a final steady-
state run with the time-dependent functions evaluated at time = TSTOP.
SOL Parameter that chooses a thermal solution option.
Standard SNPSOR solution algorithm, default.

Modified SNPSOR algorithm. The modified SNPSOR algorithm precomputes the


values of the conductive resistors, and updates them every NITBUP iterations. By
computing the conductive resistors less often, the solution is typically speeded up
without any significant loss of accuracy as long as the thermal conductivity
associated with the resistors is not rapidly changing.
Direct solver using Choleskis method. The direct solver is coupled with the standard
SNPSOR solution which is always executed after a direct solution to verify that all
nonlinearities have been resolved. How many SNPSOR solutions are performed
before a direct solution is repeated is controlled by NITBUP. The direct solver
cannot be used with problems that include phase change. Also, the direct solver does
not provide the advantages for transient cases compared to the gains that can be
made with steady-state problems. Care should be exercised with transient cases that
the time steps do not become so large that history effects will be lost even on those
cases where boundary conditions and properties are constant. The direct solver is
best suited to linear problems which have small bandwidths on the extremely stiff
problem.

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NITBUP The Number of Iterations Between Updates. What is updated is dependent on the
solution option. If the standard solution is used (SOL = 0), then all nodes that may
have been eliminated from the solution because they satisfied the second transient
convergence criteria (EPSIT2) are included in the solution every NITBUP iteration.
All nodes are evaluated after the solution has converged to guarantee that they are
within the desired convergence tolerance. A value between IMIN / 2 and IMIN is
recommended. The default value is 1000. This value has no effect for a standard
solution, steady- state case. For the modified solution (SOL = 1), NITBUP is the
frequency that the conductive resistors are update for both the steady-state and
transient solutions. The best value for NITBUP is, of course, problem dependent.
For many transient problems, it is sufficient to update the conductive resistors only
once per time step, to specify a NITBUP value greater than the value of IMAX
(IMAX is the maximum number of iterations allowed per time step). Note that no
matter what value is given to NITBUP, QTRAN will automatically recompute the
conductive resistor values at the beginning of each time step. For steady-state
problems, experimentation with your specific problem is the rule of the day. Values
of NITBUP between 10 and 100 are usually appropriate. The default NITBUP value
is 0 (update every iteration). If the direct solver is used (SOL = 2), the NITBUP
determines how many standard solutions (SNPSOR algorithm) are executed before
another direct solution is performed. If material properties and boundary conditions
are constant or are weak functions of temperature, the direct solution should be able
to calculate the exact answer in one or with very few iterations. In these cases, the
NITBUP value should be one. If there are strong nonlinearities involved, such as
high temperature radiation boundary conditions, then it is best to do several
SNPSOR solutions before doing another direct solution. This gives very sensitive
parts of the problem a chance to relax using a much faster solution method while still
using a direct solution to carry along the stiff portions of the problem that require
many SNPSOR type iterations. For the highly nonlinear case, NITBUP values
between 5 and 10 are appropriate.
MFLIPF The maximum number of over all solutions flip flops by the maximum temperature
error before a bisection of all nodes is performed. The error must be less than three
orders of magnitude of the allowable error about zero before it is considered a
flip/flop condition. (Default value is 8.)

Iteration Limit Parameters


IMAX (keyword) IMAX

IMIN(keyword) IMIN
IMAXSS(keyword) IMAXSS IMAXHS
ISSDMP(keyword) ISSDMP

Examples
IMAX 36

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IMIN 9
IMAXSS 2000 500
ISSDMP 2000
Note: IMAX and IMIN values have an effect on both the accuracy and the run time of a transient
solution. If IMAX and IMIN are very small, QTRAN will take generally smaller time steps
than if IMAX and IMIN were large. The smaller time steps increase accuracy for problems
involving hard transients at the expense of larger CPU times. Large values of IMAX and
IMIN (e.g., “large” might be 100 and 50 for IMAX and IMIN, respectively) will generally
result in smaller CPU time requirements, but certain details of hard transients may be
blurred. If the problem involves only mild transients with no step function heat or
temperature sources, larger values of IMAX and IMIN can usually be used with little
danger. If the problem involves a very hard transient problem with many detailed
perturbation events that are desired to be captured, use IMAX and IMIN values near the
defaults of 30 and 8, respectively. The default values of 20 and 8 are considered “safe” or
conservative values, while values of 100 and 50 (or larger) are considered more aggressive.
Also, the IMAX value should be larger than IMIN by enough to permit convergence on the
first iterations after the time step is increased. This is to prevent increasing the time step,
but then decreasing it the next time step because the new time increment did not converge
in IMAX iterations.

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Parameter Description
IMAX Maximum number of iterations allowed for any given time step during transient
runs. If the number of iterations exceeds IMAX without converging, the time step is
decreased and convergence is attempted again. This will be repeated until
convergence occurs with less than or equal to IMAX iterations. If zero is entered,
QTRAN will supply a default value of 36.
IMIN Minimum desired number of iterations required to achieve convergence on any
given time step for transient runs. If the number of iterations does not equal or
exceed IMIN iterations before convergence, the time step size is increased for the
next integration step. If zero is entered for IMIN, QTRAN will supply a default
value of 9. IMIN should be less than or equal to IMAX.
IMAXSS Maximum number of iterations allowed for steady state calculations. If QTRAN
does not achieve convergence within IMAXSS iterations, a message which states
that convergence failed will be printed along with the current values of temperatures
and heat fluxes. The program then terminates. If a zero is entered for IMAXSS,
QTRAN will supply a default value of 2000.
IMAXHS Maximum number of iterations allowed for the steady state hydraulic calculations.
ISSDMP Number of steady-state iterations between print dumps. When a steady-state run is
underway, QTRAN will print the results every ISSDMP iterations until the problem
has converged. If zero is entered for ISSDMP, QTRAN will supply a default value
of 2000.

Control Parameters

DT(keyword) DT DTMIN
TSTART(keyword) TSTART
TSTOP(keyword) TSTOP
TSFMIN(keyword) TSFMIN
TSFMAX(keyword) TSFMAX
HYEPIS(keyword) HYEPIS HYHDEP HYMDEP HYPREP
EPSISS(keyword) EPSISS
EPSIT(keyword) EPSIT EPSIT2
PERTUR(keyword) PERTUR
RELAXS(keyword) RELAXS IFSRLX
RLXSAT(keyword) RLXSAM RLXSAD RLXSAU
RLXSRT(keyword) RLXSRM RLXSRD RLXSRU
RLXSHT(keyword) RLXSHM RLXSHD RLXSHU
RLXSCT(keyword) RLXSCM RLXSCD RLXSCU
RLXSST(keyword) RLXSSM RLXSSD RLXSSU

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RELAXT(keyword) RELAXT IFTRLX

RLXTAT(keyword) RLXTAM RLXTAD RLXTAU


RLXTRT(keyword) RLXTRM RLXTRD RLXTRU
RLXTHT(keyword) RLXTHM RLXTHD RLXTHU
RLXTCT(keyword) RLXTCM RLXTCD RLXTCU
RLXTST(keyword) RLXTSM RLXTSD RLXTSU
BETA(keyword) BETA BETMIN BETMAX
DELMAX(keyword) DELMAX MINTMP MAXTMP
PCBAND(keyword) PCBAND CPDELT
GRAVTY(keyword) GRAVTY GO, GX, GY, GZ
SBC(keyword) SBC
DCMF(keyword) DCMF

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Examples
DT 1.0D-04
TSTART 0.0D+00
TSTOP 1.0D+02
TSFMIN 0.6D+00
TSFMAX 2.0D+00
HYEPIS 1.0D-04 1.0D-04 1.0D-04 1.0D-04
EPSISS 1.0D-03
EPSIT 1.0D-04 1.0D-07
PERTUR 5.0D-02
RELAXS 1.0D+00 1
RLXSAT 1.99 0.80 1.0
RLXSRT 1.99 0.92 1.0
RLXSHT 1.999 0.94 1.0
RLXSCT 1.999 0.95 1.0
RLXSST 1.999 0.95 1.0
RELAXT 1.0D+00 1
RLXTAT 1.99 0.80 1.0
RLXTRT 1.99 0.92 1.0
RLXTHT 1.999 0.94 1.0
RLXTCT 1.999 0.95 1.0
RLXTST 1.999 0.95 1.0
BETA 1.0D+00 0.0 1.0
DELMAX 1.0D+03 -1.0D+30 1.0D+30
PCBAND 1.0D+00 1000.0
GRAVTY 9.81 0.0 0.0 9.81
SBC 0.0D+00
DCMF 1

This section allows the initial time step (DT) to be defined, starting time (TSTART), stopping time
(TSTOP), time step multipliers (TSFMIN and TSFMAX), steady-state and transient convergence rate
criteria (EPSISS, EPSIT, and EPSIT2), the perturbation parameter used for Newton’s Second-Order
Method (PERTUR), the relaxation parameters used for accelerating iteration convergence (RELAXS and
RELAXT), the explicit/implicit ratio control variable (BETA), the maximum allowed temperature
change per iteration (DELMAX), the phase change temperature band over which phase change energies
are smeared (PCBAND), the specific heat curve integration step size (CPDELT), the Stefan-Boltzmann
thermal radiation constant (SBC), and the Discontinuous Macrofunction Flag (DCMF).

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Parameter Description
DT Initial time step used for transient calculations. DT will usually be adjusted during the
course of a transient run by QTRAN to take advantage of easily followed transients or
to ensure accuracy during more difficult transients. If 0.0 is entered for DT, QTRAN will
set DT to a nonzero but very small number (e.g., 1.0E-30). This is not recommended, but
one should not be afraid to start with small time steps to give QTRAN the opportunity
to follow a strong transient. For example, if the initial value of DT was set to 1.0D-4, it
would take 16 calculation intervals to grow to 1.0 if the growth factor on the time step
was 1.8 and the transient was mild enough to enable a time step of 1.0 units. If the initial
value of DT was 1.0D-5 or 1.0D-6, it would only take 20 or 24 calculation intervals
respectively to reach a DT value of 1.0.

The time step, DT, must be greater than 1.0E-10 * TSTOP. If a problem requires a time
step smaller than this, it is probably best broken into multiple parts with restarts and
corresponding adjustments to the IMIN and IMAX parameters to fit the regions of the
problem that require the small and large time steps.
DTMIN The minimum allowed time step to be used for any calculation interval. Default is 1.0E-
30. This value should be changed only as a last resort to get a difficult problem to run or
when the user wants to force fixed time points regardless of errors that may be
introduced because of lags in response to a given boundary condition.
TSTART Starting time used for transient runs. It is also used to evaluate time-dependent functions
if initial steady-state calculations are being performed.
TSTOP Stop time for the program run. It is also used to evaluate time-dependent functions if a
steady-state run is being performed after a transient run.
TSFMIN Time step multiplier that is used to decrease the time step size in case convergence has
failed after more than IMAX (see Section 5.2.5) number of iterations. TSFMIN should
normally be between 0.0 and 1.0. A recommended value is TSFMIN = 0.6. To run with
a constant time step, simply set TSFMIN and TSFMAX (see following TSFMAX
definition) to 1.0.

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TSFMAX Time step multiplier that is used to increase the time step size in case convergence has
occurred in less than IMIN (see Section 5.2.5) number of iterations. TSFMAX will not
increase the time step size to a value greater than DTMAX (see Section 5.2.8.1).
TSFMAX should normally have a value greater than 1.0. A suggested value is TSFMAX
= 1.8, but a larger value may be used to allow a rapid increase in the time step, or use a
smaller value to limit the perturbation to the system when time steps are increased. To
run with a constant time step, simply set both TSFMIN (see previous TSFMIN
definition) and TSFMAX to 1.0. The IMIN, IMAX, TSFMIN, and TFSMAX parameters
all work together. Care should be taken so not to get into the condition that the DT
increment is increased too much so that it will be decreased in the next time step. The
product of TSFMIN and TSFMAX should be greater than one so that the problem will
experience some increase in time step even if the time step is cut down in the next
calculation increment.
HYEPIS Convergence criteria used by flow network solver. Static pressure, head differential
across an element (pressure + gravity head + buoyancy head, etc.) and mass flow rates
have to converge within HYEPIS before the flow solution is declared converged.
HYEPIS is an absolute value and is used for all three parameters being checked. Care
should be exercised in selecting this value to be sure that unit and the range of values are
properly represented. The mass flow rate typically will be a much smaller value than the
pressure and selecting a value consistent with the pressure will have no direct effect on
the mass flow rate convergence criteria; however, if the convergence criteria was
selected to operate on the mass flow rate, it would probably be too restrictive to enable
convergence of the differential head.
HYHDEP Convergence criteria used by the flow network solver as an independent check on the
head differential across an element.
HYMDEP Convergence criteria used by the flow network solver as an independent check on the
mass flow rate at each hydraulic node.
HYPREP Convergence criteria used by the flow network solver as an independent check on the
pressure at each hydraulic node.
EPSISS Steady-state convergence criteria that is used by QTRAN. This value is the estimated
maximum error of the worst (least converged) node in the system, and is NOT an
iterative delta as used by many codes. For example, to converge to the nearest 0.001
degrees, enter 0.001 for EPSISS and QTRAN will iterate until its estimate of the error
of the worst node in the system is 0.001. Note that this convergence criteria is typically
10 to 100 times more severe than the criteria used in codes which rely on an iterating
delta. For example, a value of 0.001 for EPSISS is frequently equivalent to a CINDA
convergence criteria of at least 0.0001 to 0.00001. It should be especially noted that
while EPSISS is directly related to the system error, the iterative delta convergence
schemes (such as are used in CINDA) are truly only related to the convergence rate of a
particular problem and not to the problem error. It is best to conservatively run with
EPSISS = 0.0001 and obtain good results; however, with EPSISS = 0.1, reasonable
answers on many problems may be obtained.

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EPSIT Transient convergence criteria that is used by QTRAN (see EPSISS above). A
recommended value is EPSIT = 0.0001. Experience seems to indicate that this is a very
good value for most problems. Larger values of EPSIT do not make transient problems
run as much faster as you might think, and smaller values seem to be overkill. The idea
seems to be that you need to converge a system of equations to within the truncation error
of the basic time integration scheme. Convergence beyond this truncation error is
probably an exercise in fooling yourself. Conversely, if the problem fails to converge to
within the truncation error of the integration scheme, the residual noise (error) in the
solution seems to hinder the predictor equation to the point where the poorer predicted
temperatures slow things down more than was gained by the looser convergence criteria.
EPSIT2 Optional modification to the transient convergence criteria. It can be thought of as a “cut-
out” convergence criteria that can be used to speed convergence. Specifically, for
transient problems, QTRAN will compare each nodes iterative error to EPSIT2. If that
node’s last iterative error was less than EPSIT2, that node is cut out of the iteration
sequence for the remainder of the time step. This allows QTRAN to iterate only on those
nodes that are still changing significantly. Please note that the EPSIT2 value should be
SIGNIFICANTLY smaller (at lease two or three orders of magnitude) than the EPSIT
value. Remember, a large number of very small changes can add up over a period of
time, so make sure that EPSIT2 is significantly smaller than EPSIT. The default value
for EPSIT2 is 0.0 (this gives the standard QTRAN SNPSOR algorithm).
PERTUR Perturbation parameter that is used to evaluate derivatives for Newton’s Second-Order
Method used by QTRAN. PERTUR corresponds directly to the traditional dx that is used
in classical central difference schemes to evaluate derivatives. In this case, PERTUR is
used to evaluate both 1st-Order and 2nd-Order derivatives. If the value of PERTUR is
grossly too large, the error in the evaluation of the derivatives may cause convergence to
be slow. Conversely, if the value of PERTUR is too small (especially for radiation
calculations), the perturbations caused by PERTUR may be so small that they are
swallowed by round-off error, causing the derivatives to be evaluated as zero and
subsequent nonconvergence. If this problem occurs, you should experiment with
different PERTUR values. A recommended PERTUR value is 0.01. Smaller values may
be used for mass flow and convection problems, while “hot” radiation problems of
several thousand degrees Kelvin may require values of 1.0 or greater. A value that is too
large or too small may also cause steady-state convergence to fail. In general, problems
that are fairly linear in the temperature variable (i.e., temperature-independent material
properties and convection correlations with no radiative nodes) are relatively insensitive
to larger values of the PERTUR parameter and will tolerate small PERTUR values.
Problems that are strongly nonlinear in the temperature variable (e.g., hot radiation
problems) are generally more sensitive to the size of the PERTUR variable and may not
tolerate extremely small PERTUR values due to the round-off phenomenon. Note that
despite all of the above warnings, PERTUR values of 0.1 to 0.01 rarely fail in practice.

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RELAXS Steady-state relaxation parameter. RELAXS is used only for steady-state calculations,
and its sole function is to speed convergence (i.e., to reduce the number of iterations
required for convergence to a certain accuracy). The absolute value of RELAXS should
be between, but not including, 0.0 and 2.0. Positive values invoke QTRAN’s adaptive
relaxation algorithm, whereas negative values of RELAXS inhibit the adaptive
algorithm. Normally, the value entered for RELAXS should be +1.0, thus allowing
QTRAN’s adaptive relaxation algorithm to function. Values with magnitudes greater
than 2.0 will cause the algorithm to diverge, while values with magnitudes less than 1.0
may increase the radius of convergence at the expense of the convergence rate. If the
adaptive algorithm is enabled, QTRAN begins iterations with your RELAXS value as
the initial guess of the relaxation parameter. It is better to guess low at this value because
QTRAN’s adaptive algorithm will converge more quickly to the optimal value from
below than from above. Furthermore, if the initial guess at the temperature distribution
is very poor (and this is typically the case), a value of RELAXS = +1.0 will allow
QTRAN to smooth the system slightly before using over relaxation.
This smoothing is sometimes necessary for strongly nonlinear systems in order to
achieve convergence. The total amount of work required for a steady-state solution is
extremely dependent on this parameter. It is not unusual for an optimally over-relaxed
problem to run in 1/30th the time of a nonreligious (RELAXS = -1.0) problem.
QTRAN’s adaptive algorithm takes the guesswork out of what this value should be.

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IFSRLX A flag that indicates how the relaxation parameters are to be applied to the system of
equations being solved. Three options are available. If the IFSRLX=0 option is used,
then the relaxation parameter applies to all nodes in the system equally. All nodes are
searched each time step, the maximum error is determined, and the relaxation and
convergence factors are determined based on the maximum error of the system
regardless as to what type of boundary condition is applied to the node. The IFSRLX=1
option applies relaxation and convergence factors based on the type of node and
boundary condition that is present at the node. A hierarchy is established as to the type
of boundary condition present at the node. This order is from advection, radiation,
convection down to conduction. If any node has advection applied, then the advection
relaxation parameters will apply even if there is also radiation and or convection at the
same node. Advection can destroy the diagonal dominance of the matrix and as such it
may be desirable to set the relaxation parameters to force under relaxation for these
nodes so that the circle of converge of the problem can be increased. Similarly, the
radiation nodes will probably be the most likely to exhibit large fluctuations, therefore,
it is not desirable for the relaxation parameters to increase as rapidly for these nodes as
for the nodes that exhibit straight conduction. This option, which allows for these
groupings, is the recommended option. The third option, IFSRLX=2, is to have the
relaxation parameters calculated on a node-by-node basis. This option will usually give
the tightest converged solution. The convergence factor is also calculated individually
for each node and a node that may not have the largest error could be changing slower
than the node that had the greatest error. Thus, the convergence factor could be much
larger. The system error is the product of the iteration error and the convergence factor.
As a result, the system error determined on a node-by-node basis could be greater than
that determined for the system or group methods. The error criteria can probably be
relaxed, if the node-by-node relaxation option is used compared to the group or system
option.
RLXSAM Maximum steady-state relaxation parameter that is to be used with all advection nodes.
Values input must be greater than 1.0 and less than 2.0

Notice: The relaxation variables discussed below and their association to the input file,
Keyword, is shown in the Control Parameters, 236.
RLXSAD Advection steady-state relaxation damping factor. Based on several conditions, the
relaxation parameters are recalculated. The new relaxation parameters are compared to
the old values and the actual amount of change is reduced according to the damping
multiplier. For example, suppose that the new relaxation factor was calculated to be
1.860 and the old one was 1.0. If the damping factor was 0.95, then the actual relaxation
factor defined at this calculation step would be 1.817. In the early stages of a solution,
the iterative delta is probably the largest. This may be the time that it is not desirable to
over relax, particularly with advection. By using small damping factors, the degree of
over relaxation is reduced but will be allowed to approach its optimum value as the
solution continues and is usually when the solution is better behaved. In problems where
advection is causing convergence problems, it may be desirable to reduce this parameter
to 0.05.

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RLXSAU Steady-state multiplier used with all advection nodes. All multipliers are applied by type
of node and boundary conditions regardless of the application option that is specified.
This parameter is used to implement under relaxation. The relaxation parameter will
always be calculated between the values of 1.0 and 2.0, but when they are applied to the
iterative delta, the RLXSAU multiplier is included. Thus, if the relaxation parameter was
1.8 and the multiplier 0.3, the effective relaxation parameter would be 0.54 or an under
relaxed state. Under-relaxation or multipliers less than 1.0 should only be used in those
cases where the node-by-node application of the relaxations parameters has failed to
yield convergence. Note that the relaxation parameters specified in the output or status
file reflect the multipliers and are only applied to the actual temperature change.
RLXSRM Maximum steady-state radiation relaxation value allowed.
RLXSRD Steady-state radiation relaxation damping factor.
RLXSRU Steady-state radiation relaxation factor multiplier.
RLXSHM Maximum steady-state convection relaxation value allowed.
RLXSHD Steady-state convection relaxation damping factor.
RLXSHU Steady-state convection relaxation factor multiplier.
RLXSCM Maximum steady-state conduction relaxation value allowed.
RLXSCD Steady-state conduction relaxation damping factor.
RLXSCU Steady-state conduction relaxation factor multiplier.
RLXSSM Maximum steady-state system relaxation value allowed.
RLXSSD Steady-state system relaxation damping factor.
RLXSSU Steady-state system relaxation factor multiplier.
RELAXT Transient solution relaxation parameter which is similar to the previous RELAXS
parameter. RELAXT is used only for transient calculations. QTRAN’s adaptive
relaxation algorithm may be selected in the same manner as RELAXS, and for transient
calculations may easily half the solution time when compared to a fixed relaxation
scheme. Whenever the time step changes in magnitude, or after a direct solution, the
relaxation parameter is reset to 1.0. All the associated relaxation parameters that were
discussed for the steady-state case can be applied independently to the transient part of
the solution. These parameters are listed below.
IFTRLX A flag that indicates how the relaxation parameters are to be applied to the system of
equations being solved. Three options are available. If the IFTRLX=0 option is used,
then the relaxation parameter applies to all nodes in the system equally. The IFTRLX=1
option applies relaxation and convergence factors based on the type of node and
boundary condition that is present at the node. The third option, IFTRLX=2, is to have
the relaxation parameters calculated on a node-by-node basis.
RLXTAM Maximum transient relaxation parameter that is to be used with all advection nodes.
RLXTAD Advection transient relaxation damping factor.
RLXTAU Transient multiplier used with all advection nodes.

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RLXTRM Maximum transient radiation relaxation value allowed.


RLXTRD Transient radiation relaxation damping factor.
RLXTRU Transient radiation relaxation factor multiplier.
RLXTHM Maximum transient convection relaxation value allowed.
RLXTHD Transient convection relaxation damping factor.
RLXTHU Transient convection relaxation factor multiplier.
RLXTCM Maximum transient conduction relaxation value allowed.
RLXTCD Transient conduction relaxation damping factor.
RLXTCU Transient conduction relaxation factor multiplier.
RLXTSM Maximum transient system relaxation value allowed.
RLXTSD Transient system relaxation damping factor.
RL XTSU Transient system relaxation factor multiplier.
BETA Explicit/implicit ratio variable that is used to control the amount of explicitness and
implicitness of transient integration solutions. If β is negative, QTRAN’s optimizing
algorithm is disabled and the value that you entered for β will be used for all nodes which
have capacitors assigned to them (zero capacitance nodes are not integrated, but are
instead computed directly). A value of β = 0.0 yields a fully-explicit solution (forward
Euler method), β = -1.0 yields a fully-implicit solution (backward Euler method), and
anything in between yields a weighted average. If the recommended value β = +1.0 is
used (or any positive number significantly greater than zero), QTRAN computes its own
optimized value for β on a node-by-node basis. The optimized value also means that
some nodes are at times run completely explicitly, and this mixture of explicit/implicit
integration has yielded speed increases of 3 to 4 on some test problems. Also note that if
a node is undergoing a phase change, the node is automatically integrated fully implicitly
for the duration of the phase change activity of that node. Note that except for performing
comparison benchmark tests of the algorithms, always run with β = 1.0. No case has yet
been found where this has proven to be a problem. There seems to be no motivation to
run with any other β value except possibly to verify that QTRAN’s implicit algorithm
actually works. Solution accuracy and run times are normally fairly independent of the
β value chosen, as long as a b value is chosen by you or by QTRAN that results in a stable
solution.
BETMIN Minimum allowable value of the β parameter. This gives more control over the degree
of explicitness or implicitness desired. Explicit solutions are stable if linear properties
are present, but even for this case, the transient may exhibit oscillations. If the material
properties are highly nonlinear, limit the explicit calculations. By specifying a BETMIN,
the nodes that are run explicitly can be limited while allowing the explicit/implicit
weighting function to do its optimization.
BETMAX Maximum allowable value of the β parameter.

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DELMAX Maximum allowed temperature change per iteration. If an iterative temperature change
is calculated with a larger magnitude than DELMAX, the sign is kept but the magnitude
is limited to DELMAX. If 0.0 is entered for DELMAX, a default value of DELMAX =
1000.0 will be used. DELMAX is used as a last-ditch effort to help force convergence to
occur for the extremely rare problems for which QTRAN’s SNPSOR algorithm may
otherwise fail. Normally, use the default value for DELMAX of 1000.0 by entering a 0.0
for DELMAX.
MINTMP Minimum allowed temperature of a problem. In some cases, especially after strong
perturbation in boundary conditions, explicit calculations or initial prediction can
extrapolate the solution to unreasonable values. By specifying minimum and maximum
values for the solution, any node whose value is extended beyond the limits of the
solution will be declared to be solved by fully implicit means and the new guess in node
temperature will be MINTMP. Care must be exercised that the value of MINTMP is not
within the limits that can be expected for normal numerical oscillation of the solution.
MAXTMP Maximum allowed temperature of a solution.
PCBAND Temperature interval over which phase changes will be smeared. If set to 0.0 or less, a
value of 1.0 degrees will be used. The smaller the value of PCBAND that is used, the
more accurate the answer will be at the expense of more computation. Phase change
begins at the phase change temperature minus PCBAND and is completed at the phase
change temperature plus PCBAND. Phase change begins at the phase change
temperature minus PCBAND and is completed at the phase change temperature plus the
PCBAND.
CPDELT Temperature integration step size used to evaluate an integrated average of the specific
heat across a time step. If the specific heat is highly variable (e.g., a spike or other
discontinuity exists in the Cp vs. temperature curve), set CPDELT to a fraction of the
width of the spike. The calculated temperature change during a time step is divided by
CPDELT to determine the number of points that the specific heat is to be evaluated. The
specific heat is the average of all evaluations at each temperature point determined by
CPDELT and is evaluated independently for each node, at each iteration for each time
step. If CPDELT is greater than the temperature change, two points - the beginning and
resultant temperature - will be used each time step to determine the specific heat. This is
the default if CPDELT is left blank.
GRAVTY Gravitational constant used with turbine, pump head calculation and for required internal
units conversions. The default value is dependent on the ICCALC option. If Metric or an
English temperature is specified, 9.80665 meters / second / second or 32.1741 feet /
second /second respectively is used.
GX Positive value indicates that gravity is working against a positive x direction. Default is
0.0.
GY Positive value indicates that gravity is working against a positive y direction. Default is
0.0.
GZ Positive value indicates that gravity is working against a positive z direction. Default is
0.0.

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SBC Stefan-Boltzmann thermal radiation constant. If SBC is entered as zero, QTRAN will set
SBC to 5.6696D-08 W / (m2-K4) if ICCALC is in degrees K or C, and to 0.1712D-
08 Btu/(hr-ft2-R4) if ICCALC is in degrees R or F.
DCMF Discontinuous Macrofunction Flag. If set to 0, there is no effect. If set to 1, DCMF alerts
QTRAN’s transient integration algorithm that one or more macrofunctions may be
severely discontinuous in nature. QTRAN then uses a β value of 1.0 for nodes with
macrofunctions assigned to them. Using β = 1.0 allows the transient integration
algorithm to notice sharp discontinuities in dT/dt that occur in the middle or end of a time
step and then forces QTRAN to use smaller time steps in the neighborhood of such a
discontinuity.

Auxiliary Print Options


Resistor Heat Flow Print Option
IRQFLO (keyword) RQFLO(1...9)

Example
IRQFLO 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

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Parameter Description
IRQFLO Allows print/no print options to be selected for resistor, capacitor, and heat source
macrofunction data in the system. Setting IRQFLO(i) to 1 causes QTRAN to print
data for the i'th entry in the following list, while any other value causes no data to
be printed for that item. The data is printed at the end of a steady state run, or at each
print interval for a transient run. This data includes such things as resistor heat flow,
conductance, capacitance, material property data, and others. The list of IDMNRF(i)
items is as follows:

IRQFLO(1) --Conduction Resistors

IRQFLO(2) -- Convective Resistors

IRQFLO(3)--Gray Radiative Resistors

IRQFLO(4) -- Wavelength-Dependent Resistors

IRQFLO(5) -- Advective Resistors

IRQFLO(6) -- Capacitors

IRQFLO(7) -- Heat Source Macrofunctions

IRQFLO(8) -- Hydraulic Advection Resistors

IRQFLO(9) -- Hydraulic Capacitors

Since there can be a large amount of data (especially conductive and radiative
resistor data), you normally should be selective about the volume of information that
is requested.

Nodal Results File Format Option


NRFORM (keyword) NRFORM

Example
NRFORM 0

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Parameter Description
NRFORM Format of the nodal results file.

0. Binary nodal results files.

1. ASCII nodal results files.

The flag that tells QTRAN whether to output the nodal results file is ASCII or
binary. NRFORM=0 will give a binary file (default). NRFORM=1 will generate a
text file.

Nodal Results File Print Options


IDMNRF (keyword) DMNRF(1...18)

Example
IDMNRF 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 1

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Parameter Description
IDMNRF Allows which items are to be put in the nodal results files. The first eight items plus
fifteenth through the nineteenth into the nodal results files with the prefix
designation NRnnn, ninth and tenth go to NPnnn type files, and the eleventh through
the fourteenth go into NHnnn type files. The list of IDMNRF(i) items is as follows:

0. Denotes that parameter is not written to the results file.

1. Denotes that parameter is written to the results file.

IDMNRF(1)--Temperatures

IDMNRF(2)--Net nodal heat flow

IDMNRF(3)--Explicit stable time step

IDMNRF(4)--QMACRO function heat input

IDMNRF(5)--QBASE heat input to each node

IDMNRF(6)--Total heat input to each node

IDMNRF(7)--Temperature error

IDMNRF(8)--Average convective heat transfer coefficient

IDMNRF(9)--Nodal pressure from hydraulic solution

IDMNRF(10)--Net mass flow rate from hydraulic solution

IDMNRF(11)--Mass flow rate in hydraulic element

IDMNRF(12)--Differential head in hydraulic element

IDMNRF(13)--Fluid velocity in hydraulic element

IDMNRF(14)--Volumetric flow rate in hydraulic element

IDMNRF(15)--Applied Heat Flux

IDMNRF(16)--Convective Heat Flux - Note that the heat flux summary for plotting
is only associated with the application region. The area is unknown or may not exist
for the coupled node.

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IDMNRF(17)--Radiate Heat Flux - As with convection the radiation for plotting is


only associated with the application region. If one is working with an enclosure,
specify a surface emissivity of 0.9999 to represent black bodies to get an accurate
measure of what is happeniIDMNRF(15)--Applied Heat Fluxng at the surface.

IDMNRF(18)--Net Total Heat Flux

IDMNRF(19)--Surface Recession

IDMNRF(20)--Surface Recession Rate

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Flag that determines what record gets put in the nodal results file. IDNMRF=0
implies that the record will not go to the nrf file while IDMNRF=1 implies that the
record will be put out in the nodal results file. If all items are flagged, the following
columns would represent the data in the different nodal results files:
NRnnn Column 1 Temperature

Column 2 Net nodal heat flow

Column 3 Explicit stable time step

Column 4 QMACRO function heat input

Column 5 Qbase heat input into each node

Column 6 Total heat input into each node

Column 7 Temperature error

Column 8 Average convection heat transfer coefficient

Column 9 Applied heat flux

Column 10 Convective heat flux

Column 11 Radiate heat flux

Column 12 Net total heat flux

Column 13 Surface Recession

Column 14 Surface Recession Rate


NPnnn Column 1 Pressure at a given node from the hydraulic solution

Column 2 Mass flow rate at a given node from hydraulic solution


NHnnn Column 1 Mass flow rate in hydraulic element

Column 2 Differential head in hydraulic element

Column 3 Fluid velocity in hydraulic element

Column 4 Volume flow rate in hydraulic element

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Maximum Time Step Control


This section allows maximum time step data to be entered. Initial Maximum Time Step, 253 is used to
enter the initial maximum allowed time step and Maximum Allowable Time Step Adjustments, 253 may
be used to alter this value at user-selected times during a transient run.

Initial Maximum Time Step


DTMAX (keyword) DTMAX DTMAXH

Example
DTMAX 1.0D+01 100.0
This example sets the maximum allowed time step to 10.0 for the thermal solution and 100.0 seconds for
the hydraulic solution.

Parameter Description
DTMAX Initial maximum value of the time step allowable for transient calculations, regardless of
the number of iterations given for the IMIN parameter (see Iteration Limit Parameters,
234). The time step used for integration will not exceed the value of DTMAX that is set.
However, the value of DTMAX can be adjusted (see Maximum Allowable Time Step
Adjustments, 253) during a transient run.
DTMAXH Initial maximum value of the time step allowable for hydraulic calculations. The
maximum time allowed to lapse before the hydraulic solution is updated. This is used in
conjunction with the NTBHUP parameter to control when new hydraulic calculations are
performed. The time and counter are both indexed at the time a new hydraulic solution is
calculated with the next update determined by whichever parameter is tripped next.

Maximum Allowable Time Step Adjustments


DTMAXA (keyword) DTMAXA(I,1) DTMAXA(I,2) DTMAXA(I,3)

Example
DTMAXA 7.0D+00 5 200
This sets the new DTMAX value to 7.0 at time = 5.0 for the thermal solution and while setting a new
DTMAXH value of 200 for the hydraulic solution.
QTRAN allows the value of the maximum allowable time step (DTMAX) to be adjusted at arbitrary
times in a transient simulation if desired. The values of DTMAXA(I,1), DTMAXA(I,2), and
DTMAXA(I,3) are entered as an ordered group, where DTMAXA(I,1), DTMAXA(I,2), and
DTMAXA(I,3) are defined as follows

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Parameter Description
DTMAXA(I,1) I'th new value of DTMAX that you want to define.
DTMAXA(I,2) I'th time at which the value of DTMAX is to be reset to the new value specified
by DTMAXA(I,1). As many pairs of DTMAXA data as needed may be entered.

Values defined for DTMAXA groups will force QTRAN to end a time step and
to begin a new time step at the DTMAXA(I,2) values.
DTMAXA(I,3) I'th new value of DTMAXH that is to be defined.

When all DTMAXA data is entered, enter a dollar sign ($) in column 1 of the
input data file. After all of the DTMAXA data is entered, enter the dollar sign ($)
in column 1 and proceed to Node Definitions, 254.

Node Definitions
QTRAN requires that each node referenced in Network Construction, 276 and Boundary Conditions, 322
must be declared by assigning it a node number in this section. This section explains how to enter data
to declare node numbers for the thermal network. Node numbers need not be consecutive, but they must
be greater than zero. If a reference to a node is made in these two sections that was not declared, QTRAN
will print an error message in the output data file that identifies the undeclared node number and will then
terminate execution.
Node numbers are declared by entering a node number declaration block. Each block defines a starting
node number, an ending node number, and a node number increment within the block (exactly like a
FORTRAN do-loop). As many blocks may be entered as are needed to define the nodes. When no more
blocks are to be entered, simply enter a dollar sign ($) in column 1 of the input data file. The block
variables are defined as follows:

Note: This data is normally generated with PATQ menu pick 2.

Hydraulic Node Number Declarations


DEFPND (keyword) DEFPND(1...3)

Two groups of node numbers are declared-hydraulic and thermal. The hydraulic nodes have all the same
properties and attributes of the thermal nodes, but have additional properties. Hydraulic nodes have
pressure, mass flow rate, and other properties associated with them that are necessary to calculate fluid
flow through a set of fluid elements that define various flow characteristics. As a result of the PATQ
translation (menu pick 2), those declarations are placed in the PNODEDAT file.

Note: All hydraulic nodes must be defined before the thermal nodes are defined. It is not
necessary that the node numbers be less than the thermal node number, but they must be
defined first in this section of the QTRAN input.

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Example
DEFPND 10 100 1
This example defines nodes 10 through 100 in increments of 1.

Parameter Description
DEFPND(1) Starting node number of the block.
DEFPND(2) Ending node number of the block. This value should be consistent with the value of
DEFPND(1) and DEFPND(3) (again, exactly like a FORTRAN do-loop) or it may not
be assigned. For example, if DEFPND(1)=1, DEFPND(2)=4, and DEFPND(3)=2, the
assigned node numbers will be 1 and 3. While this is probably not what the user would
have intended, this will be the result. A correct set of values, for example, might be
DEFPND(1)=20, DEFPND(2)=30, and DEFPND(3)=2. This would declare node
numbers 20, 22, 24, 26, 28, and 30.

DEFAULT OPTION: If DEFPND(2) is entered as zero (0), QTRAN will set


DEFPND(2) to the value of DEFPND(1).
DEFPND(3) Node number increment of the block. If DEFPND(3) is given as 0, a value of 1 will be
assumed. Negative values of DEFPND(3) are allowed.

To declare single nodes, simply use the same value of DEFPND(2) that is used for
DEFPND(1) (the single node number being declared) with a value of 0, 1, or blank for
DEFPND(3). Alternatively, using the default options for DEFPND(2) and
DEFPND(3), simply enter the node number being declared for DEFPND(1) and leave
DEFPND(2) and DEFPND(3) as blank or zero.

Node number declarations are a user convenience. They allow modification of a given
network by adding or subtracting nodes at will without having to completely renumber
all of the nodes in the model. They also allow node numbers to be assigned to different
regions of the model for clarity (e.g., nodes 100-199 to region 1, nodes 200-299 to
region 2, nodes 1000-9999 to radiosity nodes, etc.), or any other scheme that may be
conceived.

Thermal Node Number Declarations


DEFNOD (keyword) DEFNOD(1...3)

As a result of the PATQ translation (menu pick 2), these declarations are placed in the NODEDAT file or
the VFNODEDAT file for VIEW FACTOR nodes (menu pick 3).

Example
DEFNOD 110 410 2
This example defines nodes 110 through 410 in increments of 2.

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Note: Although node numbers may be entered in any order and “holes” may be left in the node
number scheme, very large problems will have a CPU time penalty for this during the
initialization phase only (not during the analysis phase). For very large problems it is
cheaper to have the nodes numbered 1 through N sequentially. The reason for this is that
every node number that is declared here is reassigned an internal node number reference by
QTRAN. This is done for storage efficiency as well as CPU efficiency. Every reference to
one of the node numbers by a resistor, heat source, etc., involves a “look up” operation by
QTRAN (during the initialization phase only) to see what the internal node number is for
the node number referenced by the resistor, heat source, etc. This “look up” operation first
checks to see if, by chance, the internal node number is the same as the nodal number. If it
is, no search is necessary. If it is not, QTRAN has to look through the list of node number
references until it finds the nodal number. If thousands of nodes are involved, this can take
some time (but again, this is done only during the initialization phase and NOT during the
calculations).

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Parameter Description
DEFNOD(1) Starting node number of the block.
DEFNOD(2) Ending node number of the block. This value should be consistent with the value of
DEFNOD(1) and DEFNOD(3) (again, exactly like a FORTRAN do-loop) or it may
not be assigned. For example, if DEFNOD(1)=1, DEFNOD(2)=4, and
DEFNOD(3)=2, the assigned node numbers will be 1 and 3. While this is probably
not what the user would have intended, this will be the result. A correct set of values,
for example, might be DEFNOD(1)=20, DEFNOD(2)=30, and DEFNOD(3)=2. This
would declare node numbers 20, 22, 24, 26, 28, and 30.

DEFAULT OPTION: If DEFNOD(2) is entered as zero (0), QTRAN will set


DEFNOD(2) to the value of DEFNOD(1).
DEFNOD(3) Node number increment of the block. If DEFNOD(3) is given as 0, a value of 1 will
be assumed. Negative values of DEFNOD(3) are allowed.

To declare single nodes, simply use the same value of DEFNOD(2) that you use for
DEFNOD(1) (the single node number being declared) with a value of 0, 1, or blank
for DEFNOD(3). Alternatively, using the default options for DEFNOD(2) and
DEFNOD(3), simply enter the node number being declared for DEFNOD(1) and
leave DEFNOD(2) and DEFNOD(3) as blank or zero. Node number declarations are
a user convenience. They allow modification of a given network by adding or
subtracting nodes at will without having to completely renumber all of the nodes in
the model. They also allow node numbers to be assigned to different regions of the
model for clarity (e.g., nodes 100-199 to region 1, nodes 200-299 to region 2, nodes
1000-9999 to radiosity nodes, etc.), or any other scheme that may be conceived.

Temperature Coupling Nodes


TCOUPL (keyword) TCPLND TCPLCN

Temperature coupling is a means of equivalencing boundary, regions or independent nodes without them
having to be congruent and still retain their original identity. This can be used to perform cyclic
redundancy calculations, couple surfaces together which have different material properties where
different mesh densities are desired or couple different types of networks together. For example an
axisymmetric region can be coupled to a three dimensional region without making any geometric
assumption regarding the transition between the regions. The only assumption is that the temperatures
would be the same.
For example, where it was desired to have a transition between the axisymmetric and three-dimensional
regions, the region where the circumferential temperature gradient vanished would be the coupling
region. If regions between different materials were coupled the surface with the lowest conductivity
would be the application node and the high conductivity region would be the coupled or node the
application node would be coupled to. Here the assumption would be that the high conductivity material
would dominate the temperature gradient along the common interface.

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Internally what happens is all capacitors and resistor that have a temperature coupling node are replaced
by the coupling node. If a resistor has the same node ID for both identifiers it is removed from the
calculation sequence. At each output request the temperature coupling application node temperature is
replaced by the temperature coupling node’s temperature, thus the model retains its original geometric
characteristics for all post processing.

Example
TCOUPL 110 410
In this example all internal references to node 110 are replaced with node 410 and all temperature output
for 110 will be assigned the temperature value of node 410.

Parameter Description
TCPLND Temperature coupled node. The node that will be replaced in the solution by the
temperature coupling node.
TCPLCN Temperature coupling node. This is the node that the coupled temperature will be
equivalenced to for solution purposes. This node’s temperature will be assigned to
the coupled node for output purposes.

Node Location Declarations

NODXYZ (keyword) NODEID NODEX NODEY NODEZ

As a result of the PATQ translation (menu pick 2) these declarations are placed in the NODXYZDAT
file.

Example
NODXYZ 1 1.01122D+0 3.33121D-1 2.22222D+1
This example shows that node 1 has an x, y, z coordinate of 1.01122, 0.333121, and 22.2222 respectively.

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Parameter Description
NODEID User node ID that the x, y, z node locations are to be applied. The node locations are
stored internally in the same order that the node temperatures are defined. Thus all
internal node index references are consistent with the node locations defined in this
block. It is not necessary to input all node locations, only those that are to be used in
the analysis. When no more data is to be entered in the node locations block, simply
put a dollar sign ($) in column 1.
NODEX Node x location in a global Cartesian coordinate system.
NODEY Node y location in a global Cartesian coordinate system.
NODEZ Node z location in a global Cartesian coordinate system.

Print Control
This section explains how to enter print interval data. Below describes how to enter an initial output print
interval; Print Interval Adjustments, 259 describes how to enter data to alter this value during the course
of a transient run; and Nodal Print Block Definitions, 260 describes how to specify which nodal
temperatures will be printed as output data.

Initial Output Print Interval

TPRINT (keyword) TPRINT

Example
TPRINT 1.0D+01
This example sets the print interval to 1.0D+01 seconds.

Parameter Description
TPRINT Initial time interval between successive output data printings for transient
calculations. The print-time interval may be modified (see Print Interval
Adjustments, 259) during a transient run.

Print Interval Adjustments

PRINTA (keyword) PRINTA(I,1) and PRINTA(I,2)

Example
PRINTA 10.0 5.0
PRINTA 100.0 1000.0
PRINTA -4.0 1501.0
This will cause a new print interval of 10.0 at time = 5.0 and another new print interval of 100.0 at time
= 1000.0. Print dumps will also be made at 5.0 and 1000.0. The negative print interval at time 1501 will
force the output times to be on even multiples of the print increment. The 1501 print staging will yield

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printout at 1500 second which is a result of the normal print increment of 100 at the previous staged time,
plus a print dump at time 1501 which is forced at all print staging times, plus a print out at time 1504
because the print was forced to be on even multiples of the print increment. All further print dumps will
be at multiples of 4.0 time units.
QTRAN allows the value of the output print interval to be adjusted during the course of the simulation.
The values of PRINTA(I,1) and PRINTA(I,2) are entered as an ordered pair. PRINTA(I,1) and
PRINTA(I,2) are defined below.

Parameter Description
PRINTA(I,1) New print interval value for output during a transient simulation. Negative values
force the output to be on multiples of the print interval.
PRINTA(I,2) Time at which the new print interval will be initiated, and the time at which a print
dump will be made.

As many pairs of PRINTA data may be entered as needed. Data entered for PRINTA
pairs will force QTRAN to end a time step and to begin a new time step on any time
values entered for PRINTA(I,2). When all PRINTA data pairs have been entered,
enter a dollar sign ($) in column 1 of the input data file and proceed to Nodal Print
Block Definitions, 260. If no PRINTA data is needed, enter a dollar sign ($) in column
1 and proceed to Nodal Print Block Definitions, 260.

Nodal Print Block Definitions


PBLOCK (keyword) PBLOCK(1...3)

Example
PBLOCK 2 20 2 ; (Print even nodes 2 - 20 in the QOUTDAT file)
This will cause the even node numbers from 2 to 20 to be printed out. The comment to the right of the
semicolon will be ignored by QTRAN.

Note: This command has no effect on the nodal results files generated directly by QTRAN.

PBLOCK(1), PBLOCK(2), and PBLOCK(3) allow the starting node number to be specified, the ending
node number, and the node number increment, respectively, of a Print Block (group of nodes whose
temperature values are to be printed).
QTRAN will continue to read data for Print Blocks until a dollar sign ($) is encountered in column 1 of
the input data file. If no entries are made in this section, QTRAN will print temperatures for all nodes in
the system. As many Print Block definitions may be entered in the QINDAT file.

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Parameter Description
PBLOCK(1) Used to specify the first node number of a Print Block. For example, to print node
numbers 15-23 for the nodal Print Block, PBLOCK(1) should have the value of 15.
PBLOCK(2) Used to specify the last node number of the Print Block. For example, to print node
numbers 15-23 for the Print Block, the value of PBLOCK(2) should be 23.

DEFAULT: If a 0 or blank is entered for PBLOCK(2) and PBLOCK(3), QTRAN


will set PBLOCK(2) to the value entered for PBLOCK(1) and will set PBLOCK(3)
to 1.
PBLOCK(3) Used to specify the node number increment for the print block. For example, to print
all node numbers from 15-23, the value of PBLOCK(3) should be 1. Negative values
of PBLOCK(3) are allowed and may be used if needed.

DEFAULT: If a 0 or blank is entered for PBLOCK(3), QTRAN will set


PBLOCK(3) to 1.

To specify single nodes as a Print Block, enter the same value for PBLOCK(2) as
was entered for PBLOCK(1), or you may enter both PBLOCK(2) and PBLOCK(3)
as zero or blank.

Nodal Plot Block Definitions


IPLTBK (keyword) IPLTBK(1...3)

Example
IPLTBK 2 20 2 ; (Write even nodes 2 - 20 to the QPLOTDAT file)
This will cause results data for the even node numbers from 2 to 20 to be written to the QPLOTDAT file.
The comment to the right of the semicolon will be ignored by QTRAN.
IPLTBK(1), IPLTBK(2), and IPLTBK(3) allow the starting node number to be specified, the ending
node number, and the node number increment, respectively, of a Plot Block (group of nodes whose
temperature values are to be written to the plot file).
QTRAN will continue to read data for Plot Blocks until a dollar sign ($) is encountered in column 1 of
the input data file. If no entries are made in this section, QTRAN will open or create a plot file. As many
Plot Block definitions may be entered in the QINDAT file.

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QTRAN Run Control Parameters and Node Number Declarations

Parameter Description
IPLTBK(1) Used to specify the first node number of a Plot Block. For example, plot node
numbers 15-23 for the nodal Plot Block, IPLTBK(1) should have the value of 15.
IPLTBK(2) Used to specify the last node number of the Plot Block. For example, to plot node
numbers 15-23 for the Plot Block, the value of IPLTBK(2) should be 23.
IPLTBK(3) DEFAULT: If a 0 or blank is entered for IPLTBK(2) and IPLTBK(3), QTRAN will
set IPLTBK(2) to the value entered for IPLTBK(1) and will set IPLTBK(3) to 1.

Used to specify the node number increment for the Plot block. For example, plot all
node numbers from 15-23, the value of IPLTBK(3) should be 1. Negative values of
IPLTBK(3) are allowed and may be used if needed.

DEFAULT: If a 0 or blank is entered for IPLTBK(3), QTRAN will set IPLTBK(3)


to 1.

To specify single nodes as a Plot Block, enter the same value for IPLTBK(2) as was
entered for IPLTBK(1), or enter both IPLTBK(2) and IPLTBK(3) as zero or blank.

The Plot File


The format of the resultant binary plot file, which has the default name QPLOTDAT, is as follows:
At the beginning of each file, a single record is written that contains three character variables each 80-
characters in length. This is a header record that contains title information and indicates when the file was
created.
The output for each time point follows the header until the end of the file. Each time point output consists
of two records. The first record has three variables, time, a double precision variable; number of nodes,
an integer; and a logical flag which is true, if steady state results follow, and is false, if the data is from
a transient time step. The second record contains data pairs for each node specified. The first variable is
an integer specifying the actual node number with a double-precision variable that defines the
temperature.

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Chapter 8: Thermal/Hydraulic Input Deck 263
Material Properties

Material Properties
This section is used to define material properties to QTRAN, including properties which are to be
assigned after phase changes have occurred.
Use the procedure shown below to define a material property.
1. Enter all data for the material property from MPID Number, Function Type, Temperature Scale,
Factor and Label, 263. This information specifies the material property identification (MPID)
number, defines the function type that will be used to evaluate the material property, the
temperature scale conversions necessary (if tabular or power series evaluations are to be
performed), a scaling factor, and text line labels that will be used to document the material
property in the printout.
2. Enter all Material Property Data, 268. This section is used to enter x-y table data,
coefficient/exponent data for a power series evaluation, data for use in a Sutherland equation,
values for constant material properties, or phase change data sets. When all data has been entered,
enter a slash (/) in column 1 of the next input data file line and continue on to Step (3).
3. If no more material properties are to be entered, enter a dollar sign ($) in column 1 of the next
input data file line and proceed on to Network Construction, 276. If more material properties are
to be defined, return to Step (1) and continue with this procedure until all material property data
has been entered for this section.

Note: This data is normally extracted from the MPIDMKSBIN, MPIDIPSBIN, MPIDFPHBIN or
MPIDCGS material property databases via PATQ menu pick 4 or placed in the MATDAT
file by the user.

MPID Number, Function Type, Temperature Scale, Factor and


Label
MPID (keyword) MPID IEVAL ITSCAL NODEZ [LABEL]

Example
MPID 1234 T Fahrenheit 2.0D+00
Zinc Oxide Thermal Conductivity
This declares that material property ID number 1234 will be a linear table input in degrees Fahrenheit
(only the first character of ITSCAL is significant) and that the material property values in the table will
be scaled by a factor of 2.0D+00. The material property label is “Zinc Oxide Thermal Conductivity.”
When the MPID, IEVAL, ITSCAL, FACTOR, and LABEL data have been entered, proceed to Material
Property Data, 268 to finish defining the material property.

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Material Properties

Parameter Description
MPID Material Property Identification Number (MPID) that is assigned to each material
property. This MPID number will then be used to reference the material property in
Network Construction, 276 as part of the thermal resistor and capacitor data. MPID
numbers must be greater than 0 when defined in this section.
IEVAL Material property evaluation code that denotes whether the material property is to
be evaluated as a constant, table, power series, Sutherland equation, Bingham
equation, reciprocal relation, straight line, arbitrary order polynomial, phase change
data set, or user-supplied subroutine. The allowed evaluations are listed below. Note
that only the first character of the IEVAL string is typically significant, so T, Table,
and Table_Data are equivalent. There are exceptions. For example the power series
evaluation and the phase change data sets. For these two characters must be supplied
(i.e., PO for power series or PH for phase change data sets). If the IEVAL character
string contains blanks, it must be enclosed in single quotes. The MDATA1 and
MDATA2 values are input constants that are specified in Material Property Data,
268.

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Chapter 8: Thermal/Hydraulic Input Deck 265
Material Properties

A - The material property is an arbitrary order polynomial of the following form


(MDATA2 values are ignored):

P(T) = MDATA1(1) + MDATA1(2) * T1 + MDATA1(3) * T2 + ... + MDATA1(N)


* T(N-1)

B - This property is the viscosity of fresh water at normal pressures, and the viscosity
is to be calculated using the Bingham equation (see Ref. 4, p. 665). The units will be
N-s/m2 if the calculations are performed in Celsius or Kelvin, and lbm/ft-s if the
calculations are performed in Fahrenheit or Rankine.

C - The material property is a constant.

D - Description. Provides a way to pass text information through material properties


to user routines

DV - Dependent Variable material properties are used in conjunction with an


independent variable material property. Particularly useful if several functions have
the same independent variable significant. Not only does one have a savings in space
but the evaluation for subsequent dependent values is faster.

H - The data forms a tabular function that is to be interpolated using Hermite


polynomials or extrapolated using a quadratic polynomial. The Hermite polynomial
is a cubic, and is used only for interpolation. The Hermite polynomials insure that
the function and the slope are continuous from interval to interval within the data
table. Quadratic interpolation is used on the first and last interval of the table. At
least three data pairs must be defined to use this option. See MDATA1/MDATA2
in Material Property Data, 268.

ID - Independent variable provide the independent variable so that interpolation


factors can be defined for a series of dependent variable routines that reference it.
Two interpolation options are available, one is a linear table and the other is a
logarithmic table. The data and operation of the table is the same as the indexed
linear table.

IH - The data forms an indexed tabular function that is to be interpolated using


Hermite polynomials or extrapolated using a quadratic polynomial. The difference
between the index hermite and the hermite interpolation is that the index hermite
begins its search for valid table position based on the last exit from the table. This
can yield significant time improvements.

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Material Properties

L - The data forms a tabular function that is to be linearly interpolated or


extrapolated. The temperature intervals of the table are equally spaced. The table is
interpolated or extrapolated based on a Linear Computed Interval (LCI) algorithm.
This is the fastest of QTRAN's table interpolation algorithms. A minimum of two
property values must be defined to use this option. See MDATA1 in Material
Property Data, 268.
M - The data is used to form a straight line of the following form:

P(T) = MDATA1(1) * T + MDATA2(1)

Optical Thermal - Radiation variables that can be translated for interfacing to


external radiation codes. Used by the STEP TAS interface.

PE - The data forms are indexed tabular functions which is linear interpolated. the
independent variable is normalized by the period which is the difference between
the maximum and minimum values specified for the independent variable.

PH - The data will be evaluated as a phase change data set, with each
MDATA1/MDATA2 data pair corresponding to a phase transition temperature
(MDATA1), and a latent heat (MDATA2).

PO - The data will be evaluated as a power series of the form:

MDATA2(1)
P(T) = MDATA1(1) * T + ...

MDATA2(N)
+ MDATA1(N) * T

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Chapter 8: Thermal/Hydraulic Input Deck 267
Material Properties

R - The data will be evaluated as a reciprocal function, i.e.:

1
P ( T ) = ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
( MDATA1 ( 1 ) * ( T + MDATA2 ( 1 ) ) )

S - The data will be evaluated as a Sutherland equation. Sutherland equations are


commonly used for liquid and gas material properties such as viscosities and
thermal conductivities. A Sutherland equation is defined as follows:
1.5
P(T) (T) (T[o] + S)
------------ = ---------------------- * --------------------------
P[o] (T[o])
1.5 (T + S)

where:

P[T] = property value at temperature T;


P[o] = property value at reference temperature T[o]; and
S = Sutherland constant for the particular material.
For more information about Sutherland equations, see Ref. 4. in
Appendix A, and also later in this section.
T - Data forms a tabular function that is to be linearly interpolated or extrapolated.
A minimum of two data pairs must be defined to use this option. See
MDATA1/MDATA2 in Material Property Data, 268.

IT - Data forms an indexed tabular function that is to be linearly interpolated or


extrapolated. This is identical to the tabular function except the table is entered at
the position that it was previously exited.
U - Data given for MDATA1(1) will be used to specify a specific user-supplied
subroutine option. When a U is specified for IEVAL, QTRAN will call user-
supplied subroutine UPROP to get a property value. The value given for
MDATA1(1) may be used to select a specific suboption (e.g., a whole family of
user-supplied algorithms may exist in subroutine UPROP and MDATA1(1) may be
used as an algorithm option identifier).

Notice: The scale factor for this evaluation option is read but not used.
ITSCAL Temperature scale for which the tabular input data is valid (all other conversion
routines ignore ITSCAL). QTRAN will automatically convert data tables from other
temperature scales into the temperature scale defined for calculations (see ICCALC,
(p. 230)). For example, if calculations are being performed in Kelvin (i.e.,
ICCALC = K in Temperature Scale and Time Units Definition, 230 but the material
property data available is in Celsius, QTRAN will convert this table to Kelvin before
use if ITSCAL is entered as C. Note that only the first character of the ITSCAL
character string is significant, so “F” and “Fahrenheit” are equivalent.

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Material Properties

Table data may be converted to or from any of the following temperature scales:

F--Fahrenheit

C--Celsius

K--Kelvin

R--Rankine

T--Time
If T (for time) is given for ITSCAL, no table conversions will occur. The “material
property” is then evaluated as a time dependent function, regardless of the IEVAL
option selected.
FACTOR A scaling factor that is used to easily scale a material property’s values. The value
entered for FACTOR is used to multiply the property data. If a number whose
absolute value is less than 1.E-18 is entered for FACTOR, FACTOR will be
assigned a value of 1.0. In addition to scaling for parameterization runs, FACTOR
may also be used to change units systems conveniently.

Notice: FACTOR applies to all material property evaluation options EXCEPT the
BINGHAM fresh water viscosity equation and the user-supplied subroutine option.
For these options, FACTOR is read but is not used.
LABEL One or more 80-character identification labels that will be read by the program and
printed with the echoed input data. These labels identify material properties for your
convenience, but the labels are not used by QTRAN. These labels allow short
messages to be printed (e.g., NITROGEN VISCOSITY) with the material property
data to facilitate documentation. As many lines of label data as desired may be
entered (anything between the MPID line and the terminating / character that does
not start with the keyword MDATA will be treated as a label).

Material Property Data


MDATA (keyword) MDATA1 MDATA2

MDATA1 and MDATA2 are material property data pairs and are entered for the various evaluation
algorithms.

Example
MDATA 2.0 5.0
This defines an MDATA1 value of 2.0 and an MDATA2 value of 5.0. Depending upon the evaluation
option selected (IEVAL parameter), the 2.0 and 5.0 may be used in various ways. See below for more
specific information.

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Material Properties

ARBITRARY-ORDER POLYNOMIAL
Enter the polynomial coefficients into the MDATA1 array. MDATA2 data will be ignored. The
MDATA1 data will be used in the following fashion for the polynomial:
P(T) = MDATA1(1) + MDATA1(2) * T + MDATA1(3) *
2 (N-1)
T + ... + MDATA1(N) * T

Example
MPID 17 Arbitrary-Polynomial Celsius 1.0
Example Arbitrary Order Polynomial Definition
MDATA 1.0
MDATA 1.3
MDATA -0.3
/
This example defines the polynomial

P(T) = 1.0 + 1.3 * T - 0.3 * T2

for MPID 17 with a scale factor of 1.0. It declares that the polynomial is valid in degrees Celsius. The
value of T used will be in degrees Celsius.

BINGHAM
Do not enter any parameters for a Bingham equation evaluation. The correct Bingham equation
parameters are already stored in QTRAN.

Example
MPID 23 Bingham Kelvin 1.0
Bingham Fresh Water Viscosity Equation
/
This example defines MPID 23 to be the Bingham freshwater viscosity equation.

CONSTANT
Enter the constant’s value as MDATA1(1).

Example
MPID 47 Constant Kelvin 1.0
Constant Material Property Definition
MDATA 1.2345
/
This material property definition defines MPID 47 to be a constant with a value of 1.2345. The scale
factor is 1.0, and the temperature scale definition of Kelvin is ignored.

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Material Properties

H AND T TABLE INTERPOLATION OPTIONS


Data for the H and T data evaluation options are entered as ordered pairs from the lowest temperature
values to the highest temperature values as follows:
MDATA1(1...N) = Temperature values
MDATA2(1...N) = Corresponding property values

Example
MPID 3 Table Fahrenheit 1.0
Example Linear Table Property Definition
MDATA0.027.0
MDATA100.029.4
MDATA173.055.2
MDATA2000.087.3
/
This material property definition has temperatures of 0.0, 100.0, 173.0, and 2000.0 Fahrenheit and
property values of 27.0, 29.4, 55.2, and 87.3. It declares that it is a linear irregular interval table property
with a scale factor of 1.0 and an MPID number of 3.

codeindent10
MPID 4 Hermite Fahrenheit 23.79E-03
Example Linear Table Property Definition
MDATA0.027.0
MDATA100.029.4
MDATA173.055.2
/
This material property definition has temperatures of 0.0, 100.0, and 173.0 Fahrenheit and property
values of 27.0, 29.4, and 55.2. It declares that it is a Hermite Polynomial irregular interval table property
with a scale factor of 23.79E-03 and an MPID number of 4.

Note: At least two data pairs must be entered for the T option, and at least three data pairs for the
H option.

IH AND IT TABLE INTERPOLATION OPTIONS


These options are identical to the H and T option defined previously except the tables are entered at the
location (index) that they were previously exited. Data for the IH and IT data evaluation options are
entered as ordered pairs from the lowest temperature values to the highest temperature values as follows:
MDATA1(1...N) = Temperature values
MDATA2(1...N) = Corresponding property values

Example
MPID 3 ITable Fahrenheit 1.0
Example Linear Table Property Definition
MDATA0.027.0
MDATA100.029.4

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Chapter 8: Thermal/Hydraulic Input Deck 271
Material Properties

MDATA173.055.2
MDATA2000.087.3
/
This material property definition has temperatures of 0.0, 100.0, 173.0, and 2000.0 Fahrenheit and
property values of 27.0, 29.4, 55.2, and 87.3. It declares that it is an indexed linear irregular interval table
property with a scale factor of 1.0 and an MPID number of 3.

Example
MPID 4 IHermite Fahrenheit 23.79E-03
Example Linear Table Property Definition
MDATA0.027.0
MDATA100.029.4
MDATA173.055.2
MDATA2000.087.3
/
This material property definition has temperatures of 0.0, 100.0, 173.0, and 2000.0 Fahrenheit and
property values of 27.0, 29.4, 55.2, and 87.3. It declares that it is an index Hermite Polynomial irregular
interval table property with a scale factor of 23.79E-03 and an MPID number of 4.

Note: At least two data pairs must be entered for the IT option and at least three data pairs for the
IH option.

L (LINEAR COMPUTED INTERVAL TABLE EVALUATION)


Data for the LCI option is entered as shown below. Note that the LCI option is the preferred table
interpolation option because it is much faster than any other table interpolation algorithm in QTRAN.

MDATA1(1) Lowest temperature in the tabulated property data


MDATA1(2) Temperature interval assumed between all property entries
MDATA1(3...N) The table property values, beginning at the lowest temperature property value and
proceeding to the highest temperature property value in the LCI table. At least two
property values must be entered
MDATA2 values are ignored and should be left blank

Example
MPID 7 LCI K 1.0
Example LCI table property.
MDATA0.0 ; Base Temperature
MDATA100.0;Temperature Increment
MDATA23.7;Property Value at 0.0 K
MDATA 29.9;Property Value at 100.0 K
MDATA 25.3;Property Value at 200.0 K
MDATA17.2;Property Value at 300.0 K
MDATA0.7;Property Value at 400.0 K
MDATA0.7;Property Value at 500.0 K
/

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Material Properties

This material property definition declares that MPID 7 is an LCI equal interval linear table with a base
temperature of 0.0 K and a temperature increment of 100.0 K. The property values given are 23.7, 29.9,
25.3, 17.2, 0.7, and 0.7 with a scale factor of 1.0.
Please note that according to QTRAN convention, anything to the right of a semicolon (;) is an optional
comment and hence is ignored.

STRAIGHT LINE
The straight line will evaluate the MDATA1 and MDATA2 values that you enter exactly as follows:
P(T) = MDATA1(1) * T + MDATA2(1)

Example
MPID 32 M K 1.0
Example Straight Line Material Property
MDATA 0.17 117.9
/
This material property definition declares that MPID 9 is a straight line of the form:
P(T) = 0.17 * T + 117.9

with T valid for degrees Kelvin and with a scale factor of 1.0. The evaluation option (IEVAL) was given
as a character string surrounded by single quote marks, 'M (Straight Line)'. Only the first character, M,
is significant.

PEriodic Data
This option provides a mean of defining a repeating waveform which is linearly interpolated between
data points. The minimum and maximum independent variable values which defines an interval used to
normalize the input independent variable value so that interpolation is always between the minimum and
maximum value specified.
MDATA1 (1...N) = Independent variable values
MDATA2(1...N) = Corresponding property values

Example
MPID 104621 PEriodic Time 1.4
MDATA60.0122.
MDATA71.0212.
MDATA76.51400.
MDATA92.0220.
/
In the above example, the property will repeat every 32 time units following a linear interpolation. Note
by the example discontinuities are allowed between the beginning and ending of a period.

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Material Properties

PHASE CHANGE DATA


The phase change data option allows you to input phase transition temperature-latent heat data pairs.
Each MDATA1 value is a phase transition temperature, and each MDATA2 value is the corresponding
latent heat.
As many MDATA1 / MDATA2 pairs as necessary may be used for the model (there is no coded limit).
These pairs must be input in ascending temperature order. For accuracy, it is also necessary that no single
node should undergo more than one phase transition per time step.

Examples
MPID 1023 PHase Change Data Kelvin 1.0
Example #1 Phase Change Data Set
MDATA600.01024.9; T=600,H=1024.9
/
MPID 1 PH Rankine 1.1
Example #2 Phase Change Data Set
MDATA763.941.97E+06;T1=763.94,H1=1.97E+06
MDATA948.72.0E+05; T2=948.7, H2=2.00E+0541
/

POWER SERIES
The power series will evaluate the MDATA1 and MDATA2 values that are entered exactly as follows:

P(T) = MDATA1(1) * TMDATA2(1) + ... MDATA1(N) * TMDATA2(N)

Example
MPID 49 Power Series Rankine 1.0
Example Power Series Material Property Definition
MDATA1.2-0.4
MDATA7.30.1
MDATA1.0E+012.0
/
This example material property definition declares that MPID 49 is a power series function of the form:
(-0.4) 0.1 2.0
P(T) = 1.2 * T + 7.3 * T + 1.0E+01 * T

where T is valid for degrees Rankine. A scale factor of 1.0 is declared.

RECIPROCAL FUNCTION
The Reciprocal function will evaluate the MDATA1 and MDATA2 values that are entered exactly as
follows:

1
P ( T ) = -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
MDATA1 ( 1 ) * ( T + MDATA2 ( 1 ) )

Example
MPID 10 'Reciprocal Function' Celsius 1.0

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Material Properties

Example Reciprocal Function Material Property


MDATA1.0273.15
/
This material property definition declares that MPID 10 is a Reciprocal function of the form:

1
P ( T ) = -----------------------------------------------
1.0 * ( T + 273.15 )

with T valid for degrees Celsius and with a scale factor of 1.0. The evaluation option (IEVAL) was given
as a character string surrounded by single quote marks, 'Reciprocal Function'. Only the first character, R,
is significant. A common use of this type of material property is to define bulk coefficients of expansion
for ideal gases (1/T absolute).

SUTHERLAND
Enter the Sutherland equation data as follows:

MDATA1(1) P(0)
MDATA2(1) T(0)
MDATA1(2) S

where:

1.5
P(T) = T T(0) + S
------------ ----------------- + ---------------------
P(0) T(0)
1.5 T+S

Example
MPID 78 Sutherland Kelvin 1.1
Example Sutherland Equation Material Property
MDATA0.78.9;P[o] and T[o].
MDATA23.9; S.
/
This example material property definition declares that a Sutherland equation of the form:
1.5
(T )
( T ) = ----------------- ( 8.9 + 23.9 )
-------- - * ------------------------------
0.7 ( 8.9 1.5 ) ( T + 23.9 )

where T is valid for degrees Kelvin. Note that anything right of the semicolons in the example is an
optional comment and may be omitted.

USER-SUPPLIED SUBROUTINE
The user-supplied subroutine option will use both MDATA1 and MDATA2. The MDATA data pairs will
be passed to the user-supplied subroutine and may be used there as an option identifier, or for any other
purpose that the user wishes.

Example
MPID 88 U K 1.0

Main Index
Chapter 8: Thermal/Hydraulic Input Deck 275
Material Properties

Example User-Supplied Subroutine Material Property


MDATA 2
/
This example declares that MPID 88 will reference a user-supplied subroutine. The MDATA value of 2
may be used by that routine for any purpose needed, including using the MDATA value as an option to
determine a particular algorithm for evaluation. The user-supplied routine may in fact contain several
evaluation options. See User-Supplied Subroutines (Ch. 11) for more information.
When all MDATA1-MDATA2 data have been entered (if any) for a material property, enter a slash (/)
in column 1 of the input data file. To enter data for another material property, return to MPID Number,
Function Type, Temperature Scale, Factor and Label, 263.

When all of the material properties have been defined, enter a dollar sign ($) in column 1 of the input data
file and proceed to Network Construction, 276.

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Network Construction

Network Construction
This section describes how to define the thermal network to QTRAN. All resistors and capacitors will be
defined in this section. The parameters and options controlled by input are listed below.
1. Thermal Resistor Assignments.
2. Nodal Capacitance Data.

Note: PATQ normally generates all of the resistor and capacitor data automatically via menu pick
2.

Thermal Resistor Assignments


This section describes how to enter the thermal resistor data that will be used to describe a given problem.
The allowed resistor types are identified as follows:

C - Conductive Resistor (p. 276)


H - Convective Resistor (p. 280)
R - Radiative Resistor (p. 283)
W - Wavelength-Dependent Radiative
Resistor (p. 291)
L - Automatic 1-D Conduction Mesh
Generation (p. 300)
A - Advective Resistor (p. 305)
F - Hydraulic Resistor (p. 306)

To enter a data set for any given thermal resistor type, proceed to the appropriate section in any arbitrary
order, enter all required data for the resistor, and then proceed to the next resistor to be defined. When all
of the resistor information has been entered for the problem, place a dollar sign ($) in column one of the
input data file and proceed to Capacitor Data, 320.

Conductive Resistor Data


RES -TYPE NODE1 NODE2 MPID LENGTH AREA

This sections describes how to enter data that describe single conductive resistors. To define a conductive
resistor, follow the procedure outlined below.
Enter all data for the resistor from this section. This data defines the resistor as a conduction resistor,
defines the nodal connectivity of the resistor, defines the resistor as one-way or two-way (two-way is the
normal usage), identifies the material property to be used for thermal conductivity, and defines the
effective length/area data for the resistor.

Main Index
Chapter 8: Thermal/Hydraulic Input Deck 277
Network Construction

If no more thermal resistor data of any kind is to be entered, enter a dollar sign ($) in column 1 of the
input data file and proceed to Capacitor Data, 320. As a result for the PATQ translation (menu pick 2)
these declarations are placed in the CONDUCDAT file. If more thermal resistors are to be defined,
proceed to the appropriate section ((p. 276) to (p. 306)) and continue with resistor data input.

Example
C 4 7 23 1.4 23.7

This defines a conductive resistor between nodes 4 and 7 with a thermal conductivity MPID of 23, a
length of 1.4, and an area of 23.7.

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Parameter Description
RES-TYPE An alpha character that defines the resistor type. In this case, RES-TYPE is
entered as C to identify a conductive resistor.
NODE1 Node 1 of the conductive resistor.
NODE2 Node 2 of the conductive resistor.

Notice: You may specify these resistors as one-way resistors if you wish. This
means that they may be made to transmit heat in one direction but not in the
other. If you wish to do this, input the node that you do not wish heat to flow to
as a negative number. Heat will then be allowed to flow from the negative node
to the positive node, but not from the positive node to the negative node.
MPID The MPID number of the material property that is to be used to calculate the
thermal conductivity of the resistor. See MPID Number, Function Type,
Temperature Scale, Factor and Label, 263. To define a time-dependent thermal
conductivity, enter MPID as the negative of the MPID to be used.
LENGTH Length of the conductive resistor.

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AREA Cross-sectional area associated with flux through the conductive resistor.

For Cartesian conductive resistors, the thermal resistance for such a resistor is
given by the following expression:

Length
R = ----------------------------
( k * Area )

where R is the resistor value, Length is the distance between nodes, k is the
thermal conductivity, and Area is the cross-sectional area available for heat to
flow through between the nodes. This expression may be factored and rewritten
in the following form, which separates the geometric data and the thermal
conductivity as follows:

R = ⎛ ---⎞ * ⎛ -------------------⎞ = ⎛ ---⎞ * CSF


1 Length 1
⎝ k⎠ ⎝ Area ⎠ ⎝ k⎠

where CSF is a conduction shape factor.

For non-Cartesian resistors, you may enter the analogous values for Length
(LENGTH) and Area (AREA) that will result in the calculation of the
appropriate CSF for your non-Cartesian resistor. For example, the resistance of
a cylindrical wall is given by the expression:

R[2]
n ⎛ ------------⎞ * --------------------------------------
1
R: =
⎝ R [ 1 ]⎠ 2 * PI * L [ c ]

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where:

R[1] = inner radius of the cylindrical section you are modeling,

R[2] = outer radius of the cylindrical section you are modeling,

PI = usual quantity related to circles (3.1415 etc.),

L[c] = length of the cylindrical section you are modeling, and

k = material’s thermal conductivity.

Thus, a correct and equivalent method to enter this resistor’s value is to let

AREA = 1.000

and to let

R[2]
n ⎛ ------------⎞ * --------------------------------------
1
Length: =
⎝ R [ 1 ]⎠ 2 * PI * L [ c ]

This yields a correct CSF value, which is the only information that is of
mathematical significance.

Convective Resistor Data


The following sections are used to define convective resistors. As a result of the PATQ translation (menu
pick 2), these declarations are placed in the CONVECDAT file. The procedure that you will use to define
a convective resistor is explained below.
1. To enter all data for the convective resistor see Convective Resistor Header Data, 281. This data
identifies the resistor as a convective resistor, defines the resistor node numbers, and defines the
resistor configuration (which must be selected from the convective resistor catalogue in
Convection Configurations (Ch. 9)).
2. Enter the data for the resistor for Convective Resistor Geometric Properties, 281. This data defines
all Geometric Properties (GP) such as characteristic lengths, surface areas, and fluid free-stream
velocities. See Convection Library (Ch. 9) for more information about specific resistor
configurations and the required GP data for each configuration.
3. Enter all data for the resistor for Convective Resistor Material Properties, 282. This data is used
to identify which of the material properties that you defined in MPID Number, Function Type,
Temperature Scale, Factor and Label, 263 will be used to define this convective resistor. See
Convection Configurations (Ch. 9) for more information about specific resistor configurations and
the required MPID data for each configuration.
4. When all of the thermal resistors are defined, place a dollar sign ($) in column 1 of the input data
file and proceed to Capacitor Data, 320. To define another thermal resistor, proceed to the resistor
data section ((p. 276) to (p. 306)) that applies to the next resistor to be defined.

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Convective Resistor Header Data


RES -TYPE NODE1 NODE2 NODE3 CFIG

This section allows a given thermal resistor to be identified as a convective resistor, to define its node
numbers, and to specify the resistor configuration.

Example
H 1 3 0 14
This heads the resistor data for a convective resistor between nodes 1 and 3 (no third node), and specifies
convection configuration number 14.

Parameter Description
RES-TYPE An alpha character that defines the resistor type. In this case, RES-TYPE is entered
as H to identify a convective resistor.
NODE1 Node 1 of the convective resistor.
NODE2 Node 2 of the convective resistor.
NODE3 Node 3 of the convective resistor. Although most convective resistors have only two
node numbers, certain of the convective resistors require that you define three
nodes. If the convective resistor that is being defined requires only two nodes, enter
a zero for the NODE3 value.
CFIG Convective resistor configuration identification number, where configuration is
defined as the class of convection correlations that would be used for a given
problem. For example, flat plates would be one type of resistor configuration, and
flow across horizontal cylinders would be another configuration type. For specifics,
consult the convective resistor catalogue in Convection Library (Ch. 9) for available
configurations. Allowed CFIG values are 1 to 37 inclusive, in addition to numbers
greater than or equal to 1000. CFIG values of 1000+ are used to refer to user-
supplied convection configuration subroutine.

Convective Resistor Geometric Properties


RES -GP(1) GP(2) GP(n)

Example
24.723.20.014.829.9
15.618.9
/
This enters 7 GP values of 24.7, 23.2, 0.0, 14.8, 29.9, 15.6, and 18.9, in that order using free format input.

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Parameter Description
GP Convective resistor’s Geometric Properties such as length, diameter, surface area,
or gravitational constants. The exact meaning of each GP value varies for each
configuration. See Convective Resistor Header Data, 281. Consult Convection
Library (Ch. 9) for specific configurations and GP meanings. QTRAN will continue
reading GP values until it encounters a slash (/) in column 1 of the input data file.
The procedure for entering GP values is to enter all GP values followed by an input
data file line with a slash in column 1. It should be noted that any number GP values
may be placed on an 80 character line, or multiple lines may be used. The
maintaining of the order is the important consideration. Proceed on to Convective
Resistor Material Properties, 282.

Convective Resistor Material Properties


MPID(1) MPID(2) MPID(n)

Example
1 7 4 6 15 23

This declares MPID values of 1, 7, 4, 6, 15, and 23.

Parameter Description
MPID Material property identification numbers for the convective resistor. See MPID
Number, Function Type, Temperature Scale, Factor and Label, 263 for more
information. For specifics, consult the convective resistor catalogue in Chapter 6.
The material properties that correspond to each MPID entry are listed for each
configuration in the catalogue. When done entering MPID values, enter a slash (/)
in column 1 of the next line of the input data file.

Example Convective Resistor Definition


The following is an example of a complete convective resistor definition.

Example
H 23 45 0 14
1.23 9.8 15
/
45 72 88 99 1024
/
This QTRAN input data defines a configuration 14 convective resistor between nodes 23 and 45. The GP
values are 1.23, 9.8, and 15. The MPID numbers are 45, 72, 88, 99 and 1024.

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Gray Radiative Resistor Data


The following two sections allow gray or black-body thermal radiation resistors to be identified to
QTRAN. These resistors can be either variable or constant and are allowed to be functions of time or
temperature but not wavelength. QTRAN will use σ * T4 as the potential across these thermal resistors
in accordance with normal network conventions, and the value of T used will be an absolute temperature.
If calculations are being performed in degrees Fahrenheit (that is, if ICCALC was defined as F in
Temperature Scale and Time Units Definition, 230), Rankine will be used for T. If calculations are being
performed in Celsius (that is, if ICCALC was defined as C), Kelvin will be used for T. This convention
will be used even if the temperature nodes to which the resistor is connected is a view factor radiosity
node rather than a surface temperature node. As a result of the PATQ translation (menu pick 2) and
VIEW FACTOR execution (menu pick 3), these declarations are placed in the VFRESDAT file. The
procedure used to define a gray thermal radiation resistor is explained below.
1. Enter all data for the gray thermal radiation resistor for Gray Type Specification, Node
Assignments, and MPID, 283. This data identifies the resistor as a gray thermal radiation resistor,
defines the resistor nodal connectivity, defines the resistor subtype, and identifies the material
property MPID numbers for emissivity or transmissivity.
2. Enter the data for the resistor for Gray Radiative Resistor View factors, Areas, and Distances, 288.
This data defines the view factor and/or surface area associated with the resistor as well as the
view factor distance, if appropriate.
3. To terminate the definition of a thermal resistor of any type, place a dollar sign ($) in column one
of the input data file and proceed to Capacitor Data, 320. To define another thermal resistor,
proceed to the resistor data section ((p. 276) to (p. 306)) that applies to the next resistor to be
defined.

Gray Type Specification, Node Assignments, and MPID


RES -TYPE NODE1 NODE2 NODE3 SUB-TYPE MPID

This section describes how to identify a given thermal resistor as a black-body/gray-body radiative
resistor and to define the resistor node numbers. These resistors conduct heat according to the following
relation:
4 4
Q [ 1-->2 ] = σ * ( T [ 1 ] – T [ 2 ] )-
-----------------------------------------------------
R

where σ is the Stefan-Boltzmann constant, T[1] and T[2] are the temperatures of nodes 1 and 2 of the
resistor in degrees absolute (QTRAN will perform the conversion to degrees absolute no matter which
temperature scale is being used for calculations), and R is the value of the radiative resistor.

Example
R 1 3 4 2 15
This defines a gray radiative resistor between nodes 1 and 3 with the transmissivity evaluated at the
temperature of node 4, resistor subtype 2, and the transmissivity evaluated from MPID 15.

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Parameter Description
RES-TYPE A character that defines the resistor type. In this case, RES-TYPE is entered as R to
identify a gray thermal radiation resistor.
NODE1 Node 1 of the radiative resistor.
NODE2 Node 2 of the radiative resistor.
NODE3 Node 3 of the radiative resistor (if applicable). If input as zero, it will be set to
NODE1. If a resistor subtype does not require a NODE3 value, enter a 0 for NODE3.

The following table is a brief summary of resistor node assignments.

Table 8-1 Gray Thermal Radiation Resistor Node Assignments

Resistor Subtype Node 1 Node 2 Node 3


1 Non-Black Surface Radiosity N/A
2 Radiosity Radiosity PM
3 PM Radiosity PM
4 Any Any N/A
5 Any Any N/A
6 Any Any N/A
7 Radiosity Radiosity PM
8 PM Radiosity PM
9 Radiosity Radiosity PM
10 PM Radiosity PM
11 Radiosity Radiosity PM
12 PM Radiosity PM
13 Any Any N/A
14 Any Any N/A
15 Any Any N/A
N/A = Not applicable - no entry is necessary for Node 3.

PM = Participating Media - the node should be assigned participating media (e.g.,


participating gas) temperature node.

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SUB-TYPE This is the resistor subtype, where:


1–e
Subtype: 1 R = ---------------
-
e * A

This resistor type is used between a gray surface and a radiosity node, with an
emissivity that is taken from a material property (MPID).
1
Subtype: 2 R = ----------------------------------------------------------------
F [ i, j ] * A [ i ] * τ [ gas ]

This resistor type is used between radiosity nodes, and with a time or temperature
dependent participating media whose transmissivity is taken directly from a material
property (MPID).
1
Subtype: 3 R = ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
F [ i, gas ] * A [ i ] * ( 1 – τ [ gas ] )

This resistor type is used between a radiosity node and a participating media node.
The view factor is between the surface i and the gas (or other participating media
node). The transmissivity of the gas (or participating media) is taken from a material
property.

Subtype: 4 1
R = ------------------------------------
F [ i, j ] * A [ i ]

This resistor type may be used anywhere that material properties are constant. It
would normally be used as a view factor resistor between radiosity nodes, but the F
and A values are entered as simple constants and hence could be anything
appropriate for a radiative resistor of this formulation. Since there is no data for
transmissivity, the transmissivity of the resistor is implicitly assumed to be 1.0.
1
Subtype: 5 R = ---
F
This resistor type may be used anywhere that material properties are constant. It
would normally be used as a view factor resistor between two radiosity nodes, but
the F value is a simple constant and hence could be anything appropriate for a
radiative resistor of this formulation.

Note: This resistor type is used when a minimum of calculations are desired, thus
for this type only the reciprocal of the resistance is input.
1–e
Subtype: 6 R = ----------------
e * A

This resistor type may be used as a surface resistor, with the value given for e being
the emissivity. This resistor subtype may be used anywhere the emissivity is
constant. Because the emissivity is assumed to be constant, it is faster to evaluate
than Subtype 1.
1
Subtype: 7 R = ----------------------------------------------------------------
F [ i, j ] * A [ i ] * τ [ gas ]

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This resistor type is used between radiosity nodes. τ is calculated from an extinction
coefficient identified by the resistor’s MPID and from a view factor distance.
Specifically, τ[gas] = EXP(-S * P), where S is the view factor distance and P is the
extinction coefficient calculated from the material property (MPID) of the resistor.
1
Subtype: 8 R = ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
F [ i, gas ] * A [ i ] * ( 1 – τ [ gas ] )

This resistor type is used between a radiosity node and a participating media node.
τ is calculated from an extinction coefficient identified by the resistor’s MPID and
from a view factor distance. The transmissivity value τ is calculated in the same
manner as for Subtype 7.

Subtype: 9 1
R = -----------------------------------------------
AF [ i, j ] * τ [ gas ]

This resistor type is used between radiosity nodes, and with a temperature dependent
participating media whose transmissivity is taken directly from a material property
(MPID). This is the same as Subtype 2, except that F[i,j] and A[i] have been
combined as AF[i,j] for computational efficiency.
1
Subtype: 10 R = ----------------------------------------------------------------------
AF [ i, gas ] * ( 1 – τ [ gas ] )

This resistor type is used between a radiosity node and a participating media node.
The view factor is between the surface i and the gas (or other participating media
node). The transmissivity of the gas (or participating media) is taken from a material
property. This is the same as Subtype 3, except that F[i,j] and A[i] have been
combined as AF[i,j] for computational efficiency.
1
Subtype: 11 R = ----------------------------------------------
AF [ i, j ] * t [ gas ]

This resistor type is used between radiosity nodes. τ is calculated from an extinction
coefficient identified by the resistor's MPID and from a view factor distance.
Specifically, τ[gas] = EXP(-S * P), where S is the view factor distance and P is the
extinction coefficient calculated from the material property (MPID) of the resistor.
This is the same as Subtype 7, except that F[i,j] and A[i] have been combined as
AF[i,j] for computational efficiency.

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1
Subtype: 12 R = ----------------------------------------------------------------------
AF [ i, gas ] * ( 1 – τ [ gas ] )

This resistor type is used between a radiosity node and a participating media node.
τ is calculated from an extinction coefficient identified by the resistor’s MPID and
from a view factor distance. The transmissivity value τ is calculated in the same
manner as for Subtype 7. This is the same as Subtype 8, except that F[i,j] and A[i]
have been combined as AF[i,j] for computational efficiency.

In the equations above:

R = is the value of the gray thermal radiation resistor,

e = is the gray emissivity of a radiating surface,

A = is the surface area of the radiating surface,

F = s the surface’s view factor,

AF = is the product of the surface's area and the view (subtypes 9-12) factor, and

τ[gas] = is the transmissivity of the participating media.


1
Subtype: 13 R = ------------------------------------
F [ i, j ] * A [ i ]

This resistor type may be used between any nodes. The F[i,j] term is defined by a
material property (MPID) whose independent variable is either time or the
temperature of the i-th node in calculation units. This is normally used to define
dynamic viewfactor and thus would couple radiation between radiosity nodes.
However, if both surfaces have constant emissivities then the F term can be thought
of as a script F which includes any non black characteristics. The area term is a
constant for this evaluation. Since there is no data for transmissivity, the
transmissivity of the resistor is implicitly assumed to be 1.0. If diagnostic output is
requested the F[i,j] term is output as an emissivity value.

Subtype: 14 1
R = ---------------------
-
AF [ i, j ]

This resistor type may be between used any nodes. The AF[i,j] term is defined by a
material property (MPID) whose independent variable is either time or the
temperature of the i-th node in calculation units. This is normally used to define
dynamic viewfactor and thus would couple radiation between radiosity nodes.
However, if both surfaces have constant emissivities then the AF term becomes a
script F which includes any non black characteristics. The area term is a constant for
this evaluation. Since there is no data for transmissivity, the transmissivity of the
resistor is implicitly assumed to be 1.0. If diagnostic output is requested the F[i,j]
term is output as an emissivity value. Although the area term is not used, it can be
specified for reference purposes and is assumed to be the area of the i-th node.

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MPID Emissivity or Transmissivity MPID number. MPID should be zero for resistor
Subtype 4, Subtype 5, or Subtype 6.
A
Subtype: 15 R = --------------------------------------------------------------------
⎛ ⎛ -----
1⎞ ⎛ 1⎞
- + ------ + --------- 1
- – 2.0⎞
⎝ ⎝ e1⎠ ⎝ e2⎠ F12 ⎠

The variable gap resistor is between two surfaces where both emissivities are
defined by a material property even if one is a constant. Since the form factor will
be one for this equation to be valid as used, it is not necessary to input a form factor,
one will be assumed.

Gray Radiative Resistor View factors, Areas, and Distances


VIEW FACTOR AREA VFDIST

codeindent10
0.73118 43.2 15.7
This defines a VIEW FACTOR value of 0.73118, AREA = 43.2, and VFDIST = 15.7.

Parameter Description
VIEW Radiative resistor’s view factor (Subtype 2, Subtype 3, Subtype 7, and Subtype 8) is
FACTOR one of two constants multiplied together to compute the resistor’s value (Subtype 4),
the product of the resistor area and the view factor (Subtype 9 through Subtype 12),
the reciprocal of resistor’s value (Subtype 5), or is the resistor’s emissivity
(Subtype 6 only). VIEW FACTOR may not be left blank for any of the subtypes. A
numeric value must be entered (i.e., enter a 0 if VIEW FACTOR is not applicable
to the resistor subtype, e.g., Subtype 1).
AREA Surface area associated with the radiative resistor (Subtype 1 through Subtype 3 and
Subtype 6 through Subtype 8), or else is simply one of two constants multiplied
together to compute the resistor’s value (Subtype 4), it could also be ignored (or left
blank) for Subtype 5 and Subtype 9 through Subtype 12.
VFDIST View factor distance used with an extinction coefficient to calculate transmissivity
for resistor Subtype 7, Subtype 8, Subtype 11, and Subtype 12. VFDIST is ignored
for the other resistor subtypes and may be left blank.

Examples of Gray Radiative Resistors


The following are examples of various gray radiative resistors for QTRAN.

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Subtype: 1 R11201102345

0.021.73
Defines a gray resistor between surface node 11 and radiosity node 2. MPID 102345 will be used to
calculate the temperature-dependent emissivity. The view factor field is given as 0.0 and will be
ignored by QTRAN (but must be there as a spacer), and the surface area is given as 21.73.
Subtype: 2 R212399245

0.012415.78
Defines a gray radiative resistor between radiosity nodes 21 and 23. The temperature of node 99 and
MPID 45 will be used to compute the participating media transmissivity. The view factor is given as
0.0124 and the surface area for the resistor is given as 15.78.
Subtype: 3 R141514388

0.01240.187
Defines a gray radiative resistor between participating media node 14 and radiosity node 15. The
transmissivity will be calculated from material property 88 using the temperature of node 14 (given as
both NODE1 and NODE3 here). The view factor is given as 0.0124 and the surface area is given as
0.187.
Subtype: 4 R7778040

0.8923.78
Defines a gray radiative resistor between nodes 77 and 78. Nodes 77 and 78 may be any type of
radiation network node (surface, radiosity, or participating media). The view factor value (or first
constant) is given as 0.89 and the surface area (or second constant) is given as 23.78.
Subtype: 5 R888991050

89.76
Defines a gray radiative resistor between nodes 88 and 8991. The input value is 89.76, which is the
reciprocal of the resistance.
Subtype: 6 R1019060

7.890E-01 23.889
Defines a gray radiative resistor between nodes 101 and 9. The constant emissivity has been given as
7.890E-01 and the surface area has been given as 23.889.
Subtype: 7 R667767789089

0.0012385.7761.045E+02
Defines a gray radiative resistor between radiosity nodes 66 and 77. The temperature of node 67 will
be used with MPID 89089 to calculate an extinction coefficient. The view factor has been given as
0.00123, the surface area as 85.776, and the view factor distance as 1.045E+02.

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Subtype: 8 R655656082525

0.128.9E+0284.88E+03
Defines a gray radiative resistor between participating media node 655 and radiosity node 656. The
temperature of node 655 will be used to calculate the extinction coefficient since NODE3 was entered
as 0. The MPID of the extinction coefficient is 2525. The view factor is given as 0.12, the surface area
as 8.9E+02, and the view factor distance as 84.88E+03.
Subtype: 9 R212399945

0.0124
Defines a gray radiative resistor between radiosity nodes 21 and 23. The temperature of node 99 and
MPID 45 will be used to compute the participating media transmissivity. The product of the surface
area and the view factor is given as 0.0124.
Subtype: 10 R1415l141088

0.0124
Defines a gray radiative resistor between participating media node 14 and radiosity node 15. The
transmissivity will be calculated from material property 88 using the temperature of node 14 (given as
both NODE1 and NODE3 here). The product of the surface area and the view factor is given as 0.0124.
Subtype: 11 R6677671189089

0.001230.01.045E+02
Defines a gray radiative resistor between radiosity nodes 66 and 77. The temperature of node 67 will
be used with MPID 89089 to calculate an extinction coefficient. The product of the surface area and
the view factor has been given as 0.00123, the AREA parameter (not used for this resistor subtype, but
still necessary as a placeholder) has been given as 0.0, and the view factor distance as 1.045E+02.
Subtype: 12 R6556560122525

0.12084.88E+03
Defines a gray radiative resistor between participating media node 655 and radiosity node 656. The
temperature of node 655 will be used to calculate the extinction coefficient since NODE3 was entered
as 0. The MPID of the extinction coefficient is 2525. The product of the surface area and the view factor
is given as 0.12, the AREA parameter (not used for this resistor subtype, but necessary as a placeholder)
is given as 0.0, and the view factor distance as 84.88E+03.
Subtype: 13 R26627701335721

0.0044.4
Defines a gray radiative resistor between nodes 266 and 277. Although time will usually be the
independent variable for material properties with this option, if temperature is the independent variable,
node 266 will be used to calculate view factor or script F. The view factor has been given as 0.0 value
as a place holder. The surface area is 44.4. If the independent variable is temperature for MPID 35721
it must be specified in calculation units.

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Subtype: 14 R36637701455721

0.0055.5
Defines a gray radiative resistor between nodes 366 and 377. Although time will usually be the
independent variable for material properties with this option, if temperature is the independent variable,
node 366 will be used to calculate view factor or script F. The view factor has been given as 0.0 value
as a place holder. The surface area of 55.5 is not used in determining the resistor value but can be
specified for reference purposes. If the independent variable is temperature for MPID 55721 it must be
specified in calculation units.
Subtype: 15 R 444 222 0 15 123417

100316 0.2468 100416


This defines a gray radiative resistor between noes 444 and 222 with form factor MPID defined as
123417. Most cases this will be 0 and the default form factor of 1.0 will be used. The emissivity on
surface 1 is defined by material property ( MPID 100316), the surface area is 0.2468 units squared and
the MPID for the second surface material property is 100416. This option is only available for gray
body radiation.

Wavelength-Dependent Radiative Resistors


Type, Nodes, Subtype, MPID, Distance, 292, View factor, Area, and Wave band Definitions, 296 and
Example Wavelength-Dependent Radiative Resistors, 297 describe how to input data for QTRAN’s
wavelength-dependent thermal radiation resistors. These resistors account for wavelength, temperature
and time dependent surface emissivities, and for wavelength, temperature, or time dependent
transmissivities of participating media (e.g., optically thin gases). Thermal networks of this type can be
constructed from any of the resistor subtypes described in Type, Nodes, Subtype, MPID, Distance, 292.
As a result of the PATQ translation (menu pick 2) and VIEW FACTOR execution (menu pick 3), these
declarations are placed in the VFRESDAT file.
To define a wavelength-dependent radiative resistor, use the following procedure.
1. Enter all data for the wave band resistor for Type, Nodes, Subtype, MPID, Distance, 292. This data
identifies the resistor as a wavelength, temperature and/or time dependent thermal radiation
resistor, defines the resistor’s nodal connectivity, the resistor subtype, the material property (to be
used for emissivity (e), transmissivity (τ), or the extinction coefficient), and also defines the view
factor distance to be used with the extinction coefficient (for resistor Subtypes 7, 8, 11 and 12
only).
2. Enter all data for the resistor for View factor, Area, and Wave band Definitions, 296. This data
defines the resistor’s view factor, constant emissivity, constant transmissivity (if applicable),
surface area, and wave band.
3. When all the thermal resistors are defined, place a dollar sign ($) in column 1 of the input data file
and proceed to Capacitor Data, 320. To define another resistor, proceed to the resistor data section
(Thermal Resistor Assignments, 276 ) that applies to the next resistor to be defined.

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The potential used for calculating the heat flow across wavelength-dependent resistors is not the usual σ
* T4 used for gray radiative resistors. Instead, the potential that is used is FRAC * σ * T4, where FRAC
is a number between 0.0 and 1.0 and is a fractional multiplier that represents the amount of energy in the
wave band η-1 to η-2 for which the resistor is valid. The net rate of heat from node 1 to node 2 is thus
seen to be given by the following expression:
4 4
σ * ( FRAC [ 1 ] * T [ 1 ] – FRAC [ 2 ] * T [ 2 ] )
Q [ 1-->2 ] = ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-
R

FRAC[1] is the fraction of the black-body radiation potential to be found between η-1 and η-2 at
temperature T[1], and FRAC[2] is the fraction for T[2]. Strictly speaking, there is no way to incorporate
the value of FRAC[1] and FRAC[2] into the R value. This has been a fairly common mistake for many
users of other existing thermal programs in the past.

Type, Nodes, Subtype, MPID, Distance


RES -TYPE NODE1 NODE2 NODE3 SUBTYPE MFID VFDIST

Example
W 10 20 30 2 15 23.7
This declares that a wavelength-dependent resistor is connected to nodes 10 and 20, that the
transmissivity will be evaluated according to the temperature of node 30, the resistor subtype is 2, the
MPID number for the resistor is 15, and the distance between surfaces is 23.7.

Parameter Description
RES-TYPE A character that defines the resistor type. In this case, RES-TYPE is entered as W to
identify a wavelength and temperature or time dependent thermal radiation resistor.
NODE1 Node 1 of the wavelength and temperature or time-dependent thermal radiation
resistor. For resistor Subtype 1, NODE1 should be a surface node. For Subtype 2,
NODE1 should be a radiosity node. For Subtype 3, NODE1 should be a
participating media node (e.g., a gas temperature node). The temperature of NODE1
is used to evaluate the temperature-dependent wave band emissivity (E) for Subtype
1.
NODE2 Node 2 of the wavelength and temperature or time-dependent thermal radiation
resistor. NODE2 must be a radiosity node, participating media node, or black-body
node for all of the resistor subtypes.
NODE3 Node 3 of the wavelength and temperature or time-dependent thermal radiation
resistor. NODE3 is used only as a reference temperature for computing the
participating media temperature-dependent wave band transmissivity (t). If input as
zero, it will be set to NODE1. If a resistor subtype does not require a NODE3 value,
enter a 0 for NODE3.

The following table is a brief summary of resistor node assignments.

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Table 8-2 Wavelength Dependent Radiation Resistor Node Assignments

Resistor Subtype Node 1 Node 2 Node 3


1 Non-Black Surface Radiosity N/A
2 Radiosity Radiosity PM
3 PM Radiosity PM
4 Any Any N/A
5 Any Any N/A
6 Any Any N/A
7 Radiosity Radiosity PM
8 PM Radiosity PM
9 Radiosity Radiosity PM
10 PM Radiosity PM
11 Radiosity Radiosity PM
12 PM Radiosity PM
13 Any Any N/A
14 Any Any N/A
N/A = Not applicable - no entry is necessary for Node.

PM = Participating Media - the node should be assigned participating media (e.g.,


participating gas) temperature node.

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SUB-TYPE This is the resistor subtype, where:


1–e
Subtype: 1 R = ----------------
e * A

This resistor type is used between a gray surface and a radiosity node, with an
emissivity that is taken from a material property (MPID).
1
Subtype: 2 R = ----------------------------------------------------------------
F [ i, j ] * A [ i ] * τ [ gas ]

This resistor type is used between radiosity nodes, and with a time or temperature
dependent participating media whose transmissivity is taken directly from a material
property (MPID).
1
Subtype: 3 R = ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
F [ i, gas ] * A [ i ] * ( 1 – τ [ gas ] )

This resistor type is used between a radiosity node and a participating media node.
The view factor is between the surface i and the gas (or other participating media
node). The transmissivity of the gas (or participating media) is taken from a material
property.

Subtype: 4 1
R = ------------------------------------
F [ i, j ] * A [ i ]

This resistor type may be used anywhere that material properties are constant. It
would normally be used as a view factor resistor between radiosity nodes, but the F
and A values are entered as simple constants and hence could be anything
appropriate for a radiative resistor of this formulation. Since there is no data for
transmissivity, the transmissivity of the resistor is implicitly assumed to be 1.0.
1
Subtype: 5 R = ---
F
This resistor type may be used anywhere that material properties are constant. It
would normally be used as a view factor resistor between two radiosity nodes, but
the F value is a simple constant and hence could be anything appropriate for a
radiative resistor of this formulation.

Important: This resistor type is used when a minimum of calculations are desired,
thus for this type only the reciprocal of the resistance is input.
1–e
Subtype: 6 R = ----------------
e * A

This resistor type may be used as a surface resistor, with the value given for e being
the emissivity. This resistor subtype may be used anywhere the emissivity is
constant. Because the emissivity is assumed to be constant, it is faster to evaluate
than Subtype 1.
1
Subtype: 7 R = ----------------------------------------------------------------
F [ i, j ] * A [ i ] * τ [ gas ]

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This resistor type is used between radiosity nodes. τ is calculated from an extinction
coefficient identified by the resistors MPID and from a view factor distance.
Specifically, τ[gas] = EXP(-S * P), where S is the view factor distance and P is the
extinction coefficient calculated from the material property (MPID) of the resistor.
1
Subtype: 8 R = ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
F [ i, gas ] * A [ i ] * ( 1 – τ [ gas ] )

This resistor type is used between a radiosity node and a participating media node.
τ is calculated from an extinction coefficient identified by the resistor’s MPID and
from a view factor distance. The transmissivity value τ is calculated in the same
manner as for Subtype 7 above.

Subtype: 9 1
R = -----------------------------------------------
AF [ i, j ] * τ [ gas ]

This resistor type is used between radiosity nodes, and with a temperature dependent
participating media whose transmissivity is taken directly from a material property
(MPID). This is the same as Subtype 2, except that F[i,j] and A[i] have been
combined as AF[i,j] for computational efficiency.
1
Subtype: 10 R = ---------------------------------------------------------------------
AF [ i, gas ] * ( 1 – t [ gas ] )

This resistor type is used between a radiosity node and a participating media node.
The view factor is between the surface i and the gas (or other participating media
node). The transmissivity of the gas (or participating media) is taken from a material
property. This is the same as Subtype 3, except that F[i,j] and A[i] have been
combined as AF[i,j] for computational efficiency.
1
Subtype: 11 R = ----------------------------------------------
AF [ i, j ] * t [ gas ]

This resistor type is used between radiosity nodes. τ is calculated from an extinction
coefficient identified by the resistor’s MPID and from a view factor distance.
Specifically, τ[gas] = EXP(-S * P), where S is the view factor distance and P is the
extinction coefficient calculated from the material property (MPID) of the resistor.
This is the same as Subtype 7, except that F[i,j] and A[i] have been combined as
AF[i,j] for computational efficiency.

Subtype: 12 1
R = --------------------------------------------------------------------
-
AF [ i, gas ] * ( 1 – t [ gas ] )

This resistor type is used between a radiosity node and a participating media node.
τ is calculated from an extinction coefficient identified by the resistor’s MPID and
from a view factor distance. The transmissivity value τ is calculated in the same
manner as for Subtype 7. This is the same as Subtype 8, except that F[i,j] and A[i]
have been combined as AF[i,j] for computational efficiency.
1
Subtype: 13 R = ------------------------------------
F [ i, j ] * A [ i ]

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This resistor type may be used between any nodes. The F[i,j] term is defined by a
material property (MPID) whose independent variable is either time or the
temperature of the i-th node in calculation units. This is normally used to define
dynamic viewfactor and thus would couple radiation between radiosity nodes.
However, if both surfaces have constant emissivities then the F term can be thought
of as a script F which includes any non black characteristics. The area term is a
constant for this evaluation. Since there is no data for transmissivity, the
transmissivity of the resistor is implicitly assumed to be 1.0. If diagnostic output is
requested the F[i,j] term is output as an emissivity value.
1
Subtype: 14 R = ----------------------
AF [ i, j ]

This resistor type may be used between any nodes. The AF[i,j] term is defined by a
material property (MPID) whose independent variable is either time or the
temperature of the i-th node in calculation units. This is normally used to define
dynamic viewfactor and thus would couple radiation between radiosity nodes.
However, if both surfaces have constant emissivities then the AF term becomes a
script F which includes any non black characteristics. The area term is a constant for
this evaluation. Since there is no data for transmissivity, the transmissivity of the
resistor is implicitly assumed to be 1.0. If diagnostic output is requested the F[i,j]
term is output as an emissivity value. Although the area term is not used, it can be
specified for reference purposes and is assumed to be the area of the i-th node.
MPID This is the material property identification (MPID Number, Function Type,
Temperature Scale, Factor and Label, 263 number that is used here to identify the
emissivity or transmissivity of the wavelength and temperature or time-dependent
radiative resistor.
VFDIST This is the View factor Distance, used for resistor Subtypes 7, 8, 11 and 12, along
with the material property identified with MPID to compute a transmissivity for the
resistor. For Subtypes 7, 8, 11, and 12, MPID is assumed to identify a material
property that will be used as an extinction coefficient. The transmissivity Tau is then
computed as τ = EXP( -VFDIST * k ), where k is the extinction coefficient
calculated from an MPID.

View factor, Area, and Wave band Definitions


VIEW FACTOR AREA η1 η-2

Example
0.0 14.7 1.1 3.3
This enters a VIEW FACTOR value of 0.0, an AREA value of 14.7, a η-1 value of 1.1 microns, and a η-
2 value of 3.3 microns.

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Parameter Description
VIEW Wavelength and temperature-dependent resistor’s view factor for Subtypes 2, 3, 7,
FACTOR 8, 11, and 12, constant emissivity (Subtype 6), constant transmissivity (Subtype 4),
reciprocal of the resistor’s value (Subtype 5), or the product of the resistor area and
the view factor (Subtypes 9-12). VIEW FACTOR is ignored for resistor Subtype 1.
If defining resistor Subtype 1, enter a zero for VIEW FACTOR.
AREA Surface area associated with the wavelength and temperature or time dependent
thermal radiation resistor. Area should be entered as 0.0 for Subtypes 9-12.
η-1 Shortest wavelength of the wave band interval for which the wavelength and
temperature or time-dependent resistor is to be used. h-1 should be entered in units
of micrometers only.
η-2 Longest wavelength of the wave band interval for which the wavelength and
temperature or time dependent resistor is to be used. h-2 should be entered in units
of micrometers only.

Example Wavelength-Dependent Radiative Resistors


The following are examples of various wavelength-dependent radiative resistors for QTRAN.

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Subtype: 1 W 11 2 0 1 102345

0.0 21.73
Defines a resistor between surface node 11 and radiosity node 2. MPID 102345 will be used to calculate
the temperature dependent emissivity. The view factor field is given as 0.0 and will be ignored by
QTRAN (but must be there as a spacer), and the surface area is given as 21.73. The wave band is
defined to lie between 0.0 and 5.0 microns.
Subtype: 2 W 21 23 99 2 45

0.0124 15.78 5.0 9.8


Defines a radiative resistor between radiosity nodes 21 and 23. The temperature of node 99 and MPID
45 will be used to compute the participating media transmissivity. The view factor is given as 0.0124
and the surface area for the resistor is given as 15.78. The wave band is given as 5.0 to 9.8 microns.
Subtype: 3 W 14 15 14 3 88

0.01240.1870.130.89
Defines radiative resistor between participating media node 14 and radiosity node 15. The
transmissivity will be calculated from material property 88 using the temperature of node 14 (given as
both NODE1 and NODE3 here). The view factor is given as 0.0124 and the surface area is given as
0.187. The wave band is defined to be between 0.13 and 0.89 microns.
Subtype: 4 W 77 78 0 4 0

0.8923.789.81.0E+10
Defines a gray radiative resistor between nodes 77 and 78. Nodes 77 and 78 may be any type of
radiation network node (surface, radiosity, or participating media). The view factor value (or first
constant) is given as 0.89 and the surface area (or second constant) is given as 23.78. The wave band
is defined to be between 9.8 and 1.0E+10 microns.
Subtype: 5 W888991050
89.760.01.28.9
Defines a radiative resistor between nodes 88 and 8991. The input value is 89.76, which is the
reciprocal of the resistance. The AREA value of 0.0 is entered as a required spacer between the VIEW
FACTOR value and the LAMBDA-1 value. The wave band is defined to be between 1.2 and 8.9
microns.
Subtype: 6 W1019060

7.890E-0123.8891.0E-011.2E+01
Defines a radiative resistor between nodes 101 and 9. The constant emissivity has been given as
7.890E-01 and the surface area has been given as 23.889. The wave band has been defined to be
between 1.0E-01 and 1.2E+01 microns.

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Subtype: 7 W6677677890891.045E+02

0.0012385.7760.05.7
Defines a radiative resistor between radiosity nodes 66 and 77. The temperature of node 67 will be used
with MPID 89089 to calculate an extinction coefficient. The view factor has been given as 0.00123,
the surface area as 85.776, and the view factor distance as 1.045E+02. The wave band has been defined
to be between 0.0 and 5.7 microns.
Subtype: 8 W65565608252584.88E+03

0.128.9E+021.28.9
Defines a radiative resistor between participating media node 655 and radiosity node 656. The
temperature of node 655 will be used to calculate the extinction coefficient since NODE3 was entered
as 0. The MPID of the extinction coefficient is 2525. The view factor is given as 0.12, the surface area
as 8.9E+02, and the view factor distance as 84.88E+03. The wave band has been defined to be between
1.2 and 8.9 microns.
Subtype: 9 W212399945

0.01240.05.09.8
Defines a radiative resistor between radiosity nodes 21 and 23. The temperature of node 99 and MPID
45 will be used to compute the participating media transmissivity. The area view factor product is given
as 0.0124 and the AREA parameter (not used by this resistor subtype) as 0.0. The wave band is given
as 5.0 to 9.8 microns.
Subtype: 10 W1415141088

0.01240.00.130.89
Defines a radiative resistor between participating media node 14 and radiosity node 15. The
transmissivity will be calculated from material property 88 using the temperature of node 14 (given as
both NODE1 and NODE3 here). The area view factor product is given as 0.0124 and the AREA
parameter (not used by this resistor subtype) as 0.0. The wave band is defined to be between 0.13 and
0.89 microns.
Subtype: 11 W66776711890891.045E+02

0.001230.00.05.7
Defines a radiative resistor between radiosity nodes 66 and 77. The temperature of node 67 will be used
with MPID 89089 to calculate an extinction coefficient. The view factor has been given as 0.00123;
the AREA parameter (not used by this resistor subtype) as 0.0; and the view factor distance as
1.045E+02. The wave band has been defined to be between 0.0 and 5.7 microns.
Subtype: 12 W655656012252584.88E+03

0.12084.88E+03

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Defines a radiative resistor between participating media node 655 and radiosity node 656. The
temperature of node 655 will be used to calculate the extinction coefficient since NODE3 was entered
as 0. The MPID of the extinction coefficient is 2525. The area view factor product is given as 0.12; the
AREA parameter (not used by this resistor subtype) as 0.0; and the view factor distance as 84.88E+03.
The wave band has been defined to be between 1.2 and 8.9 microns.
Subtype: 13 W21123101310

0.087.651.219.8
Defines a radiative resistor between nodes 211 and 231. MPID 10 will be used to specify the view
factor. The view factor is given as 0.0 only as a place holder and the surface area for the resistor is given
as 87.65. The wave band is given as 1.2 to 91.8 microns. The temperature of node 211 will be used if
the viewfactor is temperature dependent and the material property must be specified in calculation
units. Time is the most probable independent variable for this subtype.
Subtype: 14 W111131014100

0.033.330.21.1
Defines a radiative resistor between nodes 111 and 131. MPID 100 will be used to specify the view
factor area product. The view factor is given as 0.0 only as a place holder and the surface area of 33.33
is for reference only. Some value must be specified as a place holder but it is not used to define the
resistor. The wave band is given as 0.2 to 1.1 microns. The temperature of node 111 will be used if the
viewfactor is temperature dependent and the material property must be specified in calculation units.
Time is the most probable independent variable for this subtype.

Automatic 1-D Mesh Generation


Resistor Type, Nodes, MPIDs, Subtype, and PHIDs, 301 and Mesh Geometric Parameters, 303 allow you
to enter data for the 1-D conduction automatic mesh generators in QTRAN. The following procedure can
be used to automatically generate a 1-D conduction mesh without using Patran.
1. Enter the information for Resistor Type, Nodes, MPIDs, Subtype, and PHIDs, 301. This section
identifies the data set as a 1-D mesh generation data set, identifies the starting and ending node
numbers of the mesh section and the node number increment to be used between successive
nodes. This section also identifies the material properties to be used for the resistors and
capacitors of the mesh section and the mesh geometry subtype (Cartesian, polar, etc.), and the
phase change set (PHID set) to be used with the mesh section (if any).
2. Enter the information for Mesh Geometric Parameters, 303. This section specifies the geometric
parameters of the mesh.
3. When all the thermal resistors are defined, enter a dollar sign ($) in column 1 of the input data file
and proceed to Capacitor Data, 320. To define more resistors, proceed to the appropriate section
(p. 276) to (p. 306) and continue entering thermal resistor data.

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Note: This data must be input manually. It cannot be generated by Patran and PATQ. It is
preferable that these declarations are placed in the QINDAT file. But they may be placed
in any file that is referenced by an $INSERT FILE_NAME command in the QINDAT file
inside of the resistor definition block only.

Resistor Type, Nodes, MPIDs, Subtype, and PHIDs


RES -TYPE NODE_1 NODE_N NODE_INC K_MPID

RHO_MPID CP_MPID SUBTYPE PHID

Example
L 7 20 1 2 3 4 3 0
This begins a 1-D mesh generation data set between nodes 7 and 20 by increments of 1 with MPID
numbers of 2, 3, and 4 for conductivity, density, and specific heat (respectively), mesh Subtype 3 (polar),
and PHID of 0 (this means no phase change MPID will be assigned).

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Parameter Description
RES-TYPE Character that defines the resistor type. In this case, RES-TYPE is entered as L to
identify a 1-D automatic mesh generation data set.
NODE_1 First node, or starting node, for the 1-D automatically generated mesh section.
NODE_N Last node, or ending node, for the 1-D automatically generated mesh section.
NODE_INC Node number increment for the mesh and may be either positive or negative. For
example, if NODE_1 = 1 and NODE_N = 7 and NODE_INC = 2, the node numbers
of the mesh will be 1, 3, 5, and 7. If NODE_1 = 10 and NODE_N = 6 and
NODE_INC = -2, the node numbers will be 10, 8, and 6.
K_MPID Material property identification number for the thermal conductivity of the mesh
section. See MPID Number, Function Type, Temperature Scale, Factor and Label,
263.
RHO_MPID Material property identification number for the density of the mesh section. See
MPID Number, Function Type, Temperature Scale, Factor and Label, 263.
CP_MPID Material property identification number for the specific heat of the mesh section.
See MPID Number, Function Type, Temperature Scale, Factor and Label, 263.
SUBTYPE Mesh subtype, where:

1. Equally-spaced Cartesian meshes, constant lengths, areas, and volumes (P1


is not used) should be entered as zero or left blank. See Mesh Geometric
Parameters, 303. The first and last capacitor volumes are 1/2 of the interior
capacitor volumes.
2. Geometric mesh, where each resistor length is scaled geometrically.
Constant areas and geometrically scaled volumes are used.
The length formula used for this mesh type is
L[n] = LENGTH * B(P1(n - 1))

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where:

LENGTH is the spacing between the first and second node, P1 is a point packing
factor, n is the number of the resistor in the one-dimensional system, and L[n] is the
length of the n'th resistor.

The length of the first resistor (LENGTH) is related to the total slab length and the
number of nodes to be used as follows:

LSLAB * ( P1 – 1.0 )
RCLI = ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-
( NODES – 1.0 )
( P1 – 1.0 )

LENGTH = RCLI

Important: The number of resistors is one less than the number of nodes, LSLAB
is the total thickness of the slab being analyzed, and RCLI is a unit
thickness which is the distance between the first two nodes, or the
thickness of the first resistor which is input to QTRAN as the variable
LENGTH.
3. Polar mesh.
4. Spherical mesh.
5. LaGrange Cubic Finite Element Cartesian mesh.
Important: The resistors generated by this technique are purely mathematical in
nature and do not have a physical significance. For example, a number
of the resistors generated will have negative area/length ratios that do
not make any physical sense. However, they are quite correct and do
yield highly accurate results (i.e., they should approach 6th order
accuracy). Do not be alarmed by the generation of negative resistors
whenever finite element data is transformed into resistor data. The
capacitor volumes, on the other hand, should always be positive.
PHID Phase change MPID to be associated with the capacitors contained in the
automatically generated mesh section. See Material Properties, 263.

Mesh Geometric Parameters


LENGTH AREA P1

Example
1.02.03.0
This enters a value of 1.0 for LENGTH, 2.0 for AREA, 3.0 for P1.

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Parameter Description
LENGTH Distance between nodes in the mesh section. For SUBTYPE = 2, this is the distance
between the first two nodes of this mesh section where all other distances for
SUBTYPE = 2 meshes are set as follows:

For SUBTYPE = 2 ONLY:

L[n] = LENGTH * P1(n - 1),

where:

L[n] is the length of the n'th resistor.


The length of the first resistor (LENGTH) is related to the total slab length and the
number of nodes to be used as follows:

LSLAB * ( P1 – 1.0 )
RCLI = ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-
( NODES – 1.0 )
( P1 – 1.0 )

LENGTH = RCLI

Important: The number of resistors is one less than the number of nodes, LSLAB
is the total thickness of the slab being analyzed, and RCLI is a unit
thickness which is the distance between the first two nodes, or the
thickness of the first resistor which is input to QTRAN as the variable
LENGTH.
AREA Cross-sectional area of the mesh section for SUBTYPE = 1, 2, or 5. AREA is
ignored for SUBTYPE = 3 or 4. Note that Subtypes 3 and 4 assume a full cylinder
or full sphere, respectively.
P1 Mesh parameter 1 (ignored for SUBTYPE = 1 or 5).

For SUBTYPE = 2, P1 is used to gradually increase the mesh spacing so that the
distances between nodes and the length L(n) for the n'th resistor is:

(n - 1)
L(n) = LENGTH * [ P1 ]

For SUBTYPE = 3 or 4, P1 is the radial distance between the first node of the mesh
section and the origin of the cylindrical or spherical coordinate system.

When defining mesh type (SUBTYPE) 5, note that the starting and ending nodes and
node number increment must be compatible with 4-node finite elements. For
example, if there are N elements in the mesh section there will be N * 3+1 nodes
associated with that section. Any other arrangement will cause an erroneous mesh
to be generated.

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Advective Resistor Data


RES -TYPE NODE1 NODE2 CP_MPID MASS_FLOW_CONSTANT

MASS_FLOW_MPID

This section describes how to define data for an advective resistor. Advective resistors are required when
it is necessary to model the energy carried along with a mass stream that is entering a given capacitor’s
volume. The heat flow relation is
Q[1-->2] = MASS_FLOW * Cp * (T[1] - T[2])
where the specific heat is based on the effective average value integrated between temperatures T[1] and
T[2], and based on a flow of temperature step defined by CPDII5, and MASS_FLOW is the mass rate of
flow. Because difference schemes for this type of calculation are generally restricted to one-sided upwind
or donor cell schemes due to stability considerations, heat will be carried only to the downstream node
and not to the upstream node. Node 1 is the upstream node if the mass flow rate is positive, and Node 2
is the upstream node if the mass flow rate should become negative. As a result of the PATQ translation
(menu pick 2), these declarations are placed in the RESDAT file.
To add an advective resistor to the model, simply enter the resistor data as shown in the following
examples. When all the thermal resistors are defined, enter a dollar sign ($) in column 1 of the input data
file and proceed to Capacitor Data, 320. To define more resistors, proceed to the appropriate Section
(p. 276) to (p. 306) and continue to enter thermal resistor data.

Example 1
A117 2314.724
Example 1 defines an advective resistor between node 1 (upstream) and node 17 (downstream) with a
specific heat evaluated according to MPID 23 and a mass flow rate given by the product of 14.7 and the
value of material property 24.

Example 2
A 21 23 23 15.2
Example 2 defines an advective resistor between node 21 (upstream) and node 22 (downstream) with the
specific heat evaluated according to MPID 23 and with a constant mass flow rate of 15.2.
The advective resistor data items (RES-TYPE, NODE1, NODE2,
CP_MPID,MASS_FLOW_CONSTANT, and MASS_FLOW_ MPID) are defined below.

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Parameter Description
RES-TYPE Character that defines the resistor type. In this case, RES_TYPE is
entered as A to identify an advective resistor.
NODE1 Node 1 of the advection resistor. NODE1 is the upstream or upwind
node of the advective resistor if the mass flow rate is positive.
NODE2 Node 2 of the advection resistor. NODE2 is the downstream or
downwind node of the advective resistor if the mass flow rate is
positive.
CP_MPID Material property identification number for the specific heat of the
mass that is flowing for this resistor. See MPID Number, Function
Type, Temperature Scale, Factor and Label, 263.
MASS_FLOW_CONSTANT Constant mass rate of flow for this resistor if no
MASS_FLOW_MPID is given. If a MASS_FLOW_MPID is given,
this value will scale the value returned by the “material property”
referenced by the MASS_FLOW_MPID.
MASS_FLOW_MPID Material property which will be used to compute a time or
temperature-dependent flow rate. If no MPID is given for
MASS_FLOW_MPID, the MASS_FLOW_CONSTANT is used for
the flow rate. If MASS_FLOW_MPID is given, the value of the
material property referenced by this MPID will be multiplied by
MASS_FLOW_CONSTANT to compute a mass flow rate.

Heat is allowed to flow only from the upstream node to the


downstream node in accordance with stable upwind differencing
schemes. If the mass flow is specified as a negative number, the
upstream and downstream nodes are reversed and heat flow will be
from NODE2 to NODE1.

Hydraulic Resistor Data


Hydraulic resistors model energy carried from one location to another like the advective resistor;
however, unlike the advective resistors where the mass flow rate of the fluid is specified, a fluid network
is established and solved to determine the fluid flow rates. Several types of fluid resistors can be coupled
together to form the hydraulic network. The mathematical nature of these fluid resistors are explained in
One Dimensional Flow Network, 213. As a result of the PATQ translation (menu pick 2), these
declarations are placed in the FRESDAT file. The procedure used to define a hydraulic resistor is
explained below.
1. Enter all data for the hydraulic resistor for Hydraulic Resistor Header Data, 307. This data
identifies the resistor as a hydraulic resistor, defines the resistor node numbers, and defines the
resistor configuration.

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2. Enter the data for the resistor for Hydraulic Resistor Geometric Properties, 308. This data defines
all Geometric Properties (GP) such as characteristic diameter, cross-sectional areas, and distance
fluid travels etc. The number of entries is dependent on the fluid resistor type.
3. Enter all data for the Hydraulic Resistor Material Properties, 309. This data is used to identify
where the material properties that are required for specific resistor configurations are to be found.
4. When all the thermal resistors are defined, place a dollar sign ($) in column 1 of the input data file
and proceed to Capacitor Data, 320. To define another thermal resistor, proceed to the resistor
data section (p. 276) to (p. 306) that applies to the next resistor that you wish to define.

Hydraulic Resistor Header Data


RES -TYPE NODE1 NODE2 FCFIG

This section describes how to identify a given thermal resistor as a fluid resistor, to define its node
numbers, and to specify the resistor fluid configuration.

Example 1
F 1 17 3
Example 1 defines a hydraulic resistor between node 1 (upstream) and node 17 (downstream). Hydraulic
configuration 3 will be used to interpret the meaning of the geometric parameters and material property
ID’s specified.

Example 2
F 21 22 10
Example 2 defines a hydraulic resistor between node 21 (upstream) and node 22 (downstream) with
hydraulic configuration 10 used to interpret the meaning of the geometric parameters and material
property IDs specified.

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Parameter Description
RES-TYPE Character that defines the resistor type. In this case, RES_TYPE is entered as F to
identify a hydraulic resistor.
NODE1 Node 1 of the hydraulic resistor. NODE1 is the upstream or upwind node of the
hydraulic resistor if the mass flow rate is positive.
NODE2 Node 2 of the hydraulic resistor. NODE2 is the downstream or downwind node of
the hydraulic resistor if the mass flow rate is positive.
FCFIG Fluid configuration for this hydraulic resistor. The configuration denotes the type of
fluid resistor and how the geometric properties are to be interpreted and what the
material properties are to designate. Valid entries are between 1 and 12.

Table 8-3 Hydraulic Resistor FCFIG Options


FCFIG Subtype Description
1 Tubing with constant physical and material properties.
2 Tubing with constant physical and material properties
with friction factor evaluated by Patran Thermal Moody
equation.
3 Tubing with constant physical and variable material
properties.
4 Constant pump head.
5 Variable pump head.
6 Constant turbine head.
7 Variable turbine head.
8 Loss resistor or control value.
9 Check value with constant geometry and material
properties.
10 Check value with constant physical and variable
material properties.
11 Plenum resistor with constant properties.
12 Plenum resistor with variable material properties.

Hydraulic Resistor Geometric Properties


GP(1) GP(2) ... GP(n)

Example
24.7 23.2 0.0 14.8 29.9
15.6 18.9
/

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This enters 7 GP values of 24.7, 23.2, 0.0, 14.8, 29.9, 15.6, and 18.9, in that order using free format input.

Parameter Description
GP Hydraulic resistor’s Geometric Properties such as length, diameter, cross-
sectional area, or gravitational constants. The exact meaning of each GP value
varies for each configuration. QTRAN will continue reading GP values until it
encounters a slash (/) in column 1 of the input data file. The procedure for entering
GP values is to enter all GP values followed by an input data file line with a slash
in column 1. Proceed on to Hydraulic Resistor Material Properties, 309.

When GP values at the end of the required list are zero, they need not be input. All
intermediate zeroes must be included as placeholders.

Hydraulic Resistor Material Properties


MPID(1) MPID(2) ... MPID(n)

Example
1 7 4 6
15 23
/
This declares MPID values of 1, 7, 4, 6, 15, and 23.

Parameter Description
MPID Material Property Identification numbers for the hydraulic resistors. See MPID
Number, Function Type, Temperature Scale, Factor and Label, 263. Material
properties include the fluid density, viscosity, and specific heat plus other flow
parameters that can be a function of time or temperature such as loss coefficients,
friction factors, pump head, etc. The material properties that correspond to each
MPID entry are listed for each fluid configuration option in the following option
definition section. After all MPID values have been entered, simply enter a slash (/)
in column one of the next line of the input data file.

When MPID values at the end of the required list are zero, they need not be input.
All intermediate zeroes must be included as placeholders.

Hydraulic Resistor Options


The geometric parameters and material properties for each fluid configuration are:

FCFIG = 1, Tubing with constant physical and material properties

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Hydraulic_Diameter, Cross_Sectional_Area, Length,


DX, DY, DZ,
Density, Viscosity, Specific_Heat,
Surface_Roughness, Loss_Coefficient, Friction_Factor,
Buoyancy
/
/

where:
• Hydraulic_Diameter is a cross-sectional area divided by the wetted perimeter. Internally a
circular cross section is assumed for any calculation which relate area and diameter.
• Cross_Sectional_Area is the area that supports the flowing fluid.
• Length is the total travel of the fluid within a resistor. This does not have to be equal to the
distance between the beginning and end of a resistor. One example would be a coiled tubing in
which the inlet and outlet are very close but the actual distance the fluid travels is much greater
than the distance between the inlet and outlet of the coil.
• DX is the displacement of NODE2 relative to NODE1 in the X global axis direction. This
distance is used to determine gravitational head changes.
• DY is the displacement of NODE2 relative to NODE1 in the Y global axis direction. This
distance is used to determine gravitational head changes.
• DZ is the displacement of NODE2 relative to NODE1 in the Z global axis direction. This
distance is used to determine gravitational head changes.
• Density is the density of the fluid flowing. Units of specific weight are used to be consistent with
the thermal solution. Internal units conversion to mass density are performed as necessary.
• Viscosity is the dynamic viscosity of the fluid.
• Specific_Heat is of the fluid.
• Surface_Roughness is the characteristic roughness of the tubing.
• Loss_Coefficient for determining added head loss due to added flow restrictions such as
constrictions, orifices, vanes, bends, etc.
• Friction_Factor is used to calculate head loss due to the viscous effect of the fluid flowing in a
tube.
• Buoyancy is the gravitational head created by the temperature gradient working against a
gravitational field. Buoyancy can be modeled as the reciprocal of the compressibility factor.
• There are no material properties defined.

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FCFIG = 2, Tubing with constant physical and material properties with friction factor evaluated by
Patran Thermal Moody equation
.

Hydraulic_Diameter, Cross_Sectional_Area, Length,


DX, DY, DZ,
Density, Viscosity, Specific_Heat,
Surface_Roughness, Loss_Coefficient, Buoyancy
/
/

• Hydraulic_Diameter is cross-sectional area divided by the wetted perimeter. Internally a


circular cross section is assumed for any calculation which relate area and diameter.
• Cross_Sectional_Area is the area that supports the flowing fluid.
• Length is the total travel of the fluid within a resistor. This does not have to be equal to the
distance between the beginning and end of a resistor. One example would be a coiled tubing in
which the inlet and outlet are very close but the actual distance the fluid travels is much greater
than the distance between the inlet and outlet of the coil.
• DX is the displacement of NODE2 relative to NODE1 in the X global axis direction. This
distance is used to determine gravitational head changes.
• DY is the displacement of NODE2 relative to NODE1 in the Y global axis direction. This
distance is used to determine gravitational head changes.
• DZ is the displacement of NODE2 relative to NODE1 in the Z global axis direction. This
distance is used to determine gravitational head changes.
• Density is the density of the fluid flowing. Units of specific weight are used to be consistent with
the thermal solution. Internal units conversion to mass density are performed as necessary.
• Viscosity is the dynamic viscosity of the fluid.
• Specific_Heat is of the fluid.
• Surface_Roughness is the characteristic roughness of the tubing.
• Loss_Coefficient for determining added head loss due to added flow restrictions such as
contractions, orifices, vanes, bends, etc.
• Buoyancy is the gravitational head created by the temperature gradient working against a
gravitational field. Buoyancy can be modeled as the reciprocal of the compressibility factor.
• There are no material properties defined.

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FCFIG = 3, Tubing with constant physical and variable material properties


.

Hydraulic_Diameter, Cross_Sectional_Area, Length,


DX, DY, DZ,
Surface_Roughness, Loss_Coefficient, Friction_Factor
/
/MPID_RHO MPID_MU MPID_CP
MPID_LOSS_COEFF MPID_BETA MPID_F
/

• Hydraulic_Diameter is the cross-sectional area divided by the wetted perimeter. Internally a


circular cross section is assumed for any calculation which relate area and diameter.
• Cross_Sectional_Area is the area that supports the flowing fluid.
• Length is the total travel of the fluid within a resistor. This does not have to be equal to the
distance between the beginning and end of a resistor. One example would be a coiled tubing in
which the inlet and outlet are very close but the actual distance the fluid travels is much greater
than the distance between the inlet and outlet of the coil.
• DX is the displacement of NODE2 relative to NODE1 in the X global axis direction. This
distance is used to determine gravitational head changes.
• DY is the displacement of NODE2 relative to NODE1 in the Y global axis direction. This
distance is used to determine gravitational head changes.
• DZ is the displacement of NODE2 relative to NODE1 in the Z global axis direction. This
distance is used to determine gravitational head changes.
• Surface_Roughness is the characteristic roughness of the tubing.
• Loss_Coefficient for determining added head loss due to added flow restrictions such as
contractions, orifices, vanes, bends, etc. This value is used as a scale factor on the material
property value specified by MPID_LOSS_COEFF.
• Friction_Factor is used to calculate head loss due to the viscous effect of the fluid flowing in a
tube. This value is used as a scale factor on the material property value specified by MPID_F.
• MPID_RHO is the time or temperature dependent density of the fluid and is defined as a
material property. Units of specific weight are used to be consistent with the thermal solution.
Internal units conversion to mass density are performed as necessary.
• MPID_MU is the time or temperature-dependent viscosity of the fluid and is defined as a
material property.
• MPID_CP is the time or temperature-dependent specific heat of the fluid and is defined as a
material property.
• MPID_LOSS_COEFF is the time or temperature-dependent loss coefficient operating on the
fluid and is defined as a material property.

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• MPID_BETA is the time or temperature-dependent buoyancy term and is defined as a material


property. It represents the gravitational head created by the temperature gradient working against
a gravitational field. Buoyancy can be modeled as the reciprocal of the compressibility factor.
• MPID_F is the time or temperature-dependent friction factor used to calculate head loss due to
the viscous effect of the fluid flowing in a tube and is defined as a material property. If this value
is zero, it is calculated by Patran Thermal using the built-in Moody equations.

FCFIG = 4, Constant Pump Head.


Density, Viscosity, Specific_Heat,
Pump_Head
/
/

where:
• Density of the fluid flowing. Units of specific weight are used to be consistent with the thermal
solution. Internal units conversion to mass density are performed as necessary.
• Viscosity is the dynamic viscosity of the fluid.
• Specific_Heat of the fluid.
• Pump_Head - The pump head must always be positive.
• There are no material properties defined.

FCFIG = 5, Variable Pump Head


.

/
MPID_RHO MPID_MU MPID_CP
MPID_HEAD
/

where:
• MPID_RHO is the time or temperature-dependent density of the fluid and is defined as a
material property. Units of specific weight are used to be consistent with the thermal solution.
Internal units conversion to mass density are performed as necessary.
• MPID_MU is the time or temperature-dependent viscosity of the fluid and is defined as a
material property.
• MPID_CP is the time or temperature-dependent specific heat of the fluid and is defined as a
material property.
• MPID_HEAD is the time or temperature-dependent head operating on the fluid and is defined
as a material property. The pump head must always be positive.

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FCFIG = 6, Constant Turbine Head


.

Density, Viscosity, Specific_Heat,


Turbine_Head
/
/

where:
• Density of the fluid flowing. Units of specific weight are used to be consistent with the thermal
solution. Internal units conversion to mass density are performed as necessary.
• Viscosity is the dynamic viscosity of the fluid.
• Specific_Heat of the fluid.
• Turbine_Head - The turbine head must always be negative.
• There are no material properties defined.

FCFIG = 7, Variable Turbine Head


.

/
MPID_RHO MPID_MU MPID_CP
MPID_HEAD
/

where:
• MPID_RHO is the time or temperature-dependent density of the fluid and is defined as a
material property. Units of specific weight are used to be consistent with the thermal solution.
Internal units conversion to mass density are performed as necessary.
• MPID_MU is the time or temperature-dependent viscosity of the fluid and is defined as a
material property.
• MPID_CP is the time or temperature-dependent specific heat of the fluid and is defined as a
material property.
• MPID_HEAD is the time or temperature-dependent head operating on a turbine by the fluid and
is defined as a material property. The turbine head must always be negative.

Main Index
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FCFIG = 8, Loss Resistor or Control Valve.


Hydraulic_Diameter, Cross_Sectional_Area, Length,
DX, DY, DZ,
Surface_Roughness, Loss_Coefficient, Friction_Factor
/
MPID_DIAM
MPID_RHO MPID_MU MPID_CP
MPID_EPS MPID_LOSS_COEFF MPID_BETA
MPID_F
/

where:

• Hydraulic_Diameter is the cross-sectional area divided by the wetted perimeter. Internally a


circular cross section is assumed for any calculation which relate area and diameter. This is used
as a scale factor for the variable diameter specified by MPID_DIAM.
• Cross_Sectional_Area is the area that supports the flowing fluid.
• Length is the total travel of the fluid within a resistor. This does not have to be equal to the
distance between the beginning and end of a resistor. One example would be a coiled tubing in
which the inlet and outlet are very close but the actual distance the fluid travels is much greater
than the distance between the inlet and outlet of the coil.
• DX is the displacement of NODE2 relative to NODE1 in the X global axis direction. This
distance is used to determine gravitational head changes.
• DY is the displacement of NODE2 relative to NODE1 in the Y global axis direction. This
distance is used to determine gravitational head changes.
• DZ is the displacement of NODE2 relative to NODE1 in the Z global axis direction. This
distance is used to determine gravitational head changes.
• Surface_Roughness is the characteristic roughness of the tubing. Variable roughnesses are
allowed and this entry is a scale factor used in conjunction with the material property
MPID_EPS.
• Loss_Coefficient for determining added head loss due to added flow restrictions such as
contractions, orifices, vanes, bends, etc. This value is used as a scale factor on the material
property value specified by MPID_LOSS_COEFF.
• Friction_Factor is used to calculate head loss do to the viscous effect of the fluid flowing in a
tube. This value is used as a scale factor on the material property value specified by MPID_F.
• MPID_RHO is the time or temperature-dependent density of the fluid and is defined as a
material property. Units of specific weight are used to be consistent with the thermal solution.
Internal units conversion to mass density are performed as necessary.

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• MPID_MU is the time or temperature-dependent viscosity of the fluid and is defined as a


material property.
• MPID_CP is the time or temperature-dependent specific heat of the fluid and is defined as a
material property.
• MPID_EPS is the time or temperature-dependent roughness coefficient operating on the fluid
and is defined as a material property.
• MPID_LOSS_COEFF is the time or temperature-dependent loss coefficient operating on the
fluid and is defined as a material property.
• MPID_BETA is the time or temperature-dependent buoyancy term and is defined as a material
property. It represents the gravitational head created by the temperature gradient working against
a gravitational field. Buoyancy can be modeled as the reciprocal of the compressibility factor.
• MPID_F is the time or temperature-dependent friction factor used to calculate head loss due to
the viscous effect of the fluid flowing in a tube and is defined as a material property. If this value
is zero, it is calculated by Patran Thermal using the built-in Moody equations.

FCFIG = 9, Check Valve with Constant Geometry and Material Properties


.

Hydraulic_Diameter, Cross_Sectional_Area, Length,


DX, DY, DZ,
Density, Viscosity, Specific_Heat,
Surface_Roughness, Loss_Coefficient, Buoyancy
/
/

where:

• Hydraulic_Diameter is the cross-sectional area divided by the wetted perimeter. Internally a


circular cross section is assumed for any calculation which relate area and diameter. If the fluid
is not flowing from NODE1 to NODE2, the diameter of the valve is made zero, shutting off the
flow.
• Cross_Sectional_Area is the area that supports the flowing fluid.
• Length is the total travel of the fluid within a resistor. This does not have to be equal to the
distance between the beginning and end of a resistor. One example would be a coiled tubing in
which the inlet and outlet are very close but the actual distance the fluid travels is much greater
than the distance between the inlet and outlet of the coil.
• DX is the displacement of NODE2 relative to NODE1 in the X global axis direction. This
distance is used to determine gravitational head changes.
• DY is the displacement of NODE2 relative to NODE1 in the Y global axis direction. This
distance is used to determine gravitational head changes.
• DZ is the displacement of NODE2 relative to NODE1 in the Z global axis direction. This
distance is used to determine gravitational head changes.

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• Density is the density of the fluid flowing. Units of specific weight are used to be consistent with
the thermal solution. Internal units conversion to mass density are performed as necessary.
• Viscosity is the dynamic viscosity of the fluid.
• Specific_Heat is of the fluid.
• Surface_Roughness is the characteristic roughness of the tubing.
• Loss_Coefficient for determining added head loss due to added flow restrictions such as
contractions, orifices, vanes, bends, etc.
• Buoyancy is the gravitational head created by the temperature gradient working against a
gravitational field. Buoyancy can be modeled as the reciprocal of the compressibility factor.
• There are no material properties defined.

FCFIG = 10, Check Valve with Constant Physical and Variable Material Properties
.

Hydraulic_Diameter, Cross_Sectional_Area, Length,


DX, DY, DZ,
Surface_Roughness, Loss_Coefficient, Buoyancy
/
MPID_RHO MPID_MU MPID_CP
MPID_LOSS_COEFF MPID_BETA MPID_F
/

where:

• Hydraulic_Diameter is the cross-sectional area divided by the wetted perimeter. Internally a


circular cross section is assumed for any calculation which relate area and diameter. If the flow is
not positive from NODE1 to NODE2, the diameter is reduced to zero to stop the flow through
this resistor.
• Cross_Sectional_Area is the area that supports the flowing fluid.
• Length is the total travel of the fluid within a resistor. This does not have to be equal to the
distance between the beginning and end of a resistor. One example would be a coiled tubing in
which the inlet and outlet are very close but the actual distance the fluid travels is much greater
than the distance between the inlet and outlet of the coil.
• DX is the displacement of NODE2 relative to NODE1 in the X global axis direction. This
distance is used to determine gravitational head changes.
• DY is the displacement of NODE2 relative to NODE1 in the Y global axis direction. This
distance is used to determine gravitational head changes.
• DZ is the displacement of NODE2 relative to NODE1 in the Z global axis direction. This
distance is used to determine gravitational head changes.
• Surface_Roughness is the characteristic roughness of the tubing.

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• Loss_Coefficient for determining added head loss due to added flow restrictions such as
contractions, orifices, vanes, bends, etc. This value is used as a scale factor on the material
property value specified by MPID_LOSS_COEFF.
• MPID_RHO is the time or temperature-dependent density of the fluid and is defined as a
material property. Units of specific weight are used to be consistent with the thermal solution.
Internal units conversion to mass density are performed as necessary.
• MPID_MU is the time or temperature-dependent viscosity of the fluid and is defined as a
material property.
• MPID_CP is the time or temperature-dependent specific heat of the fluid and is defined as a
material property.
• MPID_LOSS_COEFF is the time or temperature-dependent loss coefficient operating on the
fluid and is defined as a material property.
• MPID_BETA is the time or temperature-dependent buoyancy term and is defined as a material
property. It represents the gravitational head created by the temperature gradient working against
a gravitational field. Buoyancy can be modeled as the reciprocal of the compressibility factor.
• MPID_F is the time or temperature-dependent friction factor used to calculate head loss due to
the viscous effect of the fluid flowing in a tube and is defined as a material property. If this value
is zero, it is calculated by Patran Thermal using the built in Moody equations.

FCFIG = 11, Plenum Resistor with Constant Properties


.

DX, DY, DZ,


Density, Viscosity, Specific_Heat
/
/

where:
• DX is the displacement of NODE2 relative to NODE1 in the X global axis direction. This
distance is used to determine gravitational head changes.
• DY is the displacement of NODE2 relative to NODE1 in the Y global axis direction. This
distance is used to determine gravitational head changes.
• DZ is the displacement of NODE2 relative to NODE1 in the Z global axis direction. This
distance is used to determine gravitational head changes.
• Density is the density of the fluid flowing. Units of specific weight are used to be consistent with
the thermal solution. Internal units conversion to mass density are performed as necessary.
• Viscosity is the dynamic viscosity of the fluid.
• Specific_Heat is of the fluid.
• There are no material properties defined.

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FCFIG = 12, Plenum Resistor with Variable Material Properties


.

DX, DY, DZ,


/
MPID_RHO MPID_MU MPID_CP
/

where:
• DX is the displacement of NODE2 relative to NODE1 in the X global axis direction. This
distance is used to determine gravitational head changes.
• DY is the displacement of NODE2 relative to NODE1 in the Y global axis direction. This
distance is used to determine gravitational head changes.
• DZ is the displacement of NODE2 relative to NODE1 in the Z global axis direction. This
distance is used to determine gravitational head changes.
• MPID_RHO is the time or temperature-dependent density of the fluid and is defined as a
material property. Units of specific weight are used to be consistent with the thermal solution.
Internal units conversion to mass density are performed as necessary.
• MPID_MU is the time or temperature-dependent viscosity of the fluid and is defined as a
material property.
• MPID_CP is the time or temperature-dependent specific heat of the fluid and is defined as a
material property.

Example Hydraulic Resistor Definitions


The following is an example of a complete hydraulic resistor definition.

Example
F 1 2 3
1.0000000E-01 7.8539830E-03 1.0000000E+01
1.0000000E+01 0.0000000E+00 0.0000000E+00
1.9999999E-04 1.0000000E+00 0.0000000E+00
/
1 2 3 4 6 5
/

This QTRAN input data defines a fluid configuration 3 hydraulic resistor with fluid flowing from nodes
1 to node 2. The GP values are: diameter = 0.1, cross- sectional area = 7.853983e-3, the resistor length
is 10.0 which is the same as the resistor displacement in the global x axis. The resistor displacement in
the y and z axis is 0.0. The tubing surface roughness is 0.0002 and the resistor has a loss coefficient scale
factor of 1.0. Friction factor scale factor is not supplied and a MPID_F material property is supplied, thus

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a 1.0 is implied. If the MPID_F were 0 or not supplied, the friction factor would be calculated by Patran
Thermal. The MPID numbers of 1, 2, and 3 define the density, viscosity, and specific heat material
properties. The loss coefficient, buoyancy, and friction factor material properties are 4, 6, and 5
respectively.

Capacitor Data
CAP (keyword) NODE RHO CP VOL PHID

This section allows nodal capacitances (volumes and material property identification numbers (MPIDs))
for density, specific heats, and Phase Identification (PHID) data sets (see Material Properties, 263) to be
assigned to individual nodes. When all of the information necessary for the thermal simulation for this
section is entered, put a dollar sign ($) in column 1 of the input data file and go on to Microfunction Data,
322.

The capacitor values in this section will be placed in parallel with any capacitors generated by the
automatic mesh generators. As a result of the PATQ translation (menu pick 2), these declarations are
placed in the CAPDAT file.

Example
CAP 1 23 24 15.7E-05 0
This assigns a capacitor to node 1 with a density from MPID 23, a specific heat from MPID 24, a volume
of 15.7E-05, and a PHID (phase change MPID data set) of 0 (none).

Main Index
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Parameter Description
NODE) Node with which the capacitance is associated.
RHO) Identification number assigned to the material property that will be used for the
density of this node. See Material Properties, 263.
CP Identification number assigned to the material property that will be used for the
specific heat of this node. See Material Properties, 263.
VOL Volume associated with this capacitor.
PHID MPID phase change data set (see Material Properties, 263) that will be used in
calculating any potential phase change effects associated with this capacitor. If
no PHID set is to be assigned to this capacitor, simply enter a zero.

These five values must be entered for each nodal capacitance that is assigned, one
capacitance set at a time. For example, first enter the keyword CAP followed by
the values of NODE, RHO, CP, VOL, and PHID for one node, then enter another
five values for the next node, and so on until all values necessary for the thermal
simulation have been entered. When all values have been input, enter a dollar
sign ($) in column 1 of the input data file and proceed to Boundary Conditions,
322.
To perform steady-state calculations only, and if the QGLOBL global heat source
of Initially Fixed Nodes, 333 is zero, ignore the nodal capacitance data because it
will not be used for these calculations. Capacitance data is used only for transient
calculations, or when the QGLOBL per-unit-volume global heat source is to be
invoked.

If no capacitance data is assigned to a node during a transient simulation,


QTRAN will assume that this node is an algebraic or arithmetic node that is
always in a steady- state equilibrium with its surrounding nodes. This can be
useful when implementing certain types of boundary conditions such as
interfaces of material boundaries or other zero-capacitance boundary nodes.

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Boundary Conditions

Boundary Conditions
This section is used to implement boundary conditions for the problem. The parameters and options
controlled by boundary conditions input are listed below.

Microfunction Data (p. 322)


Heat Source Macrofunction (p. 325)
(QMACRO) Data
Temperature Control Macrofunction (p. 327)
(TMACRO) Data
Mass Flow Rate Control Macrofunction (p. 329)
(MMACRO) Data
Pressure Control Macrofunction (p. 331)
(PMACRO) Data
Initially Fixed Nodes (p. 333)
Nodal Classification Change (p. 334)
Initial Globally Initialized Temperatures, (p. 335)
Pressure and Heat Sources
Individual Assignments of Initial (p. 337)
Temperatures and Pressures
Individual Assignments of Constant Nodal (p. 338)
Heat Sources and Mass Flow Rates

Microfunction Data
This describes how QTRAN microfunctions are defined that in turn will be used to compose QTRAN
macrofunctions (macro functions are used for variable nodal heat sources and temperature controls). The
procedure used for defining QTRAN microfunctions is described below:
1. Enter all microfunction data for MFID, Independent Variable, and Function Type, 323. This data
defines the microfunction ID number (MFID), specifies the independent variable of the
microfunction (e.g., time, temperature, Δ temperature or average temperature, or Δ radiosity), and
gives the microfunction library option (see the function catalogue of Microfunction Library
(Ch. 10), for available function options).
2. Enter all microfunction data for Microfunction Parameters or Data Tables, 324. This is the
necessary tabular data or parameter data used with the microfunction library option to totally
define the microfunction. When all of the parameter or tabular data is entered, enter a slash (/) in
column one of the input data file.
3. When all of the microfunctions have been defined enter a dollar sign ($) in column one of the
input data file and proceed to Heat Source/Sink Macrofunction Definition, 325. If you wish to
define more microfunctions, return to Step 1 of this procedure and continue until all necessary
microfunctions have been defined.

Main Index
Chapter 8: Thermal/Hydraulic Input Deck 323
Boundary Conditions

Note: This data is not generated by Patran or PATQ. Use the system editor to generate this data.
This data is normally put in the file MICRODAT.

MFID, Independent Variable, and Function Type


MICRO(keyword) MFID ARGUMENT OPTION

Example
MICRO 27 0 9
This begins a microfunction data packet for MFID 27, with 0 (time) as the argument, and option 9
(Hermite table) as the function type.

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324 Patran Thermal User’s Guide Volume 1: Thermal/Hydraulic Analysis
Boundary Conditions

Parameter Description
MFID Microfunction Identification number. Each microfunction must be
assigned a unique MFID number greater than zero. This MFID number
will be referenced by the macrofunctions, see (p. 325) through (p. 331), in
the same manner as a material property ID number (MPID) is referenced
by resistors and capacitors. This referencing scheme allows the same
microfunction to be used in many different macrofunctions.
ARGUMENT Identifies the microfunction independent variable as time, temperature
(T), Δ T, or a radiosity difference according to the following argument
code:

0 -- t (time)
1 -- T (temperature)
2 -- ΔT = T[1] - T[2] (temperature
difference)
3 -- σ * (T[1]4 - T[2]4) (radiosity difference)

4 -- (T[1] + T[2]) (average temperature)


Tbar = -----------------------------------
2

T[1] and T[2] are converted to absolute temperatures (i.e., Kelvin or


Rankine, depending on the value of ICCALC) prior to raising them to the
4th power. This is done ONLY for ARGUMENT = 3.
OPTION Identifies the Function Library option that has been selected. For more
information, consult the Microfunction Library (Ch. 10). If the Function
Library option number is input as a negative number of the option number
(e.g., specify option 2 as option -2), QTRAN will use the reciprocal of the
function. For example, SIN(X) would be evaluated as 1/SIN(X).

Microfunction Parameters or Data Tables


MICDAT(keyword) MICDAT(1...n)

Example
MICDAT 1.0 2.0 3.0 15.0
/
The example defines parameters P(1) to P(4) as 1.0, 2.0, 3.0, and 15.0, respectively. The / declares that
this is the end of the parameter data. How the parameters are used is dependent upon the microfunction
option.

Main Index
Chapter 8: Thermal/Hydraulic Input Deck 325
Boundary Conditions

Example
MICDAT 0.0 22.7
MICDAT 100.4 88.9
MICDAT 40.8 23.9
MICDAT 200.9 84.7
/

This example defines tabular data for a tabular microfunction. Note that there is only one data pair per
line. How the data pairs will be used is dependent upon the microfunction option.

Parameter Description
MICDAT Data that is used to define a specific microfunction. QTRAN now expects to read
parameters or tabular data pairs, depending upon the Function Library option that
you selected. If parameters are input, put as many parameters on each line as desired
(but at least 1). If tabular data is entered, put 2 and only 2 table entries on each line.
Each line must begin with the keyword MICDAT. The data is all free format input.
Linear tables require a minimum of two data pairs, whereas Hermite tables require
at least three data pairs.

When all of the parameters or table data pairs have been entered, enter a slash (/) in
column 1. To define more microfunctions, loop back to MFID, Independent Variable,
and Function Type, 323 and continue defining microfunctions until done. When no
more microfunctions are to be defined, simply enter a dollar sign ($) in column 1
and proceed on to Heat Source/Sink Macrofunction Definition, 325.

Heat Source/Sink Macrofunction Definition


The following sections allow the heat source/sink macrofunctions to be defined. This is done by
arithmetically combining one or more of the microfunctions defined in Microfunction Data, 322. The
procedure used to define a heat source/sink macrofunction is described below.
1. Enter all data for the macrofunction. See Heat Source/Sink Macrofunction Data, 326. This
information identifies the node number of the macrofunction heat source/sink input, the number
of microfunctions that make up the arithmetic string, and the node number(s) whose temperature
is to be used as the independent variable for any of the microfunctions that are temperature-
dependent.
2. Enter all data for the macrofunction. See Building the Macrofunction from Microfunctions, 327.
This information consists of identifying which microfunctions are to be combined arithmetically
to form the macrofunction.
3. When all of the heat source/sink macrofunctions have been entered, enter a dollar sign ($) in
column 1 of the input data file and proceed to Temperature Control Macrofunctions, 327. To define
more heat source/sink macrofunctions, return to Step 1 of this procedure and continue until all
heat source/sink macrofunctions have been defined.

Main Index
326 Patran Thermal User’s Guide Volume 1: Thermal/Hydraulic Analysis
Boundary Conditions

As many heat source/sink macrofunctions may be assigned to any node. If more than one macrofunction
is assigned to a node, the node receives the summed output of the macrofunctions. Because a
macrofunction consists of microfunctions that are multiplied (or divided) by each other, it is allowed to
effectively add or multiply functions to arrive at the desired heat source/sink functional form. Division
is also possible, because microfunctions can be defined as the reciprocal of any option contained in the
Microfunction Library (Ch. 10) by placing a negative sign in front of the specified option. Microfunctions
can also be effectively used as arguments of other microfunctions to specify any nodal temperature as the
argument for the temperature-dependent microfunctions of a macrofunction, and to specify nodal
temperatures themselves by using temperature control macrofunctions. Note that User-Coded
microfunctions are yet another method of applying exotic boundary conditions. See User-Supplied
Subroutines (Ch. 11).

Note: QMACRO functions are normally generated by PATQ menu pick two and placed in the file
QMACRODAT.

Heat Source/Sink Macrofunction Data


QMACRO(keyword) NODE MICRO_COUNT NODE1 NODE2 FACTOR

Example
QMACRO 1 2 1 7 23.174
The example declares that a QMACROfunction data set is being assigned to node 1, is built from 2
microfunctions, that node number 1 is the first temperature node and node number 7 is the second
temperature node to be referenced for temperature-dependent microfunction arguments, and that a scale
factor of 23.174 is to be applied to the QMACROfunction.

Main Index
Chapter 8: Thermal/Hydraulic Input Deck 327
Boundary Conditions

Parameter Description
NODE Node number to which the macrofunction heat source is assigned.
MICRO_COUNT Number of microfunctions that will be used to construct the macrofunction.
NODE1 Node number of the temperature that will be used as the T[1] independent
variable for the microfunctions, assuming the specified temperature on the
microfunction input data as the independent variable. See Microfunction Data,
322. If any microfunctions are defined to be functions of D temperature or to be
functions of a radiation potential difference (see MFID, Independent Variable,
and Function Type, 323), NODE1 will correspond to T[1] when QTRAN
computes the DT, radiation potential difference, or Tbar. If no microfunctions use
temperature, D temperature, a radiation potential difference or Tbar as an
independent variable, a 0 may be entered for NODE1. A 0 value for NODE1 will
cause QTRAN to substitute the value of NODE for NODE1.
NODE2 Node number corresponding to T[2] of the microfunction arguments if using D
T, a radiation potential difference, or Tbar as the independent variable for a
microfunction. If no microfunctions use D T, radiation potential differences, or
Tbar, a 0 may be entered for NODE2. A 0 value for NODE2 will cause QTRAN
to substitute the value of NODE for NODE2.
FACTOR A scaling factor for the macrofunction. The value for the macrofunction will be
scaled by multiplying it by FACTOR.

Building the Macrofunction from Microfunctions


MFID(1...n)

Example
1 5 7
The example declares that MFIDs 1, 5, and 7 will be used to form the QMACROfunction. The
QMACROfunction will have already declared that there will be (3) MFIDs to read.

Parameter Description
MFID(1...n) Identification numbers (MFIDs) of the microfunctions that will be used to form
the macrofunction. See Microfunction Data, 322. All microfunctions given will be
multiplied and the product, scaled by factor, will be used as the macrofunction
input. No keyword precedes the MFID numbers.

Temperature Control Macrofunctions


This section allows the temperature control macrofunctions to be defined. This is done by arithmetically
combining one or more of the microfunctions defined in Microfunction Data, 322. The procedure used to
define a temperature control macrofunction is described below.

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Boundary Conditions

1. Enter all data for the macrofunction. See Temperature Control Macrofunction Data, 328. This
information identifies the node number of the macrofunction temperature control input, the
number of microfunctions that make up the arithmetic string, and the node number(s) whose
temperature is to be used as the independent variable for any of the microfunctions that are
temperature dependent.
2. Enter all data for the macrofunction. Construction of the Macrofunction from Microfunctions, 329.
This information identifies which microfunctions are to be combined arithmetically to form the
macrofunction.
3. When all of the temperature control macrofunctions have been defined, enter a dollar sign ($) in
column 1 of the input data file and proceed to Mass Flow Rate Control Macrofunctions, 329. To
define more temperature control macrofunctions, return to Step 1 of this procedure and continue
until all temperature control macrofunctions have been defined.
As many temperature control macrofunctions as desired may be assigned to any node. If more than one
macrofunction is assigned to a node, the node receives the summed output of the macrofunctions. It is
allowed to effectively add or multiply microfunctions to arrive at the desired temperature control
functional form because a macrofunction consists of microfunctions that are multiplied (or divided)
together. Division is also possible because microfunctions can be defined as the reciprocal of any option
contained in the Microfunction Library (Ch. 10), by placing a negative sign in front of the specified option.
Microfunctions can also be effectively used as arguments of other microfunctions to specify any nodal
temperature as the argument for the temperature-dependent microfunctions of a macrofunction, and to
specify nodal temperatures themselves by using temperature control macrofunctions.

Note: This data is normally generated with PATQ menu pick 2 and placed in the file
TMACRODAT.

Temperature Control Macrofunction Data


TMACRO(keyword) NODE MICRO_COUNT NODE1 NODE2 FACTOR

Example
TMACRO 1 2 1 7 23.174
The example declares that a TMACROfunction data set is being assigned to node 1, is built from 2
microfunctions, that node number 1 is the first temperature node and node number 7 is the second
temperature node to be referenced for temperature-dependent microfunction arguments, and that a scale
factor of 23.174 is to be applied to the TMACROfunction.

Main Index
Chapter 8: Thermal/Hydraulic Input Deck 329
Boundary Conditions

Parameter Description
NODE Node number that the macrofunction will control.
MICRO_COUNT Number of microfunctions that will be used to construct the macrofunction.
NODE1 Node number of the temperature that will be used as the T[1] independent
variable for the microfunctions, assuming that the specified temperature is
independent for one or more of the microfunctions used for this macrofunction.
See Microfunction Data, 322. If any microfunctions are defined to be functions of
DT, radiation potential difference or Tbar (see MFID, Independent Variable, and
Function Type, 323, NODE1 will correspond to T[1] when QTRAN computes the
DT or radiation potential difference. If no microfunctions use temperature, DT or
a radiation potential difference as an independent variable, a 0 may be entered for
NODE1. A 0 entered for NODE 1 will cause QTRAN to use NODE for NODE1.
NODE2 Node number corresponding to T[2] if you wish to use D T, a radiation potential
difference, or Tbar as the independent variable for a microfunction. If no
microfunctions use temperatures as arguments, a 0 may be entered for NODE2.
A 0 entered for NODE2 will cause QTRAN to use NODE for NODE2.
FACTOR A scaling factor for the macrofunction. The value for the macrofunction will be
scaled by multiplying it by FACTOR.

Construction of the Macrofunction from Microfunctions


MFID(1...n)

codeindent10
1 5 7
The example declares that MFIDs 1, 5, and 7 will be used to form the TMACROfunction. The
TMACROfunction that uses this data will have had the MICRO_COUNT variable given as 3.
.

Parameter Description
MFID(1...n) Identification numbers (MFIDs) of the microfunctions that will be used to form
the temperature control macrofunction. See Microfunction Data, 322. All
microfunctions given will be multiplied and the product, scaled by FACTOR, will
be used as the macrofunction input.

Mass Flow Rate Control Macrofunctions


This section allows the mass flow rate control macrofunctions to be defined. This is done by
arithmetically combining one or more of the microfunctions defined in Microfunction Data, 322. The
procedure used to define a mass flow rate control macrofunction is described below.

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330 Patran Thermal User’s Guide Volume 1: Thermal/Hydraulic Analysis
Boundary Conditions

1. Enter all data for the macrofunction. See Mass Flow Rate Control Macrofunction Data, 330. This
information identifies the node number of the macrofunction mass flow rate control input, the
number of microfunctions that make up the arithmetic string, and the node number(s) whose
pressure is to be used as the independent variable for any of the microfunctions that are pressure
dependent.
2. Enter all data for the macrofunction. See Construction of the Macrofunction from Microfunctions,
331. This information identifies which microfunctions are to be combined arithmetically to form
the macrofunction.
3. When all of the mass flow rate control macrofunctions have been defined, enter a dollar sign ($)
in column 1 of the input data file and proceed to Pressure Control Macrofunctions, 331. To define
more mass flow rate control macrofunctions, return to Step 1 of this procedure and continue until
all mass flow rate control macrofunctions have been defined.
As many mass flow rate control macrofunctions as desired may be assigned to any node. If more than
one macrofunction is assigned to a node, the node receives the summed output of the macrofunctions. It
is allowed to effectively add or multiply microfunctions to arrive at the desired mass flow rate control
functional form because a macrofunction consists of microfunctions that are multiplied (or divided)
together. Division is also possible because microfunctions can be defined as the reciprocal of any option
contained in the Function Library in Section 6.2 by placing a negative sign in front of the specified
option. Microfunctions can also be effectively used as arguments of other microfunctions to specify as
the argument for the pressure-dependent microfunctions of a macrofunction, and to specify nodal
temperatures themselves by using temperature control macrofunctions.

Note: This data is normally generated with PATQ menu pick 2 and placed in the file
MMACRODAT.

Mass Flow Rate Control Macrofunction Data


MMACRO(keyword) NODE MICRO_COUNT NODE1 NODE2 FACTOR

Example
MMACRO 1 2 1 7 23.174
The example declares that a MMACROfunction data set is being assigned to node 1, is built from 2
microfunctions, that node number 1 is the first pressure node and node number 7 is the second pressure
node to be referenced for pressure dependent microfunction arguments, and that a scale factor of 23.174
is to be applied to the MMACROfunction

Main Index
Chapter 8: Thermal/Hydraulic Input Deck 331
Boundary Conditions

Parameter Description
NODE Node number that the macrofunction will control.
MICRO_COUNT Number of microfunctions that will be used to construct the macrofunction.
NODE1 Node number of the pressure that will be used as the P[1] independent variable
for the microfunctions, assuming the specified pressure is independent for one or
more of the microfunctions used for this macrofunction. See Microfunction Data,
322. If any microfunctions are defined to be functions of DP or Pbar (see MFID,
Independent Variable, and Function Type, 323), NODE1 will correspond to P[1]
when QTRAN computes the DP. If no microfunctions use pressure or DP, a 0 may
be entered for NODE1. A 0 entered for NODE1 will cause QTRAN to use NODE
for NODE1.
NODE2 Node number corresponding to P[2] if D P or Pbar is used as the independent
variable for a microfunction. If no microfunctions use pressures as arguments, a
0 may be entered for NODE2. A 0 entered for NODE2 will cause QTRAN to use
NODE for NODE2.
FACTOR A scaling factor for the macrofunction. The value for the macrofunction will be
scaled by multiplying it by FACTOR.

Construction of the Macrofunction from Microfunctions


MFID(1...n)

Example
1 5 7
The example declares that MFIDs 1, 5, and 7 will be used to form the MMACROfunction. The
MMACROfunction that uses this data will have had the MICRO_COUNT variable given as 3.
.

Parameter Description
MFID(1...n) Identification numbers (MFIDs) of the microfunctions that will be used to form
the mass flow rate control macrofunction. See Microfunction Data, 322. All
microfunctions given will be multiplied and the product, scaled by FACTOR, will
be used as the macrofunction input.

Pressure Control Macrofunctions


This section allows the pressure control macrofunctions to be defined. This is done by arithmetically
combining one or more of the microfunctions defined in Microfunction Data, 322. The procedure used to
define a pressure control macrofunction is described below.
1. Enter all data for the macrofunction. See Pressure Control Macrofunction Data, 332. This
information identifies the node number of the macrofunction pressure control input, the number
of microfunctions that make up the arithmetic string, and the node number(s) whose pressure is
to be used as the independent variable for any of the microfunctions that are pressure dependent.

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332 Patran Thermal User’s Guide Volume 1: Thermal/Hydraulic Analysis
Boundary Conditions

2. Enter all data for the macrofunction. See Construction of the Macrofunction from Microfunctions,
333. This information identifies which microfunctions are to be combined arithmetically to form
the macrofunction.
3. When all pressure control macrofunctions are defined, enter a dollar sign ($) in column one of the
input data file and proceed to Initially Fixed Nodes, 333. To define more pressure control
macrofunctions, return to Step 1 of this procedure and continue until all pressure control
macrofunctions have been defined.
As many pressure control macrofunctions as desired may be assigned to any node. If more than one
macrofunction is assigned to a node, the node receives the summed output of the macrofunctions. This
allows the user to add or multiply microfunctions to arrive at the desired pressure control functional form
because a macrofunction consists of microfunctions that are multiplied (or divided) together. Division
is also possible because microfunctions can be defined as the reciprocal of any option contained in the
Microfunction Library (Ch. 10) by placing a negative sign in front of the specified option. Microfunctions
can also be effectively used as arguments of other microfunctions to specify any nodal pressure as the
argument for the pressure-dependent microfunctions of a macrofunction, and to specify nodal pressures
themselves by using pressure control macrofunctions.

Note: This data is normally generated with PATQ menu pick two and placed in the file
PMACRODAT.

Pressure Control Macrofunction Data


PMACRO(keyword) NODE MICRO_COUNT NODE1 NODE2 FACTOR

Example
PMACRO 1 2 1 7 23.174
The example declares that a PMACROfunction data set is being assigned to node 1, is built from 2
microfunctions, that node number 1 is the first pressure node and node number 7 is the second pressure
node to be referenced for pressure dependent microfunction arguments, and that a scale factor of 23.174
is to be applied to the PMACROfunction.

Main Index
Chapter 8: Thermal/Hydraulic Input Deck 333
Boundary Conditions

Parameter Description
NODE Node number that the macrofunction will control.
MICRO_COUNT Number of microfunctions that will be used to construct the macrofunction.
NODE1 Node number of the pressure that will be used as the P[1] independent variable
for the microfunctions, assuming the specified pressure is independent for one or
more of the microfunctions used for this macrofunction. See Microfunction Data,
322. If any microfunctions are defined to be functions of DP or Pbar (see MFID,
Independent Variable, and Function Type, 323), NODE1 will correspond to P[1]
when QTRAN computes the DP. If no microfunctions use pressure or DP, a 0 may
be entered for NODE1. A 0 entered for NODE1 will cause QTRAN to use NODE
for NODE1.
NODE2 Node number corresponding to P[2] if D P or Pbar is used as the independent
variable for a microfunction. If no microfunctions use pressures as arguments, a
0 may be entered for NODE2. A 0 entered for NODE2 will cause QTRAN to use
NODE for NODE2.
FACTOR A scaling factor for the macrofunction. The value for the macrofunction will be
scaled by multiplying it by FACTOR.

Construction of the Macrofunction from Microfunctions


MFID(1...n)

Example
1 5 7
The example declares that MFIDs 1, 5, and 7 will be used to form the PMACROfunction. The
PMACROfunction that uses this data will have had the MICRO_COUNT variable given as 3.

Parameter Description
MFID(1...n) Identification numbers (MFIDs) of the microfunctions that will be used to form
the pressure control macrofunction. See Microfunction Data, 322. All
microfunctions given will be multiplied and the product, scaled by FACTOR, will
be used as the macrofunction input.

Initially Fixed Nodes


This section allows temperature and pressure nodes to be fixed (a fixed node does not change value
during the simulation). To change the fixed/non-fixed classification of temperature nodes as needed see
Nodal Classification Changes, 334. When all data necessary for the thermal simulation has been entered
for Initially Fixed Nodes, 333, enter a dollar sign ($) in column 1 and continue on to Nodal Classification
Changes, 334.

Main Index
334 Patran Thermal User’s Guide Volume 1: Thermal/Hydraulic Analysis
Boundary Conditions

Important:This data is normally generated from PATQ menu pick two and placed in the file
TFIXDAT for fixed temperature nodes and PFIXDAT for fixed pressure nodes.

Fixed Temperature Nodes


TFIX(keyword) TFIX

Example
TFIX 1001
The example declares that node 1001 is a fixed node.

Parameter Description
TFIX Temperature node being designated as fixed.

Fixed Pressure Nodes


PFIX(keyword) PFIX

Example
PFIX 222
PFIX 1001
The example declares that node 222 and 1001 are fixed pressure nodes. The same node can be fixed in
both temperature and pressure. The assignment of fixed temperatures and pressures is problem-
dependent and one has no requirements imposed on the other.

Parameter Description
PFIX Pressure node being designated as fixed.

Nodal Classification Changes


CFIX(keyword) NODE TIME CLASS

This section allows changes to be made to the fixed/non/macrofunction controlled classification of a


node. The classification of a node can be changed as many times as desired. When all data necessary for
the thermal simulation has been entered for Nodal Classification Changes, 334, enter a dollar sign ($) in
column 1 of the input data file and continue on to the next section.

Example
CFIX 1 23.7 2
The example declares that node 1 will change classification at time 23.7 from whatever it was to CLASS
= 2, TMACRO function controlled.

Main Index
Chapter 8: Thermal/Hydraulic Input Deck 335
Boundary Conditions

Parameter Description
NODE Node number to which the classification change is to be made.
TIME Time at which the classification change is to occur.
CLASS New classification value that will be assigned to node NODE at time TIME.
Allowed CLASS values are described below.

0⎯ Nodal temperature is calculated. (This is the default value of all nodes.)

1⎯ Nodal temperature is fixed.

2⎯ Nodal temperature is to be controlled by macrofunctions. See Temperature


Control Macrofunctions, 327. Changing the CLASS code to 2 is one way to turn
on a temperature control macrofunction, while changing the CLASS code to any
other value would cut out the macrofunction. For example, if CLASS is changed
to 1, the nodal temperature would become fixed and the temperature control
macrofunction would be turned off. If a temperature control macrofunction is
assigned to a node in Temperature Control Macrofunctions, 327, QTRAN will
automatically assign a CLASS code of 2 to the node. If necessary, this can be
overridden by changing the classification of the node before the simulation start
time TSTART. See Control Parameters, 236, or by initially fixing the node. See
Initially Fixed Nodes, 333. Each node classification can be changed as often as
desired.

Notice: This data is not generated by Patran or PATQ. Use the system editor to
generate this data. Normally, this data is inserted directly into the QINDAT file.

Initial Globally-Assigned Temperatures, Heat Sources, Mass


Flow Rate, and Variable Gravity Fields
TINITL(keyword) TINITL TSCALE

PINITL(keyword) PINITL

MPIDGH(keyword) MPIDGH MPIDGX MPIDGY MPIDGZ

MGLOBL(keyword) MGLOBL

QGLOBL(keyword) QGLOBL

This section allows the system’s initial temperatures pressures, mass flow rate and/or heat sources to be
globally initialized for convenience only. Assign individual initial nodal temperatures (p. 337) and

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Boundary Conditions

individual constant nodal heat sources in (p. 338). Note that temperature control macrofunctions (Material
Properties, 263) will normally override the TINITL data. Exceptions to this override are listed as follows:

1. The node is declared to be fixed (see Initially Fixed Nodes, 333. In this case, the value given by
TINITL will be assigned to the node until such time as the node’s classification is changed via
Nodal Classification Changes, 334.
2. The node has its classification changed (see Nodal Classification Changes, 334 prior to the start
of the simulation so that the node is fixed (class = 1) or free (class = 0) instead of macrofunction
controlled (class = 2).

Examples
TINITL 247.5 Kelvin
PINITL 101325.0
QGLOBL 0.0

The example assigns a global initial temperature of 247.5 Kelvin to all nodes, an initial pressure of all
hydraulic nodes of 101325.0, and a global per-unit-volume heat source to all nodes of 0.0.

Main Index
Chapter 8: Thermal/Hydraulic Input Deck 337
Boundary Conditions

Parameter Description
TINITL Initial temperature that is globally assigned to all nodes in the system. To define
initial temperatures that vary from node to node, see Individual Assignments of
Initial Temperatures and Pressures, 337.
TSCALE Temperature scale code R, F, C, K, or blank that specifies what units TINITL is
in. If blank, TINITL is assumed to be in the same temperature scale that you
specified in Temperature Scale and Time Units Definition, 230 for ICCALC.
TSCALE is entered on the same data line as TINITL, following TINITL. Only
the first letter of TSCALE is significant.
PINITL Globally assigns an initial pressure PINITL to all the flow network nodes.
MPI DGH Gravity Head material property ID which is used to define a variable gravity
head.
MPIDGX Material property ID which defines the variable gravity field that is aligned with
the x-global axis.
MPIDGY Material property ID which defines the variable gravity field that is aligned with
the y-global axis.
MPIDGZ Material property ID which defines the variable gravity field that is aligned with
the z-global axis.
MGLOBL A globally assigned mass flow rate for the hydraulic network. The mass flow rate
is calculated for the network; however, if an initial estimate of the mass flow rate
is available, it should be input to speed the rate of convergence.
QGLOBL A globally applied constant heat source. This heat source will be applied to every
node in the system on a per-unit-volume basis, and is additive to any
macrofunction defined heat sources that you will define in Heat Source/Sink
Macrofunction Definition, 325. The value entered for QGLOBL will be multiplied
by the volume entered for each nodal capacitance that will be entered in Thermal
Resistor Assignments, 276 (via 1-D automatic mesh generation) or Capacitor
Data, 320 (capacitors) and this product will be used as a nodal heat source
contribution.

Notice: QGLOBL is a PER-UNIT-VOLUME heat source, whereas the individual


nodal heat sources applied by macrofunctions ((p. 325)) or constant heat sources
(p. 335) are not. This data is not generated by Patran or PATQ. Use the system
editor to generate this data. Normally this data is placed directly into the
QINDAT file.

Individual Assignments of Initial Temperatures and Pressures


TEMP(keyword) NODE TEMP TSCALE

PRESS(keyword) NODE PRESS

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338 Patran Thermal User’s Guide Volume 1: Thermal/Hydraulic Analysis
Boundary Conditions

This section allows initial temperatures or pressures to be assigned for individual system nodes
dependent on the keyword. Specify the node number NODE and the initial temperature of the node
TEMP as an ordered pair for each node until all nodes have been entered. If the TSCALE parameter is
not included, the temperature is assumed to be in the units of ICCALC. Pressures are input as a data pair
of node number and pressure with the keyword PRESS. When the data entry for this section has been
completed, enter a dollar sign ($) in Column 1 and proceed to Individual Assignments of Constant Nodal
Heat Sources and Mass Flow Rates, 338.

Important:This data is normally generated by PATQ via menu pick 2 and placed in the file TEMPDAT
for temperature assignments and PRESSDAT for pressure assignments.

Example
TEMP 157 1443.7 Rankine
PRESS 344 17.43

The example assigns a temperature of 1443.7 Rankine to node number 157. A pressure of 17.43 was
assigned to node 344.

Parameter Description
NODE Node number whose temperature is to be initialized.
TEMP Initial temperature being assigned for node number NODE.
TSCALE Temperature scale code R, F, C, K, or blank for TEMP. If blank, TEMP is
assumed to be in the units specified by ICCALC. See Temperature Scale and
Time Units Definition, 230. Only the first character of TSCALE is significant.
NODE Node number whose pressure is to be initialized.
PRESS Initial pressure being assigned for node number NODE.

Individual Assignments of Constant Nodal Heat Sources and


Mass Flow Rates
QBASE(keyword) NODE QVALUE

MDBASE(keyword) NODE MDVALUE

This section allows constant heat sources to be assigned to individual system nodes or mass flow rates to
individual hydraulic nodes. Specify the node number NODE and the constant heat source value
QVALUE or mass flow rate MDVALUE for the node as an ordered pair for each node depending on the
keyword until all such constant nodal data has been entered. When data entry for this section has been
completed, enter a dollar sign ($) in column one and the input data file is finished. Please note that this
section is used only for CONSTANT nodal heat sources. The heat sources applied by this section cannot

Main Index
Chapter 8: Thermal/Hydraulic Input Deck 339
Boundary Conditions

be changed or modified in any way by any other control parameters in the program (although they could
be modified by user-supplied subroutines). The heat source macrofunctions should normally be used for
variable heat sources. See Heat Source/Sink Macrofunction Definition, 325. For cases where constant
nodal heat sources are appropriate, this section is less cumbersome to use than the heat source
macrofunction section, and the CPU requirements are substantially less for this section's data. Heat
sources are additive with any QMACRO function and QGLOBL heat sources that may have been applied
to the same nodes.

Important:If more than one QBASE or MDBASE value is assigned to a node, the values are
summed.This data is normally generated by PATQ via menu pick two and placed in the file
QBASEDAT for heat source assignments and MDBASEDAT for mass flow rate
assignments.

Example
QBASE 15 1443.7
MDBASE 20 0.07

The example assigns a constant heat source of 1443.7 to node number 15 and assigns a constant mass
flow rate of 0.07 to node 20.
.

Parameter Description
NODE Node number which has a constant heat source applied.
QVALUE The constant heat source value.
NODE Node number which has a constant mass flow rate applied.
MDVALUE The constant mass flow rate. Remember that specific weight is used to define
flow rates and internal units conversions are performed for the English system of
units.

Main Index
340 Patran Thermal User’s Guide Volume 1: Thermal/Hydraulic Analysis
Boundary Conditions

Main Index
Chapter 9: Convection Library
Patran Thermal User’s Guide Volume 1: Thermal/Hydraulic Analysis

9 Convection Library

J Convection Configurations 342

Main Index
342 Patran Thermal User’s Guide Volume 1: Thermal/Hydraulic Analysis
Convection Configurations

Convection Configurations
This section is a catalogue of various convection configurations that are available in the QTRAN
program. A configuration is defined here to be a given class of convection correlations and not to be
confused with Patran element configuration codes. For example, forced convection over flat plates would
be one configuration, while natural convection for horizontal cylinders would be another configuration.
There are 31 specific configurations and 6 generic configurations currently in the QTRAN library. There
are 61 separate convection correlations that are used to support these configurations. When selecting a
configuration that is applicable to a given convective resistor, QTRAN automatically selects the
appropriate convection correlation for the calculated parameter range (e.g., Rayleigh number ranges,
Reynolds number ranges, Prandtl number ranges). If no correlation is available for the calculated
parameter range, QTRAN will select the most suitable correlation and print a warning message in the
QOUTDAT file. In most cases, QTRAN will not terminate execution. However, for some correlations,
such as inclined plates, an erroneous plate angle will cause program termination and an error message.
Configurations are selected by specifying the configuration number for the CFIG data entry. See
Convective Resistor Header Data (Ch. 8).

Most convective resistors will have only two nodes. However, some special resistors (e.g., flow through
tubes) require three nodes (i.e., an upstream or entrance node, a downstream or exit node, and a wall
node). These are listed explicitly as node numbers in the configuration description.
There are two classes of properties used as input for the convective resistors. The first class of properties
are geometric properties (GP). These are properties which are not allowed to be temperature-dependent,
and in general are properties such as characteristic lengths, areas, and inclination angles. However, other
properties such as gravitational constants are also defined to be GP properties.
MPID numbers (see MPID Number, Function Type, Temperature Scale, Factor and Label (Ch. 8)) must
be specified for the MPID data entry. See Convective Resistor Material Properties (Ch. 8). The MPID
values identify which material properties are to be used for the resistor.
The convection Loads/BC is explained in Loads and Boundary Conditions Form, 105. The CONV
template format (in the TEMPLATEDAT file) which associates the TID specified in the convection LBC,
with the convection configuration (CFIG), geometric properties (GPs) and appropriate MPIDs is
discussed in CONV Templates, 690.
Convection correlations are listed with each convective configuration. References for each correlation's
source material are provided at the beginning of each correlation's entry.
The following parameter definitions apply to the convection correlations supplied for each convective
configuration. More parameter definitions are available with some of the correlations. A listing of the
available convection configurations is given below:

Main Index
Chapter 9: Convection Library 343
Convection Configurations

Configuration Description
1 Forced Convection, Smooth Isothermal Tubes
2 Smooth Tubes, Constant Heat Flux, Forced Convection
3 Flat Plates, Forced Convection
4 Circular Tube in Cross Flow, Forced Convection
5 Square Tube in Cross Flow, Stagnation Point at Tube Corner, Gas Only, Forced
Convection
6 Square Tube, Cross Flow, Stagnation Point at Mid-Side, Gas Only, Forced
Convection
7 Hexagonal Tube, Cross Flow, Stagnation Point at Edge, Gas Only, Forced
Convection
8 Hexagonal Tube, Cross Flow, Stagnation Point at Mid-Side, Gas Only, Forced
Convection
9 Vertical Plate in Horizontal Flow, Gas Only, Forced Convection
10 Flow Around a Sphere, Gas Only, Forced Convection
11 Flow Around a Sphere, Oil and Water Only, Forced Convection
12 Staggered Tube Banks Consisting of Ten or More Rows, Single Phase Flow,
Forced Convection
13 Isothermal Vertical, Horizontal, or Inclined Flat Plates, Natural Convection
14 Rectangular Blocks, Natural Convection
15 Horizontal Cylinders, Natural Convection
16 Sphere, Natural Convection
17 Enclosed Spaces Between Flat Plates, Natural Convection
18 Annular Space Between Concentric Spheres, Natural Convection
19 Vertical or Inclined Surface, Uniform Heat Flux, Natural Convection
20 Vertical Enclosed Space, Uniform Heat Flux, Natural Convection
21 Combined Natural and Forced Convection in Horizontal Tubes
22 Filmwise Condensation on a Vertical Surface
23 Filmwise Condensation on a Horizontal Tube
24 Pool Boiling
25 Forced Convection Through Packed Beds
26 Generic Natural Convection, H=H(TDIFF)
27 Generic Natural Convection, H=H(Gr, Pr)
28 Generic Forced Convection
29 Generic H Value, H = H(TBAR) or H(time)

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344 Patran Thermal User’s Guide Volume 1: Thermal/Hydraulic Analysis
Convection Configurations

Configuration Description
30 Generic H Value, H = H(TDIFF)
31 Constant H Value
32 Rotating Disk
33 Forced Convection, Smooth Isothermal Tubes
34 Smooth Tubes, Constant Heat Flux, Turbulent Flow, Forced Convection
35 Combined Natural and Forced Convection in Horizontal Tubes
36 Forced Convection Through Packed Beds
37 Contact Resistance with an Interstitial Fluid
38 Generic Forced Convection with Variable Velocity
39 Correlation 63 Generic H Value, H = H(Tb) * GP(2)
40 Generic H Value, H = H(Tb) * GP - Ignore Area
41 Generic Forced Convection with Viscosity Correction
42 Generic Forced Convection with Temperature Correction
43 Local Flat Plate Heating, Forced Convection
44-999 Reserved (not currently used)
1000+ User Supplied

Parameter Definitions
Table 9-1 Symbols

Main Index
Chapter 9: Convection Library 345
Convection Configurations

A = ratio of bed surface area to bed volume. See Correlation 52 Forced Convection
Through a Packed Bed (Ref. 8 in Appendix A), 407 and Correlation 53 Forced
Convection Through a Packed Bed (Ref. 8 in Appendix A), 408.
a = k
diffusivity, --------
-
ρc p

As = surface area.
Cp = constant pressure specific heat.
CSF = experimental constant for Correlation 50 Filmwise Condensation on Horizontal Tube
(Ref. 6 in Appendix A), 403. See Ref. 6 in Appendix A.
D = diameter.
EPSI = fluid/tube void fraction for Correlation 21 Vertical Plate in Horizontal Flow, Forced
Convection (Ref. 6 in Appendix A), 366. See Ref. 6 in Appendix A.
g = gravitational constant.
Go = mass flux. See Correlation 52 Forced Convection Through a Packed Bed (Ref. 8 in
Appendix A), 407 and Correlation 53 Forced Convection Through a Packed Bed
(Ref. 8 in Appendix A), 408.
Gr = 3
( Tw – T∞ )ρ
2
Grashof number, gβL
-----------------------------------------------
2
μ

Gz =
Graetz number, ( Re ) ( Pr ) ⎛⎝ D
----⎞
⎠ L

H = convective heat transfer coefficient.


Hfg = enthalpy of phase change.
k = thermal conductivity of fluid.
Ke = equivalent thermal conductivity of convective region.
L = length.
LMTD = log mean temperature difference.

( ΔT o – ΔT L )
-------------------------------
-
ΔT o
l ⎛ ----------⎞
⎝ ΔT L⎠

( T3 – T2 )
-------------------------
-
T1 T2
l ⎛ ------------------⎞
⎝ T 1 – T 3⎠

μm = viscosity, usually at free-stream temperature.

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346 Patran Thermal User’s Guide Volume 1: Thermal/Hydraulic Analysis
Convection Configurations

μB = viscosity at fluid bulk temperature.

μf = viscosity at film temperature.

μf = viscosity of liquid.

μw = viscosity, usually at wall temperature.

Nu = Nusselt Number, hD
-------
k

f = angle, in radians.
Pr = C μ
p
Prandtl number, ---------
-
k

y = particle shape factor. See Correlation 52 Forced Convection Through a Packed Bed
(Ref. 8 in Appendix A), 407 and Correlation 53 Forced Convection Through a Packed
Bed (Ref. 8 in Appendix A), 408.
Ra = Rayleigh number, Gr Pr.
Re = Reynolds number, ρVD
------------
μ

ρv = density of liquid.

ρv = density of vapor.

S = empirical liquid constant for Correlation 50 Filmwise Condensation on Horizontal


Tube (Ref. 6 in Appendix A), 403
S = 1.0 for water; S = 1.7 for all other liquids.
TB = temperature of bulk fluid.
Tf = temperature of film, average of bulk and wall
Tw = temperature of wall.
ΔTo = T1 - T2
ΔTL = T1 - T3

Main Index
Chapter 9: Convection Library 347
Convection Configurations

Configuration 1
Forced Convection, Smooth Isothermal Tubes
Node Number 1 = tube/element inside wall temperature, T 1 .
2 = fluid entrance temperature, T 2 .
3 = fluid exit temperature, T 3 .
GP* 1 = tube/element inside surface area, A s .
2 = distance from upstream tube/element section to the tube inlet, x=L i .
3 = distance from downstream tube/element section to the tube inlet, x=L f .
4 = tube/element inside diameter, D i .
5 = ·
average fluid velocity, v .
MPID 1 = fluid density, ρ .
2 = fluid absolute viscosity, μ .
3 = fluid specific heat, c P .
4 = fluid thermal conductivity, k.

*GP1 is provided by Patran; GP2 and GP3 can be optionally provided in the Convection Loads/BC
Convection Coefficient input databox.
.

Figure 9-1

Main Index
348 Patran Thermal User’s Guide Volume 1: Thermal/Hydraulic Analysis
Convection Configurations

Correlations for Configuration 1

Correlation 1
Smooth Tubes, Fully Developed Turbulent Flow (Ref. 6 in Appendix A)
(Used for heating the fluid)
μ
0.08 < -------- < 40.0
μw

5.E+03 < Re < 1.25E + 05

2.0 < Pr < 140.0

Evaluate properties at arithmetic mean bulk temperature, except for μ W which is evaluated at the wall
temperature. Use LMTD for calculation of “Q”.

1.0
F = ------------------------------------------------------------------
2
( 1.82 * log 10 ( Re ) – 1.64 )

F8 = F
---
8

μ 0.11
H = ⎛ -----⎞ ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
- ⎛ ------⎞
k F8 * Re * Pr
⎝ D i⎠ 2⁄3 ⎝ μ w⎠
1.07 + 12.7 * F8 * ( Pr – 1.0 )

Q = H * A s * LMTD

Correlation 2
Smooth Isothermal Tubes, Turbulent Flow (Ref. 6 in Appendix A)
(Used for cooling the fluid)
μ
0.08 < ------ < 40.0
μw

5.E + 03 < Re < 1.25E + 05

·
2.0 < Pr < 140.0

Evaluate properties at arithmetic mean bulk temperature, except for μw which is evaluated at the wall
temperature. Use LMTD for calculation of “Q”.

1.0
F = ------------------------------------------------------------------
2
( 1.82 * log 10 ( Re ) – 1.64 )

F
F8 = ---
8

μ 0.25
H = ⎛ -----⎞ ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
- ⎛ ------⎞
k F8 * Re * Pr
⎝ D i⎠ 2⁄3 ⎝ μ w⎠
1.07 + 12.7 * F8 * ( Pr – 1.0 )

Q = H * A s * LMTD

Main Index
Chapter 9: Convection Library 349
Convection Configurations

Correlation 3
Smooth Isothermal Tubes, Laminar Flow (Ref. 6 in Appendix A)
Re < 2000
Evaluate properties at arithmetic mean bulk temperature. Use LMTD to calculate “Q”.
D
3.66 + 0.0668 * ---- * Re * Pr
H = ⎛ -----⎞ -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
k L
-
⎝ D i⎠ 2⁄3
1.0 + 0.04 * ---- * Re * Pr⎞ ⎛ D
⎝L ⎠

Q = H * A s * LMTD

Correlation 4
Liquid Metals, Smooth Tubes, Turbulent Flow (Ref. 6 in Appendix A)
(Re * Pr) > 1000

Use LMTD to calculate “Q”.

H = ⎛ -----⎞ ( 5.0 + 0.025 * ( Re * Pr ) )


k 0.8
⎝ D i⎠

Q = H * A s * LMTD

Correlation 5
Smooth Isothermal Tubes, Turbulent Flow (Ref. 6 in Appendix A)
This equation will be used when other smooth tube, constant wall temperature correlations are out of their
respective Pr and tl number ranges (i.e., 0.05 < Pr < 2.0).
Evaluate properties at mean bulk temperature, with the exception of the wall viscosity. Use LMTD to
calculate “Q”.
1 ⁄ 3 ⎛ μ ⎞ 0.14
H = 0.027 * ⎛ -----⎞ Re
k 0.8
* Pr ⎝ μ ------
⎝ D i⎠ w

Q = H * A s * LMTD

Transitional Region
For Reynolds numbers between 2000 and 5000, a linear interpolation between the laminar and turbulent
functions is used.

Main Index
350 Patran Thermal User’s Guide Volume 1: Thermal/Hydraulic Analysis
Convection Configurations

Configuration 2
Smooth Tubes, Constant Heat Flux, Forced Convection
Node Number 1 = tube/element inside wall temperature, T 1 .
2 = fluid entrance temperature, T 2 .
3 = fluid exit temperature, T 3 .
GP* 1 = tube/element inside surface area, A s .
2 = distance from upstream tube/element section to the tube inlet, x=L i .
3 = distance from downstream tube/element section to the tube inlet, x=L f .
4 = tube/element inside diameter, D i .
5 =
average fluid velocity, v.
MPID 1 = fluid density, ρ .
2 = fluid absolute viscosity, μ .
3 = fluid specific heat, c p .
4 = fluid thermal conductivity, k.

Main Index
Chapter 9: Convection Library 351
Convection Configurations

*GP1 is provided by Patran; GP2 and GP3 can be optionally provided in the Convection Loads/BC
Convection Coefficient input databox.

Figure 9-2

Correlations for Configuration 2

Correlation 6
Liquid Metals, Smooth Tubes, Turbulent Flow, Constant Heat Flux (Ref. 6 in Appendix A)
3.6E + 03 < Re < 9.05E + 05

1E + 02 < (Re *Pr) < 1.E + 04

H = ⎛ -----⎞ * ( 4.82 + 0.0185 * ( Re * Pr )


k 0.827
)
⎝ D i⎠

Q = H * A s * LMTD

Correlation 7
Smooth Tubes, Turbulent Flow, Constant Heat Flux (Ref. 6 in Appendix A)
(2300 < Re)

(0.05 < Pr)

Evaluate properties at arithmetic mean bulk temperature. Use LMTD to calculate “Q”.

1.0
F = ------------------------------------------------------------------
2
( 1.82 * log 10 ( Re ) – 1.64 )

F8 = F
---
8

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352 Patran Thermal User’s Guide Volume 1: Thermal/Hydraulic Analysis
Convection Configurations

H = ⎛ -----⎞ ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
k F8 * Re * Pr
-
⎝ D i⎠ 2⁄3
1.07 + 12.7 * F8 * ( Pr – 1.0 )

Q = H * A s * LMTD

Correlation 8
Smooth Tubes, Laminar Flow, Constant Heat Flux (Rohsenow & Hartnett, Handbook of Heat
Transfer)
(Re < 2300)

Properties are evaluated at arithmetic mean bulk temperature. The h value returned will be an integrated
average of the H values along the tube length. Four sample points will be taken, and an averaging scheme
analogous to Simpson’s 3/8ths rule for integration will then be used. Use the LMTD to calculate “Q”.
X1 is the distance between the upstream end of the tube section and the tube entrance. X2 is the distance
between the downstream end of the tube section and the tube entrance. DXP is one third the length of the
tube section being modeled.

( X2 – X1 )
DXP = --------------------------
3.0

Compute the x-value distances at four sample points. For consistency, the 4 “X” values will be stored in
“XPLUS” variables, i.e. (XPLUS1, XPLUS2, XPLUS3, and XPLUS4). XPLUS1 will be the distance
between the tube entrance and the upstream end of the tube section. XPLUS4 is the distance between the
tube entrance and the downstream end of this tube section. XPLUS2 and XPLUS3 are spaced evenly so
as to divide the tube section being modeled into thirds. Subroutine NUSLT8 will then convert these
distances into the XPLUS values as used in Rohsenow and Hartnett.
XPLUS1 = X1
XPLUS4 = X2
XPLUS2 = XPLUS1 + DXP
XPLUS3 = XPLUS2 + DXP
Compute the h values at the (4) sample points along the tube length.
CALL NUSLT8(H1, K, D, XPLUS1, Re, Pr)
CALL NUSLT8(H2, K, D, XPLUS2, Re, Pr)
CALL NUSLT8(H3, K, D, XPLUS3, Re, Pr)
CALL NUSLT8(H4, K, D, XPLUS4, Re, Pr)
Use a weighted average of the H values along the tube length. The weighting scheme is that used for
Simpson’s 3/8ths rule for integrating ordinary differential equations.
H=(H1+3.0*(H2+H3+H4)*0.125

Main Index
Chapter 9: Convection Library 353
Convection Configurations

Configuration 3
Flat Plates, Forced Convection

Main Index
354 Patran Thermal User’s Guide Volume 1: Thermal/Hydraulic Analysis
Convection Configurations

Node Number 1 = plate/element surface temperature, T 1 .


2 = free-stream fluid temperature, T 2 .
GP* 1 = plate/element surface area, A s /element.
2 = shortest distance from the plate/element’s surface area to the plate’s leading
edge, x=L i .
3 = longest distance from the plate/element’s surface area to the plate’s leading
edge, x=L f .
4 =
free-stream fluid velocity, v.
MPID 1 = fluid density, ρ .
2 = fluid absolute viscosity, μ .
3 = fluid specific heat, c p .
4 = fluid thermal conductivity, k.

*GP1 is provided by Patran; GP2 and GP3 can be optionally provided in the Convection Loads/BC
Convection Coefficient input databox.

Figure 9-3

Correlations for Configuration 3

Correlation 9
Flat Plate Forced Convection, Laminar Flow (Ref. 6 in Appendix A)
Reynolds number is based on plate length. Use T WALL – T FLUID to calculate “Q”.

Main Index
Chapter 9: Convection Library 355
Convection Configurations

H = ⎛ ---⎞ 0.664 * Re * Pr
k 1⁄3
⎝ L⎠

Q = H * A s *B(T w – T f )

Correlation 10
Flat Plate Forced Convection, Turbulent Flow (Ref. 6 in Appendix A)
2.0E+05 < Re < 5.5E+6
0.7 < Pr < 380.0
μ
0.26 < ------ < 3.5
μw

Use for “small” temperature differences. Reynolds number is based on plate length. Use T WALL – T FLUID
to calculate “Q”. Properties are calculated at free stream temperature.

H = ⎛ ---⎞ ( 0.036 * ( Re * Pr
k 0.8 0.43 1⁄3
– 17400.0 ) + 297.0 * Pr )
⎝ L⎠

Q = H * A s *B(T w – T f )

Main Index
356 Patran Thermal User’s Guide Volume 1: Thermal/Hydraulic Analysis
Convection Configurations

Configuration 4
Circular Tube in Cross Flow, Forced Convection
Node Number 1 = tube outside wall temperature, T 1 .
2 = fluid free-stream temperature, T 2 .
GP* 1 = tube/outside surface area, A s .
2 = tube/outside diameter, D.
3 =
fluid free-stream velocity, v.
MPID 1 = fluid density, ρ .
2 = fluid absolute viscosity, μ .
3 = fluid specific heat, c p .
4 = fluid thermal conductivity, k.

*GP1 is provided by Patran; GP2 and GP3 can be optionally provided in the Convection Loads/BC
Convection Coefficient input databox.

Figure 9-4

Correlations for Configuration 4

Correlation 11
Circular Tube in Cross Flow, Forced Convection (Ref. 6 in Appendix A)
0.4 < Re < 4.0)

Reynolds number based upon tube diameter. Used for both gases and liquids.

Main Index
Chapter 9: Convection Library 357
Convection Configurations

H = ⎛ ----⎞ 0.989 * Re
k 0.33 1⁄3
* Pr
⎝ D⎠

Q = H * A s * (T w – T f )

Correlation 12
Circular Tube in Cross Flow, Forced Convection (Ref. 6 in Appendix A)
4.0 < Re < 40.0)

Reynolds number based upon tube diameter. All properties based upon film temperature unless otherwise
noted. Used for both gases and liquids.

H = ⎛ ----⎞ 0.911 * Re
k 0.385 1⁄3
* Pr
⎝ D⎠

Q = H * A s * (T w – T f )

Correlation 13
Circular Tube in Cross Flow, Forced Convection (Ref. 6 in Appendix A)
40.0 < Re < 4000.0)

Reynolds number based upon tube diameter. All properties based upon film temperature unless otherwise
noted. Used for both gases and liquids.

H = ⎛ ----⎞ 0.683 * Re
k 0.486 1⁄3
* Pr
⎝ D⎠

Q = H * A s * (T w – T f )

Correlation 14
Circular Tube in Cross Flow, Forced Convection (Ref. 6 in Appendix A)
( 4000.0 < Re < 40,000.0 )

Reynolds number based upon tube diameter. All properties based upon film temperature unless otherwise
noted. Used for both gases and liquids.

H = ⎛ ----⎞ 0.193 * Re
k 0.618 1⁄3
* Pr
⎝ D⎠

Q = H * A s * (T w – T f )

Correlation 15
Circular Tube in Cross Flow, Forced Convection (Ref. 6 in Appendix A)
(4.0E+04< Re < 4.0E+05)

Reynolds number based upon tube diameter. All properties based upon film temperature unless otherwise
noted. Used for both gases and liquids.

H = ⎛ ----⎞ 0.0266 * Re
k 0.805 1⁄3
* Pr
⎝ D⎠

Main Index
358 Patran Thermal User’s Guide Volume 1: Thermal/Hydraulic Analysis
Convection Configurations

Q = H * A s * (T w – T f )

Configuration 5
Square Tube in Cross Flow, Stagnation Point at Tube Corner, Gas Only, Forced
Convection
Node Number 1 = tube outside wall temperature, T 1 .
2 = gas free-stream temperature, T 2 .
GP* 1 = tubes outside surface area, A s .
2 = length of square tube's diagonal, D.
3 =
gas free-stream velocity, v.
MPID 1 = gas density, ρ .
2 = gas absolute viscosity, μ .
3 = gas specific heat, c p .
4 = gas thermal conductivity, k.

*GP1 is provided by Patran; GP2 and GP3 can be optionally provided in the Convection Loads/BC
Convection Coefficient input databox.

Figure 9-5

Main Index
Chapter 9: Convection Library 359
Convection Configurations

Correlations for Configuration 5

Correlation 16
Square Tube in Cross Flow, Stagnation Point at Corner of Tube, Forced Convection (Ref. 6 in
Appendix A)
(5.0E+03 < Re < 1.0E+05)
Reynolds number based on length of square’s diagonal. All properties based upon film temperature
unless otherwise noted. Used for gases only.

H = ⎛ ----⎞ 0.0246 * Re
k 0.588 1⁄3
* Pr
⎝ D⎠

Q = H * A s * (T w – T f )

Main Index
360 Patran Thermal User’s Guide Volume 1: Thermal/Hydraulic Analysis
Convection Configurations

Configuration 6
Square Tube, Cross Flow, Stagnation Point at Mid-Side, Gas Only, Forced Convection
Node Number 1 = tube outside wall temperature, T 1 .
2 = gas free-stream temperature, T 2 .
GP* 1 = tubes outside surface area, A s .
2 = length of one side of tube’s square, D.
3 =
gas free-stream velocity, v.
MPID 1 = gas density, ρ .
2 = gas absolute viscosity, μ .
3 = gas specific heat, c p .
4 = gas thermal conductivity, k.

*GP1 is provided by Patran; GP2 and GP3 can be optionally provided in the Convection Loads/BC
Convection Coefficient input databox.

Figure 9-6

Correlations for Configuration 6

Correlation 17
Square Tube in Cross Flow, Stagnation Point at Mid-Side, Forced Convection
(Ref. 6 in Appendix A)
(5.0E+03 < Re < 1.0E+05)

Main Index
Chapter 9: Convection Library 361
Convection Configurations

Reynolds number based upon length of one side of square. All properties based upon film temperature
unless otherwise noted. Used for gases only.

H = ⎛ ----⎞ 0.102 * Re
k 0.675 1⁄3
* Pr
⎝ D⎠

Q = H * A s * (T w – T f )

Configuration 7
Hexagonal Tube, Cross Flow, Stagnation Point at Edge, Gas Only, Forced Convection
Node Number 1 = tube outside tube wall temperature, T 1 .
2 = gas free-stream temperature, T 2 .
GP* 1 = tubes outside surface area, A s .
2 = distance between parallel sides, L.
3 =
gas free-stream velocity, v.
MPID 1 = gas density, ρ .
2 = gas absolute viscosity, μ .
3 = gas specific heat, c p .
4 = gas thermal conductivity, k.

*GP1 is provided by Patran; GP2 and GP3 can be optionally provided in the Convection Loads/BC
Convection Coefficient input databox.

Figure 9-7

Main Index
362 Patran Thermal User’s Guide Volume 1: Thermal/Hydraulic Analysis
Convection Configurations

Correlations for Configuration 7

Correlation 18
Hexagonal Tube in Cross Flow, Stagnation Point at Edge, Forced Convection
(Ref. 6 in Appendix A)
(5.0E+03 < Re < 1.0E+05)
Reynolds number based on distance between parallel sides. All properties based upon film temperature
unless otherwise noted. Used for gases only.

H = ⎛ ---⎞ 0.153 * Re
k 0.638 1⁄3
* Pr
⎝ L⎠

Q = H * A s * (T w – T f )

Main Index
Chapter 9: Convection Library 363
Convection Configurations

Configuration 8
Hexagonal Tube, Cross Flow, Stagnation Point at Mid-Side, Gas Only, Forced
Convection
Node Number 1 = tube outside wall temperature, T 1 .
2 = gas free-stream temperature, T 2 .
GP* 1 = tubes outside surface area, A s .
2 = distance between parallel sides, L.
3 =
gas free-stream velocity, v.
MPID 1 = gas density, ρ .
2 = gas absolute viscosity, μ .
3 = gas specific heat, c p .
4 = gas thermal conductivity, k.

*GP1 is provided by Patran; GP2 and GP3 can be optionally provided in the Convection Loads/BC
Convection Coefficient input databox.

Figure 9-8

Main Index
364 Patran Thermal User’s Guide Volume 1: Thermal/Hydraulic Analysis
Convection Configurations

Correlations for Configuration 8

Correlation 19
Hexagonal Tube in Cross Flow, Stagnation Point on One Side, Convection
(Ref. 6 in Appendix A)
(5.0E+03 < Re < 1.95E+04)
Reynolds number based on distance between parallel sides. All properties based upon film temperature
unless otherwise noted. Used for gases only.

H = ⎛ ---⎞ 0.16 * Re
k 0.638 1⁄3
* Pr
⎝ L⎠

Q = H * A s * (T w – T f )

Correlation 20
Hexagonal Tube in Cross Flow, Stagnation Point on One Side, Forced Convection (Ref. 6 in
Appendix A)
(1.95E+04 < Re < 1.0E+05)
Reynolds number based on distance between parallel sides. All properties based upon film temperature
unless otherwise noted. Used for gases only.

H = ⎛ ---⎞ 0.0385 * Re
k 0.782 1⁄3
* Pr
⎝ L⎠

Q = H * A s * (T w – T f )

Main Index
Chapter 9: Convection Library 365
Convection Configurations

Configuration 9
Vertical Plate in Horizontal Flow, Gas Only, Forced Convection
Node Number 1 = plate surface temperature, T 1 .
2 = gas free-stream temperature, T 2 .
GP* 1 = plate/element surface area, A s .
2 = shortest distance from element to plate’s edge, x=L i .
3 = longest distance from element to plate’s edge, x=L f .
4 =
gas free-stream velocity, v.
MPID 1 = gas density, ρ .
2 = gas absolute viscosity, μ .
3 = gas specific heat, c p .
4 = gas thermal conductivity, k.

*GP1 is provided by Patran; GP2 and GP3 can be optionally provided in the Convection Loads/BC
Convection Coefficient input databox.

Figure 9-9

Main Index
366 Patran Thermal User’s Guide Volume 1: Thermal/Hydraulic Analysis
Convection Configurations

Correlations for Configuration 9

Correlation 21
Vertical Plate in Horizontal Flow, Forced Convection (Ref. 6 in Appendix A)
(4.0E+03 < Re < 1.5E+04)
Reynolds number based on height of plate. All properties based upon film temperature unless otherwise
noted. Used for gases only.

H = ⎛ ---⎞ 0.228 * Re
k 0.731 1⁄3
* Pr
⎝ L⎠

Q = H * A s * (T w – T f )

Main Index
Chapter 9: Convection Library 367
Convection Configurations

Configuration 10
Flow Around a Sphere, Gas Only, Forced Convection
Node Number 1 = sphere wall temperature, T 1 .
2 = gas free-stream temperature, T 2 .
GP* 1 = sphere’s surface area, A s .
2 = sphere diameter, D o .
3
= gas free-stream velocity, v.
MPID 1 = gas density, . ρ
2 = gas absolute viscosity, μ .
3 = gas thermal conductivity, k.

*GP1 is provided by Patran; GP2 and GP3 can be optionally provided in the Convection Loads/BC
Convection Coefficient input databox.

Figure 9-10

Correlations for Configuration 10

Correlation 22
Flow Around a Sphere, Forced Convection (Ref. 6 in Appendix A)
(17.0 < Re < 7.0E+05)
Reynolds number based upon sphere diameter. All properties based upon film temperature unless
otherwise noted. Used for gases only.

Main Index
368 Patran Thermal User’s Guide Volume 1: Thermal/Hydraulic Analysis
Convection Configurations

H = ⎛ ------⎞ 0.37 * Re
k 0.6
⎝ D o⎠

Q = H * A s * (T w – T f )

Configuration 11
Flow Around a Sphere, Oil and Water Only, Forced Convection
Node Number 1 = sphere wall temperature, T 1 .
2 = fluid free-stream temperature, T 2 .
GP* 1 = sphere’s surface area, A s .
2 = sphere diameter, D o .
3 =
fluid free-stream velocity, v.
MPID 1 = fluid density, ρ .
2 = fluid absolute viscosity, μ .
3 = fluid specific heat, c p .
4 = fluid thermal conductivity, k.

*GP1 is provided by Patran; GP2 and GP3 can be optionally provided in the Convection Loads/BC
Convection Coefficient input databox.

Figure 9-11

Main Index
Chapter 9: Convection Library 369
Convection Configurations

Correlations for Configuration 11

Correlation 23
Flow Around a Sphere, Forced Convection (Ref. 6 in Appendix A)
(1.0 < Re < 2.0E+05)
Reynolds number based upon sphere diameter. All properties based upon film temperature unless
otherwise noted. Used for oil and water only. μw is the viscosity evaluated at the wall temperature.

0.3 μ 0.25
H = ⎛ ------⎞ ( 1.2 + 0.53 * Re ) *Pr ⎛ ------⎞
k 0.54
⎝ D o⎠ ⎝ μ w⎠

Q = H * A s * (T w – T f )

Main Index
370 Patran Thermal User’s Guide Volume 1: Thermal/Hydraulic Analysis
Convection Configurations

Configuration 12
Staggered Tube Banks Consisting of Ten or More Rows, Single Phase Flow, Forced
Convection
Node Number 1 = tube wall temperatures, T.
2 = fluid free-stream temperatures, T 2 .
GP* 1 = tube's elements outside surface area, A s .
2 = tube outside diameter, D.
3 =
fluid free-stream velocity, v.
4 = void fraction (area of flow with tubes divided by area of flow without tubes).
MPID 1 = fluid density, ρ .
2 = fluid absolute viscosity, μ .
3 = fluid specific heat, c p .
4 = fluid thermal conductivity, k.

*GP1 is provided by Patran; GP2 and GP3 can be optionally provided in the Convection Loads/BC
Convection Coefficient input databox.

Figure 9-12

Main Index
Chapter 9: Convection Library 371
Convection Configurations

Correlations for Configuration 12

Correlation 24
Staggered Tube Banks Consisting of Ten or More Rows, Single Phase Flow, Forced Convection
(Ref. 6 in Appendix A)
100.0 < Re < 1.0E+05
0.7 < Pr < 760.0
μ BULK
0.18 < ---------------- < 4.3
μw

EPSI < 0.65


EPSI = void fraction (area of flow with tubes/area of flow without tubes)

3.0 * ρ * D * ( U average )
Re = ----------------------------------------------------------------------
-
2.0 * μ BULK * ( 1.0 – EPSI )

UAVERAGE = average fluid velocity

Fluid properties evaluated at bulk mean temperature.


μw = viscosity of the fluid at the wall temperature

1 ⁄ 3 μ 0.14
H = ⎛ ----⎞ ( 0.5 * Re + 0.2 * Re ) * Pr ⎛ ------⎞
k 0.5 2⁄3
⎝ D⎠ ⎝ μ w⎠

Q = H * A s * (T w – T f )

Main Index
372 Patran Thermal User’s Guide Volume 1: Thermal/Hydraulic Analysis
Convection Configurations

Configuration 13
Isothermal Vertical, Horizontal, or Inclined Flat Plates, Natural Convection
Node Number 1 = plate surface temperature, T 1 .
2 = fluid temperature, T 2 .
GP* 1 = plate/element's surface area, A s .
2 = for vertical or inclined plates, shortest distance between the plate/element’s
surface area and the plate’s edge where the boundary layer thickness is zero.
For example, on a heated vertical plate exposed to a relatively cooler gas, the
buoyancy driven convective flow will be upward and hence the boundary
layer is of zero thickness at the plate’s bottom edge. You would then enter
the shortest distance between the plate/elements area and the bottom edge of
the plate, ( x=L i ) . For horizontal plates, this value is the surface area divided
by the plate perimeter.
3 = ignored for horizontal plates. For vertical and inclined plates, this is the
longest distance to the plate’s edge where the boundary layer thickness is
zero, x=L f .
4 = plate inclination angle PHI in degrees.
φ = 0 implies the plate is vertical.
φ = 90 implies the plate is horizontal and facing upward.
φ = – 90 implies the plate is horizontal and facing downward.
φ must be between -90 and +90. The only correlation in the library for
inclined plate is for the hot surfaces down or cold surfaces up.
5 =
gravitational constant, g .

MPID 1 = fluid density, ρ .


2 = fluid absolute viscosity, μ .
3 = fluid coefficient of thermal expansion, β .
4 = fluid specific heat, c p .
5 = fluid thermal conductivity, k.

Main Index
Chapter 9: Convection Library 373
Convection Configurations

*GP1 is provided by Patran; GP2 and GP3 can be optionally provided in the Convection Loads/BC
Convection Coefficient input databox.

Figure 9-13

Correlations for Configuration 13

Correlation 25
Isothermal Vertical Plates, Natural Convection (Ref. 6 in Appendix A)
Ra < 1.0E+09
Rayleigh number based upon plate height.
All properties based upon film temperature.

⎛ ⎞
k ⎜ 0.25 ⎟
H = ⎛ ---⎞ ⎜ 0.68 + ---------------------------------------------------------
0.670 * Ra
- ⎟
⎝ L⎠ ⎜ 9 ⁄ 16 4 ⁄ 9

1.0 + ⎛ -------------⎞
0.492
⎝ ⎝ Pr ⎠ ⎠

Q = H * A s * (T w – T f )

Correlation 26
Isothermal Vertical Plates, Natural Convection (Ref. 6 in Appendix A)
1.E+09 < Ra
Rayleigh number based upon plate height.
All properties based upon film temperature.

Main Index
374 Patran Thermal User’s Guide Volume 1: Thermal/Hydraulic Analysis
Convection Configurations

⎛ ⎞2
⎜ 1⁄6 ⎟
H = ⎛ ---⎞ ⎜ 0.825 + ------------------------------------------------------------⎟
k 0.387 * Ra
⎝ L⎠ ⎜ 9 ⁄ 16 8 ⁄ 27

1.0 + ⎛ -------------⎞
0.492
⎝ ⎝ Pr ⎠ ⎠

Q = H * A s * (T w – T f )

Correlation 27
Hot Horizontal Plate Facing Upward (or Cold Horizontal Plate Facing Downward), Natural
Convection (Ref. 6 in Appendix A)
2.6E+04 < Ra < 1.0E+07
L = surface area / perimeter
All properties based upon film temperature.

H = ⎛ ---⎞ 0.54 * Ra
k 0.25
⎝ L⎠

Q = H * A s * (T w – T f )

Correlation 28
Hot Horizontal Plate Facing Upward (or Cold Horizontal Plate Facing Downward), Natural
Convection (Ref. 6 in Appendix A)
1.0E+07 < Ra < 3.0E+10
L = surface area / perimeter
All properties based upon film temperature.

H = ⎛ ---⎞ 0.15 * Ra
k 1⁄3
⎝ L⎠

Q = H * A s * (T w – T f )

Correlation 29
Hot Horizontal Plate Facing Downward (or Cold Horizontal Plate Facing Upward), Natural
Convection (Ref. 6 in Appendix A)
3.0E+05 < Ra < 3.0E+10
L = surface area / perimeter
All properties based upon film temperature.

H = ⎛ ---⎞ 0.27 * Ra
k 0.25
⎝ L⎠

Q = H * A s * (T w – T f )

Correlation 30
Inclined Surfaces, Natural Convection (Hot Surface Facing Downward or Cold Surface Facing
Upward) (Ref. 6 in Appendix A)
1.0E+05 < Ra * COS(φ ) < 1.0E+11

Main Index
Chapter 9: Convection Library 375
Convection Configurations

L = plate length
φ = angle of plate inclination from the vertical
All properties based upon film temperature. For laminar regions, use correlations
(Ref. 6 in Appendix A). Extend correlation using the vertical surface correlations
(Ref. 14 in Appendix A).

H = ⎛ ---⎞ 0.56 ( Ra * cos ( φ ) )


k 0.25
⎝ L⎠

Note: the first if statement below should be put with the above equation and then everything lined up
and this statement deleted. I don’t know how to do that.
if Ra * cos ( φ ) < 3.1E9
H = ⎛ ---⎞ 0.021 ( Ra * cos ( φ ) )
k 0.4
⎝ L⎠ if Ra * cos ( φ ) ≥ 3.1E9

Q = H * A s * (T w – T f )

Configuration 14
Rectangular Blocks, Natural Convection

Main Index
376 Patran Thermal User’s Guide Volume 1: Thermal/Hydraulic Analysis
Convection Configurations

Node Number 1 = block surface temperature, T 1 .


2 = fluid temperature, T 2 .

GP* 1 = block’s surface area, A s .


2 =
gravitational constant, g .

3 = characteristic length L, where:

LH * LV
L = ----------------------
LH + LV

L = F(LH * LV,LH + LV)


and:
LH = the longer of the two horizontal dimensions.
LV = the vertical dimension.
MPID 1 = fluid density, ρ .
2 = fluid absolute viscosity, μ .
3 = fluid coefficient of thermal expansion, β .
4 = fluid specific heat, c p .
5 = fluid thermal conductivity, k.

*GP1 is provided by Patran.

Figure 9-14

Main Index
Chapter 9: Convection Library 377
Convection Configurations

Correlations for Configuration 14

Correlation 31
Rectangular Blocks, Natural Convection (Ref. 6 in Appendix A)
1.0E+04 < Ra < 1.0E+09
LH * LV
L = ----------------------
LH + LV

LH = the longer of the two horizontal dimensions.


LV = the vertical dimension.
All properties based upon film temperature.

= ⎛ ---⎞ * 0.55 * Ra
k 0.25
H
⎝ L⎠

Q = H * A s * (T w – T f )

Main Index
378 Patran Thermal User’s Guide Volume 1: Thermal/Hydraulic Analysis
Convection Configurations

Configuration 15
Horizontal Cylinders, Natural Convection
Node Number 1 = cylinder outside surface temperature, T 1 .
2 = fluid free-stream temperature, T 2 .
GP* 1 = cylinder’s outside surface area, A s .
2 =
gravitational constant, g .

3 = cylinder outside diameter, D.


MPID 1 = fluid density, ρ .
2 = fluid absolute viscosity, μ .
3 = fluid coefficient of thermal expansion, β .
4 = fluid specific heat, c p .
5 = fluid thermal conductivity, k.

*GP1 is provided by Patran.

Figure 9-15

Correlations for Configuration 15

Correlation 32
Horizontal Cylinders, Natural Convection (Ref. 6 in Appendix A)
1.0E+04 < Ra < 1.0E+09

Main Index
Chapter 9: Convection Library 379
Convection Configurations

D = cylinder diameter
All properties based upon film temperature.
1---
= ⎛ ----⎞ * 0.53 * Ra
k 3
H
⎝ D⎠

Q = H * A s * (T w – T f )

Correlation 33
Horizontal Cylinders, Natural Convection (Ref. 6 in Appendix A)
1.0E+09 < Ra < 1.0E+12
D = cylinder diameter
All properties based upon film temperature.

= ⎛ ----⎞ * 0.13 * Ra
k 1⁄3
H
⎝ D⎠

Q = H * A s * (T w – T f )

Main Index
380 Patran Thermal User’s Guide Volume 1: Thermal/Hydraulic Analysis
Convection Configurations

Configuration 16
Sphere, Natural Convection
Node Number 1 = sphere surface temperature, T 1 .
2 = fluid free-stream temperature, T 2 .
GP* 1 = sphere’s surface area, A s .
2 =
gravitational constant, g .

3 = sphere diameter, D.
MPID 1 = fluid density, ρ .
2 = fluid absolute viscosity, μ .
3 = fluid coefficient of thermal expansion, β .
4 = fluid specific heat, c p .
5 = fluid thermal conductivity, k.

*GP1 is provided by Patran.

Figure 9-16

Correlations for Configuration 16

Correlation 34
Sphere, Natural Convection (Ref. 6 in Appendix A)
1.0E+00 < Ra < 1.0E+05
D. = sphere diameter
All properties based upon film temperature.

H = ⎛ ----⎞ * ( 2.0 + 0.43 * Ra )


k 0.25
⎝ D⎠

Main Index
Chapter 9: Convection Library 381
Convection Configurations

Q = H * A s * (T w – T f )

Main Index
382 Patran Thermal User’s Guide Volume 1: Thermal/Hydraulic Analysis
Convection Configurations

Configuration 17
Enclosed Spaces Between Flat Plates, Natural Convection
Node Number 1 = top plate, low or surface temperature, T 1 .
2 = bottom plate, upper surface temperature, T 2 .
GP* 1 = plate/element’s surface area that is exposed to the enclosed space, A s .
2 = enclosed space inclination angle PHI in degrees.
φ = 0 implies that the enclosed space is horizontal.

φ = + or -90 implies that the space is vertical.


3 =
gravitational constant, g .

4 = length of the enclosed space, L.


5 = distance between the flat plates, D.
MPID 1 = fluid density, ρ .
2 = fluid absolute viscosity, μ .
3 = fluid coefficient of thermal expansion, β .
4 = fluid specific heat, c p .
5 = fluid thermal conductivity, k.

*GP1 is provided by Patran.

Figure 9-17

Main Index
Chapter 9: Convection Library 383
Convection Configurations

Correlations for Configuration 17

Correlation 35
Enclosed Vertical Space, Natural Convection (Ref. 2 in Appendix A)
2.0E+04 < Gr < 2.0E+05
L = plate height
D = space between plates (normal distance)
Gr number based upon D
All properties based upon average of surface temperatures.
T1 – T2
Definition: ----- = Ke * ⎛ ------------------⎞
Q
As ⎝ D ⎠

0.25 ⎛ D⎞ 1 ⁄ 9
Ke = 0.18 * k * Gr ----
⎝ L⎠

Correlation 36
Enclosed Vertical Space, Natural Convection (Ref. 7 in Appendix A)
2.0E+05 < Gr < 1.1E+07
L = plate height
D = space between plates (normal distance)
Gr number based upon D
All properties based upon average of surface temperatures.
T1 – T2
Definition: ----- = Ke * ⎛ ------------------⎞
Q
As ⎝ D ⎠

1 ⁄ 3 ⎛ D⎞ 1 ⁄ 9
Ke = 0.065 * k * Gr ----
⎝ L⎠

Correlation 37
Enclosed Horizontal Space, Natural Convection, Hot Plate on Bottom, Cold Plate on Top, (Ref. 6
in Appendix A)
6.0E+06 < Ra < 1.0E+08
D = space between plates (normal distance)
Ra number based upon D
All properties based upon average of surface temperatures.
T1 – T2
Definition: ----- = Ke * ⎛ ------------------⎞
Q
As ⎝ D ⎠

Ke = ⎛ ----⎞ 0.104 * Ra
k 0.305 0.084
* Pr
⎝ D⎠

Main Index
384 Patran Thermal User’s Guide Volume 1: Thermal/Hydraulic Analysis
Convection Configurations

Correlation 38
Enclosed Horizontal Space, Natural Convection, Cold Plate on Bottom, Hot Plate on Top, (Ref. 6
in Appendix A)
0 < Gr < 2000
All proprieties based upon average of surface temperatures.

H = ⎛ ----⎞
k
⎝ D⎠

Q = H * A s * (T w – T f )

Correlation 39
Inclined Spaces Between Flat Plates, Natural Convection, Hot Plate on Top and Cold Plate on
Bottom, (Ref. 6 in Appendix A)
0.0 < φ < 90.0
1.0E+03 < Ra < 1.0E+06
2.0E+04 < Gr < 2.0E+05
φ = angle inclined from the horizontal.
Ra number based on D.
Gr number based on D.
D = distance between plates.
L = length of plates.
All properties based upon average of plate temperatures.
T1 – T2
Definition: ----- = Ke * ⎛ ------------------⎞
Q
As ⎝ D ⎠

0.25 D 1 ⁄ 9
Ke = k * 1.0 + ⎛ 0.18 * Gr ⎛ ----⎞ – 1.0⎞ SIN ( ABS ( φ ) )
⎝ ⎝ L⎠ ⎠

Correlation 40
Inclined Spaces Between Flat Plates, Natural Convection Hot Plate on Top and Cold Plate on
Bottom, (Ref. 6 in Appendix A)
0.0 < Ra < 1.0E+06
2.0E+05 < Gr < 1.1E+07
φ = angle inclined from the horizontal.
Ra number based on D.
Gr number based on D.
D = distance between plates.
L = length of plates.

Main Index
Chapter 9: Convection Library 385
Convection Configurations

All properties based upon average of plate temperatures.


T1 – T2
Definition: ----- = Ke * ⎛ ------------------⎞
Q
As ⎝ D ⎠

1⁄3 D 1⁄9
Ke = k * 1.0 + ⎛ 0.065 * Gr ⎛ ----⎞ – 1.0⎞ SIN ( ABS ( φ ) )
⎝ ⎝ L⎠ ⎠

Main Index
386 Patran Thermal User’s Guide Volume 1: Thermal/Hydraulic Analysis
Convection Configurations

Configuration 18
Annular Space Between Concentric Spheres, Natural Convection
Node Number 1 = outer sphere surface temperature, T 1 .
2 = inner sphere surface temperature, T 2 .
GP* 1 = surface area, of inner diameter of larger sphere, A s .
2 = radius at the location of the resistor surface area.
3 = gap (distance between spheres), D.
4 = radius of the inner sphere, R i .
5 =
gravitational constant, g .

MPID 1 = fluid density, ρ .


2 = fluid absolute viscosity, μ .
3 = fluid coefficient of thermal expansion, β .
4 = fluid specific heat, c p .
5 = fluid thermal conductivity, k.

Main Index
Chapter 9: Convection Library 387
Convection Configurations

*GP1 is provided by Patran; GP2 and GP3 can be optionally provided in the Convection Loads/BC
Convection Coefficient input databox.

Figure 9-18

Correlations for Configuration 18

Correlation 41
Annular Space Between Concentric Spheres, Natural Convection (Ref. 6 in Appendix A)
1.2E+02 < Ra < 1.1E+09
0.7 < Pr < 4148.0
D = distance between spheres (difference in radii)
Ro = outer radius = R i + D

Ri = inner radius

As = Surface Area

Qs = Surface Heat Flex

Main Index
388 Patran Thermal User’s Guide Volume 1: Thermal/Hydraulic Analysis
Convection Configurations

4
g * β * D * ρ * ( T1 – T2 )
Ra = ------------------------------------------------------------------- * ⎛ -----⎞
D
μ α Ri ⎝ R i⎠

All properties based on average of surface temperatures.


T1 – T2
Definition: ----- = Ke * ⎛ ------------------⎞
Q
As ⎝ D ⎠

T1 – T2
Q = 4 * π * Ke * R i * R o * ------------------
Ro – Ri

0.226
Ke = k * 0.228 * Ra

Qs
H = -----------------------------------
-
As * ( T1 – T2 )

Q = H * A s * (T 1 – T 2 )

Main Index
Chapter 9: Convection Library 389
Convection Configurations

Configuration 19
Vertical or Inclined Surface, Uniform Heat Flux, Natural Convection
Node Number 1 = plate surface temperature, T 1 .
2 = fluid free-stream temperature, T 2 .
GP* 1 = plate/element’s surface area, A s .
2 = shortest distance between plate/element’s surface area and the surface edge
whose boundary layer thickness is zero, x=L i
3 = longest distance between plate/element’s surface area and the surface edge
whose boundary layer thickness is zero, x=L f .
4 = plate inclination angle φ in degrees from the horizontal. The value of φ must
be such that 0 < φ < 90, inclusive.
5 =
gravitational constant, g .

6 = estimated applied heat flux. QTRAN will constantly update this value to
reflect the actual heat flux applied to the surface. QTRAN will use your input
value only as an initial guess at the heat flux. Zero is an allowed guess, q.
MPID 1 = fluid density, ρ .
2 = fluid absolute viscosity, μ .
3 = fluid coefficient of thermal expansion, β .
4 = fluid specific heat, c p .
5 = fluid thermal conductivity, k.

Main Index
390 Patran Thermal User’s Guide Volume 1: Thermal/Hydraulic Analysis
Convection Configurations

*GP1 is provided by Patran; GP2 and GP3 can be optionally provided in the Convection Loads/BC
Convection Coefficient input databox.

Figure 9-19

Correlations for Configuration 19

Correlation 42
Uniform Heat Flux, Vertical and Inclined Surface, Natural Convection
(Ref. 6 in Appendix A)
1.0E+05 < Ra < 1.0E+11
Ra number based on L.
L = plate length, in boundary layer flow direction.
φ = plate angle from the horizontal.
4
g * β * ρ * L * Q-
Ra = ----------------------------------------------
k * μ * α * As

All properties based on film temperatures.

H = ⎛ ---⎞ * 0.60 * [ Ra * SIN ( φ ) ]


k 0.20
⎝ L⎠

Q = H * A s * (T w – T f )

Correlation 43
Uniform Heat Flux, Vertical and Inclined Surface, Natural Convection
(Ref. 6 in Appendix A)
2.0E+13 < Ra < 1.0E+16

Main Index
Chapter 9: Convection Library 391
Convection Configurations

Ra number based on L.
L = plate length, in boundary layer flow direction.
φ = plate angle from the horizontal.
4
Ra = g * β * ρ * L * Q-
----------------------------------------------
k * μ * α * As

All properties based on film temperatures.

H = ⎛ ---⎞ * 0.568 [ Ra * SIN ( φ ) ]


k 0.22
⎝ L⎠

Q = H * A s * (T w – T f )

Main Index
392 Patran Thermal User’s Guide Volume 1: Thermal/Hydraulic Analysis
Convection Configurations

Configuration 20
Vertical Enclosed Space, Uniform Heat Flux, Natural Convection
Node Number 1 = plate 1’s surface temperature (arbitrary), T 1 .
2 = plate 2’s surface temperature (arbitrary), T 2 .
GP* 1 = plate/element’s surface area that is exposed to the enclosed space, A s .
2 =
gravitational constant, g .

3 = perpendicular distance between plates, D.


4 = height of the enclosed space, L c .
5 = estimated applied heat flux. QTRAN will constantly update this value to
reflect the actual heat flux applied to the surface. QTRAN will use your input
value only as an initial guess at the heat flux q. Zero is an allowed guess.
MPID 1 = fluid density, ρ .
2 = fluid absolute viscosity, μ .
3 = fluid coefficient of thermal expansion, β .
4 = fluid specific heat, c p .

5 = fluid thermal conductivity, k.

Main Index
Chapter 9: Convection Library 393
Convection Configurations

*GP1 is provided by Patran.

Figure 9-20

Correlations for Configuration 20

Correlation 44
Uniform Heat Flux, Vertical Enclosed Space, Natural Convection (Ref. 6 in Appendix A)
1.0E+04 < Ra < 3.0E+06
1.0 < Pr < 2.0E+04

10.0 < ----


L -c < 40.0
D

Lc = space height.

D = distance between plates.


Ra number based on D.
All properties based on average of surface temperatures.
T1 – T2
Definition: ----- = Ke * ⎛ ------------------⎞
Q
As ⎝ D ⎠

D 0.30
* ⎛ -----⎞
0.25 0.012
Ke = k * 0.42 * Ra * Pr
⎝ L c⎠

Main Index
394 Patran Thermal User’s Guide Volume 1: Thermal/Hydraulic Analysis
Convection Configurations

Correlation 45
Uniform Heat Flux, Vertical Enclosed Space, Natural Convection (Ref. 6 in Appendix A)
1.0E+06 < Ra < 1.0E+09
1.0 < Pr < 20.0

1.0 < ----


L -c < 40.0
D

Lc = space height.

D = distance between plates.


Ra number based on D.
All properties based on average of surface temperatures.
T1 – T2
Definition: ----- = Ke * ⎛ ------------------⎞
Q
As ⎝ D ⎠

1§3
Ke = k * 0.046 * Ra

Main Index
Chapter 9: Convection Library 395
Convection Configurations

Configuration 21
Combined Natural and Forced Convection in Horizontal Tubes
Node Number 1 = tube/element inside wall temperature, T 1 .
2 = fluid entrance temperature, T 2 .
3 = fluid exit temperature, T 3 .
GP* 1 = tube/element’s surface area on inside of tube, A s .
2 = shortest distance between element’s fluid exit area and the tube inlet, x=L i .
3 = longest distance between element’s fluid exit area and the tube inlet, x=L f .
4 =
gravitational constant, g .

5 =
average fluid velocity, v.
6 = tube inside diameter, D.
MPID 1 = fluid density, ρ .
2 = fluid absolute viscosity, μ .
3 = fluid coefficient of thermal expansion, β .
4 = fluid specific heat, c p .

5 = fluid thermal conductivity, k.

Main Index
396 Patran Thermal User’s Guide Volume 1: Thermal/Hydraulic Analysis
Convection Configurations

*GP1 is provided by Patran; GP2 and GP3 can be optionally provided in the Convection Loads/BC
Convection Coefficient input databox.

Figure 9-21

Correlations for Configuration 21

Correlation 46
Combined Natural and Forced Convection In Horizontal Tubes, Laminar Flow
(Ref. 6 in Appendix A)
Gr
--------- >> 1.0
2
Re

Gr number based on D.
D = tube diameter.
D
Gz = Graetz number = Re * Pr * -----
Lc

μB = viscosity evaluated at fluid bulk temperature.

μw = viscosity evaluated at wall temperature.

All properties evaluated at film temperature.


μ B⎞ 0.14
1⁄3 4⁄3 1⁄3
H = ⎛ ----⎞ *1.75 * ⎛ -----
k
- * [ Gz + 0.012 * ( Gz * Gr ) ]
⎝ D⎠ ⎝ μ w⎠

Q = H * A s * LMTD

Main Index
Chapter 9: Convection Library 397
Convection Configurations

Correlation 47
Combined Natural and Forced Convection In Horizontal Tubes, Turbulent Flow
(Ref. 6 in Appendix A)
Gr
--------- ( << 1.0 )
2
Re

Gr number based on D.
D = tube diameter.

Lc = tube length.

All properties evaluated at film temperature.

0.07 D 0.36
H = ⎛ ----⎞ *4.69 * Re * Gr ⎛ -----⎞
k 0.27 0.21
* Pr
⎝ D⎠ ⎝ L c⎠

Q = H * A s * LMTD

Main Index
398 Patran Thermal User’s Guide Volume 1: Thermal/Hydraulic Analysis
Convection Configurations

Configuration 22
Filmwise Condensation on a Vertical Surface
Node Number 1 = plate/element surface temperature, T 1 .
2 = vapor temperature, T 2 .
GP* 1 = plate/element’s surface area, A s .
2 = shortest distance between plate/element’s surface area and the top edge of
the vertical surface, x=L i .
3 = longest distance between plate/element’s surface area and the top edge of the
vertical surface, x=L f .
4 = wetted perimeter of plate/element surface, p.
5 = mass flow rate of condensate, M DOT .
6 =
gravitational constant, g .

7 = vapor saturation temperature, T sat .


MPID 1 = liquid density, ζ l
2 = vapor density, ζν
3 = liquid absolute viscosity, μ l
4 = phase change enthalpy, h fg ,
5 = liquid thermal conductivity, kl

Main Index
Chapter 9: Convection Library 399
Convection Configurations

*GP1 is provided by Patran; GP2 and GP3 can be optionally provided in the Convection Loads/BC
Convection Coefficient input databox.

Figure 9-22

Correlations for Configuration 22

Correlation 48
Filmwise Condensation on Vertical Surface, Horizontal Tubes, Turbulent Flow
(Ref. 6 in Appendix A)
Re < 1800
M DOT
= ρ * U * --- = 4 * ⎛ ---------------⎞
L
Re
μ ⎝ P * μ⎠

Main Index
400 Patran Thermal User’s Guide Volume 1: Thermal/Hydraulic Analysis
Convection Configurations

ρ Liquid density.
l
U Average film velocity.
L cross-sectional area
4 * -----------------------------------------------
wetted perimeter

μ Liquid viscosity.
l

M DOT Mass rate of condensate flow.


P Wetted perimeter.
k Liquid conductivity.
l
h fg Enthalpy of phase change.
Gravitational constant.
g

L Surface height.
ρV Vapor density.
T sat Saturation temperature.

Tw Wall temperature.

4 3 ρ * ( ρ – ρ v ) * g * h fg 0.25
H = --- * k * ---------------------------------------------------------------
3 4.0 * μ * ( T sat – T w ) * L

Q = H * A s * (T 1 – T 2 )

Correlation 49
Filmwise Condensation on Vertical Surface, Turbulent Flow (Ref. 6 in Appendix A )
(1800. < Re)
M DOT
Re = ρ * U * --- = 4 * ⎛ ---------------⎞
L
μ ⎝ P * μ⎠

ρ Liquid density.
l
U Average film velocity.
L cross-sectional area
4 * -----------------------------------------------
wetted perimeter

μ Liquid viscosity.
l

M DOT Mass rate of condensate flow.

Main Index
Chapter 9: Convection Library 401
Convection Configurations

P Wetted perimeter.
k Liquid conductivity.
l

h fg Enthalpy of phase change.


Gravitational constant.
g

L Surface height.
ρV Vapor density.
T sat Saturation temperature.

Tw Wall temperature.

3 1⁄3
0.4 k * ρ * ( ρ – ρv ) * g
H = 0.0077 * Re * ---------------------------------------------------
2
-
μ

Q = H * A s * (T 1 – T 2 )

Main Index
402 Patran Thermal User’s Guide Volume 1: Thermal/Hydraulic Analysis
Convection Configurations

Configuration 23
Filmwise Condensation on a Horizontal Tube
Node Number 1 = tube/element outside wall temperature, T 1 .
2 = vapor temperature, T 2 .
GP* 1 = tube/elements outside surface area A s .
2 =
gravitational constant, g .

3 = vapor saturation temperature, T sat .


4 = tube outside diameter, D o .
MPID 1 = liquid density, ρ l
2 = vapor density, ρ
v

3 = liquid absolute viscosity, μ l


4 = phase change enthalpy, h fg
5 = liquid thermal conductivity, kl

*GP1 is provided by Patran.

Figure 9-23

Main Index
Chapter 9: Convection Library 403
Convection Configurations

Correlations for Configuration 23

Correlation 50
Filmwise Condensation on Horizontal Tube (Ref. 6 in Appendix A)

Main Index
404 Patran Thermal User’s Guide Volume 1: Thermal/Hydraulic Analysis
Convection Configurations

k Liquid conductivity.
l

ρ Liquid density.
l

ρV Vapor density.
g Gravitational constant.
h fg Enthalpy of phase change.
μ Liquid viscosity.
l

T sat Saturation temperature.

Tw Wall temperature.

Do Tube diameter.

H k l *ρ * ( ρ – ρ v ) * g * h fg 0.25
0.73 * ------------------------------------------------------------------
μ * ( T sat – T w ) * Do

Q H * A s * (T 1 – T 2 )

Main Index
Chapter 9: Convection Library 405
Convection Configurations

Configuration 24
Pool Boiling
Node Number 1 = inside wall temperature, T 1 .
2 = fluid temperature, T 2 .
GP* 1 = liquid contact surface area, A s .
2 = CSF (experimental constant).
Pool Boiling Liquid/Surface Combination Factor

Surface Combination CSF


Water-Nickel 0.0060
Water-Platinum 0.0130
Water-Copper 0.0130
Water-Brass 0.0060
CC1[4]-Copper 0.0130
Benzene-Chromium 0.0100
n-pentane-Chromium 0.0150
Ethyl alcohol-Chromium 0.0027
Isopropyl alcohol-Copper 0.0025
35% K[2]CO[3]-Copper 0.0054
50% K[2]CO[3]-Copper 0.0027
-butyl alcohol-Copper 0.0030
3 = S (liquid constant).
S[water] = 1.0
S[other liquids] = 1.7
4 = saturation temperature, T sat .
MPID 1 = liquid specific heat, c ρ l
2 = phase change enthalpy, h fs .
3 = liquid absolute viscosity, μ l
4 =
liquid surface tension, vl
5 = liquid density, ρ l
6 = vapor density, ρ ν
7 = liquid thermal conductivity kl

*GP1 is provided by Patran.

Correlations for Configuration 24

Correlation 51

Main Index
406 Patran Thermal User’s Guide Volume 1: Thermal/Hydraulic Analysis
Convection Configurations

Pool Boiling (Ref. 6 in Appendix A)


Cp Specific heat of liquid.
l

h fg Enthalpy of phase change.


CSF Experimental constant (see Ref. 6 in Appendix A).
μ Liquid viscosity.
l
σ Surface tension at vapor-liquid interface.
S Liquid constant; 1.0 for water; 1.7 for all other liquids.
T sat Saturation temperature.

Tw Wall temperature.

Q H * A* (T w – T sat )

DIFF ABS(T w – T sat )

⎛ C pl * DIFF ⎞ 3 μ l * h fg
H = ⎜ --------------------------------------
-⎟ * ------------------------------------------------
σ -
⎝ h fg * Pr * CSF⎠ s
l
DIFF * --------------------------
( ρl – ρv )

Q = H * A s * B(T 1 – T 2 )

Figure 9-24

Main Index
Chapter 9: Convection Library 407
Convection Configurations

Configuration 25
Forced Convection Through Packed Beds
Node Number 1 = bed temperature, T 1 .
2 = fluid entrance temperature, T 2 .
3 = fluid exit temperature, T 3 .
GP* 1 = bed surface area, A s .
2 = ratio of bed surface area to bed volume, A.
3 = mass flux (mass flow/unit cross-sectional area of bed), G o .
4 = particle shape factor, ψ .
MPID 1 = fluid absolute viscosity, μ .
2 = fluid specific heat, C p .
3 = fluid thermal conductivity, k.

*GP1 is provided by Patran; GP2 can be optionally provided in the Convection Loads/BC Convection
Coefficient input databox.

Figure 9-25

Correlations for Configuration 25

Correlation 52
Forced Convection Through a Packed Bed (Ref. 8 in Appendix A)
(Re < 50)

Main Index
408 Patran Thermal User’s Guide Volume 1: Thermal/Hydraulic Analysis
Convection Configurations

Cp Fluid specific heat at bulk temperature.


Go Mass flux rate.
A ratio = surface area/volume of bed
y Particle shape factor, as follows:

1.00 (spheres)
0.91 (cylinders)
0.86 (flakes)
0.79 (raschig rings)
0.67 (partition rings)
0.80 (berl saddles)
μ FILM Absolute viscosity at film temperature.
Pr Prandtl number at film temperature.
Re
Go
Reynolds number = -----------------------------------------
-
( A * μ FILM * ψ )

H 0.91 * ψ * C p G o
---------------------------------------------
0.51 2⁄3
Re * Pr

Q = H * A s * LMTD

Correlation 53
Forced Convection Through a Packed Bed (Ref. 8 in Appendix A)
(Re > 50)

Main Index
Chapter 9: Convection Library 409
Convection Configurations

Cp Fluid specific heat at bulk temperature.


Go Mass flux rate.
A ratio = surface area/volume of bed
y Particle shape factor, as follows:

1.00 (spheres)
0.91 (cylinders)
0.86 (flakes)
0.79 (raschig rings)
0.67 (partition rings)
0.80 (berl saddles)
μ FILM Absolute viscosity at film temperature.
Pr Prandtl number at film temperature.
Re Go
Reynolds number = --------------------------------------------
-
( A * μ FILM * ψ )

H 0.61 * ψ * C p G o
---------------------------------------------
0.41 2⁄3
Re * Pr

Q H * A s * LMTD

Configuration 26
Generic Natural Convection, H=H(TDIFF)
Node Number 1 = element surface temperature, T 1 .
2 = fluid temperature, T 2 .
GP* 1 = element’s surface area, A s .
2 = generic convection correlation coefficient, GP (2).
3 = generic convection correlation exponent, GP (3).
MPID (Not used)

Main Index
410 Patran Thermal User’s Guide Volume 1: Thermal/Hydraulic Analysis
Convection Configurations

*GP1 is provided by Patran.

Figure 9-26

Correlations for Configuration 26

Correlation 54
Generic Natural Convection
H=GP(2) * ABS(T 1 – T2)GP 3

Q = H * As* (T1 – T2 )

Main Index
Chapter 9: Convection Library 411
Convection Configurations

Configuration 27
Generic Natural Convection, H=H(Gr, Pr)
Node Number 1 = element surface temperature, T 1 .
2 = fluid temperature, T 2 .
GP* 1 = element’s surface area, A s .
2 =
gravitational constant, g .

3 = characteristic length, L c .
4 = coefficient for convective equation, GP (4).
5 = Grashoff number exponent, GP (5).
6 = Prandtl number exponent, GP (6).
MPID 1 = fluid density, ρ .
2 = fluid absolute viscosity, μ .
3 = fluid coefficient of expansion, β .
4 = fluid specific heat, C p .
5 = fluid thermal conductivity, k.

*GP1 is provided by Patran.

Figure 9-27

Main Index
412 Patran Thermal User’s Guide Volume 1: Thermal/Hydraulic Analysis
Convection Configurations

Correlations for Configuration 27

Correlation 55
Generic Natural Convection
GP(5) GP(6)
H = GP(4) * Gr *Pr

Q = H * A s * (T 1 – T 2 )

Main Index
Chapter 9: Convection Library 413
Convection Configurations

Configuration 28
Generic Forced Convection
Node Number 1 = element surface temperature, T 1 .
2 = fluid temperature, T 2 .
GP* 1 = element’s surface area, A s .
2 = characteristic length used for Reynolds number, L c .
3 =
fluid free stream velocity, v.
4 = coefficient for correlation, GP (4).
5 = Prandtl number exponent, GP (5).
6 = Reynolds number exponent, GP (6).
MPID 1 = fluid density, ρ .
2 = fluid absolute viscosity, μ .
3 = fluid specific heat, C p .
4 = fluid thermal conductivity, k.

*GP1 is provided by Patran; GP2 can be optionally provided in the Convection Loads/BC Convection
Coefficient input databox.

Figure 9-28

Main Index
414 Patran Thermal User’s Guide Volume 1: Thermal/Hydraulic Analysis
Convection Configurations

Correlations for Configuration 28

Correlation 56
Generic Forced Convection
GP(5) GP(6)
H = GP(4) * Pr *Re

Q = H * A s * (T 1 – T 2 )

Configuration 29
Generic H Value, H = H(TBAR) or H(time)
Node Number 1 = element surface temperature, T 1 .
2 = fluid temperature, T 2 .
GP* 1 = element’s surface area, A s .
MPID 1 = H value (entered as a material property). This value is evaluated as a function
of the average of the two nodes' temperatures. If the MPID is flagged with
time as the independent variable, it will be used instead of the average
temperature.

*GP1 is provided by Patran.

Figure 9-29

Main Index
Chapter 9: Convection Library 415
Convection Configurations

Correlations for Configuration 29

Correlation 57
Generic H Value, H = H(tbar)
( T1 + T2 )
H = H ( T BAR ) , T BAR = ----------------------
-
2

Q = H * A s * (T 1 – T 2 )

Configuration 30
Generic H Value, H = H(TDIFF)
Node Number 1 = element surface temperature, T 1 .
2 = fluid temperature, T 2 .
GP* 1 = element’s surface area, A s .
MPID 1 = H value (entered as a material property). This value is evaluated as a function
of the absolute value of the temperature difference of the two nodal
temperatures.

*GP1 is provided by Patran.

Figure 9-30

Correlations for Configuration 30

Correlation 58
Generic H Value, H = H(TDIFF)
H = H ( T DIFF ) , T DIFF = ABS ( T 2 – T 1 )

Main Index
416 Patran Thermal User’s Guide Volume 1: Thermal/Hydraulic Analysis
Convection Configurations

Q = H * A s * (T 1 – T 2 )

Configuration 31
Constant H Value
Node Number 1 = element surface temperature, T 1 .
2 = fluid temperature, T 2 .
GP* 1 = element’s surface area, A s .
2 = constant H value.
MPID (Not used)

*GP1 is provided by Patran; GP2 can be optionally provided in the Convection Loads/BC Convection
Coefficient input databox.

Figure 9-31

Correlations for Configuration 31

Correlation 59
Generic Constant H Value
H = GP(2)
Q = H * A s * (T 1 – T 2 )

Configuration 32
Rotating Disk

Main Index
Chapter 9: Convection Library 417
Convection Configurations

Node Number 1 = disk element surface temperature, T 1 .


2 = fluid temperature, T 2 .
GP* 1 = element’s surface area, A s .
2 = element’s resistor’s surface area inner radius.
3 = element’s resistor’s surface area outer radius.
MPID 1 = fluid density, ρ .
2 = fluid absolute viscosity, μ .
3 = fluid specific heat, C p .
4 = fluid thermal conductivity, k.
5 = disk rotation speed, radians/time, ω .

*GP1 is provided by Patran; GP2 and GP3 can be optionally provided in the Convection Loads/BC
Convection Coefficient input databox.

Figure 9-32

Correlations for Configuration 32

Correlation 60
Rotating Disk
r = ( ri + ro ) ⁄ 2

V= ω*r

Main Index
418 Patran Thermal User’s Guide Volume 1: Thermal/Hydraulic Analysis
Convection Configurations

Re = ρ * V * r ⁄ μ (Reynolds Number)

/
Pr = Cp * μ k (Prandtl Number)

H = 0.0267 * ⎛ --⎞ * Pr * Re
k 0.6 0.8
⎝ r⎠

Q 2 → 1 = H*A s * ( T 2 – T 1 )

Main Index
Chapter 9: Convection Library 419
Convection Configurations

Configuration 33
Forced Convection, Smooth Isothermal Tubes
Node Number 1 = tube/element inside wall temperature, T 1 .
2 = fluid temperature, T 2 .
GP* 1 = tube/element’s inside surface area.
2 = distance from upstream tube section to the tube inlet, x = L i .
3 = distance from downstream tube section to the tube inlet, x = L f .
4 = tube inner diameter, D i .
MPID 1 = fluid density, ρ .
2 = fluid absolute viscosity, μ .
3 = fluid specific heat, C p .
4 = fluid thermal conductivity, k.
5 =
average fluid velocity, v.

*GP1 is provided by Patran; GP2 and GP3 can be optionally provided in the Convection Loads/BC
Convection Coefficient input databox.

Figure 9-33

Note: This configuration is identical to Configuration 1, 347 and its accompanying correlations,
except that it requires only 2-noded resistors and uses DT instead of an LMTD.

Main Index
420 Patran Thermal User’s Guide Volume 1: Thermal/Hydraulic Analysis
Convection Configurations

Configuration 34
Smooth Tubes, Constant Heat Flux, Turbulent Flow, Forced Convection
Node Number 1 = tube/element inside wall temperature, T1 1 .
2 = fluid temperature, T 2 .
GP* 1 = tube/element’s inside surface area, A s .
2 = distance from upstream tube section to the tube inlet, x = L i .
3 = distance from downstream tube section to the tube inlet, x = L f .
4 = tube inside diameter, D i .
MPID 1 = fluid density, ρ .
2 = fluid absolute viscosity, μ .
3 = fluid specific heat, C p .
4 = fluid thermal conductivity, k.
5 =
average fluid velocity, v.

*GP1 is provided by Patran; GP2 and GP3 can be optionally provided in the Convection Loads/BC
Convection Coefficient input databox.

Figure 9-34

Note: This configuration is identical to Configuration 2, 350 and its accompanying correlations,
except that it requires only 2-noded resistors and uses DT instead of an LMTD.

Main Index
Chapter 9: Convection Library 421
Convection Configurations

Configuration 35
Combined Natural and Forced Convection in Horizontal Tubes
Node Number 1 = tube inside wall temperature, T 1 .
2 = fluid temperature, T 2 .
GP* 1 = tube/element’s inside surface area, A s .
2 = distance from upstream tube section to the tube inlet, x = L i .
3 = distance from downstream tube section to the tube inlet, x = L f .
4 =
gravitational constant, g.
5 = tube inside diameter, D.
MPID 1 = fluid density, ρ .
2 = fluid absolute viscosity, μ .
3 = fluid coefficient of thermal expansion, β .
4 = fluid specific heat, C p .
5 = fluid thermal conductivity, k.
6 =
average fluid velocity, v.

*GP1 is provided by Patran; GP2 and GP3 can be optionally provided in the Convection Loads/BC
Convection Coefficient input databox.

Figure 9-35

Main Index
422 Patran Thermal User’s Guide Volume 1: Thermal/Hydraulic Analysis
Convection Configurations

Note: This configuration is identical to Configuration 21, 395 and its accompanying correlations,
except that it requires only 2-noded resistors and uses DT instead of an LMTD.

Configuration 36
Forced Convection Through Packed Beds
Node Number 1 = bed temperature, T 1 .
2 = fluid temperature, T 2 .
GP* 1 = bed surface area, A s .
2 = ratio of bed surface area to bed volume, A.
3 = particle shape factor, ψ .
MPID 1 = fluid absolute viscosity, μ .
2 = fluid specific heat, C p .
3 = fluid thermal conductivity, k.
4 = mass flux (mass flow/unit cross-sectional area of bed), G o .

*GP1 is provided by Patran; GP2 can be optionally provided in the Convection Loads/BC Convection
Coefficient input databox.

Figure 9-36

Note: This configuration is identical to Configuration 25, 407 and its accompanying correlations,
except that it requires only 2-noded resistors and uses DT instead of an LMTD. In addition,
this configuration allows the mass flux to be a variable rather than a constant as is the case
with Configuration 25, 407.

Main Index
Chapter 9: Convection Library 423
Convection Configurations

Configuration 37
Contact Resistance with an Interstitial Fluid
Node Number 1 = surface temperature of surface 1, T 1 .
2 = surface temperature of surface 2, T 2 .
GP* 1 = element’s surface area, A.
2 = rms roughness (meters) of surface T 1 , σ 1
3 = rms roughness (meters) of surface T 2 , σ 2
4 = mean free path at 15 °C and 1 atm, Λ 0 .
5 = 2l
temperature jump ratio -----
-
Λ0

6 = scale factor (usually 1.0), F.


MPID 1 = interstitial fluid thermal conductivity --------------
w
, kf .
m–K

2 = thermal conductivity surface #1 --------------


w
, k1 .
m–K

3 = thermal conductivity surface #2 --------------


w
, k2 .
m–K

4 = contact pressure (Pascals), P c .


5 = strength of surface #1 or surface #2, whichever is softest (Pascals), σ s .
6 = fluid pressure, (Pascals), p f .

*GP1 is provided by Patran.

Correlations for Configuration 37

Correlation 61
Contact Resistance
Configuration 37 originally was based on Ref. 12 in Appendix A. With Version 8, the correlation has
been redone based on the original work defined in Ref. 13 in Appendix A. The ability to input fluid
pressure was added to the correlation.
This correlation which defined the total conductance between two surfaces is assumed to be the sum of
two mutually independent conductances-the component through the interstitial fluid and that through the
contacting area.
hc = hf + hm

These are dependent on the contact area and equivalent fluid thicknesses which in correlation are
correlated to fluid characteristics and material properties.

Main Index
424 Patran Thermal User’s Guide Volume 1: Thermal/Hydraulic Analysis
Convection Configurations

The fluid conductance is defined by its conductance and the fluid equivalent thickness.

k
h f = -----f
δe

where:

kf Fluid thermal conductivity.

δe Equivalent fluid thickness.

Data has been correlated over a wide range by the following expression:

Y = ------ + ------ + --- – 4 ⎛ ------ + ------ + ---⎞ ln ( 1 + X )


10 10 4 1 3 2
3 X X ⎝ 3 2 X⎠
X X

where the dimensionless quantities are defined:

δ max
Y = ----------
δe

δ max
X = ----------
2l

where:

δ max the maximum distance between surfaces and as a first approximation can be taken as
twice the mean roughness of each surface.
δ max 2 ( σ1 + σ2 )

l temperature jump distance and based on molecular-kinetic concepts and is defined:

Cp ⁄ Cv
l = ⎛ ------------⎞ ⎛ -----⎞ ⎛ --------------------------------⎞ Λ
2–a 2
⎝ a ⎠ ⎝ P r⎠ ⎝ C p ⁄ ( C v + 1 )⎠

where a = accommodation coefficient and Λ = fluid molecules’ mean free path.

It is often difficult to pinpoint a value for the accommodation coefficient and this reference provides a
table for some gases. It should be noted that the mean free paths quoted in this reference are at best 50%
higher than many other references, but are provided to be consistent with the reference the correlation
was developed in.

Main Index
Chapter 9: Convection Library 425
Convection Configurations

Table 9-2 Gas Constants at 15oC and 760 Torr


Gas a Λ0 m 2l/ Λ 0
Air 0.83 9.6 x 10-8 4.6
Hydrogen 0.20 16.0 x 10-8 22.1
Helium 0.38 28.5 x 10-8 14.8
Argon 0.85 10.0 x 10-8 5.1

The mean free path is directly proportional to absolute temperature and inversely proportional to
pressure. The corrections for actual conditions is adjusted with the following relation:

T Po
Λ = Λ o ⎛ ------⎞ ⎛ -----⎞
⎝ T o⎠ ⎝ P f ⎠

where all the reference values are related to 15 °C and 1 atmosphere. All fluid material properties are
evaluated at the average temperature of the surface nodes. Appropriate adjustment in the temperature
from the internal calculation units to units consistent with the correlation are done automatically;
however, all quantities must be in SI units
To = 288.15 K

Po = 101325 Pa

The second part of the conductance is that through the material which is in contact. This is dependent on
the contact pressure and material strength to define the effective area of conductance. The correlation for
this term is
C P c 0.86
h m = 8000k m ⎛ -----------⎞
⎝ 3 σ s⎠

P contact pressure, Pascals, P a .


σs strength of the softest material, Pascals, P a .
km effective thermal conductivity of the material combination.

km 2 * k1 * k2
---------------------------
-
k1 + k2

This equation is valid for relative contact pressure to strength ratios in the order of 0.025 and
temperatures below 0.3 of the fusion point. For higher or prolonged loads at elevated temperatures, creep
must be considered which increases the interface conductance.
The coefficient C is a function of the rms roughness of each surface.

Main Index
426 Patran Thermal User’s Guide Volume 1: Thermal/Hydraulic Analysis
Convection Configurations

C = 1.0 if ( σ1 + σ2 ) > 30 × 10
–6

1⁄3 if –6 < ( σ1 + σ2 ) < –6


⎛ 30 × 10 – 6⎞ 10 × 10 30 × 10
C = ⎜ -----------------------⎟
⎝ σ1 + σ2 ⎠

C = 14.42 × 10
–6 if ( σ1 + σ2 ) < 10 × 10
–6

Note: The 14.42 is an adjustment from what was defined in the reference in order to provide a
continuous function.

The final conductance involves a scale factor which can provide desired adjustments due to additional
knowledge about the surfaces or for units adjustment because some aspects of the correlation are
dependent on the SI unit’s system.
h = hc * F

The resultant heat transfer is


Q1 ⇒ 2 = h * A * ( T1 – T2 )

where the area is equated based on the geometric node where the contact coupling is applied.

Main Index
Chapter 9: Convection Library 427
Convection Configurations

Configuration 38
Generic Forced Convection with Variable Velocity
Node Number 1 = element surface temperature, T 1 .
2 = fluid temperature, T 2 .
GP* 1 = element’s surface area, A s .
2 = characteristic length used for Reynolds number, L c .
3 =
fluid free stream velocity, v.
4 = coefficient for correlation, GP (4).
5 = Prandtl number exponent, GP (5).
6 = Reynolds number exponent, GP (6).
MPID 1 = fluid density, ρ .

2 = fluid absolute viscosity, μ .


3 = fluid specific heat, C p .
4 = fluid thermal conductivity, k.
5 = fluid velocity, variable dependence.

*GP1 is provided by Patran; GP2 can be optionally provided in the Convection Loads/BC Convection
Coefficient input databox.

Figure 9-37

Main Index
428 Patran Thermal User’s Guide Volume 1: Thermal/Hydraulic Analysis
Convection Configurations

Correlations for Configuration 38

Correlation 62
Generic Forced Convection with Variable Velocity
Fluid velocity is the product of GP(2) and MPID(5) evaluation. The independent variable for velocity
evaluation is either the bulk fluid temperature or time.

H = k / Lc * GP(4) * PrGP(5) * ReGP(6)

Q = H * As * ( T1 – T2 )

Configuration 39
Generic H Value, H = H(Tb) * GP
Node Number 1 = element surface temperature, T 1 .
2 = fluid temperature, T 2 .
GP* 1 = element’s surface area, A s .
2 = Heat Transfer Coefficient Scale factor.
MPID 1 = Heat Transfer Coefficient Variable Definition.

*GP1 is provided by Patran; GP2 can be optionally provided in the Convection Loads/BC Convection
Coefficient input databox.

Figure 9-38

Main Index
Chapter 9: Convection Library 429
Convection Configurations

Correlations for Configuration 39

Correlation 63
Generic H Value, H = H(Tb) * GP(2)
Heat transfer coefficient is the product of GP(2) and MPID(1) evaluation. The independent variable for
the variable evaluation is either the bulk fluid temperature or time.
H = H(Tb) * GP(2)
Q = H * As * ( T1 – T2 )

Configuration 40
Generic H Value, H = H(Tb) * GP - Ignore Area
Node Number 1 = element surface temperature, T 1 .
2 = fluid temperature, T 2 .
GP* 1 = element’s surface area, A s .
2 = Heat Transfer Coefficient Scale factor.
MPID 1 = Heat Transfer Coefficient Variable Definition.

*GP1 is provided by Patran; GP2 can be optionally provided in the Convection Loads/BC Convection
Coefficient input databox.

Figure 9-39

Main Index
430 Patran Thermal User’s Guide Volume 1: Thermal/Hydraulic Analysis
Convection Configurations

Correlations for Configuration 40

Correlation 63
Generic H Value, H = H(Tb) * GP(2)
Heat transfer coefficient is the product of GP(2) and MPID(1) evaluation. The independent variable for
the variable evaluation is either the bulk fluid temperature or time. Although the surface area is defined,
it is not used to determine the heat flux.
H = H(Tb) * GP(2)
Q = H * ( T1 – T2 )

Main Index
Chapter 9: Convection Library 431
Convection Configurations

Configuration 41
Generic Forced Convection with Viscosity Correction
Node Number 1 = element surface temperature, T 1 .
2 = fluid temperature, T 2 .
GP* 1 = element’s surface area, A s .
2 = characteristic length used for Reynolds number, L c .
3 =
fluid free stream velocity, v.
4 = coefficient for correlation, GP (4).
5 = Prandtl number exponent, GP (5).
6 = Reynolds number exponent, GP (6).
7 = Viscosity Exponent if heating fluid, GP(7).
8 = Viscosity Exponent if cooling fluid, GP(8).
MPID 1 = fluid density, ρ .
2 = fluid absolute viscosity, μ .
3 = fluid specific heat, C p .
4 = fluid thermal conductivity, k.
5 = fluid velocity, variable dependence

*GP1 is provided by Patran; GP2 can be optionally provided in the Convection Loads/BC Convection
Coefficient input databox.

Main Index
432 Patran Thermal User’s Guide Volume 1: Thermal/Hydraulic Analysis
Convection Configurations

Figure 9-40

Correlations for Configuration 41

Correlation 64
Generic Forced Convection with Viscosity Correction when Heating fluid.
Fluid velocity is the product of GP(2) and MPID(5) evaluation. The independent variable for velocity
evaluation is either the bulk fluid temperature or time.
GP(5) GP(6)
H = k/Lc * GP(4) * Pr * Re * ( μ B ⁄ μ w )GP(7)

Q = H * As * ( T1 – T2 )

Correlation 65
Generic Forced Convection with Viscosity Correction when Cooling fluid.
Fluid velocity is the product of GP(2) and MPID(5) evaluation. The independent variable for velocity
evaluation is either the bulk fluid temperature or time.
GP(5) GP(6)
H = k/Lc * GP(4) * Pr * Re * ( μ B ⁄ μ w )GP(8)

Q = H * As * ( T1 – T2 )

Main Index
Chapter 9: Convection Library 433
Convection Configurations

Configuration 42
Generic Forced Convection with Temperature Correction
Node Number 1 = element surface temperature, T 1 .
2 = fluid temperature, T 2 .
GP* 1 = element’s surface area, A s .
2 = characteristic length used for Reynolds number, L c .
3 =
fluid free stream velocity, v.
4 = coefficient for correlation, GP (4).
5 = Prandtl number exponent, GP (5).
6 = Reynolds number exponent, GP (6).
7 = Temperature Exponent if heating fluid, GP(7).
8 = Temperature Exponent if cooling fluid, GP(8).
MPID 1 = fluid density, ρ .
2 = fluid absolute viscosity, μ .
3 = fluid specific heat, C p .
4 = fluid thermal conductivity, k.
5 = fluid velocity, variable dependence.

*GP1 is provided by Patran; GP2 can be optionally provided in the Convection Loads/BC Convection
Coefficient input databox.

Main Index
434 Patran Thermal User’s Guide Volume 1: Thermal/Hydraulic Analysis
Convection Configurations

Figure 9-41

Correlations for Configuration 42

Correlation 66
Generic Forced Convection with Temperature Correction when Heating fluid.
Fluid velocity is the product of GP(2) and MPID(5) evaluation. The independent variable for velocity
evaluation is either the bulk fluid temperature or time.
GP ( 7 )
* ⎛ --------⎞
GP ( 5 ) GP ( 6 ) Tw
H = k / Lc * GP ( 4 ) * Pr * Re
⎝ Tb ⎠

Q = H * As * ( T1 – T2 )

Correlation 67
Generic Forced Convection with Viscosity Correction when Cooling fluid.
Fluid velocity is the product of GP(2) and MPID(5) evaluation. The independent variable for velocity
evaluation is either the bulk fluid temperature or time.
GP ( 8 )
* ⎛ --------⎞
GP ( 5 ) GP ( 6 ) Tw
H = k / Lc * GP ( 4 ) * Pr * Re
⎝ Tb ⎠

Q = H * As * ( T1 – T2 )

Main Index
Chapter 9: Convection Library 435
Convection Configurations

Configuration 43
Local Flat Plates, Forced Convection
Node Number 1 = plate/element surface temperature, T 1 .
2 = free-stream fluid temperature, T 2 .
GP* 1 = plate/element surface area, A s /element.
2 = distance to the plate’s leading edge, x=L i .
3 = free-stream fluid velocity, x=L scale factor.
MPID 1 = fluid density, ρ .
2 = fluid absolute viscosity, μ .
3 = fluid specific heat, c p .
4 = fluid thermal conductivity, k.
5 = variable fluid velocity.

*GP1 is provided by Patran; GP2 can be optionally provided in the Convection Loads/BC Convection
Coefficient input databox.

Figure 9-42

Velocity is the product of velocity scale factor and the variable velocity material property. All
temperature dependent material properties are evaluated at the film temperature.

Correlations for Configuration 43


Local Flat Plate Forced Convection, Laminar Flow

Main Index
436 Patran Thermal User’s Guide Volume 1: Thermal/Hydraulic Analysis
Convection Configurations

Re < 2.0 E + 5

Correlation 68 (Ref. 11 in Appendix A)


Pr < 0.05

H = ⎛ ---⎞ * 0.565 *
k
Re * Pr
⎝ L⎠

Correlation 69 (Ref. 11 in Appendix A)


0.6 < Pr < 50.0

H = ⎛ ---⎞ * 0.332 *
k 1⁄3
Re * Pr
⎝ L⎠

Correlation 70 (Ref. 11 in Appendix A)


All other cases, but valid for
Re * Pr > 100

⎧ 1⁄3

k ⎪ 0.338 * Re * Pr ⎪
H = ⎛ ---⎞ ⎨ -----------------------------------------------------
-⎬
⎝ L⎠ ⎛ ⎞
2⁄3 1⁄4
⎪ 1 + ----------------
0.0468 ⎪
⎩ ⎝ Pr ⎠ ⎭

Local Flat Plate Forced Convection, Turbulent Flow


Re > 5.0 E + 5

Correlation 71 (Ref. 11 in Appendix A)


5.0 E + 5 < Re < 1.0E7

–1 ⁄ 5
C f = 0.0592 Re

Correlation 72 (Ref. 11 in Appendix A)


7
Re > 10

0.37
C f = -----------------------------------
2.584
( log 10 Re )

1
--- * C f * Re * Pr
H = ⎛ ---⎞ ⋅ ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
k 2
⎝ L⎠
1 ⎧ 5 ⎫
1.0 + 5 --- * C f ⎨ ( Pr – 1.0 ) + 1n 1.0 + --- ( Pr – 1 ) ⎬
2 ⎩ 6 ⎭

If Reynolds number between laminar and turbulent limits, a linear interpolation between the laminar and
turbulent values is used.

Main Index
Chapter 9: Convection Library 437
Convection Configurations

Q = H * As * ( T1 – T2 )

Configurations 44-999
Reserved (not currently used)
These configuration numbers are reserved for future expansion of the QTRAN convection correlation
library.

Configurations 1000+
User Supplied
These configuration numbers are reserved for User-Coded convection configurations that may be
incorporated into subroutine UHVAL. The calling sequence for UHVAL is as follows:
SUBROUTINE UHVAL (ICFIG, IRESIS, COEFF, EXPO, MPID, GP,
T1, T2, GVALH, Q, LOGP, J1, J2, J3, J4, J6)
An example UHVAL subroutine is included in the QTRAN package with excellent internal
documentation. Refer to it before attempting to write your own.
The arguments for UHVAL are defined as follows:

Main Index
438 Patran Thermal User’s Guide Volume 1: Thermal/Hydraulic Analysis
Convection Configurations

INTEGER ICFIG, IRESIS, MPID, J1, J2, J3, J4, J6


LOGICAL LOGP
REAL*8 COEFF, EXPO,GP, T1, T2, GVALH, Q

Values Passed to the User


ICFIG Configuration type (CFIG value). This value will always come to be as 1000 or
greater. Use the ICFIG integer to choose between one or more of the convection
configurations.
IRESIS The convective resistor number whose heat flow is being calculated. This integer is
used to point into the correct row of the GP and MPID arrays.
COEFF Material Property Data.
EXPO Material Property Data.
MPID MPIDs assigned by the user to the convective resistor.
GP Geometric Property data assigned by the user to the convective resistor.
T1 Temperature of node 1.
T2 Temperature of node 2.
LOGP If LOGP = .TRUE., the routine is being called to dump any resistor data to the output
file.
J1-J4, J6 Dimensions for the COEFF, EXPO, MPID and GP arrays.

Values Passed by You, Required by QTRAN


GVALH The “conductance” of the resistor, equal to the product of the h value and the resistor
area.
Q Heat flow from node 1 to node 2 through the resistor.

Main Index
Chapter 10: Microfunction Library
Patran Thermal User’s Guide Volume 1: Thermal/Hydraulic Analysis

10 Microfunction Library

J Microfunction Library 440

Main Index
440 Patran Thermal User’s Guide Volume 1: Thermal/Hydraulic Analysis
Microfunction Library

Microfunction Library
The following is a catalogue of the microfunctions that are available in the QTRAN Microfunction
Library, as well as an explanation of the various input parameters which are required for each
microfunction. Briefly, the microfunctions which are available are:
1. Constant
2. Power Series
3. Sine Wave
4. Square Wave
5. Step
6. Ramp
7. Exponential
8. Linear Interpolation of a User-Input Data Table
9. Hermite Polynomial Interpolation of a User-Input Data Table, with Quadratic Interpolation
Etrapolation at the Data Table End-Points
10. Repeating Waveform: Linearly Interpolated Data Table
11. Repeating Waveform: Hermite Polynomial Interpolated Data Table
12. Natural Logarithm
13. Base 10 Logarithm
14. Blackbody Radiation (this function determines the fraction of blackbody radiant energy that lies
between two wavelengths)
15. Flip/Flop
16. Dead Band (this function allows for hysteresis effects)
17. Straight Line
18. Indexed Linear Interpolation of a User-Input Data Table
19. Indexed Hermite Polynomial Interpolation of a User-Input Data Table, with Quadratic
Interpolation/Extrapolation at the Data Table End-Points
20. Indexed Repeating Waveform: Linearly Interpolated Data Table
21. Indexed Repeating Waveform: Hermite Polynomial Interpolated Data Table
22.Repeating Flip/Flop
23-999 Reserved for Future Use (not currently implemented)
1000+ User-Coded (a function defined by a user-supplied subroutine UMICRO)
The variable X that is referred to in the following function explanations refers to the independent variable
that you specify. As described in Microfunction Data, 322, the independent variable may be either the
current time value, the temperature value of any node, the temperature difference between any two nodes,
a radiosity difference, or the average temperature of any two nodes.

Main Index
Chapter 10: Microfunction Library 441
Microfunction Library

Microfunction Format
MFID, Independent Variable, and Function Type
MICRO(keyword) MFID ARGUMENT OPTION

Example
MICRO2709
This begins a microfunction data packet for MFID 27, with 0 (time) as the independent argument, and
option 9 (Hermite table) as the function type.

Parameter Description
MFID The MicroFunction Identification number. Each microfunction must be assigned
a unique MFID number greater than zero. This MFID number will be referenced
by the macrofunctions on (p. 325) through (p. 331) in the same manner as a
material property ID number (MPID) is referenced by resistors and capacitors.
This referencing scheme allows the same microfunction to be used in many
different macrofunctions.
ARGUMENT Identifies the microfunction independent variable as time, temperature (T), D T,
radiosity difference or an average temperature according to the following
argument code:
0--t(time)

1--T(temperature)

2-- ΔT=T 1 – T 2 ( temperature difference )

3-- σ * (T 1 4 – T 2 4 ) ( radiosity difference )

Notice: T 1 and T 2 are converted to absolute temperatures (i.e., Kelvin or


Rankine, depending on the value of ICCALC) prior to raising them to the 4th
power. This is done ONLY for ARGUMENT = 3.

(T + T )
1 2 - (average temperature)
4-- Tbar = ------------------------------
2
OPTION Identifies the Function Library option that has been selected. For more
information, consult the Function Library in Microfunction Options, 442. If the
Function Library option number is entered as the negative of the option number
(e.g., specify option 2 as option -2), QTRAN will use the reciprocal of the
function. For example, SIN(X) would be evaluated as (1/SIN(X)).

Main Index
442 Patran Thermal User’s Guide Volume 1: Thermal/Hydraulic Analysis
Microfunction Library

Microfunction Options
Each microfunction option that is available is described below.

Option 1 - Constant
Option 1 is a constant of the following form:
F(X) = P1
where:

P1 is the first MICDAT value entered for the microfunction. See Microfunction Parameters or
Data Tables, 324.

For example, suppose microfunction 11 is defined to be a constant with a value of 23.7.

Example
MICRO1101
MICDAT23.7
/

Option 2 - Power Series


Option 2 is a power series of the form:
MICDAT(2)
F(X) = MICDAT(1) * X

MICDAT(4)
MICDAT(3) * X +

... +
MICDAT(N)
MICDAT(N-1) * X

where:

Main Index
Chapter 10: Microfunction Library 443
Microfunction Library

The MICDAT(1...N) are tabular input data that is supplied for the microfunction as outlined in
Microfunction Parameters or Data Tables, 324.

For example, suppose microfunction number 12 is defined to be a temperature dependent power series
of the following form.
1.5 0.3 4.731
F(X) = 1.2 * X + 83.7* X + 0.1* X

Example
MICRO1212
MICDAT1.21.5
MICDAT83.70.3
MICDAT0.14.731
/

Option 3 - Sine Wave


Option 3 is a sine wave input of the form:
F(X)=P1 * SIN(P2 * X + P3) + P4

where:

P1, P2, P3, and P4 are the MICDAT(1) to MICDAT(4) parameters referred to in Microfunction
Parameters or Data Tables, 324. The arguments (P2 * X + P3) are in radians.

For example, suppose microfunction 11 is defined to be a time dependent sine wave of the following
form:
F(X)=23.7 * SIN(14.8E+03 * X - 18.7) +1.456E+03

Example
MICRO1103
MICDAT23.714.8E+03 -18.7 1.456E+03
/

Main Index
444 Patran Thermal User’s Guide Volume 1: Thermal/Hydraulic Analysis
Microfunction Library

Option 4 - Square Wave


Option 4 is a square wave input that is calculated in the following manner:
1. Calculate A, where: A = SIN(MICDAT(3) * X + MICDAT(4))
2. Calculate the square wave value F(X) such that:
F(X) = MICDAT(2) if A < 0, and
F(X) = MICDAT(1) if A = 0 or 0 < A,
where:

MICDAT(1...4) are the MICDAT parameters referred to in Microfunction Parameters or Data


Tables, 324. The argument of the sine function, (P3 * X + P4), is assumed to be in radians.

For example, suppose that you want to define microfunction 14 to be a time dependent square wave with
a frequency of 18.7, a phase angle of 44.7, a maximum value of 0.17 and a minimum value of 0.14.

Example
MICRO1404
MICDAT0.170.1418.744.7
/

Main Index
Chapter 10: Microfunction Library 445
Microfunction Library

Option 5 - Step Function


Option 5 is a step function input that is calculated in the following manner:
1. F(X) = MICDAT(2) if X < MICDAT(1), and
2. F(X) = MICDAT(3) if X = MICDAT(1) or MICDAT(1) < X
where:

MICDAT(1...N) correspond to the parameters referred to in Microfunction Parameters or Data


Tables, 324.

For example, suppose microfunction 15 is defined to be a step function using temperature difference as
the argument (remember that the node temperatures are defined by the calling macrofunction) and that
the step function form is as follows:
IF (X < 11.78) THEN
F(X) = 84.89
ELSE
F(X) = -77.67
ENDIF

Example
MICRO1525
MICDAT11.7884.89-77.67
/

Main Index
446 Patran Thermal User’s Guide Volume 1: Thermal/Hydraulic Analysis
Microfunction Library

Option 6 - Ramp Function


Option 6 is a ramp function input that is calculated in the following manner:
1. F(X) = MICDAT(3) if X < or = MICDAT(1)
1. F(X) = MICDAT(4) if MICDAT(2) < or = X
1. F(X) is linearly interpolated between MICDAT(3) and MICDAT(4) if MICDAT(1) < X <
MICDAT(2)
where:

MICDAT(1...N) correspond to the parameters referred to in Microfunction Parameters or Data


Tables, 324.

For example, suppose microfunction 16 is defined to be a time-dependent ramp function of the following
form:

IF (X < or = 10.0) F(X) = 100.0


IF (20.0 < or = X) F(X) = 200.
IF (10.0 < X < 20.0) F(X) = INTERP(10.0, 100.0, 20.0, 200.0, X)

where:

INTERP(10.0, 100.0, 20.0, 200.0, X) was a linear interpolation function.

Example
MICRO1606
MICDAT10.020.0100.0 200.0
/

Main Index
Chapter 10: Microfunction Library 447
Microfunction Library

Option 7 - Exponential Function


Option 7 is an exponential function of the form:
F(X) = MICDAT(1) * EXP(MICDAT(2) * (X - MICDAT(3)) + MICDAT(4)

where:

MICDAT(1...N) are the parameters referred to in Microfunction Parameters or Data Tables, 324.
For example, suppose microfunction 17 is to be defined to be an exponential function using the radiosity
potential difference between two nodes as the argument with the exponential function having the
following form:

-23.7
F(X) = 0.17 * e * (X+273.15)

Important:Here MICDAT(4) is zero.

Example
MICRO1737
MICDAT0.17-23.7-273.150.0
/

Main Index
448 Patran Thermal User’s Guide Volume 1: Thermal/Hydraulic Analysis
Microfunction Library

Option 8 - Linear Interpolation of a Data Table


Option 8 results in the linear interpolation of a data table that is supplied and that corresponds directly to
the table data referred to in Microfunction Parameters or Data Tables, 324. When ordered pairs of X and
F(X) are entered for the MICDAT data, Option 8 will interpolate or extrapolate this data to determine the
appropriate value of F(X). The data pairs must be entered in order of increasing values of X. If this is not
done, error messages will be written to the output file and the program will terminate.
If Option 8 is used, at least two data pairs must be entered.
For example, suppose microfunction 18 is defined to be a temperature dependent data table of the
following form:

Temperature (or X) Microfunction Value


0.0 0.0

100.0 17.3

200.0 84.9

1000.7 987.9

Example
MICRO1818
MICDAT0.00.0
MICDAT100.0 17.3
MICDAT200.084.9
MICDAT1000.7987.9
/

Main Index
Chapter 10: Microfunction Library 449
Microfunction Library

Option 9 - Hermite Polynomial Interpolation of a Data Table


Option 9 is similar to Option 8 except that Hermite polynomials are used for interpolation wherever
possible. Hermite polynomials are not used for the first and last intervals in the table or for extrapolation.
Quadratic interpolation/extrapolation is used for these regions. Hermite polynomials guarantee both
continuity of value for a function and continuity of slope. Linear interpolation would guarantee only
continuity of value.
A table identical to the example can be defined for Option 8 (only using Hermite polynomial
interpolation) with the following microfunction data:

Example
MICRO1819
MICDAT0.00.0
MICDAT100.017.3
MICDAT200.084.9
MICDAT1000.7987.9
/
If Option 9 is used, at least three data pairs must be defined.

Main Index
450 Patran Thermal User’s Guide Volume 1: Thermal/Hydraulic Analysis
Microfunction Library

Option 10 - Repeating Waveform - Linearly Interpolated Data


Table
Option 10 is identical to Option 8 except that no extrapolation from the table is allowed. Instead, the value
of X is altered such that it falls between the smallest and largest table values. If the maximum table value
of X is XMAX and the minimum table value of X is XMIN, an interval of X may be defined as follows.
INTERVAL = XMAX - XMIN
The value of X is then divided by INTERVAL, and the value of X is set equal to the remainder left by
the division. This new value of X will fall between XMIN and XMAX and hence can be interpolated.
This algorithm generates a repeating waveform defined by a data table that you enter. This function is
especially useful, for example, to simulate solar insulation over a period of days. The heat input can be
defined as a 24-hour cycle (repeating waveform) and can be input using Option 10.
For example, suppose that the problem involved a periodic heat source with a triangular pulse, with the
base of the triangle at 0.0 heat units and the peak at 100.0 heat units. Suppose further that the triangle is
symmetric about time = 50.0. The microfunction data for this function is as follows:

Example
MICRO20010
MICDAT0.00.0
MICDAT50.0100.0
MICDAT100.00.0
/

Main Index
Chapter 10: Microfunction Library 451
Microfunction Library

This particular wave begins at time = 0.0. To cause a phase shift, all you have to do is to change the time
values. The function as defined above will repeat the triangular heat pulse every 100.0 seconds.
If Option 10 is used, at least two data pairs must be entered.

Option 11 - Repeating Waveform - Hermite Interpolated Data


Table
Option 11 is a tabular repeating waveform similar to Option 10, except that the tabular waveform is
interpolated using Hermite polynomials. Use this option if the function data is relatively smooth and to
represent the function with relatively few data points. Option 11 is computationally more expensive than
Option 10.
To define a Hermite polynomial interpolated waveform from the following tabular data.

Temperature (or X) Microfunction Value


10.0 10.0

50.0 20.0

75.0 0.0

100.7 -10.0

Example
MICRO21111
MICDAT10.010.0
MICDAT 50.020.0
MICDAT75.00.0
MICDAT100.0-10.0
/
If Option 11 is used, at least three data pairs must be entered.

Main Index
452 Patran Thermal User’s Guide Volume 1: Thermal/Hydraulic Analysis
Microfunction Library

Option 12 - Natural Logarithm Option


Option 12 is a natural logarithm function that is generated in the following manner:
F(X) = MICDAT(1) * Ln( MICDAT(2) * X + MICDAT(3) ) + MICDAT(4)

where:

MICDAT(1...4) are the parameters referred to in Microfunction Parameters or Data Tables, 324.
When using any log function, exercise care that the argument does not become negative because a log
function is undefined for negative arguments. If a log function argument does become negative, your
computer will probably detect an arithmetic floating point error and terminate. QTRAN does not check
for positive arguments.
For example, to define a time-dependent function of the following form.
F(X) = 17.7E-04 * Ln(17.7 * X + 123.4) + 1.0E-07

Example
MICRO22012
MICDAT17.7E-0417.7 123.41.0E-07
/

Main Index
Chapter 10: Microfunction Library 453
Microfunction Library

Option 13 - Base 10 Logarithm Option


Option 13 is identical to Option 12 except that a Base 10 logarithm is used instead of a natural logarithm.
The function is defined as:

F(X) = MICDAT(1) * Log [ 10 ] ( MICDAT(2) * X + MICDAT(3) ) + MICDAT(4)

where:

MICDAT(1...N) are the parameters referred to in Microfunction Parameters or Data Tables, 324.
When using any log function, exercise care that the argument does not become negative, because a log
function is undefined for negative arguments. If a log function argument does become negative, the
computer will probably detect an arithmetic floating point error and terminate. QTRAN does not check
for positive arguments.
For example, to define a time-dependent function of the following form.
F(X) = 17.7E-04 * Log [10] ( 17.7 * X+123.4 ) + 1.0E-07

Example
MICRO23013
MICDAT17.7E-0417.7123.41.0E-07
/

Main Index
454 Patran Thermal User’s Guide Volume 1: Thermal/Hydraulic Analysis
Microfunction Library

Option 14 - Blackbody Radiation Fraction Option


Option 14 calculates the fraction of a blackbody’s radiant energy that lies between two wavelengths. This
fraction is calculated using formulas taken from Ref. in Appendix A, p. 769. The function parameters
are defined as follows:

MICDAT(1) The shortest wavelength of the interval in units of micrometers.


MICDAT(2) The longest wavelength of the interval in units of micrometers.

Important:The values of MICDAT(1) and MICDAT(2) must be such that MICDAT(1) <
MICDAT(2).

Values for F(X,MICDAT(1),MICDAT(2)) will always be between the values of 0 and 1, inclusive.
The primary use of this microfunction option is to emulate QTRAN’s wavelength-dependent thermal
radiation algorithm using a heat source.

Example
MICRO101114
MICDAT0.20.6
/

Main Index
Chapter 10: Microfunction Library 455
Microfunction Library

Option 15 - Flip/Flop Option


Option 15 allows a flip/flop function to be implemented of the following form:
IF (MICDAT(1) ð X <MICDAT(2) ) THEN
F(X) = MICDAT(3)
ELSE
F(X) = MICDAT(4)
ENDIF
where:

The MICDAT(1...4) are the parameters referred to in Microfunction Parameters or Data Tables, 324. This
function is typically used for time-dependent heat sources that may be turned on for only a definite period
of time. As can be seen, a flip/flop function is really a kind of double step function that is fairly commonly
encountered.
For example, to build a model where a heat source of 1000.0 units is turned on at time = 17.8 and turned
off again at time = 19.2.

Example
MICRO25015
MICDAT17.819.21000.0 0.0
/

Main Index
456 Patran Thermal User’s Guide Volume 1: Thermal/Hydraulic Analysis
Microfunction Library

Option 16 - Dead Band


RESTRICTION: This microfunction option may only be used for temperature control macrofunctions.
It may not be used for heat source macrofunctions.
With this function, a node’s temperature may be controlled in the following manner:

IF(MICDAT(2) < X < MICDAT(4) ) then T(X) = T (no change)


IF(X < MICDAT(2) ) then T(X) = MICDAT(1)
IF(MICDAT(4) < X) then T(X) = MICDAT(3)

A common use of this function is a hysteresis switch for thermostats, where the position of the switch
(on/off) is dependent not only upon the temperature of a node but also upon the node’s history. For
example, consider the following thermostatically controlled heater at node 1.
where:

1. If T1 < 60, heater is turned ON


2. If 80 < T1, heater is turned OFF
3. If 60 < T1 < 80, heater can be either ON or OFF depending upon the temperature history of T1

To build a thermostat, introduce another temperature node T2. T2 will not be a “real” temperature node
but will instead be your hysteresis flag. T2’s temperature can be controlled with an Option 16
microfunction, letting the X of this microfunction be T1 and letting the MICDAT(1...4) values be 1.0,
60.0, 0.0, 80.0. Specifically we then have:
1. T2 = 1.0 if T1 < 60.0
2. T2 = 0.0 if T1 > 80.0

Main Index
Chapter 10: Microfunction Library 457
Microfunction Library

3. T2 = unchanged if 60.0 < T1 < 80.0

The thermostat control has been built, next build the heater. This can be done by using microfunction
option 17 (straight line) with the independent variable X of this microfunction being T2. For example, to
build a 1000-watt heater for node T1, use Option 17 with MICDAT(1) and MICDAT(2) values of 1000.0
and 0.0, respectively, where Option 17 is of the form:
F(X) = MICDAT(1) * X + MICDAT(2)

Since T2 is used for X in the Option 17 microfunction and T2 can only be 1.0 or 0.0 (according the
microfunction that controls T2), a complete (though simple) thermostatically controlled heater has been
built for node T1.

Example
MICRO26116
MICDAT1.060.00.080.0
/
See Option 17 for an example of a straight line microfunction.

Option 17 - Straight Line


Option 17 allows a straight line microfunction to be built of the following form:
F(X) =MICDAT(1) * X + MICDAT(2)

where:

MICDAT(1) and MICDAT(2) are the parameters referred to in Microfunction Parameters or Data
Tables, 324.

Main Index
458 Patran Thermal User’s Guide Volume 1: Thermal/Hydraulic Analysis
Microfunction Library

To build a straight line heat source such as the one described for the thermostatically controlled heater in
the Option 16 example. This straight line heater has the form:
F(X) = 1000.0 * X + 0.0

Example
MICRO27117
MICDAT1000.00.0
/

Option 18 - Indexed Linear Interpolation of a Data Table


Option 18 results in the linear interpolation of a data table that is supplied that corresponds directly to the
table data referred to in Microfunction Parameters or Data Tables, 324. When ordered pairs of X and F(X)
are entered for the MICDAT data, Option 18 will interpolate or extrapolate this data to determine the
appropriate value of F(X). The data pairs must be entered in order of increasing values of X. If this is not
done, error messages will be written to the output file and the program will terminate. This is identical to
Option 8 except the table is entered at the point it last exited in an attempt to speed up execution.
If Option 18 is used at least two data pairs must be entered.
For example, suppose that you wish to define microfunction 28 to be a indexed temperature dependent
data table of the following form:

Main Index
Chapter 10: Microfunction Library 459
Microfunction Library

Temperature (or X) Microfunction Value


0.0 0.0

100.0 17.3

200.0 84.9

1000.7 987.9

Example
MICRO28118
MICDAT0.00.0
MICDAT100.017.3
MICDAT200.084.9
MICDAT1000.7987.9
/

Option 19 - Indexed Hermite Polynomial Interpolation of a Data


Table
Option 19 is similar to Option 18 except that Hermite polynomials are used for interpolation wherever
possible. Hermite polynomials are not used for the first and last intervals in the table or for extrapolation.
Quadratic interpolation/extrapolation is used for these regions. Hermite polynomials guarantee both
continuity of value for a function and continuity of slope. Linear interpolation would guarantee only
continuity of value.
A table identical to the example for Option 9 - Hermite Polynomial Interpolation of a Data Table, 449 can
be defined (only using Hermite polynomial interpolation) with the following microfunction data. The
only difference between Option 9 and 19 is the indexed table enters the table where it last exited. This is
done to improve execution times.

Main Index
460 Patran Thermal User’s Guide Volume 1: Thermal/Hydraulic Analysis
Microfunction Library

Example
MICRO18 119
MICDAT0.00.0
MICDAT100.017.3
MICDAT200.084.9
MICDAT1000.7987.9
/
If Option 19 is used, at least three data pairs must be entered.

Option 20 - Indexed Repeating Waveform -


Linearly Interpolated Data Table
Option 20 is identical to Option 18 except that no extrapolation from the table is allowed. Instead, the
value of X is altered such that it falls between the smallest and largest table values. If the maximum table
value of X is XMAX and the minimum table value of X is XMIN, an interval of X may be defined as
follows.
INTERVAL = XMAX - XMIN
The value of X is then divided by INTERVAL, and the value of X is set equal to the remainder left by
the division. This new value of X will fall between XMIN and XMAX and hence can be interpolated.
This algorithm generates a repeating waveform defined by a data table that you enter. This function is
especially useful, for example, to simulate solar insulation over a period of days. The heat input can be
defined as a 24-hour cycle (repeating waveform) and can be input using Option 20. The data table is
entered at the point that it last exited to help speedup execution.
For example, suppose that you wished to build a periodic heat source with a triangular pulse, with the
base of the triangle at 0.0 heat units and the peak at 100.0 heat units. Suppose further that the triangle is
symmetric about time = 50.0.

Example
MICRO 201020
MICDAT0.00.0
MICDAT50.0100.0

Main Index
Chapter 10: Microfunction Library 461
Microfunction Library

MICDAT100.00.0
/

This particular wave begins at time = 0.0. To cause a phase shift, change the time values. The function
as defined above will repeat the triangular heat pulse every 100.0 seconds.
If Option 20 is used, at least two data pairs must be entered.

Option 21 - Indexed Repeating Waveform -


Hermite Interpolated Data Table
Option 21 is a tabular repeating waveform similar to Option 20, except that the tabular waveform is
interpolated using Hermite polynomials. Use this option if the function data is relatively smooth to
represent the function with relatively few data points. Option 21 is computationally more expensive than
Option 20. The data table is entered at the point that it last exited in order to speedup execution.
For example; to define a Hermite polynomial interpolated waveform from the tabular data below, use the
following microfunction data.

Temperature (or X) Microfunction Value


10.0 10.0

50.0 20.0

75.0 0.0

100.0 -10.0

Example
MICRO123121
MICDAT10.010.0
MICDAT50.020.0

Main Index
462 Patran Thermal User’s Guide Volume 1: Thermal/Hydraulic Analysis
Microfunction Library

MICDAT75.00.0
MICDAT100.0-10.0
/
If Option 21 is used, at least three data pairs must be entered.

Option 22 - Repeating Flip/Flop Option


Option 22 allows a flip/flop function to be implemented of the following form:

IF (MICDAT(2) ≤ X <MICDAT(3) ) THEN


F(X) = MICDAT(5)
ELSE
F(X) = MICDAT(6)
ENDIF
PERIOD = MICDAT(4) - MICDAT(1)
where:

The MICDAT(1...5) are the parameters referred to in Microfunction Parameters or Data Tables, 324. This
function is typically used for time-dependent heat sources that may be turned on and off for only a
definite periods of time. As can be seen, a repeating flip/flop function is really a kind of double step
function that can be turned on and off at repeatedly but can have different on and off time periods. The
period is P4 - P1.
For example, to build a model where a heat source of 1000.0 units is turned on between 19.2 and 26.4
second and repeated every 22.2 where the cycle begins at 17.8 seconds, the inputs would be as define
below.

Example
MICRO25015

Main Index
Chapter 10: Microfunction Library 463
Microfunction Library

MICDAT17.819.226.440.01000.0 0.0
/

Option 1000+ - User-Coded Functions


Option 1000+ allows unique special case functions to be defined through a user-coded subroutine named
UMICRO. A dummy version of subroutine UMICRO may be found in the ULIB.FOR file supplied with
Patran Thermal, along with example applications.
Whenever an OPTION number of 1000 or larger is used for a microfunction, QTRAN will call
subroutine UMICRO. This allows a library to be built and maintained of a very exotic special case heat
source or temperature control functions. With UMICRO, any of the QTRAN parameters or arrays may
be accessed, since all arrays and all important parameters are contained in named common blocks.
For example, microfunction 199 could be used to be a time dependent microfunction with the following
data:

Example
MICRO19901000
MICDAT0.0273.0
1.0375.0
2.0 376.0
100.0 390.0
101.0-37.36
115.027.0

Any macrofunction in the model that references MFID 199 will now return a value from the user-
supplied subroutine UMICRO.

Main Index
464 Patran Thermal User’s Guide Volume 1: Thermal/Hydraulic Analysis
Microfunction Library

Main Index
Chapter 11: User-Supplied Routines
Patran Thermal User’s Guide Volume 1: Thermal/Hydraulic Analysis

11 User-Supplied Routines

J User-Supplied Subroutines 466


J COMMONBLK Definitions 468
J
ULIBFOR Contents - Example User-Supplied Subroutines 484
J Example User-Supplied Routines 536
J QTRAN Arrays 545

Main Index
466 Patran Thermal User’s Guide Volume 1: Thermal/Hydraulic Analysis
User-Supplied Subroutines

User-Supplied Subroutines
This chapter contains subroutines from the ULIBFOR file provided with P/THERMAL. These
subroutines are called at various key points in QTRAN’s calculation loop. See Figure 11-1. Any of these
routines may be modified and necessary for the analyses. Then compile and link them with QTRAN
using the ULIB command provided with P/THERMAL.
Many of these routines refer to a $INSERT file (a file included at compile time) named COMMONBLK.
COMMONBLK is a common block file of parameters used by QTRAN. This file is provided with
P/THERMAL, and the file has extensive comments describing the various common block parameters.
The user should only use the common blocks required for the individual subroutines being written. Each
type of variable is defined in separate include files but all are located through the COMMONBLK file.
The COMMONBLK_ALL includes individual files. COMMONBLK does NOT include arrays that are
in common. Common arrays may be found in the QTRANFOR file. The QTRAN arrays are defined in
section 11.5.
The user should check the COMMONBLK, COMMON****,ULIBFOR and sample QTRANFOR files
provided in the P3_HOME/p3thermal_files/lib directory to be sure you have the latest versions.

Main Index
Chapter 11: User-Supplied Routines 467
User-Supplied Subroutines

Figure 11-1 Top Level QTRAN Flow Diagram

Main Index
468 Patran Thermal User’s Guide Volume 1: Thermal/Hydraulic Analysis
COMMONBLK Definitions

COMMONBLK Definitions
It is best to only include the variables one needs in a given subroutine. Thus a group
of common blocks is supplied. The array common blocks are defined in section 11.5 plus
are in your qtran.f file. The various common blocks are shown below and can be found in
the P3_HOME/p3thermal_files/examples/qtran/utilities directory. Some common blocks are
include statements for other common blocks. All are listed below.

common.basc

C The following is a list of the QTRAN common block variables.


C
C############################################################################
C
C Value of common block counters
C
C CB - 6 Character variables
C IA - 92 Integer arrays
C IB -117 Integer variables
C LA - 1 Logical arrays
C LB - 17 Logical variable
C RA - 77 Real (double precision) arrays
C RB -128 Real (double precision) variables
C
C#############################################################################
C
C Include all the basic common block types
C Exclude the character commons. They're only needed for I/O and parsing.
C
#include "common.intr"
#include "common.logc"
#include "common.real"
#include "common.dims"
C
C############################################################################

common.blk
C The following is a list of the QTRAN common block variables.
C
C############################################################################
C
C Value of common block counters
C
C CB - 6 Character variables
C IA - 92 Integer arrays
C IB -117 Integer variables
C LA - 1 Logical arrays
C LB - 17 Logical variable
C RA - 77 Real (double precision) arrays
C RB -128 Real (double precision) variables
C
C#############################################################################
C
C Include all the different common block types
C
#include "common.intr"
#include "common.char"
#include "common.logc"
#include "common.real"
#include "common.dims"
C
C############################################################################

Main Index
Chapter 11: User-Supplied Routines 469
COMMONBLK Definitions

common.char
C The following is a list of the QTRAN character common block variables.
C
C############################################################################
C
C Value of common block counters
C
C CB - 6 Character variables
C
C#############################################################################
C
C
CHARACTER*1 ISCALE, ICCALC
CHARACTER*10 TLABEL
CHARACTER*256 RSTFNM, INPFIL(MAXFIL)
CHARACTER*80 TITLE(3)
C
C############################################################################
C
C This section is reserved for character variables. The convention is
C that all character common blocks will begin with the letters
C "CB".
C
COMMON / CB1 / ISCALE
COMMON / CB2 / ICCALC
COMMON / CB3 / TLABEL
COMMON / CB4 / RSTFNM
COMMON / CB5 / INPFIL
COMMON / CB6 / TITLE
C
C Usage:
C ISCALE --> temperature scale code for data output.
C ICCALC --> temperature scale code for calculations.
C TLABEL --> time units label.
C RSTFNM --> restart file name (if any).
C INPFIL --> input file names.
C TITLE --> First 3 lines of title data (if any) from the
C QIN.DAT file. This is saved for generating Nodal
C results files.
C
C############################################################################

common.dims
C The following are the array dimension control variables.
C
C#######################